WorldWideScience

Sample records for artificial food colour

  1. Artificial selection for food colour preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Gemma L.; Endler, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Colour is an important factor in food detection and acquisition by animals using visually based foraging. Colour can be used to identify the suitability of a food source or improve the efficiency of food detection, and can even be linked to mate choice. Food colour preferences are known to exist, but whether these preferences are heritable and how these preferences evolve is unknown. Using the freshwater fish Poecilia reticulata, we artificially selected for chase behaviour towards two differ...

  2. Artificial selection for food colour preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Gemma L; Endler, John A

    2015-04-01

    Colour is an important factor in food detection and acquisition by animals using visually based foraging. Colour can be used to identify the suitability of a food source or improve the efficiency of food detection, and can even be linked to mate choice. Food colour preferences are known to exist, but whether these preferences are heritable and how these preferences evolve is unknown. Using the freshwater fish Poecilia reticulata, we artificially selected for chase behaviour towards two different-coloured moving stimuli: red and blue spots. A response to selection was only seen for chase behaviours towards the red, with realized heritabilities ranging from 0.25 to 0.30. Despite intense selection, no significant chase response was recorded for the blue-selected lines. This lack of response may be due to the motion-detection mechanism in the guppy visual system and may have novel implications for the evolvability of responses to colour-related signals. The behavioural response to several colours after five generations of selection suggests that the colour opponency system of the fish may regulate the response to selection. PMID:25740894

  3. Potential weekly intake of artificial food colours by 3-14-year-old children in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, M C; Guerchon, M S; Ragazzi, S

    1992-01-01

    The Potential Weekly Intake (PWI) of artificial food colours by 3-14-year-old children living in the District of Barão Geraldo, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, was estimated on the basis of average consumption data of artificially coloured food and analytically determined colour concentration in foodstuffs ingested. Coloured food consumption data were obtained through dietary recall interviews and collection of the packages and/or labels of the coloured foods consumed during a two-week period. Colours found in the individual types of foods detected through the consumption survey were identified and determined by methods that included wool dyeing and polyamide column extractions, ascending paper chromatography and spectrophotometry. The results showed that all artificial colours used in the composition of 83 commercial food products, including jellies, juices, soft drinks, syrups and 57 different candies, were permitted for use in food in Brazil the year the survey was conducted (1986), in amounts below those prescribed by law. Statistical analysis performed to compare the PWI for different population groups demonstrated that young male children, especially from lower social classes, were most exposed to artificial colours. Comparison of the estimated potential intakes with the toxicologically Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) showed that consumption of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow, Indigotine and Tartrazine by all children in the study represented approximately 24%, 3%, 0.05% and 0.4%, of the actual ADI values, respectively. PMID:1493880

  4. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL FOOD COLOUR AND SWEETENER IN ADULT MALE ALBINO MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to investigate the effect of aspartame (artificial sweetener) and sunset yellow (artificial colour) on monoamines content in different brain areas of the adult male albino mice (cerebellum, brain stem, striatum, hypothalamus and cerebral cortex), and also on testosterone level in serum.The present study showed that the daily intraperitoneal injection of aspartame with dose of 200 mg/kg caused significant increase in monoamines content and testosterone level at most experimental periods. The elevation of monoamines content may be due to increase in phenylalanine concentration which leading to increase the synthesis of monoamines. The elevation of testosterone level may be due to the increment of DA content in hypothalamus which led to increase the release of LHRH. On the other hand, the daily intraperitoneal injection of sunset yellow with a dose of 2.5 mg/kg caused significant decrease in monoamines content and non-significant change in serum testosterone level at most experimental periods. The decrement in monoamines content may be due to the decrease in its uptake by the neurotransmitters or decrease in its synthesis

  5. Present problems of food colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kläui, H

    1980-01-01

    Food colours belong to those food additives which have been most carefully evaluated toxicologically. The colours which are accepted today by international bodies, like the FAO/WHO and Codex Alimentarius, offer an extraordinary high degree of safety. Within these toxicologically accepted colours, the group of colours which naturally occur in foods (for long periods of time) deserves special attention: such colours combine in an ideal way a very long practical human experience with scientific examination under experimental and animal test conditions, and they offer, therefore, a maximum degree of safety. Colours which naturally occur in foods and which are also of industrial importance are: caramel, carotenoids, grape skin extracts and some colouring spices. PMID:7447918

  6. Determination of green, blue and yellow artificial food colorants and their abuse in herb-coloured green Easter beers on tap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachová, Ivana; Lhotská, Ivona; Solich, Petr; Šatínský, Dalibor

    2016-07-01

    Beer is one of the most popular alcoholic beverages worldwide. For consumer acceptance, significant factors are its taste, flavour and colour. This study determines selected synthetic green, blue and yellow food colorants in popular Easter herb-coloured green beers on tap produced in breweries on Holy Thursday. The abuse of beer colouring with Tartrazine (E 102), Quinoline yellow (E 104), Sunset yellow (E 110), Patent blue (E 131), Indigo carmine (E 132), Brilliant blue FCF (E 133), Green S (E 142) and Fast green FCF (E 143) was assessed in 11 green beer samples purchased in local restaurants. HPLC was used for the separation and detection of artificial colorants with diode-array detection and a Chromolith Performance CN 100 × 4.6 mm column with guard pre-column Chromolith CN 5 × 4.6 mm. Separation was performed in gradient elution with mobile phase containing methanol-aqueous 2% ammonium acetate at pH 7.0. The study showed that eight beers (70%) marketed in the Czech Republic contained artificial colorants (Tartrazine and Brilliant blue FCF). The concentration of colorants found in analysed green herb-coloured beers ranged from 1.58 to 3.49 mg l(-)(1) for Tartrazine, 0.45-2.18 mg l(-)(1) for Brilliant blue, while Indigo carmine was detected only once at concentration 2.36 mg l(-)(1). Only three beers showed no addition of the synthetic colorants. However, the levels of artificial colorants found in beers marketed in the Czech region were very low and did not show a serious risk for consumers' health. PMID:27295128

  7. Colour gamuts in polychromatic dielectric elastomer artificial chromatophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Conn, Andrew; Cerruto, Antonio; Winters, Amy; Roke, Calum

    2014-03-01

    Chromatophores are the colour changing organelles in the skins of animals including fish and cephalopods. The ability of cephalopods in particular to rapidly change their colouration in response to environmental changes, for example to camouflage against a new background, and in social situations, for example to attract a mate or repel a rival, is extremely attractive for engineering, medical, active clothing and biomimetic robotic applications. The rapid response of these chromatophores is possible by the direct coupling of fast acting muscle and pigmented saccules. In artificial chromatophores we are able to mimic this structure using electroactive polymer artificial muscles. In contrast to prior research which has demonstrated monochromatic artificial chromatophores, here we consider a novel multi-colour, multi-layer, artificial chromatophore structure inspired by the complex dermal chromatophore unit in nature and which exploits dielectric elastomer artificial muscles as the electroactive actuation mechanism. We investigate the optical properties of this chromatophore unit and explore the range of colours and effects that a single unit and a matrix of chromatophores can produce. The colour gamut of the multi-colour chromatophore is analysed and shows its suitability for practical display and camouflage applications. It is demonstrated how, by varying actuator strain and chromatophore base colour, the gamut can be shifted through colour space, thereby tuning the artificial chromatophore to a specific environment or application.

  8. A METHOD FOR SEGMENTING FOOD COLOUR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Peri

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this note, a method for segmenting foods from their backgrounds in colour images is presented. The proposed method has three steps: i determination of the optimal decision plane for the segmentation of an image; ii coarse segmentation of the image; iii morphological operations in order to correct possible errors in the segmented image. The method was implemented in MATLAB and tested on 40 colour images of foodstuff with very different morphological and chromatic characteristics, including meat, baked products, fruit and tubers. The experimental results are presented and the performance of method in the segmentation process is assessed. The method has shown to be both effective and efficient also for colour images with high spatial resolution.

  9. The chemistry and analysis of annatto food colouring: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Scotter, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Annatto food colouring (E160b) has a long history of use in the food industry for the colouring of a wide range of food commodities. The principle colouring components of annatto is the oil-soluble diapo carotenoid bixin, which is the methyl ester of the dicarboxylic acid norbixin, which is soluble in aqueous alkali. Bixin and norbixin therefore exhibit not only physicochemical properties normally associated with carotenoids but also certain anomalous properties that have ...

  10. Effects of the ionizing radiation in natural food colours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world's fast growing population and its consequent increase in demand for food has driven mankind into improving technologies which ensure a safer supply of such commodities. Both food radiation processing and its constituents are highlighted as a feasible alternative technique capable of meeting food safety standards. Natural dyes are extensively employed in the food industry thanks to their colour enhancing properties on food products. This paper has aimed at studying the effects of ionizing radiation on three natural dyes: carminic acid and its derivatives (cochineal dyes), bixine and its salts (annatto dyes) and curcumin (turmeric dyes), used in the food and cosmetic industries within dilutions and doses those goods might eventually be processed in. It also envisages clarifying the compatibility of the irradiation technique with the keeping of such relevant sensorial attribute which is the product colour. Spectrophotometry and capillary electrophoresis were the analytic methods employed. All in all, a colour decrease proportional to the increase on the applied gamma radiation (1 to 32 kGy) has been observed. The annatto dyes have proven moderately stable whereas turmeric has shown to be highly sensitive to radiation. Those results shall be taken into account as far as the need to alter the formulae additive amount in the product is concerned whenever undergoing radiation processing. (author)

  11. Artificial senses for characterization of food quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yan-bo; LAN Yu-bin; R.E. Lacey

    2004-01-01

    Food quality is of primary concern in the food industry and to the consumer. Systems that mimic human senses have been developed and applied to the characterization of food quality. The five primary senses are: vision, hearing, smell, taste and touch.In the characterization of food quality, people assess the samples sensorially and differentiate "good" from "bad" on a continuum.However, the human sensory system is subjective, with mental and physical inconsistencies, and needs time to work. Artificial senses such as machine vision, the electronic ear, electronic nose, electronic tongue, artificial mouth and even artificial the head have been developed that mimic the human senses. These artificial senses are coordinated individually or collectively by a pattern recognition technique, typically artificial neural networks, which have been developed based on studies of the mechanism of the human brain. Such a structure has been used to formulate methods for rapid characterization of food quality. This research presents and discusses individual artificial sensing systems. With the concept of multi-sensor data fusion these sensor systems can work collectively in some way. Two such fused systems, artificial mouth and artificial head, are described and discussed. It indicates that each of the individual systems has their own artificially sensing ability to differentiate food samples. It further indicates that with a more complete mimic of human intelligence the fused systems are more powerful than the individual systems in differentiation of food samples.

  12. The effects of artificial ageining on model colour layeres containing neutral verdigris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauerová, P.; Bezdička, Petr

    PRAHA : Akademie výtvarných umění v Praze, 2012, s. 349-350. ISBN 978-80-87108-33-8. [Interdisciplinary Conference of ALMA /4./. Praha (CZ), 21.11.2012-23.11.2012] Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : neutral verdigris * artificial ageing * colour change * degradation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  13. Artificial radioisotopes in food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of uranium for nuclear fission involves the risk of environmental contamination by radiation during the processes of mining, concentration, peaceful and military application and storage, reprocessing and waste disposal. Three of the most dangerous radioisotopes have been followed here as they move through four different food chains. The main bottlenecks for fast and massive transfer are for 131I its rather short half life, for 137Cs the defective plant uptake from soil (and much less so also the pathway through the animal body), and for 90Sr its discrimination relative to calcium in several transport processes in the animal body, and its preference for the bone mass. Hence it is often of advantage for man to use animals as an additional food chain. Known exceptions are discussed: the reindeer and karibou living entirely on lichens during the winter and thereby acquiring for 137Cs nearly identical specific activity as plant food, and cow's milk for iodine during a short period after contamination. 15 refs.; 1 figure; 4 tabs

  14. Synthetic food colours in saffron solutions, saffron rice and saffron chicken from restaurants in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Zhila; Amirpour, Mansooreh; AkbariAzam, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Saffron solutions, saffron rice and saffron chicken samples were considered for synthetic colours as additives, which are forbidden according to Iranian national standards. Samples were taken from restaurants of three locations and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Of the total 573 samples, 52% were positive for at least one colour. The most prevalent colours were Tartrazine, Quinoline Yellow and Sunset Yellow, with 44%, 9.1% and 8.4% of the samples testing positive for these colours, respectively. Carmoisine and Ponceau were both detected only in 0.5% of the positive samples and found only in saffron solution. In conclusion, synthetic food colours, especially Tartrazine should be regarded as a potential risk in saffron and its related food. Therefore, new attempts for food safety and quality should be undertaken to eliminate the use of these colours in restaurants. PMID:25116149

  15. The colour of food: last layer on the palimpsest of St. Caterina markect in Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Serra Lluch, Juan de Ribera; Gilabert Ferrer, Salvador; Torres Barchino, Ana María; Llopis Verdú, Jorge; García Codoñer, Ángela

    2010-01-01

    Throughout history, food has been an outstanding artistic inspiration source for many artistic disciplines, used as an argument to train with colour. The presence of food as a decorative element in architecture goes beyond a simple functional relationship with the use of space and is a useful tool for organizing colour composition. Examples include colored cornucopias of classical architecture, Biblical food in medieval fresco paintings (grape, bread, fish, etc.), painted still life in illust...

  16. Estimates of maximum limits of food colours use in Brazil through the Danish Budget Method and the Bär and Würtzen-modified method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machinski Júnior, M

    1998-01-01

    The establishment of the permissible levels for the use of additives in foods must be based on the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). A method that may be applied for this purpose is the Danish Budget Method which estimates the maximum amount of the additive that may be added to the food based on the functional properties of the additive, and on the categories of the food in which the additive will be used. Based on the latest information Bär and Würtzen propose some modifications to the original Budget Method, one of which is the addition of a correction factor which takes into account the competition between different food additives with the same functional properties. In the present paper, both the Budget Method and the Bär and Würtzen-modified method were applied to evaluate whether the maximum levels of food colours use exceeded their ADI or not. Applying the original Budget Method, the results showed that the colours Sunset Yellow, Amaranth, Erythrosine, Ponceau 4R and Cochineal possibly exceeded the ADI; while applying the modified method only the colours Erythrosine and Cochineal would exceed the ADI. Brazilian regulatory authorities should be advised to establish maximum limits of use for the following categories of colours: Caramel, Inorganic, Natural and Artificial Colours Identical to the Natural Ones, where ADIs have been evaluated by JECFA. PMID:9764219

  17. Assessment of the suitability of food colouring materials as indicators of bacterial contamination of enteral feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, A

    1988-04-01

    The suitability of using food colouring materials in enteral feeds as indicators of bacterial contamination was examined. Experiments using Triosorbon, Clinifeed ISO or Vivonex Standard plus amaranth, carmoisine, ponceau 4R, sunset yellow FCF, tartrazine or erythrosine demonstrated that although the change in appearance of coloured feed could be linked with the presence of high numbers of bacteria in the feed, the converse was not always true. PMID:2899111

  18. Methods for the determination of European Union-permitted added natural colours in foods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotter, M J

    2011-05-01

    Coupled to increasing consumer demand, food manufacturers have moved towards increased usage of approved natural colours. There is a legal requirement for governments to monitor the consumption of all food additives in the European Union to ensure the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) are not exceeded, especially by young children. Validated analytical methods are needed to fulfil this requirement. The aim of this paper is to review the available literature on methods of extraction for approved natural colours in food and drink. Available analytical methods for the determination of European Union-permitted natural food colour additives in foods and beverages have been assessed for their fitness for purpose in terms of their key extraction and analysis procedures, selectivity and sensitivity, especially with regard to maximum permitted levels, and their applicability for use in surveillance and in an enforcement role. The advantages and disadvantages of available analytical methods for each of nine designated chemical classes (groups) of natural colours in different food and beverage matrices are given. Other important factors such as technical requirements, cost, transferability and applicability are given due consideration. Gaps in the knowledge and levels of validation are identified and recommendations made on further research to develop suitable methods. The nine designated natural colour classes covered are: 1. Curcumin (E100), 2. Riboflavins (E101i-ii), 3. Cochineal (E120), 4. Chlorophylls--including chlorophyllins and copper analogues (E140-141), 5. Caramel Classes I-IV (E150a-d), 6. Carotenoids (E160a-f, E161b, E161g), 7. Beetroot red (E162), 8. Anthocyanins (E163), and 9. Other colours--Vegetable carbon (E153), Calcium carbonate (E170), Titanium dioxide (E171) and Iron oxides and hydroxides (E172). PMID:21424961

  19. Detection and identification of natural water-soluble colouring matters in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdih, A; Ekar, I

    1977-02-25

    The natural colouring matters of foods can be isolated and identified simultaneously with the synthetic dyes by the benzalkonium method. In the course of isolation anthocyanins, carmine, betanin, caramel and riboflavin are separated from synthetic dyes, as well as from one another, with the exception of first two, which are separated from one another by chromatography or distinguished by oxidation. PMID:857488

  20. CONSUMPTION OF ARTIFICIAL COLOURS FOR PRESCHOOL CHILDREN OF A BAIXADA FLUMINENSE, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Teixeira Polônio

    2012-01-01

    colorantes; riesgos a la salud                    CONSUMO DE CORANTES ARTIFICIAIS POR PRÉ-ESCOLARES DE UM MUNICÍPIO DA BAIXADA FLUMINENSE, RJ. CONSUMPTION OF ARTIFICIAL COLOURS FOR PRESCHOOL CHILDREN OF A BAIXADA FLUMINENSE, RJ. CONSUMO DE COLORANTES ARTIFICIALES POR PREESCOLARES DE UN MUNICIPIO DE LA BAJADA FLUMINENSE, RJ.                                                    RESUMO: OBJETIVOS: Analisar o consumo de alimentos industrializados com corantes por pré-escolares de um município da Baixada Fluminense.MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 148 mães de pré-escolares de 3 a 5 anos matriculados na rede pública do município de Mesquita, RJ. Foi aplicado um questionário estruturado constituído por variáveis sócio-demográficas e de saúde. Para análise do consumo de alimentos utilizaram-se o Recordatório 24 horas e Questionário de Frequência Alimentar (QFA. Em seguida analisaram-se produtos e marcas mais consumidos, verificando-se informações sobre corantes nos rótulos. RESULTADOS: Os produtos mais consumidos foram o biscoito recheado com consumo diário ou de 3 a 5 vezes por semana (55,1%, seguido de balas (51,4% e biscoito salgado tipo gritz de milho (48,4%. Nos biscoitos recheados (sabores morango e chocolate destacaram-se tanto corantes naturais (carmin e urucum quanto sintéticos (caramelo amoniacal, β-caroteno sintético, tartrazina e azul brilhante. Nas balas destacaram-se vermelho 40 (81,8%, tartrazina (54,5% e azul brilhante (54,5%. Nos cinco sabores de biscoitos salgados constataram-se, também, corantes naturais (69% urucum, 31% caramelo e sintéticos (amarelo crepúsculo, tartrazina, vermelho 40 na freqüência de 8% cada. Nesse estudo a IDA foi ultrapassada para os corantes artificiais, bordeaux S (56% e amarelo crepúsculo (25%. DISCUSSÃO: Evidenciam-se dois problemas relacionados ao uso de corantes no país: o primeiro, a facilidade de se ultrapassar a IDA de

  1. Artificial Sweeteners as Food Additives (Turkish with English Abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    In this review some artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate and aspartame) as food additives are looked over for their usage purposes and the effects on health. The problems of public health caused by some artificial sweeteners are assessed according the recent scientific publication on the subject.   

  2. Immunotoxicity of the colour additive caramel colour III; a review on complicated issues in the safety evaluation of a food additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, G F; Penninks, A H

    1994-08-12

    Food additives can be regarded as the safest constituents of our daily food. Nevertheless, complicated issues with respect to their safety evaluation do also occur. In this review paper, some of these issues are illustrated by the description and evaluation of the research on the immunotoxicity of the food additive Caramel Colour III. Caramel Colour III is commonly used as a color additive in many products for human consumption. Toxicity studies conducted in the seventies demonstrated that administration of Caramel Colour III can cause a reduction in total white blood cell counts in rats, due to reduced lymphocyte counts. Studies reviewed in this paper demonstrated several other effects of Caramel Colour III on the immune system of rodents, including disturbed immune functions and changed resistance in infection models. In addition, studies in rats demonstrated that most of the effects occur only when the animals are fed a diet low in vitamin B6. The imidazole derivative 2-acetyl-4(5)-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxy-butyl)-imidazole (THI) was found to be responsible for the immunotoxicity. Issues such as the mechanism of action of THI and the role of vitamin B6 are discussed. Finally, the results of a human intervention study and the observed effect levels of THI in rats are discussed in terms of safety of the use of Caramel Colour III in our daily food supply. PMID:8079366

  3. Food Safety Evaluation System Construction Based on Artificial Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Wang; Zhenmin Tang; Xianli Jin

    2015-01-01

    This study uses regression model and artificial neural network model to apply food safety index in food safety trend predication and makes policy advices in the construction and release of an authoritative food safety index, The results showed that the BP neural network was high-precision, fast and objective, which could be used to food safety evaluation of circulation links of production, processing and sales.

  4. Food Safety Evaluation System Construction Based on Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study uses regression model and artificial neural network model to apply food safety index in food safety trend predication and makes policy advices in the construction and release of an authoritative food safety index, The results showed that the BP neural network was high-precision, fast and objective, which could be used to food safety evaluation of circulation links of production, processing and sales.

  5. Impact of different colours of artificial light at night on melatonin rhythm and gene expression of gonadotropins in European perch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüning, Anika; Hölker, Franz; Franke, Steffen; Kleiner, Wibke; Kloas, Werner

    2016-02-01

    The distribution and intensity of artificial light at night, commonly referred to as light pollution, is consequently rising and progressively also ecological implications come to light. Low intensity light is known to suppress nocturnal melatonin production in several fish species. This study aims to examine the least suppressive light colour for melatonin excreted into the holding water and the influence of different light qualities and quantities in the night on gene expression of gonadotropins in fish. European perch (Perca fluviatilis) were exposed to light of different wavelengths during the night (blue, green, and red). Melatonin concentrations were measured from water samples every 3h during a 24h period. Gene expression of gonadotropins was measured in perch exposed to different light colours and was additionally examined for perch subjected to different intensities of white light (0 lx, 1 lx, 10 lx, 100 lx) during the night. All different light colours caused a significant drop of melatonin concentration; however, blue light was least suppressive. Gene expression of gonadotropins was not influenced by nocturnal light of different light colours, but in female perch gonadotropin expression was significantly reduced by white light already at the lowest level (1 lx). We conclude that artificial light with shorter wavelengths at night is less effective in disturbing biological rhythms of perch than longer wavelengths, coinciding with the light situation in freshwater habitats inhabited by perch. Different light colours in the night showed no significant effect on gonadotropin expression, but white light in the night can disturb reproductive traits already at very low light intensities. These findings indicate that light pollution has not only the potential to disturb the melatonin cycle but also the reproductive rhythm and may therefore have implications on whole species communities. PMID:26584071

  6. The meaning of colours in nutrition labelling in the context of expert and consumer criteria of evaluating food product healthfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wąsowicz, Grażyna; Styśko-Kunkowska, Małgorzata; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative studies were conducted to explore the effect of front-of-pack nutrition labels on the perceived healthfulness of food products. Consumers were found to hold beliefs about colours and their fit to product categories that influence the assessment process. Consumers...... show the complexity of psychological processes in the perception of food healthfulness....

  7. Reciprocal preening and food sharing in colour-polymorphic nestling barn owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulin, A; Des Monstiers, B; Ifrid, E; Da Silva, A; Genzoni, E; Dreiss, A N

    2016-02-01

    Barn owl (Tyto alba) siblings preen and offer food items to one another, behaviours that can be considered prosocial because they benefit a conspecific by relieving distress or need. In experimental broods, we analysed whether such behaviours were reciprocated, preferentially exchanged between specific phenotypes, performed to avoid harassment and food theft or signals of hierarchy status. Three of the results are consistent with the hypothesis of direct reciprocity. First, food sharing was reciprocated in three-chick broods but not in pairs of siblings, that is when nestlings could choose a partner with whom to develop a reciprocating interaction. Second, a nestling was more likely to give a prey item to its sibling if the latter individual had preened the former. Third, siblings matched their investment in preening each other. Manipulation of age hierarchy showed that food stealing was directed towards older siblings but was not performed to compensate for a low level of cooperation received. Social behaviours were related to melanin-based coloration, suggesting that animals may signal their propensity to interact socially. The most prosocial phenotype (darker reddish) was also the phenotype that stole more food, and the effect of coloration on prosocial behaviour depended upon rank and sex, suggesting that colour-related prosociality is state dependent. PMID:26563617

  8. Tracing artificial trans fat in popular foods in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To minimise the intake of industrial artificial trans fat (I-TF), nearly all European countries rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TF content in food. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of this strategy on I-TF content in prepackaged biscuits....../cakes/wafers in 2012-2013 in 20 European countries. DESIGN: The I-TF content was assessed in a market basket investigation. Three large supermarkets were visited in each capital, and in some countries, three additional ethnic shops were included. RESULTS: A total of 598 samples of biscuits/cakes/wafers with...... examined in six Western European countries sold 83 products. The mean (SD) was 23 (12)% of the fat as I-TF, all imported from countries in Balkan. In Sweden, this type of food imported from Balkan was also available in large supermarkets. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that subgroups of the population...

  9. Effects of the ionizing radiation in natural food colours; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante em corantes naturais de uso alimenticio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosentino, Helio Morrone

    2005-07-01

    The world's fast growing population and its consequent increase in demand for food has driven mankind into improving technologies which ensure a safer supply of such commodities. Both food radiation processing and its constituents are highlighted as a feasible alternative technique capable of meeting food safety standards. Natural dyes are extensively employed in the food industry thanks to their colour enhancing properties on food products. This paper has aimed at studying the effects of ionizing radiation on three natural dyes: carminic acid and its derivatives (cochineal dyes), bixine and its salts (annatto dyes) and curcumin (turmeric dyes), used in the food and cosmetic industries within dilutions and doses those goods might eventually be processed in. It also envisages clarifying the compatibility of the irradiation technique with the keeping of such relevant sensorial attribute which is the product colour. Spectrophotometry and capillary electrophoresis were the analytic methods employed. All in all, a colour decrease proportional to the increase on the applied gamma radiation (1 to 32 kGy) has been observed. The annatto dyes have proven moderately stable whereas turmeric has shown to be highly sensitive to radiation. Those results shall be taken into account as far as the need to alter the formulae additive amount in the product is concerned whenever undergoing radiation processing. (author)

  10. Artificial Nutrition (Food) and Hydration (Fluids) at the End of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial Nutrition (Food) and Hydration (Fluids) at the End of Life It is very common for doctors to provide ... or recovering from surgery. This is called “artificial nutrition and hydration” and like all medical treatments, it ...

  11. Making food labels social: The impact of colour of nutritional labels and injunctive norms on perceptions and choice of snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Milica; Pechey, Rachel; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies report that using green labels to denote healthier foods, and red to denote less healthy foods increases consumption of green- and decreases consumption of red-labelled foods. Other symbols (e.g. emoticons conveying normative approval and disapproval) could also be used to signal the healthiness and/or acceptability of consuming such products. The present study tested the combined effects of using emoticons and colours on labels amongst a nationally representative sample of the UK population (n = 955). In a 3 (emoticon expression: smiling vs. frowning vs. no emoticon) × 3 (colour label: green vs. red vs. white) ×2 (food option: chocolate bar vs. cereal bar) between-subjects experiment, participants rated the level of desirability, healthiness, tastiness, and calorific content of a snack bar they had been randomised to view. At the end they were further randomised to view one of nine possible combinations of colour and emoticon labels and asked to choose between a chocolate and a cereal bar. Regardless of label, participants rated the chocolate as tastier and more desirable when compared to the cereal bar, and the cereal bar as healthier than the chocolate bar. A series of interactions revealed that a frowning emoticon on a white background decreased perceptions of healthiness and tastiness of the cereal bar, but not the chocolate bar. In the explicit choice task selection was unaffected by label. Overall nutritional labels had limited effects on perceptions and no effects on choice of snack foods. Emoticon labels yielded stronger effects on perceptions of taste and healthiness of snacks than colour labels. Frowning emoticons may be more potent than smiling emoticons at influencing the perceived healthiness and tastiness of foods carrying health halos. PMID:25841647

  12. Highly-sensitive electrochemical sensing platforms for food colourants based on the property-tuning of porous carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Qin [Key Laboratory for Large-Format Battery Materials and System, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Xia, Shanhong; Tong, Jianhua [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, 100190 (China); Wu, Kangbing, E-mail: kbwu@hust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Large-Format Battery Materials and System, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2015-08-05

    It is very challenging to develop highly-sensitive analytical platforms for toxic synthetic colourants that widely added in food samples. Herein, a series of porous carbon (PC) was prepared using CaCO{sub 3} nanoparticles (nano-CaCO{sub 3}) as the hard template and starch as the carbon precursor. Characterizations of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy indicated that the morphology and porous structure were controlled by the weight ratio of starch and nano-CaCO{sub 3}. The electrochemical behaviours of four kinds of widely-used food colourants, Sunset yellow, Tartrazine, Ponceau 4R and Allura red, were studied. On the surface of PC samples, the oxidation signals of colourants enhanced obviously, and more importantly, the signal enhancement abilities of PC were also dependent on the starch/nano-CaCO{sub 3} weight ratio. The greatly-increased electron transfer ability and accumulation efficiency were the main reason for the enhanced signals of colourants, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronocoulometry. The prepared PC-2 sample by 1:1 starch/nano-CaCO{sub 3} weight ratio was more active for the oxidation of food colourtants, and increased the signals by 89.4-fold, 79.3-fold, 47.3-fold and 50.7-fold for Sunset yellow, Tartrazine, Ponceau 4R and Allura red. As a result, a highly-sensitive electrochemical sensing platform was developed, and the detection limits were 1.4, 3.5, 2.1 and 1.7 μg L{sup −1} for Sunset yellow, Tartrazine, Ponceau 4R and Allura red. The practical application of this new sensing platform was demonstrated using drink samples, and the detected results consisted with the values that obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. - Highlights: • PC samples with different morphology and electrochemical activities were prepared. • Highly sensitive electrochemical sensing platform was developed for food colourants. • The accuracy and practicability was testified to be good by HPLC.

  13. Highly-sensitive electrochemical sensing platforms for food colourants based on the property-tuning of porous carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very challenging to develop highly-sensitive analytical platforms for toxic synthetic colourants that widely added in food samples. Herein, a series of porous carbon (PC) was prepared using CaCO3 nanoparticles (nano-CaCO3) as the hard template and starch as the carbon precursor. Characterizations of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy indicated that the morphology and porous structure were controlled by the weight ratio of starch and nano-CaCO3. The electrochemical behaviours of four kinds of widely-used food colourants, Sunset yellow, Tartrazine, Ponceau 4R and Allura red, were studied. On the surface of PC samples, the oxidation signals of colourants enhanced obviously, and more importantly, the signal enhancement abilities of PC were also dependent on the starch/nano-CaCO3 weight ratio. The greatly-increased electron transfer ability and accumulation efficiency were the main reason for the enhanced signals of colourants, as confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronocoulometry. The prepared PC-2 sample by 1:1 starch/nano-CaCO3 weight ratio was more active for the oxidation of food colourtants, and increased the signals by 89.4-fold, 79.3-fold, 47.3-fold and 50.7-fold for Sunset yellow, Tartrazine, Ponceau 4R and Allura red. As a result, a highly-sensitive electrochemical sensing platform was developed, and the detection limits were 1.4, 3.5, 2.1 and 1.7 μg L−1 for Sunset yellow, Tartrazine, Ponceau 4R and Allura red. The practical application of this new sensing platform was demonstrated using drink samples, and the detected results consisted with the values that obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. - Highlights: • PC samples with different morphology and electrochemical activities were prepared. • Highly sensitive electrochemical sensing platform was developed for food colourants. • The accuracy and practicability was testified to be good by HPLC

  14. Object knowledge modulates colour appearance

    OpenAIRE

    Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In o...

  15. Colourful English Colour Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    English colour words, though very small in number, reflect to a great extent the different cultural connotations of different languages. This paper gives quite a few idiomatic usages,and ranslation examples of some colour words and illustrates the mportance of a clear understanding of cultural - loaded words in translation practice.

  16. Rheological characterization of coloured oil-in-water food emulsions with lutein and phycocyanin added to the oil and aqueous phases

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Isabel; Batista, Ana Paula; Raymundo, Anabela; Empis, José

    2006-01-01

    The use of natural colourings in food products presents nutritional advantages, and certain pigments are associated with functional properties, e.g. antioxidant effects. This can be very advantageous in food products with high fat contents like mayonnaises. The aim of this work was to study the effect of adding natural pigments, lutein and phycocyanin, to the water and oil phases, respectively, of oil-in-water pea protein-stabilized emulsions, beyond the desirable and expected develo...

  17. Inorganic nutrients in natural and artificial food of Dacus oleae larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain inorganic nutrients contained in the natural and artificial food of Dacus oleae larvae were determined by neutron activation analysis and spectrophotometry. The content of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, copper and phosporus was reported for the olive fruit mesocarp at three stages of maturity, brewer's yeast, soybean hydrolysate and roasted peanuts. Several differences were found between the inorganic nutrient content of the natural food (olive fruit) and artificial diet of D. oleae larvae. The differences which may be important in the nutrition and metabolism of this insect were estimated and discussed

  18. Sweeteners (natural and artificial) used in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    PIHLÍK, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to introduce the sweeteners which are used in the food industry in the Czech Republic but also in the world. The basic sweetener which is a measure of the other sweeteners is regarded as sugar (sucrose). In this bachelor´s work, I described the history of the production of beet sugar in the Czech Republic, the products which are made of it and also its usage in food industry. Furthermore, I introduce the basic types of sweeteners by which we try to replace the beet sug...

  19. Willingness to purchase Genetically Modified food: an analysis applying artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar-Ordóñez, M.; Rodríguez-Entrena, M.; Becerra-Alonso, D.

    2014-01-01

    Findings about consumer decision-making process regarding GM food purchase remain mixed and are inconclusive. This paper offers a model which classifies willingness to purchase GM food, using data from 399 surveys in Southern Spain. Willingness to purchase has been measured using three dichotomous questions and classification, based on attitudinal, cognitive and socio-demographic factors, has been made by an artificial neural network model. The results show 74% accuracy to forecast the willin...

  20. Coloured plastinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Hanno; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2006-03-01

    To obtain coloured plastinates by colouring anatomical structures in e.g. red, blue and yellow we used different types of chemical reagents. The colours remained stable during dehydration, degreasing and impregnation of specimen with silicone resin. The colours, which penetrated into the specimen, appeared to be included in the plastination process. To prove their stability, the coloured plastinates were exposed to light and heat for more than 5 years. A permanent colouration remained. The coloured plastinates are dry and flexible, odourless and robust. They are instructive and can be used in tutorials, examinations and seminars. PMID:16551016

  1. Colour calibration for colour reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Emmel, P.; R. D. Hersch

    2000-01-01

    Due to the proliferation of low-cost colour devices (digital colour cameras, scanners, printers etc.) during the last few years, colour calibration has become an important issue. Such devices should faithfully reproduce colour images, but experience shows they don't. Among the main reasons, we note the diversity of acquisition, display and printing technologies which makes standardization difficult. Each device has a different gamut, i.e. a different set of colours that it can acquire or repr...

  2. Effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, food and drink intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyák, Eva; Gombos, K; Hajnal, B; Bonyár-Müller, K; Szabó, Sz; Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, A; Marton, K; Ember, I

    2010-12-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease. PMID:21138816

  3. Coloured Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Pesando, I.

    1993-01-01

    We show that non-oriented coloured polymers (self--avoiding walks with different types of links) are in the same universality class of the ordinary self--avoiding walks, while the oriented coloured are not.

  4. Tracing artificial trans fat in popular foods in Europe: a market basket investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    Objective To minimise the intake of industrial artificial trans fat (I-TF), nearly all European countries rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TF content in food. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of this strategy on I-TF content in prepackaged biscuits/cakes/wafers in 2012–2013 in 20 European countries. Design The I-TF content was assessed in a market basket investigation. Three large supermarkets were visited in each capital, and in some countries, thre...

  5. Growth Indices of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Larvae Fed with Live Food and Artificial Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Lone, Ghulam Nabi; Shammi, Qaiser Jahan; Shaukath Ali MIR

    2013-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the individual and mixed effect of live and artificial food on the growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae. The triplicate treatments were divided into four sets. The first group was fed a commercial starter food; the second group was fed on live Artemia salina nauplii (for 3 days); the third group was fed on live Artemia salina nauplii (for 7 days); and the last group was fed on a combination of live Artemia nauplii ...

  6. Measurement of food colour in L*a*b* units from RGB digital image using least squares support vector machine regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Romaniello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the potential of least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM regression to develop an efficient method to measure the colour of food materials in L*a*b* units by means of a computer vision systems (CVS. A laboratory CVS, based on colour digital camera (CDC, was implemented and three LS-SVM models were trained and validated, one for each output variables (L*, a*, and b* required by this problem, using the RGB signals generated by the CDC as input variables to these models. The colour target-based approach was used to camera characterization and a standard reference target of 242 colour samples was acquired using the CVS and a colorimeter. This data set was split in two sets of equal sizes, for training and validating the LS-SVM models. An effective two-stage grid search process on the parameters space was performed in MATLAB to tune the regularization parameters γ and the kernel parameters σ2 of the three LS-SVM models. A 3-8-3 multilayer feed-forward neural network (MFNN, according to the research conducted by León et al. (2006, was also trained in order to compare its performance with those of LS-SVM models. The LS-SVM models developed in this research have been shown better generalization capability then the MFNN, allowed to obtain high correlations between L*a*b* data acquired using the colorimeter and the corresponding data obtained by transformation of the RGB data acquired by the CVS. In particular, for the validation set, R2 values equal to 0.9989, 0.9987, and 0.9994 for L*, a* and b* parameters were obtained. The root mean square error values were 0.6443, 0.3226, and 0.2702 for L*, a*, and b* respectively, and the average of colour differences ΔEab was 0.8232±0.5033 units. Thus, LS-SVM regression seems to be a useful tool to measurement of food colour using a low cost CVS.

  7. Measuring Colour

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, R W G

    2011-01-01

    The classic authority on colour measurement now fully revised and updated with the latest CIE recommendations The measurement of colour is of major importance in many commercial applications, such as the textile, paint, and foodstuff industries; as well as having a significant role in the lighting, paper, printing, cosmetic, plastics, glass, chemical, photographic, television, transport, and communication industries. Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of Measuring Colour has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources; colorimetry

  8. Artificial Food Support for Lutra lutra in a River in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Olmo J.

    1993-01-01

    Artificial Food Support for Lutra lutra in a River in SpainPages 34 - 36 (Report)Jordi Ruiz-OlmoIn the Spanish Pyrenees, otters are only present in six rivers, and populations are fragmented by hydrological schemes, and high, dry mountains. Because of the great water level fluctuations caused by hydroelectricity generation, fish levels often drop very low, endangering the otters. It was decided to restock one of the rivers, the Noguera Ribagorçana, with two species found below the dams and th...

  9. 国内外食品接触材料中着色剂的法规%Briefly Expound of International Standard and Regulations on Colourants of Food Contact Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇海娟; 商贵芹; 王文烨

    2011-01-01

    Types and the influence of colourants on food contact materials were described. The international standard and regulations on colourants were mainly introduced.%简述了着色剂的种类及其对食品接触材料安全性的影响,重点介绍了欧盟、美国、日本和我国关于着色剂的一些法规和要求.

  10. A research model for investigating the effects of artificial food colorings on children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Ronald E; Brown, Ronald T; Cutter, Gary R; Dupaul, George J; Clydesdale, Fergus M

    2011-06-01

    The United Kingdom and European Union recently restricted the use of artificial food colorings (AFCs) to improve the health of children. These decisions provide an interesting case study of the role of scientific evidence in the assessment of food additives and risk to children's health and formulation of food policy. Although there continues to be uncertainty concerning the link between AFCs and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), policy decisions have been made that have far-reaching implications. In addition, publicity surrounding the policy changes may shape public perceptions concerning effective management of ADHD. We believe that the balance of existing evidence neither refutes nor supports the link between AFCs and ADHD, which highlights the need for carefully designed studies to further investigate the link between AFCs and ADHD. In this article we describe a model for such studies. In developing our model, we drew from current investigative standards in ADHD research, such as those used in the landmark Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD. These standards encompass methodologic considerations including sample selection, outcome assessment, and data analyses. It is our hope that this model research methodology may prove valuable in addressing design considerations in future studies of AFCs and ADHD with the goal of producing reliable data that will enable policy-makers to better formulate effective, evidence-based food-policy decisions. PMID:21576306

  11. Feeding habits and food partitioning between three commercial fish associated with artificial reefs in a tropical coastal environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mablouke, C.; Kolasinski, J.; Potier, Michel; Cuvillier, A.; Potin, G.; Bigot, L.; Frouin, P.; Jaquemet, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    At Reunion Island (south-western Indian Ocean), artificial reefs were submerged in 2003 in a bay and were soon colonised by fish, among which were the highly abundant commercial species Lutjanus kasmira, Priacanthus hamrur and Selar crumenophthalmus. The high concentration and diversity of fish around the artificial reefs is surprising, considering the low abundance of potential benthic prey. We investigated the diet and food partitioning between the aforementioned species using stomach conte...

