Sample records for artificial demineralized surface

  1. Laser fluorescence detection of demineralization in artificial occlusal fissures. (United States)

    Ferreira Zandoná, A G; Analoui, M; Schemehorn, B R; Eckert, G J; Stookey, G K


    Laser fluorescence (LF) has been used previously to detect early smooth-surface lesions. Although its use for detection of occlusal demineralization has been implicated, it has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to determine whether LF could detect demineralization in the base of artificial fissures. To employ LF for detection of occlusal demineralization an apparatus was devised to direct laser light into fissures and simultaneously detect fluorescence from the base of the fissures. Three groups (n = 40/group) of differing fissure types were prepared (straight wall, converging and diverging wall) with either a sound or lesioned base. One half of each group was examined with LF and dye-enhanced LF (DELF); the other half was examined with LF, exposed to plaque, examined with LF and DELF, air-polished and examined with DELF. All images were scored twice as either (1) carious; (2) sound, or (3) undetermined, by a group of 3 examiners. For fissures without plaque, the average sensitivity was higher for DELF (0.76) than for LF (0.54) (p DELF (0.64) than for LF (0.29) (p DELF (0.91) compared to LF (0.43); however, specificity was lower for DELF (0.05) compared to LF (0.55). When the fissures were air-polished and then examined with DELF, sensitivity averaged 0.82 (p DELF was a better diagnostic tool than LF for detection of demineralization in artificial fissures.

  2. Combining CPP-ACP with fluoride: a synergistic remineralization potential of artificially demineralized enamel or not? (United States)

    El-Sayad, I. I.; Sakr, A. K.; Badr, Y. A.


    Background and objective: Minimal intervention dentistry (MID) calls for early detection and remineralization of initial demineralization. Laser fluorescence is efficient in detecting changes in mineral tooth content. Recaldent is a product of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP- ACP) which delivers calcium and phosphate ions to enamel. A new product which also contains fluoride is launched in United States. The remineralizing potential of CPP- ACP per se, or when combined with 0.22% Fl supplied in an oral care gel on artificially demineralised enamel using laser fluorescence was investigated. Methods: Fifteen sound human molars were selected. Mesial surfaces were tested using He-Cd laser beam at 441.5nm with 18mW power as excitation source on a suitable set-up based on Spex 750 M monochromator provided with PMT for detection of collected auto-fluorescence from sound enamel. Mesial surfaces were subjected to demineralization for ten days. The spectra from demineralized enamel were measured. Teeth were then divided according to the remineralizing regimen into three groups: group I recaldent per se, group II recaldent combined with fluoride gel and group III artificial saliva as a positive control. After following these protocols for three weeks, the spectra from remineralized enamel from the three groups were measured. The spectra of enamel auto-fluorescence were recorded and normalized to peak intensity at about 540 nm to compare between spectra from sound, demineralized and remineralized enamel surfaces. Results: A slight red shift was noticed in spectra from demineralized enamel, while a blue shift may occur in remineralized enamel. Group II showed the highest remineralizing potential. Conclusions: Combining fluoride with CPP-ACP had a synergistic effect on enamel remineralization. In addition, laser auto-fluorescence is an accurate technique for assessment of changes in tooth enamel minerals.

  3. In vitro study of the diode laser effect on artificial demineralized surface of human dental enamel; Estudo in vitro do efeito do laser diodo sobre a superficie de esmalte dental humano desmineralizado artificialmente

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    Ebel, Patricia


    In scientific literature there are many reports about fusion and resolidification of dental enamel after laser irradiation and their capability to generate surfaces with increased resistance to demineralization compared to non-irradiated areas. The use of high power diode laser on demineralized surfaces of human dental enamel is presented as a good alternative in caries prevention. The purpose of this study is to investigate the morphological changes produced by the use of one high power diode laser on human dental enamel surface after demineralization treatment with lactic acid, under chosen parameters. Fifteen samples of human dental molars were used and divided in four groups: control - demineralization treatment with lactic acid and no irradiation, and demineralization treatment with lactic acid followed of irradiation with 212,20 mJ/cm{sup 2}, 282,84 mJ/cm{sup 2} and 325,38 mJ/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The samples were irradiated with high power diode laser (808 nm) with a 300 {mu}m diameter fiber optics. Black ink was used on enamel surface to enhance the superficial absorption. The samples were studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Modifications on the enamel surfaces were observed. Such modifications were characterized by melted and re-solidified region of the enamel. According with our results the best parameter was 2.0 W, presenting the most uniform surface. The use of high power diode laser as demonstrated in this study is able to promote melting and re-solidification on human dental enamel. (author)

  4. Comparative evaluation of remineralizing potential of three agents on artificially demineralized human enamel: An in vitro study (United States)

    Patil, Namrata; Choudhari, Shantanu; Kulkarni, Sadanand; Joshi, Saurabh R


    Introduction: Remineralization as a treatment procedure has received much attention from clinicians. The objective of this in vitro study was to find out the efficacy of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF), and tricalcium phosphate fluoride (TCP-F) in remineralizing enamel surface on which artificial caries lesion had been created. The changes were analyzed using DIAGNOdent® (KaVo) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: A total of 52 premolars and 24 molars were selected and classified into four groups of 13 premolars and 6 molars in each: I (CPP-ACP), II (CPP-ACPF), III (TCP-F), and IV (artificial saliva). All the samples were assessed using DIAGNOdent at the baseline and after demineralization and remineralization. Ten samples were randomly selected from each group baseline after demineralization and after remineralization for surface evaluation using SEM. Results: Statistical analysis showed that all the experimental groups had a significantly higher amount of remineralization except for group IV. Conclusion: All the three experimental groups showed a statistically significant amount of remineralization. However, because of the added benefit of fluoride (NaF 0.2%), CPP-ACPF (Tooth Mousse-Plus®) and TCP-F showed marginally more amount of remineralization than did CPP-ACP (Tooth Mousse®). Remineralization efficacy was TCP-F > CPP-ACPF > CPP-ACP. PMID:23716961

  5. Comparative evaluation of remineralizing potential of three agents on artificially demineralized human enamel: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Patil


    Full Text Available Introduction: Remineralization as a treatment procedure has received much attention from clinicians. The objective of this in vitro study was to find out the efficacy of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (CPP-ACPF, and tricalcium phosphate fluoride (TCP-F in remineralizing enamel surface on which artificial caries lesion had been created. The changes were analyzed using DIAGNOdent® (KaVo and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Materials and Methods: A total of 52 premolars and 24 molars were selected and classified into four groups of 13 premolars and 6 molars in each: I (CPP-ACP, II (CPP-ACPF, III (TCP-F, and IV (artificial saliva. All the samples were assessed using DIAGNOdent at the baseline and after demineralization and remineralization. Ten samples were randomly selected from each group baseline after demineralization and after remineralization for surface evaluation using SEM. Results: Statistical analysis showed that all the experimental groups had a significantly higher amount of remineralization except for group IV. Conclusion: All the three experimental groups showed a statistically significant amount of remineralization. However, because of the added benefit of fluoride (NaF 0.2%, CPP-ACPF (Tooth Mousse-Plus® and TCP-F showed marginally more amount of remineralization than did CPP-ACP (Tooth Mousse® . Remineralization efficacy was TCP-F > CPP-ACPF > CPP-ACP.

  6. Near-surface structural examination of human tooth enamel subject to in vitro demineralization and remineralization (United States)

    Gaines, Carmen Veronica

    The early stages of chemical tooth decay are governed by dynamic processes of demineralization and remineralization of dental enamel that initiates along the surface of the tooth. Conventional diagnostic techniques lack the spatial resolution required to analyze near-surface structural changes in enamel at the submicron level. In this study, slabs of highly-polished, decay-free human enamel were subjected to 0.12M EDTA and buffered lactic acid demineralizing agents and MI Paste(TM) and calcifying (0.1 ppm F) remineralizing treatments in vitro. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD), a technique typically used for thin film analysis, provided depth profiles of crystallinity changes in surface enamel with a resolution better than 100 nm. In conjunction with nanoindentation, a technique gaining acceptance as a means of examining the mechanical properties of sound enamel, these results were corroborated with well-established microscopy and Raman techniques to assess the nanohardness, morphologies and chemical nature of treated enamel. Interestingly, the average crystallite size of surface enamel along its c-axis dimension increased by nearly 40% after a 60 min EDTA treatment as detected by GIXD. This result was in direct contrast to the obvious surface degradation observed by microscopic and confocal Raman imaging. A decrease in nanohardness from 4.86 +/- 0.44 GPa to 0.28 +/- 0.10 GPa was observed. Collective results suggest that mineral dissolution characteristics evident on the micron scale may not be fully translated to the nanoscale in assessing the integrity of chemically-modified tooth enamel. While an intuitive decrease in enamel crystallinity was observed with buffered lactic acid-treated samples, demineralization was too slow to adequately quantify the enamel property changes seen. MI Paste(TM) treatment of EDTA-demineralized enamel showed preferential growth along the a-axis direction. Calcifying solution treatments of both demineralized sample types

  7. Evaluation of enamel surface modification using PS-OCT after laser treatment to increase resistance to demineralization (United States)

    Kim, Jin Wan; Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel


    At laser intensities below ablation, carbonated hydroxyapatite in enamel is converted into a purer phase hydroxyapatite with increased acid resistance. Previous studies suggested the possibility of achieving the conversion without surface modification. This study attempts to evaluate the thresholds for the modification without additional changes in physical and optical properties of the enamel. Bovine specimens were irradiated using an RF-excited CO2 laser operating at 9.4-μm with a pulse duration of 26- μs, pulse repetition rates of 100-1000 Hz, with a Gaussian spatial beam profile - 1.4 mm in diameter. After laser treatment, the samples were subjected to acid demineralization for 48 hours to simulate acidic intraoral conditions of a caries attack. The resulting demineralization and erosion were assessed using polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) and 3D digital microscopy. The images from digital microscopy demonstrated a clear delineation between laser protected zones without visual changes and zones with higher levels of demineralization and erosion. Distinct changes in the surface morphology were found within the laser treated area in accordance with the Gaussian spatial beam profile. There was significant protection from the laser in areas that were not visually altered.

  8. Effects of Treatment with Various Remineralizing Agents on the Microhardness of Demineralized Enamel Surface. (United States)

    Salehzadeh Esfahani, Kiana; Mazaheri, Romina; Pishevar, Leila


    Background and aims. Remineralization of incipient caries is one of the goals in dental health care. The present study aimed at comparing the effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate complex (CPP-ACP), Remin Pro(®), and 5% sodium fluoride varnish on remineralization of enamel lesions. Materials and methods. In this in vitro study, 60 enamel samples were randomly allocated to six groups of 10. After four days of immersion in demineralizing solution, microhardness of all samples was measured. Afterward, groups 1-3 underwent one-time treatment with fluoride varnish, CPP-ACP, and Remin Pro(®), respectively. Microhardness of groups 4-6 was measured not only after one-month treatment with the above-mentioned materials (for eight hours a day), but also after re-exposing to the demineralizing solution. The results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), repeated measures ANOVA, and Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) test. Results . None of the regimens could increase microhardness in groups 1-3. However, one-month treatment regimens in groups 4-6 caused a significant increase in microhardness. The greatest microhardness was detected in the group treated with CPP-ACP (P = 0.001). In addition, although microhardness reduced following re-demineralization in all three groups, the mean reduction was minimum in the CPP-ACP-treated group (P microhardness, the remineralization potential of CPP-ACP was significantly higher than that of Remin Pro(®) and sodium fluoride varnish.

  9. 氟对脱矿和再矿化牙釉质表面的影响%Effect to demineralization and remineralization of enamel surface by fluorine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娜; 周学东; 郝玉庆


    Objective To analyze the mechanism of fluorine by systemic analysis of fluorination-deminerarization-remineralization experiments. Methods The enamel specimens were randomly assigned to untreated group (group A), non-fluoride group (group B), low-fluoride group (group C) and high-fluoride group (group D). The in vitro model of fluoride enamel was established in group C and D. Based on that, the establishment of demineralization model and remineralization experiment by pH-cycling in group B, C and D were followed. All enamel specimens were observed by stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope and compared in surface microhardness value. Results There was distinct difference in micro-morphologic appearance on fluoride enamel surface. Artificial caries of fluoride enamel showed a relatively complete surface, the surface microhardness after demineralization and remineralization in fluoride group was higher than non-fluoride group (P<0.05). Conclusion The fluorinated enamel can enhance cariostatic poten-tial and remineralization capacity of dental enamel.%目的 研究氟对脱矿和再矿化牙釉质表面的影响,探讨氟防龋的作用机理.方法 将牛牙釉质标本分为空白对照组(A组)、非氟化组(B组)、低氟化组(C组)和高氟化组(D组)4组,其中低氟化组和高氟化组依次进行氟化实验、脱矿实验和pH循环再矿化实验,非氟化组只进行脱矿实验和pH循环再矿化实验,空白对照组不做处理.在体视显微镜、显微硬度计和扫描电镜下观察各组釉质表面的形态变化,同时测量分析釉质表面显微硬度.结果 氟化牙釉质的表面微观形态显著不同,其脱矿损害具有相对完整的表层;氟化组在氟化、脱矿和再矿化后与非氟化组相比,表面显微硬度均有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论 氟化牙釉质可增强牙釉质的抗龋能力和再矿化效能.

  10. Clinical evaluation of demineralization and remineralization of intact root surface lesions in the clinic by a quantitative light-induced fluorescence system. (United States)

    Durmusoglu, Oykü; Tağtekin, Dilek Arslantunali; Yanikoğlu, Funda


    Detection of demineralization of root surface caries is an important issue since preventive approaches prolong tooth life. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) has been shown to be useful for the laboratory assessment of demineralization of root surfaces. The aim of this study was to determine the demineralization and remineralization of root surface intact and cavitated caries lesions using a QLF system as a nondestructive in vivo method. Noncavitated and demineralized root surface lesions were detected and scored using the QLF system. Oral hygiene education was given and periodontal cleaning was completed before the remineralization treatment. After obtaining baseline QLF data, the patients were informed about the remineralization treatment. Fluoride varnish was applied to the carious lesions at the baseline visit, and the patients were then reviewed after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks, with QLF assessment and fluoride varnish application repeated at each review. Repeated-measures ANOVA (α = 0.05) showed significant differences between ΔQ values at each visit (p Bifluoride 12 varnish improved mineral levels as shown by the QLF system. The treatment response to chemicals of intact noncavitated root surface carious lesions could be followed nondestructively in the clinic using QLF to quantify remineralization at recall visits. Teeth with root surface caries can be kept by controlling their remineralization.

  11. Effect of resin infiltration on enamel surface properties and Streptococcus mutans adhesion to artificial enamel lesions. (United States)

    Arslan, Soley; Zorba, Yahya Orcun; Atalay, Mustafa Altay; Özcan, Suat; Demirbuga, Sezer; Pala, Kansad; Percin, Duygu; Ozer, Fusun


    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of resin infiltration and sealant type on enamel surface properties and Streptococcus mutans adhesion to artificial enamel lesions. Artificial enamel lesions were produced on the surfaces of 120 enamel specimens, which were divided into two groups: Group A and Group B (n=60 per group). Each group was further divided into four subgroups (n=15 per subgroup) according to sealant type: Group I-Demineralized enamel (control); Group II-Enamel Pro Varnish; Group III-ExciTE F; and Group IV-Icon. In Group A, hardness and surface roughness were evaluated; in Group B, bacterial adhesion was evaluated. Icon application resulted in significantly lower surface roughness and higher hardness than the other subgroups in Group A. In Group B, Enamel Pro Varnish resulted in lowest bacterial adhesion, followed by Icon. This study showed that resin infiltration of enamel lesions could arrest lesion progress.

  12. Effect of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate pre-treatment on micro-tensile bond strength of resin composite to demineralized dentin. (United States)

    Doi, J; Itota, T; Torii, Y; Nakabo, S; Yoshiyama, M


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) application on the micro-tensile bond strength of resin composite to demineralized dentin. Artificially demineralized lesions were formed on bovine dentin surfaces and treated with 10, 30, 50, 70 and 100 wt% HEMA aqueous solution. The surfaces were then applied and covered with SE Bond and AP-X according to the manufacturer's instruction. After immersion in 37 degrees C water for 24 h, bond strength were measured using a universal testing machine. Bond strengths to both demineralized dentin and normal dentin, without HEMA application, were also measured. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis at the resin-dentin interface were also performed. The bond strength data were statistically compared with anova and Scheffe's test (P Bond strength to demineralized dentin treated with over 30 wt% HEMA aqueous solution were significantly higher than that to demineralized dentin without HEMA application, but significantly lower than that to normal dentin. SEM observation revealed that the hybrid layer and resin-tags thickened and lengthened with HEMA application. In CLSM, the diffusion of adhesive primer into demineralized dentin increased with HEMA application. These results indicated that HEMA application might increase the bond strength to demineralized dentin by the enhancement of resin monomer penetration of HEMA.

  13. In vitro evaluation of the efficacy of laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent to detect demineralization and remineralization of smooth enamel lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahrololoomi


    Full Text Available Objective: Early detection of smooth surface lesions is important for appropriate management and monitoring of dental caries. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of laser fluorescence to detect demineralization and remineralization of smooth enamel surfaces. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 132 enamel blocks of semi-impacted human third molars were obtained; artificial caries lesions were induced and they were submitted to the pH-cycling process to create remineralization. Superficial microhardness (SMH and laser fluorescence (LF analysis were performed at baseline, after demineralization, and remineralization processes. The data were analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS-16 using analysis of variance (ANOVA, Paired samples t-test, and Pearson′s correlation test. Results: There was a significant difference between SMH values at baseline, after demineralization and after remineralization. Also, a statistically significant difference was observed between LF values in these three stages. The LF values increased after demineralization and then decreased after remineralization, and the SMH values decreased after demineralization and increased after remineralization. There was an inverse relationship between SMH and LF only at baseline and after demineralization, but not after remineralization. Conclusion: The results showed that LF is an appropriate method for detection of demineralization in an in vitro condition in smooth enamel lesions, but it was not so efficient in the detection of remineralization.

  14. A Mechanistic study of Plasma Treatment Effects on Demineralized Dentin Surfaces for Improved Adhesive/Dentin Interface Bonding (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoqing; Chen, Meng; Wang, Yong; Yu, Qingsong


    Our previous work has shown that non-thermal plasma treatment of demineralized dentin significantly (p<0.05) improved adhesive/dentin bonding strength for dental composite restoration as compared with the untreated controls. This study is to achieve mechanistic understanding of the plasma treatment effects on dentin surface through investigating the plasma treated dentin surfaces and their interaction with adhesive monomer, 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). The plasma treated dentin surfaces from human third molars were evaluated by water contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that plasma-treated dentin surface with subsequent HEMA immersion (Plasma/HEMA Treated) had much lower water contact angle compared with only plasma-treated (Plasma Treated) or only HEMA immersed (HEMA Treated) dentin surfaces. With prolong water droplet deposition time, water droplets spread out completely on the Plasma/HEMA Treated dentin surfaces. SEM images of Plasma/HEMA Treated dentin surfaces verified that dentin tubules were opened-up and filled with HEMA monomers. Extracted type I collagen fibrils, which was used as simulation of the exposed dentinal collagen fibrils after acid etching step, were plasma treated and analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectra. FT-IR spectra of the Plasma/HEMA Treated collage fibrils showed broadened amide I peak at 1660 cm−1 and amide II at 1550 cm−1, which indicate secondary structure changes of the collagen fibrils. CD spectra indicated that 67.4% collagen helix structures were denatured after plasma treatment. These experimental results demonstrate that non-thermal argon plasma treatment was very effective in loosing collagen structure and enhancing adhesive monomer penetration, which are beneficial to thicker hybrid layer and longer resin tag formation, and consequently enhance adhesive/dentin interface bonding. PMID:25267936

  15. Oriented and Ordered Biomimetic Remineralization of the Surface of Demineralized Dental Enamel Using HAP@ACP Nanoparticles Guided by Glycine (United States)

    Wang, Haorong; Xiao, Zuohui; Yang, Jie; Lu, Danyang; Kishen, Anil; Li, Yanqiu; Chen, Zhen; Que, Kehua; Zhang, Qian; Deng, Xuliang; Yang, Xiaoping; Cai, Qing; Chen, Ning; Cong, Changhong; Guan, Binbin; Li, Ting; Zhang, Xu


    Achieving oriented and ordered remineralization on the surface of demineralized dental enamel, thereby restoring the satisfactory mechanical properties approaching those of sound enamel, is still a challenge for dentists. To mimic the natural biomineralization approach for enamel remineralization, the biological process of enamel development proteins, such as amelogenin, was simulated in this study. In this work, carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) conjugated with alendronate (ALN) was applied to stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) to form CMC/ACP nanoparticles. Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) functioned as the protease which decompose amelogenin in vivo to degrade the CMC-ALN matrix and generate HAP@ACP core-shell nanoparticles. Finally, when guided by 10 mM glycine (Gly), HAP@ACP nanoparticles can arrange orderly and subsequently transform from an amorphous phase to well-ordered rod-like apatite crystals to achieve oriented and ordered biomimetic remineralization on acid-etched enamel surfaces. This biomimetic remineralization process is achieved through the oriented attachment (OA) of nanoparticles based on non-classical crystallization theory. These results indicate that finding and developing analogues of natural proteins such as amelogenin involved in the biomineralization by natural macromolecular polymers and imitating the process of biomineralization would be an effective strategy for enamel remineralization. Furthermore, this method represents a promising method for the management of early caries in minimal invasive dentistry (MID).

  16. Oriented and Ordered Biomimetic Remineralization of the Surface of Demineralized Dental Enamel Using HAP@ACP Nanoparticles Guided by Glycine (United States)

    Wang, Haorong; Xiao, Zuohui; Yang, Jie; Lu, Danyang; Kishen, Anil; Li, Yanqiu; Chen, Zhen; Que, Kehua; Zhang, Qian; Deng, Xuliang; Yang, Xiaoping; Cai, Qing; Chen, Ning; Cong, Changhong; Guan, Binbin; Li, Ting; Zhang, Xu


    Achieving oriented and ordered remineralization on the surface of demineralized dental enamel, thereby restoring the satisfactory mechanical properties approaching those of sound enamel, is still a challenge for dentists. To mimic the natural biomineralization approach for enamel remineralization, the biological process of enamel development proteins, such as amelogenin, was simulated in this study. In this work, carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) conjugated with alendronate (ALN) was applied to stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) to form CMC/ACP nanoparticles. Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) functioned as the protease which decompose amelogenin in vivo to degrade the CMC-ALN matrix and generate HAP@ACP core-shell nanoparticles. Finally, when guided by 10 mM glycine (Gly), HAP@ACP nanoparticles can arrange orderly and subsequently transform from an amorphous phase to well-ordered rod-like apatite crystals to achieve oriented and ordered biomimetic remineralization on acid-etched enamel surfaces. This biomimetic remineralization process is achieved through the oriented attachment (OA) of nanoparticles based on non-classical crystallization theory. These results indicate that finding and developing analogues of natural proteins such as amelogenin involved in the biomineralization by natural macromolecular polymers and imitating the process of biomineralization would be an effective strategy for enamel remineralization. Furthermore, this method represents a promising method for the management of early caries in minimal invasive dentistry (MID). PMID:28079165

  17. Patterns of distribution of phosphomono-esterases on surfaces of demineralized bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Vilmann, H


    be an indication of differential processes of bone transformations in such a way that bone surfaces corresponding to areas of enzyme reactions are depository whereas bone surfaces corresponding to areas of lack of enzyme reaction are resorptive. New experimental designs are, however, necessary before...... to resorptive surfaces and weak reaction of cells adjacent to depository surfaces. When, however, Fast dark blue R was used all surface cells reacted markedly. This method also revealed certain cell types with nuclear reaction....

  18. The significance of a differential distribution of phosphomonoesterases on bone surfaces after prolonged demineralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, H; Kirkeby, S


    with the patterns of apposition and resorption on the periosteal surfaces of this bone, revealed by in vivo staining with alizarin red S. Presence of reaction to acid phosphatase is, as shown before, an indication of resorptive surfaces, while the presence of reaction to alkaline phosphatase is an indication...

  19. Artificial Ground Water Recharge with Surface Water (United States)

    Heviánková, Silvie; Marschalko, Marian; Chromíková, Jitka; Kyncl, Miroslav; Korabík, Michal


    With regard to the adverse manifestations of the recent climatic conditions, Europe as well as the world have been facing the problem of dry periods that reduce the possibility of drawing drinking water from the underground sources. The paper aims to describe artificial ground water recharge (infiltration) that may be used to restock underground sources with surface water from natural streams. Among many conditions, it aims to specify the boundary and operational conditions of the individual aspects of the artificial ground water recharge technology. The principle of artificial infiltration lies in the design of a technical system, by means of which it is possible to conduct surplus water from one place (in this case a natural stream) into another place (an infiltration basin in this case). This way, the water begins to infiltrate into the underground resources of drinking water, while the mixed water composition corresponds to the water parameters required for drinking water.

  20. Research on early quantitating artificial demineralization of bovine permanent teeth using the average gray value of optical coherence tomography images%利用光学相干断层图像平均灰度值定量研究牛恒牙早期人工脱矿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐延勇; 姚晖; 李燕妮; 连小丽; 张林朴; 王冠华; 代晓华


    目的 研究经酸蚀脱矿后牛恒牙光学相干断层图像平均灰度值的变化,探讨平均灰度值作为一个参数指标定量检测牛恒牙早期脱矿的可行性.方法 以正常离体牛恒牙为样本,采用凝胶酸蚀法制备人工脱矿模型;用光学相干断层摄影术对人工脱矿模型扫描成像,利用Matlab软件计算不同酸蚀时间脱矿区牙体层110 μm范围内的平均灰度值.将测得图像灰度和归一化后图像灰度,分别进行单因素方差分析.结果 牙体表层110 μm范围内不同时间酸蚀脱矿区的平均灰度值从大到小依次为30 min酸蚀脱矿区、1O min酸蚀脱矿区、0 min酸蚀脱矿区,图像灰度归一化后做单因素方差分析,P<0.05.结论 牙体表层110 μm范围内不同酸蚀时间脱矿区平均灰度值差异有统计学意义,并随脱矿时间增加而增大,即平均灰度值可以用于光学相干断层摄影术定量检测牙齿的早期脱矿.光学相干断层图像灰度归一化使得不同酸蚀脱矿区的平均灰度值更有可比性,减小了由于样本之间差异引起的误差,提高了平均灰度值作为参数指标定量检测牙齿早期脱矿的可靠性.%Objective To investigate the feasibility of the average gray value as a parameter index for early quantification detection of artificial demineralization by studying the changes of average gray value on optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of bovine permanent teeth etched.Methods Early stage of artificial demineralization mould was created by etching the experimental normal isolated bovine permanent teeth surface.Images of the artificial demineralization mould were obtained by OCT,and then the average gray value within the 110 μm under the teeth surface was calculated by Matlab software.The gray value and the normalized gray value were analyzed by ANOVA,respectively.Results On the OCT images,the average gray value within the 110 μm under the teeth surface form high to low were the

  1. Staining of dentin from amalgam corrosion is induced by demineralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, Johannes D.; van der Hoorn, Wietske; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte D. N. J. M.; Roeters, Joost F. M.; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J.; Feilzer, Albert J.; Ozcan, Mutlu


    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of artificial demineralization upon color change of dentin in contact with dental amalgam. Methods: Sound human molars (n= 34) were embedded in resin and coronal enamel was removed. Dentin was exposed to artificial caries gel (pH 5.5) at 37 degrees C for 12 weeks (n=

  2. Staining of dentin from amalgam corrosion is induced by demineralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, J.D.; van der Hoorn, W.; Özcan, M.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Roeters, J.F.M.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Feilzer, A.J.


    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of artificial demineralization upon color change of dentin in contact with dental amalgam. METHODS: Sound human molars (n = 34) were embedded in resin and coronal enamel was removed. Dentin was exposed to artificial caries gel (pH 5.5) at 37 degrees C for 12 weeks (n

  3. Fixed Appliance Tooth Surface pH Changes in the Enamel Demineralization Correlation%固定矫治中牙面pH变化与釉质脱矿的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖会能; 吕德平; 陈朝霞


    目的:分析固定矫治中牙面PH变化和釉质脱矿之间的关系。方法选择我院牙科在2015年5月~8月进行了固定矫治牙治疗患者50例进行研究分析,其中25例患者在治疗后出现脱矿(脱矿组),25例患者在治疗后未出现脱矿情况(未脱矿组),对两组患者进行上颌前牙唇面进行PH值测定,分析牙面PH变化与釉质脱矿之间的关联性。结果脱矿组患者的上颌牙唇面PH值为(5.46±0.14),未脱矿组患者的上颌牙唇面PH值为(6.82±0.24),两组相比差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论在固定矫治中,牙面的PH较低,使得口腔处于酸性环境中,易导致釉质脱矿的情况出现。%Objective To analyze the relationship between fixed appliance in dental enamel demineralization and PH changes between. Methods Hospital Dental in May 2015 to August were fixed appliance orthodontic treatment of 50 patients were studied analysis,25 patients had demineralization (decalcification group) after treatment,25 patients after treatment is not appears demineralization case (not demineralized group),two groups of patients with maxillary anterior teeth were PH value measurement,analysis correlation with changes in dental enamel demineralization PH between.Results Demineralization patients maxillary labial surface PH value of 5.46 ±0.14, mine removal group patients without maxillary labial surface PH value of 6.82±0.24,compared to the two groups was statistically significant difference(P<0.05).Conclusion Fixed orthodontic treatment,PH tooth surface is lower, resulting in the acidic environment of the mouth,easily lead to the emergence of cases of enamel demineralization.


    Ryou, Heonjune; Turco, Gianluca; Breschi, Lorenzo; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.; Arola, Dwayne


    Resin bonding to dentin requires the use of self-etching primers or acid etching to decalcify the surface and expose a layer of collagen fibrils of the dentin matrix. Acid-etching reduces the stiffness of demineralized dentin from approximately 19 GPa to 1 MPa, requiring that it floats in water to prevent it from collapsing during bonding procedures. Several publications show that crosslinking agents like gluteraladehyde, carbodiimide or grape seed extract can stiffen collagen and improve resin-dentin bond strength. Objective The objective was to assess a new approach for evaluating the changes in stiffness of decalcified dentin by polar solvents and a collagen cross-linker. Methods Fully demineralized dentin beams and sections of etched coronal dentin were subjected to indentation loading using a cylindrical flat indenter in water, and after treatment with ethanol or ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC). The stiffness was measured as a function of strain and as a function of loading rate from 1 to 50 µm/sec. Results At a strain of 0.25% the elastic modulus of the fully demineralized dentin was approximately 0.20 MPa. It increased to over 0.90 MPa at strains of 1%. Exposure to ethanol caused an increase in elastic modulus of up to four times. Increasing the loading rate from 1 to 50 µm/sec caused an increase in the apparent modulus of up to three times in both water and ethanol. EDC treatment caused increases in the stiffness in fully demineralized samples and in acid-etched demineralized dentin surfaces in situ. Significance Changes in the mechanical behavior of demineralized collagen matrices can be measured effectively under hydration via indentation with cylindrical flat indenters. This approach can be used for quantifying the effects of bonding treatments on the properties of decalcified dentin after acid etching, as well as to follow the loss of stiffness over time due to enzymatic degradation. PMID:26747822

  5. Resin diffusion through demineralized dentin matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARVALHO Ricardo M.


    Full Text Available This paper has focused on the factors that may affect the permeability of adhesive resins into the demineralized dentin matrix during the development of the bonding process. The effects of surface moisture are discussed respectively to the adhesive systems, and the problems related to incomplete hybrid layer formation presented.

  6. Concentric artificial impedance surface for directional sound beamforming (United States)

    Song, Kyungjun; Anzan-Uz-Zaman, Md.; Kwak, Jun-Hyuk; Jung, Joo-Yun; Kim, Jedo; Hur, Shin


    Utilizing acoustic metasurfaces consisting of subwavelength resonant textures, we design an artificial impedance surface by creating a new boundary condition. We demonstrate a circular artificial impedance surface with surface impedance modulation for directional sound beamforming in three-dimensional space. This artificial impedance surface is implemented by revolving two-dimensional Helmholtz resonators with varying internal coiled path. Physically, the textured surface has inductive surface impedance on its inner circular patterns and capacitive surface impedance on its outer circular patterns. Directional receive beamforming can be achieved using an omnidirectional microphone located at the focal point formed by the gradient-impeding surface. In addition, the uniaxial surface impedance patterning inside the circular aperture can be used for steering the direction of the main lobe of the radiation pattern.

  7. Demineralization of enamel in primary second molars related to properties of the enamel. (United States)

    Sabel, N; Robertson, A; Nietzsche, S; Norén, J G


    Enamel structure is of importance in demineralization. Differences in porosity in enamel effect the rate of demineralization, seen between permanent and deciduous teeth. Individual differences have been shown in the mean mineral concentration values in enamel, the role of this in demineralization is not thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to study variations of depths of artificial lesions of demineralization and to analyze the depth in relation to variations in the chemical and mineral composition of the enamel. A demineralized lesion was created in second primary molars from 18 individuals. Depths of lesions were then related to individual chemical content of the enamel. Enamel responded to demineralization with different lesion depths and this was correlated to the chemical composition. The carbon content in sound enamel was shown to be higher where lesions developed deeper. The lesion was deeper when the degree of porosity of the enamel was higher.

  8. Demineralization of Enamel in Primary Second Molars Related to Properties of the Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sabel


    Full Text Available Enamel structure is of importance in demineralization. Differences in porosity in enamel effect the rate of demineralization, seen between permanent and deciduous teeth. Individual differences have been shown in the mean mineral concentration values in enamel, the role of this in demineralization is not thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to study variations of depths of artificial lesions of demineralization and to analyze the depth in relation to variations in the chemical and mineral composition of the enamel. A demineralized lesion was created in second primary molars from 18 individuals. Depths of lesions were then related to individual chemical content of the enamel. Enamel responded to demineralization with different lesion depths and this was correlated to the chemical composition. The carbon content in sound enamel was shown to be higher where lesions developed deeper. The lesion was deeper when the degree of porosity of the enamel was higher.

  9. Demineralization Depth Using QLF and a Novel Image Processing Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wu


    Full Text Available Quantitative Light-Induced fluorescence (QLF has been widely used to detect tooth demineralization indicated by fluorescence loss with respect to surrounding sound enamel. The correlation between fluorescence loss and demineralization depth is not fully understood. The purpose of this project was to study this correlation to estimate demineralization depth. Extracted teeth were collected. Artificial caries-like lesions were created and imaged with QLF. Novel image processing software was developed to measure the largest percent of fluorescence loss in the region of interest. All teeth were then sectioned and imaged by polarized light microscopy. The largest depth of demineralization was measured by NIH ImageJ software. The statistical linear regression method was applied to analyze these data. The linear regression model was Y=0.32X+0.17, where X was the percent loss of fluorescence and Y was the depth of demineralization. The correlation coefficient was 0.9696. The two-tailed t-test for coefficient was 7.93, indicating the P-value =.0014. The F test for the entire model was 62.86, which shows the P-value =.0013. The results indicated statistically significant linear correlation between the percent loss of fluorescence and depth of the enamel demineralization.

  10. Microstructural analysis of demineralized primary enamel after in vitro toothbrushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Aline de Almeida


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate, in vitro, the morphological characteristics of demineralized primary enamel subjected to brushing with a dentifrice with or without fluoride. In order to do so, 32 enamel blocks were divided in 4 different groups containing 8 blocks each. They were separately immersed in artificial saliva for 15 days. The experimental groups were: C - control; E - submitted to etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel (30 s; EB - submitted to etching and brushing 3 times a day with a non-fluoridated dentifrice; EBF = submitted to etching and brushing 3 times a day with a fluoridated dentifrice. The toothbrushing force was standardized at 0.2 kgf and 15 double strokes were performed on each block. After the experimental period, the samples were prepared and examined under SEM. The control group (C showed a smooth surface, presenting scratches caused by habitual toothbrushing. The etched samples (E exhibited different degrees of surface disintegration, but the pattern of acid etching was predominantly the type II dissolution. The brushed surfaces were smooth, with elevations which corresponded to the exposure of Tomes? process pits and depressions which corresponded to interrod enamel. Particles resembling calcium carbonate were found in the most protected parts of the grooves. No morphological differences were observed between brushing with fluoridated (EBF and non-fluoridated (EB dentifrice. The results suggest that the mechanical abrasion caused by brushing demineralized enamel with dentifrice smoothes the rough etched surface, and the presence of fluoride does not cause morphological modifications in this pattern.

  11. Dissolution of materials in artificial skin surface film liquids. (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Harvey, Christopher J


    The dissolution of chemical constituents from jewelry, textiles, cosmetics, drugs, industrial chemicals, and particles in direct and prolonged contact with human skin is often assessed in vitro using artificial skin surface film liquids (SSFL). To provide meaningful results, the composition of artificial SSFL should accurately mimic human sweat and sebum, and the conditions of the in vitro test system should accurately reflect in vivo skin conditions. We summarized the reported composition of human SSFL and compared it to 45 different formulations of artificial sweat and 18 formulations of artificial sebum (studies published from 1940 to 2005). Conditions of in vitro dissolution test systems were reviewed and compared to in vivo skin conditions. The concentrations of individual constituents and pH of artificial sweat and concentrations of artificial sebum constituents are not always within ranges reported for human SSFL. Nearly all artificial SSFL lack many of the constituents in human SSFL. To develop a comprehensive model SSFL, we propose a standard SSFL, modified from the two best published sweat and sebum formulations. Little is known concerning the influence of test system conditions on dissolution, including SSFL temperature, container material composition, agitation, and physicochemical properties of the test article on dissolution. Thus, both a need and an opportunity exist for standardizing the composition of artificial SSFL and in vitro dissolution test methodologies. To standardize in vitro dissolution test systems, we recommend: maintaining artificial SSFL at a biologically relevant temperature appropriate to the human activity being modeled, carefully selecting test and sample storage containers to avoid bias in dissolution measurements, accounting for friction between a test article and skin in a biologically plausible manner, and physicochemical characterization of the test article or material to better understand mechanisms of dissolution and

  12. Removal of different fractions of NOM foulants during demineralized water backwashing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng


    The effectiveness of demineralized water backwashing on fouling by different fractions of NOM was investigated in this study. Two types of natural surface water (Schie canal and Biesbosch reservoir) were tested to confirm the improvement of demineralized water backwashing on fouling control, and LC-OCD analysis was conducted on Schie canal water to find out which fraction of NOM was removed with those backwashes. Results derived from natural waters showed that demineralized water backwashing substantially improved UF fouling control. LC-OCD analyses showed both UF permeate and demineralized water backwashes were effective on removing part of biopolymers, but demineralized water is also effective for humic substances and a limited amount of low molecular weight substances. However, based on the LC-OCD results, even demineralized water backwashing is not effective to remove all humic substances and biopolymers rejected on the UF membranes. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) on non-collagenous extracellular matrix proteins of demineralized dentin and the adhesive properties of restorative resins. (United States)

    Boukpessi, T; Menashi, S; Camoin, L; Tencate, J M; Goldberg, M; Chaussain-Miller, C


    Dentin non-collagenous matrix components (NCPs) are structural proteins involved in the formation, the architecture and the mineralization of the extracellular matrix (ECM). We investigated here how recombinant metalloproteinase stromelysin-1, also termed MMP-3, initiates the release of ECM molecules from artificially demineralized human dentin. Analysis of the supernatants by Western blotting reveals that MMP-3 extracts PGs (decorin, biglycan), and also a series of phosphorylated proteins: dentin sialoprotein (DSP), osteopontin (OPN), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and MEPE, but neither dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1), another member of the SIBLING family, nor osteocalcin (OC), a non-phosphorylated matrix molecule. After treatment of dentin surfaces by MMP-3, scanning electron microscope (SEM) examination of resin replica shows an increased penetration of the resin into the dentin tubules when compared to surfaces only treated by demineralizing solutions. This preclinical investigation suggests that MMP-3 may be used to improve the adhesive properties of restorative materials.

  14. Artificial ocean upwelling utilizing the energy of surface waves (United States)

    Soloviev, Alexander


    Artificial upwelling can bring cold water from below the thermocline to the sea surface. Vershinsky, Pshenichnyy, and Soloviev (1987) developed a prototype device, utilizing the energy of surface waves to create an upward flow of water in the tube. This is a wave-inertia pump consisting of a vertical tube, a valve, and a buoy to keep the device afloat. An outlet valve at the top of the unit synchronizes the operation of the device with surface waves and prevents back-splashing. A single device with a 100 m long and 1.2 m diameter tube is able to produce up to 1 m3s-1 flow of deep water to the surface. With a 10 oC temperature difference over 100 m depth, the negative heat supply rate to the sea surface is 42 MW, which is equivalent to a 42 Wm-2 heat flux, if distributed over 1 km2 area. Such flux is comparable to the average net air-sea flux. A system of artificial upwelling devices can cool down the sea surface, modify climate on a regional scale and possibly help mitigate hurricanes. The cold water brought from a deeper layer, however, has a larger density than the surface water and therefore has a tendency to sink back down. In this work, the efficiency of wave-inertia pumps and climatic consequences are estimated for different environmental conditions using a computational fluid dynamics model.

  15. Inhibition of dentin demineralization by fluoride in vitro. (United States)

    ten Cate, J M; Damen, J J; Buijs, M J


    Compared with the knowledge accumulated on enamel-fluoride interactions, relatively little data is available regarding fluoride effects on dentin. This applies to both laboratory and clinical studies into the efficacy of fluoride schemes for the prevention of root surface caries. This study aimed to determine the effects of fluoride and pH on the demineralization of dentin, such as to provide information necessary to develop preventive programmes. Bovine dentin blocks were subjected to undersaturated calcium- and phosphate-containing solutions in the pH range 4.0-6.0 with fluoride added at concentrations between 0.5 and 10 ppm. Non-fluoride solutions served as controls. Mineral loss was assessed chemically and by transversal microradiography. Comparisons were made with similar studies on enamel demineralization. The results showed that demineralization of dentin depends on both pH and fluoride concentration in the demineralizing solution. Inhibition of demineralization that could be relevant from a clinical point of view was found at fluoride values 5-10 times the corresponding values for enamel. Also rapid depletion of fluoride from the solutions was observed, indicating the high uptake capacity of dentin for fluoride. Lesion depth depended on pH of the solution while the fluoride levels were associated with the surface layer, both in mineral content and depth. For dentin we propose a demineralization mechanism where acid penetrates rapidly into the tissue, presumably through the tubules, after which the released calcium and phosphate is partly trapped by the inward diffusing fluoride. This leads to the formation of a surface layer, which may even be hypermineralized compared to sound dentin.

  16. Analysis of surface hardness of artificially aged resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cremonezzi Tornavoi


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of artificially accelerated aging (AAA on the surface hardness of eight composite resins: Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, 4 Seasons, Herculite, P60, Tetric Ceram, Charisma, and Filtek Z100. Sixteen specimens were made from the test piece of each material, using an 8.0 × 2.0 mm teflon matrix. After 24 hours, eight specimens from each material were submitted to three surface hardness readings using a Shimadzu Microhardness Tester for 5 seconds at a load of 50 gf. The other eight specimens remained in the artificially accelerated aging machine for 382 hours and were submitted to the same surface hardness analysis. The means of each test specimen were submitted to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (p > 0.05, ANOVA and Tukey test (p < 0.05. With regard to hardness (F = 86.74, p < 0.0001 the analysis showed significant differences among the resin composite brands. But aging did not influence the hardness of any of the resin composites (F = 0.39, p = 0.53. In this study, there was interaction between the resin composite brand and the aging factors (F = 4.51, p < 0.0002. It was concluded that notwithstanding the type of resin, AAA did not influence surface hardness. However, with regard to hardness there was a significant difference among the resin brands.

  17. Designing an artificial Lieb lattice on a metal surface (United States)

    Qiu, Wen-Xuan; Li, Shuai; Gao, Jin-Hua; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Fu-Chun


    Recently, several experiments [K. K. Gomes et al., Nature (London) 483, 306 (2012), 10.1038/nature10941; S. Wang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 196803 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.196803] have illustrated that metal surface electrons can be manipulated to form a two-dimensional (2D) lattice by depositing a designer molecule lattice on a metal surface. This offers a promising new technique to construct artificial 2D electron lattices. Here we theoretically propose a molecule lattice pattern to realize an artificial Lieb lattice on a metal surface, which shows a flat electronic band due to the lattice geometry. We show that the localization of electrons in the flat band may be understood from the viewpoint of electron interference, which may be probed by measuring the local density of states with scanning tunneling microscopy. Our proposal may be readily implemented in experiment and may offer an ideal solid state platform to investigate the novel flat band physics of the Lieb lattice.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Recently, several papers investigated the linear dimensional changes in dentine after air-drying. This paper pertains to weight changes, volume changes, and density changes caused by air-drying of sound and demineralized intact dentine. The densities of sound and artificially demineralized human cor

  19. In vitro demineralization of enamel by orange juice, apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola. (United States)

    Grobler, S R; Senekal, P J; Laubscher, J A


    Enamel demineralization was studied over periods related to normal use of an orange juice, an apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola. Rectangular blocks of intact human enamel (3 mm x 3 mm) were cut from teeth, coated with nail varnish except for the enamel surface and exposed to the drinks for 2, 4, 5, 6 or 40 minutes. The amount of calcium released from the enamel into solution was determined with the use of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed the following degree of enamel demineralization: Pepsi Cola = orange juice greater than apple juice greater than Diet Pepsi Cola. The results suggest that diet colas are less demineralizing than other acid drinks, and complementary plaque studies indicate that they are also less cariogenic. The study emphasized the importance of acid-type, buffer capacity, pH and the presence of other components on the degree of enamel demineralization.

  20. 氟化物涂膜对正畸固定矫治中牙釉质脱矿影响的SEM研究%SEM study of fluoride varnish on enamel demineralization effects during fixed orthodontic treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:采用扫描电镜(SEM)观察氟化物涂膜对抑制离体牙牙釉质脱矿及促进再矿化的功效。方法:选择因正畸需要拔除的前磨牙15颗,经37%磷酸处理,制备人工釉质脱矿标本,并用氟化物涂膜进行表面处理。采用SEM对标本脱矿前(对照组),脱矿后(脱矿组)以及氟化物涂膜治疗后(治疗组)的表面形貌进行观察分析。结果:对照组与脱矿组之间、脱矿组与治疗组之间形态学存在显著差异,而对照组与治疗组之间形态学差异相对较小。结论:氟化物涂膜可有效改善釉质脱矿后的牙齿脱矿形貌。%Objective:To investigate effects of fluoride varnish on the inhibition of teeth enamel demineralization and promotion of remineralization using scanning electron microscopy(SEM),and provide the experimental basis for dental caries prevention during fixed orthodontic treatment. Method:15 premolars extracted for orthodontic treatment were used and demineralized using 37%phosphate acid to prepare artificial demineralization of enamel specimens. Then the demineralized surface was treated by fluoride varnish. SEM was applied to observe surface morphology before and after demineralization , and after fluoride varnish. Result:There was significant morphological difference among the control group ,the demineralized group and the fluoride treatment group. However,the morphological difference between the control group and fluoride treated group is relatively small. Conclusion:Fluoride varnish can effectively improve remineralization of demineralized enamel.

  1. Artificial neural network accurately predicts hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hua Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg seroclearance and seroconversion are regarded as favorable outcomes of chronic hepatitis B (CHB. This study aimed to develop artificial neural networks (ANNs that could accurately predict HBsAg seroclearance or seroconversion on the basis of available serum variables. METHODS: Data from 203 untreated, HBeAg-negative CHB patients with spontaneous HBsAg seroclearance (63 with HBsAg seroconversion, and 203 age- and sex-matched HBeAg-negative controls were analyzed. ANNs and logistic regression models (LRMs were built and tested according to HBsAg seroclearance and seroconversion. Predictive accuracy was assessed with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC. RESULTS: Serum quantitative HBsAg (qHBsAg and HBV DNA levels, qHBsAg and HBV DNA reduction were related to HBsAg seroclearance (P<0.001 and were used for ANN/LRM-HBsAg seroclearance building, whereas, qHBsAg reduction was not associated with ANN-HBsAg seroconversion (P = 0.197 and LRM-HBsAg seroconversion was solely based on qHBsAg (P = 0.01. For HBsAg seroclearance, AUROCs of ANN were 0.96, 0.93 and 0.95 for the training, testing and genotype B subgroups respectively. They were significantly higher than those of LRM, qHBsAg and HBV DNA (all P<0.05. Although the performance of ANN-HBsAg seroconversion (AUROC 0.757 was inferior to that for HBsAg seroclearance, it tended to be better than those of LRM, qHBsAg and HBV DNA. CONCLUSIONS: ANN identifies spontaneous HBsAg seroclearance in HBeAg-negative CHB patients with better accuracy, on the basis of easily available serum data. More useful predictors for HBsAg seroconversion are still needed to be explored in the future.

  2. Artificial Molecular Machine Immobilized Surfaces: A New Platform To Construct Functional Materials. (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Qu, Da-Hui


    Artificial molecular machines have received significant attention from chemists because of their unique ability to mimic the behaviors of biological systems. Artificial molecular machines can be easily modified with functional groups to construct new types of functional molecular switches. However, practical applications of artificial molecular machines are still challenging, because the working platform of artificial molecular machines is mostly in solution. Artificial molecular machine immobilized surfaces (AMMISs) are considered a promising platform to construct functional materials. Herein, we provide a minireview of some recent advances of functional AMMISs. The functions of AMMISs are highlighted and strategies for their construction are also discussed. Furthermore, a brief perspective of the development of artificial molecular machines towards functional materials is given.

  3. The difference of saline and sterile water for tetracycline hydrochloride solvents in cementum demineralization

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    Shinta Ferronika


    Full Text Available Background: The root cementum demineralization is an important step in regenerative periodontal therapy to smear layer removal on the root surface. Smear layer on the root surface becomes a barrier of the new attachment between periodontal tissues with the root surface. The use of tetracycline capsules as root surface demineralizing agent cannot be applied directly on the root surface and solvents such as saline or sterile water are needed. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine differences between sterile water and saline solvent for tetracycline HCl (tetra HCl as a cementum demineralization. Method: In this study the specimens were divided into three groups: a control, tetra HCl dissolved in saline, and tetra HCl dissolved in sterile water. Application using burnishing method for 3 minutes. Samples were dehydrated with ethanol series of 30% to 100%. Results of the root demineralization observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis followed by a Mann-Whitney nonparametric test. Result: Upon statistical analysis showed that the sterile water as a solvent of tetra HCl is more effective in smear layer removal and collagen structure exposure in the cementum. Conclusion: Tetra HCl dissolved in sterile water was found to be the best root cementum demineralization agent.

  4. TMI-2 purification demineralizer resin study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J D; Osterhoudt, T R


    Study of the Makeup and Purification System demineralizers at TMI-2 has established that fuel quantities in the vessels are low, precluding criticality, that the high radioactive cesium concentration on the demineralizer resins can be chemically removed, and that the demineralizer resins can probably be removed from the vessels by sluicing through existing plant piping. Radiation measurements from outside the demineralizers establishing that there is between 1.5 and 5.1 (probably 3.3) lb of fuel in the A vessel and less than that amount in the B vessel. Dose rates up to 2780 R per hour were measured on contact with the A demineralizer. Remote visual observation of the A demineralizer showed a crystalline crust overlaying amber-colored resins. The cesium activity in solid resin samples ranged from 220 to 16,900 Based on this information, researchers concluded that the resins cannot be removed through the normal pathway in their present condition. Studies do show that the resins will withstand chemical processing designed to rinse and elute cesium from the resins. The process developed should work on the TMI-2 resins.

  5. Solubility effects in waste-glass/demineralized-water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullam, H.T.


    Aqueous systems involving demineralized water and four glass compositions (including standins for actinides and fission products) at temperatures of up to 150/sup 0/C were studied. Two methods were used to measure the solubility of glass components in demineralized water. One method involved approaching equilibrium from subsaturation, while the second method involved approaching equilibrium from supersaturation. The aqueous solutions were analyzed by induction-coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). Uranium was determined using a Scintrex U-A3 uranium analyzer and zinc and cesium were determined by atomic absorption. The system that results when a waste glass is contacted with demineralized water is a complex one. The two methods used to determine the solubility limits gave very different results, with the supersaturation method yielding much higher solution concentrations than the subsaturation method for most of the elements present in the waste glasses. The results show that it is impossible to assign solubility limits to the various glass components without thoroughly describing the glass-water systems. This includes not only defining the glass type and solution temperature, but also the glass surface area-to-water volume ratio (S/V) of the system and the complete thermal history of the system. 21 figures, 22 tables. (DLC)

  6. Controlling pneumatic artificial muscles in exoskeletons with surface electromyography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenhuis, Vincent; Chandrapal, Mervin; Stramigioli, Stefano; Chen, XiaoQi


    Powered exoskeletons are gaining more interest in the last few years, as useful devices to provide assistance to elderly and disabled people. Many different types of powered exoskeletons have been studied in the past. In this research paper, a soft lower limb exoskeleton driven by pneumatic artifici

  7. Response surface and artificial neural network prediction model and optimization for surface roughness in machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Sahoo


    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the development of prediction model using response surface methodology and artificial neural network and optimizes the process parameter using 3D surface plot. The experiment has been conducted using coated carbide insert in machining AISI 1040 steel under dry environment. The coefficient of determination value for RSM model is found to be high (R2 = 0.99 close to unity. It indicates the goodness of fit for the model and high significance of the model. The percentage of error for RSM model is found to be only from -2.63 to 2.47. The maximum error between ANN model and experimental lies between -1.27 and 0.02 %, which is significantly less than the RSM model. Hence, both the proposed RSM and ANN prediction model sufficiently predict the surface roughness, accurately. However, ANN prediction model seems to be better compared with RSM model. From the 3D surface plots, the optimal parametric combination for the lowest surface roughness is d1-f1-v3 i.e. depth of cut of 0.1 mm, feed of 0.04 mm/rev and cutting speed of 260 m/min respectively.

  8. Seawater ultrafiltration fouling control: Backwashing with demineralized water/SWRO permeate

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng


    In this study, the effect of demineralized water backwashing on fouling control of seawater ultrafiltration was investigated. Seawater from Scheveningen beach in The Hague and a desalination plant of Evides Company at Zeeland in the Netherlands was used as feed water, while demineralized water and UF permeate were used as backwash water for a fouling control efficiency comparison under different fluxes and backwash durations. Furthermore, demineralized waters with 5 or 50 mmol/l NaCl were applied for backwashing as well, to check the influence of monovalent cations on UF fouling control. Additionally, SWRO permeate was used for backwashes in long-term experiments to check the possibility of it replacing demineralized water. Results show that seawater UF fouling control is substantially improved by demineralized water backwashing. However, due to the high salinity of seawater, more water was required to dilute the cation concentration and limit the dispersion effect near the membrane surface than was needed for surface water. A 2-min demineralized water backwash showed better fouling control efficiency than a 1-min backwash. Furthermore, the presence of monovalent cations in the backwash water deteriorated the fouling control efficiency of the backwash, indicating the existence of a charge screening effect. The demineralized water with 5 and 50 mmol/l NaCl both showed a similar fouling control efficiency which is better than the UF permeate backwash. The calcium ions in UF permeate probably deteriorates the fouling control efficiency by maintaining a Ca-bridging effect between the membranes and NOM. SWRO permeate backwashing successfully controls membrane fouling as well. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of artificial surface temperature on mechanical properties and player kinematics during landing and acceleration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura Charalambous a; Wolfgang Potthast c; Gareth Irwin b


    Background: Artificial turf is considered a feasible global alternative to natural turf by many sports governing bodies. Consequently, its ability to provide a safe and consistent playing surface regardless of climate becomes essential. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of artificial surface temperature on:(1) mechanical properties of the turf and (2) the kinematics of a turf-sport related movement. Methods: Two identical artificial turf pitches were tested:one with a cold surface temperature (1.8°C–2.4°C) and one with a warm surface temperature (14.5°C–15.2°C). Mechanical testing was performed to measure the surface properties. Four amateur soccer players performed a hurdle jump to sprint acceleration movement, with data (contact time, step length and hip, knee and ankle kinematics) collected using CODASport (200 Hz). Results: The temperature difference had a significant influence on the mechanical properties of the artificial turf, including force absorption, energy restitution, rotational resistance, and the height where the head injury criterion was met. Both step length (p=0.008) and contact time (p=0.002) of the initial step after the landing were significantly longer on the warm surface. In addition, significant range of motion and joint angular velocity differences were found. Conclusion: These findings highlight different demands placed on players due to the surface temperature and suggest a need for coaches, practitioners, and sports governing bodies to be aware of these differences.

  10. Comparative analysis of optical coherence tomography signal and microhardness for demineralization evaluation of human tooth enamel (United States)

    de Cara, Ana Claudia Ballet; Zezell, Denise Maria; Ana, Patricia A.; Deana, Alessandro Melo; Amaral, Marcello Magri; Dias Vieira, Nilson, Jr.; de Freitas, Anderson Zanardi


    The diagnosis of dental caries at an early stage enables the implementation of conservative treatments based on dental preservation. Several diagnostic methods have been developed, like visual-tactile and radiographic are the most commons but are limited for this application. The Optical Coherence Tomography is a technique that provides information of optical properties of enamel, which may change due to the decay process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of OCT to detect different stages of demineralization of tooth enamel during the development of artificial caries lesions, taking as a reference standard for comparison sectional microhardness testing. Different stages of caries lesions were simulated using the pH cycling model suggested Feathestone and modified by Argenta. The samples were exposed to 0 (control group), 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days at a daily regimen of three hours demineralization followed by remineralization during 20 hours. It was used an OCT system with at 930nm. Sectional images were generated in all lesion region. The results obtained from the OCT technique presented similar behavior to microhardness, except for the group 25 days, due to inability to perform indentations reading in areas of more intense demineralization. A linear relationship was observed between the OCT and microhardness techniques for detection of demineralization in enamel. This relationship will allow the use of OCT technique in quantitative assessment of mineral loss and for the evaluation of incipient caries lesions.

  11. In vitro inhibition of bovine enamel demineralization by enamel matrix derivative. (United States)

    Ran, Jin Mei; Ieong, Cheng Cheng; Xiang, Chen Yang; Lv, Xue Ping; Xue, Jing; Zhou, Xue Dong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Ling Lin


    This study aimed to determine whether enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) affects the demineralization of bovine enamel in vitro and to assess the agent's anti-caries potential. Bovine enamel blocks were prepared and randomly divided into three groups (n = 15 per group), which were treated with distilled water (negative control), NaF (positive control), or Emdogain. All three groups were pH-cycled 12 times over 6 days. The percentage of surface enamel microhardness reduction (%SMHR), calcium demineralization rate (CDR), surface roughness, lesion depth and mineral loss after demineralization were examined. Surface morphology of specimens was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The Emdogain and positive control groups showed similar surface roughness, lesion depths and mineral loss, which were significantly lower than those in the negative control group. In addition, the enamel surfaces of both the Emdogain and NaF groups showed much narrower intercrystalline spaces than the surfaces of the negative control group, which exhibited extensive microfractures along the crystal edges. %SMHR differed significantly among all three groups, with the smallest value in the Emdogain group and the greatest in the negative control group. These results indicate that enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) can significantly inhibit demineralization of bovine enamel in vitro, suggesting that it has potential as an anti-caries agent.

  12. Artificial Crater Formation on Satellite Surfaces Using an Orbiting Railgun (United States)

    Dissly, R. W.; Miller, K. L.; Carlson, R. J.


    The specification of greater than 45kW of disposable power available on the JIMO spacecraft raises the possibility of a new class of instrumentation that has utility at such power levels. In this presentation we discuss the concept of an electromagnetic mass driver that can launch projectiles from orbit around one of the Galilean satellites directed on a trajectory that will impact the satellite surface. The resulting impact will create a crater that will provide information on the mechanical properties of surface and near-surface materials, expose subsurface materials for remote spectral identification, and form a vapor cloud that can be sensed for composition either remotely or in-situ. An analog for such a controlled cratering experiment is Deep Impact, a mission to observe the crater and ensuing ejecta cloud formed by a ballistic projectile into a comet surface in July, 2005.

  13. Effect of fluoride toothpastes on enamel demineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintner Zeno


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was the aim of this study to investigate the effect of four different toothpastes with differing fluoride compounds on enamel remineralization. Methods A 3 × 3 mm window on the enamel surface of 90 human premolars was demineralized in a hydroxyethylcellulose solution at pH 4.8. The teeth were divided into 6 groups and the lower half of the window was covered with varnish serving as control. The teeth were immersed in a toothpaste slurry containing: placebo tooth paste (group 1; remineralization solution (group 2; Elmex Anticaries (group 3; Elmex Sensitive (group 4; Blend-a-med Complete (group 5 and Colgate GRF (group 6. Ten teeth of each group were used for the determination of the F- content in the superficial enamel layer and acid solubility of enamel expressed in soluble phosphorus. Of 6 teeth of each group serial sections were cut and investigated with polarization light microscopy (PLM and quantitative energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX. Results The PLM results showed an increased remineralization of the lesion body in the Elmex Anticaries, Elmex Sensitive and Colgate GRF group but not in the Blend-a-med group. A statistically significant higher Ca content was found in the Elmex Anticaries group. The fluoride content in the superficial enamel layer was significantly increased in both Elmex groups and the Blend-a-med group. Phosphorus solubility was significantly decreased in both Elmex groups and the Blend-a-med group. Conclusion It can be concluded that amine fluoride compounds in toothpastes result in a clearly marked remineralization of caries like enamel lesions followed by sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate formulations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In laser cutting, the cut quality is of great importance. Multiple non-linear effects of process parameters and their interactions make very difficult to predict cut quality. In this paper, artificial intelligence (AI approach was applied to predict the surface roughness in CO2 laser cutting. To this aim, artificial neural network (ANN model of surface roughness was developed in terms of cutting speed, laser power and assist gas pressure. The experimental results obtained from Taguchi’s L25 orthogonal array were used to develop ANN model. The ANN mathematical model of surface roughness was expressed as explicit nonlinear function of the selected input parameters. Statistical results indicate that the ANN model can predict the surface roughness with good accuracy. It was showed that ANNs may be used as a good alternative in analyzing the effects of cutting parameters on the surface roughness.

