Sample records for artificial cranial deformation

  1. Differences in types of artificial cranial deformation are related to differences in frequencies of cranial and oral health markers in pre-Columbian skulls from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Okumura

    Full Text Available Artificial cranial deformation is a cultural practice that modifies the shape of the skull during the early infancy. It is not related to rites of passage, but to different social status in a group. Therefore, the deformed cranium is an expression of individual affirmation and affiliation to a given social group. Osteological material from Pasamayo (AD 1200-1450, a cemetery in central coast of Peru, was analyzed to test whether individuals presenting different types of cranial deformation (interpreted as a sign of different social status present differences in health status. Three types of cranial deformation were observed and five osteological markers (cribra orbitalia, cranial trauma, antemortem tooth loss, dental caries, and periodontal cavities related to health status were analyzed in 78 crania. No significant differences were found in terms of these osteological markers among females in relation to the different types of cranial deformation. However, males presenting occipital deformation had significantly less caries and periodontal cavities than the others. Moreover, males presenting fronto-lambdoid deformation had more antemortem tooth loss than the other males. Therefore, although different types of cranial deformation can be potentially associated to distinct social status, differences in health status could only be observed in the male sample.

  2. A look at Mayan artificial cranial deformation practices: morphological and cultural aspects. (United States)

    Romero-Vargas, Samuel; Ruiz-Sandoval, José Luis; Sotomayor-González, Arturo; Revuelta-Gutiérrez, Rogelio; Celis-López, Miguel Angel; Gómez-Amador, Juan Luis; García-González, Ulises; López-Serna, Raul; García-Navarro, Victor; Mendez-Rosito, Diego; Correa-Correa, Victor; Gómez-Llata, Sergio


    Induced deformation of the cranial vault is one form of permanent alteration of the body that has been performed by human beings from the beginning of history as a way of differentiating from others. These procedures have been observed in different cultures, but were particularly widespread in Mesoamerica. The authors examined and reviewed the historical and anthropological literature of intentional deformation practices in Mayan culture. The Mayans performed different types of cranial deformations and used different techniques and instruments to deform children's heads. The most remarkable morphological alteration is seen in the flattening of the frontal bone. Some archeological investigations link deformation types with specific periods. This article provides a glance at the cultural environment of the Mayans and demonstrates the heterogeneity of this interesting cultural phenomenon, which has changed over time.

  3. Hawaiian craniofacial morphometrics: average Mokapuan skull, artificial cranial deformation, and the "rocker" mandible. (United States)

    Schendel, S A; Walker, G; Kamisugi, A


    Craniofacial morphology and cultural cranial deformation were analyzed by the computer morphometric system in 79 adult Hawaiian skulls from Mokapu, Oahu. The average Hawaiian male was large, but similar in shape to the female. Both were larger than the present Caucasian, showed a greater dental protrusion, and possessed a larger ANB angle, flatter cranial base, and larger facial heights. Correlations in Hawaiian craniofacial structure were found between an increasing mandibular plane angle and 1) shorter posterior facial height, 2) larger gonial angle, 3) larger cranial base angle, and 4) smaller SNA and SNB angles. Of the 79 skulls studied, 8.9% were found to have severe head molding or intentional cranial deformation. Significant statistical differences between the molded group and the nonmolded group are, in decreasing significance: 1) larger upper face height, 2) smaller glabella to occiput distance, and 3) increased lower face height with deformation. The morphometric differences were readily seen by graphic comparison between groups. It is postulated that external forces to the neurocranium result in redirection of the growth vectors in the neurocranial functional matrix, including the cranial base, and secondarily, to the orofacial functional matrix. There is a possibility that the cranial deformation is a retention of the normal birth molding changes. The Polynesian "rocker jaw" was found in 81% to 95% of this populace. This mandibular form occurs only with attainment of adult stature and craniofacial form. This data agrees with the hypothesis that mandibular form is modified by the physical forces present and their direction in the orofacial functional matrix.

  4. [Babies with cranial deformity]. (United States)

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J


    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.

  5. An annotated history of craniofacial surgery and intentional cranial deformation. (United States)

    Goodrich, J T; Tutino, M


    The history of craniofacial surgery and the use of intentional cranial deformation is a long and varied one. Researching some of the earliest medical writings and reviews of early terracotta and stone figures from throughout the world clearly revealed that these two forms of treatment were widely extant. Intentional cranial deformation was used for a number of reasons including beautification, tribal identification, and social stature. The development of craniofacial surgery is a more modern practice and its historical evolution is reviewed in the context of techniques and the personalities involved.

  6. Zuigelingen met een scheef hoofd [Babies with cranial deformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, M.M.; Claessens, E.A.; Dovens, A.J.; Vles, J.S.; van der Hulst, R.R.


    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet

  7. Zuigelingen met een scheef hoofd [Babies with cranial deformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, M.M.; Claessens, E.A.; Dovens, A.J.; Vles, J.S.; van der Hulst, R.R.


    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet ther

  8. Brief communication: Artificial cranial modification in Kow Swamp and Cohuna. (United States)

    Durband, Arthur C


    The crania from Kow Swamp and Cohuna have been important for a number of debates in Australian paleoanthropology. These crania typically have long, flat foreheads that many workers have cited as evidence of genetic continuity with archaic Indonesian populations, particularly the Ngandong sample. Other scientists have alleged that at least some of the crania from Kow Swamp and the Cohuna skull have been altered through artificial modification, and that the flat foreheads possessed by these individuals are not phylogenetically informative. In this study, several Kow Swamp crania and Cohuna are compared to known modified and unmodified comparative samples. Canonical variates analyses and Mahalanobis distances are generated, and random expectation statistics are used to calculate statistical significance for these tests. The results of this study agree with prior work indicating that a portion of this sample shows evidence for artificial modification of the cranial vault. Many Kow Swamp crania and Cohuna display shape similarities with a population of known modified individuals from New Britain. Kow Swamp 1, 5, and Cohuna show the strongest evidence for modification, but other individuals from this sample also show evidence of culturally manipulated changes in cranial shape. This project provides added support for the argument that at least some Pleistocene Australian groups were practicing artificial cranial modification, and suggests that caution should be used when including these individuals in phylogenetic studies.

  9. Preclinical pathways to treatment in infants with positional cranial deformity. (United States)

    Kluba, S; Lypke, J; Kraut, W; Krimmel, M; Haas-Lude, K; Reinert, S


    Positional plagiocephaly in infants is frequent. As well as positioning, physiotherapy, and osteopathy, helmet therapy is an effective treatment option. The outcome also depends on the timely initiation of treatment. We investigated the preclinical pathways to treatment. Parents of 218 affected children were interviewed. Data were collected regarding detection and the treatments used prior to the first craniofacial consultation at the study clinic in Germany. Descriptive and statistical analyses were performed. For 78.4% of the children, the cranial deformities were first detected at ≤4 months of age. One hundred and twenty-two children received helmet therapy. Parents consulted the paediatrician with a mean latency of 0.4 months; 3.3 months passed until the first craniofacial consultation. Approximately 90% were treated with repositioning and 75.2% received additional physiotherapy or osteopathy prior to presentation. Children treated with physiotherapy/osteopathy presented significantly later (P=0.023). The time lapse to craniofacial consultation was not significantly different between children with and without later helmet therapy. We identified a relevant delay between the detection of positional cranial deformity and consultation with a craniofacial specialist. For affected children, this may potentially compromise the outcome of helmet therapy. Early referral to a specialist and if necessary the simultaneous application of different treatments should be preferred.

  10. Diagnosis of infant synostotic and nonsynostotic cranial deformities: a review for pediatricians (United States)

    Ghizoni, Enrico; Denadai, Rafael; Raposo-Amaral, Cesar Augusto; Joaquim, Andrei Fernandes; Tedeschi, Helder; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo


    Abstract Objective: To review the current comprehensive care for nonsyndromic craniosynostosis and nonsynostotic cranial deformity and to offer an overall view of these craniofacial conditions. Data source: The review was conducted in the PubMed, SciELO, and LILACS databases without time or language restrictions. Relevant articles were selected for the review. Data synthesis: We included the anatomy and physiology of normal skull development of children, discussing nuances related to nomenclature, epidemiology, etiology, and treatment of the most common forms of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. The clinical criteria for the differential diagnosis between positional deformities and nonsyndromic craniosynostosis were also discussed, giving to the pediatrician subsidies for a quick and safe clinical diagnosis. If positional deformity is accurately diagnosed, it can be treated successfully with behavior modification. Diagnostic doubts and craniosynostosis patients should be referred straightaway to a multidisciplinary craniofacial center. Conclusions: Pediatricians are in the forefront of the diagnosis of patients with cranial deformities. Thus, it is of paramount importance that they recognize subtle cranial deformities as it may be related to premature fusion of cranial sutures. PMID:27256993

  11. Optimised low-dose multidetector CT protocol for children with cranial deformity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Jose Luis [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Vigo, Department of Radiology, Vigo, Pontevedra (Spain); Pombar, Miguel Angel [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago, Department of Radiophysics, Santiago de Compostela, La Coruna (Spain); Pumar, Jose Manuel [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago, Department of Radiology, Santiago de Compostela, La Coruna (Spain); Campo, Victor Miguel del [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Vigo, Department of Public Health, Vigo, Pontevedra (Spain)


    To present an optimised low-dose multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) protocol for the study of children with cranial deformity. Ninety-one consecutive MDCT studies were performed in 80 children. Studies were performed with either our standard head CT protocol (group 1, n = 20) or a low-dose cranial deformity protocol (groups 2 and 3). Group 2 (n = 38), initial, and group 3 (n = 33), final and more optimised. All studies were performed in the same 64-MDCT equipment. Cranial deformity protocol was gradationally optimised decreasing kVp, limiting mA range, using automatic exposure control (AEC) and increasing the noise index (NI). Image quality was assessed. Dose indicators such us CT dose index volume (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP) and effective dose (E) were used. The optimised low-dose protocol reached the following values: 80 kVp, mA range: 50-150 and NI = 23. We achieved a maximum dose reduction of 10-22 times in the 1- to 12-month-old cranium in regard to the 2004 European guidelines for MDCT. A low-dose MDCT protocol that may be used as the first diagnostic imaging option in clinically selected patients with skull abnormalities. (orig.)

  12. Quantifying cortical surface harmonic deformation with stereovision during open cranial neurosurgery (United States)

    Ji, Songbai; Fan, Xiaoyao; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.


    Cortical surface harmonic motion during open cranial neurosurgery is well observed in image-guided neurosurgery. Recently, we quantified cortical surface deformation noninvasively with synchronized blood pressure pulsation (BPP) from a sequence of stereo image pairs using optical flow motion tracking. With three subjects, we found the average cortical surface displacement can reach more than 1 mm and in-plane principal strains of up to 7% relative to the first image pair. In addition, the temporal changes in deformation and strain were in concert with BPP and patient respiration [1]. However, because deformation was essentially computed relative to an arbitrary reference, comparing cortical surface deformation at different times was not possible. In this study, we extend the technique developed earlier by establishing a more reliable reference profile of the cortical surface for each sequence of stereo image acquisitions. Specifically, fast Fourier transform (FFT) was applied to the dynamic cortical surface deformation, and the fundamental frequencies corresponding to patient respiration and BPP were identified, which were used to determine the number of image acquisitions for use in averaging cortical surface images. This technique is important because it potentially allows in vivo characterization of soft tissue biomechanical properties using intraoperative stereovision and motion tracking.

  13. The relationship between skull morphology, masticatory muscle force and cranial skeletal deformation during biting. (United States)

    Toro-Ibacache, Viviana; Zapata Muñoz, Víctor; O'Higgins, Paul


    The human skull is gracile when compared to many Middle Pleistocene hominins. It has been argued that it is less able to generate and withstand high masticatory forces, and that the morphology of the lower portion of the modern human face correlates most strongly with dietary characteristics. This study uses geometric morphometrics and finite element analysis (FEA) to assess the relationship between skull morphology, muscle force and cranial deformations arising from biting, which is relevant in understanding how skull morphology relates to mastication. The three-dimensional skull anatomies of 20 individuals were reconstructed from medical computed tomograms. Maximal contractile muscle forces were estimated from muscular anatomical cross-sectional areas (CSAs). Fifty-nine landmarks were used to represent skull morphology. A partial least squares analysis was performed to assess the association between skull shape and muscle force, and FEA was used to compare the deformation (strains) generated during incisor and molar bites in two individuals representing extremes of morphological variation in the sample. The results showed that only the proportion of total muscle CSA accounted for by the temporalis appears associated with skull morphology, albeit weekly. However, individuals with a large temporalis tend to possess a relatively wider face, a narrower, more vertically oriented maxilla and a lower positioning of the coronoid process. The FEAs showed that, despite differences in morphology, biting results in similar modes of deformation for both crania, but with localised lower magnitudes of strains arising in the individual with the narrowest, most vertically oriented maxilla. Our results suggest that the morphology of the maxilla modulates the transmission of forces generated during mastication to the rest of the cranium by deforming less in individuals with the ability to generate proportionately larger temporalis muscle forces.

  14. Radiographic identification of human remains through deformities and anomalies of post-cranial bones: a report of two cases. (United States)

    Rougé, D; Telmon, N; Arrue, P; Larrouy, G; Arbus, L


    Human remains can be identified radiographically by anomalies and deformities of the post-cranial bones when there are no old fractures and the cranium and extremities are not available. These anomalies and deformities of the sternum, vertebrae, sacrum and innominate bone are often protected from damage by scavengers. We report their use to exclude a proposed identity in one case and to confirm identity in another case. The value and number of these criteria and their pathogenesis is discussed with reference to their prevalence and their expression of inter- and intraindividual variability.

  15. Asymmetric class III malocclusion: association with cranial base deformation and occult torticollis. (United States)

    Yuan, Joyce T; Teng, Edward; Heller, Justin B; Kawamoto, Henry K; Bradley, James P


    The etiology of Angle class III malocclusion with facial asymmetry has not been fully elucidated. To investigate the etiology, patients with asymmetric prognathism (n = 30) from a single institution were assessed for previously undiagnosed torticollis and cranial base asymmetry. Presence of torticollis was determined by measuring restricted head movement when turning the head against a wall and cranial base tilt with upward gaze. Cranial base asymmetry was evaluated by preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography scans. Thirty-one percent of patients with prognathism presented with concurrent facial asymmetry. In patients with asymmetric prognathism, cranial base tilt was present on upward gaze in all patients; mean angle between head and wall was 31 degrees greater than that in control patients, and a 22% to 36% difference in the angle was present when comparing one side with the other. Based on these findings, all patients with asymmetric prognathism were found to be affected by torticollis. By computed tomography scan, 85% of these torticollis patients showed slight anteromedial displacement of the glenoid fossa ipsilateral to torticollis, and 73% demonstrated temporal fossa shift of 4 mm or greater. The current study demonstrates a strong association between asymmetric class III malocclusion, torticollis, and cranial base asymmetry. We conclude that undiagnosed torticollis is a likely etiology for otherwise idiopathic cranial base asymmetry and that cranial base asymmetry in turn causes facial asymmetry and malocclusion. This study highlights the importance of evaluating cranial base asymmetry and torticollis in patients with class III malocclusion to allow for earlier treatment and improved outcomes.

  16. X-ray screening of the artificially deformed skulls from the Middle Bronze Age of the Low Volga region (paleopathology aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pererva Evgenii Vladimirovich


    Full Text Available The impact of the deforming structure on the human skull is one of the most challenging and debated questions in modern archeology and anthropology related to artificial deformation of the skull. This is precisely why the present study attempts to study the pathological artificially deformed skulls of representatives of the Catacomb culture originating from burial mound in the Lower Volga region. The analysis of the bone material was carried out with the use of X-ray method of the frontal and lateral views. Thirteen radiographs of skulls with traces of deliberate artificial deformation were examined. The skull shapes, structure of the skull calvarial bones, state of the cranial sutures, signs of intracranial hypertension, and symptoms of vascular and endocrine pathologies were explored and evaluated. The study discovered that Catacomb culture bearers used a variety of methods of skull deformation. Front occipital, occipital ring strain and conventional acrocephaly deformation modes were revealed. The viability and compatibility with normal human activity of artificial skull deformation was observed. In the childhood and newborn periods, individuals have applied constrictive and restrictive devices, trusses andother appliancesfor a few years, their impact couldresultin the intracranial hypertension syndrome, as well as in problems with cranial sutures obliteration. It is very much likely that the use of strain could stimulate the development of the internal frontal hyperostosis (Morgagni's disease which contributed to the emergence of endocrine abnormities in humans. The increased trauma rate of skeleton bones was observed in population of the Middle Bronze Age, as well as ear diseases which makes us once again address the issue of social and cultural phenomenon of intentional artificial deformation of the head tradition.

  17. Surgical treatment of a proximal diaphyseal tibial deformity associated with partial caudal and cranial cruciate ligament deficiency and patella baja. (United States)

    Vincenti, S; Knell, S; Pozzi, A


    Caudal cruciate ligament injury can be a complication following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) (Slocum und Slocum, 1993) especially if the post-operative Tibial Plateau Angle (TPA) is less than 5 degree. We describe a case of negative TPA associated with partial cranial and caudal ligament rupture treated with a center of rotation of angulation (CORA) based cranial tibial opening wedge osteotomy and tibial tuberosity transposition. A 13 kg, mixed breed dog was presented for right pelvic limb lameness. Radiographically a bilateral patella baja and a malformed tibia tuberosity along with a bilateral TPA of -8 degree were detected. Arthroscopically a partial rupture of the cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments were found. A cranial tibial opening wedge osteotomy of 23 degree and a fibular ostectomy were performed. The osteotomy was fixed with a 8 holes ALPS 9 (KYON, Switzerland) and a 3-holes 2.0mm UniLock plate (Synthes, Switzerland). Then a proximal tibial tuberosity transposition of 10mm was performed and fixed with a pin and tension band construct. The postoperative TPA was 15 degree. The radiographic controls at 6, 10 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after surgery revealed an unchanged position of the implants and progressive healing of the osteotomies. At the 6 and 12 months recheck evaluation the dog had no evidence of lameness or stifle pain and radiographs revealed complete healing of the osteotomy site and no implant failure. The diaphyseal CORA based osteotomy allowed accurate correction of a proximal tibial deformity associated with negative TPA.

  18. Prediction of Soil Deformation in Tunnelling Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Lai


    Full Text Available In the past few decades, as a new tool for analysis of the tough geotechnical problems, artificial neural networks (ANNs have been successfully applied to address a number of engineering problems, including deformation due to tunnelling in various types of rock mass. Unlike the classical regression methods in which a certain form for the approximation function must be presumed, ANNs do not require the complex constitutive models. Additionally, it is traced that the ANN prediction system is one of the most effective ways to predict the rock mass deformation. Furthermore, it could be envisaged that ANNs would be more feasible for the dynamic prediction of displacements in tunnelling in the future, especially if ANN models are combined with other research methods. In this paper, we summarized the state-of-the-art and future research challenges of ANNs on the tunnel deformation prediction. And the application cases as well as the improvement of ANN models were also presented. The presented ANN models can serve as a benchmark for effective prediction of the tunnel deformation with characters of nonlinearity, high parallelism, fault tolerance, learning, and generalization capability.

  19. Surrogate Modeling of Deformable Joint Contact using Artificial Neural Networks (United States)

    Eskinazi, Ilan; Fregly, Benjamin J.


    Deformable joint contact models can be used to estimate loading conditions for cartilage-cartilage, implant-implant, human-orthotic, and foot-ground interactions. However, contact evaluations are often so expensive computationally that they can be prohibitive for simulations or optimizations requiring thousands or even millions of contact evaluations. To overcome this limitation, we developed a novel surrogate contact modeling method based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). The method uses special sampling techniques to gather input-output data points from an original (slow) contact model in multiple domains of input space, where each domain represents a different physical situation likely to be encountered. For each contact force and torque output by the original contact model, a multi-layer feed-forward ANN is defined, trained, and incorporated into a surrogate contact model. As an evaluation problem, we created an ANN-based surrogate contact model of an artificial tibiofemoral joint using over 75,000 evaluations of a fine-grid elastic foundation (EF) contact model. The surrogate contact model computed contact forces and torques about 1000 times faster than a less accurate coarse grid EF contact model. Furthermore, the surrogate contact model was seven times more accurate than the coarse grid EF contact model within the input domain of a walking motion. For larger input domains, the surrogate contact model showed the expected trend of increasing error with increasing domain size. In addition, the surrogate contact model was able to identify out-of-contact situations with high accuracy. Computational contact models created using our proposed ANN approach may remove an important computational bottleneck from musculoskeletal simulations or optimizations incorporating deformable joint contact models. PMID:26220591

  20. Erythrocyte deformability and aggregation responses to intermittent and continuous artificial gravity exposure (United States)

    Marijke, Grau; Vera, Abeln; Tobias, Vogt; Wilhelm, Bloch; Stefan, Schneider


    Artificial gravity protocols are used to improve g-tolerance of aviators and discussed as countermeasure during prolonged space flight. Little is known about the impact of artificial gravity on the red blood cells (RBC). The purpose of the study was to test how artificial gravity affects RBC deformability and aggregation, which are important determinants of microcirculation. Nine male subjects were exposed to two hypergravity protocols using a short arm human centrifuge: a continuous (CONT) protocol with constant +2 Gz for 30 min and an intermittent (INTER) protocol with repeated intervals of +2 Gz and rest. Blood was sampled pre and post interventions to measure basal blood parameters, RBC nitrite, RBC deformability, aggregation, and to determine the shear rate balancing aggregation and disaggregation (γ at dIsc min). To test for orthostasis effects, five male subjects were asked to stay for 46 min, corresponding to the length of the centrifuge protocols, with blood sampling pre and post intervention. Artificial gravity programs did not affect basal blood parameters or RBC nitrite levels; a marker for RBC deformability influencing nitric oxide. The INTER program did not affect any of the tested parameters. The CONT program did not remarkably affect RBC deformability or γ at dIsc min but significantly aggravated aggregation. Orthostasis effects were thus excluded. The results indicate that continuous artificial gravity, especially with higher g-forces applied, may negatively affect the RBC system and that for a prolonged space flight intermittent but not continuous artificial gravity might represent an appropriate countermeasure.

  1. The relationship between red blood cell deformability metrics and perfusion of an artificial microvascular network. (United States)

    Sosa, Jose M; Nielsen, Nathan D; Vignes, Seth M; Chen, Tanya G; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S


    The ability of red blood cells (RBC) to undergo a wide range of deformations while traversing the microvasculature is crucial for adequate perfusion. Interpretation of RBC deformability measurements performed in vitro in the context of microvascular perfusion has been notoriously difficult. This study compares the measurements of RBC deformability performed using micropore filtration and ektacytometry with the RBC ability to perfuse an artificial microvascular network (AMVN). Human RBCs were collected from healthy consenting volunteers, leukoreduced, washed and exposed to graded concentrations (0-0.08%) of glutaraldehyde (a non-specific protein cross-linker) and diamide (a spectrin-specific protein cross-linker) to impair the deformability of RBCs. Samples comprising cells with two different levels of deformability were created by adding non-deformable RBCs (hardened by exposure to 0.08% glutaraldehyde) to the sample of normal healthy RBCs. Ektacytometry indicated a nearly linear decline in RBC deformability with increasing glutaraldehyde concentration. Micropore filtration showed a significant reduction only for concentrations of glutaraldehyde higher than 0.04%. Neither micropore filtration nor ektacytometry measurements could accurately predict the AMVN perfusion. Treatment with diamide reduced RBC deformability as indicated by ektacytometry, but had no significant effect on either micropore filtration or the AMVN perfusion. Both micropore filtration and ektacytometry showed a linear decline in effective RBC deformability with increasing fraction of non-deformable RBCs in the sample. The corresponding decline in the AMVN perfusion plateaued above 50%, reflecting the innate ability of blood flow in the microvasculature to bypass occluded capillaries. Our results suggest that in vitro measurements of RBC deformability performed using either micropore filtration or ektacytometry may not represent the ability of same RBCs to perfuse microvascular networks. Further

  2. Local steroid injection into the artificial ulcer created by endoscopic submucosal dissection for gastric cancer: prevention of gastric deformity. (United States)

    Mori, H; Rafiq, K; Kobara, H; Fujihara, S; Nishiyama, N; Kobayashi, M; Himoto, T; Haba, R; Hagiike, M; Izuishi, K; Okano, K; Suzuki, Y; Masaki, T


    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of large gastric lesions results in an extensive artificial ulcer that can lead to marked gastric deformity. The aim of the current study was to evaluate therapeutic efficacy in the prevention of gastric deformity of local triamcinolone acetonide (TCA) injection into the extensive artificial ulcer following ESD. A total of 45 patients who were diagnosed with early gastric cancer were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned by the sealed-envelope randomization method to either local TCA injections (n = 21) or sham-control (n = 20) groups. Two clips were placed at the two maximum outer edges of the artificial ulcer after the lesion had been resected (Day 0). Local TCA injections were performed on postoperative Day 5 and Day 12. The distance between the two clips was measured by endoscopic measuring forceps on Days 5, 12, 30, and 60. Granulation formation and gastric deformity were evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) on Days 30 and 60. Local TCA injection did not alter clip-to-clip distance on postoperative Day 60, and formation of flat granulation tissue over the ulcer was followed by regenerative mucosa without any gastric deformity. The sham-control group showed significant shortening of clip-to-clip distance compared with the local steroid-injected group and protruded forms of granulation tissue with mucosal convergence. Histological evaluation revealed prominent growth of neovessels, swelling, and marked increases in endothelial cells in the local steroid-injected group compared with the sham-control group. Local steroid injection into the floor of a post-ESD artificial ulcer promotes the formation of granulation tissue at an early stage of the healing process leading to regeneration of gastric mucosa without mucosal convergence or gastric deformity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Identification of spinal deformity classification with total curvature analysis and artificial neural network. (United States)

    Lin, Hong


    In this paper, a multilayer feed-forward, back-propagation (MLFF/BP) artificial neural network (ANN) was implemented to identify the classification patterns of the scoliosis spinal deformity. At the first step, the simplified 3-D spine model was constructed based on the coronal and sagittal X-ray images. The features of the central axis curve of the spinal deformity patterns in 3-D space were extracted by the total curvature analysis. The discrete form of the total curvature, including the curvature and the torsion of the central axis of the simplified 3-D spine model was derived from the difference quotients. The total curvature values of 17 vertebrae from the first thoracic to the fifth lumbar spine formed a Euclidean space of 17 dimensions. The King classification model was tested on this MLFF/BP ANN identification system. The 17 total curvature values were presented to the input layer of MLFF/BP ANN. In the output layer there were five neurons representing five King classification types. A total of 37 spinal deformity patterns from scoliosis patients were selected. These 37 patterns were divided into two groups. The training group had 25 patterns and testing group had 12 patterns. The 25-pattern training group was further divided into five subsets. Based on the definition of King classification system, each subset contained all five King types. The network training was conducted on these five subsets by the hold-out method, one of cross-validation variants, and the early stop method. In each one of the five cross-validation sessions, four subsets were alternatively used for estimation learning and one subset left was used for validation learning. Final network testing was conducted with remaining 12 patterns in testing group after the MLFF/BP ANN was trained by all five subsets in training group. The performance of the neural network was evaluated by comparing between two network topologies, one with one hidden layer and another with two hidden layers. The

  4. Modeling the Effects of Cu Content and Deformation Variables on the High-Temperature Flow Behavior of Dilute Al-Fe-Si Alloys Using an Artificial Neural Network. (United States)

    Shakiba, Mohammad; Parson, Nick; Chen, X-Grant


    The hot deformation behavior of Al-0.12Fe-0.1Si alloys with varied amounts of Cu (0.002-0.31 wt %) was investigated by uniaxial compression tests conducted at different temperatures (400 °C-550 °C) and strain rates (0.01-10 s(-1)). The results demonstrated that flow stress decreased with increasing deformation temperature and decreasing strain rate, while flow stress increased with increasing Cu content for all deformation conditions studied due to the solute drag effect. Based on the experimental data, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to study the relationship between chemical composition, deformation variables and high-temperature flow behavior. A three-layer feed-forward back-propagation artificial neural network with 20 neurons in a hidden layer was established in this study. The input parameters were Cu content, temperature, strain rate and strain, while the flow stress was the output. The performance of the proposed model was evaluated using the K-fold cross-validation method. The results showed excellent generalization capability of the developed model. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the strain rate is the most important parameter, while the Cu content exhibited a modest but significant influence on the flow stress.

  5. Modeling the Effects of Cu Content and Deformation Variables on the High-Temperature Flow Behavior of Dilute Al-Fe-Si Alloys Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shakiba


    Full Text Available The hot deformation behavior of Al-0.12Fe-0.1Si alloys with varied amounts of Cu (0.002–0.31 wt % was investigated by uniaxial compression tests conducted at different temperatures (400 °C–550 °C and strain rates (0.01–10 s−1. The results demonstrated that flow stress decreased with increasing deformation temperature and decreasing strain rate, while flow stress increased with increasing Cu content for all deformation conditions studied due to the solute drag effect. Based on the experimental data, an artificial neural network (ANN model was developed to study the relationship between chemical composition, deformation variables and high-temperature flow behavior. A three-layer feed-forward back-propagation artificial neural network with 20 neurons in a hidden layer was established in this study. The input parameters were Cu content, temperature, strain rate and strain, while the flow stress was the output. The performance of the proposed model was evaluated using the K-fold cross-validation method. The results showed excellent generalization capability of the developed model. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the strain rate is the most important parameter, while the Cu content exhibited a modest but significant influence on the flow stress.

  6. Effect of artificial aging on the deformation behavior of an Al-1.01Mg-0.68Si-1.78Cu alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Lizi; CHEN Yanbo; ZHANG Haitao; CUI Jianzhong


    The influences of artificial aging on the microstructures and mechanical properties of an AI-1.01Mg-0.68Si-1.78Cu alloy were investigated.The detailed fracture surfaces,precipitates,and dislocation structures were also examined through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).The results show that the tensile strengths exhibit two peak values and reach saturated values with increasing aging time,while the elongation decreases sharply to the minimum value and changes slightly later.The deformation and fracture behaviors arc also closely related to the aging conditions.

  7. Studing cranial vault modifications in ancient Mesoamerica. (United States)

    Tiesler, Vera


    The artificial modification of infant cranial vaults through massages or by means of constriction and compression devices constitutes a readily visible, permanent body modification that has been employed cross-culturally to express identity, ethnicity, beauty, status and gender. For those ancient societies that staged head shaping, these cultural correlates may be ascertained by examining cranial shapes together with other data sets from the archaeological record. Studies of skulls modified for cultural reasons also provide important clues for understanding principles in neural growth and physiopathological variation in cranial expansion. This paper focuses on head shaping techniques in Mesoamerica, where the practice was deeply rooted and widespread before the European conquest. It provides a comprehensive review of the Mesoamericanistic research on shaping techniques, implements and taxonomies. An up-dated, interdisciplinary examination of the physiological implications and the cultural meanings of artificially produced head shapes in different times and culture areas within Mesoamerica leads to a discussion of the scope, caveats, and future directions involved in this kind of research in the region and beyond.

  8. Overview of the Cranial Nerves (United States)

    ... they were damaged. Cranial nerve disorders can affect smell, taste, vision, sensation in the face, facial expression, ... Cranial Nerve Number Name Function Test 1st Olfactory Smell The ability to smell is tested by asking ...

  9. Modeling the Hot Deformation Behaviors of As-Extruded 7075 Aluminum Alloy by an Artificial Neural Network with Back-Propagation Algorithm (United States)

    Quan, Guo-zheng; Zou, Zhen-yu; Wang, Tong; Liu, Bo; Li, Jun-chao


    In order to investigate the hot deformation behaviors of as-extruded 7075 aluminum alloy, the isothermal compressive tests were conducted at the temperatures of 573, 623, 673 and 723 K and the strain rates of 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 s-1 on a Gleeble 1500 thermo-mechanical simulator. The flow behaviors showing complex characteristics are sensitive to strain, strain rate and temperature. The effects of strain, temperature and strain rate on flow stress were analyzed and dynamic recrystallization (DRX)-type softening characteristics of the flow behaviors with single peak were identified. An artificial neural network (ANN) with back-propagation (BP) algorithm was developed to deal with the complex deformation behavior characteristics based on the experimental data. The performance of ANN model has been evaluated in terms of correlation coefficient (R) and average absolute relative error (AARE). A comparative study on Arrhenius-type constitutive equation and ANN model for as-extruded 7075 aluminum alloy was conducted. Finally, the ANN model was successfully applied to the development of processing map and implanted into finite element simulation. The results have sufficiently articulated that the well-trained ANN model with BP algorithm has excellent capability to deal with the complex flow behaviors of as-extruded 7075 aluminum alloy and has great application potentiality in hot deformation processes.

  10. [Neurological paleopathology in the pre-Columbine cultures of the coast and the Andean plateau (II). The history of cranial trepanations]. (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J; Vázquez-Cabrera, C B

    Trepanation is one of the earliest examples of a surgical procedure being carried out by human beings and was performed from the Neolithic period onwards in a large number of primitive cultures throughout the five continents. Trepanation and cranial deformation were both common in the pre-Columbine cultures. The aim of this work was to study the trepanations carried out by the ancient Paraca, Nazca, Huari, Tiahuanaco and Inca cultures. To do so, we conducted a field study involving visits to archaeological remains and anthropological museums on the Andean plateau and the Peruvian coast. In the pre-Columbine cultures, trepanation was performed on both men and women for therapeutic purposes (depressed fractures, epilepsy, vascular headaches and those associated to artificial cranial deformations) and as a ritual. Signs of trepanation have been found in 5% of skulls and 80% of these show evidence of the 'patient' having survived such an intervention. Some of them have several holes in different stages of healing. The trephining procedure involved the use of obsidian knives with wooden handles and tumis, which were ceremonial knives that were used to cut the scalp. Gold and silver cranioplasty plates have also been found in some skulls. Cranial trepanation was very successful despite the rudimentary methods and instruments employed to perform it.

  11. Deformed Skull Morphology Is Caused by the Combined Effects of the Maldevelopment of Calvarias, Cranial Base and Brain in FGFR2-P253R Mice Mimicking Human Apert Syndrome (United States)

    Luo, Fengtao; Xie, Yangli; Xu, Wei; Huang, Junlan; Zhou, Siru; Wang, Zuqiang; Luo, Xiaoqing; Liu, Mi; Chen, Lin; Du, Xiaolan


    Apert syndrome (AS) is a common genetic syndrome in humans characterized with craniosynostosis. Apert patients and mouse models showed abnormalities in sutures, cranial base and brain, that may all be involved in the pathogenesis of skull malformation of Apert syndrome. To distinguish the differential roles of these components of head in the pathogenesis of the abnormal skull morphology of AS, we generated mouse strains specifically expressing mutant FGFR2 in chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and progenitor cells of central nervous system (CNS) by crossing Fgfr2+/P253R-Neo mice with Col2a1-Cre, Osteocalcin-Cre (OC-Cre), and Nestin-Cre mice, respectively. We then quantitatively analyzed the skull and brain morphology of these mutant mice by micro-CT and micro-MRI using Euclidean distance matrix analysis (EDMA). Skulls of Col2a1-Fgfr2+/P253R mice showed Apert syndrome-like dysmorphology, such as shortened skull dimensions along the rostrocaudal axis, shortened nasal bone, and evidently advanced ossification of cranial base synchondroses. The OC-Fgfr2+/P253R mice showed malformation in face at 8-week stage. Nestin-Fgfr2+/P253R mice exhibited increased dorsoventral height and rostrocaudal length on the caudal skull and brain at 8 weeks. Our study indicates that the abnormal skull morphology of AS is caused by the combined effects of the maldevelopment in calvarias, cranial base, and brain tissue. These findings further deepen our knowledge about the pathogenesis of the abnormal skull morphology of AS, and provide new clues for the further analyses of skull phenotypes and clinical management of AS. PMID:28123344

  12. Neuromuscular ultrasound of cranial nerves. (United States)

    Tawfik, Eman A; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S


    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed.

  13. Parameter Sensitivity Analysis on Deformation of Composite Soil-Nailed Wall Using Artificial Neural Networks and Orthogonal Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbin Hao


    Full Text Available Based on the back-propagation algorithm of artificial neural networks (ANNs, this paper establishes an intelligent model, which is used to predict the maximum lateral displacement of composite soil-nailed wall. Some parameters, such as soil cohesive strength, soil friction angle, prestress of anchor cable, soil-nail spacing, soil-nail diameter, soil-nail length, and other factors, are considered in the model. Combined with the in situ test data of composite soil-nail wall reinforcement engineering, the network is trained and the errors are analyzed. Thus it is demonstrated that the method is applicable and feasible in predicting lateral displacement of excavation retained by composite soil-nailed wall. Extended calculations are conducted by using the well-trained intelligent forecast model. Through application of orthogonal table test theory, 25 sets of tests are designed to analyze the sensitivity of factors affecting the maximum lateral displacement of composite soil-nailing wall. The results show that the sensitivity of factors affecting the maximum lateral displacement of composite soil nailing wall, in a descending order, are prestress of anchor cable, soil friction angle, soil cohesion strength, soil-nail spacing, soil-nail length, and soil-nail diameter. The results can provide important reference for the same reinforcement engineering.

  14. Vincristine induced cranial polyneuropathy. (United States)

    Bay, Ali; Yilmaz, Cahide; Yilmaz, Nebi; Oner, Ahmet Faik


    We describe a 5-year-old girl showed recovery of vincristine induced cranial polyneuropathy with pyridoxine and pyridostigmine treatment. A 5-year-old girl was diagnosed preB cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). She received chemotherapy according to the previously described modified St. Jude total therapy studies XIII. Five days after the fourth dose of vincristine, she presented with bilateral ptosis. Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis, and complete external opthalmoplegia with normal pupillary and corneal reflexes. She received 3.8 mg cumulative dose of vincristin before development of ptosis. A neuroprotective and neuroregenerative treatment attempt with pyridoxine and pyridostigmine was initiated. The bilateral ptosis markedly improved after 7 days of pyridoxine and pyridostigmine treatment and completely resolved after two weeks. The both agents were given for 3 weeks and were well tolerated without any side effects. During the follow up period we did not observe residue or recurrence of the ptosis.

  15. Case of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome associated with abnormal cranial CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagino, Hiroshi; Sugitani, Akitoshi (Matsue Seishi Gakuen, Shimane (Japan)); Eda, Isematsu; Takakura, Hiroki


    A 16-year-old girl having typical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was reported. In this patient, although there were no specific neurological findings, cranial CT scanning revealed marked dilation and deformation of the whole forth ventricle, dilation of the superior cerebellar cistern, and the dilation and deformation of the quadrigeminal cistern and circumvolute cistern, suggesting morphological abnormalities of the vermian region.

  16. Three-dimensional EH composite artificial template for repairing cranial defect in 53 cases%三维EH复合型人工颅骨板修补颅骨缺损53例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建华; 印佳; 封林森; 刘艺春; 方涛; 蒋峰


    目的:观察三维EH复合型人工颅骨板在修补颅骨缺损中的作用.方法:回顾性分析2004-07/2007-05泰兴市人民医院神经外科住院患者53例,男31例,女22例;年龄19~68岁,均符合颅骨修补适应证.颅骨缺损原因:创伤41例,高血压7例,肿瘤3例,动脉瘤2例.13例患者为双侧颅骨缺损.额部颅骨缺损5片(其中合并眶部严重缺损2例),颢部9片,额颞部42片,颞顶部3片,项枕部4片,额顶部3片.单片最小缺损面积为4 cm×6 cm,最大缺损面积12 cm×18 cm.全部患者均采用经螺旋CT(层厚≤5 mm)扫描、CAD三维重建成像、快速成型技术顶制的三维EH复合型人工颅骨板进行颅骨修补.观察有无切口感染、排异反应及并发症发生.结果:53例患者均获得随访,平均随访18个月.患者对塑形的满意率达100%.其中2例患者曾分别于术后4 d和1周时出现轻度皮瓣下积液,经穿刺抽吸加压包扎同时应用抗生素预防感染处理后积液于短时间内消失.未见其他颅骨修补术后常见的并发症.结论:三维EH型复合人工颅骨板具有良好的生物相容性,操作方便,外形满意,并发症少,是一种理想的颅骨修补材料.%OBJECTIVE: To observe effects of three-dimensional EH composite template on repairing cranial bone defect. METHODS: A total of 53 inpatients were analyzed retrospectively at the Department of Neurosurgery, Taixing People's Hospital from July 2004 to May 2007, comprising 31 males and 22 females, aged 19-68 years. They were in accordance with cranial repairing indication. Reasons for skull defect: traumatic brain injury (41 cases), hypertension (7 cases), intracranial cancer (3 cases), intracranial aneurysm (2 cases). Thirteen patients developed bilateral cranial defect. The defect region: frontal (5 slices, comprising 2 with severe orbital part defect), temporal (9 slices), frontotemporal (42 slices), temporoparietal (3 slices), parietoocipital (4 slices), frontoparietal (3 slices

  17. Cranial Autonomic Symptoms in Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Cranial autonomic symptoms (CAS in patients with migraine and cluster headaches (CH were characterized and compared in a prospective study of consecutive patients attending a headache clinic at Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan.

  18. The computed cranial focal point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, G.A. de; Maal, T.J.J.; Delye, H.


    INTRODUCTION: Stereophotogrammetry is a radiation-free method for monitoring skull development after craniosynostosis repair. Lack of clear fixed reference points complicate longitudinal comparison of 3D photographs. Therefore we developed the 'computed cranial focal point' (CCFP). METHODS: The CCFP

  19. [Complex diagnosis of congenital cranial dysostosis in children]. (United States)

    Iakubov, R K; Azimov, M I


    Ten patients (aged 3-15 years) with congenital cranial dysostosis were examined by a pediatrician, geneticist, gastroenterologist, neuropathologist, ophthalmologist, endocrinologist, and orthopaedist. In addition to the clinical signs characteristic of hereditary multiple developmental defects, the study revealed changes in the jaws and temporomandibular joint and local factors promoting the progress of deformations of the jaws. Manifest and inapparent pathological changes and dysfunctions in gastrointestinal organs were paralleled by dysfunctions of the central and autonomic nervous systems, risk of maxillofacial and general deformations, and signs of congenital disorders in calcium, lactic acid, and pyridoxine metabolism. The results necessitate analyses of the blood and urine and development of new methods for the diagnosis of congenital cranial dysostosis and improvement of methods for the correction of this condition.

  20. Distraction Osteogenesis Update: Introduction of Multidirectional Cranial Distraction Osteogenesis. (United States)

    Gomi, Akira; Sunaga, Ataru; Kamochi, Hideaki; Oguma, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Yasushi


    In this review, we discuss in detail our current procedure for treating craniosynostosis using multidirectional cranial distraction osteogenesis (MCDO). The MCDO method allows all phenotypes of skull deformity to be reshaped by distraction osteogenesis, except in patients who are 5 months of age or younger and patients with posterior cranial vault problems. We report the results of clinical data of 36 children with craniosynostosis who underwent MCDO between 2005 and 2014 in our institute. This method has the following benefits, such as a high flexibility of reshaping, shorter treatment period and less invasive secondary intervention. We also discuss the other distraction osteogenesis techniques that are used to treat craniosynostosis and compare them with MCDO. The preferred procedure for correction of craniosynostosis may depend on the patient's age, the extent of deformity, and the extent of correction achievable by surgery. We can arrange the combinations of various methods according to the advantage and disadvantage of each technique.

  1. Comparative study between cortical bone graft versus bone dust for reconstruction of cranial burr holes


    Worm, Paulo Valdeci; Ferreira,Nelson Pires; Faria, Mário de Barros; Ferreira, Marcelo Paglioli; Kraemer,Jorge Luiz; Collares, Marcus Vinicius Martins


    Background: As a consequence of the progressive evolution of neurosurgical techniques, there has been increasing concern with the esthetic aspects of burr holes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the use of cortical bone graft and bone dust for correcting cranial deformities caused by neurosurgical trephines. Methods: Twenty-three patients were enrolled for cranial burr hole reconstruction with a 1-year follow-up. A total of 108 burr holes were treated; 36 burr holes were ...

  2. Invasive cranial mycosis our experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Kumbhkar


    Full Text Available Fungi can cause serious cranial infections in immunocompromised and diabetic patients. Common pathogens mainly include Aspergillus and Mucor. These organisms cause tissue invasion and destruction of adjacent structures (e.g. orbit, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary & cavernous sinuses. Mortality and morbidity rate is high despite combined surgical, antifungal and antidiabetic treatment. We present our experience of six cases with such infection.

  3. MRI findings in cranial eumycetoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munawwar Ahmed


    Full Text Available Cranial eumycetoma (CE due to direct inoculation of Madurella grisea into the scalp is extremely rare. We describe a case of CE caused by direct inoculation of M. grisea with the characteristic MRI findings of the "dot-in-circle" sign and a conglomeration of multiple, extremely hypointense "dots."

  4. The controversy of cranial bone motion. (United States)

    Rogers, J S; Witt, P L


    Cranial bone motion continues to stimulate controversy. This controversy affects the general acceptance of some intervention methods used by physical therapists, namely, cranial osteopathic and craniosacral therapy techniques. Core to these intervention techniques is the belief that cranial bone mobility provides a compliant system where somatic dysfunction can occur and therapeutic techniques can be applied. Diversity of opinion over the truth of this concept characterizes differing viewpoints on the anatomy and physiology of the cranial complex. Literature on cranial bone motion was reviewed for the purpose of better understanding this topic. Published research overall was scant and inconclusive. Animal and human studies demonstrate a potential for small magnitude motion. Physical therapists should carefully scrutinize the literature presented as evidence for cranial bone motion. Further research is needed to resolve this controversy. Outcomes research, however, is needed to validate cranial bone mobilization as an effective treatment.

  5. Epidemiological approach to emergent cranial surgery of cranial traumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülagü Kaptan


    Full Text Available

    Objective: In this study, we aim to define the emergent cranial surgery of cranial trauma cases in terms of the reason of occurance, diagnosis, prognostic factors and results. Methods: 153 cases hospitalized in our clinic during a four year period were statistically analysed in accordance with trauma etiology, age, gender, application GCS (Glascow Coma Score mortality rate, location and established patology.

    Results: 76% (116 of the 153 cases were male. The most frequent etiological reasons were, in descending order, traffic accident 52% (n = 80, fall 34% (n = 53, direct trauma to the head 14(n =20. 45% (n = 69 were diagnosed epidural haematomas, 26% (n = 40 were diagnosed depression fractures and 3% (n = 5 were diagnosed intracerebral haematomas. A meaningful statistical difference was found in the comparison of the diagnosis regarding gender (p=0,012 age group (p=0,0282 and GCS (p=0,0001.

    Conclusions: In order to prevent cranial traumas, studies aimed at minimizing traffic accidents should be undertaken. The most essential action after the accident has occured is triage, and this is of great importance in order to establish communication among the health institutions.

  6. Posttraumatic Cranial Cystic Fibrous Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arata Tomiyama


    Full Text Available A 14-year-old was girl admitted to our hospital with a subcutaneous mass of the occipital head. The mass had grown for 6 years, after she had sustained a head injury at the age of 6, and was located directly under a previous wound. Skull X-ray Photograph (xp, computed tomography (CT, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a bony defect and cystic changes in the skull corresponding to a subcutaneous mass. Bone scintigraphy revealed partial accumulation. The patient underwent total removal of the skull mass, and the diagnosis from the pathological findings of the cyst wall was fibrous dysplasia (FD. The radiographic findings for cystic cranial FD can be various. Progressive skull disease has been reported to be associated with head trauma, but the relationship between cranial FD and head trauma has not been previously reported. Previous studies have suggested that c-fos gene expression is a key mechanism in injury-induced FD.

  7. Cranial kinesis in palaeognathous birds. (United States)

    Gussekloo, Sander W S; Bout, Ron G


    Cranial kinesis in birds is induced by muscles located caudal on the cranium. These forces are transferred onto the moveable parts of the skull via the Pterygoid-Palatinum Complex (PPC). This bony structure therefore plays an essential role in cranial kinesis. In palaeognathous birds the morphology of the PPC is remarkably different from that of neognathous birds and is thought to be related to the specific type of cranial kinesis in palaeognaths known as central rhynchokinesis. We determined whether clear bending zones as found in neognaths are present in the upper bill of paleognaths, and measured bending forces opposing elevation of the upper bill. A static force model was used to calculate the opening forces that can be produced by some of the palaeognathous species. We found that no clear bending zones are present in the upper bill, and bending is expected to occur over the whole length of the upper bill. Muscle forces are more than sufficient to overcome bending forces and to elevate the upper bill. The resistance against bending by the bony elements alone is very low, which might indicate that bending of bony elements can occur during food handling when muscles are not used to stabilise the upper bill. Model calculations suggest that the large processi basipterygoidei play a role in stabilizing the skull elements, when birds have to resist external opening forces on the upper bill as might occur during tearing leafs from plants. We conclude that the specific morphology of the palaeognathous upper bill and PPC are not designed for active cranial kinesis, but are adapted to resist external forces that might cause unwanted elevation of the upper bill during feeding.

  8. Cranial computed tomography in pediatrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltshauser, E. (Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland). Kinderklinik)


    This paper deals mainly with methodical aspects (such as sedation, intravenous and intrathecal application of contrast media) and with common difficulties in interpretation of computed tomography images. The indications for cranial CT are discussed in respect to probable therapeutic consequences and expected diagnostic yield. In the view of the author CT is, as a rule, not required in assessing chronic headache, generalised epileptic convulsions, non-specific mental retardation and cerebral palsy.

  9. Cranial imaging in child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Wilms, G. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Casteels, I. [Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)


    Serious head injury in children less than 2 years old is often the result of child abuse. The role of the different neuroimaging modalities in child abuse is reviewed. Skull X-ray and cranial CT are mandatory. Repeat or serial imaging may be necessary and brain MR imaging may contribute to the diagnostic work-up, particularly in the absence of characteristic CT findings. The radiologist plays an important role in accurately identifying non-accidental cranial trauma. The clinical presentation can be non-specific or misleading. The possibility should be considered of a combined mechanism, i.e., an underlying condition with superimposed trauma. In this context, the radiologist is in the front line to suggest the possibility of child abuse. It is therefore important to know the spectrum of, sometimes subtle, imaging findings one may encounter. Opthalmological examination is of the greatest importance and is discussed here, because the combination of retinal hemorrhages and subdural hematoma is very suggestive of non-accidental cranial trauma. (orig.)

  10. Cranial kinesis in the amphibia: a review. (United States)

    Iordanskiĭ, N N


    All extant orders of amphibians are characterized by kinetic skulls. Main type of intracranial movability in amphibians is pleurokinetism, that is supplemented in different amphibian groups by various types of rhyncho- and prokinetism. The most primitive pattern of cranial kinesis is revealed in the stegocrotaphic gymnophions. More paedomorphic species retain general cranial flexibility that is characteristic of larval skull. That is unfavourable for evolution of well-regulated (adult) cranial kinesis and related feeding adaptations. Kinetism is also reduced in the species with heavily ossified skulls. Adaptive role and evolution of cranial kinesis in amphibians are discussed.

  11. Cranial birth trauma; Kraniales Geburtstrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Politi, M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Rohrer, T. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie und Neonatologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)


    Injuries to an infant that result during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Cranial injuries due to mechanical forces such as compression or traction include caput succedaneum, cephalhematoma, subgaleal hematoma and intracranial hemorrhaging. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is the consequence of systemic asphyxia occurring during birth. (orig.) [German] Als Geburtstrauma werden die Verletzungen des Saeuglings bezeichnet, die waehrend der Geburt stattfinden. Zu den Verletzungen, die am Schaedel auftreten koennen und hauptsaechlich durch mechanische Kraefte wie Kompression oder Traktion verursacht werden, gehoeren das Caput succedaneum, das Zephalhaematom, das subgaleale Haematom und die intrakranielle Blutung. Die hypoxisch-ischaemische Enzephalopathie ist die Folge einer systemischen Asphyxie waehrend der Geburt. (orig.)

  12. The Cranial Nerve Skywalk: A 3D Tutorial of Cranial Nerves in a Virtual Platform (United States)

    Richardson-Hatcher, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Ramirez-Yanez, German


    Visualization of the complex courses of the cranial nerves by students in the health-related professions is challenging through either diagrams in books or plastic models in the gross laboratory. Furthermore, dissection of the cranial nerves in the gross laboratory is an extremely meticulous task. Teaching and learning the cranial nerve pathways…

  13. 预变形结合人工时效对Al-Mg-Si合金力学性能的影响%Combined effect of deformation and artificial aging on mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Si Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    研究预变形结合人工时效处理对AA6060铝合金强度和韧性的影响.对经过均匀化热处理和挤压加工的AA6060铝合金进行固溶处理,然后对材料实施0-10%的预变形并再进行时效处理或者在人工时效过程中进行同步变形.通过对不同时效处理后的合金的显微硬度和拉伸性能分析,发现预变形对材料的时效行为和力学性能有显著影响,它可以使合金的时效速度明显加快.比较预变形和同步变形对人工时效的影响发现,同步变形结合人工时效可以使该合金在更短的时间内得到更好的力学性能.对两种变形对时效行为的影响机理进行了探讨.%The effect of pre-deformation followed by or together with artificial aging on the mechanical properties as strength and ductility of an AA6060 aluminium alloy was studied.AA6060 was initially cast,homogenized and extruded according to standard industrial practice.The extruded material was then subjected to a solution heat treatment and subsequently artificial aging after (sequential mode) and during (simultaneous mode) various combinations of deformation (0-10%) and heat treatments.The aging behaviour and mechanical properties were characterized in terms of Vickers hardness and tensile testing.It is found that precipitation kinetics and associated mechanical response,in terms of hardness and tensile properties are strongly affected by pre-deformations.In terms of aging behaviour,kinetics is accelerated and the peak strength generally increases.Comparing sequential mode and simultaneous mode,the latter seems to give overall better mechanical properties and after considerably shorter aging times.The results of the two modes of pre-deformation are compared and discussed in view of differences in processing conditions and microstructure characteristics.