  12. Characterization of Caramel Colour IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, B H; Shaw, K; Smith, C; Mendoza, M; Orr, J; Myers, D V

    1992-05-01

    A large number of commercial Caramel Colour IV samples were characterized in order to assess the uniformity of the class and to provide data to be used in specifications development. Owing to the chemical and physical complexity of caramel colour it was not feasible to perform detailed analysis of all constituents for assessment of uniformity. Instead, selected parameters were evaluated and judgements were made with respect to compositional uniformity based on the similarities of these parameters among the various samples. As Caramel Colour IV is required by the food industry in a range of colour intensities, there must be a range of properties that differ from sample to sample, but that are sufficiently similar for the material to still be considered as part of the Caramel Colour IV class. Fractions as well as whole caramel were analysed using selected spectrophotometric, chromatographic and chemical techniques. Samples were fractionated based on molecular weight and polarity. The data presented here provide evidence for the uniformity in composition of Caramel Colour IV with respect to molecular weight distribution, to nitrogen and sulphur content and their distribution throughout the fractions, to absorbance properties and to specific low molecular weight compounds. Thus, it can be concluded that Caramel Colour IV exhibits compositional uniformity within the range of colour intensity required by the food industry worldwide. PMID:1644377

  13. Artificial Food Support for Lutra lutra in a River in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Olmo J.

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Food Support for Lutra lutra in a River in SpainPages 34 - 36 (ReportJordi Ruiz-OlmoIn the Spanish Pyrenees, otters are only present in six rivers, and populations are fragmented by hydrological schemes, and high, dry mountains. Because of the great water level fluctuations caused by hydroelectricity generation, fish levels often drop very low, endangering the otters. It was decided to restock one of the rivers, the Noguera Ribagorçana, with two species found below the dams and thus native to the river, which are better able to cope with high fluctuations in water level. An ongoing monitoring program shows otters are using this new resource.

  14. Study on the interaction of artificial and natural food colorants with human serum albumin: A computational point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masone, Diego; Chanforan, Céline

    2015-06-01

    Due to the high amount of artificial food colorants present in infants' diets, their adverse effects have been of major concern among the literature. Artificial food colorants have been suggested to affect children's behavior, being hyperactivity the most common disorder. In this study we compare binding affinities of a group of artificial colorants (sunset yellow, quinoline yellow, carmoisine, allura red and tartrazine) and their natural industrial equivalents (carminic acid, curcumin, peonidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside) to human serum albumin (HSA) by a docking approach and further refinement through atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Due to the protein-ligand conformational interface complexity, we used collective variable driven molecular dynamics to refine docking predictions and to score them according to a hydrogen-bond criterion. With this protocol, we were able to rank ligand affinities to HSA and to compare between the studied natural and artificial food additives. Our results show that the five artificial colorants studied bind better to HSA than their equivalent natural options, in terms of their H-bonding network, supporting the hypothesis of their potential risk to human health. PMID:25935119

  15. Public Health Implication of Artificial Finger Nails Used by Health Workers and Food Handlers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachukwu, C. K.; Abbey, S. D.; Ollor, A. O.; Obilor, N. L.

    This study was undertaken to determine if artificial fingernails could contribute or serve as vehicles for transmission of food poisoning and nosocomial pathogens. Three hundred and fifty apparently healthy individuals were used. Of this number, 150 subjects were health care workers, while 200 subjects were unprofessional food handlers. Both groups were randomly selected for this study. Their artificial fingernails were swabbed and examined microbiologically by culturing them on different media. Oral interviews were also used to assess the social and educational status of subjects. Four genera of bacteria were isolated and identified, such as Staphylococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Proteus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. Among the organism identified, Staph aureus (41.7%) was predominant and frequently occurring, followed by E. coli (7.4%). From this study, it could be deduced that artificial fingernails could serve as means for transmission of pathogens to foods and causing nosocomial infections on patients. Hence, use of artificial or overgrown fingernails should be discouraged to avoid disease epidemics.

  16. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen-consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power. PMID:26052427

  17. Antiproliferative and genotoxic effects of nature identical and artificial synthetic food additives of aroma and flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, R D M; Sales, I M S; Silva, S I O; Sousa, J M C; Peron, A P

    2016-07-25

    This study aimed to analyze the antiproliferative and genotoxic potential of synthetic food flavorings, nature identical passion fruit and artificial vanilla. This assessment used root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., in exposure times of 24 and 48 hours and using doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL. Roots were fixed in Carnoy's solution, hydrolyzed in hydrochloric acid, stained with acetic orcein and analyzed with optical microscope at 400× magnification, 5,000 cells for each treatment. For data analysis, it was used Chi-square test at 5%. Doses of 0.2 mL at ET 48 h; 0.4 and 0.6 mL at ET 24 and 48 h of passion fruit flavor, and the three doses of the vanilla flavor at ET 24 and 48 h significantly reduced the cell division rate in the meristems of roots, proving to be cytotoxic. Doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL of the passion fruit additive, and the three doses of vanilla tested, in the two exposure times, induced mitotic spindle changes and micronuclei formation in the cells of the test organism used, proving to be genotoxic. Therefore, under the studied conditions, flavoring solutions of vanilla and passion fruit, marketed nationally and internationally, significantly altered the functioning of the cell cycle in root meristem cells of A. cepa. PMID:27463833

  18. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen–consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power. PMID:26052427

  19. Inadequate awareness among chronic kidney disease patients regarding food and drinks containing artificially added phosphate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko Shutto

    Full Text Available Hyperphosphatemia is an important determinant of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Patients with CKD are advised to consume a low phosphate diet and are often prescribed phosphate-lowering drug therapy. However, commercially processed food and drinks often contain phosphate compounds, but the phosphate level is not usually provided in the ingredient list, which makes it difficult for CKD patients to choose a correct diet. We conducted a survey of the awareness of food/beverages containing artificially added phosphate among CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis. The subjects were 153 patients (77 males and 76 females; average age 56±11 years who were randomly selected from the Dialysis Center of Hirosaki City, Japan. The subjects were provided with a list of questions. The survey results showed that 93% of the subjects were aware of the presence of high sugar content in soda, whereas only 25% were aware of the presence of phosphate (phosphoric acid in such drinks. Despite 78% of the subjects being aware of the detrimental effects of consumption of a high phosphate diet, 43% drank at least 1 to 5 cans of soda per week and about 17% consumed "fast food" once each week. We also assessed the immediate effects of high-phosphate containing carbonated soda consumption by determining urinary calcium, phosphate, protein and sugar contents in overnight fasted healthy volunteers (n = 55; average age 20.7±0.3 years old, 20 males and 35 females. Significantly higher urinary calcium (adjusted using urinary creatinine excretion was found 2 h after consuming 350 ml of carbonated soda compared to the fasting baseline level (0.15±0.01 vs. 0.09±0.01, p = 0.001. Our survey results suggest that CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis are not adequately aware of the hidden source of phosphate in their diet, and emphasize the need for educational initiatives to raise awareness of this issue among CKD patients.

  20. Caramel colours--a historical introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappel, C I; Howell, J C

    1992-05-01

    Caramel colours used in the manufacture of a wide variety of foods and beverages have been an item of commerce for more than one hundred years. The regulatory history of these additives in the US, the UK, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the EC is reviewed, and an introduction to the safety studies of caramel colours in this issue of Food and Chemical Toxicology is provided. PMID:1644375

  1. A comprehensive study of the presence of some food additives in non-alcoholic beverages in Republic of Macedonia from the period 2008- 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavour or enhance its taste and appearance. The most abundant additives used in production of refreshing-non alcoholic beverages (soft drinks) are: potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate caffeine, some artificial food colourings, artificial sweeteners etc. Different medical studies have shown that the usage of additives have various impact on human’s health. In the current study, the presence of: preservatives (potassium sorbate and sodium ...

  2. Colour Guided Colour Image Steganography

    CERN Document Server

    Amirtharajan, R; Swarup, Motamarri Abhilash; K, Mohamed Ashfaaq; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

    2010-01-01

    Information security has become a cause of concern because of the electronic eavesdropping. Capacity, robustness and invisibility are important parameters in information hiding and are quite difficult to achieve in a single algorithm. This paper proposes a novel steganography technique for digital color image which achieves the purported targets. The professed methodology employs a complete random scheme for pixel selection and embedding of data. Of the three colour channels (Red, Green, Blue) in a given colour image, the least two significant bits of any one of the channels of the color image is used to channelize the embedding capacity of the remaining two channels. We have devised three approaches to achieve various levels of our desired targets. In the first approach, Red is the default guide but it results in localization of MSE in the remaining two channels, which makes it slightly vulnerable. In the second approach, user gets the liberty to select the guiding channel (Red, Green or Blue) to guide the r...

  3. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatographic determination of artificial sweeteners in low-Joule soft drinks and other foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C O; Trenerry, V C; Kemmery, B

    1995-03-10

    A rapid method for the determination of artificial sweeteners in low-Joule soft drinks and other foods by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) is described. Caffeine, benzoic acid and sorbic acid, which are often added to soft drinks, can also be determined with this procedure. The artificial sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin, acesulfame-K, alitame and dulcin, and the other food additives are well separated in less than 12 min using an uncoated fused-silica capillary column with a buffer consisting of 0.05 M sodium deoxycholate, 0.01 M potassium dihydrogenorthophosphate, 0.01 M sodium borate operating at 20 kV. Dehydroacetic acid was used as the internal standard for the determinations. The levels of artificial sweeteners, preservatives and caffeine were in good agreement with those determined by the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure currently used in our Laboratory. The MEKC procedure has the same order of repeatability, is faster and less costly to operate than the HPLC method. PMID:7704194

  4. Colourful Language: Measuring Word-Colour Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Saif

    2013-01-01

    Since many real-world concepts are associated with colour, for example danger with red, linguistic information is often complimented with the use of appropriate colours in information visualization and product marketing. Yet, there is no comprehensive resource that captures concept-colour associations. We present a method to create a large word-colour association lexicon by crowdsourcing. We focus especially on abstract concepts and emotions to show that even though they cannot be physically ...

  5. The role of fruit colour in avian fruit selection: an objective approach

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Veronika

    2002-01-01

    To explain the prevalence of red and black fruits in fruit colour patterns, the following hypotheses were addressed, using reflectance spectra of fruits as colour assessment: 1. Birds prefer red and black fruits, or these hues are cues for food recognition in migrants or fledglings. 2. Fruit colours correlate with chemical compounds. 3. Fruit colours serve as advertisement for ripe fruits. Reflectance spectra are the most objective colour assessment currently possible. Birds show no colour pr...

  6. Synaesthesia and colour constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Holly; Mattingley, Jason B; Arnold, Derek H

    2013-04-01

    Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is an atypical condition characterized by the perception of colours when reading achromatic text. We investigated the level of colour processing responsible for these experiences. To do so, we tapped a central characteristic of colour perception. In different lighting conditions the same wavelength of light can prompt the perception of different colours. This helps humans recognize distinctive coloured objects despite changes in illumination. We wanted to see if synaesthetic colours were generated at a neural locus that was susceptible to colour constancy analyses. We used colour matching and naming tasks to examine interactions between simulated coloured illuminants and synaesthetic colours. Neither synaesthetic colour matching or naming was impacted. This contrasted with non-synaesthetic control participants, who performed the colour-matching task with graphemes physically coloured to mimic synaesthesia. Our data suggest that synaesthetic colour signals are not generated at lower-levels of colour processing, but are introduced at higher levels of analysis and are therefore not impacted by the processes responsible for perceptual constancy. PMID:22487049

  7. Colour constancy of the swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus

    OpenAIRE

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Arikawa, Kentaro; 充代, 木下

    2000-01-01

    We have recently shown that the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus uses colour vision when searching for food. In the field, these butterflies feed on nectar provided by flowers of various colours not only in direct sunlight but also in shaded places and on cloudy days, suggesting that they have colour constancy. Here, we tested this hypothesis. We trained newly emerged Papilio xuthus to feed on sucrose solution on a paper patch of a certain colour under white illumination. ...

  8. Can colour be measured?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.

    Colour is a sensation. While wavelength can be measured with a spectrometer consisting of dispersive elements and colour insensitive detectors, detection of colour is accomplished by the eye, equipped with a lens, colour sensitive detectors, and a powerful processor in the form of brain. Sometime...... this process results in unexpected phenomena. Different theories of colour vision have been proposed, such as the retinex theory of Land. In this lecture, we shall explore the land of colour vision.......Colour is a sensation. While wavelength can be measured with a spectrometer consisting of dispersive elements and colour insensitive detectors, detection of colour is accomplished by the eye, equipped with a lens, colour sensitive detectors, and a powerful processor in the form of brain. Sometimes...

  9. Re-evaluation of azo dyes as food additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratt, Iona; Larsen, John Christian; Mortensen, Alicja;

    2013-01-01

    Aryl azo compounds are widely used as colorants (azo dyes) in a wide range of products including textiles, leather, paper, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and food.As part of its systematic re-evaluation of food additives, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has carried out new risk assessments of...... additives to be assessed by the Scientific Committee on Food, many years ago, (ii) because of concern regarding possible health effects of artificial colours arising since the original evaluations.Concerns includedbehavioural effects in children, allergic reactions, genotoxicity and possible carcinogenicity...... allazo dyes permitted in food. EFSA has also evaluated a number of azo dyes found illegally in food in recent years, including Sudan dyes, Para Red and Orange II. The re-evaluation of all food colours, including the azo dyes,was considered high priority (i) because colorants were among the first...

  10. Mouth colour is a reliable signal of need in begging canary nestlings

    OpenAIRE

    R., initials Kilner

    1997-01-01

    Begging passerine chicks display brightly coloured mouths as they solicit food from their parents. Despite a range of hypotheses, the function of vivid nestling mouth colour remains unknown. Here I report that mouth colour functions as a signal of need in canary nestlings, in the days immediately following hatching. Changes in mouth colour accurately reflect a nestling's state of need: the more food deprived the chick, the more intensely coloured its mouth. In controlled experiments with two ...

  11. Rethinking Colour Constancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D Logvinenko

    Full Text Available Colour constancy needs to be reconsidered in light of the limits imposed by metamer mismatching. Metamer mismatching refers to the fact that two objects reflecting metameric light under one illumination may reflect non-metameric light under a second; so two objects appearing as having the same colour under one illuminant can appear as having different colours under a second. Yet since Helmholtz, object colour has generally been believed to remain relatively constant. The deviations from colour constancy registered in experiments are usually thought to be small enough that they do not contradict the notion of colour constancy. However, it is important to determine how the deviations from colour constancy relate to the limits metamer mismatching imposes on constancy. Hence, we calculated metamer mismatching's effect for the 20 Munsell papers and 8 pairs of illuminants employed in the colour constancy study by Logvinenko and Tokunaga and found it to be so extensive that the two notions-metamer mismatching and colour constancy-must be mutually exclusive. In particular, the notion of colour constancy leads to some paradoxical phenomena such as the possibility of 20 objects having the same colour under chromatic light dispersing into a hue circle of colours under neutral light. Thus, colour constancy refers to a phenomenon, which because of metamer mismatching, simply cannot exist. Moreover, it obscures the really important visual phenomenon; namely, the alteration of object colours induced by illumination change. We show that colour is not an independent, intrinsic attribute of an object, but rather an attribute of an object/light pair, and then define a concept of material colour in terms of equivalence classes of such object/light pairs. We suggest that studying the shift in material colour under a change in illuminant will be more fruitful than pursuing colour constancy's false premise that colour is an intrinsic attribute of an object.

  12. Rethinking Colour Constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvinenko, Alexander D; Funt, Brian; Mirzaei, Hamidreza; Tokunaga, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    Colour constancy needs to be reconsidered in light of the limits imposed by metamer mismatching. Metamer mismatching refers to the fact that two objects reflecting metameric light under one illumination may reflect non-metameric light under a second; so two objects appearing as having the same colour under one illuminant can appear as having different colours under a second. Yet since Helmholtz, object colour has generally been believed to remain relatively constant. The deviations from colour constancy registered in experiments are usually thought to be small enough that they do not contradict the notion of colour constancy. However, it is important to determine how the deviations from colour constancy relate to the limits metamer mismatching imposes on constancy. Hence, we calculated metamer mismatching's effect for the 20 Munsell papers and 8 pairs of illuminants employed in the colour constancy study by Logvinenko and Tokunaga and found it to be so extensive that the two notions-metamer mismatching and colour constancy-must be mutually exclusive. In particular, the notion of colour constancy leads to some paradoxical phenomena such as the possibility of 20 objects having the same colour under chromatic light dispersing into a hue circle of colours under neutral light. Thus, colour constancy refers to a phenomenon, which because of metamer mismatching, simply cannot exist. Moreover, it obscures the really important visual phenomenon; namely, the alteration of object colours induced by illumination change. We show that colour is not an independent, intrinsic attribute of an object, but rather an attribute of an object/light pair, and then define a concept of material colour in terms of equivalence classes of such object/light pairs. We suggest that studying the shift in material colour under a change in illuminant will be more fruitful than pursuing colour constancy's false premise that colour is an intrinsic attribute of an object. PMID:26356217

  13. Artificial trans fat in popular foods in 2012 and in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To minimise the intake of industrially produced trans fat (I-TF) and thereby decrease the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), nearly all European countries rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TF content in food. The objective of this study was to monitor the change in ...

  14. Synthesis and identification of the artificial antigen for DiHT in irradiation food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, 5, 6-Dihydrothymidine Hapten (DiHT-COOH) was synthesized by using 5, 6-Dihydrothymidine (DiHT) as raw material. DiHT-COOH was identified by thin layer chromatography and 1H-NMR. Hapten was conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) to obtain artificial immune antigen and coating antigen, respectively. After detected by UV spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE, the ratios of Hapten to protein were calculated. The conjugation ratios of immunogen and coating antigen were 9.8 : 1 and 12 : 1, respectively. Antisera were obtained by immunizing BALB/c with immunogen and the titer were 1 : 2.56 × 104, which indicated the synthesis of artificial antigen was successful. (authors)

  15. Artificial food lump from porous neoprene and the method of its use for the evaluation of adaptation patients to the dental constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, A.; Urakov, A.; Kasatkin, A.; Soiher, M. G.; Kopylov, M.

    2016-04-01

    New dental product called artificial food lump is offered for dental practices. In its size and shape it is similar to the natural food bolus, which is formed in adult's mouth when chewing white bread. This innovative product resembles an inedible and non-swallowable chewing gum. Artificial lump is made of porous neoprene; it is elastic and has food flavor. It is not destroyed by chewing and has stable elasticity during chewing. Besides, artificial lump is manufactured in a way that it can be attached to the patient's clothes with a braid line. New medical device is intended to create the masticatory loading in patients' mouth in order to evaluate the quality of mounted dental restorations as well as patient's adaptation to it during the chewing process.

  16. Effects of memory colour on colour constancy for unknown coloured objects

    OpenAIRE

    Granzier, Jeroen J. M.; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.

    2012-01-01

    The perception of an object's colour remains constant despite large variations in the chromaticity of the illumination—colour constancy. Hering suggested that memory colours, the typical colours of objects, could help in estimating the illuminant's colour and therefore be an important factor in establishing colour constancy. Here we test whether the presence of objects with diagnostical colours (fruits, vegetables, etc) within a scene influence colour constancy for unknown coloured objects in...

  17. Exploration in quaternion colour

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Lilong

    2005-01-01

    Quaternions have been a subject for research in mathematics, physics, and engineering for decades. Using quaternions to represent colours, however, has recently been proposed and studied. Colour sensitive filtering can be achieved using a quaternion-valued filter. There are two colour edge detection methods defined on quaternions. One is based on the chromaticity cancellation that generates a grey colour for non-boundary regions; the other is based on estimation of homogeneity of regions. Tri...

  18. COLOUR DEVELOPMENT ON DRYING

    OpenAIRE

    Roger B Keey

    2005-01-01

    The drying of wet materials induces a number of physico-chemical changes in the product, often reflected in colour. For dried products sold on appearance, like certain grades of wood, the extent of colour development is highly significant in terms of the material’s end-use. Until recently, colour was normally assessed by eye, but the availability of convenient spectrophotometers has provided industrial users with a means of quantitative description of colour. Examples from wood technolo...

  19. Rethinking Colour Constancy

    OpenAIRE

    Logvinenko, Alexander D.; Brian Funt; Hamidreza Mirzaei; Rumi Tokunaga

    2015-01-01

    Colour constancy needs to be reconsidered in light of the limits imposed by metamer mismatching. Metamer mismatching refers to the fact that two objects reflecting metameric light under one illumination may reflect non-metameric light under a second; so two objects appearing as having the same colour under one illuminant can appear as having different colours under a second. Yet since Helmholtz, object colour has generally been believed to remain relatively constant. The deviations from colou...

  20. Immediate colour constancy

    OpenAIRE

    Foster DH, Craven BJ, Sale ERH

    1992-01-01

    Colour constancy is traditionally interpreted as the stable appearance of the colour of a surface despite changes in the spectral composition of the illumination. When colour constancy has been assessed quantitatively, however, by observers making matches between surfaces illuminated by different sources, its completeness has been found to be poor. An alternative operational approach to colour constancy may be taken which concentrates instead on detecting the underlying chromatic relationship...

  1. Separation and simultaneous determination of four artificial sweeteners in food and beverages by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Guo, Yingying; Ye, Mingli; James, Frits S

    2005-08-26

    In this paper, the separation and determination of four artificial sweeteners (aspartame, sodium cyclamate, acesulfame-K and sodium saccharin) by ion chromatography coupled with suppressed conductivity detector is reported. The four artificial sweeteners were separated using KOH eluent generator. Due to the use of eluent generator, very low conductance background conductivity can be obtained and sensitivity of sweeteners has been greatly improved. Under the experimental condition, several inorganic anions, such as F-, Cl-, NO3-, NO2-, Br-, SO4(2)-, PO4(3)- and some organic acid such as formate, acetate, benzoate, and citrate did not interfere with the determination. With this method, good linear relationship, sensitivity and reproducibility were obtained. Detection limits of aspartame, sodium cyclamate, acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin were 0.87, 0.032, 0.019, 0.045 mg/L, respectively. Rate of recovery were between 98.23 and 105.42%, 99.48 and 103.57%, 97.96 and 103.23%, 98.46 and 102.40%, respectively. The method has successfully applied to the determination of the four sweeteners in drinks and preserved fruits. PMID:16106861

  2. Is colour cognitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupski, Peter; Chittka, Lars

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, colour-vision abilities have been rather generously ascribed to various invertebrates and even bacteria. This uncertainty of when to diagnose colour vision stems in part from confusing what colour vision can do with what it is. What colour vision can do is discriminate wavelength independent of intensity. However, if we take this as a definition of what colour vision is, then we might be obliged to conclude that some plants and bacteria have colour vision. Moreover, there is a similar confusion of what are necessary and what are sufficient mechanisms and behavioural abilities for colour vision. To humans, seeing in colour means seeing an image in which objects/lights have chromatic attributes—in contrast to the sensation that we have when viewing monochrome movies, or our experience in dim light when only rod vision is possible. The necessary basic equipment for this is to have at least two types of photoreceptors that differ in spectral sensitivity, and at least one type of spectrally opponent cell to compare the signals from the photoreceptors. Clearly, however, a necessary additional prerequisite for colour vision is to have vision, which entails the identification of shapes, sizes and locations of objects in the world. Thus, if an animal has colour vision, it should see an image in which distinct objects/lights have colour attributes. This distinguishes colour vision from wavelength discrimination, but also from what has historically been called wavelength-specific behaviour: a type of behaviour triggered by fixed configurations of spectral receptor signals; however, we discuss difficulties in diagnosing wavelength-specific behaviour as an indicator of the absence of colour vision. Finally, we discuss whether colour vision, by definition, contains a cognitive dimension for ordering and classifying perceptual experience.

  3. Testosterone-Induced Expression of Male Colour Morphs in Females of the Polymorphic Tawny Dragon Lizard, Ctenophorus decresii

    OpenAIRE

    Rankin, Katrina; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2015-01-01

    Many colour polymorphisms are present only in one sex, usually males, but proximate mechanisms controlling the expression of sex-limited colour polymorphisms have received little attention. Here, we test the hypothesis that artificial elevation of testosterone in females of the colour polymorphic tawny dragon lizard, Ctenophorus decresii, can induce them to express the same colour morphs, in similar frequencies, to those found in males. Male C. decresii, express four discrete throat colour mo...

  4. A decade of assessment of the natural and artificial radioactivity in feedstuff and food commodities imported and exported by Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Natural and artificial radionuclides in feedstuff with concentration levels surpassing the brazilian (CNEN-NN 3.05, January 2005) and international (IAEA 115 Safety Series, 1996 and Codex Alimentarius, 2006) limits are harmless to the human health and an effective control is needed in order to only allow consumption of products presenting radiation levels below limits. Since 1988, after the Chernobyl accident, the Environmental Radiometric Laboratory at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares), performs, on a regular basis, analysis of potassium-40, cesium-134 and cesium-137 concentrations in feedstuff and food commodities imported and exported by Brazil. The present work covers mostly a decade of results, from 1996 to 2007, assessed from the measurements of almost 2600 samples. The imported Belgium and the exported ones are originated from 14 Brazilian States and 111 regions. Nearly 90 different kinds of feedstuff and food commodities were measured, including condensed milk, milk powder, soy beans, sugar, raw coffee beans, etc. All samples were analyzed by high resolution gamma-spectrometry and the results, compared with brazilian and international limits, released as a technical report. The radioactivity present in all analyzed products was within the international limits, allowing to conclude that consumption of such goods offers no health risk derived from radiation. Potential relationships between the type and the origin of the products exported and imported by Brazil and the radionuclides concentrations are also approached. Finally, all results will contribute to the establishment of a radiometric database for the radionuclides concentrations in the feedstuff and food commodities produced in Brazil. (author)

  5. Validation of a colour rendering index based on memory colours

    OpenAIRE

    Smet, Kevin; Jost-Boissard, Sophie; Ryckaert, Wouter; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the performance of a colour rendering index based on memory colours is investigated in comparison with the current CIE Colour Rendering Index, the NIST Colour Quality Scale and visual appreciation results obtained at CNRS at Lyon University for a set of 3000K and 4000K LED light sources. The Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients between each colour rendering metric and the two sets of visual results were calculated. It was found that the memory colour based colour render...

  6. Red trap colour of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function

    OpenAIRE

    Foot, G.; RICE S.p.; Millett, J.

    2014-01-01

    The traps of many carnivorous plants are red in colour. This has been widely hypothesized to serve a prey attraction function; colour has also been hypothesized to function as camouflage, preventing prey avoidance. We tested these two hypotheses in situ for the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia. We conducted three separate studies: (i) prey attraction to artificial traps to isolate the influence of colour; (ii) prey attraction to artificial traps on artificial backgrounds to control the ...

  7. Colour constancy in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, Lars; Faruq, Samia; Skorupski, Peter; Werner, Annette

    2014-06-01

    Colour constancy is the perceptual phenomenon that the colour of an object appears largely unchanged, even if the spectral composition of the illuminating light changes. Colour constancy has been found in all insect species so far tested. Especially the pollinating insects offer a remarkable opportunity to study the ecological significance of colour constancy since they spend much of their adult lives identifying and choosing between colour targets (flowers) under continuously changing ambient lighting conditions. In bees, whose colour vision is best studied among the insects, the compensation provided by colour constancy is only partial and its efficiency depends on the area of colour space. There is no evidence for complete 'discounting' of the illuminant in bees, and the spectral composition of the light can itself be used as adaptive information. In patchy illumination, bees adjust their spatial foraging to minimise transitions between variously illuminated zones. Modelling allows the quantification of the adaptive benefits of various colour constancy mechanisms in the economy of nature. We also discuss the neural mechanisms and cognitive operations that might underpin colour constancy in insects. PMID:24647930

  8. Topographical coloured plasmonic coins

    CERN Document Server

    Guay, Jean-Michel; Côté, Guillaume; Charron, Martin; Ramunno, Lora; Berini, Pierre; Weck, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    The use of metal nanostructures for colourization has attracted a great deal of interest with the recent developments in plasmonics. However, the current top-down colourization methods based on plasmonic concepts are tedious and time consuming, and thus unviable for large-scale industrial applications. Here we show a bottom-up approach where, upon picosecond laser exposure, a full colour palette independent of viewing angle can be created on noble metals. We show that colours are related to a single laser processing parameter, the total accumulated fluence, which makes this process suitable for high throughput industrial applications. Statistical image analyses of the laser irradiated surfaces reveal various distributions of nanoparticle sizes which control colour. Quantitative comparisons between experiments and large-scale finite-difference time-domain computations, demonstrate that colours are produced by selective absorption phenomena in heterogeneous nanoclusters. Plasmonic cluster resonances are thus fo...

  9. Four issues concerning colour constancy and relational colour constancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster, DH; Nascimento, SMC; Craven, BJ; Linnell, KJ; Cornelissen, FW; Brenner, E

    1997-01-01

    Four issues concerning colour constance and relational colour constancy are briefly considered: (I) the equivalence of colour constancy and relational colour constancy; (2) the dependence of relational colour constancy on ratios of cone excitations due to light from different reflecting surfaces, an

  10. Segmenting memory colours

    OpenAIRE

    Fredembach, Clément; Estrada, Francisco; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Memory colours refer to the colour of specific image classes that have the essential attribute of being perceived in a consistent manner by human observers. In colour correction or rendering tasks, this consistency implies that they have to be faithfully reproduced; their importance, in that respect, is greater than other regions in an image. Before these regions can be properly addressed, one must in general detect them. There are various schemes and attributes to do so, but the preferred me...

  11. Colour Texture analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Paul F.; Ghita, O.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents a novel and generic framework for image segmentation using a compound image descriptor that encompasses both colour and texture information in an adaptive fashion. The developed image segmentation method extracts the texture information using low-level image descriptors (such as the Local Binary Patterns (LBP)) and colour information by using colour space partitioning. The main advantage of this approach is the analysis of the textured images at a micro-level using the l...

  12. Robert Grosseteste's colours

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Here I am proposing a translation and discussion of the De Colore, one of the short scientific treatises written by Robert Grosseteste. In this very short treatise of the mid-1220s, Grosseteste continued the discussion on light and colours he started in the De Iride. He describes two manners of counting colours: one gives an infinity of tones, the other counts seven colours. In both cases, colours are created by the purity or impurity of the transparent medium when light is passing through it. This medieval framework survived until Newton's experiments with prisms.

  13. Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q C; Wang, J

    2001-12-01

    A novel ion chromatographic method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K), preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid), caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. The separation was performed on an anion-exchange analytical column operated at 40 degrees C within 45 min by an isocratic elution with 5 mM aqueous NaH2PO4 (pH 8.20) solution containing 4% (v/v) acetonitrile as eluent, and the determination by wavelength-switching ultraviolet absorbance detection. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) for all analytes were below the sub-microg/ml level. Under the experimental conditions, several organic acids, including citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and ascorbic acid, did not interfere with the determination. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of various food and pharmaceutical preparations, and the average recoveries for real samples ranged from 85 to 104%. The levels of all analytes determined by this method were in good agreement with those obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The results also indicated that ion chromatography would be possibly a beneficial alternative to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation and determination of these compounds. PMID:11765085

  14. The colours of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Would you move into an office painted in a colour you hate? As we all know, taste in colour is individual. Thanks to the establishment of a new Painting Charter, conflicting opinions will be unified.   The four new paint colours established in the Painting Charter. There were many reasons behind the creation of the Painting Charter by the GS SEM Department. Unlike many companies, CERN has not until now regulated which colours can be used inside buildings. With many nationalities passing through CERN, tastes tend to differ: northern countries usually prefer colder colours, while southern countries seem to prefer warm colours. It’s not hard to imagine how quickly we could make a rainbow! In addition, whenever an office needs to be repainted, it can be difficult to find exactly the same colour. This results in entire walls being repainted, which increases the cost. If – by chance – the original colour is found, it could be out of stock. While ...

  15. Recolouring-resistant colourings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Rautenbach, D.

    2011-01-01

    graph, Discrete Appl. Math. 91 (1999) 127-141]. Given a graph and a colouring, a recolouring operation specifies a set of vertices of the graph on which the colouring can be changed. We consider two such operations: One which allows the recolouring of all vertices within some given distance of some...

  16. Graph Colouring Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husfeldt, Thore

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction to graph colouring algorithms. The focus is on vertex-colouring algorithms that work for general classes of graphs with worst-case performance guarantees in a sequential model of computation. The presentation aims to demonstrate the breadth of available...... techniques and is organized by algorithmic paradigm....

  17. Flower colour mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the floriculture trade there is always a demand for new ornamental varieties. Flower colour is one of the most important components. Induced somatic mutation techniques using ionizing radiation and other mutagens have successfully produced many promising varieties in different ornamental plants by bringing about genetic changes. Induced mutation is a chance process. It is not known what flower colour change is likely to occur after mutagen treatment. Attempts are being made to induce a direct mutation for the flower colour of ornamental plants. For a better understanding of the exact mechanisms involved in the origin and evolution of somatic flower colour mutations at the molecular level, much attention has been paid to comparative analyses of the original cultivars and their induced mutants. Efforts are being made to identify the flower pigments and to prepare a colour chart which will be helpful in inducing the desired novelties in ornamental plants using induced genetic manipulation. 8 refs, 3 figs

  18. Colours and their technical interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    KRIŠTÓF, David

    2008-01-01

    My bachelor work is focussed on an outline of colour perception both in man, and in information technology. The whole paper deals with colour management including an instruction how to ensure the truest colour reproduction between input and output device.

  19. Computational colour science using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Westland, Stephen; Cheung, Vien

    2012-01-01

    Computational Colour Science Using MATLAB 2nd Edition offers a practical, problem-based approach to colour physics. The book focuses on the key issues encountered in modern colour engineering, including efficient representation of colour information, Fourier analysis of reflectance spectra and advanced colorimetric computation. Emphasis is placed on the practical applications rather than the techniques themselves, with material structured around key topics. These topics include colour calibration of visual displays, computer recipe prediction and models for colour-appearance prediction. Each t

  20. MEAT CONTAINING PRODUCTS WITH BEETROOT COLOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Пасічний, В. М.; Тимошенко, І. В.; Дубковецький, І. В.

    2014-01-01

    In the presented work the attention is paid to the problem of removal, selection and production management of the red natural food colour, received on the basis of natural pigments of table beet for application in meat and meat containing products. It has been proved that it is possible to stabilize beetroot juice with mixture of food acid and salt for increasing of thermal resistance of pigments with the subsequent use in minced meat systems, active acidity of which approximates to neutral. ...

  1. Operation of a two-stage continuous fermentation process producing hydrogen and methane from artificial food wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Kohki; Mizuno, Shiho; Umeda, Yoshito; Sakka, Makiko [Toho Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan); Osaka, Noriko [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan); Sakka, Kazuo [Mie Univ. (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    An anaerobic two-stage continuous fermentation process with combined thermophilic hydrogenogenic and methanogenic stages (two-stage fermentation process) was applied to artificial food wastes on a laboratory scale. In this report, organic loading rate (OLR) conditions for hydrogen fermentation were optimized before operating the two-stage fermentation process. The OLR was set at 11.2, 24.3, 35.2, 45.6, 56.1, and 67.3 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} with a temperature of 60 C, pH5.5 and 5.0% total solids. As a result, approximately 1.8-2.0 mol-H{sub 2} mol-hexose{sup -1} was obtained at the OLR of 11.2-56.1 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1}. In contrast, it was inferred that the hydrogen yield at the OLR of 67.3 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} decreased because of an increase in lactate concentration in the culture medium. The performance of the two-stage fermentation process was also evaluated over three months. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) of methane fermentation was able to be shortened 5.0 days (under OLR 12.4 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} conditions) when the OLR of hydrogen fermentation was 44.0 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1}, and the average gasification efficiency of the two-stage fermentation process was 81% at the time. (orig.)

  2. Plasmonic colour laser printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil;

    2016-01-01

    -beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation...... that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different colour appearances can be created. Using this technique we can print all primary colours...

  3. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment, and not...

  4. Red trap colour of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, G; Rice, S P; Millett, J

    2014-01-01

    The traps of many carnivorous plants are red in colour. This has been widely hypothesized to serve a prey attraction function; colour has also been hypothesized to function as camouflage, preventing prey avoidance. We tested these two hypotheses in situ for the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia. We conducted three separate studies: (i) prey attraction to artificial traps to isolate the influence of colour; (ii) prey attraction to artificial traps on artificial backgrounds to control the degree of contrast and (iii) observation of prey capture by D. rotundifolia to determine the effects of colour on prey capture. Prey were not attracted to green traps and were deterred from red traps. There was no evidence that camouflaged traps caught more prey. For D. rotundifolia, there was a relationship between trap colour and prey capture. However, trap colour may be confounded with other leaf traits. Thus, we conclude that for D. rotundifolia, red trap colour does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function. PMID:24740904

  5. Colour Appearance Modelling for Self-luminous Colours

    OpenAIRE

    Withouck, Martijn; Ryckaert, Wouter; Smet, Kevin; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    An experimental setup and procedure for the evaluation of self- luminous colours viewed against both dark and luminous backgrounds is presented. Physical and visual data of self-luminous colours is gathered in order to develop a Colour Appearance Model for self-luminous colours under different viewing conditions. This model is needed for the evaluation of light sources.

  6. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, David H; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue...... weaknesses, perhaps the greatest being that in conventional systems, the velocities measured and thus displayed are the components of the flow velocity directly towards or away from the transducer, while ideally the method would give information about the magnitude and direction of the three-dimensional flow...... vectors. This review briefly introduces the principles behind colour Doppler imaging and describes some clinical applications. It then describes the basic components of conventional colour Doppler systems and the methods used to derive velocity information from the ultrasound signal. Next, a number of new...

  7. Colour Rendering Index and colour rendering of LEDs

    OpenAIRE

    Dangol, Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand CIE (Commission Internationale del Eclairage) Colour Rendering Index (CRI) and its deficiencies. Another aim was to find out limitation of CIE CRI for LEDs. Finally, current works on colour rendering of LEDs was examined in the study. CIE (Commission Internationale del Eclairage) Colour Rendering Index (CRI) is the only internationally recognized colour rendering metric. This metric expresses the colour rendering properties of light sources bas...

  8. Shape from shading, colour constancy, and deutan colour vision deficiencies

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsson, Torbjörn

    1996-01-01

    Four studies including ten experiments adresses interrelations between some major and classical issues in visual perception: 3-D perception, colour constancy, colour perception and colour vision deficiencies. The main experimental paradigm to investigate the issues is within that of simulated shape from shading. 3-D impressions are induced by projecting space-modulated illuminations onto flat surfaces (displays), varying the colours and layout of the displays and the colour and modulation of ...

  9. Plasmonic colour laser printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Colour generation by plasmonic nanostructures and metasurfaces has several advantages over dye technology: reduced pixel area, sub-wavelength resolution and the production of bright and non-fading colours. However, plasmonic colour patterns need to be pre-designed and printed either by e-beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different colour appearances can be created. Using this technique we can print all primary colours with a speed of 1 ns per pixel, resolution up to 127,000 dots per inch (DPI) and power consumption down to 0.3 nJ per pixel.

  10. Measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides in food samples and water for human consumption in Austria for the calculation of the ingestion dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new report on food habits of the Austrian population in the year 2006/2007 was released in 2008. Mixed diets and foodstuffs are measured within a monitoring program according to the Austrian radiation protection law, food law, and the Commission Recommendation 2000/473/Euratom on the application of Article 36 of the Euratom Treaty concerning the monitoring of the levels of radioactivity in the environment for the purpose of assessing the exposure of the population as a whole. In addition, drinking and mineral water samples are measured for natural and artificial radionuclides. The ingestion dose for the Austrian population is recalculated based on the results of these measurements, literature data, and the data of the new report on food habits. In general, the major part of the ingestion dose is caused by natural radionuclides, especially 40K. (author)

  11. About Coloured Cold Asphaltic Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Judele

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first coloured bitumen was obtained by using bitumen from Peru and then bitumen from the Middle East, with a low content of asphaltenes, also called "colourable" bitumens. The colours obtained by adding iron oxides led nevertheless to dark colours, due to the presence of asphaltenes. Nowadays the coloured asphalt is obtained from synthesis binders with translucent aspect. The colours are obtained by adding inorganic pigments, mainly iron oxide for red, chromic oxide for green, titanic dioxide for white. The properties and behaviour of the coloured bitumen during its lifetime are comparable with the ones of classic bitumen, sometimes even better.

  12. Food safety concerns of fast food consumers in urban Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omari, Rose; Frempong, Godfred

    2016-03-01

    In Ghana, out-of-home ready-to-eat foods including fast food generally have been associated with food safety problems. Notwithstanding, fast food production and consumption are increasing in Ghana and therefore this study sought to determine the food safety issues of importance to consumers and the extent to which they worry about them. First, through three focus group discussions on consumers' personal opinions about food safety issues, some emergent themes were obtained, which were used to construct an open-ended questionnaire administered face-to-face to 425 respondents systematically sampled from 20 fast food restaurants in Accra. Findings showed that most fast food consumers were concerned about food hazards such as pesticide residue in vegetables, excessive use of artificial flavour enhancers and colouring substances, bacterial contamination, migrated harmful substances from plastic packages, and general unhygienic conditions under which food is prepared and sold. Consumers also raised concerns about foodborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, food poisoning, diarrhoea, bird flu and swine flu. The logistic regression model showed that being male increased the likelihood of worrying about general food safety issues and excessive use of flavour enhancers than in females while being youthful increased the likelihood of being worried about typhoid fever than in older consumers. These findings imply that consumers in urban Ghana are aware and concerned about current trends of food safety and foodborne disease challenges in the country. Therefore, efforts targeted at improving food safety and reducing incidences of foodborne diseases should not only focus on public awareness creation but should also design more comprehensive programmes to ensure the making of food safety rules and guidelines and enforcing compliance to facilitate availability and consumers' choice of safe foods. PMID:26686975

  13. Artificial noses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitzel, Shannon E; Aernecke, Matthew J; Walt, David R

    2011-08-15

    The mammalian olfactory system is able to detect many more odorants than the number of receptors it has by utilizing cross-reactive odorant receptors that generate unique response patterns for each odorant. Mimicking the mammalian system, artificial noses combine cross-reactive sensor arrays with pattern recognition algorithms to create robust odor-discrimination systems. The first artificial nose reported in 1982 utilized a tin-oxide sensor array. Since then, however, a wide range of sensor technologies have been developed and commercialized. This review highlights the most commonly employed sensor types in artificial noses: electrical, gravimetric, and optical sensors. The applications of nose systems are also reviewed, covering areas such as food and beverage quality control, chemical warfare agent detection, and medical diagnostics. A brief discussion of future trends for the technology is also provided. PMID:21417721

  14. Measurement scale for colour perception

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The colour, with the particularity to be defined simultaneously as a physical quantity and as a psychophysical quantity, is one of the concepts that can link hard sciences and behavioural sciences. From the viewpoint of behavioural sciences colours are basically measured with nominal scales, and in hard science colours are measured with interval scales. Our hypothesis is that the main relation that must be preserved during colour measurement is a metric. We suggest then that colours must be m...