  15. Effect of denture base-resin with prereacted glass-ionomer filler on dentin demineralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Mukai; K. Kamijo; F. Fujino; T. Teranaka; J.M. ten Cate


    The demineralization of dentin was studied when placed adjacent to one of four experimental denture base-resins. These experimental resins contained polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and 0, 5, 10, 20 or 30 wt% surface reaction-type prereacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) filler, respectively. A dentin thin-sec

  16. Optically Monitoring Mineralization and Demineralization on Photoluminescent Bioactive Nanofibers. (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Yangyang; Chen, Xiaoyi; Li, Binbin; Gao, Bo; Ren, Zhaohui; Han, Gaorong; Mao, Chuanbin


    Bone regeneration and scaffold degradation do not usually follow the same rate, representing a daunting challenge in bone repair. Toward this end, we propose to use an external field such as light (in particular, a tissue-penetrating near-infrared light) to precisely monitor the degradation of the mineralized scaffold (demineralization) and the formation of apatite mineral (mineralization). Herein, CaTiO3:Yb(3+),Er(3+)@bioactive glass (CaTiO3:Yb(3+),Er(3+)@BG) nanofibers with upconversion (UC) photoluminescence (PL) were synthesized. Such nanofibers are biocompatible and can emit green and red light under 980 nm excitation. The UC PL intensity is quenched during the bone-like apatite formation on the surface of the nanofibers in simulated body fluid; more mineral formation on the nanofibers induces more rapid optical quenching of the UC PL. Furthermore, the quenched UC PL can recover back to its original magnitude when the apatite on the nanofibers is degraded. Our work suggests that it is possible to optically monitor the apatite mineralization and demineralization on the surface of nanofibers used in bone repair.

  17. Artificial antibodies for troponin T by its imprinting on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes: Its use as sensory surfaces


    Moreira, Felismina T.C.; Dutra, Rosa A.F.; Noronha, João P. C.; Cunha, Alexandre L.; Sales, M. Goreti F.


    A novel artificial antibody for troponin T (TnT) was synthesized by molecular imprint (MI) on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). This was done by attaching TnT to the MWCNT surface, and filling the vacant spaces by polymerizing under mild conditions acrylamide (monomer) in N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide (cross-linker) and ammonium persulphate (initiator). After removing the template, the obtained biomaterial was able to rebind TnT and discriminate it among other interfering spe...

  18. Acid demineralization susceptibility of dental enamel submitted to different bleaching techniques and fluoridation regimens. (United States)

    Salomão, Dlf; Santos, Dm; Nogueira, Rd; Palma-Dibb, Rg; Geraldo-Martins, Vr


    The aim of the current study was to assess the acid demineralization susceptibility of bleached dental enamel submitted to different fluoride regimens. One hundred bovine enamel blocks (6×6×3 mm) were randomly divided into 10 groups (n=10). Groups 1 and 2 received no bleaching. Groups 3 to 6 were submitted to an at-home bleaching technique using 6% hydrogen peroxide (HP; G3 and G4) or 10% carbamide peroxide (CP; G5 and G6). Groups 7 to 10 were submitted to an in-office bleaching technique using 35% HP (G7 and G8) or 35% CP (G9 and G10). During bleaching, a daily fluoridation regimen of 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF) solution was performed on groups 3, 5, 7, and 9, while weekly fluoridation with a 2% NaF gel was performed on groups 4, 6, 8, and 10. The samples in groups 2 to 10 were pH cycled for 14 consecutive days. The samples from all groups were then assessed by cross-sectional Knoop microhardness at different depths from the outer enamel surface. The average Knoop hardness numbers (KHNs) were compared using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (α=0.05). The comparison between groups 1 and 2 showed that the demineralization method was effective. The comparison among groups 2 to 6 showed the same susceptibility to acid demineralization, regardless of the fluoridation method used. However, the samples from groups 8 and 10 showed more susceptibility to acid demineralization when compared with group 2 (penamel to acid demineralization. However, the use of 35% HP and 35% CP must be associated with a daily fluoridation regimen, otherwise the in-office bleaching makes the bleached enamel more susceptible to acid demineralization.

  19. Influence of artificial ageing on surface properties and Streptococcus mutans adhesion to dental composite materials. (United States)

    Hahnel, Sebastian; Henrich, Anne; Rosentritt, Martin; Handel, Gerhard; Bürgers, Ralf


    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the influence of artificial ageing on the surface properties and early Streptococcus mutans adhesion to current dental composites for the direct restoration of class II defects. Three hundred and thirty specimens each were prepared from five dental composites, and were randomly allotted to various artificial ageing protocols (storage in distilled water/ethanol/artificial saliva for 7/90/365 days; thermal cycling, 6,000 cycles 5/55 degrees C). Prior and after each treatment, surface roughness (R(a)) and hydrophobicity were determined, and S. mutans adhesion (ATCC 25175; 2.5 h, 37 degrees C) was simulated with and without prior exposition to human whole saliva (2 h, 37 degrees C). Adherence of S. mutans was determined fluorometrically. Means and standard deviations were calculated, and analyzed using three-way ANOVA and post-hoc analysis (alpha = 0.05). For both R(a) and S. mutans adherence to uncoated and saliva-coated specimens, significant influences of the composite material, the ageing medium and the ageing duration have been observed; for surface hydrophobicity, significant influences of the composite material and the ageing duration were found. For uncoated specimens, significant increases in S. mutans adhesion were observed with prolonged artificial ageing, whereas significant decreases in S. mutans adhesion were found for the saliva-coated specimens. The data indicate influences of the artificial ageing method on surface parameters such as R(a) and hydrophobicity as well as microbial adhesion. The results underline the relevance of saliva coating on the outcome of studies simulating microbial adhesion, and highlight differences in the susceptibility of dental composites for the adhesion of oral bacteria.

  20. 渗透树脂治疗对人工釉质龋表面微硬度影响的研究%Effect of resin infiltration on enamel surface microhardness of artificial enamel caries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓一; 高学军


    目的:观察不同脱矿程度人工釉质龋经渗透树脂治疗后其表面微硬度的提高程度。方法:制备牛牙釉质样本60个,随机分为6组,分别置脱矿液中脱矿10、20、30、40、50、60 d;然后用ICON渗透树脂对各组人工釉质龋病损部位进行处理;分别于脱矿前、脱矿后、渗透树脂后用韦氏微硬度仪检测各组病损表面的微硬度值,用3D激光扫描显微系统观察病损表面的形貌。结果:各组样本脱矿前表面微硬度值基本一致(P>0.05),脱矿后均明显降低(P<0.05);经渗透树脂处理后,病损表面微硬度均显著提高(P<0.05),但低于基线水平(P<0.05),依次为脱矿60 d<50 d<40 d<30 d<20 d<10 d,10、20、30、40 d各组间无显著性差异(P>0.05)外,其他各组间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。抛光后的釉质表面无树脂残留。结论:渗透树脂能提高釉质龋病损表面的微硬度,但不能达到正常釉质的水平;提高程度与病损脱矿程度相关。%AIM:To evaluate the effect of resin infiltration treatment on enamel surface microhardness (SMH)of artificial caries lesions.METHODS:60 bovine enamel specimens were divided into 6 groups (n=10)and were demineralized for 10 d,20 d,30 d,50 d and 60 d (group 1,2,3,4,5,and 6)respectively.The caries le-sions were etched with 37%phosphoric acid gel and infiltrated with ICON resin.The SMH of the specimens before and after demineralization,and after resin infiltration was determined by Laser Microscope 3D&Profile Measurement.RE-SULTS:The specimens of all groups exhibited the same baseline level of SMH(P>0.05 ).After demineralization, the SMH of all groups was time-dependently reduced(P<0.05 ).SMH in all groups incteased after resin infiltration and polishing (P<0.05),but not achieved to the baseline.No significant difference in the amount of SMH re-hard-ening was detected between each 2 of group 1

  1. Suitability of artificial sweeteners as indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater. (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Li, Jinhua; Ong, Say Leong


    There is no quantitative data on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in the aquatic environment in Southeast Asian countries, particularly no information on their suitability as indicators of raw wastewater contamination on surface water and groundwater. This study provided the first quantitative information on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in raw wastewater, surface water and groundwater in the urban catchment area in Singapore. Acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose were ubiquitous in raw wastewater samples at concentrations in the range of ng/L-μg/L, while other sweeteners were not found or found only in a few of the raw wastewater samples. Residential and commercial effluents were demonstrated to be the two main sources of artificial sweeteners entering the municipal sewer systems. Relatively higher concentrations of the detected sweeteners were frequently found in surface waters at the sampling sites located in the residential/commercial areas. No significant difference in the concentrations of the detected sweeteners in surface water or groundwater was noted between wet and dry weather conditions (unpaired T-test, p> 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations and detection frequencies of acesulfame, cyclamate and saccharin in surface water samples were observed at the potentially impacted sampling sites, while these sweeteners were absent in most of the background surface water samples. Similarly, acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin were found in most groundwater samples at the monitoring well (GW6), which is located close to known leaking sewer segment; whereas these were absent in the background monitoring well, which is located in the catchment with no known wastewater sources. Taken together, the results suggest that acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin can be used as potential indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater.

  2. Natural and Controlled Demineralization for Study Purposes in Minimally Invasive Dentistry. (United States)

    Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata; Gibas, Mirosław; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Twardawa, Henryk; Szklarski, Tomasz


    Artificially induced demineralization of enamel is frequently used during laboratory tests, particularly in minimally invasive dentistry. The aim of this study was to analyze demineralization techniques of hard tooth tissue applicable in the research of materials in minimally invasive dentistry. The most important factor taken into consideration when designing a method is to make a model as closely similar to the natural environment of the human oral cavity as it is possible. In vitro models allow us to maintain stability and control over the environment and guarantee repeatability of the results. There are main models to produce dental caries outside of the body. The first model is chemical and it uses acids. It is simplified and reflects the actual environment of the oral cavity to a lesser degree. The second model is biological and it is more accurate as it uses microorganisms which build the dental plaque. Among in vitro protocols are also used pH-cycling models. Based on the available literature, it was found that bovine teeth and human teeth with demineralization diagnosed while still inside the oral cavity are the most frequently used kind of specimens in research conducted with use of the chemical model. Not a single case of use of the biological and pH-cycling models were found in the available literature related to the research of infiltrants in minimally invasive dentistry.

  3. Double Glow Plasma Surface Alloying Process Modeling Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang XU; Xishan XIE; Zhong XU


    A model is developed for predicting the correlation between processing parameters and the technical target of double glowby applying artificial neural network (ANN). The input parameters of the neural network (NN) are source voltage, workpiecevoltage, working pressure and distance between source electrode and workpiece. The output of the NN model is three importanttechnical targets, namely the gross element content, the thickness of surface alloying layer and the absorption rate (the ratioof the mass loss of source materials to the increasing mass of workpiece) in the processing of double glow plasma surfacealloying. The processing parameters and technical target are then used as a training set for an artificial neural network. Themodel is based on multiplayer feedforward neural network. A very good performance of the neural network is achieved and thecalculated results are in good agreement with the experimental ones.

  4. Surface roughness and cutting force estimation in the CNC turning using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ramezani


    Full Text Available Surface roughness and cutting forces are considered as important factors to determine machinability rate and the quality of product. A number of factors like cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cutting and tool noise radius influence the surface roughness and cutting forces in turning process. In this paper, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN model was used to forecast surface roughness and cutting forces with related inputs, including cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool noise radius. The machined surface roughness and cutting force parameters related to input parameters are the outputs of the ANN model. In this work, 24 samples of experimental data were used to train the network. Moreover, eight other experimental tests were implemented to test the network. The study concludes that ANN was a reliable and accurate method for predicting machining parameters in CNC turning operation.

  5. Effect of different denture cleansers on surface roughness and microhardness of artificial denture teeth (United States)

    Yuzugullu, Bulem; Cetinsahin, Cem; Celik, Cigdem


    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different denture cleansers on the surface roughness and microhardness of various types of posterior denture teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS 168 artificial tooth specimens were divided into the following four subgroups (n=42): SR Orthotyp PE (polymethylmethacrylate); SR Orthosit PE (Isosit); SR Postaris DCL (double cross-linked); and SR Phonares II (nanohybrid composite). The specimens were further divided according to the type of the denture cleanser (Corega Tabs (sodium perborate), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and distilled water (control) (n=14)) and immersed in the cleanser to simulate a 180-day immersion period, after which the surface roughness and microhardness were tested. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis test, Conover's nonparametric multiple comparison test, and Spearman's rank correlation analysis (P<.05). RESULTS A comparison among the denture cleanser groups showed that NaOCl caused significantly higher roughness values on SR Orthotyp PE specimens when compared with the other artificial teeth (P<.001). Furthermore, Corega Tabs resulted in higher microhardness values in SR Orthotyp PE specimens than distilled water and NaOCl (P<.005). The microhardness values decreased significantly from distilled water, NaOCl, to Corega Tabs for SR Orthosit PE specimens (P<.001). SR Postaris DLC specimens showed increased microhardness when immersed in distilled water or NaOCl when compared with immersion in Corega Tabs (P<.003). No correlation was found between surface roughness and microhardness (r=0.104, P=.178). CONCLUSION NaOCl and Corega Tabs affected the surface roughness and microhardness of all artificial denture teeth except for the new generation nanohybrid composite teeth. PMID:27826382

  6. Artificial antibodies for troponin T by its imprinting on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes: its use as sensory surfaces. (United States)

    Moreira, Felismina T C; Dutra, Rosa A F; Noronha, João P C; Cunha, Alexandre L; Sales, M Goreti F


    A novel artificial antibody for troponin T (TnT) was synthesized by molecular imprint (MI) on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). This was done by attaching TnT to the MWCNT surface, and filling the vacant spaces by polymerizing under mild conditions acrylamide (monomer) in N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (cross-linker) and ammonium persulphate (initiator). After removing the template, the obtained biomaterial was able to rebind TnT and discriminate it among other interfering species. Stereochemical recognition of TnT was confirmed by the non-rebinding ability displayed by non-imprinted (NI) materials, obtained by imprinting without a template. SEM and FTIR analysis confirmed the surface modification of the MWCNT. The ability of this biomaterial to rebind TnT was confirmed by including it as electroactive compound in a PVC/plasticizer mixture coating a wire of silver, gold or titanium. Anionic slopes of 50 mV decade(-1) were obtained for the gold wire coated with MI-based membranes dipped in HEPES buffer of pH 7. The limit of detection was 0.16 μg mL(-1). Neither the NI-MWCNT nor the MWCNT showed the ability to recognize the template. Good selectivity was observed against creatinine, sucrose, fructose, myoglobin, sodium glutamate, thiamine and urea. The sensor was tested successfully on serum samples. It is expected that this work opens new horizons on the design of new artificial antibodies for complex protein structures.

  7. Pursing Contamination Detection on Aircraft CFRP Surfaces By Artificial Olfaction Techniques (United States)

    De Vito, Saverio; Massera, Ettore; Fattoruso, Grazia; Miglietta, Maria Lucia; Di Francia, Girolamo


    Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) structures can be easily bonded via adhesive assembly procedures but their cleanliness is of fundamental importance to ensure the strength of the adhesive bonding. Actually, surface contamination by several aeronautics fluids eventually results in weak or kissing bonds. The goal of our research work is to investigate solid state chemical sensors and artificial olfaction techniques (AO) for the detection of CFRP surface contamination by aeronautic fluids. This result will allow the implementation of an instrumental NDT procedure for CFRP surface cleanliness assessment prior to bonding. Herein, results of our first experimental setup, based on the use of an array of polymer sensors for the detection of aeronautic fluids contamination, are presented.

  8. Engineering interaction between bone marrow derived endothelial cells and electrospun surfaces for artificial vascular graft applications. (United States)

    Ahmed, Furqan; Dutta, Naba K; Zannettino, Andrew; Vandyke, Kate; Choudhury, Namita Roy


    The aim of this investigation was to understand and engineer the interactions between endothelial cells and the electrospun (ES) polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) nanofiber surfaces and evaluate their potential for endothelialization. Elastomeric PVDF-HFP samples were electrospun to evaluate their potential use as small diameter artificial vascular graft scaffold (SDAVG) and compared with solvent cast (SC) PVDF-HFP films. We examined the consequences of fibrinogen adsorption onto the ES and SC samples for endothelialisation. Bone marrow derived endothelial cells (BMEC) of human origin were incubated with the test and control samples and their attachment, proliferation, and viability were examined. The nature of interaction of fibrinogen with SC and ES samples was investigated in detail using ELISA, XPS, and FTIR techniques. The pristine SC and ES PVDF-HFP samples displayed hydrophobic and ultrahydrophobic behavior and accordingly, exhibited minimal BMEC growth. Fibrinogen adsorbed SC samples did not significantly enhance endothelial cell binding or proliferation. In contrast, the fibrinogen adsorbed electrospun surfaces showed a clear ability to modulate endothelial cell behavior. This system also represents an ideal model system that enables us to understand the natural interaction between cells and their extracellular environment. The research reported shows potential of ES surfaces for artificial vascular graft applications.

  9. Artificial immune algorithm implementation for optimized multi-axis sculptured surface CNC machining (United States)

    Fountas, N. A.; Kechagias, J. D.; Vaxevanidis, N. M.


    This paper presents the results obtained by the implementation of an artificial immune algorithm to optimize standard multi-axis tool-paths applied to machine free-form surfaces. The investigation for its applicability was based on a full factorial experimental design addressing the two additional axes for tool inclination as independent variables whilst a multi-objective response was formulated by taking into consideration surface deviation and tool path time; objectives assessed directly from computer-aided manufacturing environment A standard sculptured part was developed by scratch considering its benchmark specifications and a cutting-edge surface machining tool-path was applied to study the effects of the pattern formulated when dynamically inclining a toroidal end-mill and guiding it towards the feed direction under fixed lead and tilt inclination angles. The results obtained form the series of the experiments were used for the fitness function creation the algorithm was about to sequentially evaluate. It was found that the artificial immune algorithm employed has the ability of attaining optimal values for inclination angles facilitating thus the complexity of such manufacturing process and ensuring full potentials in multi-axis machining modelling operations for producing enhanced CNC manufacturing programs. Results suggested that the proposed algorithm implementation may reduce the mean experimental objective value to 51.5%

  10. Cell surface alterations during blood-storage characterized by artificial aggregation of washed red blood cells. (United States)

    Hessel, E; Lerche, D


    Aggregation measurement of washed human erythrocytes (RBC) were carried out in a NaCl-PBS solution under laminar shear conditions. Artificial aggregation of fresh and stored erythrocytes was caused by decreased pH and reduced ionic strength and characterized by collision efficiency alpha. Generally, the collision efficiency alpha of stored erythrocytes rises with the increased storage time. Such an aggregation technique might be useful to detect and quantify changes of the membrane and/or the surface structure due to aging and/or storage.

  11. Spin wave absorber generated by artificial surface anisotropy for spin wave device network (United States)

    Kanazawa, Naoki; Goto, Taichi; Sekiguchi, Koji; Granovsky, Alexander B.; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yuichi; Inoue, Mitsuteru


    Spin waves (SWs) have the potential to reduce the electric energy loss in signal processing networks. The SWs called magnetostatic forward volume waves (MSFVWs) are advantageous for networking due to their isotropic dispersion in the plane of a device. To control the MSFVW flow in a processing network based on yttrium iron garnet, we developed a SW absorber using artificial structures. The mechanical surface polishing method presented in this work can well control extrinsic damping without changing the SW dispersion of the host material. Furthermore, enhancement of the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth over 3 Oe was demonstrated.

  12. Research on micro-structure and hemo-compatibility of the artificial heart valve surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Xia [Center of Photonics Fabrication, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu Teachers University of Technology, Changzhou 213015 (China); Shao Yunliang [Center of Photonics Fabrication, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhou Ming, E-mail: [Center of Photonics Fabrication, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Li Jian; Cai Lan [Center of Photonics Fabrication, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)


    In order to seek the method to improve the hemo-compatibility of artificial mechanical heart valve, the surface of rabbit's heart valve was observed using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the dual-scale structure which consists of cobblestones-like structure of 8 {mu}m in underside diameter and 3 {mu}m in height, and the fine cilia of about 150 nm in diameter, was helpful to the hemo-compatibility of the heart valve. Therefore, the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface with hierarchical micro-structure was fabricated using femtosecond laser fabrication technique and soft lithography. At the same time, the tests of apparent contact angle and platelet adhesion on both smooth and textured PDMS surfaces were carried out to study their wettability and hemo-compatibility. The results demonstrated that the surface with textured structure displayed more excellent wettabililty and anti-coagulation property than that of smooth surface. The apparent contact angle of textured surface enhanced from 113.1 deg. to 163.6 deg. and the amount of adsorbed platelet on such surface was fewer, no distortion and no activation were found.

  13. Selective removal of demineralized enamel using a CO2 laser coupled with near-IR reflectance imaging (United States)

    Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Saltiel, Daniel; Fried, Daniel


    Detection and diagnosis of early dental caries lesions can be difficult due to variable tooth coloration, staining of the teeth and poor contrast between sound and demineralized enamel. These problems can be overcome by using near-infrared (NIR) imaging. Previous studies have demonstrated that lasers can be integrated with NIR imaging devices, allowing image-guided ablation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that NIR light at 1500 - 1700 nm can be used to guide a 9.3-μm CO2 laser for the selective ablation of early demineralization on tooth occlusal surfaces. The occlusal surfaces of ten sound human molars were used in this in-vitro study. Shallow simulated caries lesions of varying depth and position were produced on tooth occlusal surfaces using a demineralization solution. Sequential NIR reflectance images at 1500 - 1700 nm were used to guide the laser for selective ablation of the lesion areas. Digital microscopy and polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) were used to assess the selectivity of removal. This study demonstrates that high contrast NIR reflectance images can be used for the image-guided laser ablation of early demineralization from tooth occlusal surfaces.

  14. Structural analysis of heat-treated birch (Betule papyrifera) surface during artificial weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Xianai [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Kocaefe, Duygu, E-mail: [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Kocaefe, Yasar [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Boluk, Yaman [University of Alberta, 3-142 Markin/CNRL Natural Resources Engineering Facility, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2W2 (Canada); Krause, Cornelia [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigate detailed structural changes of heat-treated wood due to weathering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identify connection between physical structural changes and chemical degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study effect of heat treatment conditions on weathering degradation process. - Abstract: Effect of artificial weathering on the surface structural changes of birch (Betule papyrifera) wood, heat-treated to different temperatures, was studied using the fluorescence microscopy and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Changes in the chemical structure of wood components were analyzed by FTIR in order to understand the mechanism of degradation taking place due to heat treatment and artificial weathering. The results are compared with those of the untreated (kiln-dried) birch. The SEM analysis results show that the effect of weathering on the cell wall of the untreated birch surface is more than that of heat-treated samples. The FTIR spectroscopy results indicate that lignin is the most sensitive component of heat-treated birch to the weathering degradation process. Elimination of the amorphous and highly crystallised cellulose is observed for both heat-treated and untreated wood during weathering. It is also observed that heat treatment increases the lignin and crystallised cellulose contents, which to some extent protects heat-treated birch against degradation due to weathering.

  15. Structural analysis of heat-treated birch (Betule papyrifera) surface during artificial weathering (United States)

    Huang, Xianai; Kocaefe, Duygu; Kocaefe, Yasar; Boluk, Yaman; Krause, Cornélia


    Effect of artificial weathering on the surface structural changes of birch (Betule papyrifera) wood, heat-treated to different temperatures, was studied using the fluorescence microscopy and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Changes in the chemical structure of wood components were analyzed by FTIR in order to understand the mechanism of degradation taking place due to heat treatment and artificial weathering. The results are compared with those of the untreated (kiln-dried) birch. The SEM analysis results show that the effect of weathering on the cell wall of the untreated birch surface is more than that of heat-treated samples. The FTIR spectroscopy results indicate that lignin is the most sensitive component of heat-treated birch to the weathering degradation process. Elimination of the amorphous and highly crystallised cellulose is observed for both heat-treated and untreated wood during weathering. It is also observed that heat treatment increases the lignin and crystallised cellulose contents, which to some extent protects heat-treated birch against degradation due to weathering.

  16. Surface modification of silicone rubber membrane by plasma induced graft copolymerization as artificial cornea. (United States)

    Hsiue, G H; Lee, S D; Chang, P C


    In this study a highly biocompatible polymer membrane was prepared by surface modification. An artificial cornea was also developed for clinical applications. Silicone rubber (SR) membrane was grafted with hydrophilic monomers such as 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and acrylic acid by plasma induced grafted polymerization. Surface properties of the SR were characterized using secondary ions mass spectra, Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflection, and element spectra for chemical analysis. The corneal epithelial (CE) cell was cultured in vitro, and penetrating keratoplasty of albino rabbit cornea (in vivo) was performed to evaluate biological properties of modified SR membranes. The ability of the CE cell to attach onto various SR membranes was observed by inverted microscopy. The proliferation of CE cell was conducted in approximately 96 h. Experimental results indicated that the attachment and growth of CE onto SR-g-pHEMA (75 micrograms/ cm2) is enhanced. The morphologies of an attached CE cell are similar to those of a primary CE cell. In the in vivo study, the depth of anterior chamber was maintained 2 weeks after penetrating keratoplasty was performed with a SR grafted with pHEMA (210 micrograms/cm2). This phenomenon displayed a high biocompatibility of modified SR membrane with the CE cell. Furthermore, results in this study provide a valuable reference for application of the modified SR for an artificial cornea.

  17. Photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence examination of demineralized and remineralized dental lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellen, A; Mandelis, A [Center for Advanced Diffusion-Wave Technologies, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3G8 (Canada); Finer, Y, E-mail: mandelis@mie.utoronto.c [Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, 124 Edward Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1G6 (Canada)


    Dental caries involves continuous challenges of acid-induced mineral loss and a counteracting process of mineral recovery. As an emerging non-destructive methodology, photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence (PTR-LUM) has shown promise in measuring changes in tooth mineral content. Human molars (n=37) were subjected to demineralization in acid gel (pH 4.5, 10 days), followed by incubation in remineralisation solutions (pH 6.7, 4 weeks) without or with fluoride (1 or 1000 ppm). PTR-LUM frequency scans (1 Hz - 1 kHz) were performed prior to and during demineralization and remineralization treatments. Transverse Micro-Radiography (TMR) analysis followed at treatment conclusion. The non-fluoridated group exhibited opposite amplitude and phase trends to those of the highly fluoridated group: smaller phase lag and larger amplitude. These results point to a complex interplay between surface and subsurface processes during remineralization, confining the thermal-wave centroid toward the dominating layer.

  18. Effects of Spatial Dispersion on Reflection from Mushroom-type Artificial Impedance Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Luukkonen, Olli; Yakovlev, Alexander B; Simovski, Constantin R; Nefedov, Igor S; Tretyakov, Sergei A


    Several recent works have emphasized the role of spatial dispersion in wire media, and demonstrated that arrays of parallel metallic wires may behave very differently from a uniaxial local material with negative permittivity. Here, we investigate using local and non-local homogenization methods the effect of spatial dispersion on reflection from the mushroom structure introduced by Sievenpiper. The objective of the paper is to clarify the role of spatial dispersion in the mushroom structure and demonstrate that under some conditions it is suppressed. The metamaterial substrate, or metasurface, is modeled as a wire medium covered with an impedance surface. Surprisingly, it is found that in such configuration the effects of spatial dispersion may be nearly suppressed when the slab is electrically thin, and that the wire medium can be modeled very accurately using a local model. This result paves the way for the design of artificial surfaces that exploit the plasmonic-type response of the wire medium slab.

  19. Influence of photo-activation source on enamel demineralization around restorative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Oliveira Ferla


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of the photoactivation source and restorative material on the development of caries-like lesions on human enamel after an in vitro pH challenge. Enamel cavities were prepared in 36 blocks, which were assigned to two groups according to the restorative material: resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI and composite resin (CR. Samples were exposed to quartz-tungsten-halogen lamp, argon-ion laser, or light-emitting diode (n = 6. The Knoop microhardness (KHN values of the top surface of all materials were evaluated. Restored enamel blocks were thermocycled and subjected to 10 demineralization-remineralization cycles at 37°C. KHN analysis of the superficial enamel was performed by four indentations located 100 mm from the restoration margin. The material KHN was not affected by the photoactivation source. No significant difference in KHN was noted between CR and RMGI. The enamel surface around RMGI exhibited a higher KHN (272.8 KHN than the enamel around CR (93.3 KHN, regardless of the photoactivation source. Enamel demineralization around the dental restoration was not influenced by the photoactivation source. Less enamel demineralization was observed around the RMGI than around the CR restoration.

  20. Properties of the "Orgamax" osteoplastic material made of a demineralized allograft bone (United States)

    Podorognaya, V. T.; Kirilova, I. A.; Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Uvarkin, P. V.; Zhelezny, P. A.; Zheleznaya, A. P.; Akimova, S. E.; Novoselov, V. P.; Tupikova, L. N.


    We investigated properties of the "Orgamax" osteoplastic material, which was produced from a demineralized bone, in the treatment of extensive caries, in particular chronic pulpitis of the permanent teeth with unformed roots in children. The "Orgamax" osteoplastic material consists of demineralized bone chips, a collagen additive, and antibiotics. The surface morphology of the "Orgamax" osteoplastic material is macroporous, with the maximum pore size of 250 µm, whereas the surface morphology of the major component of "Orgamax", demineralized bone chips, is microporous, with a pore size of 10-20 µm. Material "Orgamax" is used in the treatment of complicated caries, particularly chronic pulpitis of permanent teeth with unformed roots in children. "Orgamax" filling a formed cavity exhibits antimicrobial properties, eliminates inflammation in the dental pulp, and, due to its osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties, undergoes gradual resorption, stimulates regeneration, and provides replacement of the defect with newly formed tissue. The dental pulp viability is completely restored, which ensures the complete formation of tooth roots with root apex closure in the long-term period.

  1. Release of beryllium from mineral ores in artificial lung and skin surface fluids. (United States)

    Duling, Matthew G; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Lawrence, Robert B; Chipera, Steve J; Virji, M Abbas


    Exposure to some manufactured beryllium compounds via skin contact or inhalation can cause sensitization. A portion of sensitized persons who inhale beryllium may develop chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Little is understood about exposures to naturally occurring beryllium minerals. The purpose of this study was to assess the bioaccessibility of beryllium from bertrandite ore. Dissolution of bertrandite from two mine pits (Monitor and Blue Chalk) was evaluated for both the dermal and inhalation exposure pathways by determining bioaccessibility in artificial sweat (pH 5.3 and pH 6.5), airway lining fluid (SUF, pH 7.3), and alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid (PSF, pH 4.5). Significantly more beryllium was released from Monitor pit ore than Blue Chalk pit ore in artificial sweat buffered to pH 5.3 (0.88 ± 0.01% vs. 0.36 ± 0.00%) and pH 6.5 (0.09 ± 0.00% vs. 0.03 ± 0.01%). Rates of beryllium released from the ores in artificial sweat were faster than previously measured for manufactured forms of beryllium (e.g., beryllium oxide), known to induce sensitization in mice. In SUF, levels of beryllium were below the analytical limit of detection. In PSF, beryllium dissolution was biphasic (initial rapid diffusion followed by latter slower surface reactions). During the latter phase, dissolution half-times were 1,400 to 2,000 days, and rate constants were ~7 × 10(-10) g/(cm(2)·day), indicating that bertrandite is persistent in the lung. These data indicate that it is prudent to control skin and inhalation exposures to bertrandite dusts.

  2. Natural and artificial radioactivity in surface waters of the Ebro river basin (Northeast Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujol, Ll.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A


    A radiological characterisation of surface waters of the Ebro river basin was carried out during November 1994. For this purpose, 75 water samples were collected from points distributed throughout the Ebro river basin. Analysis included gross alpha and gross beta activities, relevant natural radionuclides ({sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 234,238}U -uranium total-) and several artificial radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr and radiocaesium). Mean gross alpha and gross beta activities in surface waters of the river's main course were 0.095{+-}0.004 and 0.213{+-}0.012 Bq l{sup -1}, respectively. Mean activities of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and uranium (total) were 0.132{+-}0.009, 0.0282{+-}0.0008 and 0.053{+-}0.006 Bq l{sup -1}, respectively. Regarding artificial radionuclides, the mean {sup 90}Sr activity was 6.6{+-}0.3 mBq l{sup -1}, {sup 3}H was detected in 8% of the samples, and radiocaesium was not detected in any sample. It is estimated that almost 100% of gross alpha and 97% of gross beta activities of surface waters in the Ebro river came from natural sources. Furthermore, results showed that the geological setting, large cities, agricultural areas and dams strongly influence the occurrence of natural radionuclides. Contamination from nuclear power plants located along the river was not detected. Finally, we estimated that the annual dose equivalent due to the hypothetical ingestion of Ebro river waters was 7.59 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}, which represented only 0.3% of the average annual effective dose attributable to natural background radiation in the area.

  3. Surface roughness of Ti6Al4V after heat treatment evaluated by artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altug, Mehmet [Inonu Univ., Malataya (Turkey). Dept. of Machine and Metal Technologies; Erdem, Mehmet; Bozkir, Oguz [Inonu Univ., Malataya (Turkey); Ozay, Cetin [Univ. of Firat Elazig (Turkey). Faculty of Tech. Education


    The study examines how, using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM), the microstructural, mechanical and conductivity characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti6Al4V are changed as a result of heat treatment and the effect they have on machinability. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope and X-ray diffraction (XRD) examinations were performed to determine various characteristics and additionally related microhardness and conductivity measurements were conducted. L{sub 18} Taquchi test design was performed with three levels and six different parameters to determine the effect of such alterations on its machinability using WEDM and post-processing surface roughness (Ra) values were determined. Micro-changes were ensured successfully by using heat treatments. Results obtained with the optimization technique of artificial neural network (ANN) presented minimum surface roughness. Values obtained by using response surface method along with this equation were completely comparable with those achieved in the experiments. The best surface roughness value was obtained from sample D which had a tempered martensite structure.

  4. In vitro evaluation of enamel demineralization after several overlapping CO2 laser applications. (United States)

    Vieira, K A; Steiner-Oliveira, C; Soares, L E S; Rodrigues, L K A; Nobre-dos-Santos, M


    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of repeated CO2 laser applications on the inhibition of enamel demineralization. Sixty-five human dental enamel slabs were randomly assigned to the following groups (n = 13): control (C), one application of the CO2 laser (L1), two applications of the CO2 laser (L2), three applications of the CO2 laser (L3), and four applications of the CO2 laser (L4). Enamel slabs were irradiated by a 10.6-μm CO2 laser operating at 5 J/cm(2). The slabs were subjected to a pH-cycling regimen and then analyzed by FT-Raman spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF), cross-sectional micro-hardness, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey tests (p  0.05). Cross-sectional micro-hardness data showed a statistically significant difference between the control and all irradiated groups (p  0.05) up to 30-μm depth. A tendency of lower demineralization occurred in deeper depths for L3 and L4 groups. The SEM results showed that with repeated applications of the CO2 laser, a progressive melting and recrystallization of the enamel surface occurred. Repeated irradiations of dental enamel may enhance the inhibition of enamel demineralization.

  5. The effect of fluoride toothpaste on root dentine demineralization progression: a pilot study. (United States)

    Botelho, Juliana Nunes; Del Bel Cury, Altair Antoninha; Silva, Wander Jose da; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andalo; Cury, Jaime Aparecido


    The anticaries effect of fluoride (F) toothpaste containing 1100 µg F/g in reducing enamel demineralization is well established, but its effect on dentine has not been extensively studied. Furthermore, it has been shown that toothpaste containing a high F concentration is necessary to remineralize root dentine lesions, suggesting that a 1100 µg F/g concentration might not be high enough to reduce root dentine demineralization, particularly when dentine is subjected to a high cariogenic challenge. Thus, the aim of this pilot study was to evaluate in situ the effect of F toothpaste, at a concentration of 1100 µg F/g, on dentine demineralization. In a crossover and double-blind study, conducted in two phases of 14 days, six volunteers wore a palatal appliance containing four slabs of bovine root dentine whose surface hardness (SH) was previously determined and to which a 10% sucrose solution was applied extra-orally 8×/day. Volunteers used a non-F toothpaste (negative control) or F toothpaste (1100 µg F/g, NaF/SiO2) three times a day. On the 10th and 14th days of each phase, two slabs were collected and SH was determined again. Dentine demineralization was assessed as percentage of SH loss (%SHL). The effect of toothpaste was significant, showing lower %SHL for the F toothpaste group (42.0 ± 9.7) compared to the non-F group (62.0 ± 6.4; p 0.05). This pilot study suggests that F toothpaste at 1100 µg F/g is able to decrease dentine caries even under a high cariogenic challenge of biofilm accumulation and sugar exposure.

  6. The effect of fluoride toothpaste on root dentine demineralization progression: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Nunes Botelho


    Full Text Available The anticaries effect of fluoride (F toothpaste containing 1100 µg F/g in reducing enamel demineralization is well established, but its effect on dentine has not been extensively studied. Furthermore, it has been shown that toothpaste containing a high F concentration is necessary to remineralize root dentine lesions, suggesting that a 1100 µg F/g concentration might not be high enough to reduce root dentine demineralization, particularly when dentine is subjected to a high cariogenic challenge. Thus, the aim of this pilot study was to evaluate in situ the effect of F toothpaste, at a concentration of 1100 µg F/g, on dentine demineralization. In a crossover and double-blind study, conducted in two phases of 14 days, six volunteers wore a palatal appliance containing four slabs of bovine root dentine whose surface hardness (SH was previously determined and to which a 10% sucrose solution was applied extra-orally 8×/day. Volunteers used a non-F toothpaste (negative control or F toothpaste (1100 µg F/g, NaF/SiO2 three times a day. On the 10th and 14th days of each phase, two slabs were collected and SH was determined again. Dentine demineralization was assessed as percentage of SH loss (%SHL. The effect of toothpaste was significant, showing lower %SHL for the F toothpaste group (42.0 ± 9.7 compared to the non-F group (62.0 ± 6.4; p 0.05. This pilot study suggests that F toothpaste at 1100 µg F/g is able to decrease dentine caries even under a high cariogenic challenge of biofilm accumulation and sugar exposure.

  7. Application of artificial neural networks for response surface modelling in HPLC method development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Korany


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the usefulness of artificial neural networks (ANNs for response surface modelling in HPLC method development. In this study, the combined effect of pH and mobile phase composition on the reversed-phase liquid chromatographic behaviour of a mixture of salbutamol (SAL and guaiphenesin (GUA, combination I, and a mixture of ascorbic acid (ASC, paracetamol (PAR and guaiphenesin (GUA, combination II, was investigated. The results were compared with those produced using multiple regression (REG analysis. To examine the respective predictive power of the regression model and the neural network model, experimental and predicted response factor values, mean of squares error (MSE, average error percentage (Er%, and coefficients of correlation (r were compared. It was clear that the best networks were able to predict the experimental responses more accurately than the multiple regression analysis.

  8. Regression-Based Artificial Neural Network Methodology in Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何桢; 肖粤翔


    Response surface methodology (RSM) is an important tool for process parameter optimization, robust design and other quality improvement efforts. When the relationship between influential input variables and output response is very complex, it' s hard to find the real response surface using RSM. In recent years artificial neural network(ANN) has been used in RSM. But the classical ANN does not work well under the constraints of real applications. An algorithm of regression-based ANN(R-ANN) is proposed in this paper, which is a supplement to the classical ANN methodology. It makes network closer to the response surface, so that training time is reduced and robustness is strengthened. The procedure of improving ANN by regressions is described and the comparisons among R-ANN, RSM and classical ANN are computed graphically in three examples. Our research shows that the R-ANN methodology is a good supplement to the RSM and classical ANN methodology,which can yield lower standard error of prediction under conditions that the scope of experiment is rigidly restricted.

  9. The influence of an artificial playing surface on injury risk and perceptions of muscle soreness in elite Rugby Union. (United States)

    Williams, S; Trewartha, G; Kemp, S P T; Michell, R; Stokes, K A


    This prospective cohort study investigated the influence of an artificial playing surface on injury risk and perceptions of muscle soreness in elite English Premiership Rugby Union players. Time loss (from 39.5 matches) and abrasion (from 27 matches) injury risk was compared between matches played on artificial turf and natural grass. Muscle soreness was reported over the 4 days following one match played on each surface by 95 visiting players (i.e., normally play on natural grass surfaces). There was a likely trivial difference in the overall injury burden relating to time-loss injuries between playing surfaces [rate ratio = 1.01, 90% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-1.38]. Abrasions were substantially more common on artificial turf (rate ratio = 7.92, 90% CI: 4.39-14.28), although the majority of these were minor and only two resulted in any reported time loss. Muscle soreness was consistently higher over the 4 days following a match on artificial turf in comparison with natural grass, although the magnitude of this effect was small (effect sizes ranging from 0.26 to 0.40). These results suggest that overall injury risk is similar for the two playing surfaces, but further surveillance is required before inferences regarding specific injury diagnoses and smaller differences in overall injury risk can be made.

  10. In vitro osteoinduction of demineralized bone. (United States)

    Torricelli, P; Fini, M; Giavaresi, G; Giardino, R


    Among numerous available materials for osseous repair and reconstruction, those presenting osteoinductive characteristics and promoting bone regeneration are preferable. Fresh autologous bone is one of the most effective, but it has some disadvantages and risks. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is considered to be a valid alternative, because it seems to show osteogenic potential, ascribed to the presence of bone morphogenetic proteins. In addition it can be prepared without difficulty and preserved without losing osteoinductive properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the osteoinductive ability of xenogenic DBM, by testing DBM powder obtained from rabbit long bones, in cell culture of murine fibroblasts, alone or associated with electromagnetic field (EMF), that are known to exhibit biologic effects on cells: in particular they are used in orthopedics to improve bone formation. At the end of experiment, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium levels and cell proliferation and morphology were evaluated. A statistically significant stimulation of ALP activity and cell proliferation and a morphological change of fibroblasts were found. The results obtained show how DBM and EMF have different effects on cells, and that together they have synergic action toward bone induction.

  11. Sphingoid bases inhibit acid-induced demineralization of hydroxyapatite. (United States)

    Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; van 't Hof, Wim; Bikker, Floris J; Nazmi, Kamran; Brand, Henk S; Sotres, Javier; Lindh, Liselott; Arnebrant, Thomas; Veerman, Enno C I


    Calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp), the main constituent of dental enamel, is inherently susceptible to the etching and dissolving action of acids, resulting in tooth decay such as dental caries and dental erosion. Since the prevalence of erosive wear is gradually increasing, there is urgent need for agents that protect the enamel against erosive attacks. In the present study we studied in vitro the anti-erosive effects of a number of sphingolipids and sphingoid bases, which form the backbone of sphingolipids. Pretreatment of HAp discs with sphingosine, phytosphingosine (PHS), PHS phosphate and sphinganine significantly protected these against acid-induced demineralization by 80 ± 17%, 78 ± 17%, 78 ± 7% and 81 ± 8%, respectively (p measurement revealed that HAp discs treated with PHS were almost completely and homogeneously covered by patches of PHS. This suggests that PHS and other sphingoid bases form layers on the surface of HAp, which act as diffusion barriers against H(+) ions. In principle, these anti-erosive properties make PHS and related sphingosines promising and attractive candidates as ingredients in oral care products.

  12. Microporous, demineralized collagen matrices in intact radicular dentin created by commonly used calcium-depleting endodontic irrigants. (United States)

    Tay, Franklin R; Gutmann, James L; Pashley, David H


    The use of calcium-depleting solutions in restorative dentistry results in demineralization of intact coronal dentin beneath smear layers. Likewise, application of calcium-depleting irrigants as final rinses might create demineralized collagen matrices in intact radicular dentin after removal of root canal wall smear layers created during canal shaping. These unsupported collagen matrices collapse on desiccation and might be difficult to detect in scanning electron microscopy dehydration techniques traditionally used in endodontic research. Demineralized collagen matrices were identified, by using a hexamethyldisilazane dehydration protocol, on the surface of smear layer-depleted radicular dentin when NaOCl was used as initial rinse, followed by the use of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or BioPure MTAD as the final rinse. Compaction of conventional root filling materials over a demineralized collagen matrix in instrumented dentin is analogous to performing the same procedure against the predentin collagen network in the uninstrumented parts of root canals. The potential consequences of this process are, however, unknown.

  13. Effects of artificial tears on rabbit ocular surface healing after exposure to benzalkonium chloride. (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqiu; Cao, Hong; Lin, Tong; Gong, Lan


    The aim of the study was to observe the effect of different artificial tears on healing the drug-induced keratopathy. To this aim, 64 rabbits received topical administration of 0.01% benzalkonium chloride to establish models and were divided into four groups. The control group received ocular saline solution (Saline), while the others were treated with Refresh Plus® (RF), Hycosan® (H) and Systane® Ultra (SU). Surface abnormalities were examined daily using slit-lamp. Fluorescein staining, histopathological and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examination were performed at day 0, 2 weeks, and 1 and 2 months. A significant difference was observed between RF and SU, but not between H and SU at 2 weeks. TEM examination revealed new microvilli close to the cavity surface, and the number of microvilli in SU was greater than in H at 2 weeks and 1 month. Based on the results, the effect in the SU group was the most significant. Eye drops with nontoxic preservative such as SU are an alternative to treat drug-induced keratopathy.

  14. Quantifying the remineralization of artificial caries lesions using PS-OCT (United States)

    Jones, Robert S.; Fried, Daniel


    New optical imaging methods are needed to determine whether caries lesions (tooth decay) are active and progressing or have become remineralized and arrested and are no longer progressing. The objective of this study was to use Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) to image the fluoride enhanced remineralization of artificial enamel lesions. Artificial lesions were created by an acetate buffer on smooth enamel surfaces and were exposed for 20 days to a 2 ppm fluoride containing remineralization solution. PS-OCT images revealed the presence of a low scattering surface zone after the artificial lesions were remineralized. These samples displayed intact nondepolarizing surface zones when analyzed with Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM). No statistical difference in lesion depth before and after remineralization was found with both PS-OCT and PLM. The remineralized lesions showed a significant decrease in the overall integrated reflectivity compared with the demineralized lesions. Digital Microradiography confirmed the increase in mineral volume of the remineralized surface zone. This study determined that PS-OCT can image the restoration of the surface zone enamel after fluoride-enhanced remineralization of artificial in vitro dental caries.

  15. Enamel Demineralization Prevention during Fixed Orthodontic Treatment and Remineralization Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xin-hua; Wayne J Sampson


    Preventing enamel demineralization and remineralization of orthodontic patients is important and it differs from other dental patients.Oral hygiene education and oral examination is essential to prevent enamel demineralization,and dietary education or control of sugar intake should not be ignored during fixed orthodontic treatment.Laser irradiation is a noteworthy method to prevent enamel mineralization.Products containing fluoride and fluoride released not only can be used to prevent demineralization but also have the ability of remineralization during orthodontic treatment.Oral hygiene products containing casein-phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) have been demonstrated to have the ability of remineralization such as sugar-free chewing gum added CPP-ACP,lozenges containing CPP-AGP and milk protein casein tabilized by phosphopeptides.

  16. Gain-Enhanced On-Chip Antenna Utilizing Artificial Magnetic Conductor Reflecting Surface at 94 GHz

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Mahmoud


    Nowadays, there is a growing demand for high frequency-bandwidth mm-wave (30-300 GHz) electronic wireless transceiver systems to support applications such as high data-rate wireless communication and high resolution imaging. Such mm-wave systems are becoming more feasible due to the extreme transistor downscaling in silicon-based integrated circuits, which enabled densely-integrated high-speed elec- tronics operating up to more than 100 GHz with low fabrication cost. To further enhance system integrability, it is required to implement all wireless system compo- nents on the chip. Presently, the last major barrier to true System-on-Chip (SoC) realization is the antenna implementation on the silicon chip. Although at mm-wave frequencies the antenna size becomes small enough to fit on chip, the antenna performance is greatly deteriorated due the high conductivity and high relative permittivity of the silicon substrate. The negative e↵ects of the silicon substrate could be avoided by using a metallic reflecting surface on top of silicon, which e↵ectively isolates the antenna from the silicon. However, this approach has the shortcoming of having to implement the antenna on the usually very thin silicon oxide layer of a typical CMOS fabrication process (10’s of μm). This forces the antenna to be in a very close proximity (less than one hundredth of a wavelength) to the reflecting surface. In this regime, the use of conventional metallic reflecting surface for silicon shielding has severe e↵ects on the antenna performance as it tends to reduce the antenna radiation resistance resulting in most of the energy being absorbed rather than radiated. In this work, the use of specially patterned reflecting surfaces for improving on- chip antenna performance is investigated. By using a periodic metallic surface on top of a grounded substrate, the structure can mimic the behavior of a perfect mag- netic conductor, hence called Artificial Magnetic Conductor (AMC) surface

  17. Artificial Intelligence Mechanisms on Interactive Modified Simplex Method with Desirability Function for Optimising Surface Lapping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongchanun Luangpaiboon


    Full Text Available A study has been made to optimise the influential parameters of surface lapping process. Lapping time, lapping speed, downward pressure, and charging pressure were chosen from the preliminary studies as parameters to determine process performances in terms of material removal, lap width, and clamp force. The desirability functions of the-nominal-the-best were used to compromise multiple responses into the overall desirability function level or D response. The conventional modified simplex or Nelder-Mead simplex method and the interactive desirability function are performed to optimise online the parameter levels in order to maximise the D response. In order to determine the lapping process parameters effectively, this research then applies two powerful artificial intelligence optimisation mechanisms from harmony search and firefly algorithms. The recommended condition of (lapping time, lapping speed, downward pressure, and charging pressure at (33, 35, 6.0, and 5.0 has been verified by performing confirmation experiments. It showed that the D response level increased to 0.96. When compared with the current operating condition, there is a decrease of the material removal and lap width with the improved process performance indices of 2.01 and 1.14, respectively. Similarly, there is an increase of the clamp force with the improved process performance index of 1.58.

  18. Surface properties of multilayered, acrylic resin artificial teeth after immersion in staining beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Hermana NEPPELENBROEK


    Full Text Available AbstractObjective To evaluate the effect of staining beverages (coffee, orange juice, and red wine on the Vickers hardness and surface roughness of the base (BL and enamel (EL layers of improved artificial teeth (Vivodent and Trilux.Material and Methods Specimens (n=8 were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and then submitted to the tests. Afterwards, specimens were immersed in one of the staining solutions or distilled water (control at 37°C, and the tests were also performed after 15 and 30 days of immersion. Data were analyzed using 3-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=0.05.Results Vivodent teeth exhibited a continuous decrease (p0.15, but red wine and orange juice continuously reduced hardness values (p0.06.Conclusions Hardness of the two brands of acrylic teeth was reduced by all staining beverages, mainly for red wine. Roughness of both layers of the teeth was not affected by long-term immersion in the beverages.

  19. Study of Leakage Current Behaviour on Artificially Polluted Surface of Ceramic Insulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Subba Reddy; G. R. Nagabhushana


    This paper presents the results of the study concerning to the leakage current be-haviour on artificially polluted ceramic insulator surface. From the present study it was observedthat there is a reasonably well-defined inception of current i.e. scintillations at a finite voltage.The corresponding voltages for extinction of the current are in the range of 0.8 kV to 2.1 kV.Obviously, the dry band formed in the immediate vicinity of the pin prevents smooth current flowas the voltage rises from zero. Only when the voltage is adequate it causes a flashover of the dryband and current starts flowing. As is common in similar current extinction phenomena, herealso, the extinction voltages are significantly lower than the inception voltages.Further, the voltage-current curves invariably show hysteresis - the leakage currents are lowerin the reducing portion of the voltage. This is obviously due to drying of the wet pollutantlayer thereby increasing its resistance. It is believed that this is the first time that such a directquantitative evidence of drying in individual half cycles is experimentally visualized.

  20. Corrosion evaluation of orthodontic wires in artificial saliva solutions by using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne Madureira Barcelos


    Full Text Available In the present work, stainless steel and Ni-Ti commercial orthodontic wires were immersed in artificial saliva solutions, containing or not F- ions, in different pH values, during 30 days. The weight loss and the Ni2+ content in the solutions at 15 and 30 days of exposition were evaluated using a composite design 2³ and response surface methodology. The open circuit potential (OCP was measured over the same period of time. Polarization curves and morpHological analysis of the wires before and after the corrosion experiments were also carried out. The results showed that corrosion of the studied metal alloys depended on a combination among saliva pH, the exposition time, and the concentration of F- ions in the solution. The critical condition was observed for Ni-Ti wires at pH = 3.0, and high concentration of F- ions, causing a decrease in the OCP values and an increase in Ni dissolution and corrosion current density.

  1. Combination effect of fluoride dentifrices and varnish on deciduous enamel demineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gatti


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticaries potential of 500 or 1100 ppm F dentifrices combined with fluoride varnish using a pH-cycling regimen. Seventy primary canines were covered with nail polish, leaving a 4×4 mm window on their buccal surface, and randomly assigned into 7 groups (n = 10: S: sound enamel not submitted to the pH-cycling regimen or treatment; N: negative control, submitted to the pH-cycling regimen without any treatment; D1 and D2: subjected to the pH-cycling regimen and treated twice daily with 1100 or 500 ppm F dentifrice, respectively; VF: fluoride varnish (subjected to F-varnish before and in the middle of the pH-cycling regimen; and VF+D1 and VF+D2. After 10 days, the teeth were sectioned, and enamel demineralization was assessed by cross-sectional hardness at different distances from the dental surface. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Dentifrice with 1100 ppm F and the combination of F-varnish with the dentifrices significantly reduced enamel demineralization compared with the negative control (p 0.05. The effect of combining F-varnish with the dentifrices was not greater than the effect of the dentifrices alone (p < 0.05. The data suggest that the combination of F-varnish with dentifrices containing 500 and 1100 ppm F is not more effective in reducing demineralization in primary teeth than the isolated effect of dentifrice containing 1100 ppm F.

  2. Artificial urushi. (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Uyama, H; Ikeda, R


    A new concept for the design and laccase-catalyzed preparation of "artificial urushi" from new urushiol analogues is described. The curing proceeded under mild reaction conditions to produce the very hard cross-linked film (artificial urushi) with a high gloss surface. A new cross-linkable polyphenol was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of cardanol, a phenol derivative from cashew-nut-shell liquid, by enzyme-related catalysts. The polyphenol was readily cured to produce the film (also artificial urushi) showing excellent dynamic viscoelasticity.

  3. Modeling and optimization of ethanol fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Response surface methodology and artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfahanian Mehri


    Full Text Available In this study, the capabilities of response surface methodology (RSM and artificial neural networks (ANN for modeling and optimization of ethanol production from glucoseusing Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch fermentation process were investigated. Effect of three independent variables in a defined range of pH (4.2-5.8, temperature (20-40ºC and glucose concentration (20-60 g/l on the cell growth and ethanol production was evaluated. Results showed that prediction accuracy of ANN was apparently similar to RSM. At optimum condition of temperature (32°C, pH (5.2 and glucose concentration (50 g/l suggested by the statistical methods, the maximum cell dry weight and ethanol concentration obtained from RSM were 12.06 and 16.2 g/l whereas experimental values were 12.09 and 16.53 g/l, respectively. The present study showed that using ANN as fitness function, the maximum cell dry weight and ethanol concentration were 12.05 and 16.16 g/l, respectively. Also, the coefficients of determination for biomass and ethanol concentration obtained from RSM were 0.9965 and 0.9853 and from ANN were 0.9975 and 0.9936, respectively. The process parameters optimization was successfully conducted using RSM and ANN; however prediction by ANN was slightly more precise than RSM. Based on experimental data maximum yield of ethanol production of 0.5 g ethanol/g substrate (97 % of theoretical yield was obtained.


    handling system was considered impractical to handle this heat load. Therefore, the demineralized water system for the NRL Sector-Focusing Cyclotron...decided to run the water system on a continuous basis. Continuous operation can be dangerous, because it can cause a large leak to occur, but this

  5. APF and dentifrice effect on root dentin demineralization and biofilm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.C. Vale; C.P.M. Tabchoury; A.A. Del Bel Cury; L.M.A. Tenuta; J.M. ten Cate; J.A. Cury


    Because dentin is more caries-susceptible than enamel, its demineralization may be more influenced by additional fluoride (F). We hypothesized that a combination of professional F, applied as acidulated phosphate F (APF), and use of 1100-ppm-F dentifrice would provide additional protection for denti

  6. Steering the osteoclast through the demineralization-collagenolysis balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Kent; Merrild, Ditte Marie Horslev; Delaissé, Jean-Marie


    degradation to proceed as fast as demineralization. This resulted in about a two-fold increase of the proportion of trenches, thus supporting our hypothesis. The same result was obtained if facilitating collagen degradation by pre-treating the bone slices with NaOCl. In contrast, when decreasing the rate...

  7. Skeletal growth after oral administration of demineralized bone matrix. (United States)

    Martínez, J A; Elorriaga, M; Marquínez, M; Larralde, J


    Oral administration of bone extracts obtained from bovine demineralized bone matrix to rats has a direct effect on bone metabolism, affecting bone proportions and some markers of bone formation such as bone malate dehydrogenase, serum alkaline phosphatase and serum osteocalcin. Furthermore collagen deposition, bone protein synthesis and nucleic acids content were significantly increased by the treatment.

  8. Prediction of lateral surface, volume and sphericity of pomegranate using MLP artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rohani


    Full Text Available Introduction: Fast and accurate determination of geometrical properties of agricultural products has many applications in agricultural operations like planting, cultivating, harvesting and post-harvesting. Calculations related to storing, shipping and storage-coating materials as well as peeling time and surface-microbial concentrations are some applications of estimating product volume and surface area. Sphericity is also a parameter by which the shape differences between fruits, vegetables, grains and seeds can be quantified. This parameter is important in grading systems and inspecting rolling capability of agricultural products. Bayram presented a new dimensional method and equation to calculate the sphericity of certain shapesand some granular food materials (Bayram, 2005. Kumar and Mathew proposed atheoretically soundmethod for estimating the surface area of ellipsoidal food materials (Kumar and Mathew, 2003. Clayton et al. used non-linear regression models for calculation of apple surface area using the fruit mass or volume (Clayton et al., 1995. Humeida and Hobani predicted surface area and volume of pomegranates based on the weight and geometrical diametermean (Humeida and Hobani, 1993. Wang and Nguang designeda low cost sensor system to automatically compute the volume and surface area of axi-symmetricagricultural products such as eggs, lemons, limes and tamarillos (Wang and Nguang, 2007. The main objective of this study was to investigate the potential of Artificial Neural Network (ANN technique as an alternative method to predict the volume, surface area and sphericity of pomegranates. Materials and methods: The water displacement method (WDM was used for measuring the actual volume of pomegranates. Also, the sphericity and surface area are computed by using analytical methods. In this study, the neural MLP models were designed based upon the three nominal diameters of pomegranatesas variable inputs, while the output model consisted

  9. Effects of the Artificial Skin Thickness on the Subsurface Pressure Profiles of Flat, Curved, and Braille Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Cabibihan, John-John; Suresh, Shruthi


    The primary interface of contact between a robotic or prosthetic hand and the external world is through the artificial skin. To make sense of that contact, tactile sensors are needed. These sensors are normally embedded in soft, synthetic materials for protecting the subsurface sensor from damage or for better hand-to-object contact. It is important to understand how the mechanical signals transmit from the artificial skin to the embedded tactile sensors. In this paper, we made use of a finite element model of an artificial fingertip with viscoelastic and hyperelastic behaviors to investigate the subsurface pressure profiles when flat, curved, and Braille surfaces were indented on the surface of the model. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of 1, 3 and 5 mm thickness of the skin on the subsurface pressure profiles. The simulation results were experimentally validated using a 25.4 {\\mu}m thin pressure detecting film that was able to follow the contours of a non-planar surface, which is analogous to an ar...

  10. Changes in albumin/platelet interaction with an artificial surface--due to a antibiotics, pyridoxal phosphate, and lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandy, T.; Sharma, C.P.


    Protein adsorption and platelet adhesion are two important biological processes arising at the blood prosthetic interface. The effect of certain antibiotics, namely, neomycin, gentamicin, ampicillin, penicillin-G, and streptomycin to modulate the albumin polycarbonate surface interaction was investigated using /sup 125/I albumin from a protein mixture in the presence and absence of isolated calf lymphocytes. This study also demonstrated the changes in platelet-surface adhesion with these antibiotics. The effect of pyridoxal phosphate to modulate the red blood cell-mediated platelet-surface attachment was also attempted. It appears from pyridoxal phosphate studies that pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) could modify the surface-platelet attachment. It also inhibited the fibrinogen-induced platelet adhesion. It seems, the addition of antibiotics to the polymerprotein system increased the level of surface-bound albumin variably whereas lymphocytes incubated in the medium did not affect the surface-albumin concentration with time course. These antibiotics also inhibited the surface-induced platelet adhesion to variable degrees. Our earlier studies have indicated that certain antibiotics or antiplatelet drugs can inhibit the fibrinogen binding to an artificial surface. Therefore, it may be possible that the enhanced albumin-surface concentration or reduced fibrinogen-surface binding, in the presence of these antibiotics, may itself be one of the parameter for a reduced platelet-surface attachment, which may also improve the blood compatibility of the substrate. A better understanding of the mechanism of antibiotics is needed in in vivo conditions to correlate these findings.

  11. Artificial neural network approach for estimation of surface specific humidity and air temperature using Multifrequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Randhir Singh; B G Vasudevan; P K Pal; P C Joshi


    Microwave sensor MSMR (Multifrequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer) data onboard Oceansat-1 was used for retrieval of monthly averages of near surface specific humidity (a) and air temperature (a) by means of Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The MSMR measures the microwave radiances in 8 channels at frequencies of 6.6, 10.7, 18 and 21 GHz for both vertical and horizontal polarizations. The artificial neural networks (ANN) technique is employed to find the transfer function relating the input MSMR observed brightness temperatures and output (a and a) parameters. Input data consist of nearly 28 months (June 1999 — September 2001) of monthly averages of MSMR observed brightness temperature and surface marine observations of a and a from Comprehensive Ocean- Atmosphere Data Set (COADS). The performance of the algorithm is assessed with independent surface marine observations. The results indicate that the combination of MSMR observed brightness temperatures as input parameters provides reasonable estimates of monthly averaged surface parameters. The global root mean square (rms) differences are 1.0°C and 1.1 g kg−1 for air temperature and surface specific humidity respectively.

  12. Analysis and occurrence of seven artificial sweeteners in German waste water and surface water and in soil aquifer treatment (SAT). (United States)

    Scheurer, Marco; Brauch, Heinz-J; Lange, Frank T


    A method for the simultaneous determination of seven commonly used artificial sweeteners in water is presented. The analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction using Bakerbond SDB 1 cartridges at pH 3 and analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode. Ionization was enhanced by post-column addition of the alkaline modifier Tris(hydroxymethyl)amino methane. Except for aspartame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, recoveries were higher than 75% in potable water with comparable results for surface water. Matrix effects due to reduced extraction yields in undiluted waste water were negligible for aspartame and neotame but considerable for the other compounds. The widespread distribution of acesulfame, saccharin, cyclamate, and sucralose in the aquatic environment could be proven. Concentrations in two influents of German sewage treatment plants (STPs) were up to 190 microg/L for cyclamate, about 40 microg/L for acesulfame and saccharin, and less than 1 microg/L for sucralose. Removal in the STPs was limited for acesulfame and sucralose and >94% for saccharin and cyclamate. The persistence of some artificial sweeteners during soil aquifer treatment was demonstrated and confirmed their environmental relevance. The use of sucralose and acesulfame as tracers for anthropogenic contamination is conceivable. In German surface waters, acesulfame was the predominant artificial sweetener with concentrations exceeding 2 microg/L. Other sweeteners were detected up to several hundred nanograms per liter in the order saccharin approximately cyclamate > sucralose.