  14. Vincristine-Induced Cranial Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad TALEBIAN*


    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Talebian A, Goudarzi RM, Mohammadzadeh M , Mirzadeh AS. Vincristine-Induced Cranial Neuropathy. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1:66-68. Abstract Vincristine (VCR is a vinca alkaloid that is used for treatment of many malignancies. The vinca alkaloids are neurotoxic, usually causing a peripheral neuropathy, but cranial neuropathies are rare as side effects. Described here is the case of a 2.5-year-old boy, a known case of Wilms’ tumor, treated by vincristine (0/067 mg/kg/day and dactinomycin (0/045 mg/kg/day after surgery. Three weeks after treatment, he presented with bilateral ptosis. Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis with normal pupillary reflex and eye movement. He received 3.015 mg cumulative dose of vincristine before development of ptosis. Treatment with pyridoxine (150 mg/m2 p.o. BID and pyridostigmine (3 mg/kg p.o. BID started as neuroprotective agents, and after 7 days the problem disappeared. The treatment continued for 6 weeks and there were no signs of ptosis or a recurrence in follow up 2 months later.

  15. Biomechanical Dynamics of Cranial Sutures during Simulated Impulsive Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Q. Zhang


    Full Text Available Background. Cranial sutures are deformable joints between the bones of the skull, bridged by collagen fibres. They function to hold the bones of the skull together while allowing for mechanical stress transmission and deformation. Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate how cranial suture morphology, suture material property, and the arrangement of sutural collagen fibres influence the dynamic responses of the suture and surrounding bone under impulsive loads. Methods. An idealized bone-suture-bone complex was analyzed using a two-dimensional finite element model. A uniform impulsive loading was applied to the complex. Outcome variables of von Mises stress and strain energy were evaluated to characterize the sutures’ biomechanical behavior. Results. Parametric studies revealed that the suture strain energy and the patterns of Mises stress in both the suture and surrounding bone were strongly dependent on the suture morphologies. Conclusions. It was concluded that the higher order hierarchical suture morphology, lower suture elastic modulus, and the better collagen fiber orientation must benefit the stress attenuation and energy absorption.

  16. Vincristine-Induced Cranial Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad TALEBIAN*


    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Talebian A, Goudarzi RM, Mohammadzadeh M , Mirzadeh AS. Vincristine-Induced Cranial Neuropathy. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1:66-68. AbstractVincristine (VCR is a vinca alkaloid that is used for treatment of many malignancies.The vinca alkaloids are neurotoxic, usually causing a peripheral neuropathy, but cranial neuropathies are rare as side effects. Described here is the case of a 2.5-year-old boy, a known case of Wilms’ tumor, treated by vincristine (0/067 mg/kg/day and dactinomycin (0/045 mg/kg/day after surgery. Three weeks after treatment, he presented with bilateral ptosis.Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis with normal pupillary reflex and eye movement. He received 3.015 mg cumulative dose of vincristine before development of ptosis.Treatment with pyridoxine (150 mg/m2 p.o. BID and pyridostigmine (3 mg/kg p.o. BID started as neuroprotective agents, and after 7 days the problem disappeared.The treatment continued for 6 weeks and there were no signs of ptosis or a recurrence in follow up 2 months later. References:Toopchizade V, Hosseini M, et al. Electrophysiological signs of neuropathy caused by vincristine. Medical Journal of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. 2010 Autumn;31(3; 19-25.Gursel E.S. Vincristine-Induced Unilateral Ptosis in a Child. Pediatr Neurol 2009; 41:461-463.Ngamphaiboon N, Sweeney R, Wetzler M, Wang ES. Pyridoxine treatment of vincristine-induced cranial polyneuropathy in an adult patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia: Case report and review of the literature. Leuk Res. 2010 Aug;34(8:e194-6.Lash SC, Williams CP, Marsh CS, Crithchley C, Hodgkins PR, Mackie EJ. Acute Sixth-Nerve Palsy After Vincristine Therapy. Journal of AAPOS 2004 Feb;8(1: 67-8.Bay A, Yilmaz C, Yilmaz N, Oner AF. Vincristine induced cranial polyneuropathy. Indian J Pediatr. 2006 Jun;73(6:531-3.Tuxen M K, Hansen SW. Complication of treatment, Neurotoxicity secondary to antineoplastic

  17. Cranial osteology in Momotidae (Aves: Coraciiformes). (United States)

    Pascotto, Márcia C; Donatelli, Reginaldo J


    Momotidae (motmots) is found throughout Latin America between Mexico and northern Argentina. Given the absence of detailed studies of cranial osteology of Momotidae in the literature, this article presents a comprehensive description of the variation of the cranial osteology in all nine species of Momotidae and compares the results with published studies of other families of Coraciiformes and families in other orders. In addition, the cranial structures described are related to ecological and behavioral aspects of Momotidae. The cranial osteology of Baryphthengus ruficapillus is described in detail and compared with other species of Momotidae. The results indicate the presence in Momotidae of modified cranial structures, among which the most conspicuous are the frontal, lacrimal, squamosal, orbital, and laterosphenoid regions, as well as the palatine, upper jaw, pterygoid, and mandible.

  18. Surgical treatment of cranial neuralgias. (United States)

    Franzini, Angelo; Ferroli, Paolo; Messina, Giuseppe; Broggi, Giovanni


    The most common types of cranial neuralgias amenable to surgical therapeutic options are trigeminal neuralgia and glossopharyngeal neuralgia, the former having an approximate incidence of 5/100000 cases per year and the latter of 0.05/100000 cases per year. Surgical therapy of these pathological conditions encompasses several strategies, going from ablative procedures to neurovascular decompression, to radiosurgery. The choice of the most appropriate surgical option (which must be taken into account when all conservative treatments have proven to be unsuccessful) has to take into account many factors, the most important ones being neuroradiological evidence of a neurovascular conflict, severity of symptoms, the age and clinical history of the patient, and the patient's overall medical condition. In this chapter we report our experience with the treatment of trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgia, describing the surgical procedures performed and reviewing the most recent aspects on this subject in the past literature.

  19. Tumors Presenting as Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Kumar


    Full Text Available Cranial nerve palsy could be one of the presenting features of underlying benign or malignant tumors of the head and neck. The tumor can involve the cranial nerves by local compression, direct infiltration or by paraneoplastic process. Cranial nerve involvement depends on the anatomical course of the cranial nerve and the site of the tumor. Patients may present with single or multiple cranial nerve palsies. Multiple cranial nerve involvement could be sequential or discrete, unilateral or bilateral, painless or painful. The presentation could be acute, subacute or recurrent. Anatomic localization is the first step in the evaluation of these patients. The lesion could be in the brain stem, meninges, base of skull, extracranial or systemic disease itself. We present 3 cases of underlying neoplasms presenting as cranial nerve palsies: a case of glomus tumor presenting as cochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus and hypoglossal nerve palsies, clivus tumor presenting as abducens nerve palsy, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting as oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal and abducens nerve palsies due to paraneoplastic involvement. History and physical examination, imaging, autoantibodies and biopsy if feasible are useful for the diagnosis. Management outcomes depend on the treatment of the underlying tumor.

  20. [Cranial osteopathy as a complementary treatment of postural plagiocephaly]. (United States)

    Amiel-Tison, C; Soyez-Papiernik, E


    For the majority of neonates and young infants, appropriate postures and standard physiotherapy succeed in preventing or correcting acquired cranial deformations (fetal due to restricted mobility in utero or postnatal secondary to exclusive dorsal decubitus). However in some cases, when postural management is not efficient, pediatricians will be asked by the parents about the potential benefits of osteopathy. What is osteopathic treatment? At first, diagnostic palpation will identify which suture is normally mobile with the respiratory cycle, and which has limited or absent mobility secondary to abnormal postures. Later on, the goal of the therapeutic phase is to mobilise impaired sutures, by various gentle maneuvers depending on the topography of the impairment. The treatment is not restricted to the skull but extended to the spine, pelvis and lower extremities which contribute to the deformative sequence. Osteopathic treatment belongs to complementary medicine, therefore demonstration of its scientific value and favorable results have to be provided. Based on randomized studies, the answer is yes, it significantly decreases the degree of asymmetry. Do postural deformations matter to the development of an healthy infant? It seems that the prejudice is not only esthetic but also functional, however more research is necessary. In conclusion, pediatricians should be more aware of the method and expectations: major deformative sequence since birth and increasing deformations despite preventive postures and standard physiotherapy are reasonable indications for such complementary treatment. "Preventive" osteopathy in maternity is not justified. Moreover osteopathy has no place in the treatment of craniosynostosis ; the latter belong to malformations, completely distinct from postural deformations.

  1. Cranial Autonomic Symptoms in Pediatric Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Investigators at the University of California, San Francisco, examined the frequency of cranial autonomic symptoms in all pediatric and adolescent patients with migraine seen in 4 different clinical settings during July 2010 to June 2012.

  2. Intra cranial complications of tuberculous otitis media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Prakash


    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is one of the most common infections in the world. It is seen that tuberculous otitis media (TOM is almost secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis. In this review we have tried to deal with all the aspects of the intra cranial complications of TOM such as tuberculoma, otitic hydrocephalus, brain abscess and tuberculous meningitis. The aspects covered in this review are the pathology, clinical features, and investigations of the intra cranial manifestations.

  3. Cranial trepanation in The Egyptian. (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, S; Carrillo, J M


    Medicine and literature have been linked from ancient times; proof of this shown by the many doctors who have made contributions to literature and the many writers who have described medical activities and illnesses in their works. An example is The Egyptian, the book by Mika Waltari that provides a masterly narration of the protagonist's medical activity and describes the trepanation technique. The present work begins with the analysis of trepanations since prehistory and illustrates the practice of the trepanation in The Egyptian. The book mentions trepanation frequently and illustrates how to practice it and which instruments are required to perform it. Trepanation is one of the oldest surgical interventions carried out as treatment for cranial trauma and neurological diseases, but it also had the magical and religious purpose of expelling the evil spirits which caused the mental illness, epilepsy, or migraine symptoms. Trepanation is a surgical practice that has been carried out since prehistory to treat post-traumatic epilepsy, migraine, and psychiatric illness. The Egyptian is a book that illustrates the trepan, the trepanation technique, and the required set of instruments in full detail. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. [Computed tomography and cranial paleoanthropology]. (United States)

    Cabanis, Emmanuel Alain; Badawi-Fayad, Jackie; Iba-Zizen, Marie-Thérèse; Istoc, Adrian; de Lumley, Henry; de Lumley, Marie-Antoinette; Coppens, Yves


    Since its invention in 1972, computed tomography (C.T.) has significantly evolved. With the advent of multi-slice detectors (500 times more sensitive than conventional radiography) and high-powered computer programs, medical applications have also improved. CT is now contributing to paleoanthropological research. Its non-destructive nature is the biggest advantage for studying fossil skulls. The second advantage is the possibility of image analysis, storage, and transmission. Potential disadvantages include the possible loss of files and the need to keep up with rapid technological advances. Our experience since the late 1970s, and a recent PhD thesis, led us to describe routine applications of this method. The main contributions of CT to cranial paleoanthropology are five-fold: --Numerical anatomy with rapid acquisition and high spatial resolution (helicoidal and multidetector CT) offering digital storage and stereolithography (3D printing). --Numerical biometry (2D and 3D) can be used to create "normograms" such as the 3D craniofacial reference model used in maxillofacial surgery. --Numerical analysis offers thorough characterization of the specimen and its state of conservation and/or restoration. --From "surrealism" to virtual imaging, anatomical structures can be reconstructed, providing access to hidden or dangerous zones. --The time dimension (4D imaging) confers movement and the possibility for endoscopic simulation and internal navigation (see Iconography). New technical developments will focus on data processing and networking. It remains our duty to deal respectfully with human fossils.

  5. Cranial kinesis in gekkonid lizards (United States)

    Herrel; De Vree F; Delheusy; Gans


    Cranial kinesis was studied in two species of gekkonid lizard, Gekko gecko and Phelsuma madagascariensis, using cineradiography and electromyography. The skull of these geckoes showed the three types of kinesis described by Versluys at the beginning of this century: streptostyly, mesokinesis and metakinesis. In accordance with the later model of Frazzetta, the skull of these animals can be modelled by a quadratic crank system: when the mouth opens during feeding, the quadrate rotates forward, the palato-maxillary unit is lifted and the occipital unit swings forward. During jaw closing, the inverse movements are observed; during crushing, the system is retracted beyond its resting position. The data gathered here indicate that the coupled kinesis (streptostyly + mesokinesis) is most prominently present during the capture and crushing cycles of feeding and is largely absent during late intraoral transport, swallowing, drinking and breathing. The electromyographic data indicate a consistent pattern of muscular activation, with the jaw opener and pterygoid protractor always active during the fast opening phase, and the jaw closers active during closing and crushing. Our data generally support the model of Frazzetta. Although the data gathered here do not allow speculation on the functional significance of the kinesis, they clearly provide some key elements required for a further investigation of the functional and adaptive basis of the system.

  6. Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, B.B. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Elsas, L.J. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics; Wyly, J.B. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Pasquali, M. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics


    Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OS-CS) is a specific bone dysplasia manifested by hypertelorism, flat nasal bridge, frontal bossing, large head, hypoplastic maxilla, palate anomalies, chronic otitis media, hearing deficits, nasal obstruction, and neurological changes of deafness, facial palsy, ophthalmoplegia, and mental retardation. We will review the clinical and radiologic findings in a new patient from birth to 20 years; this is believed to be the thirty-fifth patient reported. OS-CS is 2.5 times more common in females and occurs as an autosomal dominant condition or a sporadic dominant mutation with patients presenting for evaluation from the newborn period to the fifth decade. Skeletal abnormalities are distinctive including sclerosis of the skull base and calvarium, linear striated densities in the long bones and pelvis, and poor development of the mastoid and sinus air cells. Radionuclide bone scans with SPECT indicated in our patient increased bone turnover which was supported by biochemical findings of increased pyridinoline excretion. The major complications are due to constriction of essential foramina at the skull base. The condition is not life-threatening but can produce disability. (orig.)

  7. Vincristine-induced cranial neuropathy. (United States)

    Talebian, Ahmad; Goudarzi, Razieh Moazam; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi; Mirzadeh, Azadeh Sadat


    Vincristine (VCR) is a vinca alkaloid that is used for treatment of many malignancies. The vinca alkaloids are neurotoxic, usually causing a peripheral neuropathy, but cranial neuropathies are rare as side effects. Described here is the case of a 2.5-year-old boy, a known case of Wilms' tumor, treated by vincristine (0.067 mg/kg/day) and dactinomycin (0.045 mg/kg/day) after surgery. Three weeks after treatment, he presented with bilateral ptosis. Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis with normal pupillary reflex and eye movement. He received 3.015 mg cumulative dose of vincristine before development of ptosis. Treatment with pyridoxine (150 mg/m2 p.o. BID) and pyridostigmine (3 mg/kg p.o. BID) was started as neuroprotective agents, and after 7 days the problem disappeared. The treatment continued for 6 weeks and there were no signs of ptosis or a recurrence in follow up 2 months later.

  8. Quantification of Cranial Asymmetry in Infants by Facial Feature Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Ming Chang; Wei-Cheng Li; Chung-Lin Huang; Pei-Yeh Chang


    In this paper, a facial feature extracting method is proposed to transform three-dimension (3D) head images of infants with deformational plagiocephaly for assessment of asymmetry. The features of 3D point clouds of an infant’s cranium can be identified by local feature analysis and a two-phase k-means classification algorithm. The 3D images of infants with asymmetric cranium can then be aligned to the same pose. The mirrored head model obtained from the symmetry plane is compared with the original model for the measurement of asymmetry. Numerical data of the cranial volume can be reviewed by a pediatrician to adjust the treatment plan. The system can also be used to demonstrate the treatment progress.

  9. Avaliação pré-operatória visando ao uso do halo craniano no tratamento de deformidades rígidas da coluna vertebral Evaluación pre-operatoria del uso del halo craneal en lo tratamiento de las deformidades rígidas de la columna vertebral Preoperative evaluation for the use of cranial halo traction in the spine treatment of rigid deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Sasdelli Soares de Oliveira


    analizado un total de diez pacientes con deformidades rígidas de la columna vertebral: cifosis, escoliosis, cifoscoliosis e hiperlordosis cervical. El criterio para inclusión de los pacientes fue el uso del halo craneal gravitacional en un periodo preoperatorio y interoperatorio en deformidades rígidas de la columna vertebral. Han sido evaluados los prontuarios de los pacientes y sus mediciones radiográficas en un periodo preoperatorio, tras la instalación del halo craneal gravitacional y en el periodo postoperatorio. Las variables estudiadas fueron: edad, sexo, valor angular de la curva principal, valor angular de la curva secundaria, valor angular de la curva sagital mayor, protocolo de tracción y tipo de procedimiento utilizado. RESULTADOS: en relación al plano frontal, se ha evaluado, en el periodo preoperatorio, la media angular de 89,9º, decreciendo para 65,0º tras la instalación del halo y 56,9º en el postoperatorio. Analizando el plano sagital, se observa en el periodo preoperatorio el valor angular de 77,7º, decreciendo para 55,4º con el uso del halo y 46,5º en el postoperatorio. CONCLUSIÓN: se puede concluir que el uso de la tracción de halo craneal es un método eficaz para ayudar a corregir las deformidades de la columna rígida, ya que se logró una significativa corrección de las deformidades antes de la operación por los períodos después de la instalación de halo y postoperatorio, sin previo aviso u otras complicaciones neurológicas graves.OBJECTIVE: to assess the efficacy and safety of using the gravitational cranial halo as a technique for treating rigid deformities in the spinal column and to revisit complications associated to the treatment. METHODS: a total of ten patients with rigid spinal deformities were studied, with the following deformities: kyphosis, scoliosis, kyphoscoliosis and cervical hyperlordosis. The criterion for including a patient was the use of the gravitational cranial halo in a postoperative period and

  10. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation and fibromyalgia. (United States)

    Gilula, Marshall F


    Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a well-documented neuroelectrical modality that has been proven effective in some good studies of fibromyalgia (FM) patients. CES is no panacea but, for some FM patients, the modality can be valuable. This article discusses aspects of both CES and FM and how they relate to the individual with the condition. FM frequently has many comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, insomnia and a great variety of different rheumatologic and neurological symptoms that often resemble multiple sclerosis, dysautonomias, chronic fatigue syndrome and others. However, despite long-standing criteria from the American College of Rheumatology for FM, some physicians believe there is probably no single homogeneous condition that can be labeled as FM. Whether it is a disease, a syndrome or something else, sufferers feel like they are living one disaster after another. Active self-involvement in care usually enhances the therapeutic results of various treatments and also improves the patient's sense of being in control of the condition. D-ribose supplementation may prove to significantly enhance energy, sleep, mental clarity, pain control and well-being in FM patients. A form of evoked potential biofeedback, the EPFX, is a powerful stress reduction technique which assesses the chief stressors and risk factors for illness that can impede the FM patient's built-in healing abilities. Future healthcare will likely expand the diagnostic criteria of FM and/or illuminate a group of related conditions and the ways in which the conditions relate to each other. Future medicine for FM and related conditions may increasingly involve multimodality treatment that features CES as one significant part of the therapeutic regimen. Future medicine may also include CES as an invaluable, cost-effective add-on to many facets of clinical pharmacology and medical therapeutics.

  11. Radiographic cephalometry assessment of the linear and angular parameters on cranial base in children with skeletal class III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zdenka M.


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In malocclusion of skeletal class III, mandible is located in front of maxilla in sagital plain, which is manifested by a lower value of the sagital inter-jaw angle than in skeletal class I, where the jaw sagital relation is normal. Apart from the deformities on mandible and/or maxilla, in skeletal class III deformities are also frequent on the cranial base. The aim of this research was to find the differences in the parameter values on the cranial base among the children with skeletal class III and the children with skeletal class I in the period of mixed dentition. Methods. After clinical examination and orthopan-tomography, profile radiography of the head was analyzed in 60 examinees, aged from 6−12 years. The examinees were divided into two groups: group 1 - the children with skeletal class III; group 2 - the children with skeletal class I. Both linear and angular parameters on the cranial base were measured, as well as the angles of maxillary and mandible prognatism and the angle of sagital inter-jaw relation. The level of difference in the parameter values between the groups was estimated and the degree of correlation of the main angle of the cranial base with the angles of sagital position of the jaws in each of the two groups was established. Results. A significant difference between the groups was found only in the average values of the angles of maxillary prognatism and sagital interjaw relation. In the group 1, the main angle of the cranial base was in a significant correlation with the angles of sagital positions of the jaws, while in the group 2, such significance was not found. Conclusion. There were no significant differences in the parameter values on the cranial base between the groups. There was a significant correlation of the main angle of the cranial base with the angles of sagital position of the jaws in the group 1 only. .

  12. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B


    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  13. Pediatric neuroradiology: Cerebral and cranial diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebler, C.; Dulac, O.


    In this book, a neuroradiologist and a neuropediatrician have combined forces to provide the widest possible knowledge in investigating cranial and cerebral disorders in infancy and childhood. Based on more than 20,000 pediatric CT examinations, with a follow-up time often exceeding ten years, the book aims to bridge interdisciplinary gaps and help radiologists, pediatricians and neurosurgeons solve the various problems of pediatric neuroradiology that frequently confront them. For each disease, the etiology, clinical manifestation, pathological lesions and radiological presentations are discussed, supported by extensive illustrations. Malformative, vascular, traumatic, tumoral, infectious and metabolic diseases are reviewed. Miscellaneous conditions presenting particular symptoms or syndromes are also studied, such as hydrocephalus and neurological complications of leukemia. Contents: Cerebral and cranial malformations; neurocutaneous syndromes; inherited metabolic diseases; infectious diseases - vascular disorders; intracranial tumors; cranial trauma - miscellaneous and subject index.

  14. Cranial osteopathy: its fate seems clear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartman Steve E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the original model of cranial osteopathy, intrinsic rhythmic movements of the human brain cause rhythmic fluctuations of cerebrospinal fluid and specific relational changes among dural membranes, cranial bones, and the sacrum. Practitioners believe they can palpably modify parameters of this mechanism to a patient's health advantage. Discussion This treatment regime lacks a biologically plausible mechanism, shows no diagnostic reliability, and offers little hope that any direct clinical effect will ever be shown. In spite of almost uniformly negative research findings, "cranial" methods remain popular with many practitioners and patients. Summary Until outcome studies show that these techniques produce a direct and positive clinical effect, they should be dropped from all academic curricula; insurance companies should stop paying for them; and patients should invest their time, money, and health elsewhere.

  15. Mosaicism in osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis. (United States)

    Joseph, Dennis J; Ichikawa, Shoji; Econs, Michael J


    Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis is an X-linked dominant condition caused by mutations in the WTX gene, resulting in linear striations in long bones in combination with cranial sclerosis. This condition is usually lethal in males. OBJECTIVE/PATIENT: Our aim was to determine the underlying genetic cause in a 37-yr-old male with this condition. DNA sequencing of peripheral blood and hair was performed to identify mutations in WTX. Quantitative PCR was performed to determine gene copy number variation. DNA sequenced from peripheral blood revealed the presence of two alleles at the 1108th position of the WTX gene. Subsequent DNA sequencing of hair follicles and quantitative PCR confirmed the presence of mosaicism. A novel mutation (c.1108G>T) found in our patient results in a truncated protein (E370X). Our patient represents the first confirmed case of mosaicism in osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis.

  16. Cranial symmetry in baleen whales (Cetacea, Mysticeti) and the occurrence of cranial asymmetry throughout cetacean evolution (United States)

    Fahlke, Julia M.; Hampe, Oliver


    Odontoceti and Mysticeti (toothed and baleen whales) originated from Eocene archaeocetes that had evolved from terrestrial artiodactyls. Cranial asymmetry is known in odontocetes that can hear ultrasound (>20,000 Hz) and has been linked to the split function of the nasal passage in breathing and vocalization. Recent results indicate that archaeocetes also had asymmetric crania. Their asymmetry has been linked to directional hearing in water, although hearing frequencies are still under debate. Mysticetes capable of low-frequency and infrasonic hearing (<20 Hz) are assumed to have symmetric crania. This study aims to resolve whether mysticete crania are indeed symmetric and whether mysticete cranial symmetry is plesiomorphic or secondary. Cranial shape was analyzed applying geometric morphometrics to three-dimensional (3D) cranial models of fossil and modern mysticetes, Eocene archaeocetes, modern artiodactyls, and modern odontocetes. Statistical tests include analysis of variance, principal components analysis, and discriminant function analysis. Results suggest that symmetric shape difference reflects general trends in cetacean evolution. Asymmetry includes significant fluctuating and directional asymmetry, the latter being very small. Mysticete crania are as symmetric as those of terrestrial artiodactyls and archaeocetes, without significant differences within Mysticeti. Odontocete crania are more asymmetric. These results indicate that (1) all mysticetes have symmetric crania, (2) archaeocete cranial asymmetry is not conspicuous in most of the skull but may yet be conspicuous in the rostrum, (3) directional cranial asymmetry is an odontocete specialization, and (4) directional cranial asymmetry is more likely related to echolocation than hearing.

  17. Cranialization of the frontal sinus for secondary mucocele prevention following open surgery for benign frontal lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Horowitz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare frontal sinus cranialization to obliteration for future prevention of secondary mucocele formation following open surgery for benign lesions of the frontal sinus. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS: Sixty-nine patients operated for benign frontal sinus pathology between 1994 and 2011. INTERVENTIONS: Open excision of benign frontal sinus pathology followed by either frontal obliteration (n = 41, 59% or frontal cranialization (n = 28, 41%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence of post-surgical complications and secondary mucocele formation were compiled. RESULTS: Pathologies included osteoma (n = 34, 49%, mucocele (n = 27, 39%, fibrous dysplasia (n = 6, 9%, and encephalocele (n = 2, 3%. Complications included skin infections (n = 6, postoperative cutaneous fistula (n = 1, telecanthus (n = 4, diplopia (n = 3, nasal deformity (n = 2 and epiphora (n = 1. None of the patients suffered from postoperative CSF leak, meningitis or pneumocephalus. Six patients, all of whom had previously undergone frontal sinus obliteration, required revision surgery due to secondary mucocele formation. Statistical analysis using non-inferiority test reveal that cranialization of the frontal sinus is non-inferior to obliteration for preventing secondary mucocele formation (P<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Cranialization of the frontal sinus appears to be a good option for prevention of secondary mucocele development after open excision of benign frontal sinus lesions.

  18. Isovaleric acidaemia: cranial CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogut, Ayhan; Acun, Ceyda; Tomsac, Nazan; Demirel, Fatma [Department of Paediatrics, Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey); Aydin, Kubilay [Department of Radiology, Istanbul Medical School, Istanbul University, Camlikyolu, B. mehmetpasa sokak yavuz apt. No:10/10, Etiler, Istanbul (Turkey); Aktuglu, Cigdem [Department of Paediatrics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey)


    Isovaleric acidaemia is an inborn error of leucine metabolism due to deficiency of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which results in accumulation of isovaleric acid in body fluids. There are acute and chronic-intermittent forms of the disease. We present the cranial CT and MRI findings of a 19-month-old girl with the chronic-intermittent form of isovaleric acidaemia. She presented with severe metabolic acidosis, hyperglycaemia, glycosuria, ketonuria and acute encephalopathy. Cranial CT revealed bilateral hypodensity of the globi pallidi. MRI showed signal changes in the globi pallidi and corticospinal tracts of the mesencephalon, which were hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. (orig.)

  19. Artificial Intelligence. (United States)

    Waltz, David L.


    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  20. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace). (United States)


    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill handpiece (brace). (a) Identification. A cranial drill handpiece (brace) is a hand holder, which is...

  1. Neurosyphilis Involving Cranial Nerves in Brain Stem: 2 Case Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ji Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Eui Jong [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sung Sang; Heo, Sung Hyuk [Dept. of Neurology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Neurosyphilis uncommonly presents with cranial neuropathies in acute syphilitic meningitis and meningovascular neurosyphilis. We now report two cases in which the meningeal form of neurosyphilis involved cranial nerves in the brain stem: the oculomotor and trigeminal nerve.

  2. Cranial kinesis in geckoes: functional implications. (United States)

    Herrel, A; Aerts, P; De Vree, F


    Although it is generally assumed that cranial kinesis is a plesiomorphic characteristic in squamates, experimental data tend to contradict this hypothesis. In particular, coupled kinesis (i.e. streptostyly and mesokinesis) presumably arose independently in only a limited number of highly specialised groups. In this study, we investigated cranial kinesis in one of the most specialised of these groups: geckoes. On the basis of cineradiographic and electromyographic data, the fast opening and the slow closing/power stroke phases were modelled to elucidate possible functions of the observed kinesis. The results of these analyses show that the retraction of the muzzle unit during crushing is a self-reinforcing system that increases bite force and reduces the joint forces; the active protraction of the kinetic system during jaw opening, in contrast, enhances opening speed through the coupling of the intracranial units. It can be argued that cranial kinesis in geckoes is probably not an adaptive trait as such but, instead, a consequence of the 'Bauplan' of the cranial system in these animals. Presumably as a result of constructional constraints on the size of the jaw musculature and eyes, the supratemporal and postorbital bars were lost, which resulted in enormous mobility in the skull. To counteract the potential negative factors associated with this (decrease in bite force, skull damage), the kinetic system may have become coupled, and thus functional.

  3. Entrainment and the cranial rhythmic impulse. (United States)

    McPartland, J M; Mein, E A


    Entrainment is the integration or harmonization of oscillators. All organisms pulsate with myriad electrical and mechanical rhythms. Many of these rhythms emanate from synchronized pulsating cells (eg, pacemaker cells, cortical neurons). The cranial rhythmic impulse is an oscillation recognized by many bodywork practitioners, but the functional origin of this impulse remains uncertain. We propose that the cranial rhythmic impulse is the palpable perception of entrainment, a harmonic frequency that incorporates the rhythms of multiple biological oscillators. It is derived primarily from signals between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Entrainment also arises between organisms. The harmonizing of coupled oscillators into a single, dominant frequency is called frequency-selective entrainment. We propose that this phenomenon is the modus operandi of practitioners who use the cranial rhythmic impulse in craniosacral treatment. Dominant entrainment is enhanced by "centering," a technique practiced by many healers, for example, practitioners of Chinese, Tibetan, and Ayurvedic medicine. We explore the connections between centering, the cranial rhythmic impulse, and craniosacral treatment.

  4. 21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric cranial drill motor. 882.4360 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4360 Electric cranial drill motor. (a) Identification. An electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source...

  5. 38 CFR 4.124 - Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Neuralgia, cranial or....124 Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral. Neuralgia, cranial or peripheral, characterized usually by a... code number and rating. Tic douloureux, or trifacial neuralgia, may be rated up to complete...

  6. 38 CFR 4.123 - Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. 4.123 Section 4.123 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS....123 Neuritis, cranial or peripheral. Neuritis, cranial or peripheral, characterized by loss...

  7. Pediatric cerebral sinovenous thrombosis following cranial surgery. (United States)

    Petrov, Dmitriy; Uohara, Michael Y; Ichord, Rebecca; Ali, Zarina; Jastrzab, Laura; Lang, Shih-Shan; Billinghurst, Lori


    Pediatric cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) is an important, though less common subtype of pediatric stroke. It has been linked to several risk factors, including cranial procedures, with few studies highlighting this relationship. The aim of this study was to characterize the diagnosis and treatment of CSVT after cranial surgery. An institutional pediatric stroke research database was used to identify all CSVT cases diagnosed within 30 days of cranial surgery from November 2004 to December 2014. Thirteen subjects were retrospectively analyzed for clinical presentation, surgical details, radiographic characteristics, laboratory study results, treatment, and outcome. Diagnostic testing and treatment adhered to a consensus-based institutional stroke protocol. Cranial vault reconstruction, subdural empyema evacuation, and tumor resection were each observed in three subjects. Eleven (85%) subjects had sinus exposure during surgery, and eight (73%) developed thrombus in a sinus within or adjacent to the operative field. Two (15%) had documented iatrogenic sinus injury. On post-operative testing, ten (77%) subjects had prothrombotic abnormalities. Seven (54%) were treated with anti-coagulation therapy (ACT) starting on a median of post-operative day (POD) 3 (IQR 1-3) for a median of 2.9 months (IQR 2.4-5.4). Median time to imaging evidence of partial or complete recanalization was 2.4 months (IQR 0.7-5.1). No symptomatic hemorrhagic complications were encountered. Pediatric CSVT may be encountered after cranial surgery, and decisions related to anti-coagulation are challenging. The risk of CSVT should be considered in pre-surgical planning and post-operative evaluation of cases with known risk factors. In our study, judicious use of ACT was safe in the post-operative period.

  8. Outcome Analysis of Cranial Molding Therapy in Nonsynostotic Plagiocephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Su Yoo


    Full Text Available BackgroundIt is known that nonsynostotic plagiocephaly does not spontaneously improve, and the craniofacial deformities that result from it. This study was conducted to analyze the effectiveness of helmet therapy for the nonsynostotic plagiocephaly patient, and to suggest a new treatment strategy based on this analysis.MethodsA total of 108 pediatric patients who had undergone helmet therapy after being diagnosed with nonsynostotic plagiocephaly were included in this study. The patients were classified according to the initiation age of the helmet therapy, severity, and helmet wearing time. The treatment effect was compared using cranial vault asymmetry (CVA and the cranial vault asymmetry index (CVAI, which were obtained from diagonal measurements before and after therapy.ResultsThe discrepancy of CVA and CVAI of all the patients significantly decreased after helmet therapy. According to the initiation time of helmet therapy, the treatment effect was best at 5 months old or less. The helmet wearing time per day was proportional to the treatment effect up to 20 hours. In addition, the rate of the successful treatment (final CVA ≤5 mm significantly decreased when the initiation age was 9.1 months or older and the treatment period was less than 7.83 months.ConclusionsThis study showed the effectiveness of the helmet therapy for nonsynostotic plagiocephaly patients. Based on analysis of this study, helmet therapy should be started at the age of 9 months or younger for 7.83 months or more, and the helmet wearing time should be more than 20 hours a day.

  9. Análise biomecânica do joelho íntegro e com ruptura do ligamento cruzado cranial quanto ao grau de deslocamento cranial e rigidez articular em cães Biomechanical analisys of the normal knee and with cranial cruciate ligament rupture to the cranial translation degree and articular stiffness in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Romano


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a função biomecânica da articulação do joelho de cães, comparando a medida de deslocamento cranial e a rigidez articular da tíbia em relação ao fêmur em articulações íntegras e com ruptura de ligamento cruzado cranial. MÉTODOS: Para realização do experimento foram utilizados 10 animas da espécie canina, com peso acima de 20 quilos. Avaliou-se biomecanicamente o grau de deslocamento da articulação do joelho com o ligamento cruzado cranial íntegro e seccionado cirurgicamente. Utilizou-se a máquina Kratos 5002, que permite gravar em tempo real os parâmetros força (N e deslocamento/deformação em mm. O ensaio consitiu em aplicar uma força de (N registrando assim a gaveta cranial. RESULTADOS: Para o joelho íntegro, a média de deslocamento em milímetros encontrada para três repetições subseqüentes e estatisticamente diferentes entre si foram de 3,39 ; 3,47; 3,53. Para o joelho lesado foram de 12,96; 13,24; 13,34. A análise estatística revelou diferença significante entre os dados do grupo íntegro e lesado, tanto para deslocamento quanto para rigidez (pPURPOSE: To analyse the biomechanical function of the knee joint in dogs, comparing the cranial translation degree and articular stiffness of the tibia in relation to the femur, in normal joints and joints with rupture of cranial crucial ligament. METHODS: Ten mongrel dog knees were analyzed, weighting more than 20 kg. Biomechanical analysis to the cranial translation degree of the knee joint with normal cranial cruciate ligament and surgically sectioned was made. Mechanical assays was realized by Kratos 5002 machine, and recorded in real time the parameters of force (N and translation/deformation, in mm. The assay had consisted in to use a force(N registering the cranial translation. RESULTS: To the normal knee, the deslocation media founded after 3 repetitions was 3,39 ; 3,47; 3,53. To the knee with surgical section was 12,96; 13,24; 13,34. The

  10. Cranial neuralgias: from physiopathology to pharmacological treatment. (United States)

    De Simone, Roberto; Ranieri, Angelo; Bilo, Leonilda; Fiorillo, Chiara; Bonavita, Vincenzo


    Cranial neuralgias are paroxysmal painful disorders of the head characterised by some shared features such as unilaterality of symptoms, transience and recurrence of attacks, superficial and "shock-like" quality of pain and the presence of triggering factors. Although rare, these disorders must be promptly recognised as they harbour a relatively high risk for underlying compressive or inflammatory disease. Nevertheless, misdiagnosis is frequent. Trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgias are sustained in most cases by a neurovascular conflict in the posterior fossa resulting in a hyperexcitability state of the trigeminal circuitry. If the aetiology of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and other typical neuralgias must be brought back to the peripheral injury, their pathogenesis could involve central allodynic mechanisms, which, in patients with inter-critical pain, also engage the nociceptive neurons at the thalamic-cortical level. Currently available medical treatments for TN and other cranial neuralgias are reviewed.

  11. Cranial Imaging Findings of Hypertension in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Tamam


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find out the cranial imaging findings of complicated hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Forty two patients with preeclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome were admitted to the study at Obstetrics Division of Dicle University from January 2001 to December 2004. Computed Tomography was made to the forty two patients. The Computed Tomograpy findings of 20 (47.62% patients were normal whereas computed Tomograpy findings of 22 (52.28% patients were pathological. Eight patients (19% had intracranial hemorrhage, 5 (11.9 % patients had infarct, 9 (21.42% patients had specific lesions. A wide imaging spectrum from ischemic area to intracranial hemorrhages can be detected in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Thus it is essential to make cranial imaging in patients with symptoms and neurological deficit.

  12. Transverse sinus air after cranial trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cihangiroglu, Mutlu E-mail:; Ozdemir, Huseyin; Kalender, Omer; Ozveren, Faik; Kabaalioglu, Adnan


    Air in vascular compartments has been rarely reported. We report a case in whom air within transverse sinus and sinus confluence through ruptured superior sagittal sinus (SSS) due to fractures of parietal and frontal bones was disclosed by computed tomography (CT). Although air in transverse sinus has been reported rarely this could be the first case with air in transverse sinus through the SSS after cranial trauma.

  13. Role of cranial imaging in epileptic status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Pradeep P.; Kalita, Jayantee [Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India); Misra, Usha K. [Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India)], E-mail:


    Introduction: There is paucity of studies evaluating the role of cranial imaging in the management of status epilepticus (SE); therefore this study evaluates the role of imaging in predicting the outcome of SE. Methods: Consecutive patients with SE were prospectively evaluated. Clinical evaluation, blood counts, serum chemistry and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were carried out. Cranial CT scan was performed on a spiral CT and MRI on a 1.5 T scanner. Patients were treated with IV sodium valproate, phenytoin and benzodiazepines as per fixed protocol. Outcome was defined as seizure control at 1 h and mortality. Various clinical and radiological parameters were correlated. Results: There were 99 patients with SE whose mean age was 35 (1-78) years, 40 females and 17 were below 12 years of age. Fifty six patients had central nervous system (CNS) infections, 15 strokes, 13 metabolic encephalopathy, 5 drug default and in the remaining 10 patients various acute symptomatic causes were present. Cranial imaging was abnormal in 59% patients. CT was abnormal in 21 (47.7%) out of 44 patients whereas MRI was abnormal in 26 (63.4%) out of 41 patients. Both MRI and CT were carried out in 14 patients and 12 revealed abnormalities; 2 had abnormality only on MRI. Imaging revealed cortical lesions in 10, subcortical in 19 and both cortical as well as subcortical in 30 patients. One hour seizure control was achieved in 60, seizures recurred within 24 h in 38 and 27 patients died during hospital stay. Seizure type, duration of SE, seizure control at 1 h and mortality did not correlate with radiological abnormalities. Conclusion: Cranial imaging reveals structural abnormality in 59% patients with SE and was not related to SE control and mortality.

  14. Cranial Osteology of Meiglyptini (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo José Donatelli


    Full Text Available The Meiglyptini comprise eight species grouped into three genera: Meiglyptes and Mulleripicus, with three species each, and Hemicircus, with two species. The aim of the present study was to describe the cranial osteology of six species and three genera of Meiglyptini and to compare them to each other, as well as with other species of woodpeckers and other bird groups. The cranial osteology varied among the investigated species, but the most markedly distinct characteristics were: (1 a frontal overhang is only observed in the middle portion of the frontale of H. concretus; (2 the Proc. zygomaticus and suprameaticus are thick and long in species of the genus Mulleripicus, but short in other species; (3 the Pes pterygoidei is relatively larger in species of the genus Mulleripicus, while it is narrow, thin and relatively smaller in species of the genus Meiglyptes and indistinct in H. concretus; (4 the bony projection of the ectethmoidale is relatively short and thin in species of Mulleripicus and more developed in H. concretus. It appears that the greatest structural complexity of the cranial osteology is associated with the birds’ diet, with the frugivorous H. concretus being markedly different from the insectivorous species.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The small passerine Cyclaris gujanensis can tear into small pieces large or heavy-bodied preys that could not be swallowed whole such as frogs, snakes, bats and birds. However there are few studies on the cranial anatomy of this species. Thus, we focused on the description of the cranial osteology to contribute to the anatomical knowledge of this species and to make some assumptions about functional anatomy. The fossa temporalis is shallow but broad and the fossa of os palatinum is deepened. The os quadratum processes are long and thick. The os pterygoideum is enlarged and the upper jaw is strongly inclined ventrally (140° with reference to the skull. The rostral extremity of rhamphotheca is hooked with ventral concavity to fit the mandible (pincer form. The mandible fossae are deepened and broad and its bulky medial process probably provides mandible stability and strong support to the muscles attached on it. All these peculiar characteristics probably indicate a considerable force in the C. gujanensis jaws and partially explain its distinctive feeding habit compared with the other Vireonidae. Nevertheless, new studies with functional approaches to analysis the forces of the muscle fibers and the cranial kinesis are needed to prove the hypotheses mentioned above.

  16. Cranial osteology of meiglyptini (aves: piciformes: picidae). (United States)

    Donatelli, Reginaldo José


    THE MEIGLYPTINI COMPRISE EIGHT SPECIES GROUPED INTO THREE GENERA: Meiglyptes and Mulleripicus, with three species each, and Hemicircus, with two species. The aim of the present study was to describe the cranial osteology of six species and three genera of Meiglyptini and to compare them to each other, as well as with other species of woodpeckers and other bird groups. The cranial osteology varied among the investigated species, but the most markedly distinct characteristics were: (1) a frontal overhang is only observed in the middle portion of the frontale of H. concretus; (2) the Proc. zygomaticus and suprameaticus are thick and long in species of the genus Mulleripicus, but short in other species; (3) the Pes pterygoidei is relatively larger in species of the genus Mulleripicus, while it is narrow, thin and relatively smaller in species of the genus Meiglyptes and indistinct in H. concretus; (4) the bony projection of the ectethmoidale is relatively short and thin in species of Mulleripicus and more developed in H. concretus. It appears that the greatest structural complexity of the cranial osteology is associated with the birds' diet, with the frugivorous H. concretus being markedly different from the insectivorous species.

  17. Cranial fasciitis of childhood: a case report. (United States)

    Kumon, Y; Sakaki, S; Sakoh, M; Nakano, K; Fukui, K; Kurihara, K


    Cranial fasciitis of childhood is very rare, only 17 cases having been reported in the literature. We report an additional case of this rare disease. The patient was a 5-year-old boy who complained of left exophthalmos and double vision. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large epidural mass in the left frontal region that had invaded into the underlying anterior skull base. The tumor showed homogeneous, low density with nonhomogeneous contrast enhancement on the CT scans, and low intensity on the T1-weighted and high intensity on the T2-weighted MRI images. A whitish-pink, elastic, hard tumor was revealed in the epidural space in the left anterior cranial fossa, which was totally excised with curettage of the affected anterior skull base. The origin of the tumor was suspected to be the fibrous connective tissue of the sphenofrontal suture. The histological diagnosis was that of cranial fasciitis. There was no evidence of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  18. Cranial involvement in sickle cell disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, Ozlem, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Kizilkilic, Ebru, E-mail: [Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Kizilkilic, Osman, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Yildirim, Tulin, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Karaca, Sibel, E-mail: [Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Yeral, Mahmut, E-mail: [Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Kasar, Mutlu, E-mail: [Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Ozdogu, Hakan, E-mail: [Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey)


    Purpose: To evaluate cranial findings in patients with neurologically symptomatic sickle cell disease (SCD). Materials and methods: We studied 50 consecutive patients with SCD and neurologic symptoms. All patients underwent brain MR examinations: all 50 underwent classic MR imaging; 42, diffusion-weighted MR imaging; 10, MR angiography; four, MR venography; and three patients, digital subtraction angiography. Results: Of the 50 SCD patients, 19 (38%) had normal MR findings, and 31 (62%) showed abnormalities on brain MR images. Of the 50 patients, 16 (32%) had ischemic lesions; two (4%), subarachnoid hemorrhage; one (2%), moya-moya pattern; one (2%), posterior reversible encephalopathy; one (2%), dural venous sinus thrombosis; 12 (24%), low marrow signal intensity and thickness of the diploic space; 12 (24%), cerebral atrophy; and two (4%), osteomyelitis. Twenty-seven patients (54%) presented with headache, which was the most common clinical finding. Conclusions: The cranial involvement is one of the most devastating complications of SCD. Early and accurate diagnosis is important in the management of cranial complications of SCD.

  19. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman


    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  20. Artificial blood. (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman


    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  1. Circumscribed changes in the cranial vault in extracerebral accumulations of fluid in the middle cranial fossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trittmacher, S.; Purmann, H.; Hunsdiek, F.; Schmid, A.; Traupe, H.


    On the basis of 26 cases with extracerebral fluid accumulation in the middle cranial fossa the bony changes occurring in this connection are described and discussed in respect of their aetiology. If there are bony accompanying reactions, two entities can be observed on principle: One group shows thinning and protrusion of the temporal squama, raising of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone and protrusion of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. The second group is associated with thickening of the temporal squama and of the lesser and greater wing of the sphenoid bone without showing any change in volume of the middle cranial fossa. (orig./GDG).

  2. Autologous cranial bone graft use for trepanation reconstruction. (United States)

    Worm, Paulo Valdeci; Ferreira, Nelson Pires; Finger, Guilherme; Collares, Marcus Vinicius Martins


    Esthetic deformities in the human skull are a subject of concern among neurosurgical patients and neurosurgeons; they can be disfiguring and harm the patient's social relationships. To access inner structures, neurosurgical operations require skull trepanation, a process that frequently involves loss of bone tissue and leads to esthetic problems. Satisfactory reconstruction is a challenge, and neurosurgeons search for an implant which ideally is organic and low cost and does not cause an immunological or allergic reaction. Therefore, autologous bone tissue remains the gold standard for reconstruction. To develop a technique that allows neurosurgeons to rebuild the trepanation hole with a better esthetic outcome. Craniotomy orifices in 108 patients were closed with a graft obtained from the cranial bone inner layer. In order to remove the graft a specially made trephine was used. No grafts dislocated during follow-up. Cosmetic outcomes and results seen on image examinations were favorable for this new technique when compared with others previously described in medical literature. The authors present a new and feasible trepanation reconstruction technique that allows a better esthetic outcome without increasing the surgical risk for the patient, or making the surgical procedure longer or more expensive. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative study between cortical bone graft versus bone dust for reconstruction of cranial burr holes. (United States)

    Worm, Paulo V; Ferreira, Nelson P; Faria, Mario B; Ferreira, Marcelo P; Kraemer, Jorge L; Collares, Marcus V M


    As a consequence of the progressive evolution of neurosurgical techniques, there has been increasing concern with the esthetic aspects of burr holes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the use of cortical bone graft and bone dust for correcting cranial deformities caused by neurosurgical trephines. Twenty-three patients were enrolled for cranial burr hole reconstruction with a 1-year follow-up. A total of 108 burr holes were treated; 36 burr holes were reconstructed with autogenous cortical bone discs (33.3%), and the remaining 72 with autogenous wet bone powder (66.6%). A trephine was specifically designed to produce this coin-shaped bone plug of 14 mm in diameter, which fit perfectly over the burr holes. The reconstructions were studied 12 months after the surgical procedure, using three-dimensional quantitative computed tomography. Additionally, general and plastic surgeons blinded for the study evaluated the cosmetic results of those areas, attributing scores from 0 to 10. The mean bone densities were 987.95 ± 186.83 Hounsfield units (HU) for bone fragment and 473.55 ± 220.34 HU for bone dust (P holes because of their lower degree of bone resorption and, consequently, better cosmetic results. The lack of donor site morbidity associated with procedural low cost qualifies the cortical autograft as the first choice for correcting cranial defects created by neurosurgical trephines.

  4. Transverse glabellar flap for obliteration/isolation of the nasofrontal duct from the anterior cranial base. (United States)

    Disa, J J; Robertson, B C; Metzinger, S E; Manson, P N


    Management of fractures involving the nasofrontal duct region of the frontal sinus has focused on preserving function when possible or obliterating the sinus and duct when fracture patterns potentiate ductal obstruction and possible transcranial seeding of bacteria. When frontal sinus preservation is in doubt, controversy surrounds the use of cranialization versus obliteration, and the method of obliteration. Perioperative and late postoperative infections are uncommon, but their occurrence jeopardizes an often complex reconstruction and can be life threatening. This paper describes the design and indications for a pedicled transverse glabellar muscle flap for obliteration of the nasofrontal duct, thereby isolating the anterior cranial base from the aerodigestive system. This vascularized muscle flap utilizes the corrugator supercilii and procerus muscles, which are introduced into the sinus via a small, surgically created window in the superomedial orbital wall without disturbing the central facial aesthetic contours. Six patients with comminuted fractures at the nasofrontal duct level associated with displaced posterior frontal sinus fractures have been treated with the transverse glabellar flap. Follow-up ranges from 8 to 30 months. There have been no early or late postoperative complications. The transverse glabellar flap is a reliable and versatile method of partitioning the upper aerodigestive tract from the anterior cranial base with vascularized tissue, thus minimizing the risk of infectious complications. The resulting donor site deformity is more acceptable than that seen with the traditional pedicled galeal frontalis flap.

  5. Cranialization of the frontal sinus for secondary mucocele prevention following open surgery for benign frontal lesions. (United States)

    Horowitz, Gilad; Amit, Moran; Ben-Ari, Oded; Gil, Ziv; Abergel, Abraham; Margalit, Nevo; Cavel, Oren; Wasserzug, Oshri; Fliss, Dan M


    To compare frontal sinus cranialization to obliteration for future prevention of secondary mucocele formation following open surgery for benign lesions of the frontal sinus. Retrospective case series. Tertiary academic medical center. Sixty-nine patients operated for benign frontal sinus pathology between 1994 and 2011. Open excision of benign frontal sinus pathology followed by either frontal obliteration (n = 41, 59%) or frontal cranialization (n = 28, 41%). The prevalence of post-surgical complications and secondary mucocele formation were compiled. Pathologies included osteoma (n = 34, 49%), mucocele (n = 27, 39%), fibrous dysplasia (n = 6, 9%), and encephalocele (n = 2, 3%). Complications included skin infections (n = 6), postoperative cutaneous fistula (n = 1), telecanthus (n = 4), diplopia (n = 3), nasal deformity (n = 2) and epiphora (n = 1). None of the patients suffered from postoperative CSF leak, meningitis or pneumocephalus. Six patients, all of whom had previously undergone frontal sinus obliteration, required revision surgery due to secondary mucocele formation. Statistical analysis using non-inferiority test reveal that cranialization of the frontal sinus is non-inferior to obliteration for preventing secondary mucocele formation (Pmucocele development after open excision of benign frontal sinus lesions.

  6. Polymer artificial muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissaphern Mirfakhrai


    Full Text Available The various types of natural muscle are incredible material systems that enable the production of large deformations by repetitive molecular motions. Polymer artificial muscle technologies are being developed that produce similar strains and higher stresses using electrostatic forces, electrostriction, ion insertion, and molecular conformational changes. Materials used include elastomers, conducting polymers, ionically conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes. The mechanisms, performance, and remaining challenges associated with these technologies are described. Initial applications are being developed, but further work by the materials community should help make these technologies applicable in a wide range of devices where muscle-like motion is desirable.

  7. Artificial urushi. (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Uyama, H; Ikeda, R


    A new concept for the design and laccase-catalyzed preparation of "artificial urushi" from new urushiol analogues is described. The curing proceeded under mild reaction conditions to produce the very hard cross-linked film (artificial urushi) with a high gloss surface. A new cross-linkable polyphenol was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of cardanol, a phenol derivative from cashew-nut-shell liquid, by enzyme-related catalysts. The polyphenol was readily cured to produce the film (also artificial urushi) showing excellent dynamic viscoelasticity.

  8. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R


    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  9. Twelfth cranial nerve involvement in Guillian Barre syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrat Kumar Nanda


    Full Text Available Guillian Barre Syndrome (GBS is associated with cranial nerve involvement. Commonest cranial nerves involved were the facial and bulbar (IXth and Xth. Involvement of twelfth cranial nerve is rare in GBS. We present a case of GBS in a thirteen years old boy who developed severe tongue weakness and wasting at two weeks after the onset of GBS. The wasting and weakness of tongue improved at three months of follow up. Brief review of the literature about XIIth cranial nerve involvement in GBS is discussed.