  15. Colour correction for panoramic imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Gui Yun; Gledhill, Duke; Taylor, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the problem of colour distortion in panoramic imaging. Particularly when image mosaicing is used for panoramic imaging, the images are captured under different lighting conditions and viewpoints. The paper analyses several linear approaches for their colour transform and mapping. A new approach of colour histogram based colour correction is provided, which is robust to image capturing conditions such as viewpoints and scaling. The procedure for the colour correction is intr...

  16. Neural correlates of colour categories

    OpenAIRE

    Fonteneau, Elisabeth; Davidoff, Jules B.

    2007-01-01

    This study used an electrophysiological marker of visual detection to investigate adults' processing of colour difference. Event-related potentials were collected from the identical colour (green: G0) presented as the frequent or infrequent stimulus within different colour contexts. Critically, we compared differences within the same colour category (G0 vs. green: G1) to differences between colour categories (G0 vs. blue and G0 vs. red). All differences showed a change-related positivity with...

  17. Activity patterns during food provisioning are affected by artificial light in free living great tits (Parus major.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Titulaer

    Full Text Available Artificial light may have severe ecological consequences but there is limited experimental work to assess these consequences. We carried out an experimental study on a wild population of great tits (Parus major to assess the impact of light pollution on daily activity patterns during the chick provisioning period. Pairs that were provided with a small light outside their nest box did not alter the onset, cessation or duration of their working day. There was however a clear effect of artificial light on the feeding rate in the second half of the nestling period: when provided with artificial light females increased their feeding rate when the nestlings were between 9 and 16 days old. Artificial light is hypothesised to have affected the perceived photoperiod of either the parents or the offspring which in turn led to increased parental care. This may have negative fitness consequences for the parents, and light pollution may thus create an ecological trap for breeding birds.

  18. Background complexity affects colour preference in bumblebees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Jessica; Thomson, James D.

    2009-08-01

    Flowers adapted for hummingbird pollination are typically red. This correlation is usually explained by the assertion that nectar- or pollen-stealing bees are “blind” to red flowers. However, laboratory studies have shown that bees are capable of locating artificial red flowers and often show no innate preference for blue over red. We hypothesised that these findings might be artefacts of the simplified laboratory environment. Using bumblebees ( Bombus impatiens) that had been trained to visit red and blue artificial flowers, we tested whether colour preference was influenced by complexity of the background on which they were foraging. Many bees were indifferent to flower colour when tested using a uniform green background like those commonly used in laboratory studies, but all bees showed strong colour preferences (usually for blue) when flowers were presented against a photograph of real foliage. Overall, preference for blue flowers was significantly greater on the more realistic, complex background. These results support the notion that the red of “hummingbird syndrome” flowers can function to reduce bee visits despite the ability of bees to detect red and highlight the need to consider context when drawing inferences about pollinator preferences from laboratory data.

  19. VARIOUS COLOUR SPACES AND COLOUR SPACE CONVERSION

    OpenAIRE

    Nishad PM

    2013-01-01

    A color model is an abstract mathematical model describing the way colors can be represented as tuples of numbers, typically as three or four values or color components (e.g. RGB and CMYK are color models). However, a color model with no associated mapping function to an absolute color space is a more or less arbitrary color system with no connection to any globally understood system of color interpretation. This paper mainly discusses about various colour spaces and the how they organized an...

  20. Colour in flux: describing and printing colour in art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna

    2008-01-01

    This presentation will describe artists, practitioners and scientists, who were interested in developing a deeper psychological, emotional and practical understanding of the human visual system who were working with wavelength, paint and other materials. From a selection of prints at The Prints and Drawings Department at Tate London, the presentation will refer to artists who were motivated by issues relating to how colour pigment was mixed and printed, to interrogate and explain colour perception and colour science, and in art, how artists have used colour to challenge the viewer and how a viewer might describe their experience of colour. The title Colour in Flux refers, not only to the perceptual effect of the juxtaposition of one colour pigment with another, but also to the changes and challenges for the print industry. In the light of screenprinted examples from the 60s and 70s, the presentation will discuss 21 st century ideas on colour and how these notions have informed the Centre for Fine Print Research's (CFPR) practical research in colour printing. The latter part of this presentation will discuss the implications for the need to change methods in mixing inks that moves away from existing colour spaces, from non intuitive colour mixing to bespoke ink sets, colour mixing approaches and colour mixing methods that are not reliant on RGB or CMYK.

  1. Coloured phase singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For illumination with white light, the spectra near a typical isolated phase singularity (nodal point of the component wavelengths) can be described by a universal function of position, up to linear distortion and a weak dependence on the spectrum of the source. The appearance of the singularity when viewed by a human observer is predicted by transforming the spectrum to trichromatic variables and chromaticity coordinates, and then rendering the colours, scaled to constant luminosity, on a computer monitor. The pattern far from the singularity is a white that depends on the source temperature, and the centre of the pattern is flanked by intensely coloured 'eyes', one orange and one blue, separated by red, and one of the eyes is surrounded by a bright white circle. Only a small range of possible colours appears near the singularity; in particular, there is no green. (author)

  2. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets) can be used for several fundamentally different purposes like functional analysis, performance analysis, and visualisation. To be able to use the corresponding tool extensions and libraries it is sometimes necessary to include extra auxiliary information in the CP......-net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different...... uses of the same basic CP-net. One solution to this problem is that the auxiliary information is not integrated into colour sets and arc inscriptions of a CP-net, but is kept separately. This makes it easy to disable this auxiliary information if a CP-net is to be used for another purpose. This paper...

  3. Digital Colour in Graphic Design

    CERN Document Server

    Pender, Ken

    1998-01-01

    Complete, practical guide to handling colour graphics on the desktop for Mac and PC - from the scanning, creation and manipulation of images to processing for different colour output devices. Keep this handy book on your desk to help you achieve more professional-looking results in colour for a wide variety of tasks.An accompanying CD-ROM allows you to view practical examples of colour techniques in graphic design on the screen, demonstrating the techniques described in the book.The underlying principles of digital colour are explained in detail:? colour models? ways in which scanners, monitor

  4. The Colour of Quarks

    OpenAIRE

    Lavelle, Martin; McMullan, David

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that colour can only be defined on gauge invariant states. Since the ability to associate colour with constituent quarks is an integral part of the constituent quark model, this means that, if we want to extract constituent quarks from QCD, we need to dress Lagrangian quarks with gluons so that the result is gauge invariant. We further prove that gauge fixings can be used to construct such dressings. Gauge invariant dressed quark states are presented and a direct approach to the i...

  5. Flower Colour: How Bumblebees Handle Colours with Perceptually Changing Hues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Klaus

    2016-03-21

    Colours are floral signals enabling bees to detect, inspect and discriminate flowers in a multitasking world. Behavioural tests now show that trained bumblebees find iridescent coloured targets more quickly and that weak iridescence does not corrupt target identification. PMID:27003883

  6. Novel colour constancy algorithms for digital colour imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Lilong

    2009-01-01

    Colour constancy algorithms differ in their derivation, implementation, performance and assumptions. The focus of the research presented in this thesis is to discover colour constancy solutions to recover surface colours, or equivalently, to estimate the illumination, of single light source in a given scene. Several colour constancy models will be proposed. These methods have different methodologies and constraints. For example, a method can be constrained on a particular model surface materi...

  7. Marine Communities of North Sea Offshore Platforms, and the Use of Stable Isotopes to Explore Artificial Reef Food Webs

    OpenAIRE

    Guerin, Andrew James

    2009-01-01

    Stable isotope methods offer a powerful means of investigating trophic interactions, allowing assessment of the relative importance of multiple nutrient sources to biological assemblages, as well as estimation of the trophic positions of consumers. Differences in the isotope ratios of consumers between habitats can thus indicate differences in the structures of food webs, or the contributions of different food sources to those food webs. Isotope methods were used to compare ...

  8. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  9. Fun with Colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Curriculum: Science for Year 5 includes "recognising that the colour of an object depends on the properties of the object and the color of the light source". This article shows how much more can be done with color in the science laboratory. Activities include using a prism to explore white light, using a hand lens to…

  10. Colour Reconnection at LEPII

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P

    2001-01-01

    The preliminary results on the search of colour reconnection effects (CR) from the four experiments at LEP, Aleph, Delphi, L3 and Opal, are reviewed. Extreme models are excluded by studies of standard variables, and on going studies of a method first suggested by L3, the particle flow method, are yet inconclusive.

  11. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    The author describes a Petri net model, called coloured Petri nets (CP-nets), by means of which it is possible to describe large systems without having to cope with unnecessary details. The author introduces CP-nets and provide a first impression of their modeling power and the suitability of their...

  12. Colour characteristics of fresh pork

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Gunilla

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present thesis was to obtain more fundamental understanding of the mechanisms for variations in colour and colour stability of fresh pork. The effects of breed and genotype, including Duroc, Hampshire (three RN alleles), Landrace and Yorkshire pigs, were studied. Furthermore, effects of strategic feeding with creatine, pre-slaughter treatment, slaughter procedure and carcass cooling on muscle metabolism and ultimate colour and colour stability were studied. It was conclud...

  13. Minimalist surface-colour matching

    OpenAIRE

    Amano, Kinjiro; Foster, David H.; Nascimento, Sérgio M. C.

    2005-01-01

    Some theories of surface-colour perception assume that observers estimate the illuminant on a scene so that its effects can be discounted. A critical test of this interpretation of colour constancy is whether surface-colour matching is worse when the number of surfaces in a scene is so small that any illuminant estimate is unreliable. In the experiment reported here, observers made asymmetric colour matches between pairs of simultaneously presented Mondrian-like patterns under different dayli...

  14. Hedgehogs are not colour blind

    OpenAIRE

    Conlon, David; Fox, Jacob; Rödl, Vojtěch

    2015-01-01

    We exhibit a family of $3$-uniform hypergraphs with the property that their $2$-colour Ramsey numbers grow polynomially in the number of vertices, while their $4$-colour Ramsey numbers grow exponentially. This is the first example of a class of hypergraphs whose Ramsey numbers show a strong dependence on the number of colours.

  15. Characterization and specifications of caramel colours: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, D V; Howell, J C

    1992-05-01

    An overview of the chemical characterization and specifications of the four classes of caramel colour, the historical development of the four classes, and the methods of manufacture is presented. The rationale for the approach used to characterize caramel colour and the derivation of the specifications are given. Results of the characterization programme and the derived specifications are presented in subsequent papers in this issue of Food and Chemical Toxicology. PMID:1644376

  16. Specifying colour and maintaining colour accuracy for 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna; Walters, Peter; Reid, Brendan; Huson, David

    2008-02-01

    Advances in rapid prototyping technologies have led to the emergence of three-dimensional printers which can fabricate physical artefacts, including the application of surface colours. In light of these developments, this paper asserts that the need to print colour accurately is just as important for designers using three-dimensional colour printing as it is for two-dimensional inkjet printing. Parallels can be made with two-dimensional digital Inkjet printing and 2D common problems include: on screen previsualisation, colour management methods, colour gamut and maintaining colour accuracy. However, for three dimensional colour printed objects, there are more variables that will affect the finished colour. These are: the powder and process inks, unevenness of the surface, wax post-processing and other infiltration media and procedures. Furthermore, in some 3D printers, the K channel is replaced by the binder and so the printer is only using the cyan, magenta and yellow channels. The paper will suggest methods for improving pre-visualisation and accurate pre-viewing of the colours through the manufacture of three-dimensional colour charts as a reference guide for designers so that they can make accurate coloured artefacts. A series of case studies will be demonstrated.

  17. Exposure assessment of synthetic colours approved in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, M-S; Ha, S-D; Choi, S-H; Bae, D-H

    2013-01-01

    The dietary intakes of nine synthetic food colours--amaranth, erythrosine, Allura Red, Ponceau 4R, tartrazine, Sunset Yellow FCF, Fast Green FCF, Brilliant Blue FCF and indigo carmine--permitted in Korea were estimated based on food consumption data for consumers and their concentrations in processed foods. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) by Korean consumers were compared with the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) of the colours. Among 704 foods sampled, 471 contained synthetic colours. The most highly consumed synthetic colours were Allura Red and tartrazine; the highest EDI/ADI ratios were found for amaranth, erythrosine and Allura Red. The EDIs of infants and children were higher than those of adults. The main food categories containing colours were beverages and liquor for adults, and beverages, chocolate and ice cream for infants and children. For average Korean consumers, the EDIs were not greater than 2.5% of their corresponding ADIs, although the EDI of a conservative consumer in the upper 95th percentile reached 37% of the ADI. PMID:23521141

  18. A generic framework for colour texture segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Nammalwar, Padmapriya

    2004-01-01

    This thesis proposes a novel method to combine the colour and the texture for colour texture segmentation. The objective of this research work is to derive a framework for colour texture segmentation and to determine the contribution of colour in colour texture analysis. The colour texture processing is based on the feature extraction from colour-textured images. The texture features were obtained from the luminance plane along with the colour features from the chrominance planes. Based on th...

  19. Light and colours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Often a dichotomy between daylight and artificial light is observed, often artificial lighting replaces daylight. In Denmark daylight is characterized partly by being "borrowed" half of the year, partly by having long transitions periods between the light and the dark (nautical and civil twilight......). For these reasons artificial lighting does not complement daylight but provides, coupled with the daylight, the total lighting in the indoor environment. Electric lighting is therefore ‐ in a complex interaction with the daylight ‐ of great importance for both our lighting and our wellbeing. Studying artificial...... lighting without studying daylight seem to be a common procedure of the practice of today in Denmark and other parts of the industrialized world. As a consequence of this artificial lighting suffers from a quantifying tyranny, a tyranny where the quality of light is measured in quantities. This procedure...

  20. Colour vision in marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Justin; Carleton, Karen L; Cronin, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Colour vision in the marine environment is on average simpler than in terrestrial environments with simple or no colour vision through monochromacy or dichromacy. Monochromacy is found in marine mammals and elasmobranchs, including whales and sharks, but not some rays. Conversely, there is also a greater diversity of colour vision in the ocean than on land, examples being the polyspectral stomatopods and the many colour vision solutions found among reef fish. Recent advances in sequencing reveal more opsin (visual pigment) types than functionally useful at any one time. This diversity arises through opsin duplication and conversion. Such mechanisms allow pick-and-mix adaptation that tunes colour vision on a variety of very short non-evolutionary timescales. At least some of the diversity in marine colour vision is best explained as unconventional colour vision or as neutral drift. PMID:25725325

  1. New model for colour kinetics of plum under infrared vacuum condition and microwave drying

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Amiri Chayjan; Behnam Alaei

    2016-01-01

    Background. Quality of dried foods is affected by the drying method and physiochemical changes in tissue. The drying method affects properties such as colour. The colour of processed food is one of the most impor- tant quality indices and plays a determinant role in consumer acceptability of food materials and the process- ing method. The colour of food materials can be used as an indirect factor to determine changes in quality, since it is simpler and faster than chemical methods...

  2. Colour, form in music

    OpenAIRE

    Trobec, Neža

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of expert literature the following B.A. thesis presents various aspects of the relation between the musical and visual language. In the theoretical part I discussed colours and sound, as well as how they influence our sensory perception. I analysed light values, presented music as an inspiration for creativity in the field of fine arts, explored the relations between these two fields of expression, looked at synesthesia and, as a curiosity, described the bouba/kiki effect. ...

  3. Colouring the Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Godsil, C. D.; Zaks, J.

    2012-01-01

    Let $G$ be the graph with the points of the unit sphere in $\\mathbb{R}^3$ as its vertices, by defining two unit vectors to be adjacent if they are orthogonal as vectors. We present a proof, based on work of Hales and Straus chromatic number of this graph is four. We also prove that the subgraph of G induced by the unit vectors with rational coordinates is 3-colourable.

  4. Daylight Influence on Colour Design : Empirical Study on Perceived Colour and Colour Experience Indoors

    OpenAIRE

    Hårleman, Maud

    2007-01-01

    It is known that one and the same interior colouring will appear different in rooms with windows facing north or facing south, but it is not known how natural daylight from these two compass points affects perceived colour and the ways in which colour is experienced. The objective is to describe the perceived colours to be expected in rooms with sunlight and diffused light, and thus develop a tool for colour design. Two empirical investigations provide the basis for six attached papers. The m...

  5. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d') and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object's stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain. PMID:27023274

  6. Colour Reproduction on Tablet Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Zorić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of Internet and mobile devices client services and other print production are migrating more and more to online platforms. In a recent technology changeover it is obvious that there is growing number of printers as well need from the customers for the print service providers to expand their business to online and mobile platforms. With this technological transition there are some open questions regarding the possibilities of using the tablet devices for colour soft proofing and other colour related operations. As a display devices on a hardware level there are large similarities with the desktop display devices but the operating systems which are driving them are not yet colour smart. There have been some initial attempts to characterize the colour reproduction on this type of devices and find a possibility of using them not just for information content but also for colour managed content. In this study we have tested several tablets (Apple iPad2,Asus Transformer TF101, Samsung Galaxy Tab 1 with different display and OS technology and tested a software which is intended for colour managed viewing of the reproduction. We have measured the colour reproduction of the tablets with the digital version of the GretagMacbeth ColorChecker card and have calculated the colour differences between the colour chart data and the displayed data. We have calibrated the Ipad2 with the only existing colour management tool the Spyder Gallery and we have also tested the chart display with and without the colour correction of the software. We have found that there are differences in the colour reproduction of the display technologies and that the possibilities of a real colour managed workflow has yet to be resolved on the OS level of tablet and mobile devices

  7. Out of the Dark: Establishing a Large-Scale Field Experiment to Assess the Effects of Artificial Light at Night on Species and Food Webs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie I. J. Holzhauer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light at night (ALAN is one of the most obvious hallmarks of human presence in an ecosystem. The rapidly increasing use of artificial light has fundamentally transformed nightscapes throughout most of the globe, although little is known about how ALAN impacts the biodiversity and food webs of illuminated ecosystems. We developed a large-scale experimental infrastructure to study the effects of ALAN on a light-naïve, natural riparian (i.e., terrestrial-aquatic ecosystem. Twelve street lights (20 m apart arranged in three rows parallel to an agricultural drainage ditch were installed on each of two sites located in a grassland ecosystem in northern Germany. A range of biotic, abiotic, and photometric data are collected regularly to study the short- and long-term effects of ALAN on behavior, species interactions, physiology, and species composition of communities. Here we describe the infrastructure setup and data collection methods, and characterize the study area including photometric measurements. None of the measured parameters differed significantly between sites in the period before illumination. Results of one short-term experiment, carried out with one site illuminated and the other acting as a control, demonstrate the attraction of ALAN by the immense and immediate increase of insect catches at the lit street lights. The experimental setup provides a unique platform for carrying out interdisciplinary research on sustainable lighting.

  8. Colour detection thresholds in faces and colour patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok Wei; Stephen, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    Human facial skin colour reflects individuals' underlying health (Stephen et al 2011 Evolution & Human Behavior 32 216-227); and enhanced facial skin CIELab b* (yellowness), a* (redness), and L* (lightness) are perceived as healthy (also Stephen et al 2009a International Journal of Primatology 30 845-857). Here, we examine Malaysian Chinese participants' detection thresholds for CIELab L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) colour changes in Asian, African, and Caucasian faces and skin coloured patches. Twelve face photos and three skin coloured patches were transformed to produce four pairs of images of each individual face and colour patch with different amounts of red, yellow, or lightness, from very subtle (deltaE = 1.2) to quite large differences (deltaE = 9.6). Participants were asked to decide which of sequentially displayed, paired same-face images or colour patches were lighter, redder, or yellower. Changes in facial redness, followed by changes in yellowness, were more easily discriminated than changes in luminance. However, visual sensitivity was not greater for redness and yellowness in nonface stimuli, suggesting red facial skin colour special salience. Participants were also significantly better at recognizing colour differences in own-race (Asian) and Caucasian faces than in African faces, suggesting the existence of cross-race effect in discriminating facial colours. Humans' colour vision may have been selected for skin colour signalling (Changizi et al 2006 Biology Letters 2 217-221), enabling individuals to perceive subtle changes in skin colour, reflecting health and emotional status. PMID:24344549

  9. The Metric of Colour Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The space of colours is a fascinating space. It is a real vector space, but no matter what inner product you put on the space the resulting Euclidean distance does not correspond to human perception of difference between colours. In 1942 MacAdam performed the first experiments on colour matching...... and found the MacAdam ellipses which are often interpreted as defining the metric tensor at their centres. An important question is whether it is possible to define colour coordinates such that the Euclidean distance in these coordinates correspond to human perception. Using cubic splines to represent...... the colour coordinates and an optimisation approach we find new colour coordinates that make the MacAdam ellipses closer to uniform circles than the existing standards....

  10. Nonrepetitive Colouring via Entropy Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Dujmović, Vida; Wood, David R

    2011-01-01

    A vertex colouring of a graph is \\emph{nonrepetitive} if there is no path whose first half receives the same sequence of colours as the second half. A graph is nonrepetitively $k$-choosable if given lists of at least $k$ colours at each vertex, there is a nonrepetitive colouring such that each vertex is coloured from its own list. It is known that every graph with maximum degree $\\Delta$ is $c\\Delta^2$-choosable, for some constant $c$. We prove this result with $c=4$. We then prove that every subdivision of a graph with sufficiently many division vertices per edge is nonrepetitively 6-choosable. The proofs of both these results are based on the Moser-Tardos entropy-compression method, and a recent extension by Grytczuk, Kozik and Micek for the nonrepetitive choosability of paths. Finally, we prove that every graph with pathwidth $k$ is nonrepetitively ($2k^2+6k+1$)-colourable.

  11. Bees' subtle colour preferences: how bees respond to small changes in pigment concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papiorek, Sarah; Rohde, Katja; Lunau, Klaus

    2013-07-01

    Variability in flower colour of animal-pollinated plants is common and caused, inter alia, by inter-individual differences in pigment concentrations. If and how pollinators, especially bees, respond to these small differences in pigment concentration is not known, but it is likely that flower colour variability impacts the choice behaviour of all flower visitors that exhibit innate and learned colour preferences. In behavioural experiments, we simulated varying pigment concentrations and studied its impact on the colour choices of bumblebees and honeybees. Individual bees were trained to artificial flowers having a specific concentration of a pigment, i.e. Acridine Orange or Aniline Blue, and then given the simultaneous choice between three test colours including the training colour, one colour of lower and one colour of higher pigment concentration. For each pigment, two set-ups were provided, covering the range of low to middle and the range of middle to high pigment concentrations. Despite the small bee-subjective perceptual contrasts between the tested stimuli and regardless of training towards medium concentrations, bees preferred neither the training stimuli nor the stimuli offering the highest pigment concentration but more often chose those stimuli offering the highest spectral purity and the highest chromatic contrast against the background. Overall, this study suggests that bees choose an intermediate pigment concentration due to its optimal conspicuousness. It is concluded that the spontaneous preferences of bees for flower colours of high spectral purity might exert selective pressure on the evolution of floral colours and of flower pigmentation.

  12. Theory of colours

    CERN Document Server

    Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

    2006-01-01

    The wavelength theory of light and color had been firmly established by the time the great German poet published his Theory of Colours in 1810. Nevertheless, Goethe believed that the theory derived from a fundamental error, in which an incidental result was mistaken for a elemental principle. Far from affecting a knowledge of physics, he maintained that such a background would inhibit understanding. The conclusions Goethe draws here rest entirely upon his personal observations.This volume does not have to be studied to be appreciated. The author's subjective theory of colors permits him to spe

  13. Apriority and Colour Inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Reining, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    [eng] My central aim in this dissertation is to propose a new version of local scepticism regarding the a priori, namely, a version of scepticism regarding the apriority of (knowledge of) truths about certain relations between colours. The kind of relation in question is, for instance, expressed by sentences like ‘All ultramarine things are blue’ and ‘Nothing is both red all over and green all over’ – sentences that have, among defenders of the a priori, commonly been regarded as expressing p...

  14. English Colour Terms in Context

    OpenAIRE

    Steinvall, Anders

    2002-01-01

    This thesis examines usage of English colour terms in context, based on an extensive computerised text corpus, the Bank of English. It describes the ways in which English colour terms may be used to refer to nuances outside their normal area of designation and to attributes outside the colour domain. Usage patterns are analysed on three different levels: with regard to the overall frequency of occurrences, nominal domains and individual tokens, respectively. Cognitive linguistics supplies the...

  15. Artificial trans fat in popular foods in 2012 and in 2014: a market basket investigation in six European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    Objective To minimise the intake of industrially produced trans fat (I-TF) and thereby decrease the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), nearly all European countries rely on food producers to voluntarily reduce the I-TF content in food. The objective of this study was to monitor the change in presence of I-TF in biscuits/cakes/wafers in six countries in South-eastern Europe from 2012 to 2014, including two members of the European Union (Slovenia and Croatia). Design Three large supermarkets were visited in each of the six capitals in 2012. Pre-packaged biscuits/cakes/wafers were bought if the products contained more than 15 g of total fat per 100 g of product and if partially hydrogenated oil or a similar term was disclosed at the beginning of the ingredients list. These same supermarkets were revisited in 2014 and the same collection procedure was followed. All foods were subsequently analysed for total fat and trans fat in the same laboratory. Results The number of packages bought in the six countries taken together was 266 in 2012 and 643 in 2014. Some were identical, and therefore only 226 were analysed in 2012 and 434 in 2014. Packages with less than 2% of fat from I-TF went up from 69 to 235, while products with more than 2% (illegal in Denmark) doubled from an average of 33 to an average of 68 products for the six countries, with considerable variation across countries. The per cent of I-TF in total fat decreased slightly, from a mean (SD) of 22 (13) in 2012 to 18 (9) in 2014. Conclusions The findings suggest that voluntary reduction of I-TF in foods with high amounts is an ineffective strategy in several European countries. Alternative strategies both within and outside the European Union are necessary to protect all subgroups of the populations against an increased risk of CHD. PMID:26975938

  16. Registered Designation of Origin Areas of Fermented Food Products Defined by Microbial Phenotypes and Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, M. F. S.; Pereira, C. I.; Rodrigues, F. M. S.; Martins, M. P.; Mimoso, M. C.; Barros, T. C.; Figueiredo Marques, J. J.; Tenreiro, R. P.; Almeida, J. S.; Barreto Crespo, M. T.

    1999-01-01

    Cheese produced from raw ewes’ milk and chouriço, a Portuguese dry fermented sausage, are still produced in a traditional way in certain regions of Portugal by relying on colonization by microbial populations associated with the raw materials, equipment, and local environments. For the purpose of describing the product origins and types of these fermented foods, metabolic phenotypes can be used as descriptors of the product as well as to determine the presence of compounds with organoleptic v...

  17. The colours of cloaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a survey of results from various research groups under the unifying viewpoint of transformational physics, which has been recently introduced for the design of metamaterials in optics and acoustics. We illustrate the versatility of underlying geometric transforms in order to bridge wave phenomena (the different 'colours' of waves) ranging from transverse electric waves, to linear surface water waves at an air–fluid interface, to pressure waves in fluids and out-of-plane shear waves in elastic media: these waves are all governed by a second order scalar partial differential equation (PDE) invariant under geometric transform. Moreover, flexural waves propagating in thin plates represent a very peculiar situation whereby the displacement field satisfies a fourth order scalar PDE which also retains its form under geometric transform (unlike for the Navier equation in elastodynamics). Control of flexural wave trajectories is illustrated with a multilayered cloak and a carpet. Interestingly, the colours of waves can be revealed through an analysis of the band spectra of invisibility cloaks. In the context of acoustics, this suggests one can hear the shape of a drum. Alternative avenues towards cloaking based upon anomalous resonances of a negatively refracting coating (which can be seen as the result of folding the space back onto itself), and even plasmonic shells reducing the scattering cross-section of nano-objects are also addressed. (review article)

  18. Children preferences of coloured fresh cheese prepared during an educational laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Tesini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Choices among young consumers are mainly driven by food preferences; in particular, a connection between appearance and acceptance of food has been highlighted, together with a general lack of knowledge of food processing. For these reasons, educational activities are important to increase scientific knowledge and awareness. The cheese-making educational laboratory described herein involved children, adolescents, and their parents/teachers in the preparation of fresh and naturally-coloured cheeses. At the end of the activity, both the colour preference and possible relation between preference and colour of cheese prepared were investigated administering a short questionnaire.

  19. Comparative analysis of methods for measurements of food intake and utilization using the soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens and artificial media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of intake and utilization of an artificial medium by larvae of the soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens Walker, Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, was performed using 4 methods: standard gravimetric, chromic oxide, Calco Oil Red, and 14C-glucose. Each method was used in conjunction with standard gravimetry. The relative merits of the indirect methods were analyzed in terms of precision and accuracy for ECI and ECD estimation, cost, and overall versatility. Only the gravimetric method combined ca. 80% precision in ECI and ECD estimation with low cost and maximum versatility. Calco Oil Red at 0.1% w/v was detrimental to the larvae. Cr2O3 caused reduced intake but conversion was increased resulting in normal development and growth of larvae. The radioisotopic method had the advantage of providing a direct means of measuring expired CO2. The need to operate under a totally enclosed system, however, poses some serious difficulties in the use of radioisotopes. There seems to be little advantage in any of the proposed indirect methods, except if there are unusual difficulties in separating the excreta from the medium. (orig.)

  20. The brightness of colour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Corney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The perception of brightness depends on spatial context: the same stimulus can appear light or dark depending on what surrounds it. A less well-known but equally important contextual phenomenon is that the colour of a stimulus can also alter its brightness. Specifically, stimuli that are more saturated (i.e. purer in colour appear brighter than stimuli that are less saturated at the same luminance. Similarly, stimuli that are red or blue appear brighter than equiluminant yellow and green stimuli. This non-linear relationship between stimulus intensity and brightness, called the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (HK effect, was first described in the nineteenth century but has never been explained. Here, we take advantage of the relative simplicity of this 'illusion' to explain it and contextual effects more generally, by using a simple Bayesian ideal observer model of the human visual ecology. We also use fMRI brain scans to identify the neural correlates of brightness without changing the spatial context of the stimulus, which has complicated the interpretation of related fMRI studies. RESULTS: Rather than modelling human vision directly, we use a Bayesian ideal observer to model human visual ecology. We show that the HK effect is a result of encoding the non-linear statistical relationship between retinal images and natural scenes that would have been experienced by the human visual system in the past. We further show that the complexity of this relationship is due to the response functions of the cone photoreceptors, which themselves are thought to represent an efficient solution to encoding the statistics of images. Finally, we show that the locus of the response to the relationship between images and scenes lies in the primary visual cortex (V1, if not earlier in the visual system, since the brightness of colours (as opposed to their luminance accords with activity in V1 as measured with fMRI. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that perceptions

  1. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to...

  2. Supervised Object Class Colour Normalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riabchenko, Ekatarina; Lankinen, Jukka; Buch, Anders Glent;

    2013-01-01

    Colour is an important cue in many applications of computer vision and image processing, but robust usage often requires estimation of the unknown illuminant colour. Usually, to obtain images invariant to the illumination conditions under which they were taken, color normalisation is used. In this...

  3. Complementary Colours for a Physicist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Vitomir; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple experiment which enables splitting incident light into two different modes, each having a colour exactly complementary to the other. A brief historical development of colour theories and differences in a physicist's point of view with respect to an artist's one is discussed. An experimental system for producing…

  4. Legal and Illegal Colours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian

    2008-01-01

    ://www.efsa.europa.eu/EFSA/efsa_locale-1178620753812_1178620765743.htm. Accessed 12.05.08.] and parabens [EFSA. (2004). Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC) related to para hydroxybenzoates (214e219). Opinion expressed on 13/07/2004. Available at http...

  5. Skin Colour Analysis of Iraqi Kurdish Population

    OpenAIRE

    Zardawi, Faraedon M; Xiao, Kaida; Yates, Julian M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Skin colour measurement and analysis was performed for Iraqi Kurdish population in sulaimani city. The purpose of this study was to produce a dedicated skin shade guide for precise colour reproduction and colour matching of maxillofacial prostheses with the patient’s original skin colour. Methodology: A skin colour measurement was undertaken for 140 subjects (73 female and 67 male). A method of capturing their (L* a* b*) colour values from nine body parts was pe...

  6. Chromagen lenses and abnormal colour perception

    OpenAIRE

    O. Matthew Oriowo; Abdullah Z. Alotaibi

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Chromagen lens system comprises of tinted spectacle or contact lenses, each with a specific colour wavelength filter which controls the spectra of the light entering the eye. This study investigated whether spectacle-mounted Chromagen lenses would enhance colour perception in individuals with abnormal colour vision.Methods: The Ishihara colour test was used to test for colour vision deficiency (CVD) and also to evaluate the effect of the Chromagen spectacle lens on colour perc...

  7. Producing colour pictures from SCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer code SCAN.TSK has been written for use on the Interdata 7/32 minicomputer which will convert the pictures produced by the SCAN program into colour pictures on a colour graphics VDU. These colour pictures are a more powerful aid to detecting errors in the MONK input data than the normal lineprinter pictures. This report is intended as a user manual for using the program on the Interdata 7/32, and describes the method used to produce the pictures and gives examples of JCL, input data and of the pictures that can be produced. (U.K.)

  8. Colour reconnection in WW events

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hondt, J

    2003-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for a measurement of the kappa parameter used in the JETSET SK-I model of colour reconnection in W /sup +/W/sup -/ to qq'qq' events at LEP2. An update on the investigation of colour reconnection effects in hadronic decays of W pairs, using the particle flow in DELPHI is presented. A second method is based on the observation that two different m/sub W/ estimators have different sensitivity to the parametrised colour reconnection effect. Hence the difference between them is an observable with information content about kappa. (6 refs).

  9. Colour and colour contrast of films based on vanadium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of studying thin vanadium oxide films having thermochromic effect are presented. For quantitative estimation of colour variation in vanadium-oxide layers at phase transformations, CTELAB equicontrast system is used. The films were applied by vacuum deposition of metallic vanadium and them were subject to controlled oxidation in oxygen. It is shown that it is possible to create dynamic standards of colour on the basis of vanadium oxides

  10. Effect of irradiation with microwaves on colour changes of maltodextrines with differential value of dextrose equivalent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Przetaczek-Rożnowska

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Maltodextrines are polysaccharides that are used as a food additive. They are produced from starch by hydrolysis. Microwave techniques are more often used in food industry. The aim of the paper was investigation of the influence of microwave radiation on maltodextrines colour, because colour is one of the most important of sensory features. The materials were commercial potato maltodextrines with different value of Dextrose Equivalent. The colour analyses were made by using spectrophotometer with four different illuminants like D65, A, F2 or F11, with specular excluded. Basing on the obtained results, it was concluded, that microwave radiation caused changing value of colour parameters of maltodextrines. The lightness of maltodextrines was lower after irradiation with microwaves but value of a* and b* parameters was higher. The range of colour changing depended on DE, power of using microwaves and illuminant.    

  11. The importance of colour models for teaching about colour in elementary school

    OpenAIRE

    Lesar, Urša

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we explored the importance that colour models have for teaching colour systematics in primary school. In the theoretical part history and theoretical nature of colour models are explored. We analyzed which colour models clearly illustrate significant colour problems such as colour mixing, contrasts, harmony and colour chords and dimensions, and in particular, how these problematics are illustrated. Based on the analysis of the curriculum and textbooks for art education in Slove...

  12. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  13. What Colour Is a Shadow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S. W.

    2009-01-01

    What colour is a shadow? Black, grey, or some other colour? This article describes how to use a digital camera to test the hypothesis that a shadow under a clear blue sky has a blue tint. A white sheet of A4 paper was photographed in full sunlight and in shadow under a clear blue sky. The images were analysed using a shareware program called…

  14. Dynamic colour of chromogenic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Klanjšek Gunde, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Chromogenic materials change colour due to some stimulus. They are increasingly applied in the so-called smart applications where the change of colour is used. Two examples of such applications are presented, electrochromic windows and thermochromic printing inks. Active component in many switchable smart windows is a thin layer of electrochromic material. Most frequently WO3 is applied, which changes reversibly from colourless to deep blue state, when a constant current is provided in one or...

  15. A new universal colour image fidelity metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Lucassen, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    We extend a recently introduced universal grayscale image quality index to a newly developed perceptually decorrelated colour space. The resulting colour image fidelity metric quantifies the distortion of a processed colour image relative to its original version. We evaluated the new colour image fi

  16. Colour analysis and verification of CCTV images under different lighting conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. A.; MacLennan-Brown, K.; Tighe, J. F.; Cohen, N.; Triantaphillidou, S.; MacDonald, L. W.

    2008-01-01

    Colour information is not faithfully maintained by a CCTV imaging chain. Since colour can play an important role in identifying objects it is beneficial to be able to account accurately for changes to colour introduced by components in the chain. With this information it will be possible for law enforcement agencies and others to work back along the imaging chain to extract accurate colour information from CCTV recordings. A typical CCTV system has an imaging chain that may consist of scene, camera, compression, recording media and display. The response of each of these stages to colour scene information was characterised by measuring its response to a known input. The main variables that affect colour within a scene are illumination and the colour, orientation and texture of objects. The effects of illumination on the appearance of colour of a variety of test targets were tested using laboratory-based lighting, street lighting, car headlights and artificial daylight. A range of typical cameras used in CCTV applications, common compression schemes and representative displays were also characterised.

  17. Influence of colour in working environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrovšek, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Anton Trstenjak wrote: »Our life is practically sinking in the sea of light and colours.« Different colours create different psycho-physiological responses. That is why colours have various impacts on human experiences and arrangements of our attention. When we know how control the colours in our environment, we can influence human psychological and physiological well-being and attention in the space. In my thesis, I explore how colours affect our feelings, our body and attention. Knowing all...

  18. An operational approach to colour constancy

    OpenAIRE

    Craven, BJ; Foster, DH

    1992-01-01

    Colour constancy is traditionally defined as the invariance of perceived surface colours under changes in the spectral composition of the illuminant. Existing quantitative studies show that, by this definition, human subjects show poor colour constancy. A different and complementary aspect of colour constancy is considered which is concerned with the ability of a subject to attribute correctly changes in the colour appearance of a scene either to changes in reflecting properties of the surfac...

  19. Separating illumination from reflectance in colour imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Weihua

    2007-01-01

    Since more people choose the convenience of colour imaging over traditional grayscale imaging, colour is a very important and useful feature in the computer vision community. However, the changing colour of the object may lead to some problems if the illuminant colour changes, since any colour imaging device’s response to light from imaged scenes depends on three factors: the nature of the illumination incident on the objects, the underlying physical property of the objects, and the sensor se...

  20. Artificial Reefs and Ocean Dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Activities and instructional strategies for two multigrade lessons are provided. Activity objectives include describing an artificial reef (such as a sunken ocean liner) as an ecosystem, knowing animal types in the ecosystem, and describing a food web. (JN)

  1. Exposure estimate for FD&C colour additives for the US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doell, Diana L; Folmer, Daniel E; Lee, Hyoung S; Butts, Kyla M; Carberry, Susan E

    2016-05-01

    Dietary exposures to the seven food, drug, and cosmetic (FD&C) colour additives that are approved for general use in food in the United States were estimated for the US population (aged 2 years and older), children (aged 2-5 years) and teenage boys (aged 13-18 years) based on analytical levels of the FD&C colour additives in foods. Approximately 600 foods were chosen for analysis, based on a survey of product labels, for the levels of FD&C colour additives. Dietary exposure was estimated using both 2-day food consumption data from the combined 2007-10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and 10-14-day food consumption data from the 2007-10 NPD Group, Inc. National Eating Trends - Nutrient Intake Database (NPD NET-NID). Dietary exposure was estimated at the mean and 90th percentile using three different exposure scenarios: low exposure, average exposure and high exposure, to account for the range in the amount of each FD&C colour additive for a given food. For all populations and all exposure scenarios, the highest cumulative eaters-only exposures in food were determined for FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Yellow No. 5 and FD&C Yellow No. 6. In addition, the eaters-only exposure was estimated for individual food categories in order to determine which food categories contributed the most to the exposure for each FD&C colour additive. Breakfast Cereal, Juice Drinks, Soft Drinks, and Frozen Dairy Desserts/Sherbet (also referred to as Ice Cream, Frozen Yogurt, Sherbet (including Bars, Sticks, Sandwiches)) were the major contributing food categories to exposure for multiple FD&C colour additives for all three populations. PMID:27092991

  2. Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Vasilaras, Tatjana H; Astrup, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of appetite studies in free-living subjects supplying the habitual diet with either sucrose or artificially sweetened beverages and foods. Furthermore, the focus of artificial sweeteners has only been on the energy intake (EI) side of the energy-balance equation. The data are from a...

  3. Artificial Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which ... activities such as walking, eating, or dressing. Some artificial limbs let you function nearly as well as ...

  4. Colour Symbols in Mari Songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Glukhova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a system of colour symbols in Mari folk songs based on the results of a multifold investigation. The research was carried out with the help of a complex technique applied to 2100 songs from different song collections. Mari colour symbols have never before been the object of research. The process of investigation included several steps. The most important of these was the semantic analysis that helped to discern 2000 mentions of four main spectre colours as well as white, black, silver, and golden. Quantitative data evaluation singled out a dominant group by a dichotomous method, applying the principle of simple majority employed in mathematical statistics. The same technique divided the other colour symbols into complementary, auxiliary, and insignificant groups. The results of an investigation into ethnic symbology are also shown graphically. The main reconstructed meanings of colour in the analysed songs denote such emotions as joy, wonder, astonishment, grief, melancholy, some aesthetic ideals, ethical vices, as well as people’s character and appearance.