  13. Evaluation of penetration depth of a commercially available resin infiltrate into artificially created enamel lesions: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Subramaniam


    Full Text Available Background: Early enamel lesions have a potential to re-mineralize and prevent caries progress. Aim: The aim of the following study is to determine the depth of penetration of low viscosity resin into artificially created enamel lesions. Materials and Methods: A sample of 20 sound premolars, indicated for orthodontic extraction, formed the study group. The teeth were coated with a nail varnish, leaving a window of 4 mm × 4 mm, on buccal surfaces of sound, intact enamel. Each tooth was subsequently immersed in demineralizing solution for 4 days to produce artificial enamel lesions. The demineralized area was then infiltrated with low viscosity resin (Icon Infiltrant, DMG, Hamburg, Germany as per the manufacturer′s instructions. All the restored teeth were then immersed in methylene blue dye for 24 h at 37°C. Teeth were then sectioned longitudinally through the lesion into two halves. The sections were observed under stereomicroscope at ×80 magnification and depth of penetration of the material was measured quantitatively using Motic software. Results: The maximum depth of penetration of the resin material was 6.06 ± 3.31 μm. Conclusions: Resin infiltration technique appears to be effective in sealing enamel lesions and has great potential for arresting white spot lesions.

  14. Development of bacterial biofilms on artificial corals in comparison to surface-associated microbes of hard corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John Sweet

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated the differences in bacterial communities associated with corals versus those in their surrounding environment. However, these environmental samples often represent vastly different microbial micro-environments with few studies having looked at the settlement and growth of bacteria on surfaces similar to corals. As a result, it is difficult to determine which bacteria are associated specifically with coral tissue surfaces. In this study, early stages of passive settlement from the water column to artificial coral surfaces (formation of a biofilm were assessed. Changes in bacterial diversity (16S rRNA gene, were studied on artificially created resin nubbins that were modelled from the skeleton of the reef building coral Acropora muricata. These models were dip-coated in sterile agar, mounted in situ on the reef and followed over time to monitor bacterial community succession. The bacterial community forming the biofilms remained significantly different (R = 0.864 p<0.05 from that of the water column and from the surface mucus layer (SML of the coral at all times from 30 min to 96 h. The water column was dominated by members of the α-proteobacteria, the developed community on the biofilms dominated by γ-proteobacteria, whereas that within the SML was composed of a more diverse array of groups. Bacterial communities present within the SML do not appear to arise from passive settlement from the water column, but instead appear to have become established through a selection process. This selection process was shown to be dependent on some aspects of the physico-chemical structure of the settlement surface, since agar-coated slides showed distinct communities to coral-shaped surfaces. However, no significant differences were found between different surface coatings, including plain agar and agar enhanced with coral mucus exudates. Therefore future work should consider physico-chemical surface properties as

  15. Designing artificial two dimensional electron lattice on metal surface: a Kagome-like lattice as an example. (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Qiu, Wen-Xuan; Gao, Jin-Hua


    Recently, a new kind of artificial two dimensional (2D) electron lattice on the nanoscale, i.e. molecular graphene, has drawn a lot of interest, where the metal surface electrons are transformed into a honeycomb lattice via absorbing a molecular lattice on the metal surface [Gomes et al., Nature, 2012, 438, 306; Wang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014, 113, 196803]. In this work, we theoretically demonstrate that this technique can be readily used to build other complex 2D electron lattices on a metal surface, which are of high interest in the field of condensed matter physics. The main challenge to build a complex 2D electron lattice is that this is a quantum antidot system, where the absorbed molecule normally exerts a repulsive potential on the surface electrons. Thus, there is no straightforward corresponding relation between the molecular lattice pattern and the desired 2D lattice of surface electrons. Here, we give an interesting example about the Kagome lattice, which has exotic correlated electronic states. We design a special molecular pattern and show that this molecular lattice can transform the surface electrons into a Kagome-like lattice. The numerical simulation is conducted using a Cu(111) surface and CO molecules. We first estimate the effective parameters of the Cu/CO system by fitting experimental data of the molecular graphene. Then, we calculate the corresponding energy bands and LDOS of the surface electrons in the presence of the proposed molecular lattice. Finally, we interpret the numerical results by the tight binding model of the Kagome lattice. We hope that our work can stimulate further theoretical and experimental interest in this novel artificial 2D electron lattice system.

  16. Fibular Allograft and Demineralized Bone Matrix for the Treatment of Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis. (United States)

    Murray, Travis; Morscher, Melanie A; Krahe, Amy M; Adamczyk, Mark J; Weiner, Dennis S


    Previous studies documented the use of fibular allograft in the treatment of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) with bone graft epiphysiodesis (BGE). This study describes the results of using a 10-mm diameter premilled fibular allograft packed with demineralized bone matrix placed across the physis in an open surgical approach under image intensification. A review identified 45 cases of BGE using fibular allograft and demineralized bone matrix in 34 patients with a diagnosis of SCFE performed by a single surgeon during an 8-year period. Thirty-four cases (25 patients) had at least 1 year of follow-up and were included in the study. Medical records were reviewed for complications, subsequent surgeries, and time to physeal closure. Of the 34 cases included, there were no cases of acute chondrolysis. Complications included 1 case of bone graft extrusion that required surgical replacement and 1 re-slip requiring surgical stabilization. Five cases of avascular necrosis (AVN) were encountered (1 unstable slip with total head AVN, and 4 stable slips with 3 total head and 1 partial head AVN). In 1 patient, small loose bony fragments were noted on postoperative radiographs that appeared outside of the articular surface of the hip and were asymptomatic. Two patients encountered wound healing issues that resolved with appropriate wound care. In light of the occurrence of AVN in stable cases, BGE with autogenous corticocancellous graft is preferable to BGE with autologous fibular graft for the treatment of SCFE. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e519-e525.].

  17. Comparative assessment of hardening of demineralized dentin under lining materials using an ultramicroindentation system. (United States)

    Schmidlin, Patrick R; Zehnder, Matthias; Imfeld, Thomas; Swain, Michael V


    The aim of the current in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of three lining materials with a reported mineralizing capacity on hardness and elasticity of demineralized dentin. Four standardized microcavities were prepared in exposed dentin surfaces of 16 extracted human molars each. Dentin was demineralized in 0.5M EDTA for 2 h. One microcavity was left empty. The others were filled with a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), a bioactive glass S53P4 suspension, and a prototype Ca-PO(4) cement. Teeth were then immersed in deionized water or simulated oral fluid. After 3 weeks, hardness and composite elastic modulus of the dentin subjacent to the microcavities were assessed under wet conditions using the ultramicroindentation system (UMIS). After immersion in deionized water, there was no significant improvement of the mechanical properties of dentin irrespective of the material applied beforehand, indicating a lack of direct material effects. Exposure to simulated oral fluid resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) higher hardness and composite elastic modulus values of the dentin subjacent to empty microcavities and counterparts lined with bioactive glass compared to corresponding dentin under the RMGIC. UMIS profiles showed little variance.

  18. Enamel and dentine demineralization by a combination of starch and sucrose in a biofilm – caries model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Nunes BOTELHO


    Full Text Available Abstract Sucrose is the most cariogenic dietary carbohydrate and starch is considered non-cariogenic for enamel and moderately cariogenic for dentine. However, the cariogenicity of the combination of starch and sucrose remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of this combination on Streptococcus mutans biofilm composition and enamel and dentine demineralization. Biofilms of S. mutans UA159 were grown on saliva-coated enamel and dentine slabs in culture medium containing 10% saliva. They were exposed (8 times/day to one of the following treatments: 0.9% NaCl (negative control, 1% starch, 10% sucrose, or 1% starch and 10% sucrose (starch + sucrose. To simulate the effect of human salivary amylase on the starch metabolization, the biofilms were pretreated with saliva before each treatment and saliva was also added to the culture medium. Acidogenicity of the biofilm was estimated by evaluating (2 times/day the culture medium pH. After 4 (dentine or 5 (enamel days of growth, biofilms (n = 9 were individually collected, and the biomass, viable microorganism count, and polysaccharide content were quantified. Dentine and enamel demineralization was assessed by determining the percentage of surface hardness loss. Biofilms exposed to starch + sucrose were more acidogenic and caused higher demineralization (p < 0.0001 on either enamel or dentine than those exposed to each carbohydrate alone. The findings suggest that starch increases the cariogenic potential of sucrose.

  19. Quantification of four artificial sweeteners in Finnish surface waters with isotope-dilution mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Perkola, Noora; Sainio, Pirjo


    The artificial sweeteners sucralose (SCL), acesulfame (ACS), saccharin (SAC), and cyclamate (CYC) have been detected in environmental waters in Europe and North America. Higher environmental levels are expected in view of the increasing consumption of these food additives. In this study, an isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for quantifying the four artificial sweeteners in boreal lakes (n = 3) and rivers (n = 12). The highest concentrations of ACS, SAC, CYC and SCL were 9,600, 490, 210 and 1000 ng/L, respectively. ACS and SAC were detected in all studied samples, and CYC and SCL in 98% and 56% of the samples. Seasonal trends of ACS and SAC were observed in some rivers. ACS and SCL concentrations in rivers correlated linearly with population equivalents of the wastewater treatment plants in the catchment areas, whereas SAC and CYC concentrations depend more on the source.

  20. Laser-matrix-fluoride effects on enamel demineralization. (United States)

    Hsu, C Y; Jordan, T H; Dederich, D N; Wefel, J S


    Laser and fluoride have been shown to inhibit enamel demineralization. However, the role of organic matrix and their interactions remains unclear. This study investigated the interaction among CO2 laser irradiation, fluoride, and the organic matrix on the demineralization of human enamel. Twenty-four molars were selected and cut into halves. One half of each tooth was depleted of its lipid and protein. The other half served as a matched control. Each tooth half had two window areas, treated with a 2.0% NaF gel. All left windows then received a laser treatment. Next, the tooth halves were subjected to a four-day pH-cycling procedure that created caries-like lesions. Tooth sections were cut from the windows, and microradiographs were used for quantification of the demineralization. The combined fluoride-laser treatment led to 98.3% and 95.1% reductions in mineral loss for enamel with and without organic matrix, respectively, when compared with sound enamel.

  1. Physicomechanical properties of the extracellular matrix of a demineralized bone (United States)

    Kirilova, I. A.; Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Nikolaev, S. V.; Podorozhnaya, V. T.; Uvarkin, P. V.; Ratushnyak, A. S.; Chebodaeva, V. V.


    The article describes the results of a study of physicomechanical properties of a demineralized bone matrix of human cancellous and compact bones. A demineralized cancellous bone was shown to have the best characteristics of a porous system for colonization of matrices by cells. The ultimate stress and elasticity modulus of samples of demineralized femoral heads isolated in primary hip replacement was demonstrated to vary in wide ranges. The elasticity modulus ranged from 50 to 250 MPa, and the tensile strength varied from 1.1 to 5.5 MPa. Microhardness measurements by the recovered indentation method were not possible because of the viscoelastic properties of a bone material. To study the piezoelectric properties of samples, a measuring system was developed that comprised a measuring chamber with contact electrodes, a system for controlled sample loading, an amplifier-converter unit, and signal recording and processing software. The measurement results were used to determine the dependence of the signal amplitude on the dynamic deformation characteristics. The findings are discussed in terms of the relationship between the mechanical and electrical properties and the structure of the organic bone component.

  2. Suppression of power-coal dust at an open stockpile of the Neryugrinsk surface mine using artificial snow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uskov, V.I.; Safonov, M.V.; Kupin, A.N.; Kruglova, E.S.


    Discusses complex dust suppression scheme at the open coal stockpile of the Neryungrinsk surface mine (winter temperature -50 C and lower) based on application of artificial snow and removal of dusty air for subsequent purification. The system consists of eight ejectors mounted at the top of the discharge structure with diffusers inclined at 60-80 degrees. Water consumption through type GEhF-200 hydroejector and type FKEh sprinkler is equal to 30-50 l/min at 10-20 MPa. Description of the equipment and mode of operation is given. States that up to 60% efficiency in dust suppression can be achieved. 5 refs.

  3. Application of response surface methodology and artificial neural network methods in modelling and optimization of biosorption process. (United States)

    Witek-Krowiak, Anna; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Podstawczyk, Daria; Dawiec, Anna; Pokomeda, Karol


    A review on the application of response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural networks (ANN) in biosorption modelling and optimization is presented. The theoretical background of the discussed methods with the application procedure is explained. The paper describes most frequently used experimental designs, concerning their limitations and typical applications. The paper also presents ways to determine the accuracy and the significance of model fitting for both methodologies described herein. Furthermore, recent references on biosorption modelling and optimization with the use of RSM and the ANN approach are shown. Special attention was paid to the selection of factors and responses, as well as to statistical analysis of the modelling results.

  4. Artificial Neural Network and Response Surface Methodology Modeling in Ionic Conductivity Predictions of Phthaloylchitosan-Based Gel Polymer Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Danial Azzahari


    Full Text Available A gel polymer electrolyte system based on phthaloylchitosan was prepared. The effects of process variables, such as lithium iodide, caesium iodide, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide were investigated using a distance-based ternary mixture experimental design. A comparative approach was made between response surface methodology (RSM and artificial neural network (ANN to predict the ionic conductivity. The predictive capabilities of the two methodologies were compared in terms of coefficient of determination R2 based on the validation data set. It was shown that the developed ANN model had better predictive outcome as compared to the RSM model.

  5. Identification of perfluoroalkyl acid sources in Swiss surface waters with the help of the artificial sweetener acesulfame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Claudia E., E-mail: [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Gerecke, Andreas C. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Alder, Alfredo C. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlanstrasse 133, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbuehler, Konrad [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)


    Anthropogenic perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), especially the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are ubiquitously found in surface waters around the globe. Emissions from households, industries and also atmospheric transport/deposition are discussed as the possible sources. In this study, these sources are evaluated using Switzerland as the study area. Forty-four surface water locations in different rivers and an Alpine lake were investigated for 14 PFAAs, four precursors and acesulfame, an artificial sweetener used as a population marker. Concentrations of individual PFAAs were generally low, between 0.02 and 10 ng/L. Correlation analysis showed that some PFAAs concentrations correlated well with population and less with catchment area, indicating that emissions from population, i.e., from consumer products, is the most important source to surface waters in Switzerland. The correlation with the population marker acesulfame confirmed this observation but highlighted also a few elevated PFAA levels, some of which could be attributed to industrial emissions. - Highlights: > Consumer products are the most important source of PFAAs in Swiss surface waters. > Acesulfame proofs to be a good population marker in surface waters. > PFAA pattern analyses reveal specific industrial emissions. - The analysis of correlations between surface water concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and source parameters revealed that consumer products are the most important source for PFCs in Switzerland, whereas industry and atmospheric deposition make a minor contribution.

  6. LiNbO3 Coating on Concrete Surface: A New and Environmentally Friendly Route for Artificial Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit K. Nath


    Full Text Available The addition of a photocatalyst to ordinary building materials such as concrete creates environmentally friendly materials by which air pollution or pollution of the surface can be diminished. The use of LiNbO3 photocatalyst in concrete material would be more beneficial since it can produce artificial photosynthesis in concrete. In these research photoassisted solid-gas phases reduction of carbon dioxide (artificial photosynthesis was performed using a photocatalyst, LiNbO3, coated on concrete surface under illumination of UV-visible or sunlight and showed that LiNbO3 achieved high conversion of CO2 into products despite the low levels of band-gap light available. The high reaction efficiency of LiNbO3 is explained by its strong remnant polarization (70 µC/cm2, allowing a longer lifetime of photoinduced carriers as well as an alternative reaction pathway. Due to the ease of usage and good photocatalytic efficiency, the research work done showed its potential application in pollution prevention.

  7. Proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography in the artificial caries activity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Hoon; Lee, Gi Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Kyung Soo; Jin, Hyun Seok; Hong, Kyung Won; Oh, Berm Seok; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of the experiment was to evaluating the diagnostic ability of dental caries detection using digital subtraction in the artificial caries activity model. Digital radiographs of five teeth with 8 proximal surfaces were obtained by CCD sensor (Kodak RVG 6100 using a size no.2). The digital radiographic images and subtraction images from artificial proximal caries were examined and interpreted. In this study, we proposed novel caries detection method which could diagnose the dental proximal caries from single digital radiographic image. In artificial caries activity model, the range of lesional depth was 572-1,374 {mu}m and the range of lesional area was 36.95-138.52 mm{sup 2}. The lesional depth and the area were significantly increased with demineralization time (p<0.001). Furthermore, the proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography showed high detection rate compared to the proximal caries examination using simple digital radiograph. The results demonstrated that the digital subtraction radiography from single radiographic image of artificial caries was highly efficient in the detection of dental caries compared to the data from simple digital radiograph.

  8. An Artificial Turf-Based Surrogate Surface Collector for the Direct Measurement of Atmospheric Mercury Dry Deposition (United States)

    Hall, Naima L.; Dvonch, Joseph Timothy; Marsik, Frank J.; Barres, James A.; Landis, Matthew S.


    This paper describes the development of a new artificial turf surrogate surface (ATSS) sampler for use in the measurement of mercury (Hg) dry deposition. In contrast to many existing surrogate surface designs, the ATSS utilizes a three-dimensional deposition surface that may more closely mimic the physical structure of many natural surfaces than traditional flat surrogate surface designs (water, filter, greased Mylar film). The ATSS has been designed to overcome several complicating factors that can impact the integrity of samples with other direct measurement approaches by providing a passive system which can be deployed for both short and extended periods of time (days to weeks), and is not contaminated by precipitation and/or invalidated by strong winds. Performance characteristics including collocated precision, in-field procedural and laboratory blanks were evaluated. The results of these performance evaluations included a mean collocated precision of 9%, low blanks (0.8 ng), high extraction efficiency (97%–103%), and a quantitative matrix spike recovery (100%). PMID:28208603

  9. An Artificial Turf-Based Surrogate Surface Collector for the Direct Measurement of Atmospheric Mercury Dry Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima L. Hall


    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a new artificial turf surrogate surface (ATSS sampler for use in the measurement of mercury (Hg dry deposition. In contrast to many existing surrogate surface designs, the ATSS utilizes a three-dimensional deposition surface that may more closely mimic the physical structure of many natural surfaces than traditional flat surrogate surface designs (water, filter, greased Mylar film. The ATSS has been designed to overcome several complicating factors that can impact the integrity of samples with other direct measurement approaches by providing a passive system which can be deployed for both short and extended periods of time (days to weeks, and is not contaminated by precipitation and/or invalidated by strong winds. Performance characteristics including collocated precision, in-field procedural and laboratory blanks were evaluated. The results of these performance evaluations included a mean collocated precision of 9%, low blanks (0.8 ng, high extraction efficiency (97%–103%, and a quantitative matrix spike recovery (100%.

  10. Assessment of Surface Soil Moisture Using High-Resolution Multi-Spectral Imagery and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hassan-Esfahani


    Full Text Available Many crop production management decisions can be informed using data from high-resolution aerial images that provide information about crop health as influenced by soil fertility and moisture. Surface soil moisture is a key component of soil water balance, which addresses water and energy exchanges at the surface/atmosphere interface; however, high-resolution remotely sensed data is rarely used to acquire soil moisture values. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN model was developed to quantify the effectiveness of using spectral images to estimate surface soil moisture. The model produces acceptable estimations of surface soil moisture (root mean square error (RMSE = 2.0, mean absolute error (MAE = 1.8, coefficient of correlation (r = 0.88, coefficient of performance (e = 0.75 and coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.77 by combining field measurements with inexpensive and readily available remotely sensed inputs. The spatial data (visual spectrum, near infrared, infrared/thermal are produced by the AggieAir™ platform, which includes an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV that enables users to gather aerial imagery at a low price and high spatial and temporal resolutions. This study reports the development of an ANN model that translates AggieAir™ imagery into estimates of surface soil moisture for a large field irrigated by a center pivot sprinkler system.

  11. Artificial Force Induced Reaction (AFIR) Method for Exploring Quantum Chemical Potential Energy Surfaces. (United States)

    Maeda, Satoshi; Harabuchi, Yu; Takagi, Makito; Taketsugu, Tetsuya; Morokuma, Keiji


    In this account, a technical overview of the artificial force induced reaction (AFIR) method is presented. The AFIR method is one of the automated reaction-path search methods developed by the authors, and has been applied extensively to a variety of chemical reactions, such as organocatalysis, organometallic catalysis, and photoreactions. There are two modes in the AFIR method, i.e., a multicomponent mode and a single-component mode. The former has been applied to bimolecular and multicomponent reactions and the latter to unimolecular isomerization and dissociation reactions. Five numerical examples are presented for an Aldol reaction, a Claisen rearrangement, a Co-catalyzed hydroformylation, a fullerene structure search, and a nonradiative decay path search in an electronically excited naphthalene molecule. Finally, possible applications of the AFIR method are discussed.

  12. Efficacy of various topical agents to prevent enamel demineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priska Lestari Hendrawan


    Full Text Available Background: Enamel demineralization is a common and undesirable side effect of fixed appliance orthodontic treatment. Many sudies showed that the prevalence varied between 2–96%. There are many ways to prevent demineralization and increased remineralization such as oral hygiene instruction and by topical application such as acidulated phosphate fluor (APF casein phospo peptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP, casein phospo peptide-amorphous calcium phosphate plus (CPP-ACPF. Purpose: The purpose of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of various topical agents to prevent enamel demineralization. Methods: Fourty extracted human premolars were allocated to 1 of 4 groups: 1.23% APF gel; 10% CPP-ACP paste; 10% CPP-ACPF paste; and untreated control. All samples were subjected to pH cycling treatment for 12 days through a daily procedure of demineralization solution with pH 4 for 6 hours and remineralization solution with pH 7 for 18 hours. Microhardness testing were done before and after pH cycling and the delta hardness values were determined. Results: APF, CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF application significantly prevent lowering of enamel microhardness value compared with untreated control group. Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U, Tukey and Bonferroni Post-Hoc multiple comparison test showed significant difference between mean delta microhardness value of CPP-ACPF and CPP-ACP group with APF group, but there is no significant difference between mean delta microhardness value of CPP-ACPF and CPP-ACP group. Conclusion: APF, CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF prevent enamel demineralization. CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF prevent demineralization more than APF.Latar belakang: Demineralisasi email merupakan efek samping negatif yang sering dijumpai pada perawatan ortodontik cekat. Beberapa penelitian menyatakan bahwa prevalensinya bervariasi 2–96 persen. Ada beberapa cara untuk mencegah demineralisasi dan meningkatkan remineralisasi, misalnya dengan instruksi

  13. Self-organization of 1-methylnaphthalene on the surface of artificial snow grains: a combined experimental-computational approach. (United States)

    Heger, Dominik; Nachtigallová, Dana; Surman, František; Krausko, Ján; Magyarová, Beata; Brumovský, Miroslav; Rubeš, Miroslav; Gladich, Ivan; Klán, Petr


    A combined experimental-computational approach was used to study the self-organization and microenvironment of 1-methylnaphthalene (1MN) deposited on the surface of artificial snow grains from vapors at 238 K. The specific surface area of this snow (1.1 × 10(4) cm(2) g(-1)), produced by spraying very fine droplets of pure water from a nebulizer into liquid nitrogen, was determined using valerophenone photochemistry to estimate the surface coverage by 1MN. Fluorescence spectroscopy at 77 K, in combination with molecular dynamics simulations, and density functional theory (DFT) and second-order coupled cluster (CC2) calculations, provided evidence for the occurrence of ground- and excited-state complexes (excimers) and other associates of 1MN on the snow grains' surface. Only weak excimer fluorescence was observed for a loading of 5 × 10(-6) mol kg(-1), which is ∼2-3 orders of magnitude below monolayer coverage. However, the results indicate that the formation of excimers is favored at higher surface loadings (>5 × 10(-5) mol kg(-1)), albeit still being below monolayer coverage. The calculations of excited states of monomer and associated moieties suggested that a parallel-displaced arrangement is responsible for the excimer emission observed experimentally, although some other associations, such as T-shape dimer structures, which do not provide excimer emission, can still be relatively abundant at this surface concentration. The hydrophobic 1MN molecules, deposited on the ice surface, which is covered by a relatively flexible quasi-liquid layer at 238 K, are then assumed to be capable of dynamic motion resulting in the formation of energetically preferred associations to some extent. The environmental implications of organic compounds' deposition on snow grains and ice are discussed.

  14. Reversible Interactions of Proteins with Mixed Shell Polymeric Micelles: Tuning the Surface Hydrophobic/Hydrophilic Balance toward Efficient Artificial Chaperones. (United States)

    Wang, Jianzu; Song, Yiqing; Sun, Pingchuan; An, Yingli; Zhang, Zhenkun; Shi, Linqi


    Molecular chaperones can elegantly fine-tune its hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance to assist a broad spectrum of nascent polypeptide chains to fold properly. Such precious property is difficult to be achieved by chaperone mimicking materials due to limited control of their surface characteristics that dictate interactions with unfolded protein intermediates. Mixed shell polymeric micelles (MSPMs), which consist of two kinds of dissimilar polymeric chains in the micellar shell, offer a convenient way to fine-tune surface properties of polymeric nanoparticles. In the current work, we have fabricated ca. 30 kinds of MSPMs with finely tunable hydrophilic/hydrophobic surface properties. We investigated the respective roles of thermosensitive and hydrophilic polymeric chains in the thermodenaturation protection of proteins down to the molecular structure. Although the three kinds of thermosensitive polymers investigated herein can form collapsed hydrophobic domains on the micellar surface, we found distinct capability to capture and release unfolded protein intermediates, due to their respective affinity for proteins. Meanwhile, in terms of the hydrophilic polymeric chains in the micellar shell, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) excels in assisting unfolded protein intermediates to refold properly via interacting with the refolding intermediates, resulting in enhanced chaperone efficiency. However, another hydrophilic polymer-poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) severely deteriorates the chaperone efficiency of MSPMs, due to its protein-resistant properties. Judicious combination of thermosensitive and hydrophilic chains in the micellar shell lead to MSPM-based artificial chaperones with optimal efficacy.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Intact bovine dentin specimens were demineralized in 25 mmol acetic acid buffers (pH 5), with and without a 5-min pretreatment with an acidic 2% glutardialdehyde (GDA) solution. The results demonstrate that GDA inhibits dentin demineralization and that the inhibition depends strongly on the initial

  16. Effect of storage on osteoinductive properties of demineralized bone in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Solheim, E


    A requirement for the clinical use of demineralized bone is the possibility of storing the material without loss of its osteoinductive properties. Seventy-five 8-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups of 15 rats each. Lyophilized demineralized allogeneic bone was p...

  17. Ethylene oxide gas sterilization does not reduce the osteoinductive potential of demineralized bone in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M; Bang, G;


    It has been shown that different sterilization procedures of demineralized bone may influence its osteoinductive properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethylene oxide sterilization for 1, 3, and 6 hours on the osteoinductive potential of allogeneic demineralized bone impl...

  18. Preparation of agar nanospheres: comparison of response surface and artificial neural network modeling by a genetic algorithm approach. (United States)

    Zaki, Mohammad Reza; Varshosaz, Jaleh; Fathi, Milad


    Multivariate nature of drug loaded nanospheres manufacturing in term of multiplicity of involved factors makes it a time consuming and expensive process. In this study genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial neural network (ANN), two tools inspired by natural process, were employed to optimize and simulate the manufacturing process of agar nanospheres. The efficiency of GA was evaluated against the response surface methodology (RSM). The studied responses included particle size, poly dispersity index, zeta potential, drug loading and release efficiency. GA predicted greater extremum values for response factors compared to RSM. However, real values showed some deviations from predicted data. Appropriate agreement was found between ANN model predicted and real values for all five response factors with high correlation coefficients. GA was more successful than RSM in optimization and along with ANN were efficient tools in optimizing and modeling the fabrication process of drug loaded in agar nanospheres.

  19. Artificial neural network and response surface methodology modeling in mass transfer parameters predictions during osmotic dehydration of Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Prakash Maran


    Full Text Available In this study, a comparative approach was made between artificial neural network (ANN and response surface methodology (RSM to predict the mass transfer parameters of osmotic dehydration of papaya. The effects of process variables such as temperature, osmotic solution concentration and agitation speed on water loss, weight reduction, and solid gain during osmotic dehydration were investigated using a three-level three-factor Box-Behnken experimental design. Same design was utilized to train a feed-forward multilayered perceptron (MLP ANN with back-propagation algorithm. The predictive capabilities of the two methodologies were compared in terms of root mean square error (RMSE, mean absolute error (MAE, standard error of prediction (SEP, model predictive error (MPE, chi square statistic (χ2, and coefficient of determination (R2 based on the validation data set. The results showed that properly trained ANN model is found to be more accurate in prediction as compared to RSM model.

  20. The effects of artificial surface temperature on mechanical properties and player kinematics during landing and acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Charalambous


    Conclusion: These findings highlight different demands placed on players due to the surface temperature and suggest a need for coaches, practitioners, and sports governing bodies to be aware of these differences.

  1. Scattering by Artificial Wind and Rain Roughened Water Surfaces at Oblique Incidences (United States)

    Craeye, C.; Sobieski, P. W.; Bliven, L. F.


    Rain affects wind retrievals from scatterometric measurements of the sea surface. To depict the additional roughness caused by rain on a wind driven surface, we use a ring-wave spectral model. This enables us to analyse the rain effect on K(u) band scatterometric observations from two laboratory experiments. Calculations based on the small perturbation method provide good simulation of scattering measurements for the rain-only case, whereas for combined wind and rain cases, the boundary perturbation method is appropriate.

  2. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from demineralized tyre char (United States)

    Manocha, S.; Prasad, Guddu R.; Joshi, Parth.; Zala, Ranjitsingh S.; Gokhale, Siddharth S.; Manocha, L. M.


    Activated carbon is the most adsorbing material for industrial waste water treatment. For wider applications, the main consideration is to manufacture activated carbon from low cost precursors, which are easily available and cost effective. One such source is scrap tyres. Recently much effort has been devoted to the thermal degradation of tyres into gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons and solid char residue, all of which have the potential to be processed into valuable products. As for solid residue, char can be used either as low-grade reinforcing filler or as activated carbon. The product recovered by a typical pyrolysis of tyres are usually, 33-38 wt% pyrolytic char, 38-55 wt% oil and 10-30 wt% solid fractions. In the present work activated carbon was prepared from pyrolyzed tyre char (PC). Demineralization involves the dissolution of metal into acids i.e. HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4 and in base i.e. NaOH. Different concentration of acid and base were used. Sodium hydroxide showed maximum amount of metal oxide removal. Further the concentration of sodium hydroxide was varied from 1N to 6N. As the concentration of acid are increased demineralization increases. 6N Sodium hydroxide is found to be more effective demineralising agent of tyre char.

  3. Lactic acid demineralization of shrimp shell and chitosan synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alewo Opuada AMEH


    Full Text Available The use of lactic acid was compared to hydrochloric acid for shrimp shell demineralization in chitosan synthesis. Five different acid concentrations were considered for the study: 1.5M, 3.0M, 4.5M, 6.0M and 7.5M. After demineralization, the shrimp shell were deproteinized and subsequently deacetylated to produce chitosan using sodium hydroxide solution. The synthesized chitosan samples were characterized using solubility, FTIR, SEM, XRD and viscosity. The SEM, FTIR and XRD analysis indicated that chitosan was synthesized with a high degree of deacetylation (83.18±2.11 when lactic acid was used and 84.2±5.00 when HCl was used. The degree of deacetylation and the molecular weight of the chitosan samples were also estimated. ANOVA analysis (at 95% confidence interval indicated that acid type and concentration did not significantly affect the solubility, degree of deacetylation, viscosity and molecular weight of the chitosan within the range considered.

  4. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds in artificial sea-water using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). (United States)

    Péron, Olivier; Rinnert, Emmanuel; Lehaitre, Michel; Crassous, Philippe; Compère, Chantal


    This paper reports an accurate synthesis of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrates, based on gold colloidal monolayer, suitable for in situ environmental analysis. Quartz substrates were functionalized by silanization with (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPMS) or (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS) and they subsequently reacted with colloidal suspension of gold metal nanoparticles: respectively, the functional groups SH and NH(2) bound gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles were prepared by the chemical reduction of HAuCl(4) using sodium tricitrate and immobilized onto silanized quartz substrates. Active substrate surface morphology was characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements and gold nanoparticles presented a diameter in the range 40-100 nm. Colloidal hydrophobic films, allowing nonpolar molecule pre-concentration, were obtained. The surfaces exhibit strong enhancement of Raman scattering from molecules adsorbed on the films. Spectra were recorded for two PAHs, naphthalene and pyrene, in artificial sea-water (ASW) with limits of detection (LODs) of 10 ppb for both on MPMS silanized substrates.

  5. Effects of different surface treatments and accelerated artificial aging on the bond strength of composite resin repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Veiga de Melo


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to assess the bond strength of composite resin repairs subjected to different surface treatments and accelerated artificial aging. 192 cylindrical samples (CSs were prepared and divided into 24 groups (n = 8. Half of the CSs were stored in water for 24 h, and the other half were subjected to C-UV accelerated aging for non-metallic specimens. The treatments were phosphoric acid + silane + adhesive (PSA; phosphoric acid + adhesive (PA; diamond bur + phosphoric acid + silane + adhesive (DPSA; diamond bur + phosphoric acid + adhesive (DPA; air abrasion + phosphoric acid + silane + adhesive (APSA; and air abrasion + phosphoric acid + adhesive (APA. The repair was performed and the specimens were again aged as described above. A control group (n = 8 was established and did not receive any type of aging or surface treatment. The specimens were loaded to failure in shear mode with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA/Tukey's test (p < 0.05. No statistically significant differences were found among DPSA, DPA, APSA, APA, and the control group. The aged PSA and PA achieved low bonding values and were statistically different from the control group, whereas the non-aged PSA and PA presented no statistically significant difference from the control group. Repairs with the proposed surface treatments were viable on both recent and aged restorations; however, phosphoric acid + adhesive alone were effective only on recent restorations.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新春; 范力军


    It always adopts the direct hierarchy analysis to value the exploitation conditions of surface mining areas. This way has some unavoidable shortcomings because it is mainly under theaid of experts and it is affected by the subjective thinking of the experts. This paper puts forwards a new approach that divides the whole exploitation conditions into sixteen subsidiary systems and each subsidiary system forms a neural network system. The whole decision system of exploitation conditions of surface mining areas is composed of sixteen subsidiary neural network systems. Each neural network is practiced with the data of the worksite, which is reasonable and scientific. This way will be a new decision approach for exploiting the surface mining areas.

  7. Evidence for Interactions between Surface Water and Periphyton Biofilms in Artificial Streams (United States)

    Studies suggest that periphyton in streambeds can harbor fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and, under certain circumstances, can be transferred from the periphyton biofilm into the surface water. An indoor mesocosm study was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Expe...

  8. Optimization of total flavonoid compound extraction from camellia sinesis using the artificial neural network and response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Ivan M.


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to model and optimize the process of total flavonoid extraction from the green tea using the artificial neural network and response surface methodology, as well as the comparation of these optimization techniques. The extraction time, ethanol concentration and solid-to-liquid ratio were identified as the independent variables, while the yield of total flavonoid was selected as the dependent variable. Central composite design (CCD, using second-order polynomial model and multilayer perceptron (MLP were used for fitting the obtained experimental data. The values of root mean square error, cross-validated correlation coefficient and normal correlation coefficient for both models indicate that the artificial neural network is better in prediction of total flavonoid yield than CCD. The optimal conditions using the desirability function at CCD model was achieved for the extraction time of 32.5 min, ethanol concentration of 100% (v/v and solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:32.5 (m/v. The predicted yield at these conditions was 2.11 g/100 g of the dried extract (d.e., while the experimentally obtained was 2.39 g/100 g d.e. The extraction process was optimized by the use of simplex method at MLP model. The optimal value of total flavonoid yield (2.80 g/100 g d.e. was achieved after the extraction time of 27.2 min using ethanol concentration of 100% (v/v at solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:20.7 (m/v. The predicted value of response under optimal conditions for MLP model was also experimentally confirmed (2.71 g/100 g d.e..


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Stephen Rajkumar Inbanathan,


    Full Text Available In this paper a novel approach, based on a neural network structure, is introduced in order to face with the problem of pollutant estimation in an urban area. A neural architecture, based essentiallyon suitable number of layers devoted to predict alarm situations and to estimate the value of the pollutant, has been implemented. A new method for short term prediction is presented using the neural network technique. Due to increase in industrial and anthropogenic activity, air pollution is a serious subject of concern today. Surface ozone prediction using the technique of adaptive pattern recognition is developed. The model can predict the mean surface ozone based on the parameters like Nitrogen-dioxide, temperature and % Relative Humidity, wind direction, wind speed. The model can perform well both in training and independent periods. The classical methods of short term modeling are not reliable enough. The method can also be used for short term prediction of other air pollutants.

  10. Artificial cornea: surface modification of silicone rubber membrane by graft polymerization of pHEMA via glow discharge. (United States)

    Lee, S D; Hsiue, G H; Kao, C Y; Chang, P C


    A method for producing various surfaces of silicone rubber membrane (SR) was developed in this study by grafting various amounts of poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) onto SR by plasma-induced grafted polymerization (PIP) as a homobifunctional membrane. The elemental composition and different carbon bindings on the surface of SR were examined by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis with the amount of O1s/C1s being approximately 0.7 at 1 min, 60 W, 200 mTorr of Ar-plasma treatment. The peroxide group introduced on SR was measured via 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the amount of 6.85 x 10(-8) mol cm-2 reached optimum value at 1 min of Ar-plasma treatment. After Ar-plasma treated SR, the peroxide group (33D peak) was introduced on the surface of SR by negative spectra of secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis, whereas ester groups (72D peak) were observed for pHEMA-grafted SR. For the in vitro test, the influence of various surfaces of SR on attachment and growth of rabbit corneal epithelial cells (CEC) was studied by cell culture assay. These results indicated that 56-150 micrograms cm-2 of pHEMA grafted onto SR were suitable values for attachment and growth of CEC. On the contrary, the large grafted amounts (500-1650 micrograms cm-2) of pHEMA on SR were insufficient for attachment and growth of CEC. For the in vivo test, the migration of CEC from host cornea to implant was investigated by slit lamp microscopy. The experimental results indicated that SRs grafted with pHEMA were completely covered with CEC 3 weeks after implantation of the membranes into the host cornea. These results provide a valuable reference for developing an artificial cornea.

  11. Aquaculture in artificially developed wetlands in urban areas: an application of the bivariate relationship between soil and surface water in landscape ecology. (United States)

    Paul, Abhijit


    Wetlands show a strong bivariate relationship between soil and surface water. Artificially developed wetlands help to build landscape ecology and make built environments sustainable. The bheries, wetlands of eastern Calcutta (India), utilize the city sewage to develop urban aquaculture that supports the local fish industries and opens a new frontier in sustainable environmental planning research.

  12. Nutrients interaction investigation to improve Monascus purpureus FTC5391 growth rate using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad, R.


    Full Text Available Aims: Two vital factors, certain environmental conditions and nutrients as a source of energy are entailed for successful growth and reproduction of microorganisms. Manipulation of nutritional requirement is the simplest and most effectual strategy to stimulate and enhance the activity of microorganisms. Methodology and Results: In this study, response surface methodology (RSM and artificial neural network (ANN were employed to optimize the carbon and nitrogen sources in order to improve growth rate of Monascus purpureus FTC5391,a new local isolate. The best models for optimization of growth rate were a multilayer full feed-forward incremental back propagation network, and a modified response surface model using backward elimination. The optimum condition for cell mass production was: sucrose 2.5%, yeast extract 0.045%, casamino acid 0.275%, sodium nitrate 0.48%, potato starch 0.045%, dextrose 1%, potassium nitrate 0.57%. The experimental cell mass production using this optimal condition was 21 mg/plate/12days, which was 2.2-fold higher than the standard condition (sucrose 5%, yeast extract 0.15%, casamino acid 0.25%, sodium nitrate 0.3%, potato starch 0.2%, dextrose 1%, potassium nitrate 0.3%. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The results of RSM and ANN showed that all carbon and nitrogen sources tested had significant effect on growth rate (P-value < 0.05. In addition the use of RSM and ANN alongside each other provided a proper growth prediction model.

  13. Unconventional Approach for Demineralization of Deproteinized Crustacean Shells for Chitin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Mahmoud


    Full Text Available Chitin is a versatile environmentally friendly modern material. It has a wide range of applications in areas such as water treatment, pulp and paper, biomedical devices and therapies, cosmetics, membrane technology and biotechnology and food applications. Crustacean waste is the most important chitin source for commercial use. Demineralization is an important step in the chitin purification process from crustacean waste. The conventional method of demineralization includes the use of strong acid (commonly HCl that harms the physiochemical properties of chitin, results in a harmful effluent wastewater and increases the cost of chitin purification process. The current study proposes the use of organic acids (lactic and acetic produced by cheese whey fermentation to demineralize microbially deproteinized shrimp shells. The effects of acid type, demineralization condition, retention time and shells to acid ratio were investigated. The study showed that the effectiveness of using lactic and/or acetic acids for demineralization of shrimp shells was comparable to that of using hydrochloric acid. Using organic acids for demineralization is a promising concept, since organic acids are less harmful to the environment, can preserve the characteristics of the purified chitin and can be produced from low cost biomass such as cheese whey. In addition, the resulted organic salts from the demineralization process can be used as a food preservative and/or an environmentally friendly de-icing/anti-icing agents.

  14. Influence of surface modification of nitinol with silicon using plasma-immersion ion implantation on the alloy corrosion resistance in artificial physiological solutions (United States)

    Kashin, O. A.; Borisov, D. P.; Lotkov, A. I.; Abramova, P. V.; Korshunov, A. V.


    Cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic polarization have been applied to study electrochemical behavior and to determine corrosion resistance of nitinol, which surface was modified with silicon using plasma-immersion ion implantation, in 0.9% NaCl solution and in artificial blood plasma. It was found out that continuous, and also homogeneous in composition, thin Si-containing layers are resistant to corrosion damage at high positive potentials in artificial physiological solutions due to formation of stable passive films. Breakdown potential Eb of Si-modified NiTi depends on the character of silicon and Ni distribution at the alloy surface, Eb values amounted to 0.9-1.5 V (Ag/AgCl/KCl sat.) for the alloy samples with continuous Si-containing surface layers and with decreased Ni surface concentration.

  15. Assessing the environmental impacts of using demineralized coal for electricity generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis


    The energy sector is the source of two-thirds of global greenhouse-gas emissions, and is the main target ofclimate policies among authorities and governments. The share of fossil coals (hard coal and lignite) in world total net electricity generation is 40% in 2010. Demineralization or ash removal...... and possible improvements. Experimental studies conducted so far have shown better performance of demineralized coal than its original raw coal during combustion, gasification, and coke making process. However a thorough analysis ofthe impacts from demineralization has not yet been conducted. We take a life...

  16. Osteoinductive potential of demineralized rat bone increases with increasing donor age from birth to adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Solheim, E


    quantitatively, by uptake of strontium 85, the osteoinductive effect of demineralized bone matrix from newborn, 8-week-old (adolescent), and 8-month-old (adult) male Wistar rats implanted in the abdominal muscles of 8-week-old male Wistar rats. The osteoinductive response increased significantly with increasing......Demineralized allogenic bone implanted in the subcutis or muscle of rodents causes formation of heterotopic bone by osteoinduction. The osteoinductive response may be weaker in primates than in rodents. It was suggested that the osteoinductive response of demineralized bone for clinical use could...

  17. Combined effects of Er: YAG laser and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on the inhibition of enamel demineralization: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogra Yassaei


    Full Text Available Background: Development of white spot lesions on enamel is a significant and common problem during the fixed orthodontic treatment. Various preventive methods have been suggested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preventive potential of MI Paste Plus, Er: YAG Laser and combined under similar in vitro conditions against demineralization. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 60 extracted premolars were randomly allocated to four groups (n = 15 of control, MI Paste Plus, Laser and MI + Laser (MIL. Enamel surface of each group was treated with one of above materials before and during the pH cycling for 12 days through a daily procedure of demineralization and remineralization for 3 h and 20 h, respectively. Teeth were sectioned and evaluated quantitatively by cross-sectional microhardness testing at 20 μm intervals from the outer enamel surface toward dentinoenamel junction up to 160 μm and data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: MIL group had the least amount of demineralization (P < 0.001. Control group (C group had the greatest relative mineral loss and the laser group (L group had 45% less mineral loss than the C group and there was no significant difference between the MI Paste Plus and L group (P = 0.154 Conclusion: Based on these results, Er: YAG laser was able to decrease demineralization and was a potential alternative to preventive dentistry and was more effective when combined with casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate products.

  18. Parsimonious classification of binary lacunarity data computed from food surface images using kernel principal component analysis and artificial neural networks. (United States)

    Iqbal, Abdullah; Valous, Nektarios A; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul


    Lacunarity is about quantifying the degree of spatial heterogeneity in the visual texture of imagery through the identification of the relationships between patterns and their spatial configurations in a two-dimensional setting. The computed lacunarity data can designate a mathematical index of spatial heterogeneity, therefore the corresponding feature vectors should possess the necessary inter-class statistical properties that would enable them to be used for pattern recognition purposes. The objectives of this study is to construct a supervised parsimonious classification model of binary lacunarity data-computed by Valous et al. (2009)-from pork ham slice surface images, with the aid of kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) and artificial neural networks (ANNs), using a portion of informative salient features. At first, the dimension of the initial space (510 features) was reduced by 90% in order to avoid any noise effects in the subsequent classification. Then, using KPCA, the first nineteen kernel principal components (99.04% of total variance) were extracted from the reduced feature space, and were used as input in the ANN. An adaptive feedforward multilayer perceptron (MLP) classifier was employed to obtain a suitable mapping from the input dataset. The correct classification percentages for the training, test and validation sets were 86.7%, 86.7%, and 85.0%, respectively. The results confirm that the classification performance was satisfactory. The binary lacunarity spatial metric captured relevant information that provided a good level of differentiation among pork ham slice images.

  19. Growth Characteristics Modeling of Mixed Culture of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganga Sahay Meena


    Full Text Available Different culture conditions viz. additional carbon and nitrogen content, inoculum size and age, temperature and pH of the mixed culture of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM and artificial neural network (ANN. Kinetic growth models were fitted for the cultivations using a Fractional Factorial (FF design experiments for different variables. This novel concept of combining the optimization and modeling presented different optimal conditions for the mixture of B. bifidum and L. acidophilus growth from their one variable at-a-time (OVAT optimization study. Through these statistical tools, the product yield (cell mass of the mixture of B. bifidum and L. acidophilus was increased. Regression coefficients (R2 of both the statistical tools predicted that ANN was better than RSM and the regression equation was solved with the help of genetic algorithms (GA. The normalized percentage mean squared error obtained from the ANN and RSM models were 0.08 and 0.3%, respectively. The optimum conditions for the maximum biomass yield were at temperature 38°C, pH 6.5, inoculum volume 1.60 mL, inoculum age 30 h, carbon content 42.31% (w/v, and nitrogen content 14.20% (w/v. The results demonstrated a higher prediction accuracy of ANN compared to RSM.

  20. A Nanostructured Bifunctional platform for Sensing of Glucose Biomarker in Artificial Saliva: Synergy in hybrid Pt/Au surfaces. (United States)

    Raymundo-Pereira, Paulo A; Shimizu, Flávio M; Coelho, Dyovani; Piazzeta, Maria H O; Gobbi, Angelo L; Machado, Sergio A S; Oliveira, Osvaldo N


    We report on a bimetallic, bifunctional electrode where a platinum (Pt) surface was patterned with nanostructured gold (Au) fingers with different film thicknesses, which was functionalized with glucose oxidase (GOx) to yield a highly sensitive glucose biosensor. This was achieved by using selective adsorption of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) onto Au fingers, which allowed GOx immobilization only onto the Au-SAM surface. This modified electrode was termed bifunctional because it allowed to simultaneously immobilize the biomolecule (GOx) on gold to catalyze glucose, and detect hydrogen peroxide on Pt sites. Optimized electrocatalytic activity was reached for the architecture Pt/Au-SAM/GOx with 50nm thickness of Au, where synergy between Pt and Au allowed for detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at a low applied potential (0V vs. Ag/AgCl). Detection was performed for H2O2 in the range between 4.7 and 102.7 nmol L(-1), with detection limit of 3.4×10(-9) mol L(-1) (3.4 nmol L(-1)) and an apparent Michaelis-Menten rate constant of 3.2×10(-6)molL(-1), which is considerably smaller than similar devices with monometallic electrodes. The methodology was validated by measuring glucose in artificial saliva, including in the presence of interferents. The synergy between Pt and Au was confirmed in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements with an increased electron transfer, compared to bare Pt and Au electrodes. The approach for fabricating the reproducible bimetallic Pt/Au electrodes is entirely generic and may be explored for other types of biosensors and biodevices where advantage can be taken of the combination of the two metals.

  1. Influence of finishing/polishing on color stability and surface roughness of composites submitted to accelerated artificial aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Da Col dos Santos Pinto


    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the influence of finishing/polishing procedure on color stability (ΔE and surface roughness (Ra of composites (Heliomolar and Tetric - color A2 submitted to accelerated artificial aging (AAA. Materials and Methods : Sixty test specimens were made of each composite (12 mm × 2 mm and separated into six groups (n = 10, according to the type of finishing/polishing to which they were submitted: C, control; F, tip 3195 F; FF, tip 3195 FF; FP, tip 3195 F + diamond paste; FFP, tip 3195 FF + diamond paste; SF, Sof-Lex discs. After polishing, controlled by an electromechanical system, initial color (spectrophotometer PCB 6807 BYK GARDNER and Ra (roughness meter Surfcorder SE 1700, cut-off 0.25 mm readings were taken. Next, the test specimens were submitted to the AAA procedure (C-UV Comexim for 384 hours, and at the end of this period, new color readings and R a were taken. Results: Statistical analysis [2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Bonferroni, P < 0.05] showed that all composites demonstrated ΔE alteration above the clinically acceptable limits, with the exception of Heliomolar composite in FP. The greatest ΔE alteration occurred for Tetric composite in SF (13.38 ± 2.10 statistically different from F and FF (P < 0.05. For Ra , Group F showed rougher samples than FF with statistically significant difference (P < 0.05. Conclusion: In spite of the surface differences, the different finishing/polishing procedures were not capable of providing color stability within the clinically acceptable limits.

  2. Technical note: Efficiency of total demineralization and ion-exchange column for DNA extraction from bone. (United States)

    Seo, Seung Bum; Zhang, Aihua; Kim, Hye Yeon; Yi, Jin A; Lee, Hye Young; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Soong Deok


    We investigated whether a combination of recently introduced methods, total demineralization and ion-exchange columns, would increase DNA recovery from old bone. Ten bone samples taken after a burial period of approximately 60 years were used in this study. Bone powder was digested using total or incomplete demineralization. DNA was extracted by the standard organic method. The DNA extract was purified with ion-exchange columns or QIAquick spin columns. The efficiency of different DNA extraction methods was compared in terms of DNA concentration, inhibitors generated by real-time PCR, and conventional STR typing results. The mean DNA concentration using the total demineralization method is approximately 3 times higher than that using the incomplete demineralization method. For DNA purification, the method using QIAquick spin columns appeared to yield approximately double the DNA than the method using ion-exchange columns. Furthermore, 2 out of 10 samples showed higher levels of inhibition with C(T) values of IPC > or =30 cycles when using only ion-exchange columns. In STR results, total demineralization yielded more locus profiles by 4.2 loci than incomplete demineralization, and QIAquick spin columns also yielded more locus profiles by 3.5 loci than ion-exchange columns. Total demineralization of bone powder significantly increased DNA yield and improved STR typing results. However, the use of ion-exchange columns was not efficient when compared with the method using QIAquick spin columns. It is suggested that the combination of total demineralization and QIAquick spin columns lead to greatly improved STR typing results.

  3. Tooth demineralization and associated factors in patients on fixed orthodontic treatment (United States)

    Salmerón-Valdés, Elías Nahúm; Lara-Carrillo, Edith; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Robles-Bermeo, Norma Leticia; Scougall-Vilchis, Rogelio José; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Fernández Barrera, Miguel Ángel


    Dental demineralization was determined in patients at three time points during fixed orthodontic treatment. A multiple cross-sectional study included 108 patients divided into three different groups: (1) beginning of orthodontic treatment; (2) one year into treatment; and (3) two years into treatment. Demineralization was estimated using a DIAGNOdent pen. We obtained data from multiple tooth-by-tooth demineralization readings combined with salivary pH and patients’ oral hygienic and dietary behaviors. A t-test for independent samples and Spearman´s correlation were performed. No demineralizations differences were found between the initial stage and one year into treatment. Between one and two years small differences were observed, but demineralization increased between the initial stage and second treatment year, predominating in upper right central incisors (p = 0.056), upper left lateral incisors (p = 0.040), both upper canines (p = 0.055 and p = 0.040, respectively) and first left premolars (p = 0.034 and p = 0.053, respectively). We did not find associations between oral hygiene and dietary behaviours or salivary pH. In conclusion, demineralization occurred in first year of treatment and increased during second year, predominating in the upper arch and the left side mainly in upper right central incisors, upper left lateral incisors, both upper canines, and first left premolars. PMID:27805027

  4. Estimation of design space for an extrusion-spheronization process using response surface methodology and artificial neural network modelling. (United States)

    Sovány, Tamás; Tislér, Zsófia; Kristó, Katalin; Kelemen, András; Regdon, Géza


    The application of the Quality by Design principles is one of the key issues of the recent pharmaceutical developments. In the past decade a lot of knowledge was collected about the practical realization of the concept, but there are still a lot of unanswered questions. The key requirement of the concept is the mathematical description of the effect of the critical factors and their interactions on the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the product. The process design space (PDS) is usually determined by the use of design of experiment (DoE) based response surface methodologies (RSM), but inaccuracies in the applied polynomial models often resulted in the over/underestimation of the real trends and changes making the calculations uncertain, especially in the edge regions of the PDS. The completion of RSM with artificial neural network (ANN) based models is therefore a commonly used method to reduce the uncertainties. Nevertheless, since the different researches are focusing on the use of a given DoE, there is lack of comparative studies on different experimental layouts. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate the effect of the different DoE layouts (2 level full factorial, Central Composite, Box-Behnken, 3 level fractional and 3 level full factorial design) on the model predictability and to compare model sensitivities according to the organization of the experimental data set. It was revealed that the size of the design space could differ more than 40% calculated with different polynomial models, which was associated with a considerable shift in its position when higher level layouts were applied. The shift was more considerable when the calculation was based on RSM. The model predictability was also better with ANN based models. Nevertheless, both modelling methods exhibit considerable sensitivity to the organization of the experimental data set, and the use of design layouts is recommended, where the extreme values factors are more represented.

  5. Phenolics extraction from sweet potato peels: modelling and optimization by response surface modelling and artificial neural network. (United States)

    Anastácio, Ana; Silva, Rúben; Carvalho, Isabel S


    Sweet potato peels (SPP) are a major waste generated during root processing and currently have little commercial value. Phenolics with free radical scavenging activity from SPP may represent a possible added-value product for the food industry. The aqueous extraction of phenolics from SPP was studied using a Central Composite Design with solvent to solid ratio (30-60 mL g(-1)), time (30-90 min) and temperature (25-75 °C) as independent variables. The comparison of response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis on extraction modelling and optimising was performed. Temperature and solvent to solid ratio, alone and in interaction, presented a positive effect in TPC, ABTS and DPPH assays. Time was only significant for ABTS assay with a negative influence both as main effect and in interaction with other independent variables. RSM and ANN models predicted the same optimal extraction conditions as 60 mL g(-1) for solvent to solid ratio, 30 min for time and 75 °C for temperature. The obtained responses in the optimized conditions were as follow: 11.87 ± 0.69 mg GAE g(-1) DM for TPC, 12.91 ± 0.42 mg TE g(-1) DM for ABTS assay and 46.35 ± 3.08 mg TE g(-1) DM for DPPH assay. SPP presented similar optimum extraction conditions and phenolic content than peels of potato, tea fruit and bambangan. Predictive models and the optimized extraction conditions offers an opportunity for food processors to generate products with high potential health benefits.

  6. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B


    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  7. Comparing natural and artificial carious lesions in human crowns by means of conventional hard x-ray micro-tomography and two-dimensional x-ray scattering with synchrotron radiation (United States)

    Botta, Lea Maria; White, Shane N.; Deyhle, Hans; Dziadowiec, Iwona; Schulz, Georg; Thalmann, Peter; Müller, Bert


    Dental caries, one of the most prevalent infectious bacterial diseases in the world, is caused by specific types of acid-producing bacteria. Caries is a disease continuum resulting from the earliest loss of ions from apatite crystals through gross cavitation. Enamel dissolution starts when the pH-value drops below 5.5. Neutralizing the pH-value in the oral cavity opposes the process of demineralization, and so caries lesions occur in a dynamic cyclic de-mineralizing/remineralizing environment. Unfortunately, biomimetic regeneration of cavitated enamel is not yet possible, although remineralization of small carious lesions occurs under optimal conditions. Therefore, the development of methods that can regenerate carious lesions, and subsequently recover and retain teeth, is highly desirable. For the present proceedings we analyzed one naturally occurring sub-surface and one artificially produced lesion. For the characterization of artificial and natural lesions micro computed tomography is the method of choice when looking to determine three-dimensional mineral distribution and to quantify the degree of mineralization. In this pilot study we elucidate that the de-mineralized enamel in natural and artificially induced lesions shows comparable X-ray attenuation behavior, thereby implying that the study protocol employed herein seems to be appropriate. Once we know that the lesions are comparable, a series of well-reproducible in vitro experiments on enamel regeneration could be performed. In order to quantify further lesion morphology, the anisotropy of the enamel's nanostructure can be characterized by using spatially resolved, small-angle X-ray scattering. We wanted to demonstrate that the artificially induced defect fittingly resembles the natural carious lesion.

  8. Variability of soil enzyme activities and vegetation succession following boreal forest surface soil transfer to an artificial hill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit Niemi


    Full Text Available A landfill site in southern Finland was converted into urban green space by covering it with a layer of fresh forest humus transferred from nearby construction sites. The aim was to develop the 70 m high artificial hill into a recreational area with high biodiversity of flora and fauna. Forest humus was used as a source of organic matter, plant roots, seeds, soil fauna and microorganisms in order to enable rapid regeneration of diverse vegetation and soil biological functions. In this study we report the results of three years of monitoring of soil enzyme activity and plant species compositional patterns. Monthly soil samples were taken each year between June and September from four sites on the hill and from two standing reference forests using three replicate plots. Activities of 10 different enzymes, soil organic matter (SOM content, moisture, pH and temperature of the surface layer were monitored. Abundances of vascular plant species were surveyed on the same four hill sites between late May and early September, three times a season in 2004 and 2005. Although the addition of organic soil considerably increased soil enzyme activities (per dw, the activities at the covered hill sites were far lower than in the reference forests. Temporal changes and differences between sites were analysed in more detail per soil organic matter (SOM in order to reveal differences in the quality of SOM. All the sites had a characteristic enzyme activity pattern and two hill sites showed clear temporal changes. The enzyme activities in uncovered topsoil increased, whereas the activities at the covered Middle site decreased, when compared with other sites at the same time. The different trend between Middle and North sites in enzyme activities may reflect differences in humus material transferred to these sites, but difference in the succession of vegetation affects enzyme activities strongly. Middle yielded higher β-sitosterol content in 2004, as an indication

  9. Biomimetically Enhanced Demineralized Bone Matrix for Bone Regenerative Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram eRavindran


    Full Text Available Demineralized bone matrix (DBM is one of the most widely used bone graft materials in dentistry. However, the ability of DBM to reliably and predictably induce bone regeneration has always been a cause for concern. The quality of DBM varies greatly depending on several donor dependent factors and also manufacturing techniques. In order to standardize the quality and to enable reliable and predictable bone regeneration, we have generated a biomimetically-enhanced version of DBM (BE-DBM using clinical grade commercial DBM as a control. We have generated the BE-DBM by incorporating a cell-derived pro-osteogenic extracellular matrix (ECM within clinical grade DBM. In the present study, we have characterized the BE-DBM and evaluated its ability to induce osteogenic differentiation of human marrow derived stromal cells (HMSCs with respect to clinical grade commercial DBM. Our results indicate that the BE-DBM contains significantly more pro-osteogenic factors than DBM and enhances HMSC differentiation and mineralized matrix formation in vitro and in vivo. Based on our results, we envision that the BE-DBM has the potential to replace DBM as the bone graft material of choice.

  10. Submerged demineralize system processing of TMI-2 accident waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, H.F.; Quinn, G.J.


    Accident-generated radioactive waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 includes a varity of high and low specific-activity waste. The high-specific-activity waste, particularly over one million gallons of contaminated water, required special processing and secondary waste handling. General public utilities and its contractors developed a zeolite-based ion-exchange system called the Submerged Demineralizer System to reduce contamination levels in the water to below allowable limits. Testing and modifications resulted in an operating system that had successfully processed waste water from the Reactor Coolant Bleed Tanks, the Reactor Building Basement, and the Reactor Coolant System as of August 1982. System design objectives were met and decontamination criteria established in 10 CFR 20 were attained. Additional wastes that could not be handled routinely were generated by another water-processing system, called EPICOR II. EPICOR II wastes are discussed. Low-specific-activity (LSA) wastes such as trash and resin-bed waste canisters are also included in handling. LSA wastes are routinely handled and shipped according to existing industry practice. Plant records are summarized to provide approximate yearly volumes and curie loadings of low-specific-activity wastes being shipped off the Island to a commercial burial site.

  11. Low-fluoride toothpaste and deciduous enamel demineralization under biofilm accumulation and sucrose exposure. (United States)

    Cury, Jaime A; do Amaral, Regiane C; Tenuta, Livia M A; Del Bel Cury, Altair A; Tabchoury, Cínthia P M


    Because low-fluoride toothpaste (500 p.p.m. F) has not clearly been shown to be effective for controlling caries in caries-active children, this experimental in situ study was conducted to evaluate whether its effect, when compared with a conventional toothpaste (1,000-1,500 p.p.m. F), would depend on the cariogenic challenge. During four phases of 14 d each, 14 volunteers used 500 or 1,100 p.p.m. F toothpaste and wore palatal appliances containing deciduous enamel slabs, on which biofilm was accumulated and exposed to 20% sucrose solution at frequencies increasing from two to eight times per day. The F concentration was determined in the biofilm formed, and enamel demineralization was assessed by surface hardness loss (% SHL) and integrated area of hardness x lesion depth (DeltaS). The F uptake by enamel was also determined. Fluoride in biofilm fluid and solids was statistically higher when conventional F toothpaste was used. The toothpastes did not differ statistically in terms of % SHL, DeltaS, and F in enamel, but only the conventional F toothpaste significantly reduced caries-lesion progression according to the frequency of sucrose exposure. The findings suggest that the high-F availability in biofilm, resulting from the use of conventional toothpaste compared with low-F toothpaste, may be important for reducing caries-lesion progression in conjunction with a high frequency of sucrose exposure.