  10. Imaging of muscular denervation secondary to motor cranial nerve dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, S.E.J. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:; Chaudhary, N. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Fareedi, S. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Woo, E.K. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)


    The effects of motor cranial nerve dysfunction on the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of head and neck muscles are reviewed. Patterns of denervation changes are described and illustrated for V, VII, X, XI and XII cranial nerves. Recognition of the range of imaging manifestations, including the temporal changes in muscular appearances and associated muscular grafting or compensatory hypertrophy, will avoid misinterpretation as local disease. It will also prompt the radiologist to search for underlying cranial nerve pathology, which may be clinically occult. The relevant cranial nerve motor division anatomy will be described to enable a focussed search for such a structural abnormality.

  11. [Cranial nerves - spectrum of inflammatory and tumorous changes]. (United States)

    Nemec, S F; Kasprian, G; Nemec, U; Czerny, C


    Inflammatory processes as well as primary and secondary tumorous changes may involve cranial nerves causing neurological deficits. In addition to neurologists, ENT physicians, ophthalmologists and maxillofacial surgeons, radiologists play an important role in the investigation of patients with cranial nerve symptoms. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow the depiction of the cranial nerve anatomy and pathological neural changes. This article briefly describes the imaging techniques in MDCT and MRI and is dedicated to the radiological presentation of inflammatory and tumorous cranial nerve pathologies.

  12. Cranial radiation exposure during cerebral catheter angiography. (United States)

    Chohan, Muhammad Omar; Sandoval, Daniel; Buchan, Andrew; Murray-Krezan, Cristina; Taylor, Christopher L


    Radiation exposure to patients and personnel remains a major concern in the practice of interventional radiology, with minimal literature available on exposure to the forehead and cranium. In this study, we measured cranial radiation exposure to the patient, operating interventional neuroradiologist, and circulating nurse during neuroangiographic procedures. We also report the effectiveness of wearing a 0.5 mm lead equivalent cap as protection against radiation scatter. 24 consecutive adult interventional neuroradiology procedures (six interventional, 18 diagnostic) were prospectively studied for cranial radiation exposures in the patient and personnel. Data were collected using electronic detectors and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Mean fluoroscopy time for diagnostic and interventional procedures was 8.48 (SD 2.79) min and 26.80 (SD 6.57) min, respectively. Mean radiation exposure to the operator's head was 0.08 mSv, as measured on the outside of the 0.5 mm lead equivalent protective headgear. This amounts to around 150 mSv/year, far exceeding the current deterministic threshold for the lens of the eye (ie, 20 mSv/year) in high volume centers performing up to five procedures a day. When compared with doses measured on the inside of the protective skullcap, there was a statistically significant reduction in the amount of radiation received by the operator's skull. Our study suggests that a modern neurointerventional suite is safe when equipped with proper protective shields and personal gear. However, cranial exposure is not completely eliminated with existing protective devices and the addition of a protective skullcap eliminates this exposure to both the operator and support staff. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  13. Intensive care unit course of infants and children after cranial vault reconstruction for craniosynostosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen David A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Craniosynostosis (CSS results from the premature closure of one or more cranial sutures, leading to deformed calvaria at birth. It is a common finding in children with an incidence of one in 2000 births. Surgery is required in order to release the synostotic constraint and promote normal calvaria growth. Cranial vault remodeling is the surgical approach to CSS repair at our institution and it involves excision of the frontal, parietal, and occipital bones. The purpose of this article is to describe the post-operative course of infants and children admitted to our PICU after undergoing cranial vault remodeling for primary CSS. Findings Complete data was available for analyses in only 82 patients, 44 males (M and 38 females (F; M: F ratio was 1:1.2. Patients (pts age in months (mo ranged from 2 mo to 132 mo, mean 18.2 ±-24.9 mo and weights (wt ranged from 4.7 kg to 31.4 kg, mean 10.24 ± 5.5 Kg.. Duration of surgery (DOS ranged from 70 minutes to 573 minutes mean 331.6 ± 89.0 minutes. No significant correlation exist between duration of surgery, suture category, patient's age or use of blood products (P > 0.05. IOP blood loss was higher in older pts (P 3 days in 32%. Pts with fever had prolonged LOS (P Conclusions Post-op morbidities from increased use of blood products can be minimized if cranial vault remodeling is done at a younger age in patients with primary CSS. PICU length of stay is determined in part by post-op pyrexia and it can be reduced if extensive evaluations of post-op fever are avoided.

  14. The role of cranial kinesis in birds. (United States)

    Bout, R G; Zweers, G A


    In birds, the ability to move the upper beak relative to the braincase has been the subject of many functional morphological investigations, but in many instances the adaptive significance of cranial kinesis remains unclear. Alternatively, cranial kinesis may be considered a consequence of the general design of the skull, rather than an adaptive trait as such. The present study reviews some results related to the mechanism and functional significance of cranial kinesis in birds. Quantitative three-dimensional X-ray has shown that in skulls morphologically as divers as paleognaths and neognaths the mechanism for elevation of the upper beak is very similar. One of the mechanisms proposed for avian jaw movement is a mechanical coupling of the upper and the lower jaw movement by the postorbital ligament. Such a mechanical coupling would necessitate upper beak elevation. However, independent control of upper and lower jaw has been shown to occur during beak movements in birds. Moreover, kinematic modeling and force measurements suggests that the maximum extensibility of collagen, in combination with the short distance of the insertion of the postorbital ligament to the quadrato-mandibular articulation do not constitute a block to lower jaw depression. The lower jaw ligaments serve to limit the maximal extension of the mandibula. It is suggested here that cranial kinesis in avian feeding may have evolved as a consequence of an increase in eye size. This increase in size led to a reduction of bony bars in the lateral aspect of the skull enabling the transfer of quadrate movement to the upper jaw. The selective forces favoring the development of a kinetic upper beak in birds may be subtle and act in different ecological contexts. Simultaneous movement of the upper and lower jaw not only increases the velocity of beak movements, but with elevated upper beak also less force is required to open the lower jaw. However, the penalty of increased mobility of elements in a

  15. Cranial computed tomographic abnormalities in leptomeningeal metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.Y.; Glass, J.P.; Geoffray, A.; Wallace, S.


    Sixty-four (57.6%) of 111 cancer patients with cerebrospinal fluid cytology positive for malignant cells had cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans within 2 weeks before or after a lumbar puncture. Twenty-two (34.3%) of the 64 had abnormal CT findings indicative of leptomeningeal metastasis. Thirteen (59.6%) of these 22 patients had associated parenchymal metastases. Recognition of leptomeningeal disease may alter the management of patients with parenchymal metastases. Communicating hydrocephalus in cancer patients should be considered to be related to leptomeningeal metastasis until proven otherwise.

  16. Cranial juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma: case report. (United States)

    Barrena López, Cristina; Bollar Zabala, Alicia; Úrculo Bareño, Enrique


    Juvenile psammomatoid ossifying fibroma (JPOF) is a fibroosseous tumor that arises in the craniofacial bones in young people. This lesion usually originates in the jaw, orbit, and ethmoid complex but can also be associated with the skull base and calvaria. Diagnosis must be made based on observing typical radiological and histopathological features. Although JPOF is a rare pathological entity, neurosurgeons must consider this odontogenic lesion in the differential diagnosis of skull masses given the lesion's aggressive behavior and locally invasive growth. Treatment must be gross-total resection. In the following article, the authors present a case of cranial JPOF and discuss various aspects of this entity.

  17. Cranial symmetry in baleen whales (Cetacea, Mysticeti) and the occurrence of cranial asymmetry throughout cetacean evolution. (United States)

    Fahlke, Julia M; Hampe, Oliver


    Odontoceti and Mysticeti (toothed and baleen whales) originated from Eocene archaeocetes that had evolved from terrestrial artiodactyls. Cranial asymmetry is known in odontocetes that can hear ultrasound (>20,000 Hz) and has been linked to the split function of the nasal passage in breathing and vocalization. Recent results indicate that archaeocetes also had asymmetric crania. Their asymmetry has been linked to directional hearing in water, although hearing frequencies are still under debate. Mysticetes capable of low-frequency and infrasonic hearing (evolution. Asymmetry includes significant fluctuating and directional asymmetry, the latter being very small. Mysticete crania are as symmetric as those of terrestrial artiodactyls and archaeocetes, without significant differences within Mysticeti. Odontocete crania are more asymmetric. These results indicate that (1) all mysticetes have symmetric crania, (2) archaeocete cranial asymmetry is not conspicuous in most of the skull but may yet be conspicuous in the rostrum, (3) directional cranial asymmetry is an odontocete specialization, and (4) directional cranial asymmetry is more likely related to echolocation than hearing.

  18. Artificial Reefs (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  19. Artificial Limbs (United States)

    ... diabetes. They may cause you to need an amputation. Traumatic injuries, including from traffic accidents and military combat Cancer Birth defects If you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which is ...

  20. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E


    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  1. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn


    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie......-containing sweeteners. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence on the effect of artificial sweeteners on body weight, appetite, and risk markers for diabetes and CVD in humans....

  2. Contracture deformity (United States)

    Deformity - contracture ... Contracture can be caused by any of the following: Brain and nervous system disorders, such as cerebral ... Follow your health care provider's instructions for treating contracture at home. Treatments may include: Doing exercises and ...

  3. Lateral angle and cranial base sexual dimorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duquesnel Mana, Mathilde; Adalian, Pascal; Lynnerup, Niels


    SUMMARY: Previous studies have yielded very different results in sex estimation based on measurements of the lateral angle (LA) of the temporal bone. The purpose of this study was to, first, investigate if the bad results obtained by the LA method could be due to the methodology and then, second......, to examine sexual dimorphism in the relationship between the lateral angle and cranial base shape. The lateral angle method was tested using a forensic sample of 102 CT scans of the head with known sex. We measured the angle using two methods: measurements directly on the CT slide, the method usually applied...... the direct measurements. The mean angle was greater in females (48.2° ± 7.2°) than in males (45.38° ±8.06°) but the difference was not significant (t-test, p = 0.063). A statistically significant difference in cranial base shape existed between the two sexes, but the results also demonstrated a major overlap...

  4. Disorders of the lower cranial nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer


    Full Text Available Lesions of the lower cranial nerves (LCN are due to numerous causes, which need to be differentiated to optimize management and outcome. This review aims at summarizing and discussing diseases affecting LCN. Review of publications dealing with disorders of the LCN in humans. Affection of multiple LCN is much more frequent than the affection of a single LCN. LCN may be affected solely or together with more proximal cranial nerves, with central nervous system disease, or with nonneurological disorders. LCN lesions have to be suspected if there are typical symptoms or signs attributable to a LCN. Causes of LCN lesions can be classified as genetic, vascular, traumatic, iatrogenic, infectious, immunologic, metabolic, nutritional, degenerative, or neoplastic. Treatment of LCN lesions depends on the underlying cause. An effective treatment is available in the majority of the cases, but a prerequisite for complete recovery is the prompt and correct diagnosis. LCN lesions need to be considered in case of disturbed speech, swallowing, coughing, deglutition, sensory functions, taste, or autonomic functions, neuralgic pain, dysphagia, head, pharyngeal, or neck pain, cardiac or gastrointestinal compromise, or weakness of the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, or the tongue muscles. To correctly assess manifestations of LCN lesions, precise knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the area is required.

  5. ADAM10 is essential for cranial neural crest-derived maxillofacial bone development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Yu, E-mail:; Fu, Runqing, E-mail:; Liu, Jiaqiang, E-mail:; Wu, Yong, E-mail:; Wang, Bo, E-mail:; Jiang, Ning, E-mail:; Nie, Ping, E-mail:; Cao, Haifeng, E-mail:; Yang, Zhi, E-mail:; Fang, Bing, E-mail:


    Growth disorders of the craniofacial bones may lead to craniofacial deformities. The majority of maxillofacial bones are derived from cranial neural crest cells via intramembranous bone formation. Any interruption of the craniofacial skeleton development process might lead to craniofacial malformation. A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM)10 plays an essential role in organ development and tissue integrity in different organs. However, little is known about its function in craniofacial bone formation. Therefore, we investigated the role of ADAM10 in the developing craniofacial skeleton, particularly during typical mandibular bone development. First, we showed that ADAM10 was expressed in a specific area of the craniofacial bone and that the expression pattern dynamically changed during normal mouse craniofacial development. Then, we crossed wnt1-cre transgenic mice with adam10-flox mice to generate ADAM10 conditional knockout mice. The stereomicroscopic, radiographic, and von Kossa staining results showed that conditional knockout of ADAM10 in cranial neural crest cells led to embryonic death, craniofacial dysmorphia and bone defects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that impaired mineralization could be triggered by decreased osteoblast differentiation, increased cell death. Overall, these findings show that ADAM10 plays an essential role in craniofacial bone development. -- Highlights: •We firstly reported that ADAM10 was essentially involved in maxillofacial bone development. •ADAM10 cKO mice present craniofacial dysmorphia and bone defects. •Impaired osteoblast differentiation,proliferation and apoptosis underlie the bone deformity.

  6. Cranial muscles in amphibians: development, novelties and the role of cranial neural crest cells. (United States)

    Schmidt, Jennifer; Piekarski, Nadine; Olsson, Lennart


    Our research on the evolution of the vertebrate head focuses on understanding the developmental origins of morphological novelties. Using a broad comparative approach in amphibians, and comparisons with the well-studied quail-chicken system, we investigate how evolutionarily conserved or variable different aspects of head development are. Here we review research on the often overlooked development of cranial muscles, and on its dependence on cranial cartilage development. In general, cranial muscle cell migration and the spatiotemporal pattern of cranial muscle formation appears to be very conserved among the few species of vertebrates that have been studied. However, fate-mapping of somites in the Mexican axolotl revealed differences in the specific formation of hypobranchial muscles (tongue muscles) in comparison to the chicken. The proper development of cranial muscles has been shown to be strongly dependent on the mostly neural crest-derived cartilage elements in the larval head of amphibians. For example, a morpholino-based knock-down of the transcription factor FoxN3 in Xenopus laevis has drastic indirect effects on cranial muscle patterning, although the direct function of the gene is mostly connected to neural crest development. Furthermore, extirpation of single migratory streams of cranial neural crest cells in combination with fate-mapping in a frog shows that individual cranial muscles and their neural crest-derived connective tissue attachments originate from the same visceral arch, even when the muscles attach to skeletal components that are derived from a different arch. The same pattern has also been found in the chicken embryo, the only other species that has been thoroughly investigated, and thus might be a conserved pattern in vertebrates that reflects the fundamental nature of a mechanism that keeps the segmental order of the head in place despite drastic changes in adult anatomy. There is a need for detailed comparative fate-mapping of pre

  7. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section 882.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated...

  8. 21 CFR 882.5800 - Cranial electrotherapy stimulator. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cranial electrotherapy stimulator. 882.5800 Section 882.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... electrotherapy stimulator. (a) Identification. A cranial electrotherapy stimulator is a device that...

  9. Osteopathia Striata With Cranial Sclerosis Owing to WTX Gene Defect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdu, Bram; de Freitas, Fenna; Frints, Suzanne G. M.; Schouten, Meyke; Schrander-Stumpel, Connie; Barbosa, Mafalda; Pinto-Basto, Jorge; Reis-Lima, Margarida; de Vernejoul, Marie-Christine; Becker, Kristin; Freckmann, Marie-Louise; Keymolen, Kathlijn; Haan, Eric; Savarirayan, Ravi; Koenig, Rainer; Zabel, Bernhard; Vanhoenacker, Filip M.; Van Hul, Wim


    Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OSCS) is an X-linked dominant condition marked by linear striations mainly affecting the metaphyseal region of the long bones and pelvis in combination with cranial sclerosis. Recently, the disease-causing gene was identified as the WTX gene (FAM123B), an

  10. The contribution of subsistence to global human cranial variation. (United States)

    Noback, Marlijn L; Harvati, Katerina


    Diet-related cranial variation in modern humans is well documented on a regional scale, with ample examples of cranial changes related to the agricultural transition. However, the influence of subsistence strategy on global cranial variation is less clear, having been confirmed only for the mandible, and dietary effects beyond agriculture are often neglected. Here we identify global patterns of subsistence-related human cranial shape variation. We analysed a worldwide sample of 15 populations (n = 255) with known subsistence strategies using 3-D landmark datasets designed to capture the shape of different units of the cranium. Results show significant correlations between global cranial shape and diet, especially for temporalis muscle shape and general cranial shape. Importantly, the differences between populations with either a plant- or an animal-based diet are more pronounced than those between agriculturalists and hunter-gatherers, suggesting that the influence of diet as driver of cranial variation is not limited to Holocene transitions to agricultural subsistence. Dental arch shape did not correlate with subsistence pattern, possibly indicating the high plasticity of this region of the face in relation to age, disease and individual use of the dentition. Our results highlight the importance of subsistence strategy as one of the factors underlying the evolution of human geographic cranial variation.

  11. Artificial Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Yasar


    Full Text Available The problems and additional cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood, as well as the pending worldwide shortages are the main driving forces in the development of blood substitutes. Studies on artificial blood basically aim to develop oxygen carrying compounds, produce stem cell-based erythrocyte cells in vitro and, implement the functions and movements of natural hemoglobin molecules found in erythrocyte cells through artificial erythrocyte cells. Consequently, major areas of research in artificial blood studies are haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers, perfluorochemicals, respirocytes and stem cells. Even though these artificial erythrocyte cells do not qualify as perfect red blood cell substitutes yet, they have many potential clinical and non clinical uses. Studies are being carried out on the elimination of side effects of blood substitutes and extensive clinical trials are being conducted to test their safety and efficacy. Artificial blood substitutes could only be used clinically for patient management following clinical trials and approvals, and will be the ultimate global solution to the problems associated with donor scarcity, blood collection and transfusion-mediated diseases. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(2.000: 95-108

  12. Cranial joint histology in the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos): new insights on avian cranial kinesis. (United States)

    Bailleul, Alida M; Witmer, Lawrence M; Holliday, Casey M


    The evolution of avian cranial kinesis is a phenomenon in part responsible for the remarkable diversity of avian feeding adaptations observable today. Although osteological, developmental and behavioral features of the feeding system are frequently studied, comparatively little is known about cranial joint skeletal tissue composition and morphology from a microscopic perspective. These data are key to understanding the developmental, biomechanical and evolutionary underpinnings of kinesis. Therefore, here we investigated joint microstructure in juvenile and adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos; Anseriformes). Ducks belong to a diverse clade of galloanseriform birds, have derived adaptations for herbivory and kinesis, and are model organisms in developmental biology. Thus, new insights into their cranial functional morphology will refine our understanding of avian cranial evolution. A total of five specimens (two ducklings and three adults) were histologically sampled, and two additional specimens (a duckling and an adult) were subjected to micro-computed tomographic scanning. Five intracranial joints were sampled: the jaw joint (quadrate-articular); otic joint (quadrate-squamosal); palatobasal joint (parasphenoid-pterygoid); the mandibular symphysis (dentary-dentary); and the craniofacial hinge (a complex flexion zone involving four different pairs of skeletal elements). In both the ducklings and adults, the jaw, otic and palatobasal joints are all synovial, with a synovial cavity and articular cartilage on each surface (i.e. bichondral joints) ensheathed in a fibrous capsule. The craniofacial hinge begins as an ensemble of patent sutures in the duckling, but in the adult it becomes more complex: laterally it is synovial; whereas medially, it is synostosed by a bridge of chondroid bone. We hypothesize that it is chondroid bone that provides some of the flexible properties of this joint. The heavily innervated mandibular symphysis is already fused in the

  13. Neonatal cranial sonography: A concise review for clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Gupta


    Full Text Available Cranial sonography continues to hold an important place in neonatal care. Attributes favorable to sonography that make it almost indispensable for routine care of the newborn includes easy access, low cost, portability, lack of ionizing radiations and exemption from sedation or anaesthesia. Cranial sonography has highest impact in neonates suspected to have meningitis and its complications; perinatal ischemia particularly periventricular leukomalacia (PVL; hydrocephalus resulting from multitude of causes and hemorrhage. Not withstanding this, cranial sonography has yielded results for a repertoire of indications. Approach to cranial sonography involves knowledge of the normal developmental anatomy of brain parenchyma for correct interpretation. Correct technique, taking advantage of multiple sonographic windows and variable frequencies of the ultrasound probes allows a detailed and comprehensive examination of brain parenchyma. In this review, we discuss the technique, normal and variant anatomy as well as disease entities of neonatal cranial sonography.

  14. Analysis and Processing of Deformation Information of Optical Fiber Smart Structure Based on Artificial Neural Networks%基于人工神经网络的光纤智能结构变形信息的分析与处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华荣; 赵志敏


    Based on the principle of micro-bending loss of optical fiber system, the experiments were carried out by loading on the optical fiber smart structure and then the artificial neural network was employed to process the data which contained deformation information in order to locate the deformation location. The results showed that the proposed method performed well, and it could effectively locate the deformation location.%利用光纤系统的微弯损耗原理,通过对光纤智能结构进行承载,采用人工神经网络的方法,对试验系统接收到的包含光纤智能结构变形信息的数据进行了处理与变形位置判定.结果表明:人工神经网络的方法可以有效地分析和处理光纤智能结构的变形信息,确定变形位置.

  15. Quantitative computed tomography and cranial burr holes: a model to evaluate the quality of cranial reconstruction in humans. (United States)

    Worm, Paulo Valdeci; Ferreira, Nelson Pires; Ferreira, Marcelo Paglioli; Kraemer, Jorge Luiz; Lenhardt, Rene; Alves, Ronnie Peterson Marcondes; Wunderlich, Ricardo Castilho; Collares, Marcus Vinicius Martins


    Current methods to evaluate the biologic development of bone grafts in human beings do not quantify results accurately. Cranial burr holes are standardized critical bone defects, and the differences between bone powder and bone grafts have been determined in numerous experimental studies. This study evaluated quantitative computed tomography (QCT) as a method to objectively measure cranial bone density after cranial reconstruction with autografts. In each of 8 patients, 2 of 4 surgical burr holes were reconstructed with autogenous wet bone powder collected during skull trephination, and the other 2 holes, with a circular cortical bone fragment removed from the inner table of the cranial bone flap. After 12 months, the reconstructed areas and a sample of normal bone were studied using three-dimensional QCT; bone density was measured in Hounsfield units (HU). Mean (SD) bone density was 1535.89 (141) HU for normal bone (P < 0.0001), 964 (176) HU for bone fragments, and 453 (241) HU for bone powder (P < 0.001). As expected, the density of the bone fragment graft was consistently greater than that of bone powder. Results confirm the accuracy and reproducibility of QCT, already demonstrated for bone in other locations, and suggest that it is an adequate tool to evaluate cranial reconstructions. The combination of QCT and cranial burr holes is an excellent model to accurately measure the quality of new bone in cranial reconstructions and also seems to be an appropriate choice of experimental model to clinically test any cranial bone or bone substitute reconstruction.

  16. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin


    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  17. Deformation microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Hughes, D.A.


    Microstructural characterization and modeling has shown that a variety of metals deformed by different thermomechanical processes follows a general path of grain subdivision, by dislocation boundaries and high angle boundaries. This subdivision has been observed to very small structural scales...... of the order of 10 nm, produced by deformation under large sliding loads. Limits to the evolution of microstructural parameters during monotonic loading have been investigated based on a characterization by transmission electron microscopy. Such limits have been observed at an equivalent strain of about 10...

  18. An unusual orbito-cranial foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra Madhumati


    Full Text Available The rarity of orbito-cranial gun shot injury in both war and civilian practice has been reported. In a large series of 351 missile head injuries in the Vietnam war, orbital penetration was noted in 0.6% cases only. Review of literature shows that orbital injury was ipsilateral to the cerebral injury in most reported cases. We have previously reported a rare case of left parieto-occipital lobe injury due to gun shot wound of the contralateral (right orbit. The case reported here sustained a bullet injury to the left frontal bone but the missile was located below the contralateral (right optic canal. The rarity of the case prompted this report.

  19. Cyberknife radiosurgery for cranial plasma cell tumor. (United States)

    Alafaci, Cetty; Grasso, Giovanni; Conti, Alfredo; Caffo, Mariella; Salpietro, Francesco Maria; Tomasello, Francesco


    Cranial and intracranial involvement by myelomatous disease is relatively uncommon. Furthermore, systemic manifestations of multiple myeloma are present in the majority of these cases at the time of symptom onset. The authors report the case of a patient with serial appearance of multiple intracranial plasma cell tumor localizations as the first manifestations of a multiple myeloma. The patient was treated with CyberKnife radiosurgery for a lesion localized at the clivus and sella turcica with complete local control. With such a technique, based on high-dose conformality, the tumor was centered with an ablative dose of radiation and, at the same time, with a low dose spreading to the surrounding critical structures. The radiosensitivity of plasma cell tumors renders this treatment modality particularly advantageous for their localized manifestation. A technical description of this case is provided. To our knowledge, this is the first case of successful Cyberknife radiosurgery of multifocal intracranial plasmacytoma.

  20. Haglund's Deformity (United States)

    ... to follow the surgeon’s instructions for postsurgical care. Prevention To help prevent a recurrence of Haglund’s deformity: wear appropriate shoes; avoid shoes with a rigid heel back use arch supports or orthotic devices perform stretching exercises to prevent the Achilles tendon from tightening ...

  1. Anthropogenic environments exert variable selection on cranial capacity in mammals. (United States)

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C; Wick, Naomi


    It is thought that behaviourally flexible species will be able to cope with novel and rapidly changing environments associated with human activity. However, it is unclear whether such environments are selecting for increases in behavioural plasticity, and whether some species show more pronounced evolutionary changes in plasticity. To test whether anthropogenic environments are selecting for increased behavioural plasticity within species, we measured variation in relative cranial capacity over time and space in 10 species of mammals. We predicted that urban populations would show greater cranial capacity than rural populations and that cranial capacity would increase over time in urban populations. Based on relevant theory, we also predicted that species capable of rapid population growth would show more pronounced evolutionary responses. We found that urban populations of two small mammal species had significantly greater cranial capacity than rural populations. In addition, species with higher fecundity showed more pronounced differentiation between urban and rural populations. Contrary to expectations, we found no increases in cranial capacity over time in urban populations-indeed, two species tended to have a decrease in cranial capacity over time in urban populations. Furthermore, rural populations of all insectivorous species measured showed significant increases in relative cranial capacity over time. Our results provide partial support for the hypothesis that urban environments select for increased behavioural plasticity, although this selection may be most pronounced early during the urban colonization process. Furthermore, these data also suggest that behavioural plasticity may be simultaneously favoured in rural environments, which are also changing because of human activity.

  2. Concomitant cranial and ocular combat injuries during Operation Iraqi Freedom. (United States)

    Cho, Raymond I; Bakken, Hans E; Reynolds, Mark E; Schlifka, Brett A; Powers, David B


    Concomitant cranial and ocular injuries were frequently seen in combat casualties during Operation Iraqi Freedom. The incidence of these injuries is reported along with an interventional case series. A retrospective review was conducted of all surgical patients treated by U.S. Army neurosurgeons and ophthalmologists in Iraq from December 2005 to April 2006. Out of 104 patients with cranial trauma and 158 patients with ocular trauma, 34 had both cranial and ocular injuries (32.7 and 21.5% of patients with cranial and ocular injuries, respectively). Neurosurgical procedures included exploratory craniotomy, decompressive craniectomy, and frontal sinus surgery. Ophthalmologic surgical procedures included globe exploration, open globe repair, primary enucleation, orbital fracture repair, lateral canthotomy and cantholysis, and repair of lid and periocular lacerations. Patients with cranial trauma had a higher incidence of orbital fracture, orbital compartment syndrome, and multiple ocular injuries compared with patients without cranial trauma (odds ratio 6.4, 3.9, and 3.3, respectively). A strong association exists between cranial and ocular trauma in combat casualties treated during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Combat health support personnel should maintain a high level of suspicion for one of these injuries when the other is present. Co-locating neurosurgeons and ophthalmologists in support of combat operations facilitates the optimal treatment of patients with these combined injuries.

  3. Botulinum toxin physiology in focal hand and cranial dystonia. (United States)

    Karp, Barbara Illowsky


    The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and divergent features, such as task specificity in focal hand dystonia which is not a common feature of cranial dystonia. The physiologic effects of botulinum toxin in these 2 disorders also show both similarities and differences. This paper compares and contrasts the physiology of focal hand and cranial dystonias and of botulinum toxin in the management of these disorders.

  4. Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsy Due to Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Eruyar


    Full Text Available Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT is a rare clinical condition between cerebrovasculer diases. The most common findings are headache, seizure and focal neurological deficit. Multiple cranial nerve palsy due to CVT is rarely seen and it is not clear pathology. A pathology that could explain the lack of cranial nerve imaging is carrying suspected diagnosis but the disease is known to provide early diagnosis and treatment. We want to emphasize with this case multipl cranial nerve palsy due to CVT is seen rarely and good response to treatment.

  5. Botulinum Toxin Physiology in Focal Hand and Cranial Dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Illowsky Karp


    Full Text Available The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and divergent features, such as task specificity in focal hand dystonia which is not a common feature of cranial dystonia. The physiologic effects of botulinum toxin in these 2 disorders also show both similarities and differences. This paper compares and contrasts the physiology of focal hand and cranial dystonias and of botulinum toxin in the management of these disorders.

  6. Artificial Consciousness or Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spanache Florin


    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a tool designed by people for the gratification of their own creative ego, so we can not confuse conscience with intelligence and not even intelligence in its human representation with conscience. They are all different concepts and they have different uses. Philosophically, there are differences between autonomous people and automatic artificial intelligence. This is the difference between intelligence and artificial intelligence, autonomous versus automatic. But conscience is above these differences because it is neither conditioned by the self-preservation of autonomy, because a conscience is something that you use to help your neighbor, nor automatic, because one’s conscience is tested by situations which are not similar or subject to routine. So, artificial intelligence is only in science-fiction literature similar to an autonomous conscience-endowed being. In real life, religion with its notions of redemption, sin, expiation, confession and communion will not have any meaning for a machine which cannot make a mistake on its own.

  7. Artificial ribonucleases. (United States)

    Morrow, J R


    Many inorganic and organic compounds promote the reactions catalyzed by RNase A. Both the transesterification step, where a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate is formed with concomitant cleavage of RNA, and the hydrolysis step, where the 2',3'-cyclic phosphate is converted to a phosphate monoester, may be mimicked with compounds that are readily synthesized in the laboratory. Electrophilic activation of the phosphate ester and charge neutralization are generally important means by which artificial RNases promote phosphate diester displacement reactions. Several artificial RNases operate by a bifunctional general acid/general base mechanism, as does RNase A. Provision of an intramolecular nucleophile appears to be an important pathway for metal complex promoted phosphate diester hydrolysis. In contrast to the successful design of compounds that promote the reactions catalyzed by RNase A, there are no artificial nucleases to date that will cleave the 3' P-O bond of RNA or hydrolyze an oligonucleotide of DNA. Artificial RNases based on both metal complexes and organic compounds have been described. Metal complexes may be particularly effective catalysts for both transesterification and hydrolysis reactions of phosphate diesters. Under physiological conditions (37 degrees C and neutral pH), several metal complexes catalyze the transesterification of RNA. Future work should involve the development of metal complexes which are inert to metal ion release but which maintain open coordination sites for catalytic activity. The design of compounds containing multiple amine or imidazole groups that may demonstrate bifunctional catalysis is a promising route to new artificial RNases. Further design of these compounds and careful placement of catalytic groups may yield new RNase mimics that operate under physiological conditions. The attachment of artificial RNases to recognition agents such as oligodeoxynucleotides to create new sequence-specific endoribonucleases is an exciting field of

  8. Physics-based deformable organisms for medical image analysis (United States)

    Hamarneh, Ghassan; McIntosh, Chris


    Previously, "Deformable organisms" were introduced as a novel paradigm for medical image analysis that uses artificial life modelling concepts. Deformable organisms were designed to complement the classical bottom-up deformable models methodologies (geometrical and physical layers), with top-down intelligent deformation control mechanisms (behavioral and cognitive layers). However, a true physical layer was absent and in order to complete medical image segmentation tasks, deformable organisms relied on pure geometry-based shape deformations guided by sensory data, prior structural knowledge, and expert-generated schedules of behaviors. In this paper we introduce the use of physics-based shape deformations within the deformable organisms framework yielding additional robustness by allowing intuitive real-time user guidance and interaction when necessary. We present the results of applying our physics-based deformable organisms, with an underlying dynamic spring-mass mesh model, to segmenting and labelling the corpus callosum in 2D midsagittal magnetic resonance images.

  9. Artificial Intelligence. (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John


    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  10. Androgen action during male sex differentiation includes suppression of cranial suspensory ligament development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. Emmen (Judith); A. McLuskey; J.A. Grootegoed (Anton); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert)


    textabstractThe cranial suspensory ligament is located on the border of the cranial (mesonephric) mesentery in adult female mammals, which runs between the cranial pole of the internal genitalia and the dorsal abdominal wall. Absence of the cranial suspensory ligament i

  11. Artificial blood.



    #Blood substitutes have been developed for almost a century. The various type of artificial blood was continuously available on the market. The theme of this report is to identify the best substitute in emergency situation for some patients and science students. The definition of best is given; thus, as the vital part of the report, the comparison between them is described and discussed. Modified hemoglobin, bovine-based hemoglobin and PFCs are three basic types. In terms of the perfor...

  12. Cranial nerve injury after minor head trauma. (United States)

    Coello, Alejandro Fernández; Canals, Andreu Gabarrós; Gonzalez, Juan Martino; Martín, Juan José Acebes


    There are no specific studies about cranial nerve (CN) injury following mild head trauma (Glasgow Coma Scale Score 14-15) in the literature. The aim of this analysis was to document the incidence of CN injury after mild head trauma and to correlate the initial CT findings with the final outcome 1 year after injury. The authors studied 49 consecutive patients affected by minor head trauma and CN lesions between January 2000 and January 2006. Detailed clinical and neurological examinations as well as CT studies using brain and bone windows were performed in all patients. Based on the CT findings the authors distinguished 3 types of traumatic injury: no lesion, skull base fracture, and other CT abnormalities. Patients were followed up for 1 year after head injury. The authors distinguished 3 grades of clinical recovery from CN palsy: no recovery, partial recovery, and complete recovery. Posttraumatic single nerve palsy was observed in 38 patients (77.6%), and multiple nerve injuries were observed in 11 (22.4%). Cranial nerves were affected in 62 cases. The most affected CN was the olfactory nerve (CN I), followed by the facial nerve (CN VII) and the oculomotor nerves (CNs III, IV, and VI). When more than 1 CN was involved, the most frequent association was between CNs VII and VIII. One year after head trauma, a CN deficit was present in 26 (81.2%) of the 32 cases with a skull base fracture, 12 (60%) of 20 cases with other CT abnormalities, and 3 (30%) of 10 cases without CT abnormalities. Trivial head trauma that causes a minor head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale Score 14-15) can result in CN palsies with a similar distribution to moderate or severe head injuries. The CNs associated with the highest incidence of palsy in this study were the olfactory, facial, and oculomotor nerves. The trigeminal and lower CNs were rarely damaged. Oculomotor nerve injury can have a good prognosis, with a greater chance of recovery if no lesion is demonstrated on the initial CT scan.

  13. Artificial vision. (United States)

    Zarbin, M; Montemagno, C; Leary, J; Ritch, R


    A number treatment options are emerging for patients with retinal degenerative disease, including gene therapy, trophic factor therapy, visual cycle inhibitors (e.g., for patients with Stargardt disease and allied conditions), and cell transplantation. A radically different approach, which will augment but not replace these options, is termed neural prosthetics ("artificial vision"). Although rewiring of inner retinal circuits and inner retinal neuronal degeneration occur in association with photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), it is possible to create visually useful percepts by stimulating retinal ganglion cells electrically. This fact has lead to the development of techniques to induce photosensitivity in cells that are not light sensitive normally as well as to the development of the bionic retina. Advances in artificial vision continue at a robust pace. These advances are based on the use of molecular engineering and nanotechnology to render cells light-sensitive, to target ion channels to the appropriate cell type (e.g., bipolar cell) and/or cell region (e.g., dendritic tree vs. soma), and on sophisticated image processing algorithms that take advantage of our knowledge of signal processing in the retina. Combined with advances in gene therapy, pathway-based therapy, and cell-based therapy, "artificial vision" technologies create a powerful armamentarium with which ophthalmologists will be able to treat blindness in patients who have a variety of degenerative retinal diseases.

  14. "Moya-moya' disease caused by cranial trauma. (United States)

    Fernandez-Alvarez, E; Pineda, M; Royo, C; Manzanares, R


    A case of "moya-moya" disease of a 12-year-old boy is reported. The clinical history started at 3 years 2 months after cranial trauma. The patient developed mental retardation, hemiparesis and seizures.

  15. Prevalence of and risk factors for cranial ultrasound abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in cerebral blood flow, or platelet and coagulation disorders, form the ... To assess how many very low birth weight (VLBW) infants had cranial ultrasound screening at ..... who were outborn, and there are many factors that could explain the.

  16. Clinical and cranial computed tomography scan findings in adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cerebral haemorrhage followed by brain oedema and raised Intra-cranial pressure (ICP). Intra-cerebral ... This was a descriptive, cross sectional study conduct- ed in Mulago .... This could partly be explained by the mechanism of impact in ...

  17. Accounting for cranial vault growth in experimental design. (United States)

    Power, Stephanie M; Matic, Damir B; Holdsworth, David W


    Earlier studies have not accounted for continued growth when using the rat calvarial defect model to evaluate bone healing in vivo. The purpose of this study was: 1) to calculate rat cranial vault growth over time; and 2) to determine the effects of accounting for growth on defect healing. Bilateral parietal defects were created in 10 adult Wistar rats. Serial microscopic computerized tomography scans were performed. Bone mineral content (BMC) measured according to standard technique and repeated accounting for cranial growth over time was compared with the use of parametric and nonparametric tests. Cranial vault growth continued through 22 weeks of age, increasing 7.5% in width and 9.1% in length, and calvarial defects expanded proportionately. BMC was greater within defects accounting for growth 2-12 weeks postoperatively (P accounting for cranial growth given advances in serial imaging techniques. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional electrical stimulation improves brain perfusion in cranial trauma patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amorim, Bárbara Juarez; Santos, Allan de Oliveira; Oberg, Telma Dagmar; Romanato, Juliana; Anjos, Dalton A; Lima, Mariana da Cunha Lopes de; Ramos, Celso Darío; Honorato, Donizete Cesar; Camargo, Edwaldo Eduardo; Etchebehere, Elba Cristina de Sá Camargo


    ...: cranial trauma and major vascular insults. All SPECT images were analyzed using SPM. RESULTS: There was a significant statistical difference between the two groups related to patient's ages and extent of hypoperfusion in the SPECT...

  19. A Case of Neurosyphilis Presenting with Multiple Cranial Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Kılıç Çoban


    Full Text Available Syphilis is a sexually-transmitted disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum. Central nervous system involvement can occur in every stage of the disease. It is classified into: acute syphilitic meningitis, meningovascular syphilis, and parenchymatous neurosyphilis. Acute basilar syphilitic meningitis is characterized primarily by the presence of cranial nerve involvement. As cranial nerve enhancement may be seen in a broad range of diseases, it can be the only clinical feature of neurosyphilis.

  20. Cranial suture morphology and its relationship to diet in Cebus. (United States)

    Byron, Craig D


    Cranial sutures are complex morphological structures. Four Cebus species (C. albifrons, C. apella, C. capucinus, C. olivaceus) are used here to test the hypothesis that sagittal suture complexity is enhanced in animals that eat materially challenging foods. These primates are ideal for such comparative studies because they are closely related and some are known to exhibit differences in the material properties of the foods they ingest and masticate. Specifically, Cebus apella is notable among members of this genus for ingesting food items of high toughness as well as consistently demonstrating a relatively robust cranial morphology. Consistent with previous studies, C. apella demonstrates significantly more robust mandibular and temporal fossa morphology. Also, C. apella possesses sagittal sutures that are more complex than congenerics. These data are used to support the hypothesis that cranial suture complexity is increased in response to consuming diets with more obdurate material properties. One interpretation of this hypothesis is that, compared to non-apelloids, total strain in the apelloid cranial suture connective tissue environment is elevated due to increased jaw muscle activity by increases in either force magnitudes or the number of chewing events. It is argued that greater masticatory function enhances the growth and modeling of cranial suture interdigitation. These data show that cranial suture complexity is one more hard tissue feature from the skull that might be used to inform hypotheses of dietary functional morphology.

  1. Artificial Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Clément, Gilles


    Protecting the health, safety, and performance of exploration-class mission crews against the physiological deconditioning resulting from long-term weightlessness during transit and long-term reduced gravity during surface operations will require effective, multi-system countermeasures. Artificial gravity, which would replace terrestrial gravity with inertial forces generated by rotating the transit vehicle or by short-radius human centrifuge devices within the transit vehicle or surface habitat, has long been considered a potential solution. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient

  2. Development and validation of technique for in-vivo 3D analysis of cranial bone graft survival (United States)

    Bernstein, Mark P.; Caldwell, Curtis B.; Antonyshyn, Oleh M.; Ma, Karen; Cooper, Perry W.; Ehrlich, Lisa E.


    Bone autografts are routinely employed in the reconstruction of facial deformities resulting from trauma, tumor ablation or congenital malformations. The combined use of post- operative 3D CT and SPECT imaging provides a means for quantitative in vivo evaluation of bone graft volume and osteoblastic activity. The specific objectives of this study were: (1) Determine the reliability and accuracy of interactive computer-assisted analysis of bone graft volumes based on 3D CT scans; (2) Determine the error in CT/SPECT multimodality image registration; (3) Determine the error in SPECT/SPECT image registration; and (4) Determine the reliability and accuracy of CT-guided SPECT uptake measurements in cranial bone grafts. Five human cadaver heads served as anthropomorphic models for all experiments. Four cranial defects were created in each specimen with inlay and onlay split skull bone grafts and reconstructed to skull and malar recipient sites. To acquire all images, each specimen was CT scanned and coated with Technetium doped paint. For purposes of validation, skulls were landmarked with 1/16-inch ball-bearings and Indium. This study provides a new technique relating anatomy and physiology for the analysis of cranial bone graft survival.

  3. Propriedades biomecânicas da fáscia lata e do ligamento cruzado cranial de cães Biomechanical properties of canine fascia lata and cranial cruciate ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Brendolan


    properties were found for the strips of fascia lata straight and twisted, although twisted strips presented a higher deformation than straight ones. External and internal tibial rotation did not influence the maximum force and maximum stress of the cranial cruciate ligament, that were of about 660 Newtons and 75 Megapascal, respectively. Fascia lata strips reached 44% of ligaments maximum force and 37% of maximum strain, and twisted strips reached 70% of ligaments maximum deformation, deserving straight strips to be recommended for cranial cruciate ligament substitution in dogs.

  4. Artificial rheotaxis. (United States)

    Palacci, Jérémie; Sacanna, Stefano; Abramian, Anaïs; Barral, Jérémie; Hanson, Kasey; Grosberg, Alexander Y; Pine, David J; Chaikin, Paul M


    Motility is a basic feature of living microorganisms, and how it works is often determined by environmental cues. Recent efforts have focused on developing artificial systems that can mimic microorganisms, in particular their self-propulsion. We report on the design and characterization of synthetic self-propelled particles that migrate upstream, known as positive rheotaxis. This phenomenon results from a purely physical mechanism involving the interplay between the polarity of the particles and their alignment by a viscous torque. We show quantitative agreement between experimental data and a simple model of an overdamped Brownian pendulum. The model notably predicts the existence of a stagnation point in a diverging flow. We take advantage of this property to demonstrate that our active particles can sense and predictably organize in an imposed flow. Our colloidal system represents an important step toward the realization of biomimetic microsystems with the ability to sense and respond to environmental changes.

  5. Analysis of Mining Terrain Deformation Characteristics with Deformation Information System (United States)

    Blachowski, Jan; Milczarek, Wojciech; Grzempowski, Piotr


    Mapping and prediction of mining related deformations of the earth surface is an important measure for minimising threat to surface infrastructure, human population, the environment and safety of the mining operation itself arising from underground extraction of useful minerals. The number of methods and techniques used for monitoring and analysis of mining terrain deformations is wide and increasing with the development of geographical information technologies. These include for example: terrestrial geodetic measurements, global positioning systems, remote sensing, spatial interpolation, finite element method modelling, GIS based modelling, geological modelling, empirical modelling using the Knothe theory, artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic calculations and other. The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of an integrated Deformation Information System (DIS) developed in geographic information systems environment for analysis and modelling of various spatial data related to mining activity and demonstrate its applications for mapping and visualising, as well as identifying possible mining terrain deformation areas with various spatial modelling methods. The DIS concept is based on connected modules that include: the spatial database - the core of the system, the spatial data collection module formed by: terrestrial, satellite and remote sensing measurements of the ground changes, the spatial data mining module for data discovery and extraction, the geological modelling module, the spatial data modeling module with data processing algorithms for spatio-temporal analysis and mapping of mining deformations and their characteristics (e.g. deformation parameters: tilt, curvature and horizontal strain), the multivariate spatial data classification module and the visualization module allowing two-dimensional interactive and static mapping and three-dimensional visualizations of mining ground characteristics. The Systems's functionality has been presented on

  6. Calvarial reconstruction using high-density porous polyethylene cranial hemispheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin J Mokal


    Full Text Available Aims: Cranial vault reconstruction can be performed with a variety of autologous or alloplastic materials. We describe our experience using high-density porous polyethylene (HDPE cranial hemisphere for cosmetic and functional restoration of skull defects. The porous nature of the implant allows soft tissue ingrowth, which decreases the incidence of infection. Hence, it can be used in proximity to paranasal sinuses and where previous alloplastic cranioplasties have failed due to implant infection. Materials and Methods: We used the HDPE implant in seven patients over a three-year period for reconstruction of moderate to large cranial defects. Two patients had composite defects, which required additional soft tissue in the form of free flap and tissue expansion. Results: In our series, decompressive craniectomy following trauma was the commonest aetiology and all defects were located in the fronto-parieto-temporal region. The defect size was 10 cm on average in the largest diameter. All patients had good post-operative cranial contour and we encountered no infections, implant exposure or implant migration. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the biocompatibility and flexibility of the HDPE cranial hemisphere implant make it an excellent alternative to existing methods of calvarial reconstruction.

  7. An osteological and histological investigation of cranial joints in geckos. (United States)

    Payne, Samantha L; Holliday, Casey M; Vickaryous, Matthew K


    Cranial kinesis is a widespread feature of gekkotan lizards. Previous studies of kinesis in lizards often described the relevant, mobile joints as synovial, thus characterized by the presence of a synovial cavity lined with articular cartilage. To date however, detailed investigations of cranial joint histology are lacking. We examined eight cranial joints (quadrate-articular, quadrate-pterygoid, quadrate-otooccipital, quadrate-squamosal, epipterygoid-prootic, epipterygoid-pterygoid, basisphenoid-pterygoid, and frontal-parietal) in five gekkotan species (Oedura lesueuerii, Eublepharis macularius, Hemitheconyx caudicinctus, Tarentola annularis, and Chondrodactylous bibronii) using microcomputed tomography and serial histology. Particular focus was given to the relationship between the bony and soft-tissue components of the joint. Our results demonstrate that only three of these joints are synovial: the quadrate-articular, epipterygoid-pterygoid, and basisphenoid-pterygoid joints. The frontal-parietal and quadrate-pterygoid joints are syndesmosis (fibrous), the epipterygoid-prootic and quadrate-otooccipital joints are synchondroses (cartilaginous without a synovial cavity) and the quadrate-squamosal joint was not present. Based on previous descriptions, we determine that the structure of some cranial joints is variable among lizard taxa. We caution that osteology does not necessarily predict cranial joint histology. Although the functional implications of these findings remain to be explored we note that the development of synovial joints appears to be associated with a neural crest origin for the elements involved.

  8. Ets-1 confers cranial features on neural crest delamination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Théveneau

    Full Text Available Neural crest cells (NCC have the particularity to invade the environment where they differentiate after separation from the neuroepithelium. This process, called delamination, is strikingly different between cranial and trunk NCCs. If signalings controlling slow trunk delamination start being deciphered, mechanisms leading to massive and rapid cranial outflow are poorly documented. Here, we show that the chick cranial NCCs delamination is the result of two events: a substantial cell mobilization and an epithelium to mesenchyme transition (EMT. We demonstrate that ets-1, a transcription factor specifically expressed in cranial NCCs, is responsible for the former event by recruiting massively cranial premigratory NCCs independently of the S-phase of the cell cycle and by leading the gathered cells to straddle the basal lamina. However, it does not promote the EMT process alone but can cooperate with snail-2 (previously called slug to this event. Altogether, these data lead us to propose that ets-1 plays a pivotal role in conferring specific cephalic characteristics on NCC delamination.

  9. Cranial ultrasound and chronological changes in molybdenum cofactor deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Mercedes; Dias, Anna P.; Perez-Duenas, Belen; Campistol, Jaume; Garcia-Cazorla, Angels [Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Paseo de Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona (Spain); Lizarraga, Isabel [Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Department of Neonatology, Barcelona (Spain); Reiss, Jochen [University of Goettingen, Institute for Human Genetics, Goettingen (Germany); Vilaseca, Maria A.; Artuch, Rafael [Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Barcelona (Spain)


    Molybdenum cofactor is essential for the function of three human enzymes: sulphite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase. Molybdenum cofactor deficiency is a rare autosomal recessively inherited disease. Disturbed development and damage to the brain may occur as a result of accumulation of toxic levels of sulphite. The CT and MRI findings include severe early brain abnormalities and have been widely reported, but the cranial US imaging findings have seldom been reported. We report a chronological series of cranial US images obtained from an affected infant that show the rapid development of cerebral atrophy, calcifications and white matter cysts. Our report supports the utility of cranial US, a noninvasive bed-side technique, in the detection and follow-up of these rapidly changing lesions. (orig.)

  10. 3D Printed, Customized Cranial Implant for Surgical Planning (United States)

    Bogu, Venkata Phanindra; Ravi Kumar, Yennam; Asit Kumar, Khanra


    The main objective of the present work is to model cranial implant and printed in FDM machine (printer model used: mojo). Actually this is peculiar case and the skull has been damaged in frontal, parietal and temporal regions and a small portion of frontal region damaged away from saggital plane, complexity is to fill this frontal region with proper curvature. The Patient CT-data (Number of slices was 381 and thickness of each slice is 0.488 mm) was processed in mimics14.1 software, mimics file was sent to 3-matic software and calculated thickness of skull at different sections where cranial implant is needed then corrected the edges of cranial implant to overcome CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) leakage and proper fitting. Finally the implant average thickness is decided as 2.5 mm and printed in FDM machine with ABS plastic.

  11. Signaling mechanisms implicated in cranial sutures pathophysiology: Craniosynostosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Katsianou


    Full Text Available Normal extension and skull expansion is a synchronized process that prevails along the osteogenic intersections of the cranial sutures. Cranial sutures operate as bone growth sites allowing swift bone generation at the edges of the bone fronts while they remain patent. Premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures can trigger craniosynostosis, a birth defect characterized by dramatic manifestations in appearance and functional impairment. Up until today, surgical correction is the only restorative measure for craniosynostosis associated with considerable mortality. Clinical studies have identified several genes implicated in the pathogenesis of craniosynostosis syndromes with useful insights into the underlying molecular signaling events that determine suture fate. In this review, we exploit the intracellular signal transduction pathways implicated in suture pathobiology, in an attempt to identify key signaling molecules for therapeutic targeting.

  12. Preoperative anemia increases postoperative morbidity in elective cranial neurosurgery (United States)

    Bydon, Mohamad; Abt, Nicholas B.; Macki, Mohamed; Brem, Henry; Huang, Judy; Bydon, Ali; Tamargo, Rafael J.


    Background: Preoperative anemia may affect postoperative mortality and morbidity following elective cranial operations. Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was used to identify elective cranial neurosurgical cases (2006-2012). Morbidity was defined as wound infection, systemic infection, cardiac, respiratory, renal, neurologic, and thromboembolic events, and unplanned returns to the operating room. For 30-day postoperative mortality and morbidity, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with multivariable logistic regression. Results: Of 8015 patients who underwent elective cranial neurosurgery, 1710 patients (21.4%) were anemic. Anemic patients had an increased 30-day mortality of 4.1% versus 1.3% in non-anemic patients (P neurosurgery was independently associated with an increased risk of 30-day postoperative mortality and morbidity when compared to non-anemic patients. A hematocrit level below 33% (Hgb 11 g/dl) was associated with a significant increase in postoperative morbidity. PMID:25422784

  13. Functional electrical stimulation improves brain perfusion in cranial trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Juarez Amorim


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate brain perfusion changes due to neuronal activation after functional electrical stimulation (FES. METHOD: It was studied 14 patients with hemiplegia who were submitted to a program with FES during fourteen weeks. Brain perfusion SPECT was performed before and after FES therapy. These patients were further separated into 2 groups according to the hemiplegia cause: cranial trauma and major vascular insults. All SPECT images were analyzed using SPM. RESULTS: There was a significant statistical difference between the two groups related to patient's ages and extent of hypoperfusion in the SPECT. Patients with cranial trauma had a reduction in the hypoperfused area and patients with major vascular insult had an increase in the hypoperfused area after FES therapy. CONCLUSION: FES therapy can result in brain perfusion improvement in patients with brain lesions due to cranial trauma but probably not in patients with major vascular insults with large infarct area.