  5. Effects of the colour additive caramel colour III on the immune system: a study with human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, G F; Abma, P M; van den Berg, H; van Dokkum, W; van Loveren, H; Penninks, A H; Seinen, W; Spanhaak, S; Vos, J G; Ockhuizen, T

    1992-09-01

    Administration of the colour additive Caramel Colour III to rats has been associated with decreased numbers of lymphocytes and several other changes in the immune system, as well as in immune function parameters, specifically in animals fed a diet with a relatively low vitamin B6 content. The effects are caused by the imidazole derivative 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI). Caramel Colour III is commonly used in food products such as bakery products, soya-bean sauces, brown sauces, gravies, soup aromas, brown (dehydrated) soups, brown malt caramel blend for various applications, vinegars and beers, and effects in humans on dietary intake cannot be excluded. Elderly male volunteers with a marginal deficit in vitamin B6 were considered a relevant and potentially sensitive group to study possible effects of Caramel Colour III on blood lymphocyte numbers (total and within subsets) or on proliferative responses of lymphocytes to mitogenic stimulation. In addition, several other haematological parameters, as well as serum immunoglobulin levels and immunoglobulin production in vitro by pokeweed mitogen-stimulated mononuclear blood cells were studied. The results of this double-blind intervention study demonstrated that in a selected test group of apparently healthy elderly male volunteers with a biochemically marginally deficient vitamin B6 status, Caramel Colour III containing 23 (commercial sample) or 143 (research sample) ppm THI and administered at the level of the current acceptable daily intake of 200 mg/kg body weight/day for 7 days did not affect any of the factors investigated. PMID:1427513

  6. Contrast normalization in colour vision: the effect of luminance contrast on colour contrast detection

    OpenAIRE

    Mullen, Kathy T.; Kim, Yeon Jin; Gheiratmand, Mina

    2014-01-01

    While contrast normalization is well known to occur in luminance vision between overlaid achromatic contrasts, and in colour vision between overlaid colour contrasts, it is unknown whether it transfers between colour and luminance contrast. Here we investigate whether contrast detection in colour vision can be normalized by achromatic contrast, or whether this is a selective process driven only by colour contrast. We use a method of cross-orientation masking, in which colour detection is mask...

  7. The colour of an avifauna: A quantitative analysis of the colour of Australian birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhey, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Animal coloration is a poorly-understood aspect of phenotypic variability. Here I expand initial studies of the colour gamut of birds by providing the first quantitative description of the colour variation of an entire avifauna: Australian landbirds (555 species). The colour of Australian birds occupies a small fraction (19%) of the entire possible colour space and colour variation is extremely uneven. Most colours are unsaturated, concentrated in the centre of colour space and based on the deposition of melanins. Other mechanisms of colour production are less common but account for larger portions of colour space and for most saturated colours. Male colours occupy 45-25% more colour space than female colours, indicating that sexual dichromatism translates into a broader range of male colours. Male-exclusive colours are often saturated, at the edge of chromatic space, and have most likely evolved for signalling. While most clades of birds occupy expected or lower-than-expected colour volumes, parrots and cockatoos (Order Psittaciformes) occupy a much larger volume than expected. This uneven distribution of colour variation across mechanisms of colour production, sexes and clades is probably shared by avifaunas in other parts of the world, but this remains to be tested with comparable data. PMID:26679370

  8. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.;

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...... two endvertices. We define χ (G) to be the smallest integer k for which G has an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This parameter has natural upper and lower bounds in terms of the maximum degree Δ of G : ⌈ (Δ + 1) / 2 ⌉ ≤ χ (G) ≤ Δ + 1. We improve the upper bound by 1 for every graph and prove χ (G...

  9. The colours of HII galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Telles, E; Telles, Eduardo; Terlevich, Roberto

    1995-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution CCD surface photometry study in the optical V, R and I filters of 15 HII galaxies from the Nordic Optical Telescope and the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope at Canary Islands. The colours of the starburst continuum and of the underlying galaxy are measured. The distribution of colours of the underlying galaxy in HII galaxies is similar to the colours of other late type low surface brightness galaxies which suggests a close kinship of these with the quiescent phases of HII galaxies. However, comparison with recent evolutionary population synthesis models show that the observational errors and the uncertainties in the models are still too large to put strict constraints on their past star formation history.

  10. New model for colour kinetics of plum under infrared vacuum condition and microwave drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Amiri Chayjan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Quality of dried foods is affected by the drying method and physiochemical changes in tissue. The drying method affects properties such as colour. The colour of processed food is one of the most impor- tant quality indices and plays a determinant role in consumer acceptability of food materials and the process- ing method. The colour of food materials can be used as an indirect factor to determine changes in quality, since it is simpler and faster than chemical methods. Material and methods. The study focused on the kinetics of colour changes of plum slices, under infrared vacuum and microwave conditions. Drying the samples was implemented at the absolute pressures of 20 and 60 kPa, drying temperatures of 50 and 60°C and microwave power of 90, 270, 450 and 630 W. Colour changes were quantified by the tri-stimulus L* (whiteness/darkness, a* (redness/greenness and b* (yellow- ness/blueness model, which is an international standard for color measurement developed by the Commis- sion Internationale d’Eclairage (CIE. These values were also used to calculate total colour change (∆E, chroma, hue angle, and browning index (BI. A new model was used for mathematical modelling of colour change kinetics. Results. The drying process changed the colour parameters of L*, a*, and b*, causing a colour shift toward the darker region. The values of L* and hue angle decreased, whereas the values of a*, b*, ∆E, chroma and browning index increased during exposure to infrared vacuum conditions and microwave drying. Comparing the results obtained using the new model with two conventional models of zero-order and first-order kinet- ics indicated that the new model presented more compatibility with the data of colour kinetics for all colour parameters and drying conditions. Conclusion. All kinetic changes in colour parameters can be explained by the new model presented in this study. The hybrid drying system included infrared vacuum conditions and

  11. Estimating varying illuminant colours in images

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Stuart Ellis

    2014-01-01

    Colour Constancy is the ability to perceive colours independently of varying illumi-nation colour. A human could tell that a white t-shirt was indeed white, even under the presence of blue or red illumination. These illuminant colours would actually make the reflectance colour of the t-shirt bluish or reddish. Humans can, to a good extent, see colours constantly. Getting a computer to achieve the same goal, with a high level of accuracy has proven problematic. Particularly if we wanted to ...

  12. PUNGENT AND COLOUR COMPOUNDS OF RED PEPPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin KADAKAL

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The capcaicinoid amount of red peppers from Solanacea family is used for the evaluation of quality and classification in many countries. Capsaicin is the major pungent principle (69 % of capsaicinoids. The others are dihidrocapsaicin (22 %, nordihidrocapsaicin (7 %, homocapsaicin (1 % and homodihidrocapsaicin (1 %. As in most foods, the carotenoids of red peppers are also important compounds. Carotenoids are typical colour pigments and some of them have vitamin A activity. Major carotenoids of ripe fruit of red peppers are capsanthin, capsorubin, ß-carotene and zeaxanthin. Capcaicinoid and carotenoid contents of red peppers grown in many different regions of the world, their properties and roles on the human health were given in this review.

  13. A chameleon-inspired stretchable electronic skin with interactive colour changing controlled by tactile sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ho-Hsiu; Nguyen, Amanda; Chortos, Alex; To, John W.F.; Lu, Chien; Mei, Jianguo; Kurosawa, Tadanori; Bae, Won-Gyu; Tok, Jeffrey B.-H.; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-01-01

    Some animals, such as the chameleon and cephalopod, have the remarkable capability to change their skin colour. This unique characteristic has long inspired scientists to develop materials and devices to mimic such a function. However, it requires the complex integration of stretchability, colour-changing and tactile sensing. Here we show an all-solution processed chameleon-inspired stretchable electronic skin (e-skin), in which the e-skin colour can easily be controlled through varying the applied pressure along with the applied pressure duration. As such, the e-skin's colour change can also be in turn utilized to distinguish the pressure applied. The integration of the stretchable, highly tunable resistive pressure sensor and the fully stretchable organic electrochromic device enables the demonstration of a stretchable electrochromically active e-skin with tactile-sensing control. This system will have wide range applications such as interactive wearable devices, artificial prosthetics and smart robots. PMID:26300307

  14. A chameleon-inspired stretchable electronic skin with interactive colour changing controlled by tactile sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ho-Hsiu; Nguyen, Amanda; Chortos, Alex; To, John W. F.; Lu, Chien; Mei, Jianguo; Kurosawa, Tadanori; Bae, Won-Gyu; Tok, Jeffrey B.-H.; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-08-01

    Some animals, such as the chameleon and cephalopod, have the remarkable capability to change their skin colour. This unique characteristic has long inspired scientists to develop materials and devices to mimic such a function. However, it requires the complex integration of stretchability, colour-changing and tactile sensing. Here we show an all-solution processed chameleon-inspired stretchable electronic skin (e-skin), in which the e-skin colour can easily be controlled through varying the applied pressure along with the applied pressure duration. As such, the e-skin's colour change can also be in turn utilized to distinguish the pressure applied. The integration of the stretchable, highly tunable resistive pressure sensor and the fully stretchable organic electrochromic device enables the demonstration of a stretchable electrochromically active e-skin with tactile-sensing control. This system will have wide range applications such as interactive wearable devices, artificial prosthetics and smart robots.

  15. PENENTUAN KUANTITATIF ZAT WARNA KARMOSIN,PONCEAU 4R DAN MERAH ALURA YANG DITAMBAHKAN DALAM MINUMAN AGREM (Hibiscus sabdariffa, Linn) [Quantitative Determination of Carmoisine, Ponceau 4R and Allura Red Colouring Agents Added Into Softdrink Containing the Aqueous Extract of (Hibiscus sabdariffa, Linn

    OpenAIRE

    Embit Kartadarma2); As’ari Nawawi; Halida

    2007-01-01

    The synthetic food-colouring agent is stiil commonly used in soft drink to enhance the colour of the food and to make foods more attractive, particularly for the drink containing natural colour. Addition of colour is legally permitted by the govermment, however, the product sometime contain the substance more than the permissible maximum dosage, and it may possibly cause iillhealth to the consumer. Preparation of soft drink containing the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa fruits gave l...

  16. Colour and stability assessment of blue ferric anthocyanin chelates in liquid pectin-stabilised model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, M; Brauch, J; Carle, R; Kammerer, D R

    2013-06-01

    The formation of blue coloured ferric anthocyanin chelates and their colour stability during storage and thermal treatment were monitored in a pH range relevant to food (3.6-5.0). Liquid model systems were composed of different types of Citrus pectins, juices (J) and the respective phenolic extracts (E) from elderberry (EB), black currant (BC), red cabbage (RC) and purple carrot (PC) in the presence of ferric ions. For EB, BC and PC, pure blue colours devoid of a violet tint were exclusively observed for the phenolic extracts and at pH values ≥ 4.5 in model systems containing high methoxylated and amidated pectins, respectively. Colour and its stability strongly depended on the amount of ferric ions and the plant source; however, colour decay could generally be described as a pseudo-first-order kinetics. Despite optimal colour hues for RC-E and RC-J, storage and heat stabilities were poor. Highest colour intensities and best stabilities were observed for model systems containing PC-E at a molar anthocyanin:ferric ion ratio of 1:2. Ascorbic and lactic acids interfered with ferric ions, thus significantly affecting blue colour evolution and stability. Colour loss strongly depended on heat exposure with activation energies ranging between 60.5 and 78.4 kJ/mol. The comprehensive evaluation of the interrelationship of pigment source, pH conditions and pectin type on chelate formation and stability demonstrated that ferric anthocyanin chelates are promising natural blue food colourants. PMID:23411339

  17. Comportamento de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae em função da oferta do alimento artificial nas fases clara e escura do período de 24 horas Behavior of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae in relation to artificial food offer along light and dark phases in a 24 h period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele S. Pontes

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A escassez de dados acerca do comportamento do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 relacionado ao alimento artificial ofertado em comedouros poderá induzir a uma alimentação inadequada, aumentando a relação custo/benefício e os impactos ambientais potenciais do seu cultivo. Objetivando fornecer subsídios para a melhoria do manejo alimentar praticado nas fazendas, foram desenvolvidos estudos comportamentais utilizando 64 juvenis de L. vannamei (7,57 ± 1,01 g, submetidos a fotoperíodo artificial, metade deles em ciclo invertido, para observação das suas atividades durante as fases clara e escura. A ração foi oferecida em intervalos pré-estabelecidos, registrando-se antes e depois da oferta: exploração, natação, alimentação e inatividade (focal instantâneo. A natação ocorreu preferencialmente durante a fase escura. A alimentação foi mais elevada na primeira meia hora posterior à oferta, com ênfase nos horários da fase clara. O alimento artificial atuou, em ambas as fases, como um indutor da exploração do substrato, tornando os camarões mais ativos em todos os horários posteriores à sua oferta.The few data on the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 behavior related to artificial food offer in feeding trays may result an inadequate feeding by the animal, increasing the cost/benefit relation in shrimp culture and its potential environmental impact. In order to provide tools for optimizing feeding management in shrimp farms, a behavioral study was developed, using 64 L. vannamei juveniles (7,57 ± 1,01 g. They were submitted to artificial photoperiods, half of them in reversed cycle, in order to register their behavior during light and dark phases. In established intervals, the following activities were registered before and after food exposition: exploration, swimming, feeding and inactivity (instantaneous sampling. Swimming occurred mostly during the dark phase. Feeding time was higher in

  18. Chromomagnetic catalysis of colour superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukovskij, V C; Klimenko, K G; Ehbert, D

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the chromomagnetic field on the phase structure of the Namby - Jona-Lasinio expanded model with two quarks aromas is studied. It is shown that certain types of the chromomagnetic fields induce spontaneous violation of the colour, chiral or both symmetries simultaneously, depending on the ratio between the quarks interaction constants in the q-barq- and qq-channels

  19. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper shows how to extend Coloured Petri Nets with a hierarchy concept. The paper proposes five different hierarchy constructs, which allow the analyst to structure large CP-nets as a set of interrelated subnets (called pages). The paper discusses the properties of the proposed hierarchy...

  20. Colour reconnection at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P

    2002-01-01

    The preliminary results on the search of colour reconnection effects (CR) from the four experiments at LEP, ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL, are reviewed. Extreme models are excluded by studies of standard variables, and on going studies of a method first suggested by L3, the particle flow method (D. Duchesneau, (2001)), are yet inconclusive. (22 refs).

  1. Good Colour Maps: How to Design Them

    OpenAIRE

    Kovesi, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Many colour maps provided by vendors have highly uneven perceptual contrast over their range. It is not uncommon for colour maps to have perceptual flat spots that can hide a feature as large as one tenth of the total data range. Colour maps may also have perceptual discontinuities that induce the appearance of false features. Previous work in the design of perceptually uniform colour maps has mostly failed to recognise that CIELAB space is only designed to be perceptually uniform at very low...

  2. Estimation of the real colour gamut

    OpenAIRE

    Perales Romero, Esther; Chorro Calderón, Elísabet; Viqueira Pérez, Valentín; Martínez Verdú, Francisco Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Comunicación presentada en AIC 2009, 11th Congress of the International Colour Association (AIC), 27 September-2 October 2009, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. In the present work, we have assessed the gamut of colour surfaces currently available for different colour technologies. Their colour reproduction capability have been analyzed by plotting CIELAB data under the illuminant D65 into constant lightness and hue-angle planes to be compared with MacAdam limits which defi...

  3. Colour-emotion associations in interior spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Helvacıoğlu, Elif

    2011-01-01

    Colour as an effective design tool influences people’s emotions in interior spaces. Depending on the assumption that colour has an impact on human psychology, this study stresses the need for further studies that comprise colour and emotion association in interior space in order to provide healthier spaces for inhabitants. Emotional reactions to colour in a living room were investigated by using self report measure. Pure red, green and blue were chosen to be investigated as ...

  4. Search for Colour Singlet and Colour Reconnection Effects in Hadronic Z Decays at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2004-01-01

    A search is performed in symmetric 3-jet hadronic Z decay events for evidence of colour singlet production or colour reconnection effects. Asymmetries in the angular separation of particles are found to be sensitive indicators of such effects. Upper limits on the level of colour singlet production and colour reconnection effects are established for a variety of models.

  5. Please pass me the skin coloured crayon!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Martina; Levisen, Carsten; Beck, Thorhalla Gudmundsdottir;

    2015-01-01

    German and Scandinavian languages could lead to similar changes as the ones which have taken place in English (i.e. the replacement of skin coloured with peach or a similar construct). Skin-based colours in Germanic languages also offer new perspectives on visual semantics, the social origins of colour...

  6. -Colour even Self-Inverse Compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yu-hong Guo

    2010-02-01

    An -colour even self-inverse composition is defined as an -colour self-inverse composition with even parts. In this paper, we get generating functions, explicit formulas and recurrence formulas for -colour even self-inverse compositions. One new binomial identity is also obtained.

  7. The importance of colour naming for online fashion retail

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Helen Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Online fashion retailers use a wide array of colour names to describe the colours of their products; ranging from simple colour names such as the primary colours to more ambiguous colour names such as cloud and blush. Although many online retailers devote resources to the selection of colour names, no such research exists on the impact this has on online fashion consumers’ behaviours.The impact of colour naming on online fashion consumers is important as fashion and colour have a symbiotic re...

  8. Even the Abstract have Colour: Consensus in Word-Colour Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Saif M.

    2013-01-01

    Colour is a key component in the successful dissemination of information. Since many real-world concepts are associated with colour, for example danger with red, linguistic information is often complemented with the use of appropriate colours in information visualization and product marketing. Yet, there is no comprehensive resource that captures concept-colour associations. We present a method to create a large word-colour association lexicon by crowdsourcing. A word-choice question was used...

  9. Colour vision in diurnal and nocturnal hawkmoths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, Almut; Balkenius, Anna; Warrant, Eric J

    2003-08-01

    Diurnal and nocturnal hawkmoths (Sphingidae, Lepidoptera) have three spectral types of receptor sensitive to ultraviolet, blue and green light. As avid flower visitors and pollinators, they use olfactory and visual cues to find and recognise flowers. Moths of the diurnal species Macroglossum stellatarum and the nocturnal species Deilephila elpenor, Hyles lineata and Hyles gallii use and learn the colour of flowers. Nocturnal species can discriminate flowers at starlight intensities when humans and honeybees are colour-blind. M. stellatarum can use achromatic, intensity-related cues if colour cues are absent, and this is probably also true for D. elpenor. Both species can recognise colours even under a changed illumination colour. PMID:21680465

  10. Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Karthik; Duan, Huigao; Hegde, Ravi S; Koh, Samuel C W; Wei, Jennifer N; Yang, Joel K W

    2012-09-01

    The highest possible resolution for printed colour images is determined by the diffraction limit of visible light. To achieve this limit, individual colour elements (or pixels) with a pitch of 250 nm are required, translating into printed images at a resolution of ∼100,000 dots per inch (d.p.i.). However, methods for dispensing multiple colourants or fabricating structural colour through plasmonic structures have insufficient resolution and limited scalability. Here, we present a non-colourant method that achieves bright-field colour prints with resolutions up to the optical diffraction limit. Colour information is encoded in the dimensional parameters of metal nanostructures, so that tuning their plasmon resonance determines the colours of the individual pixels. Our colour-mapping strategy produces images with both sharp colour changes and fine tonal variations, is amenable to large-volume colour printing via nanoimprint lithography, and could be useful in making microimages for security, steganography, nanoscale optical filters and high-density spectrally encoded optical data storage. PMID:22886173

  11. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  12. 21 CFR 145.171 - Artificially sweetened canned peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned peaches. 145.171... § 145.171 Artificially sweetened canned peaches. (a) Artificially sweetened canned peaches is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned peaches by §...

  13. Subchronic toxicity study of Caramel Colour II in F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, K M; Carter, J L; Petsel, S R; Chappel, C I; Emerson, J L; Stanley, J

    1992-05-01

    Caramel Colour II is a distinct type of colourant with a pronounced reddish hue. It is made with sulphite reactants but without ammonia. The red colour and a high alcohol solubility provide functional characteristics that are important in foods or beverages containing natural flavour extractives. Caramel Colour II is widely used in ice creams and liqueurs; however, it represents less than 1% of total caramel colour manufacture. The toxicity of Caramel Colour II was evaluated in a 13-wk study in Fischer-344 (F344) rats. The test material was mixed with demineralized water and the solutions were given to the animals ad lib. in the drinking fluid. The concentrations of caramel colour in the drinking fluid were adjusted periodically to achieve the desired caramel colour intake/kg body weight/day. Groups of 20 rats/sex were given Caramel Colour II at levels of 0, 4, 8, 12 or 16 g/kg for at least 13 wk. There were no deaths in any of the groups fed Caramel Colour II. All rats fed caramel colour had soft faeces. All treated groups also had lower fluid consumption that was attributed to poor palatability of the high concentrations of caramel colour that were fed. A number of changes observed (reduced food consumption in all treatment groups except males given 4 g/kg; significantly lower body weights for males given 12 g/kg or more and for females given 8 g/kg or more; lower urine volume and higher specific gravity) were attributed to the reduced water intake and not considered to be toxicologically significant. There were no consistent treatment-related alterations in haematology or blood chemistry variables, and random changes noted were not associated with macroscopic or microscopic pathological alterations. There were no toxicologically important pathological findings. Based on this study, Caramel Colour II was not toxic in F344 rats treated for 13 wk. The highest dose level tested in this study (16 g/kg) was considered to be the no-observed-adverse-effect level. PMID

  14. -Colour Self-Inverse Compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geetika Narang; A K Agarwal

    2006-08-01

    MacMahon’s definition of self-inverse composition is extended to -colour self-inverse composition. This introduces four new sequences which satisfy the same recurrence relation with different initial conditions like the famous Fibonacci and Lucas sequences. For these new sequences explicit formulas, recurrence relations, generating functions and a summation formula are obtained. Two new binomial identities with combinatorial meaning are also given.

  15. Colour Reproduction on Tablet Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Zorić; Igor Karlović

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of Internet and mobile devices client services and other print production are migrating more and more to online platforms. In a recent technology changeover it is obvious that there is growing number of printers as well need from the customers for the print service providers to expand their business to online and mobile platforms. With this technological transition there are some open questions regarding the possibilities of using the tablet devices for colour soft proofing an...

  16. Artificial organisms that sleep.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirolli, Marco; Parisi, Domenico

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Populations of artificial organisms live in an environment in which light is cyclically present (day) or absent (night). Since being active during night is non-adaptive (activity consumes energy which is not compensated by the food found at night) the organisms evolve a sleep/wake behavioral pattern of being active during daytime and sleeping during nighttime. When the population moves to a different environment that contains "caves", they have to get out of a cave although the dark ...

  17. Put on that colour, it fits your emotion: Colour appropriateness as a function of expressed emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dael, Nele; Perseguers, Marie-Noëlle; Marchand, Cynthia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Mohr, Christine

    2016-08-01

    People associate affective meaning with colour, and this may influence decisions about colours. Hue is traditionally considered the most salient descriptor of colour and colour-affect associations, although colour brightness and saturation seem to have particularly strong affective connotations. To test whether colour choices can be driven by emotion, we investigated whether and how colour hue, brightness, and saturation are systematically associated with bodily expressions of positive (joy) and negative (fear) emotions. Twenty-five non-colour-blind participants viewed videos of these expressions and selected for each video the most appropriate colour using colour sliders providing values for hue, brightness, and saturation. The overall colour choices were congruent with the expressed emotion-that is, participants selected brighter and more saturated colours for joy expressions than for fear expressions. Also, colours along the red-yellow spectrum were deemed more appropriate for joy expressions and cyan-bluish hues for fear expressions. The current study adds further support to the role of emotion in colour choices by (a) showing that emotional information is spontaneously used in an unconstrained choice setting, (b) extending to ecologically valid stimuli occurring in everyday encounters (dressed bodies), and PMID:26339950

  18. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  19. Artificial urushi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Uyama, H; Ikeda, R

    2001-11-19

    A new concept for the design and laccase-catalyzed preparation of "artificial urushi" from new urushiol analogues is described. The curing proceeded under mild reaction conditions to produce the very hard cross-linked film (artificial urushi) with a high gloss surface. A new cross-linkable polyphenol was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of cardanol, a phenol derivative from cashew-nut-shell liquid, by enzyme-related catalysts. The polyphenol was readily cured to produce the film (also artificial urushi) showing excellent dynamic viscoelasticity. PMID:11763444

  20. Environmental and genetic effects on pigment-based vs. structural component of yellow feather colouration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Matrková

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carotenoid plumage is of widespread use in bird communication. Carotenoid-based feather colouration has recently been shown to be dependent on both pigment concentration and feather structure. If these two components are determined differently, one plumage patch may potentially convey different aspects of individual quality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the effects of genetic and environmental factors on carotenoid-based yellow breast colouration of Great Tit (Parus major nestlings. By partial cross-fostering, we separated the genetic and pre-natal vs. post-natal parental effects on both the structural and the pigment-based component of carotenoid-based plumage colouration. We also simultaneously manipulated the post-hatching environment by brood size manipulation. The structural component of nestling colouration reflected features of female colouration. On the other hand, the pigment-based component was more affected by rearing conditions presumably representing food quality. While the structural component was related to both origin- and environment-related factors, the pigment-based component seemed to be environment-dependent only. These results support the notion that pigment-based and structural components of feather colouration are determined differently. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chromatic and achromatic components of carotenoid-based feather colouration reflected different aspects of individual quality and history, and thus may potentially form a multicomponent signal.

  1. Artificial Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  2. Mechanisms, functions and ecology of colour vision in the honeybee

    OpenAIRE

    Hempel de Ibarra, N.; Vorobyev, M.; Menzel, R

    2014-01-01

    Research in the honeybee has laid the foundations for our understanding of insect colour vision. The trichromatic colour vision of honeybees shares fundamental properties with primate and human colour perception, such as colour constancy, colour opponency, segregation of colour and brightness coding. Laborious efforts to reconstruct the colour vision pathway in the honeybee have provided detailed descriptions of neural connectivity and the properties of photoreceptors and interneurons in the ...

  3. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  4. Performance of a five category front-of-pack labelling system – the 5-colour nutrition label – to differentiate nutritional quality of breakfast cereals in France

    OpenAIRE

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Ducrot, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Hercberg, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background Breakfast cereals exhibit a wide variability in nutritional quality, and differences are not easily grasped by consumers. A simplified nutritional information system might contribute to help consumers make healthier food choices. A five-category colour label based on the Food Standards Agency Nutrient profiling system (FSA score) has been proposed in France to be implemented on the front-of-pack of foods (the five-colour nutrition label - 5-CNL). Objectives were to evaluate the abi...

  5. Colour-independent partition functions in coloured vertex models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O., E-mail: omar.foda@unimelb.edu.au [Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); Wheeler, M., E-mail: mwheeler@lpthe.jussieu.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS UMR 7589 (France); Université Pierre et Marie Curie – Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2013-06-11

    We study lattice configurations related to S{sub n}, the scalar product of an off-shell state and an on-shell state in rational A{sub n} integrable vertex models, n∈{1,2}. The lattice lines are colourless and oriented. The state variables are n conserved colours that flow along the line orientations, but do not necessarily cover every bond in the lattice. Choosing boundary conditions such that the positions where the colours flow into the lattice are fixed, and where they flow out are summed over, we show that the partition functions of these configurations, with these boundary conditions, are n-independent. Our results extend to trigonometric A{sub n} models, and to all n. This n-independence explains, in vertex-model terms, results from recent studies of S{sub 2} (Caetano and Vieira, 2012, [1], Wheeler, (arXiv:1204.2089), [2]). Namely, 1.S{sub 2}, which depends on two sets of Bethe roots, {b_1} and {b_2}, and cannot (as far as we know) be expressed in single determinant form, degenerates in the limit {b_1}→∞, and/or {b_2}→∞, into a product of determinants, 2. Each of the latter determinants is an A{sub 1} vertex-model partition function.

  6. Colour-independent partition functions in coloured vertex models

    CERN Document Server

    Foda, O

    2013-01-01

    We study lattice configurations related to S_n, the scalar product of an off-shell state and an on-shell state in rational A_n integrable vertex models, n = {1, 2}. The lattice lines are colourless and oriented. The state variables are n conserved colours that flow along the line orientations, but do not necessarily cover every bond in the lattice. Choosing boundary conditions such that the positions where the colours flow into the lattice are fixed, and where they flow out are summed over, we show that the partition functions of these configurations, with these boundary conditions, are n-independent. Our results extend to trigonometric A_n models, and to all n. This n-independence explains, in vertex-model terms, results from recent studies of S_2 [1, 2]. Namely, 1. S_2 which depends on two sets of Bethe roots, b_1 and b_2, and cannot (as far as we know) be expressed in single determinant form, degenerates in the limit b_1 -> infinity, and/or b_2 -> infinity, into a product of determinants, 2. Each of the la...

  7. Colour-independent partition functions in coloured vertex models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study lattice configurations related to Sn, the scalar product of an off-shell state and an on-shell state in rational An integrable vertex models, n∈{1,2}. The lattice lines are colourless and oriented. The state variables are n conserved colours that flow along the line orientations, but do not necessarily cover every bond in the lattice. Choosing boundary conditions such that the positions where the colours flow into the lattice are fixed, and where they flow out are summed over, we show that the partition functions of these configurations, with these boundary conditions, are n-independent. Our results extend to trigonometric An models, and to all n. This n-independence explains, in vertex-model terms, results from recent studies of S2 (Caetano and Vieira, 2012, [1], Wheeler, (arXiv:1204.2089), [2]). Namely, 1.S2, which depends on two sets of Bethe roots, {b1} and {b2}, and cannot (as far as we know) be expressed in single determinant form, degenerates in the limit {b1}→∞, and/or {b2}→∞, into a product of determinants, 2. Each of the latter determinants is an A1 vertex-model partition function

  8. Colour Consideration for Waiting areas in hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zraati, Parisa

    2012-08-01

    Colour is one the most important factors in the nature that can have some affects on human behaviour. Many years ago, it was proven that using colour in public place can have some affect on the users. Depend of the darkness and lightness; it can be vary from positive to negative. The research will mainly focus on the colour and psychological influences and physical factors. The statement of problem in this research is what is impact of colour usually applied to waiting area? The overall aim of the study is to explore the visual environment of hospitals and to manage the colour psychological effect of the hospital users in the waiting area by creating a comfortable, pleasant and cozy environment for users while spend their time in waiting areas. The analysisconcentrate on satisfaction and their interesting regarding applied colour in two private hospital waiting area in Malaysia.

  9. Colour-grapheme synaesthesia affects binocular vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L.E. Paffen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In colour-grapheme synaesthesia, non-coloured graphemes are perceived as being inherently coloured. In recent years, it has become evident that synaesthesia-inducing graphemes can affect visual processing in a manner comparable to real, physical colours. Here, we exploit the phenomenon of binocular rivalry in which incompatible images presented dichoptically compete for conscious expression. Importantly, the competition only arises if the two images are sufficiently different; if the difference between the images is small, the images will fuse into a single mixed percept. We show that achromatic graphemes that induce synaesthetic colour percepts evoke binocular rivalry, while without the synaesthetic percept, they do not. That is, compared to achromatically perceived graphemes, synaesthesia-inducing graphemes increase the predominance of binocular rivalry over binocular fusion. This finding shows that the synaesthetic colour experience can provide the conditions for evoking binocular rivalry, much like stimulus features that induce rivalry in normal vision.

  10. Molecular tests for coat colours in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    Colour phenotypes may have played a major role during early domestication events and initial selection among domestic animal species. As coat colours mostly follow a relatively simple mode of Mendelian inheritance, they have been among the first traits to be systematically analysed at the molecular level. As a result of the number of genetic tools developed during the past decade, horse coat colour tests have been designed and are now commercially available for some of the basic phenotypes. These tests enable breeders to verify segregation within particular pedigrees, to select specific colour phenotypes according to market demand or studbook policies and to avoid complex inherited diseases associated with some of the colour patterns. This paper reviews the relevance of the topic, describes all currently available tests for coat colours in horses and addresses also ongoing research in this field. PMID:19912415

  11. The intensity threshold of colour vision in a passerine bird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Doris; Grégoire, Arnaud; Del Rey Granado, Maria; Bassoul, Marine; Degueldre, David; Perret, Philippe; Doutrelant, Claire

    2014-11-01

    Many vertebrates use colour vision for vital behaviour but their visual performance in dim light is largely unknown. The light intensity threshold of colour vision is known only for humans, horses and two parrot species. Here, we first explore this threshold in a passerine bird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). Using classic conditioning of colour cues to food rewards in three individuals, we find a threshold ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 cd m(-2). Results are comparable to the two previously tested bird species. For tits, nest light conditions probably exceed that threshold, at least after sunrise. These results shed new light on the lively debate questioning the visual performance of cavity nesters and the evolutionary significance of egg and chick coloration. Although this needs further investigation, it is possible that blue tits exploit both colour and brightness cues when viewing their eggs, chicks or conspecifics in their nests. PMID:25214487

  12. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Jiyang; Liu Jincheng

    2011-01-01

    White Cast Iron (Ⅰ) White cast iron or ‘white iron' refers to the type of cast iron in which all of the carbon exists as carbide;there is no graphite in the as-cast structure and the fractured surface shows a white colour.White cast iron can be divided in three classes:· Normal white cast iron — this iron contains only C,Si,Mn,P and S,with no other alloying elements.· Low-alloy white cast iron — the total mass fraction of alloying elements is less than 5%.

  13. Hadronisation Models and Colour Reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Bierlich, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced production of hadrons with $s$-quark content has been observed in $pp$ collisions at LHC, and earlier in collisions of heavy nuclei. We review the string hadronisation formalism and correc- tions from rope hadronisation and colour reconnection, corrections that takes place in such dense environments, and are able to correctly describe data. Since such corrections are very sensitive to the modelling of transverse proton structure, we investigate two such models, and compare to final states. Finally we describe how such corrections can also give a possible explanation to collective phenomena observed in small systems.

  14. Colour vision deficiency and physics teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Louise; Featonby, David

    2016-05-01

    1 in 12 males suffer from some form of colour vision deficiency (CVD) which in the present colour dominated world of education presentation can be a severe disadvantage. Although aware of ‘colourblindness’ most teachers make little or no adjustment for these pupils for whom tasks may be more difficult. This article examines colour vision deficiency and looks at ways in which we can help the many students who have this problem.

  15. Colour Homogenisation of Hardwood Species by Steaming

    OpenAIRE

    TOLVAJ, László; MOLNÁR, Sándor

    2006-01-01

    For colour homogenisation three hardwood species, black locust (Robinia pseudoacaciaL.), beech (Fagus silvatica L.) and Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.) were investigated. Steaming wasapplied to change the colour. Steaming parameters (steaming time and temperature) were varied tofind the optimum of treatment. The results are given in the CIE L*, a*, b* colour co-ordinate system.Black locust wood was most sensitive to the steaming temperature. With rising temperature, the colourchange was faster...

  16. Colour model analysis for microscopic image processing

    OpenAIRE

    García-Rojo Marcial; González Jesús; Déniz Oscar; González Roberto; Bueno Gloria

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This article presents a comparative study between different colour models (RGB, HSI and CIEL*a*b*) applied to a very large microscopic image analysis. Such analysis of different colour models is needed in order to carry out a successful detection and therefore a classification of different regions of interest (ROIs) within the image. This, in turn, allows both distinguishing possible ROIs and retrieving their proper colour for further ROI analysis. This analysis is not commonly done ...

  17. Language strategies for the domain of colour

    OpenAIRE

    Bleys, Joris

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a major leap forward in the understanding of colour by showing how richer descriptions of colour samples can be operationalized in agent-based models. Four different language strategies are explored: the basic colour strategy, the graded membership strategy, the category combination strategy and the basic modification strategy. These strategies are firmly rooted in empirical observations in natural languages, with a focus on compositionality at both the syntactic and semant...

  18. How temporal cues can aid colour constancy

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, David H.; Amano, Kinjiro; Nascimento, Sérgio M. C.

    2000-01-01

    Colour constancy assessed by asymmetric simultaneous colour matching usually reveals limited levels of performance in the unadapted eye. Yet observers can readily discriminate illuminant changes on a scene from changes in the spectral reflectances of the surfaces making up the scene. This ability is probably based on judgements of relational colour constancy, in turn based on the physical stability of spatial ratios of cone excitations under illuminant changes. Evidence is presented suggestin...

  19. Colour constancy: human mechanisms and machine algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, C B

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes a quantitative experimental investigation into instantaneous colour constancy in humans. Colour constancy may be defined as the ability of the visual system to maintain a constant colour percept of a surface despite varying conditions of illumination. Instantaneous, in this context, refers to effects which happen very rapidly with the change of illumination, rather than those which may be due to long term adaptation of the photoreceptors. The results of experiments are d...

  20. Assessing the colour quality of LED sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jost-Boissard, S.; Avouac, P.; Fontoynont, Marc

    2015-01-01

    sources and especially some LEDs. In this paper, several aspects of perceived colour quality are investigated using a side-by-side paired comparison method, and the following criteria: naturalness of fruits and vegetables, colourfulness of the Macbeth Color Checker chart, visual appreciation...... but also with a preference index or a memory index calculated without blue and purple hues. A very low correlation was found between appreciation and naturalness indicating that colour quality needs more than one metric to describe subjective aspects....

  1. Colour discrimination and categorisation in Williams syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Farran, E.K.; Cranwell, M. B.; Alvarez, J.; Franklin, A

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) present with impaired functioning of the dorsal visual stream relative to the ventral visual stream. As such, little attention has been given to ventral stream functions in WS. We investigated colour processing, a predominantly ventral stream function, for the first time in nineteen individuals with Williams syndrome. Colour discrimination was assessed using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test. Colour categorisation was assessed using a match-to-sample ...

  2. Flower colour adaptation in a mimetic orchid

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Ethan; Anderson, Bruce; JOHNSON, STEVEN D.

    2012-01-01

    Although the tremendous variability in floral colour among angiosperms is often attributed to divergent selection by pollinators, it is usually difficult to preclude the possibility that floral colour shifts were driven by non-pollinator processes. Here, we examine the adaptive significance of flower colour in Disa ferruginea, a non-rewarding orchid that is thought to attract its butterfly pollinator by mimicking the flowers of sympatric nectar-producing species. Disa ferruginea has red flowe...

  3. ABOUT FOOD ADDITIVES AS IMPORTANT PART OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Umida Khodjaeva; Tatiana Bojňanská; Vladimír Vietoris; Oksana Sytar

    2013-01-01

    The main characteristics and classification of food additives, which are common in the food production, have been described in the present review. The ways of food additives classification, source of nature, main antioxidants, food colouring, flavours, flavor enhancers, bulking agents, stabilizers, sweeteners which were collected from literature based on structural and biochemical characteristics with description of source and possible effects on human, organisms and environment have been pre...

  4. Automated digital mapping of geological colour descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Chris

    2002-12-01

    Sediment colour data are delivered by geologists as Munsell codes (Rock Color Chart) and linguistic descriptions. Using new software suitable for very large data sets, the two types can be brought into conformance and mapped together digitally. The native codes are extracted. For linguistic descriptions chromatic terms are identified with Munsell codes, then mixed in a temporary transform of psychometrically linear CIE colour space. Adjustments are made for dark/light and pale/strong modifiers. The output Munsell codes are statistically validated and mapped using special GIS legends to render them in true colour. The output displays provide a new view of marine sediment facies, comparable to remotely sensed colour imagery.

  5. Colour vision and computer-generated images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colour vision deficiencies affect approximately 8% of the male and approximately 0.4% of the female population. In this work, it is demonstrated that computer generated images oftentimes pose unnecessary problems for colour deficient viewers. Three examples, the visualization of molecular structures, graphs of mathematical functions, and colour coded images from numerical data are used to identify problematic colour combinations: red/black, green/black, red/yellow, yellow/white, fuchsia/white, and aqua/white. Alternatives for these combinations are discussed.

  6. Distant set distinguishing total colourings of graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Przybyło, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    The Total Colouring Conjecture suggests that $\\Delta+3$ colours ought to suffice in order to provide a proper total colouring of every graph $G$ with maximum degree $\\Delta$. Thus far this has been confirmed up to an additive constant factor, and the same holds even if one additionally requires every pair of neighbours in $G$ to differ with respect to the sets of their incident colours, so called pallets. Within this paper we conjecture that an upper bound of the form $\\Delta+const.$ still re...

  7. Chromagen lenses and abnormal colour perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Matthew Oriowo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Chromagen lens system comprises of tinted spectacle or contact lenses, each with a specific colour wavelength filter which controls the spectra of the light entering the eye. This study investigated whether spectacle-mounted Chromagen lenses would enhance colour perception in individuals with abnormal colour vision.Methods: The Ishihara colour test was used to test for colour vision deficiency (CVD and also to evaluate the effect of the Chromagen spectacle lens on colour perception in 13 subjects. An Oculus Anomaloscope was used to confirm and sub-classify the types of CVD. Subjects comprised of school age children from the Riyadh area in Saudi Arabia.Results: The distribution amongst the male participants comprised two subjects with protanomaly, two with protanopia, five with deuteranomaly, and two with deuteranopia. Amongst the two female participants, one subject showed deuteranomaly, and one showed protanomaly. Different types of Chromagen spectacle lenses displayed some levels of colour vision enhancement depending on type of CVD.Conclusion: The findings support the notion that chromagen lenses could enhance colour vision perception in some cases of red-green colour vision defects. Clients with CVD should be managed on an individual case basis. (S Afr Optom 2011 70(2 69-74 

  8. How temporal cues can aid colour constancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, David H.; Amano, Kinjiro; Nascimento, Sérgio M. C.