  12. Anti-proteolytic capacity and bonding durability of proanthocyanidin-biomodified demineralized dentin matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Rui Liu; Ming Fang; Ling Zhang; Cheng-Fang Tang; Qi Dou; Ji-Hua Chen


    Our previous studies showed that biomodification of demineralized dentin collagen with proanthocyanidin (PA) for a clinically practical duration improves the mechanical properties of the dentin matrix and the immediate resin-dentin bond strength. The present study sought to evaluate the ability of PA biomodification to reduce collagenase-induced biodegradation of demineralized dentin matrix and dentin/adhesive interfaces in a clinically relevant manner. The effects of collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activity on PA-biomodified demineralized dentin matrix were analysed by hydroxyproline assay and gelatin zymography. Then, resin-/dentin-bonded specimens were prepared and challenged with bacterial collagenases. Dentin treated with 2%chlorhexidine and untreated dentin were used as a positive and negative control, respectively. Collagen biodegradation, the microtensile bond strengths of bonded specimens and the micromorphologies of the fractured interfaces were assessed. The results revealed that both collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activity on demineralized dentin were notably inhibited in the PA-biomodified groups, irrespective of PA concentration and biomodification duration. When challenged with exogenous collagenases, PA-biomodified bonded specimens exhibited significantly less biodegradation and maintained higher bond strengths than the untreated control. These results suggest that PA biomodification was effective at inhibiting proteolytic activity on demineralized dentin matrix and at stabilizing the adhesive/dentin interface against enzymatic degradation, is a new concept that has the potential to improve bonding durability.

  13. Artificial Intelligence. (United States)

    Waltz, David L.


    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  14. Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.V.; Malhotra, V.M.; Wiltowski, T.; Myszka, E. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Banerjee, D. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)


    The overall objective of this two-year project is to evaluate methods of preparing demineralized and carbon enriched chars from Illinois Basin coals. There are two processing steps: physical cleaning of the coal and devolatilization under different environments to form chars. Two different techniques were used: BET surface area analyzer and in-situ Diffuse Reflectance FTIR. Experiments were performed with coals IBC-101, 102, and 104 as received and after cleaning. It was found that the cleaning not only removes the minerals but has changed also the porous structure of the coals. DR-FTIR spectrums helped to explain the possible existing chemical bonds in the coal structure as well as their changes during drying and mild pyrolysis.

  15. Erosive effect of energy drinks alone and mixed with alcohol on human enamel surface.An in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Beltrán


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the erosive effect of energy drinks (ED alone and mixed with alcohol on the human enamel surface in vitro. Methods: Twenty non-erupted human third molars were vertically sectioned in half. Specimens were exposed to 5mL of ED plus 5mL of artificial saliva or 5mL of ED plus 5mL of artificial saliva plus 5mL of alcohol (Pisco. Exposure times were set at 30min and 60min. Erosive assessments were made using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The ED analyzed were Mr. Big, Kem Extreme, Red Bull, and Monster Energy. ED pH measurements were performed at 25°C and titration was done with NaOH 0.1mol/L. Results: The pH ranges were: ED alone 2.55 to 3.46, ED mixed with artificial saliva 2.60 to 3.55, ED mixed with Pisco 2.82 to 3.70, and ED mixed with both 2.92 to 3.86. The pH of Pisco was 6.13, and Pisco mixed with artificial saliva had a pH of 6.23. Titration showed a pH range from 3.5 to 5.7. SEM-EDS analysis showed that Mr. Big and Monster led to clear demineralization at 30 min and remineralization at 60m in. Pisco slightly decreased the erosive effect of these ED. Kem Xtreme and Red Bull led to no demineralization in the first hour. Conclusion: According to the pH, acidity and EDS analysis, the ED of the present study likely caused enamel erosion in human teeth surface dependent on exposure time.

  16. Ablation from artificial or laser-induced crater surfaces of silver by laser irradiation at 355 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftmann, B.; Schou, Jørgen; Larsen, N.B.


    The angular distribution of laser ablated particles from silver irradiated at 355 nm has been studied. The angular distribution from craters prepared by more than 10(4) shots exhibits only minor changes compared with that from a nonirradiated target. The distribution from artificial cylindrical...

  17. The efficiency of child formula dentifrices containing different calcium and phosphate compounds on artificial enamel caries (United States)

    Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Vongsavan, Kadkao; Saengsirinavin, Chavengkiat; Khumsub, Ploychompoo


    Objectives: Fluoride toothpaste has been extensively used to prevent dental caries. However, the risk of fluorosis is concerning, especially in young children. Calcium phosphate has been an effective remineralizing agent and is present in commercial dental products, with no risk of fluorosis to users. This in vitro study aimed to compare the effects of different calcium phosphate compounds and fluoride-containing dentifrices on artificial caries in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Fifty sound primary incisors were coated with nail varnish, leaving two 1 mm2 windows on the labial surface before immersion in demineralizing solution for 96 hours to produce artificial enamel lesions. Subsequently, one window from each tooth was coated with nail varnish, and all 50 teeth were divided into five groups (n = 10); group A – deionized water; group B – casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP–ACP) paste (Tooth Mousse); group C – 500 ppm F (Colgate Spiderman®); group D – nonfluoridated toothpaste with triple calcium phosphate (Pureen®); and group E – tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Polarized light microscopy and Image-Pro® Plus software were used to evaluate lesions. Results: After a 7-day pH-cycle, mean lesion depths in groups A, B, C, D, and E had increased by 57.52 ± 10.66%, 33.28 ± 10.16%, 17.04 ± 4.76%, 32.51 ± 8.99%, and 21.76 ± 8.15%, respectively. All data were processed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 16.0) software package. Comparison of percentage changes using one-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least squares difference tests at a 95% level of confidence demonstrated that group A was significantly different from the other groups (P < 0.001). Lesions in groups B and D had a significant lesion progression when compared with groups C and E. Conclusions: All toothpastes in this study had the potential to delay the demineralization progression of artificial enamel caries in primary teeth. The

  18. CO2 laser irradiation enhances CaF2 formation and inhibits lesion progression on demineralized dental enamel-in vitro study. (United States)

    Zancopé, Bruna R; Rodrigues, Lívia P; Parisotto, Thais M; Steiner-Oliveira, Carolina; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A; Nobre-dos-Santos, Marinês


    This study evaluated if Carbon dioxide (CO2) (λ 10.6 μm) laser irradiation combined with acidulated phosphate fluoride gel application (APF gel) enhances "CaF2" uptake by demineralized enamel specimens (DES) and inhibits enamel lesion progression. Thus, two studies were conducted and DES were subjected to APF gel combined or not with CO2 laser irradiation (11.3 or 20.0 J/cm(2), 0.4 or 0.7 W) performed before, during, or after APF gel application. In study 1, 165 DES were allocated to 11 groups. Fluoride as "CaF2 like material" formed on enamel was determined in 100 DES (n = 10/group), and the surface morphologies of 50 specimens were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after "CaF2" extraction. In study 2, 165 DES (11 groups, n = 15), subjected to the same treatments as in study 1, were further subjected to a pH-cycling model to simulate a high cariogenic challenge. The progression of demineralization in DES was evaluated by cross-sectional microhardness and polarized light microscopy analyses. Laser at 11.3 J/cm(2) applied during APF gel application increased "CaF2" uptake on enamel surface. Laser irradiation and APF gel alone arrested the lesion progression compared with the control (p CO2 laser irradiation, combined with a single APF application enhanced "CaF2" uptake on enamel surface and a synergistic effect was found. However, regarding the inhibition of caries lesion progression, no synergistic effect could be demonstrated. In conclusion, the results have shown that irradiation with specific laser parameters significantly enhanced CaF2 uptake by demineralized enamel and inhibited lesion progression.

  19. Demineralization of wood using wood-derived acid: Towards a selective pyrolysis process for fuel and chemicals production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhoven, S.R.G; Westerhof, R.J.M.; Aldenkamp, N.; Brilman, D.W.F.; Kersten, S.R.A.


    A process concept for the pyrolysis of demineralized wood to obtain high organic and especially levoglucosan yields is proposed and tested experimentally. The wood is demineralized using organic acids, produced and concentrated within the same pyrolysis process. Pine wood was pyrolyzed in a fluidiz

  20. Changes in composition and enamel demineralization inhibition activities of gallic acid at different pH values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Huang, X.; Huang, S.; Deng, M.; Xie, X.; Liu, M.; Liu, H.; Zhou, X.; Li, J.; ten Cate, J.M.


    Background. Gallic acid (GA) has been shown to inhibit demineralization and enhance remineralization of enamel; however, GA solution is highly acidic. This study was to investigate the stability of GA solutions at various pH and to examine the resultant effects on enamel demineralization. Methods. T

  1. An in vitro comparison between laser fluorescence and visual examination for detection of demineralization in occlusal pits and fissures. (United States)

    Ferreira Zandoná, A G; Analoui, M; Beiswanger, B B; Isaacs, R L; Kafrawy, A H; Eckert, G J; Stookey, G K


    It has been demonstrated that when excited by laser light carious enamel appears dark compared to luminescent sound enamel. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of visual exams (V), laser fluorescence (LF) and dye-enhanced LF (DELF) for detecting demineralization in occlusal pits and fissures. The actual presence of lesions was determined by subsequent confocal laser microscopy (CM), which was compared to histology (H). Independent clinical examiners visually graded three sites on occlusal surfaces of extracted, human premolars as sound or carious and also rated the color of each graded site as: 0 = same as surrounding enamel; 1 = white; 2 = light brown, or 3 = brown/dark brown. An argon laser was used to illuminate the teeth for LF and DELF; the images were captured with a CCD camera and then analyzed. DELF images were captured after the teeth had been exposed to 0.075% sodium fluorescein. Sections were then cut from each specimen and analyzed by CM and H for the presence or absence of caries. Results showed that DELF (0.72) was significantly more sensitive (pDELF 0.60). When color was used as an indication of caries in V (VC, sensitivity 0.47; specificity 0.70), V exams were not different from LF. The area under the ROC curve, using H as the gold standard and CM as the test, was 0.78. Results indicated that DELF was the best diagnostic tool and that VC and LF were equally effective as diagnostic methods, when color of fissures was included as an indication of demineralization in the visual exam.

  2. Validation of a Cariogenic Biofilm Model to Evaluate the Effect of Fluoride on Enamel and Root Dentine Demineralization. (United States)

    Fernández, Constanza E; Tenuta, Livia M A; Cury, Jaime A


    Due to gingival recession both enamel and root dentine are at risk of developing caries. Both tissues are exposed to a similar environment, however there is not a validated model to evaluate the effect of fluoride on these dental substrates simultaneously. Hence, this study aimed to validate a caries model to evaluate the effect of fluoride to prevent demineralization on enamel and root-dentine. Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilms were formed on saliva-coated bovine enamel and root dentine slabs (n = 12 per group) mounted in the same well of culture plates. The biofilms were exposed 8×/day to 10% sucrose and treated 2×/day with fluoridated solutions containing 0, 150, 450, or 1,350 ppm F; thus, simulating the use of low to high fluoride concentration toothpastes. The pH values of the culture medium was monitored 2×/day as a biofilm acidogenicity indicator. After 96 h, biofilms were collected for fluoride concentration analysis. The percentage of surface hardness loss (%SHL) was calculated for slabs. The fluoride uptake by the enamel and dentine was also determined. The model showed a dose-response because the biofilm and fluoride uptake increased and %SHL decreased at increasing fluoride concentrations (p enamel. With the same fluoride concentration treatment, the percentage of reduction of demineralization was lower for dentine than for enamel. In conclusion, the model was validated in terms of a dose-response effect of fluoride on enamel and root dentine. Furthermore, the findings support the clinical data, suggesting that higher fluoride concentrations are necessary to control caries of root dentine than of enamel.

  3. The effect of undissociated acetic-acid concentration of buffer solutions on artificial caries-like lesion formation in human tooth enamel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, A.; Theuns, H.M.; Dijk, J.W.E. van; Driessens, F.C.M.


    A chemical system for lesion production was used. The influence on lesion characteristics of the concentration of undissociated acetic acid in a calcium and phosphate-containing buffer solution was investigated. Artificial lesions obtained after demineralization in buffers with a pH of 4.0, 4.5, 5.0

  4. Availability of Surface Water of Wadi Rajil as a Source of Groundwater Artificial Recharge: A Case Study of Eastern Badia /Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakad A. Ta'any


    Full Text Available Wadi Rajil catchment area is considered as one of the major wadis entering the Azraq Basin from the north. It is ungauged wadi and covers an area of about 3910km2. The annual average rainfall on Wadi Rajil catchment area is about 126.6mm. Heavy thunderstorms occur in April and May, causing significant floods covering the area. The flood waters are not utilized, and a small portion infiltrates into the ground, where the great portion of these waters remain over Qaa’ Azraqfew months before evaporation. Due to the absence of the hydrometric stream flow station, no data are available about surface water runoff in Wadi Rajil catchment area. Therefore, the first part of this study calculates the surface water potential of Wadi Rajil to be utilized for groundwater artificial recharge, applying the SCS curvilinear synthetic unit hydrograph method. The synthesis unit hydrograph of Wadi Rajil catchment is characterized by a peak value of 1146 m3/s (4047 cfs per one inch of rainfall excess. Flood hydrographs for 10,25,50, and 100 years return periods were derived and their peak flow are found to be 10,8,186,412, and 680 m3/s, respectively and the corresponding flood volumes are 0.95, 16.53, 36.89, and 61.5 MCM, respectively.Groundwater artificial recharge conditions are suitably prevailing in the most northern and central part of the catchment area, whereas, geological, Hydrogeological, and water quality characteristics of the floodwater encourage artificial replenishment of the exploited aquifer in the study area.

  5. Fouling control mechanisms of demineralized water backwash: Reduction of charge screening and calcium bridging effects

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng


    This paper investigates the impact of the ionic environment on the charge of colloidal natural organic matter (NOM) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes (charge screening effect) and the calcium adsorption/bridging on new and fouled membranes (calcium bridging effect) by measuring the zeta potentials of membranes and colloidal NOM. Fouling experiments were conducted with natural water to determine whether the reduction of the charge screening effect and/or calcium bridging effect by backwashing with demineralized water can explain the observed reduction in fouling. Results show that the charge of both membranes and NOM, as measured by the zeta potential, became more negative at a lower pH and a lower concentration of electrolytes, in particular, divalent electrolytes. In addition, calcium also adsorbed onto the membranes, and consequently bridged colloidal NOM and membranes via binding with functional groups. The charge screening effect could be eliminated by flushing NOM and membranes with demineralized water, since a cation-free environment was established. However, only a limited amount of the calcium bridging connection was removed with demineralized water backwashes, so the calcium bridging effect mostly could not be eliminated. As demineralized water backwash was found to be effective in fouling control, it can be concluded that the reduction of the charge screening is the dominant mechanism for this. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. An alternative treatment option for a bony defect from large odontoma using recycled demineralization at chairside. (United States)

    Lee, JuHyon; Lee, Eun-Young; Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Eun-Suk


    Odontoma is the most common odontogenic benign tumor, and the treatment of choice is generally surgical removal. After excision, bone grafts may be necessary depending on the need for further treatment, or the size and location of the odontoma. Although the osteogenic capacity of a demineralized tooth was verified as early as 1967 by Urist and many other investigators, the cumbersome procedure, including a long demineralization time, may be less than comfortable for clinicians. A modified ultrasonic technology, with periodic negative pressure and temperature control, facilitated rapid and aseptic preparation of demineralized teeth for bone grafts. This approach reduces the demineralization time dramatically (≤80 minutes), so that the graft material can be prepared chairside on the same day as the extraction. The purpose of this article is to describe two cases of large compound odonotomas used as graft material prepared chairside for enucleation-induced bony defects. These two clinical cases showed favorable wound healing without complications, and good bony support for future dental implants or orthodontic treatment. Finally, this report will suggest the possibility of recycling the benign pathologic hard tissue as an alternative treatment option for conventional bone grafts in clinics.

  7. A three-species biofilm model for the evaluation of enamel and dentin demineralization. (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Bertolini, Martinna Mendonça; da Silva, Wander José; Del-Bel-Cury, Altair Antoninha; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Cury, Jaime Aparecido


    Although Streptococcus mutans biofilms have been useful for evaluating the cariogenic potential of dietary carbohydrates and the effects of fluoride on dental demineralization, a more appropriate biofilm should be developed to demonstrate the influence of other oral bacteria on cariogenic biofilms. This study describes the development and validation of a three-species biofilm model comprising Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Streptococcus gordonii for the evaluation of enamel and dentin demineralization after cariogenic challenges and fluoride exposure. Single- or three-species biofilms were developed on dental substrata for 96 h, and biofilms were exposed to feast and famine episodes. The three-species biofilm model produced a large biomass, mostly comprising S. mutans (41%) and S. gordonii (44%), and produced significant demineralization in the dental substrata, although enamel demineralization was decreased by fluoride treatment. The findings indicate that the three-species biofilm model may be useful for evaluating the cariogenic potential of dietary carbohydrates other than sucrose and determining the effects of fluoride on dental substrata.

  8. Regeneration of calvarial defects by a composite of bioerodible polyorthoester and demineralized bone in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M; Bang, G;


    A study was performed to evaluate regeneration of defects in rat calvaria either unfilled or filled with a bioerodible polyorthoester only, demineralized bone only, or a composite of both. At 4 weeks, histological and radiographic studies showed that defects filled with a composite of bioerodible...

  9. Effect of fluoridated milk on enamel demineralization adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld-Larsson, Kerstin; Sollenius, Ola; Karlsson, Lena


    Abstract Objective. To investigate the effect of daily intake of fluoridated milk on enamel demineralization adjacent to fixed orthodontic brackets assessed with quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). Materials and methods. Sixty-four healthy adolescents (13-18 years) undergoing orthodont...

  10. A simple model for the effect of flouride ions on remineralization of partly demineralized tooth enamel (United States)

    Christoffersen, J.; Christoffersen, M. R.; Arends, J.


    A model is presented for remineralization of partly demineralized tooth enamel, taking the effect of the presence of fluoride ions into account. The model predicts that, in the absence of precipitation of other phases than calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP) and fluroridized HAP, which are assumed to model enamel, there exists a maximum value of the fluoride concentration gradient, above which lesions cannot be successfully repaired.

  11. Nanometeric hydroxyapatite in situ formed in demineralized bone matrix by electrochemical technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ji-da; WANG Yuan-ling; CAI Hao-xi; CAO Yin


    @@ To prepare biomimic bone materials, some thick meshes of demineralized bone matrix (DBM), which are the interest work of collagen fibrils, have been prepared in normal way, and calcium phosphate of nanometeric was introduced into these mesh works with aqueous calcium and phosphate salt solution by means of the electrochemical technique at room temperature.

  12. Application of an active attachment model as a high-throughput demineralization biofilm model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, T.C.; Pereira, A.F.F.; Exterkate, R.A.M.; Bagnato, V.S.; Buzalaf, M.A.R.; de A.M. Machado, M.A.; ten Cate, J.M.; Crielaard, W.; Deng, D.M.


    Objectives To investigate the potential of an active attachment biofilm model as a high-throughput demineralization biofilm model for the evaluation of caries-preventive agents. Methods Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilms were grown on bovine dentine discs in a high-throughput active attachment mode

  13. Bone induction by composite of bioerodible polyorthoester and demineralized bone matrix in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Solheim, E; Bang, G


    A composite of a local, sustained, drug-release system, Alzamer bioerodible polyorthoester, and demineralized bone-matrix (DBM) particles implanted in the abdominal muscle of 89 Wistar rats induced cartilage and bone formation at the same rate as DBM when evaluated histologically and by 85Sr uptake...

  14. 酪蛋白磷酸肽-磷酸钙溶液抑制牛牙早期釉质龋的体外研究%Study on Effect of CPP-ACP in Inhibiting Bovine Enamel Demineralization in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟萍; 卢友光; 冯岩


    Objective To investigate the effect of casein phosphopeptide-stabilized amorphous cal cium phosphate solution (CPP-ACP) in inhibiting bovine enamel demineralization in vitro. Methods Twenty-eight enamel pieces -were randomly divided into four groups(n=7) , and immersed in saliva for 24 hours to obtain acquired pellicle. Each group -was given different treatments (Group A: deionized water; Group B: 1% CPP-ACP; Group C: 0. 05% NaF; Group D: 1% CPP-ACP+0. 05% NaF) for 7 days, and immersed in fresh streptococcus mutans solution for 7 days to produce artificial caries. Finally, all sam ples were detected by the scanning electron microscope(SEM) and the surface microhardness(SMH) ma chine. Results The SEM showed lots of sizes concane on the enamel surface of group A. While the en amel surface of the other three groups were completed, and a large number of deposits were found on the surfaces. The SMH of groups B,C and D were higher than group A(P<0. 05). In groups B,C and D, there were significant differences bet ween each other(P<0. 05). Conclusion CPP-ACP can reduce en amel demineralization and promoting remineralization in vitro. CPP-ACP and NaF have synergistic effect in caries prevention.%目的 研究酪蛋白磷酸肽-磷酸钙溶液(CPP-ACP)在体外对牛牙釉质早期人工龋的抑制作用.方法 将28颗牛牙釉质样本随机分成4组,每组7颗,浸入唾液24 h以形成人工获得性膜,然后用4种不同溶液(A组:去离子水;B组:1% CPP-ACP溶液;C组:0.05%的NaF溶液;D组:1% CPP-ACP和0.05% NaF的混合液)浸泡7 d后,将其悬吊在新鲜配制的变异链球菌悬液中7 d,建立体外生物膜脱矿模型.采用扫描电镜观察处理前后牙釉质表面形态的改变,采用显微硬度法测量处理前后牙釉质表面硬度.结果 扫描电镜下,A组釉质表面可见大小不等的圆形孔隙,呈蜂窝状改变;其他3组釉质表面完整,没有明显的龋损孔隙,可见不规则的矿物质沉积.显微硬度测量显示,B、C

  15. The hardness and chemical changes in demineralized primary dentin treated by fluoride and glass ionomer cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Fernandes DIAS

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluoride plays an important role in the control of dental caries. Aim To evaluate the chemical exchange between restoration of glass ionomer cement of high viscosity (GIC and primary dentin with application of sodium fluoride (NaF 2% through changes in hardness from uptake of calcium, phosphate and fluoride. Material and method Class I cavities were prepared in 40 sound primary molars, and the sample was divided into two groups (n=20 according to dentin condition: sound (1 and demineralized (2. Sub-groups (n=10 were formed to investigate the isolated action of the GIC or the association with NaF (F. This in vitro study examined the chemical exchange under two conditions, sound and demineralized dentin (pH cycling, to simulate the occurrence of mineral loss for the caries lesion. G1 and G2 received GIC restoration only; groups G1F and G2F received NaF before GIC restoration. The specimens were prepared for Knoop hardness test and micro-Raman spectroscopy. A two-way ANOVA test (α = 0.05 was used for statistical analysis. Micro-Raman data were qualitatively described. Result Increased hardness was observed in all the sites of direct contact with GIC in sound and demineralized dentin for all groups (p0.05. In the evaluation of micro-Raman, direct contact between GIC and dentin for sound and demineralized dentin resulted in increased peaks of phosphate. Conclusion The exchange between GIC and demineralized dentin may induce changes of mechanical properties of the substrate, and uptake of mineral ions (phosphate occurs without the influence of NaF.

  16. Rachitic Changes, Demineralization, and Fracture Risk in Healthy Infants and Toddlers with Vitamin D Deficiency (United States)

    Feldman, Henry A.; Kleinman, Paul K.; Connolly, Susan A.; Fair, Rick A.; Myers, Regina M.; Gordon, Catherine M.


    Purpose: To examine radiographic findings in children with vitamin D deficiency in comparison with biochemical marker levels and prevalence of fractures. Materials and Methods: The parents or guardians of all participants provided written informed consent at the time of enrollment. The institutional review board approved the protocol, and HIPAA guidelines were followed. From a prospective sample of children seen for routine clinical care, 40 children with vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-OHD] level, ≤20 ng/mL) were identified, and high-detail computed radiographs of the wrists and knees were obtained. The children ranged in age from 8 to 24 months. Radiographs were scored by three readers with use of the 10-point Thacher score for rachitic changes and a five-point scale for demineralization. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone levels were determined. Fracture history was obtained for 35 of the 40 patients (88%). Results: All readers identified rachitic changes at both readings in two patients (5%) and demineralization in two patients (5%). Interrater agreement was 65% for rachitic changes (κ = 0.33) and 70% for demineralization (κ = 0.37). When the majority of the raters determined that rachitic changes were absent at both readings, alkaline phosphatase levels were lower than those with other assessments (median, 267 vs 515 U/L [4.4589 vs 8.6005 μkat/L]; P = .01). When most raters determined that demineralization was present at both readings, serum 25-OHD levels were lower than those at other assessments (median, 9.0 vs 17.5 ng/mL [22.464 vs 43.68 nmol/L]; P = .02). No fractures were reported or identified radiographically. Conclusion: In infants and toddlers with vitamin D deficiency, rachitic changes and definite demineralization are uncommon and fracture risk is low. © RSNA, 2011 PMID:22106354

  17. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman


    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  18. Artificial blood. (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman


    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  19. 人工血管材料血液相容性及表面改性%Hemocompatibility and surface modification of artificial blood vessel materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何艳平; 马德春; 李磊; 张丽; 郑爽; 董可欣


    BACKGROUND:Artificial blood vessels made from synthetic materials are the most commonly used blood vessel substitutes. How to improve the patency of the blood vessels and the compatibility of artificial blood vessel materials is in the focus of research in recent years. OBJECTIVE:To review the biocompatibility and hemocompatiblity of artificial blood vessel materials, and to summarize a number of new methods and viewpoints appearing in international biomaterial and blood interaction research in recent years. METHODS: Wanfang database, Chinese Journal Ful-text Database and PubMed database were retrieved by the first author for relevant articles published from 2001 to 2014, using the key words of “artificial blood vessels, biomaterials” in Chinese and English, respectively. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Research on the hemocompatibility of materials, although after many years, is stil in the exploratory stage. There are many factors influencing material hemocompatibility, and in addition to the inherent blood components, surface and interface characteristics of the materials play a decisive role. Currently, surface and interface features optimization and modification has become an important way to improve the blood compatibility, but the existing evaluation system appears to have some problems, such as the selection and quantitative evaluation of sensitive indicators and positive control materials. Therefore, to develop artificial materials with good hemocompatibility and to establish rational and high-efficient blood compatibility evaluation system stil need further studies.%背景:人工血管取于合成材料,是最常用的血管代用品,如何提高血管的通畅性和人工血管材料的相容性是在近年来人工血管研究的重点。目的:综述人工血管材料的生物相容性和血液相容性,归纳近年来国际在生物材料和血液相互作用研究方面出现的一些新方法和视点。方法:由第一作者用计算机检

  20. Influence of Pu'er Tea Water Extracts on Artificial Caries Microhardness%普洱茶水浸液对人工龋齿显微硬度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莹; 梁迎东; 杨华甫; 田富明; 蓝海


    Objective: To study the influence of the chemical composition of Pu'er tea on the hardness of the artificial caries. Methods:Put the bovine-cut-enamel into the demineralization solution pH=4 to remineralization to formulation artifical tooth decay. Select 72 demineralization bovine teeth, which hardness is about 310 kg/mm2, and put them into 12 groups in random:20 mg/L NaF group(positive control), deionized water group(negative control), and 96 mg/mL, 48 mg/mL, 24 mg/mL, 12 mg/mL, 6 mg/mL cooked tea group as well as raw tea groups same concentration as above. Use microhardness meter measure the hardness date of the cattle incisive after be handle by different solutions and observe the vary date of the microhardness of the surface enamel before and after remineralization. Results: The enamel demineralization samples were 96 mg/mL raw tea group, 48 mg/mL raw tea group, 24 mg/mL raw tea group, 96 mg/mL cooked tea group, 48 mg/mL cooked tea group, 20 mg/mL NaF group, after treatment, each group enamel hardness mean value was significantly higher than the baseline (P0.05). Conclusion:High concentrations of raw tea and cooked tea extract on enamel demineralization of bovine incisors were significantly promote remineralization and no significant difference(P>0.05), but not as good as remineralization 20 mg/mL NaF(P0.05).结论:高浓度的生茶、熟茶水浸液对脱矿牛切牙牙釉质均有显著促进再矿化作用且差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但再矿化作用不如20 mg/mL NaF(P<0.05).

  1. In vitro re-hardening of artificial enamel caries lesions using enamel matrix proteins or self-assembling peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schmidlin


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives To assess the re-hardening potential of enamel matrix derivatives (EMD and self-assembling peptides in vitro, hypothesizing that these materials may increase the mineralization of artificial carious lesions and improve hardness profiles. Material and Methods Forty-eight enamel samples were prepared from extracted bovine lower central incisors. After embedding and polishing, nail varnish was applied, leaving a defined test area. One third of this area was covered with a flowable composite (non-demineralized control. The remaining area was demineralized in an acidic buffer solution for 18 d to simulate a carious lesion. Half the demineralized area was then covered with composite (demineralized control, while the last third was left open for three test and one control treatments: (A Application of enamel-matrix proteins (EMD - lyophilized protein fractions dissolved in acetic acid, Straumann, (B self-assembling peptides (SAP, Curodont, or (C amine fluoride solution (Am-F, GABA for 5 min each. Untreated samples (D served as control. After treatment, samples were immersed in artificial saliva for four weeks (remineralization phase and microhardness (Knoop depth profiles (25-300 µm were obtained at sections. Two-way ANOVA was calculated to determine differences between the areas (re-hardening or softening. Results Decalcification resulted in significant softening of the subsurface enamel in all groups (A-D. A significant re-hardening up to 125 µm was observed in the EMD and SAP groups. Conclusions This study showed that EMD and SAP were able to improve the hardness profiles when applied to deep demineralized artificial lesions. However, further research is needed to verify and improve this observed effect.

  2. Prediction and assessment of drought effects on surface water quality using artificial neural networks: case study of Zayandehrud River, Iran. (United States)

    Safavi, Hamid R; Malek Ahmadi, Kian


    Although drought impacts on water quantity are widely recognized, the impacts on water quality are less known. The Zayandehrud River basin in the west-central part of Iran plateau witnessed an increased contamination during the recent droughts and low flows. The river has been receiving wastewater and effluents from the villages, a number of small and large industries, and irrigation drainage systems along its course. What makes the situation even worse is the drought period the river basin has been going through over the last decade. Therefore, a river quality management model is required to include the adverse effects of industrial development in the region and the destructive effects of droughts which affect the river's water quality and its surrounding environment. Developing such a model naturally presupposes investigations into pollution effects in terms of both quality and quantity to be used in such management tools as mathematical models to predict the water quality of the river and to prevent pollution escalation in the environment. The present study aims to investigate electrical conductivity of the Zayandehrud River as a water quality parameter and to evaluate the effect of this parameter under drought conditions. For this purpose, artificial neural networks are used as a modeling tool to derive the relationship between electrical conductivity and the hydrological parameters of the Zayandehrud River. The models used in this research include multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function. Finally, these two models are compared in terms of their performance using the time series of electrical conductivity at eight monitoring-hydrometric stations during drought periods between the years 1997-2012. Results show that artificial neural networks can be used for modeling the relationship between electrical conductivity and hydrological parameters under drought conditions. It is further shown that radial basis function works better for the upstream stretches

  3. Method based on artificial excitation of characteristic radiation by an electron beam for remote X-ray spectral elemental analysis of surface rocks on atmosphereless celestial bodies (United States)

    Kolesnikov, E. K.


    This article, like our previous one [1], is devoted to advanced space technology concepts. It evaluates the potential for developing active systems to conduct a remote elemental analysis of surface rocks on an atmosphereless celestial body. The analysis is based on the spectrometry of characteristic X-rays (CXR) artificially excited in the surface soil layer. It has been proposed to use an electron beam injected from aboard a spacecraft orbiting the celestial body (or moving in a flyby trajectory) to excite the CXR elements contained in surface rocks. The focus is on specifying technical requirements to the parameters of payloads for a global mapping of the composition of lunar rocks from aboard of a low-orbiting lunar satellite. This article uses the results obtained in [2], our first study that shows the potential to develop an active system for a remote elemental analysis of lunar surface rocks using the above method. Although there has been interest in our research on the part of leading national academic institutions and space technology developers in the Soviet Union, the studies were discontinued because of the termination of the Soviet lunar program and the completion of the American Apollo program.

  4. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R


    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  5. Surface modification of polyurethane films by plasma and ultraviolet light to improve haemocompatibility for artificial heart valves. (United States)

    Alves, P; Cardoso, R; Correia, T R; Antunes, B P; Correia, I J; Ferreira, P


    Prosthetic cardiac valves implantation is a common procedure used to treat heart valve diseases. Although there are different prostheses already available in the market (either mechanical or bioprosthetic), their use presents several problems, specifically concerning thrombogenicity and structural failure. Recently, some progresses have been achieved in developing heart valves based on synthetic materials with special emphasis in polymers. Among them, polyurethanes are one of the most commonly used for the production of these devices. Herein, Elastollan(®)1180A50, a thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), was used to formulate films whose surfaces were modified by grafting 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) either by ultra-violet (UV) or by plasma treatment. All films were analyzed before and after grafting. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements were used to evaluate TPU surfaces functionalization. HEMA grafting was confirmed by the increase of the hydroxyl (OH) groups' concentration at the surface of the films. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis was done to evaluate the surface topography of the biomaterials. Results showed that the roughness of the surface decreased when HEMA was grafted, especially for plasma treated samples. After grafting the films' hydrophilicity was improved, as well as the polar component of the surface energy, by 15-30%. Hydrophobic recovery studies using milli Q water or PBS were also performed to characterize the stability of the modified surface, showing that the films maintained their surface properties along time. Furthermore, blood-contact tests were performed to evaluate haemolytic and thrombogenic potential. The results obtained for HEMA grafted surfaces, using plasma treatment, confirmed biomaterials biocompatibility and low thrombogenicity. Finally, the cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of the materials was assessed through in vitro assays for both modified films. The obtained results showed enhanced

  6. Artificial Reefs (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  7. Artificial Limbs (United States)

    ... diabetes. They may cause you to need an amputation. Traumatic injuries, including from traffic accidents and military combat Cancer Birth defects If you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which is ...

  8. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E


    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  9. Detection for demineralization of dental hard tissues using index-sequenced radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dong Hyun; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Kyung Sook; Park, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Gi Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, KyungHee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, KyungHee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study was to develop the radiographic technique for detecting the demineralization which is known as indication of dental caries. This technique was based on the comparing of multiple radiographs which was irradiated by multiple X-ray spectra. For the meaningful comparing, the multiple radiographs were reconstructed to the dosimetrically consistent images using a standard material. The difference of resulting images of same target with multiple spectra represents the difference of response of material as regards the spectra. We have found about 10% of demineralization of dental hard tissues particularly in the proximal region through the analyzing of differences. Most intriguing thing in this investigation was that the method to analyze difference shows us to an anatomic structure of dental hard tissues even if absolute values of optical density were excluded during the procedures.

  10. Comparison of various products for the prevention of demineralization in the bracket environment


    Coordes, Stefanie Louise


    Sealers and varnishes are used for the prophylaxis of demineralization in patients with multi-bracket treatment. Several agents have been recently introduced for this purpose. However, it remains unclear which one is more efficient and could be suggested as standard of care in this patient cohort. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term resistance of six different products against thermomechanical and chemical stress in vitro. The agents included in the study were the three fluorid...

  11. Bioactive glass effects on remineralization of early artificial enamel caries%生物活性玻璃对早期人工釉质龋的再矿化*★

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王尹; 王瑀; 董波; 张婷; 陈思杰; 曲媛媛


      背景:生物活性玻璃具有良好的生物相容性,且具有抑制口腔致龋细菌和牙周相关细菌及抗牙本质过敏的作用。目的:评价生物活性玻璃促进早期人工釉质龋再矿化的作用。方法:将新鲜拔除的30颗牛切牙制成人工龋模型,将标本在37℃人工脱矿液内脱矿72 h,用扫描电镜观察脱矿后釉质表面的平滑情况,用显微硬度仪测量脱矿后釉质的显微硬度。然后随机分为3组,每组10个。采用pH循环法模拟人口腔环境,将3组标本分别浸泡在生物活性玻璃溶液、氟化钠溶液及人工唾液内,3次/d,10 min/次,循环浸泡20 d,扫描电镜检测标本脱矿及再矿化情况,用显微硬度计检查牙釉质显微硬度。结果与结论:浸泡在生物活性玻璃溶液中的牙釉质表面较浸泡在其他两溶液中的牙釉质表面光滑平整,无空隙存在;浸泡在生物活性玻璃溶液中的牙釉质表面显微硬度高于浸泡在其他两溶液中的牙釉质表面显微硬度(P <0.05)。说明生物活性玻璃在体外实验中能促进早期釉质龋的再矿化。%BACKGROUND: Bioactive glass has good biocompatibility and could control oral bacteria and protect against dentin hypersensitivity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate remineralization effect of bioactive glass on early artificial enamel caries. METHODS: Thirty bovine incisors fresh were made to artificial caries models, and were placed in a container with demineralization iquid at 37 ℃ for 72 hours. Micro hardness tester was used to detect hardness value after demineralization, and the enamel surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscope. Then, the samples were randomly divided into three groups, 10 in each group. Using pH cycle way method, the oral environment of human beings was copied. Samples were respectively soaked in bioactive glass solution, sodium fluoride solution and artificial saliva solution, three times a day and 10 minutes

  12. Artificial human vision. (United States)

    Dowling, Jason


    Can vision be restored to the blind? As early as 1929 it was discovered that stimulating the visual cortex of an individual led to the perception of spots of light, known as phosphenes [1] . The aim of artificial human vision systems is to attempt to utilize the perception of phosphenes to provide a useful substitute for normal vision. Currently, four locations for electrical stimulation are being investigated; behind the retina (subretinal), in front of the retina (epiretinal), the optic nerve and the visual cortex (using intra- and surface electrodes). This review discusses artificial human vision technology and requirements, and reviews the current development projects.

  13. [Preparation of Ti-O Film Deposited on the Surface of a New Type of Artificial Mechanical Heart Valve]. (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Cui, Yuanyuan; Wu, Liangliang; Sun, Hong; Huang, Nan


    The rutile structure titanium oxide (Ti-O) film was prepared on the pure titanium material TA2 (99.999%) surface by the magnetic filter high vacuum arc deposition sputtering source. The method can not only maintain the material mechanical properties, but also improve the surface properties for better biocompatibility to accommodate the physiological environment. The preparation process of the Ti-O film was as follows. Firstly, argon ions sputtered to the TA2 substrate surface to remove the excess impurities. Secondly, a metal ion source generated Ti ions and oxygen ions by the RF discharge. Meanwhile a certain negative bias was imposed on the sample. There a certain composition of Ti-O film was obtained under a certain pressure of oxygen in the vacuum chamber. Finally, X-ray diffraction was used to research the structure and composition of the film. The results showed that the Ti-O film of the rutile crystal structure was formed under the 0.18 Pa oxygen partial pressure. A Nano scratch experiment was used to test the coating adhesion property, which demonstrated that the film was stable and durable. The contact angle experiment and the platelet clotting experiment proved that the modified surface method had improved platelet adhesion performance, and, therefore, the material possessed better biocompatibility. On the whole, the evaluations proved the modified material had excellent performance.

  14. Comparison of Cultural and Molecular Fecal Indicator Measurements in Surface Water and Periphyton Biofilms in Artificial Streams (United States)

    Studies suggest that periphyton in streambeds can harbor fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and, under certain circumstances, can be transferred from the periphyton biofilm into the surface water. An indoor mesocosm study was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Expe...

  15. The influence of HCl concentration and demineralization temperature of Atrina pectinata shells on quality of chitin (United States)

    Nugroho, Intan Lazuardi; Pursetyo, Kustiawan Tri; Masithah, Endang Dewi


    Atrina pectinata is one of shells species widely consumed by people, which means the high consumption will generate the availability of shells in the environment as waste. Chitin can be produced from the shells. Shells contain quite high minerals that it should be demineralized to reduce the mineral content from the shells. This study aimed to determine the effect of HCl concentration and temperature affect chitin characteristics as the result of demineralization process from pen shells. The method based on two steps, there were demineralization and deproteination. This study used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with two factors, including HCl concentration (2N, 4N, and 6N) and temperature (33°C and 60°C) which consists six combination treatments and three replications. Data was analyzed by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and followed by Duncan's Multiple Range Test. The results showed that interaction of HCl concentration and temperature has significant effect (p<0.05) to ash content of chitin. The use concentration of 6N and 33°C produced the lowest ash content. Characteristics chitin resulted from the treatment of 6N and 33°C produced ash content 25.33% ± 6.82, moisture content 3.67% ± 1.10, yield 0.72% ± 0.12 and protein content 5.86%.

  16. The inhibitory effect of polyvinylphosphonic acid on functional matrix metalloproteinase activities in human demineralized dentin. (United States)

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Agee, Kelli A; Hoshika, Tomohiro; Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H


    This study has examined the use of polyvinylphosphonic acid (PVPA) as a potential matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor and how brief cross-linking of demineralized dentin matrix that did not affect its mechanical properties enhanced the anti-MMP activity of PVPA. The anti-MMP potential of five PVPA concentrations (100-3000 microgml(-1)) was initially screened using a rhMMP-9 colorimetic assay. Demineralized dentin beams were treated with the same five concentrations of PVPA to collagen and then aged for 30 days in a calcium- and zinc-containing medium. The changes in modulus of elasticity, loss of dry mass and dissolution of collagen peptides were measured via three-point bending, precision weighing and hydroxyproline assay, respectively. All tested PVPA concentrations were highly effective (P<0.05) in inhibiting MMP-9. Ageing in the incubation medium did not significantly alter the modulus of elasticity of the five PVPA treatment groups. Conversely, aged dentin beams from the control group exhibited a significant decline in their modulus of elasticity (P<0.05) over time. Mass loss from the dentin beams and the corresponding increase in hydroxyproline in the medium in the five PVPA treatment groups were significantly lower than for the control (P<0.05). PVPA is a potent inhibitor of endogenous MMP activities in demineralized dentin. It may be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine to prevent collagen degradation within hybrid layers to extend the longevity of resin-dentin bonds.

  17. S. mutans biofilm model to evaluate antimicrobial substances and enamel demineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Alberto Ccahuana-Vásquez


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to validate a model of S. mutans biofilm formation, which simulated 'feast-famine' episodes of exposure to sucrose that occur in the oral cavity, showed dose-response susceptibility to antimicrobials and allowed the evaluation of substances with anticaries potential. S. mutans UA159 biofilms were grown for 5 days on bovine enamel slabs at 37°C, 10% CO2. To validate the model, the biofilms were treated 2x/day with chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX at 0.012, 0.024 and 0.12% (concentration with recognized anti-plaque effect and 0.05% NaF (concentration with recognized anti-caries effect. CHX showed dose-response effect decreasing biomass, bacterial viability and enamel demineralization (p < 0.05. Whereas, 0.05% NaF did not show antimicrobial effect but had similar effect to that of 0.12% CHX decreasing enamel demineralization (p < 0.05. The model developed has potential to evaluate the effect of substances on biofilm growth and on enamel demineralization.

  18. S. mutans biofilm model to evaluate antimicrobial substances and enamel demineralization. (United States)

    Ccahuana-Vásquez, Renzo Alberto; Cury, Jaime Aparecido


    The aim of this study was to validate a model of S. mutans biofilm formation, which simulated 'feast-famine' episodes of exposure to sucrose that occur in the oral cavity, showed dose-response susceptibility to antimicrobials and allowed the evaluation of substances with anticaries potential. S. mutans UA159 biofilms were grown for 5 days on bovine enamel slabs at 37 degrees C, 10% CO2. To validate the model, the biofilms were treated 2x/day with chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) at 0.012, 0.024 and 0.12% (concentration with recognized anti-plaque effect) and 0.05% NaF (concentration with recognized anti-caries effect). CHX showed dose-response effect decreasing biomass, bacterial viability and enamel demineralization (p < 0.05). Whereas, 0.05% NaF did not show antimicrobial effect but had similar effect to that of 0.12% CHX decreasing enamel demineralization (p < 0.05). The model developed has potential to evaluate the effect of substances on biofilm growth and on enamel demineralization.

  19. 口腔正畸固定矫正治疗中牙釉质脱矿的临床分析%Clinical analysis of enamel demineralization in orthodontics fixed orthodontic treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨口腔正畸固定矫正治疗中牙釉质脱矿发生情况及预防措施。方法:收治正畸固定矫治患者80例,共1469颗牙,对所有患者给予正畸固定矫治技术,指导患者做好口腔卫生和饮食注意事项。在矫正期结束后拆除固定矫正器,以75%酒精清洗牙面,观察牙釉质脱矿情况。结果:80例患者发生牙釉质脱矿现象35例,牙釉质脱矿发病率43.75%;1469颗中牙齿发生釉质脱矿190颗,发生率12.9%。本组1469颗牙中上颌牙745颗,发生釉质脱矿110颗,发生率14.8%,本组1469颗牙中下颌牙721颗,发生釉质脱矿80颗,发生率11.1%。结论:应该重视正畸固定矫正治疗中牙釉质脱矿的发生,采取措施降低或避免发生。%Objective:To explore the occurrence and prevention measures of enamel demineralization in orthodontics fixed orthodontic treatment.Methods:80 patients with orthodontics fixed orthodontic treatment were selected with a total of 1 469 teeth. All patients were given orthodontics fixed orthodontic treatment technology.We guided patients to do oral hygiene and dietary attention.After the correction period,the fixed orthodontic appliance was removed,and the tooth surface was cleaned by 75%alcohol.The enamel demineralization was observed.Results:35 patients had enamel demineralization in 80 patients,and the morbidity of enamel demineralization was 43.75%.190 teeth had enamel demineralization in 1 469 teeth,and the incidence rate was 12.9%.110 teeth had enamel demineralization in 745 upper teeth of 1 469 teeth in this group,and the incidence rate was 14.8%.80 teeth had enamel demineralization in 721 lower teeth of 1 469 teeth in this group,and the incidence rate was 11.1%. Conclusion:It should pay more attention to the occurrence of enamel demineralization in orthodontics fixed orthodontic treatment, and take measures to reduce or avoid the occurrence.

  20. 全光纤OCT量化检出早期釉质龋的研究%Quantification detecting artificial early enamel caries with all All-fiber-OCT system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晖; 李燕妮; 王冠华; 姚晓天; 孟卓; 靳书凤; 梁燕; 张林朴; 刘铁根


    Objective To investigate the sensibility of All-fiber opficM coherence tomography(An-fiberOCT)system for early quantification detecting of artificial caries in vitro.Methods Prepared 2 min×3 mm experimental windows in adamant slippery surfaces of 7 fresh uprooted permanent teeth,demineralized the teeth surfacesin the windows area to ereat early stage of artificial caries mould,by aciding the experimental teeth surfaces of 0~120 hours with demineralized liquid(pH4.5)in vitro.Detected the demineralized changes on the experimental teeth surfaces by dental All-fiber-OCT system,which were newly developed by our research group,and compared the detecting resuhs with clinical diotal photomicrography(DPM)and polarimicroscopy(PMS)on the same tooth sample,to checkout the sensibility and feasibility of All-fiber-OGT for early quantification detecting of artificial caries in vitro.Results Our All-fiber-OCT system could accurately detect surface demineralization changes on the experimental windows of artificial dental caries as earlyas 12haciding treatment,earlier than the survey results obtained by DPM;the surface Integrity of the experimental windows decrease progressively with the increasing Aciding hours,while the demineralized depth increased progressively with the increasing aciding hours.It was shown that quantification detectingdata by OCT has hish correlation to those by PMS,There are no significant differences between data obtained from OCT and PMS(P>0.05).Conclusion All-fiber-OCT system could accurately detect early artificial dental caries without trauma in our model.Quantification detecting data of demineralized depth by OCT has hiigh correlation to those by PMS.It has shown exact detection efficacy on enamel early cariesin our experiment and might become a potential new optical detecting technique for early diagnosis,quantifieation process monitoring and early intervention of dental carles in vivo after the All-fiber OCT system further being consummated

  1. Optimization of Burr size, Surface Roughness and Circularity Deviation during Drilling of Al 6061 using Taguchi Design Method and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Sreenivasulu


    Full Text Available This paper presents the influence of cutting parameters like cutting speed, feed rate, drill diameter, point angle and clearance angle on the burr size, surface roughness and circularity deviation of Al 6061 during drilling on CNC vertical machining center. A plan of experiments based on Taguchi technique has been used to acquire the data. An orthogonal array, signal to noise (S/N ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA are employed to investigate machining characteristics of Al 6061 using HSS twist drill bits of variable tool geometry and maintain constant helix angle of 45 degrees. Confirmation tests have been carried out to predict the optimal setting of process parameters to validate the used approach, obtained the values of 0.2618mm, 0.1821mm, 3.7451µm, 0.0676mm for burr height, burr thickness, surface roughness and circularity deviation respectively. Finally, artificial neural network has been applied to compare the predicted values with the experimental values, good agreement was shown between the predictive model results and the experimental measurements. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  2. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin


    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  3. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn


    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containin......Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie...

  4. Classification of reflected signals from cavitated tooth surfaces using an artificial intelligence technique incorporating a fiber optic displacement sensor (United States)

    Rahman, Husna Abdul; Harun, Sulaiman Wadi; Arof, Hamzah; Irawati, Ninik; Musirin, Ismail; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Ahmad, Harith


    An enhanced dental cavity diameter measurement mechanism using an intensity-modulated fiber optic displacement sensor (FODS) scanning and imaging system, fuzzy logic as well as a single-layer perceptron (SLP) neural network, is presented. The SLP network was employed for the classification of the reflected signals, which were obtained from the surfaces of teeth samples and captured using FODS. Two features were used for the classification of the reflected signals with one of them being the output of a fuzzy logic. The test results showed that the combined fuzzy logic and SLP network methodology contributed to a 100% classification accuracy of the network. The high-classification accuracy significantly demonstrates the suitability of the proposed features and classification using SLP networks for classifying the reflected signals from teeth surfaces, enabling the sensor to accurately measure small diameters of tooth cavity of up to 0.6 mm. The method remains simple enough to allow its easy integration in existing dental restoration support systems.

  5. Selective solid-phase extraction of artificial chemicals from milk samples using multiple-template surface molecularly imprinted polymers. (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Ni, Yan-li; Wang, Ling-ling; Ma, Jin-qin; Zhang, Zhi-qi


    A novel multiple-template surface molecularly imprinted polymer (MTMIP) was synthesized using ofloxacin and 17β-estradiol as templates and modified monodispersed poly(glycidylmethacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (PGMA/EDMA ) beads as the support material. Static adsorption, solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography were performed to investigate the adsorption properties and selective recognition characteristics of the polymer templates and their structural analogs. The maximum binding capacities of ofloxacin and 17β-estradiol on the MTMIP were 9.0 and 6.6 mg/g, respectively. Compared with the corresponding nonimprinted polymer, the MTMIP exhibited a much higher adsorption performance and selectivity toward three quinolones and three estrogens, which are common drug residues in food. The MTMIP served as a simple and effective pretreatment method and could be successfully applied to the simultaneous analysis of multiple target components in complex samples. Furthermore, the MTMIP may find useful applications as a solid-phase absorbent in the simultaneous determination of trace quinolones and estrogens in milk samples, as the recoveries were in the range 77.6-98.0%.

  6. 生物活性玻璃对体外脱矿釉质再矿化的影响%Effect of bioactive glass on demineralization enamel remineralization in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方谦; 穆玉; 周雪; 瞿亚男; 彭伟


    目的:观察生物活性玻璃对早期脱矿釉质再矿化的作用。方法:将40块牛牙釉质块建立人工龋模型后随机分为4组:生物活性玻璃组(用质量分数6%生物活性玻璃进行再矿化处理)、GC护牙素组、NaF组(用质量分数2%NaF进行再矿化处理)和去离子水组。采用pH循环法进行再矿化处理,2次/d,5 min/次,循环15 d。用显微硬度仪测量脱矿前、再矿化前及再矿化后牙釉质表面的显微硬度,荧光显微镜观察早期釉质龋表层下的荧光带厚度,测定脱矿深度。结果:生物活性玻璃组、GC护牙素组、NaF组再矿化后显微硬度均较再矿化前增加,且生物活性玻璃组提高幅度最大(P<0.05)。4组再矿化区荧光带厚度均较脱矿区降低(P<0.05),其中生物活性玻璃组、GC护牙素组、NaF组均大于去离子水组( P<0.05)。结论:质量分数6%生物活性玻璃溶液促进脱矿釉质再矿化的疗效较好。%Aim:To observe the effect of bioactive glass on the remineralization of demineralization enamel .Methods:Forty bovine teeth were subjected to establish demineralization enamel model , and then were allocated into four groups ran-domly(10 in each group) and treated with 6% bioactive glass, casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP),2%sodium fluoride(NaF) and deionized water,respectively.Then they were subjected to the pH-cycling,two times a day and 5 minutes each time, cycling for 15 days for remineralization.The surface microhardness(SMH)of the enamel before demineralization,before and after remineralization were measured by microhardness detector .Thickness of fluorescence be-neath the surface of early enamel caries in the demineralization area and the remineralization area were detected by fluores -cence microscopy .Results: The SMH after remineralization in bioactive glass , CPP-ACP and NaF groups was higher than those before

  7. Artificial ribonucleases. (United States)

    Morrow, J R


    Many inorganic and organic compounds promote the reactions catalyzed by RNase A. Both the transesterification step, where a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate is formed with concomitant cleavage of RNA, and the hydrolysis step, where the 2',3'-cyclic phosphate is converted to a phosphate monoester, may be mimicked with compounds that are readily synthesized in the laboratory. Electrophilic activation of the phosphate ester and charge neutralization are generally important means by which artificial RNases promote phosphate diester displacement reactions. Several artificial RNases operate by a bifunctional general acid/general base mechanism, as does RNase A. Provision of an intramolecular nucleophile appears to be an important pathway for metal complex promoted phosphate diester hydrolysis. In contrast to the successful design of compounds that promote the reactions catalyzed by RNase A, there are no artificial nucleases to date that will cleave the 3' P-O bond of RNA or hydrolyze an oligonucleotide of DNA. Artificial RNases based on both metal complexes and organic compounds have been described. Metal complexes may be particularly effective catalysts for both transesterification and hydrolysis reactions of phosphate diesters. Under physiological conditions (37 degrees C and neutral pH), several metal complexes catalyze the transesterification of RNA. Future work should involve the development of metal complexes which are inert to metal ion release but which maintain open coordination sites for catalytic activity. The design of compounds containing multiple amine or imidazole groups that may demonstrate bifunctional catalysis is a promising route to new artificial RNases. Further design of these compounds and careful placement of catalytic groups may yield new RNase mimics that operate under physiological conditions. The attachment of artificial RNases to recognition agents such as oligodeoxynucleotides to create new sequence-specific endoribonucleases is an exciting field of

  8. Behaviour of palladium(II), platinum(IV), and rhodium(III) in artificial and natural waters: influence of reactor surface and geochemistry on metal recovery. (United States)

    Cobelo-Garcia, Antonio; Turner, Andrew; Millward, Geoffrey E; Couceiro, Fay


    The recovery of dissolved platinum group elements (PGE: Pd(II), Pt(IV) and Rh(III)) added to Milli-Q water, artificial freshwater and seawater and filtered natural waters has been studied, as a function of pH and PGE concentration, in containers of varying synthetic composition. The least adsorptive and/or precipitative loss was obtained for borosilicate glass under most of the conditions employed, whereas the greatest loss was obtained for low-density polyethylene. Of the polymeric materials tested, the adsorptive and/or precipitative loss of PGE was lowest for fluorinated ethylene propylene (Teflon). The loss of Pd(II) in freshwater was significant due to its affinity for surface adsorption and its relatively low solubility. The presence of natural dissolved organic matter increases the recovery of Pd(II) but enhances the loss of Pt(IV). The loss of Rh(III) in seawater was significant and was mainly due to precipitation, whereas Pd(II) recovery was enhanced, compared to freshwater, because of its complexation with chloride. The results have important implications regarding protocols employed for sample preservation and controlled laboratory experiments used in the study of the speciation and biogeochemical behaviour of PGE.

  9. Comparative Analyses of Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network on Medium Optimization for Tetraselmis sp. FTC209 Grown under Mixotrophic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Shamzi Mohamed


    Full Text Available Mixotrophic metabolism was evaluated as an option to augment the growth and lipid production of marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. FTC 209. In this study, a five-level three-factor central composite design (CCD was implemented in order to enrich the W-30 algal growth medium. Response surface methodology (RSM was employed to model the effect of three medium variables, that is, glucose (organic C source, NaNO3 (primary N source, and yeast extract (supplementary N, amino acids, and vitamins on biomass concentration, Xmax, and lipid yield, Pmax/Xmax. RSM capability was also weighed against an artificial neural network (ANN approach for predicting a composition that would result in maximum lipid productivity, Prlipid. A quadratic regression from RSM and a Levenberg-Marquardt trained ANN network composed of 10 hidden neurons eventually produced comparable results, albeit ANN formulation was observed to yield higher values of response outputs. Finalized glucose (24.05 g/L, NaNO3 (4.70 g/L, and yeast extract (0.93 g/L concentration, affected an increase of Xmax to 12.38 g/L and lipid a accumulation of 195.77 mg/g dcw. This contributed to a lipid productivity of 173.11 mg/L per day in the course of two-week cultivation.

  10. Surface engineering of artificial heart valve disks using nanostructured thin films deposited by chemical vapour deposition and sol-gel methods. (United States)

    Jackson, M J; Robinson, G M; Ali, N; Kousar, Y; Mei, S; Gracio, J; Taylor, H; Ahmed, W


    Pyrolytic carbon (PyC) is widely used in manufacturing commercial artificial heart valve disks (HVD). Although PyC is commonly used in HVD, it is not the best material for this application since its blood compatibility is not ideal for prolonged clinical use. As a result thrombosis often occurs and the patients are required to take anti-coagulation drugs on a regular basis in order to minimize the formation of thrombosis. However, anti-coagulation therapy gives rise to some detrimental side effects in patients. Therefore, it is extremely urgent that newer and more technically advanced materials with better surface and bulk properties are developed. In this paper, we report the mechanical properties of PyC-HVD, i.e. strength, wear resistance and coefficient of friction. The strength of the material was assessed using Brinell indentation tests. Furthermore, wear resistance and coefficient of friction values were obtained from pin-on-disk testing. The micro-structural properties of PyC were characterized using XRD, Raman spectroscopy and SEM analysis. Also in this paper we report the preparation of freestanding nanocrystalline diamond films (FSND) using the time-modulated chemical vapour deposition (TMCVD) process. Furthermore, the sol-gel technique was used to uniformly coat PyC-HVD with dense, nanocrystalline-titanium oxide (nc-TiO2) coatings. The as-grown nc-TiO2 coatings were characterized for microstructure using SEM and XRD analysis.

  11. Artificial Intelligence. (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John


    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  12. Artificial blood.



    #Blood substitutes have been developed for almost a century. The various type of artificial blood was continuously available on the market. The theme of this report is to identify the best substitute in emergency situation for some patients and science students. The definition of best is given; thus, as the vital part of the report, the comparison between them is described and discussed. Modified hemoglobin, bovine-based hemoglobin and PFCs are three basic types. In terms of the perfor...

  13. Relationships between medication intake, complaints of dry mouth, salivary flow rate and composition, and the rate of tooth demineralization in situ. (United States)

    Bardow, A; Nyvad, B; Nauntofte, B


    The aim of this study was to describe the relationships between the rate of tooth demineralisation and medication intake, subjective feeling of dry mouth, saliva flow, saliva composition and the salivary level of lactobacilli. The study group consisted of 28 subjects that were divided into three groups according to their unstimulated whole saliva flow rate. Group 1 had an unstimulated saliva low rate 0.30 ml/min (n=9). The rate of tooth demineralization was determined as mineral loss assessed by quantitative microradiography of human root surfaces, exposed to the oral environment for 62 days in situ. The unstimulated and stimulated saliva flow rates, pH, bicarbonate, calcium, phosphate, and protein concentrations, as well as the degree of saturation of saliva with hydroxyapatite and the saliva buffer capacity were determined. The results showed that almost all subjects developed demineralization, albeit at highly varying rates. Eighty-five percent of the subjects in group 1, 33% of the subjects in group 2, and 0% of the subjects in group 3 developed mineral loss above the mean mineral loss for all the root surfaces in this experiment. Futhermore, group 1 differed significantly from groups 2 and 3 in having a higher medication intake, a more pronounced feeling of dry mouth, lower stimulated saliva flow rate, lower stimulated bicarbonate concentration, lower unstimulated and stimulated compositional outputs (bicarbonate, calcium, phosphate, and protein), and a higher Lactobacillus level. The best explanatory variable for high mineral loss in this study was a low unstimulated saliva flow rate. In conclusion, our results suggest that an unstimulated salivary flow rate Navazesh et al. (1992), is a better indicator of increased caries risk due to impaired salivation, than the currently accepted definition of hyposalivation (unstimulated saliva flow rate < or =0.10 ml/min), which relates to the function of the salivary glands (Sreebny, 1992).

  14. Artificial vision. (United States)

    Zarbin, M; Montemagno, C; Leary, J; Ritch, R


    A number treatment options are emerging for patients with retinal degenerative disease, including gene therapy, trophic factor therapy, visual cycle inhibitors (e.g., for patients with Stargardt disease and allied conditions), and cell transplantation. A radically different approach, which will augment but not replace these options, is termed neural prosthetics ("artificial vision"). Although rewiring of inner retinal circuits and inner retinal neuronal degeneration occur in association with photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), it is possible to create visually useful percepts by stimulating retinal ganglion cells electrically. This fact has lead to the development of techniques to induce photosensitivity in cells that are not light sensitive normally as well as to the development of the bionic retina. Advances in artificial vision continue at a robust pace. These advances are based on the use of molecular engineering and nanotechnology to render cells light-sensitive, to target ion channels to the appropriate cell type (e.g., bipolar cell) and/or cell region (e.g., dendritic tree vs. soma), and on sophisticated image processing algorithms that take advantage of our knowledge of signal processing in the retina. Combined with advances in gene therapy, pathway-based therapy, and cell-based therapy, "artificial vision" technologies create a powerful armamentarium with which ophthalmologists will be able to treat blindness in patients who have a variety of degenerative retinal diseases.