  14. Development of a Human Cranial Bone Surrogate for Impact Studies. (United States)

    Roberts, Jack C; Merkle, Andrew C; Carneal, Catherine M; Voo, Liming M; Johannes, Matthew S; Paulson, Jeff M; Tankard, Sara; Uy, O Manny


    In order to replicate the fracture behavior of the intact human skull under impact it becomes necessary to develop a material having the mechanical properties of cranial bone. The most important properties to replicate in a surrogate human skull were found to be the fracture toughness and tensile strength of the cranial tables as well as the bending strength of the three-layer (inner table-diplöe-outer table) architecture of the human skull. The materials selected to represent the surrogate cranial tables consisted of two different epoxy resins systems with random milled glass fiber to enhance the strength and stiffness and the materials to represent the surrogate diplöe consisted of three low density foams. Forty-one three-point bending fracture toughness tests were performed on nine material combinations. The materials that best represented the fracture toughness of cranial tables were then selected and formed into tensile samples and tested. These materials were then used with the two surrogate diplöe foam materials to create the three-layer surrogate cranial bone samples for three-point bending tests. Drop tower tests were performed on flat samples created from these materials and the fracture patterns were very similar to the linear fractures in pendulum impacts of intact human skulls, previously reported in the literature. The surrogate cranial tables had the quasi-static fracture toughness and tensile strength of 2.5 MPa√ m and 53 ± 4.9 MPa, respectively, while the same properties of human compact bone were 3.1 ± 1.8 MPa√ m and 68 ± 18 MPa, respectively. The cranial surrogate had a quasi-static bending strength of 68 ± 5.7 MPa, while that of cranial bone was 82 ± 26 MPa. This material/design is currently being used to construct spherical shell samples for drop tower and ballistic tests.

  15. Artificial Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru JIVAN


    Full Text Available This paper proposes to eliminate, a routine in the economic thinking, claimed to be responsible for the negative essence of economic developments, from the point of view, of the ecological implications (employment in the planetary ecosystem. The methodological foundations start from the natural origins of the functionality of the human economic society according to the originary physiocrat liberalism, and from specific natural characteristics of the humankind. This paper begins with a comment-analysis of the difference between natural and artificial within the economy, and then explains some of the most serious diversions from the natural essence of economic liberalism. It shall be explained the original (heterodox interpretation of the Classical political economy (economics, by making calls to the Romanian economic thinking from aggravating past century. Highlighting the destructive impact of the economy - which, under the invoked doctrines, we call unnatural - allows an intuitive presentation of a logical extension of Marshall's market price, based on previous research. Besides the doctrinal arguments presented, the economic realities inventoried along the way (major deficiencies and effects, determined demonstrate the validity of the hypothesis of the unnatural character and therefore necessarily to be corrected, of the concept and of the mechanisms of the current economy.The results of this paper consist of original heterodox methodspresented, intuitive or developed that can be found conclusively within the key proposals for education and regulation.

  16. Morphometric analysis of the cranial base in Asians. (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Po; Liu, Pao-Hsin; Tseng, Yu-Chuan; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Pan, Chin-Yun; Chou, Szu-Ting


    This study tested the hypothesis that developmental heterogeneity in cranial base morphology increases the prevalence of Class III malocclusion and mandibular prognathism in Asians. Thin-plate spline (TPS) graphical analysis of lateral cephalometric radiographs of the cranial base and the upper midface configuration were compared between a European-American group (24 females and 31 males) and four Asian ethnic groups (100 Chinese, 100 Japanese, 100 Korean and 100 Taiwanese; 50 females and 50 males per group) of young adults with clinically acceptable occlusion and facial profiles. Procrustes analysis was performed to identify statistically significant differences in each configuration of landmarks (P expansion in the anterior portion of the cranial base and upper midface region. The most posterior cranial base region also showed horizontal compression between the basion and Bolton point, with forward displacement of the articulare. Facial flatness and anterior displacement of the temporomandibular joint, resulting from a relative retrusion of the nasomaxillary complex and a relative forward position of the mandible were also noted. These features that tend to cause a prognathic mandible and/or retruded midface indicate a morphologic predisposition of Asian populations for Class III malocclusion.

  17. Symptomatic cranial neuralgias in multiple sclerosis: clinical features and treatment. (United States)

    De Santi, Lorenzo; Annunziata, Pasquale


    In multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain is a frequent condition, negatively influencing the overall quality of life. Cranial neuralgias, including trigeminal, glossopharyngeal neuralgias, as well as occipital neuralgia, are typical expression of neuropathic pain. Neuralgias are characterised by paroxysmal painful attacks of electric shock-like sensation, occurring spontaneously or evoked by innocuous stimuli in specific trigger areas. In multiple sclerosis, demyelination in the centrally myelinated part of the cranial nerve roots plays an important role in the origin of neuralgic pain. These painful syndromes arising in multiple sclerosis are therefore considered "symptomatic", in contrast to classic cranial neuralgias, in which no cause other than a neurovascular contact is identified. At this time, the evidence on the management of symptomatic cranial neuralgias in multiple sclerosis is fragmentary and a comprehensive review addressing this topic is still lacking. For that reason, treatment is often based on personal clinical experience as well as on anecdotal reports. The aim of this review is to critically summarise the latest findings regarding the pathogenesis, the diagnosis, the instrumental evaluation and the medical as well as neurosurgical treatment of symptomatic trigeminal, glossopharyngeal and occipital neuralgia in multiple sclerosis, providing useful insights for neurologists and neurosurgeons and a broad range of specialists potentially involved in the treatment of these painful syndromes.

  18. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for treatment of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. (United States)

    Kirsch, Daniel L; Nichols, Francine


    Cranial electrotherapy stimulation is a prescriptive medical device that delivers a mild form of electrical stimulation to the brain for the treatment of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. It is supported by more than 40 years of research demonstrating its effectiveness in several mechanistic studies and greater than 100 clinical studies. Adverse effects are rare (electrotherapy stimulation may also be used as an adjunctive therapy.

  19. Cranial Radiation Therapy and Damage to Hippocampal Neurogenesis (United States)

    Monje, Michelle


    Cranial radiation therapy is associated with a progressive decline in cognitive function, prominently memory function. Impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis is thought to be an important mechanism underlying this cognitive decline. Recent work has elucidated the mechanisms of radiation-induced failure of neurogenesis. Potential therapeutic…

  20. Teaching Parents How to Prevent Acquired Cranial Asymmetry in Infants. (United States)

    Lennartsson, Freda; Nordin, Per; Wennergren, Göran


    Acquired cranial asymmetry is prevalent in infants today. This is largely attributed to the supine sleep position recommended for infant safety. The condition can become permanent, so prevention and early detection are important. A prevention project was initiated where guidelines for Swedish child health nurses were developed, tested in a pilot study, revised, and then incorporated into a short cranial asymmetry prevention program for nurses. The program included detailed information on what to teach parents of newborns. An intervention study was initiated where one group of nurses was taught according to the program and the other group followed the standard recommendations. The aim of this survey was to compare intervention and control group parents' responses regarding the cranial asymmetry prevention information that they had received from their nurses during their infant's first four months. Participants included 272 parents (180 intervention group, 92 control group) at 26 child health centers. A checklist was distributed to parents in conjunction with infants' four month health checkup. A significantly higher percentage of intervention group parents were aware of regular recommendations - alternate direction of the infant's head when putting the child to bed (82%: 64%, p=0.001), which pillow to use (92%: 80%, p=0.01), and when to remove the pillow (48%: 31%, p=0.006) - and five newly introduced recommendations compared to controls. Results indicate that educating child health nurses on prevention of cranial asymmetry works to increase parental awareness of what to do and how to do it safely.

  1. Damage Effects of Rat Thymus After Cranial Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Ying-qi; WANG; Xiao; SUI; Li; KONG; Fu-quan; MA; Nan-ru


    <正>To study the damage effects of the thymus and investigate the interaction of hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) in neuroimmunological signaling pathway, the rat model of cranial irradiated by carbon ions was establish. By means of enzyme-linked immunoassay (Elisa), one day of post-irradiation with carbon ions, for the group of control, irradiated or drug (Longxuejie) treated,

  2. Postnatal cranial ultrasonographic findings in feto-fetal transfusion syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breysem, L.; Naulaers, G.; Deprest, J.; Schoubroeck, D.V.; Daniels, H.; Lammens, M.M.Y.; Smet, M.H.


    Our objective was a retrospective evaluation of cranial US in survivors of twin pregnancy with feto-fetal transfusion syndrome (FFTS), with knowledge of prenatal treatment and neonatal/postnatal clinical data. In 18 pregnancies with FFTS (January 1996 to May 2000), pregnancy management and outcome,

  3. Automatic Detection of Wild-type Mouse Cranial Sutures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darvann, Tron Andre; Hermann, Nuno V.;

    , automatic detection of the cranial sutures becomes important. We have previously built a craniofacial, wild-type mouse atlas from a set of 10 Micro CT scans using a B-spline-based nonrigid registration method by Rueckert et al. Subsequently, all volumes were registered nonrigidly to the atlas. Using...

  4. Association of fetal cranial shape with shoulder dystocia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfort, M. A.; White, G. L.; Vermeulen, F. M.


    Objective To evaluate whether fetal cranial shape is related to shoulder dystocia. Methods We compared shoulder dystocia cases (n = 18) with controls (normal vaginal deliveries, n = 18) in a retrospective matched- pairs observational study. Subjects were matched for known maternal and fetal risk fac

  5. Is phenytoin contraindicated in patients receiving cranial irradiation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, M.F. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia); Probert, J.C. [Auckland Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Zwi, L.J. [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand). Dept. of Medicine and Surgery


    Three recent publications have reported the development of erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome in patients receiving cranial irradiation and sodium phenytoin. Some authors have recommended that patients receiving whole brain radiation therapy and who have had seizures should not be prescribed phenytoin but an alternative anticonvulsant. This article reviews the current literature pertaining to the development of this potentially lethal complication in patients receiving whole brain radiation and phenytoin, with reference to the single recorded case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome in a patient receiving cranial irradiation and phenytoin in Auckland, New Zealand. While the clinical picture in the 16 patients reported in the literature and the current case report differed from the classical form of erythema multiforme, a similar pattern of presentation and outcome appeared in all patients reviewed, suggesting that the combination of phenytoin, cranial irradiation and the gradual reduction of concomitant steroids seem to lead to the development of erythema multiforme and/or Stevens-Johnson syndrome. The data presented, although sparse, suggest that phenytoin should not be prescribed in patients receiving cranial irradiation. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  6. A reassessment of human cranial plasticity: Boas revisited. (United States)

    Sparks, Corey S; Jantz, Richard L


    In 1912, Franz Boas published a study demonstrating the plastic nature of the human body in response to changes in the environment. The results of this study have been cited for the past 90 years as evidence of cranial plasticity. These findings, however, have never been critiqued thoroughly for their statistical and biological validity. This study presents a reassessment of Boas' data within a modern statistical and quantitative genetic framework. The data used here consist of head and face measurements on over 8,000 individuals of various European ethnic groups. By using pedigree information contained in Boas' data, narrow sense heritabilities are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood. In addition, a series of t tests and regression analyses are performed to determine the statistical validity of Boas' original findings on differentiation between American and European-born children and the prolonged effect of the environment on cranial form. Results indicate the relatively high genetic component of the head and face diameters despite the environmental differences during development. Results point to very small and insignificant differences between European- and American-born offspring, and no effect of exposure to the American environment on the cranial index in children. These results contradict Boas' original findings and demonstrate that they may no longer be used to support arguments of plasticity in cranial morphology.

  7. Association of fetal cranial shape with shoulder dystocia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfort, M. A.; White, G. L.; Vermeulen, F. M.


    Objective To evaluate whether fetal cranial shape is related to shoulder dystocia. Methods We compared shoulder dystocia cases (n = 18) with controls (normal vaginal deliveries, n = 18) in a retrospective matched- pairs observational study. Subjects were matched for known maternal and fetal risk fac

  8. The Forgotten Cranial Nereve - clinical importance of olfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjældstad, Alexander; Clausen, Christian H; Kjærgaard, Thomas;


    Hyposmia is often undiagnosed despite the known negative effect on taste, appetite and life quality. However, a new focus on the first cranial nerve has emerged as a consequence of a discovered connection between neurodegenerative disorders and hyposmia. In Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's dis...

  9. Spontaneous defects between the mastoid and posterior cranial fossa. (United States)

    Rereddy, Shruthi K; Mattox, Douglas E


    Conclusions Spontaneous defects between the mastoid and the posterior cranial fossa are exceedingly rare. Patients with these lesions may have a lower BMI compared to those with middle cranial fossa encephaloceles, but are otherwise demographically similar. This study recommends repair via a transtemporal approach to allow for examination of the entire posterior face of the temporal bone. Objective To describe cases of spontaneous posterior cranial fossa defects. Methods This study reviewed all cases of spontaneous posterior fossa defects presenting to a tertiary referral center over the last decade and described clinical presentation, imaging, operative findings, and outcomes. We also compared these lesions to those previously reported in the literature as well as the more common spontaneous encephaloceles of the middle cranial fossa. Results This study identified five cases with a mean age of 61.4 years, female-to-male ratio of 4:1, and a mean BMI of 31. Three cases presented with spontaneous pneumocephalus, one with CSF otorrhea, and one as an incidental imaging finding. Four defects were found medial to the sigmoid sinus and one was in the lateral retrosigmoid air cells.

  10. State of the art cranial ultrasound imaging in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ecury-Goossen, Ginette M; Camfferman, Fleur A; Leijser, Lara M; Govaert, Paul; Dudink, Jeroen


    Cranial ultrasound (CUS) is a reputable tool for brain imaging in critically ill neonates. It is safe, relatively cheap and easy to use, even when a patient is unstable. In addition it is radiation-free and allows serial imaging. CUS possibilities have steadily expanded. However, in many neonatal in

  11. Bony exostosis of the atlas with resultant cranial nerve palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavotinek, J.P.; Sage, M.R. (Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park (Australia). Dept. of Radiology); Brophy, B.P. (Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park (Australia). Dept. of Neurosurgery)


    A case of tenth and twelfth nerve compression secondary to a bony exostosis of the first cervical vertebra is described. This uncommon phenomenon serves to outline the importance of imaging the course of a cranial nerve when no intracranial abnormality is demonstrable on CT or MRI. The radiologic features of spinal osteochondromas are reviewed. (orig.).

  12. Cranial trauma and the assessment of posttraumatic survival time. (United States)

    Steyn, M; De Boer, H H; Van der Merwe, A E


    Assessment of trauma on skeletal remains can be very difficult, especially when it comes to the estimation of posttraumatic survival time in partially healed lesions. The ability to reliably estimate the time an individual has survived after sustaining an injury is especially important in cases of child abuse and torture, but can also aid in determining the association between an injury and eventual death. Here a case from South Africa is reported, where the skeletal remains of an unknown individual were found with cranial and scapular fractures. These fractures all presented with macroscopic features indicative of healing. Using recently published data on the timing of fractures by De Boer et al., the two sets of cranial trauma and the scapular fracture were assessed by means of radiology, histology and microCT scanning. This was primarily done in order to obtain more information on the events surrounding the death of this individual, but also to assess the usability of the published methods on cranial fractures. It was found that the initial trauma was most likely sustained at least two weeks before death, whilst a neurosurgical procedure was performed at least one week before death. It seems that cranial fractures, especially if stable, may show some different healing features than postcranial fractures. The individual has since been identified, but unfortunately as is often the case in South Africa, limited information is available and the medical records could not be found. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cranial nerve development requires co-ordinated Shh and canonical Wnt signaling. (United States)

    Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Trainor, Paul A; Leroux-Berger, Margot; Iulianella, Angelo


    Cranial nerves govern sensory and motor information exchange between the brain and tissues of the head and neck. The cranial nerves are derived from two specialized populations of cells, cranial neural crest cells and ectodermal placode cells. Defects in either cell type can result in cranial nerve developmental defects. Although several signaling pathways are known to regulate cranial nerve formation our understanding of how intercellular signaling between neural crest cells and placode cells is coordinated during cranial ganglia morphogenesis is poorly understood. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling is one key pathway that regulates multiple aspects of craniofacial development, but whether it co-ordinates cranial neural crest cell and placodal cell interactions during cranial ganglia formation remains unclear. In this study we examined a new Patched1 (Ptch1) loss-of-function mouse mutant and characterized the role of Ptch1 in regulating Shh signaling during cranial ganglia development. Ptch1(Wig/ Wig) mutants exhibit elevated Shh signaling in concert with disorganization of the trigeminal and facial nerves. Importantly, we discovered that enhanced Shh signaling suppressed canonical Wnt signaling in the cranial nerve region. This critically affected the survival and migration of cranial neural crest cells and the development of placodal cells as well as the integration between neural crest and placodes. Collectively, our findings highlight a novel and critical role for Shh signaling in cranial nerve development via the cross regulation of canonical Wnt signaling.

  14. Myological variability in a decoupled skeletal system: batoid cranial anatomy. (United States)

    Kolmann, Matthew A; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N; Grubbs, R Dean


    Chondrichthyans (sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) have simple feeding mechanisms owing to their relatively few cranial skeletal elements. However, the indirect association of the jaws to the cranium (euhyostylic jaw suspension) has resulted in myriad cranial muscle rearrangements of both the hyoid and mandibular elements. We examined the cranial musculature of an abbreviated phylogenetic representation of batoid fishes, including skates, guitarfishes and with a particular focus on stingrays. We identified homologous muscle groups across these taxa and describe changes in gross morphology across developmental and functional muscle groups, with the goal of exploring how decoupling of the jaws from the skull has effected muscular arrangement. In particular, we focus on the cranial anatomy of durophagous and nondurophagous batoids, as the former display marked differences in morphology compared to the latter. Durophagous stingrays are characterized by hypertrophied jaw adductors, reliance on pennate versus fusiform muscle fiber architecture, tendinous rather than aponeurotic muscle insertions, and an overall reduction in mandibular kinesis. Nondurophagous stingrays have muscles that rely on aponeurotic insertions onto the skeletal structure, and display musculoskeletal specialization for jaw protrusion and independent lower jaw kinesis, relative to durophagous stingrays. We find that among extant chondrichthyans, considerable variation exists in the hyoid and mandibular muscles, slightly less so in hypaxial muscles, whereas branchial muscles are overwhelmingly conserved. As chondrichthyans occupy a position sister to all other living gnathostomes, our understanding of the structure and function of early vertebrate feeding systems rests heavily on understanding chondrichthyan cranial anatomy. Our findings highlight the incredible variation in muscular complexity across chondrichthyans in general and batoids in particular.

  15. Cranial suture biology of the Aleutian Island inhabitants. (United States)

    Cray, James; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I


    Research on cranial suture biology suggests there is biological and taxonomic information to be garnered from the heritable pattern of suture synostosis. Suture synostosis along with brain growth patterns, diet, and biomechanical forces influence phenotypic variability in cranial vault morphology. This study was designed to determine the pattern of ectocranial suture synostosis in skeletal populations from the Aleutian Islands. We address the hypothesis that ectocranial suture synostosis pattern will differ according to cranial vault shape. Ales Hrdlicka identified two phenotypes in remains excavated from the Aleutian Island. The Paleo-Aleutians, exhibiting a dolichocranic phenotype with little prognathism linked to artifacts distinguished from later inhabitants, Aleutians, who exhibited a brachycranic phenotype with a greater amount of prognathism. A total of 212 crania representing Paleo-Aleuts and Aleutian as defined by Hrdlicka were investigated for suture synostosis pattern following standard methodologies. Comparisons were performed using Guttmann analyses. Results revealed similar suture fusion patterns for the Paleo-Aleut and Aleutian, a strong anterior to posterior pattern of suture fusion for the lateral-anterior suture sites, and a pattern of early termination at the sagittal suture sites for the vault. These patterns were found to differ from that reported in the literature. Because these two populations with distinct cranial shapes exhibit similar patterns of suture synostosis it appears pattern is independent of cranial shape in these populations of Homo sapiens. These findings suggest that suture fusion patterns may be population dependent and that a standardized methodology, using suture fusion to determine age-at-death, may not be applicable to all populations.

  16. Tolerance of cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus to radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tishler, R.B.; Loeffler, J.S.; Alexander, E. III; Kooy, H.M. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Lunsford, L.D.; Duma, C.; Flickinger, J.C. (Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States))


    Stereotactic radiosurgery is becoming a more accepted treatment option for benign, deep seated intracranial lesions. However, little is known about the effects of large single fractions of radiation on cranial nerves. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of radiosurgery on the cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus. The authors examined the tolerance of cranial nerves (II-VI) following radiosurgery for 62 patients (42/62 with meningiomas) treated for lesions within or near the cavernous sinus. Twenty-nine patients were treated with a modified 6 MV linear accelerator (Joint Center for Radiation Therapy) and 33 were treated with the Gamma Knife (University of Pittsburgh). Three-dimensional treatment plans were retrospectively reviewed and maximum doses were calculated for the cavernous sinus and the optic nerve and chiasm. Median follow-up was 19 months (range 3-49). New cranial neuropathies developed in 12 patients from 3-41 months following radiosurgery. Four of these complications involved injury to the optic system and 8 (3/8 transient) were the result of injury to the sensory or motor nerves of the cavernous sinus. There was no clear relationship between the maximum dose to the cavernous sinus and the development of complications for cranial nerves III-VI over the dose range used (1000-4000 cGy). For the optic apparatus, there was a significantly increased incidence of complications with dose. Four of 17 patients (24%) receiving greater than 800 cGy to any part of the optic apparatus developed visual complications compared with 0/35 who received less than 800 cGy (p = 0.009). Radiosurgery using tumor-controlling doses of up to 4000 cGy appears to be a relatively safe technique in treating lesions within or near the sensory and motor nerves (III-VI) of the cavernous sinus. The dose to the optic apparatus should be limited to under 800 cGy. 21 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. Ameloblastin inhibits cranial suture closure by modulating MSX2 expression and proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phimon Atsawasuwan

    Full Text Available Deformities of cranial sutures such as craniosynostosis and enlarged parietal foramina greatly impact human development and quality of life. Here we have examined the role of the extracellular matrix protein ameloblastin (Ambn, a recent addition to the family of non-collagenous extracellular bone matrix proteins, in craniofacial bone development and suture formation. Using RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry, Ambn was localized in mouse calvarial bone and adjacent condensed mesenchyme. Five-fold Ambn overexpression in a K14-driven transgenic mouse model resulted in delayed posterior frontal suture fusion and incomplete suture closure. Moreover, Ambn overexpressor skulls weighed 13.2% less, their interfrontal bones were 35.3% thinner, and the width between frontal bones plus interfrontal suture was 14.3% wider. Ambn overexpressing mice also featured reduced cell proliferation in suture blastemas and in mesenchymal cells from posterior frontal sutures. There was a more than 2-fold reduction of Msx2 in Ambn overexpressing calvariae and suture mesenchymal cells, and this effect was inversely proportionate to the level of Ambn overexpression in different cell lines. The reduction of Msx2 expression as a result of Ambn overexpression was further enhanced in the presence of the MEK/ERK pathway inhibitor O126. Finally, Ambn overexpression significantly reduced Msx2 down-stream target gene expression levels, including osteogenic transcription factors Runx2 and Osx, the bone matrix proteins Ibsp, ColI, Ocn and Opn, and the cell cycle-related gene CcnD1. Together, these data suggest that Ambn plays a crucial role in the regulation of cranial bone growth and suture closure via Msx 2 suppression and proliferation inhibition.

  18. Experimental Comparison of Cranial Particulate Bone Graft, rhBMP-2, and Split Cranial Bone Graft for Inlay Cranioplasty. (United States)

    Hassanein, Aladdin H; Couto, Rafael A; Kurek, Kyle C; Rogers, Gary F; Mulliken, John B; Greene, Arin K


    Background :  Particulate bone graft and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) are options for inlay cranioplasty in children who have not developed a diploic space. The purpose of this study was to determine whether particulate bone graft or rhBMP-2 has superior efficacy for inlay cranioplasty and to compare these substances to split cranial bone. Methods :  A 17 mm × 17 mm critical-sized defect was made in the parietal bones of 22 rabbits and managed in four ways: Group I (no implant; n=5), Group II (particulate bone graft; n=5), Group III (rhBMP-2; n=7), and Group IV (split cranial bone graft; n=5). Animals underwent microcomputed tomography and histologic analysis 16 weeks after cranioplasty. Results :  Defects without an implant (Group I) demonstrated inferior ossification (41.4%; interquartile range [IQR], 28.9% to 42.5%) compared to those treated with particulate bone graft (Group II: 99.5%; IQR, 97.8% to 100%), rhBMP-2 (Group III: 99.6%; IQR, 99.5% to 100%), or split cranial bone (Group IV: 100%) (P inlay calvarial defect areas equally, although the thickness of bone healed with rhBMP-2 is inferior. Clinically, particulate bone graft or split cranial bone graft may be superior to rhBMP-2 for inlay cranioplasty.

  19. Direct Cranial Nerve Involvement by Gliomas: Case series and review of the literature (United States)

    Mabray, Marc C.; Glastonbury, Christine M.; Mamlouk, Mark D.; Punch, Gregory E.; Solomon, David A.; Cha, Soonmee


    Malignant gliomas are characterized by infiltrative growth of tumor cells, including along white matter tracts. This may result in clinical cranial neuropathy due to direct involvement of a cranial nerve rather than by leptomeningeal spread along cranial nerves. Gliomas directly involving cranial nerves III-XII are rare with only eleven cases reported in the literature prior to 2014, including eight with imaging. We present eight additional cases demonstrating direct infiltration of a cranial nerve by glioma. Asymmetric cisternal nerve expansion as compared to the contralateral nerve was noted with a mean length of involvement of 9.4 mm. Based on our case series, the key imaging feature to recognize direct cranial nerve involvement by a glioma is the detection of an intra-axial mass in the pons or midbrain that is directly associated with expansion, signal abnormality, and/or enhancement of the adjacent cranial nerve(s). PMID:25857757

  20. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for the treatment of depression. (United States)

    Gunther, Mary; Phillips, Kenneth D


    More prevalent in women than men, clinical depression affects approximately 15 million American adults in a given year. Psychopharmaceutical therapy accompanied by psychotherapy and wellness interventions (e.g., nutrition, exercise, counseling) is effective in 80% of diagnosed cases. A lesser known adjunctive therapy is that of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES). The major hypothesis for the use of CES in depression is that it may reset the brain to pre-stress homeostasis levels. It is conjectured that the pulsed electrical currents emitted by cranial electrical stimulators affect changes in the limbic system, the reticular activating system, and/or the hypothalamus that result in neurotransmitter secretion and downstream hormone production. While evidence is good for applied research, basic research about the mechanisms of action for CES remains in its infancy. A review of the literature provides an overview of current research findings and implications for clinical mental health practice.

  1. Motonuclear changes after cranial nerve injury and regeneration. (United States)

    Fernandez, E; Pallini, R; Lauretti, L; La Marca, F; Scogna, A; Rossi, G F


    Little is known about the mechanisms at play in nerve regeneration after nerve injury. Personal studies are reported regarding motonuclear changes after regeneration of injured cranial nerves, in particular of the facial and oculomotor nerves, as well as the influence that the natural molecule acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) has on post-axotomy cranial nerve motoneuron degeneration after facial and vagus nerve lesions. Adult and newborn animal models were used. Massive motoneuron response after nerve section and reconstruction was observed in the motonuclei of all nerves studied. ALC showed to have significant neuroprotective effects on the degeneration of axotomized motoneurons. Complex quantitative, morphological and somatotopic nuclear changes occurred that sustain new hypotheses regarding the capacities of motoneurons to regenerate and the possibilities of new neuron proliferation. The particularities of such observations are described and discussed.

  2. MR of acoustic neuromas; Relationship to cranial nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Takashima, Tsutomu; Kadoya, Masumi; Takahashi, Shiroh; Miyayama, Shiroh; Taira, Sakae; Kashihara, Kengo; Yamashima, Tetsumori; Itoh, Haruhide (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    In this report, the relationship of acoustic neuromas to the adjacent cranial nerves is discussed. On T{sub 1}-weighted images, the trigeminal nerve was detected in all 13 cases. Mild to marked compression of these nerves by the tumors was observed in eight cases. The extent of compression did not always correspond to the clinical symptoms. In four cases with a maximum tumor diameter of 2 cm or less, the 7th and 8th cranial nerves were identified. There was no facial palsy in these patients. Two patients with a tumor diameter of more than 2 cm also had no facial palsy. All patients, including those with small tumors, complained of hearing loss and/or tinnitus. While MR imaging has some limitations, it is an effective imaging modality for showing the relationship between tumors and nerves. (author).

  3. Madurella mycetoma--a rare case with cranial extension. (United States)

    Maheshwari, Shradha; Figueiredo, Antonio; Narurkar, Swati; Goel, Atul


    Madurella species of fungus causes chronic subcutaneous infection of lower extremities; the infection is commonly labeled as Madura foot. We report a case of Madurella infection involving the cranial cavity. Such an involvement by Madurella fungal infection is not recorded in the literature. A 31-year-old non-immunocompromised male patient presented with complaints of left hemifacial pain for 1 year and diplopia on looking toward left side for a period of 2 weeks. On examination, he had ipsilateral sixth nerve paresis. Investigations revealed a large paranasal sinus lesion that extended in the cavernous sinus. The lesion was partially resected. Histologic examination revealed that the lesion was a fungus Madurella mycetomi. A rare cranial extension of Madurella fungal infection is reported. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tracking modern human population history from linguistic and cranial phenotype. (United States)

    Reyes-Centeno, Hugo; Harvati, Katerina; Jäger, Gerhard


    Languages and genes arguably follow parallel evolutionary trajectories, descending from a common source and subsequently differentiating. However, although common ancestry is established within language families, it remains controversial whether language preserves a deep historical signal. To address this question, we evaluate the association between linguistic and geographic distances across 265 language families, as well as between linguistic, geographic, and cranial distances among eleven populations from Africa, Asia, and Australia. We take advantage of differential population history signals reflected by human cranial anatomy, where temporal bone shape reliably tracks deep population history and neutral genetic changes, while facial shape is more strongly associated with recent environmental effects. We show that linguistic distances are strongly geographically patterned, even within widely dispersed groups. However, they are correlated predominantly with facial, rather than temporal bone, morphology, suggesting that variation in vocabulary likely tracks relatively recent events and possibly population contact.

  5. Clinical characteristics and diagnostic imaging of cranial osteoblastoma. (United States)

    Pelargos, Panayiotis E; Nagasawa, Daniel T; Ung, Nolan; Chung, Lawrance K; Thill, Kimberly; Tenn, Stephen; Gopen, Quinton; Yang, Isaac


    Benign osteoblastoma is a rare, vascular, osteoid-forming bone tumor that occurs even less frequently in the cranial bones. Benign osteoblastoma of the cranium affects women slightly more often than men and typically presents in the first three decades of life. Although clinical presentation can vary depending on location, cranial osteoblastoma usually presents as a painful, non-mobile, subcutaneous mass or swelling. On CT scan, it generally presents as a well-demarcated, mixed lytic and sclerotic lesion, with enlarged diploe, thinning outer and/or inner tables, and varying degrees of calcification. It is hypo to isointense on T1-weighted MRI and has variable presentation on T2-weighted MRI. Gross total resection is the definitive treatment, while subtotal resection is utilized when it is necessary to preserve critical adjacent neurovascular structures.

  6. Trends in Artificial Intelligence. (United States)

    Hayes, Patrick


    Discusses the foundations of artificial intelligence as a science and the types of answers that may be given to the question, "What is intelligence?" The paradigms of artificial intelligence and general systems theory are compared. (Author/VT)

  7. [Minor cranial injury: clinical, audiovestibular and medico-legal aspects]. (United States)

    Tripodi, D; D'Ambrosio, L; Palladino, V; Paduano, F


    Minor cranial trauma is a common pathology upon which there is no general agreement. This is why the verification and quantification of the damages should not depend on the analysis of subjective data and objective elements which are not quantifiable. By careful clinical and instrumental examination of 42 patients, the authors come to the conclusion that ENG and ABR can often provide objective and documentable data of clinical and forensic relevance.

  8. Severe cranial neuropathies caused by falls from heights in children. (United States)

    Zahavi, A; Luckman, J; Yassur, I; Michowiz, S; Goldenberg-Cohen, N


    Falls from heights are the most common traumatic event associated with emergency department visits in children. This study investigated the incidence and clinical course of cranial neuropathies caused by falls from heights in children. The computerized records of a tertiary pediatric medical center were searched for all patients admitted to the emergency department in 2004-2014 with a head injury caused by falling from a height. Those with cranial neuropathies involving optic and eye-motility disturbances were identified, and their clinical, imaging, and outcome data were evaluated. Of the estimated 61,968 patients who presented to the emergency department during the study period because of a fall, 18,758 (30.3 %) had head trauma. Only 12 (seven boys, five girls, average age 6.7 years) had a visual disturbance. Eight were diagnosed with traumatic optic neuropathy, one after a 6-month delay, including two with accompanying cranial nerve (CN) III injuries. Five patients had anisocoria or an abnormal pupillary response to light at presentation, one patient had CN VI paralysis and temporary vision loss, and one patient had an isolated CN III injury diagnosed on follow-up. Visual improvement varied among the patients. Cranial neuropathies due to falls from heights are rare in children and are associated with high visual morbidity. Vision or ocular motility impairment, especially monocular vision loss, may be missed during acute intake to the emergency department, and a high index of suspicion is needed. Assessment of the pupillary response to light is essential.

  9. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging in chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy.


    Hawke, S H; Hallinan, J M; McLeod, J G


    Twenty one patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and five patients with chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with benign monoclonal paraproteinaemia none of whom had signs or symptoms of central nervous system disease, had cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 1.5 Tesla unit. Areas of increased white matter signal intensity were seen in one of 10 patients aged less than 50 years and in five of 16 patients aged more than 50 years. In ...

  10. Artificial life and Piaget. (United States)

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.


    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  11. Artificiality in Social Sciences


    Rennard, Jean-Philippe


    This text provides with an introduction to the modern approach of artificiality and simulation in social sciences. It presents the relationship between complexity and artificiality, before introducing the field of artificial societies which greatly benefited from the computer power fast increase, gifting social sciences with formalization and experimentation tools previously owned by "hard" sciences alone. It shows that as "a new way of doing social sciences", artificial societies should undo...

  12. Cranial skeletogenesis and osteology of the redeye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae. (United States)

    Walter, B E


    The skeletogenesis and osteology of the syncranium of the redeye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae is described. Skeletal development is rapid, with many elements of the chondrocranium and splanchnocranium well formed prior to the onset of ossification. The chondrocranium develops from an initial set of cartilaginous precursors, and continued elaboration proceeds from a series of processes which expand and converge to form the floor of the cranial vault, the otic capsule, the supraorbital bridge and the ethmoid region. Prodigious growth is observed for a number of splanchnocranial elements, including the Meckel's cartilage and the ceratohyal cartilage. Ossification occurs in overlapping phases with initial ossification of the jaws and neurocranial floor followed by the splanchnocranium, the supraorbital bridges and the ethmoid and cranial vault. Teeth are observed primarily on the premaxilla and dentary, while a single tooth is present on the maxilla. Particular cartilages, which had originally formed in the early larva, appear to degenerate and have no ossified representative in the adult syncranium. The cranial development for M. sanctaefilomenae is compared to those of other characiforms.

  13. Heterochrony and developmental modularity of cranial osteogenesis in lipotyphlan mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyabu Daisuke


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Here we provide the most comprehensive study to date on the cranial ossification sequence in Lipotyphla, the group which includes shrews, moles and hedgehogs. This unique group, which encapsulates diverse ecological modes, such as terrestrial, subterranean, and aquatic lifestyles, is used to examine the evolutionary lability of cranial osteogenesis and to investigate the modularity of development. Results An acceleration of developmental timing of the vomeronasal complex has occurred in the common ancestor of moles. However, ossification of the nasal bone has shifted late in the more terrestrial shrew mole. Among the lipotyphlans, sequence heterochrony shows no significant association with modules derived from developmental origins (that is, neural crest cells vs. mesoderm derived parts or with those derived from ossification modes (that is, dermal vs. endochondral ossification. Conclusions The drastic acceleration of vomeronasal development in moles is most likely coupled with the increased importance of the rostrum for digging and its use as a specialized tactile surface, both fossorial adaptations. The late development of the nasal in shrew moles, a condition also displayed by hedgehogs and shrews, is suggested to be the result of an ecological reversal to terrestrial lifestyle and reduced functional importance of the rostrum. As an overall pattern in lipotyphlans, our results reject the hypothesis that ossification sequence heterochrony occurs in modular fashion when considering the developmental patterns of the skull. We suggest that shifts in the cranial ossification sequence are not evolutionarily constrained by developmental origins or mode of ossification.

  14. Hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis in a patient with aplastic anemia. (United States)

    Asano, T; Hayashida, M; Ogawa, K; Adachi, K; Teramoto, A; Yamamoto, M


    We report on a 13-year old girl with severe aplastic anemia and hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis. She was admitted to our hospital with severe headache and vomiting. A computerized tomographic (CT) scan of the brain on the third day of symptoms showed a hyperdense area in the tentorial region. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed iso-intensity in the same tentorial region in T1- and T2-weighted images, and gadolinium enhancement of this region suggested a thickened dura mater. Initially, a diagnosis of subdural or subarachnoid hemorrhage was made. Since her platelet count was low (3000/microl) making the patient a poor-risk candidate for surgery, and the area was limited to the dura mater, conservative therapy, including glycerol administration and platelet transfusion, was carried out. Despite clinical improvement 10 days after admission without specific therapy, the iso-intense region on the left side of the tentorial region remained unchanged on MRI. On the other hand, the iso-intense area on the right side of the tentorial region became hyperdense on T1-weighted MRI images and was also enhanced by gadolinium. Cerebrospinal fluid findings were normal except for slightly elevated protein at 62 mg/dl. A diagnosis of hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis of the tentorial dura mater with hemorrhage on the right side was made. Although hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis is a rare disease, it must be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe headache in a case of aplastic anemia.

  15. Cranial and mandibular morphometry in Leontopithecus Lesson, 1840 (Callitrichidae, primates). (United States)

    Burity, C H; Mandarim-De-Lacerda, C A; Pissinatti, A


    In this paper, we report on a craniometric analysis comparing the species of lion tamarins, Leontopithecus Lesson, 1840. Seventeen cranial and mandibular measures were taken on skulls of 59 adult crania: 20 L. rosalia (14 females and 6 males); 13 L. chrysomelas (6 females and 7 males); 23 L. chrysopygus (8 females and 15 males), and 3 L. caissara (1 female and 2 males). All specimens were from the Rio de Janeiro Primate Center (CPRJ-FEEMA, Brazil), except the specimens of L. caissara. Statistical treatment involved a one-way analysis of variance (the Bonferroni test) and discriminant analysis, comparing cranium and mandibles separately to determine variables which best distinguished groups and to group the specimens, using size corrected methods. The Mahalanobis distance was computed from the centroids of each group. Seven measures distinguished females of L. chrysopygus with L. rosalia, six to L. rosalia with L. chrysomelas, and L. chrysopygus with L. chrysomelas. In males, the numbers of measures statistically different were 5, 4, and 3 of the pairwise comparisons above mentioned. Cranial base length and orbital breadth were the only measures that were significantly different in all three dyads, considering both sexes. For the cranium, function 1 of the Discriminant Analysis accounted for 52.4% of the variance and function 2 accounted for 40.3%. Both functions exhibited a significant value for Wilks' lambda (PLeontopithecus. Despite of sample size, L. caissara shows morphological distances to L. chrysopygus in cranial analysis. However, other investigations are necessary to confirm this.

  16. Phylogeny, diet, and cranial integration in australodelphian marsupials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Goswami

    Full Text Available Studies of morphological integration provide valuable information on the correlated evolution of traits and its relationship to long-term patterns of morphological evolution. Thus far, studies of morphological integration in mammals have focused on placentals and have demonstrated that similarity in integration is broadly correlated with phylogenetic distance and dietary similarity. Detailed studies have also demonstrated a significant correlation between developmental relationships among structures and adult morphological integration. However, these studies have not yet been applied to marsupial taxa, which differ greatly from placentals in reproductive strategy and cranial development and could provide the diversity necessary to assess the relationships among phylogeny, ecology, development, and cranial integration. This study presents analyses of morphological integration in 20 species of australodelphian marsupials, and shows that phylogeny is significantly correlated with similarity of morphological integration in most clades. Size-related correlations have a significant affect on results, particularly in Peramelia, which shows a striking decrease in similarity of integration among species when size is removed. Diet is not significantly correlated with similarity of integration in any marsupial clade. These results show that marsupials differ markedly from placental mammals in the relationships of cranial integration, phylogeny, and diet, which may be related to the accelerated development of the masticatory apparatus in marsupials.

  17. Surgical pitfalls with custom-made porous hydroxyapatite cranial implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Zanotti


    Full Text Available Aim: Cranioplasty implants are used primarily in cases of surgical cranial decompression following pathological elevations of intracranial pressure. Available bone substitutes include porous hydroxyapatite (HA and polymethylmethacrylate. Whichever material is used, however, prosthetic cranial implants are susceptible to intra- and postsurgical complications and even failure. The aim of this study was to investigate such occurrences in HA cranioplasty implants, seeking not only to determine the likely causes (whether correlated or not with the device itself but also, where possible, to suggest countermeasures. Methods: We analyzed information regarding failures or complications reported in postmarketing surveillance and clinical studies of patients treated worldwide with custom-made HA cranial implants (Custom Bone Service Fin-Ceramica Faenza, Italy in the period 1997-2013. Results: The two most common complications were implant fractures (84 cases, 2.9% of the total fitted and infections (51 cases, 1.77%. Conclusion: Although cranioplasties are superficial and not difficult types of surgery, and use of custom-made implants are often considered the "easy" option from a surgical perspective, these procedures are nonetheless plagued by potential pitfalls. If performed well they yield more than satisfactory results from the points of view of both the patient and surgeon, but lack of appropriate care can open the door to numerous potential sources of failure, which can compromise-even irreparably-the ability to heal.

  18. Deformations of crystal frameworks

    CERN Document Server

    Borcea, Ciprian S


    We apply our deformation theory of periodic bar-and-joint frameworks to tetrahedral crystal structures. The deformation space is investigated in detail for frameworks modelled on quartz, cristobalite and tridymite.

  19. Deformed General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Bojowald, Martin


    Deformed special relativity is embedded in deformed general relativity using the methods of canonical relativity and loop quantum gravity. Phase-space dependent deformations of symmetry algebras then appear, which in some regimes can be rewritten as non-linear Poincare algebras with momentum-dependent deformations of commutators between boosts and time translations. In contrast to deformed special relativity, the deformations are derived for generators with an unambiguous physical role, following from the relationship between canonical constraints of gravity with stress-energy components. The original deformation does not appear in momentum space and does not give rise to non-locality issues or problems with macroscopic objects. Contact with deformed special relativity may help to test loop quantum gravity or restrict its quantization ambiguities.

  20. Preactivation of the quadriceps muscle could limit cranial tibial translation in a cranial cruciate ligament deficient canine stifle. (United States)

    Ramirez, Juan M; Lefebvre, Michael; Böhme, Beatrice; Laurent, Cédric; Balligand, Marc


    Cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) deficiency is the leading cause of lameness of the canine stifle. Application of tension in the quadriceps muscle could trigger cranial tibial translation in case of CrCL rupture. We replaced the quadriceps muscle and the gastrocnemius muscle by load cells and turn-buckles. First, eight canine limbs were placed in a servo-hydraulic testing machine, which applied 50% of body weight (BW). In a second phase, the CrCL was transected, and the limbs were tested in a similar manner. In a third phase, a quadriceps pretension of 15% BW was applied and limbs were again tested in a similar manner. Cranial tibial translation was significantly decreased in CrCL deficient stifles (p quadriceps pretension was applied. These findings indicate that quadriceps pretension could play a role in the stability of a CrCL deficient stifle and should then be considered in rehabilitation programs and conservative treatment of CrCL rupture in dogs.

  1. [Ethmoid sinus mucocele penetrating to the orbit and anterior cranial fossa - case report]. (United States)

    Paradowska-Opałka, Beata; Kawczyński, Maciej; Jaworowska, Ewa


    Paranasal sinus mucocele is the cystic formation lined by inflammatory changed mucoperiosteum. This is slow-growing pathology with a tendency to bone erosion. The symptoms are dependent on the direction of the penetration, and are as follows: increasing headaches, deformations of frontal or orbital region, ophthalmic manifestations such as lacrimation, decreased visual acuity, exophthalmos, ocular movement limitation, diplopia. The most common location of the mucocele is fronto-ethmoid region. The most useful diagnostic tests are a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a computed tomography (CT) which show the progress of the disease and bone destructions. Surgery is the only method of treatment (external approach or FESS). This paper reports the case of a 74-year-old woman with ethmoid mucocele penetrating into the orbit, frontal sinus and anterior cranial fossa with compression of frontal lobe of the brain. The patient underwent CT and MRI and was treated with endoscopic intranasal marsupialization of the cyst. There are no clinical signs of disease recurrence 7 months after surgery. The endoscopic surgical management in treatment of sinus mucocele is a good alternative to the operation from external approach because of its low invasiveness, low complication risk, rapid healing and good therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2012 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. Reconstrucción craneal con biomateriales: Revisión histórica y estado actual Cranial reconstruction with biomaterials: Historical revision and current state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zubillaga Rodríguez


    Full Text Available La reconstrucción de defectos craneofaciales es todavía hoy día un proceso desafiante. Se define craneoplastia como la reparación de un defecto o deformidad craneal. La persistencia de traumatismos craneofaciales y procedimientos neuroquirúrgicos aporta un número importante de casos que permiten un fascinante progreso y desarrollo de nuevos materiales. El objetivo de este artículo es la revisión histórica de los distintos métodos reconstructivos craneales empleados, comentando sus ventajas e inconvenientes según el tamaño y forma del defecto a reparar. Se presentan casos clínicos recientes reconstruidos con diversos biomateriales.Craniofacial defect reconstruction is still a challenging procedure. A cranioplasty is the treatment of a cranial defect or a deformity. Cranial injuries and neurosurgical procedures provide an important group of cases that allow the development of new materials and fascinating progress. The aim of this article is a historic review of the different cranial reconstructive techniques used, describing advantages and drawbacks. The biomaterials applied in recent cases are presented.

  3. Deformable Nanolaminate Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S S; Papavasiliou, A P; Barbee, T W; Miles, R R; Walton, C C; Cohn, M B; Chang, K


    We are developing a new class of deformable optic based on electrostatic actuation of nanolaminate foils. These foils are engineered at the atomic level to provide optimal opto-mechanical properties, including surface quality, strength and stiffness, for a wide range of deformable optics. We are combining these foils, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), with commercial metal processing techniques to produce prototype deformable optics with aperture sizes up to 10 cm and actuator spacing from 1 mm to 1 cm and with a range of surface deformation designed to be as much as 10 microns. The existing capability for producing nanolaminate foils at LLNL, coupled with the commercial metal processing techniques being used, enable the potential production of these deformable optics with aperture sizes of over 1 m, and much larger deformable optics could potentially be produced by tiling multiple deformable segments. In addition, based on the fabrication processes being used, deformable nanolaminate optics could potentially be produced with areal densities of less than 1 kg per square m for applications in which lightweight deformable optics are desirable, and deformable nanolaminate optics could potentially be fabricated with intrinsically curved surfaces, including aspheric shapes. We will describe the basic principles of these devices, and we will present details of the design, fabrication and characterization of the prototype deformable nanolaminate optics that have been developed to date. We will also discuss the possibilities for future work on scaling these devices to larger sizes and developing both devices with lower areal densities and devices with curved surfaces.

  4. Mechanically activated artificial cell by using microfluidics. (United States)

    Ho, Kenneth K Y; Lee, Lap Man; Liu, Allen P


    All living organisms sense mechanical forces. Engineering mechanosensitive artificial cell through bottom-up in vitro reconstitution offers a way to understand how mixtures of macromolecules assemble and organize into a complex system that responds to forces. We use stable double emulsion droplets (aqueous/oil/aqueous) to prototype mechanosensitive artificial cells. In order to demonstrate mechanosensation in artificial cells, we develop a novel microfluidic device that is capable of trapping double emulsions into designated chambers, followed by compression and aspiration in a parallel manner. The microfluidic device is fabricated using multilayer soft lithography technology, and consists of a control layer and a deformable flow channel. Deflections of the PDMS membrane above the main microfluidic flow channels and trapping chamber array are independently regulated pneumatically by two sets of integrated microfluidic valves. We successfully compress and aspirate the double emulsions, which result in transient increase and permanent decrease in oil thickness, respectively. Finally, we demonstrate the influx of calcium ions as a response of our mechanically activated artificial cell through thinning of oil. The development of a microfluidic device to mechanically activate artificial cells creates new opportunities in force-activated synthetic biology.

  5. Mechanically activated artificial cell by using microfluidics (United States)

    Ho, Kenneth K. Y.; Lee, Lap Man; Liu, Allen P.


    All living organisms sense mechanical forces. Engineering mechanosensitive artificial cell through bottom-up in vitro reconstitution offers a way to understand how mixtures of macromolecules assemble and organize into a complex system that responds to forces. We use stable double emulsion droplets (aqueous/oil/aqueous) to prototype mechanosensitive artificial cells. In order to demonstrate mechanosensation in artificial cells, we develop a novel microfluidic device that is capable of trapping double emulsions into designated chambers, followed by compression and aspiration in a parallel manner. The microfluidic device is fabricated using multilayer soft lithography technology, and consists of a control layer and a deformable flow channel. Deflections of the PDMS membrane above the main microfluidic flow channels and trapping chamber array are independently regulated pneumatically by two sets of integrated microfluidic valves. We successfully compress and aspirate the double emulsions, which result in transient increase and permanent decrease in oil thickness, respectively. Finally, we demonstrate the influx of calcium ions as a response of our mechanically activated artificial cell through thinning of oil. The development of a microfluidic device to mechanically activate artificial cells creates new opportunities in force-activated synthetic biology.

  6. Mechanically activated artificial cell by using microfluidics (United States)

    Ho, Kenneth K. Y.; Lee, Lap Man; Liu, Allen P.


    All living organisms sense mechanical forces. Engineering mechanosensitive artificial cell through bottom-up in vitro reconstitution offers a way to understand how mixtures of macromolecules assemble and organize into a complex system that responds to forces. We use stable double emulsion droplets (aqueous/oil/aqueous) to prototype mechanosensitive artificial cells. In order to demonstrate mechanosensation in artificial cells, we develop a novel microfluidic device that is capable of trapping double emulsions into designated chambers, followed by compression and aspiration in a parallel manner. The microfluidic device is fabricated using multilayer soft lithography technology, and consists of a control layer and a deformable flow channel. Deflections of the PDMS membrane above the main microfluidic flow channels and trapping chamber array are independently regulated pneumatically by two sets of integrated microfluidic valves. We successfully compress and aspirate the double emulsions, which result in transient increase and permanent decrease in oil thickness, respectively. Finally, we demonstrate the influx of calcium ions as a response of our mechanically activated artificial cell through thinning of oil. The development of a microfluidic device to mechanically activate artificial cells creates new opportunities in force-activated synthetic biology. PMID:27610921

  7. An unusual case of isolated sixth cranial nerve palsy in leprosy. (United States)

    Vaishampayan, Sanjeev; Borde, Priyanka


    Cranial nerve involvement is not common in leprosy. The fifth and seventh cranial nerves are the most commonly affected in leprosy. Herein we present a patient with Hansen disease (BL) with type I reaction who developed isolated involvement of the sixth cranial nerve leading to lateral rectus muscle palsy. He responded to timely anti-reactional therapy and it produced a good response. Careful observation of patients with lepra reaction is needed to avoid damage to important organs.

  8. Sensations experienced and patients' perceptions of osteopathy in the cranial field treatment. (United States)

    Mulcahy, Jane; Vaughan, Brett


    Osteopathy in the cranial field is an approach used by manual and physical therapists. However, there is minimal information in the literature about patient experiences of this treatment. The present study was undertaken to explore patients' experiences of osteopathy in the cranial field. Patients completed the Patient Perception Measure-Osteopathy in the Cranial Field and identified sensations they experienced during treatment. Additional measures of anxiety, depression, Satisfaction With Life, and Meaningfulness of Daily Activity were completed. The Patient Perception Measure-Osteopathy in the Cranial Field was internally consistent (Cronbach's α = .85). The most frequently experienced sensations of osteopathy in the cranial field patients were "relaxed," "releasing," and "unwinding." Satisfaction With Life and Meaningfulness of Daily Activity were positively associated with Patient Perception Measure-Osteopathy in the Cranial Field scores. Negative associations were observed between the Patient Perception Measure-Osteopathy in the Cranial Field and depression. Psychometric properties of the Patient Perception Measure-Osteopathy in the Cranial Field require further testing. The observed associations of Satisfaction With Life and depression with patients' perceptions of osteopathy in the cranial field treatment needs to be tested in larger clinical manual therapy cohorts.

  9. Treatment of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Without Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation (United States)

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Campana, Dario; Pei, Deqing; Bowman, W. Paul; Sandlund, John T.; Kaste, Sue C.; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Raimondi, Susana C.; Onciu, Mihaela; Coustan-Smith, Elaine; Kun, Larry E.; Jeha, Sima; Cheng, Cheng; Howard, Scott C.; Simmons, Vickey; Bayles, Amy; Metzger, Monika L.; Boyett, James M.; Leung, Wing; Handgretinger, Rupert; Downing, James R.; Evans, William E.; Relling, Mary V.