    2007-01-01

    Colour constancy assessed by asymmetric simultaneous colour matching usually reveals limited levels of performance in the unadapted eye. Yet observers can readily discriminate illuminant changes on a scene from changes in the spectral reflectances of the surfaces making up the scene. This ability is probably based on judgements of relational colour constancy, in turn based on the physical stability of spatial ratios of cone excitations under illuminant changes. Evidence is presented suggesting that the ability to detect violations in relational colour constancy depends on temporal transient cues. Because colour constancy and relational colour constancy are closely connected, it should be possible to improve estimates of colour constancy by introducing similar transient cues into the matching task. To test this hypothesis, an experiment was performed in which observers made surface-colour matches between patterns presented in the same position in an alternating sequence with period 2 s or, as a control, presented simultaneously, side-by-side. The degree of constancy was significantly higher for sequential presentation, reaching 87% for matches averaged over 20 observers. Temporal cues may offer a useful source of information for making colour-constancy judgements. PMID:17515948

  9. Electrophysiological evidence for colour effects on the naming of colour diagnostic and noncolour diagnostic objects

    OpenAIRE

    Bramão, Inês; Francisco, Ana; Inácio, Filomena; Faísca, Luís; Reis, Alexandra; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the level of visual processing at which surface colour information improves the naming of colour diagnostic and noncolour diagnostic objects. Continuous electroencephalograms were recorded while participants performed a visual object naming task in which coloured and black-and-white versions of both types of objects were presented. The black-and-white and the colour presentations were compared in two groups of event-related potentials (ERPs): (1) The P1 and N1 c...

  10. GENERALIZATION OF THE COOCCURRENCE MATRIX FOR COLOUR IMAGES: APPLICATION TO COLOUR TEXTURE CLASSIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Arvis; Christophe Debain; Michel Berducat; Albert Benassi

    2011-01-01

    Three different approaches to colour texture analysis are tested on the classification of images from the VisTex and Outex databases. All the methods tested are based on extensions of the cooccurrence matrix method. The first method is a multispectral extension since cooccurrence matrices are computed both between and within the colour bands. The second uses joint colour-texture features: colour features are added to grey scale texture features in the entry of the classifier. The last uses gr...

  11. The uses of colour vision: behavioural and physiological distinctiveness of colour stimuli.

    OpenAIRE

    Derrington, Andrew M; Parker, Amanda; Barraclough, Nick E.; Easton, Alexander; Goodson, G R; Parker, Kris S; Tinsley, Chris J.; Webb, Ben S.

    2002-01-01

    Colour and greyscale (black and white) pictures look different to us, but it is not clear whether the difference in appearance is a consequence of the way our visual system uses colour signals or a by-product of our experience. In principle, colour images are qualitatively different from greyscale images because they make it possible to use different processing strategies. Colour signals provide important cues for segmenting the image into areas that represent different objects and for linkin...

  12. What colour is the red house? Perceived colour of painted facades.

    OpenAIRE

    Fridell Anter, Karin

    2000-01-01

    Architects and others choosingfacade colours using colour samples face difficulties whichprevious research has not addressed. This work aims to aid suchcolour design by exploring three main questions: 1. Is itpossible to survey and map out what colours people perceive onfacades observed under different conditions? If so, whatmethods can be used and it is possible to obtain results ofwider application? 2. How does the perceived colour of a facadevary with changing observation conditions? What ...

  13. Colouring COMPARA: contrastive and monolingual colour studies in English and Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rosário; Inácio, Susana; Santos, Diana

    2008-01-01

    We will describe the English and Portuguese colour studies carried out using COMPARA (www.linguateca.pt/COMPARA/) as a result of the semantic annotation process of the corpus regarding colour. The aim of these studies is to analyse the use of colour by English- and Portuguese-speaking authors by quantifying data, identifying patterns and tendencies -- including colour variation analysis throughout time -- and contrasting findings. Taking advantage of the fact that COMPARA is syntactically ana...

  14. Artificial sweeteners - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Sanchari; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2014-04-01

    Now a days sugar free food are very much popular because of their less calorie content. So food industry uses various artificial sweeteners which are low in calorie content instead of high calorie sugar. U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, cyclamate and alitame for use as per acceptable daily intake (ADI) value. But till date, breakdown products of these sweeteners have controversial health and metabolic effects. On the other hand, rare sugars are monosaccharides and have no known health effects because it does not metabolize in our body, but shows same sweet taste and bulk property as sugar. Rare sugars have no such ADI value and are mainly produced by using bioreactor and so inspite of high demand, rare sugars cannot be produced in the desired quantities. PMID:24741154

  15. An example of applied colour vision research: the conspicuity of airplane colour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the combined knowledge on colorimetry, colour imaging (visualization) and colour perception in an aviation related research project. It involves the optimisation of the conspicuity of the colour scheme of an airplane, with the purpose of minimizing the changes

  16. What do colour-blind people really see?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Problem: colour perception of dichromats (colour-blind persons) Background: Various models have been proposed (e. g. Walraven & Alferdinck, 1997; Brettel et al. , 1997) to model reduced colour vision of colour-blind people. It is clear that colour-blind people cannot distinguish certain object colou

  17. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian

    2012-01-01

    Low-calorie sweeteners are authorised food additives in the European Union (EU). The safety of these sweeteners has been evaluated in accordance with internationally agreed principles for the safety evaluation of food additives. In the EU, the European Commission’s Scientific Committee for Food (......: acesulfame K, aspartame, cyclamates, neotame, saccharin, steviol glycosides and sucralose.......Low-calorie sweeteners are authorised food additives in the European Union (EU). The safety of these sweeteners has been evaluated in accordance with internationally agreed principles for the safety evaluation of food additives. In the EU, the European Commission’s Scientific Committee for Food...... intake (ADI) for humans. The ADI is the amount of the food additive, expressed on a milligram per kilogram of body weight (bw) basis, that can be ingested daily over a lifetime without any appreciable health risk. The following low-calorie sweeteners have been allocated an ADI by either the SCF or EFSA...

  18. Hummingbirds at artificial flowers made to resemble ornithophiles versus melittophiles

    OpenAIRE

    Wyndee A. Guzman; Paul Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Certain floral characteristics are associated with specific pollinators. Hummingbird-pollinated flowers are usually red, lack a landing platform, lack nectar guides, and contain a high amount of dilute sucrose-rich nectar. Here we test hypotheses concerning the reasons for these characters to the extent that they involve hummingbird responses. An array was set up of 16 artificial plants, each with five artificial flowers. (1) Flowers made to differ only in colour elicited a slight preference ...

  19. Artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vivid example of the growing need for frontier physics experiments to make use of frontier technology is in the field of artificial intelligence and related themes. This was reflected in the second international workshop on 'Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in High Energy and Nuclear Physics' which took place from 13-18 January at France Telecom's Agelonde site at La Londe des Maures, Provence. It was the second in a series, the first having been held at Lyon in 1990

  20. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  1. Collective modes in colour superconducting matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of plasmons, Nambu-Goldstone bosons and gapless Carlson-Goldman collective modes in colour-flavour locked phase of colour superconducting dense quark matter at finite temperature are reviewed. A possibility of a kaon condensation with an abnormal number of NG bosons is also discussed. (author)

  2. Effect of Colours in Manual Data Typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih Kirlidog

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a large body of literature on res earch into colour in human-computer interaction, the overwhelming majority of the liter ature emphasises the cognition by computer users. However, colour is also important in this in teraction when users manually type data into a computer. This paper investigates the effect of c olour combinations on manual data typing. To this end, three experiments were conducted where th e subjects were requested to read several texts with different colour combinations and re-typ e them in the same screen. Typing accuracy and speed is measured as the dependent variable acr oss different colour combinations. Three experiments were conducted as such. In the first ex periment, display and input windows were close to each other and in the second one they were located in the opposite ends of the screen. The third experiment was a subset of the first one with reversed foreground and background colours. It was found that different colour combina tions had varying effects on data typing performance and proximity of the display and input windows was not a significant factor for typing accuracy in a 17-inch screen. The effect of reversing the foreground and background colours was inconclusive with the colour combinatio ns used.

  3. Colour measurement and white blood cell recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Gelsema, E S

    1972-01-01

    As a part of a collaboration with NEMCH aimed at the automation of the differential white blood cell count, studies have been made of the different possibilities for using colour to help in the recognition process. Results are presented comparing data obtained with a microspectrophotometer and with a simulated three-colour scanner.

  4. Colour Perception Between Psychology and Art

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaruzza, Serena

    2014-01-01

    The poster refers to important contributions of psychological research on colours. Special emphasis is given to the fundamental classification proposed by David Katz, who strongly influenced subsequent studies; e.g., those by Karl Bühler and Gaetano Kanizsa. In particular, the opposition between diaphanic and epiphanic colours is discussed and applied to two recent paintings of a contemporary experimental artist.

  5. Development of specifications for caramel colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, B H; Shaw, K; Smith, C; Mendoza, M; Orr, J; Myers, D V

    1992-05-01

    Specifications have been developed to define each of the four classes of caramel colour. The specifications were based on analysis of a large database generated during the course of characterization studies of each of the classes. A series of simple and practical tests was developed for the analysis of caramel colour samples to ensure conformity to the specifications. PMID:1644379

  6. Application of graph colouring to biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, S

    2010-05-01

    The author explores the application of graph colouring to biological networks, specifically protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. First, the author finds that given similar conditions (i.e. graph size, degree distribution and clustering), fewer colours are needed to colour disassortative than assortative networks. Fewer colours create fewer independent sets which in turn imply higher concurrency potential for a network. Since PPI networks tend to be disassortative, the author suggests that in addition to functional specificity and stability proposed previously by Maslov and Sneppen (Science, 296, 2002), the disassortative nature of PPI networks may promote the ability of cells to perform multiple, crucial and functionally diverse tasks concurrently. Second, because graph colouring is closely related to the presence of cliques in a graph, the significance of node colouring information to the problem of identifying protein complexes (dense subgraphs in PPI networks), is investigated. The author finds that for PPI networks where 1-11% of nodes participate in at least one identified protein complex, such as H. sapien, DSATUR (a well-known complete graph colouring algorithm) node colouring information can improve the quality (homogeneity and separation) of initial candidate complexes. This finding may help improve existing protein complex detection methods, and/or suggest new methods. [Includes supplementary material]. PMID:20499999

  7. Rapidity gaps from colour string topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffractive deep inelastic scattering at HERA and diffractive W and jet production at the Tevatron are well described by soft colour exchange models. Their essence is the variation of colour string-field topologies giving both gap and no-gap events, with a smooth transition and thereby a unified description of all final states

  8. A novel colour-sensitive CMOS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfelder, G.; Longoni, A.; Zaraga, F.

    2009-10-01

    A novel colour-sensitive semiconductor detector is proposed. The device (named Transverse Field Detector (TFD)) can be used to measure the colour of the incident light without any colour filter. The device is completely compatible with standard CMOS processes and is suitable to be integrated in a pixel array for imaging purposes. The working principle is based on the capability of this device to collect at different superficial junctions the carriers, generated at different depths, by means of suitable transverse electric fields. The transverse components of the electric field are generated inside the depleted region by a suitable bias of the superficial junctions. Thanks to the differences in the light absorption coefficients at different wavelengths, the device performs colour separation. Among the advantages of this approach are the capability of an active tuning of the pixel colour response, which can be obtained just by changing the biasing values of collecting junctions, and foreseen higher colour fidelity, thanks to the easy extension to four colour pixels. First test structures of three colours TFD pixels were designed and built in a standard CMOS 90 nm technology. Operative principles of the device and first experimental results are presented.

  9. Colour Mathematics: With Graphs and Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    The different combinations involved in additive and subtractive colour mixing can often be difficult for students to remember. Using transmission graphs for filters of the primary colours and a numerical scheme to write out the relationships are good exercises in analytical thinking that can help students recall the combinations rather than just…

  10. Bivariate colour maps for visualizing climate data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teuling, A.J.; Stöckli, R.; Seneviratne, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing availability of gridded, high-resolution, multivariate climatological data sets calls for innovative approaches to visualize inter-variable relations. In this study, we present a methodology, based on properties of common colour schemes, to plot two variables in a single colour map by

  11. Breaking graph symmetries by edge colourings

    OpenAIRE

    Lehner, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The distinguishing index $D'(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the least number of colours needed in an edge colouring which is not preserved by any non-trivial automorphism. Broere and Pil\\'sniak conjectured that if every non-trivial automorphism of a countable graph $G$ moves infinitely many edges, then $D'(G) \\leq 2$. We prove this conjecture.

  12. Performance Analysis Using Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of improved facilities for performance analysis using coloured Petri nets. Coloured Petri nets is a formal method that is well suited for modeling and analyzing large and complex systems. The paper describes steps that have been taken to make a distinction between ...

  13. Evaluation and Improvement of the CIE Metameric and Colour Rendering Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Slavuj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All artificial light sources are intended to simulate daylight and its properties of color rendering or ability of colour discrimination. Two indices, defined by the CIE, are used to quantify quality of the artificial light sources. First is Color Rendering Index which quantifies ability of light sources to render colours and other is the Metemerism Index which describes metamerism potential of given light source. Calculation of both indices are defined by CIE and has been a subject of discussion and change in past. In this work particularly, the problem of sample number and type used in calculation is addressed here and evaluated. It is noticed that both indices depends on the choice and sample number and that they should be determined based on application.

  14. 21 CFR 872.3910 - Backing and facing for an artificial tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Backing and facing for an artificial tooth. 872.3910 Section 872.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... artificial tooth. (a) Identification. A backing and facing for an artificial tooth is a device intended...

  15. 21 CFR 868.5375 - Heat and moisture condenser (artificial nose).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat and moisture condenser (artificial nose). 868.5375 Section 868.5375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... moisture condenser (artificial nose). (a) Identification. A heat and moisture condenser (artificial...

  16. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containin...

  17. Artificial photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew C. Benniston; Anthony Harriman

    2008-01-01

    We raise here a series of critical issues regarding artificial photosynthesis with the intention of increasing awareness about what needs to be done to bring about a working prototype. Factors under consideration include energy and electron transfers, coupled redox reactions, repair mechanisms, and integrated photosystems.

  18. Measurement and prediction of pork colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oeckel, M J; Warnants, N; Boucqué, C V

    1999-08-01

    The extent to which instrumental colour determinations by FOPu (light scattering), Göfo (reflectance) and Labscan II (CIE L*, CIE a* and CIE b*, hue and chroma) are related to the Japanese colour grades was studied. Additionally, four on-line methods: pH1, FOP1, PQM1 (conductivity) and DDLT (Double Density Light Transmission, analogous to Capteur Gras/Maigre), were evaluated for their ability to predict subjectively and objectively colour. One hundred and twenty samples of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum, from animals of different genotypes, were analysed. Of the instrumental colour determinations, CIE L* (r=-0.82), FOPu (r=-0.70) and Göfo (r=0.70) were best correlated with the Japanese colour scores. The Japanese colour grades could be predicted by the on-line instruments, pH1, FOP1, PQM1 and DDLT, with determination coefficients between 15 and 28%. Ultimate meat colour, determined by Japanese colour standards, FOPu, Göfo and CIE L*, was better predicted by DDLT than by the classic on-line instruments: FOP1, pH1 and PQM1, although the standard error of the estimate was similar for all instruments. This means that DDLT, although originally designed for estimating lean meat percentage, can additionally give information about meat quality, in particular colour. However, it must be stressed that the colour estimate by DDLT refers to a population of animals, rather than to individual pigs, because of the number of erroneously assigned samples. PMID:22062695

  19. A quick TL authenticity testing for the Tang Dynasty Tri-coloured Pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to complete a quick authenticity testing for the Tang Dynasty Tri-coloured Pottery, a method for preparation of disc samples is developed. About 50 mg fine grain of scraps taken from some obscure position of the tested pottery was divided into 15 parts, some of them was exposed to artificial β-radiation and the natural glow curve was compared with the artificial one, the sample could be dated both rapidly and accurately. Five pieces of the pottery were dated with this method, and one of them was found to be a sham

  20. Integration of feature distributions for colour texture segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Nammalwar, Padmapriya; Ghita, Ovidiu; Whelan, Paul F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new framework for colour texture segmentation and determines the contribution of colour and texture. The distributions of colour and texture features provides the discrimination between different colour textured regions in an image. The proposed method was tested using different mosaic and natural images. From the results, it is evident that the incorporation of colour information enhanced the colour texture segmentation and the developed framework is e...

  1. Dimensionality of the Consumer Perceived Value of Product Colour

    OpenAIRE

    KiehelÀ, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Consumers’ product assessments are largely based on colour, and a product’s colour can increase consumer satisfaction, awareness and loyalty. However, existing colour research is fragmented and calls for theoretically-enhanced understandings of the role of colour in consumer product perception. The existing colour research mainly focuses on consumers’ immediate reactions when exposed to colours although studies show that consumers evaluate products differently in purchase and in use....

  2. Information Limits on Identification of Natural Surfaces by Apparent Colour

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, David H.; Nascimento, Sérgio M. C.; Amano, Kinjiro

    2005-01-01

    By adaptational and other mechanisms, the visual system can compensate for moderate changes in the colour of the illumination on a scene. Although the colours of most surfaces are perceived to be constant (“colour constancy”), some are not. The effect of these residual colour changes on the ability of observers to identify surfaces by their apparent colour was determined theoretically from high-resolution hyperspectral images of natural scenes under different daylights with correlated colour ...

  3. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    OpenAIRE

    Žukauskas, A.; Vaicekauskas, R; Shur, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The applicability of colour quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour rendering index metric (CRI) or a refined colour quality scale metric (CQS) fail to distinguish between two principle colour rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially...

  4. Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreft, Samo; Kreft, Marko

    2007-11-01

    Out of three perceptual characteristics of the colour of any substance, the hue depends mostly on the spectral properties of a substance, while the brightness and saturation depend also on the concentration of a substance and its thickness. Here, we report that evident change of the hue of the colour (i.e., from green to red) is due to a change in concentration or the thickness of a layer in some exceptional substances such as pumpkin seed oil or an aqueous solution of bromophenol blue. In some regions of Central Europe, salad dressing is made preferably with the pumpkin seed oil, which has a strong characteristic nut-like taste and remarkable properties of the colour: it appears red in a bottle, but green when served as a salad dressing. The colour of the pumpkin seed oil was previously described as brownish yellow, dark green, dark green to red ochre or dark reddish brown to light yellow green. We elucidated the physicochemical and physiological basis of such dichromatism by Beer-Lambert law and by the characteristics of human colour perception. Our concept was corroborated by the outcome of calculations of colour from spectral properties using colour matching functions. We found that dichromatism is observed if the absorption spectrum of any substance has at least two local minima: one wide but shallow and one narrow but deep local minimum.

  5. Colour and lighting in hospital design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalke, Hilary; Little, Jenny; Niemann, Elga; Camgoz, Nilgun; Steadman, Guillaume; Hill, Sarah; Stott, Laura

    2006-06-01

    Little information or guidance has been available to assist the development of a hospital's visual environment. A report on lighting and colour design schemes, accessible to non professionals with responsibility for refurbishment strategies, was required by NHS Estates. Firstly, 20 hospitals were audited to establish a picture of current practice and to identify key issues where colour design could broadly enhance the environment for patients, staff and visitors. Critical areas were outlined in this report, where colour design can be utilised and applied, for the benefit of all users, from ambience to essential legal requirements such as colour contrast for the visually impaired. Provision of staff relaxation rooms that are different in terms of colour and lux levels from immediate work spaces, or thoughtfully designed areas for patients awaiting intensive treatment, have been shown to have some beneficial effects on a sense of well being. Colour and design have not been established as a definite cure for sickness and ill health, but certainly monotony and poor conditions in premises that have not been refurbished with any care, have had a detrimental affect on recovery rates and staff morale. The realisation that a well balanced and attractive environment is of major importance to patients' health is, in no way new; Florence Nightingale observed that 'a variety of form and brilliance of colour in the objects presented to patients are an actual means of recovery'.

  6. Most and Least Preferred Colours Differ According to Object Context: New Insights from an Unrestricted Colour Range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domicele Jonauskaite

    Full Text Available Humans like some colours and dislike others, but which particular colours and why remains to be understood. Empirical studies on colour preferences generally targeted most preferred colours, but rarely least preferred (disliked colours. In addition, findings are often based on general colour preferences leaving open the question whether results generalise to specific objects. Here, 88 participants selected the colours they preferred most and least for three context conditions (general, interior walls, t-shirt using a high-precision colour picker. Participants also indicated whether they associated their colour choice to a valenced object or concept. The chosen colours varied widely between individuals and contexts and so did the reasons for their choices. Consistent patterns also emerged, as most preferred colours in general were more chromatic, while for walls they were lighter and for t-shirts they were darker and less chromatic compared to least preferred colours. This meant that general colour preferences could not explain object specific colour preferences. Measures of the selection process further revealed that, compared to most preferred colours, least preferred colours were chosen more quickly and were less often linked to valenced objects or concepts. The high intra- and inter-individual variability in this and previous reports furthers our understanding that colour preferences are determined by subjective experiences and that most and least preferred colours are not processed equally.

  7. Colour revolutions: criminal-legal aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Alekseyevich Gordeychik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective basing on the analysis of colour revolution technologies in different countries to formulate propositions for improving criminal legislation aimed at counteraction against this phenomenon. Methods general scientific induction deduction analysis synthesis and specific scientific formaljuridical and comparativelegal. Results using the results of colour revolutionsrsquo research carried out by political scientists the author evaluates the character and level of public danger of colour revolutions. The author states that the colour revolutions threaten the normal existence of the country or several countries. The conclusion is made that the colour revolutions must be counteracted by criminallegal means. The article states the absence of norms in the existing criminal legislation which would impose criminal liability on organizers incendiaries and participants of colour revolutions. It is proposed to supplement the existing criminal law with the norm stipulating the liability for such deeds and to insert this norm into Art. 34 ldquoCrimes against peace and security of humanityrdquo thus equating organization preparation and implementing colour revolutions with planning preparation launching and conducting an aggressive war Art. 353 of the Russian Criminal Code. Scientific novelty basing on the existing legal norms modern politological and juridical scientific literature a conclusion is made that the colour revolutions are based on the abuse of law. This allows the organizers of colour revolutions to legally prepare and implement the subversion of undesirable political regimes. The author formulates proposals for supplementing the criminal legislation. Practical value the materials and conclusions of the article can be used in lawmaking activity when elaborating the drafts of legal acts for changing and supplementing the Russian Criminal Code for research activity when preparing monographs and dissertations tutorials and articles when

  8. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve. PMID:26957450

  9. The colour wheels of art, perception, science and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Nick

    2006-06-01

    Colour is not the domain of any one discipline be it art, philosophy, psychology or science. Each discipline has its own colour wheel and this presentation examines the origins and philosophies behind the colour circles of Art, Perception, Science and Physiology (after image) with reference to Aristotle, Robert Boyle, Leonardo da Vinci, Goethe, Ewald Hering and Albert Munsell. The paper analyses and discusses the differences between the four colour wheels using the Natural Colour System® notation as the reference for hue (the position of colours within each of the colour wheels). Examination of the colour wheels shows the dominance of blue in the wheels of art, science and physiology particularly at the expense of green. This paper does not consider the three-dimensionality of colour space its goal was to review the hue of a colour with regard to its position on the respective colour wheels.

  10. Artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Duda, Antonín

    2009-01-01

    Abstract : Issue of this work is to acquaint the reader with the history of artificial inteligence, esspecialy branch of chess computing. Main attention is given to progress from fifties to the present. The work also deals with fighting chess programs against each other, and against human opponents. The greatest attention is focused on 1997 and duel Garry Kasparov against chess program Deep Blue. The work is divided into chapters according to chronological order.

  11. 21 CFR 874.3375 - Battery-powered artificial larynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Battery-powered artificial larynx. 874.3375... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3375 Battery-powered artificial larynx. (a) Identification. A battery-powered artificial larynx is an externally applied...

  12. STEGANALYSIS USING COLOUR MODEL CONVERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Thiyagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major threat in cyber crime for digital forensic examiner is to identify, analyze and interpret theconcealed information inside digital medium such as image, audio and video. There are strong indicationsthat hiding information inside digital medium has been used for planning criminal activities. In this way, itis important to develop a steganalysis technique which detects the existence of hidden messages insidedigital medium. This paper focuses on universal image steganalysis method which uses RGB to HSI colourmodel conversion. Any Universal Steganalysis algorithm developed should be tested with various stegoimagesto prove its efficiency. The developed Universal Steganalysis algorithm is tested in stego-imagedatabase which is obtained by implementing various RGB Least Significant Bit Steganographic algorithms.Though there are many stego-image sources available on the internet it lacks in the information such ashow many rows has been infected by the steganography algorithms, how many bits have been modified andwhich channel has been affected. These parameters are important for Steganalysis algorithms and it helpsto rate its efficiency. Proposed Steganalysis using Colour Model has been tested with our Image Databaseand the results were affirmative.

  13. Steganalysis Using Colour Model Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Thiyagarajan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The major threat in cyber crime for digital forensic examiner is to identify, analyze and interpret theconcealed information inside digital medium such as image, audio and video. There are strong indicationsthat hiding information inside digital medium has been used for planning criminal activities. In this way, itis important to develop a steganalysis technique which detects the existence of hidden messages insidedigital medium. This paper focuses on universal image steganalysis method which uses RGB to HSI colourmodel conversion. Any Universal Steganalysis algorithm developed should be tested with various stegoimagesto prove its efficiency. The developed Universal Steganalysis algorithm is tested in stego-imagedatabase which is obtained by implementing various RGB Least Significant Bit Steganographic algorithms.Though there are many stego-image sources available on the internet it lacks in the information such ashow many rows has been infected by the steganography algorithms, how many bits have been modified andwhich channel has been affected. These parameters are important for Steganalysis algorithms and it helpsto rate its efficiency. Proposed Steganalysis using Colour Model has been tested with our Image Databaseand the results were affirmative.

  14. SATISFIABILITY METHODS FOR COLOURING GRAPHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munmun Dey

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The graph colouring problem can be solved using methods based on Satisfiability (SAT. An instance of the problem is defined by a Boolean expression written using Boolean variables and the logical connectives AND, OR and NOT. It has to be determined whether there is an assignment of TRUE and FALSE values to the variables that makes the entire expression true.A SAT problem is syntactically and semantically quite simple. Many Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPsin AI and OR can be formulated in SAT. These make use of two kinds of searchalgorithms: Deterministic and Randomized.It has been found that deterministic methods when run on hard CSP instances are frequently very slow in execution.A deterministic method always outputs a solution in the end, but it can take an enormous amount of time to do so.This has led to the development of randomized search algorithms like GSAT, which are typically based on local (i.e., neighbourhood search. Such methodshave been applied very successfully to find good solutions to hard decision problems

  15. Trends In Coloured Nursing Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Venter

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Education as a selfgrowth process implies the potential successful adaptation to the world in which one lives; the latter becoming increasingly demanding through the expansion and growth of society as a whole. The Coloured nursing student of today, like all other students, lives in a fantastic era of technological advancement, industrialization, a continual struggle for academic achievement and above all the drive to achieve adjustment within the changing framework of society. The student must therefore be prepared to learn — which is a mental activity by means of which knowledge, skills, attitudes, and ideals are acquired, resulting in the modification of behaviour. The present-day nurse educator, therefore, not only has to be professionally and academically prepared for the educational task in nursing science but has to constantly update knowledge so as to keep abreast of the total interrelated picture of basic human science development. The success or failure of the student when she enters the professional world is an irrevocable reflection of the effectiveness of her teachers.

  16. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Galaxy colour gradients versus colour, structure and luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Rebecca; Häußler, Boris; Brough, Sarah; Holwerda, Benne; Hopkins, Andrew M; Vika, Marina; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2016-01-01

    Using single-component fits to SDSS/UKIDSS images of galaxies in the G09 region of the GAMA survey we study radial colour gradients across the galaxy population. We use the multiwavelength information provided by MegaMorph analysis of galaxy light profiles to calculate intrinsic colour gradients, and divide into six subsamples split by overall S\\'{e}rsic index ($n$) and galaxy colour. We find a bimodality in the colour gradients of high- and low-$n$ galaxies in all wavebands, which varies with overall galaxy luminosity. Global trends in colour gradients therefore result from combining the contrasting behaviour of a number of different galaxy populations. The ubiquity of strong negative colour gradients supports the picture of inside-out growth through gas accretion for blue, low-$n$ galaxies, and through dry minor mergers for red, high-$n$ galaxies. An exception is the blue high-n population, with properties indicative of dissipative major mergers.

  17. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)

  18. Effect of Superheated Steam Treatment on Changes in Moisture Content and Colour Properties of Coconut Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Mah Sook Yun; Wahidu Zzaman; Tajul A. Yang

    2015-01-01

    Drying is one of the methods to preserve the quality and prolong the shelf life of food. Coconut meat was sliced and dried using superheated steam oven at 140°C, 160°C and 180°C. Drying was carried out at different drying time (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes). The effect of drying temperature and time on the moisture content and colour properties (L, a, b and BI) of the coconut slices were studied. The temperature and time significantly (p < 0.05) affected the moisture loss and colour va...

  19. Optimization of colour quality of LED lighting with reference to memory colours

    OpenAIRE

    Smet, Kevin; Ryckaert, Wouter; Pointer, Michael R.; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Simulated and real tri- and tetrachromatic light-emitting-diode (LED) clusters were optimized for luminous efficacy of radiation (LER) and the memory colour quality metric developed by the authors. The simulated clusters showed no significant differences in achievable colour quality and LER between the different cluster types investigated. The real clusters (composed of commercially available LEDs) showed substantial differences in achievable colour quality and LER between the different clus...

  20. Effects of environmental colour on mood: a wearable LifeColour capture device

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Aiden R.; Kelly, Philip; O'flynn, Brendan; Curran, Padraig; Smeaton, Alan F.; Ó Mathúna, S. Cian; O'connor, Noel E.

    2010-01-01

    Colour is everywhere in our daily lives and impacts things like our mood, yet we rarely take notice of it. One method of capturing and analysing the predominant colours that we encounter is through visual lifelogging devices such as the SenseCam. However an issue related to these devices is the privacy concerns of capturing image level detail. Therefore in this work we demonstrate a hardware prototype wearable camera that captures only one pixel - of the dominant colour prevelant in front of ...

  1. ADDITIVES USED TO OBTAIN FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Dorina Ardelean; Daniela Popa

    2012-01-01

    Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  2. ADDITIVES USED TO OBTAIN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  3. How to pass higher English colour

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann

    2009-01-01

    How to Pass is the Number 1 revision series for Scottish qualifications across the three examination levels of Standard Grade, Intermediate and Higher! Second editions of the books present all of the material in full colour for the first time.

  4. Colour Management as a Precondition of Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Brues

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Colour management technology has reached a high level of maturity. Only ten years after it first appeared on the market, ICC colour profiles have become indispensable in modern premedia. It can be said without exaggeration that colour management has revolutionised digital proof printing. A whole range of newcomers in the print industry supplier community offer an intelligent combination of a PostScript RIP with integral colour management functions. The quality of these low-priced proofing systems has now reached such a high level that even discerning customers accept such digital proofs as contract proofs. Modular proofing solutions are regularly to be found among the leaders in the digital proofer tests.Working with colour profiles and profiled workflows is still a major problem area. It is no mere chance that notably digital proofing is the field in which users work with colour profiles in virtually all systems, since applications here are locally limited.An important step for the widespread use of colour management technology is the now very extensive implementation of ICC mechanisms in application programs such as Adobe Photoshop. Version 7 is regarded as a model of well thought-out ICC-based colour management implementation. As Microsoft has neglected the ICC standard in recent years, Adobe has created its own colour management interface, called ACE. Based on the ICC standard, it is regarded by many experts as a reference implementation. Adobe products, which are so important for the graphic arts industry, now contain a standard colour management platform across all supported operating systems. Incompatibilities at system level can now be virtually ruled out, at least across the Adobe product line, including the important interfaces with PostScript and PDF.Modern prepress technology is set to move ever further away from exclusive print production for standardised offset print. Multiple use of production data is still at an early stage

  5. Modelling colour changes during the caramelisation reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Quintas, Mafalda A. C.; Brandão, Teresa R. S.; Silva, Cristina L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Sucrose solutions, with concentrations near or superior to saturation, present high potentialities for the candy and pastry industries. The development of colour in a neutral and highly concentrated sucrose solution (16.32%(w/w) water content) subjected to isothermal heat treatment (in the 100–160 C range) was investigated. Under such conditions, sucrose degrades through caramelisation and 5- hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is formed. Colour development was monitored through lightness/darkening ...

  6. THE COLOUR GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IANCU,E.; LEONIDOV,A.; MCLERRAN,L.

    2001-08-06

    In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the Colour Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory.

  7. Plants and colour: Flowers and pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Renee; Owens, Simon J.; Rørslett, Bjørn

    2011-03-01

    While there is a range of colours found in plants the predominant colour is green. Pigments in plants have several roles e.g. photosynthesis and signalling. If colour is to be used as a signal then it must stand out from green. However, one should be aware that there are also coloured compounds where we have not yet fully investigated the role of colour in their functions—they may have roles in, for example, defence or heat exchange. In this paper, we will describe the basic chemistry of the major pigments found in plants and especially floral pigments. We will then discuss their locations in parts of the flower (such as sepals, petals, pollen and nectar), the cells in which they are found and their sub-cellular locations. Floral pigments have a large role to play in pollination of flowers by animals. They can and are modified in many ways during the development of flowers in nature, for example, at emergence and post-pollination. There are a range of biochemical mechanisms of colour change both within flowers and in isolated pigments. Some of the factors influencing colour are temperature, co-pigments, pH, metals, sugars, anthocyanin stacking and cell shape. There is a renewed interest in analysing floral pigments and how they are modified partly because of advances in recombinant DNA technologies, but also because of pollinators and their significance to biodiversity and for evolutionary studies. There is continued strong interest from the horticultural industry for the introduction of new colours e.g. the blue rose and for the exploitation of natural dyes. Funding in this area may impact future research in a potentially beneficial way but it must not deflect us from science-based conservation.

  8. The Norwegian Sphagna: a field colour guide

    OpenAIRE

    Flatberg, Kjell I.

    2002-01-01

    Colour plates illustrate fifty-four Sphagnum taxa, 50 species and 4 subspecies. This constitues all the known peat mosses from Norway including arctic Svalbard. Macroscopic keys to sections and species within the different sections are presented. These keys used in combination with the colour plates and a hand lens should in most cases enable the correct determination of the Norwegian peat mosses in the field.

  9. THE COLOUR GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the Colour Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory

  10. Evolution of Colour Superposition in the Stochastic QCD Vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Kuvshinov, V. I.; Bagashov, E. G.

    2013-01-01

    It is shown that confinement of spinless heavy quarks can be treated as decoherence of an arbitrary colour superposition into a mixture quantum state with equal probabilities for different colours with the use of stochastic QCD vacuum model. Decoherence rate is found to be proportional to the distance between colour charges. Purity, fidelity, and Von Neumann entropy of colour states are evaluated.

  11. Mechanisms, functions and ecology of colour vision in the honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel de Ibarra, N; Vorobyev, M; Menzel, R

    2014-06-01

    Research in the honeybee has laid the foundations for our understanding of insect colour vision. The trichromatic colour vision of honeybees shares fundamental properties with primate and human colour perception, such as colour constancy, colour opponency, segregation of colour and brightness coding. Laborious efforts to reconstruct the colour vision pathway in the honeybee have provided detailed descriptions of neural connectivity and the properties of photoreceptors and interneurons in the optic lobes of the bee brain. The modelling of colour perception advanced with the establishment of colour discrimination models that were based on experimental data, the Colour-Opponent Coding and Receptor Noise-Limited models, which are important tools for the quantitative assessment of bee colour vision and colour-guided behaviours. Major insights into the visual ecology of bees have been gained combining behavioural experiments and quantitative modelling, and asking how bee vision has influenced the evolution of flower colours and patterns. Recently research has focussed on the discrimination and categorisation of coloured patterns, colourful scenes and various other groupings of coloured stimuli, highlighting the bees' behavioural flexibility. The identification of perceptual mechanisms remains of fundamental importance for the interpretation of their learning strategies and performance in diverse experimental tasks. PMID:24828676

  12. The Application of Happening Colour in Modern Fabric Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Chun-yu

    2006-01-01

    To expand the past and present colour concept and reinvent fabric design methods, happening colour is used as a kind of new colour concept and form to design and analyse the resource of colour. With the aid of sophisticated computer software and advanced digital printing machines, happening colour allows images of considerable complication and intricacy to be designed and produced in modern fabric design by various arrangement of printing colours, which also allows further shifts of colour emphasis of the different visual and psychogenic recept.

  13. 21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened fruit jelly. 150.141 Section 150.141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS...

  14. Alginic acid and hyaluronic acid, effective stabilizers of carthamin red colour in aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshi Saito

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sodium salts and free forms of two heterosaccharides, alginic and hyaluronic acids were mixed with carthamin in a buffer at pH 5.5 and their preservation effects of carthamin red colour were screened after incubation for 24 h at 3-5oC in the dark. The effects observed were (alginic acid/hyaluronic acid, % on average: 69.3/60.3, for which the values are higher by 40.9 and 29.1%, respectively, compared with those of the control which was conducted with no addition of heterosaccharides. Alginic acid is a more promising stabilizer than haluronic acid, indicating that active groups such as hydroxyls, carboxyls and amino groups on the building units of the macromolecules are associated closely with the carthamin red colour preservation. The empirical outcomes are referred to the practical application of carthamin as a colourant of food products.

  15. A Handheld LED Coloured-Light Mixer for Students to Learn Collaboratively the Primary Colours of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Chitaree, Ratchapak; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2009-01-01

    To overcome students' inaccurate prior knowledge on primary additive colours, a coloured-light mixer has been constructed to enable students to observe directly the colours produced and reach the conclusion by themselves that the three primary colours of light are red, green, and blue (NOT red, yellow, and blue). Three closely packed tiny…

  16. Changes in colour contrast sensitivity associated with operating argon lasers.

    OpenAIRE

    Gündüz, K; Arden, G B

    1989-01-01

    A new test of colour vision using computer graphics has been used to obtain quantitative estimates of colour contrast sensitivity in ophthalmologists before and after they have treated patients by argon laser retinal photocoagulation. The colour vision of all subjects is normal when tested with the 100-hue test and HRR (Hardy, Rittler, Rand) plates, but colour contrast sensitivity measured along a tritan colour confusion line is selectively impaired after a treatment session. No such change o...

  17. Colours as Non-Verbal Signs on Packages

    OpenAIRE

    Kauppinen, Hannele

    2005-01-01

    Colour is an essential aspect of our daily life, and still, it is a neglected issue within marketing research. The main reason for studying colours is to understand the impact of colours on consumer behaviour, and thus, colours should be studied when it comes to branding, advertising, packages, interiors, and the clothes of the employees, for example. This was an exploratory study about the impact of colours on packages. The focus was on low-involvement purchasing, where the consumer puts...

  18. Environmental colour affects aspects of single-species population dynamics.

    OpenAIRE

    Petchey, O L

    2000-01-01

    Single-species populations of ciliates (Colpidium and Paramecium) experienced constant temperature or white or reddened temperature fluctuations in aquatic microcosms in order to test three hypotheses about how environmental colour influences population dynamics. (i) Models predict that the colour of population dynamics is tinged by the colour of the environmental variability. However, environmental colour had no effect on the colour of population dynamics. All population dynamics in this exp...

  19. Face colour under varying illumination - analysis and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Martinkauppi, B. (Birgitta)

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The colours of objects perceived by a colour camera are dependent on the illumination conditions. For example, when the prevailing illumination condition does not correspond to the one used in the white balancing of the camera, the object colours can change their appearance due to the lack of colour constancy capabilities. Many methods for colour constancy have been suggested but so far their performance has been inadequate. Faces are common and important objects encountered in ma...

  20. Seasonal changes in colour: a comparison of structural, melanin- and carotenoid-based plumage colours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaspar Delhey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plumage coloration is important for bird communication, most notably in sexual signalling. Colour is often considered a good quality indicator, and the expression of exaggerated colours may depend on individual condition during moult. After moult, plumage coloration has been deemed fixed due to the fact that feathers are dead structures. Still, many plumage colours change after moult, although whether this affects signalling has not been sufficiently assessed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied changes in coloration after moult in four passerine birds (robin, Erithacus rubecula; blackbird, Turdus merula; blue tit, Cyanistes caeruleus; and great tit, Parus major displaying various coloration types (melanin-, carotenoid-based and structural. Birds were caught regularly during three years to measure plumage reflectance. We used models of avian colour vision to derive two variables, one describing chromatic and the other achromatic variation over the year that can be compared in magnitude among different colour types. All studied plumage patches but one (yellow breast of the blue tit showed significant chromatic changes over the year, although these were smaller than for a typical dynamic trait (bill colour. Overall, structural colours showed a reduction in relative reflectance at shorter wavelengths, carotenoid-based colours the opposite pattern, while no general pattern was found for melanin-based colours. Achromatic changes were also common, but there were no consistent patterns of change for the different types of colours. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Changes of plumage coloration independent of moult are probably widespread; they should be perceivable by birds and have the potential to affect colour signalling.