  15. Effects of ionizing radiation on proteins in demineralized, lyophilized or frozen human bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antebi, Uri; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Guimaraes, Rodrigo P., E-mail: [Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (FCM/SCSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas


    The aim is the study of the application of ionizing radiation (gamma and electron) as sterilizing agents at doses of 15 kGy, 25 kGy and 50 kGy, the demineralized bone tissue frozen and freeze-dried for use in transplants. Five human femoral diaphysis of different donors demineralized bone tissues were preserved as lyophilized or frozen at - 80 deg C. The samples were divided into non-irradiated groups (control) and irradiated by gamma rays or electron beam. The bone proteins were extracted and used to determine the concentrations of total protein, BMP 2 and 7. It was observed a decrease in total protein concentrations, and BMP 2 and 7. The decrease in total protein concentrations, as compared to respective control groups was significant in the lyophilized and frozen samples irradiated at a dose of 50 kGy gamma radiation and beam electrons with greater than 30% reduction. The significant decrease in the levels of BMP 2 and 7 were also observed in higher doses and especially by electron beam. The reductions in the concentrations of total protein and osteoinductive proteins (BMP 2 and 7), were related to the radiation dose, i.e., increase with higher doses of ionizing radiation type and the type of preservation of the bones. The largest reductions in concentrations were observed in bone irradiated by electron beam and at a dose of 50 kGy. But this type of radiation and this high dose are not usual practice for the sterilization of bone tissue. Keywords: demineralized bone tissue, ionizing radiation, Tissue Bank, BMP 2, BMP 7, bone proteins. (author)

  16. Carbonization and demineralization of coals: A study by means of FT–IR spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Gómez-Serrano; M C Fernández-González; M L Rojas-Cervantes; M F Alexandre-Franco; A Macías-García


    Coal basically consists of two parts-a crystalline, inorganic part, and an amorphous, organic part. Based on this, we intended to study the changes that occurred on the composition and on the chemical structure of coals after carbonization at 1000 or 900°C and demineralization treatments with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. For this, four coals of different categories (or levels) were chosen: semianthracite (A–O) and high volatile bituminous coal (B–O), which are high level coals, and lignite (Li–O) and leonardite (Le–O), these being low level coals. The coals were first analysed in terms of their proximate and elemental compositions and then carbonized and demineralized. Also, the starting coals and the prepared samples were examined by infrared spectroscopy. In addition, a study of the optimization of the application of this technique for only A–O was carried out. For A–O and B–O, the spectra recorded intense absorption bands that are ascribable to vibration modes in mineral components as quartz and aluminosilicates, such as kaolinite. For Li–O and Le–O, the spectra displayed some other bands as well, also quite intense, which have been assigned to bond vibrations in functional groups and structures of their organic part. The carbonization of the coals resulted in significant changes in their inorganic part as the content of quartz increased and the content of aluminosilicates decreased. In addition, the thermal decomposition of mineral carbonates occurred. The carbonization greatly affects the organic part of the coals, especially in Li–O and Le–O, as most functional groups and structures are not thermally stable under heating conditions. With regard to demineralization, HF is a more effective agent than HCl, achieving products with higher organic content. The mass losses are higher in Li–O and Le–O than in A–O and B–O. So, the infrared spectroscopy allows the analysis of both inorganic and organic parts of the coals and of

  17. Evaluation of SG blowdown demineralizer performance by replacement of ammonia with ethanolamine as a PWR secondary pH control agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, I.H. [Department of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Soonchunhyang Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Yim, S.J. [Operation Management Team, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Four Korean PWR plants have adopted ethanolamine (ETA) as a secondary pH control agent to increase the pH at the liquid phase, which raises the pH in the SG blowdown system. The run time of the SG blowdown demineralizer can be reduced by the increased number of ionic chemical species primarily due to ETA. Contrary to the possible prevention of SG degradation, the replacement of ammonia with ETA results in the water chemistry difficulties and more frequent generation of spent resin. A comprehensive experimental data set for binary, ternary, quaternary, and quinary cation and anion adsorption was developed from small-volume batch tests at total cation or anion concentrations of 0.01 and 0.05 N to obtain the selectivity coefficients of many cations and anions normally present in the PWR secondary system water. In addition, the kinetic study using the bench-scale column was performed to examine the breakthrough point of an ion and to calculate the ratio of inlet to outlet concentration at the column, so called Decontamination Factor, in the different background electrolyte. The batch equilibrium tests indicated that the ion selectivity is higher for an ion of higher valence and is not uniform in the different composition and ionic strength. The preference of an ion on ion exchange resin rather tends to be lower with higher ionic strength. The leakage of an ion from the ion exchange column is not also uniform in time in the various composition and total concentration. Therefore the ion selectivity and breakthrough time are different in ammonia and ethanolamine background electrolytes. The run time of SG blowdown demineralizer can be shorter than it can be expected due to the elevated ionic strength as well as the increased dissolved solids. The quantitative run time can be estimated by such ion exchange models as semi-empirical mass action and surface complexation models. The demineralizer can be used longer by increasing the ratios of cation to anion exchange resins in

  18. Radiolarian artificial neural network based paleo sea surface water temperature and salinity changes during the last glacial cycle in the Timor Sea, Indian Ocean (United States)

    Gupta, S. M.; Malmgren, B. A.


    The western Pacific water enters into the Timor Sea (tropical Indian Ocean) by the thermohaline conveyor belt, and this region is under the influence of the SW monsoon. The higher precipitation during the monsoon rains lower the surface salinity in the north-eastern Indian Ocean towards the Bay of Bengal; whereas, the Arabian Sea remains highly saline due to higher evaporation in the region surrounding Arabian deserts. The salinity contrast in the northern Indian Ocean is very unique, and the radiolarian micro-zooplanktons living in the surface water serve a very good proxy for the monsoonal changes in the surface sea-water temperature (SST) and salinity in the geological past. We studied radiolarian faunal variation in the core MD01-2378, located at ~13oS and ~121oE (1783 m water depth), at the inlet of the thermohaline circulation into the Timor Sea. We applied the modern radiolarian based artificial neural networks (ANNs) (Gupta and Malmgren, 2009) to derive the SST and salinity during August-October for the last 140 ka (the full last glacial cycle). Based on the mean estimates of the 10 ANNs, the root mean square error in prediction (RMSEP) for SST is ~1.4oC with correlation between observed and estimated values r=0.98 (Gupta and Malmgren, 2009). Similarly, the RMSEP is 0.3 psu (r=0.94) for the salinity estimates. We derived paleo-SSTs and salinity values using modern radiolarian ANNs and the fossil radiolarian data generated from the core for the last 140-ka (Fig.1). The age model of the core is based on δ18O benthic oxygen isotope stratigraphy and 21 AMS 14C ages up to ~30-ka (Holbourn et al., 2005). Paleo SST-summer varied between 22-28.5oC, and it is in very good agreement with the δ18O benthic record of Holbourn et al. (2005) defining the Last Glacial Maximum (~24 ka) and the Eemian (~125 ka) stages. The salinity fluctuated between 34-35 psu, and compared well with oxygen isotope record representing the LGM and Eemian periods. We gratefully acknowledge

  19. Investigation of hyperelastic models for nonlinear elastic behavior of demineralized and deproteinized bovine cortical femur bone. (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, M; Ghoreishi, M; Narooei, K


    In this study, the hyperelastic models of demineralized and deproteinized bovine cortical femur bone were investigated and appropriate models were developed. Using uniaxial compression test data, the strain energy versus stretch was calculated and the appropriate hyperelastic strain energy functions were fitted on data in order to calculate the material parameters. To obtain the mechanical behavior in other loading conditions, the hyperelastic strain energy equations were investigated for pure shear and equi-biaxial tension loadings. The results showed the Mooney-Rivlin and Ogden models cannot predict the mechanical response of demineralized and deproteinized bovine cortical femur bone accurately, while the general exponential-exponential and general exponential-power law models have a good agreement with the experimental results. To investigate the sensitivity of the hyperelastic models, a variation of 10% in material parameters was performed and the results indicated an acceptable stability for the general exponential-exponential and general exponential-power law models. Finally, the uniaxial tension and compression of cortical femur bone were studied using the finite element method in VUMAT user subroutine of ABAQUS software and the computed stress-stretch curves were shown a good agreement with the experimental data.

  20. Anisotropy in bone demineralization revealed by polarized far-IR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Schuetz, Roman; Fix, Dmitri; Schade, Ulrich; Aziz, Emad F; Timofeeva, Nadya; Weinkamer, Richard; Masic, Admir


    Bone material is composed of an organic matrix of collagen fibers and apatite nanoparticles. Previously, vibrational spectroscopy techniques such as infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy have proved to be particularly useful for characterizing the two constituent organic and inorganic phases of bone. In this work, we tested the potential use of high intensity synchrotron-based far-IR radiation (50-500 cm(-1)) to gain new insights into structure and chemical composition of bovine fibrolamellar bone. The results from our study can be summarized in the following four points: (I) compared to far-IR spectra obtained from synthetic hydroxyapatite powder, those from fibrolamellar bone showed similar peak positions, but very different peak widths; (II) during stepwise demineralization of the bone samples, there was no significant change neither to far-IR peak width nor position, demonstrating that mineral dissolution occurred in a uniform manner; (III) application of external loading on fully demineralized bone had no significant effect on the obtained spectra, while dehydration of samples resulted in clear differences. (IV) using linear dichroism, we showed that the anisotropic structure of fibrolamellar bone is also reflected in anisotropic far-IR absorbance properties of both the organic and inorganic phases. Far-IR spectroscopy thus provides a novel way to functionally characterize bone structure and chemistry, and with further technological improvements, has the potential to become a useful clinical diagnostic tool to better assess quality of collagen-based tissues.

  1. Chitosan/Riboflavin-modified demineralized dentin as a potential substrate for bonding. (United States)

    Fawzy, Amr S; Nitisusanta, Lorraine I; Iqbal, Kulsum; Daood, Umer; Beng, Lu Thong; Neo, Jennifer


    Previous studies have suggested different approaches to modify dentin collagen for potential improvement in bonding to dentin. Here, we are proposing a new approach to reinforce dentin collagen fibrils network by chitosan as a reinforcement phase and UVA-activated riboflavin as crosslinking agent within clinically acceptable time-frame as potential substrate for bonding. The effect of modifying demineralized dentin substrates with chitosan/riboflavin, with a gradual increase in chitosan content, was investigated by SEM, nano-indentation, conventional-mechanical testing and hydroxyproline (HYP) release at collagenolytic and/or hydrolytic challenges. The resin/dentin interface morphology, immediate bond strength and short-term bond durability were also investigated using etch-and-rinse dentin adhesive. Modification with chitosan/riboflavin increased the mechanical properties, enhanced the mechanical stability of demineralized dentin substrates against hydrolytic and/or collagenolytic degradation challenges and decreased HYP release with collagenase exposure. When chitosan was added to riboflavin at 20%v/v ratio, significant improvement in bond strength at 24 h and 6 months in distilled water was found indicating the positive dual effect on bonding to dentin. With the gradual increase in chitosan content, obliteration of interfibrillar-spaces that might adversely affect bonding to dentin was found. Although it has a synergetic effect, chitosan content is crucial for any subsequent application in adhesive dentistry.

  2. Predicting rapid herbicide leaching to surface waters from an artificially drained headwater catchment using a one dimensional two-domain model coupled with a simple groundwater model. (United States)

    Tediosi, A; Whelan, M J; Rushton, K R; Gandolfi, C


    Pesticide losses to water can present problems for environmental management, particularly in catchments where surface waters are abstracted for drinking water supply. The relative role of different transfer pathways (spray drift, spills, overland flow and leaching from soils) is often uncertain, and there is a need for experimental observation and modelling to ensure that processes are understood under a range of conditions. Here we examine the transport of propyzamide and carbetamide in a small (15.5 ha) headwater sub-catchment dominated by an artificially drained field with strongly undulating topography (topographic gradients >1:10). Specifically, we explore the validity of the "field-scale lysimeter" analogy by applying the one dimensional mathematical model MACRO. Although one dimensional representation has been shown to be reasonable elsewhere, the scale and topography of the monitored system challenge many of the underlying assumptions. MACRO considers two interacting flow domains: micropores and macropores. The effect of subsurface drains can also be included. A component of the outflow from the main drain was identified as originating from an upslope permeable shallow aquifer which was represented using a simple groundwater model. Predicted herbicide losses were sensitive to drain spacing and the organic carbon to water partition coefficient, K(OC). The magnitude of the peak water and herbicide transport and their timing were simulated satisfactorily, although model performance was poor following a period of one month when snow covered the ground and precipitation was underestimated by the rain gauge. Total herbicide loads were simulated adequately by MACRO, suggesting that the field-scale lysimeter analogy is valid at this scale, although baseflow contributions to flow needed to be accounted for separately in order to adequately represent hydrological response.

  3. The effect of lanthanum,calcium,fluoride on enamel demineralization —— analysis of Microhardness.%镧、钙、氟对釉质脱矿的影响——显微硬度测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大力; 王小平; 袁诗芬


    目的:比较镧、钙、氟对人牙釉质酸蚀脱矿影响,为镧的应用研究提供实验依据。方法:酸性凝胶化学致龋,测定釉质脱矿区剖面显微硬度,逐点单因素方差分析其显微硬度值。结果:釉质表层下25~150μm范围内,镧处理组、氟处理组的硬度值高于对照组;25~75μm范围内,镧处理组的硬度值高于钙处理组;50~150μm范围内,钙处理组的硬度值高于对照组,氟处理组的硬度值高于镧处理组。结论:脱矿凝胶中加入1g/L的Ca2+、La3+、F-均阻止釉质硬度的下降,氟的作用最强,钙的作用最弱,镧的作用界于氟和钙之间。%Objective:The study is designed to compare the effect ofLanthanum(La),Calcium(Ca),Fluoride(F) on enamel demineralization after etching,and to provide an experimental reference for the application of Lanthanum.Methods:We artifically induced caries with acidulous gel,measured the microhardness of enamel demineralization area,and analysed the microhardness values in spot by spot one-way analysis of variance(ANONA).Results:In the range 25 μm to 150μm from the enamel surface,the microhardness value of La and F groups were higher than that of control group;Range 25μm to 75μm from the surface,the value of La group was higher than Ca group;while under 50 to 150μm from the surface,the value of Ca group was higher than control group,La was lower than F group.Conclusion:The demineralization gels containing Ca2+,La3+,F- can reduce enamel demineralization,Among them the function of F was the toppest,then La,and Ca was the last.

  4. Socket preservation using demineralized freezed dried bone allograft with and without plasma rich in growth factor: A canine study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mogharehabed


    Full Text Available Background: The accelerating effect of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGFs in the healing of extraction sockets has been demonstrated by some studies. The aim of the present study was to histologically and histomorphometrically evaluate whether bone formation would increase by the combined use of PRGF and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA. Materials and Methods: In four female dogs, the distal root of the second, third and fourth lower premolars were extracted bilaterally and the mesial roots were preserved. The extraction sockets were randomly divided into DFDBA + PRGF, DFDBA + saline or control groups. Two dogs were sacrificed after 2 weeks and two dogs were sacrificed after 6 weeks. The extraction sockets were evaluated from both histological and histomorphometrical aspects. The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney followed by Kruskal-Wallis tests using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Significant levels were set at 0.05. Results: The least decrease in socket height was observed in the DFDBA + PRGF group (0.73 ± 0.42 mm. The least decrease in the coronal portion was observed in the DFDBA + PRGF group (1.38 ± 1.35 mm². The least decrease in the middle surface was observed in the DFDBA group (0.61 ± 0.80 mm². The least decrease in the apical portion was observed in the DFDBA group (0.34 ± 0.39 mm². Conclusion: The present study showed better socket preservation subsequent to the application of DFDBA and PRGF combination in comparison with the two other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant.

  5. Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.V.; Malhotra, V.M.; Wiltowski, T. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)


    The overall objective of this two-year project is to evaluate methods of preparing demineralized and carbon enriched chars from Minois Basin coal. There are two processing steps: physical cleaning of the coal and devolatilization of coal under different environments (He, H{sub 2}, He/O{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}) to form chars. Also, as-received and clean coal samples were mixed with hectorite, Ca-montmorillonite, and kaolinite to evaluate the potential effects of these clays on chars yield and agglomeration during devolatilization processes. Three different techniques were used: thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and in-situ diffuse reflectance FTIR (ISDR-FTIR). Thermogravimetric measurements showed that reactive gases (except He) dissolve in the softened coal. Also, these gases convert some of the coal mineral matter into catalyst by chemical reduction and oxidation. Coal reactivity increases by adding clays because they may be catalyst for methane activation, may prevent coal agglomeration, and may modify the geometric structure of the coal surface. DSC measurements show that clean coal devolatilizes at a lower temperature than as-received sample and preoxidation lowers the devolatilization temperature. Additionally, kaolinite addition increase yields of chars from IBC-102 coal in He. In-situ diffuse reflectance FTIR experiments show that thermal decomposition of coal either increases -CH{sub 3}, content in char or alters the physical structure of -CH{sub 3}. Also, phenol groups of the coal play an important role in cross-linkage the coal structure when coal is thermally treated.

  6. Effect of high-fructose corn syrup on Streptococcus mutans virulence gene expression and on tooth demineralization. (United States)

    Sun, Minmin; Kang, Qiongyi; Li, Tingting; Huang, Lili; Jiang, Yuntao; Xia, Wenwei


    High-fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) has been widely welcomed in recent years as a substitute for sucrose on the basis of its favourable properties and price. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of HFCS-55 on the expression of Streptococcus mutans UA159 virulence genes and on tooth demineralization. Real-time reverse-transcription PCR (real-time RT-PCR) and microhardness evaluations were performed to examine gene expression and enamel demineralization, respectively, after treatment with HFCS-55 and/or sucrose. Significant up-regulation of glucosyltransferase B (gtfB) by HFCS-55 was found. A mixture of HFCS-55 and sucrose could positively enhance expression of glucan-binding protein (gbp) genes. Regarding acidogenicity, expression of the lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) gene was unaffected by HFCS-55. A notable finding in this study was that 5% HFCS-55 significantly enhanced expression of the intracellular response gene of the two-component VicRK signal transduction system (vicR). Demineralization testing showed that the microhardness of teeth decreased by a greater extent in response to HFCS-55 than in response to sucrose. The results indicate that HFCS-55 can enhance S. mutans biofilm formation indirectly in the presence of sucrose and that HFCS-55 has a more acidogenic potential than does sucrose. Summing up the real-time PCR and demineralization results, HFCS-55 appears to be no less cariogenic than sucrose in vitro - at least, not under the conditions of our experiments.

  7. Effects of demineralized bone matrix and a 'Ricinus communis' polymer on bone regeneration: a histological study in rabbit calvaria. (United States)

    Laureano Filho, José R; Andrade, Emanuel S S; Albergaria-Barbosa, José R; Camargo, Igor B; Garcia, Robson R


    The aim of the present study was to histologically analyze the effects of bovine and human demineralized bone matrix and a Ricinus communis polymer on the bone regeneration process. Two surgical bone defects were created in rabbit calvaria, one on the right and the other on the left side of the parietal suture. Eighteen rabbits were divided into three groups. In Group I, the experimental defect was treated with bovine demineralized bone matrix, Group II with human demineralized bone matrix, and in Group III, the experimental cavity was treated with polyurethane resin derived from Ricinus communis oil. The control defects were filled with the animals' own blood. The animals were sacrificed after 7 and 15 weeks. Histological analysis revealed that in all groups (control and experimental), bone regeneration increased with time. The least time required for bone regeneration was noted in the control group, with a substantial decrease in the thickness of the defect. All materials proved to be biologically compatible, but polyurethane resorbed more slowly and demonstrated considerably better results than the demineralized bone matrices.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The aim of this cross-over study was to determine the cariogenic potential of starchy food items as between-meal snacks. This was done by measuring demineralization of human enamel and dentin as well as the pH of dental plaque in situ. Eight volunteers with complete dentures carried two enamel and t

  9. Effects of experimental passive artificial recharge of treated surface water on water quality in the Equus Beds Aquifer, 2009-2010 (United States)

    Garinger, Linda Pickett; King, Aaron S.; Ziegler, Andrew C.


    Declining water levels and concerns about the migration of a known saltwater plume upgradient from public supply wells prompted the City of Wichita to investigate the feasibility of using artificial recharge to replenish the water supply in the Equus Beds aquifer. After preliminary testing, the City of Wichita began Phase I of the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery Project in 2006. In 2009, the City of Wichita installed an experimental passive gravity recharge well and trench system to increase artificial recharge at Recharge Basin 1, one of the six Phase ? recharge sites.

  10. The effect of a composite of polyorthoester and demineralized bone on the healing of large segmental defects of the radius in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M; Andersen, R


    The effect of a composite of demineralized bone mixed with polyorthoester on the healing of large segmental defects in the rat radius was studied. Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, A through D, and an osteoperiosteal diaphyseal defect of 50 per cent of the length of the bone...... was made in the right radius of each rat. In Group A, the defect was filled with polyorthoester and demineralized bone; in Group B, demineralized bone; and in Group C, polyorthoester. No material was implanted in the defects in the Group-D rats. The rats were killed fifty days postoperatively...

  11. FT Raman spectroscopy in the study of human teeth under medications demineralization (United States)

    de Sant'Anna, G. R.; Nascimento, E. B.; Higa, A. G.; Santos, E. A. P.; Espirito Santo, A. M.; Martín, A. A.


    The in situ study evaluated antihistamine (DA) and bronchodilator(DB) drugs actions on dental enamel using FT Raman spectroscopy. Analysis of pH drugs were permorfed, DA 1.48 and DB 2.90. Enamel (n=24) were analysed by FT - Raman and randomly distributed in control group (CG) and experimental groups (GEA and GEB), specimens fixed in palatine appliances. In CG, dripped 20% sucrose (8Xday/3 min)/7 days. In GEA, 20% sucrose (8Xday/3 min) + drug (4Xday/3 min). In GEB, 20% sucrose (8Xday/3 min) B + drug (4Xday/3 min). FT- Raman analysis was performed again. Data analyzed by Student t test and ANOVA Differences in peak intensity of carbonate (CO3) /phosphate (PO4) (pdrugs, reduction in the amount of carbonate, organic and inorganic components were observed, denoting possible demineralization.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. B. Yurasova


    Full Text Available Research is devoted an experimental estimation of osteoinductive properties of demineralized bone implants (DBA made on technology CITO with use of lyophilization and radiating sterilization by stream of fast electrons. As experimental animals, white rats on ectopic osteogenesis model for a period of 40 days and rabbits to which DBA implanted into defect of the jaw with terms of experiment 10, 20, 30, 60 and 90 days have been chosen. Results of morphological researches testified to absence of toxicity, presence of high indicators of biointegration and osteoinductance studied DBA. The offered technology of processing of a bone tissue allows to keep biological activity of tissues and to receive biological materials with the expressed plastic properties. Obtained among other data were the bases for the decision of use of these materials in clinic of different bone pathologies.

  13. Effects of ionizing radiation on proteins in lyophilized or frozen demineralized human bone (United States)

    Antebi, Uri; Mathor, Monica Beatriz; da Silva, André Ferreira; Guimarães, Rodrigo Pereira; Honda, Emerson Kiyoshi


    Objective The aim was to study the effects of application of ionizing radiation (gamma and electrons) as sterilizing agents at doses of 15 kGy, 25 kGy and 50 kGy, on lyophilized or frozen demineralized bone tissue for use in transplants. Methods Five human femoral diaphyses from different donors of musculoskeletal tissue were demineralized and preserved as lyophilized or frozen at −80 °C. The samples were divided into two groups: non-irradiated (control) and irradiated by means of gamma rays or an electron beam. The bone proteins were extracted and used to determine the concentrations of total protein and BMP 2 and 7. Results Decreases in total protein and BMP 2 and 7 concentrations were observed. The decreases in total protein concentrations, in comparison with the respective control groups, were significant in the lyophilized and frozen samples that were irradiated at a dose of 50 kGy of gamma radiation and electron beam, with reductions of more than 30%. Significant decreases in the levels of BMP 2 and 7 were also observed at higher doses and especially through use of the electron beam. Conclusion The reductions in the concentrations of total proteins and osteoinductive proteins (BMP 2 and 7) were related to the radiation dose, i.e. they increased with higher doses of ionizing radiation type and the type of bone preservation. The largest reductions in concentrations were observed in the bones irradiated by means of an electron beam and at a dose of 50 kGy. However, this type of radiation and this high dose are not usual practices for sterilization of bone tissue. PMID:27069893

  14. Novel Dental Cement to Combat Biofilms and Reduce Acids for Orthodontic Applications to Avoid Enamel Demineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang


    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatments often lead to biofilm buildup and white spot lesions due to enamel demineralization. The objectives of this study were to develop a novel bioactive orthodontic cement to prevent white spot lesions, and to determine the effects of cement compositions on biofilm growth and acid production. 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC, nanoparticles of silver (NAg, and dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM were incorporated into a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGI. Enamel shear bond strength (SBS was determined. Protein adsorption was determined using a micro bicinchoninic acid method. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was used to investigate metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU and lactic acid production. Incorporating 3% of MPC, 1.5% of DMAHDM, and 0.1% of NAg into RMGI, and immersing in distilled water at 37 °C for 30 days, did not decrease the SBS, compared to control (p > 0.1. RMGI with 3% MPC + 1.5% DMAHDM + 0.1% NAg had protein amount that was 1/10 that of control. RMGI with triple agents (MPC + DMAHDM + NAg had much stronger antibacterial property than using a single agent or double agents (p < 0.05. Biofilm CFU on RMGI with triple agents was reduced by more than 3 orders of magnitude, compared to commercial control. Biofilm metabolic activity and acid production were also greatly reduced. In conclusion, adding MPC + DMAHDM + NAg in RMGI substantially inhibited biofilm viability and acid production, without compromising the orthodontic bracket bond strength to enamel. The novel bioactive cement is promising for orthodontic applications to hinder biofilms and plaque buildup and enamel demineralization.

  15. Artificial Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru JIVAN


    Full Text Available This paper proposes to eliminate, a routine in the economic thinking, claimed to be responsible for the negative essence of economic developments, from the point of view, of the ecological implications (employment in the planetary ecosystem. The methodological foundations start from the natural origins of the functionality of the human economic society according to the originary physiocrat liberalism, and from specific natural characteristics of the humankind. This paper begins with a comment-analysis of the difference between natural and artificial within the economy, and then explains some of the most serious diversions from the natural essence of economic liberalism. It shall be explained the original (heterodox interpretation of the Classical political economy (economics, by making calls to the Romanian economic thinking from aggravating past century. Highlighting the destructive impact of the economy - which, under the invoked doctrines, we call unnatural - allows an intuitive presentation of a logical extension of Marshall's market price, based on previous research. Besides the doctrinal arguments presented, the economic realities inventoried along the way (major deficiencies and effects, determined demonstrate the validity of the hypothesis of the unnatural character and therefore necessarily to be corrected, of the concept and of the mechanisms of the current economy.The results of this paper consist of original heterodox methodspresented, intuitive or developed that can be found conclusively within the key proposals for education and regulation.

  16. The adipocyte component of bone marrow in heterotopic bone induced by demineralized incisor grafts The adipocyte component of bone marrow in heterotopic bone induced by demineralized incisor grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof H. Włodarski


    Full Text Available The relative proportion of adipocytes to hematopoietic elements in the marrow of heterotopically
    induced bone evaluated 4–42 weeks post implantation of demineralized murine incisors was estimated by histological
    analysis of hematoxylin-eosin stained tissue sections. Using computerized image analysis of microphotographs,
    the proportion of nuclear cells vs. adipocytes was ascertained. The percentage of adipocytes in marrow
    increases over time. Such an effect, the replacement of myelopoietic marrow by adipogenic (yellow marrow
    and the resorption of induced bone, is observed in human osteoporosis. A decline in the non-adipogenic cell
    compartments of bone marrow accompanying induced bone begins in the fourth week of induction, gradually
    progresses until the 26th week, and does not change after that. The luminosity, a parameter used in image analysis
    and proportional to the number of nuclear cells, was 124 ± 3 in hematopoietic femoral bone marrow, and
    that of bone marrow of the induced bone was of a similar value (117 ± 8 in the fourth week. An evident decline
    in luminosity of bone marrow filling the foci of heterotopic bone was observed in samples taken at nine weeks
    (82 ± 20. This process progressed until the 26th week, reaching a luminosity of 70 ± 21. At the 42nd week, the
    luminosity remained at the same level (71 ± 27. This indicates that the replacement of hematopoietic bone
    marrow of heterotopically induced bone by unilocular adipocytes begins relatively early (the fourth week and is
    persistent.The relative proportion of adipocytes to hematopoietic elements in the marrow of heterotopically
    induced bone evaluated 4–42 weeks post implantation of demineralized murine incisors was estimated by histological
    analysis of hematoxylin-eosin stained tissue sections. Using computerized image analysis of microphotographs,
    the proportion of nuclear cells vs

  17. 人纳米脱钙骨基质复合物的理化性质和安全性%Physicochemical property and safety of nanometer human demineralized bone matrix composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房雷; 陈雄生; 黄凯; 周盛源; 朱巍; 王辉; 邵将; 贾连顺


    matrix in previous experiment, we mixed the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 together to obtain the new bone graft substitute and to research its physical and chemical properties and biological security. METHODS:The human demineralized bone matrixes were prepared by the method of modified Urist and nano-processed then mixed with the bone morphogenetic protein-2 in specific proportions in order to be lyophilized to complete the fol owing experiments. (1) Pyrogen experiment:the material extracts were injected in the rabbits by ear intravenous. (2) Toxicity experiments:material extracts and saline were separately injected via the tail vein of mice in vivo. (3) Implantation experiments:experimental materials andβ-tricalcium phosphate were implanted into rabbits on both sides of the hindlimb muscle. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:After lyophilized shaping, the nanometer demineralized bone matrix material had dense surface and it’s pore diameter was 100-400μm. The pore distribution was less uniform and the porosity was of less than 30%. The main elements were carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. Nanometer human demineralized bone matrix with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 did not have pyrogen effect and the rabbits’ body temperature had no significant fluctuations after injection. The acute systemic toxicity test results showed that the nanometer human demineralized bone matrix with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 complied with the relevant provisions of the State, without obvious toxic reaction. The inflammatory response of nanometer human demineralized bone matrix with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 was significantly lighter than the reaction ofβ-tricalcium phosphate. The results showed that the nanometer human demineralized bone matrix with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 is a nanometer al ogeneic bone graft substitutes with nontoxicity, good biocompatibility, high bioavailability, and less inflammatory

  18. 渗透树脂对人工龋损显微硬度影响的研究%Effect of resin infiltration on microhardness of artificial caries lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永红; 邓辉; 唐龙妹; 张志勇


    目的 比较渗透树脂、氟保护漆和窝沟封闭剂处理人工龋损即刻和二次脱矿后釉质表面及纵剖面显微硬度的变化,为渗透树脂的临床应用提供依据.方法 选取40颗牛下切牙制备人工龋,按照随机数字表法随机分为A(渗透树脂)、B(氟保护漆)、C(窝沟封闭剂)、D(空白对照)4组,每组10颗牙.垂直于样本牙唇面将其一分为二,一半样本牙测量釉质表面及纵剖面(唇面断缘下40、80及120 μm 3个层面)不同深度的显微硬度值,将另一半样本牙再次置于脱矿液中,二次测量上述测量平面的显微硬度值.使用扫描电镜观察样本牙纵剖面3种材料的渗透情况.结果 4组组内比较均显示釉质表面显微硬度值最高,随着纵剖面深度增加,釉质显微硬度值下降,且在不同深度断面,4组的显微硬度值相比差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).3种方法处理人工龋损后,初次测量样本牙组间比较,在釉质表面和纵剖面40 μm处A、B、C3组的显微硬度值均显著高于D组(P<0.05);在纵剖面80 μm处,A组显微硬度值[(324± 17) kg/mm2]与C组[(316±20) kg/mm2]间差异无统计学意义,但两组均显著高于D组[(294±23) kg/mm2] (P<0.05),D组与B组[(303±13) kg/mm2]间差异无统计学意义;在纵剖面120 μm处,A组显微硬度值显著高于其他3组(P<0.05).二次脱矿后再次测量样本牙釉质表面的显微硬度值,结果同初次测量;在纵剖面40 μm处的测量结果与初次测量80 μm处相同;在纵剖面80及120 μm处,A组均显著高于其他3组.结论 渗透树脂能有效加强人工龋损釉质表面和不同深度纵剖面的显微硬度.%Objective To compare the changes of enamel surface and cross-sectional microhardness of artificial caries immediately and after the twice demineralization through coating resin infiltration, fluoride varnish and fissure sealant.Methods A total of forty bovine lower incisors enamel samples with artificial caries

  19. Estimation of lesion progress in artificial root caries by swept source optical coherence tomography in comparison to transverse microradiography. (United States)

    Natsume, Yuko; Nakashima, Syozi; Sadr, Alireza; Shimada, Yasushi; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori


    This study aimed to investigate whether swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) could estimate the lesion depth and mineral loss quantitatively without the use of polarization sensitivity, and to examine a relationship between OCT data and transverse microradiography (TMR) lesion parameters. Twenty-four bovine root dentin specimens were allocated to three groups of 4-, 7-, and 14-day demineralization. Cross-sectional images of the specimens before and after the demineralization were captured by OCT at 1319 nm center wavelength. Following the demineralization, these specimens were cut into sections for TMR analysis. Correlations between the OCT data and TMR lesion parameters were examined. TMR images of the specimens showed cavitated lesions (lesion depth or LD(TMR): 200 to 500 μm, ΔZ or mineral loss: 10,000 to 30,000 vol % μm). The OCT images showed "boundaries," suggesting the lesion front. Integrated dB values before and after the demineralization and their difference (R(D), R(S), and ΔR, respectively) were calculated from the lesion surface to the corrected depth of boundary (LD(OCT)). A statistically significant correlation was found between LD(OCT) and LD(TMR) (p < 0.05, r = 0.68). Similarly, statistically significant correlations were found between ΔZ and R(D) or ΔR. The OCT showed a potential for quantitative estimation of lesion depth and mineral loss with cavitated dentin lesions in vitro.

  20. Artificial vision. (United States)

    Humayun, M S; de Juan, E


    Outer retinal degenerations such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) lead to blindness because of photoreceptor degeneration. To test whether controlled electrical stimulation of the remaining retinal neurons could provide form vision, we electrically stimulated the inner retinal surface with micro-electrodes inserted through the sclera/eye wall of 14 of these patients (12 RP and 2 AMD). This procedure was performed in the operating room under local anaesthesia and all responses were recorded via a video camera mounted on the surgical microscope. Electrical stimulation of the inner retinal surface elicited visual perception of a spot of light (phosphene) in all subjects. This perception was retinotopically correct in 13 of 14 patients. In a resolution test in a subject with no light perception, the patient could resolve phosphenes at 1.75 degrees centre-to-centre distance (i.e. visual acuity compatible with mobility; Snellen visual acuity of 4/200).

  1. Demineralized Bone Matrix (DBM) as a Bone Void Filler in Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Prospective Pilot Study of Simultaneous DBM and Autologous Bone Grafts (United States)

    Kim, Bum-Joon; Kim, Se-Hoon; Lee, Haebin; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Won-Hyung; Jin, Sung-Won


    Objective Solid bone fusion is an essential process in spinal stabilization surgery. Recently, as several minimally invasive spinal surgeries have developed, a need of artificial bone substitutes such as demineralized bone matrix (DBM), has arisen. We investigated the in vivo bone growth rate of DBM as a bone void filler compared to a local autologous bone grafts. Methods From April 2014 to August 2015, 20 patients with a one or two-level spinal stenosis were included. A posterior lumbar interbody fusion using two cages and pedicle screw fixation was performed for every patient, and each cage was packed with autologous local bone and DBM. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) of leg pain and back pain and the Korean Oswestry Disability Index (K-ODI). Clinical outcome parameters and range of motion (ROM) of the operated level were collected preoperatively and at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. Computed tomography was performed 1 year after fusion surgery and bone growth of the autologous bone grafts and DBM were analyzed by ImageJ software. Results Eighteen patients completed 1 year of follow-up, including 10 men and 8 women, and the mean age was 56.4 (32–71). The operated level ranged from L3/4 to L5/S1. Eleven patients had single level and 7 patients had two-level repairs. The mean back pain NRS improved from 4.61 to 2.78 (p=0.003) and the leg pain NRS improved from 6.89 to 2.39 (posteoporosis. PMID:28264244

  2. Effects of low-energy CO2 laser irradiation and the organic matrix on inhibition of enamel demineralization. (United States)

    Hsu, C Y; Jordan, T H; Dederich, D N; Wefel, J S


    In the past two decades, accumulated evidence has clearly demonstrated the inhibitory effects of laser irradiation on enamel demineralization, but the exact mechanisms of these effects remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low-energy CO2 laser irradiation on demineralization of both normal human enamel and human enamel with its organic matrix removed. Twenty-four human molars were collected, cleaned, and cut into two halves. One half of each tooth was randomly selected and its lipid and protein content extracted. The other half of each tooth was used as the matched control. Each tooth half had two window areas. All the left windows were treated with a low-energy laser irradiation, whereas the right windows served as the non-laser controls. After caries-like lesion formation in a pH-cycling environment, microradiographs of tooth sections were taken for quantification of demineralization. The mean mineral losses (with standard deviation) of the enamel control, the lased enamel, the non-organic enamel control, and the lased non-organic enamel subgroups were 3955 (1191), 52(49), 4565(1311), and 1191 (940), respectively. A factorial ANOVA showed significant effects of laser irradiation (p = 0.0001), organic matrix (p = 0.0125), and the laser-organic matrix interaction (p = 0.0377). The laser irradiation resulted in a greater than 98% reduction in mineral loss, but the laser effect dropped to about 70% when the organic matrix in the enamel was removed. The results suggest that clinically applicable CO2 laser irradiation may cause an almost complete inhibition of enamel demineralization.

  3. Combination of absorbable mesh and demineralized bone matrix in orbital wall fracture for preventing herniation of orbit. (United States)

    Tak, Kyoung Seok; Jung, Min Su; Lee, Byeong Ho; Kim, Joo Hyun; Ahn, Duk Kyun; Jeong, Hii Sun; Park, Young Kyu; Suh, In Suck


    After restoration of orbit wall fracture, preventing sequelae is important. An absorbable mesh is commonly used in orbit wall fracture, yet it has limitation due to orbit sagging when bony defect is larger than the moderate size (1 × 1 cm2). In this study, the authors present a satisfactory result in treating orbit wall fracture larger than the moderate size with a combination of absorbable mesh and demineralized bone matrix.From 2009 to 2012, 63 patients with bony defect larger than the moderate size, who were treated with a combination of absorbable mesh and demineralized bone matrix, were reviewed retrospectively. The site of bony defect, size, and applied amount of demineralized bone matrix were reviewed, and a 2-year follow-up was done. Facial computed tomography scans were checked preoperative, immediate postoperative, and 2-year postoperative.Among the 63 patients, there were 52 men and 11 women. Mean age was 33.3 years. The most common cause was blunt blow (35 cases); mean defect size was 13.36 × 12.82 mm2 in inferior wall fracture and 20.69 × 14.41 mm2 in medial wall fracture. There was no complication except for 3 cases of infraorbital nerve hypoesthesia. A 2-year follow-up computed tomography showed that the surgical site preserved bony formation without herniation. In treating moderate-sized bony defect in orbit wall fracture, absorbable mesh and demineralized bone matrix can maintain structural stability through good bony formation even after degradation of absorbable mesh.

  4. Enamel demineralization and remineralization under plaque fluid-like conditions: a quantitative light-induced fluorescence study. (United States)

    Lippert, F; Butler, A; Lynch, R J M


    The present study investigated de- and remineralization in enamel lesions under plaque fluid (PF)-like conditions using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). Preformed lesions were exposed to partially saturated lactic acid solutions, varying in pH and fluoride concentration ([F]) based on a 5 × 3 factorial study design (0/0.1/0.5/1.5/4 ppm F; pH 4.9/5.2/5.5). Average fluorescence loss (ΔF) was monitored for 11 days. Subsequently, lesions were demineralized in a partially saturated acetic acid solution for two 24-hour periods. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of covariance. Lesions exposed to PF at 4 ppm F and pH 5.5 showed not only the most remineralization (ΔΔF = 28.2 ± 14.0%) for all groups after 11 days, but also the most demineralization (ΔΔF = -19.3 ± 13.5%) after subsequent acetic acid exposure. Increased [F] resulted in more remineralization, regardless of pH. Higher pH values resulted in more remineralization. No remineralization was observed in lesions exposed to F-free solutions, regardless of pH. Remineralization was noticeable under the following conditions: pH 4.9 - [F] = 4 ppm, pH 5.2 - [F] ≥ 1.5 ppm, and pH 5.5 - [F] ≥ 0.5 ppm. Overall, [F] had a stronger effect on remineralization than pH. Subsequent demineralization showed that little protection was offered by PF-like solutions, and further demineralization compared with baseline was observed on lesions not remineralized initially. [F] had a stronger effect on net mineral change than pH. The present study has shown that QLF is a valuable tool in studying lesion de- and remineralization under PF-like conditions, where [F] was shown to be more important than pH.

  5. Advances in the surface modification of artificial scaffolds for tissue engineering%组织工程用人工支架表面改性的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严涛海; 付春林; 刘鹏碧; 陈南梁


    Artificial scaffold for tissue engineering has perfect three-dimensional structure, good cell compatibility and special pharmacological effects, which attracts much attention from the experts in the field of life science and engineering. Artificial stent surface modification research, relating to cell proliferation migration status, is the basis and focus of tissue engineering. Compared with ordinary artificial scaffolds, modified stents not only give cell excellent properties such as good adhesion, proliferation, migration performance, but also have the drug-eluting stents performance which can promote cell growth or the inhibition of diseased cells reproduce, providing a broader application space for the design and research of tissue engineering. The classification, preparation method, structure and properties of surface modification for the artificial scaffolds were summarized and the prospect of the research of the stent surface modification was proposed.%组织工程用人工支架有着完美的三维结构、良好的细胞相容性和特殊的药理作用,一直受到生命科学和工程领域专家的重视。人工支架的表面改性研究关系到细胞生长、繁殖及迁移等状态,是组织工程的基础及热点。与普通人工支架相比,改性支架除了赋予细胞更好的黏附、增殖、迁移性能外,还赋予支架药物洗脱性能,使之能促进细胞生长或抑制病变细胞繁殖,为组织工程的设计研究提供了更广阔的应用空间。文章概述组织工程用人工支架表面改性的分类、制备方法、结构和性能,展望人工支架表面改性研究的前景。

  6. Effect of Surface Roughness on Contact Angle Measurement of Nanofluid on Surface of Stainless Steel 304 by Sessile Drop Method (United States)

    Prajitno, D. H.; Maulana, A.; Syarif, D. G.


    Contact angles play an important role in the mass and heat transfer. Stainless steel 304 has been used for nuclear power plan structure material until now. An experiment to measure contact angle of demineralized aqua and nanofluid containing nano particle of zirconia on metal surface of stainless steel 304 with sessile drop method was conducted. The measurement to measure the static contact angle and drop of nano fluid containing nano particle zirconia on stainless steel with different surface roughness was carried out. It was observed that stainless steel 304 was good hydrophylic properties with decreasing surface roughness of stainless steel during drop of aqua demineralized and nano fluid respectively. As a result the contact angle of demineralized aqua is decreased from 97.39 to 78.42 and contact angle of nano fluid from 94.3 to 67.50, respectively with decreasing surface roughness of stainless stee 304. Wettability of nanofluid on surface stainless steel 304 is better than aqua demineralized.

  7. Characteristics of surface energy exchange in the artificial shelter forest land of the hinterland of Taklimakan Desert%沙漠腹地人工绿地地表能量交换特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严坤; 李生宇; 雷加强; 王海峰; 孙聪; 严风硕; 李春


    In order to reveal the energy exchange characters of artificial irrigated shelter forest land near the ground surface in the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert.The research applied the Eddy Covariance Method to measure sensible heat and latent heat flux on a typical clear day in growing reason.The results showed as follows:(1)Sensible heat flux is a larger proportion of energy and latent heat flux accounts for a small proportion in the desert and artificial sheher forest land.However the latent heat flux in artificial shelter forest land is more than that in desert because of the surface albedo,soil moisture and land cover change after afforesting the shelter-forests.Compared with the desert,the heat flux and latent heat flux peak increase accordingly in artificial irrigated shelter forest land,the peak of latent heat and sensible heat flux are 230.54 W/m2 and 88.5 W/m2 in artificial shelter forest land,thus the desert area is 220 W/m2 and 17.55 W/m2,the surface energy exchange characteristics in the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert is similar with other arid areas in northwest China.(2)Average Bowen value is 1.63 in artificial irrigated shelter forest land whereas 10.82 in desert on a typical clear day.After afforesting,average Bowen value and Bowen diurnal range is significantly reduced,only occupied 15% of the desert area,the Bowen in artificial irrigated shelter forest land is similar with oasis in the Northwest China.This proves that microclimate had prompted.(3)Meteorological factors and underlying surface influence surface energy exchange in artificial irrigated shelter forest land.The correlation analysis showed that the order of fitness degree between latent heat and sensible heat flux and single environment factor was:net radiation > variety of air temperature > variety of soil temperature > wind velocity > soil temperature.The surface energy exchange is closely related to several environmental factors.The result will show the

  8. Effect of fluoride in phosphate buffer solution on bonding to artificially carious enamel. (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Shimada, Yasushi; Tagami, Junji


    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride on resin bonding to artificially carious enamel. Specimens from demineralized human enamel sections were prepared using two commercially available adhesives (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray; Single Bond, 3M) and a composite resin (Clearfil AP-X, Kuraray) according to manufacturers' instructions. They were then immersed in phosphate buffered saline solution with varied fluoride concentrations at 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 10 ppm. After immersion in each solution for one, three, or seven days, microshear bond strength was measured. The bond strengths of both adhesive systems to artificially carious enamel significantly increased after immersion in fluoride-phosphate buffer solution. Based on the findings obtained, we thus proposed not to remove the white enamel lesions for bonding in the clinic. They might be preserved and treated using fluoride applications.

  9. Optimality in Microwave-Assisted Drying of Aloe Vera ( Aloe barbadensis Miller) Gel using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network Modeling (United States)

    Das, Chandan; Das, Arijit; Kumar Golder, Animes


    The present work illustrates the Microwave-Assisted Drying (MWAD) characteristic of aloe vera gel combined with process optimization and artificial neural network modeling. The influence of microwave power (160-480 W), gel quantity (4-8 g) and drying time (1-9 min) on the moisture ratio was investigated. The drying of aloe gel exhibited typical diffusion-controlled characteristics with a predominant interaction between input power and drying time. Falling rate period was observed for the entire MWAD of aloe gel. Face-centered Central Composite Design (FCCD) developed a regression model to evaluate their effects on moisture ratio. The optimal MWAD conditions were established as microwave power of 227.9 W, sample amount of 4.47 g and 5.78 min drying time corresponding to the moisture ratio of 0.15. A computer-stimulated Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was generated for mapping between process variables and the desired response. `Levenberg-Marquardt Back Propagation' algorithm with 3-5-1 architect gave the best prediction, and it showed a clear superiority over FCCD.

  10. Optimality in Microwave-Assisted Drying of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) Gel using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network Modeling (United States)

    Das, Chandan; Das, Arijit; Kumar Golder, Animes


    The present work illustrates the Microwave-Assisted Drying (MWAD) characteristic of aloe vera gel combined with process optimization and artificial neural network modeling. The influence of microwave power (160-480 W), gel quantity (4-8 g) and drying time (1-9 min) on the moisture ratio was investigated. The drying of aloe gel exhibited typical diffusion-controlled characteristics with a predominant interaction between input power and drying time. Falling rate period was observed for the entire MWAD of aloe gel. Face-centered Central Composite Design (FCCD) developed a regression model to evaluate their effects on moisture ratio. The optimal MWAD conditions were established as microwave power of 227.9 W, sample amount of 4.47 g and 5.78 min drying time corresponding to the moisture ratio of 0.15. A computer-stimulated Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was generated for mapping between process variables and the desired response. `Levenberg-Marquardt Back Propagation' algorithm with 3-5-1 architect gave the best prediction, and it showed a clear superiority over FCCD.

  11. First Artificial Knee Osteoarthritis Knee Joint Surface Replacement Treatment Time%膝骨性关节炎初次人工膝关节表面置换的治疗时机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶添生; 张寅权; 张平; 李荣荣; 方大标; 王慧慧; 孙洪体


    Objective To explore the first artificial knee osteoarthritis knee joint surface replacement treatment time.MethodsAccording to the Kelgren - Lawrence X-ray osteoarthritis classification and grading Outerbridge cartilage injury, using multiple linear regression analysis method in 21 patients (23) of severe knee osteoarthritis patients primary artificial knee arthroplasty, statistical analysis of the independent variable factors and linear dependencerelation between the effect of surgery.ResultsThe incidence of postoperative pain and dysfunction were significantly improved, an average folow-up of 11.2 + / - 1.5 months, according to the HSS score, optimal 16 knees; Good 3 knee; 4 knees. Multiple linear regression equation of hypothesis test of statistical significance.Conclusion Severe knee osteoarthritis and implementation of the first patients without artificial knee joint replacement therapy and artificial knee joint surface displacement can significantly improve curative effect, but the surgery has certain curative effect degrees of risk and unknown factors.%目的:探讨膝骨性关节炎初次人工膝关节表面置换的治疗时机。方法根据Kelgren-Lawrence X线骨关节炎分级和Outerbridge软骨损伤分级,采用多重线性回归分析方法,对21例(23膝)重度膝骨关节炎患者实施初次人工膝关节表面置换术,统计分析自变量因素和手术效果之间的线性依存关系。结果本组病例术后疼痛和功能障碍均改善,平均随访(11.2±1.5)个月,根据HSS评分,优16膝;良3膝;可4膝。多重线性回归方程的假设检验具有统计学意义。结论选择重度膝骨关节炎和非人工膝关节置换治疗无效患者实施初次人工膝关节表面置换能提高疗效,但该手术治疗存在一定程度的风险和未知疗效影响因素。

  12. Trends in Artificial Intelligence. (United States)

    Hayes, Patrick


    Discusses the foundations of artificial intelligence as a science and the types of answers that may be given to the question, "What is intelligence?" The paradigms of artificial intelligence and general systems theory are compared. (Author/VT)

  13. Diamond-like Carbon Film and Its Application on Articular Surface of Artificial Joint for Increasing Wear Resistance%类金刚石薄膜在人工关节摩擦配副表面改性的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓乔元; 张腾飞; 武冰洁; 李仕莎; 冷永祥; 黄楠


    , we proposed to control the formation of biofilm on the surface of the artificial joints through the use of metal ions to promote protein denaturation and decomposition. And this biofilm could prevent corrosion me-dium (Cl-, PO43-) from penetrating into the interface of film and substrate. So the crevice and interface corrosion would be re-strained. And the lifetime of DLC film would be prolonged.

  14. Artificiality in Social Sciences


    Rennard, Jean-Philippe


    This text provides with an introduction to the modern approach of artificiality and simulation in social sciences. It presents the relationship between complexity and artificiality, before introducing the field of artificial societies which greatly benefited from the computer power fast increase, gifting social sciences with formalization and experimentation tools previously owned by "hard" sciences alone. It shows that as "a new way of doing social sciences", artificial societies should undo...

  15. Artificial life and Piaget. (United States)

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.


    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  16. Influence of mineral phase in mineralization of a biocomposite containing chitosan, demineralized bone matrix and bone ash—in vitro study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Krithiga Gunasekaran; Santhosh Kumar Baskar; Divya Sapphire Mohan; Thotapalli P Sastry


    A resorbable composite which acts as a active barrier in guided bone regeneration was fabricated using chitosan, demineralized bone matrix and bone ash. Its potential to form bone like apatite in simulated body fluid was assessed in this study. The mechanical strength of these composites was correlated with bone ash ratios and composites with better tensile strength were studied for their acellular bioactivity by incubating in simulated body fluid for 21 days. Composites without bone ash did not show acellular bioactivity which was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis. In case of biocomposites with bone ash, there was an increase in residual weight indicating the mineralization of the composite. The composite containing bone ash has shown the peaks related to phosphate vibrations in its Fourier-transform infrared spectrum. Scanning micrographs revealed formation of apatite like crystals on its surface. Ca/P ratio was found to be 1.7 which is nearer to that of natural bone. Thus, prepared composites can be used as resorbable biocomposite in maxillofacial and oral defects.

  17. Tadpole-like artificial micromotor (United States)

    Liu, Limei; Liu, Mei; Su, Yajun; Dong, Yonggang; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Hui; Dong, Bin; Chi, Lifeng


    We describe a polymer-based artificial tadpole-like micromotor, which is fabricated through the electrospinning technique. By incorporating functional materials onto its surface or within its body, the resulting tadpole-like micromotor can not only move autonomously in an aqueous solution with a flexible tail, but also exhibit thermo- and magnetic responsive properties.We describe a polymer-based artificial tadpole-like micromotor, which is fabricated through the electrospinning technique. By incorporating functional materials onto its surface or within its body, the resulting tadpole-like micromotor can not only move autonomously in an aqueous solution with a flexible tail, but also exhibit thermo- and magnetic responsive properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section, Fig. S1-S3 and Video S1-S4. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06621a

  18. A comparison of the antigens present on the surface of virus released artificially from chick cells infected with vaccinia virus, and cowpox virus and its white pock mutant (United States)

    Baxby, Derrick


    Antisera prepared against vaccinia and cowpox viruses were absorbed with purified suspensions of vaccinia virus, red cowpox and white cowpox viruses. They were then tested for their ability to neutralize the viruses, and to precipitate the virus soluble antigens. The results showed that some virus specific antigens were not virus surface components and that some components were present on the surface of all three viruses. However, certain components were detected on the surface of vaccinia virus but not on the surface of cowpox virus, and vice versa. Some evidence for the existence of a vaccinia-specific surface component was also obtained. Comparisons between results of cross-neutralization tests and immunodiffusion tests on the absorbed sera indicated that antibody to a number of antigens, including the classical LS, and the cowpox-specific d antigen play no part in the process of poxvirus neutralization. ImagesFig. AFig. BFig. CFig. DFig. EFig. FFig. G PMID:4624399

  19. Cartilage tissue engineering of nasal septal chondrocyte-macroaggregates in human demineralized bone matrix. (United States)

    Liese, Juliane; Marzahn, Ulrike; El Sayed, Karym; Pruss, Axel; Haisch, Andreas; Stoelzel, Katharina


    Tissue Engineering is an important method for generating cartilage tissue with isolated autologous cells and the support of biomaterials. In contrast to various gel-like biomaterials, human demineralized bone matrix (DBM) guarantees some biomechanical stability for an application in biomechanically loaded regions. The present study combined for the first time the method of seeding chondrocyte-macroaggregates in DBM for the purpose of cartilage tissue engineering. After isolating human nasal chondrocytes and creating a three-dimensional macroaggregate arrangement, the DBM was cultivated in vitro with the macroaggregates. The interaction of the cells within the DBM was analyzed with respect to cell differentiation and the inhibitory effects of chondrocyte proliferation. In contrast to chondrocyte-macroaggregates in the cell-DBM constructs, morphologically modified cells expressing type I collagen dominated. The redifferentiation of chondrocytes, characterized by the expression of type II collagen, was only found in low amounts in the cell-DBM constructs. Furthermore, caspase 3, a marker for apoptosis, was detected in the chondrocyte-DBM constructs. In another experimental setting, the vitality of chondrocytes as related to culture time and the amount of DBM was analyzed with the BrdU assay. Higher amounts of DBM tended to result in significantly higher proliferation rates of the cells within the first 48 h. After 96 h, the vitality decreased in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, this study provides the proof of concept of chondrocyte-macroaggregates with DBM as an interesting method for the tissue engineering of cartilage. The as-yet insufficient redifferentiation of the chondrocytes and the sporadic initiation of apoptosis will require further investigations.

  20. Dental demineralization and caries in patients with head and neck cancer. (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Jackson, Leanne; Epstein, Joel B; Migliorati, Cesar A; Murphy, Barbara A


    Concurrent chemoradiation (CCR) therapy is a standard treatment for patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (HNC). It is well documented that CCR causes profound acute and late toxicities. Xerostomia (the symptom of dry mouth) and hyposalivation (decreased salivary flow) are among the most common treatment side effects in this cohort of patients during and following treatment. They are the result of radiation-induced damage to the salivary glands. Patients with chronic hyposalivation are at risk for demineralization and dental cavitation (dental caries), often presenting as a severe form of rapidly developing decay that results in loss of dentition. Usual post-radiation oral care which includes the use of fluoride, may decrease, but does not eliminate dental caries associated with radiation-induced hyposalivation. The authors conducted a narrative literature review regarding dental caries in HNC population based on MEDLINE, PubMed, CLNAHL, Cochrane database, EMBASE, and PsycINFO from 1985 to 2014. Primary search terms included head and/or neck cancer, dental caries, dental decay, risk factor, physical symptom, physical sequellea, body image, quality of life, measurement, assessment, cost, prevention, and treatment. The authors also reviewed information from National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), American Dental Association (ADA), and other related healthcare professional association web sites. This literature review focuses on critical issues related to dental caries in patients with HNC: potential mechanisms and contributing factors, clinical assessment, physical sequellea, negative impact on body image and quality of life, potential preventative strategies, and recommendations for practice and research in this area.

  1. Calcification preceding new bone formation induced by demineralized bone matrix gelatin. (United States)

    Yamashita, K; Takagi, T


    Demineralized bone matrix gelatin (BMG) was implanted into the skeletal muscle of Sprague-Dawley (S.D.) rats, and histological changes were examined 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days later. Before bone formation, a specific calcification process was found in most of the BMG from day 5 and 7 after implantation. The heterotopic calcified sites were not always consistent with the sites of the alkaline phosphatase activity. It was considered that this calcification progresses without any cellular components, and we distinguished this type of calcification as "acellular mineral deposition" from the calcification which occurs in new bone formation. This "acellular mineral deposition" was first observed as small spherical calcified deposits in the BMG on day 7 after implantation; these deposits then gradually grew and fused with each other. Some multinucleated cells appeared near the site of calcification on day 7 after implantation, but osteoblasts or osteoblast-like cells were scarcely observed around the calcified deposits in BMG until day 7. Vascularization was often observed near the "acellular mineral deposition" and the new bone formation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the calcified deposits in BMG were composed of hydroxyapatite, carbonateapatite and other calcium phosphate components, and that the first two components became prominent with time. It is believed that the "acellular mineral deposition" is due to the deposition of calcium and phosphate into the BMG by a process of heterogenic nucleation that does not involve osteoblasts or matrix vesicles. Bone formation induced by the BMG occurred after the "acellular mineral deposition." The experimental calcification shown in this paper seems a useful model for the study of biocalcification.

  2. Histological and radiographic evaluations of demineralized bone matrix and coralline hydroxyapatite in the rabbit tibia. (United States)

    Zhukauskas, Rasa; Dodds, Robert A; Hartill, Caroline; Arola, Travis; Cobb, Ronald R; Fox, Casey


    Complex fractures resulting in bone loss or impaired fracture healing remain problematic in trauma and orthopedic surgeries. Many bone graft substitutes have been developed and are commercially available. These products differ in their osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties. Differential enhancement of these properties may optimize the performance of these products for various orthopedic and craniofacial applications. The use of bone graft substitutes offers the ability to lessen the possible morbidity of the harvest site in autografts. The objective of the present study was to compare the ability of two bone graft substitutes, BioSet RT, an allograft demineralized bone matrix formulation, and ProOsteon 500R, a coralline hydroxyapatite, in a rabbit critical tibial defect model. BioSet RT and ProOsteon 500R were implanted into a unicortical proximal metaphyseal tibial defect and evaluated for new bone formation. Samples were analyzed radiographically and histologically at 1 day, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks post surgery. Both materials were biocompatible and demonstrated significant bone growth and remodeling. At 12 weeks, the BioSet RT implanted sites demonstrated significantly more defect closure and bone remodeling as determined by radiographic analyses with 10 out of 14 defects being completely healed versus 1 out of 14 being completely healed in the ProOsteon 500R implanted sites. At 24 weeks, both materials demonstrated complete closure of the defect as determined histologically. There were no statistical differences in radiographic scores between the two implanted materials. However, there was an observable trend that the BioSet RT material generated higher histological and radiographic scores, although not statistically significant. This study provides evidence that both BioSet RT and ProOsteon 500R are biocompatible and able to induce new bone formation as measured in this rabbit model. In addition, this in vivo study demonstrates the ability of

  3. Effect of allogenic freeze-dried demineralized bone matrix on guided tissue regeneration in dogs. (United States)

    Caplanis, N; Lee, M B; Zimmerman, G J; Selvig, K A; Wikesjö, U M


    This randomized, split-mouth study was designed to evaluate the adjunctive effect of allogenic, freeze-dried, demineralized bone matrix (DBM) to guided tissue regeneration (GTR). Contralateral fenestration defects (6 x 4 mm) were created 6 mm apical to the buccal alveolar crest on maxillary canine teeth in 6 beagle dogs. DBM was implanted into one randomly selected fenestration defect. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes were used to provide bilateral GTR. Tissue blocks including defects with overlying membranes and soft tissues were harvested following a four-week healing interval and prepared for histometric analysis. Differences between GTR+DBM and GTR defects were evaluated using a paired t-test (N = 6). DBM was discernible in all GTR+DBM defects with limited, if any, evidence of bone metabolic activity. Rather, the DBM particles appeared solidified within a dense connective tissue matrix, often in close contact to the instrumented root. There were no statistically significant differences between the GTR+DBM versus the GTR condition for any histometric parameter examined. Fenestration defect height averaged 3.7+/-0.3 and 3.9+/-0.3 mm, total bone regeneration 0.8+/-0.6 and 1.5+/-0.8 mm, and total cementum regeneration 2.0+/-1.3 and 1.6+/-1.7 mm for GTR+DBM and GTR defects, respectively. The histologic and histometric observations, in concert, suggest that allogenic freeze-dried DBM has no adjunctive effect to GTR in periodontal fenestration defects over a four-week healing interval. The critical findings were 1) the DBM particles remained, embedded in dense connective tissue without evidence of bone metabolic activity; and 2) limited and similar amounts of bone and cementum regeneration were observed for both the GTR+DBM and GTR defects.

  4. Trace determination of safranin O dye using ultrasound assisted dispersive solid-phase micro extraction: Artificial neural network-genetic algorithm and response surface methodology. (United States)

    Dil, Ebrahim Alipanahpour; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Asfaram, Arash; Mehrabi, Fatemeh; Bazrafshan, Ali Akbar; Ghaedi, Abdol Mohammad


    In this study, ultrasound assisted dispersive solid-phase micro extraction combined with spectrophotometry (USA-DSPME-UV) method based on activated carbon modified with Fe2O3 nanoparticles (Fe2O3-NPs-AC) was developed for pre-concentration and determination of safranin O (SO). It is known that the efficiency of USA-DSPME-UV method may be affected by pH, amount of adsorbent, ultrasound time and eluent volume and the extent and magnitude of their contribution on response (in term of main and interaction part) was studied by using central composite design (CCD) and artificial neural network-genetic algorithms (ANN-GA). Accordingly by adjustment of experimental conditions suggested by ANN-GA at pH 6.5, 1.1mg of adsorbent, 10min ultrasound and 150μL of eluent volume led to achievement of best operation performance like low LOD (6.3ngmL(-1)) and LOQ (17.5ngmL(-1)) in the range of 25-3500ngmL(-1). In following stage, the SO content in real water and wastewater samples with recoveries between 93.27-99.41% with RSD lower than 3% was successfully determined.