    Background We conducted a clinical trial to test whether prophylactic cranial irradiation could be omitted in all children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods A total of 498 evaluable patients were enrolled. Treatment intensity was based on presenting features and the level of minimal residual disease after remission induction treatment. Continuous complete remission was compared between the 71 patients who previously would have received prophylactic cranial irradiation and the 56 historical controls who received it. Results The 5-year event-free and overall survival probabilities (95% confidence interval) for all 498 patients were 85.6% (79.9% to 91.3%) and 93.5% (89.8% to 97.2%), respectively. The 5-year cumulative risk of isolated central-nervous-system (CNS) relapse was 2.7% (1.1% to 4.2%), and that of any CNS relapse (isolated plus combined) was 3.9% (1.9% to 5.9%). The 71 patients had significantly better continuous complete remission than the 56 historical controls (P=0.04). All 11 patients with isolated CNS relapse remain in second remission for 0.4 to 5.5 years. CNS leukemia (CNS-3 status) or a traumatic lumbar puncture with blasts at diagnosis and a high level of minimal residual disease (≥ 1%) after 6 weeks of remission induction were significantly associated with poorer event-free survival. Risk factors for CNS relapse included the presence of the t(1;19)[TCF3-PBX1], any CNS involvement at diagnosis, and T-cell immunophenotype. Common adverse effects included allergic reactions to L-asparaginase, osteonecrosis, thrombosis, and disseminated fungal infection. Conclusions With effective risk-adjusted chemotherapy, prophylactic cranial irradiation can be safely omitted in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:19553647

  10. A Statistical Model of Head Asymmetry in Infants with Deformational Plagiocephaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanche, Stéphanie; Darvann, Tron Andre; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur;


    Deformational plagiocephaly is a term describing cranial asymmetry and deformation commonly seen in infants. The purpose of this work was to develop a methodology for assessment and modelling of head asymmetry. The clinical population consisted of 38 infants for whom 3-dimensional surface scans...... of the head had been obtained both before and after their helmet orthotic treatment. Non-rigid registration of a symmetric template to each of the scans provided detailed point correspondence between scans. A new asymmetry measure was defined and was used in order to quantify and localize the asymmetry...

  11. Are cranial biomechanical simulation data linked to known diets in extant taxa? A method for applying diet-biomechanics linkage models to infer feeding capability of extinct species. (United States)

    Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Flynn, John J


    Performance of the masticatory system directly influences feeding and survival, so adaptive hypotheses often are proposed to explain craniodental evolution via functional morphology changes. However, the prevalence of "many-to-one" association of cranial forms and functions in vertebrates suggests a complex interplay of ecological and evolutionary histories, resulting in redundant morphology-diet linkages. Here we examine the link between cranial biomechanical properties for taxa with different dietary preferences in crown clade Carnivora, the most diverse clade of carnivorous mammals. We test whether hypercarnivores and generalists can be distinguished based on cranial mechanical simulation models, and how such diet-biomechanics linkages relate to morphology. Comparative finite element and geometric morphometrics analyses document that predicted bite force is positively allometric relative to skull strain energy; this is achieved in part by increased stiffness in larger skull models and shape changes that resist deformation and displacement. Size-standardized strain energy levels do not reflect feeding preferences; instead, caniform models have higher strain energy than feliform models. This caniform-feliform split is reinforced by a sensitivity analysis using published models for six additional taxa. Nevertheless, combined bite force-strain energy curves distinguish hypercarnivorous versus generalist feeders. These findings indicate that the link between cranial biomechanical properties and carnivoran feeding preference can be clearly defined and characterized, despite phylogenetic and allometric effects. Application of this diet-biomechanics linkage model to an analysis of an extinct stem carnivoramorphan and an outgroup creodont species provides biomechanical evidence for the evolution of taxa into distinct hypercarnivorous and generalist feeding styles prior to the appearance of crown carnivoran clades with similar feeding preferences.

  12. Are cranial biomechanical simulation data linked to known diets in extant taxa? A method for applying diet-biomechanics linkage models to infer feeding capability of extinct species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Jack Tseng

    Full Text Available Performance of the masticatory system directly influences feeding and survival, so adaptive hypotheses often are proposed to explain craniodental evolution via functional morphology changes. However, the prevalence of "many-to-one" association of cranial forms and functions in vertebrates suggests a complex interplay of ecological and evolutionary histories, resulting in redundant morphology-diet linkages. Here we examine the link between cranial biomechanical properties for taxa with different dietary preferences in crown clade Carnivora, the most diverse clade of carnivorous mammals. We test whether hypercarnivores and generalists can be distinguished based on cranial mechanical simulation models, and how such diet-biomechanics linkages relate to morphology. Comparative finite element and geometric morphometrics analyses document that predicted bite force is positively allometric relative to skull strain energy; this is achieved in part by increased stiffness in larger skull models and shape changes that resist deformation and displacement. Size-standardized strain energy levels do not reflect feeding preferences; instead, caniform models have higher strain energy than feliform models. This caniform-feliform split is reinforced by a sensitivity analysis using published models for six additional taxa. Nevertheless, combined bite force-strain energy curves distinguish hypercarnivorous versus generalist feeders. These findings indicate that the link between cranial biomechanical properties and carnivoran feeding preference can be clearly defined and characterized, despite phylogenetic and allometric effects. Application of this diet-biomechanics linkage model to an analysis of an extinct stem carnivoramorphan and an outgroup creodont species provides biomechanical evidence for the evolution of taxa into distinct hypercarnivorous and generalist feeding styles prior to the appearance of crown carnivoran clades with similar feeding preferences.

  13. Posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula with presenting as caroticocavernous fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.M.; Shih, H.C.; Huang, Y.C.; Wang, Y.H. [Dept. of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan)


    We report cases of posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with presenting with exophthalmos, chemosis and tinnitus in 26- and 66-year-old men. The final diagnoses was vertebral artery AVF and AVF of the marginal sinus, respectively. The dominant venous drainage was the cause of the unusual presentation: both drained from the jugular bulb or marginal sinus, via the inferior petrosal and cavernous sinuses and superior ophthalmic vein. We used endovascular techniques, with coils and liquid adhesives to occlude the fistulae, with resolution of the symptoms and signs. (orig.)

  14. Nonlinear dynamical model and response of avian cranial kinesis. (United States)

    Meekangvan, Preeda; A Barhorst, Alan; Burton, Thomas D; Chatterjee, Sankar; Schovanec, Lawrence


    All modern birds have kinetic skulls in which the upper bill can move relative to the braincase, but the biomechanics and motion dynamics of cranial kinesis in birds are poorly understood. In this paper, we model the dynamics of avian cranial kinesis, such as prokinesis and proximal rhynchokinesis in which the upper jaw pivots around the nasal-frontal (N-F) hinge. The purpose of this paper is to present to the biological community an approach that demonstrates the application of sophisticated predictive mathematical modeling tools to avian kinesis. The generality of the method, however, is applicable to the advanced study of the biomechanics of other skeletal systems. The paper begins with a review of the relevant biological literature as well as the essential morphology of avian kinesis, especially the mechanical coupling of the upper and lower jaw by the postorbital ligament. A planar model of the described bird jaw morphology is then developed that maintains the closed kinematic topology of the avian jaw mechanism. We then develop the full nonlinear equations of motion with the assumption that the M. protractor pterygoideus and M. depressor mandibulae act on the quadrate as a pure torque, and the nasal frontal hinge is elastic with damping. The mechanism is shown to be a single degree of freedom device due to the holonomic constraints present in the quadrate-jugal bar-upper jaw-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain as well as the quadrate-lower jaw-postorbital ligament-braincase-quadrate kinematic chain. The full equations are verified via simulation and animation using the parameters of a Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea). Next we develop a simplified analytical model of the equations by power series expansion. We demonstrate that this model reproduces the dynamics of the full model to a high degree of fidelity. We proceed to use the harmonic balance technique to develop the frequency response characteristics of the jaw mechanism. It is shown that this avian cranial

  15. Primary extra-cranial meningioma following total hip replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, T.J.; Beggs, I. [Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Patton, J.T.; Porter, D. [Royal Infirmary, Department of Orthopaedics, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Salter, D.M.; Al-Nafussi, A. [Royal Infirmary, Department of Pathology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)


    A 61-year-old man presented with pain at the left hip and decreased mobility 10 years after total hip replacement. Imaging demonstrated a large destructive expansile mass adjacent to the prosthesis. Histological analysis confirmed the presence of an extra-cranial meningioma. Primary tumours after total hip replacement are rare and include soft tissue sarcomas, bone sarcomas and lymphomas. To our knowledge, no previous cases of primary extracranial meningioma have been identified. The imaging features, histology, pathogenesis and differential diagnosis are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Assessing intrasample variation: analysis of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) museum cranial collections example. (United States)

    Stefan, Vincent H


    Osteological studies both old and new have utilized various Polynesian cranial samples, individually or in combination, to assess the racial composition of prehistoric Polynesians as a group, with regards to other Pacific populations, or to represent the Polynesian peoples as a whole in various multivariate analyses of worldwide populations. However, few of these studies have assessed the degree of intrasample variation produced when data derived from skeletal samples from different Polynesian islands (populations) are pooled to represent "Polynesians" as a whole. A similar argument can be made when data derived from various museum skeletal samples of the same Polynesian population are pooled to produce a larger sample representing that particular Polynesian population (Murrill [1968] Cranial and postcranial skeletal remains from Easter Island; Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press; Stefan [2002] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. [Suppl.] 34:147). This study examined Easter Island crania curated at various museums in North America, South America, and Europe to assess whether significant differences exist among the museum collections of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) skeletal material. A NORM statistical program (Schafer and Olsen [1997] NORM, version 1.01; University Park: Pennsylvania State University) for multiple imputation of incomplete multivariate datasets was utilized to estimate missing data. A variance comparison method, which utilizes variance/covariance matrices derived from "hypothesis" and "baseline/reference" samples (Key and Jantz [1990] Hum. Evol. 5:457-469; Key and Jantz [1990] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 82:53-59) was used to compare the Rapa Nui museum samples. This method is designed to test whether variability in a "hypothesis" museum sample exceeds "normal within-group variability" represented by the "baseline/reference" sample. The method was applied to six Rapa Nui museum samples (AANMW, MNHN-KB, MNHN-NAE, NHM, MH, and AMNH). The results indicate that the

  17. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A


    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  18. Comparison between 3-dimensional cranial ultrasonography and conventional 2-dimensional cranial ultrasonography in neonates: impact on reinterpretation. (United States)

    Kim, Yu Jin; Choi, Young Hun; Cho, Hyun Hae; Lee, So Mi; Park, Ji Eun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In-One


    The aim of this study was to evaluate impact of 3-dimensional cranial ultrasonography (3DUS) on reinterpretation of cranial ultrasonography images in neonates in comparison with 2-dimensional cranial ultrasonography (2DUS). We retrospectively enrolled 50 consecutive young infants who simultaneously underwent both 2DUS and 3DUS scanning from February to March 2015. Two pediatric radiologists independently reviewed both scans for overall image quality on a 5-point scale. Five features were evaluated in both scans: the presence of germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), ventriculomegaly (VM), abnormality of periventricular echogenicity (PVE), and focal parenchymal lesions (FL). The concordance rate between the two scanning modes was calculated. The confidence level for each finding on a 3-point scale and the scanning time were compared between the two scanning modes. Interobserver agreement was evaluated using kappa statistics. Both scans demonstrated similar overall image quality in terms of reinterpretation (range of mean values, 3.81 to 4.02). GMH, IVH, VM, and FL showed perfect concordance, while PVE showed a concordance rate of 91.4% between the two modes by both reviewers. 3DUS was associated with a higher diagnostic confidence in the evaluation of GMH, IVH, and FL than 2DUS (P<0.05) for both reviewers. For PVE, 3DUS received a significantly higher confidence score than 2DUS from one of the reviewers. The mean scanning time for 2DUS and 3DUS was 92.75 seconds and 36 seconds, respectively. Interobserver agreement for qualitative scoring was moderate to substantial. In reinterpretation, 3DUS showed very high concordance with 2DUS and a similar image quality. 3DUS also increased diagnostic confidence for several image findings and significantly decreased scan time.

  19. -Deformed nonlinear maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramaswamy Jaganathan; Sudeshna Sinha


    Motivated by studies on -deformed physical systems related to quantum group structures, and by the elements of Tsallis statistical mechanics, the concept of -deformed nonlinear maps is introduced. As a specific example, a -deformation procedure is applied to the logistic map. Compared to the canonical logistic map, the resulting family of -logistic maps is shown to have a wider spectrum of interesting behaviours, including the co-existence of attractors – a phenomenon rare in one-dimensional maps.

  20. Alar Rim Deformities. (United States)

    Totonchi, Ali; Guyuron, Bahman


    The alar rim plays an important role in nasal harmony. Alar rim flaws are common following the initial rhinoplasty. Classification of the deformities helps with diagnosis and successful surgical correction. Diagnosis of the deformity requires careful observation of the computerized or life-sized photographs. Techniques for treatment of these deformities can easily be learned with attention to detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluctuations as stochastic deformation (United States)

    Kazinski, P. O.


    A notion of stochastic deformation is introduced and the corresponding algebraic deformation procedure is developed. This procedure is analogous to the deformation of an algebra of observables like deformation quantization, but for an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). This method is demonstrated on diverse relativistic and nonrelativistic models with finite and infinite degrees of freedom. It is shown that under stochastic deformation the model of a nonrelativistic particle interacting with the electromagnetic field on a curved background passes into the stochastic model described by the Fokker-Planck equation with the diffusion tensor being the inverse metric tensor. The first stochastic correction to the Newton equations for this system is found. The Klein-Kramers equation is also derived as the stochastic deformation of a certain classical model. Relativistic generalizations of the Fokker-Planck and Klein-Kramers equations are obtained by applying the procedure of stochastic deformation to appropriate relativistic classical models. The analog of the Fokker-Planck equation associated with the stochastic Lorentz-Dirac equation is derived too. The stochastic deformation of the models of a free scalar field and an electromagnetic field is investigated. It turns out that in the latter case the obtained stochastic model describes a fluctuating electromagnetic field in a transparent medium.

  2. Deformed discrete symmetries (United States)

    Arzano, Michele; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy


    We construct discrete symmetry transformations for deformed relativistic kinematics based on group valued momenta. We focus on the specific example of κ-deformations of the Poincaré algebra with associated momenta living on (a sub-manifold of) de Sitter space. Our approach relies on the description of quantum states constructed from deformed kinematics and the observable charges associated with them. The results we present provide the first step towards the analysis of experimental bounds on the deformation parameter κ to be derived via precision measurements of discrete symmetries and CPT.

  3. Early effects of cranial irradiation on hypothalamic-pituitary function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, K.S.; Tse, V.K.; Wang, C.; Yeung, R.T.; Ma, J.T.; Ho, J.H.


    Hypothalamic-pituitary function was studied in 31 patients before and after cranial irradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The estimated radiotherapy (RT) doses to the hypothalamus and pituitary were 3979 +/- 78 (+/- SD) and 6167 +/- 122 centiGrays, respectively. All patients had normal pituitary function before RT. One year after RT, there was a significant decrease in the integrated serum GH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. In the male patients, basal serum FSH significantly increased, while basal serum LH and testosterone did not change. Moreover, in response to LHRH, the integrated FSH response was increased while that of LH was decreased. Such discordant changes in FSH and LH may be explained by a defect in LHRH pulsatile release involving predominantly a decrease in pulse frequency. The peak serum TSH response to TRH became delayed in 28 patients, suggesting a defect in TRH release. Twenty-one patients were reassessed 2 yr after RT. Their mean basal serum T4 and plasma cortisol levels had significantly decreased. Hyperprolactinemia associated with oligomenorrhoea was found in 3 women. Further impairment in the secretion of GH, FSH, LH, TSH, and ACTH had occurred, and 4 patients had hypopituitarism. Thus, progressive impairment in hypothalamic-pituitary function occurs after cranial irradiation and can be demonstrated as early as 1 yr after RT.

  4. Exploring vocal recovery after cranial nerve injury in Bengalese finches. (United States)

    Urbano, Catherine M; Peterson, Jennifer R; Cooper, Brenton G


    Songbirds and humans use auditory feedback to acquire and maintain their vocalizations. The Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata domestica) is a songbird species that rapidly modifies its vocal output to adhere to an internal song memory. In this species, the left side of the bipartite vocal organ is specialized for producing louder, higher frequencies (≥2.2kHz) and denervation of the left vocal muscles eliminates these notes. Thus, the return of higher frequency notes after cranial nerve injury can be used as a measure of vocal recovery. Either the left or right side of the syrinx was denervated by resection of the tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve. Histologic analyses of syringeal muscle tissue showed significant muscle atrophy in the denervated side. After left nerve resection, songs were mainly composed of lower frequency syllables, but three out of five birds recovered higher frequency syllables. Right nerve resection minimally affected phonology, but it did change song syntax; syllable sequence became abnormally stereotyped after right nerve resection. Therefore, damage to the neuromuscular control of sound production resulted in reduced motor variability, and Bengalese finches are a potential model for functional vocal recovery following cranial nerve injury.

  5. Posterior cranial base natural growth and development: A systematic review. (United States)

    Currie, Kris; Sawchuk, Dena; Saltaji, Humam; Oh, Heesoo; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Lagravere, Manuel


    To provide a synthesis of the published studies evaluating the natural growth and development of the human posterior cranial base (S-Ba). The search was performed on MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and all EBM Reviews electronic databases. In addition, reference lists of the included studies were hand-searched. Articles were included if they analyzed posterior cranial-base growth in humans specifically. Study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were completed in duplicate. A meta-analysis was not justified. Finally, 23 published studies were selected: 5 cross-sectional and 18 cohort studies. Articles were published between 1955 and 2015, and all were published in English. The sample sizes varied between 20 and 397 individuals and consisted of craniofacial measurements from either living or deceased human skulls. Validity of the measurements was not determined in any of the studies, while six papers reported some form of reliability assessment. All the articles included multiple time points within the same population or data from multiple age groups. Growth of S-Ba was generally agreed to be from spheno-occipital synchondrosis growth. Basion displaced downward and backward and sella turcica moved downward and backward during craniofacial growth. Timing of cessation of S-Ba growth was not conclusive due to limited identified evidence. Current evidence suggests that S-Ba is not totally stable, as its dimensions change throughout craniofacial growth and a minor dimensional change is observed even in late adulthood.

  6. Recurring fibrous dysplasia of anthro maxillary with cranial base invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa, Kátia Maria Marabuco de


    Full Text Available Introduction: Fibrous dysplasia is an osseous lesion with an unknown etiology. It is characterized by the osseous maturation insufficiency. It may affect any bone, but the affection of craniofacial bones is the most critical for otorhinolaryngology. Maxilla is the most affected facial bone and the orbitary invasion is an uncommon event. The symptoms are unspecific and for its low suspicion and uncommonness, the diagnosis is generally late. The monostotic form presents a slow growth and asymptomatic course and needs to be followed up. The polyostotic type has a progressive behavior and is associated to recurrence and complications. Objective: To present two cases of patients with fibrous dysplasia diagnosis and describe the clinical presentation, radiological findings and the treatment of this pathology. Cases Report: Two cases of fibrous dysplasia are reported, which initially presented unspecific symptomatology, but with characteristic radiologic signs. They were submitted to surgical treatment for resection of the lesions and evolved with frequent recurrences with extensive affection of the facial sinuses, one patient had cranial base invasion and frontal craniotomy was needed for tumoral excision. Final Comments: Fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon osteopathy. The tomography is the choice method for characterization of the tumoral expansion, and helps in the surgical planning. The surgical strategy is indicated for symptomatic lesions, functions alterations or anatomic disorders. This article describes two uncommon manifestations of recurrent fibrous dysplasia with an extensive affection of anthro maxillary, ethmoidal and sphenoid sinuses, in addition to orbitary and cranial base invasion.

  7. Cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma relapsing towards middle cranial fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Nishizaki


    Full Text Available Facial nerve schwannomas involving posterior and middle fossas are quite rare. Here, we report an unusual case of cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma that involved the middle cranial fossa, two years after the first operation. A 53-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of a progressive left side hearing loss and 6-month history of a left facial spasm and palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed 4.5 cm diameter of left cerebellopontine angle and small middle fossa tumor. The tumor was subtotally removed via a suboccipital retrosigmoid approach. The tumor relapsed towards middle cranial fossa within a two-year period. By subtemporal approach with zygomatic arch osteotomy, the tumor was subtotally removed except that in the petrous bone involving the facial nerve. In both surgical procedures, intraoperative monitoring identified the facial nerve, resulting in preserved facial function. The tumor in the present case arose from broad segment of facial nerve encompassing cerebellopontine angle, meatus, geniculate/labyrinthine and possibly great petrosal nerve, in view of variable symptoms. Preservation of anatomic continuity of the facial nerve should be attempted, and the staged operation via retrosigmoid and middle fossa approaches using intraoperative facial monitoring, may result in preservation of the facial nerve.

  8. Brain mass and cranial nerve size in shrews and moles. (United States)

    Leitch, Duncan B; Sarko, Diana K; Catania, Kenneth C


    We investigated the relationship between body size, brain size, and fibers in selected cranial nerves in shrews and moles. Species include tiny masked shrews (S. cinereus) weighing only a few grams and much larger mole species weighing up to 90 grams. It also includes closely related species with very different sensory specializations - such as the star-nosed mole and the common, eastern mole. We found that moles and shrews have tiny optic nerves with fiber counts not correlated with body or brain size. Auditory nerves were similarly small but increased in fiber number with increasing brain and body size. Trigeminal nerve number was by far the largest and also increased with increasing brain and body size. The star-nosed mole was an outlier, with more than twice the number of trigeminal nerve fibers than any other species. Despite this hypertrophied cranial nerve, star-nosed mole brains were not larger than predicted from body size, suggesting that magnification of their somatosensory systems does not result in greater overall CNS size.

  9. Cisplatin and cranial irradiation-related hearing loss in children. (United States)

    Warrier, Rajasekharan; Chauhan, Aman; Davluri, Murali; Tedesco, Sonya L; Nadell, Joseph; Craver, Randall


    High doses of cisplatin and cranial radiotherapy (CRT) have been reported to cause irreversible hearing loss. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of cranial irradiation on cisplatin-associated ototoxicity in children with pediatric malignancies. Serial audiograms were obtained for 33 children, age <16 years, treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy (90-120 mg/m(2) per cycle) with or without CRT. Eligible patients included those with normal baseline audiometric evaluations and without significant exposure to other ototoxic drugs. We defined significant hearing loss as a hearing threshold ≥30 dB at 2,000-8,000 Hz frequencies. The median age of our study population was 4.9 years (range 6 weeks to 16 years), and the male to female ratio was 0.8:1. The study population consisted of 15 Caucasians, 17 African-Americans, and 1 Hispanic. Fourteen patients had brain tumors, and 19 had other solid tumors. Thirteen patients were exposed to CRT, and 20 were not. Bilateral hearing loss was observed in 24/33 (73%) patients, with severe/profound (≥70 dB) impairment in 10/33 (30%) of all patients. Young age (<5 years), CRT, and brain tumors were independent prognostic factors predicting hearing loss. The study demonstrated a high incidence of hearing loss in children treated with cisplatin and CRT. Consequently, we recommend monitoring these children for the early detection of hearing loss.

  10. Cranial implant design using augmented reality immersive system. (United States)

    Ai, Zhuming; Evenhouse, Ray; Leigh, Jason; Charbel, Fady; Rasmussen, Mary


    Software tools that utilize haptics for sculpting precise fitting cranial implants are utilized in an augmented reality immersive system to create a virtual working environment for the modelers. The virtual environment is designed to mimic the traditional working environment as closely as possible, providing more functionality for the users. The implant design process uses patient CT data of a defective area. This volumetric data is displayed in an implant modeling tele-immersive augmented reality system where the modeler can build a patient specific implant that precisely fits the defect. To mimic the traditional sculpting workspace, the implant modeling augmented reality system includes stereo vision, viewer centered perspective, sense of touch, and collaboration. To achieve optimized performance, this system includes a dual-processor PC, fast volume rendering with three-dimensional texture mapping, the fast haptic rendering algorithm, and a multi-threading architecture. The system replaces the expensive and time consuming traditional sculpting steps such as physical sculpting, mold making, and defect stereolithography. This augmented reality system is part of a comprehensive tele-immersive system that includes a conference-room-sized system for tele-immersive small group consultation and an inexpensive, easily deployable networked desktop virtual reality system for surgical consultation, evaluation and collaboration. This system has been used to design patient-specific cranial implants with precise fit.

  11. Cranial CT revisited: do we really need contrast enhancement?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Buelens, C.; Wilms, G.; Baert, A.L. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)


    The aim of this study was to define guidelines for intravenous contrast administration in cranial CT, as currently there are no recent guidelines based on a large series of patients. In 1900 consecutive patients (1480 adults and 420 children) pre- and post-contrast scan was analysed in order to assess the contribution of contrast enhancement to the diagnosis. The findings were grouped according to whether abnormalities were seen on the pre- and/or post-contrast scan, or whether no abnormalities were seen at all. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accurracy of a pre-contrast scan were used to determine validity. Intravenous contrast enhancement only contributes to the diagnosis if a suspicious abnormality is seen on the unenhanced scan or in the appropriate clinical setting (33.6 %). In the remaining patients (65.6 %) there is no diagnostic contribution, except for a small number of abnormalities (0.8 %). These are often anatomical variants and have no therapeutic impact. The number of contrast-enhanced cranial CT examinations can significantly be reduced by using four general guidelines for contrast administration resulting in considerable cost savings without affecting the quality of service to the patient. These guidelines are defined by the clinical findings/presentation or by the findings on the unenhanced scan. The number of contrast-related complications will be reduced, which may have medicolegal implications. These guidelines can be applied in any radiology department. (orig.) (orig.) With 2 tabs., 13 refs.

  12. A Rare Case of Cranial Osteomyelitis Caused by Proteus Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Uslu


    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis of the calvarial bones can cause serious complications such as brain abscess, due to the close proximity to adjacent brain structures. Development of the purulent secretion in surgery and traumatic scalp injuries must be considered as a possibility of osteomyelitis possibility. Generally gram positive, rarely gram negative bacteria and mix agents, can be isolated in infection. Especially chronic pyogenic osteomyelitis agents can be isolated from chronic infections such as tuberculosis. In cranial osteomyelitis diagnosis, radiological diagnosis has a very important place together with the clinical diagnosis. However, infection can usually show late findings radiologically. In treatment, antibiotic treatment is absolutely essential as well as removal of the infected part of the bone. Due to antibiotic treatment lasting between 6-12 weeks, organizing the antibiotic protocols according to the results of culture-antibiograms, which were provided from purulent secretions, has the most important role in the success of surgical treatment. In Proteus sp. infections, for choice of suitable treatment, determination of the type of bacteria is important. For exact diagnosis, histopathological examination of the bone tissue must be carried out. In this report, a case with cranial osteomyelitis caused by Proteus vulgaris which is a gram negative bacteria causing anaerobic infections and classified in the Enterobacteriaceae family is presented. The patient was treated with surgery and appropriate antibiotics. Early recognition of this condition, planning the best treatment strategy and taking precautions to prevent complications, is mandatory for a better outcome.

  13. [Structural anatomy of cranial nerves (V, VII, VIII, IX, X)]. (United States)

    Guclu, B; Meyronet, D; Simon, E; Streichenberger, N; Sindou, M; Mertens, P


    This study reports a review of the literature on the structural anatomy of the Vth, VIIth, VIIIth, IXth, and Xth cranial nerves, known to harbor dysfunction syndromes in humans. Because these dysfunctions are hypothesized to be caused by neurovascular conflicts at the root entry/exit zone and the transitional zone between central and peripheral myelinization, this investigation focused on the study and description of this junction. All the cranial nerves, except the optic and olfactory nerves, which are considered to be more a direct expansion of the central nervous system, have a transitional zone between central myelin (coming from oligodendrocytes) and peripheral myelin (produced by Schwann cells). The human studies reported in the literature argue in favor of a dome-shaped transitional zone directed to the periphery. It seems that this junctional region is situated more peripherally in sensory nerves than in motor nerves. The transitional zone is situated very peripherally for the cochlear and vestibular nerves, and on the contrary very close to its exit from the brain stem for the facial nerve.

  14. Evolution of cerebral microbleeds after cranial irradiation in medulloblastoma patients. (United States)

    Roongpiboonsopit, Duangnapa; Kuijf, Hugo J; Charidimou, Andreas; Xiong, Li; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Martinez-Ramirez, Sergi; Shih, Helen A; Gill, Corey M; Viswanathan, Anand; Dietrich, Jorg


    To characterize the temporal and spatial pattern of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) after cranial irradiation in patients with medulloblastoma. We retrospectively identified patients with medulloblastoma treated with craniospinal irradiation at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1999 and 2015. Longitudinal MRI including T2*-weighted gradient-recalled echo (GRE) sequences were reviewed, and the prevalence, spatial pattern, and risk factors associated with CMBs were characterized. We identified a total of 27 patients; 5 patients were children (median age 6.3 years) and 22 patients were adults (median age 28.8 years). CMBs were found in 67% (18/27) of patients, who were followed for a median of 4.1 years. Patients with CMBs had longer GRE follow-up time compared to those without CMBs (4.9 vs 1.7 years, p = 0.035). The median latency of the appearance of CMBs was 2.79 years (interquartile range 1.76-4.26). The prevalence of CMBs increased with each year from time of radiation therapy, and the cumulative prevalence was highest in patients age CMBs were mostly found in lobar distribution and predominately in bilateral occipital lobes. Patients using antithrombotic medications developed CMBs at a significantly higher rate (p = 0.041). Our data demonstrate a high prevalence of CMBs following cranial irradiation, progressively increasing with each year from time of radiation therapy. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo


    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.

  16. The name cranial ovarian suspensory ligaments in mammalian anatomy should be used only to indicate the structures derived from the foetal cranial mesonephric and gonadal ligaments


    van der Schoot, P.


    textabstractThe term ovarian suspensory ligament appears ambiguous when human adult anatomy textbooks are compared with human embryology or with general mammalian anatomy textbooks. The term ovarian suspensory ligament in laboratory rodents and domestic animals indicates homologous structures during foetal (the cranial mesonephric and gonadal ligaments) and later life (the cranial mesonephric ligament derivatives). In human foetal anatomy textbooks ovarian suspensory ligament is generally app...

  17. Long-term consequences of growth hormone replacement and cranial radiation on pituitary function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelman-Dijkstra, Natasha Mireille


    This thesis covers the consequences of cranial irradiation of non-pituitary tumors, eg nasopharyngeal carcinoma, on pituitary function. In chapter 2 we have performed a meta-analysis of available data reported in literature on pituitary function after cranial radiotherapy for head and neck and non-p

  18. Apparent paradoxical vault changes with middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts - Implication for aetiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redla, Sridhar; Husami, Yahya; Colquhoun, Iain R


    Three cases of middle cranial fossa arachnoid cyst with paradoxical bone changes in the adjacent vault are described, namely, a small middle cranial fossa and pneumosinus dilatans. This association is unusual and unique. The existing literature is reviewed and the probable aetiological factors discussed. Redla, S., Husani, Y. and Colquhoun, I.R. (2001)

  19. A novel AMER1 frameshift mutation in a girl with osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis. (United States)

    Enomoto, Yumi; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Harada, Noriaki; Aida, Noriko; Kurosawa, Kenji


    Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OSCS) (MIM #300373) is a rare X-linked dominant bone dysplasia characterized by cranial sclerosis and linear striations in the long bones of females, and fetal or neonatal lethality in affected males. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Cranial vault trauma and selective mortality in medieval to early modern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldsen, Jesper L; Milner, George R; Weise, Svenja


    To date, no estimates of the long-term effect of cranial vault fractures on the risk of dying have been generated from historical or prehistoric skeletons. Excess mortality provides a perspective on the efficacy of modern treatment, as well as the human cost of cranial injuries largely related...

  1. Apparent paradoxical vault changes with middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts--implication for aetiology. (United States)

    Redla, S; Husami, Y; Colquhoun, I R


    Three cases of middle cranial fossa arachnoid cyst with paradoxical bone changes in the adjacent vault are described, namely, a small middle cranial fossa and pneumosinus dilatans. This association is unusual and unique. The existing literature is reviewed and the probable aetiological factors discussed.

  2. Determining the Optimal Number of Stimuli per Cranial Site during Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Mapping (United States)

    Schabrun, Siobhan M.


    The delivery of five stimuli to each cranial site is recommended during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) mapping. However, this time-consuming practice restricts the use of TMS mapping beyond the research environment. While reducing the number of stimuli administered to each cranial site may improve efficiency and decrease physiological demand, doing so may also compromise the procedure's validity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the minimum number of stimuli per cranial site required to obtain valid outcomes during TMS mapping. Map volume and centre of gravity (CoG) recordings obtained using five stimuli per cranial site were retrospectively compared to those obtained using one, two, three, and four stimuli per cranial site. For CoG longitude, one stimulus per cranial site produced valid recordings (ICC = 0.91, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.95). However, this outcome is rarely explored in isolation. As two stimuli per cranial site were required to obtain valid CoG latitude (ICC = 0.99, 95% CI 0.99 to 0.99) and map volume (ICC = 0.99, 95% CI 0.99 to 0.99) recordings, it is recommended that a minimum of two stimuli be delivered to each cranial site during TMS mapping in order to obtain valid outcomes. PMID:28331848

  3. Coexistence of congenital giant melanocytic nevus of the scalp with cranial defect, poliosis, and hair loss. (United States)

    Lee, Woo J; Lee, Sang M; Won, Chong H; Chang, Sung E; Lee, Mi W; Choi, Jee H; Moon, Kee C


    Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are pigmented lesions presenting on the skin in approximately 1% of all newborns at or shortly after birth. CMN have been described as being associated with several anomalies, including cranial bone hypertrophy, scoliosis, and spina bifida. This is the first report to describe a giant congenital melanocytic nevus on the scalp associated with cranial involvement, poliosis, and alopecia.

  4. Stereotactic radiotherapy using Novalis for skull base metastases developing with cranial nerve symptoms. (United States)

    Mori, Yoshimasa; Hashizume, Chisa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Shibamoto, Yuta; Kosaki, Katsura; Nagai, Aiko


    Skull base metastases are challenging situations because they often involve critical structures such as cranial nerves. We evaluated the role of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) which can give high doses to the tumors sparing normal structures. We treated 11 cases of skull base metastases from other visceral carcinomas. They had neurological symptoms due to cranial nerve involvement including optic nerve (3 patients), oculomotor (3), trigeminal (6), abducens (1), facial (4), acoustic (1), and lower cranial nerves (1). The interval between the onset of cranial nerve symptoms and Novalis SRT was 1 week to 7 months. Eleven tumors of 8-112 ml in volume were treated by Novalis SRT with 30-50 Gy in 10-14 fractions. The tumors were covered by 90-95% isodose. Imaging and clinical follow-up has been obtained in all 11 patients for 5-36 months after SRT. Seven patients among 11 died from primary carcinoma or other visceral metastases 9-36 months after Novalis SRT. All 11 metastatic tumors were locally controlled until the end of the follow-up time or patient death, though retreatment for re-growth was done in 1 patient. In 10 of 11 patients, cranial nerve deficits were improved completely or partially. In some patients, the cranial nerve symptoms were relieved even during the period of fractionated SRT. Novalis SRT is thought to be safe and effective treatment for skull base metastases with involvement of cranial nerves and it may improve cranial nerve symptoms quickly.

  5. Successive Torsion of the Right Middle and Left Cranial Lung Lobes in a Dog


    Breton, Luc; DiFruscia, Rocky; Olivieri, Michel


    This case report describes the torsion of two lung lobes in a dog. The animal was first presented for a torsion of the right middle lung lobe. Following the surgical resection of that lobe, the dog suffered another torsion of the left cranial lung lobe (cranial and caudal segments).

  6. Onion artificial muscles (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An


    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  7. Intracrystalline deformation of calcite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bresser, Hans


    It is well established from observations on natural calcite tectonites that intracrystalline plastic mechanisms are important during the deformation of calcite rocks in nature. In this thesis, new data are presented on fundamental aspects of deformation behaviour of calcite under conditions where 'd

  8. Resurgent deformation quantisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garay, Mauricio, E-mail: [Institut für Mathematik, FB 08 Physik, Mathematik und Informatik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Goursac, Axel de, E-mail: [Chargé de Recherche au F.R.S.-FNRS, IRMP, Université Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron, 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Straten, Duco van, E-mail: [Institut für Mathematik, FB 08 Physik, Mathematik und Informatik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany)


    We construct a version of the complex Heisenberg algebra based on the idea of endless analytic continuation. The algebra would be large enough to capture quantum effects that escape ordinary formal deformation quantisation. -- Highlights: •We construct resurgent deformation quantisation. •We give integral formulæ. •We compute examples which show that hypergeometric functions appear naturally in quantum computations.

  9. Cervical vertebrae, cranial base, and mandibular retrognathia in human triploid fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Nolting, Dorrit; Engel, Ulla


    On profile radiographs of adults, an association between fusions of cervical vertebrae, deviations in the cranial base and mandibular retrognathia has been documented radiographically. An elaboration of this association on a histological level is needed. In human triploid fetuses severe mandibular...... and the uppermost vertebra in the body axis. As the notochord connects the cervical column and the cranial base in early prenatal life, molecular signaling from the notochord may in future studies support the notochord as the developmental link between abnormal development in the spine and the cranial base....... retrognathia and deviations in the cranial base have previously been described radiographically (without cephalometry) and cervical column fusions radiographically as well as histologically. Therefore, triploid fetuses were chosen to elucidate the cranial base cephalomterically and histologically...

  10. Artificial Hair Cells for Sensing Flows (United States)

    Chen, Jack


    The purpose of this article is to present additional information about the flow-velocity sensors described briefly in the immediately preceding article. As noted therein, these sensors can be characterized as artificial hair cells that implement an approximation of the sensory principle of flow-sensing cilia of fish: A cilium is bent by an amount proportional to the flow to which it is exposed. A nerve cell at the base of the cilium senses the flow by sensing the bending of the cilium. In an artificial hair cell, the artificial cilium is a microscopic cantilever beam, and the bending of an artificial cilium is measured by means of a strain gauge at its base (see Figure 1). Figure 2 presents cross sections of a representative sensor of this type at two different stages of its fabrication process. The process consists of relatively- low-temperature metallization, polymer-deposition, microfabrication, and surface-micromachining subprocesses, including plastic-deformation magnetic assembly (PDMA), which is described below. These subprocesses are suitable for a variety of substrate materials, including silicon, some glasses, and some polymers. Moreover, because it incorporates a polymeric supporting structure, this sensor is more robust, relative to its silicon-based counterparts.

  11. Deformations of Superconformal Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Cordova, Clay; Intriligator, Kenneth


    We classify possible supersymmetry-preserving relevant, marginal, and irrelevant deformations of unitary superconformal theories in $d \\geq 3$ dimensions. Our method only relies on symmetries and unitarity. Hence, the results are model independent and do not require a Lagrangian description. Two unifying themes emerge: first, many theories admit deformations that reside in multiplets together with conserved currents. Such deformations can lead to modifications of the supersymmetry algebra by central and non-central charges. Second, many theories with a sufficient amount of supersymmetry do not admit relevant or marginal deformations, and some admit neither. The classification is complicated by the fact that short superconformal multiplets display a rich variety of sporadic phenomena, including supersymmetric deformations that reside in the middle of a multiplet. We illustrate our results with examples in diverse dimensions. In particular, we explain how the classification of irrelevant supersymmetric deformat...

  12. Massey products and deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, D; Fuchs, Dmitry; Lang, Lynelle


    The classical deformation theory of Lie algebras involves different kinds of Massey products of cohomology classes. Even the condition of extendibility of an infinitesimal deformation to a formal one-parameter deformation of a Lie algebra involves Massey powers of two dimensional cohomology classes which are not powers in the usual definition of Massey products in the cohomology of a differential graded Lie algebra. In the case of deformations with other local bases, one deals with other, more specific Massey products. In the present work a construction of generalized Massey products is given, depending on an arbitrary graded commutative, associative algebra. In terms of these products, the above condition of extendibility is generalized to deformations with arbitrary local bases. Dually, a construction of generalized Massey products on the cohomology of a differential graded commutative associative algebra depends on a nilpotent graded Lie algebra. For example, the classical Massey products correspond to the...

  13. Deformation mechanisms in experimentally deformed Boom Clay (United States)

    Desbois, Guillaume; Schuck, Bernhard; Urai, Janos


    Bulk mechanical and transport properties of reference claystones for deep disposal of radioactive waste have been investigated since many years but little is known about microscale deformation mechanisms because accessing the relevant microstructure in these soft, very fine-grained, low permeable and low porous materials remains difficult. Recent development of ion beam polishing methods to prepare high quality damage free surfaces for scanning electron microscope (SEM) is opening new fields of microstructural investigation in claystones towards a better understanding of the deformation behavior transitional between rocks and soils. We present results of Boom Clay deformed in a triaxial cell in a consolidated - undrained test at a confining pressure of 0.375 MPa (i.e. close to natural value), with σ1 perpendicular to the bedding. Experiments stopped at 20 % strain. As a first approximation, the plasticity of the sample can be described by a Mohr-Coulomb type failure envelope with a coefficient of cohesion C = 0.117 MPa and an internal friction angle ϕ = 18.7°. After deformation test, the bulk sample shows a shear zone at an angle of about 35° from the vertical with an offset of about 5 mm. We used the "Lamipeel" method that allows producing a permanent absolutely plane and large size etched micro relief-replica in order to localize and to document the shear zone at the scale of the deformed core. High-resolution imaging of microstructures was mostly done by using the BIB-SEM method on key-regions identified after the "Lamipeel" method. Detailed BIB-SEM investigations of shear zones show the following: the boundaries between the shear zone and the host rock are sharp, clay aggregates and clastic grains are strongly reoriented parallel to the shear direction, and the porosity is significantly reduced in the shear zone and the grain size is smaller in the shear zone than in the host rock but there is no evidence for broken grains. Comparison of microstructures

  14. Ophthalmoplegic and lower cranial nerve variants merge into each other and into classical Guillain-Barre syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bruggen, JP; van der Meche, FGA; de Jager, AEJ; Polman, CH

    We delineated the place of cranial nerve variants within the concept of clinically defined Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), In the ophthalmoplegic variant (n = 7) the oculomotor nerves were early involved, In a lower cranial nerve variant (n = 9) the cranial nerves IX, X, and XI were early involved.

  15. Ophthalmoplegic and lower cranial nerve variants merge into each other and into classical Guillain-Barre syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bruggen, JP; van der Meche, FGA; de Jager, AEJ; Polman, CH


    We delineated the place of cranial nerve variants within the concept of clinically defined Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), In the ophthalmoplegic variant (n = 7) the oculomotor nerves were early involved, In a lower cranial nerve variant (n = 9) the cranial nerves IX, X, and XI were early involved. D

  16. A 3-year review of cranial nerve palsies from the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital Eye Clinic, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinyere Nnenne Pedro-Egbe


    Conclusion: This is the first study in the literature on ocular cranial nerve palsies in Southern Nigeria. Third and sixth cranial nerve palsies were the most common cases to present to the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital Eye Clinic. There was a statistically significant association to systemic disorders such as hypertension and DM and majority of cases with 6 th cranial nerve palsy.

  17. Ophthalmoplegic and lower cranial nerve variants merge into each other and into classical Guillain-Barre syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bruggen, JP; van der Meche, FGA; de Jager, AEJ; Polman, CH


    We delineated the place of cranial nerve variants within the concept of clinically defined Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), In the ophthalmoplegic variant (n = 7) the oculomotor nerves were early involved, In a lower cranial nerve variant (n = 9) the cranial nerves IX, X, and XI were early involved. D

  18. Artificial intelligence in medicine. (United States)

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.


    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. RESULTS: The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. DISCUSSION: Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting. PMID:15333167

  19. Meningitis tuberculosa: Clinical findings and results of cranial computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautmann, M.; Loddenkemper, R.; Hoffmann, H.G.


    Guided by 9 own observations between 1977 and 1981, new diagnostic facilities in tuberculous meningitis are discussed. For differentiation from viral meningitis, measurement of CSF lactic acid concentration in addition to that of CSF glucose has proved to be of value in recent years. In accordance with the literature, two cases of this series which were examined for CSF lactic acid concentration showed markedly elevated levels of 8,4 rsp. 10,4 mmol/l. In contrast to this, in viral meningitis usually values of less than 3.5 mmol/l are found. Additionally, the presence of hypochlor- and hyponatremia, which could be demonstrated in 6 of our 9 patients, may raise the suspicion of tuberculous etiology. In the series presented, cranial computed tomography was of greatest diagnostic value, enabling the diagnosis of hydrocephalus internus in 5, and basal arachnoiditis in 2 cases.

  20. Cranial arachnoid membranes: some aspects of microsurgical anatomy. (United States)

    Lü, Jian; Zhu, Xian-Li


    Although the arachnoid membranes have been known for more than 300 years, the anatomy of the arachnoid membranes has not been studied in detail. This study was performed to explore the microanatomical features of the cranial arachnoid membranes. The arachnoid membranes and cisterns were observed in eight Han Chinese adult human cadaveric brains with an operating microscope, without staining of intracranial structures or injection of colored material into blood vessels. Twenty seven arachnoid membranes and 21 subarachnoid cisterns were identified. The topographical features of each arachnoid membrane were described. On the basis of the arachnoid membranes we identified, the arachnoidal limits of the cisterns were discussed. The microsurgical anatomical research on the arachnoid membranes is a supplement to the anatomical study of the subarachnoid cisterns. The understanding of the topographical features of the arachnoid membranes is valuable to the reasonable dissection of the cisterns and the minimally invasive manipulations during microsurgical procedures.

  1. An Isolated Bee Sting Involving Multiple Cranial Nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Motamed


    Full Text Available Hymenoptera stings are self-limiting events or due to allergic reactions. Sometimes envenomation with Hymenoptera can cause rare complications such as acute encephalopathy, peripheral neuritis, acute renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, silent myocardial infarction, rhabdomyolysis, conjunctivitis, corneal infiltration, lens subluxation, and optic neuropathy. The mechanism of peripheral nervous system damage is not clearly known. In our studied case after bee sting on face between the eyebrows with little erythema and  cm in size, bilateral blindness developed and gradually improved. Lateral movement of eyes was restricted with no pain. Involvement of cranial nerves including II, V, and VI was found. With conservative therapy after a year significant improvement has been achieved.

  2. Cranial MR imaging of sequelae of prefrontal lobotomy. (United States)

    Uchino, A; Kato, A; Yuzuriha, T; Takashima, Y; Kudo, S


    Although prefrontal lobotomy is an obsolete treatment for schizophrenia, we still encounter patients who have undergone this procedure. The purpose of this study was to describe the MR imaging findings of sequelae of prefrontal lobotomy. We retrospectively reviewed cranial MR images of eight patients with schizophrenia who underwent prefrontal lobotomy approximately 50 years previously. In all patients, a bilateral cavitary lesion with a thick wall was found in the frontal white matter. The genu of the corpus callosum was mildly to markedly atrophic. The size and location of the cavity and the degree of callosal atrophy were correlated. MR imaging is useful for the diagnosis of sequelae of prefrontal lobotomy, including cavitary lesions with dense walls of gliosis and secondary degeneration of the genu of the corpus callosum.

  3. Scoring of nonmetric cranial traits: a methodological approach. (United States)

    Gualdi-Russo, E; Tasca, M A; Brasili, P


    The purpose of the present study was to analyse the replicability of the scoring of discontinuous traits. This was assessed on a sample of 100 skulls from the Frassetto collection (Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica Sperimentale of Bologna University) analysed through intraobserver comparisons: the discontinuous traits were determined on the same skulls and by the same observer on 3 separate occasions. The scoring was also assessed through interobserver comparisons: 3 different observers performed an independent survey on the same skulls. The results show that there were no significant differences in the discontinuous trait frequencies between the 3 different scorings by the same observer, but there were sometimes significant differences between different observers. Caution should thus be taken in applying the frequencies of these traits to population research. After an indispensable control of material conditions (subject age included), consideration must be given to standardisation procedures between observers, otherwise this may be an additional source of variability in cranial discontinuous trait scoring.

  4. Perineural tumor spread - Interconnection between spinal and cranial nerves. (United States)

    Kozić, Duško; Njagulj, Vesna; Gaćeša, Jelena Popadić; Semnic, Robert; Prvulović, Nataša


    The secondary neoplastic involvement of the cervical plexus in patients with head and neck malignancies is extremely rare. MR examination of the neck revealed the diffuse neoplastic infiltration of the right C2 root, in a 57-year-old patient with several months long pain in the right ear region and a history of the tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Associated perineural tumor spread and consequent distal involvement of great auricular nerve and vagus nerve were evident. Best of our knowledge, this is the first reported involvement of the cervical plexus in patients with head and neck cancers, associated with the clearly documented interconnection between the cervical plexus and cranial nerves via great auricular nerve.

  5. Osteology and cranial musculature of Caiman latirostris (crocodylia: Alligatoridae). (United States)

    Bona, Paula; Desojo, Julia Brenda


    Caiman latirostris Daudin is one of the extant species of Caimaninae alligatorids characterized taxonomically only by external morphological features. In the present contribution, we describe the cranial osteology and myology of this species and its morphological variation. Several skull dissections and comparisons with other caimans were made. Although jaw muscles of living crocodiles show the same general "Bauplan" and alligatorids seem to have a similar cranial musculature pattern, we describe some morphological variations (e.g., in C. latirostris the superficial portion of the M. adductor mandibulae externus did not reach the postorbital; the M. adductor mandibulae internus pars pterygoideus dorsalis did not reach the pterygoid and lacrimal and contrary to the case of C. crocodilus the M. adductor mandibulae internus pars pterygoideus ventralis attaches to the posterodorsal surface of the pterygoid and the pterygoid aponeurosis, without contacting the dorsal and ventral surface of the pterygoid margin; the M. intermandibularis is attached to the anterior half of the splenial and posteriorly inserts medially by a medial raphe that serves as attachment zone for M. constrictor colli, and the M. constrictor colli profundus presents a medial notch in its anterior margin). In addition, the skull of C. latirostris differs from that of other caimans and possesses several characters that are potential diagnostic features of this species (e.g., outline of glenoid cavity in dorsal view, extension of the rostral ridges, and occlusion of the first dentary tooth). Nevertheless, these characters should be analyzed within the phylogenetic context of the Caimaninae to evaluate its evolutionary implications for the history of the group.

  6. Cranial nerve involvement in Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease. (United States)

    Das, Nirav; Kandalaft, Savannah; Wu, Xiao; Malhotra, Ajay


    Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) is a rare disorder with less than 200,000 cases reported in the US every year, making diagnosis challenging. MR and CT imaging has become more common in the evaluation of CMT to identify areas of disease involvement. A 27-year-old female from Guatemala with a past history of polio initially presented to the emergency room for necrotizing pneumonia. MRI images demonstrated smoothly enlarged, mildly enhancing trigeminal nerves. CT showed bony widening of the skull base foramina. The patient was noted to have atrophy and weakness of her extremities with decreased sensation, distal more than proximal, and pes cavus. An electromyogram demonstrated absent response in the right median, ulnar, peroneal, and tibial motor studies and bilateral radial and right sural sensory studies. MRI of the spine demonstrated smooth, symmetric enlargement and mild enhancement of the distal spinal nerve roots and cauda equine. CMT is a group of disorders with a wide range of clinical presentations and abnormalities. Cranial nerve involvement is infrequently described in CMT 1A. In our case and prior studies, there does not appear to be a correlation between cranial nerve involvement and symptoms. Trigeminal neuralgia has been described in patients in CMT, but is not common and was not seen in our patient despite abnormal trigeminal nerve findings on imaging. Our patient also demonstrated involvement of the facial nerve without facial muscle weakness. Clinical features are key in distinguishing CMT 1A from other forms of HMSN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neurochemical Evidence of Potential Neurotoxicity After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalm, Marie, E-mail: [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Insitute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Abel, Edvard [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wasling, Pontus [Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Nyman, Jan [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Hietala, Max Albert [Department of Neurology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Bremell, Daniel; Hagberg, Lars [Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Elam, Mikael [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Insitute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Blennow, Kaj [Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal (Sweden); Björk-Eriksson, Thomas [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Zetterberg, Henrik [Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal (Sweden); UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom)


    Purpose: To examine whether cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for neuroaxonal damage, neuroglial activation, and amyloid β–related processes could characterize the neurochemical response to cranial radiation. Methods and Materials: Before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) of patients with small cell lung cancer, each patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, lumbar puncture, and Mini-Mental State Examination of cognitive function. These examinations were repeated at approximately 3 and 12 months after radiation. Results: The major findings were as follows. (1) Cerebrospinal fluid markers for neuronal and neuroglial injury were elevated during the subacute phase after PCI. Neurofilament and T-tau increased 120% and 50%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). The same was seen for the neuroglial markers YKL-40 and glial fibrillary acidic protein, which increased 144% and 106%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). (2) The levels of secreted amyloid precursor protein-α and -β were reduced 44% and 46%, respectively, 3 months after PCI, and the levels continued to decrease as long as 1 year after treatment (P<.05). (3) Mini-Mental State Examination did not reveal any cognitive decline, indicating that a more sensitive test should be used in future studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, we were able to detect radiation therapy–induced changes in several markers reflecting neuronal injury, inflammatory/astroglial activation, and altered amyloid precursor protein/amyloid β metabolism, despite the low number of patients and quite moderate radiation doses (20-30 Gy). These changes are hypothesis generating and could potentially be used to assess the individual risk of developing long-term symptoms of chronic encephalopathy after PCI. This has to be evaluated in large studies with extended clinical follow-up and more detailed neurocognitive assessments.