  1. Comparison of the Baird-Parker agar and 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate methods for enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in naturally and artificially contaminated foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Steven C; Becker, Katie L; Fanslau, Melody A

    2003-11-01

    The recently developed 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count plate (PFSE) method was compared with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual's Baird-Parker agar spread plate (B-P) method for enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in naturally contaminated, mechanically separated poultry (MSP; n = 92) and raw milk (n = 12). In addition, mozzarella and Parmesan cheeses and hot-smoked rainbow trout and chub were surface inoculated with a three-strain mixture of S. aureus, stored at 5 degrees C, and periodically analyzed with both methods for numbers of S. aureus. For naturally contaminated raw milk and MSP samples, the PFSE method yielded counts that were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from counts obtained using the B-P method. From raw milk and MSP samples, 60% (21 of 35) and 55% (124 of 226), respectively, of confirmed (DNAse-positive) isolates from PFSE plates were identified by further testing as S. aureus. Corresponding S. aureus identification rates for isolates forming typical colonies on B-P plates were 53% (19 of 36) and 50% (125 of 248). For both methods, other staphylococci composed the vast majority of tested isolates that were not identified as S. aureus. For inoculated hot-smoked fish, S. aureus counts from the PFSE method were not significantly different from counts from the B-P method. Compared to the B-P method, significantly lower numbers of inoculated S. aureus were recovered using the PFSE method in analyses of mozzarella cheese stored 28 and 42 days at 4 degrees C. The PFSE and B-P methods were not significantly different for inoculated cheeses at all other sampling times. DNAse-positive isolates from PFSE analyses of inoculated cheeses and smoked fish were identified as S. aureus 98% (51 of 52) and 86% (36 of 42) of the time, respectively, as compared with 100% (58 of 58) and 95% (40 of 42) of the time for typical B-P isolates. Overall, the PFSE and B-P methods appeared to perform similarly in enumeration of S

  2. Harmonisation of food categorisation systems for dietary exposure assessments among European children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Neve, Melissa; Sioen, Isabelle; Boon, Polly;

    2010-01-01

    Within the European project called EXPOCHI (Individual Food Consumption Data and Exposure Assessment Studies for Children), 14 different European individual food consumption databases of children were used to conduct harmonised dietary exposure assessments for lead, chromium, selenium and food...... colours. For this, two food categorisation systems were developed to classify the food consumption data in such a way that these could be linked to occurrence data of the considered compounds. One system served for the exposure calculations of lead, chromium and selenium. The second system was developed...... for the exposure assessment of food colours. The food categories defined for the lead, chromium and selenium exposure calculations were used as a basis for the food colour categorisation, with adaptations to optimise the linkage with the food colour occurrence data. With this work, an initial impetus...

  3. Going global Management of colour-measuring instrumentation is the key to successful colour management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Rachel.

    2007-01-01

    @@ It is no secret in the industry that even the best spectrophotometers exhibit colour drift with time. Software solutions are now available that can eliminate this drift and also use different manufacturers'drivers to calibrate literally all of the instruments involved in the colour process.

  4. Visual ecology of flies with particular reference to colour vision and colour preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Klaus

    2014-06-01

    The visual ecology of flies is outstanding among insects due to a combination of specific attributes. Flies' compound eyes possess an open rhabdom and thus separate rhabdomeres in each ommatidium assigned to two visual pathways. The highly sensitive, monovariant neural superposition system is based on the excitation of the peripheral rhabdomeres of the retinula cells R1-6 and controls optomotor reactions. The two forms of central rhabdomeres of R7/8 retinula cells in each ommatidium build up a system with four photoreceptors sensitive in different wavelength ranges and thought to account for colour vision. Evidence from wavelength discrimination tests suggests that all colour stimuli are assigned to one of just four colour categories, but cooperation of the two pathways is also evident. Flies use colour cues for various behavioural reactions such as flower visitation, proboscis extension, host finding, and egg deposition. Direct evidence for colour vision, the ability to discriminate colours according to spectral shape but independent of intensity, has been demonstrated for few fly species only. Indirect evidence for colour vision provided from electrophysiological recordings of the spectral sensitivity of photoreceptors and opsin genes indicates similar requisites in various flies; the flies' responses to coloured targets, however, are much more diverse. PMID:24664124

  5. A simplified method for generation of pseudo natural colours from colour infrared aerial photos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas; Olsen, Brian Pilemann

    In spite of their high potential for automated discrimination between vegetation and human made objects, colour-infrared (CIR) aerial photos have not been in widespread use for traditional photogrammetric mapping. This is probably due to their awkward colour representation invalidating the visual...... analytical experience of the stereo analysts doing the actual registration of the topographical data. In this paper, we present a method for generating pseudo natural colour (PNC) representations from CIR photos. This enables the combination of automated vegetation discrimination with traditional manual...... the second step the blue colour component is estimated using tailored models for each domain. Green and red colour components are taken directly fron the CIR photo. The visual impression of the results from the 2 step method is only slightly inferior to the original 7 step method. The implementation...

  6. Artificial sweeteners: safe or unsafe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurrat-ul-Ain; Khan, Sohaib Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners or intense sweeteners are sugar substitutes that are used as an alternative to table sugar. They are many times sweeter than natural sugar and as they contain no calories, they may be used to control weight and obesity. Extensive scientific research has demonstrated the safety of the six low-calorie sweeteners currently approved for use in foods in the U.S. and Europe (stevia, acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin and sucralose), if taken in acceptable quantities daily. There is some ongoing debate over whether artificial sweetener usage poses a health threat .This review article aims to cover thehealth benefits, and risks, of consuming artificial sweeteners, and discusses natural sweeteners which can be used as alternatives. PMID:25842566

  7. Perbandingan Efektivitas Ishihara Colour Blind Test dan Farnsworth Munsell Colour Blind Test di Fakuktas di Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Sumatera Utara Tahun 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Indriati, Dwi Meutia

    2015-01-01

    Colour blindness is a disease caused by the inability of cone cells to capture a certain colour spectrum. Colour blindness is generally more contained on the male than the females with a 20:1 ratio. Colour blindness can be diagnosed with several test which Ishihar Colour Blind Test and Farnworth Munsell Colour Blind Test. The purpose of this research was to see a comparison the effectiveness between Ishihara Colour Blind Test with Farmsworth Munsell Colour Blind Test at the Faculty Dentist...

  8. Palette-colouring: a belief propagation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a variation of the prototype combinatorial optimization problem known as graph colouring. Our optimization goal is to colour the vertices of a graph with a fixed number of colours, in a way to maximize the number of different colours present in the set of nearest neighbours of each given vertex. This problem, which we pictorially call palette-colouring, has been recently addressed as a basic example of a problem arising in the context of distributed data storage. Even though it has not been proved to be NP-complete, random search algorithms find the problem hard to solve. Heuristics based on a naive belief propagation algorithm are observed to work quite well in certain conditions. In this paper, we build upon the mentioned result, working out the correct belief propagation algorithm, which needs to take into account the many-body nature of the constraints present in this problem. This method improves the naive belief propagation approach at the cost of increased computational effort. We also investigate the emergence of a satisfiable-to-unsatisfiable 'phase transition' as a function of the vertex mean degree, for different ensembles of sparse random graphs in the large size ('thermodynamic') limit

  9. Sensory evaluation of meat colour using photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Destefanis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Five m. longissimus thoracis steaks from different breeds, purchased at retail, were cut into samples and simultaneously photographed under standard shooting conditions. The first photo was taken on samples just arrived at the laboratory, the second one on a freshly cut surface after blooming. Two consumer panels evaluated beef colour using respectively photo 1 and photo 2. Each consumer was asked to rank samples in order of preference. Rank sums were evaluated with Fridman’s test. Immediately after taking the photos, colour was measured with a colorimeter. Regarding photo 1, consumers were able to discriminate one sample, the worst, from all the others. Concerning photo 2, consumers discriminated the worst sample, as in photo 1, but also the best one. Therefore a more accurate colour evaluation can be obtained if the assessment is carried out on a fresh cut surface after blooming. In general consumers preferred samples with high lightness and a relatively high yellowness. The sensory evaluation of meat colour using photographs is a promising tool to overcome the difficulties when the meat is directly evaluated. But it is very important to standardize the shooting conditions to obtain a true reproduction of the meat. For this purpose the use of a colour target is useful to check the validity of the adopted parameters.

  10. Highly polymorphic colour vision in a New World monkey with red facial skin, the bald uakari (Cacajao calvus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Josmael; Bowler, Mark; Heymann, Eckhard W; Roos, Christian; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2016-04-13

    Colour vision is highly variable in New World monkeys (NWMs). Evidence for the adaptive basis of colour vision in this group has largely centred on environmental features such as foraging benefits for differently coloured foods or predator detection, whereas selection on colour vision for sociosexual communication is an alternative hypothesis that has received little attention. The colour vision of uakaris (Cacajao) is of particular interest because these monkeys have the most dramatic red facial skin of any primate, as well as a unique fission/fusion social system and a specialist diet of seeds. Here, we investigate colour vision in a wild population of the bald uakari,C. calvus, by genotyping the X-linked opsin locus. We document the presence of a polymorphic colour vision system with an unprecedented number of functional alleles (six), including a novel allele with a predicted maximum spectral sensitivity of 555 nm. This supports the presence of strong balancing selection on different alleles at this locus. We consider different hypotheses to explain this selection. One possibility is that trichromacy functions in sexual selection, enabling females to choose high-quality males on the basis of red facial coloration. In support of this, there is some evidence that health affects facial coloration in uakaris, as well as a high prevalence of blood-borne parasitism in wild uakari populations. Alternatively, the low proportion of heterozygous female trichromats in the population may indicate selection on different dichromatic phenotypes, which might be related to cryptic food coloration. We have uncovered unexpected diversity in the last major lineage of NWMs to be assayed for colour vision, which will provide an interesting system to dissect adaptation of polymorphic trichromacy. PMID:27053753

  11. Pseudoisochromatic test plate colour representation dependence on printing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study is to determine best printing technology for creation of colour vision deficiency tests. Valid tests for protanopia and deuteranopia were created from perceived colour matching experiments from printed colour samples by colour deficient individuals. Calibrated EpsonStylus Pro 7800 printer for ink prints and Noritsu HD 3701 digital printer for photographic prints were used. Multispectral imagery (by tunable liquid crystal filters system CRI Nuance Vis 07) data analysis show that in case of ink prints, the measured pixel colour coordinate dispersion (in the CIExy colour diagram) of similar colour arrays is smaller than in case of photographic printing. The print quality in terms of colour coordinate dispersion for printing methods used is much higher than in case of commercially available colour vision deficiency tests.

  12. Developing an effective means to reduce 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural from caramel colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yongguang; Chen, Mingshun; Yu, Shujuan; Tang, Qiang; Yan, He

    2014-01-15

    Supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction was used to extract 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural from caramel colour (solid content was about 75%). The procedure was carried out by response surface methodology using a quadratic polynomial model. Extraction pressure, time, temperature and ethanol content were selected as the independent variables. Conditions to obtain the highest extraction ratio of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural were determined to be an extraction pressure of 21.65MPa, time of 46.7min, temperature of 35°C and 70% ethanol content of caramel colour. The predicted 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural extraction ratio was 87.42%. Under the conditions stated above, the experimental value of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural extraction ratio was 86.98%, which was similar to the predicted value by the model. This study indicated that supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction can effectively reduce 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural from caramel colour, which can help food industry to improve the safety of the food material, as well as provide more healthy caramel colour for human beings. PMID:24054213

  13. Recent Progress of Flower Colour Modification by Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Chandler

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetically-modified, colour-altered varieties of the important cut-flower crop carnation have now been commercially available for nearly ten years. In this review we describe the manipulation of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway that has lead to the development of these varieties and how similar manipulations have been successfully applied to both pot plants and another cut-flower species, the rose. From this experience it is clear that down- and up-regulation of the flavonoid and anthocyanin pathway is both possible and predictable. The major commercial benefit of the application of this technology has so far been the development of novel flower colours through the development of transgenic varieties that produce, uniquely for the target species, anthocyanins derived from delphinidin. These anthocyanins are ubiquitous in nature, and occur in both ornamental plants and common food plants. Through the extensive regulatory approval processes that must occur for the commercialization of genetically modified organisms, we have accumulated considerable experimental and trial data to show the accumulation of delphinidin based anthocyanins in the transgenic plants poses no environmental or health risk.

  14. PENENTUAN KUANTITATIF ZAT WARNA KARMOSIN,PONCEAU 4R DAN MERAH ALURA YANG DITAMBAHKAN DALAM MINUMAN AGREM (Hibiscus sabdariffa, Linn [Quantitative Determination of Carmoisine, Ponceau 4R and Allura Red Colouring Agents Added Into Softdrink Containing the Aqueous Extract of (Hibiscus sabdariffa, Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Embit Kartadarma

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthetic food-colouring agent is stiil commonly used in soft drink to enhance the colour of the food and to make foods more attractive, particularly for the drink containing natural colour. Addition of colour is legally permitted by the govermment, however, the product sometime contain the substance more than the permissible maximum dosage, and it may possibly cause iillhealth to the consumer. Preparation of soft drink containing the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa fruits gave less intense colour due to the colour. The quantity of the synthetic food colour in soft drink must be determined quantitatively for food safety and the presence of natural colour in the products may affect the results. Determination of three synthetic colouring agents, carmoisine, ponceau 4R and allura red added into soft drink containing the aqueous extract of hisbicus sabdariffa was carried out. Result showed that the determination of such colouring agents can only be achivied after adjusting the pH up to 4.5 and the recovery of carmoisine, ponceau 4R and allura red were 99.8: 100.2 and 100.0%, with the accuracy of 0.1;0.3 and 0.1% and the precission of 0.1; 0.3 and 0.1% respectively.

  15. Photonic-crystal full-colour displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, André C.; Puzzo, Daniel P.; Manners, Ian; Ozin, Geoffrey A.

    2007-08-01

    In our information-rich world, it is becoming increasingly important to develop technologies capable of displaying dynamic and changeable data, for reasons ranging from value-added advertising to environmental sustainability. There is an intense drive at the moment towards paper-like displays, devices having a high reflectivity and contrast to provide viewability in a variety of environments, particularly in sunlight where emissive or backlit devices perform very poorly. The list of possible technologies is extensive, including electrophoretic, cholesteric liquid crystalline, electrochromic, electrodewetting, interferometric and more. Despite tremendous advances, the key drawback of all these existing display options relates to colour. As soon as an RGB (red, green and blue) colour filter or spatially modulated colour scheme is implemented, substantial light losses are inevitable even if the intrinsic reflectivity of the material is very good.

  16. Colour vision screening among Saudi Arabian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Matthew Oriowo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the prevalence of congenital red-green colour vision defects among Saudi Arabian male and female children.Methods: The study involved 1638 elementary and high school participants (838 males, and 800 females, who were randomly selected and screened for red-green colour vision defects using the Ishihara (pseudo-isochromatic plates test. Inclusion criteria were Snellen VA 20/20 or better and absence of known ocular pathologies.Among the females, 0.75% of the 800 participants showed CVD, with 0.25% and 0.5% demonstratingprotan and deutan defects, respectively.Conclusion: The results show that the prevalence of red-green colour deficiency among the female children from central Saudi Arabia is not significantly different from that of female populations inwestern countries.  The current prevalence among the males is higher than previously reported for central Saudi Arabia, but less than for Caucasian populations. 

  17. Artificial Sweeteners versus Natural Sweeteners

    OpenAIRE

    Neacsu, N.A.; Madar, A.

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates are an important dietary nutrient which is mostly used to supply energy to the body, as well as a carbon source for synthesis of other needed chemicals. In addition, mono- and disaccharides are craved because of their sweetness. We present different types of sweeteners, which are the basic contents of foods which we consume every day and are demonstrated the positive and negative effects of natural and artificial sweeteners.

  18. OCoc- from Ocean Colour to Organic Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, B.; Overduin, P. P.; Schirrmeister, L.; Lantuit, H.; Doerffer, R.

    2009-12-01

    Enhanced permafrost warming and increased arctic river discharges have heightened concern about the input of terrigenous matter into Arctic coastal waters. The ‘OCoc-from Ocean Colour to Organic Carbon’ project (IPY-project 1176), funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG), is an Ocean Colour study joined with the Arctic Coastal Dynamics ACD network and Arctic Circum-polar Coastal Observatory Network ACCO-Net (IPY-project 90). OCoc uses Ocean Colour satellite data for synoptical monitoring of organic matter fluxes from fluvial and coastal sources. Initial results from German-Russian expeditions at the southeastern Laptev Sea Coast (Arctic Siberia, Russia) in August 2008 and August 2009 are presented. Large parts of this coastal zone are characterized by highly erosive organic-rich material. Ocean Colour MERIS Reduced Resolution (RR)-LIB data of the have been processed towards optical aquatic parameters using Beam-Visat4.2 and the MERIS case2 regional processor for coastal application (C2R). Calculated aquatic parameters are absorption and backscattering coefficients, apparent optical properties such as the first attenuation depth (‘Z90’) and calculated concentrations of chlorophyll, total suspended matter and coloured dissolved organic matter absorption from the water leaving reflectances. Initial comparisons with expedition data (Secchi depths, cDOM) show that the MERIS-C2R optical parameters ’total absorption’ and the first attenuation depth, ’Z90’, seem adequately to represent true conditions. High attenuation values in the spectral blue wavelength range may serve as tracer for the organic-rich terrigenous input. The synoptic information of Ocean Colour products will provide valuable spatial and dynamical information on the Organic Carbon and sediment fluxes from the Siberian permafrost coast.

  19. Multi-colour detection of gravitational arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturi, Matteo; Mizera, Sebastian; Seidel, Gregor

    2014-07-01

    Strong gravitational lensing provides fundamental insights into the understanding of the dark matter distribution in massive galaxies, galaxy clusters, and the background cosmology. Despite their importance, few gravitational arcs have been discovered so far. The urge for more complete, large samples and unbiased methods of selecting candidates increases. Several methods for the automatic detection of arcs have been proposed in the literature, but large amounts of spurious detections retrieved by these methods force observers to visually inspect thousands of candidates per square degree to clean the samples. This approach is largely subjective and requires a huge amount of checking by eye, especially considering the actual and upcoming wide-field surveys, which will cover thousands of square degrees. In this paper we study the statistical properties of the colours of gravitational arcs detected in the 37 deg2 of the CFHTLS-Archive-Research Survey (CARS). Most of them lie in a relatively small region of the (g' - r', r' - i') colour-colour diagram. To explain this property, we provide a model that includes the lensing optical depth expected in a ΛCDM cosmology that, in combination with the sources' redshift distribution of a given survey, in our case CARS, peaks for sources at redshift z ~ 1. By furthermore modelling the colours derived from the spectral energy distribution of the galaxies that dominate the population at that redshift, the model reproduces the observed colours well. By taking advantage of the colour selection suggested by both data and model, we automatically detected 24 objects out of 90 detected by eye checking. Compared with the single-band arcfinder, this multi-band filtering returns a sample complete to 83% and a contamination reduced by a factor of ~6.5. New gravitational arc candidates are also proposed.

  20. Colour vision experimental studies in teaching of optometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Ikaunieks, Gatis; Fomins, Sergejs

    2005-10-01

    Following aspects related to human colour vision are included in experimental lessons for optometry students of University of Latvia. Characteristics of coloured stimuli (emitting and reflective), determination their coordinates in different colour spaces. Objective characteristics of transmitting of colour stimuli through the optical system of eye together with various types of appliances (lenses, prisms, Fresnel prisms). Psychophysical determination of mono- and polychromatic stimuli perception taking into account physiology of eye, retinal colour photoreceptor topography and spectral sensitivity, spatial and temporal characteristics of retinal receptive fields. Ergonomics of visual perception, influence of illumination and glare effects, testing of colour vision deficiencies.

  1. Toxicity studies of Caramel Colour III and 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole in F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, K M; Boysen, B G; Field, W E; Petsel, S R; Chappel, C I; Emerson, J L; Stanley, J

    1992-05-01

    Caramel Colour III is used as a colour additive in beers and a variety of foods. Beer is the most important single source of Caramel Colour III in the diet although consumption of dark beers has been decreasing in recent years. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has established an acceptable daily intake of 200 mg/kg/day for Caramel Colour III. The safety of Caramel Colour III has been questioned during recent years following feeding studies in the rat that were associated with reduced white cell and lymphocyte counts. These effects have been attributed to the presence of 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI) in this class of caramel colour. Short-term oral toxicity studies were conducted on low-THI and high-THI samples of Caramel Colour III (13 wk) and on a sample of THI (28 days). In both studies, the test materials were mixed with demineralized water and the solutions were given to the animals ad lib. in the drinking fluid. In the 13-wk subchronic toxicity study of Caramel Colour III, groups of 20 rats/sex were given concentrations of caramel colour equivalent to intakes of 0, 10, 15 or 20 g low-THI caramel colour/kg body weight/day or 20 g/kg of a high-THI caramel colour. In the 4-wk toxicity study with THI, groups of 20 rats/sex were given 0, 8 or 64 ppm THI (equivalent to approx. 0, 0.9 or 7.2 mg/kg/day) and 10 rats/sex were given 1, 2, 4, 16 or 32 ppm THI (equivalent to approx. 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.9 or 3.7 mg/kg/day) for 4 wk followed by a 2-wk recovery phase for 10 rats/sex in the 0, 8 and 64 ppm groups. Rats given Caramel Colour III had soft faeces; there were no other treatment-related clinical observations and no treatment-related deaths occurred. All treated groups given Caramel Colour III had lower food and fluid consumption than controls. Males given 15 or 20 g low-THI caramel colour/kg or 20 g high-THI caramel colour/kg and females given 20 g/kg of either type had lower body weights than controls. In the 4-wk toxicity

  2. Exploring the colours of dark light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previously calculated universal pattern (Berry M V 2002 New J. Phys. 4 66) describes colours near an isolated phase singularity (diffraction zero), generated with white light and visible when the dark light of the singularity is scaled to isoluminance. Here the pattern is illustrated in several different situations: near the zeros of random and regular superpositions of plane waves, and near the zeros inside and outside the diffraction pattern decorating the geometrical cusp catastrophe. The universal colours emerge in miniature, close to the zeros, when an initially achromatic diffraction pattern is perturbed by switching on an asymptotic 'chromaticity parameter', that can be chosen in several different ways

  3. Colour centres in barium hexaaluminate (phase I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colour centres produced by X-ray irradiation of barium hexaaluminate (phase I) with β-alumina structure are studied by electron paramagnetic resonance, optical absorption, and thermally stimulated luminescence. It is shown that in addition to the F+ centres characteristic of β-alumina phases, this compound presents other colour centres such as F, O-, and possibly V-type centres. The stability of these defects is investigated by means of thermal bleaching experiments and thermally stimulated luminescence. An alternative model to the generally accepted one is proposed, for the F+ centres, together with a mechanism of defect formation. (author)

  4. Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic colour

    OpenAIRE

    Kreft, Marko; KREFT, SAMO

    2015-01-01

    Out of three perceptual characteristics of the colour of any substance, the hue depends mostly on the spectral properties of a substance, while the brightness and saturation depend also on the concentration of a substance and its thickness. Here, we report that evident change of the hue of the colour (i.e., from green to red) is due to a change in concentration or the thicknessof a layer in some exceptional substances such as pumpkin seed oil oran aqueous solution of bromophenol blue. In some...

  5. Colour and stellar population gradients in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tortora, C; Cardone, V F; Capaccioli, M; Jetzer, P; Molinaro, R

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the colour, age and metallicity gradients in a wide sample of local SDSS early- and late-type galaxies. From the fitting of stellar population models we find that metallicity is the main driver of colour gradients and the age in the central regions is a dominant parameter which rules the scatter in both metallicity and age gradients. We find a consistency with independent observations and a set of simulations. From the comparison with simulations and theoretical considerations we are able to depict a general picture of a formation scenario.

  6. Complexity of greedy edge-colouring

    OpenAIRE

    Havet, Frédéric; Maia, Ana Karolinna; Yu, Min-Li

    2015-01-01

    International audience The Grundy index of a graph G = (V, E) is the greatest number of colours that the greedy edge-colouring algorithm can use on G. We prove that the problem of determining the Grundy index of a graph G = (V, E) is NP-hard for general graphs. We also show that this problem is polynomial-time solvable for caterpillars. More specifically, we prove that the Grundy index of a caterpillar is (G) or (G) + 1 and present a polynomial-time algorithm to determine it exactly.

  7. Colour vision screening among Saudi Arabian children

    OpenAIRE

    O. Matthew Oriowo; Abdullah Z. Alotaibi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of congenital red-green colour vision defects among Saudi Arabian male and female children.Methods: The study involved 1638 elementary and high school participants (838 males, and 800 females), who were randomly selected and screened for red-green colour vision defects using the Ishihara (pseudo-isochromatic plates) test. Inclusion criteria were Snellen VA 20/20 or better and absence of known ocular pathologies.Among the females, 0.75% of the 800 participa...

  8. Dietary tannins improve lamb meat colour stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, G; Monahan, F J; Vasta, V; Biondi, L; Lanza, M; Priolo, A

    2009-01-01

    Fourteen male Comisana lambs were divided into two groups at 45days of age: lambs fed a concentrate diet (C), or lambs fed the same concentrate with the addition of quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii) tannins (T). Sheep were slaughtered at 105days of age. Lipid oxidation, colour coordinates, haem pigment concentration, and metmyoglobin percentages were measured on minced semimembranosus muscle (SM) over 14days of refrigerated storage in a high oxygen modified atmosphere. Tannin supplementation increased (Pquebracho tannins in sheep diets can improve meat colour stability of fresh lamb during extended refrigerated storage. PMID:22063971

  9. Quaternionic Hilbert space and colour confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classification problem of the admissible (with respect to the quaternionic structure of the Hilbert space) representations of the semi-simple compact Lie groups is considered. It is found that a symmetry group G must be of the form G = Gsub(F) x Gsub(c) where the colour group Gsub(c) is isomorphic to the SU(3r) and r is odd. The natural selection rules generated by quaternionic structure are equivalent to the confinement of colour, i.e. total algebraic confinement of SU(3r)sub(c) degrees of freedom holds. (author)

  10. Artificial Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru JIVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to eliminate, a routine in the economic thinking, claimed to be responsible for the negative essence of economic developments, from the point of view, of the ecological implications (employment in the planetary ecosystem. The methodological foundations start from the natural origins of the functionality of the human economic society according to the originary physiocrat liberalism, and from specific natural characteristics of the humankind. This paper begins with a comment-analysis of the difference between natural and artificial within the economy, and then explains some of the most serious diversions from the natural essence of economic liberalism. It shall be explained the original (heterodox interpretation of the Classical political economy (economics, by making calls to the Romanian economic thinking from aggravating past century. Highlighting the destructive impact of the economy - which, under the invoked doctrines, we call unnatural - allows an intuitive presentation of a logical extension of Marshall's market price, based on previous research. Besides the doctrinal arguments presented, the economic realities inventoried along the way (major deficiencies and effects, determined demonstrate the validity of the hypothesis of the unnatural character and therefore necessarily to be corrected, of the concept and of the mechanisms of the current economy.The results of this paper consist of original heterodox methodspresented, intuitive or developed that can be found conclusively within the key proposals for education and regulation.

  11. Nonrepetitive Colourings of Planar Graphs with $O(\\log n)$ Colours

    CERN Document Server

    Dujmović, Vida; Joret, Gwenaël; Wood, David R

    2012-01-01

    A vertex colouring of a graph is \\emph{nonrepetitive} if there is no path for which the first half of the path is assigned the same sequence of colours as the second half. The \\emph{nonrepetitive chromatic number} of a graph $G$ is the minimum integer $k$ such that $G$ has a nonrepetitive $k$-colouring. Whether planar graphs have bounded nonrepetitive chromatic number is one of the most important open problems in the field. Despite this, the best known upper bound is $O(\\sqrt{n})$ for $n$-vertex planar graphs. We prove a $O(\\log n)$ upper bound.

  12. 77 FR 71746 - Artificially Sweetened Fruit Jelly and Artificially Sweetened Fruit Preserves and Jams; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... fruit preserves and jams (artificially sweetened preserves and jams) (21 CFR 150.161) (24 FR 8896... for their use in food labeling (58 FR 2302; January 6, 1993). FDA also prescribed at the same time in... a traditional standardized food term (58 FR 2431; January 6, 1993). A nutrient content claim...

  13. Effect of tomato by-product diet supplementation on egg yolk colour

    OpenAIRE

    L. G. Cavalchini; M.G. Mangiagalli; Marelli, S; D. Baroli; Ferrante, V.

    2011-01-01

    Laying hen diets are usually rich in pigments, often synthetic, in order to intensify yolk colour as consumers’ requested (Baroli et al., 1996). Nowadays the public concern is oriented toward food safety; so, it is important to substitute synthetic products with natural pigments. It is important to look for new alternative natural pigment sources such as Spirulina algae (Anderson et al., 1991; Ross and Domini, 1990) or Haemococcus pluvialis that also have a probiotic effect on animals. ...

  14. Dose-response effects of gamma irradiation on colour and antioxidant activity of wild Malva neglecta

    OpenAIRE

    Pinela, José; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2014-01-01

    Radiation processing technology has been used to improve food security, safety and quality. However there are a few reports in the literature on the effect of irradiation on bioactivity of herbs and medicinal plants [1]. Hence, the present work was undertaken to investigate the dose-response effects of gamma irradiation on the colour and antioxidant activity of wild Malva neglecta Wallr. In the north-eastern of Portugal, this annual herbaceous plant is traditionally eaten raw as leafy vegetab...

  15. A Model Structure for Enriched Coloured Operads

    OpenAIRE

    Caviglia, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    We prove that, under certain conditions, the model structure on a monoidal model category $\\mathcal{V}$ can be transferred to a model structure on the category of $\\mathcal{V}$-enriched coloured (symmetric) operads. As a particular case we recover the known model structure on simplicial operads.

  16. Colour octet potential to three loops

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Chihaya; Smirnov, Alexander V; Smirnov, Vladimir A; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    We consider the interaction between two static sources in the colour octet configuration and compute the potential to three loops. Special emphasis is put on the treatment of pinch contributions and two methods are applied to reduce their evaluation to diagrams without pinches.

  17. Ploidy analysis of azalea flower colour sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schepper, S; De Loose, M; Van Bockstaele, E; Debergh, P

    2001-01-01

    Flower colour variegation is not only a phenomenon of importance to horticulture, the phenotype involved is also often used as a scientific model system for the study of complex gene regulation processes. In the course of such studies on azalea, we observed a correlation between flower colour patterns, flower morphology and somatic polyploidy. Using high-resolution flow cytometry of nuclear DNA, the ploidy level was determined in flowers of different azalea sport families. Sports exhibiting variegated flowers with broad (> 7mm), differently coloured, petal edges (picotee type) proved to be tetraploid in the petal edge while diploid in the rest of the flower tissue. Neither flower colour pattern nor ploidy differences are chimeral in origin, but seem to be correlated with the topographic location of the cells within the flower tissue, i.e. the margin of the petals. The possible role of gene dosage effects and cell size involved in the remarkable correlation between somatic polyploidy, (flavonoid) gene expression and the flower morphology is discussed. PMID:15954634

  18. Colour dosemeters for high level radiation dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönbacher, H.; Coninckx, F.; Miller, A.; Kruska, G.; Wulf, I.

    Development work was undertaken in order to produce a visual dosemeter system for measurement of radiation levels around the present and future high energy particle accelerators. This dosemeter should exhibit radiation induced colours in the visible part of the spectrum leading to a visual dose i...

  19. Central Limit Theorem for Coloured Hard Dimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Simonetta Bernabei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the central limit theorem for a class of coloured graphs. This means that we investigate the limit behavior of certain random variables whose values are combinatorial parameters associated to these graphs. The techniques used at arriving this result comprise combinatorics, generating functions, and conditional expectations.

  20. Teaching Pronunciation with the Vowel Colour Chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Julianne

    1985-01-01

    Explains the composition of the Vowel Colour Chart, a system for teaching Canadian English vowels in which each sound is represented by a color, the color word being the key word for that vowel sound. Suggests practical ways to use the chart with learners of English as a second language. (SED)

  1. Basic mechanisms of defective colour vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Normal colour vision is presently described in the framework of one or other trichromatic opponent model. The trichromacy finds its origin in three different pigments, these pigments having maximal absorption in different parts of the spectrum. The absorption spectra determine the spectral sensitivi

  2. New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

  3. Colour Octet Extension of 2HDM

    CERN Document Server

    Valencia, German

    2016-01-01

    In this talk we consider some aspects of the Manohar-Wise extension of the SM with a colour-octet electroweak-doublet scalar applied to 2HDM. We present theoretical constraints on the parameters of this extension to both the SM and the 2HDM and discuss related phenomenology at LHC.

  4. Certification of the Cu and Cd amount contents in artificial food digest using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for Pilot Study 13 of the Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere (CCQM) launched the Pilot Study 13, an interlaboratory comparison between the metrological organizations worldwide on the determination of Ca, Cu and Cd in artificial food digests. These samples (available in 7% HNO3 and with a salinity evaluated around 370 mg kg-1, including approx. 30 mg Na kg-1) were prepared by gravimetrical mixing, and thus reference values traceable to the Kg for the three elements were available eventually. This paper describes the contribution of IRMM for the certification of the Cu and the Cd amount contents. The analytical protocol developed was based on isotope dilution associated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). The Cu measurements required 125-fold dilution of the initial sample solution. An interference of 23Na40Ar+ on 63Cu+ was identified but, since the ratio between both species was over 1000, it was successfully overcome by the calculation of a correction factor for its effect on the Cu amount content directly. Dilution of the sample was not possible for Cd only present at the low ng g-1 level. Up to 1% difference was observed on Cd isotope ratio results between measurements performed directly or after matrix separation. This is rarely shown. As similar results could be obtained either way after the necessary corrections, the direct measurements approach associated to a correction for mass discrimination effects using the CCQM-P13 sample itself (and the IUPAC table values as reference for the natural Cd isotopic composition) was preferred as it was the easiest. SI traceable values were obtained for Cu and Cd with less than 1 and 1.5% combined uncertainty, respectively (6 995±55 (k=2) nmol kg-1 and 45.53±0.64 (k=2) nmol kg-1). The excellent agreement between these results and the reference values (less than 0.6 and 0.08% difference) further validated the analytical protocols developed

  5. Application of Modern Colour Measurement Dervices in Coloration Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUNG Y.S.; XIN John H.; SIN K.M.

    2002-01-01

    In colour measurement ralated industry, reflectance spectrophotometer is the one of the popular measuring machine for measutring colour and quality control. Colour communications is frequently confusing. This is because the colour appearance is subject to the influence of at least three different phenomena: the light source, the object and the visual system. The variation in either the radiant quantity or the spectral distribution of the source can alter the observed colour. Because of this reason,the objective quantitative tool, colour measurement equipment and communication method; become more important in evaluating of the colour. In fact, based on the advanced in computer system and electronic device,the colour measurement becomes more and more accuracy, especiany in spectrophotometer measurement.In this paper, we will focus on the review of modern spectrophotometers in coloration industries.

  6. Whorfian effects on colour memory are not reliable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Oliver; Davies, Ian R L; Franklin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The Whorfian hypothesis suggests that differences between languages cause differences in cognitive processes. Support for this idea comes from studies that find that patterns of colour memory errors made by speakers of different languages align with differences in colour lexicons. The current study provides a large-scale investigation of the relationship between colour language and colour memory, adopting a cross-linguistic and developmental approach. Colour memory on a delayed matching-to-sample (XAB) task was investigated in 2 language groups with differing colour lexicons, for 3 developmental stages and 2 regions of colour space. Analyses used a Bayesian technique to provide simultaneous assessment of two competing hypotheses (H1-Whorfian effect present, H0-Whorfian effect absent). Results of the analyses consistently favoured H0. The findings suggest that Whorfian effects on colour memory are not reliable and that the importance of such effects should not be overestimated. PMID:25230782

  7. Colour improvement and stability of white spot lesions following infiltration, micro-abrasion, or fluoride treatments in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Yetkiner, Enver; Wegehaupt, Florian; Wiegand, Annette; Attin, Rengin; Attin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES White spot lesions (WSLs) are unwelcome side effects of fixed appliances that compromise the treatment outcome. Recently, infiltration of WSLs has been introduced as a viable treatment alternative. The objective was to evaluate the colour improvement of WSLs and their stability against discolouration following infiltration, fluoride, or micro-abrasion treatments in vitro. MATERIALS/METHODS Artificial WSLs were created in bovine enamel (N = 96) using acidic buf...

  8. Camouflage Effects of Various Colour-Marking Morphs against Different Microhabitat Backgrounds in a Polymorphic Pygmy Grasshopper Tetrix japonica

    OpenAIRE

    Kaori Tsurui; Atsushi Honma; Takayoshi Nishida

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colour-marking polymorphism is widely distributed among cryptic species. To account for the adaptive significance of such polymorphisms, several hypotheses have been proposed to date. Although these hypotheses argue over the degree of camouflage effects of marking morphs (and the interactions between morphs and their microhabitat backgrounds), as far as we know, most empirical evidence has been provided under unnatural conditions (i.e., using artificial prey). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPA...

  9. Exclusion of candidate genes for coat colour phenotypes of the American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Markakis, M. N.; Vissenberg, K.;

    2012-01-01

    In a previous project, we screened the American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library, CHORI-231, for genes potentially involved in various coat colour phenotypes in the American mink. Subsequently, we 454 sequenced the inserts containing these genes and developed microsatellite markers fo...... of similar phenotypes in other mammals, including horses, pigs, cows, dogs, cats, mice and humans, they do not appear to be responsible for comparable phenotypes found in American mink....

  10. Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine;

    2013-01-01

    the human perception of eye colour was observed. The correlations between the PIE-scores and the six IrisPlex SNPs (HERC2 rs12913832, OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399, TYR rs1393350, SLC45A2 rs16891982 and IRF4 rs12203592) were analyzed in 570 individuals. Significant differences (p < 10−6) in the......In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically...... identified and extracted from high resolution digital images. DIAT was made user friendly with a graphical user interface. The software counted the number of blue and brown pixels in the iris image and calculated a Pixel Index of the Eye (PIE-score) that described the eye colour quantitatively. The PIE...

  11. Improvement of Objective Image Quality Evaluation Applying Colour Differences in the CIELAB Colour Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Lovisolo & Renata C. C. de Souza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective full-reference image quality algorithms are often designed considering the luminancecomponent of images. In this work perceived colour distance is employed in a simple andfunctional way in order to improve these full-reference image quality algorithms. The differencebetween colours in the CIELAB colour space is employed as perceived colour distance. Thisquantity is used to process images that are to be feed to full-reference image quality algorithms.This image processing stage consists of identifying the image regions or pixels that are expectedto be perceived identically by a human observer in both the reference image and the imagehaving its quality evaluated. In order to verify the validity of the proposal, objective scores arecompared with subjective ones for public available image databases. Despite being a very simplestrategy, the proposed approach was effective to improve the agreement between subjective andthe SSIM (Structural Similarity Index Metric objective score.

  12. New method for comparing colour gamuts among printing technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Perales Romero, Esther; Chorro Calderón, Elísabet; Viqueira Pérez, Valentín; Martínez Verdú, Francisco Miguel; Otero Belmar, Susana; Gracia Bonache, Vicente de

    2007-01-01

    The authors have developed a simple method to compare the colour gamuts of different industries (printing, textiles, plastics, etc.) based on representing the reproduced colours in constant lightness L* and hue hab* planes. This method allows the analysis of those aspects related to the comparison between the colour gamuts of different industries and the MacAdam and Pointer limits and also of those aspects related to how the colour solid is filled, whether homogeneously or leav...

  13. The relation between physiological maturity and colour of tomato fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Elings, A.; Broekhuijsen, A.G.M.; Dieleman, J.A.; Harkema, H.

    2004-01-01

    Simulation of the colour of tomato fruits assists in more accurate prediction of harvest time of individual fruits, and provides the possibility to link a crop growth model with a post-harvest model that uses fruit colour as dominant decision variable, enabling the application in agri-chain management. Dates of anthesis and colour development were recorded on 12 plants over a period of 7 weeks. Temperature sums were derived, and quantitative relations with fruit colour were derived per 2 frui...

  14. Dynamic Colour Possibilities and Functional Properties of Thermochromic Printing Inks

    OpenAIRE

    Rahela Kulcar; Marta Klanjsek Gunde; Nina Knesaurek

    2012-01-01

    Thermochromic printing inks change their colour regarding the change in temperature and they are one of the major groups of colour-changing inks. One of the most frequently used thermochromic material in printing inks are leuco dyes. The colour of thermochromic prints is dynamic, it is not just temperature-dependent, but it also depends on thermal history. The effect is described by colour hysteresis. This paper aims at discussing general aspects of thermochromic inks, dynamic colorimetric pr...

  15. Colour vision of the foraging swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus

    OpenAIRE

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Shimada, Naoko; Arikawa, Kentaro; 充代, 木下

    1995-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that foraging summer-form females of the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus have colour vision. The butterflies were trained to feed on sucrose solution placed on a disk of a particular colour in a cage set in the laboratory. After a few such training runs, a butterfly was presented with the training colour randomly positioned within an array of disks of other colours, but with no sucrose solution. The results indicate that the butterflies learn rapid...

  16. Mary Gartside: A female colour theorist in Georgian England

    OpenAIRE

    Loske, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the work of Mary Gartside, a British female flower painter, art teacher and colour theorist, active in London between 1781 and 1809. Gartside's colour theory was published privately in the guise of a traditional water colouring manual. Until well into the twentieth century, she remained the only woman known to have published a theory of colour. In chronological and intellectual terms Gartside can cautiously be regarded an exemplary link between Moses Harr...

  17. Colour Design for Carton-Packed Fruit Juice Packages

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Shuo-Ting; Ou, Li-Chen; Luo, M. Ronnier

    2009-01-01

    The present research studies the relationships between observers’ expectations for 7 fruit juice packages and the colour design of the package. To do this, a two-stage experiment was conducted. At the first stage, we studied perceived colours for the fruit images shown on each package. At the second stage, fruit juice packages with 20 package colours were rated using 5 bipolar scales: colour harmony, preference, freshness, naturalness and product quality. The experimental results show that th...

  18. Tracking categorical surface colour across illuminant changes in natural scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Amano, K

    2010-01-01

    How well can categorical colour perception be maintained in natural environments with varying illuminants? To address this question, a colour-naming experiment was performed with colour-monitor images of natural scenes simulated under two different daylights of correlated colour temperature 6500 K and 25000 K. Images were obtained from a set of hyperspectral data to enable the accurate control of illuminant and reflectance spectra. Each scene contained a spherical test surface whose digitally...