  5. Transfer of metallic debris from the metal surface of an acetabular cup to artificial femoral heads by scraping: comparison between alumina and cobalt-chrome heads. (United States)

    Chang, Chong Bum; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Song, Won Seok; Kim, Deug Joong; Koo, Kyung-Hoi; Kim, Hee Joong


    We aimed to investigate the transfer of metal to both ceramic (alumina) and metal (cobalt-chrome) heads that were scraped by a titanium alloy surface under different load conditions. The ceramic and metal heads for total hip arthroplasties were scraped by an acetabular metal shell under various loads using a creep tester. Microstructural changes in the scraped area were visualized with a scanning electron microscope, and chemical element changes were assessed using an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Changes in the roughness of the scraped surface were evaluated by a three-dimensional surface profiling system. Metal transfer to the ceramic and metal heads began to be detectable at a 10 kg load, which could be exerted by one-handed force. The surface roughness values significantly increased with increasing test loads in both heads. When the contact force increased, scratching of the head surface occurred in addition to the transfer of metal. The results documented that metallic debris was transferred from the titanium alloy acetabular shell to both ceramic and metal heads by minor scraping. This study suggests that the greatest possible effort should be made to protect femoral heads, regardless of material, from contact with metallic surfaces during total hip arthroplasty.

  6. Selective removal of demineralized enamel using a CO2 laser coupled with near-IR reflectance imaging


    Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Saltiel, Daniel; Fried, Daniel


    Detection and diagnosis of early dental caries lesions can be difficult due to variable tooth coloration, staining of the teeth and poor contrast between sound and demineralized enamel. These problems can be overcome by using near-infrared (NIR) imaging. Previous studies have demonstrated that lasers can be integrated with NIR imaging devices, allowing image-guided ablation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that NIR light at 1500 – 1700 nm can be used to guide a 9.3-μm CO2 laser for t...

  7. Methods for demonstration of enzyme activity in muscle fibres at the muscle/bone interface in demineralized tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Vilmann, H


    A method for demonstration of activity for ATPase and various oxidative enzymes (succinic dehydrogenase, alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, and lactic dehydrogenase) in muscle/bone sections of fixed and demineralized tissue has been developed. It was found that it is possible to preserve...... considerable amounts of the above mentioned enzymes in the muscle fibres at the muscle/bone interfaces. The best results were obtained after 20 min fixation, and 2-3 weeks of storage in MgNa2EDTA containing media. As the same technique previously has been used to describe patterns of resorption and deposition...

  8. 电渗析在葡萄糖浆脱盐中的应用%Application of Electrodialysis on Demineralization of Glucose Syrup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武睿; 于秋生; 陈正行; 郭贯新


    电渗析技术应用于葡萄糖浆的脱盐效果显著。研究表明,脱盐最佳条件为:操作电压30V,糖浆流量25L/h,糖浆浓度30%;该条件下,糖浆脱盐率94.69%,糖浆得率77.84%。%Electrodialysis (ED) demineralization of glucose syrup was applied in this research. The results showed that electrodialysis was feasible for glucose syrup demineralization. The optimal operating parameters under experimental working condition were: 30 v applied voltage, 25 L/h flow rate and 30% syrup concentration. After the treatment with these operating parameters, the demineralization ratio was reached to 94.69% and the sugar component retention was 77.84%.

  9. Experimental Study on Behavior of Bubbles and Heat transfer by Using Heat Transfer Surface with Artificial Cavities Created by MEMS Technology (United States)

    Sato, Takato; Koizumi, Yasuo; Ohtake, Hiroyasu

    Pool nucleate boiling heat transfer experiments were performed for water using heat transfer surfaces having unified cavities. Cylindrical holes of 10 μm in diameter and 40 μm in depth were formed on a mirror-finished silicon wafer of 0.2 mm in thickness using Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. This silicon plate was used as the heat transfer surface. The test heat transfer surface was heated by a semiconductor laser beam. Experiments were conducted in the range of up to 1.35 × 105 W⁄m2. When a single cavity was formed, the vertical coalescence of bubbles above the cavity was 60 % and no coalescence was 40 %. The ratios of the convection and the phase change were 80 % and 20 %, respectively. When the number of cavities were increased to three, the coalescence of bubbles on the heat transfer surface became important. When the role of the convection and the phase change in nucleate boiling is considered, it is appropriate to examine the bubble departure from the vapor mass on the heat transfer surface not from cavities.

  10. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A


    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  11. A new artificial recharge approach using direct push wells for aquifer storage and recovery in near-surface aquifers: A case study in the Lower Republican River basin, Kansas (United States)

    Liu, G.; Knobbe, S.; Reboulet, E. C.; Whittemore, D. O.; Händel, F.; Butler, J. J., Jr.


    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is the artificial recharge and temporary storage of water in an aquifer when water is abundant, and recovery of all or a portion of that water when it is needed. In recent years, interest in ASR has increased due to various concerns such as declining groundwater resources, vulnerability of surface water supplies to contamination and reservoir sedimentation, and unfavorable projections of future climate change. In this study, we evaluate a new recharge method for ASR in near-surface unconsolidated aquifers using small-diameter, low-cost wells installed with direct-push (DP) technology. The effectiveness of a DP well for ASR was compared with a surface infiltration basin at a field site in the Lower Republic River basin, north-central Kansas. Initial DP-based characterization of the shallow, unconsolidated subsurface indicates that both the vadose and saturated zones have many low permeability silt and clay layers constraining vertical flow. The performance of the surface basin as a recharge approach was poor at the test site due to the presence of a continuous clay layer at a depth of 1.5 to 3 m, which prevented the downward movement of infiltrated water and significantly reduced the recharge capacity of the basin. The DP well, on the other hand, penetrated through this clay layer and was able to recharge water at a much higher rate without use of a pump (water moved by gravity alone). Most importantly, the costs of the DP well, including both the construction and land costs, were only a small fraction of those for the infiltration basin. The low cost of DP wells can significantly expand the applicability of ASR as a water resources management tool to regions with limited resources, such as many small municipalities and rural communities. Our field results have clearly demonstrated the great potential of DP wells as a new recharge option for ASR projects in near-surface unconsolidated aquifers.

  12. Assessment of enamel demineralization using conventional, digital, and digitized radiography Avaliação da desmineralização do esmalte por meio de radiografias convencional, digital e digitalizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rívea Inês Ferreira


    Full Text Available This experimental research aimed at evaluating the accuracy of enamel demineralization detection using conventional, digital, and digitized radiographs, as well as to compare radiographs and logarithmically contrast-enhanced subtraction images. Enamel subsurface demineralization was induced on one of the approximal surfaces of 49 sound third molars. Standardized radiographs of the teeth were taken prior to and after the demineralization phase with three digital systems - CygnusRay MPS®, DenOptix® and DIGORA® - and InSight® film. Three radiologists interpreted the pairs of conventional, digital, and digitized radiographs in two different occasions. Logarithmically contrast-enhanced subtraction images were examined by a fourth radiologist only once. Radiographic diagnosis was validated by cross-sectional microhardness profiling in the test areas of the approximal surfaces. Accuracy was estimated by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis. Chi-square test, at a significance level of 5%, was used to compare the areas under the ROC curves (Az calculated for the different imaging modalities. Concerning the radiographs, the DenOptix® system (Az = 0.91 and conventional radiographs (Az = 0.90 presented the highest accuracy values compared with the other three radiographic modalities. However, logarithmically contrast-enhanced subtraction images (Az = 0.98 were significantly more accurate than conventional, digital, and digitized radiographs (p = 0.0000. It can be concluded that the DenOptix® system and conventional radiographs provide better performance for diagnosing enamel subsurface demineralization. Logarithmic subtraction significantly improves radiographic detection.O objetivo desta pesquisa experimental foi investigar a acurácia da detecção de desmineralizações em esmalte por meio de radiografias convencionais, digitais e digitalizadas, e compará-las às imagens por subtração logarítmica. Foram induzidas desmineraliza

  13. Effect of consumption of dairy products with probiotic bacteria on biofilm formation on silicone rubber implant surfaces in an artificial throat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mei, HC; Van de Belt-Gritter, B; van Weissenbruch, R; Dijk, F; Albers, FWJ; Busscher, HJ


    Indwelling voice prostheses are most often made of silicone rubber. However, the silicone rubber surface attracts large quantities of yeasts and bacteria and their colonization on the valve side of voice prostheses leads to frequent malfunctioning Indwelling voice prostheses are therefore usually re

  14. Autologous bone graft versus demineralized bone matrix in internal fixation of ununited long bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenbauer Bianka


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-unions are severe complications in orthopaedic trauma care and occur in 10% of all fractures. The golden standard for the treatment of ununited fractures includes open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF as well as augmentation with autologous-bone-grafting. However, there is morbidity associated with the bone-graft donor site and some patients offer limited quantity or quality of autologous-bone graft material. Since allogene bone-grafts are introduced on the market, this comparative study aims to evaluate healing characteristics of ununited bones treated with ORIF combined with either iliac-crest-autologous-bone-grafting (ICABG or demineralized-bone-matrix (DBM. Methods and results From 2000 to 2006 out of sixty-two consecutive patients with non-unions presenting at our Level I Trauma Center, twenty patients had ununited diaphyseal fractures of long bones and were treated by ORIF combined either by ICABG- (n = 10 or DBM-augmentation (n = 10. At the time of index-operation, patients of the DBM-group had a higher level of comorbidity (ASA-value: p = 0.014. Mean duration of follow-up was 56.6 months (ICABG-group and 41.2 months (DBM-group. All patients were clinically and radiographically assessed and adverse effects related to bone grafting were documented. The results showed that two non-unions augmented with ICABG failed osseous healing (20% whereas all non-unions grafted by DBM showed successful consolidation during the first year after the index operation (p = 0.146. No early complications were documented in both groups but two patients of the ICABG-group suffered long-term problems at the donor site (20% (p = 0.146. Pain intensity were comparable in both groups (p = 0.326. However, patients treated with DBM were more satisfied with the surgical procedure (p = 0.031. Conclusion With the use of DBM, the costs for augmentation of the non-union-site are more expensive compared to ICABG (calculated difference: 160

  15. Oral bacterial adhesion forces to biomaterial surfaces constituting the bracket-adhesive-enamel junction in orthodontic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, Li; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C; Chen, Yangxi; de Vries, Joop; Ren, Yijin


    Bacterial adhesion to biomaterial surfaces constituting the bracket-adhesive-enamel junction represents a growing problem in orthodontics, because bacteria can adversely affect treatment by causing demineralization of the enamel surface around the brackets. It is important to know the forces with wh

  16. CO2 Laser and Topical Fluoride Therapy in the Control of Caries Lesions on Demineralized Primary Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Valério


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of CO2 laser irradiation and topical fluoride therapy in the control of caries progression on primary teeth enamel. 30 fragments (3×3×2 mm from primary canines were submitted to an initial cariogenic challenge that consisted of immersion on demineralizing solution for 3 hours and remineralizing solution for 21 hours for 5 days. Fragments were randomly assigned into three groups (n=10: L: CO2 laser (λ=10.6 μm, APF: 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride, and C: no treatment (control. CO2 laser was applied with 0.5 W power and 0.44 J/cm2 energy density. Fluoride application was performed with 0.1 g for 1 minute. Cariogenic challenge was conducted for 5 days following protocol previously described. Subsurface Knoop microhardness was measured at 30 μm from the edge. Obtained data were subjected to analysis the variance (ANOVA and Duncan test with significance of 5%. It was found that the L group showed greater control of deciduous enamel demineralization and were similar to those of APF group, while being statistically different from C group (P≤0.05 that showed the lowest microhardness values. It was concluded that CO2 laser can be an additional resource in caries control progression on primary teeth enamel.

  17. Clinical e radiographic sucess of indirect pulp capping with partial excavation of demineralization dentin in primary posterior teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Francisca Martins de Castro


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the outcome of the indirect pulp capping technique after incomplete excavation of the demineralized dentin in primary molars of patients treated in the period from 2004 to 2006.Methods: Sample consisted of 81 teeth of 36 patients aged from 1-to-8 year-old. Clinical and radiographic inclusion criteria, as well as criteria of the success of the evaluated treatments were established.Results: There were four (4.9% failures and 77 (95.1% successful treatments. Treatment failure occurred in three girls and in one boy, and no statistically significant difference (p=0.341 was found. Twenty three teeth were treated with resin-modified glass-ionomer cement and 58 with composite resin, of which 22 and 55, respectively, showed successful results. There was no statistically significant difference between restorative materials used (p=0.877. As regards the studied age group, patients aged from 1 to 4 years showed a significantly lower success rate when compared with 5-8 year-old children (p = 0.0428. Conclusion: The results suggest that the indirect pulp capping technique after incomplete excavation of demineralized dentin is a reliable technique to be adopted in deep lesions of primary teeth.

  18. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of defects in the wall of the orbit of children and adults using demineralized bone allografts. (United States)

    Ryabov, Alexey; Lekishvili, Mikhail


    Accuracy of diagnosis defines the quality of treatment in patients with traumatic damage to eyelet walls. In this area, complex functional and anatomical breaches are typical and require full characterization of pathological changes in bone and soft tissue structures. A new plastic material with a high degree level of demineralization called "Perfoost" can be used to treat defects in the bones of the face of children and adults. In the present study, 79 patients with fractured eyelet walls were treated between 1999 and 2006 by grafting the defect wall with demineralized bone allografts. Grafts were applied from 2 days to 18 months after trauma. Magnetic resonance computer CT was used to check the realignment of allografts every 6 months after the reconstructive operation. The post-operative period of the observation was from 6 months to 7 years after the operation. Good or satisfactory results were obtained for 97.47 % of patients.

  19. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo


    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.

  20. Optimization Design of Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm in Automobile Structure Based on Sequential Response Surface Method%基于序列响应面法的汽车结构件蜂群优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈黎明; 陈文亮


    The artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, a relatively recent bio—inspired approach mimicking the behavior of real bee colony, was applied to deal with the optimization problems of automobile structure. The metamodel of objective and constrains were gotten through combination of design of experiment and sequential response surface method. Then,the optimum design was obtained by the modified artificial bee colony algorithm. It can reduce the computing cost by the metamodeling techniques. Finally.a typical example was selected to proof this method. The comparison results between the simulated and experimental values show that this method has enough precision and satisfies the engineering practical demands.%将蜂群算法应用于汽车结构件的优化问题.先由试验设计和序列响应面法构建目标函数及约束条件的代理模型,再应用改进的蜂群算法求解最优设计.在优化过程中调用的是代理模型,显著减少了有限元计算次数,提高了优化效率.最后,选取典型实例对该算法进行验证,比较预期值与实际值的结果表明,该算法具备了足够的求解精度,能够满足工程实际要求.

  1. Simulated effects of groundwater pumping and artificial recharge on surface-water resources and riparian vegetation in the Verde Valley sub-basin, Central Arizona (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Pool, Donald R.


    In the Verde Valley sub-basin, groundwater use has increased in recent decades. Residents and stakeholders in the area have established several groups to help in planning for sustainability of water and other resources of the area. One of the issues of concern is the effect of groundwater pumping in the sub-basin on surface water and on groundwater-dependent riparian vegetation. The Northern Arizona Regional Groundwater-Flow Model by Pool and others (in press) is the most comprehensive and up-to-date tool available to understand the effects of groundwater pumping in the sub-basin. Using a procedure by Leake and others (2008), this model was modified and used to calculate effects of groundwater pumping on surface-water flow and evapotranspiration for areas in the sub-basin. This report presents results for the upper two model layers for pumping durations of 10 and 50 years. Results are in the form of maps that indicate the fraction of the well pumping rate that can be accounted for as the combined effect of reduced surface-water flow and evapotranspiration. In general, the highest and most rapid responses to pumping were computed to occur near surface-water features simulated in the modified model, but results are not uniform along these features. The results are intended to indicate general patterns of model-computed response over large areas. For site-specific projects, improved results may require detailed studies of the local hydrologic conditions and a refinement of the modified model in the area of interest.

  2. Tensão superficial dinâmica e ângulo de contato de soluções aquosas com surfatantes em superfícies artificiais e naturais Dynamic surface tension and contact angle of water solutions with spray surfactants in artificial and natural surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A. R. Iost


    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de surfatantes em soluções aquosas sobre a tensão superficial dinâmica e ângulo de contato das gotas em diferentes superfícies: artificiais (lâmina de vidro e de óxido de alumínio e naturais (superfícies adaxiais de folhas de Euphorbia heterophylla, Ipomoea grandifolia e Brachiaria plantaginea. Seis formulações de surfatantes (Antideriva®; Uno®; Pronto 3®; Li-700®; Supersil® e Silwet L-77®, respectivamente nas doses recomendadas do produto comercial (0,050; 0,025; 0,100; 0,250; 0,100 e 0,100 % v v-1 e o dobro delas, foram avaliadas em soluções aquosas. A tensão superficial dinâmica e o ângulo de contato formado sobre as superfícies naturais foram medidos por tensiômetro. Os ângulos de contato formados pelas gotas nas superfícies artificiais foram obtidos por análise de imagens capturadas por uma câmera digital. Os surfatantes influenciam nas propriedades físico-químicas de soluções aquosas. As soluções contendo os surfatantes Silwet L-77® e Supersil®; nas doses de 0,100 e 0,200% v v-1; proporcionaram maiores reduções na tensão superficial dinâmica e menores ângulos de contato das gotas sobre as superfícies artificiais e naturais. Os surfatantes organossiliconados em solução aquosa foram mais eficientes na redução da tensão superficial e proporcionaram maior molhamento de superfícies natural e artificial. Em alvos naturais, essas propriedades obtidas com organossiliconados são dependentes das características de superfície das espécies vegetais.The aim of the work was to evaluate the effect of surfactants in water solutions on dynamic surface tension and contact angle formed by the spray droplets in different surfaces: artificial (glass and aluminum oxide slides and natural (leaves surface of three species of weeds: Euphorbia heterophylla, Ipomoea grandifolia e Brachiaria plantaginea. Were studied six surfactants formulations (AntiderivaTM; UnoTM; Pronto 3TM

  3. Millimeter-wave circularly polarized holographic antenna based on artificial impedance surface%基于人工阻抗表面的毫米波圆极化全息天线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江; 杨春; 陈琦; 李波; 何晓阳


    A novel circularly polarized holographic antenna is proposed at 35GHz based on optical holographic principle. The antenna is composed by sources and an interference plane which is based on quasi-periodically artificial impedance surface. The surface impedance of scalar artificial impedance surface is analyzed by transverse resonance technique. In order to achieve circular polarization, a phase modulation is introduced into the function of the interference plane impedance. The antenna radiates circularly polarized wave from linearly feed. As an example, a circularly polarized holographic antenna is simulated. The results indicate that the beam deflects 35°alongz axis, and the axial ratio is below 1.5dB at 35GHz center frequency.%基于全息光学原理,提出并设计了一种加载相位调制的毫米波圆极化全息天线,天线由电小尺寸的人工阻抗单元按表面阻抗分布参数排列而成。利用横向谐振技术分析了标量人工阻抗单元表面阻抗的计算方法,建立了单元尺寸与表面阻抗之间的数据库。给出了干涉表面的阻抗分布参数计算方法,通过加载相位调制,实现了全息天线的圆极化。利用 Matlab-HFSS 联合建模仿真,建立了毫米波圆极化全息天线的基本模型,仿真结果表明,天线工作于35 GHz,波束沿法向偏转35°,中心的轴比小于1.5 dB。

  4. Experimental Study on Fundamental Phenomena of Nucleate-Boiling by Using Heat Transfer Surface with Artificial Cavities Created by MEMS Technology (United States)

    Sato, Takato; Koizumi, Yasuo; Ohtake, Hiroyasu

    Pool nucleate boiling heat transfer experiments were performed for water by using a well-controlled and -defined heat transfer surfaces in the range of the surface heat flux of ˜ 4.54×104 W⁄m2. One or three cavities were created on a mirror-finished silicon plate of 0.525 mm thickness by utilizing the Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. In present experiments, the cavities were arranged in a straight line. The silicon plate was placed facing up at the bottom of the test container filled with distilled water. The back side of the silicon plate was irradiated by a laser beam to heat up the test heat transfer surface. The back side temperature was measured with a radiation thermometer. A boiling state was recorded with a high speed video camera. Thermal interaction between neighboring cavities became weak as the cavity spacing became wide and it disappeared when S⁄Lc = 1.6 in present experimental range. Four bubble coalescence patterns; vertical, horizontal and declining coalescence and vertical lift (no coalescence), were confirmed. When S⁄Lc ≥ 1.6, horizontal and declining coalescence disappeared. When the cavity spacing was narrow, hydraulic interaction between neighboring cavities played an important role in heat transfer. It became less important as the cavity spacing became wide. When S⁄Lc ≥ 1.2, the hydraulic interaction between neighboring cavities became negligible and phase change heat transfer took a main part.

  5. Scientific Objectives of Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) and Deployable Camera 3 Digital (DCAM3-D): Observation of an Ejecta Curtain and a Crater Formed on the Surface of Ryugu by an Artificial High-Velocity Impact (United States)

    Arakawa, M.; Wada, K.; Saiki, T.; Kadono, T.; Takagi, Y.; Shirai, K.; Okamoto, C.; Yano, H.; Hayakawa, M.; Nakazawa, S.; Hirata, N.; Kobayashi, M.; Michel, P.; Jutzi, M.; Imamura, H.; Ogawa, K.; Sakatani, N.; Iijima, Y.; Honda, R.; Ishibashi, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Sawada, H.


    The Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) equipped on Hayabusa2 was developed to produce an artificial impact crater on the primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) 162173 Ryugu (Ryugu) in order to explore the asteroid subsurface material unaffected by space weathering and thermal alteration by solar radiation. An exposed fresh surface by the impactor and/or the ejecta deposit excavated from the crater will be observed by remote sensing instruments, and a subsurface fresh sample of the asteroid will be collected there. The SCI impact experiment will be observed by a Deployable CAMera 3-D (DCAM3-D) at a distance of ˜1 km from the impact point, and the time evolution of the ejecta curtain will be observed by this camera to confirm the impact point on the asteroid surface. As a result of the observation of the ejecta curtain by DCAM3-D and the crater morphology by onboard cameras, the subsurface structure and the physical properties of the constituting materials will be derived from crater scaling laws. Moreover, the SCI experiment on Ryugu gives us a precious opportunity to clarify effects of microgravity on the cratering process and to validate numerical simulations and models of the cratering process.

  6. Onion artificial muscles (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An


    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  7. Potential of centrifugal seeding method in improving cells distribution and proliferation on demineralized cancellous bone scaffolds for tissue-engineered meniscus. (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Jiang, Dong; Wang, Shao-Jie; Qi, Yan-Song; Zhang, Ji-Ying; Yu, Jia-Kuo


    Tissue-engineered meniscus offers a possible solution to the regeneration and replacement problem of meniscectomy. However, the nonuniform distribution and declined proliferation of seeded cells on scaffolds hinder the application of tissue-engineered meniscus as a new generation of meniscus graft. This study systematically investigated the performances of different seeding techniques by using the demineralized cancellous bone (DCB) as the scaffold. Static seeding, injection seeding, centrifugal seeding, and vacuum seeding methods were used to seed the meniscal fibrochondrocytes (MFCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to scaffolds. Cell-binding efficiency, survival rate, distribution ability, and long-term proliferation effects on scaffolds were quantitatively evaluated. Cell adhesion was compared via cell-binding kinetics. Cell viability and morphology were assessed by using fluorescence staining. Combined with the reconstructed three-dimensional image, the distribution of seeded cells was investigated. The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and DNA assay were employed to assess cell proliferation. Cell-binding kinetics and cell survival of the MFCs were improved via centrifugal seeding compared to injection or vacuum seeding methods. Seeded MFCs by centrifugation showed a more homogeneous distribution throughout the scaffold than cells seeded by other methods. Moreover, the penetration depth in the scaffold of seeded MFCs by centrifugation was 300-500 μm, much higher than the value of 100-300 μm by the surface static and injection seeding. The long-term proliferation of the MFCs in the centrifugal group was also significantly higher than that in the other groups. The results of the MSCs were similar to those of the MFCs. The centrifugal seeding method could significantly improve MFCs or MSCs distribution and proliferation on the DCB scaffolds, thus providing a simple, cost-effective, and effective cell-seeding protocol for tissue-engineered meniscus.

  8. Principles of calcite dissolution in human and artificial otoconia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Erik Walther

    Full Text Available Human otoconia provide mechanical stimuli to deflect hair cells of the vestibular sensory epithelium for purposes of detecting linear acceleration and head tilts. During lifetime, the volume and number of otoconia are gradually reduced. In a process of degeneration morphological changes occur. Structural changes in human otoconia are assumed to cause vertigo and balance disorders such as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV. The aim of this study was to investigate the main principles of morphological changes in human otoconia in dissolution experiments by exposure to hydrochloric acid, EDTA, demineralized water and completely purified water respectively. For comparison reasons artificial (biomimetic otoconia (calcite gelatin nanocomposits and natural calcite were used. Morphological changes were detected in time steps by the use of environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM. Under in vitro conditions three main dissolution mechanisms were identified as causing characteristic morphological changes of the specimen under consideration: pH drops in the acidic range, complex formation with calcium ions and changes of ion concentrations in the vicinity of otoconia. Shifts in pH cause a more uniform reduction of otoconia size (isotropic dissolution whereas complexation reactions and changes of the ionic concentrations within the surrounding medium bring about preferred attacks at specific areas (anisotropic dissolution of human and artificial otoconia. Owing to successive reduction of material, all the dissolution mechanisms finally produce fragments and remnants of otoconia. It can be assumed that the organic component of otoconia is not significantly attacked under the given conditions. Artificial otoconia serve as a suitable model system mimicking chemical attacks on biogenic specimens. The underlying principles of calcite dissolution under in vitro conditions may play a role in otoconia degeneration processes such as BPPV.

  9. Bone induction by composites of bioresorbable carriers and demineralized bone in rats: a comparative study of fibrin-collagen paste, fibrin sealant, and polyorthoester with gentamicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Solheim, E; Bang, G


    Host tissue response and heterotopic osteoinduction by composites of demineralized bone matrix and three different substances used as bioresorbable carriers implanted in the abdominal muscles were evaluated by strontium 85 uptake and histology 4 weeks postoperatively in 60 male Wistar rats. Both...

  10. Shynthesis and Characterizations of Calcium Hydroxyapatite Derived from Crabs Shells (Portunus pelagicus and Its Potency in Safeguard against to Dental Demineralizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Raya


    Full Text Available Crab’s shells of Portunus pelagicus species were used as raw materials for synthesis of hydroxyapatite were used for protection against demineralization of teeth. Calcination was conducted to crab’s shells of Portunus pelagicus at temperature of 1000°C for 5 hours. The results of calcination was reacted with (NH42HPO4, then dried at 110°C for 5 hours. Sintering was conducted to results of precipitated dried with temperature variations 400–1000°C for a hour each variation of temperature then characterized by X-ray diffractometer and FTIR in order to obtain the optimum formation temperature of hydroxyapatite is 800°C. The hydroxyapatite is then tested its effectiveness in protection against tooth demineralization using acetate buffer pH 5.0 with 1 M acetic acid concentration with the addition of hydroxyapatite and time variation of immersion. The results showed that the rate of tooth demineralization in acetate buffer decreased significantly with the provision of hydroxyapatite into a solution where the addition of the magnitude of hydroxyapatite is greater decrease in the rate of tooth demineralization.

  11. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes. (United States)

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas


    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories.

  12. The artificial leaf. (United States)

    Nocera, Daniel G


    corner-sharing, head-to-tail dimer. The ability to perform the oxygen-evolving reaction in water at neutral or near-neutral conditions has several consequences for the construction of the artificial leaf. The NiMoZn alloy may be used in place of Pt to generate hydrogen. To stabilize silicon in water, its surface is coated with a conducting metal oxide onto which the Co-OEC may be deposited. The net result is that immersing a triple-junction Si wafer coated with NiMoZn and Co-OEC in water and holding it up to sunlight can effect direct solar energy conversion via water splitting. By constructing a simple, stand-alone device composed of earth-abundant materials, the artificial leaf provides a means for an inexpensive and highly distributed solar-to-fuels system that employs low-cost systems engineering and manufacturing. Through this type of system, solar energy can become a viable energy supply to those in the non-legacy world.

  13. The Effect of Artificial Aging on The Bond Strength of Heat-activated Acrylic Resin to Surface-treated Nickel-chromium-beryllium Alloy (United States)

    Al Jabbari, Youssef S.; Zinelis, Spiros; Al Taweel, Sara M.; Nagy, William W.


    Purpose The debonding load of heat-activated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) denture base resin material to a nickel-chromium-beryllium (Ni-Cr-Be) alloy conditioned by three different surface treatments and utilizing two different commercial bonding systems was investigated. Materials and Methods Denture resin (Lucitone-199) was bonded to Ni-Cr-Be alloy specimens treated with Metal Primer II, the Rocatec system with opaquer and the Rocatec system without opaquer. Denture base resin specimens bonded to non-treated sandblasted Ni-Cr-Be alloy were used as controls. Twenty samples for each treatment condition (80 specimens) were tested. The 80 specimens were divided into two categories, thermocycled and non-thermocycled, containing four groups of ten specimens each. The non-thermocycled specimens were tested after 48 hours’ storage in room temperature water. The thermocycled specimens were tested after 2,000 cycles in 4°C and 55°C water baths. The debonding load was calculated in Newtons (N), and collected data were subjected by non parametric test Kruskal-Wallis One Way Analysis of Variance on Ranks and Dunn’s post hoc test at the α = 0.05. Results The Metal Primer II and Rocatec system without opaquer groups produced significantly higher bond strengths (119.9 and 67.6 N), respectively, than did the sandblasted and Rocatec system with opaquer groups, where the bond strengths were 2.6 N and 0 N, respectively. The Metal Primer II was significantly different from all other groups (P<0.05). The bond strengths of all groups were significantly decreased (P<0.05) after thermocycling. Conclusions Although thermocycling had a detrimental effect on the debonding load of all surface treatments tested, the Metal Primer II system provided higher values among all bonding systems tested, before and after thermocycling. PMID:27335613

  14. Ability of laser fluorescence device associated with fluorescent dyes in detecting and quantifying early smooth surface caries lesions (United States)

    Mendes, Fausto M.; de Oliveira, Elisabeth; de Faria, Dalva L. A.; Nicolau, José


    A laser fluorescence (LF) device is a portable tool, but it does not measure minor mineral changes. Our in vitro study aim is to propose the association of an LF with two fluorescent dyes and to evaluate the performance in detecting and quantifying early demineralization. Artificial caries lesions are created in 40 primary canine teeth using a demineralizing solution (pH=4.8) for 12, 24, 48, and 96 h. LF measurements are performed with DIAGNOdent after demineralization in these samples and in 20 sound primary teeth. Measurements with LF with 0.2-mM tetrakis(N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin (LF TMPyP) and with 4-mM protoporphyrin IX (LF PPIX) are made. The amount of calcium loss is determined by atomic emission spectrometry. A correlation between LF and LF with dyes and mineral loss and receiver operating characteristics analysis are performed, as well as comparisons of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values. Significant correlation is obtained with LF TMPyP and mineral loss of lesions demineralized for 24, 48, and 96 h. Better performance is achieved with LF TMPyP for all parameters than with LF alone. LF PPIX does not present good results. In conclusion, LF TMPyP provides good performance in detecting and quantifying very early enamel caries lesions.

  15. Artificial intelligence in medicine. (United States)

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.


    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. RESULTS: The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. DISCUSSION: Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting. PMID:15333167

  16. Artificial recharge of groundwater: hydrogeology and engineering (United States)

    Bouwer, Herman


    Artificial recharge of groundwater is achieved by putting surface water in basins, furrows, ditches, or other facilities where it infiltrates into the soil and moves downward to recharge aquifers. Artificial recharge is increasingly used for short- or long-term underground storage, where it has several advantages over surface storage, and in water reuse. Artificial recharge requires permeable surface soils. Where these are not available, trenches or shafts in the unsaturated zone can be used, or water can be directly injected into aquifers through wells. To design a system for artificial recharge of groundwater, infiltration rates of the soil must be determined and the unsaturated zone between land surface and the aquifer must be checked for adequate permeability and absence of polluted areas. The aquifer should be sufficiently transmissive to avoid excessive buildup of groundwater mounds. Knowledge of these conditions requires field investigations and, if no fatal flaws are detected, test basins to predict system performance. Water-quality issues must be evaluated, especially with respect to formation of clogging layers on basin bottoms or other infiltration surfaces, and to geochemical reactions in the aquifer. Clogging layers are managed by desilting or other pretreatment of the water, and by remedial techniques in the infiltration system, such as drying, scraping, disking, ripping, or other tillage. Recharge wells should be pumped periodically to backwash clogging layers. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at

  17. 正畸过程中釉质脱矿的研究进展%Research progress on enamel demineralization during orthodontics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧; 罗小波; 王奕娟; 景欢; 陈嵩


      随着正畸患者的增多,正畸过程中患者的釉质脱矿率亦越来越高。尽管正畸治疗并非导致釉质脱矿的直接原因,但其对口腔生态环境却有着间接的影响。譬如,正畸矫治器的使用、正畸附件数量的增加和正畸疗程的延长皆可导致口腔微生物数量的增加,阻碍患者对食物残渣的清洁等;因此,本文就釉质脱矿率和脱矿牙位调查,釉质脱矿因素及其相关分析,预防措施和口腔保健研究进展作一综述。%With the increasing number of orthodontic patients, the rate of enamel demineralization is getting higher and higher. Although orthodontic treatment does not lead to the direct cause of enamel demineralization, but it has an indirect impact on oral ecological environment. For example, the use of orthodontic appliances, increasing number of orthodontic attachments and orthodontic treatment can lead to more numbers of oral microorganisms, hinder patients clean of food residue. Therefore, the enamel demineralization rate and demineralization teeth bit in-vestigation, enamel demineralizing factors and correlation analysis, prevention measures and oral health research progress are reviewed here.

  18. 酪蛋白磷酸肽-非结晶型磷酸钙与含氟制剂抑制牙釉质脱矿的比较研究%Comparative studies of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and fluoride products in inhibiting enamel demineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春波; 孙新华; 侯旭; 闫阔


    ,then applied separately with CPP-ACP,CPP-ACP + fluoride mouth rinses,fluoride mouth rinses,fluoride glass ionomer protection,fluoride resin binder and fluoride varnish on labial enamel.The samples were dipped into an artificial saliva solution ( 37 ℃ ).Then all samples were examined with atomic force microscope ( AFM ) at the end of first,second and third monthes.Results At the end of the first month,surface roughness in group D [ ( 114 ±1 ) nm] was significantly lower than that in group G[ ( 172 ±9) nm].At the end of the second month and the third month,significant difference was found in surface roughness between group G and the rest of groups (P < 0.05 ) ; between group B and the rest of groups ; and between group C and groups ( D,E and F).Conclusions CPP-ACP and fluoride could both inhibit enamel demineralization in vitro. Solid fluoride (groups D,E and F) had better results than liquid fluoride (group C).

  19. Artificial Neural Networks


    Chung-Ming Kuan


    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) constitute a class of flexible nonlinear models designed to mimic biological neural systems. In this entry, we introduce ANN using familiar econometric terminology and provide an overview of ANN modeling approach and its implementation methods.

  20. Introduction to artificial intelligence (United States)

    Cheeseman, P.; Gevarter, W.


    This paper presents an introductory view of Artificial Intelligence (AI). In addition to defining AI, it discusses the foundations on which it rests, research in the field, and current and potential applications.

  1. Treating of Simulated Sewage by Artificial Wetland with Surface Flowing Water%表面流人工湿地处理农村生活污水的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    文章通过小试装置研究了表面流人工湿地对人工模拟生活污水的处理效果及相关运行参数.实验结果表明,表面流人工湿地系统对污水中的COD,TN,TP均有较好的综合净化能力,对各种污染物指标的去除率可分别达到COD 75%,TN 75%,TP 73%,其中COD和TN达到一级排放标准分别需3d和4d的表观停留时间,TP要达到二级排放标准则需6d的表观停留时间.而且,湿地植物对TN和TP的去除有比较明显的促进作用.%Simulated sewage was treated by laboratory artificial wetland with surface flowing water, and the performance and related operation parameters were investigated. The result showed that the removal of COD, TN, and TP reached 75% , 75% , and 73% respectively. And the COD and TN could reach discharge standard Class 1 under 3 d and 4 d of apparent retention time respectively, but 6 d of apparent retention time was needed for TP reaching discharge standard Class 2. In addtion, the wetland plants could obviously improve the TN and TP removal.

  2. Biological characteristics and clinical application of artificial hip joint weight-bearing surface materials%人工髋关节负重面材料的生物特性及其临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    背景:人工髋关节假体材料对髋关节置换的成功率及对患者治愈率起到决定性作用.目的:评价不同组合方式髋关节负重面材料的性能及置入体内与机体的生物相容性.方法:以"全髋关节置换,人工髋关节,金属,陶瓷,聚乙烯,生物相容性,临床应用;total hip replacement,Artificialhip,prosthetic materials,Biocompatibility,clinical application"为关键词,应用计算机检索2001-01/2011-12 万方数据库、PubMed 数据库有关人工髋关节负重面生物材料与宿主生物相容性的文章.结果与结论:金属-超高分子量聚乙烯组合是目前常用的组合,也是衡量其他组合的金标准,但其磨损颗粒引起周围组织反应导致骨溶解和无菌性假体松动;金属-高交联聚乙烯、金属-金属、陶瓷-陶瓷和陶瓷-聚乙烯组合均在一定程度上减少了磨损,但金属离子毒性、陶瓷脆性、造价高等仍然是需要解决的问题.理想的负重面材料应具有良好生物相容、耐蚀性、耐磨性、耐疲劳性、强韧性好等特点,目前人工髋关节负重面组合材料各有优缺点.因此,临床医师针对不同的患者,采取个体化治疗原则,综合患者病情和经济状况等多方面因素,选择合适假体组合类型,以期达到最佳临床疗效.%BACKGROUND: Artificial hip prosthesis materials play a decisive role in the success rates of hip replacement and the recovery rate for patientsOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the properties of hip joint weight-bearing surface materials with different combinations, as well as the biocompatibihty of the materials and the host after implanted in vivoMETHODS: The keyword of "total hip replacement, artificial hip joint, metal, ceramic, polyethylene, biocompatibihty, clinical application" in Chinese and "total hip replacement, artificial hip, prosthetic materials, biocompatibihty, clinical application" in English were used to retrieve the articles published from January 2001 to

  3. Demineralized bone matrix and human cancellous bone enhance fixation of porous-coated titanium implants in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babiker, Hassan; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren


    Allogenic bone graft has been considered the gold standard in connection with bone graft material in revision joint arthroplasty. However, the lack of osteogenic potential and the risk of disease transmission are clinical challenges. The use of osteoinductive materials, such as demineralized bone...... of DBM alone, DBM with CB, or allograft on the fixation of porous-coated titanium implants. DBM100 and CB produced from human tissue were included. Both materials are commercially available. DBM granules are placed in pure DBM and do not contain any other carrier. Titanium alloy implants, 10 mm long × 10...... (gold standard), respectively. A standardized surgical procedure was used. At sacrifice 6 weeks after implantation, both distal femurs were harvested. The implant fixation was evaluated by mechanical push-out testing to test shear mechanical properties between implant and the host bone...

  4. Treatment of Periradicular Bone Defect by Periosteal Pedicle Graft as a Barrier Membrane and Demineralized Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft (United States)

    Saxena, Anurag


    The purpose of this case report is to describe the usefulness of Periosteal Pedicle Graft (PPG) as a barrier membrane and Demineralized Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft (DFDBA) for bone regeneration in periradicular bone defect. A patient with intraoral discharging sinus due to carious exposed pulp involvement was treated by PPG and DFDBA. Clinical and radiological evaluations were done immediately prior to surgery, three months, six months and one year after surgery. Patient was treated using split-thickness flap, PPG, apicoectomy, defect fill with DFDBA and lateral displacement along with suturing of the PPG prior to suturing the flap, in order to close the communication between the oral and the periapical surroundings through sinus tract opening. After one year, successful healing of periradicular bone defect was achieved. Thus, PPG as a barrier membrane and DFDBA have been shown to have the potential to stimulate bone formation when used in periradicular bone defect. PMID:28274066

  5. Bilateral maxillary sinus floor augmentation with tissue-engineered autologous osteoblasts and demineralized freeze-dried bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aashish Deshmukh


    Full Text Available The pneumatization of the maxillary sinus often results in a lack of sufficient alveolar bone for implant placement. In the last decades, maxillary sinus lift has become a very popular procedure with predictable results. Sinus floor augmentation procedures are generally carried out using autologous bone grafts, bone substitutes, or composites of bone and bone substitutes. However, the inherent limitations associated with each of these, have directed the attention of investigators to new technologies like bone tissue engineering. Bone marrow stromal cells have been regarded as multi-potent cells residing in bone marrow. These cells can be harvested from a person, multiplied outside his body using bioengineering principles and technologies and later introduced into a tissue defect. We present a case where tissue-engineered autologous osteoblasts were used along with demineralized freeze-dried bone for sinus floor augmentation.

  6. Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.V.; Malhotra, V.M.; Wiltowski, T.; Myszka, E. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)


    The overall objective of this two-year project is to evaluate methods of preparing demineralized and carbon enriched chars from Illinois Basin coals. There are two processing steps: physical cleaning of the coal and devolatilization under different environments to form chars. Two differents techniques were used, in-situ Diffuse Reflectance FTIR measurements and BTU measurements. Experiments were performed with coals IBC-101, 102, and 104 as received and after cleaning. DR-FTIR spectrums helped to explain the possible existing chemical bonds in the coal structure as well as their changes during drying and mild pyrolysis. Drying coal causes hydrogen bonds between water and coal to be broken. Liquids produced above 500{degrees}C are much higher in aromatic content, thus, effectively reducing the concentration of aliphatic groups in the overall liquid yield. BTU values of coals after methane treatment are higher than after helium treatment.

  7. Clinical research of the effect of fluoride foam on the prevention of enamel demineralization during fixed orthodontic%氟化泡沫在固定正畸过程中预防釉质脱矿的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐璐; 杨四维; 庞兰; 李宇


    目的::研究1.23%氟化泡沫在固定正畸治疗过程中预防釉质脱矿的临床效果。方法:经签字同意进入实验的固定正畸患者40例,随机分为A、B两组,每组20名。A组单纯口腔卫生措施,B组在口腔卫生措施的基础上使用1.23%氟化泡沫。两组患者从治疗起始,每月均使用Canon60D专业相机拍摄一次牙牙合照片,共13次,观察时间为13个月。临床检测指标为牙面是否出现新增的白垩色斑点或龋洞,计算牙釉质脱矿指数(EDI)。结果:①从12次牙釉质脱矿变化看,A、B两组的牙釉质脱矿率均随着时间的延长而增高;②两组EDI指数的平均数:A组高于B组,有统计学意义(t=2.929,P=0.008)。结论:①固定正畸所引起的牙釉质脱矿的发生率和严重程度与正畸时间呈正相关;②在口腔卫生措施的基础上使用1.23%氟化泡沫预防固定正畸过程中的牙釉质脱矿是一种有效的措施。%Objective: To study the effect of 1.23% fluoride foam in prevention of enamel demineralization during fixed orthodontic. Methods: 40 fixed orthodontic patients were randomly divided into group A, taken simple oral hygiene measures, and group B, 1.23%fluoride foam was used besides simple oral hygiene measures. From the beginning of treatment, patients of both groups were taken photos of teeth monthly with Canon60D professional photo camera with a total of 13 times, the observation time was 13 months. The clinical index was whether there was new chalk colored spots or cavities on the surface of tooth and enamel demineralization index (EDI) was calculated. Results: ①Judged from the changes of enamel demineralization in 12 observations, enamel demineralization rates in both groups were increased with the orthodontic time. ②the average EDI of A group was higher than that of B group (t = 2.929, P= 0.008), and statistically significant. Conclusions: ①The incidence and severity of enamel

  8. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J


    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  9. Physics of Artificial Gravity (United States)

    Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles


    This chapter discusses potential technologies for achieving artificial gravity in a space vehicle. We begin with a series of definitions and a general description of the rotational dynamics behind the forces ultimately exerted on the human body during centrifugation, such as gravity level, gravity gradient, and Coriolis force. Human factors considerations and comfort limits associated with a rotating environment are then discussed. Finally, engineering options for designing space vehicles with artificial gravity are presented.

  10. A modeling study by response surface methodology and artificial neural network on culture parameters optimization for thermostable lipase production from a newly isolated thermophilic Geobacillus sp. strain ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Mahiran


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermostable bacterial lipases occupy a place of prominence among biocatalysts owing to their novel, multifold applications and resistance to high temperature and other operational conditions. The capability of lipases to catalyze a variety of novel reactions in both aqueous and nonaqueous media presents a fascinating field for research, creating interest to isolate novel lipase producers and optimize lipase production. The most important stages in a biological process are modeling and optimization to improve a system and increase the efficiency of the process without increasing the cost. Results Different production media were tested for lipase production by a newly isolated thermophilic Geobacillus sp. strain ARM (DSM 21496 = NCIMB 41583. The maximum production was obtained in the presence of peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen sources, olive oil as carbon source and lipase production inducer, sodium and calcium as metal ions, and gum arabic as emulsifier and lipase production inducer. The best models for optimization of culture parameters were achieved by multilayer full feedforward incremental back propagation network and modified response surface model using backward elimination, where the optimum condition was: growth temperature (52.3°C, medium volume (50 ml, inoculum size (1%, agitation rate (static condition, incubation period (24 h and initial pH (5.8. The experimental lipase activity was 0.47 Uml-1 at optimum condition (4.7-fold increase, which compared well to the maximum predicted values by ANN (0.47 Uml-1 and RSM (0.476 Uml-1, whereas R2 and AAD were determined as 0.989 and 0.059% for ANN, and 0.95 and 0.078% for RSM respectively. Conclusion Lipase production is the result of a synergistic combination of effective parameters interactions. These parameters are in equilibrium and the change of one parameter can be compensated by changes of other parameters to give the same results. Though both RSM and

  11. Viscosity of set-style yogurt as influenced by heat treatment of milk and added demineralized whey powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević-Denin Jelena D.


    Full Text Available Skim milk powder was reconstituted to obtain milk A (with 8.44% TS. Milk sample A was standardized with different amounts of demineralized whey powder (DWP to obtain milk B (with 9.71% TS and milk C (with 10.75% TS. Milk samples were heat treated at 85ºC/20 min and 90ºC/10 min, respectively. Untreated milk was used as control. Milk samples were inoculated with 2.5% of commercial yogurt culture (containing Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in the ratio 1:1 at 43ºC. Samples were incubated until pH 4.6 was reached. Samples were immediately cooled to 4ºC and held at that temperature until analyses. Measurements of viscosity were done with Brookfield DV-E Viscometer. Spindle No 3 at 20 rpm was used for all samples. After 1 day of storage, set-style yogurt samples produced from untreated milk had the highest, while samples produced from milk heat treated at 90ºC/10 min the smallest initial viscosity, regadless of the dry matter content and composition. Average viscosity of set-style yogurts decreased with intensifying temperature of applied heat-treatment. During storage, set-style yogurt samples produced from milk heat treated at 90ºC/10 min had the least pronounced decrease of viscosity during shearing. After 14 days of storage, set-style yogurt samples produced from milk standardized with demineralized whey powder had higher viscosity than samples produced from basis milk.

  12. Heidegger and artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, G.


    The discipline of Artificial Intelligence, in its quest for machine intelligence, showed great promise as long as its areas of application were limited to problems of a scientific and situation neutral nature. The attempts to move beyond these problems to a full simulation of man's intelligence has faltered and slowed it progress, largely because of the inability of Artificial Intelligence to deal with human characteristic, such as feelings, goals, and desires. This dissertation takes the position that an impasse has resulted because Artificial Intelligence has never been properly defined as a science: its objects and methods have never been identified. The following study undertakes to provide such a definition, i.e., the required ground for Artificial Intelligence. The procedure and methods employed in this study are based on Heidegger's philosophy and techniques of analysis as developed in Being and Time. Results of this study show that both the discipline of Artificial Intelligence and the concerns of Heidegger in Being and Time have the same object; fundamental ontology. The application of Heidegger's conclusions concerning fundamental ontology unites the various aspects of Artificial Intelligence and provides the articulation which shows the parts of this discipline and how they are related.

  13. Development, validation, and application of a novel LC-MS/MS trace analysis method for the simultaneous quantification of seven iodinated X-ray contrast media and three artificial sweeteners in surface, ground, and drinking water. (United States)

    Ens, Waldemar; Senner, Frank; Gygax, Benjamin; Schlotterbeck, Götz


    A new method for the simultaneous determination of iodated X-ray contrast media (ICM) and artificial sweeteners (AS) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) operated in positive and negative ionization switching mode was developed. The method was validated for surface, ground, and drinking water samples. In order to gain higher sensitivities, a 10-fold sample enrichment step using a Genevac EZ-2 plus centrifugal vacuum evaporator that provided excellent recoveries (90 ± 6 %) was selected for sample preparation. Limits of quantification below 10 ng/L were obtained for all compounds. Furthermore, sample preparation recoveries and matrix effects were investigated thoroughly for all matrix types. Considerable matrix effects were observed in surface water and could be compensated by the use of four stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Due to their persistence, fractions of diatrizoic acid, iopamidol, and acesulfame could pass the whole drinking water production process and were observed also in drinking water. To monitor the fate and occurrence of these compounds, the validated method was applied to samples from different stages of the drinking water production process of the Industrial Works of Basel (IWB). Diatrizoic acid was found as the most persistent compound which was eliminated by just 40 % during the whole drinking water treatment process, followed by iopamidol (80 % elimination) and acesulfame (85 % elimination). All other compounds were completely restrained and/or degraded by the soil and thus were not detected in groundwater. Additionally, a direct injection method without sample preparation achieving 3-20 ng/L limits of quantification was compared to the developed method.

  14. Comparative study of enamel demineralization of different dairy (drink) goods on the primary teeth in vitro%不同乳制(饮)品对离体乳牙牙釉质脱矿作用的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓玲; 王鹏; 曹玉梅; 刘树泰


    Objective To compare the enamel demineralization effect of different dairy (drink) goods for providing evidence for choosing children dairy (drink) products. Methods Immerse in vitro deciduous teeth in different dairy (drink) goods (milk powder solution group;yogurt group;fruit juice milk drinks group;distilled water group) for a week, the enamel surface ultrastructure in deciduous teeth immersed in different dairy (drink) were observed and compared by scanning electron microscope. Results Three kinds of dairy products (drink) can lead to deciduous teeth enamel surface microhardness decreased (P < 0.05). Different dairy products (drink) on isolated teeth enamel demineralization degree (F=20.14, P<0.05), juice milk drinks after immersion of the enamel surface microhardness of the lowest, followed by milk powder solution group and yogurt group. Deciduous teeth with three different dairy (drink) after 1 weeks of immer-sion, the enamel surface had different degree of demineralization phenomenon, observation showed irregular enamel sur-face morphology under scanning electron microscope, the phenomena of dissolution and removal of cracks, voids and so on, partial visible appearance or honeycomb pit. Conclusion Dairy (drink) product all can lead to a variety of deciduous teeth enamel demineralization of different level fruit juice milk drinks can cause serious demineralization.%目的:比较3种市售乳制(饮)品对离体乳牙牙釉质的脱矿作用,为儿童合理选择饮用乳制(饮)品提供依据。方法将离体乳牙浸泡在奶粉液(奶粉液组)、酸奶(酸奶组)、果汁型乳饮品(果汁型乳饮品组)、蒸馏水(蒸馏水组)等乳制(饮)品中1周,用扫描电镜观察并比较经不同乳制(饮)品浸泡后乳牙牙釉质表面超微结构的改变;用维氏显微硬度仪测定并比较乳牙牙釉质表面显微硬度的变化。结果3种乳制(饮)品均可导致离体乳牙牙釉质

  15. 不同材料人工髋关节关节面磨损对无菌性松动的影响%Effect of articular surface wear of different-material artificial hip joints on aseptic loosening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖瑾瑛; 肖小燕; 唐方根; 刘建庭


    目的:分析各种人工髋关节假体材料在实际应用中的优势和存在的问题,对不同材料人工髋关节关节面的磨损对无菌性松动的影响进行评价.方法:以"生物材料,人工髋关节,假体,髋关节表面置换"为中文关键词,"biological materials,hip,prosthesis,hip resurfacing"为英文关键词,采用计算机检索1990-01/2009-12相关文章.纳入与不同材料人工髋关节关节面的磨损对无菌性松动的影响相关的文章;排除重复研究或Meta分析类文章.结果:人工髋关节的寿命和关节面的磨损密切相关,人工髋关节置换在临床应用研究过程中,出现无菌性松动等问题,这些问题的产生不但与假体的设计有关,而且与假体所用材料有着密切的关系,比较了不同人工髋关节假体材料的性能,为临床选择一种具耐磨损、生物相容性好的理想人工髋关节假体材料提供依据.结论:髋关节假体材料的表面改性和人体髋关节生物摩擦行为是未来研究的热点,髋关节假体材料性能评价体系的完善是亟待解决的问题.%OBJECTIVE: To analyze the advantage and problems of artificial hip joints made of different materials in clinical applications, andto evaluate the effects of articular surface wear on aseptic loosening.METHODS: A computer search of relevant articles published from January 1990 to December 2009 was performed by using thekeywords of “biological materials, hip, prosthesis, hip resurfacing” in Chinese and English. Repetitive studies or Meta analysis wereexcluded.RESULTS: The life of artificial hip joints is closely related to the articular surface wear. The appearance of aseptic loosening is notonly related to the design of prostheses, but also associated with prosthetic materials. Based on the comparison of different hipprosthesis material properties, we provide the basis for the selection of an ideal hip prosthesis material with good wear resistanceand biocompatibility

  16. Effect of various particle size hydroxyapatite on remineralization of artifi-cial initial enamel caries%不同粒径羟基磷灰石对人工早期龋再矿化作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成霞; 申晓青; 徐平平


    目的:研究不同粒径羟基磷灰石( HA)对人工早期龋的再矿化作用。方法:应用离体人恒前磨牙制备早期釉质龋标本50个,随机分为5组(n=10):阳性对照组(NaF溶液)、阴性对照组(去离子水)、30 nm HA组、60 nm HA组和12μm HA组,用显微硬度计检测标本脱矿前后表面显微硬度,并用扫描电镜观察各组样本脱矿前后的形态;按照分组进行早期龋体外循环实验12 d,同法测定体外循环后各组样本的表面显微硬度,并观察其形态。结果:与阴性对照组相比,各HA组均能提高标本的表面显微硬度,且随着粒径的减小,其表面显微硬度增大( F=86.272,P<0.001)。扫描电镜下观察,30 nm HA组和60 nm HA组的脱矿区有针状或短棒状晶体颗粒沉积,表面变得均匀、平整,且以30 nm HA组的再矿化效果更佳,12μm HA组的再矿化效果不明显。结论:HA能有效促进早期釉质龋的再矿化;纳米级HA优于微米级HA,且随着粒径的减小,其再矿化效果更佳。%Aim:To explore the effect of various particle size hydroxyapatite ( HA) on remineralization of artificial ini-tial enamel caries .Methods:Fifty human premolars were prepared for artificial enamel caries specimens , and these speci-mens were randomly allocated into 5 groups(n=10):positive control group(NaF solution), negative control group(deion-ized water), 30 nm HA group, 60 nm HA group and 12 μm HA group.Before and after demineralization, the surface mi-crohardness of the specimens was measured by microhardness tester and the morphologies of the specimens were observed by scanning electron microscope .Then after the experiment of 12 d cycling in vitro , the surface microhardness of each group′s specimens was measured and the morphologies were observed again .Results:Compared with negative control group , all the 3 HA groups could significantly improve the surface microhardness of

  17. Artificial vision workbench. (United States)

    Frenger, P


    Machine vision is an important component of medical systems engineering. Inexpensive miniature solid state cameras are now available. This paper describes how these devices can be used as artificial retinas, to take snapshots and moving pictures in monochrome or color. Used in pairs, they produce a stereoscopic field of vision and enable depth perception. Macular and peripheral vision can be simulated electronically. This paper also presents the author's design of an artificial orbit for this synthetic eye. The orbit supports the eye, protects it, and provides attachment points for the ocular motion control system. Convergence and image fusion can be produced, and saccades simulated, along with the other ocular motions. The use of lenses, filters, irises and focusing mechanisms are also discussed. Typical camera-computer interfaces are described, including the use of "frame grabbers" and analog-to-digital image conversion. Software programs for eye positioning, image manipulation, feature extraction and object recognition are discussed, including the application of artificial neural networks.

  18. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology. (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P


    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  19. Artificial muscles on heat (United States)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.


    Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 μW when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

  20. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.


    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  1. Artificial organ engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annesini, Maria Cristina; Piemonte, Vincenzo; Turchetti, Luca


    Artificial organs may be considered as small-scale process plants, in which heat, mass and momentum transfer operations and, possibly, chemical transformations are carried out. This book proposes a novel analysis of artificial organs based on the typical bottom-up approach used in process engineering. Starting from a description of the fundamental physico-chemical phenomena involved in the process, the whole system is rebuilt as an interconnected ensemble of elemental unit operations. Each artificial organ is presented with a short introduction provided by expert clinicians. Devices commonly used in clinical practice are reviewed and their performance is assessed and compared by using a mathematical model based approach. Whilst mathematical modelling is a fundamental tool for quantitative descriptions of clinical devices, models are kept simple to remain focused on the essential features of each process. Postgraduate students and researchers in the field of chemical and biomedical engineering will find that t...

  2. Ultrasound assisted biodiesel production from sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil using barium hydroxide as a heterogeneous catalyst: Comparative assessment of prediction abilities between response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN). (United States)

    Sarve, Antaram; Sonawane, Shriram S; Varma, Mahesh N


    The present study estimates the prediction capability of response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) models for biodiesel synthesis from sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil under ultrasonication (20 kHz and 1.2 kW) using barium hydroxide as a basic heterogeneous catalyst. RSM based on a five level, four factor central composite design, was employed to obtain the best possible combination of catalyst concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio, temperature and reaction time for maximum FAME content. Experimental data were evaluated by applying RSM integrating with desirability function approach. The importance of each independent variable on the response was investigated by using sensitivity analysis. The optimum conditions were found to be catalyst concentration (1.79 wt%), methanol to oil molar ratio (6.69:1), temperature (31.92°C), and reaction time (40.30 min). For these conditions, experimental FAME content of 98.6% was obtained, which was in reasonable agreement with predicted one. The sensitivity analysis confirmed that catalyst concentration was the main factors affecting the FAME content with the relative importance of 36.93%. The lower values of correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.781), root mean square error (RMSE=4.81), standard error of prediction (SEP=6.03) and relative percent deviation (RPD=4.92) for ANN compared to those R(2) (0.596), RMSE (6.79), SEP (8.54) and RPD (6.48) for RSM proved better prediction capability of ANN in predicting the FAME content.

  3. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B


    As the power of Bayesian techniques has become more fully realized, the field of artificial intelligence has embraced Bayesian methodology and integrated it to the point where an introduction to Bayesian techniques is now a core course in many computer science programs. Unlike other books on the subject, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence keeps mathematical detail to a minimum and covers a broad range of topics. The authors integrate all of Bayesian net technology and learning Bayesian net technology and apply them both to knowledge engineering. They emphasize understanding and intuition but also provide the algorithms and technical background needed for applications. Software, exercises, and solutions are available on the authors' website.

  4. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold


    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  5. General artificial neuron (United States)

    Degeratu, Vasile; Schiopu, Paul; Degeratu, Stefania


    In this paper the authors present a model of artificial neuron named the general artificial neuron. Depending on application this neuron can change self number of inputs, the type of inputs (from excitatory in inhibitory or vice versa), the synaptic weights, the threshold, the type of intensifying functions. It is achieved into optoelectronic technology. Also, into optoelectronic technology a model of general McCulloch-Pitts neuron is showed. The advantages of these neurons are very high because we have to solve different applications with the same neural network, achieved from these neurons, named general neural network.

  6. Biofluid lubrication for artificial joints (United States)

    Pendleton, Alice Mae

    This research investigated biofluid lubrication related to artificial joints using tribological and rheological approaches. Biofluids studied here represent two categories of fluids, base fluids and nanostructured biofluids. Base fluids were studied through comparison of synthetic fluids (simulated body fluid and hyaluronic acid) as well as natural biofluids (from dogs, horses, and humans) in terms of viscosity and fluid shear stress. The nano-structured biofluids were formed using molecules having well-defined shapes. Understanding nano-structured biofluids leads to new ways of design and synthesis of biofluids that are beneficial for artificial joint performance. Experimental approaches were utilized in the present research. This includes basic analysis of biofluids' property, such as viscosity, fluid shear stress, and shear rate using rheological experiments. Tribological investigation and surface characterization were conducted in order to understand effects of molecular and nanostructures on fluid lubrication. Workpiece surface structure and wear mechanisms were investigated using a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. The surface topography was examined using a profilometer. The results demonstrated that with the adding of solid additives, such as crown ether or fullerene acted as rough as the other solids in the 3-body wear systems. In addition, the fullerene supplied low friction and low wear, which designates the lubrication purpose of this particular particle system. This dissertation is constructed of six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to body fluids, as mentioned earlier. After Chapter II, it examines the motivation and approach of the present research, Chapter III discusses the experimental approaches, including materials, experimental setup, and conditions. In Chapter IV, lubrication properties of various fluids are discussed. The tribological properties and performance nanostructured biofluids are

  7. Demineralized bone matrix as a bone tissue engineering scaffold material%骨组织工程支架材料:脱矿骨基质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海霞; 谢志刚


    BACKGROUND:Demineralized bone matrix as bone tissue engineering biological scaffold material is more researched currently, which has osteoinductive and osteoconductive. OBTECTIVE:To summarize the development of demineralized bone matrix as bone tissue engineering scaffold material and to prospect its trend. METHODS:The relative literatures addressing demineralized bone matrix as bone tissue engineering scaffold material published between January 1965 and May 2013 in PubMed database, Chinese Biomedical Database, Wanfang Database and FMJS database were searched by the first author. The key words were“demineralized bone matrix, scaffold material, growth factor, cells, drugs”in English and Chinese. According to the inclusion criteria, repetitive researches were excluded, and final y 34 articles were included. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Scaffold material is the key composition of tissue engineered bone, and only demineralized bone matrix has both osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties which cannot only provide space for bone repair, but also can be combined with bioactive factors, living cells, antibiotics in vitro to construct bone graft thereby promoting healing of bone defects. However, this technique is also facing some problems to be solved such as the ratio of demineralized bone matrix and various substances, disinfection, preservation of osteogenetic activity and antigenicity elimination. Sufficiently understanding demineralized bone matrix as bone tissue engineering scaffold can provide a theoretical basis for its clinical service.%背景:脱矿骨基质是目前研究较多的具备骨诱导及骨引导的生物支架材料之一。目的:总结脱矿骨基质作为骨组织工程支架材料的研究进展,并展望其发展趋势。  方法:由第一作者检索1965年1月至2013年5月PubMed数据库、中国生物医学数据库、万方数据库及FMJS数据库有关脱矿骨基质及其作为骨组织工程支架材料的相关文献。英文检索词为“Demineralized

  8. Evaluation of the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) flowsheet for decontamination of high-activity-level water at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D. O.; Collins, E. D.; King, L. J.; Knauer, J. B.