  8. Hemiplegic peripheral neuropathy accompanied with multiple cranial nerve palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohisa Okuma


    Full Text Available A 32-year-old man experienced double vision around January, 2010, followed by weakness of his left upper and lower extremities. Articulation disorders and loss of hearing in his left ear developed, and he was admitted to our hospital on February 14, 2010. Physical examination was normal, and neurological examination showed clear consciousness with no impairment of cognitive function, but with articulation disorders. Olfactory sensation was reduced. Left ptosis and left gaze palsy, complete left facial palsy, perceptive deafness of the left ear, and muscle weakness of the left trapezius muscle were observed. Paresis in the left upper and lower extremities was graded 4/5 through manual muscle testing. Sensory system evaluation revealed complete left-side palsy, including the face. Deep tendon reflexes were slightly diminished equally on both sides; no pathologic reflex was seen. No abnormality of the brain parenchyma, cerebral nerves or cervicothoracolumbar region was found on brain magnetic resonance imaging. On electroencephalogram, alpha waves in the main frequency band of 8 to 9 Hz were recorded, indicating normal findings. Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT scan showed reduced blood flow in the right inner frontal lobe and both occipital lobes. Nerve biopsy (left sural nerve showed reduction of nerve density by 30%, with demyelination. The patient also showed manifestations of multiple cranial nerve disorder, i.e., of the trigeminal nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve, and hypoglossal nerve. Whole-body examination was negative. Finally, based on ischemic brain SPECT images, spinal fluid findings and nerve biopsy results, peripheral neuropathy accompanied with multiple cranial nerve palsy was diagnosed.

  9. 6. International FIG-symposium on deformation measurements. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelzer, H.; Heer, R. [eds.


    Due to the diversified fields of specialization of the authors, the papers span a very wide spectrum of theories, applications and case studies, concerning various problems of deformation studies in structural, geotechnical and mining engineering, in rock mechanics and earth crustal movements, covering such topics as: Design and analysis of deformations surveys; Integration of terrestrial, and space measurement techniques; New instrumental developements for automatic, continuous and telemetric data-acquisition with respect to geotechnical and geodetic applications; Monitoring and prediction of ground subsidence in mining areas, land slides and tectonic movements; Modeling and computation of deformations by Kalman-filtering techniques, finite element analysis and a special view to continuum mechanics; Application of expert systems and artificial intelligence; Description and analysis of dynamical deformation problems; special views in rock- and groundmechanics; Demonstration of mechanical engineering problems with respect to the supervision of industrial production and quality control. (orig.)

  10. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar


    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse...... the spherical deformation model in detail and describe how it may be used to summarize the shape of star-shaped three-dimensional objects with few parameters. It is of interest to make statistical inference about the three-dimensional shape parameters from continuous observations of the surface and from...

  11. Calcaneo-valgus deformity. (United States)

    Evans, D


    A discussion of the essential deformity in calcaneo-valgus feet develops a theme originally put forward in 1961 on the relapsed club foot (Evans 1961). Whereas in the normal foot the medial and lateral columns are about equal in length, in talipes equino-varus the lateral column is longer and in calcaneo-valgus shorter than the medial column. The suggestion is that in the treatment of both deformities the length of the columns be made equal. A method is described of treating calcaneo-valgus deformity by inserting cortical bone grafts taken from the tibia to elongate the anterior end of the calcaneus.

  12. Introduction to artificial intelligence (United States)

    Cheeseman, P.; Gevarter, W.


    This paper presents an introductory view of Artificial Intelligence (AI). In addition to defining AI, it discusses the foundations on which it rests, research in the field, and current and potential applications.

  13. Artificial Neural Networks


    Chung-Ming Kuan


    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) constitute a class of flexible nonlinear models designed to mimic biological neural systems. In this entry, we introduce ANN using familiar econometric terminology and provide an overview of ANN modeling approach and its implementation methods.

  14. Peripheral doses of cranial pediatric IMRT performed with attenuator blocks; Doses perifericas de IMRT cranial pediatrica realizada com blocos atenuadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soboll, Danyel Scheidegger; Schitz, Ivette; Schelin, Hugo Reuters, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Silva, Ricardo Goulart da, E-mail: [Hospital Angelina Caron, Campina Grande do Sul, PR (Brazil); Viamonte, Alfredo, E-mail: [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This paper presents values of peripheral doses measured at six vital points of simulator objects which represent the ages of 2, 5 and 10 years old, submitted to a cranial IMRT procedure that applied compensator blocks interposed to 6 MV beams. The found values indicate that there is independence of dose with position of measurements and age of the patient, as the peripheral dose at the points nearest and the 2 year old simulator object where larger. The doses in thyroid reached the range of 1.4 to 2.9% of the dose prescribed in the isocenter, indicating that the peripheral doses for IMRT that employ compensator blocks can be greater than for the IMRT produced with sliding window technique

  15. Intelligence: Real or artificial?


    Schlinger, Henry D


    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally r...

  16. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J


    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  17. Physics of Artificial Gravity (United States)

    Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles


    This chapter discusses potential technologies for achieving artificial gravity in a space vehicle. We begin with a series of definitions and a general description of the rotational dynamics behind the forces ultimately exerted on the human body during centrifugation, such as gravity level, gravity gradient, and Coriolis force. Human factors considerations and comfort limits associated with a rotating environment are then discussed. Finally, engineering options for designing space vehicles with artificial gravity are presented.

  18. Membrane Deformation and Permeabilization Caused by Microplasma Irradiation (United States)

    Motomura, Hideki; Nagaiwa, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Kenta; Kido, Yugo; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Satoh, Susumu; Jinno, Masafumi


    The microplasma irradiation achieves high gene taransfection efficiency and high cell survivability simultaneously. For this purpose, we have developed a special plasma source using a microcapillary electrode. However, it is not clear how the stimuli of effective factors generated by plasma, such as current, charge, field, chemical species, cause transfection. In this study, we used artificial cell which is a spherical vesicle consisting of a lipid bilayer to visualize membrane dynamics and permeabilization caused by microplasma irradiation. Dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) was used as phospholipid molecules forming the lipid bilayer. The artificial cells were prepared by natural swelling method. Fluorescent labeled polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers (Nanocs, MPEG Fluorescein, MW = 1000) were encapsulated in the artificial cells. The artificial cells were exposed to the microplasma for 5 ms and 10-20% of decrease of the dye fluorescence in the artificial cells was observed. This result suggests the outflow of the MPEG polymers through temporary poration or deformation of the lipid bilayer. The membrane deformation dynamics was directly observed with a microscope and the relationship to the polymer outflow will be shown at the conference. This work was partly supported by a Grant-in-Aid (25108509 and 15H00896) from JSPS and a grant from Ehime University.

  19. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server


    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  20. Heidegger and artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, G.


    The discipline of Artificial Intelligence, in its quest for machine intelligence, showed great promise as long as its areas of application were limited to problems of a scientific and situation neutral nature. The attempts to move beyond these problems to a full simulation of man's intelligence has faltered and slowed it progress, largely because of the inability of Artificial Intelligence to deal with human characteristic, such as feelings, goals, and desires. This dissertation takes the position that an impasse has resulted because Artificial Intelligence has never been properly defined as a science: its objects and methods have never been identified. The following study undertakes to provide such a definition, i.e., the required ground for Artificial Intelligence. The procedure and methods employed in this study are based on Heidegger's philosophy and techniques of analysis as developed in Being and Time. Results of this study show that both the discipline of Artificial Intelligence and the concerns of Heidegger in Being and Time have the same object; fundamental ontology. The application of Heidegger's conclusions concerning fundamental ontology unites the various aspects of Artificial Intelligence and provides the articulation which shows the parts of this discipline and how they are related.

  1. Deformations of singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, Jan


    These notes deal with deformation theory of complex analytic singularities and related objects. The first part treats general theory. The central notion is that of versal deformation in several variants. The theory is developed both in an abstract way and in a concrete way suitable for computations. The second part deals with more specific problems, specially on curves and surfaces. Smoothings of singularities are the main concern. Examples are spread throughout the text.

  2. Diffeomorphic Statistical Deformation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Hansen, Mads/Fogtman; Larsen, Rasmus


    In this paper we present a new method for constructing diffeomorphic statistical deformation models in arbitrary dimensional images with a nonlinear generative model and a linear parameter space. Our deformation model is a modified version of the diffeomorphic model introduced by Cootes et al. Th...... with ground truth in form of manual expert annotations, and compared to Cootes's model. We anticipate applications in unconstrained diffeomorphic synthesis of images, e.g. for tracking, segmentation, registration or classification purposes....

  3. Deformation in nanocrystalline metals


    Helena Van Swygenhoven; Julia R. Weertman


    It is now possible to synthesize polycrystalline metals made up of grains that average less than 100 nm in size. Such nanocrystalline metals contain a significant volume fraction of interfacial regions separated by nearly perfect crystals. The small sizes involved limit the conventional operation of dislocation sources and thus a fundamental question arises: how do these materials deform plastically? We review the current views on deformation mechanisms in nanocrystalline, face-centered cubic...

  4. A Case of Transient, Isolated Cranial Nerve VI Palsy due to Skull Base Osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Patel


    Full Text Available Otitis externa affects both children and adults. It is often treated with topical antibiotics, with good clinical outcomes. When a patient fails to respond to the treatment, otitis externa can progress to malignant otitis externa. The common symptoms of skull bone osteomyelitis include ear ache, facial pain, and cranial nerve palsies. However, an isolated cranial nerve is rare. Herein, we report a case of 54-year-old female who presented with left cranial nerve VI palsy due to skull base osteomyelitis which responded to antibiotic therapy.

  5. Flexidrive: a soft artificial muscle motor (United States)

    Anderson, Iain A.; Tse, Tony C. H.; Inamura, Tokushu; O'Brien, Benjamin; McKay, Thomas; Gisby, Todd


    We use our thumbs and forefingers to rotate an object such as a control knob on a stereo system by moving our finger relative to our thumb. Motion is imparted without sliding and in a precise manner. In this paper we demonstrate how an artificial muscle membrane can be used to mimic this action. This is achieved by embedding a soft gear within the membrane. Deformation of the membrane results in deformation of the polymer gear and this can be used for motor actuation by rotating the shaft. The soft motors were fabricated from 3M VHB4905 membranes 0.5mm thick that were pre-stretched equibiaxially to a final thickness of 31 μm. Each membrane had polymer acrylic soft gears inserted at the center. Sectors of each membrane (60° sector) were painted on both sides with conducting carbon grease leaving gaps between adjoining sectors to avoid arcing between them. Each sector was electrically connected to a power supply electrode on the rigid acrylic frame via narrow avenues of carbon-grease. The motors were supported in rigid acrylic frames aligned concentrically. A flexible shaft was inserted through both gears. Membranes were charged using a step wave PWM voltage signal delivered using a Biomimetics Lab EAP Control unit. Both membrane viscoelasticity and the resisting torque on the shaft influence motor speed by changing the effective circumference of the flexible gear. This new soft motor opens the door to artificial muscle machines molded as a single part.

  6. Correction of deformational plagiocephaly in early infancy using the plagio cradle orthotic. (United States)

    Seruya, Mitchel; Oh, Albert K; Sauerhammer, Tina M; Taylor, Jonathan H; Rogers, Gary F


    The purpose of this study was to assess early treatment of deformational plagiocephaly using the Plagio Cradle, a modifiable cranial orthotic. Infants were included if they had treatment of deformational plagiocephaly with the Plagio Cradle beginning at 4 months or younger. Patients were prospectively stratified by the age treatment was initiated: group 1: under 10 weeks (n = 50); group 2: 10 to 20 weeks (n = 113). Pretreatment and posttreatment calvarial asymmetry was measured using direct anthropometry and reported as a transcranial difference (TCD). The end point for therapy was a TCD of 5 mm or less, falling within 2 SDs of published normative data. One hundred sixty-three infants were included. Initial TCD was significantly higher for group 1 as compared with group 2 (initial TCD: 11.0 vs 9.0 mm; P Plagio Cradle can fully correct deformational plagiocephaly early in life. Nevertheless, treatment is more effective if initiated before 10 weeks of age.

  7. Deformation quantization of principal bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Aschieri, Paolo


    We outline how Drinfeld twist deformation techniques can be applied to the deformation quantization of principal bundles into noncommutative principal bundles, and more in general to the deformation of Hopf-Galois extensions. First we twist deform the structure group in a quantum group, and this leads to a deformation of the fibers of the principal bundle. Next we twist deform a subgroup of the group of authomorphisms of the principal bundle, and this leads to a noncommutative base space. Considering both deformations we obtain noncommutative principal bundles with noncommutative fiber and base space as well.

  8. 眶颅骨纤维异常增殖症病灶手术切除与缺损区钛金属修复%Resection of orbito-cranial fibrous dysplasia lesion and reconstruction with titanium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许蓓; 马建荣; 易文殊; 谭佳; 向前; 许雪亮


    目的:研究眶颅骨纤维异常增殖症手术切除病灶的时机和方法,总结病灶切除后钛金属修复骨缺损的经验,对手术的疗效进行评估.方法:对21例出现视功能障碍或明显外观影响的患者进行术前常规冠状位、水平位、矢状位及三维CT扫描.对眶颅骨病变范围大的患者,将CT扫描图像数据输入计算机,经过处理后制作钛金属三维实体修复体;对于累及眶颅骨病变范围较小的患者,则用手工的方法在手术中制作近似于正常眼眶和颅骨部的修复体.全部病例均采用经颅手术切除病变骨组织,并用钛板和钛网修复缺损区.结果:21例患者中18例一次性切除干净,3例累及海绵窦区域者进行姑息性切除.13例伴有不同程度的视力下降,11例术后视力明显上升,视力恢复在3~5行.外观畸形的11例患者术后得到明显改善.结论:眶颅骨纤维异常增殖症患者只要影响到视功能或造成眶颅外观畸形,应该尽早进行手术切除.钛金属修复手术后遗留的骨缺损具有牢固、可塑性强、固定简易等优点.%Objective: To discuss the method and opportunity of operation for orbito-cranial fibrous dysplasia, and further to summarize our experience in repairing the bony defect with titanium after excision and assess the surgical outcomes.Methods: A retrospective study was performed in 21 patients with visual function damage and/ or orbital malformation, who treated surgically. All patients were underwent CT examinations (coronal, horizontal, sagittal and three-dimensional scans) before surgery. CT image data of patients with serious orbital skull lesions were analyzed by computer to produce the three-dimensional, solid titanium mesh prostheses used to repair the lesions; for smaller lesions solid titanium mesh prostheses were shaped artificially during surgery according to the normal orbit and the cranium. All the patients were treated surgically via craniofacial approach

  9. Cranial Reconstruction following the Removal of an Infected Synthetic Dura Mater Substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Yoshioka, MD


    Conclusions: Staged cranial reconstruction after the removal of an infected synthetic dura mater substitute using an algorithmic approach is feasible and safe, produces satisfactory cosmetic results, and is not associated with any complications.

  10. Bony cranial ornamentation linked to rapid evolution of gigantic theropod dinosaurs (United States)

    Gates, Terry A.; Organ, Chris; Zanno, Lindsay E.


    Exaggerated cranial structures such as crests and horns, hereafter referred to collectively as ornaments, are pervasive across animal species. These structures perform vital roles in visual communication and physical interactions within and between species. Yet the origin and influence of ornamentation on speciation and ecology across macroevolutionary time scales remains poorly understood for virtually all animals. Here, we explore correlative evolution of osseous cranial ornaments with large body size in theropod dinosaurs using a phylogenetic comparative framework. We find that body size evolved directionally toward phyletic giantism an order of magnitude faster in theropod species possessing ornaments compared with unadorned lineages. In addition, we find a body mass threshold below which bony cranial ornaments do not originate. Maniraptoriform dinosaurs generally lack osseous cranial ornaments despite repeatedly crossing this body size threshold. Our study provides novel, quantitative support for a shift in selective pressures on socio-sexual display mechanisms in theropods coincident with the evolution of pennaceous feathers.

  11. Fossil cranial walrus material from the North Sea and the estuary of the Schelde (Mammalia, Carnivora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscha Erdbrink, D.P.; Bree, van P.J.H.


    Six cranial odobenid remains in a public collection, which have come to our notice since the publication of two earlier papers, are described and discussed. Identification of several specimens with Odobenus antverpiensis (Rutten, 1907) cannot be ruled out.

  12. Malignant otitis externa with bilateral cranial nerve involvement: Report of a unique case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Saha


    Full Text Available Malignant otitis externa is an inflammatory condition caused by pseudomonas infection usually in the elderly diabetics, or an immunosuppressive condition that presents with diffuse otitis externa along with excruciating pain and granulations tissue in the external auditory meatus. Facial paralysis is common along with occasional involvement of other cranial nerves. Case report describing a patient of malignant otitis externa who presented to a tertiary referral hospital of eastern India. This patient had ipsilateral facial and tenth cranial nerve paralysis along with delayed-onset contralateral sixth and twelfth cranial nerve palsy. The patient was treated initially with intravenous anti-pseudomonal antibody followed by tympanic platectomy, facial nerve decompression and medialisation thyroplasty. The contralateral cranial nerve palsy was managed conservatively with partial recovery of function. Malignant otitis externa, though a common disease, may occasionally present with uncommon or unexplained presentations. The management of these cases should be prompt and aggressive and specifically address each of the debilitating complications.

  13. The spectrum of cranial ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in congenital cytomegalovirus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, L.S. de; Gunardi, H.; Barth, P.G.; Bok, L.A.; Verboon-Maciolek, M.; Groenendaal, F.


    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection can lead to severe neurological sequelae and (progressive) sensorineural deafness. Neonatal imaging data is mainly based on cranial ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT). The additional value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was assessed in

  14. Structural and mechanical characterization of custom design cranial implant created using additive manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaja Moiduddin


    Conclusions: The study reveals that the use of mesh implants in cranial reconstruction satisfies the need of lighter implants with an adequate mechanical strength, thus restoring better functionality and esthetic outcomes for the patients.

  15. Preoperative surgical planning and simulation of complex cranial base tumors in virtual reality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Zhi-qiang; LI Liang; MO Da-peng; ZHANG Jia-yong; ZHANG Yang; BAO Sheng-de


    @@ The extremely complex anatomic relationships among bone,tumor,blood vessels and cranial nerves remains a big challenge for cranial base tumor surgery.Therefore.a good understanding of the patient specific anatomy and a preoperative planning are helpful and crocial for the neurosurgeons.Three dimensional (3-D) visualization of various imaging techniques have been widely explored to enhance the comprehension of volumetric data for surgical planning.1 We used the Destroscope Virtual Reality (VR) System (Singapore,Volume Interaction Pte Ltd,software:RadioDexterTM 1.0) to optimize preoperative plan in the complex cranial base tumors.This system uses patient-specific,coregistered,fused radiology data sets that may be viewed stereoscopically and can be manipulated in a virtual reality environment.This article describes our experience with the Destroscope VR system in preoperative surgical planning and simulation for 5 patients with complex cranial base tumors and evaluates the clinical usefulness of this system.


    Prasad, Gautam; Joshi, Anand A; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Shattuck, David W; Terzopoulos, Demetri


    Segmenting brain from non-brain tissue within magnetic resonance (MR) images of the human head, also known as skull-stripping, is a critical processing step in the analysis of neuroimaging data. Though many algorithms have been developed to address this problem, challenges remain. In this paper, we apply the "deformable organism" framework to the skull-stripping problem. Within this framework, deformable models are equipped with higher-level control mechanisms based on the principles of artificial life, including sensing, reactive behavior, knowledge representation, and proactive planning. Our new deformable organisms are governed by a high-level plan aimed at the fully-automated segmentation of various parts of the head in MR imagery, and they are able to cooperate in computing a robust and accurate segmentation. We applied our segmentation approach to a test set of human MRI data using manual delineations of the data as a reference "gold standard." We compare these results with results from three widely used methods using set-similarity metrics.

  17. A Development of a Human Cranial Bone Surrogate for Impact Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack C Roberts


    Full Text Available In order to replicate the fracture behavior of the intact human skull under impact it becomes necessary to develop a material having the mechanical properties of cranial bone. The most important properties to replicate in a surrogate human skull were found to be the fracture toughness and tensile strength of the cranial tables as well as the bending strength of the 3-layer (inner table-diplöe-outer table architecture of the human skull. The materials selected to represent the surrogate cranial tables consisted of two different epoxy resins systems with random milled glass fiber to enhance the strength and stiffness and the materials to represent the surrogate diplöe consisted of three low density foams. Forty-one three-point bending fracture toughness tests were performed on nine material combinations. The materials that best represented the fracture toughness of cranial tables were then selected and formed into tensile samples and tested. These materials were then used with the two surrogate diplöe foam materials to create the three layer surrogate cranial bone samples for three point bending tests. Drop tower tests were performed on flat samples created from these materials and the fracture patterns were very similar to the linear fractures seen in pendulum impacts of intact human skulls. The surrogate cranial tables had the quasi-static fracture toughness and tensile strength of 2.5 MPa√m and 53 ± 4.9 MPa, respectively, while the same properties of human compact bone were 3.1 ± 1.8 MPa√m and 68 ± 18 MPa, respectively. The cranial surrogate had a quasi-static bending strength of 68 ± 5.7 MPa, while that of cranial bone was 82 ± 26 MPa. This material/design is currently being used to construct spherical shell samples for drop tower and ballistic tests.

  18. Random genetic drift, natural selection, and noise in human cranial evolution. (United States)

    Roseman, Charles C


    This study assesses the extent to which relationships among groups complicate comparative studies of adaptation in recent human cranial variation and the extent to which departures from neutral additive models of evolution hinder the reconstruction of population relationships among groups using cranial morphology. Using a maximum likelihood evolutionary model fitting approach and a mixed population genomic and cranial data set, I evaluate the relative fits of several widely used models of human cranial evolution. Moreover, I compare the goodness of fit of models of cranial evolution constrained by genomic variation to test hypotheses about population specific departures from neutrality. Models from population genomics are much better fits to cranial variation than are traditional models from comparative human biology. There is not enough evolutionary information in the cranium to reconstruct much of recent human evolution but the influence of population history on cranial variation is strong enough to cause comparative studies of adaptation serious difficulties. Deviations from a model of random genetic drift along a tree-like population history show the importance of environmental effects, gene flow, and/or natural selection on human cranial variation. Moreover, there is a strong signal of the effect of natural selection or an environmental factor on a group of humans from Siberia. The evolution of the human cranium is complex and no one evolutionary process has prevailed at the expense of all others. A holistic unification of phenome, genome, and environmental context, gives us a strong point of purchase on these problems, which is unavailable to any one traditional approach alone. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:582-592, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Trigeminal (V) and Facial (VII) Cranial Nerves: Head and Face Sensation and Movement


    Sanders, Richard D.


    There are close functional and anatomical relationships between cranial nerves V and VII in both their sensory and motor divisions. Sensation on the face is innervated by the trigeminal nerves (V) as are the muscles of mastication, but the muscles of facial expression are innervated mainly by the facial nerve (VII) as is the sensation of taste. This article briefly reviews the anatomy of these cranial nerves, disorders of these nerves that are of particular importance to psychiatry, and some ...

  20. High-frequency cranial electrostimulation (CES) in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Scherder, Erik J A; van Tol, M J; Swaab, D F


    In a previous study, low-frequency cranial electrostimulation did not improve cognition and (affective) behavior in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, 21 Alzheimer's disease patients, divided into an experimental (n = 11) and a control group (n = 10), were treated for 30 mins/day, 5 days/wk, for 6 wks with high-frequency cranial electrostimulation. Similar to the previous study, no improvements on cognition and (affective) behavior were found.

  1. Evaluation of vertical forces in the pads of Pitbulls with cranial cruciate ligament rupture


    Souza, Alexandre N A; Tatarunas, Angelica C; Matera,Julia M.


    Abstract Background Cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) is one of the most important stifle injuries and a common cause of lameness in dogs. Our objective was to measure the vertical forces in the pads of Pitbulls with cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) using a pressure sensitive walkway. A pressure sensitive walkway was used to collect vertical force data from the pads of 10 Pitbulls affected with unilateral CCLR. Ten healthy...

  2. Facial nerve neurinoma presenting as middle cranial fossa and cerebellopontine angle mass : a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi B


    Full Text Available Facial nerve neurinomas are rare. The tumours arising from the geniculate ganglion may grow anteriorly and superiorly and present as a mass in the middle cranial fossa. Only a few cases of facial nerve neurinomas presenting as middle cranial fossa mass have so far been reported. These tumours present with either long standing or intermittent facial palsy along with cerebellopontine angle syndrome.

  3. Comparison of Mandibular Surgical Techniques for Accessing Cranial Base Vascular Lesions


    Devlin, Michael A.; Hoffmann, Keith D.; Johnson, Walter D.


    This study compared mandibular distraction and vertical ramus osteotomy in terms of their effectiveness at increasing access to the cranial base and distal internal carotid artery. Five fresh–frozen cadavers were used to obtain a total of ten cranial base exposures. The following two techniques were evaluated on each of the ten exposures: (1) anterior distraction of the mandible without violation of the temporomandibular joint capsule, and (2) vertical ramus osteotomy of the mandible with dis...

  4. Hypothalmic hypopituitarism following cranial irradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, K.S.L.; Wang, C.; Yeung, R.T.T.; Ma, J.T.C.; Ho, J.H.C.; Tse, V.K.C.; Ling, N.


    Eight patients, one male and seven females, with no pre-existing hypothalamic-pituitary disease, who developed symptoms of hypopituitarism following cranial irradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma were studied 5 years or more after radiotherapy. All were GH deficient. Four of the patients with no GH response during insulin tolerance tests (ITT) showed increased GH in response to synthetic human growth hormone releasing factor (GRF-44). Four patients had impaired cortisol responses to ITT, and gradual but diminished cortisol responses to ovine corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF-41). There was no significant difference between mean peak increments in response to ITT and those in response to CRF-41. TSH responses to TRH were delayed in five and absent in two patients; four of these had low free T4 index. Prolactin was raised in all seven women and increased further in response to TRH. Two patients had impaired gonadotrophin responses to LHRH. None of the patients had clinical or biochemical evidence of diabetes insipidus. These data suggest that post-irradiation hypopituitarism in these patients results from radiation damage to the hypothalamus leading to varying degrees of deficiency of the hypothalamic releasing or inhibitory factors.

  5. The role of cranial computed tomography in carotid surgery. (United States)

    Vollman, R W; Eldrup-Jorgensen, J; Hoffman, M A


    In patients who present with TIA, RIND, or CVA, the cranial CT scan can rule out other etiologies for neurologic symptoms. In addition to the clinical presentation, the CT scan allows further stratification of patients being considered for carotid endarterectomy. We propose that patients be classified as TIA (+), TIA (-), RIND (+), or CVA (-). The CT scan has defined a new subgroup of patients, TIA (+) and RIND (+)--the Silent Cerebral Infarction. Patients who are categorized as TIA (+), RIND (+), and CVA (+) (cerebral infarction on CT or by history) are at increased risk for intraoperative ischemia and postoperative neurologic deficit. As such, they should be selectively shunted based on intraoperative EEG monitoring or routinely shunted. There is a strong association between ulcerative plaque at the carotid bifurcation and cerebral infarction on CT. The CT scan is a critical diagnostic procedure in evaluating the patient with an acute neurologic event. Patients with negative CT scans are candidates for early operation. Carotid endarterectomy should generally be delayed for 4 to 6 weeks in patients with positive CT scans.

  6. Promoting central nervous system regeneration: lessons from cranial nerve I. (United States)

    Ruitenberg, Marc J; Vukovic, Jana


    The olfactory nerve differs from cranial nerves III-XII in that it contains a specialised type of glial cell, called 'olfactory ensheathing cell' (OEC), rather than Schwann cells. In addition, functional neurogenesis persists postnatally in the olfactory system, i.e. the primary olfactory pathway continuously rebuilds itself throughout adult life. The presence of OECs in the olfactory nerve is thought to be critical to this continuous growth process. Because of this intrinsic capacity for self-repair, the mammalian olfactory system has proved as a useful model in neuroregeneration studies. In addition, OECs have been used in transplantation studies to promote pathway regeneration elsewhere in the nervous system. Here, we have reviewed the parameters that allow for repair within the primary olfactory pathway and the role that OECs are thought to play in this process. We conclude that, in addition to intrinsic growth potential, the presence of an aligned substrate to the target structure is a fundamental prerequisite for appropriate restoration of connectivity with the olfactory bulb. Hence, strategies to promote regrowth of injured nerve pathways should incorporate usage of aligned, oriented substrates of OECs or other cellular conduits with additional intervention to boost neuronal cell body responses to injury and/or neutralisation of putative inhibitors.

  7. The first virtual cranial endocast of a lungfish (sarcopterygii: dipnoi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M Clement

    Full Text Available Lungfish, or dipnoans, have a history spanning over 400 million years and are the closest living sister taxon to the tetrapods. Most Devonian lungfish had heavily ossified endoskeletons, whereas most Mesozoic and Cenozoic lungfish had largely cartilaginous endoskeletons and are usually known only from isolated tooth plates or disarticulated bone fragments. There is thus a substantial temporal and evolutionary gap in our understanding of lungfish endoskeletal morphology, between the diverse and highly variable Devonian forms on the one hand and the three extant genera on the other. Here we present a virtual cranial endocast of Rhinodipterus kimberleyensis, from the Late Devonian Gogo Formation of Australia, one of the most derived fossil dipnoans with a well-ossified braincase. This endocast, generated from a Computed Microtomography (µCT scan of the skull, is the first virtual endocast of any lungfish published, and only the third fossil dipnoan endocast to be illustrated in its entirety. Key features include long olfactory canals, a telencephalic cavity with a moderate degree of ventral expansion, large suparaotic cavities, and moderately enlarged utricular recesses. It has numerous similarities to the endocasts of Chirodipterus wildungensis and Griphognathus whitei, and to a lesser degree to 'Chirodipterus' australis and Dipnorhynchus sussmilchi. Among extant lungfish, it consistently resembles Neoceratodus more closely than Lepidosiren and Protopterus. Several trends in the evolution of the brains and labyrinth regions in dipnoans, such as the expansions of the utricular recess and telencephalic regions over time, are identified and discussed.

  8. Pictorial essay: Vascular interventions in extra cranial head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyash S Kulkarni


    Full Text Available Medicine is an ever changing field and interventional radiology (IR procedures are becoming increasingly popular because of high efficacy and its minimally invasive nature of the procedure. Management of disease processes in the extra cranial head and neck (ECHN has always been a challenge due to the complex anatomy of the region. Cross sectional imaging of the ECHN has grown and evolved tremendously and occupies a pivotal and integral position in the clinical management of variety of head and neck pathologies. Advances in angiographic technologies including flat panel detector systems, biplane, and 3-dimensional rotational angiography have consolidated and expanded the role of IR in the management of various ECHN pathologies. The ECHN is at cross roads between the origins of great vessels and the cerebral vasculature. Thorough knowledge of functional and technical aspects of neuroangiography is essential before embarking on head and neck vascular interventions. The vessels of the head and neck can be involved by infectious and inflammatory conditions, get irradiated during radiotherapy and injured due to trauma or iatrogenic cause. The ECHN is also a common site for various hypervascular neoplasms and vascular malformations, which can be treated with endovascular and percutaneous embolization. This pictorial essay provides a review of variety of ECHN pathologies which were managed by various IR procedures using different approaches.

  9. Prenatal cranial ossification of the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). (United States)

    Hampe, Oliver; Franke, Helena; Hipsley, Christy A; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Müller, Johannes


    Being descendants of small terrestrial ungulate mammals, whales underwent enormous transformations during their evolutionary history, that is, extensive changes in anatomy, physiology, and behavior were evolved during secondary adaptations to life in water. However, still only little is known about whale ontogenetic development, which help to identify the timing and sequence of critical evolutionary events, such as modification of the cetacean ear. This is particularly true for baleen whales (Mysticeti), the group including the humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae. We use high-resolution X-ray computed tomography to reinvestigate humpback whale fetuses from the Kükenthal collection at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, thus, extending historic descriptions of their skeletogenesis and providing for the first time sequences of cranial ossification for this species. Principally, the ossification sequence of prenatal Megaptera follows a typical mammalian pattern with the anterior dermal bones being the first ossifying elements in the skull, starting with the dentary. In contrast to other mammals, the ectotympanic bone ossifies at an early stage. Alveolar structure can be observed in both the maxillae and dentaries in these early prenatal specimens but evidence for teeth is lacking. Although the possibility of obtaining new embryological material is unlikely due to conservation issues, our study shows that reexamination of existing specimens employing new technologies still holds promise for filling gaps in our knowledge of whale evolution and ontogeny.

  10. Serial cranial computed tomography in acute infantile hemiplegia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Kenkichi; Nakagawa, Yoshihiro; Hojo, Hiroatsu; Yamasaki, Shun (Shizuoka Prefectural Children' s Hospital (Japan)); Mochizuki, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Shozo


    Serial cranial computed tomography (CCT) was studied in 20 children with acute infantile hemiplegia. These children were devided into two groups: hemiplegia following fever, hemiconvulsion and unconsiousness (the convulsive group) and hemiplegia without convulsion (the non-convulsive group). There were 15 cases in the convulsive group and 5 cases in the non-convulsive group. We could investigate the CCT immediately after the onset in 6 convulsive cases and 3 non-convulsive cases, but the immediate CCT revealed no abnormalities in both groups. Within several days after the onset the abnormally low density area appeared on the CCT in both groups. In three cases there were abnormally high density areas complicating these abnormalities. Over more than a month, the hemispheric low density area changed into the hemispheric atrophy and the lobar low density area changed into the focal wedge-shaped atrophy or diminished. The small or lacunar low density area changed into the low density spot and the hemorrhagic infarction into the porencephaly. The occlusion of the internal carotid artery were found in two non-convulsive cases and the stenosis of the internal carotid artery in a convulsive case with purulent meningitis.

  11. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.


    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  12. Artificial muscles on heat (United States)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.


    Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 μW when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

  13. Artificial organ engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annesini, Maria Cristina; Piemonte, Vincenzo; Turchetti, Luca


    Artificial organs may be considered as small-scale process plants, in which heat, mass and momentum transfer operations and, possibly, chemical transformations are carried out. This book proposes a novel analysis of artificial organs based on the typical bottom-up approach used in process engineering. Starting from a description of the fundamental physico-chemical phenomena involved in the process, the whole system is rebuilt as an interconnected ensemble of elemental unit operations. Each artificial organ is presented with a short introduction provided by expert clinicians. Devices commonly used in clinical practice are reviewed and their performance is assessed and compared by using a mathematical model based approach. Whilst mathematical modelling is a fundamental tool for quantitative descriptions of clinical devices, models are kept simple to remain focused on the essential features of each process. Postgraduate students and researchers in the field of chemical and biomedical engineering will find that t...

  14. Artificial vision workbench. (United States)

    Frenger, P


    Machine vision is an important component of medical systems engineering. Inexpensive miniature solid state cameras are now available. This paper describes how these devices can be used as artificial retinas, to take snapshots and moving pictures in monochrome or color. Used in pairs, they produce a stereoscopic field of vision and enable depth perception. Macular and peripheral vision can be simulated electronically. This paper also presents the author's design of an artificial orbit for this synthetic eye. The orbit supports the eye, protects it, and provides attachment points for the ocular motion control system. Convergence and image fusion can be produced, and saccades simulated, along with the other ocular motions. The use of lenses, filters, irises and focusing mechanisms are also discussed. Typical camera-computer interfaces are described, including the use of "frame grabbers" and analog-to-digital image conversion. Software programs for eye positioning, image manipulation, feature extraction and object recognition are discussed, including the application of artificial neural networks.

  15. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology. (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P


    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  16. Differential sensitivity of cranial and limb motor function to nigrostriatal dopamine depletion. (United States)

    Plowman, Emily K; Maling, Nicholas; Rivera, Benjamin J; Larson, Krista; Thomas, Nagheme J; Fowler, Stephen C; Manfredsson, Fredric P; Shrivastav, Rahul; Kleim, Jeffrey A


    The present study determined the differential effects of unilateral striatal dopamine depletion on cranial motor versus limb motor function. Forty male Long Evans rats were first trained on a comprehensive motor testing battery that dissociated cranial versus limb motor function and included: cylinder forepaw placement, single pellet reaching, vermicelli pasta handling; sunflower seed opening, pasta biting acoustics, and a licking task. Following baseline testing, animals were randomized to either a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) (n=20) or control (n=20) group. Animals in the 6-OHDA group received unilateral intrastriatal 6-OHDA infusions to induce striatal dopamine depletion. Six-weeks following infusion, all animals were re-tested on the same battery of motor tests. Near infrared densitometry was performed on sections taken through the striatum that were immunohistochemically stained for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Animals in the 6-OHDA condition showed a mean reduction in TH staining of 88.27%. Although 6-OHDA animals were significantly impaired on all motor tasks, limb motor deficits were more severe than cranial motor impairments. Further, performance on limb motor tasks was correlated with degree of TH depletion while performance on cranial motor impairments showed no significant correlation. These results suggest that limb motor function may be more sensitive to striatal dopaminergic depletion than cranial motor function and is consistent with the clinical observation that therapies targeting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in Parkinson's disease are more effective for limb motor symptoms than cranial motor impairments. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Cranial dural arteriovenous shunts. Part 1. Anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins. (United States)

    Baltsavias, Gerasimos; Parthasarathi, Venkatraman; Aydin, Emre; Al Schameri, Rahman A; Roth, Peter; Valavanis, Anton


    We reviewed the anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins aiming to elucidate aspects related to the cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae. Data from relevant articles on the anatomy and embryology of the bridging and emissary veins were identified using one electronic database, supplemented by data from selected reference texts. Persisting fetal pial-arachnoidal veins correspond to the adult bridging veins. Relevant embryologic descriptions are based on the classic scheme of five divisions of the brain (telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, myelencephalon). Variation in their exact position and the number of bridging veins is the rule and certain locations, particularly that of the anterior cranial fossa and lower posterior cranial fossa are often neglected in prior descriptions. The distal segment of a bridging vein is part of the dural system and can be primarily involved in cranial dural arteriovenous lesions by constituting the actual site of the shunt. The veins in the lamina cribriformis exhibit a bridging-emissary vein pattern similar to the spinal configuration. The emissary veins connect the dural venous system with the extracranial venous system and are often involved in dural arteriovenous lesions. Cranial dural shunts may develop in three distinct areas of the cranial venous system: the dural sinuses and their interfaces with bridging veins and emissary veins. The exact site of the lesion may dictate the arterial feeders and original venous drainage pattern.

  18. Imaging the cranial nerves: Part I: Methodology, infectious and inflammatory, traumatic and congenital lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil- Centro de Lisboa, Department of Radiology, Lisboa Codex (Portugal); Casselman, Jan [A.Z. St. Jan Brugge Hospital, Department of Radiology, Brugge (Belgium); A.Z. St. Augustinus Antwerpen Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Antwerpen (Belgium)


    Many disease processes manifest either primarily or secondarily by cranial nerve deficits. Neurologists, ENT surgeons, ophthalmologists and maxillo-facial surgeons are often confronted with patients with symptoms and signs of cranial nerve dysfunction. Seeking the cause of this dysfunction is a common indication for imaging. In recent decades we have witnessed an unprecedented improvement in imaging techniques, allowing direct visualization of increasingly small anatomic structures. The emergence of volumetric CT scanners, higher field MR scanners in clinical practice and higher resolution MR sequences has made a tremendous contribution to the development of cranial nerve imaging. The use of surface coils and parallel imaging allows sub-millimetric visualization of nerve branches and volumetric 3D imaging. Both with CT and MR, multiplanar and curved reconstructions can follow the entire course of a cranial nerve or branch, improving tremendously our diagnostic yield of neural pathology. This review article will focus on the contribution of current imaging techniques in the depiction of normal anatomy and on infectious and inflammatory, traumatic and congenital pathology affecting the cranial nerves. A detailed discussion of individual cranial nerves lesions is beyond the scope of this article. (orig.)

  19. Imaging the cranial nerves: part II: primary and secondary neoplastic conditions and neurovascular conflicts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil- Centro de Lisboa, Radiology Department, Lisboa Codex (Portugal); Casselman, Jan [A. Z. St Jan Brugge and A. Z. St Augustinus Antwerpen Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium)


    There have been unprecedented improvements in cross-sectional imaging in the last decades. The emergence of volumetric CT, higher field MR scanners and higher resolution MR sequences is largely responsible for the increasing diagnostic yield of imaging in patients presenting with cranial nerve deficits. The introduction of parallel MR imaging in combination with small surface coils allows the depiction of submillimetric nerves and nerve branches, and volumetric CT and MR imaging is able to provide high quality multiplanar and curved reconstructions that can follow the often complex course of cranial nerves. Seeking the cause of a cranial nerve deficit is a common indication for imaging, and it is not uncommon that radiologists are the first specialists to see a patient with a cranial neuropathy. To increase the diagnostic yield of imaging, high-resolution studies with smaller fields of view are required. To keep imaging studies within a reasonable time frame, it is mandatory to tailor the study according to neuro-topographic testing. This review article focuses on the contribution of current imaging techniques in the depiction of primary and secondary neoplastic conditions affecting the cranial nerves as well as on neurovascular conflicts, an increasingly recognized cause of cranial neuralgias. (orig.)

  20. Deformable Simplicial Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof

    In this dissertation we present a novel method for deformable interface tracking in 2D and 3D|deformable simplicial complexes (DSC). Deformable interfaces are used in several applications, such as fluid simulation, image analysis, reconstruction or structural optimization. In the DSC method......, the interface (curve in 2D; surface in 3D) is represented explicitly as a piecewise linear curve or surface. However, the domain is also subject to discretization: triangulation in 2D; tetrahedralization in 3D. This way, the interface can be alternatively represented as a set of edges/triangles separating...... demonstrate those strengths in several applications. In particular, a novel, DSC-based fluid dynamics solver has been developed during the PhD project. A special feature of this solver is that due to the fact that DSC maintains an explicit interface representation, surface tension is more easily dealt with...

  1. Autogenous Deformation of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autogenous deformation of concrete can be defined as the free deformation of sealed concrete at a constant temperature. A number of observed problems with early age cracking of high-performance concretes can be attributed to this phenomenon. During the last 10 years , this has led to an increased...... focus on autogenous deformation both within concrete practice and concrete research. Since 1996 the interest has been significant enough to hold international, yearly conferences entirely devoted to this subject. The papers in this publication were presented at two consecutive half-day sessions...... at the American Concrete Institute’s Fall Convention in Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2002. All papers have been reviewed according to ACI rules. This publication, as well as the sessions, was sponsored by ACI committee 236, Material Science of Concrete. The 12 presentations from 8 different countries indicate...

  2. Autogenous Deformation of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autogenous deformation of concrete can be defined as the free deformation of sealed concrete at a constant temperature. A number of observed problems with early age cracking of high-performance concretes can be attributed to this phenomenon. During the last 10 years , this has led to an increased...... focus on autogenous deformation both within concrete practice and concrete research. Since 1996 the interest has been significant enough to hold international, yearly conferences entirely devoted to this subject. The papers in this publication were presented at two consecutive half-day sessions...... at the American Concrete Institute’s Fall Convention in Phoenix, Arizona, October 29, 2002. All papers have been reviewed according to ACI rules. This publication, as well as the sessions, was sponsored by ACI committee 236, Material Science of Concrete. The 12 presentations from 8 different countries indicate...

  3. Post-laminectomy deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Stumpf Lutz


    Full Text Available Objective: To present the deformities and evaluate the results of their treatment. Methods: Retrospective study of patients with deformity following surgical access to the spinal canal. Fifteen patients who met the inclusion criteria were included. Patients without complete data in medical records were excluded. Results: Fourteen patients underwent surgical treatment and one patient received conservative treatment with vest type TLSO. The average angle of kyphosis correction was 87° preoperatively to 38° postoperatively, while the associated scoliosis correction was 69° preoperatively to 23° postoperatively. Conclusions: The prevention of deformity should be emphasized to avoid laminectomy alone, while laminoplasty should be the procedure of choice for canal access in surgeries where there is no need for resection of the posterior elements.

  4. Deformation of C isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Kanada-Enyo, Y


    Systematic analysis of the deformations of proton and neutron densities in even-even C isotopes was done based on the method of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. The $E2$ transition strength was discussed in relation to the deformation. We analyze the $B(E2;2^+_1\\to 0^+_1)$ in $^{16}$C, which has been recently measured to be abnormally small. The results suggest the difference of the deformations between proton and neutron densities in the neutron-rich C isotopes. It was found that stable proton structure in C isotopes plays an important role in the enhancement the neutron skin structure as well as in the systematics of $B(E2)$ in the neutron-rich C.

  5. General artificial neuron (United States)

    Degeratu, Vasile; Schiopu, Paul; Degeratu, Stefania


    In this paper the authors present a model of artificial neuron named the general artificial neuron. Depending on application this neuron can change self number of inputs, the type of inputs (from excitatory in inhibitory or vice versa), the synaptic weights, the threshold, the type of intensifying functions. It is achieved into optoelectronic technology. Also, into optoelectronic technology a model of general McCulloch-Pitts neuron is showed. The advantages of these neurons are very high because we have to solve different applications with the same neural network, achieved from these neurons, named general neural network.

  6. Spatially Resolved Artificial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold


    Although spatial structures can play a crucial role in chemical systems and can drastically alter the outcome of reactions, the traditional framework of artificial chemistry is a well-stirred tank reactor with no spatial representation in mind. Advanced method development in physical chemistry has...... made a class of models accessible to the realms of artificial chemistry that represent reacting molecules in a coarse-grained fashion in continuous space. This chapter introduces the mathematical models of Brownian dynamics (BD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) for molecular motion and reaction...

  7. Artificial Photosynthesis: Hybrid Systems. (United States)

    Ni, Yan; Hollmann, Frank

    Oxidoreductases are promising catalysts for organic synthesis. To sustain their catalytic cycles they require efficient supply with redox equivalents. Today classical biomimetic approaches utilizing natural electron supply chains prevail but artificial regeneration approaches bear the promise of simpler and more robust reaction schemes. Utilizing visible light can accelerate such artificial electron transport chains and even enable thermodynamically unfeasible reactions such as the use of water as reductant.This contribution critically summarizes the current state of the art in photoredoxbiocatalysis (i.e. light-driven biocatalytic oxidation and reduction reactions).

  8. Artificial human vision. (United States)

    Dowling, Jason


    Can vision be restored to the blind? As early as 1929 it was discovered that stimulating the visual cortex of an individual led to the perception of spots of light, known as phosphenes [1] . The aim of artificial human vision systems is to attempt to utilize the perception of phosphenes to provide a useful substitute for normal vision. Currently, four locations for electrical stimulation are being investigated; behind the retina (subretinal), in front of the retina (epiretinal), the optic nerve and the visual cortex (using intra- and surface electrodes). This review discusses artificial human vision technology and requirements, and reviews the current development projects.

  9. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B


    As the power of Bayesian techniques has become more fully realized, the field of artificial intelligence has embraced Bayesian methodology and integrated it to the point where an introduction to Bayesian techniques is now a core course in many computer science programs. Unlike other books on the subject, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence keeps mathematical detail to a minimum and covers a broad range of topics. The authors integrate all of Bayesian net technology and learning Bayesian net technology and apply them both to knowledge engineering. They emphasize understanding and intuition but also provide the algorithms and technical background needed for applications. Software, exercises, and solutions are available on the authors' website.

  10. Artificial intelligence in cardiology. (United States)

    Bonderman, Diana


    Decision-making is complex in modern medicine and should ideally be based on available data, structured knowledge and proper interpretation in the context of an individual patient. Automated algorithms, also termed artificial intelligence that are able to extract meaningful patterns from data collections and build decisions upon identified patterns may be useful assistants in clinical decision-making processes. In this article, artificial intelligence-based studies in clinical cardiology are reviewed. The text also touches on the ethical issues and speculates on the future roles of automated algorithms versus clinicians in cardiology and medicine in general.

  11. Deformation in nanocrystalline metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Van Swygenhoven


    Full Text Available It is now possible to synthesize polycrystalline metals made up of grains that average less than 100 nm in size. Such nanocrystalline metals contain a significant volume fraction of interfacial regions separated by nearly perfect crystals. The small sizes involved limit the conventional operation of dislocation sources and thus a fundamental question arises: how do these materials deform plastically? We review the current views on deformation mechanisms in nanocrystalline, face-centered cubic metals based on insights gained by atomistic computer simulations. These insights are discussed with reference to recent striking experimental observations that can be compared with predictions made by the simulations.

  12. Heat treatment deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bavaro, A. (Soliveri SpA, Caravaggio (Italy))


    Types and causes of heat treatement derived isotropic and anisotropic dilatancies in ferrous materials are reviewed. The concepts are developed in such a way as to allow extension to all materials exhibiting martensitic tempering behaviour. This paper intends to illustrate the basic processes of dimensional variations undergone by the materials under heat treatments. The parametric analysis includes an analysis of the interactions amongst the parameters themselves. The relative importance of each parameter is assessed in order to determine methods to attenuate deformation action. Simplified examples are offered to provide technicians explanations as to why specific deformations occur and indications on improved materials working techniques.

  13. Fluctuating Nonlinear Spring Model of Mechanical Deformation of Biological Particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kononova


    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of virus capsids correlate with local conformational dynamics in the capsid structure. They also reflect the required stability needed to withstand high internal pressures generated upon genome loading and contribute to the success of important events in viral infectivity, such as capsid maturation, genome uncoating and receptor binding. The mechanical properties of biological nanoparticles are often determined from monitoring their dynamic deformations in Atomic Force Microscopy nanoindentation experiments; but a comprehensive theory describing the full range of observed deformation behaviors has not previously been described. We present a new theory for modeling dynamic deformations of biological nanoparticles, which considers the non-linear Hertzian deformation, resulting from an indenter-particle physical contact, and the bending of curved elements (beams modeling the particle structure. The beams' deformation beyond the critical point triggers a dynamic transition of the particle to the collapsed state. This extreme event is accompanied by a catastrophic force drop as observed in the experimental or simulated force (F-deformation (X spectra. The theory interprets fine features of the spectra, including the nonlinear components of the FX-curves, in terms of the Young's moduli for Hertzian and bending deformations, and the structural damage dependent beams' survival probability, in terms of the maximum strength and the cooperativity parameter. The theory is exemplified by successfully describing the deformation dynamics of natural nanoparticles through comparing theoretical curves with experimental force-deformation spectra for several virus particles. This approach provides a comprehensive description of the dynamic structural transitions in biological and artificial nanoparticles, which is essential for their optimal use in nanotechnology and nanomedicine applications.

  14. Reconstruction of cranial defects with individually formed cranial prostheses made of polypropylene polyester knitwear: an analysis of 48 consecutive patients. (United States)

    Kasprzak, Piotr; Tomaszewski, Grzegorz; Kotwica, Zbigniew; Kwinta, Borys; Zwoliński, Jerzy


    This article presents a new method of cranioplasty in which polypropylene polyester knitwear was used as the filling material. The basis for prosthesis shaping was a three-dimensional model of the defect made according to the patient's CT scans. Previously, such material has never been a subject of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) individual forming. The process of the prosthesis design included CT bone scans and mold preparation for each patient. Such prostheses were implanted in 48 patients with cranial defects. The total number of prostheses applied was 51. The follow-up time was at least 6 months up to 36 months. The group of treated patients is described here, and sample pictures are shown to illustrate the results. The smallest defect had a size of 15 cm(2); the biggest, 178 cm(2). The coverage and the aesthetic results were very good in all cases. Two patients had postoperative complications. The cranioplastic solution described here is a valuable addition to the existing reconstructive methods, because of the low cost of the implant, the ease of its adjustment to the shape of the defect, and the short time of preparation.

  15. Patients cured of acromegaly do not experience improvement of their skull deformities. (United States)

    Rick, Jonathan W; Jahangiri, Arman; Flanigan, Patrick M; Aghi, Manish K


    Acromegaly is a rare disease that is associated with many co-morbidities. This condition also causes progressive deformity of the skull which includes frontal bossing and cranial thickening. Surgical and/or medical management can cure this condition in many patients, but it is not understood if patients cured of acromegaly experience regression of their skull deformities. We performed a retrospective analysis on patients treated at our dedicated pituitary center from 2009 to 2014. We looked at all MRI images taken during the treatment of these patients and recorded measurements on eight skull dimensions. We then analyzed these measurements for changes over time. 29 patients underwent curative treatment for acromegaly within our timeframe. The mean age for this population was 45.0 years old (range 19-70) and 55.2 % (n = 16) were female. All of these patients were treated with a transsphenoidal resection for a somatotropic pituitary adenoma. 9 (31.1%) of these patients required further medical therapy to be cured. We found statically significant variation in the coronal width of the sella turcica after therapy, which is likely attributable to changes from transsphenoidal surgery. None of the other dimensions had significant variation over time after cure. Patients cured of acromegaly should not expect natural regression of their skull deformities. Our study suggests that both frontal bossing and cranial thickening do not return to normal after cure.

  16. Artificial Left Ventricle

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjbar, Saeed; Meybodi, Mahmood Emami


    This Artificial left ventricle is based on a simple conic assumption shape for left ventricle where its motion is made by attached compressed elastic tubes to its walls which are regarded to electrical points at each nodal .This compressed tubes are playing the role of myofibers in the myocardium of the left ventricle. These elastic tubes have helical shapes and are transacting on these helical bands dynamically. At this invention we give an algorithm of this artificial left ventricle construction that of course the effect of the blood flow in LV is observed with making beneficiary used of sensors to obtain this effecting, something like to lifegates problem. The main problem is to evaluate powers that are interacted between elastic body (left ventricle) and fluid (blood). The main goal of this invention is to show that artificial heart is not just a pump, but mechanical modeling of LV wall and its interaction with blood in it (blood movement modeling) can introduce an artificial heart closed to natural heart...