  19. Estimating limits on colour vision performance in natural scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, D H

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate some of the basic limits on human colour vision performance over a range of natural scenes. Computational simulations of colour processing were carried out with 50 hyperspectral images of rural and urban scenes under different daylights. Three limits were estimated for each scene: the number of discriminable coloured surfaces under a single daylight, the relative frequency of metamerism across two daylights, and, as a measure of of colour constancy, the me...

  20. Higher-level cortical processing of colour (Guest editorial)

    OpenAIRE

    Davidoff, J; Walsh, V; Wagemans, Johan

    1997-01-01

    Wavelength information serves both to organise shapes and to provide the appearance of surfaces. These two roles are considered within a model that outlines the role of colour in picture naming (Davidoff and de Bleser, 1993). An introduction to the papers in this issue is given within the framework of the model. The topics in this issue cover the role of colour in scene segmentation, colour constancy and the memory for the colours of objects. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. Inheritance of flower colour in Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC.

    OpenAIRE

    Harshwardhan R. Nandanwar* and P. Manivel

    2014-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted with the aim to study the inheritance pattern of flower colour in Desmodium gangeticum. Populations of two parental lines having two different flower colours, white (DDG 18) and pink (DDG 8) were used for study. The results indicated that flower colour was under monogenic control of dominant gene with pink colour indicating the mendelian inheritance pattern exhibiting the monohybrid ratio of 3:1. The data was confirmed by χ2 test which showed non-significa...

  2. Memory colour segmentation and classification using class-specific eigenregions

    OpenAIRE

    Fredembach, Clement; Estrada, Francisco; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    Memory colours refer to the colour of specific image regions that have the essential attribute of being perceived in a consistent manner by human observers. In colour correction-or rendering-tasks, this consistency implies that they have to be faithfully reproduced; their importance, in that respect, is greater than for other regions in an image. There are various schemes and attributes to detect memory colours, but the preferred method remains to segment the images into meaningful regions, a...

  3. From spectral information to animal colour vision: experiments and concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Kelber, Almut; Osorio, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Many animals use the spectral distribution of light to guide behaviour, but whether they have colour vision has been debated for over a century. Our strong subjective experience of colour and the fact that human vision is the paradigm for colour science inevitably raises the question of how we compare with other species. This article outlines four grades of ‘colour vision’ that can be related to the behavioural uses of spectral information, and perhaps to the underlying mechanisms. In the fir...

  4. Visual targeting of components of floral colour patterns in flower-naïve bumblebees ( Bombus terrestris; Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Klaus; Fieselmann, Gabriele; Heuschen, Britta; van de Loo, Antje

    2006-07-01

    Floral colour patterns are contrasting colour patches on flowers, a part of the signalling apparatus that was considered to display shape and colour signals used by flower-visitors to detect flowers and locate the site of floral reward. Here, we show that flower-naïve bumblebees ( Bombus terrestris) spontaneously direct their approach towards the outside margin of artificial flowers, which provides contrast between these dummy flowers and the background. If no floral guides are present, the bumblebees continue to approach the margin and finally touch the marginal area of the dummy flower with the tips of their antennae. Whilst approaching dummy flowers that also have a central floral guide, the bumblebees change their direction of flight: Initially, they approach the margin, later they switch to approaching the colour guide, and finally they precisely touch the floral guide with their antennae. Variation of the shape of equally sized dummy flowers did not alter the bumblebees’ preferential orientation towards the guide. Using reciprocal combinations of guide colour and surrounding colour, we showed that the approach from a distance towards the corolla and the antennal contact with the guide are elicited by the same colour parameter: spectral purity. As a consequence, the dummy flowers eliciting the greatest frequency of antennal reactions at the guide are those that combine a floral guide of high spectral purity with a corolla of less spectral purity. Our results support the hypothesis that floral guides direct bumblebees’ approaches to the site of first contact with the flower, which is achieved by the tips of the antennae.

  5. Colour constancy in natural images through colour naming and sensor sharpening

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Corral, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Advisors: Maria Vanrell, Graham Finlayson. Date and location of PhD thesis defense: 28 February 2011, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Colour is derived from three physical properties: incident light, object reflectance and sensor sensitivities. Incident light varies under natural conditions; hence, recovering scene illuminant is an important issue in computational colour. One way to deal with this problem under calibrated conditions is by following three steps, 1) building a narrow-band ...

  6. Floral colour diversity in plant communities, bee colour space and a null model

    OpenAIRE

    Gumbert, A; Kunze, J.; Chittka, L.

    1999-01-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long hypothesized that the diversity of flower colours we see is in part a strategy to promote memorization by pollinators, pollinator constancy, and therefore, a directed and efficient pollen transfer between plants. However, this hypothesis has never been tested against a biologically realistic null model, nor were colours assessed in the way pollinators see them. Our intent here is to fill these gaps. Throughout one year, we sampled floral species compositions ...

  7. Summing large-N towers in colour flow evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaetzer, Simon

    2013-12-15

    We consider soft gluon evolution in the colour flow basis. We give explicit expressions for the colour structure of the (one-loop) soft anomalous dimension matrix for an arbitrary number of partons, and show how the successive exponentiation of classes of large-N contributions can be achieved to provide a systematic expansion of the evolution in terms of colour supressed contributions.

  8. Is colour modulation an independent factor in human visual photosensitivity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Parra; F.H. Lopes da Silva; H. Stroink; S. Kalitzin

    2007-01-01

    Considering that the role of colour in photosensitive epilepsy (PSE) remains unclear, we designed a study to determine the potential of different colours, colour combinations and white light to trigger photoparoxysmal responses (PPRs) under stringent controlled conditions. After assessing their phot

  9. A period-colour relation for dwarf novae at minimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of available UBVRI photometry of dwarf novae at minimum shows that the colour indices (B-V) and (U-B) correlate strongly with orbital period. In the colour-colour diagram they define a characteristic quiescent branch. Two models to explain the correlation are discussed. (author)

  10. Period-colour relation for dwarf novae at minimum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echevarria, J. (Sussex Univ., Brighton, Great Britain); Jones, D.H.P. (Royal Greenwich Observatory, Hailsham, Great Britain)

    1984-02-15

    An analysis of available UBVRI photometry of dwarf novae at minimum shows that the colour indices (B-V) and (U-B) correlate strongly with orbital period. In the colour-colour diagram they define a characteristic quiescent branch. Two models to explain the correlation are discussed.

  11. An Interaction of Screen Colour and Lesson Task in CAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clariana, Roy B.

    2004-01-01

    Colour is a common feature in computer-aided learning (CAL), though the instructional effects of screen colour are not well understood. This investigation considers the effects of different CAL study tasks with feedback on posttest performance and on posttest memory of the lesson colour scheme. Graduate students (n=68) completed a computer-based…

  12. From silk to satellite: Half a century of ocean colour anomalies in the Northeast Atlantic

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, Dionysios E.

    2014-04-23

    Changes in phytoplankton dynamics influence marine biogeochemical cycles, climate processes, and food webs, with substantial social and economic consequences. Large-scale estimation of phytoplankton biomass was possible via ocean colour measurements from two remote sensing satellites - the Coastal Zone Colour Scanner (CZCS, 1979-1986) and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS, 1998-2010). Due to the large gap between the two satellite eras and differences in sensor characteristics, comparison of the absolute values retrieved from the two instruments remains challenging. Using a unique in situ ocean colour dataset that spans more than half a century, the two satellite-derived chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) eras are linked to assess concurrent changes in phytoplankton variability and bloom timing over the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and North Sea. Results from this unique re-analysis reflect a clear increasing pattern of Chl-a, a merging of the two seasonal phytoplankton blooms producing a longer growing season and higher seasonal biomass, since the mid-1980s. The broader climate plays a key role in Chl-a variability as the ocean colour anomalies parallel the oscillations of the Northern Hemisphere Temperature (NHT) since 1948. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. ON f-EDGE COVER-COLOURING OF SIMPLE GRAPHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Huimin; Liu Guizhen

    2005-01-01

    An f-edge cover-colouring of a graph G = (V, E) is an assignment of colours to the edges of G such that every colour appears at each vertex υ∈ V at least f(υ) times.The maximum number of colours needed to f-edge cover colour G is called the f-edge cover chromatic index of G, denoted by χfc(G). This paper gives that min[d(ν)-1/f(ν)] ≤χfc(G) ≤min[d(υ)/f(υ)].

  14. Colour Fading of Textile Fabric by Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Cheung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colour fading of a reactive dye (C.I. Reactive Blue 19 dyed textile fabric was performed by atmospheric pressure plasma (APP treatment with the use of plasma jet. Under the APP treatment condition of treatment time = 5 sec/mm; ignition power = 160 W; oxygen concentration = 1%; jet distance = 3 mm, significant colour-fading effect was achieved. For comparison purpose, the reactive dye dyed textile fabric was subjected to conventional enzymatic colour-fading process. Experimental results revealed that the APP-induced colour-fading effect was comparable with conventional enzymatic colour-fading process.

  15. THE GENETICS PRINCIPLE OF COAT COLOUR ABOUT ASSORTED DOG BREEDS

    OpenAIRE

    Boumová, Renáta

    2012-01-01

    Summary The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) probably had the original colour like the wolf (Canis lupus) which blends into its surroundings and its pale colour ensured it to attack and catch a prey. Domestication has led to a breeding of many dog breeds that would not have a chance to survive in the wild because of a wide variety of colours. The colour became an important selection criterion from the viewpoint of the usage of different dog breeds. The colour of fur is often one of the ...

  16. The influence of colours on pupils' feelings at school

    OpenAIRE

    Bec, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The role that colours have in our lives is far greater than most of us might imagine. Environment in which we live is composed of different colours and their shades. When we are aware of the meaning of colours and their impact on mental and physical well-being, we can also better choose the right colours and shades for our clothing, home and work environment which would bring us the desired feelings. With this thesis we researched how colours in the school environment affect the well-being of...

  17. Inheritance of flower colour in Desmodium gangeticum (L. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshwardhan R. Nandanwar* and P. Manivel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted with the aim to study the inheritance pattern of flower colour in Desmodium gangeticum. Populations of two parental lines having two different flower colours, white (DDG 18 and pink (DDG 8 were used for study. The results indicated that flower colour was under monogenic control of dominant gene with pink colour indicating the mendelian inheritance pattern exhibiting the monohybrid ratio of 3:1. The data was confirmed by χ2 test which showed non-significant chi-square value for flower colour.

  18. Colouring of graphs with Ramsey-type forbidden subgraphs.

    OpenAIRE

    Dabrowski, K.K.; Golovach, P.A.; Paulusma, D.

    2014-01-01

    A colouring of a graph G=(V,E) is a mapping c:V→{1,2,…} such that c(u)≠c(v) if uv∈E; if |c(V)|⩽k then c is a k -colouring. The Colouring problem is that of testing whether a given graph has a k -colouring for some given integer k . If a graph contains no induced subgraph isomorphic to any graph in some family H, then it is called H-free. The complexity of Colouring for H-free graphs with |H|=1 has been completely classified. When |H|=2, the classification is still wide open, although man...

  19. Contemporary artists and colour: Meaning, organisation and understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, Judith

    2006-06-01

    What implications do the ranges of traditional and non-traditional media used by contemporary artists have for understanding the selection and specification of coloured materials? Interviews with prominent artists explore their use of colour and their views on the role of colour in their work. The paper establishes that the interview respondents operate successfully within a professional and permeable frame of reference, with different approaches to determination of colour meaning. The colour propositions of neuroscience, psychophysics and anthropological linguistics appear to have little impact on the respondents' practice, and the paper concludes by suggesting the need to explore boundaries between disciplines.

  20. Colour From the Perspective of Hadith: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainan Nazri Mohd Khairul Nizam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colour is mentioned a few times in the Prophetic Traditions, signifying its values and symbolic representation for the people. The Prophet PBUH highlighted the significance of certain colours by describing his preferred colours for his clothing and he also approved or discouraged the usage of certain colours. Among the colours that are specifically mentioned and found in the hadith are white, red, green, black and yellow. These colours give different connotations as they were used in the Prophet’s attires during battles and other occasions; and some bring about specific understanding, as stated by the Prophet PBUH. Interestingly, the use of certain colours as found in the hadith corresponds to that mentioned in the Qur’an. Thus, this paper will observe the discussion among Muhaddithin regarding to the topic of colours in terms of its definition, function, significance and impact on the human life. The variety of meaning and understanding of colours according to different perspectives and cultures will also be discussed. The implications of using specific colours psychologically and scientifically will also be exposed in order to discover the connection between colours in the Prophetic Traditions and in our contemporary life.

  1. Uropygial gland and bib colouration in the house sparrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Birds frequently signal different qualities by plumage colouration, mainly during mating. However, plumage colouration is determined during the moult, and therefore it would indicate the quality of individual birds during the moult, not its current quality. Recent studies, however, suggest that birds could modify plumage colouration by using cosmetic preen oil produced by the uropygial gland. In this study, I show that bib colouration is related to uropygial gland size and body condition in male house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Moreover, I conducted an experiment in which a group of sparrows were inoculated with an antigen, mimicking an illness. In control birds, short-term changes in bib colouration were related to both body condition and change in uropygial gland size. Therefore, birds that reduced uropygial gland size showed a greater colouration change. However, bib colouration did not change with the change in uropygial gland size in experimental birds inoculated with the antigen. Given that the experiment did not affect preen oil production or consumption, this finding tentatively suggests that the immune challenge provoked a change in the composition of preen oil, affecting its cosmetic properties. In short, the results of this study suggest that (1) male house sparrows produce cosmetic preen oil that alters the colouration of their bibs; (2) the more change in uropygial gland size, the more change in bib colouration; and (3) in this way, bib colouration has the potential to signal current health status, since less healthy birds showed less capacity to change bib colouration. PMID:27280079

  2. Connotations of the Straightforward Colours in the Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahaldeen Mohammad Al Bzour

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Colours are like words express particular or general meanings such as the colours in the traffic lights. Quran mentioned the most common colours because of the multi-faceted roles that they convey, both in sensual or moral purposes, as well as their aesthetic values. The analytical method has been adopted in this research that attempts, as much as possible; to make use of statistical analysis of colours' denotations as mentioned in the Quranic verses. Anyway, the purpose of this research is to explore and to bring out the implicit denotations of the straightforward colours in the Holy Quran as well as to highlight the ability of the colours in affecting the psyche. The results show that colours are used in order to confirm God’s inimitability in the diversity of the colours of His creatures. They also show that psyche can be affected by the colours such as black and white. In addition to, the results reveal that the colours are sometimes used to tell about the future definitely in the Day of Resurrection and in the Paradise such as white. Furthermore, the results show that the importance of the colours rely in their moral lessons.

  3. Synaesthetic colour in the brain: beyond colour areas. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of synaesthetes and matched controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa M van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e.g., letters elicit colour. Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual awareness and multisensory integration. In several neuroimaging studies, enhanced brain activity for grapheme-colour synaesthesia has been found in ventral-occipital areas that are also involved in real colour processing. Our question was whether the neural correlates of synaesthetically induced colour and real colour experience are truly shared. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First, in a free viewing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment, we located main effects of synaesthesia in left superior parietal lobule and in colour related areas. In the left superior parietal lobe, individual differences between synaesthetes (projector-associator distinction also influenced brain activity, confirming the importance of the left superior parietal lobe for synaesthesia. Next, we applied a repetition suppression paradigm in fMRI, in which a decrease in the BOLD (blood-oxygenated-level-dependent response is generally observed for repeated stimuli. We hypothesized that synaesthetically induced colours would lead to a reduction in BOLD response for subsequently presented real colours, if the neural correlates were overlapping. We did find BOLD suppression effects induced by synaesthesia, but not within the colour areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because synaesthetically induced colours were not able to suppress BOLD effects for real colour, we conclude that the neural correlates of synaesthetic colour experience and real colour experience are not fully shared. We propose that synaesthetic colour experiences are mediated by higher-order visual pathways that lie beyond the scope of classical, ventral-occipital visual areas. Feedback from these areas, in which the left parietal

  4. Emotional response towards food packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Lewis Xinwei; Corsi, Armando M.; Chrysochou, Polymeros;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate consumers’ emotional responses to food packaging. More specifically, we use self-report and physiological measures to jointly assess emotional responses to three typical food packaging elements: colours (lowwavelength vs. high-wavelength), images (positive vs. negative......) and typefaces (simple vs. ornate). A sample of 120 participants was exposed to mock package design concepts of chocolate blocks. The results suggest that images generate an emotional response that can be measured by both self-report and physiological measures, whereas colours and typefaces generate emotional...... response that can only be measured by self-report measures. We propose that a joint application of selfreport and physiological measures can lead to richer information and wider interpretation of consumer emotional responses to food packaging elements than using either measure alone....

  5. The theory and phenomenology of coloured quark models

    CERN Document Server

    Close, F E

    1975-01-01

    A general introduction to coloured quark models is given and their phenomenology is described with particular reference to the new particles. It is shown that there are essentially three types of colour models with colour excitation when the colour group is SU(3)- Han-Nambu, Greenberg and a model which has the same charges as that of Tati and which can be thought of as the Gell-Mann colour scheme with excitation of the colour degrees of freedom. Particular attention is paid to the four problems of colour models for psi phenomenology-the radiative decays, the G parity conservation, the lack of deep inelastic threshold phenomena and the apparent discovery of dileptons at SPEAR. (40 refs).

  6. The colour of domestication and the designer chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppy, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    Colour is an important feature of most living organisms. In the wild, colour has great significance affecting the survival and reproductive success of the species. The environmental constraints which lead to the specific colours of birds and animals are very strong and individuals of novel colours tend not to survive. Under domestication, mankind has transformed all the species involved which have thus been freed from environmental pressures to a large extent. Early colour variants were mostly selected for utility reasons or religious practices. In more recent centuries colour varieties have been created purely for ornament and pleasure, fashion playing a surprisingly large part in their development. A bewildering array of colours and patterns can now be found in all our commensal species, especially the Domestic Fowl ( Gallus gallus domesticus).

  7. Extracting parameters from Colour-Magnitude Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatto, C; Kepler, S O; Bica, E

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple approach for obtaining robust values of astrophysical parameters from the observed colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of star clusters. The basic inputs are the Hess diagram built with the photometric measurements of a star cluster and a set of isochrones covering wide ranges of age and metallicity. In short, each isochrone is shifted in apparent distance modulus and colour excess until it crosses over the maximum possible Hess density. Repeating this step for all available isochrones leads to the construction of the solution map, in which the optimum values of age and metallicity - as well as foreground/background reddening and distance from the Sun - can be searched for. Controlled tests with simulated CMDs show that the approach is efficient in recovering the input values. We apply the approach to the open clusters M\\,67, NGC\\,6791, and NGC\\,2635, which are characterised by different ages, metallicities and distances from the Sun.

  8. Coloured Petri Nets and the Invariant Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1981-01-01

    In many systems a number of different processes have a similar structure and behaviour. To shorten system description and system analysis it is desirable to be able to treat such similar processes in a uniform and succinct way. In this paper it is shown how Petri nets can be generalized to allow...... processes to be described by a common subnet, without losing the ability to distinguish between them. Our generalization, called coloured Petri nets, is heavily influenced by predicate transition-nets introduced by H.J. Genrich and K. Lautenbach. Moreover our paper shows how the invariant-method, introduced...... for Petri nets by K. Lautenbach, can be generalized to coloured Petri nets....

  9. QCD thermodynamics with colour-sextet quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, D K

    2009-01-01

    We study QCD with two flavours of colour-sextet quarks as a candidate walking-Technicolor theory. We simulate lattice QCD with two flavours of colour-sextet staggered quarks at finite temperatures to observe the scales of confinement and chiral-symmetry breaking. These should give us some indication as to whether the massless theory has an infrared fixed point making it a conformal field theory, or whether it exhibits confinement and chiral symmetry breaking with a slowly varying coupling constant, i.e. `walks'. We find that unlike the case with fundamental quarks, the deconfinement and chiral-symmetry restoration transitions are far apart. The values of $\\beta=6/g^2$ for both transitions increase when $Ta$ is decreased from 1/4 to 1/6 as would be expected for finite temperature transitions of an asymptotically-free field theory. So far we see no suggestion of conformal behaviour.

  10. Colour dosemeters for high level radiation dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönbacher, H.; Coninckx, F.; Miller, A.;

    1990-01-01

    interpretation or a dose measurement with a simple instrument such as a portable reflecting densitometer in the range of 10(3) to 10(6) Gy. Two projects were investigated: (1) a thin plastic film with a self adhesive tape containing a radiochromic dye which induces a colour change when exposed to ionising...... radiation; and (2) a paint containing a base substance with a pigment. The paint dosemeter remained unaffected by irradiation up to 3 x 10(4) Gy while the film dosemeter showed a measurable colour change from 10(4) Gy to 5 x 10(5) Gy. Above 10(6) Gy the film dosemeter is destroyed by radiation. Samples of...

  11. The Width of the Colour Flux Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Caselle, M.; F. Gliozzi; Magnea, U.; Vinti, S.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss and rederive in a general way the logarithmic growth of the mean squared width of the colour flux tube as a function of the interquark separation. Recent data on 3D $Z_2$ gauge theory, combined with high precision data on the interface physics of the 3D Ising model fit nicely this behaviour over a range of more than two orders of magnitude.

  12. Colour texture segmentation using modelling approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Mikeš, Stanislav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 3687, č. - (2005), s. 484-491. ISSN 0302-9743. [International Conference on Advances in Pattern Recognition /3./. Bath, 22.08.2005-25.08.2005] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR 1ET400750407; GA AV ČR IAA2075302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : colour texture segmentation * image models * segmentation benchmark Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  13. How to calculate colourful cross sections efficiently

    CERN Document Server

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Krauss, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

  14. Rockpool Gobies Change Colour for Camouflage

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Stevens; Alice E Lown; Alexander M Denton

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is found in a wide range of species living in numerous habitat types, offering protection from visually guided predators. This includes many species from the intertidal zone, which must cope with background types diverse in appearance and with multiple predator groups foraging at high and low tide. Many animals are capable of either relatively slow (hours, days, weeks) or rapid (seconds and minutes) colour change in order to better resemble the background against which they are fou...

  15. Colour coherence in deep inelastic Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MC simulation of Deep Inelastic Compton on proton - both QED and QCD - was performed on the basis of LUCIFER program for HERA energies. Charged hadron flow was calculated for string and independent fragmentation with different cuts on pt and x. It is shown that interjet colour coherence leads in the case of QCD Compton to the drag effects diminishing the hadron flow in the direction between quark jet and proton remnant jet. (orig.)

  16. Colour coherence in deep inelastic Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, A.I.; Vazdik, J.A. (Lebedev Physical Inst., Academy of Sciences, Moscow (USSR))

    1992-01-01

    MC simulation of Deep Inelastic Compton on proton - both QED and QCD - was performed on the basis of LUCIFER program for HERA energies. Charged hadron flow was calculated for string and independent fragmentation with different cuts on p{sub t} and x. It is shown that interjet colour coherence leads in the case of QCD Compton to the drag effects diminishing the hadron flow in the direction between quark jet and proton remnant jet. (orig.).

  17. Colour Dynamic Photometric Stereo for Textured Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Janko, Zsolt; Delaunoy, Amael; Prados, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    International audience In this paper we present a novel method to apply photometric stereo on textured dynamic surfaces. We aim at exploiting the high accuracy of photometric stereo and reconstruct local surface orientation from illumination changes. The main difficulty derives from the fact that photometric stereo requires varying illumination while the object remains still, which makes it quite impractical to use for dynamic surfaces. Using coloured lights gives a clear solution to this ...

  18. Proton Spin from General Colour Symmetry Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiao-Fu; LI Ying-Chuan; WEN Xin-Min

    2001-01-01

    The quark wavefunction in a proton has been calculated by using the global colour symmetry model. We find that the property of this wavefunction is closely related to the nonperturbative vacuum configuration. Using the wavefunction we make the calculation of the matrix element of the axial vector current of the quarks in the proton ground state. Its value is found to be 0.17, which is perfectly consistent with 0.23(+6).

  19. Constraining RRc candidates using SDSS colours

    CERN Document Server

    Bányai, E; Molnár, L; Dobos, L; Szabó, R

    2016-01-01

    The light variations of first-overtone RR Lyrae stars and contact eclipsing binaries can be difficult to distinguish. The Catalina Periodic Variable Star catalog contains several misclassified objects, despite the classification efforts by Drake et al. (2014). They used metallicity and surface gravity derived from spectroscopic data (from the SDSS database) to rule out binaries. Our aim is to further constrain the catalog using SDSS colours to estimate physical parameters for stars that did not have spectroscopic data.

  20. Toxicology of Processed and Packaged Foods

    OpenAIRE

    A. N. Srivatsa; Sharma, T. R.

    1987-01-01

    Modem food production, processing and preservation use a large number of additives at various stages. These include food sweetners, preservatives, colours, antioxidants and pesticides. In addition, the foods come in contact with packaging materials which by themselves contain a large number of additives. Some of these are potential sources of hazards to consumers. This paper is a review of investigations which have been carried out on some of the additives, the migration of additives from pac...

  1. SNPs in coat colour genes in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nicoloso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Coat colour genes are useful candidates for breeds traceability of farm animals. To identify SNPs in genes involved in pigmentation in goat, we carried out in silico studies in human, mouse and cattle.We analysed 41 genes and we found: 88 SNPs in mouse, 29 synonymous and 59 non synonymous; 279 SNPs in humans, 121 synonymous and 158 non synonymous, 78 of which validated; 147 putative SNPs in cattle, 62 synonymous and 75 non synonymous, 10 of which validated. To identify the more interesting coding regions, we collected in these species information on pigmentation traits or on pathologies associated to different mutation. In goat, molecular information were available only on 7 genes and no SNP is reported, moreover poor information exists on association between mutations and different coat colour. Starting from the information collected in mouse, human and cattle, we obtained PCR products in goat for 61 exons in 36 genes. The PCR products were sequenced and checked for homology with the target sequences. Sequences on 8 animals from 4 breeds (Alpine, Saanen, Blonde of Adamello, Orobica characterised by different coat colour phenotypes have been compared, revealing 25 SNPs (11 synonymous, 14 non synonymous in 21 genes.

  2. Human lens colouration, age and cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The human lens biosynthesises UV filter compounds which effectively remove light in the 300-400nm band. These chemicals are present either as an aid to visual acuity, or to filter out damaging UV radiation. The primate UV filters are 3-hydroxykynurenine analogues derived from the metabolism of tryptophan. We have recently demonstrated that these endogenous UV filters are not innocuous, but are in fact capable of binding to proteins, including the crystalline proteins which make up the bulk of the lens. Thus, over time, the levels of protein - bound UV filters increase and this results in the human lens becoming progressively more yellow as we age. This colouration affects our colour vision and it may also be responsible for the brown colour of lenses which is the hallmark of age-related nuclear cataract. An understanding of the intrinsic instability of the endogenous UV filters, combined with changes in the internal transport of these and other small molecular weight compounds including antioxidants, such as glutathione, is allowing us to gain an insight into the processes responsible for the development of age-related cataract: the major cause of world blindness

  3. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  4. A new method for face detection in colour images for emotional bio-robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAPESHI; Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Emotional bio-robots have become a hot research topic in last two decades. Though there have been some progress in research, design and development of various emotional bio-robots, few of them can be used in practical applications. The study of emotional bio-robots demands multi-disciplinary co-operation. It involves computer science, artificial intelligence, 3D computation, engineering system modelling, analysis and simulation, bionics engineering, automatic control, image processing and pattern recognition etc. Among them, face detection belongs to image processing and pattern recognition. An emotional robot must have the ability to recognize various objects, particularly, it is very important for a bio-robot to be able to recognize human faces from an image. In this paper, a face detection method is proposed for identifying any human faces in colour images using human skin model and eye detection method. Firstly, this method can be used to detect skin regions from the input colour image after normalizing its luminance. Then, all face candidates are identified using an eye detection method. Comparing with existing algorithms, this method only relies on the colour and geometrical data of human face rather than using training datasets. From experimental results, it is shown that this method is effective and fast and it can be applied to the development of an emotional bio-robot with further improvements of its speed and accuracy.

  5. The Philosophical Consideration about Food Additives

    OpenAIRE

    Baoyu Ma

    2015-01-01

    This study mainly analyzes the essential features of food additives technology from the angle of philosophy, explaining the essential characteristics of food additives technology. As for the attitude towards the application of food additives, it is influenced by the public's gender, age, educational level, occupation and monthly expenditure for buying non-staple food and other variables, thus, the attitude towards food additives and green food, as well as the attitude towards using artificial...

  6. Absorption, distribution and excretion of the colour fraction of Caramel Colour IV in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, S; Chappel, C I; Schoenig, G P

    1992-05-01

    Caramel Colour IV prepared from [U-14C]glucose was ultrafiltered in order to isolate the high molecular weight colour fraction (HMCF). The colour fraction that was non-permeable to a 10,000-Da porosity membrane, contained 84% of the colour, 22% of the solids and 24% of the radioactivity of the [14C]Caramel Colour IV. The absorption, distribution and excretion of [14C]HMCF were evaluated in male rats after administration of single or multiple oral doses of the material at a dosage level of 2.5 g/kg body weight. Rats on the multiple oral dosage regimen were given unlabelled HMCF in their drinking water for 13 days before the administration of a bolus dose of [14C]HMCF on day 14. On both dosage regimens, the predominant route of excretion was by way of the faeces. Less than 3% of the administered radioactivity was excreted in the urine and only a negligible amount was found in the expired air. More than 99% of the administered radioactivity was excreted within 96 hr. The principal tissues in which radioactivity was found were the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, kidney and tissues of the gastro-intestinal tract. No major differences were observed in the absorption, distribution or excretion patterns between the single and multiple oral dose regimens. PMID:1644386

  7. NICE: A Computational Solution to Close the Gap from Colour Perception to Colour Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraga, C Alejandro; Akbarinia, Arash

    2016-01-01

    The segmentation of visible electromagnetic radiation into chromatic categories by the human visual system has been extensively studied from a perceptual point of view, resulting in several colour appearance models. However, there is currently a void when it comes to relate these results to the physiological mechanisms that are known to shape the pre-cortical and cortical visual pathway. This work intends to begin to fill this void by proposing a new physiologically plausible model of colour categorization based on Neural Isoresponsive Colour Ellipsoids (NICE) in the cone-contrast space defined by the main directions of the visual signals entering the visual cortex. The model was adjusted to fit psychophysical measures that concentrate on the categorical boundaries and are consistent with the ellipsoidal isoresponse surfaces of visual cortical neurons. By revealing the shape of such categorical colour regions, our measures allow for a more precise and parsimonious description, connecting well-known early visual processing mechanisms to the less understood phenomenon of colour categorization. To test the feasibility of our method we applied it to exemplary images and a popular ground-truth chart obtaining labelling results that are better than those of current state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:26954691

  8. The Effect of Chlorhexidine Mouth Rinse on the Colour Stability of Porcelain with Three Different Surface Treatments: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaledi AAR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: The effect of mouth washes on discolouration of dental ceramics with different surface preparations is not well documented. Objectives: This in-vitro study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of chlorhexidine (CHX mouth rinse on colour stability of overglazed (OP, autoglazed, (AP or polished porcelain (POP specimens. Materials and Methods: The restorative material investigated in this study was overglazed, autoglazed, or polished feldspathic porcelain. A total of 48 cylandrical specimens were prepared, (n=16 per each group. After baseline colour measurements, for a period of14 days 8 specimens of each group were immersed in 15 ml of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse twice daily for 2 min. After each immersion, the specimens were washed and stored in artificial saliva. Half of the specimens from each group were selected randomly as controls and stored in artificial saliva that was changed daily. The colour change (ΔE of the specimens was measured by a spectrophotometer device. Data were statistically analyzed using 2-Way ANOVA followed by Tukey test Results: All the specimens displayed colour changes after immersion in chlorhexidine mouth rinse. POP specimens exhibited more colour change compared to AP and OP specimens (P=0.001. AP and OP specimens showed relatively the same colour change which was not significant compared to the control groups (P=0.9. Conclusion: Auto-glazed and over-glazed porcelain can tolerate chlorhexidine mouth rinse better than polished porcelain. However the colour changes of the ceramic with three different surface preparations were not perceivable clinically.

  9. Sugar Substitutes: Artificial Sweeteners and Sugar Alcohols

    OpenAIRE

    Washburn, Carolyn; Christensen, Nedra

    2012-01-01

    Most people enjoy the sweet taste of food. Artificial sweeteners and sugar alcohols can provide the sweet flavor and be beneficial for people with diabetes or those choosing to avoid sugars because they contain lower calories and carbohydrates than regular sugars. These products are also beneficial in that they do not cause tooth decay.

  10. Artificial Inteligence and Law

    OpenAIRE

    Fuková, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    Submitted diploma work Artificial Intelligence and Law deals with the rule of law and its position in the process of new advanced technologies in computer cybernetics and further scientific disciplines related with artificial intelligence and its creation. The first part of the work introduces the history of the first imagines about artificial intelligence and concerns with its birth. This chapter presents main theoretical knowledge and hypotheses defined artificial intelligence and progre...

  11. Artificial Skin in Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Strohmayr, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Artificial Skin - A comprehensive interface for system-environment interaction - This thesis investigates a multifunctional artificial skin as touch sensitive whole-body cover for robotic systems. To further the evolution from tactile sensors to an implementable artificial skin a general concept for the design process is derived. A standard test procedure is proposed to evaluate the performance. The artificial skin contributes to a safe and intuitive physical human robot interaction.

  12. Can Grapheme-Colour Synaesthesia be Induced by Hypnosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Patricia Anderson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is a perceptual experience where graphemes, letters or words evoke a specific colour, which are experienced either as spatially coincident with the grapheme inducer (projector sub-type or elsewhere, perhaps without a definite spatial location (associator sub-type. Here, we address the question of whether synaesthesia can be rapidly produced using a hypnotic colour suggestion to examine the possibility of ‘hypnotic synaesthesia’, i.e. subjectively experienced colour hallucinations similar to those experienced by projector synaesthetes. We assess the efficacy of this intervention using an embedded figures test, in which participants are required to detect a shape (e.g., a square composed of local graphemic elements. For grapheme-colour synaesthetes, better performance on the task has been linked to a higher proportion of graphemes perceived as coloured. We found no performance benefits on this test when using a hypnotic suggestion, as compared to a no-suggestion control condition. The same result was found when participants were separated according to the degree to which they were susceptible to the suggestion (number of coloured trials perceived. However, we found a relationship between accuracy and subjective reports of colour in those participants who reported a large proportion of coloured trials: trials in which the embedded figure was accurately recognised (relative to trials in which it was not were associated with reports of more intense colours occupying a greater spatial extent. Collectively, this implies that hypnotic colour was only perceived after shape detection rather than aiding in shape detection via colour-based perceptual grouping. The results suggest that hypnotically induced colours are not directly comparable to synaesthetic ones.

  13. Cyclic colour change in the bearded dragon Pogona vitticeps under different photoperiods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Fan

    Full Text Available The ability to change colour rapidly is widespread among ectotherms and has various functions including camouflage, communication and thermoregulation. The process of colour change can occur as an aperiodic event or be rhythmic, induced by cyclic environmental factors or regulated by internal oscillators. Despite the importance of colour change in reptile ecology, few studies have investigated the occurrence of a circadian rhythm in lizard pigmentation. Additionally, although colour change also entails changes in near-infrared reflectance, which may affect thermoregulation, little research has examined this part of the spectrum. We tested whether the bearded dragon lizard, Pogona vitticeps, displays an endogenous circadian rhythm in pigmentation changes that could be entrained by light/dark (LD cycles and how light affected the relative change in reflectance in both ultraviolet-visible and near-infrared spectra. We subjected 11 lizards to four photoperiodic regimens: LD 12:12; LD 6:18; LD 18:6 and DD; and measured their dorsal skin reflectance at 3-hour intervals for 72 hours after a habituation period. A proportion of lizards displayed a significant rhythm under constant darkness, with maximum reflectance occurring in the subjective night. This endogenous rhythm synchronised to the different artificial LD cycles, with maximum reflectance occurring during dark phases, but did not vary in amplitude. In addition, the total ultraviolet-visible reflectance in relation to the total near-infrared reflectance was significantly higher during dark phases than during light phases. We conclude that P. vitticeps exhibits a circadian pigmentation rhythm of constant amplitude, regulated by internal oscillators and that can be entrained by light/dark cycles.

  14. Cyclic colour change in the bearded dragon Pogona vitticeps under different photoperiods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Marie; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Cadena, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    The ability to change colour rapidly is widespread among ectotherms and has various functions including camouflage, communication and thermoregulation. The process of colour change can occur as an aperiodic event or be rhythmic, induced by cyclic environmental factors or regulated by internal oscillators. Despite the importance of colour change in reptile ecology, few studies have investigated the occurrence of a circadian rhythm in lizard pigmentation. Additionally, although colour change also entails changes in near-infrared reflectance, which may affect thermoregulation, little research has examined this part of the spectrum. We tested whether the bearded dragon lizard, Pogona vitticeps, displays an endogenous circadian rhythm in pigmentation changes that could be entrained by light/dark (LD) cycles and how light affected the relative change in reflectance in both ultraviolet-visible and near-infrared spectra. We subjected 11 lizards to four photoperiodic regimens: LD 12:12; LD 6:18; LD 18:6 and DD; and measured their dorsal skin reflectance at 3-hour intervals for 72 hours after a habituation period. A proportion of lizards displayed a significant rhythm under constant darkness, with maximum reflectance occurring in the subjective night. This endogenous rhythm synchronised to the different artificial LD cycles, with maximum reflectance occurring during dark phases, but did not vary in amplitude. In addition, the total ultraviolet-visible reflectance in relation to the total near-infrared reflectance was significantly higher during dark phases than during light phases. We conclude that P. vitticeps exhibits a circadian pigmentation rhythm of constant amplitude, regulated by internal oscillators and that can be entrained by light/dark cycles. PMID:25354192

  15. Cyclic Colour Change in the Bearded Dragon Pogona vitticeps under Different Photoperiods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Marie; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Cadena, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    The ability to change colour rapidly is widespread among ectotherms and has various functions including camouflage, communication and thermoregulation. The process of colour change can occur as an aperiodic event or be rhythmic, induced by cyclic environmental factors or regulated by internal oscillators. Despite the importance of colour change in reptile ecology, few studies have investigated the occurrence of a circadian rhythm in lizard pigmentation. Additionally, although colour change also entails changes in near-infrared reflectance, which may affect thermoregulation, little research has examined this part of the spectrum. We tested whether the bearded dragon lizard, Pogona vitticeps, displays an endogenous circadian rhythm in pigmentation changes that could be entrained by light/dark (LD) cycles and how light affected the relative change in reflectance in both ultraviolet-visible and near-infrared spectra. We subjected 11 lizards to four photoperiodic regimens: LD 12∶12; LD 6∶18; LD 18∶6 and DD; and measured their dorsal skin reflectance at 3-hour intervals for 72 hours after a habituation period. A proportion of lizards displayed a significant rhythm under constant darkness, with maximum reflectance occurring in the subjective night. This endogenous rhythm synchronised to the different artificial LD cycles, with maximum reflectance occurring during dark phases, but did not vary in amplitude. In addition, the total ultraviolet-visible reflectance in relation to the total near-infrared reflectance was significantly higher during dark phases than during light phases. We conclude that P. vitticeps exhibits a circadian pigmentation rhythm of constant amplitude, regulated by internal oscillators and that can be entrained by light/dark cycles. PMID:25354192

  16. The night and day of dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae in the Serra do Japi, Brazil: elytra colour related to daily activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malva Isabel Medina Hernández

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study 387 dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae were surveyed at the Serra do Japi, in the Atlantic Forest in São Paulo State, with four baited pitfall traps during the months of December, 1998, and January, 1999 during eight 24 hour cycles. A total of 30 species were identified and temporal variation in activity patterns among the species shows a specialization in the use of food resources: 9 species were classified as nocturnal and 13 as diurnal. The daily activity pattern of dung beetles does not necessarily correspond to the taxonomic classification, but is strongly related to the colouring of species, determined by predominant elytra colour: nocturnal species have 89 % more chances of being black as opposed to colourful. Black nocturnal species might have evolved as an interspecific adaptation to avoid predation (cryptic colouring. Among the colourful diurnal dung beetles, measure of body length of each species shows that development of bright colouring was more often found in medium to large species, which suggests that colouring evolved as a response to intraspecific pressures, important in agonistic encounters among males.