    This report discusses the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) flowsheet for decontamination of the high-activity-level water at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Station was evaluated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a study that included filtration tests, ion exchange column tests, and ion exchange distribution tests. The contaminated waters, the SDS flowsheet, and the experiments made are described. The experimental results were used to predict the SDS performance and to indicate potential improvements.

  9. Searching for Critical Slip Surface of Slops Based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm%基于人工蜂群算法的边坡最危险滑动面搜索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康飞; 李俊杰; 马震岳


    An artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) for continuous numerical optisization was introduced into searching for the most dangerous failure surface in slope stability analysis. ABC is a global search algorithm, which models the cooperative foraging process of honeybees, and the disadvantage of being easily trapped into local optima of traditional algorithms may be overcome. To improve the performance of ABC on complex slopes, Hooke-Jeeves pattern search operators were introduced into ABC and a Hooke-Jeeves ABC was proposed for stability analysis of complex slopes. Results of four examples show that the proposed method has higher convergence accuracy and reliability. Thus, a concise effective global strategy is provided for searching the critical slip surface and calculating the minimum factor of safety in slope stability.%将用于连续数值优化问题的人工蜂群算法引入边坡稳定分析临界滑动面搜索领域.该方法模拟了蜂群的群体协作采蜜过程,具有自适应收敛的特点,克服了传统方法容易陷入局部最优的缺点,是一种全局优化算法.为进一步改善其在复杂边坡搜索中的效果,将Hooke-Jeeves模式搜索操作引入人工蜂群算法,提出一种用于边坡临界滑动面搜索的模式搜索人工蜂群算法.对土石坝、海堤等4个实例边坡的计算结果表明,人工蜂群算法是一种简洁、高效的边坡临界滑动面搜索方法;对于复杂边坡,所提出算法具有更高的收敛精度和可靠性,为边坡稳定分析临界滑动面搜索和最小安全系数的计算提供了一种新的全局求解策略.

  10. Long-Wave Infrared Thermophotonic Imaging of Demineralization in Dental Hard Tissue (United States)

    Ojaghi, A.; Parkhimchyk, A.; Tabatabaei, N.


    Dental caries remains the most prevalent chronic disease in both children and adults worldwide. To address this prevalence through disease prevention and management, dentists need tools capable of detecting caries at early stages of formation. Looking into the physics of light propagation in teeth, this study presents a clinically and commercially viable platform technology for thermophotonic detection of early dental caries using an inexpensive long-wavelength infrared (LWIR; 8 μm to 14 μm) camera. The developed system incorporates intensity-modulated light to generate a thermal-wave field inside enamel and uses the subsequent infrared emission of the thermal-wave field to detect early caries. It was found that the greater light absorption at caries sites shifts the thermal-wave field centroid, providing contrast between early caries and intact enamel. Use of LWIR detection band in dental samples is novel and beneficial over the conventional mid-wavelength infrared band (3 μm to 5 μm) as it suppresses the masking effect of the instantaneous radiative emission from subsurface features due to the minimal transmittance of enamel in the LWIR band. The efficacy of the LWIR system is verified though experiments carried out on nonbiological test samples as well as on teeth with natural and artificially induced caries. The results suggest that the developed LWIR technology is an affordable early dental caries detection system suitable for commercialization/translation to Dentistry.

  11. An investigation using atomic force microscopy nanoindentation of dental enamel demineralization as a function of undissociated acid concentration and differential buffer capacity (United States)

    Barbour, Michele E.; Shellis, R. Peter


    Acidic drinks and foodstuffs can demineralize dental hard tissues, leading to a pathological condition known as dental erosion, which is of increasing clinical concern. The first step in enamel dissolution is a demineralization of the outer few micrometres of tissue, which results in a softening of the structure. The primary determinant of dissolution rate is pH, but the concentration of undissociated acid, which is related to buffer capacity, also appears to be important. In this study, atomic force microscopy nanoindentation was used to measure the first initial demineralization (softening) induced within 1 min by exposure to solutions with a range of undissociated acid concentration and natural pH of 3.3 or with an undissociated acid concentration of 10 mmol l-1 and pH adjusted to 3.3. The results indicate that differential buffering capacity is a better determinant of softening than undissociated acid concentration. Under the conditions of these experiments, a buffer capacity of >3 mmol l-1 pH-1 does not have any further effect on dissolution rate. These results imply that differential buffering capacity should be used for preference over undissociated acid concentration or titratable acidity, which are more commonly employed in the literature.

  12. Impact of pulsed electric field on electrodialysis process performance and membrane fouling during consecutive demineralization of a model salt solution containing a high magnesium/calcium ratio. (United States)

    Cifuentes-Araya, Nicolás; Pourcelly, Gérald; Bazinet, Laurent


    Pulsed electric fields (PEFs), hashed modes of current consisting in the application of a constant current density during a fixed time (Ton) followed by a pause lapse (Toff), were recently demonstrated as an effective alternative for mineral fouling mitigation and process intensification during electrodialysis (ED) treatments. Recent ED studies have continuously reported a considerable mineral fouling formation on ion-exchange membranes, especially during the demineralization of solutions containing a high Mg/Ca ratio and a basified concentrate solution. The aim of this study was to evaluate the process performance under two different PEF conditions on a mineral solution containing a mineral mixture giving a high Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) ratio of 2/5. Two different pause-lapse durations (PEF ratio 1 (Ton/Toff 10s/10s); PEF ratio 0.3 (Ton/Toff 10s/33.3 s)) during consecutive ED treatments and their comparison with dc current were evaluated at a current density of 40 mA/cm(2). Our results showed that PEFs resulted in an intensification of ED process, enhancing the demineralization rates (DRs), reducing the system resistance (SR), and reducing the fouling and energy consumption (EC). PEF ratio 1 was the most optimal condition among the current regimes applied, leading to faster and higher demineralization rates due to a lower fouling and with low energy consumption during all consecutive runs.

  13. Micromachined Artificial Haircell (United States)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)


    A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.

  14. Artificial Gravity Research Plan (United States)

    Gilbert, Charlene


    This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

  15. Artificial Left Ventricle

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami


    This Artificial left ventricle is based on a simple conic assumption shape for left ventricle where its motion is made by attached compressed elastic tubes to its walls which are regarded to electrical points at each nodal .This compressed tubes are playing the role of myofibers in the myocardium of the left ventricle. These elastic tubes have helical shapes and are transacting on these helical bands dynamically. At this invention we give an algorithm of this artificial left ventricle construction that of course the effect of the blood flow in LV is observed with making beneficiary used of sensors to obtain this effecting, something like to lifegates problem. The main problem is to evaluate powers that are interacted between elastic body (left ventricle) and fluid (blood). The main goal of this invention is to show that artificial heart is not just a pump, but mechanical modeling of LV wall and its interaction with blood in it (blood movement modeling) can introduce an artificial heart closed to natural heart...

  16. Artificial intelligence and psychiatry. (United States)

    Servan-Schreiber, D


    This paper provides a brief historical introduction to the new field of artificial intelligence and describes some applications to psychiatry. It focuses on two successful programs: a model of paranoid processes and an expert system for the pharmacological management of depressive disorders. Finally, it reviews evidence in favor of computerized psychotherapy and offers speculations on the future development of research in this area.

  17. Observations of artificial satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The following publication gives the results of photographic
    observations of artificial satellites made at Asiago during the second
    and third year of this programme. The fixed camera technique and that
    with moving film (the latter still in its experimental stage have been used.

  18. Artificial intelligence within AFSC (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.


    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  19. Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan


    The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks.......The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks....

  20. Effect of silver diamine fluoride on remineralization of demineralized dentine in primary teeth in vitro%氟化氨银对乳牙脱矿牙本质体外再矿化的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤根兄; 李静; 陈银花; 郑红; 周淑; 刘子晗; 龚爱秀


    Objective To investigate the effect of silver diamine fluoride on the remineralization of demineralized dentine in vitro .Methods Thirty‐six primary teeth were randomly and equally divided into three groups of A (remineralized with silver diamine fluoride) ,B (remineralized with flouride varnish) and C(control group) .The dentine was analyzed quantificationally by confocal laser scanning microscope .The surface morphology was observed by scanning electron microscope .Results The dentin tubules in group A were completely closed ,which were partly closed in group B and open in group C .The fluorescence area ,total fluorescence intensity and mean fluorescence intensity were lower in groups of A and B than those in group C(P<0 .05) ,which were lower in group A than those in group B ( P<0 .05 ) .Conclusion Silver diamine fluoride and flouride varnish can promote the remineralization of demineralized dentine while the effect of the former was stronger .%目的:研究氟化氨银对乳牙脱矿牙本质体外再矿化的作用。方法36颗离体乳牙,制备牙本质块,形成脱矿牙本质。随机均分为氟化氨银组(A组)、氟保护漆组(B组)和对照组(C组),对脱矿牙本质进行再矿化处理。采用激光扫描共聚焦显微镜对牙本质进行定量分析,扫描电镜观察牙本质表面形态。结果 A组牙本质小管完全封闭,B组部分牙本质小管封闭,C组牙本质小管完全开放。A、B组的脱矿牙本质参数值、牙本质块荧光量面积、总荧光量和病损的平均荧光量均低于C组(P<0.05),A组亦低于B组(P<0.05)。结论氟化氨银和氟保护漆均具有促进脱矿牙本质再矿化的作用,氟化氨银效果更好。

  1. Production of demineralized water for use in thermal power stations by advanced treatment of secondary wastewater effluent. (United States)

    Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A; Gkotsis, Petros; Castellana, Massimo; Cartechini, Fabricio; Zouboulis, Anastasios I


    The operation and efficiency of a modern, high-tech industrial full-scale water treatment plant was investigated in the present study. The treated water was used for the supply of the boilers, producing steam to feed the steam turbine of the power station. The inlet water was the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant of the city of Bari (Italy). The treatment stages comprised (1) coagulation, using ferric chloride, (2) lime softening, (3) powdered activated carbon, all dosed in a sedimentation tank. The treated water was thereafter subjected to dual-media filtration, followed by ultra-filtration (UF). The outlet of UF was subsequently treated by reverse osmosis (RO) and finally by ion exchange (IX). The inlet water had total organic carbon (TOC) concentration 10-12 mg/L, turbidity 10-15 NTU and conductivity 3500-4500 μS/cm. The final demineralized water had TOC less than 0.2 mg/L, turbidity less than 0.1 NTU and conductivity 0.055-0.070 μS/cm. Organic matter fractionation showed that most of the final DOC concentration consisted of low molecular weight neutral compounds, while other compounds such as humic acids or building blocks were completely removed. It is notable that this plant was operating under "Zero Liquid Discharge" conditions, implementing treatment of any generated liquid waste.

  2. A composite demineralized bone matrix--self assembling peptide scaffold for enhancing cell and growth factor activity in bone marrow. (United States)

    Hou, Tianyong; Li, Zhiqiang; Luo, Fei; Xie, Zhao; Wu, Xuehui; Xing, Junchao; Dong, Shiwu; Xu, Jianzhong


    The need for suitable bone grafts is high; however, there are limitations to all current graft sources, such as limited availability, the invasive harvest procedure, insufficient osteoinductive properties, poor biocompatibility, ethical problems, and degradation properties. The lack of osteoinductive properties is a common problem. As an allogenic bone graft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM) can overcome issues such as limited sources and comorbidities caused by invasive harvest; however, DBM is not sufficiently osteoinductive. Bone marrow has been known to magnify osteoinductive components for bone reconstruction because it contains osteogenic cells and factors. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow are the gold standard for cell seeding in tissue-engineered biomaterials for bone repair, and these cells have demonstrated beneficial effects. However, the associated high cost and the complicated procedures limit the use of tissue-engineered bone constructs. To easily enrich more osteogenic cells and factors to DBM by selective cell retention technology, DBM is modified by a nanoscale self-assembling peptide (SAP) to form a composite DBM/SAP scaffold. By decreasing the pore size and increasing the charge interaction, DBM/SAP scaffolds possess a much higher enriching yield for osteogenic cells and factors compared with DBM alone scaffolds. At the same time, SAP can build a cellular microenvironment for cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation that promotes bone reconstruction. As a result, a suitable bone graft fabricated by DBM/SAP scaffolds and bone marrow represents a new strategy and product for bone transplantation in the clinic.

  3. Studying the processes of sulphates and chlorides extraction from water at low-waste water demineralization technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna M. Тrus


    Full Text Available To solve the disposal problem of high-salinity liquid wastes resulting from the water demineralization, researched are the processes of chlorides’ and sulphates’ ion-exchange separation with further sulphates (in the form of calcium sulphate removal from the technological cycle. It is shown that the desulphatized water can be effectively desalinated by reverse osmosis filters, including low-pressure membranes Filmtec TW30-1812-50. The liquid waste obtained in form of concentrates, does contain chlorides, sodium ions and hardness ions. Established is that at these concentrates processing by lime and sodium carbonate or alkali and sodium carbonate they are softened with hardness decrease up to 0,25…0,95 mg-eq/dm3, which allows these solutions’ further electrolysis to obtain alkali and hydrochloric acid. Through direct electrolysis of concentrates, obtained by reverse osmosis water desalination at anionic membrane two-chamber electrolysers, we obtained a disinfectant solution containing chlorine oxigenates (active chlorine, hypochlorite, chlorite and sodium chlorate and duly effective in water sterilization. The resulting solution well keeps its properties and is promising for disinfection of natural and waste waters.

  4. When size matters: differences in demineralized bone matrix particles affect collagen structure, mesenchymal stem cell behavior, and osteogenic potential. (United States)

    Dozza, B; Lesci, I G; Duchi, S; Della Bella, E; Martini, L; Salamanna, F; Falconi, M; Cinotti, S; Fini, M; Lucarelli, E; Donati, D


    Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is a natural, collagen-based, osteoinductive biomaterial. Nevertheless, there are conflicting reports on the efficacy of this product. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether DBM collagen structure is affected by particle size and can influence DBM cytocompatibility and osteoinductivity. Sheep cortical bone was ground and particles were divided in three fractions with different sizes, defined as large (L, 1-2 mm), medium (M, 0.5-1 mm), and small (S, structure, with DBM-M being altered but not as much as DBM-S. DBM-M displayed a preferable trend in almost all biological characteristics tested, although all DBM particles revealed an optimal cytocompatibility. Subcutaneous implantation of DBM particles into immunocompromised mice resulted in bone induction only for DBM-M. When sheep MSC were seeded onto particles before implantation, all DBM particles were able to induce new bone formation with the best incidence for DBM-M and DBM-S. In conclusion, the collagen alteration in DBM-M is likely the best condition to promote bone induction in vivo. Furthermore, the choice of 0.5-1 mm particles may enable to obtain more efficient and consistent results among different research groups in bone tissue-engineering applications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1019-1033, 2017.

  5. Development of Collagen/Demineralized Bone Powder Scaffolds and Periosteum-Derived Cells for Bone Tissue Engineering Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilairat Leeanansaksiri


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate physical and biological properties of collagen (COL and demineralized bone powder (DBP scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. DBP was prepared and divided into three groups, based on various particle sizes: 75–125 µm, 125–250 µm, and 250–500 µm. DBP was homogeneously mixed with type I collagen and three-dimensional scaffolds were constructed, applying chemical crosslinking and lyophilization. Upon culture with human periosteum-derived cells (PD cells, osteogenic differentiation of PD cells was investigated using alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and calcium assay kits. The physical properties of the COL/DBP scaffolds were obviously different from COL scaffolds, irrespective of the size of DBP. In addition, PD cells cultured with COL scaffolds showed significantly higher cell adhesion and proliferation than those with COL/DBP scaffolds. In contrast, COL/DBP scaffolds exhibited greater osteoinductive potential than COL scaffolds. The PD cells with COL/DBP scaffolds possessed higher ALP activity than those with COL scaffolds. PD cells cultured with COL/DBP scaffolds with 250–500 mm particle size yielded the maximum calcium deposition. In conclusion, PD cells cultured on the scaffolds could exhibit osteoinductive potential. The composite scaffold of COL/DBP with 250–500 mm particle size could be considered a potential bone tissue engineering implant.

  6. Biomechanical and radiographic comparison of demineralized bone matrix, and a coralline hydroxyapatite in a rabbit spinal fusion model. (United States)

    Dodds, Robert A; York-Ely, Amanda M; Zhukauskas, Rasa; Arola, Travis; Howell, John; Hartill, Caroline; Cobb, Ronald R; Fox, Casey


    The use of bone grafts is an essential component in spinal fusion. Autologous bone has been shown to result in long-term stable arthrodesis between spinal motion segments. However, autograft can be associated with significant morbidity and a limited supply. Alternatives, such as allogeneic demineralized bone matrix (DBM), are a potential source and supplement to autograft bone. The current study compares the ability of a DBM product (BioSet RT) and a coralline hydroxyapatite (Pro Osteon 500R), for inducing spinal fusion in a rabbit model. BioSet RT, alone or in combination with autograft, and Pro Osteon 500R were implanted in the posterior lateral inter-transverse process region of the rabbit spine. The spines were evaluated at 18 weeks for fusion of the L4-L5 transverse processes using a total of 33 skeletally mature male rabbits; 4 naïve animals were also included in the study. Samples were evaluated radiographically, histologically, by palpation, and through mechanical strength testing. Radiographical, histological, and palpation measurements demonstrated the ability of BioSet RT to induce new bone formation and bridging fusion comparable to autograft. This material performed well alone or in combination with autograft material. Despite significantly higher biomechanical testing results, minimal bone formation and fusion was recorded for the Pro Osteon 500R-treated group. This in vivo study demonstrates the ability of BioSet RT to induce new bone formation, and there was a clear relationship between bridging bone and mechanical strength.

  7. Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.V.; Malhotra, V.M.; Wiltowski, T. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)


    The overall objective of this two-year project was to evaluate methods of preparing demineralized and carbon enriched chars from Illinois Basin coals. The two processing steps, physical cleaning and devolatilization under different environments, led to the following results. Cleaning coal incompletely removes mineral matter which decreases catalytic activity and increases micropore structure. Water forms hydrogen bonds to oxygen functional groups in coal, and during drying, coals undergo structural changes which affect mild gasification. When methane reacts wit coal, devolatilization and carbon deposition occur, the rates of which depend on temperature and amount of ash. Thermal decomposition of IBC-101 coal starts at 300 C, which is much lower than previously believed, but maximum yields of liquids occur at 500 C for IBC-101 coal and at 550 C for IBC-102 coal. Aliphatic-to-aromatic ratios increase with increasing pyrolysis temperatures to 300 C and then decrease; therefore, liquids formed during gasification of 550 C or higher contain mainly aromatic compounds. Btu values of chars are higher after methane treatment than after helium treatment.

  8. Artificial tears potpourri: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshirfar M


    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar,1 Kasey Pierson,2,* Kamalani Hanamaikai,3,* Luis Santiago-Caban,1 Valliammai Muthappan,1 Samuel F Passi11Department of Ophthalmology, John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 3A T Still University, School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona, Mesa, AZ, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Numerous brands and types of artificial tears are available on the market for the treatment of dysfunctional tear syndrome. Past literature has focused on comparing the components of these products on patient’s clinical improvement. The wide array of products on the market presents challenges to both clinicians and patients when trying to choose between available tear replacement therapies. Different formulations affect patients based on etiology and severity of disease. In order to provide an unbiased comparison between available tear replacement therapies, we conducted a literature review of existing studies and National Institutes of Health clinical trials on commercially available, brand name artificial tears. Outcomes evaluated in each study, as well as the percent of patients showing clinical and symptomatic improvement, were analyzed. Fifty-one studies evaluating different brands of artificial tears, and their efficacy were identified. Out of the 51 studies, 18 were comparison studies testing brand name artificial tears directly against each other. Nearly all formulations of artificial tears provided significant benefit to patients with dysfunctional tear syndrome, but some proved superior to others. From the study data, a recommended treatment flowchart was derived. Keywords: dry eye, tear film, dysfunctional tear syndrome, ophthalmic lubricant, artificial tears, lipid layer, tear osmolarity, TBUT, Systane®, Refresh®, Blink®, GenTeal®, Soothe®, Lacrisert®, ocular surface inflammatory disease, Sjogren

  9. Multivariate analysis of surface physico-chemical properties controlling biofilm formation on orthodontic adhesives prior to and after fluoride and chlorhexidine treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chin, Yeen; Sandham, John; Pratten, Jonathan; de Vries, Jacob; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.


    Biofilm formation on orthodontic adhesives is a serious clinical problem, as it leads to enamel demineralization around fixed orthodontic appliances, often leaving white spot lesions after their removal. The aim of this work was to determine the influence of surface physico-chemical properties of fo

  10. 酪蛋白磷酸多肽-无定形磷酸钙对固定正畸所致牙釉质脱矿的影响%The Influence of Casein Phospho Peptides-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate on Enamel Demineralization Induced by Fixed Orthodontic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇; 唐璐; 杨四维; 庞兰


    Objective:To study the influence of casein phospho peptides -amorphous calcium phosphate ( Casein phosphopeptide-amorphic calcium phosphate, CPP-ACP, the product name of GC Tooth Mousse) on enamel demineralization as fixed orthodontic.Methods:40 patients with fixed orthodontic treatment were randomly divided into a control group A group and experimental group B,each group of 20.GroupA had a simple oral hygiene measure on the basis of health education, group B had GC Tooth Mousse on the basis ofgroup A.From the start of treatment to 13-month, observed teeth photograph on two groups, observed whether there were emergine piece of chalk stain or cavities on teeth surface.Analysed by statistics and calculated the rate of enamel demineralization and demineralization Index(EDI).Results:(1)The enamel demineralization rate was increases in both group A and group B with time passing;( 2 ) EDI of group A was higher than that in group B, there was a statistically significant.Conclusion:The use of CPP-ACP of containing GC Tooth Mousse on the basis of oral hygiene measures in preventing enamel demineralization are safe and effective measure.%目的:研究酪蛋白磷酸多肽-无定形磷酸钙(商品名GC护牙素)对固定正畸所致牙釉质脱矿的影响。方法:选择固定正畸治疗患者40例,经签字同意进入实验。以随机数字表法随机分为对照组、实验组各20例。对照组在口腔卫生宣教的基础上采用单纯口腔卫生措施,实验组在对照组的基础上使用GC护牙素。2组患者从治疗开始,进行连续13个月的牙照片观察。观测指标为牙面是否有新出现的的白垩色斑片或龋洞,统计并计算牙釉质脱矿率及脱矿指数(EDI)。结果:(1)对照组、实验组的牙釉质脱矿率均随着时间的增加而增高;(2)对照组EDI高于实验组。结论:在口腔卫生措施的基础上使用GC护牙素预防固定正畸所致牙釉质脱矿是一种安全有效的措施。

  11. Artificial Enzymes, "Chemzymes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jeannette; Rousseau, Cyril Andre Raphaël; Pedersen, Lavinia Georgeta M;


    Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models...... that successfully perform Michaelis-Menten catalysis under enzymatic conditions (i.e., aqueous medium, neutral pH, ambient temperature) and for those that do, very high rate accelerations are seldomly seen. This review will provide a brief summary of the recent developments in artificial enzymes, so called...... "Chemzymes", based on cyclodextrins and other molecules. Only the chemzymes that have shown enzyme-like activity that has been quantified by different methods will be mentioned. This review will summarize the work done in the field of artificial glycosidases, oxidases, epoxidases, and esterases, as well...

  12. Artificial neural network modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Sandhya


    This book covers theoretical aspects as well as recent innovative applications of Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) in natural, environmental, biological, social, industrial and automated systems. It presents recent results of ANNs in modelling small, large and complex systems under three categories, namely, 1) Networks, Structure Optimisation, Robustness and Stochasticity 2) Advances in Modelling Biological and Environmental Systems and 3) Advances in Modelling Social and Economic Systems. The book aims at serving undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in ANN computational modelling. .

  13. Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Nahar


    Full Text Available An artificial neural network is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information.The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons working in unison to solve specific problems.Ann’s, like people, learn by example.

  14. Essentials of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Matt


    Since its publication, Essentials of Artificial Intelligence has beenadopted at numerous universities and colleges offering introductory AIcourses at the graduate and undergraduate levels. Based on the author'scourse at Stanford University, the book is an integrated, cohesiveintroduction to the field. The author has a fresh, entertaining writingstyle that combines clear presentations with humor and AI anecdotes. At thesame time, as an active AI researcher, he presents the materialauthoritatively and with insight that reflects a contemporary, first hand

  15. Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Nahar


    Full Text Available An artificial neural network is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information. The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons working in unison to solve specific problems. Ann’s, like people, learn by example.

  16. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. M Marinho


    Full Text Available This literature review aims to show the main scientific advances achieved in the area of Artificial Insemination (AI within animal reproduction and how these can improve reproductive efficiency and productive of the Brazilian cattle herd. With knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the control of reproductive physiology, in levels endocrine, cellular and molecular, it was possible the development of reproductive biotechnologies, standing out the IA, It has been used on a large scale, by allow the multiplication of animals superior genetically , increase the birthrate and be particularly effective in adjusting the breeding season in cattle. Artificial insemination has an important role in animal genetic improvement; it is the main and more viable middle of spread of genes worldwide when compared to other methods how technologies of embryos and the natural breeding. There are several advantages in using artificial insemination in herd both of cutting as milkman, as herd genetic improvement in lesser time and at a low cost through the use of semen of demonstrably superior sires for production, well as in the control and decrease of diseases which entail reproductive losses and consequently productive, by allowing the creator The crossing of zebuine females with bulls of European breeds and vice-versa, through the use of semen, increasing the number of progeny of a reproducer superior

  18. In vitro study of demineralization resistance and fluoride retention in dental enamel irradiated with Er,Cr: YSGG laser; Estudo in vitro da resistencia a desmineralizacao e da retencao de fluor em esmalte dental irradiado com laser de Er, Cr: YSGG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana, Patricia Aparecida da. E-mail:


    This study aimed to establish irradiation conditions of Er,Cr:YSGG laser ({lambda} of 2.79 {mu}m) which could propitiate changes on human dental enamel and increase its resistance to demineralization, when associated or not with topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF). Fluences of 2,8 J/cm{sup 2}, 5,6 J/cm{sup 2} e 8,5 J/cm{sup 2} were selected; they were associated or not with previous application of a photo absorber (coal paste) and then APF was applied or not after laser irradiation. In a first step, the morphological findings, the surface temperatures, and the pupal temperatures were evaluated during laser irradiation. After that, the treated samples were submitted to a a ten-day pH-cycling model. After producing the incipient white-spots lesions, the following aspects were evaluated: the mineral loss, the loosely bound fluoride and the firmly bound fluoride. All the demineralizing and remineralizing pH-cycling solutions were evaluated with respect to their calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorous (Pi) and fluoride (F{sup -}) concentrations. The data had their normality and homogeneity distribution statistically evaluated, and it was chosen an appropriated statistical test for each performed analysis according to the obtained results, considering 5% significant level. The fluences selected for this study created ablated surfaces; the fluences of 5.6 J/cm{sup 2} and 8.5 J/cm{sup 2} promoted increments in surface temperature above 110 deg C. The intrapupal temperature changes revealed that laser irradiation did not increase the pulpal temperatures above the critical threshold for induction of pulpitis. The coal paste did not promote any changes on surface morphology or in the intrapulpal temperature changes; however, this paste increased the surface temperatures during laser irradiation. Only laser irradiation at 8.5 J/cm{sup 2} was able to decrease the mineral loss when compared to the no-treatment group; although the association of coal paste

  19. Effects of Saliva and Topical Fluoride Application on Enamel of Young Permanent Teeth Demineralized by Carbonated Beverage%唾液及氟化物对碳酸饮料导致年轻恒牙釉质脱矿的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周娟; 许明莲; 杜姗姗; 胡孝丽; 罗志晓; 柴红波; 朱友家


    Objective To explore the remineralization of young permanent teeth demineralized by carbonated beverage with human saliva and topical fluoride application. Methods Thirty young permanent premolar were collected from orthodontic extraction and immersed in carbonated beverage for one week,then they were randomly divided into group A,B and C(n = 10). All teeth were cleaned with distilled water,and then put into normal human saliva,0.1% NaF solution and toothpaste with fluoride for one month,respectively. The morphology changes of enamel surface were observed by scanning electron microscope, and the results was analyzed. Results The enamel surface of group A showed uneven distribution of the mineral particle,which was cloudy covering in the lacunae making the aperture smaller and the depth shallower;the enamel surface of group B showed discrete and irregular settlings with piece or mass form covering in the lacunae, making the depth shallower; the enamel surface of group C showed flat,the depth of demineralization area was superficial,there was some compact and irregular settlings, the degree of demineralization of axon cylinder was obviously reduced, and the density of good mineralization position was close to normal enamel. Conclusion After demineralizing young permanent teeth with carbonated beverage, the remineralization could occur in oral environment within limited degree. The application of fluoride in enamel surface can promote the remineralization.%目的:探讨碳酸饮料处理过的年轻恒牙分别在正常人体唾液中,和经氟化物处理后,牙釉质的再矿化情况.方法:收集因正畸减数拔除的年轻恒前磨牙30颗,置入碳酸饮料中浸泡1周后,将其随机分为3组,用蒸馏水洗净后,分别置入正常人体唾液(A组)、0.1% NaF溶液(B组)及含氟牙膏(C组)中1个月,应用扫描电镜观察各组牙齿牙釉质表面的形态学变化,并对影像结果进行对比分析.结果:A组牙齿的釉质表面有分布不

  20. Artificial Hair Cells for Sensing Flows (United States)

    Chen, Jack


    The purpose of this article is to present additional information about the flow-velocity sensors described briefly in the immediately preceding article. As noted therein, these sensors can be characterized as artificial hair cells that implement an approximation of the sensory principle of flow-sensing cilia of fish: A cilium is bent by an amount proportional to the flow to which it is exposed. A nerve cell at the base of the cilium senses the flow by sensing the bending of the cilium. In an artificial hair cell, the artificial cilium is a microscopic cantilever beam, and the bending of an artificial cilium is measured by means of a strain gauge at its base (see Figure 1). Figure 2 presents cross sections of a representative sensor of this type at two different stages of its fabrication process. The process consists of relatively- low-temperature metallization, polymer-deposition, microfabrication, and surface-micromachining subprocesses, including plastic-deformation magnetic assembly (PDMA), which is described below. These subprocesses are suitable for a variety of substrate materials, including silicon, some glasses, and some polymers. Moreover, because it incorporates a polymeric supporting structure, this sensor is more robust, relative to its silicon-based counterparts.

  1. Determination of orthodontic tooth movement and tissue reaction following demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft grafting intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Seifi


    Full Text Available Background: Socket preservation after tooth extraction is one of the indications of bone grafting to enhance preorthodontic condition. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of socket preservation on the immediate tooth movement, alveolar ridge height preservation and orthodontic root resorption. Materials and Methods: In a split-mouth technique, twelve sites in three dogs were investigated as an experimental study. Crushed demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA (CenoBone® was used as the graft material. The defects were made by the extraction of 3 rd premolar. On one side of each jaw, the defects were preserved by DFDBA and defects of the other side left opened as the control group. Simultaneously the teeth adjacent to the defects were pulled together by a NiTi coil spring. After eight weeks, the amount of (OTM, alveolar height, and root resorption were measured. Analysis of variance was used for purpose of comparison. Results: There was a slight increase in OTM at grafted sites as they were compared to the control sites (P<0.05. Also a significant bone resorption in control site and successful socket preservation in experimental site were observed. Reduction of root resorption at the augmented site was significant compared to the normal healing site (P<0.05. Conclusion: Using socket preservation, tooth movement can be immediately started without waiting for the healing of the recipient site. This can provide some advantages like enhanced rate of OTM, its approved effects on ridge preservation that reduces the chance of dehiscence and the reduction of root resorption.

  2. Evaluation of inactivation of intracanal antiseptics by dentin, demineralized dentin, dentin matrix and mineral component of dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmi H


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Many studies have shown that microorganisms are the main cause of pulpal diseases and the main purpose of root canal therapy is their elimination from the root canal system. Antiseptic agents are used to reduce bacteria but their antibacterial activities differ from in vivo to in vitro studies and might be inactivated by dentin and its components in root canal space. This study was designed to investigate the effect of dentin on antibacterial activity of different antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, two antibacterial agents (sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine with different concentrations were used in four experimental groups: Group 1: dentin, Group 2: demineralized dentin with EDTA, Group 3: dentin matrix and Group 4: dentin mineral component. The species used in this study was Entrococcus faecalis. Different concentration of agents were added to mixture of each experimental group and bacteria. At the baseline and after one and 24 hours, samples were collected and cultured. After incubation period, colonies were counted. Data were analyzed by Tukey test with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: 2% and 0.2% chlorhexidine, and 5% sodium hypochlorite solutions at the three studied times eliminated Entrococcus faecalis completely. 1% sodium hypochlorite eliminated all bacteria in 1h and 24 hs. Statistical analysis showed significant differences between experimental and control groups (P<0.05. Sodium 1% hypochlorite at time 0, could reduce bacteria significantly (P<0.05 but didn’t eliminate them completely. Conclusion: Inactivation of intracanal antiseptics was not observed in this study. As elimination of bacteria occurred, application of these antibacterial agents are recommended in endodontic treatment. Further investigations on other antibacterial agents, other concentrations and shorter time intervals are recommended.

  3. Demineralized Bone Matrix Scaffolds Modified by CBD-SDF-1α Promote Bone Regeneration via Recruiting Endogenous Stem Cells. (United States)

    Shi, Jiajia; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Wen; Liang, Hui; Shi, Qin; Li, Xiaoran; Chen, Yanyan; Zhuang, Yan; Dai, Jianwu


    The reconstruction of bone usually depends on substitute transplantation, which has drawbacks including the limited bone substitutes available, comorbidity, immune rejection, and limited endogenous bone regeneration. Here, we constructed a functionalized bone substitute by combining application of the demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and collagen-binding stromal-cell-derived factor-1α (CBD-SDF-1α). DBM was a poriferous and biodegradable bone substitute, derived from bovine bone and consisting mainly of collagen. CBD-SDF-1α could bind to collagen and be controllably released from the DBM to mobilize stem cells. In a rat femur defect model, CBD-SDF-1α-modified DBM scaffolds could efficiently mobilize CD34(+) and c-kit(+) endogenous stem cells homing to the injured site at 3 days after implantation. According to the data from micro-CT, CBD-SDF-1α-modified DBM scaffolds could help the bone defects rejoin with mineralization accumulated and bone volume expanded. Interestingly, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteopontin (OPN) were highly expressed in CBD-SDF-1α group at an early time after implantation, while osteocalcin (OCN) was more expanded. H&E and Masson's trichrome staining showed that the CBD-SDF-1α-modified DBM scaffold group had more osteoblasts and that the bone defect rejoined earlier. The ultimate strength of the regenerated bone was investigated by three-point bending, showing that the CBD-SDF-1α group had superior strength. In conclusion, CBD-SDF-1α-modified DBM scaffolds could promote bone regeneration by recruiting endogenous stem cells.

  4. Electrolyte-promoted demineralization of biogenic, vitreous, and crystalline silica: A density functional investigation (United States)

    Dove, P. M.; Wallace, A. F.; Gibbs, G. V.


    The dissolution of amorphous and crystalline varieties of SiO2 is an integral part of the global biogeochemical cycle of silicon. Nanoparticulate biogenic silica produced by marine phytoplankton and terrestrial plants are of particular interest because their enhanced reactivity and abundance make them important sources and sinks of dissolved silicon in natural environments. Recent experimental results on (100) surfaces of quartz show that the dominant dissolution mechanism in simple H2O solutions is by retreat of Q2 groups along step edges. In the presence of electrolytes, rates are accelerated by up to 100X in the presence by a crossover in the dominant dissolution mechanism to nucleation of vacancy islands at Q3 terminated species (Dove et al., PNAS, 2005). While the control of surface coordination in reactivity is clear, the molecular pathway by which electrolytes induce dissolution by a nucleated process remains poorly understood. The results of previous ab initio investigations of Si-O bond hydrolysis by water have demonstrated that the reaction proceeds through the dissociative adsorption of H2O at the silica surface, resulting in the formation of a pentacoordinated Si transition state, followed by the transfer of one of the water bound hydrogen atoms to a bridging oxygen in the SiO2 bonded network, and breakage of the Si-O bond. Assuming a similar reaction path, the specific effects of hydrated group II metal cations (Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+) on the energetics of Si-O bond hydrolysis have been investigated with density functional methods (B3LYP) and a relatively large neutral silica cluster (H8Si6O16). Reactant, product, and transition states for Q3 to Q2 hydrolysis in the presence and absence of the afore-mentioned cations have been determined with all electron (6-31G(d)) and effective core potential (SDDALL) Gaussian basis sets. The free energy of activation for Q3 to Q2 Si-O bond hydrolysis was determined to be approximately 5 kJ/mol lower for Ca2+ than Mg

  5. Artificial intelligence in hematology. (United States)

    Zini, Gina


    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer based science which aims to simulate human brain faculties using a computational system. A brief history of this new science goes from the creation of the first artificial neuron in 1943 to the first artificial neural network application to genetic algorithms. The potential for a similar technology in medicine has immediately been identified by scientists and researchers. The possibility to store and process all medical knowledge has made this technology very attractive to assist or even surpass clinicians in reaching a diagnosis. Applications of AI in medicine include devices applied to clinical diagnosis in neurology and cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as the use of expert or knowledge-based systems in routine clinical use for diagnosis, therapeutic management and for prognostic evaluation. Biological applications include genome sequencing or DNA gene expression microarrays, modeling gene networks, analysis and clustering of gene expression data, pattern recognition in DNA and proteins, protein structure prediction. In the field of hematology the first devices based on AI have been applied to the routine laboratory data management. New tools concern the differential diagnosis in specific diseases such as anemias, thalassemias and leukemias, based on neural networks trained with data from peripheral blood analysis. A revolution in cancer diagnosis, including the diagnosis of hematological malignancies, has been the introduction of the first microarray based and bioinformatic approach for molecular diagnosis: a systematic approach based on the monitoring of simultaneous expression of thousands of genes using DNA microarray, independently of previous biological knowledge, analysed using AI devices. Using gene profiling, the traditional diagnostic pathways move from clinical to molecular based diagnostic systems.

  6. Polymer artificial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissaphern Mirfakhrai


    Full Text Available The various types of natural muscle are incredible material systems that enable the production of large deformations by repetitive molecular motions. Polymer artificial muscle technologies are being developed that produce similar strains and higher stresses using electrostatic forces, electrostriction, ion insertion, and molecular conformational changes. Materials used include elastomers, conducting polymers, ionically conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes. The mechanisms, performance, and remaining challenges associated with these technologies are described. Initial applications are being developed, but further work by the materials community should help make these technologies applicable in a wide range of devices where muscle-like motion is desirable.

  7. Mechanism of artificial heart

    CERN Document Server

    Yamane, Takashi


    This book first describes medical devices in relation to regenerative medicine before turning to a more specific topic: artificial heart technologies. Not only the pump mechanisms but also the bearing, motor mechanisms, and materials are described, including expert information. Design methods are described to enhance hemocompatibility: main concerns are reduction of blood cell damage and protein break, as well as prevention of blood clotting. Regulatory science from R&D to clinical trials is also discussed to verify the safety and efficacy of the devices.

  8. Uncertainty in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kanal, LN


    How to deal with uncertainty is a subject of much controversy in Artificial Intelligence. This volume brings together a wide range of perspectives on uncertainty, many of the contributors being the principal proponents in the controversy.Some of the notable issues which emerge from these papers revolve around an interval-based calculus of uncertainty, the Dempster-Shafer Theory, and probability as the best numeric model for uncertainty. There remain strong dissenting opinions not only about probability but even about the utility of any numeric method in this context.

  9. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B


    Updated and expanded, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence, Second Edition provides a practical and accessible introduction to the main concepts, foundation, and applications of Bayesian networks. It focuses on both the causal discovery of networks and Bayesian inference procedures. Adopting a causal interpretation of Bayesian networks, the authors discuss the use of Bayesian networks for causal modeling. They also draw on their own applied research to illustrate various applications of the technology.New to the Second EditionNew chapter on Bayesian network classifiersNew section on object-oriente

  10. Artificial Intelligence in Space Platforms. (United States)


    computer algorithms, there still appears to be a need for Artificial Inteligence techniques in the navigation area. The reason is that navigaion, in...RD-RI32 679 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN SPACE PLRTFORNSMU AIR FORCE 1/𔃼 INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PRTTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING M A WRIGHT DEC 94...i4 Preface The purpose of this study was to analyze the feasibility of implementing Artificial Intelligence techniques to increase autonomy for

  11. Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network (United States)


    11th International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation FAST 2011, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, September 2011 Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network Richard...Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e... Artificial Neural Network and is restricted to the center and side-hull configurations tested. The value in the parametric model is that it is able to

  12. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine


    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  13. How to teach artificial organs. (United States)

    Zapanta, Conrad M; Borovetz, Harvey S; Lysaght, Michael J; Manning, Keefe B


    Artificial organs education is often an overlooked field for many bioengineering and biomedical engineering students. The purpose of this article is to describe three different approaches to teaching artificial organs. This article can serve as a reference for those who wish to offer a similar course at their own institutions or incorporate these ideas into existing courses. Artificial organ classes typically fulfill several ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) criteria, including those specific to bioengineering and biomedical engineering programs.

  14. Treatment of endodontic perforations using guided tissue regeneration and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft: two case reports with 2-4 year post-surgical evaluations. (United States)

    Zenobio, Elton Golçalves; Shibli, Jamil Awad


    Clinicians often have difficulty with the diagnosis and treatment of root perforation. This paper reports two patients with root perforation treated with periodontal surgery associated with guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA). This combined treatment resulted in minimal probing depths, minimal attachment loss, and radiographic evidence of bone gain after follow-up evaluations that ranged from 2 to 4 years. These case reports show a correct diagnosis and removal of etiologic factors can restore both periodontal and endodontic health.

  15. [Artificial neural networks in Neurosciences]. (United States)

    Porras Chavarino, Carmen; Salinas Martínez de Lecea, José María


    This article shows that artificial neural networks are used for confirming the relationships between physiological and cognitive changes. Specifically, we explore the influence of a decrease of neurotransmitters on the behaviour of old people in recognition tasks. This artificial neural network recognizes learned patterns. When we change the threshold of activation in some units, the artificial neural network simulates the experimental results of old people in recognition tasks. However, the main contributions of this paper are the design of an artificial neural network and its operation inspired by the nervous system and the way the inputs are coded and the process of orthogonalization of patterns.

  16. Morphology and thickness of the diffusion of resin through demineralized or unconditioned dentinal matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrais César Augusto Galvão


    Full Text Available The formation of a hybrid layer is the main bonding mechanism of current dentin-bonding systems. This study evaluated the morphology and thickness of the resin-infiltrated dentinal layer after the application of adhesive systems. The dentin-bonding agents were evaluated on flat dentinal preparations confected on the occlusal surfaces of human teeth. The test specimens were prepared and inspected under scanning electron microscopy at a magnification of X 2,000. The adhesive systems were responsible for different hybrid layer thicknesses (p < 0.05, and the mean values were: for Scotchbond MP Plus (SM, 7.41 ± 1.24mum; for Single Bond (SB, 5.55 ± 0.82mum; for Etch & Prime 3.0 (EP, 3.86 ± 1.17mum; and for Clearfil SE Bond (CB, 1.22 ± 0.45mum. The results suggest that the conventional three-step adhesive system (SM was responsible for the thickest hybrid layer, followed by the one-bottle adhesive (SB. The self-etching adhesives, EP and CB, produced the formation of the thinnest hybrid layers.

  17. Development of artificial empathy. (United States)

    Asada, Minoru


    We have been advocating cognitive developmental robotics to obtain new insight into the development of human cognitive functions by utilizing synthetic and constructive approaches. Among the different emotional functions, empathy is difficult to model, but essential for robots to be social agents in our society. In my previous review on artificial empathy (Asada, 2014b), I proposed a conceptual model for empathy development beginning with emotional contagion to envy/schadenfreude along with self/other differentiation. In this article, the focus is on two aspects of this developmental process, emotional contagion in relation to motor mimicry, and cognitive/affective aspects of the empathy. It begins with a summary of the previous review (Asada, 2014b) and an introduction to affective developmental robotics as a part of cognitive developmental robotics focusing on the affective aspects. This is followed by a review and discussion on several approaches for two focused aspects of affective developmental robotics. Finally, future issues involved in the development of a more authentic form of artificial empathy are discussed.

  18. Creating an Artificial Muscle (United States)

    Bohon, Katherine; Krause, Sonja


    Striated skeletal muscle responds to a nerve impulse in less than 100 ms. In the past, polymeric gels and conducting polymers have been investigated for use as artificial muscle. However, the main problem with these materials is their relatively slow response (>3 seconds). On the other hand, electrorheological (ER) fluids are materials that change from a liquid to a solid upon application of an electric field. These fluids have a response on the order of a millisecond. A novel approach to artificial muscle utilizing the fast time response of ER fluids and the elasticity of polymeric gels has been investigated. A commercial sample of a two-part poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) dielectric gel was used. The PDMS was cured around two flexible electrodes 5 mm apart while a mixture of PDMS with solvent was cured between the electrodes. The solvents were either silicone oil or an ER fluid composed of crosslinked poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) particles in silicone oil. The mixtures investigated were 90/10, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 10/90 PDMS/solvent. Upon application of a 6.2 kV/cm DC electric field the gel was reversibly compressed. The time response of the gel was actuator has been created using the 60/40 PDMS/ER fluid mixture.

  19. The total artificial heart. (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G


    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  20. Generative Artificial Intelligence : Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zant, Tijn; Kouw, Matthijs; Schomaker, Lambertus; Mueller, Vincent C.


    The closed systems of contemporary Artificial Intelligence do not seem to lead to intelligent machines in the near future. What is needed are open-ended systems with non-linear properties in order to create interesting properties for the scaffolding of an artificial mind. Using post-structuralistic

  1. In vitro effect of fluoride oral hygiene tablets on artificial caries lesion formation and remineralization in human enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremniczky Thomas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim of this in-vitro-study was to assess the remineralization potential of a tooth cleaning tablet with different fluoride content. Methods Twenty three caries free impacted third molars were examined, enamel surfaces were wax coated leaving two 3 × 4 mm windows for exposure to demineralization/remineralization cycles. The teeth were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 5 control and 6 experimental teeth. Demineralization by standardised HEC-gel, pH 4.7 at 37°C for 72 h, was alternated by rinsing in remineralization solution, pH 7.0 at 37°C for 72 h, total challenge time 432 h. The negative control group N was treated during remineralization cycles with saline; positive control group P was treated with remineralization solution; experimental group D1 was exposed to remineralization solution containing Denttabs®-tablets with 1450 ppm F; experimental group D2 was exposed to remineralization solution and Denttabs®-tablets with 4350 ppm F. Each tooth was cut into serial sections and analyzed by polarized light microscopy for assessment of the different zones of white-spot lesions in 3 representative sections. Statistical analysis was based on the Mann-Whitney-Test. Results Both control groups N(- and P(+ exhibited characteristic white-spot lesions. The remineralization and the demineralization inhibition of the lesions increased considerably from N®-2 administration showed partial/total remineralization including lamination and/or disappearance of the body of the lesion. The different results of all 4 groups were statistically highly significant (p Conclusion Based on these results the novel Denttabs® formulation represents a highly effective oral hygiene product and the remineralization is correlated to the fluoride content.

  2. Growth Kinetics and Demineralization of Shrimp Shell Using L a c t o b a c i l l u s p l a n t a r u m PTCC 1058 on Various Carbon Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khorrami


    Full Text Available The present study has focused on the effect of various carbon sources such as glucose, sucrose and date syrup as natural carbon sources along with Lactobacillus plantarum microorganism on demineralization (DM of shrimp shell. Logistic and Verhulst Equations were used for the determination of growth kinetic parameters. Maximum demineralization efficiency of 82% was obtained in the media contained date syrup. Data for fermentation with media contained date syrup were suitably fitted with both Verhulst and Logistic Equations. Kinetic data was obtained and Gompertz model for production of lactic acid was used. For the media contained date syrup as carbon source, maximum rate of acid production was obtained.

  3. Artificial Boundary Method for Calculating Ship Wave Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文新; 韩厚德


    The calculation of wave resistance for a ship moving at constant speed near a free surface is considered. This wave resistance is calculated with a linearized steady potential model. To deal with the unboundedness of the physical domain in the potential flow problem, we introduce one vertical side as an artificial upstream boundary and two vertical sides as the artificial downstream boundaries. On the artificial boundaries, a sequence of high-order global artificial boundary conditions are given. Then the potential flow problem is reduced to a problem defined on a finite computational domain, which is equivalent to a variational problem. The solution of the variational problem by the finite element method gives the numerical approximation of the potential flow around the ship, which was used to calculate the wave resistance. The numerical examples show the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed numerical scheme.

  4. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina K. Gonzales


    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT, release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL, population replacement strategies (PR, and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood.

  5. Artificial Immune Systems (2010)

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Aickelin, Uwe


    The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain, such as robustness and fault tolerance, and many different algorithms, collectively termed Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), have been inspired by it. Two generations of AIS are currently in use, with the first generation relying on simplified immune models and the second generation utilising interdisciplinary collaboration to develop a deeper understanding of the immune system and hence produce more complex models. Both generations of algorithms have been successfully applied to a variety of problems, including anomaly detection, pattern recognition, optimisation and robotics. In this chapter an overview of AIS is presented, its evolution is discussed, and it is shown that the diversification of the field is linked to the diversity of the immune system itself, leading to a number of algorithms as opposed to one archetypal system. Two case studies are also presented to help provide insight into the m...

  6. Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Vasilaras, Tatjana H; Astrup, Arne;


    There is a lack of appetite studies in free-living subjects supplying the habitual diet with either sucrose or artificially sweetened beverages and foods. Furthermore, the focus of artificial sweeteners has only been on the energy intake (EI) side of the energy-balance equation. The data are from...

  7. Instructional Applications of Artificial Intelligence. (United States)

    Halff, Henry M.


    Surveys artificial intelligence and the development of computer-based tutors and speculates on the future of artificial intelligence in education. Includes discussion of the definitions of knowledge, expert systems (computer systems that solve tough technical problems), intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), and specific ITSs such as GUIDON, MYCIN,…

  8. A Primer on Artificial Intelligence. (United States)

    Leal, Ralph A.

    A survey of literature on recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence provides a comprehensive introduction to this field for the non-technical reader. Important areas covered are: (1) definitions, (2) the brain and thinking, (3) heuristic search, and (4) programing languages used in the research of artificial intelligence. Some…

  9. Generalized Adaptive Artificial Neural Networks (United States)

    Tawel, Raoul


    Mathematical model of supervised learning by artificial neural network provides for simultaneous adjustments of both temperatures of neurons and synaptic weights, and includes feedback as well as feedforward synaptic connections. Extension of mathematical model described in "Adaptive Neurons For Artificial Neural Networks" (NPO-17803). Dynamics of neural network represented in new model by less-restrictive continuous formalism.

  10. Artificial Ligaments: Promise or Panacea? (United States)

    Lubell, Adele


    The Food and Drug Administration has approved a prosthetic ligament for limited use in persons with damaged anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). This article addresses ligament repair, ACL tears, current treatment, development of the Gore-Tex artificial ligament, other artificial ligaments in process, and arguments for and against their use.…

  11. Soft computing in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Matson, Eric


    This book explores the concept of artificial intelligence based on knowledge-based algorithms. Given the current hardware and software technologies and artificial intelligence theories, we can think of how efficient to provide a solution, how best to implement a model and how successful to achieve it. This edition provides readers with the most recent progress and novel solutions in artificial intelligence. This book aims at presenting the research results and solutions of applications in relevance with artificial intelligence technologies. We propose to researchers and practitioners some methods to advance the intelligent systems and apply artificial intelligence to specific or general purpose. This book consists of 13 contributions that feature fuzzy (r, s)-minimal pre- and β-open sets, handling big coocurrence matrices, Xie-Beni-type fuzzy cluster validation, fuzzy c-regression models, combination of genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization, building expert system, fuzzy logic and neural network, ind...

  12. Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Zackova, Eva; Kelemen, Jozef; Beyond Artificial Intelligence : The Disappearing Human-Machine Divide


    This book is an edited collection of chapters based on the papers presented at the conference “Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams” held in Pilsen in November 2012. The aim of the conference was to question deep-rooted ideas of artificial intelligence and cast critical reflection on methods standing at its foundations.  Artificial Dreams epitomize our controversial quest for non-biological intelligence, and therefore the contributors of this book tried to fully exploit such a controversy in their respective chapters, which resulted in an interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from engineering, natural sciences and humanities.   While pursuing the Artificial Dreams, it has become clear that it is still more and more difficult to draw a clear divide between human and machine. And therefore this book tries to portrait such an image of what lies beyond artificial intelligence: we can see the disappearing human-machine divide, a very important phenomenon of nowadays technological society, the phenomenon which i...

  13. A comparative evaluation of extraction socket preservation with demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft alone and along with platelet-rich fibrin: A clinical and radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaval J Thakkar


    Full Text Available Aims: To investigate clinically and radiographically, the bone fill in extraction sockets using demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft alone and along with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out on 36 nonrestorable single-rooted teeth sites. Sites were randomized into demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA combined with PRF - test and DFDBA - control groups using a coin toss method. After the placement of graft material, collagen membrane was used to cover it. The clinical parameters recorded were ridge width and ridge height. All the parameters were recorded at baseline and at 90 and 180 days. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent t-test and paired t-test. Results: In both groups, there is significant reduction in loss of ridge width and ridge height from baseline to 90 days (P < 0.001, baseline to 180 days (P < 0.001, and 90-180 days (P < 0.001. However, when both the groups were compared the test group favored in the reduction of ridge width while there was no statistical difference in reduction of ridge height among at different intervals. Conclusions: Although DFDBA is considered as an ideal graft material, PRF can be used as an adjunctive with DFDBA for socket preservation.

  14. The density of collagen fiber in alveolus mandibular bone of rabbit after augmentation with powder demineralized bone matrix post incisivus extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina TC. Tandelilin


    Full Text Available The bone defect due to tooth extraction contributes the most cases reported in the aspects of oral surgery. The defect can be preventively managed by adding powder bone matrix intended for augmentation which eventually induces the formation of new bones. This hard tissue wound healing is preceded by the presence of collagen fibers. The aim of this study was to determine the density of collagen fiber in the alveolus mandibular bone of rabbit which was augmented using powder demineralized bone matrix (DBM post incisivus extraction. Twenty four male rabbits aged 2.5–3 months weighed 900–1,100 grams were randomly divided into two groups. The treated rabbits were augmented with DBM after the incisivus extraction on mandible. The mucosa was then sutured. On the other hand, the controlled rabbits received similar treatments with those of the treated rabbits except there was no augmentation of DBM. Decapitation of treated and controlled rabbits was made on day 5, 7, 10, and 14 days post surgery, each with three rabbits. Mandibles were cut, decalcified, and imbedded in paraffin block. The staining was done using Mallory. Significant differences in the density of collagen were noted on day 10 and 14 post surgery, indicating that powder demineralized bone matrix successfully induced the stimulation of collagen.

  15. Expanding Applicability of Total Artificial Heart Therapy: The 50-cc SynCardia Total Artificial Heart. (United States)

    Spiliopoulos, Sotirios; Dimitriou, Alexandros Merkourios; Guersoy, Dilek; Koerfer, Reiner; Tenderich, Gero


    The 50-cc SynCardia total artificial heart is designed to facilitate orthotopic replacement of the native ventricles in patients with a body surface area below 1.7 m(2) in need of long-term circulatory support as a result of end-stage biventricular heart failure. We describe the implementation of this technology in a female patient with irreversible cardiogenic shock on the grounds of acute myocardial infarction and chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy.

  16. Evaluation of the mineralization degree of the vestibular surface of the upper central incisors with a 655-nm diode laser in mouth breathers: preliminary results (United States)

    Pinheiro Ladalardo, Thereza C. C. G.; Cappellette, Mario, Jr.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Anthero de Azevedo, Ramiro; Pignatari, Shirley; Weckx, Luc L. M.


    Mouth breathing unbalances the physiological mechanisms of the dental surface hydration by compromising lip closure, and, very often, causing the vestibular positioning of upper incisors. That variance leads to the interruption of the dental demineralization and remineralization feedback, prevailing a demineralized condition of the dental surface which increases caries risk. The laser fluorescence examination allows an early demineralization diagnosis, thus it makes possible through preventive measures to minimize the risk factor - dental mineral structure loss - in the bacterial infection of the demineralized area, and hence, preventing invasive therapeutical procedures. A DIAGNOdent apparatus was used to evaluate the mineralization degree of the upper central incisors in 40 patients - twenty of them with a mouth breathing diagnosis; the remaining twenty were nasal breathers (control group). Age ranging from 6 to 12 years, both male and female. To measure the vestibular surface of the incisors, it was divided into 3 segments: cervical, medial and incisal. The average of the results pertaining to the mouth breathing patients was as follows: tooth 11 cervical third - 5.45, medial third - 7.15, incisal third - 7.95, and tooth 21 - cervical third - 5.95, medial third - 7.25, incisal third - 8.15. The control patients, nasal breathers, presented the following results: tooth 11 cervical third - 1.75, medial third - 2.30, incisal third - 1.85, and tooth 21 - cervical third - 1.80, medial third - 2.20, incisal third - 2.15. The mouth breathing patients showed demineralization in the teeth examined at the initial stage, subclinical, comparing with the control patients, nasal breathers, who did not present any mineral deficit in these teeth.

  17. Effect of a glass ionomer cement and a fluoride varnish on cross-sectional microhardness values of artificial occlusal caries: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MWM Souchois


    Conclusions: This in vitro study demonstrated that the use of GIC over an artificial active WSLs and exposed to an artificially HRCC setting tend to express some effect in increased surface KHN values.

  18. What Is a Total Artificial Heart? (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Total Artificial Heart? A total artificial heart (TAH) is a device ... outside power source. Normal Heart and CardioWest Total Artificial Heart Figure A shows the normal structure and location ...

  19. Hardness of enamel exposed to Coca-Cola and artificial saliva. (United States)

    Devlin, H; Bassiouny, M A; Boston, D


    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of change in indentation hardness of enamel in permanent teeth exposed to Coca-Cola. In a further experiment, the ability of a commercially available artificial saliva to remineralize enamel treated with Coca-Cola was tested. Ten enamel specimens were randomly chosen to be treated with Coca-Cola (experimental groups) and seven with water (control group). The fluids were applied for 1, 2, 3 h and overnight (15 h), washed off with a few drops of water and the moist enamel indentation hardness tested after each interval. With Coca-Cola treatment, the mean enamel hardness was 92.6% (s.d. = 7.9) of the original baseline hardness after 1 h, 93.25% (s.d. = 10.15) after 2 h, 85.7% (s.d. = 12.03) after 3 h and 80.3% after 15 h. The mean indentation hardness of control specimens treated with water was 108.7% (s.d. = 16.09) of the original hardness after 1 h, 99.09% (s.d. = 18.98) after 2 h, 98.97% (s.d. =11.24) after 3 h and 98.42% (s.d. = 22.78) after 15 h. In a separate experiment, the hardness of 9 enamel specimens was tested, as previously described, before and after treatment with Coca-Cola overnight and again after application of artificial saliva for 3 min. Coca-Cola reduced the mean indentation hardness of enamel in the teeth, but the hardness was partially restored with artificial saliva (Salivart) and increased by 18% from the demineralized enamel hardness.

  20. Artificial Sweeteners in a Large Canadian River Reflect Human Consumption in the Watershed


    John Spoelstra; Sherry L Schiff; Brown, Susan J.


    Artificial sweeteners have been widely incorporated in human food products for aid in weight loss regimes, dental health protection and dietary control of diabetes. Some of these widely used compounds can pass non-degraded through wastewater treatment systems and are subsequently discharged to groundwater and surface waters. Measurements of artificial sweeteners in rivers used for drinking water production are scarce. In order to determine the riverine concentrations of artificial sweeteners ...