  17. Artificial Gravity Research Plan (United States)

    Gilbert, Charlene


    This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

  18. Artificial intelligence and psychiatry. (United States)

    Servan-Schreiber, D


    This paper provides a brief historical introduction to the new field of artificial intelligence and describes some applications to psychiatry. It focuses on two successful programs: a model of paranoid processes and an expert system for the pharmacological management of depressive disorders. Finally, it reviews evidence in favor of computerized psychotherapy and offers speculations on the future development of research in this area.

  19. Observations of artificial satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The following publication gives the results of photographic
    observations of artificial satellites made at Asiago during the second
    and third year of this programme. The fixed camera technique and that
    with moving film (the latter still in its experimental stage have been used.

  20. Micromachined Artificial Haircell (United States)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)


    A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.

  1. Artificial recharge of groundwater (United States)

    The Task Committee on Guidelines for Artificial Recharge of Groundwater, of the American Society of Civil Engineers' (ASCE) Irrigation and Drainage Division, sponsored an International Symposium on Artificial Recharge of Groundwater at the Inn-at-the-Park Hotel in Anaheim, Calif., August 23-27, 1988. Cosponsors were the U.S. Geological Survey, California Department of Water Resources, University of California Water Resources Center, Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, with cooperation from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, International Association of Hydrological Sciences, American Water Resources Association, U.S. Agency for International Development, World Bank, United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development, and a number of local and state organizations.Because of the worldwide interest in artificial recharge and the need to develop efficient recharge facilities, the Anaheim symposium brought together an interdisciplinary group of engineers and scientists to provide a forum for many professional disciplines to exchange experiences and findings related to various types of artificial recharge; learn from both successful and unsuccessful case histories; promote technology transfer between the various disciplines; provide an education resource for communication with those who are not water scientists, such as planners, lawyers, regulators, and the public in general; and indicate directions by which cities or other entities can save funds by having reasonable technical guidelines for implementation of a recharge project.

  2. Artificial intelligence within AFSC (United States)

    Gersh, Mark A.


    Information on artificial intelligence research in the Air Force Systems Command is given in viewgraph form. Specific research that is being conducted at the Rome Air Development Center, the Space Technology Center, the Human Resources Laboratory, the Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, the Armamant Laboratory, and the Wright Research and Development Center is noted.

  3. Marginally Deformed Starobinsky Gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, A.; Joergensen, J.; Sannino, Francesco


    We show that quantum-induced marginal deformations of the Starobinsky gravitational action of the form $R^{2(1 -\\alpha)}$, with $R$ the Ricci scalar and $\\alpha$ a positive parameter, smaller than one half, can account for the recent experimental observations by BICEP2 of primordial tensor modes....

  4. Skeletogenic fate of zebrafish cranial and trunk neural crest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Kague

    Full Text Available The neural crest (NC is a major contributor to the vertebrate craniofacial skeleton, detailed in model organisms through embryological and genetic approaches, most notably in chick and mouse. Despite many similarities between these rather distant species, there are also distinct differences in the contribution of the NC, particularly to the calvariae of the skull. Lack of information about other vertebrate groups precludes an understanding of the evolutionary significance of these differences. Study of zebrafish craniofacial development has contributed substantially to understanding of cartilage and bone formation in teleosts, but there is currently little information on NC contribution to the zebrafish skeleton. Here, we employ a two-transgene system based on Cre recombinase to genetically label NC in the zebrafish. We demonstrate NC contribution to cells in the cranial ganglia and peripheral nervous system known to be NC-derived, as well as to a subset of myocardial cells. The indelible labeling also enables us to determine NC contribution to late-forming bones, including the calvariae. We confirm suspected NC origin of cartilage and bones of the viscerocranium, including cartilages such as the hyosymplectic and its replacement bones (hymandibula and symplectic and membranous bones such as the opercle. The cleithrum develops at the border of NC and mesoderm, and as an ancestral component of the pectoral girdle was predicted to be a hybrid bone composed of both NC and mesoderm tissues. However, we find no evidence of a NC contribution to the cleithrum. Similarly, in the vault of the skull, the parietal bones and the caudal portion of the frontal bones show no evidence of NC contribution. We also determine a NC origin for caudal fin lepidotrichia; the presumption is that these are derived from trunk NC, demonstrating that these cells have the ability to form bone during normal vertebrate development.

  5. An evaluation of cranial CT scanning in clinical psychiatry. (United States)

    Colohan, H; O'Callaghan, E; Larkin, C; Waddington, J L


    From 6,300 psychiatric admissions over a 37 month period, all 54 patient referrals for CT were identified and their charts reviewed. CT influenced diagnosis, management or prognosis in 11.7 percent of patients scanned. There was poor correlation between organicity on CT scan and findings on physical examination, laboratory testing, EEG and psychological testing. The mental state examination was the single significant correlate of CT abnormality. We suggest that the use of a formalised mental state examination such as the Mini Mental State, in addition to the usual clinical assessment of mental state, may improve the accuracy of prediction of abnormality on CT scan. The introduction of X-ray computed tomography (CT) is recognised to be one of the most important innovations in the recent history of clinical medicine. In neurology the value of a non-invasive technique for examining the intracranial contents was quickly realised in the areas of diagnosis, particularly in the detection of vascular accidents and tumours. CT has also attained a significant place in psychiatry. In research studies, it has provided important information on schizophrenia, alcoholism and chronic organic reactions. The place of CT in clinical psychiatry is less clear. As its availability has increased, such scans are being requested with increasing frequency in psychiatric patients. Cranial CT is a highly sensitive diagnostic procedure which, when used unselectively, may result in the discovery of incidental findings. Until recently, a function of the psychiatrist in relation to diagnosis was to first seek to distinguish symptoms produced by organic pathology from those produced by functional illness.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Review of 3-Dimensional Printing on Cranial Neurosurgery Simulation Training. (United States)

    Vakharia, Vejay N; Vakharia, Nilesh N; Hill, Ciaran S


    Shorter working times, reduced operative exposure to complex procedures, and increased subspecialization have resulted in training constraints within most surgical fields. Simulation has been suggested as a possible means of acquiring new surgical skills without exposing patients to the surgeon's operative "learning curve." Here we review the potential impact of 3-dimensional printing on simulation and training within cranial neurosurgery and its implications for the future. In accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines, a comprehensive search of PubMed, OVID MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was performed. In total, 31 studies relating to the use of 3-dimensional (3D) printing within neurosurgery, of which 16 were specifically related to simulation and training, were identified. The main impact of 3D printing on neurosurgical simulation training was within vascular surgery, where patient-specific replication of vascular anatomy and pathologies can aid surgeons in operative planning and clip placement for reconstruction of vascular anatomy. Models containing replicas of brain tumors have also been reconstructed and used for training purposes, with some providing realistic representations of skin, subcutaneous tissue, bone, dura, normal brain, and tumor tissue. 3D printing provides a unique means of directly replicating patient-specific pathologies. It can identify anatomic variation and provide a medium in which training models can be generated rapidly, allowing the trainee and experienced neurosurgeon to practice parts of operations preoperatively. Future studies are required to validate this technology in comparison with current simulators and show improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Patient preferences regarding prophylactic cranial irradiation: A discrete choice experiment. (United States)

    Lehman, Margot; Gorayski, Peter; Watson, Susanne; Edeling, Desiree; Jackson, James; Whitty, Jennifer


    In patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT), prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is not standard practice. This study determined patient preferences for PCI with respect to survival benefit, reduction in brain metastases (BM) and acceptable toxicity. A Discrete Choice Experiment was completed pre- and post-treatment. Patients made 15 hypothetical choices between two alternative PCI treatments described by four attributes: amount of life gained, chance of BM, ability to care for oneself, and loss of memory. Participants also chose between PCI and no PCI. 54 and 46 surveys were completed pre- and post-treatment. The most important attributes pre-treatment were: a survival benefit >6months, of 3-6months, avoiding severe problems with memory and self-care, avoiding quite a bit of difficulty with memory and maximally reducing BM recurrence. Post-treatment, BM reduction became more important. 90% of patients would accept PCI for a survival benefit >6months, with a maximal reduction in BM even if severe memory/self-care problems occurred. With a 10% reduction in BM and mild problems with memory and self-care 70% of patients pre- (90% post-treatment) would accept PCI for a survival benefit of 1-3months, and 52% pre- (78% post-treatment) for no survival benefit. Improvement in survival is the most important attribute of PCI with patients willing to accept significant toxicity for maximum survival and less toxicity for less survival benefit. BM reduction became more important after treatment. The majority of patients would accept PCI for no survival benefit and a reduction in BM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modelling of optical aberrations caused by light propagation in mouse cranial bone using second harmonic generation imaging (United States)

    Tehrani, Kayvan; Kner, Peter; Mortensen, Luke J.


    Multiphoton imaging through the bone to image into the bone marrow or the brain is an emerging need in the scientific community. Due to the highly scattering nature of bone, bone thinning or removal is typically required to enhance the resolution and signal intensity at the imaging plane. The optical aberrations and scattering in the bone significantly affect the resolution and signal to noise ratio of deep tissue microscopy. Multiphoton microscopy uses long wavelength (nearinfrared and infrared) excitation light to reduce the effects of scattering. However, it is still susceptible to optical aberrations and scattering since the light propagates through several layers of media with inhomogeneous indices of refraction. Mechanical removal of bone is highly invasive, laborious, and cannot be applied in experiments where imaging inside of the bone is desired. Adaptive optics technology can compensate for these optical aberrations and potentially restore the diffraction limited point spread function of the system even in deep tissue. To design an adaptive optics system, a priori knowledge of the sample structure assists selection of the proper correction element and sensing methods. In this work we present the characterization of optical aberrations caused by mouse cranial bone, using second harmonic generation imaging of bone collagen. We simulate light propagation through the bone, calculate aberrations and determine the correction that can be achieved using a deformable mirror.

  9. Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan


    The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks.......The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks....

  10. Deformed Algebras and Generalizations of Independence on Deformed Exponential Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Matsuzoe


    Full Text Available A deformed exponential family is a generalization of exponential families. Since the useful classes of power law tailed distributions are described by the deformed exponential families, they are important objects in the theory of complex systems. Though the deformed exponential families are defined by deformed exponential functions, these functions do not satisfy the law of exponents in general. The deformed algebras have been introduced based on the deformed exponential functions. In this paper, after summarizing such deformed algebraic structures, it is clarified how deformed algebras work on deformed exponential families. In fact, deformed algebras cause generalization of expectations. The three kinds of expectations for random variables are introduced in this paper, and it is discussed why these generalized expectations are natural from the viewpoint of information geometry. In addition, deformed algebras cause generalization of independences. Whereas it is difficult to check the well-definedness of deformed independence in general, the κ-independence is always well-defined on κ-exponential families. This is one of advantages of κ-exponential families in complex systems. Consequently, we can well generalize the maximum likelihood method for the κ-exponential family from the viewpoint of information geometry.

  11. Deformation of chlorite in naturally deformed low-grade rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bons, A.J.


    The intracrystalline deformation of chlorite in naturally deformed low-grade rocks was investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As in other phyllosilicates, the deformation of chlorite is dominated by the (001) slip plane. Slip along this plane is very easy through the generation an

  12. Postural deformities in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doherty, K.M.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Peralta, M.C.; Silveira-Moriyama, L.; Azulay, J.P.; Gershanik, O.S.; Bloem, B.R.


    Postural deformities are frequent and disabling complications of Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonism. These deformities include camptocormia, antecollis, Pisa syndrome, and scoliosis. Recognition of specific postural syndromes might have differential diagnostic value in patients prese

  13. Nonperturbative effects in deformation quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Periwal, V


    The Cattaneo-Felder path integral form of the perturbative Kontsevich deformation quantization formula is used to explicitly demonstrate the existence of nonperturbative corrections to na\\"\\i ve deformation quantization.

  14. Nanoscale deformation mechanisms in bone. (United States)

    Gupta, Himadri S; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Zickler, Gerald A; Raz-Ben Aroush, D; Funari, Sérgio S; Roschger, Paul; Wagner, H Daniel; Fratzl, Peter


    Deformation mechanisms in bone matrix at the nanoscale control its exceptional mechanical properties, but the detailed nature of these processes is as yet unknown. In situ tensile testing with synchrotron X-ray scattering allowed us to study directly and quantitatively the deformation mechanisms at the nanometer level. We find that bone deformation is not homogeneous but distributed between a tensile deformation of the fibrils and a shearing in the interfibrillar matrix between them.

  15. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities (United States)

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  16. Sexual dimorphism and interspecific cranial form in two capuchin species: Cebus albifrons and C. apella. (United States)

    Masterson, T J


    Ontogenetic patterns of sexual dimorphism and cranial form in two capuchin monkeys, Cebus albifrons and C. apella, are investigated by means of univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistics. The analyses are based on 23 linear variables. Univariate analyses indicate that similar ontogenetic patterns of cranial sexual dimorphism are present; however, interspecific differences exist in timing. Ontogenetic scaling is present in both species' crania; however, it is more prevalent in C. albifrons. Several departures are present in cranial regions associated with orbital shape, the dental arcade, and the muscles of mastication. The latter two indicate that sexual differences in diet and/or foraging strategies may exist. Sexual selection is suggested as being the primary selective regime underlying the observed patterns of cranial sexual dimorphism in each species. Interspecific comparisons confirm that C. apella possesses a more dimorphic cranium than C. albifrons and that sexual dimorphism in C. apella begins earlier in development. Although interspecific ontogenetic scaling is present in some cranial variables, C. apella is not just a scaled-up version of C. albifrons. These sympatric congeners seem to be differentiated by variables related to the orbital region and the masticatory apparatus, as indicated by both departures from ontogenetic scaling and results of the discriminant function analysis. Ecological selection, rather than varying degrees of sexual selection, is likely to be responsible for this finding given that C. apella is known to consume hard-object foods. This is consistent with the predicted outcome of the competitive exclusion principle.

  17. Cranial trauma in iron age Samnite agriculturists, Alfedena, Italy: implications for biocultural and economic stress. (United States)

    Paine, R R; Mancinelli, D; Ruggieri, M; Coppa, A


    The Samnites are an Iron Age protohistoric people from the central region of Italy. The skeletal remains are from the Alfedena necropolis, 6th through 5th centuries B.C. Macchiarelli et al. (Antropologia Contemporanea 4 (1981) 239-243) were the first to report on cranial trauma for this population, presenting four cases with extreme injuries. We re-examined this well documented skeletal population for additional examples of trauma. Previously unexamined remains from Alfedena, excavated at the turn of the 20th century, are also included in our analysis (Mariani. 1901. "Aufidena", ricerche archeologiche e storiche del Sannio settentrionale. Roma: Acc Naz Dei Lincei). Of the 209 adult crania examined, 12.9% of them exhibited trauma. Analysis of location and frequency of cranial trauma revealed that cranial injuries to the head appear to originate from all directions. The high rate of cranial trauma underscores the violent circumstances experienced during the Iron Age protohistoric period of central Italy. Males are much more likely to exhibit cranial injury than females (P = 0.009). We conclude that the injuries received by Samnite male farmer-warriors occurred while defending pastoral-agricultural resources. Trauma rates are similar for some Iron Age populations and not for others. Behavior associated with violence during the Iron Age period can not be generalized for all populations found in Italy. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  18. Effectiveness of ultrasonographic evaluation of the cranial sutures in children with suspected craniosynostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simanovsky, Natalia; Hiller, Nurith; Koplewitz, Benjamin; Rozovsky, Katya [Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Mount, Scopus, P.O. Box 24035, Jerusalem (Israel)


    Computed tomography (CT) is the 'gold standard' for evaluation of the cranial sutures. While prenatal cranial suture evaluation with ultrasound (US) is common, US has not been established as a postnatal screening tool. We evaluated the effectiveness of US for diagnosis of craniosynostosis (CS). During 2006, 24 infants with questionable CS were assessed with US of the sagittal, metopic, and bilateral coronal and lambdoid sutures. US findings and clinical records were reviewed retrospectively. Sixteen boys and eight girls (ages 1-11 months, mean 4.3) underwent US. The correct diagnosis was provided in 23 (95%), with equivocal findings in one patient. Cranial sutures appeared normal in 15 infants, who had normal clinical presentation at mean 5.8 months follow-up; CT confirmation was obtained in two. In eight children, US identified premature closure of one or more cranial sutures. Three-dimensional CT was performed as a preparation for surgery in four, with classical CS findings. In one case with inconclusive US findings, CT showed narrow but open sutures. Sonographic examination of cranial sutures may serve as a first imaging tool for evaluation of craniosynostosis. CT may be reserved for children with abnormal or equivocal ultrasound and for preoperative planning. (orig.)

  19. Cranial nerves in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, and in fossil relatives (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi). (United States)

    Kemp, A


    Three systems, two sensory and one protective, are present in the skin of the living Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, and in fossil lungfish, and the arrangement and innervation of the sense organs is peculiar to lungfish. Peripheral branches of nerves that innervate the sense organs are slender and unprotected, and form before any skeletal structures appear. When the olfactory capsule develops, it traps some of the anterior branches of cranial nerve V, which emerged from the chondrocranium from the lateral sphenotic foramen. Cranial nerve I innervates the olfactory organ enclosed within the olfactory capsule and cranial nerve II innervates the eye. Cranial nerve V innervates the sense organs of the snout and upper lip, and, in conjunction with nerve IX and X, the sense organs of the posterior and lateral head. Cranial nerve VII is primarily a motor nerve, and a single branch innervates sense organs in the mandible. There are no connections between nerves V and VII, although both emerge from the brain close to each other. The third associated system consists of lymphatic vessels covered by an extracellular matrix of collagen, mineralised as tubules in fossils. Innervation of the sensory organs is separate from the lymphatic system and from the tubule system of fossil lungfish.

  20. Wide Band Artificial Pulsar (United States)

    Parsons, Zackary


    The Wide Band Artificial Pulsar (WBAP) is an instrument verification device designed and built by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virgina. The site currently operates the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI) and the Versatile Green Bank Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) digital backends for their radio telescopes. The commissioning and continued support for these sophisticated backends has demonstrated a need for a device capable of producing an accurate artificial pulsar signal. The WBAP is designed to provide a very close approximation to an actual pulsar signal. This presentation is intended to provide an overview of the current hardware and software implementations and to also share the current results from testing using the WBAP.

  1. Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Nahar


    Full Text Available An artificial neural network is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information.The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons working in unison to solve specific problems.Ann’s, like people, learn by example.

  2. Essentials of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Matt


    Since its publication, Essentials of Artificial Intelligence has beenadopted at numerous universities and colleges offering introductory AIcourses at the graduate and undergraduate levels. Based on the author'scourse at Stanford University, the book is an integrated, cohesiveintroduction to the field. The author has a fresh, entertaining writingstyle that combines clear presentations with humor and AI anecdotes. At thesame time, as an active AI researcher, he presents the materialauthoritatively and with insight that reflects a contemporary, first hand

  3. Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Nahar


    Full Text Available An artificial neural network is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information. The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons working in unison to solve specific problems. Ann’s, like people, learn by example.

  4. Artificial neural network modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Sandhya


    This book covers theoretical aspects as well as recent innovative applications of Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) in natural, environmental, biological, social, industrial and automated systems. It presents recent results of ANNs in modelling small, large and complex systems under three categories, namely, 1) Networks, Structure Optimisation, Robustness and Stochasticity 2) Advances in Modelling Biological and Environmental Systems and 3) Advances in Modelling Social and Economic Systems. The book aims at serving undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in ANN computational modelling. .


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanal Mohan


    socio-economic group which amounted to thirty nine cases. Nine cases belonged to middle class and six cases belonged to high socio-economic group. Based on extra cranial complications, twenty one cases presented with acute mastoiditis features, nineteen cases presented with discharging sinuses. Eight cases presented with features of petrositis, four cases presented with features of labyrinthitis, and two cases presented with facial nerve palsy. CONCLUSION In this study it was noted that usually the poor who suffer, may be because of financial constraints, lack of health care facilities or general neglect on the patient’s part. Maintaining proper hygiene and early treatment can reduce the number of complications in such cases.

  6. Utility of emergency cranial computed tomography in patients without trauma. (United States)

    Narayanan, Vignesh; Keniston, Angela; Albert, Richard K


    The objectives of this study were to determine, in patients admitted to the hospital from the emergency department (ED) without evidence of trauma, 1) the prevalence of clinically important abnormalities on cranial computed tomography (CCT) and 2) the frequency of emergent therapeutic interventions required because of these abnormalities. The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients from 2007 between the ages of 18 and 89 years who had CCT as part of their ED evaluations prior to hospitalization. Patients with any indication of trauma were excluded, as were those who had a lumbar puncture (LP). Chief complaint, results of the ED neurologic examination, tomogram findings, and whether patients had emergent interventions were recorded. Patients presenting with altered mental status (AMS) were analyzed separately. Of the 766 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 83 (11%) had focal neurologic findings, and 61 (8%) had clinically important abnormalities on computed tomography. Emergent interventions occurred in only 12 (1.6%), 11 (92%) of whom had focal neurologic findings. In the subgroup of 287 patients with AMS as their presenting problem, 14 (4.9%) had focal findings, six (2%) had clinically important abnormalities on tomography, and only two (0.7%) required emergent interventions, both of whom had focal findings. Patients presenting with AMS were less likely to have positive findings on tomography (odds ratio [OR] = 0.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.07 to 0.39). Patients presenting with motor weakness or speech abnormalities, or who were unresponsive, were more likely to have positive findings on tomography (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 2.6 to 8.6; OR = 4.4, 95% CI = 1.5 to 2.7; and OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.6 to 7.1, respectively). Of patients without evidence of trauma who receive CCT in the ED, the prevalence of focal neurologic findings and clinically important abnormalities on tomography is low, the need for emergent intervention is very low, and the

  7. Deformation twinning in monazite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, R.S.; Marshall, D.B


    Polycrystalline monazite (LaPO{sub 4}) was deformed at room temperature by a spherical indenter. Deformation twins were identified by TEM in 70 grains. Five twin planes were found: (100) was by far the most common; (001) and (120) were less common; (122-bar)was rare, and kinks in (120) twins were identified as irrational '(483)' twin planes. The twinning modes on these planes were inferred from the expression of twinning shear at free surfaces, predictions of classical deformation twinning theory, and various considerations of twin morphology and crystal structure. Atomic shuffle calculations that allow formation of either a glide plane or a mirror plane at the twin interface were used to analyze twin modes. The inferred twin modes all have small atomic shuffles. For (001) twins, the smallest shuffles were obtained with a glide plane at the interface, with displacement vector R=((1)/(2))[010]. The results do not uniquely define a twin mode on (100), leaving open the possibility of more than one mode operating on this plane. Factors that may determine the operative deformation twinning modes are discussed. Crystal structure considerations suggest that the relative abundance of twinning modes may correlate with low shear modulus on the twin plane in the direction of twinning shear, and with a possible low-energy interface structure consisting of a layer of xenotime of one half-unit-cell thickness that could form at (100) and (001) twins. The three most common twins have low strains to low {sigma} coincidence site lattices (CSLs)

  8. Localization of plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J R


    The localization of plastic deformation into a shear band is discussed as an instability of plastic flow and a precursor to rupture. Experimental observations are reviewed, a general theoretical framework is presented, and specific calculations of critical conditions are carried out for a variety of material models. The interplay between features of inelastic constitutive description, especially deviations from normality and vertex-like yielding, and the onset of localization is emphasized.

  9. Sprengels deformity: anaesthesia management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave S


    Full Text Available A 28 years old lady presented with Sprengels deformity and hemivertebrae for Fothergills surgery. Clinically there were no anomalies of the nervous, renal or the cardiovascular systems. She had a short neck and score on modified Mallapati test was grade 2. She was successfully anaesthetised using injection Propofol as a total intravenous anaesthetic agent after adequate premedication with injection Midazolam and injection Pentazocine. Patient had an uneventful intraoperative and postoperative course.

  10. Effect of Head Position on Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure in Cats: Comparison with Artificial Model (United States)

    Klarica, Marijan; Radoš, Milan; Draganić, Pero; Erceg, Gorislav; Orešković, Darko; Maraković, Jurica; Bulat, Marin


    Aim To demonstrate that changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure in the cranial cavity and spinal canal after head elevation from the horizontal level occur primarily due to the biophysical characteristics of the CSF system, ie, distensibility of the spinal dura. Methods Experiments in vivo were performed on cats and a new artificial model of the CSF system with dimensions similar to the CSF system in cats, consisting of non-distensible cranial and distensible spinal part. Measurements of the CSF pressure in the cranial and spinal spaces were performed in chloralose-anesthetized cats (n = 10) in the horizontal position on the base of a stereotaxic apparatus (reference zero point) and in the position in which the head was elevated to 5 cm and 10 cm above that horizontal position. Changes in the CSF pressure in the cranial and spinal part of the model were measured in the cranial part positioned in the same way as the head in cats (n = 5). Results When the cat was in the horizontal position, the values of the CSF pressure in the cranial (11.9 ± 1.1 cm H2O) and spinal (11.8 ± 0.6 cm H2O) space were not significantly different. When the head was elevated 5 cm or 10 cm above the reference zero point, the CSF pressure in the cranium significantly decreased to 7.7 ± 0.6 cm H2O and 4.7 ± 0.7 cm H2O, respectively, while the CSF pressure in the spinal space significantly increased to 13.8 ± 0.7 cm H2O and 18.5 ± 1.6 cm H2O, respectively (P<0.001 for both). When the artificial CSF model was positioned in the horizontal level and its cranial part elevated by 5 cm and 10 cm, the changes in the pressure were the same as those in the cats when in the same hydrostatic position. Conclusions The new model of the CSF system used in our study faithfully mimicked the changes in the CSF pressure in cats during head elevation in relation to the body. Changes in the pressure in the model were not accompanied by the changes in fluid volume in

  11. Artificial sweetener; Jinko kanmiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The patents related to the artificial sweetener that it is introduced to the public in 3 years from 1996 until 1998 are 115 cases. The sugar quality which makes an oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol the subject is greatly over 28 cases of the non-sugar quality in the one by the kind as a general tendency of these patents at 73 cases in such cases as the Aspartame. The method of manufacture patent, which included new material around other peptides, the oligosaccharide and sugar alcohol isn`t inferior to 56 cases of the formation thing patent at 43 cases, and pays attention to the thing, which is many by the method of manufacture, formation. There is most improvement of the quality of sweetness with 31 cases in badness of the aftertaste which is characteristic of the artificial sweetener and so on, and much stability including the improvement in the flavor of food by the artificial sweetener, a long time and dissolution, fluid nature and productivity and improvement of the economy such as a cost are seen with effect on a purpose. (NEDO)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. M Marinho


    Full Text Available This literature review aims to show the main scientific advances achieved in the area of Artificial Insemination (AI within animal reproduction and how these can improve reproductive efficiency and productive of the Brazilian cattle herd. With knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the control of reproductive physiology, in levels endocrine, cellular and molecular, it was possible the development of reproductive biotechnologies, standing out the IA, It has been used on a large scale, by allow the multiplication of animals superior genetically , increase the birthrate and be particularly effective in adjusting the breeding season in cattle. Artificial insemination has an important role in animal genetic improvement; it is the main and more viable middle of spread of genes worldwide when compared to other methods how technologies of embryos and the natural breeding. There are several advantages in using artificial insemination in herd both of cutting as milkman, as herd genetic improvement in lesser time and at a low cost through the use of semen of demonstrably superior sires for production, well as in the control and decrease of diseases which entail reproductive losses and consequently productive, by allowing the creator The crossing of zebuine females with bulls of European breeds and vice-versa, through the use of semen, increasing the number of progeny of a reproducer superior

  13. On the Construction of Artificial Brains

    CERN Document Server

    Ramacher, Ulrich


    This book presents a first generation of artificial brains, using vision as sample application. An object recognition system is built, using neurons and synapses as exclusive building elements. The system contains a feature pyramid with 8 orientations and 5 resolution levels for 1000 objects and networks for binding of features into objects. This vision system can recognize objects robustly in the presence of changes in illumination, deformation, distance and pose (as long as object components remain visible). The neuro-synaptic network owes its functional power to the introduction of rapidly modifiable dynamic synapses. These give a network greater pattern recognition capabilities than are achievable with fixed connections. The spatio-temporal correlation structure of patterns is captured by a single synaptic differential equation in a universal way. The correlation can appear as synchronous neural firing, which signals the presence of a feature in a robust way, or binds features into objects. Although in th...

  14. Protection of Marine Structures by Artificial Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Ottesen Hansen, N.E.


    protection of the bridge and of the grounding ships aspects like erosion of the islands and hydraulic resistance to the water flow through the belt must also be considered. The paper is focused on the design aspects related to ship grounding. It presents a theoretical model, which predicts the ship motions...... material and giving minimum resistance to the water flow through the belt......., the loads and the deformations during a ship grounding event on a soft sea bed. The models applied to determine the shapes of the artificial islands, which most efficiently protect the bridge from ship impact while posing minimum risk of damage to the grounding ships, requiring the least amount of building...

  15. Validation of SPAMM Tagged MRI Based Measurement of 3D Soft Tissue Deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Moerman, Kevin M; Simms, Ciaran K; Lamerichs, Rolf M; Stoker, Jaap; Nederveen, Aart J


    This study presents and validates a novel (non-ECG-triggered) MRI sequence based on SPAtial Modulation of the Magnetization (SPAMM) to non-invasively measure 3D (quasi-static) soft tissue deformations using only six acquisitions (three static and three indentations). In current SPAMM tagged MRI approaches data is typically constructed from many repeated motion cycles. This has so far restricted its application to the measurement of highly repeatable and periodic movements (e.g. cardiac deformation). In biomechanical applications where soft tissue deformation is artificially induced, often by indentation, significant repeatability constraints exist and, for clinical applications, discomfort and health issues generally preclude a large number of repetitions.

  16. Nanoscale Deformable Optics (United States)

    Strauss, Karl F.; Sheldon, Douglas J.


    Several missions and instruments in the conceptual design phase rely on the technique of interferometry to create detectable fringe patterns. The intimate emplacement of reflective material upon electron device cells based upon chalcogenide material technology permits high-speed, predictable deformation of the reflective surface to a subnanometer or finer resolution with a very high degree of accuracy. In this innovation, a layer of reflective material is deposited upon a wafer containing (perhaps in the millions) chalcogenic memory cells with the reflective material becoming the front surface of a mirror and the chalcogenic material becoming a means of selectively deforming the mirror by the application of heat to the chalcogenic material. By doing so, the mirror surface can deform anywhere from nil to nanometers in spots the size of a modern day memory cell, thereby permitting realtime tuning of mirror focus and reflectivity to mitigate aberrations caused elsewhere in the optical system. Modern foundry methods permit the design and manufacture of individual memory cells having an area of or equal to the Feature (F) size of the design (assume 65 nm). Fabrication rules and restraints generally require the instantiation of one memory cell to another no closer than 1.5 F, or, for this innovation, 90 nm from its neighbor in any direction. Chalcogenide is a semiconducting glass compound consisting of a combination of chalcogen ions, the ratios of which vary according to properties desired. It has been shown that the application of heat to cells of chalcogenic material cause a large alteration in resistance to the range of 4 orders of magnitude. It is this effect upon which chalcogenidebased commercial memories rely. Upon removal of the heat source, the chalcogenide rapidly cools and remains frozen in the excited state. It has also been shown that the chalcogenide expands in volume because of the applied heat, meaning that the coefficient of expansion of chalcogenic

  17. Cranial Mesenteric Arterial Obstruction Due To Strongylus vulgaris Larvae in a Donkey (Equus asinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Borji


    Full Text Available Arteritis due to Strongylus vulgaris is a well-known cause of colic in horses and donkeys. The current report describes a fatal incidence of arterial obstruction in cranial mesenteric artery caused by S. vulgaris infection in an adult donkey in which anthelmintic treatment was not regularly administered. Necropsy findings of the abdominal cavity revealed a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to larvae of S. vulgaris, causing severe colic. To the authors' knowledge, a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to verminous arteritis has rarely been described in horses and donkeys. Based on recent reports of fatal arterial obstruction due to S. vulgaris infection in donkeys, it may be evident to consider acute colic caused by this pathogenic parasite a re-emerging disease in donkeys and horses.

  18. [Chondroma adjacent to Meckel's cave mimicking a fifth cranial nerve neurinoma. A case report]. (United States)

    Narro-Donate, Jose María; Huete-Allut, Antonio; Velasco-Albendea, Francisco J; Escribano-Mesa, Jose A; Mendez-Román, Paddy; Masegosa-González, Jose


    Cranial chondromas are tumours arising from chondrocyte embryonic remnants cells that usually appear in the skull base synchondrosis. In contrast to the rest of the organism, where chondroid tumours are the most common primary bone tumour just behind the haematopoietic lineage ones, they are a rarity at cranial level, with an incidence of less than 1% of intracranial tumours. The case is reported on a 42 year-old male referred to our clinic due to the finding of an extra-axial lesion located close to the Meckel's cave region, with extension to the posterior fossa and brainstem compression after progressive paraparesis of 6 months onset. With the diagnosis of trigeminal schwannoma, a subtotal tumour resection was performed using a combined supra-infratentorial pre-sigmoidal approach. The postoperative histopathology report confirmed the diagnosis of cranial chondroma.

  19. Large Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm: Initial Presentation with Reproducible Facial Pain Without Cranial Nerve Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie Zelman


    Full Text Available Unruptured posterior communicating artery (PCOM aneurysms can be difficult to diagnose and, when large (≥ 7mm, represent a substantial risk to the patient. While most unruptured PCOM aneurysms are asymptomatic, when symptoms do occur, clinical manifestations typically include severe headache (HA, visual acuity loss, and cranial nerve deficit. This case report describes an atypical initial presentation of a large unruptured PCOM aneurysm with symptoms mimicking trigeminal neuralgia, without other associated cranial nerve palsies or neurologic deficits. The patient returned to the emergency department four days later with a HA, trigeminal neuralgia, and a new cranial nerve III palsy. After appropriate imaging, she was found to have a large PCOM aneurysm, which was treated with surgical clipping with significant improvement in patient’s symptoms.

  20. Prediction of flow stresses at high temperatures with artificial neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪凌云; 郑廷顺; 刘雪峰; 黄光杰


    On the basis of the data obtained on Gleeble-1500 Thermal Simulator, the predicting models for the relation between stable flow stress during high temperature plastic deformation and deformation strain, strain rate and temperature for 1420 Al-Li alloy have been developed with BP artificial neural networks method. The results show that the model on basis of BPNN is practical and it reflects the actual feature of the deforming process. It states that the difference between the actual value and the output of the model is in order of 5%.

  1. Cranial base pathology in pediatric osteogenesis imperfecta patients treated with bisphosphonates. (United States)

    Arponen, Heidi; Vuorimies, Ilkka; Haukka, Jari; Valta, Helena; Waltimo-Sirén, Janna; Mäkitie, Outi


    Cranial base pathology is a serious complication of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Our aim was to analyze whether bisphosphonate treatment, used to improve bone strength, could also prevent the development of craniocervical junction pathology (basilar impression, basilar invagination, or platybasia) in children with OI. In this single-center retrospective study the authors analyzed the skull base morphology from lateral skull radiographs and midsagittal MR images (total of 94 images), obtained between the ages of 0 and 25 years in 39 bisphosphonate-treated OI patients. The results were compared with age-matched normative values and with findings in 70 OI patients who were not treated with bisphosphonates. In addition to cross-sectional data, longitudinal data were available from 22 patients with an average follow-up period of 7.6 years. The patients, who had OI types I, III, IV, VI, and VII, had been treated with zoledronic acid, pamidronate, or risedronate for 3.2 years on average. Altogether 33% of the 39 bisphosphonate-treated patients had at least 1 cranial base anomaly, platybasia being the most prevalent diagnosis (28%). Logistic regression analysis suggested a higher risk of basilar impression or invagination in patients with severe OI (OR 22.04) and/or older age at initiation of bisphosphonate treatment (OR 1.45), whereas a decreased risk was associated with longer duration of treatment (OR 0.28). No significant associations between age, height, or cumulative bisphosphonate dose and the risk for cranial base anomaly were detected. In longitudinal evaluation, Kaplan-Meier curves suggested delayed development of cranial base pathology in patients treated with bisphosphonates but the differences from the untreated group were not statistically significant. These findings indicate that cranial base pathology may develop despite bisphosphonate treatment. Early initiation of bisphosphonate treatment may delay development of craniocervical junction pathology

  2. Quality Improvement Effort to Reduce Cranial CTs for Children With Minor Blunt Head Trauma. (United States)

    Nigrovic, Lise E; Stack, Anne M; Mannix, Rebekah C; Lyons, Todd W; Samnaliev, Mihail; Bachur, Richard G; Proctor, Mark R


    Blunt head trauma is a common injury in children, although it rarely requires surgical intervention. Cranial computed tomography (CT) is the reference standard for the diagnosis of traumatic brain injury but has been associated with increased lifetime malignancy risk. We implemented a multifaceted quality improvement initiative to decrease the use of cranial CT for children with minor head injuries. We designed and implemented a quality improvement effort that included an evidence-based guideline as well as individual feedback for children aged 0 to 21 years who present to the emergency department (ED) for evaluation of minor blunt head trauma. Our primary outcome was cranial CT rate, and our balancing measure was any return to the ED within 72 hours that required hospitalization. We used statistical process control methodology to measure cranial CT rates over time. We included 6851 ED visits of which 4242 (62%) occurred in the post-guideline implementation period. From a baseline CT rate of 21%, we observed an absolute reduction of 6% in cranial CT rate (95% confidence interval 3% to 9%) after initial guideline implementation and an additional absolute reduction of 6% (95% confidence interval 4% to 8%) after initiation of individual provider feedback. No children discharged from the ED required admission within 72 hours of initial evaluation. An ED quality improvement effort that included an evidence-based guideline as well as individual provider feedback was associated with a reduction in cranial CT rates without an increase in missed significant head injuries. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Thickness of the human cranial diploe in relation to age, sex and general body build

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Astrup, Jacob G; Sejrsen, Birgitte


    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have addressed the human total cranial vault thickness and generally found no correlation with sex, age or body weight. However, the thickness of the diploe has not been investigated. Our study has determined the diploeic thickness of the human cranial vault using modern...... correlations between the diploeic thickness and age and height and weight of the individual. CONCLUSION: Males overall have a thicker diploe, albeit this difference is statistically significant only in the frontal region. We could not discern any trends as pertains to diploeic thickness versus age, height...

  4. Ramsay Hunt syndrome and zoster laryngitis with multiple cranial nerve involvement. (United States)

    Shinha, Takashi; Krishna, Pasala


    Ramsay Hunt syndrome is characterized by varicella zoster virus infection affecting the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve. It typically presents with vesicles in the external auditory canal associated with auricular pain and peripheral facial nerve paralysis. Although vestibulocochlear nerve is frequently co-involved during the course of Ramsay Hunt syndrome, multiple lower cranial nerve involvement has rarely been described in the literature. In addition, laryngitis due to varicella zoster virus is a diagnostic challenge due to its unfamiliarity among clinicians. We report a case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome with laryngitis involving multiple lower cranial nerves.

  5. Sensory-motor axonal polyneuropathy involving cranial nerves: An uncommon manifestation of disulfiram toxicity. (United States)

    Santos, Telma; Martins Campos, António; Morais, Hugo


    Disulfiram (tetraethylthiuram disulfide) has been used for the treatment of alcohol dependence. An axonal sensory-motor polyneuropathy with involvement of cranial pairs due to disulfiram is exceedingly rare. The authors report a unique case of an extremely severe axonal polyneuropathy involving cranial nerves that developed within weeks after a regular dosage of 500mg/day disulfiram. To the authors best knowledge, such a severe and rapidly-progressive course has never been described with disulfiram dosages of only 500mg/day.

  6. [Chondroblastoma of the Temporal Bone Removed Using a Middle Cranial Fossa Approach]. (United States)

    Ishioka, Kaoru; Kanzaki, Jin; Harada, Tatsuhiko; Takanashi, Yoshihiro; Shinonaga, Masamichi; Kitamura, Hajime


    We report a case of chondroblastoma of the middle cranial fossa, probably arising from the (infra) mandibular fossa, and expanding to the attic and external auditory canal that was successfully removed using a middle cranial fossa approach. No recurrences occurred during an 8-year postoperative follow-up period. Initial biopsy findings suggested a pathological diagnosis of giant cell tumor that was later confirmed to be a chondroblastoma based on an immunohistochemical study of S-100. This case study suggests a profound understanding of the clinical features, histopathological characteristics, and possible treatment. of chondroblastoma.

  7. Ramsay Hunt syndrome and zoster laryngitis with multiple cranial nerve involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Shinha


    Full Text Available Ramsay Hunt syndrome is characterized by varicella zoster virus infection affecting the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve. It typically presents with vesicles in the external auditory canal associated with auricular pain and peripheral facial nerve paralysis. Although vestibulocochlear nerve is frequently co-involved during the course of Ramsay Hunt syndrome, multiple lower cranial nerve involvement has rarely been described in the literature. In addition, laryngitis due to varicella zoster virus is a diagnostic challenge due to its unfamiliarity among clinicians. We report a case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome with laryngitis involving multiple lower cranial nerves.

  8. Geometrical and material parameters to assess the macroscopic mechanical behaviour of fresh cranial bone samples


    AUPERRIN, Audrey; Delille, Rémi; LESUEUR, Denis; BRUYERE, Karine; Masson, Catherine; Drazetic, Pascal


    The present study aims at providing quantitative data for the personalisation of geometrical and 21 mechanical characteristics of the adult cranial bone to be applied to head FE models. A set of 351 22 cranial bone samples, harvested from 21 human skulls, were submitted to three-point bending tests 23 at 10 mm/min. For each of them, an apparent elastic modulus was calculated using the beam's 24 theory and a density-dependant beam inertia. Thicknesses, apparent densities and percentage of ash ...

  9. Cranial findings and iatrogenesis from craniosacral manipulation in patients with traumatic brain syndrome. (United States)

    Greenman, P E; McPartland, J M


    Craniosacral findings were recorded for all patients with traumatic brain injury entering an outpatient rehabilitation program between 1978 and 1992. The average cranial rhythmic impulse was low in all 55 patients (average, 7.2 c/min). At least one cranial strain pattern was exhibited by 95%, and 87% had one or more bony motion restrictions. Sacral findings were similar to those in patients with low back pain. Although craniosacral manipulation has been found empirically useful in patients with traumatic brain injury, three cases of iatrogenesis occurred. The incidence rate is low (5%), but the practitioner must be prepared to deal with the possibility of adverse reactions.

  10. A skull stripping method using deformable surface and tissue classification (United States)

    Tao, Xiaodong; Chang, Ming-Ching


    Many neuroimaging applications require an initial step of skull stripping to extract the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. We approach this problem by combining deformable surface models and a fuzzy tissue classification technique. Our assumption is that contrast exists between brain tissue (gray matter and white matter) and cerebrospinal fluid, which separates the brain from the extra-cranial tissue. We first analyze the intensity of the entire image to find an approximate centroid of the brain and initialize an ellipsoidal surface around it. We then perform a fuzzy tissue classification with bias field correction within the surface. Tissue classification and bias field are extrapolated to the entire image. The surface iteratively deforms under a force field computed from the tissue classification and the surface smoothness. Because of the bias field correction and tissue classification, the proposed algorithm depends less on particular imaging contrast and is robust to inhomogeneous intensity often observed in magnetic resonance images. We tested the algorithm on all T1 weighted images in the OASIS database, which includes skull stripping results using Brain Extraction Tool; the Dice scores have an average of 0.948 with a standard deviation of 0.017, indicating a high degree of agreement. The algorithm takes on average 2 minutes to run on a typical PC and produces a brain mask and membership functions for gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. We also tested the algorithm on T2 images to demonstrate its generality, where the same algorithm without parameter adjustment gives satisfactory results.

  11. Radiotherapy for Lowly Malignant Cranial Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor Accompanied with Intracranial Invasion: Case Report and Literature Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jungang Ma; Xueqin Yang; Ge Wang; Xian Yu; Nan Hu; Yanhai Liu; Zhenzhou Yang


    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is rare in clinical practice. As its treatment mainly involves surgery, radiotherapy alone is seldom reported in literature. Here we report a case of lowly malignant cranial IMT with intracranial invasion in a female patient. As surgery was not suitable, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was administered. After radiotherapy, the cranial lesions tended to show efficacy.

  12. Artificial intelligence in hematology. (United States)

    Zini, Gina


    Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer based science which aims to simulate human brain faculties using a computational system. A brief history of this new science goes from the creation of the first artificial neuron in 1943 to the first artificial neural network application to genetic algorithms. The potential for a similar technology in medicine has immediately been identified by scientists and researchers. The possibility to store and process all medical knowledge has made this technology very attractive to assist or even surpass clinicians in reaching a diagnosis. Applications of AI in medicine include devices applied to clinical diagnosis in neurology and cardiopulmonary diseases, as well as the use of expert or knowledge-based systems in routine clinical use for diagnosis, therapeutic management and for prognostic evaluation. Biological applications include genome sequencing or DNA gene expression microarrays, modeling gene networks, analysis and clustering of gene expression data, pattern recognition in DNA and proteins, protein structure prediction. In the field of hematology the first devices based on AI have been applied to the routine laboratory data management. New tools concern the differential diagnosis in specific diseases such as anemias, thalassemias and leukemias, based on neural networks trained with data from peripheral blood analysis. A revolution in cancer diagnosis, including the diagnosis of hematological malignancies, has been the introduction of the first microarray based and bioinformatic approach for molecular diagnosis: a systematic approach based on the monitoring of simultaneous expression of thousands of genes using DNA microarray, independently of previous biological knowledge, analysed using AI devices. Using gene profiling, the traditional diagnostic pathways move from clinical to molecular based diagnostic systems.

  13. Quantizing Earth surface deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O. Bowin


    Full Text Available The global analysis of Bowin (2010 used the global 14 absolute Euler pole set (62 Myr history from Gripp and Gordon (1990 and demonstrated that plate tectonics conserves angular momentum. We herein extend that analysis using the more detailed Bird (2003 52 present-day Euler pole set (relative to a fixed Pacific plate for the Earth's surface, after conversion to absolute Euler poles. Additionally, new analytical results now provide new details on upper mantle mass anomalies in the outer 200 km of the Earth, as well as an initial quantizing of surface deformations.

  14. Bayesian artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Korb, Kevin B


    Updated and expanded, Bayesian Artificial Intelligence, Second Edition provides a practical and accessible introduction to the main concepts, foundation, and applications of Bayesian networks. It focuses on both the causal discovery of networks and Bayesian inference procedures. Adopting a causal interpretation of Bayesian networks, the authors discuss the use of Bayesian networks for causal modeling. They also draw on their own applied research to illustrate various applications of the technology.New to the Second EditionNew chapter on Bayesian network classifiersNew section on object-oriente

  15. Uncertainty in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Kanal, LN


    How to deal with uncertainty is a subject of much controversy in Artificial Intelligence. This volume brings together a wide range of perspectives on uncertainty, many of the contributors being the principal proponents in the controversy.Some of the notable issues which emerge from these papers revolve around an interval-based calculus of uncertainty, the Dempster-Shafer Theory, and probability as the best numeric model for uncertainty. There remain strong dissenting opinions not only about probability but even about the utility of any numeric method in this context.

  16. Artificial intelligence: Human effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, M.; Narayanan, A.


    This book presents an up-to-date study of the interaction between the fast-growing discipline of artificial intelligence and other human endeavors. The volume explores the scope and limitations of computing, and presents a history of the debate on the possibility of machines achieving intelligence. The authors offer a state-of-the-art survey of Al, concentrating on the ''mind'' (language understanding) and the ''body'' (robotics) of intelligent computing systems.

  17. Mechanism of artificial heart

    CERN Document Server

    Yamane, Takashi


    This book first describes medical devices in relation to regenerative medicine before turning to a more specific topic: artificial heart technologies. Not only the pump mechanisms but also the bearing, motor mechanisms, and materials are described, including expert information. Design methods are described to enhance hemocompatibility: main concerns are reduction of blood cell damage and protein break, as well as prevention of blood clotting. Regulatory science from R&D to clinical trials is also discussed to verify the safety and efficacy of the devices.

  18. Space Deformations, Surface Deformations and the Opportunities In-Between

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Cohen-Or


    In recent years we have witnessed a large interest in surface deformation techniques. This has been a reaction that can be attributed to the ability to develop techniques which are detail-preserving. Space deformation techniques, on the other hand, received less attention, but nevertheless they have many advantages over surface-based techniques. This paper explores the potential of these two approaches to deformation and discusses the opportunities that the fusion of the two may lead to.

  19. Motor palsies of cranial nerves (excluding VII) after vaccination: reports to the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. (United States)

    Woo, Emily Jane; Winiecki, Scott K; Ou, Alan C


    We reviewed cranial nerve palsies, other than VII, that have been reported to the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). We examined patterns for differences in vaccine types, seriousness, age, and clinical characteristics. We identified 68 reports of cranial nerve palsies, most commonly involving the oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), and abducens (VI) nerves. Isolated cranial nerve palsies, as well as palsies occurring as part of a broader clinical entity, were reported. Forty reports (59%) were classified as serious, suggesting that a cranial nerve palsy may sometimes be the harbinger of a broader and more ominous clinical entity, such as a stroke or encephalomyelitis. There was no conspicuous clustering of live vs. inactivated vaccines. The patient age range spanned the spectrum from infants to the elderly. Independent data may help to clarify whether, when, and to what extent the rates of cranial nerve palsies following particular vaccines may exceed background levels.

  20. Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, B.; Poulsen, H.F.; Lienert, U.;


    During plastic deformation of metals and alloys, dislocations arrange in ordered patterns. How and when these self-organization processes take place have remained elusive, because in situ observations have not been feasible. We present an x-ray diffraction method that provided data on the dynamics...... of individual, deeply embedded dislocation structures. During tensile deformation of pure copper, dislocation-free regions were identified. They showed an unexpected intermittent dynamics, for example, appearing and disappearing with proceeding deformation and even displaying transient splitting behavior....... Insight into these processes is relevant for an understanding of the strength and work-hardening of deformed materials....

  1. How to teach artificial organs. (United States)

    Zapanta, Conrad M; Borovetz, Harvey S; Lysaght, Michael J; Manning, Keefe B


    Artificial organs education is often an overlooked field for many bioengineering and biomedical engineering students. The purpose of this article is to describe three different approaches to teaching artificial organs. This article can serve as a reference for those who wish to offer a similar course at their own institutions or incorporate these ideas into existing courses. Artificial organ classes typically fulfill several ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) criteria, including those specific to bioengineering and biomedical engineering programs.

  2. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine


    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  3. Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network (United States)


    11th International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation FAST 2011, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, September 2011 Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network Richard...Trimaran Resistance Artificial Neural Network 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e... Artificial Neural Network and is restricted to the center and side-hull configurations tested. The value in the parametric model is that it is able to

  4. Artificial Intelligence in Space Platforms. (United States)


    computer algorithms, there still appears to be a need for Artificial Inteligence techniques in the navigation area. The reason is that navigaion, in...RD-RI32 679 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN SPACE PLRTFORNSMU AIR FORCE 1/𔃼 INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PRTTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING M A WRIGHT DEC 94...i4 Preface The purpose of this study was to analyze the feasibility of implementing Artificial Intelligence techniques to increase autonomy for

  5. [Artificial neural networks in Neurosciences]. (United States)

    Porras Chavarino, Carmen; Salinas Martínez de Lecea, José María


    This article shows that artificial neural networks are used for confirming the relationships between physiological and cognitive changes. Specifically, we explore the influence of a decrease of neurotransmitters on the behaviour of old people in recognition tasks. This artificial neural network recognizes learned patterns. When we change the threshold of activation in some units, the artificial neural network simulates the experimental results of old people in recognition tasks. However, the main contributions of this paper are the design of an artificial neural network and its operation inspired by the nervous system and the way the inputs are coded and the process of orthogonalization of patterns.

  6. The total artificial heart. (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G


    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  7. Development of artificial empathy. (United States)

    Asada, Minoru


    We have been advocating cognitive developmental robotics to obtain new insight into the development of human cognitive functions by utilizing synthetic and constructive approaches. Among the different emotional functions, empathy is difficult to model, but essential for robots to be social agents in our society. In my previous review on artificial empathy (Asada, 2014b), I proposed a conceptual model for empathy development beginning with emotional contagion to envy/schadenfreude along with self/other differentiation. In this article, the focus is on two aspects of this developmental process, emotional contagion in relation to motor mimicry, and cognitive/affective aspects of the empathy. It begins with a summary of the previous review (Asada, 2014b) and an introduction to affective developmental robotics as a part of cognitive developmental robotics focusing on the affective aspects. This is followed by a review and discussion on several approaches for two focused aspects of affective developmental robotics. Finally, future issues involved in the development of a more authentic form of artificial empathy are discussed.

  8. Artificial Enzymes, "Chemzymes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jeannette; Rousseau, Cyril Andre Raphaël; Pedersen, Lavinia Georgeta M


    Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models that successf......Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models...... that successfully perform Michaelis-Menten catalysis under enzymatic conditions (i.e., aqueous medium, neutral pH, ambient temperature) and for those that do, very high rate accelerations are seldomly seen. This review will provide a brief summary of the recent developments in artificial enzymes, so called...... "Chemzymes", based on cyclodextrins and other molecules. Only the chemzymes that have shown enzyme-like activity that has been quantified by different methods will be mentioned. This review will summarize the work done in the field of artificial glycosidases, oxidases, epoxidases, and esterases, as well...