  17. Toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of Caramel Colour IV in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, K M; Boysen, B G; Field, W E; Petsel, S R; Chappel, C I; Emerson, J L; Stanley, J

    1992-05-01

    Caramel Colour IV, a type of caramel colour used in the manufacture of cola soft drinks, was evaluated for subchronic and chronic toxicity in rats, and carcinogenicity in Fischer-344 (F344) rats and B6C3F1 mice. In each of the studies, Caramel Colour IV was mixed with demineralized water and the solutions given to the animals ad lib. in the drinking fluid. The concentrations of Caramel Colour IV in the drinking fluid were adjusted periodically to achieve the desired caramel colour intake per kg body weight. In the range-finding studies, groups of 30 rats/sex were given Caramel Colour IV at levels of 0, 15, 20, 25 or 30 g/kg for 13 wk, and groups of 10 male rats were given levels of 0, 2.5, 5, 10 or 15 g/kg for 6 wk followed, for some dose groups, by a 2-wk withdrawal period, and then re-initiation of dosing for another 2 wk. In the rat chronic toxicity study, levels of Caramel Colour IV of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 or 10 g/kg were given to groups of 25 rats/sex for 12 months. The test groups in the rat and mouse carcinogenicity studies were composed of 50 animals/sex and each species was given the caramel colour at levels of 0, 0, 2.5, 5 or 10 g/kg for 24 months. In each of the studies, treated animals tended to have dose-related lower water consumption than controls. This was attributed to poor palatability of the drinking fluid, and was generally associated with decreased food consumption and body weights. Rats given caramel colour often had soft or liquid malodorous faeces although there were no treatment-related ante-mortem observations in mice. Blood biochemical changes in the rat (i.e. reduced blood urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphatase and total serum protein) appeared to be related to dietary influences and were not considered toxicologically significant. There were no treatment-related alterations in haematological variables or treatment-related differences in survival or in the incidence of benign or malignant tumours among treated and control groups and no

  18. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukauskas, A [Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9, bldg. III, Vilnius, LT-10222 (Lithuania); Vaicekauskas, R [Department of Computer Science, Vilnius University, Naugarduko g. 24, Vilnius, LT-03225 (Lithuania); Shur, M S, E-mail: arturas.zukauskas@ff.vu.l [Department of Electrical, Computer, and System Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2010-09-08

    The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially when the spectra of light sources contain a few narrow-band electroluminescence components. Supplementing these metrics by the known figures of merit that measure the gamut area of a small number of test colour samples does not completely resolve this issue. In contrast, the statistical approach, which is based on sorting a very large number of test colour samples in respect of just-perceivable colour distortions of several kinds, offers a comprehensive assessment of colour-rendition properties of solid-state light sources. In particular, two statistical indices, colour-fidelity index (CFI) and colour-saturation index (CSI), which are the relative numbers of object colours rendered with high fidelity and increased saturation, respectively, are sufficient to reveal and assess three distinct types of solid-state light sources. These are (i) high-fidelity lamps, which cover the entire spectrum with the spectral components present in the wavelength ranges of both 530-610 nm and beyond 610 nm (e.g. trichromatic warm white phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red-amber-green-blue LED clusters, complementary clusters of white and coloured LEDs); (ii) colour-saturating lamps, which lack power in the 530-610 nm wavelength range (e.g. red-green-blue or red-cyan-blue LED clusters) and (iii) colour-dulling lamps, which lack power for wavelengths longer than 610 nm (dichromatic daylight pc LEDs and amber-green-blue LED clusters). Owing to a single statistical format, CSI and CFI can be used for

  19. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially when the spectra of light sources contain a few narrow-band electroluminescence components. Supplementing these metrics by the known figures of merit that measure the gamut area of a small number of test colour samples does not completely resolve this issue. In contrast, the statistical approach, which is based on sorting a very large number of test colour samples in respect of just-perceivable colour distortions of several kinds, offers a comprehensive assessment of colour-rendition properties of solid-state light sources. In particular, two statistical indices, colour-fidelity index (CFI) and colour-saturation index (CSI), which are the relative numbers of object colours rendered with high fidelity and increased saturation, respectively, are sufficient to reveal and assess three distinct types of solid-state light sources. These are (i) high-fidelity lamps, which cover the entire spectrum with the spectral components present in the wavelength ranges of both 530-610 nm and beyond 610 nm (e.g. trichromatic warm white phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red-amber-green-blue LED clusters, complementary clusters of white and coloured LEDs); (ii) colour-saturating lamps, which lack power in the 530-610 nm wavelength range (e.g. red-green-blue or red-cyan-blue LED clusters) and (iii) colour-dulling lamps, which lack power for wavelengths longer than 610 nm (dichromatic daylight pc LEDs and amber-green-blue LED clusters). Owing to a single statistical format, CSI and CFI can be used for

  20. Colilert® applied to food analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colilert® (IDEXX was originally developed for the simultaneous enumeration of coliforms and E. coli in water samples and has been used for the quality control routine of drinking, swimming pools, fresh, coastal and waste waters (Grossi et al., 2013. The Colilert® culture medium contains the indicator nutrient 4-Methylumbelliferyl-β-D-Glucuronide (MUG. MUG acts as a substrate for the E. coli enzyme β-glucuronidase, from which a fluorescent compound is produced. A positive MUG result produces fluorescence when viewed under an ultraviolet lamp. If the test fluorescence is equal to or greater than that of the control, the presence of E. coli has been confirmed (Lopez-Roldan et al., 2013. The present work aimed to apply Colilert® to the enumeration of E. coli in different foods, through the comparison of results against the reference method (ISO 16649-2, 2001 for E. coli food analysis. The study was divided in two stages. During the first stage ten different types of foods were analyzed with Colilert®, these included pastry, raw meat, ready to eat meals, yogurt, raw seabream and salmon, and cooked shrimp. From these it were approved the following: pastry with custard; raw minced pork; soup "caldo-verde"; raw vegetable salad (lettuce and carrots and solid yogurt. The approved foods presented a better insertion in the tray, the colour of the wells was lighter and the UV reading was easier. In the second stage the foods were artificially contaminated with 2 log/g of E. coli (ATCC 25922 and analyzed. Colilert® proved to be an accurate method and the counts were similar to the ones obtained with the reference method. In the present study, the Colilert® method did not reveal neither false-positive or false-negative results, however sometimes the results were difficult to read due to the presence of green fluorescence in some wells. Generally Colilert® was an easy and rapid method, but less objective and more expensive than the reference method.

  1. Colour changes in gamma-irradiated polymer fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The change in colour of some polymer fibres using γ-irradiation has been carried out to develop a sensor for γ-ray dosimetry. The spectral reflectance values of unirradiated and γ-irradiated polyester, nylon-6 and Dralon fibres were measured spectrophotometrically in a previous work. The tristimulus values of those samples were calculated. Also colour difference between the unirradiated samples and these irradiated with different doses of γ-irradiation were calculated using four colour difference formulae. The change in colour difference by the applied dose was evaluated for nylon-6 and Dralon fibres. The colour of polyester fibres is slightly affected by γ-irradiation. An empirical formula is deduced for the relation between colour difference ΔE and the dose r of γ-irradiated nylon-6 and Dralon fibres. This study can be used to develop a sensor for γ-ray dosimetry. (author)

  2. The colour analysis method applied to homogeneous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halász, Amadé; Halmai, Ákos

    2015-12-01

    Computer-aided colour analysis can facilitate cyclostratigraphic studies. Here we report on a case study involving the development of a digital colour analysis method for examination of the Boda Claystone Formation which is the most suitable in Hungary for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Rock type colours are reddish brown or brownish red, or any shade between brown and red. The method presented here could be used to differentiate similar colours and to identify gradual transitions between these; the latter are of great importance in a cyclostratigraphic analysis of the succession. Geophysical well-logging has demonstrated the existence of characteristic cyclic units, as detected by colour and natural gamma. Based on our research, colour, natural gamma and lithology correlate well. For core Ib-4, these features reveal the presence of orderly cycles with thicknesses of roughly 0.64 to 13 metres. Once the core has been scanned, this is a time- and cost-effective method.

  3. Facial Identification in Observers with Colour-Grapheme Synaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience, 17(11), 4302–4311], increased colour-word form representations in observers with colour-grapheme synaesthesia may affect facial identification in people with synaesthesia. This study investigates the ability to process facial features for identification in observers with colour......-grapheme synaesthesia. Preliminary data suggest that observers with colour-grapheme synaesthesia have a decreased ability to identify other people from facial cues.......Synaesthesia between colours and graphemes is often reported as one of the most common forms cross modal perception [Colizolo et al, 2012, PLoS ONE, 7(6), e39799]. In this particular synesthetic sub-type the perception of a letterform is followed by an additional experience of a colour quality...

  4. Non-forward colour octet BFKL kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution to the kernel of the non-forward BFKL equation from the two-gluon production is calculated for the case of the antisymmetric colour octet state of the Reggeized gluon in the t-channel. The one-gluon contribution to the kernel in the one-loop approximation is also obtained using the one-loop expression for the effective vertex of the one-gluon production in the Reggeon-Reggeon collisions. The explicit form of the BFKL equation total kernel is presented

  5. Chemical Deinking Flotation Efficiency Of Coloured Toner

    OpenAIRE

    Višnja Mikac Dadić; Ivana Đermanović; Vesna Džimbeg-Malčić; Željka Barbarić-Mikočević

    2010-01-01

    Recycling of paper printed with colour laser printer xerox phaser 7700 has been investigated in this work. The recycling was performed by chemical deinking with double stage flotation with the usage of anion surfactant. Froths collected by flotation were re-floated in purpose to increase the usage of fibers. The efficiency of first flotation of magenta particles (98.3%), cyan (96.9%) and carbon ones (91.5%) was calculated from results of the image analysis method. The same method was not effe...

  6. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  7. Architecture, science and colour in Britain 1945-1976.

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a scientific theory of colour and of standardized colour ranges by a small group of modernist architects is a fascinating but Little-known episode of post-war British architectural history. In many articles, official publications, and conferences, and from within key organizations of the building industry, these architects promoted a theory of colour selection and application based on seemingly 'functional' and 'rational' criteria such as the 'aesthetic of...

  8. Methods for Determining Organic Matter and Colour in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Ramunė Albrektienė; Mindaugas Rimeika

    2011-01-01

    The article examines different methods for determining organic matter and colour in water. Most of organic compounds in water have a humic substance. These substances frequently form complexes with iron. Humic matter gives water a yellow-brownish colour. Water filtration through conventional sand filters does not remove colour and organic compounds, and therefore complicated water treatment methods shall be applied. The methods utilized for organic matter determination in water included resea...

  9. Does avian conspicuous colouration increase or reduce predation risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, M.; Avilés, Jesús M; Cuervo, José Javier; Parejo, D.; Ruano, F.; Zamora-Muñoz, G.; Sergio, Fabrizio; López-Jiménez, Lidia; Tanferna, Alessandro; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Animals often announce their unprofitability to predators through conspicuous coloured signals. Here we tested whether the apparently conspicuous colour designs of the four European Coraciiformes and Upupiformes species may have evolved as aposematic signals, or whether instead they imply a cost in terms of predation risk. Because previous studies suggested that these species are unpalatable, we hypothesized that predators could avoid targeting them based on their colours. An experiment was p...

  10. 'Flight of colours' in lesions of the visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, M; Todman, L; Bender, M B

    1974-11-01

    A bright pocket flashlight was directed into one eye for 10 seconds; the subject then closed the eyelids and reported the sequence of after-image colours observed. Lesions of the visual system which compromised bilateral central colour vision also reduced or abolished the `flight of colours'. This simple bedside test of each eye independently is of value in detecting mild defects of central vision. PMID:4457619

  11. Chemical and colour quenching in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical and colour quenching for H-3 and C-14 was studied. The method includes spectral analysis of colouring agents; methyl red, (4'-dimethylamine-azobenzene 2-carboxylic acid) dimethyl yellow (4'-dimethylamine-azobenzene) and malachite green (methane, bis .(4-dimethyl aminophenyl) - (phenyl)). External standard channels ratio was applied for the liquid scintillation counting of samples. The introduction of an isolated external standard seems to be a strong tool for the correction of chemical and colour quenching curves. (Author) 12 refs

  12. Leveraging Colour Segmentation for Upper-Body Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Duffner, Stefan; Odobez, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an upper-body detection algorithm that extends classical shape-based detectors through the use of additional semantic colour segmentation cues. More precisely, candidate upper-body image patches produced by a base detector are soft-segmented using a multi-class probabilistic colour segmentation algorithm that leverages spatial as well as colour prior distributions for different semantic object regions (skin, hair, clothing, background). These multi-class soft segmentation ...

  13. Performance characterization of clustering algorithms for colour image segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ilea, Dana E.; Whelan, Paul F.; Ghita, Ovidiu

    2006-01-01

    This paper details the implementation of three traditional clustering techniques (K-Means clustering, Fuzzy C-Means clustering and Adaptive K-Means clustering) that are applied to extract the colour information that is used in the image segmentation process. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the analysed colour clustering techniques for the extraction of optimal features from colour spaces and investigate which method returns the most consistent results when applied o...

  14. Colour - important factor in preserving the local identity

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Maria Zybaczynski

    2014-01-01

    The concept of sustainable competitiveness, referring to the city, requires the analysis of the characteristic elements that confer identity to the city. Could be colour one of them? This article, based on the Doctoral Dissertation "The colour in rehabilitation" presented to the Faculty of Architecture, University of Architecture and Urbanism "Ion Mincu" Bucharest, explores the role of colour in the urbanscape in terms of local identity and perceptual connections, concluding that the transfor...

  15. Children's colour choices for completing drawings of affectively characterised topics

    OpenAIRE

    Burkitt, Esther; Barrett, Martyn; Davis, Alyson

    2003-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to explore whether or not children systematically use particular colours when completing drawings of affectively characterised topics. Method: Three hundred and thirty 4-11-year-old children were subdivided into three conditions, colouring in a drawing of a man, a dog, or a tree, respectively. The children completed two test sessions in counterbalanced order. In one session, children rated and ranked ten colours in order of preference. In the other session,...

  16. The colour scenario: an interdisciplinary analysis for a interdisciplinary topic

    OpenAIRE

    Vezzani, Valentina; Bisson, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The topic of this research is about the exploration of the actual colour scenario, from an Italian perspective analysis to an international one, with the aim to understand the characteristics and the needs of a complex system of disciplines and relationships that depends on the interdisciplinary character of the matter. The understanding of the colour scenario, then representing it, is the first step to understand and promote a common colour knowledge, comprehensible and useful for all those ...

  17. Redesigning Studio Apartments for Sheltered Accomodation Using Colour Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Meakin, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    First year interior Design and Furniture Students study colour theory as part of a second semester module on colour and perception, and as part of this brief worked with older residents in Dublin City Council housing in Raheny and Kilbarrack to collaboratively produce colour palettes and mood boards that the older people could use at home. http://arrow.dit.ie/civpostbk/1016/thumbnail.jpg

  18. Coloured rain dust from Sahara Desert is still radioactive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A coloured rain event originating from the Sahara Desert occurred on April 9, 2000 at Thessaloniki, Northern Greece (40 deg. 38'N, 22 deg. 58'E). The radioactive nuclides that were determined in a coloured rain dust sample were 137Cs of Chernobyl origin, 7Be of cosmogenic origin and 40K of terrestrial origin. Cesium-137 still remained 14 years after the Chernobyl accident, reaching 26.6 Bq kg-1 in the coloured rain dust

  19. Development of a colour scale for colour evaluation of beef carcasses at 60 min post mortem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, I.; Merkus, G.S.M.

    1999-01-01

    The pectoralis profundus muscles of 200 selected beef carcasses were measured to develop a standard colour scale for evaluating beef carcasses at the time of classification (approximately 60 min post mortem). Five lightness (L*) values were chosen ranging from 22 to 42 with intervals of five L* unit

  20. Why do colours look the way they do?

    OpenAIRE

    Unwin, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    A major part of the mind–body problem is to explain why a given set of physical processes should give rise to perceptual qualities of one sort rather than another. Colour hues are the usual example considered here, and there is a lively debate as to whether the results of colour vision science can provide convincing explanations of why colours actually look the way they do. The internal phenomenological structure of colours is considered here in some detail, and a comparison is drawn with sou...

  1. The use of colour in the game Journey : Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dickmark, Emma

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to find out the usage of colour in the game called Journey (2012). It is a case study which focuses on three different scenes in the game and how their colour scheme affects the game both emotionally and the storyline progress. The question that will be answered is: How does the choice of colour affect the players perception on an emotional level? This thesis talks about how different colours affect us in different ways and why this plays a major part in gameplay situations a...

  2. Colour contribution to children's wayfinding in school environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvacıoǧlu, Elif; Olguntürk, Nilgün

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the contribution of colour to children's wayfinding ability in school environments and to examine the differences between colours in terms of their remembrance and usability in route learning process. The experiment was conducted with three different sample groups for each of three experiment sets differentiated by their colour arrangement. The participants totalled 100 primary school children aged seven and eight years old. The study was conducted in four phases. In the first phase, the participants were tested for familiarity with the experiment site and also for colour vision deficiencies by using Ishihara's tests for colour-blindness. In the second phase, they were escorted on the experiment route by the tester one by one, from one starting point to one end point and were asked to lead the tester to the end point by the same route. In the third phase, they were asked to describe verbally the route. In the final phase, they were asked to remember the specific colours at their correct locations. It was found that colour has a significant effect on children's wayfinding performances in school environments. However, there were no differences between different colours in terms of their remembrances in route finding tasks. In addition, the correct identifications of specific colours and landmarks were dependent on their specific locations. Contrary to the literature, gender differences were not found to be significant in the accuracy of route learning performances.

  3. Colour fluctuations in grapheme-colour synaesthesia: The effect of clinical and non-clinical mood changes

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Collette L.; Carmichael, Duncan; Ruffell, Henry E.; Simner, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Synaesthesia is a condition that gives rise to unusual secondary sensations (e.g., colours are perceived when listening to music). These unusual sensations tend to be reported as being stable throughout adulthood (e.g., Simner & Logie, 2007, Neurocase, 13, 358) and the consistency of these experiences over time is taken as the behavioural hallmark of genuineness. Our study looked at the influence of mood states on synaesthetic colours. In Experiment 1, we recruited grapheme‐colour synaest...

  4. The colour of galaxies in distant groups

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, Michael L; Wilman, Dave; Bower, Richard G; Hau, George; Morris, Simon L; Mulchaey, J S; Oemler, A; Parker, Laura; Gwyn, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) We present new optical and near-infrared imaging for a sample of 98 spectroscopically-selected galaxy groups at 0.25colours for group members and the surrounding field population, statistically complete above a stellar mass limit of M=1E10 Msun. The overall colour distribution is bimodal in both the field and group samples; but at fixed luminosity the fraction of group galaxies populating the red peak is larger, by 20+/-7 per cent, than that of the field. In particular, group members with early-type morphologies, as identified in HST imaging, exhibit a tight red sequence, similar to that seen for more massive clusters. We show that approximately 20-30 per cent of galaxies on the red sequence may be dust-reddened galaxies with non-negligible star formation and early-spiral morphologies. This is true of both the field and group sample, and shows little dependence on near infrared luminosity. Thus, the fraction of bright group members with no sign of star formation o...

  5. COLOUR DOPPLER EVALUATION OF ACUTE RENAL COLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallepu Ramaiah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIMS Can Doppler index–RI be a predictor of renal colics impending obstruction in acute and emergency clinical settings. To compare the results of RI in cases of obstructive, nondilated and normal kidneys. METHODS A total of 90 patients were included in this prospective study. The patients were grouped into three categories based on the clinical settings. Group 1 with acute unilateral obstruction were 44, group 2 who were presented with flank pain without stone disease were 26 and group 3 were 20 patients with sonologically normal kidneys. Grey scale ultrasonography and colour Doppler study carried out in all the groups and index – RI value were compared. RESULTS The study showed differences in RI values among the groups (0.726±0.04, 0.63±0.039 and 0.608±0.03 respectively. CONCLUSION In acute and emergency clinical setting, grey scale ultrasonography and interrogation with colour Doppler index– RI improved the assessment and detection of impending obstructive uropathy.

  6. Estimating pollination success with novel artificial flowers: Effects of nectar concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Thomson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We developed novel artificial flowers that dispense and receive powdered food dyes as pollen analogues while their nectar is replenished by capillary action. Dye receipt, which can be measured colourimetrically, is a direct surrogate for pollen receipt or female reproductive success, but can also serve to compare pollen donation (male reproductive success from flowers with different colours of dye. By allowing captive bumble bee colonies to visit large arrays of such flowers, we investigated whether total dye receipt depended on the sugar concentration of a flower’s nectar. Estimating pollen transfer, rather than simply visitation rate, is appropriate for this question because flowers with more concentrated nectar might accrue more pollen not only through higher visitation rates but also through longer visits that transfer more pollen per visit. Flowers with richer nectar did receive more dye regardless of their spatial arrangement, but the effect was greatest when rich and poor flowers were segregated in large blocks, as opposed to being intermingled.

  7. Another look at category effects on colour perception and their left hemispheric lateralisation: no evidence from a colour identification task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suegami, Takashi; Aminihajibashi, Samira; Laeng, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to replicate category effects on colour perception and their lateralisation to the left cerebral hemisphere (LH). Previous evidence for lateralisation of colour category effects has been obtained with tasks where a differently coloured target was searched within a display and participants reported the lateral location of the target. However, a left/right spatial judgment may yield LH-laterality effects per se. Thus, we employed an identification task that does not require a spatial judgment and used the same colour set that previously revealed LH-lateralised category effects. The identification task was better performed with between-category colours than with within-category task both in terms of accuracy and latency, but such category effects were bilateral or RH-lateralised, and no evidence was found for LH-laterality effects. The accuracy scores, moreover, indicated that the category effects derived from low sensitivities for within-blue colours and did not reflect the effects of categorical structures on colour perception. Furthermore, the classic "category effects" were observed in participants' response biases, instead of sensitivities. The present results argue against both the LH-lateralised category effects on colour perception and the existence of colour category effects per se. PMID:24430783

  8. Dynamic miniature lighting system with low correlated colour temperature and high colour rendering index for museum lighting of fragile artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Corell, Dennis Dan; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff;

    2013-01-01

    of historical artefacts in display cases at museums and other exhibitions, which can replace 3-5 Watt incandescent light bulbs with a correlated colour temperature (CCT) from 2000 K to 2400 K. The solution decreases the energy consumption by up to 80 %, while maintaining colour rendering indices (Ra) above 90......Illumination of fragile and irreplaceable historical objects exhibited to the public presents challenges with regards to: good colour rendering, low photochemical degradation of sensitive materials and general energy consumption. We present a dynamic tri-colour LED lighting system for illumination...

  9. Fusion of colour and monochromatic images with edge emphasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade M. Pavlović

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel method to fuse true colour images with monochromatic non-visible range images that seeks to encode important structural information from monochromatic images efficiently but also preserve the natural appearance of the available true chromacity information. We utilise the β colour opponency channel of the lαβ colour as the domain to fuse information from the monochromatic input into the colour input by the way of robust grayscale fusion. This is followed by an effective gradient structure visualisation step that enhances the visibility of monochromatic information in the final colour fused image. Images fused using this method preserve their natural appearance and chromacity better than conventional methods while at the same time clearly encode structural information from the monochormatic input. This is demonstrated on a number of well-known true colour fusion examples and confirmed by the results of subjective trials on the data from several colour fusion scenarios. Introduction The goal of image fusion can be broadly defined as: the representation of visual information contained in a number of input images into a single fused image without distortion or loss of information. In practice, however, a representation of all available information from multiple inputs in a single image is almost impossible and fusion is generally a data reduction task.  One of the sensors usually provides a true colour image that by definition has all of its data dimensions already populated by the spatial and chromatic information. Fusing such images with information from monochromatic inputs in a conventional manner can severely affect natural appearance of the fused image. This is a difficult problem and partly the reason why colour fusion received only a fraction of the attention than better behaved grayscale fusion even long after colour sensors became widespread. Fusion method Humans tend to see colours as contrasts between opponent

  10. 21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams. 150.161 Section 150.161 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED...

  11. Consumer Values of Health-Related Food Symbols and Chemical Food Additives - The Case of Breakfast Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Thunström, Linda

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we analyze consumers’ revealed values of food symbols indicating nutritious and organic food, as well as consumers’ revealed values for chemical food additives. We do so by estimating a hedonic price function based on a rich data set on breakfast cereal purchases. Our findings suggest that consumers positively value chemical food additives in breakfast cereals, suggesting that the positive taste effect from e.g. chemical taste enhancers, emulsifiers, colourings and preservatives...

  12. Quo Vadis, Artificial Intelligence?

    OpenAIRE

    Alfons Schuster; Daniel Berrar; Naoyuki Sato

    2010-01-01

    Since its conception in the mid 1950s, artificial intelligence with its great ambition to understand and emulate intelligence in natural and artificial environments alike is now a truly multidisciplinary field that reaches out and is inspired by a great diversity of other fields. Rapid advances in research and technology in various fields have created environments into which artificial intelligence could embed itself naturally and comfortably. Neuroscience with its desire to understand nervou...

  13. Anticipatory Artificial Autopoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    DuBois, Daniel; Holmberg, Stig C.

    2010-01-01

    In examining relationships between autopoiesis and anticipation in artificial life (Alife) systems it is demonstrated that anticipation may increase efficiency and viability in artificial autopoietic living systems. This paper, firstly, gives a review of the Varela et al [1974] automata algorithm of an autopoietic living cell. Some problems in this algorithm must be corrected. Secondly, a new and original anticipatory artificial autopoiesis algorithm for automata is presented. ...

  14. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  15. Doped Colloidal Artificial Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Libal, A.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson; Reichhardt, C.

    2015-01-01

    We examine square and kagome artificial spin ice for colloids confined in arrays of double-well traps. Unlike magnetic artificial spin ices, colloidal and vortex artificial spin ice realizations allow creation of doping sites through double occupation of individual traps. We find that doping square and kagome ice geometries produces opposite effects. For square ice, doping creates local excitations in the ground state configuration that produce a local melting effect as the temperature is rai...

  16. Inteligencia artificial en vehiculo

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Díaz, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Desarrollo de un robot seguidor de líneas, en el que se implementan diversas soluciones de las áreas de sistemas embebidos e inteligencia artificial. Desenvolupament d'un robot seguidor de línies, en el qual s'implementen diverses solucions de les àrees de sistemes encastats i intel·ligència artificial. Follower robot development of lines, in which various solutions are implemented in the areas of artificial intelligence embedded systems.

  17. A Multiuser Detector Based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for DS-UWB Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhendong Yin; Xiaohui Liu(High Energy Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, U.S.A.); Zhilu Wu

    2013-01-01

    Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is an optimization algorithm based on the intelligent behavior of honey bee swarm. The ABC algorithm was developed to solve optimizing numerical problems and revealed premising results in processing time and solution quality. In ABC, a colony of artificial bees search for rich artificial food sources; the optimizing numerical problems are converted to the problem of finding the best parameter which minimizes an objective function. Then, the artificial bee...

  18. Smaller plates, less food waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten; Skov, Laurits Rhoden;

    With roughly one-third of food produced for human consumption lost or wasted globally (about 1.3 billion tons per year), the impact on the environment cannot be anymore neglected. Actions at all points in the production chain are now urgent, including reductions in food waste at home, by retailers...... pilot study was to investigate whether the size of the dishware would non-reflectively influence the amount of foods taken from an “ad-libitum” buffet and the resulting amount of waste. Sample consisted of Danish business leaders that took part in a congress in Copenhagen, Denmark. Two buffet tables...... this was for logistic reasons. All food waste was collected in designated trash bags (different colour in each floor) and weighted in bulk by students. Smaller plates appear to have decreased food waste by 26% compared to the standard sized plates at a single serving in a self-service eating setting...

  19. The absolute threshold of colour vision in the horse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina S V Roth

    Full Text Available Arrhythmic mammals are active both during day and night if they are allowed. The arrhythmic horses are in possession of one of the largest terrestrial animal eyes and the purpose of this study is to reveal whether their eye is sensitive enough to see colours at night. During the day horses are known to have dichromatic colour vision. To disclose whether they can discriminate colours in dim light a behavioural dual choice experiment was performed. We started the training and testing at daylight intensities and the horses continued to choose correctly at a high frequency down to light intensities corresponding to moonlight. One Shetland pony mare, was able to discriminate colours at 0.08 cd/m(2, while a half blood gelding, still discriminated colours at 0.02 cd/m(2. For comparison, the colour vision limit for several human subjects tested in the very same experiment was also 0.02 cd/m(2. Hence, the threshold of colour vision for the horse that performed best was similar to that of the humans. The behavioural results are in line with calculations of the sensitivity of cone vision where the horse eye and human eye again are similar. The advantage of the large eye of the horse lies not in colour vision at night, but probably instead in achromatic tasks where presumably signal summation enhances sensitivity.

  20. Structures and colour properties of new red wine pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Anders Eckart; Pardon, K.; Hayasaka, Y.;

    2003-01-01

    colour properties of the pigments were characterized; it could be demonstrated that the pyranoanthocyanins retained their red colour at pH 3.6 in model wine and were resistant to bisulfite-mediated bleaching. Finally, HPLC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of both anthocyanin-derived pigments in red...

  1. Colour vision in long-standing diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, M.S.; McCulloch, C.; Hanna, A. K.; Mortimer, C.

    1984-01-01

    In 12 long-standing insulin-dependent diabetics with background diabetic retinopathy their 100-hue colour vision scores were positively related to the degree of retinopathy and negatively to fasting blood glucose levels. However, the 100-hue colour vision scores and types were not significantly different from those of normal subjects matched for age, sex, and social class.

  2. Luminous flux and colour maintenance investigation of integrated LED lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Thorseth, Anders; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    This article will present an investigation of the luminous flux and colour maintenance of white LED based retrofit lamps. The study includes 23 different types of integrated LED lamps, covering 18 directional and 5 non-directional. Luminous flux and colour data for operation up to 20000 h has been...

  3. Colour mimicry and sexual deception by Tongue orchids ( Cryptostylis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskett, A. C.; Herberstein, M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Typically, floral colour attracts pollinators by advertising rewards such as nectar, but how does colour function when pollinators are deceived, unrewarded, and may even suffer fitness costs? Sexually deceptive orchids are pollinated only by male insects fooled into mating with orchid flowers and inadvertently transferring orchid pollinia. Over long distances, sexually deceptive orchids lure pollinators with counterfeit insect sex pheromones, but close-range deception with colour mimicry is a tantalising possibility. Here, for the first time, we analyse the colours of four sexually deceptive Cryptostylis orchid species and the female wasp they mimic ( Lissopimpla excelsa, Ichneumonidae), from the perspective of the orchids’ single, shared pollinator, male Lissopimpla excelsa. Despite appearing different to humans, the colours of the orchids and female wasps were effectively identical when mapped into a hymenopteran hexagonal colour space. The orchids and wasps reflected predominantly red-orange wavelengths, but UV was also reflected by raised bumps on two orchid species and by female wasp wings. The orchids’ bright yellow pollinia contrasted significantly with their overall red colour. Orchid deception may therefore involve accurate and species-specific mimicry of wavelengths reflected by female wasps, and potentially, exploitation of insects’ innate attraction to UV and yellow wavelengths. In general, mimicry may be facilitated by exploiting visual vulnerabilities and evolve more readily at the peripheries of sensory perception. Many sexually deceptive orchids are predominantly red, green or white: colours that are all potentially difficult for hymenoptera to detect or distinguish from the background.

  4. Biclique-colouring powers of paths and powers of cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Filho, Hélio B Macêdo; Machado, Raphael C S; de Figueiredo, Celina M H

    2012-01-01

    Biclique-colouring is a colouring of the vertices of a graph in such a way that no maximal complete bipartite subgraph with at least one edge is monochromatic. We show that it is co$\\mathcal{NP}$-complete to check if a colouring of vertices is a valid biclique-colouring, a result that justifies the search for structured classes where the biclique-colouring problem could be efficiently solved. We consider biclique-colouring restricted to powers of paths and powers of cycles. We determine the biclique-chromatic number of powers of paths and powers of cycles. The biclique-chromatic number of a power of a path $P_{n}^{k}$ is $\\max(2k + 2 - n, 2)$ if $n \\geq k + 1$ and exactly $n$ otherwise. The biclique-chromatic number of a power of a cycle $C_n^k$ is at most 3 if $n \\geq 2k + 2$ and exactly $n$ otherwise; we additionally determine the powers of cycles that are 2-biclique-colourable. All the proofs are algorithmic and we provide polynomial-time biclique-colouring algorithms for graphs in the investigated classes...

  5. The colours of quarks as new degrees of freedom

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, S; Banerjee, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    The origin of the colours of quarks has been explored and the number of colours equal to three has been derived from the fractal properties suggested in the statistical model.The quark gluon coupling constant has been reproduced and the properties of the intrinsic electric charges of quarks have also been studied.

  6. The Effect of Colour on Children's Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Alice; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background: The presence of red appears to hamper adults' cognitive performance relative to other colours (see Elliot & Maier, 2014, "Ann. Rev. Psychol." 65, 95). Aims and sample: Here, we investigate whether colour affects cognitive performance in 8- and 9-year-olds. Method: Children completed a battery of tasks once in the presence…

  7. Field-portable pixel super-resolution colour microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Alon; Akbari, Najva; Feizi, Alborz; Luo, Wei; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-01-01

    Based on partially-coherent digital in-line holography, we report a field-portable microscope that can render lensfree colour images over a wide field-of-view of e.g., >20 mm(2). This computational holographic microscope weighs less than 145 grams with dimensions smaller than 17×6×5 cm, making it especially suitable for field settings and point-of-care use. In this lensfree imaging design, we merged a colorization algorithm with a source shifting based multi-height pixel super-resolution technique to mitigate 'rainbow' like colour artefacts that are typical in holographic imaging. This image processing scheme is based on transforming the colour components of an RGB image into YUV colour space, which separates colour information from brightness component of an image. The resolution of our super-resolution colour microscope was characterized using a USAF test chart to confirm sub-micron spatial resolution, even for reconstructions that employ multi-height phase recovery to handle dense and connected objects. To further demonstrate the performance of this colour microscope Papanicolaou (Pap) smears were also successfully imaged. This field-portable and wide-field computational colour microscope could be useful for tele-medicine applications in resource poor settings. PMID:24086742

  8. MEMORY IMPROVING FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning is a lifelong process of transforming information and experience into knowledge, skills, behaviorand attitudes. Memory is the ability of the brain to store, retain and subsequently to recall information received fromthe world. Cognition can be defined as organization of information. It includes acquiring information (perception,selecting (attention, representing (understanding and retaining (memory information and using it to guidebehavior (reasoning and coordination of motor outputs.There are so many conditions associated with memory and cognitive impairment which include Aging,Alzheimer’s disease, Stroke, Stress, Head injuries, Seizures, Benzodiazepines, Brain tumors, Depression, Temporallobe defects and Schizophrenia etc.Choline rich foods can enhance memory and learning and may be useful in improving cognitive abilities. Theseinclude sea foods, liver, egg yolk, soysbeans, broccoli, ash gourd. Coloured fruits and vegetables are good source ofantioxidants which improve concentration. It is advised to decrease the consumption of foods rich in transfats likehydrogenated oils, fried foods, beef, pork, mutton and ice creams and pastries. Such foods increase the deposition offats in the neurons and impair cognition. Tea, cocoa and turmeric are reported to have good nootropic activity i.e.improving memory and learning. Apart from the foods, one should keep the brain active to maintain its cognitivefunction well.

  9. Implementation and characterization of a fibre-optic colour sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the implementation of a fibre-optic sensor for colour detection based on reflective colour sensing is proposed. The sensor consists of three plastic optical fibres emitting red, green and blue components and one optical fibre collecting light reflected from the object. Red, green and blue LEDs are excited at different frequencies. In this way detection of the reflected signal is achieved with only one photodetector and three bandpass filters. Bandpass filters are implemented as digital IIR (infinite impulse response) filters on the microcontroller. Results obtained from the proposed sensor are compared with commercial available colour sensors and the results are satisfactory. Analyses of the sensor performance both in RGB and HSV colour space are done. The proposed solution shows that in specific applications by using the HSV model the sensor can be used both as a colour and distance sensor. (paper)

  10. Shell Colour Polymorphism in Bulla ampulla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1999-01-01

    coexist over most of the distribution area. It is striking that many museum samples contain specimens of only one of the colour morphs. One possible explanation is that Bulla ampulla is a complex of sibling species. It should therefore be studied if the morphs for example occupy different habitats or......Colour patterns of Bulla ampulla shells collected from Africa eastward to Pacific Islands were studied. 1\\vo common colour morphs were found. The typical morph is commonest. It is closely and finely mottled or all over with pinkish-gray on a creamy or flesh~tinted ground, with darker clouds......, irregular, V-shaped, or as longitudinal bands. The colouration of the other common morph is more uniform. It is lacking the darker clouds or bands and the colour is more greyish. The entire shell surface is densely mottled all over with small brown spots on a grey or beige background. Both morphs seem to...

  11. Human eye colour and HERC2, OCA2 and MATP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Børsting, Claus; Sanchez, Juan J.;

    2010-01-01

    Prediction of human eye colour by forensic genetic methods is of great value in certain crime investigations. Strong associations between blue/brown eye colour and the SNP loci rs1129038 and rs12913832 in the HERC2 gene were recently described. Weaker associations between eye colour and other...... genetic markers also exist. In 395 randomly selected Danes, we investigated the predictive values of various combinations of SNP alleles in the HERC2, OCA2 and MATP (SLC45A2) genes and compared the results to the eye colours as they were described by the individuals themselves. The highest predictive...... value of typing either the HERC2 SNPs rs1129038 and/or rs12913832 that are in strong linkage disequilibrium was observed when eye colour was divided into two groups, (1) blue, grey and green (light) and (2) brown and hazel (dark). Sequence variations in rs11636232 and rs7170852 in HERC2, rs1800407 in...

  12. Colour-octet bound states, induced by Higgs mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Bladwell, S; Flambaum, V V; Kozlov, A

    2012-01-01

    The current limits for fourth generation quarks allows to expect their mass of the order of 500 GeV. In this mass region for quark-anti-quark pair the additional Yukawa-type attraction due to Higgs mechanism is expected to emerge. This Higgs induced attraction greatly exceeds strong interaction between quarks and leads to the formation of bound states in both colour octet $S^{(8)}$ and singlet $S^{(1)}$ states. In the key of recent works on significance of colour octet channel for production of colour singlet state of fourth generation $Q\\bar{Q}$ we calculated the binding energies for both octet and singlet states. Such attraction localizes quarks in extremely small area. Hence colour octet pair of fourth generation quarks can form the "nucleus" and together with colour neutralizing light particle that is captured by strong interaction in orbit around the nucleus, create particle, similar by its structure to Deuterium.

  13. The analysis of colour uniformity for a volumetric display based on a rotating LED array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a colour nonuniformity zone existing in three-dimensional (3D) volumetric displays which is based on the rotating colour light-emitting diode (LED) array. We analyse the reason for the colour nonuniformity zone by measuring the light intensity distribution and chromaticity coordinates of the LED in the volumetric display. Two boundaries of the colour nonuniformity zone are calculated. We measure the colour uniformities for a single cuboid of 3*3*4 voxels to display red, green, blue and white colour in different horizontal viewing angles, and for 64 cuboids distributed in the whole cylindrical image space with a fixed viewpoint. To evaluate the colour uniformity of a 3D image, we propose three evaluation indices of colour uniformity: the average of colour difference, the maximum colour difference and the variance of colour difference. The measurement results show that the character of colour uniformity is different for the 3D volumetric display and the two-dimensional display

  14. Mouse Simulation Using Two Coloured Tapes

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Vikram; Mahe, Swapnil; Vyawahare, Swapnil; 10.5121/ijist.2012.2206

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach for Human Computer Interaction (HCI) where, we control cursor movement using a real-time camera. Current methods involve changing mouse parts such as adding more buttons or changing the position of the tracking ball. Instead, our method is to use a camera and computer vision technology, such as image segmentation and gesture recognition, to control mouse tasks (left and right clicking, double-clicking, and scrolling) and we show how it can perform everything as current mouse devices can. The software will be developed in JAVA language. Recognition and pose estimation in this system are user independent and robust as we will be using colour tapes on our finger to perform actions. The software can be used as an intuitive input interface to applications that require multi-dimensional control e.g. computer games etc.

  15. 'Nonbaryonic' dark matter as baryonic colour superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss a novel cold dark matter candidate which is formed from the ordinary quarks during the QCD phase transition when the axion domain wall undergoes an unchecked collapse due to the tension in the wall. If a large number of quarks is trapped inside the bulk of a closed axion domain wall, the collapse stops due to the internal Fermi pressure. In this case the system in the bulk, may reach the critical density when it undergoes a phase transition to a colour superconducting phase with the ground state being the quark condensate, similar to BCS theory. If this happens, the new state of matter representing the diquark condensate with a large baryon number B ∼ 1032 becomes a stable soliton-like configuration. Consequently, it may serve as a novel cold dark matter candidate

  16. Performance Analysis using Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, Lisa Marie

    facilities for performance analysis using coloured Petri nets. Personal experience has shown that people with different backgrounds have very different needs with regards to tools supporting simulation-based performance analysis. Inexperienced data analysts will have a tendency to believe what a tool tells...... them, therefore care must be taken to avoid generating misleading results. More experienced data analysts generally require that more sophisticated kinds of data are generated for specific purposes. The paper presents new performance-related facilities such as support for running multiple simulations...... to the model in order to obtain a model that is appropriate for another purpose. There are a number of disadvantages associated with modifying a model. Making the modifications can be time consuming and error-prone. It is tiresome to maintain several different versions of a model during development. More...

  17. Probabilistic Discrete Mixtures Colour Texture Models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Havlíček, Vojtěch; Grim, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2008, č. 5197 (2008), s. 675-682. ISSN 0302-9743. [Iberoamerican Congress on Pattern Recognition /13./. Havana, 09.092008-12.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400750407; GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/07/1594; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Discrete distribution mixtures * EM algorithm * texture modeling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http:// library .utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/RO/haindl-havlicek-grim-probabilistic%20discrete%20mixtures%20colour%20texture%20models.pdf

  18. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    for systems of the size and complexity we find in typical industrial proj- ects. To achieve this, we have combined the strength of Petri nets with the strength of programming languages. Petri nets provide the primitives for the description of the synchronisation of concurrent processes, while......Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas are...... communication protocols, dis- tributed systems, imbedded systems, automated production systems, work flow analysis and VLSI chips. The development of CP-nets has been driven by the desire to develop a modelling language ñ at the same time theoretically well-founded and versatile enough to be used in practice...

  19. Quarkonium suppression: Gluonic dissociation vs. colour screening

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Binoy Krishna Patra; Dinesh Kumar Srivastava

    2003-05-01

    We evaluate the suppression of / production in an equilibrating quark gluon plasma for two competing mechanisms: Debye screening of colour interaction and dissociation due to energetic gluons. Results are obtained for S + S and Au + Au collisions at RHIC and LHC energies. At RHIC energies the gluonic dissociation of the charmonium is found to be equally important for both the systems while the screening of the interaction plays a significant role only for the larger systems. At LHC energies the Debye mechanism is found to dominate both the systems. While considering the suppression of directly produced $\\Upsilon$ at LHC energies, we find that only the gluonic dissociation mechanism comes into play for the initial conditions taken from the self screened parton cascade model in these studies.

  20. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.