  1. Effect of Minqing Ao dental desensitizer on the demineralization of primary teeth enamel%奥敏清牙齿脱敏剂对脱矿乳牙釉质作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞少玲; 李姮; 王文梅


    目的:研究局部应用奥敏清牙齿脱敏剂对可乐酸蚀脱矿乳牙釉质再矿化的作用。方法:收集临床因滞留拔除的健康乳磨牙30颗,将每颗牙沿颊舌向和近远中向纵切成4个牙块,随机进入A、B、C、D组(n=30)。经碳酸饮料浸泡脱矿(10 min×10次/d×7 d)后,进行如下处理:A组(不处理)、B组(奥敏清牙齿脱敏剂处理)、C组(氟化物处理)、D组(奥敏清牙齿脱敏剂与氟化物联合处理),分别处理2 min×2次/d×7 d。用激光荧光龋探测仪(DIAGN-Odent)记录各时间点的荧光值,扫描电镜(SEM)观察各组釉质表面形态。结果:与A组相比,再矿化处理后B、C、D组荧光值显著降低(P<0.01)。D组荧光值显著低于B、C组(P<0.05),而B、C两组无统计学差异(P>0.05)。SEM下经奥敏清牙齿脱敏剂或氟化物处理后表面均有一定沉积物。结论:奥敏清牙齿脱敏剂具有促乳牙脱矿釉质再矿化的作用,与氟化物联合应用具有加强协同作用。%Objective:To study the effect of topical Minqing Ao dental desensitizer application on the remineraliza-tion of primary teeth enamel eroded by Cola. Method:30 retained human primary molars were collected at clinic.Each tooth was cut bucco-lingually and mesial-distally into four sections. These sections assigned randomly to one of four groups (n=30). The enamel slabs were first immersed into a carbonated acidic drink for demineralization treatment for seven days(10 min×10 times/d),then they were treated as follows for seven days(2 min×2 times/d):Group A(unexposed to any prod-uct)、Group B(Minqing Ao dental desensitizer)、Group C(fluoride)、Group D(Minqing Ao dental desensitizer +fluoride). A laser fluorescence system(DIAGNOdent)was used to make a quantitative record,The morphological changes of surface were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Result:Compared with group A after

  2. Optimization of fermentation medium for Acinetobacter sp.DNS32 by response surface methodology and artificial neural network%响应面法和神经网络优化Acinetobacter sp. DNS32发酵基质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洋; 王志刚; 王溪; 郭火生; 孟冬芳; 张颖


    The aim of this research was to increase the biomass production of atrazine-degrading Acinetobacter sp. DNS32 by adopting response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm based on artificial neural network ( ANN-GA) to optimize the three important fermentation medium compositions, respectively. According to RSM, these three optimized compositions were composed as follows; corn flour 39.494 g/L, soybean flour 25.638 g/L and K2HPO4 3.265 g/L. The predicted and verifiable values by RSM were 7.079 × 108CFU/mL and 7. 194 × 108CFU/mL, respectively. The maximum biomass concentration predicted by hybrid ANN-GA was 7. 199 × 108CFU/mL at the optimum level of medium variables as follows: corn flour 39. 650 g/L, soybean flour 25. 500 g/ L and K2HPO4 2.624 g/L, while the experimentally measured value was 7.244 × 108CFU/mL. Finally, according to the above results, the optimized, medium composition was: corn flour 39. 650 g/L, soybean flour 25. 50 g/L, Ca-CO3 3. 000 g/L, K,HP04 2. 624 g/L, MgSO4 ·7H2O 0. 200 g/L and NaCl 0. 200 g/L. After medium optimization, the biomass yeild of atrazine-degrading strain DNS32 increased by 36. 6% than that using non-optimized medium. The results showed that RSM and ANN-GA were feasible to optimize the fermentation medium for the production of atrazine-degrading strain DNS32 , and ANN-GA had a much better optimizing ability and modeling ability.%为了提高阿特拉津降解菌Acinetobacter sp.DNS32的产量,分别采用响应曲面法和基于人工神经网络的遗传算法对阿特拉津降解菌DNS32发酵培养基中3个重要基质成分(玉米粉、豆饼粉、K2HPO4)进行优化研究.响应曲面法确定3种成分的含量为玉米粉39.494 g/L,豆饼粉25.638 g/L和K2HPO43.265 g/L时,预测发酵活菌最大生物量为7.079×l08 CFU/mL,实测量为7.194×108CFU/mL;人工神经网络结合遗传算法优化确定3种主要成分含量为玉米粉为39.650 g/L,豆饼粉为25.500 g/L,K2 HPO4为2.624 g

  3. [Research and development of artificial retina material]. (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Yang, Jun; Peng, Chenglin; Wang, Xing; Zhang, Sijie; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Erxin


    The application of artificial retina was introduced. The principal characteristics of artificial retina material were reviewed in particular. Moreover, the recent research development and application prospect were discussed.

  4. natural or artificial diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Meyer-Willerer


    Full Text Available Se probaron alimentos artificiales y naturales con larva de camarón (Litopenaeus vannamei cultivados en diferentes recipientes. Estos fueron ocho frascos cónicos con 15L, ocho acuarios con 50L y como grupo control, seis tanques de fibra de vidrio con 1500L; todos con agua marina fresca y filtrada. La densidad inicial en todos los recipientes fue de 70 nauplios/L. Aquellos en frascos y acuarios recibieron ya sea dieta natural o artificial. El grupo control fue cultivado con dieta natural en los tanques grandes que utilizan los laboratorios para la producción masiva de postlarvas. El principal producto de excreción de larva de camarón es el ión amonio, que es tóxico cuando está presente en concentraciones elevadas. Se determinó diariamente con el método colorimétrico del indofenol. Los resultados muestran diferencias en la concentración del ión amonio y en la sobrevivencia de larvas entre las diferentes dietas y también entre los diferentes recipientes. En aquellos con volúmenes pequeños comparados con los grandes, se presentó mayor concentración de amonio (500 a 750µg/L, en aquellos con dietas naturales, debido a que este ión sirve de fertilizante a las algas adicionadas, necesitando efectuar recambios diarios de agua posteriores al noveno día de cultivo para mantener este ión a una concentración subletal. Se obtuvo una baja cosecha de postlarvas (menor a 15% con el alimento artificial larvario, debido a la presencia de protozoarios, alimentándose con el producto comercial precipitado en el fondo de los frascos o acuarios. Los acuarios con larvas alimentadas con dieta natural también mostraron concentraciones subletales de amonio al noveno día; sin embargo, la sobrevivencia fue cuatro veces mayor que con dietas artificiales. Los tanques control con dietas naturales presentaron tasas de sobrevivencia (70 ± 5% similares a la reportada por otros laboratorios.

  5. Computing Visible-Surface Representations, (United States)


    Terzopoulos N00014-75-C-0643 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AMC ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA A...Massachusetts Institute of lechnolog,. Support lbr the laboratory’s Artificial Intelligence research is provided in part by the Advanced Rtccarcl Proj...dynamically maintaining visible surface representations. Whether the intention is to model human vision or to design competent artificial vision systems

  6. Artificial Neural Network Analysis System (United States)


    Contract No. DASG60-00-M-0201 Purchase request no.: Foot in the Door-01 Title Name: Artificial Neural Network Analysis System Company: Atlantic... Artificial Neural Network Analysis System 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Powell, Bruce C 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...34) 27-02-2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") 28-10-2000 27-02-2001 Title and Subtitle Artificial Neural Network Analysis

  7. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs. (United States)

    Nosenko, M A; Drutskaya, M S; Moisenovich, M M; Nedospasov, S A


    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed.

  8. Artificial intelligence in medicine. (United States)

    Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne


    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a general term that implies the use of a computer to model intelligent behavior with minimal human intervention. AI is generally accepted as having started with the invention of robots. The term derives from the Czech word robota, meaning biosynthetic machines used as forced labor. In this field, Leonardo Da Vinci's lasting heritage is today's burgeoning use of robotic-assisted surgery, named after him, for complex urologic and gynecologic procedures. Da Vinci's sketchbooks of robots helped set the stage for this innovation. AI, described as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, was officially born in 1956. The term is applicable to a broad range of items in medicine such as robotics, medical diagnosis, medical statistics, and human biology-up to and including today's "omics". AI in medicine, which is the focus of this review, has two main branches: virtual and physical. The virtual branch includes informatics approaches from deep learning information management to control of health management systems, including electronic health records, and active guidance of physicians in their treatment decisions. The physical branch is best represented by robots used to assist the elderly patient or the attending surgeon. Also embodied in this branch are targeted nanorobots, a unique new drug delivery system. The societal and ethical complexities of these applications require further reflection, proof of their medical utility, economic value, and development of interdisciplinary strategies for their wider application.

  9. Artificial Immune Systems Tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe


    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  10. Artificial Immune Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe


    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  11. Programmable artificial phototactic microswimmer (United States)

    Dai, Baohu; Wang, Jizhuang; Xiong, Ze; Zhan, Xiaojun; Dai, Wei; Li, Chien-Cheng; Feng, Shien-Ping; Tang, Jinyao


    Phototaxis is commonly observed in motile photosynthetic microorganisms. For example, green algae are capable of swimming towards a light source (positive phototaxis) to receive more energy for photosynthesis, or away from a light source (negative phototaxis) to avoid radiation damage or to hide from predators. Recently, with the aim of applying nanoscale machinery to biomedical applications, various inorganic nanomotors based on different propulsion mechanisms have been demonstrated. The only method to control the direction of motion of these self-propelled micro/nanomotors is to incorporate a ferromagnetic material into their structure and use an external magnetic field for steering. Here, we show an artificial microswimmer that can sense and orient to the illumination direction of an external light source. Our microswimmer is a Janus nanotree containing a nanostructured photocathode and photoanode at opposite ends that release cations and anions, respectively, propelling the microswimmer by self-electrophoresis. Using chemical modifications, we can control the zeta potential of the photoanode and program the microswimmer to exhibit either positive or negative phototaxis. Finally, we show that a school of microswimmers mimics the collective phototactic behaviour of green algae in solution.

  12. Application of fluoride in the prevention of orthodontic demineralization%氟化物在预防正畸脱矿中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨氟化物在预防正畸脱矿中的应用效果。方法:2009年3月-2011年12月收治错畸形患者90例,所有患者在治疗前后记录牙齿脱矿的部位、牙位及程度。治疗方法均采用直丝弓矫治技术治疗,矫治时间13~27个月,平均18.9个月,在矫正过程中让患者每天用含氟牙膏刷牙。结果:本组90例患者经过治疗后,发生牙齿脱矿370颗,其中上颌牙齿发生脱矿212颗(9.8%),其中上颌侧切牙58颗,上颌中切牙42颗,上颌尖牙40颗,上颌第一前磨牙22颗,上颌第二前磨牙24颗,上颌第一磨牙26颗;下颌牙齿发生脱矿158颗(7.3%),其中下颌侧切牙36颗,下颌中切牙20颗,下颌尖牙34颗,下颌第一前磨牙26颗,下颌第二前磨牙16颗,下颌第一磨牙26颗。治疗前发生牙齿脱矿16例(17.8%),牙齿脱矿颗数130颗(6.0%),经过矫正后,牙齿脱矿44例(48.9%),牙齿脱矿颗数共370颗(17.1%),其中1级282颗,2级88颗。结论:在口腔正畸治疗过程中牙釉质脱矿应该引起重视,要采取必要的措施进行预防。%Objective:To explore the application effect of fluoride in the prevention of orthodontic.Methods:50 cases with malocclusion were selected from March 2009 to December 2011.The tooth demineralization parts,tooth position and degree of all the patients were recorded before and after treatment.The therapeutic method was straight arch wire technique treatment.The treatment time was 13~27 months,and the average was 18.9 months.The patients used fluoride toothpaste every day in the correction process.Results:90 cases of this group after treatment,370 teeth occurred demineralization.212 teeth(9.8% ) were maxillary teeth,among 58 teeth were maxillary lateral incisors,42 teeth were maxillary central incisor,40 teeth were maxillary canine,22 teeth were maxillary first premolars,24 teeth were maxillary second premolars,26 teeth were maxillary first molar.158 teeth(7

  13. Artificial intelligence: Deep neural reasoning (United States)

    Jaeger, Herbert


    The human brain can solve highly abstract reasoning problems using a neural network that is entirely physical. The underlying mechanisms are only partially understood, but an artificial network provides valuable insight. See Article p.471

  14. Darwin, artificial selection, and poverty. (United States)

    Sanchez, Luis


    This paper argues that the processes of evolutionary selection are becoming increasingly artificial, a trend that goes against the belief in a purely natural selection process claimed by Darwin's natural selection theory. Artificial selection is mentioned by Darwin, but it was ignored by Social Darwinists, and it is all but absent in neo-Darwinian thinking. This omission results in an underestimation of probable impacts of artificial selection upon assumed evolutionary processes, and has implications for the ideological uses of Darwin's language, particularly in relation to poverty and other social inequalities. The influence of artificial selection on genotypic and phenotypic adaptations arguably represents a substantial shift in the presumed path of evolution, a shift laden with both biological and political implications.

  15. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu


    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.

  16. Food analysis using artificial senses. (United States)

    Śliwińska, Magdalena; Wiśniewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Namieśnik, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar


    Nowadays, consumers are paying great attention to the characteristics of food such as smell, taste, and appearance. This motivates scientists to imitate human senses using devices known as electronic senses. These include electronic noses, electronic tongues, and computer vision. Thanks to the utilization of various sensors and methods of signal analysis, artificial senses are widely applied in food analysis for process monitoring and determining the quality and authenticity of foods. This paper summarizes achievements in the field of artificial senses. It includes a brief history of these systems, descriptions of most commonly used sensors (conductometric, potentiometric, amperometic/voltammetric, impedimetric, colorimetric, piezoelectric), data analysis methods (for example, artificial neural network (ANN), principal component analysis (PCA), model CIE L*a*b*), and application of artificial senses to food analysis, in particular quality control, authenticity and falsification assessment, and monitoring of production processes.

  17. The effects of diammine silver fluoride solution on demineralized dentine adhesion ability%氟化氨银溶液对人工脱矿牙本质粘接强度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪淑华; 阎帆; 肖芳; 张珂; 连文海


    Objective:To investigate the effect of silver diamine fluoride(SDF)on the bonding strength between dentine and glass ion-omer cement(GIC).Methods:1 2 extracted sound molars were prepared into dintine samples and distributed into sound dentine group and demineralized dentine group.According to the treatment methods,the samples in each group were respectively divided into 3 sub-groups:A(control group),B[coated with 38% Ag(NH3 )F2 ]and C(SDF treatment with additional lighting-curing)(n =20).Then a hand-mixed conventional glass ionomer cement Fuji IX was placed on the dentine surface.After 24 h,micro tensile bond strength test and scanning electron microscope (SEM)analysis were conducted.Results:The bonding strength of demineralized dentine was higher than that of sound dentine(P <0.01 ).SDF with additional lighting-curing treated dentine showed a higer bonding strength value than only SDF treated dentin(P <0.01 ).Conclusion:SDF may improve the bonding between dentine and GIC.%目的:评价氟化氨银溶液(silver diammine fluoride,SDF)对人工龋牙本质和玻璃离子粘固剂(glass ionomer cement,GIC)之间的微拉伸粘接强度的影响。方法:将12颗人离体磨牙制备成脱矿牙本质和未脱矿牙本质2组标本,均分为对照组、氟化氨银组及氟化氨银与光固化联合处理组(n =20),将处理完成的牙本质与 GIC 富士 IX 粘接,24 h 后对标本进行切割及微拉伸强度试验,最后用扫描电镜观察牙本质与 GIC 之间的超微结构,并进行数据统计分析。结果:脱矿后牙本质的粘接强度显著高于未脱矿的牙本质(P <0.01)。经过光固化 SDF 处理的人工龋牙本质的粘接强度数值显著高于只经 SDF 处理的人工龋牙本质的粘接强度(P <0.01)。结论:SDF 处理的人工脱矿牙本质与 GIC 之间的微拉伸粘接强度得到显著提高。

  18. Mechanical properties of artificial snow


    Lintzén, Nina


    Mechanical properties of snow have been a subject of research since the mid-20th century. Theresearch done is based on natural snow. During the last decades the winter business industryhas been growing and also the interest for constructing buildings and artwork of snow. Suchconstructions are generally built using artificial snow, i.e. snow produced by snow guns. Up tothe present constructions of snow are designed based on knowledge by experience. Only minorscientific studies on artificial sn...

  19. What are artificial neural networks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders


    Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb......Artificial neural networks have been applied to problems ranging from speech recognition to prediction of protein secondary structure, classification of cancers and gene prediction. How do they work and what might they be good for? Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  20. The handbook of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Avron


    The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Volume II focuses on the improvements in artificial intelligence (AI) and its increasing applications, including programming languages, intelligent CAI systems, and the employment of AI in medicine, science, and education. The book first elaborates on programming languages for AI research and applications-oriented AI research. Discussions cover scientific applications, teiresias, applications in chemistry, dependencies and assumptions, AI programming-language features, and LISP. The manuscript then examines applications-oriented AI research in medicine

  1. Medical applications of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Agah, Arvin


    Enhanced, more reliable, and better understood than in the past, artificial intelligence (AI) systems can make providing healthcare more accurate, affordable, accessible, consistent, and efficient. However, AI technologies have not been as well integrated into medicine as predicted. In order to succeed, medical and computational scientists must develop hybrid systems that can effectively and efficiently integrate the experience of medical care professionals with capabilities of AI systems. After providing a general overview of artificial intelligence concepts, tools, and techniques, Medical Ap

  2. Artificial weathering of granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.


    Full Text Available This article summarizes a series of artificial weathering tests run on granite designed to: simulate the action of weathering agents on buildings and identify the underlying mechanisms, determine the salt resistance of different types of rock; evaluate consolidation and water-repellent treatment durability; and confirm hypotheses about the origin of salts such as gypsum that are often found in granite buildings. Salt crystallization tests were also conducted, using sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium sulphate and seawater solutions. One of these tests was conducted in a chamber specifically designed to simulate salt spray weathering and another in an SO2 chamber to ascertain whether granite is subject to sulphation. The test results are analyzed and discussed, along with the shortcomings of each type of trial as a method for simulating the decay observed in monuments. The effect of factors such as wet-dry conditions, type of saline solution and the position of the planes of weakness on the type of decay is also addressed.En este trabajo se hace una síntesis de varios ensayos de alteración artificial realizados con rocas graníticas. Estos ensayos tenían distintos objetivos: reproducir las formas de alteración encontradas en los edificios para llegar a conocer los mecanismos que las generan, determinar la resistencia de las diferentes rocas a la acción de las sales, evaluar la durabilidad de tratamientos de consolidación e hidrofugación y constatar hipótesis acerca del origen de algunas sales, como el yeso, que aparecen frecuentemente en edificios graníticos. En los ensayos de cristalización de sales se utilizaron disoluciones de cloruro de sodio, sulfato de sodio, sulfato de calcio y agua de mar. Uno de estos ensayos se llevó a cabo en una cámara especialmente diseñada para reproducir la alteración por aerosol marino y otro se realizó en una cámara de SO2, con el objeto de comprobar si en rocas graníticas se puede producir

  3. The P600 in Implicit Artificial Grammar Learning (United States)

    Silva, Susana; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter; Petersson, Karl Magnus


    The suitability of the artificial grammar learning (AGL) paradigm to capture relevant aspects of the acquisition of linguistic structures has been empirically tested in a number of EEG studies. Some have shown a syntax-related P600 component, but it has not been ruled out that the AGL P600 effect is a response to surface features (e.g.,…

  4. Artificial saliva effect on toxic substances release from acrylic resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Milena


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Acrylic-based resins are intensively used in dentistry practice as restorative or denture-base materials. The purpose of this study was to analyze the surface structure of denture base resins and the amount of released potentially toxic substances (PTS immediately upon polymerization and incubation in different types of artificial saliva. Methods. Storage of acrylic samples in two models of artificial saliva were performed in a water bath at the temperature of 37 ± 1°C. Analysis of the surface structure of samples was carried out using scanning electronic microscopy analysis immediately after polymerization and after the 30-day incubation. The amounts of PTS per day, week and month extracts were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Results. Surface design and amount of PTS in acrylic materials were different and depended on the types and duration of polymerization. The surfaces of tested acrylates became flatter after immersing in solutions of artificial saliva. The degree of acrylic materials release was not dependent on the applied model of artificial saliva. Conclusion. In order to improve biological features of acrylic resin materials, it was recommended that dentures lined with soft or hard coldpolymerized acrylates should be kept at least 1 to 7 days in water before being given to a patient. So, as to reach high degree of biocompatibility preparation of prosthetic restorations from heat-polymerized acrylate was unnecessary. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41017

  5. Impacts of Artificial Reefs on Surrounding Ecosystems (United States)

    Manoukian, Sarine

    addition, relative fish biomass estimates can be extrapolated. Results suggest that most of the fish aggregations are generally associated with the artificial modules showing a tendency for mid- and bottom-water depth distribution than for the surface waters. This study contributes to understanding the changes in artificial reefs over time in relation to coastal processes. Moreover, the preliminary results concerning the water column backscatter data represents progress in fisheries acoustics research as a result of three-dimensional acoustics. They demonstrate the benefits of multibeam sonar as a tool to investigate and quantify size distribution and geometry of fish aggregations associated with shallow marine habitats.

  6. Development of a totally implantable artificial larynx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerke, GJ; Veenstra, Aalze; de Vries, MP; Schutte, HK; Busscher, HJ; Herrmann, IF; Van der Mei, HC; Rakhorst, G; Clements, MP


    Background. The consequences of a life-saving laryngectomy are still very distressing. The Eureka project "Artificial Larynx" aims at realization of an implantable artificial larynx to eliminate all drawbacks. Methods. The artificial larynx will consist of artificial vocal folds of adjustable pitch

  7. Artificial gravity in space and in medical research (United States)

    Cardus, D.


    The history of manned space flight has repeatedly documented the fact that prolonged sojourn in space causes physiological deconditioning. Physiological deterioration has raised a legitimate concern about man's ability to adequately perform in the course of long missions and even the possibility of leading to circumstances threatening survival. One of the possible countermeasures of physiological deconditioning, theoretically more complete than others presently used since it affects all bodily systems, is artificial gravity. Space stations and spacecrafts can be equipped with artificial gravity, but is artificial gravity necessary? The term "necessary" must be qualified because a meaningful answer to the question depends entirely on further defining the purpose of space travel. If man intends to stay only temporarily in space, then he must keep himself in good physical condition so as to be able to return to earth or to land on any other planetary surface without undue exposure to major physiological problems resulting from transition through variable gravitational fields. Such a situation makes artificial gravity highly desirable, although perhaps not absolutely necessary in the case of relative short exposure to microgravity, but certainly necessary in interplanetary flight and planetary landings. If the intent is to remain indefinitely in space, to colonize space, then artificial gravity may not be necessary, but in this case the consequences of long term effects of adaptation to weightlessness will have to be weighed against the biological evolutionary outcomes that are to be expected. At the moment, plans for establishing permanent colonies in space seem still remote. More likely, the initial phase of exploration of the uncharted solar system will take place through successive, scope limited, research ventures ending with return to earth. This will require man to be ready to operate in gravitational fields of variable intensity. Equipping spacecrafts or space

  8. Artificial Intelligence Study (AIS). (United States)


    US Naval Surface Weapons Center, US Army Research Office. Bourne, L. E. Jr., Ekstrand, B. R., & Dominowski, R. L. (1971). The pyschology of thinking...English, A. C. (1958). A comprehensive dictionary of pyschological and psychonanalytical terms. New York, NY: David McKay Company, Inc. Epstein, J. A

  9. Placement of implants in an ossifying fibroma defect obliterated with demineralized, freeze-dried bone allograft and Plasma-rich growth factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umashankar Pal


    Full Text Available There has been considerable clinical interest in combining the grafts, particularly bone allografts for support for dental implants, soft-tissue support, periodontal maintenance, and ovate pontic formation. The use of demineralized, freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA offers certain advantages over other graft materials and can avoid the need for a second-site surgery for autogenous donor bone. The advantages of DFDBA include handling properties, osteoinductivity, membrane tenting, and less susceptibility to migration after placement. This article will review available grafting materials and demonstrate a case of ossifying fibroma of the mandible, which was treated by curettage and hollow cavity filled with DFDBA. Six months follow-up period showed successful graft result and this grafted bone form was utilized for implant supported prosthesis.

  10. Biomaterials in periodontal regenerative surgery: effects of cryopreserved bone, commercially available coral, demineralized freeze-dried dentin, and cementum on periodontal ligament fibroblasts and osteoblasts. (United States)

    Devecioğlu, Didem; Tözüm, Tolga F; Sengün, Dilek; Nohutcu, Rahime M


    The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is to achieve successful periodontal regeneration. The effects of different biomaterials, allogenic and alloplastic, used in periodontal surgeries to achieve regeneration have been studied in vitro on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and MC3T3-E1 cells. The materials tested included cryopreserved bone allograft (CBA), coralline hydroxyapatite (CH), demineralized freeze-dried dentin (DFDD), and cementum. CBA and CH revealed an increase in initial PDL cell attachment, whereas CH resulted in an increase in long-term PDL cell attachment. Mineral-like nodule formation was observed significantly higher in DFDD compared to other materials tested for osteoblasts. Based on the results of this in vitro study, we conclude that the materials used are all biocompatible with human PDL cells and osteoblasts, which have pivotal importance in periodontal regeneration.

  11. Use of saline waste water from demineralization of cheese whey for cultivation of Schizochytrium limacinum PA-968 and Japonochytrium marinum AN-4. (United States)

    Humhal, Tomas; Kastanek, Petr; Jezkova, Zuzana; Cadkova, Anna; Kohoutkova, Jana; Branyik, Tomas


    Saline waste water from demineralization of cheese whey was used as the main component of waste saline medium (WSM) for cultivation of thraustochytrids. The suitability of WSM for cultivation of Schizochytrium limacinum PA-968 and Japonochytrium marinum AN-4 was evaluated by comparison with cultivation on nutrient medium (NM) in shake flask and fermenter cultures. Biomass productivities achieved in WSM for the thraustochytrids were comparable with those in NM for both shake flask and fermenter cultures. The maximum total lipid content (56.71% dry cell weight) and docosahexaenoic acid productivity (0.86 g/L/day) were achieved by J. marinum AN-4 grown on WSM in shake flask and fermenter cultures, respectively. A cost estimate of WSM suggests that this medium could result in lower production costs for thraustochytrid biomass and lipids and contribute to the effective reduction in saline diary process waste water.

  12. Mineral density, morphology and bond strength of natural versus artificial caries-affected dentin. (United States)

    Joves, Gerardo José; Inoue, Go; Nakashima, Syozi; Sadr, Alireza; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji


    This study aimed to investigate an artificial caries-affected dentin (ACAD) model for in vitro bonding studies in comparison to natural caries-affected dentin (NCAD) of human teeth. ACAD was created over 7 days in a demineralizing solution. Mineral density (MD) at different depth levels (0-150 µm) was compared between NCAD and ACAD by transverse microradiography. Micro-tensile bond strengths (µTBS) of two two-step self-etch adhesives to sound dentin, NCAD and ACAD were evaluated. Caries-affected dentin type was not a significant factor when comparing MD at different lesion levels (p>0.05). Under SEM, the dentinal tubules appeared occluded with crystal logs 1-2 µm in thickness in the NCAD; whereas they remained open in the ACAD. The µTBS to caries-affected dentin was lower than sound dentin, but was not affected by the type of caries (p>0.05). In spite of their different morphologies, the ACAD model showed similar MD and µTBS compared to NCAD.

  13. Artificial_Micrometeorites

    CERN Document Server

    Dolya, S N


    An iron ball, a beryllium sphere and a tungsten tube segment with diameter twenty microns, are electrically charged while proton beam irradiating. These bodies are accelerated by the running pulse field in a spiral waveguide up to velocity: thirty kilometers per second. The accelerator, generating micrometeorites is placed at satellites on the Earth orbit. This article considers processes of penetration of micrometeorites into the Earth atmosphere. It is shown that micrometeorites evaporate at the height of one hundred kilometers-one hundred fifty kilometers from the surface of the Earth. A micrometeorite which is a segment of the beryllium tube equipped with a graphite cone in the head part is the very meteorite to reach the Earth surface without being broken.

  14. Surface stress, surface elasticity, and the size effect in surface segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, M.; Hofer, W.; Varga, P.;


    Surface stress and surface elasticity of low-index fcc surfaces have been studied using effective-medium theory potentials. In addition to total-energy calculations giving stress components and elastic data for the surface as a whole, the use of artificial atoms with modified size allows us...

  15. Artificial ozone holes


    Dolya, S. N.


    This article considers an opportunity of disinfecting a part of the Earth surface, occupying a large area of ten thousand square kilometers. The sunlight will cause dissociation of molecular bromine into atoms; each bromine atom kills thirty thousand molecules of ozone. Each bromine plate has a mass of forty milligrams grams and destroys ozone in the area of hundred square meters. Thus, to form the ozone hole over the area of ten thousand square kilometers, it is required to have the total ma...

  16. Effect of artificial saliva contamination on adhesion of dental restorative materials. (United States)

    Shimazu, Kisaki; Karibe, Hiroyuki; Ogata, Kiyokazu


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of artificial saliva contamination on three restorative materials, namely, a glass ionomer cement (GIC), a resin-modified GIC (RMGIC), and a composite resin (CR), for which two different etching adhesive systems were used. Thus, three surface conditions were created on bovine teeth using artificial saliva: control, mild saliva contamination, and severe saliva contamination. The dentin bond strength for CR was significantly lower after artificial saliva contamination. There were, however, no significant differences among the three surface conditions in terms of the dentin and enamel bond strengths of GIC and RMGIC. Moreover, CR exhibited significantly greater microleakage after artificial saliva contamination, whereas no significant differences were found in GIC and RMGIC. The results showed that artificial saliva contamination did not affect the shear bond strengths of GIC and RMGIC or their degrees of microleakage.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Poliakov


    Full Text Available Artificial knees play an important role in transfemoral prostheses, lower extremity exoskeletons and walking robots. Their designs must provide natural kinematics, high strength and stiffness required in the stance phase of gait. Additionally, modern artificial knee is the principal module by means of which the prosthesis control is performed. This paper presents a prototype of an artificial polycentric knee, designed on the basis of the hinge mechanism with cross links. In order to increase strength and stiffness, the elements of the joint have curved supporting surfaces formed in the shape of centroids in relative motion of links of the hinge mechanism. Such construction is a mechanical system with redundant links but it allows for providing desirable characteristics of the artificial knee. Synthesis of the hinge mechanism is made by a method of systematic study of the parameter space, uniformly distributed in a finite dimensional cube. Stiffness of bearing surfaces elements of knee was determined by solving the contact problem with slippage of surfaces relative to each other.

  18. Natural water purification and water management by artificial groundwater recharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Klaus-Dieter BALKE; Yan ZHU


    Worldwide, several regions suffer from water scarcity and contamination. The infiltration and subsurface storage of rain and fiver water can reduce water stress. Artificial groundwater recharge, possibly combined with bank filtration, plant puri- fication and/or the use of subsurface dams and artificial aquifers, is especially advantageous in areas where layers of gravel and sand exist below the earth's surface. Artificial infiltration of surface water into the uppermost aquifer has qualitative and quanti-tative advantages. The contamination of infiltrated fiver water will be reduced by natural attenuation. Clay minerals, iron hy-droxide and humic matter as well as microorganisms located in the subsurface have high decontamination capacities. By this, a final water treatment, if necessary, becomes much easier and cheaper. The quantitative effect concerns the seasonally changing fiver discharge that influences the possibility of water extraction for drinking water purposes. Such changes can be equalised by seasonally adapted infiltration/extraction of water in/out of the aquifer according to the fiver discharge and the water need. This method enables a continuous water supply over the whole year. Generally, artificially recharged groundwater is better protected against pollution than surface water, and the delimitation of water protection zones makes it even more save.

  19. Diseño innovador de botas de fútbol para hierba artificial


    Olaso Melis, Jose; Unanue Garcia, Aitor; Navarro Garcia, Francisco Jose; Gamez Paya, Javier; Ferrandis Ferrer, Roberto; Medina Ripoll, Enrique; Hernández Alonso, Antonio; GONZALEZ GARCIA, JUAN CARLOS


    [EN] Soccer is considered the most popular sport in the world, both by the number of amateur and practitioners. Throughout history, the playing surfaces have changed being artificial turf the current alternative to natural grass fields in areas with bad weather or indoor facilities. Since its introduction, these surfaces have evolved into the so-called 3rd generation. On the other hand, developing specific footwear for soccer practice on artificial turf has not kept pa...

  20. Artificial ozone holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dolya, S N


    This article considers an opportunity of disinfecting a part of the Earth surface, occupying a large area of ten thousand square kilometers. The sunlight will cause dissociation of molecular bromine into atoms; each bromine atom kills thirty thousand molecules of ozone. Each bromine plate has a mass of forty milligrams grams and destroys ozone in the area of hundred square meters. Thus, to form the ozone hole over the area of ten thousand square kilometers, it is required to have the total mass of bromine equal to the following four tons.

  1. To fabricate artificial nerves with tissue engineering methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程飚; 陈峥嵘


    To fabricate artificial nerves with tissue engineering methods in vitro. Methods: Schwann cells (SCs) were cultured and seeded on polyglactin 910 fibers wrapped by biomembrane coated with rat tail glue and laminin for 2 weeks. The absorbability on the scaffolds, growth and migration of SCs were assessed with a light microscope, a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. Results: SCs could migrate and proliferate on polyglactin 910 fibers. They were well distributed between scaffolds and absorbed on surface of scaffolds and formed a bungner band, on which SCs produced more matrices. SCs seeded on the biomembrane could also grow well. Axon regeneration in the distal nerve stump was observed at 8 weeks. Conclusions: Adult SCs can be expanded on coated fibers and biomembrane. Three-dimensional scaffold of SCs has the basic characteristics of artificial nerves. These findings offer a novel method to fabricate artificial nerves with tissue engineering methods for repairing defected long nerves.

  2. Myoelectric Control of Artificial Limb by Quantum Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Siomau, Michael


    Precise and elegant coordination of a prosthesis across many degrees of freedom is highly desired for rehabilitation of people with limb deficiency. Processing the electrical neural signals, collected from the surface of the remnant muscles of the stump, is a common way to activate certain function of the artificial limb. Based on the assumption that there are distinguishable and repeatable signal patterns among different types of muscular activation, the problem of the prosthesis control reduces to the pattern recognition. Widely accepted classical methods for pattern recognition, however, can not provide simultaneous and proportional control of the artificial limb. Here we show that quantum information processing of the neural signals allows us to overcome above difficulties suggesting a very simple scheme for myoelectric control of artificial limb with advanced functionalities.

  3. Myoelectric control of artificial limb inspired by quantum information processing (United States)

    Siomau, Michael; Jiang, Ning


    Precise and elegant coordination of a prosthesis across many degrees of freedom represents a significant challenge to efficient rehabilitation of people with limb deficiency. Processing the electrical neural signals collected from the surface of the remnant muscles of the stump is a common way to initiate and control the different movements available to the artificial limb. Based on the assumption that there are distinguishable and repeatable signal patterns among different types of muscular activation, the problem of prosthesis control reduces to one of pattern recognition. Widely accepted classical methods for pattern recognition, however, cannot provide simultaneous and proportional control of the artificial limb. Here we show that, in principle, quantum information processing of the neural signals allows us to overcome the above-mentioned difficulties, suggesting a very simple scheme for myoelectric control of artificial limb with advanced functionalities.

  4. Creating superfluid vortex rings in artificial magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdeva, Rashi


    Artificial gauge fields are versatile tools that allow to influence the dynamics of ultracold atoms in Bose-Einstein condensates. Here we discuss a method of artificial gauge field generation stemming from the evanescent fields of the curved surface of an optical nanofibre. The exponential decay of the evanescent fields leads to large gradients in the generalized Rabi frequency and therefore to the presence of geometric vector and scalar potentials. By solving the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the presence of the artificial gauge fields originating from the fundamental HE$_{11}$ mode of the fibre, we show that vortex rings can be created in a controlled manner. We also calculate the magnetic fields resulting from the higher order HE$_{21}$, TE$_{01}$, and TM$_{01}$ modes and compare them to the fundamental HE$_{11}$ mode.

  5. Creating superfluid vortex rings in artificial magnetic fields (United States)

    Sachdeva, Rashi; Busch, Thomas


    Artificial gauge fields are versatile tools that allow the dynamics of ultracold atoms in Bose-Einstein condensates to be influenced. Here we discuss a method of artificial gauge field generation stemming from the evanescent fields of the curved surface of an optical nanofiber. The exponential decay of the evanescent fields leads to large gradients in the generalized Rabi frequency and therefore to the presence of geometric vector and scalar potentials. By solving the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the presence of the artificial gauge fields originating from the fundamental Hybrid mode (HE11) mode of the fiber, we show that vortex rings can be created in a controlled manner. We also calculate the magnetic fields resulting from the higher order HE21, Transverse electric mode (TE01), and Transverse magnetic mode (TM01) and compare them to the fundamental HE11 mode.

  6. Electrochemical behavior of Ti-Cr alloys in artificial saliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, H.-C.; Wu, S.-C. [Department of Dental Laboratory Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Material Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.-F. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Material Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan (China); Ho, W.-F., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Taiwan (China)


    In this study, the corrosion behavior of commercially pure titanium (c.p. Ti), Ti-6Al-4V and five new experimental Ti-Cr alloys was evaluated through open-circuit potential (OCP) and potentiodynamic polarization measurement in an artificial saliva containing fluoride. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) was used to characterize the composition of the passive films on the alloy after potentiodynamic polarization measurement. It was found that in standard artificial saliva the OCP increases with higher Cr content in Ti-Cr alloys. In 0.5% NaF artificial saliva, the OCP decreases with decreasing Cr in Ti-Cr alloys, and all but Ti-5Cr remain consistently higher than those of c.p Ti and Ti-6Al-4V. Linear polarization results show that artificial saliva and artificial saliva containing 0.5% NaF result in different corrosion behavior in Ti-Cr alloys, c.p.Ti and Ti-6Al-4V. The Ti-Cr alloys had greater resistance to corrosion in the fluoride-containing artificial saliva than c.p. Ti and Ti-6Al-4V, respectively. ESCA results verify that after potentiodynamic polarization a passive film consisting of TiO{sub 2} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} forms on the surface of Ti-Cr alloys. These experimental results show that the electrochemical corrosion behavior of Ti-Cr alloys in artificial saliva containing 0.5% NaF can be improved by increasing Cr content. This further indicates that Ti-Cr alloys could successfully be used for crown, bridge, and metal-ceramic restorations.

  7. Computational aerodynamics and artificial intelligence (United States)

    Mehta, U. B.; Kutler, P.


    The general principles of artificial intelligence are reviewed and speculations are made concerning how knowledge based systems can accelerate the process of acquiring new knowledge in aerodynamics, how computational fluid dynamics may use expert systems, and how expert systems may speed the design and development process. In addition, the anatomy of an idealized expert system called AERODYNAMICIST is discussed. Resource requirements for using artificial intelligence in computational fluid dynamics and aerodynamics are examined. Three main conclusions are presented. First, there are two related aspects of computational aerodynamics: reasoning and calculating. Second, a substantial portion of reasoning can be achieved with artificial intelligence. It offers the opportunity of using computers as reasoning machines to set the stage for efficient calculating. Third, expert systems are likely to be new assets of institutions involved in aeronautics for various tasks of computational aerodynamics.

  8. Knitting and weaving artificial muscles (United States)

    Maziz, Ali; Concas, Alessandro; Khaldi, Alexandre; Stålhand, Jonas; Persson, Nils-Krister; Jager, Edwin W. H.


    A need exists for artificial muscles that are silent, soft, and compliant, with performance characteristics similar to those of skeletal muscle, enabling natural interaction of assistive devices with humans. By combining one of humankind’s oldest technologies, textile processing, with electroactive polymers, we demonstrate here the feasibility of wearable, soft artificial muscles made by weaving and knitting, with tunable force and strain. These textile actuators were produced from cellulose yarns assembled into fabrics and coated with conducting polymers using a metal-free deposition. To increase the output force, we assembled yarns in parallel by weaving. The force scaled linearly with the number of yarns in the woven fabric. To amplify the strain, we knitted a stretchable fabric, exhibiting a 53-fold increase in strain. In addition, the textile construction added mechanical stability to the actuators. Textile processing permits scalable and rational production of wearable artificial muscles, and enables novel ways to design assistive devices. PMID:28138542

  9. Artificial sweeteners: safe or unsafe? (United States)

    Qurrat-ul-Ain; Khan, Sohaib Ahmed


    Artificial sweeteners or intense sweeteners are sugar substitutes that are used as an alternative to table sugar. They are many times sweeter than natural sugar and as they contain no calories, they may be used to control weight and obesity. Extensive scientific research has demonstrated the safety of the six low-calorie sweeteners currently approved for use in foods in the U.S. and Europe (stevia, acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin and sucralose), if taken in acceptable quantities daily. There is some ongoing debate over whether artificial sweetener usage poses a health threat .This review article aims to cover thehealth benefits, and risks, of consuming artificial sweeteners, and discusses natural sweeteners which can be used as alternatives.

  10. [Implantation of the artificial retina]. (United States)

    Yagi, T; Hayashida, Y


    In some degenerative retinal diseases, e.g., retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration, the photoreceptors are destroyed to cause serious visual defects. Recent studies on blind human subjects revealed that a large number of ganglion cells remains intact and is capable of transmitting signals to the brain to evoke partial visual perception. This provided hope to compensate for the visual defects with retinal prostheses. The recent progress of microfabrication technique made it possible to implement the Vary Large Scale Integrated circuit, the artificial retina, which emulates a part of retinal function. The idea of implanting the artificial retina to the patients was proposed recently and experiments using animals have been put into practice. This article surveys the front line of the artificial retina implantation.

  11. Artificial heart for humanoid robot (United States)

    Potnuru, Akshay; Wu, Lianjun; Tadesse, Yonas


    A soft robotic device inspired by the pumping action of a biological heart is presented in this study. Developing artificial heart to a humanoid robot enables us to make a better biomedical device for ultimate use in humans. As technology continues to become more advanced, the methods in which we implement high performance and biomimetic artificial organs is getting nearer each day. In this paper, we present the design and development of a soft artificial heart that can be used in a humanoid robot and simulate the functions of a human heart using shape memory alloy technology. The robotic heart is designed to pump a blood-like fluid to parts of the robot such as the face to simulate someone blushing or when someone is angry by the use of elastomeric substrates and certain features for the transport of fluids.

  12. Agent communication and artificial institutions


    Fornara, Nicoletta; Viganò, Francesco; Colombetti, Marco


    In this paper we propose an application-independent model for the definition of artificial institutions that can be used to define open multi-agent systems. Such a model of institutional reality makes us able also to define an objective and external semantics of a commitment-based Agent Communication Language (ACL). In particular we propose to regard an ACL as a set of conventions to act on a fragment of institutional reality, defined in the context of an artificial institution. Another c...

  13. Training Applications of Artificial Intelligence. (United States)


    nearifest tLer,sclvCs in ELO r operatii.L costs in the life C’VclE Of the ef’uijjteft. E F re\\ lously rcntione6 ey~ arrle of usingF the 1lirefineer...Ibid., p. 35. 4. Avron Barr and Edward Feigenbaum, The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 1, p. 2. 5. Wissam W. Ahmed, "Theories of Artificial...Barr, Avron and Geigenbaum, Edward A. ed. The Handbook of Arti- ficial Intelligence. Vol. 1. Stanford: heuristech Press. 1981. Gevartner, William B

  14. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. -L.; Xiao, Z. -L.; Snezhko, A.; Xu, J.; Ocola, L. E.; Divan, R.; Pearson, J. E.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. -K.


    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  15. Fecundación artificial



    Por Fecundación artificial se entiende, la fecundación de una hembra sin el servicio directo del macho, es decir la introducción al aparato genital femenino, del esperma que se ha recogido por medios artificiales. Esta fecundación, practicada en debidas condiciones, tiene el mismo efecto de la fecundación natural, con las ventajas que veremos más adelante. La fecundación artificial permite explotar un reproductor a su máximum de capacidad, ya que se considera, para no hacer cálculo...

  16. Artificial intelligence techniques in Prolog

    CERN Document Server

    Shoham, Yoav


    Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Prolog introduces the reader to the use of well-established algorithmic techniques in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), with Prolog as the implementation language. The techniques considered cover general areas such as search, rule-based systems, and truth maintenance, as well as constraint satisfaction and uncertainty management. Specific application domains such as temporal reasoning, machine learning, and natural language are also discussed.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of Prolog, paying particular attention to Prol

  17. Octopus-like suction cups: from natural to artificial solutions. (United States)

    Tramacere, F; Follador, M; Pugno, N M; Mazzolai, B


    Octopus suckers are able to attach to all nonporous surfaces and generate a very strong attachment force. The well-known attachment features of this animal result from the softness of the sucker tissues and the surface morphology of the portion of the sucker that is in contact with objects or substrates. Unlike artificial suction cups, octopus suckers are characterized by a series of radial grooves that increase the area subjected to pressure reduction during attachment. In this study, we constructed artificial suction cups with different surface geometries and tested their attachment performances using a pull-off setup. First, smooth suction cups were obtained for casting; then, sucker surfaces were engraved with a laser cutter. As expected, for all the tested cases, the engraving treatment enhanced the attachment performance of the elastomeric suction cups compared with that of the smooth versions. Moreover, the results indicated that the surface geometry with the best attachment performance was the geometry most similar to octopus sucker morphology. The results obtained in this work can be utilized to design artificial suction cups with higher wet attachment performance.

  18. Influence of stains on lesion contrast in the pits and fissures of tooth occlusal surfaces from 800-1600-nm (United States)

    Almaz, Elias C.; Simon, Jacob C.; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.


    For over one hundred years, x-rays have served as a cornerstone of dentistry. Dental radiographic imaging technologies have constantly improved, however, detecting occlusal lesions remains as one of the greatest challenges due to the low sensitivity of radiographs and the overlap of enamel. Once detected, occlusal lesions have penetrated far into the dentin, necessitating invasive restorative treatment. The adoption of near-infrared (NIR) systems in dentistry introduces the potential for early detection of occlusal lesions. Commercially available NIR systems for intra-oral applications currently operate near 800-nm; however, extrinsic stains may interfere with the detection of demineralization of the underlying enamel surface. Higher wavelengths such as 1300-nm render stains nearly transparent and enhances the contrast of sound enamel to demineralized enamel. This novel finding promotes minimally invasive dentistry and allows oral health professionals the ability to detect, image, track, and monitor early lesions without repeated exposure to ionizing radiation nor invasive treatment.

  19. Generation of tactile maps for artificial skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon McGregor

    Full Text Available Prior research has shown that representations of retinal surfaces can be learned from the intrinsic structure of visual sensory data in neural simulations, in robots, as well as by animals. Furthermore, representations of cochlear (frequency surfaces can be learned from auditory data in neural simulations. Advances in hardware technology have allowed the development of artificial skin for robots, realising a new sensory modality which differs in important respects from vision and audition in its sensorimotor characteristics. This provides an opportunity to further investigate ordered sensory map formation using computational tools. We show that it is possible to learn representations of non-trivial tactile surfaces, which require topologically and geometrically involved three-dimensional embeddings. Our method automatically constructs a somatotopic map corresponding to the configuration of tactile sensors on a rigid body, using only intrinsic properties of the tactile data. The additional complexities involved in processing the tactile modality require the development of a novel multi-dimensional scaling algorithm. This algorithm, ANISOMAP, extends previous methods and outperforms them, producing high-quality reconstructions of tactile surfaces in both simulation and hardware tests. In addition, the reconstruction turns out to be robust to unanticipated hardware failure.

  20. Quantification of white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets with image analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, C.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Bronkhorst, E.; Derks, A.; Katsaros, C.


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of image analysis for diagnosis and quantification of artificial white spot lesions on digital photographs before and after removal of orthodontic brackets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Enamel demineralization was artificially induced on the labial surface of 20 teeth bon

  1. Artificial Intelligence Assists Ultrasonic Inspection (United States)

    Schaefer, Lloyd A.; Willenberg, James D.


    Subtle indications of flaws extracted from ultrasonic waveforms. Ultrasonic-inspection system uses artificial intelligence to help in identification of hidden flaws in electron-beam-welded castings. System involves application of flaw-classification logic to analysis of ultrasonic waveforms.

  2. Artificial neural networks in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, P.E.


    This Technology Brief provides an overview of artificial neural networks (ANN). A definition and explanation of an ANN is given and situations in which an ANN is used are described. ANN applications to medicine specifically are then explored and the areas in which it is currently being used are discussed. Included are medical diagnostic aides, biochemical analysis, medical image analysis and drug development.

  3. Thinking, Creativity, and Artificial Intelligence. (United States)

    DeSiano, Michael; DeSiano, Salvatore

    This document provides an introduction to the relationship between the current knowledge of focused and creative thinking and artificial intelligence. A model for stages of focused and creative thinking gives: problem encounter/setting, preparation, concentration/incubation, clarification/generation and evaluation/judgment. While a computer can…

  4. Artificial penile nodules: case reports.


    Lim, K B; Seow, C.S.; Tulip, T; Daniel, M.; Vijayasingham, S M


    An interesting cultural practice of implanting foreign bodies under the skin of the penis for enhancing sexual excitement in the man's sexual partner is described. Recognition of this is important to venereologists because of their primary concern with the genital area. The term artificial penile nodule has been suggested for the condition resulting from this practice.

  5. Artificial Video for Video Analysis (United States)

    Gallis, Michael R.


    This paper discusses the use of video analysis software and computer-generated animations for student activities. The use of artificial video affords the opportunity for students to study phenomena for which a real video may not be easy or even possible to procure, using analysis software with which the students are already familiar. We will…

  6. Making Artificial Seawater More Natural

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Marine fish will die if placed in fresh water and they cannot live in simple salt water. Instead, they need water that contains a mixture of different ingredients, as found in natural seawater. Conventional methods of making artificial seawater have shortcomings, because the water so achieved is only composed of mineral elements and lacks organic components similar to those in natural seawater.

  7. Research on elastic modulus backcalculation of asphalt course using BP artificial neural network based on surface deflection basin of pavement%基于路表弯沉盆的BP人工神经网络反演沥青面层弹性模量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国良; 钟雯; 黄晓韵; 梁思敏; 何慧慧; 陈家驹


    Based on layered elastic theory,the elastic modulus of asphalt course in asphalt pavement was predicted using BP artificial neural network.According to the types of pavement structure in common use,the database of surface deflections with their corresponding structural parameters of asphalt course based on layered elastic theory was established.The elastic modulus backcalculation model of asphalt course in asphalt pavement was developed using BP artificial neural network to predict.The predictive results of asphalt course elastic modulus backcalculation using theoretical deflection basin and measured deflection basin indicate that the elastic modulus backcalculation model of asphalt course in asphalt pavement is of good predictive accuracy and reliability.It would provide the references with the elastic modulus backcalculation model of asphalt course to accurately and quickly estimate the conditions of asphalt course in asphalt pavement.%基于层状弹性体系理论,建立BP人工神经网络反演沥青路面沥青面层弹性模量预测模型,利用BP人工神经网络预测沥青路面沥青面层弹性模量.理论弯沉盆和实测弯沉盆反演沥青面层弹性模量的结果表明,建立的BP人工神经网络反演沥青路面沥青面层弹性模量模型具有良好的预测精度和可靠性,为评价沥青路面的沥青面层性能状况提供了参考.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kristoffer Segerholm,


    Full Text Available Moisture sorption in wood-plastic composites (WPCs affects their durability and dimensional stability. In certain outdoor exposures, the moisture properties of WPCs are altered due to e.g. cracks induced by swelling and shrinkage of the components, as well as UV degradation or biological attack. The aim of this work was to study the effect of different artificial ageing routes on the moisture sorption properties of WPCs. Extruded WPCs were prepared with either unmodified or acetylated wood and recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE. The WPC samples were artificially aged involving water soaking, artificial weathering, and white- or brown-rot decay in different combinations. After the ageing, the samples were conditioned in either 65% or 90% relative humidity (RH until equilibrium moisture content was reached. A dynamic moisture sorption analyzer was used to monitor the sorption rate of samples subjected to a climate change from 65% to 90% RH. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the surface morphology of the aged composites. Results showed that the artificial weathering caused cracking of the HDPE matrix at the composite surface, as well as a wood-matrix debonding, resulting in an increased moisture sorption rate. The WPC samples subjected to white-rot decay showed the highest moisture sorption rate.

  9. Comparative evaluation of tensile bond strength of a polyvinyl acetate-based resilient liner following various denture base surface pre-treatment methods and immersion in artificial salivary medium: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M Philip


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: This study was formulated to evaluate and estimate the influence of various denture base resin surface pre-treatments (chemical and mechanical and combinations upon tensile bond strength between a poly vinyl acetate-based denture liner and a denture base resin. Materials and Methods: A universal testing machine was used for determining the bond strength of the liner to surface pre-treated acrylic resin blocks. The data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and the t-test (α =.05. Results: This study infers that denture base surface pre-treatment can improve the adhesive tensile bond strength between the liner and denture base specimens. The results of this study infer that chemical, mechanical, and mechano-chemical pre-treatments will have different effects on the bond strength of the acrylic soft resilient liner to the denture base. Conclusion: Among the various methods of pre-treatment of denture base resins, it was inferred that the mechano-chemical pre-treatment method with air-borne particle abrasion followed by monomer application exhibited superior bond strength than other methods with the resilient liner. Hence, this method could be effectively used to improve bond strength between liner and denture base and thus could minimize delamination of liner from the denture base during function.

  10. Another Step Closer to Artificial Blood (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_162357.html Another Step Closer to Artificial Blood Synthetic product could save lives on battlefield and ... 5, 2016 SATURDAY, Dec. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Artificial blood stored as a powder could one day revolutionize ...

  11. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye. (United States)


    ... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a... inserted in a patient's eye socket anterior to an orbital implant, or the eviscerated eyeball, for...

  12. A Novel Approach for Treatment of an Unusual Presentation of Radicular Cysts Using Autologous Periosteum and Platelet-Rich Fibrin in Combination with Demineralized Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena A. Patil


    Full Text Available Radicular cysts are the most common cystic lesions affecting the jaws. They are most commonly found at the apices of the involved teeth. This condition is usually asymptomatic but can result in a slow-growth tumefaction in the affected region. The following case report presents the successful treatment of radicular cysts using autologous periosteum and platelet-rich fibrin with demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft.

  13. Functionalization of Artificial Freestanding Composite Nanomembranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Matovic


    Full Text Available Artificial nanomembranes may be defined as synthetic freestanding structures with a thickness below 100 nm and a very large aspect ratio, of at least a few orders of magnitude. Being quasi-2D, they exhibit a host of unusual properties useful for various applications in energy harvesting, sensing, optics, plasmonics, biomedicine, etc. We review the main approaches to nanomembrane functionalization through nanocompositing, which ensures performance far superior to that of simple nanomembranes. These approaches include lamination (stacking of nanometer-thin strata of different materials, introduction of nanoparticle fillers into the nanomembrane scaffold, nanomembrane surface sculpting and modification through patterning (including formation of nanohole arrays and introduction of ion channels similar in function to those in biological nanomembranes. We also present some of our original results related to functionalization of metal matrix composite nanomembranes.

  14. Introduction to Concepts in Artificial Neural Networks (United States)

    Niebur, Dagmar


    This introduction to artificial neural networks summarizes some basic concepts of computational neuroscience and the resulting models of artificial neurons. The terminology of biological and artificial neurons, biological and machine learning and neural processing is introduced. The concepts of supervised and unsupervised learning are explained with examples from the power system area. Finally, a taxonomy of different types of neurons and different classes of artificial neural networks is presented.

  15. Colonization by waterbirds of artificial lakes after surface mining:a case study%露天采矿形成的人工湖中的水鸟建群

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    1999-2003年,在捷克共和国特布盆地生物圈保护区(Tebo Basin Biosphere Reserve)内,我们对13个采矿后形成的人工湖中水鸟群落的形成过程进行了研究.我们假定生活在邻近鱼塘中的水鸟会逐渐向这些人工湖迁移和聚集.在这些人工湖中共记录到42种水鸟,隶属于10个目,其中17种典型的海滨鸟类是该群落的重要组成部分.这些水鸟的季节动态过程与各物种自身的生活史阶段有关(如筑巢、迁徙),同时也被人类的采矿活动所影响.环境因素和人类干扰影响了绿头鸭(Anas platyrhynchos)、疣鼻天鹅(Cygnus olor)和凤头鸊鷉(Podiceps cristatus) 等优势种的分布.沙坑湖作为一种独特的生境为本保护区的濒危物种提供了栖息地,如:小苇(开鸟)(Ixobrychus minutus)、大苇莺(Acrocephalus arundinaceus)及其它潜在分布的鸟类.对南波西米亚地区沙坑湖鸟类的研究,可为其它相似地区水鸟群落演替研究提供了重要经验%Occurrence of waterbird species was studied on 13 sand-pit lakes in the Trebon Basin Bjiosphere Reserve(South Bohemia, Czech Republic) in 1999-2003 with the hypothesis, that these artificial lakes will be colonized gradually by some species of waterbirds, living in fishponds in the same area. Seventeen species of "hard littoral flora" were found as an important component of the waterbird environment. Fourty two species of water birds were recorded in the sand-pit lakes. These species belong to 10 orders of birds. The seasonal course of waterbird occurrence reflects the causes of the individual species occurrence (nesting, migration). The waterbird occurrence was affected by mining activity. Both environmental and anthropogenic factors affected the occurrence of the most numerous species: mallard Anas platyrhynchos, mute swan Cygnus olor, great crest grebe Podiceps cristatus. Sand-pit lakes represent biotopes that can serve Biosphere Reserve: little bittern Ixobrychus minutus and

  16. Influence of storage solution on enamel demineralization submitted to pH cycling Influência da solução de armazenagem na desmineralização do esmalte submetido à ciclagem de pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silva Moura


    Full Text Available Extracted human teeth are frequently used for research or educational purposes. Therefore, it is necessary to store them in disinfectant solutions that do not alter dental structures. Thus, this study evaluated the influence of storage solution on enamel demineralization. For that purpose, sixty samples were divided into the following groups: enamel stored in formaldehyde (F1, stored in thymol (T1, stored in formaldehyde and submitted to pH cycling (F2, stored in thymol and submitted to pH cycling (T2. All samples were evaluated by cross-sectional microhardness analysis and had their percentage of mineral volume versus micrometer (integrated area determined. Differences between groups were found up to 30-µm depth from the enamel surface (p Dentes humanos extraídos são freqüentemente utilizados para propósitos educacionais ou de pesquisa. Desta forma, é necessário o armazenamento dos mesmos em soluções desinfetantes que não alterem a estrutura dental. Para tanto, sessenta espécimes foram divididos nos seguintes grupos: esmalte armazenado em formol (F1, armazenado em timol (T1, armazenado em formol e submetido à ciclagem de pH (F2 e armazenado em timol e submetido à ciclagem de pH (T2, sendo avaliados por meio de análise de microdureza longitudinal e tiveram a porcentagem de volume mineral pro micrômetro determinada. Diferenças entre os grupos foram encontradas até a profundidade de 30µm da superfície do esmalte (p<0,05, onde o grupo mais desmineralizado era T2. Foi concluído que a solução de armazenagem influenciou na reação do substrato dental a um desafio cariogênico, sugerindo que o formaldeído pode aumentar a resistência do esmalte à desmineralização promovida pelo modelo de ciclagem de pH, quando comparado à desmineralização ocorrida no esmalte armazenado em timol.

  17. A comparative study of the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells cultured on β-TCP ceramics and demineralized bone matrix with or without osteogenic inducers in vitro. (United States)

    An, Shaofeng; Gao, Yan; Huang, Xiangya; Ling, Junqi; Liu, Zhaohui; Xiao, Yin


    The repair of bone defects that result from periodontal diseases remains a clinical challenge for periodontal therapy. β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics are biodegradable inorganic bone substitutes with inorganic components that are similar to those of bone. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is an acid-extracted organic matrix derived from bone sources that consists of the collagen and matrix proteins of bone. A few studies have documented the effects of DBM on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of inorganic and organic elements of bone on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs using three-dimensional porous β-TCP ceramics and DBM with or without osteogenic inducers. Primary hPDLCs were isolated from human periodontal ligaments. The proliferation of the hPDLCs on the scaffolds in the growth culture medium was examined using a Cell-Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the osteogenic differentiation of the hPDLCs cultured on the β-TCP ceramics and DBM were examined in both the growth culture medium and osteogenic culture medium. Specific osteogenic differentiation markers were examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). SEM images revealed that the cells on the β-TCP were spindle-shaped and much more spread out compared with the cells on the DBM surfaces. There were no significant differences observed in cell proliferation between the β-TCP ceramics and the DBM scaffolds. Compared with the cells that were cultured on β-TCP ceramics, the ALP activity, as well as the Runx2 and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA levels in the hPDLCs cultured on DBM were significantly enhanced both in the growth culture medium and the osteogenic culture medium. The organic elements of bone may exhibit greater osteogenic differentiation effects

  18. Model study of pyrite demineralization by hydrogen peroxide oxidation at 30 {sup o}C in the presence of metal ions (Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 2+})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borah, Dipu [Department of Chemistry, Pragjyotika J. College, Titabar 785 630, Assam (India); Baruah, Mrinal K.; Gogoi, Probin C. [Department of Chemistry, NNS College, Titabar 785 630, Assam (India)


    Dissolution of pyrite involving oxidation by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in the presence of metal ions (Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 2+}) has been investigated. Before oxidation, pure and well crystalline structure of the acid washed pyrite sample, used in the present investigation, was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis. Oxidation of pyrite was examined by the determination of soluble sulfur. The rate of oxidation of pyrite with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is best represented by determining the rates of total soluble sulfur production. Each experiment was carried out for short (1-4 h) and extended (24 h) time periods. Pyrite is oxidized by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (1:1) up to the extent of 31.3% at short time period, which however remained the same even at extended time period. Increased amount of soluble sulfur has been observed when pyrite was oxidized by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (1:1) in the presence of Ni{sup 2+} or Co{sup 2+} or Sn{sup 2+} ion at short time period. The effectiveness of these metal ions in relation to pyrite oxidation at short time period decreases in the order Co{sup 2+}>Sn{sup 2+}>Ni{sup 2+}, while at extended time period the order is Co{sup 2+}>Ni{sup 2+}>Sn{sup 2+}. With Co{sup 2+} ion, the highest pyrite oxidation is obtained both at short (34.0%) and extended (35.0%) time period, while it is the lowest 31.3% with Ni{sup 2+} ion at short time and 25.3% with Sn{sup 2+} ion at extended time period. The effect of chloride ion on the rate of oxidation of pyrite is not pronounced in the metal ion containing systems. Substantial depletion in the concentration of externally added metal ions is in good agreement with the level of oxidation and infers certain adsorption or precipitation of metal ions on pyrite surface. The results of this study throw a new light of the influence of metal ions in the dissolution of pyrite in oxidation systems and has considerable applications in fields of demineralization, desulfurization and environmental

  19. Winner of the 2013 Young Investigator Award for the Society for Biomaterials annual meeting and exposition, April 10-13, 2013, Boston, Massachusetts. Osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on demineralized and devitalized biodegradable polymer and extracellular matrix hybrid constructs. (United States)

    Thibault, Richard A; Mikos, Antonios G; Kasper, F Kurtis


    Devitalization and demineralization processing of biodegradable polymer and extracellular matrix (ECM) hybrid constructs was explored for the effect on the retention of ECM components and construct osteogenicity. Hybrid constructs were generated by seeding osteogenically predifferentiated rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) onto electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) fiber meshes and culturing in osteogenic medium for 12 or 16 days within a flow perfusion bioreactor to create an ECM coating. The resulting constructs were then either devitalized (using a freeze-thaw or a detergent technique), devitalized and demineralized, or left untreated, and subsequently characterized for DNA, glycosaminoglycan, collagen, and calcium content. The osteogenicity of each construct was investigated by culturing MSCs on the hybrid constructs within a flow perfusion bioreactor for 4, 8, and 12 days in osteogenic medium. Histological staining demonstrated that devitalization via the freeze-thaw method retained the thickest coating of ECM components within the constructs. Demineralization and devitalization processing of ECM coated constructs resulted in a decrease in their osteogenicity.

  20. Topological Optimization of Artificial Microstructure Strategies (United States)


    Topographic Optimization Through Artificial Microstructure Strategies During this project as part of DARPA MCMA we aimed to develop and demonstrate...Topographic Optimization Through Artificial Microstructure Strategies Report Title During this project as part of DARPA MCMA we aimed to develop and...Artificial Microstructure Strategies (Yale and Johns Hopkins) During DARPA MCMA we aimed to develop and demonstrate a 3D microstructural