  9. Creating an Artificial Muscle (United States)

    Bohon, Katherine; Krause, Sonja


    Striated skeletal muscle responds to a nerve impulse in less than 100 ms. In the past, polymeric gels and conducting polymers have been investigated for use as artificial muscle. However, the main problem with these materials is their relatively slow response (>3 seconds). On the other hand, electrorheological (ER) fluids are materials that change from a liquid to a solid upon application of an electric field. These fluids have a response on the order of a millisecond. A novel approach to artificial muscle utilizing the fast time response of ER fluids and the elasticity of polymeric gels has been investigated. A commercial sample of a two-part poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) dielectric gel was used. The PDMS was cured around two flexible electrodes 5 mm apart while a mixture of PDMS with solvent was cured between the electrodes. The solvents were either silicone oil or an ER fluid composed of crosslinked poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) particles in silicone oil. The mixtures investigated were 90/10, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 10/90 PDMS/solvent. Upon application of a 6.2 kV/cm DC electric field the gel was reversibly compressed. The time response of the gel was actuator has been created using the 60/40 PDMS/ER fluid mixture.

  10. Methods of artificial enlargement of the training set for statistical shape models. (United States)

    Koikkalainen, Juha; Tölli, Tuomas; Lauerma, Kirsi; Antila, Kari; Mattila, Elina; Lilja, Mikko; Lötjönen, Jyrki


    Due to the small size of training sets, statistical shape models often over-constrain the deformation in medical image segmentation. Hence, artificial enlargement of the training set has been proposed as a solution for the problem to increase the flexibility of the models. In this paper, different methods were evaluated to artificially enlarge a training set. Furthermore, the objectives were to study the effects of the size of the training set, to estimate the optimal number of deformation modes, to study the effects of different error sources, and to compare different deformation methods. The study was performed for a cardiac shape model consisting of ventricles, atria, and epicardium, and built from magnetic resonance (MR) volume images of 25 subjects. Both shape modeling and image segmentation accuracies were studied. The objectives were reached by utilizing different training sets and datasets, and two deformation methods. The evaluation proved that artificial enlargement of the training set improves both the modeling and segmentation accuracy. All but one enlargement techniques gave statistically significantly (p < 0.05) better segmentation results than the standard method without enlargement. The two best enlargement techniques were the nonrigid movement technique and the technique that combines principal component analysis (PCA) and finite element model (FEM). The optimal number of deformation modes was found to be near 100 modes in our application. The active shape model segmentation gave better segmentation accuracy than the one based on the simulated annealing optimization of the model weights.

  11. Rotary deformity in degenerative spondylolisthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sung Gwon; Kim, Jeong; Kho, Hyen Sim; Yun, Sung Su; Oh, Jae Hee; Byen, Ju Nam; Kim, Young Chul [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    We studied to determine whether the degenerative spondylolisthesis has rotary deformity in addition to forward displacement. We have made analysis of difference of rotary deformity between the 31 study groups of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis and 31 control groups without any symptom, statistically. We also reviewed CT findings in 15 study groups. The mean rotary deformity in study groups was 6.1 degree(the standard deviation is 5.20), and the mean rotary deformity in control groups was 2.52 degree(the standard deviation is 2.16)(p < 0.01). The rotary deformity can be accompanied with degenerative spondylolisthesis. We may consider the rotary deformity as a cause of symptomatic degenerative spondylolisthesis in case that any other cause is not detected.

  12. Application of the Deformation Information System for automated analysis and mapping of mining terrain deformations - case study from SW Poland (United States)

    Blachowski, Jan; Grzempowski, Piotr; Milczarek, Wojciech; Nowacka, Anna


    Monitoring, mapping and modelling of mining induced terrain deformations are important tasks for quantifying and minimising threats that arise from underground extraction of useful minerals and affect surface infrastructure, human safety, the environment and security of the mining operation itself. The number of methods and techniques used for monitoring and analysis of mining terrain deformations is wide and expanding with the progress in geographical information technologies. These include for example: terrestrial geodetic measurements, Global Navigation Satellite Systems, remote sensing, GIS based modelling and spatial statistics, finite element method modelling, geological modelling, empirical modelling using e.g. the Knothe theory, artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic calculations and other. The presentation shows the results of numerical modelling and mapping of mining terrain deformations for two cases of underground mining sites in SW Poland, hard coal one (abandoned) and copper ore (active) using the functionalities of the Deformation Information System (DIS) (Blachowski et al, 2014 @ The functionalities of the spatial data modelling module of DIS have been presented and its applications in modelling, mapping and visualising mining terrain deformations based on processing of measurement data (geodetic and GNSS) for these two cases have been characterised and compared. These include, self-developed and implemented in DIS, automation procedures for calculating mining terrain subsidence with different interpolation techniques, calculation of other mining deformation parameters (i.e. tilt, horizontal displacement, horizontal strain and curvature), as well as mapping mining terrain categories based on classification of the values of these parameters as used in Poland. Acknowledgments. This work has been financed from the National Science Centre Project "Development of a numerical method of

  13. Deformation analysis: The Fredericton approach


    Vrečko, Anja; Ambrožič, Tomaž


    In this article, the Fredericton approach to deformation analysis is presented. It is possible to use several deformation models to determine the differences between the geodetic observations or between the coordinates of points in geodetic network in more epochs. The most appropriate deformation model has been chosen based on statistical testing and available information about dynamics at the area of interest. First, a theoretical background of the approach ...

  14. Cranial suture biology and dental development: genetic and clinical perspectives. (United States)

    De Coster, P J; Mortier, G; Marks, L A; Martens, L C


    Premature fusion of the calvarial bones at the sutures, or craniosynostosis (CS), is a relatively common birth defect (1:2000-3000) frequently associated with limb deformity. Patients with CS may present oral defects, such as cleft soft palate, hypodontia, hyperdontia, and delayed tooth eruption, but also unusual associations of major dental anomalies such as taurodontism, microdontia, multiple dens invaginatus, and dentin dysplasia. The list of genes that are involved in CS includes those coding for the different fibroblast growth factor receptors and a ligand of ephrin receptors, but also genes encoding transcription factors, such as MSX2 and TWIST. Most of these genes are equally involved in odontogenesis, providing a pausible explanation for clinical associations of CS with dental agenesis or tooth malformations. On the basis of the present knowledge on genes and transcription factors that are involved in craniofacial morphogenesis, and from dental clinics of CS syndromes, the molecular mechanisms that control suture formation and suture closure are expected to play key roles in patterning events and development of teeth. The purpose of this article is to review and merge the recent advances in the field of suture research at the genetic and cellular levels with those of tooth development, and to apply them to the dental clinics of CS syndromes. These new perspectives and future challenges in the field of both dental clinics and molecular genetics, more in particular the identification of possible candidate genes involved in both CS and dental defects, are discussed.

  15. Generative Artificial Intelligence : Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zant, Tijn; Kouw, Matthijs; Schomaker, Lambertus; Mueller, Vincent C.


    The closed systems of contemporary Artificial Intelligence do not seem to lead to intelligent machines in the near future. What is needed are open-ended systems with non-linear properties in order to create interesting properties for the scaffolding of an artificial mind. Using post-structuralistic

  16. Generative Artificial Intelligence : Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zant, Tijn; Kouw, Matthijs; Schomaker, Lambertus; Mueller, Vincent C.


    The closed systems of contemporary Artificial Intelligence do not seem to lead to intelligent machines in the near future. What is needed are open-ended systems with non-linear properties in order to create interesting properties for the scaffolding of an artificial mind. Using post-structuralistic

  17. Canine stifle stability following cranial cruciate ligament transection and medial meniscal release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tanja Vedel; Kristiansen, Signe Søndergaard; Jensen, Bente Rona;

    Introduction: The patellar tendon angle (PTA), describing the relationship of the patellar tendon to the tibial plateau, is biomechanically significant for canine stifle stability. The crossover point, at which the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) becomes the primary stifle stabilizer, has been p...

  18. Benchmarking pediatric cranial CT protocols using a dose tracking software system: a multicenter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondt, Timo de; Parizel, Paul M. [Antwerp University Hospital and University of Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Belgium); Mulkens, Tom [H. Hart Hospital, Department of Radiology, Lier (Belgium); Zanca, Federica [GE Healthcare, DoseWatch, Buc (France); KU Leuven, Imaging and Pathology Department, Leuven (Belgium); Pyfferoen, Lotte; Casselman, Jan W. [AZ St. Jan Brugge-Oostende AV Hospital, Department of Radiology, Brugge (Belgium)


    To benchmark regional standard practice for paediatric cranial CT-procedures in terms of radiation dose and acquisition parameters. Paediatric cranial CT-data were retrospectively collected during a 1-year period, in 3 different hospitals of the same country. A dose tracking system was used to automatically gather information. Dose (CTDI and DLP), scan length, amount of retakes and demographic data were stratified by age and clinical indication; appropriate use of child-specific protocols was assessed. In total, 296 paediatric cranial CT-procedures were collected. Although the median dose of each hospital was below national and international diagnostic reference level (DRL) for all age categories, statistically significant (p-value < 0.001) dose differences among hospitals were observed. The hospital with lowest dose levels showed smallest dose variability and used age-stratified protocols for standardizing paediatric head exams. Erroneous selection of adult protocols for children still occurred, mostly in the oldest age-group. Even though all hospitals complied with national and international DRLs, dose tracking and benchmarking showed that further dose optimization and standardization is possible by using age-stratified protocols for paediatric cranial CT. Moreover, having a dose tracking system revealed that adult protocols are still applied for paediatric CT, a practice that must be avoided. (orig.)

  19. Effect of echo artifacts on characterization of pulsatile tissues in neonatal cranial ultrasonic movies (United States)

    Fukuzawa, Masayuki; Takahashi, Kazuki; Tabata, Yuki; Kitsunezuka, Yoshiki


    Effect of echo artifacts on characterization of pulsatile tissues has been examined in neonatal cranial ultrasonic movies by characterizing pulsatile intensities with different regions of interest (ROIs). The pulsatile tissue, which is a key point in pediatric diagnosis of brain tissue, was detected from a heartbeat-frequency component in Fourier transform of a time-variation of 64 samples of echo intensity at each pixel in a movie fragment. The averages of pulsatile intensity and power were evaluated in two ROIs: common fan-shape and individual cranial-shape. The area of pulsatile region was also evaluated as the number of pixels where the pulsatile intensity exceeds a proper threshold. The extracranial pulsatile region was found mainly in the sections where mirror image was dominant echo artifact. There was significant difference of pulsatile area between two ROIs especially in the specific sections where mirror image was included, suggesting the suitability of cranial-shape ROI for statistical study on pulsatile tissues in brain. The normalized average of pulsatile power in the cranial-shape ROI exhibited most similar tendency to the normalized pulsatile area which was treated as a conventional measure in spite of its requirement of thresholding. It suggests the potential of pulsatile power as an alternative measure for pulsatile area in further statistical study of pulsatile tissues because it was neither affected by echo artifacts nor threshold.

  20. The action of the masticatory muscles and cranial changes in pigs as results of domestication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dinu


    Full Text Available The comparative study of wild boar and domestic pig skulls suggests that a change in feeding habits under human control may have been a factor influencing the action of the masticatory and neck muscles in reshaping the cranial region. This paper offers both an anatomical and an osteological comparative morphological argument supporting this hypothesis.

  1. Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Associated with Antiepileptic Drugs and Cranial Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Elazzazy


    Full Text Available Case reports on the development of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN associated with concurrent administration of phenytoin with cranial radiation therapy (Ahmed (2004, Criton et al. (1997, and Rzany et al. (1996, but reports about erythema multiforme, which can develop in patients treated with levetiracetam and cranial irradiation, are very limited. This paper presents evidence that TEN may be induced by concurrent use of radiation with both phenytoin and levetiracetam. Our case is a 42-year-old male patient, a case of gliosarcoma who developed purpuric dermatitis associated with phenytoin when combined with cranial radiation therapy; although phenytoin was discontinued and switched to levetiracetam, the patient had more severe symptoms of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN on levetiracetam; the patient improved with aggressive symptom management, discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, and holding radiotherapy. Although TEN is a rare toxicity, physicians should pay a special attention to the monitoring of brain tumor patients on antiepileptic prophylaxis during cranial irradiation; furthermore, patients should be counselled to notify their physicians if they develop any new or unusual symptoms.

  2. Association of acetazolamide infusion with headache and cranial artery dilation in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik Winther; Asghar, Mohammad Sohail;


    The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide causes extracellular acidosis and dilatation of cerebral arterioles. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that acetazolamide also may induce headache and dilatation of cranial arteries. In a randomized double-blind crossover study design, 12 young...... by acetazolamide causes sensitization of cephalic perivascular nociceptors, which, in combination with vasodilatation, leads to delayed headache....

  3. Formation of a full complement of cranial proprioceptors requires multiple neurotrophins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, GP; Copray, S; Huang, EJ; Jones, K; Yan, Q; Walro, J; Jaenisch, R; Kucera, J


    Inactivation of neurotrophin-3 (NT3) completely blocks the development of limb proprioceptive neurons and their end organs, the muscle spindles. We examined whether cranial proprioceptive neurons of the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (TMN) require NT3, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or n

  4. Cranial nerve assessment in posterior fossa tumors with fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA). (United States)

    Mikami, Takeshi; Minamida, Yoshihiro; Yamaki, Toshiaki; Koyanagi, Izumi; Nonaka, Tadashi; Houkin, Kiyohiro


    Steady-state free precession is widely used for ultra-fast cardiac or abdominal imaging. The purpose of this work was to assess fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) and to evaluate its efficacy for depiction of the cranial nerve affected by the tumor. Twenty-three consecutive patients with posterior fossa tumors underwent FIESTA sequence after contrast agent administration, and then displacement of the cranial nerve was evaluated. The 23 patients with posterior fossa tumor consisted of 12 schwannomas, eight meningiomas, and three cases of epidermoid. Except in the cases of epidermoid, intensity of all tumors increased on FIESTA imaging of the contrast enhancement. In the schwannoma cases, visualization of the nerve became poorer as the tumor increased in size. In cases of encapsulated meningioma, all the cranial nerves of the posterior fossa were depicted regardless of location. The ability to depict the nerves was also significantly higher in meningioma patients than in schwannoma patients (PFIESTA sequence offers similar contrast to other heavily T2-weighted sequences, it facilitated a superior assessment of the effect of tumors on cranial nerve anatomy. FIESTA sequence was useful for preoperative simulations of posterior fossa tumors.

  5. [Visualization of the lower cranial nerves by 3D-FIESTA]. (United States)

    Okumura, Yusuke; Suzuki, Masayuki; Takemura, Akihiro; Tsujii, Hideo; Kawahara, Kazuhiro; Matsuura, Yukihiro; Takada, Tadanori


    MR cisternography has been introduced for use in neuroradiology. This method is capable of visualizing tiny structures such as blood vessels and cranial nerves in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space because of its superior contrast resolution. The cranial nerves and small vessels are shown as structures of low intensity surrounded by marked hyperintensity of the CSF. In the present study, we evaluated visualization of the lower cranial nerves (glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory) by the three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D-FIESTA) sequence and multiplanar reformation (MPR) technique. The subjects were 8 men and 3 women, ranging in age from 21 to 76 years (average, 54 years). We examined the visualization of a total of 66 nerves in 11 subjects by 3D-FIESTA. The results were classified into four categories ranging from good visualization to non-visualization. In all cases, all glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves were identified to some extent, while accessory nerves were visualized either partially or entirely in only 16 cases. The total visualization rate was about 91%. In conclusion, 3D-FIESTA may be a useful method for visualization of the lower cranial nerves.

  6. Anatomically shaped cranial collimation (ACC) for lateral cephalometric radiography: a technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, R.C.; van der Stelt, P.F.; Berkhout, W.E.R.


    Lateral cephalograms in orthodontic practice display an area cranial of the base of the skull that is not required for diagnostic evaluation. Attempts have been made to reduce the radiation dose to the patient using collimators combining the shielding of the areas above the base of the skull and bel

  7. Lack of effect of norepinephrine on cranial haemodynamics and headache in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, M; Petersen, K A; Tvedskov, J F


    Stress is a provoking factor for both tension-type headache and migraine attacks. In the present single-blind study, we investigated if stress induced by norepinephrine (NE) could elicit delayed headache in 10 healthy subjects and recorded the cranial arterial responses. NE at a dose of 0.025 mic...

  8. Cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries of the paca (Cuniculus paca, L. 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Cristina de Souza Marques


    Full Text Available The paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766 is a medium-sized rodent that occurs in Brazil; however, there is little information regarding its morphology. The goal of this study was to describe the origin and branching of the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries of this rodent in order to contribute to comparative anatomy studies. Ten animals (males and females were used. After death, their thoracic inlet was opened between the fourth and sixth ribs to expose the thoracic aorta, which was cannulated caudally. A stained, neoprene latex solution was then injected, in order to fill the arterial system, and the preparations were fixed in a 10% aqueous formalin solution for over 72h. The fixed specimens were dissected to identify the cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries. The cranial mesenteric artery started at the abdominal aorta, caudally to the celiac artery, and originated in the following arterial branches: caudal pancreatic duodenal, pancreatic, jejunal, ileum colic and cecal. The origin of the caudal mesenteric artery occurred next to the end of abdominal aorta and this vessel issued the left colic artery and cranial rectal artery from which the sigmoid arteries initiated. It was found that there was little difference in the branching pattern of the arteries compared to other rodents and domestic mammals.

  9. High-frequency cranial electrostimulation (CES) in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, EJA; van Tol, MJ; Swaab, DF


    In a previous study, low-frequency cranial electrostimulation did not improve cognition and (affective) behavior in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, 2 1 Alzheimer's disease patients, divided into an experimental (n = 1 1) and a control group (n = 10), were treated fo

  10. High-frequency cranial electrostimulation (CES) in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E.J.A.; Tol, M.J. van; Swaab, D.F.


    In a previous study, low-frequency cranial electrostimulation did not improve cognition and (affective) behavior in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, 21 Alzheimer's disease patients, divided into an experimental (n = 11) and a control group (n = 10), were treated for

  11. Serial cranial ultrasonography or early MRI for detecting preterm brain injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, Annemarie; Raets, Marlou M A; Ecury-Goossen, Ginette M; Govaert, Paul; Feijen-Roon, Monique; Reiss, Irwin K M; Smit, Liesbeth S; Lequin, Maarten H; Dudink, Jeroen


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate detection ability and feasibility of serial cranial ultrasonography (CUS) and early MRI in preterm brain injury. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Level III neonatal intensive care unit. PATIENTS: 307 infants, born below 29 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Serial CUS a

  12. Should patients with extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma receive prophylactic cranial irradiation?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naidoo, Jarushka


    Extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma (EPSCC) is a rare disease. Management is based on small-cell lung carcinoma. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is not routinely administered in EPSCC. This study investigates the role of PCI in EPSCC, by analyzing the incidence, treatment, and survival of patients with brain metastases in a national cohort. Disease biology and epidemiology are also investigated.

  13. Reduction of adult height in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors after prophylactic cranial irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, MEJ; Francken, AB; Rouwe, C; Kamps, WA; Postma, A


    Background. Impaired linear growth is a well-recognized complication in long-term childhood ALL survivors who received cranial irradiation. However, as many patients achieve a final height between the 5th and the 95th centile, the true incidence of linear growth impairment might be underestimated. M

  14. Cranial nerve palsy in Wegener's granulomatosis--lessons from clinical cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowack, Rainer; Wachtler, Paul; Kunz, Jürgen;


    The problem of diagnosing vasculitic neuropathy is discussed based on case reports of two patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. One patient developed de novo 6(th) nerve palsy as an isolated relapse manifestation and the second patient a sequence of multiple cranial nerve palsies. Brain imaging...

  15. Timing of ectocranial suture activity in Gorilla gorilla as related to cranial volume and dental eruption. (United States)

    Cray, James; Cooper, Gregory M; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I


    Research has shown that Pan and Homo have similar ectocranial suture synostosis patterns and a similar suture ontogeny (relative timing of suture fusion during the species ontogeny). This ontogeny includes patency during and after neurocranial expansion with a delayed bony response associated with adaptation to biomechanical forces generated by mastication. Here we investigate these relationships for Gorilla by examining the association among ectocranial suture morphology, cranial volume (as a proxy for neurocranial expansion) and dental development (as a proxy for the length of time that it has been masticating hard foods and exerting such strains on the cranial vault) in a large sample of Gorilla gorilla skulls. Two-hundred and fifty-five Gorilla gorilla skulls were examined for ectocranial suture closure status, cranial volume and dental eruption. Regression models were calculated for cranial volumes by suture activity, and Kendall's tau (a non-parametric measure of association) was calculated for dental eruption status by suture activity. Results suggest that, as reported for Pan and Homo, neurocranial expansion precedes suture synostosis activity. Here, Gorilla was shown to have a strong relationship between dental development and suture activity (synostosis). These data are suggestive of suture fusion extending further into ontogeny than brain expansion, similar to Homo and Pan. This finding allows for the possibility that masticatory forces influence ectocranial suture morphology.

  16. Influence of common orthodontic appliances on the diagnostic quality of cranial magnetic resonance images. (United States)

    Elison, J Matthew; Leggitt, V Leroy; Thomson, Matthew; Oyoyo, Udo; Wycliffe, N Dan


    The aim of this study was to evaluate cranial magnetic resonance (MR) image distortion caused by various orthodontic brackets. Ten subjects received 5 consecutive cranial MR scans. A control scan was conducted with Essix trays (GAC International, Bohemia, NY) fitted over the maxillary and mandibular teeth. Four experimental MR scans of the head were conducted with plastic, ceramic, titanium, and stainless steel brackets incorporated into the Essix tray material. Each MR scan consisted of 4 sequences: sagittal T1-weighted spin echo (T1 sagittal), axial T2-weighted spin echo (T2 axial), gradient echo, and diffusion-weighted imaging. Three board-certified neuroradiologists examined the MR images for distortion in predetermined regions of the head. The paired Wilcoxon signed rank test showed a statistically significant difference between the mean distortion scores of stainless steel brackets and the mean distortion scores of the other experimental MR scans (P ceramic, and titanium brackets cause minimal distortion of cranial MR images (similar to the control). On the other hand, stainless steel brackets cause significant distortion, rendering several cranial regions nondiagnostic. Areas with the most distortion were the body of the mandible, the hard palate, the base of the tongue, the globes, the nasopharynx, and the frontal lobes. In general, the closer the stainless steel appliance was to a specific anatomic region, the greater the distortion of the MR image.

  17. Cranial nerves - spectrum of inflammatory and tumorous changes; Hirnnerven - Spektrum entzuendlicher und tumoroeser Veraenderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, S.F.; Kasprian, G.; Nemec, U.; Czerny, C. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Klinische Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie und muskuloskelettale Radiologie, Wien (Austria)


    Inflammatory processes as well as primary and secondary tumorous changes may involve cranial nerves causing neurological deficits. In addition to neurologists, ENT physicians, ophthalmologists and maxillofacial surgeons, radiologists play an important role in the investigation of patients with cranial nerve symptoms. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow the depiction of the cranial nerve anatomy and pathological neural changes. This article briefly describes the imaging techniques in MDCT and MRI and is dedicated to the radiological presentation of inflammatory and tumorous cranial nerve pathologies. (orig.) [German] Entzuendliche Prozesse sowie primaere und sekundaere tumoroese Veraenderungen koennen Hirnnerven mitbeteiligen und so zu neurologischen Defiziten fuehren. Neben dem Neurologen, HNO-Arzt, Augenarzt und Kiefer-Gesichts-Chirurgen kommt dem Radiologen eine besondere Bedeutung bei der Abklaerung von Patienten mit Hirnnervensymptomatik zu. Die Multidetektorcomputertomographie (MDCT) und insbesondere die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) ermoeglichen die Darstellung der Hirnnervenanatomie sowie der nervalen pathologischen Veraenderungen. Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt kurz gefasst die bildgebenden Techniken von MDCT und MRT und widmet sich der radiologischen Bildgebung entzuendlicher und tumoroeser Hirnnervenveraenderungen. (orig.)

  18. Chronic cranial window with access port for repeated cellular manipulations, drug application, and electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Joel Roome


    Full Text Available Chronic cranial windows have been instrumental in advancing optical studies in vivo, permitting long-term, high-resolution imaging in various brain regions. However, once a window is attached it is difficult to regain access to the brain under the window for cellular manipulations. Here we describe a simple device that combines long term in vivo optical imaging with direct brain access via glass or quartz pipettes and metal, glass, or quartz electrodes for cellular manipulations like dye or drug injections and electrophysiological stimulations or recordings while keeping the craniotomy sterile. Our device comprises a regular cranial window glass coverslip with a drilled access hole later sealed with biocompatible silicone. This chronic cranial window with access port is cheap, easy to manufacture, can be mounted just as the regular chronic cranial window, and is self-sealing after retraction of the pipette or electrode. We demonstrate that multiple injections can be performed through the silicone port by repetitively bolus loading calcium sensitive dye into mouse barrel cortex and recording spontaneous cellular activity over a period of weeks. As an example to the extent of its utility for electrophysiological recording, we describe how simple removal of the silicone seal can permit patch pipette access for whole-cell patch clamp recordings in vivo. During these chronic experiments we do not observe any infections under the window or impairment of animal health.

  19. Morphogenetic movements during cranial neural tube closure in the chick embryo and the effect of homocysteine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, M.R.; Afman, L.A.; Hauten, B.A.M. van; Hekking, J.W.M.; Köhler, E.S.; Straaten, H.W.M. van


    In order to unravel morphogenetic mechanisms involved in neural tube closure, critical cell movements that are fundamental to remodelling of the cranial neural tube in the chick embryo were studied in vitro by quantitative time-lapse video microscopy. Two main directions of movements were observed.

  20. Morphogenetic movements during cranial neural tube closure in the chick embryo and the effect of homocysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, M.R.; Afman, L.A.; VanHauten, B.A.M.; Hekking, J.W.M.; Kohler, E.S.; Straaten, van H.W.M.


    In order to unravel morphogenetic mechanisms involved in neural tube closure, critical cell movements that are fundamental to remodelling of the cranial neural tube in the chick embryo were studied in vitro by quantitative time-lapse video microscopy. Two main directions of movements were observed.

  1. Dosimetric comparison of intensity modulated radiosurgery with dynamic conformal arc radiosurgery for small cranial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Calvo-Ortega


    Conclusions: We have shown that IMRS provides the dosimetric advantages compared with DCARS. Based on the dosimetric findings in this study, fixed gantry IMRS technique can be adopted as a standard procedure for cranial SRS when micro-MLC technology is not available on the linear accelerator.

  2. Evolution of cranial development and the role of neural crest: insights from amphibians. (United States)

    Hanken, James; Gross, Joshua B


    Contemporary studies of vertebrate cranial development document the essential role played by the embryonic neural crest as both a source of adult tissues and a locus of cranial form and patterning. Yet corresponding and basic features of cranial evolution, such as the extent of conservation vs. variation among species in the contribution of the neural crest to specific structures, remain to be adequately resolved. Investigation of these features requires comparable data from species that are both phylogenetically appropriate and taxonomically diverse. One key group are amphibians, which are uniquely able to inform our understanding of the ancestral patterns of ontogeny in fishes and tetrapods as well as the evolution of presumably derived patterns reported for amniotes. Recent data support the hypothesis that a prominent contribution of the neural crest to cranial skeletal and muscular connective tissues is a fundamental property that evolved early in vertebrate history and is retained in living forms. The contribution of the neural crest to skull bones appears to be more evolutionarily labile than that of cartilages, although significance of the limited comparative data is difficult to establish at present. Results underline the importance of accurate and reliable homology assessments for evaluating the contrasting patterns of derivation reported for the three principal tetrapod models: mouse, chicken and frog.

  3. Effect of hypotension and carbon dioxide changes in an improved genuine closed cranial window rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K A; Dyrby, Lone; Williamson, D;


    The genuine closed cranial window model, in which the thinned parietal bone constitutes the covering of the preparation, has contributed to a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in migraine. In its present form, only measurements of the middle meningeal artery (MMA...

  4. Genomic regions associated with ventro-cranial chronic pleuritis in pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kirsten Kørup; Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Christensen, Ole Fredslund


    Ventro-cranial chronic pleuritis can be a result of pleuropneumonia and enzootic pneumonia. These diseases cause severe losses in intensive pig production worldwide, but host resistance is difficult to breed for. It could be beneficial to use marker-assisted selection, and a step towards this is ......Ventro-cranial chronic pleuritis can be a result of pleuropneumonia and enzootic pneumonia. These diseases cause severe losses in intensive pig production worldwide, but host resistance is difficult to breed for. It could be beneficial to use marker-assisted selection, and a step towards...... this is to identify genomic regions associated with the trait. For this purpose, 7304 pigs from 11 boar families were analysed for associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and ventro-cranial chronic pleuritis. The pigs were genotyped by the use of the iSelect Custom 7 K porcine SNP Chip. Quantitative...... of candidate genes, but the causative mutations still need to be identified. Markers closely associated with the resistance traits have a strong potential for use in breeding towards animals with improved characteristics concerning ventro-cranial chronic pleuritis...

  5. Cervical column morphology related to head posture, cranial base angle, and condylar malformation. (United States)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Pedersen, Claus Egemose; Kjaer, Inger


    The present study describes the cervical column as related to head posture, cranial base, and mandibular condylar hypoplasia. Two groups were included in the study. The 'normal' sample comprised 21 subjects, 15 females aged 23-40 years (mean 29.2 years), and six males aged 25-44 years (mean 32.8 years) with neutral occlusion and normal craniofacial morphology. The condylar hypoplasia group comprised the lateral profile radiographs of 11 patients, eight females, and three males, aged 12-38 years (mean 21.6 years). For each individual, a profile radiograph was taken to perform a visual assessment of the morphology of the cervical column. For the normal group only, the profile radiographs were taken in the standardized head posture to measure the head posture and the cranial base angle. Cervical column: Morphological deviations of the cervical column occurred significantly more often in the subjects with condylar hypoplasia compared with the normal group (P Cervical column related to head posture and cranial base: The cervicohorizontal and cranial base angles were statistically larger in females than in males (P cervical lordosis angle (OPT/CVT, P upper cervical spine (OPT/HOR, P angle (n-s-ba, P cervical column. These associations were not due to the effect of age.

  6. Interrelationship of middle cranial fossa parameters and dimensional characteristics of human cerebral cranium in various craniotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurchak U.A.


    Full Text Available The research goal is to study the interrelation between the linear dimensions of the middle cranial fossa, and linear and angular parameters of the human cerebral cranium depending on the basilar angle. Materials and methods: The research work has included 100 skulls of adults divided into three craniotypes. The craniotopometric method has taken into account parameters with further calculation of average values. correlation model has been formed. Results: The study of correlation characteristics of middle cranial fossa linear dimensions with cerebral cranium linear and angular parameters has shown different interrelation of craniotypes according to the strength and direction. Conclusion: It has been found out that a definite degree of interrelation has been observed in platibasilar craniotypes. Direct interrelation of middle cranial fossa length, length and width of sella turcica fracture has been observed in flexibasilar craniotypes. The interrelation of parameters studied in mediobasilar craniotypes has been determined in a lesser degree. Other dimension middle cranial fossa and sella turcica fracture are subjected to greater variability

  7. Cranial vena cava syndrome secondary to cryptococcal mediastinal granuloma in a cat



    The successful management of cranial vena cava syndrome with suspected secondary chylothorax due to mediastinal cryptococcal granuloma in a 4-year-old male domestic shorthair cat is described. Treatment included long-term antifungal medication, short-term corticosteroids, intermittent thoracocentesis, rutin, octreotide, and enalapril.

  8. Robust cranial cavity segmentation in CT and CT perfusion images of trauma and suspected stroke patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, A; Ginneken, B. van; Meijer, F.J.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Prokop, M.; Manniesing, R.


    A robust and accurate method is presented for the segmentation of the cranial cavity in computed tomography (CT) and CT perfusion (CTP) images. The method consists of multi-atlas registration with label fusion followed by a geodesic active contour levelset refinement of the segmentation.

  9. Applied anatomy of the anterior cranial fossa: what can fracture patterns tell us? (United States)

    Stephens, J R; Holmes, S; Evans, B T


    The skull base is uniquely placed to absorb anteriorly directed forces imparted either via the midfacial skeleton or cranial vault. A variety of skull base fracture classifications exist. Less well understood, however, is fracture extension beyond the anterior cranial fossa (ACF) into the middle and posterior cranial fossae. The cases of 81 patients from two UK major trauma centres were studied to examine the distribution of fractures across the skull base and any relationship between the vector of force and extent of skull base injury. It was found that predominantly lateral force to the craniofacial skeleton produced a fracture that propagated beyond the ACF into the middle cranial fossa in 77.4% of cases, significantly more (P<0.001) than for predominantly anterior force (12.0%). Fractures were significantly more likely to propagate into the posterior fossa with a lateral vector of impact compared to an anterior vector (P=0.049). This difference in energy transfer across the skull base may, in part, be explained by the local anatomy. The more delicate central ACF acts as a 'crumple zone' in order to absorb force. Conversely, no collapsible interface exists in the lateral aspect of the ACF, thus the lateral ACF behaves like a 'buttress', resulting in increased energy transfer. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cranial thickness in relation to age, sex and general body build in a Danish forensic sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, N


    The cranial thickness was measured in 64 individuals (43 males, 21 females) autopsied at our institute. The thickness was measured by taking a biopsy with a trephine at four specific locations on the skull. Complete medical records and pathologic autopsy results were available. While none of the ...

  11. Deformable paper origami optoelectronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau


    Deformable optoelectronic devices are provided, including photodetectors, photodiodes, and photovoltaic cells. The devices can be made on a variety of paper substrates, and can include a plurality of fold segments in the paper substrate creating a deformable pattern. Thin electrode layers and semiconductor nanowire layers can be attached to the substrate, creating the optoelectronic device. The devices can be highly deformable, e.g. capable of undergoing strains of 500% or more, bending angles of 25° or more, and/or twist angles of 270° or more. Methods of making the deformable optoelectronic devices and methods of using, e.g. as a photodetector, are also provided.

  12. Evaluation of the relation between adenoids hypertrophy and cranial base angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalili Z


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Adenoids are normally large in children and their size starts to reduce during adolescence. Hypertrophic adenoids could be associated with allergic reactions. Enlarged adenoids result in nasal breathing difficulties and the child is forced to switch to mouth breathing. Airway obstruction causes postural alterations of jaw, tongue and head, and due to persistent obstruction, patient’s appearance changes to adenoid face. Evaluation of nasopharyngeal space in lateral cephalometic view is a simple and repeatable method for determination of the size and shape of adenoids and nasopharyngeal space which can provide a simple measurement of nasopharyngeal obstruction. The roof of nasopharyngeal space is covered by the sphenoid bone. Thus changes of nasorespiratory resistance by hypertrophic adenoids may affect the cranial base angles. In this study, the relationship between adenoid hypertrophy and cranial base angles was investigated. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, lateral cephalometric views of 7 to 14 y/o patients from the files of orthodontic centers in Rasht city were selected. The radiographs with proper resolution were separated for this research. Adenoid to nasorespiratory ratio (A/N Ratio was determined by Fujioka method and categorized in three groups: A (A/N 0.8, B (0.5cranial base angle (NSAr on lat cephalometric view was measured and categorized to normal, wide and narrow. Gonial angle, sum of articular, gonial & saddle angle, posterior to anterior facial height ratio and facial skeleton classification were also determined. Data were analyzed using Chi-Square and Pearson tests with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Resuts: After evaluation of 206 lateral cephalometric views, adenoid hypertrophy (A and B groups was observed in 66% of cases whereas 34% were normal. The frequency of narrow, normal and wide cranial base angles

  13. Preventing deformational plagiocephaly through parent guidance: a randomized, controlled trial. (United States)

    Aarnivala, Henri; Vuollo, Ville; Harila, Virpi; Heikkinen, Tuomo; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Valkama, A Marita


    Deformational plagiocephaly (DP) occurs frequently in otherwise healthy infants. Many infants with DP undergo physiotherapy or helmet therapy, and ample treatment-related research is available. However, the possibility of preventing DP has been left with little attention. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention in the newborn's environment, positioning, and handling on the prevalence of DP at 3 months and to investigate the causal relationship between DP and cervical imbalance. We carried out a randomized controlled trial, with healthy newborns randomized into two groups at birth. All families received standard positioning instructions to prevent SIDS. Additionally, the intervention group received detailed instructions regarding the infant's environment, positioning, and handling, with the goal of creating a nonrestrictive environment that promotes spontaneous physical movement and symmetrical motor development. Two- and three-dimensional photogrammetry served to assess cranial shape and goniometry to measure cervical motion. At 3 months, the prevalence of DP was lower in the intervention group in both 2D (11 vs 31 %) and 3D analyses (15 vs 33 %), and the asymmetry was milder in the intervention group. Infants with DP at follow-up had also developed more torticollis. An early educational intervention reduces the prevalence and severity of DP at 3 months. •Deformational plagiocephaly, often with associated torticollis, is common in healthy infants. •Parental education is frequently recommended for preventing deformational plagiocephaly, although information regarding the effectiveness of preventive strategies is scarce. •Early parent guidance effectively reduces the prevalence and severity of DP and improves the cervical range of motion at three months. •Educating both parents and professionals about proper infant positioning on a national scale could help minimize public healthcare costs.

  14. Evaluation of cranial tibial and extensor carpi radialis reflexes before and after anesthetic block in cats. (United States)

    Tudury, Eduardo Alberto; de Figueiredo, Marcella Luiz; Fernandes, Thaiza Helena Tavares; Araújo, Bruno Martins; Bonelli, Marília de Albuquerque; Diogo, Camila Cardoso; Silva, Amanda Camilo; Santos, Cássia Regina Oliveira; Rocha, Nadyne Lorrayne Farias Cardoso


    Objectives This study aimed to test the extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats before and after anesthetic block of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus, respectively, to determine whether they depend on a myotatic reflex arc. Methods Fifty-five cats with a normal neurologic examination that were referred for elective gonadectomy were divided into group 1 (29 cats) for testing the extensor carpi radialis reflex, and group 2 (26 cats) for testing the cranial tibial reflex. In group 1, the extensor carpi radialis reflex was tested after anesthetic induction and 15 mins after brachial plexus block with lidocaine. In group 2, the cranial tibial, withdrawal and patellar reflexes were elicited in 52 hindlimbs and retested 15 mins after epidural anesthesia. Results In group 1, before the anesthetic block, 55.17% of the cats had a decreased and 44.83% had a normal extensor carpi radialis reflex. After the block, 68.96% showed a decreased and 27.59% a normal reflex. No cat had an increased or absent reflex before anesthetic block. In group 2, prior to the anesthetic block, 15.38% of the cats had a decreased cranial tibial reflex and 84.62% had a normal response, whereas after the block it was decreased in 26.92% and normal in 73.08% of the cats. None of the cats had an increased or absent reflex. Regarding the presence of both reflexes before and after anesthetic block, there was no significant difference at 1% ( P = 0.013). Conclusions and relevance The extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats are not strictly myotatic reflexes, as they are independent of the reflex arc, and may be idiomuscular responses. Therefore, they are not reliable for neurologic examination in this species.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Prasad


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES : The Objective is to study the risk of extra - cranial complications in cases of CSOM and to study the common extra - cranial complications of CSOM with respect to age , sex and socio - economic status . METHODS: The present study comprises of 60 patients with extra - cranial complications secondary to Chronic Suppurative Otitis media who attended to the Dept . o f E. N. T S rivenkateswara G overnment General Hospital, T irupathi . An analysis was made regarding the demographic profile , clinical features , surgical techniques , operative findings , and the outcome of the study . RESULTS : In this study of 60 cases , the most common ext racranial complication of CSOM is Postauralabscess . These extra cranial complications are associated with 15% of intracranial complications of which Meningitis is most common . The complications are more commonly seen in the younger population in second to third decades of life with Male predominance . The duration of ear discharge is not associated with the increasing number of complications . Cholesteatoma is commonly responsible for the development of Extracranial complications of CSOM . Pseudomonas aerugino sa is the commonest organism found in the complications . Canal wall down surgery is the main mode of treatment in this category of patients . The Facial canal dehiscence is associated with a poor outcome in the cases of Facial nerve paralysis . CONCLUSION: The extra - cranial complications of CSOM pose a great challenge to the Developing countries despite its declining incidence . It is in this situation that early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention are most important for the decreased morbidity and mor tality of patients .

  16. The relationship between latitudinal light variation and orbit and cranial size in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Short Alice


    Full Text Available Increased orbit size is suggested to be an adaptation for enhanced visual acuity and sensitivity in conditions of reduced light quality. Whilst light ambience has a well established correlation with eye size in birds and primates, evidence in humans is very limited. The aim of this study was to analyse the anatomical compensations of the eye and visual cortex as a result of varying levels of light exposure. It was hypothesized that humans of higher latitudes will have an increased orbit size to improve visual sensitivity and acuity in conditions of decreased light, and thus greater cranium size due to enlarged visual cortices. Craniometric measurements of 1,209 male and 1,021 female individuals from 27 series coming from different latitudes were sourced from William W. Howells Craniometric Data Set. Mean cranial and orbit size was calculated by combining linear craniometric measurements of length, width and height for individual males and females at each latitude. Linear regressions of orbit and cranial size on latitude were created and significance was measured using Pearson’s r and P value. Partial correlations were calculated to test whether orbit size correlates with latitude independent of cranial size. Significant positive correlations were found between i orbit and cranial size and ii orbit size and latitude and iii cranial size and latitude in males and females. Additionally, partial correlation values for latitude and orbit size were significant in both males and females. The relationship between visual system size and increasing latitude among humans is currently understudied. Significant relationships between visual system size and increasing latitude suggest that enlarged eyes were an evolutionary mechanism for individuals with compromised light availability. Other factors related to varying geographic location may also play a role

  17. Cranial vault thickness in primates: Homo erectus does not have uniquely thick vault bones. (United States)

    Copes, Lynn E; Kimbel, William H


    Extremely thick cranial vaults have been noted as a diagnostic characteristic of Homo erectus since the first fossil of the species was identified, but relatively little work has been done on elucidating its etiology or variation across fossils, living humans, or extant non-human primates. Cranial vault thickness (CVT) is not a monolithic trait, and the responsiveness of its layers to environmental stimuli is unknown. We obtained measurements of cranial vault thickness in fossil hominins from the literature and supplemented those data with additional measurements taken on African fossil specimens. Total CVT and the thickness of the cortical and diploë layers individually were compared to measures of CVT in extant species measured from more than 500 CT scans of human and non-human primates. Frontal and parietal CVT in fossil primates was compared to a regression of CVT on cranial capacity calculated for extant species. Even after controlling for cranial capacity, African and Asian H. erectus do not have uniquely high frontal or parietal thickness residuals, either among hominins or extant primates. Extant primates with residual CVT thickness similar to or exceeding H. erectus (depending on the sex and bone analyzed) include Nycticebus coucang, Perodicticus potto, Alouatta caraya, Lophocebus albigena, Galago alleni, Mandrillus sphinx, and Propithecus diadema. However, the especially thick vaults of extant non-human primates that overlap with H. erectus values are composed primarily of cortical bone, while H. erectus and other hominins have diploë-dominated vault bones. Thus, the combination of thick vaults comprised of a thickened diploë layer may be a reliable autapomorphy for members of the genus Homo.

  18. Accuracy of neuro-navigated cranial screw placement using optical surface imaging (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Jakubovic, Raphael; Gupta, Shuarya; Guha, Daipayan; Mainprize, Todd; Yang, Victor X. D.


    Cranial neurosurgical procedures are especially delicate considering that the surgeon must localize the subsurface anatomy with limited exposure and without the ability to see beyond the surface of the surgical field. Surgical accuracy is imperative as even minor surgical errors can cause major neurological deficits. Traditionally surgical precision was highly dependent on surgical skill. However, the introduction of intraoperative surgical navigation has shifted the paradigm to become the current standard of care for cranial neurosurgery. Intra-operative image guided navigation systems are currently used to allow the surgeon to visualize the three-dimensional subsurface anatomy using pre-acquired computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) images. The patient anatomy is fused to the pre-acquired images using various registration techniques and surgical tools are typically localized using optical tracking methods. Although these techniques positively impact complication rates, surgical accuracy is limited by the accuracy of the navigation system and as such quantification of surgical error is required. While many different measures of registration accuracy have been presented true navigation accuracy can only be quantified post-operatively by comparing a ground truth landmark to the intra-operative visualization. In this study we quantified the accuracy of cranial neurosurgical procedures using a novel optical surface imaging navigation system to visualize the three-dimensional anatomy of the surface anatomy. A tracked probe was placed on the screws of cranial fixation plates during surgery and the reported position of the centre of the screw was compared to the co-ordinates of the post-operative CT or MR images, thus quantifying cranial neurosurgical error.

  19. Radiation-induced cranial neuropathy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A follow-up study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, X.; Tang, Y.; Lu, K.; Peng, Y. [Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou (China). Dept. of Neurology; Chen, M. [Sun Yat-sen Univ., Guangzhou (China). Dept. of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma


    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the long-term characteristics of radiation-induced cranial nerve injury in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. We studied cranial nerve palsy (CNP) in 328 NPC patients who received radiotherapy between 1994 and 2006. Follow-up was 93.6% complete as of December 2009. A total of 72 patients with CNP were recruited for analysis (56 men and 16 women). Patients with evidence of residual or recurrent tumor accompanied by CNP were excluded. The characteristics of CNP and the relationship with the radiation fields as well as re-radiotherapy were evaluated. After a mean follow-up of 11.2 years, 72 patients were found to have developed CNP. The latency of palsy ranged from 0.6-16.0 years. For the 67 patients with first course radiation, the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves were the most vulnerable combination, occurring in 57 patients (85.1%). Patients with facial-cervical field radiation had a significantly longer latency comparing with that of patients with facial-cervical split fields (p = 0.021). In the first 5 years, 49.3% of patients developed CNP, while 40.3% presented CNP in the second 5-year period. In patients with first course radiation, 61 patients had more than one CNP. With regard to the 5 patients with re-radiation, most of them had multiple upper cranial nerve injuries. Radiation therapy of NPC patients may lead to cranial neuropathy. Patients with facial-cervical radiation fields had a longer latency for the manifestation of CNP compared with those patients who were treated with split fields. In patients with re-radiotherapy, the frequency of upper cranial nerve injury increased greatly.

  20. The Practice of Cranial Neurosurgery and the Malpractice Liability Environment in the United States (United States)

    Wong, Kendrew; MacKenzie, Todd A.


    Object The potential imbalance between malpractice liability cost and quality of care has been an issue of debate. We investigated the association of malpractice liability with unfavorable outcomes and increased hospitalization charges in cranial neurosurgery. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study involving patients who underwent cranial neurosurgical procedures from 2005-2010, and were registered in the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. We used data from the National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB) from 2005 to 2010 to create measures of volume and size of malpractice claim payments. The association of the latter with the state-level mortality, length of stay (LOS), unfavorable discharge, and hospitalization charges for cranial neurosurgery was investigated. Results During the study period, there were 189,103 patients (mean age 46.4 years, with 48.3% females) who underwent cranial neurosurgical procedures, and were registered in NIS. In a multivariable regression, higher number of claims per physician in a state was associated with increased ln-transformed hospitalization charges (beta 0.18; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.19). On the contrary, there was no association with mortality (OR 1.00; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.06). We observed a small association with unfavorable discharge (OR 1.09; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.13), and LOS (beta 0.01; 95% CI, 0.002 to 0.03). The size of the awarded claims demonstrated similar relationships. The average claims payment size (ln-transformed) (Pearson’s rho=0.435, P=0.01) demonstrated a positive correlation with the risk-adjusted hospitalization charges but did not demonstrate a correlation with mortality, unfavorable discharge, or LOS. Conclusions In the present national study, aggressive malpractice environment was not correlated with mortality but was associated with higher hospitalization charges after cranial neurosurgery. In view of the association of malpractice with the economics of healthcare, further research on its impact is

  1. An Osteologic Study of Cranial Opening of Optic Canal in Gujarat Region (United States)

    Singh, Praveen R


    Introduction Optic canal is a bony canal situated in between the roots of lesser wings of sphenoid, lateral to body of sphenoid. It transmits optic nerve and ophthalmic artery, surrounded by meninges. Various authors have studied variations in skull foramina and correlated clinically, as variants in the body structures have been found to be associated with many inherited or acquired diseases. Aim The present study aimed to examine morphologic and morphometric variations in cranial openings of optic canals. Materials and Methods The study was undertaken in total 150 dry adult human skulls. The variations in size, shape, presence or absence and duplication or multiplication if any, in optic canal were observed bilaterally. Unusual features such as recess, fissure and notch were also observed bilaterally. Student’s t-test was applied to compare size of cranial openings of optic canal on both sides. Similarly, morphologic features related with the canal were studied by calculating frequency and proportions of various parameters. Results Optic canal was present in all 150 skulls studied bilaterally. The mean maximum dimension of the canal at cranial opening was 5.03±0.72 mm on right side and 5.02±0.76 mm on left side. The shape of the canal was ovoid at cranial opening in all the skulls studied. Duplication of optic canal was present in one skull on left side. Recess was found in 105(35%) sides of total skulls observed. Fissure was found in 20(6.67%) sides and notch was observed in 30(10%) sides of total skulls. Conclusion The optic canal showed variability in various parameters. Knowledge regarding variations in size, shape and unusual features on cranial opening of optic canal can be helpful to clinicians while approaching optic canal for various invasive procedures such as optic nerve decompression. PMID:28050353

  2. Polyetheretherketone implants for the repair of large cranial defects: a 3-center experience. (United States)

    Rosenthal, Guy; Ng, Ivan; Moscovici, Samuel; Lee, Kah K; Lay, Twyila; Martin, Christine; Manley, Geoffrey T


    Calvarial reconstruction of large cranial defects following decompressive surgery is challenging. Autologous bone cannot always be used due to infection, fragmentation, bone resorption, and other causes. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a synthetic material that has many advantages in cranial-repair surgery, including strength, stiffness, durability, and inertness. To describe our experience with custom-made PEEK implants for the repair of large cranial defects in 3 institutions: San Francisco General Hospital, Hadassah-Hebrew University Hospital, and the National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore. A preoperative high-resolution computed tomography scan was obtained for each patient for design of the PEEK implant. Cranioplasty was performed via standard technique with the use of self-tapping titanium screws and miniplates. Between 2006 and 2012, 66 cranioplasties with PEEK implants were performed in 65 patients (46 men, 19 women, mean age 35 ± 14 years) for repair of large cranial defects. There were 5 infections of implants and 1 wound breakdown requiring removal of the implant (infection and surgical removal rates of 7.6% and 9.1%, respectively). Two patients required drainage of postoperative hematoma (overall surgical complication rate, 12.7%). Nonsurgical complications in 5 patients included seizures, nonoperative collection, and cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea that resolved spontaneously. Overall median patient or family satisfaction with the cranioplasty and aesthetic result was good, 4 on a scale of 5. Temporal wasting was the main aesthetic concern. Custom-designed PEEK implants are a good option for patients with large cranial defects. The rate of complications is comparable to other implants or autologous bone. Given the large size of these defects, the aesthetic results are good.

  3. Cranial vault shape in fossil hominids: Fourier descriptors in norma lateralis. (United States)

    Lestrel, P E; Ohtsuki, F; Wolfe, C A


    Two major views of human evolution have elicited considerable controversy. These are: [1] the "out of Africa" hypothesis and [2] the "multiregional" hypothesis. This paper is an attempt to try to reconcile these two scenarios using hominid cranial vault data. Elliptical Fourier functions (EFFs) were used to describe, in visual and numerical terms, the shape of the human cranial vault in norma lateralis. Using jpeg images, contours of the cranial vault of a large sample of hominid specimens were pre-processed in Photoshop CS and rotated in 2D space (positional-orientation) so that a line drawn from nasion to porion was horizontal. The cranial vault image was then digitized with 72 closely-spaced points and submitted to a specially written routine that computed EFFs normalized by scaling (size-standardization). This ensured that the representation was invariant with respect to starting point, size and orientation. Statistically significant differences were found between the H. sapiens sample and both the H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis samples. In contrast, there were no statistically significant differences between the H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis groups, leading to three conclusions: [1] the similarity in cranial vault shape between H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis suggests a single gradually evolving lineage; [2] The taxon H. heidelbergensis can be embedded into the H. erectus→H. neanderthalensis line; and [3] H. sapiens seems to be a separate evolutionary development and is considered here either as a separate species or as a possible example of an allopatric semispecies (Grant, 1977). The results here suggest that human evolution over the last 2 Ma may turn out to be neither totally multiregional or simply out of Africa but rather represents a considerably more complicated picture.

  4. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina K. Gonzales


    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT, release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL, population replacement strategies (PR, and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood.

  5. Artificial Immune Systems (2010)

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Aickelin, Uwe


    The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain, such as robustness and fault tolerance, and many different algorithms, collectively termed Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), have been inspired by it. Two generations of AIS are currently in use, with the first generation relying on simplified immune models and the second generation utilising interdisciplinary collaboration to develop a deeper understanding of the immune system and hence produce more complex models. Both generations of algorithms have been successfully applied to a variety of problems, including anomaly detection, pattern recognition, optimisation and robotics. In this chapter an overview of AIS is presented, its evolution is discussed, and it is shown that the diversification of the field is linked to the diversity of the immune system itself, leading to a number of algorithms as opposed to one archetypal system. Two case studies are also presented to help provide insight into the m...

  6. Generalized Adaptive Artificial Neural Networks (United States)

    Tawel, Raoul


    Mathematical model of supervised learning by artificial neural network provides for simultaneous adjustments of both temperatures of neurons and synaptic weights, and includes feedback as well as feedforward synaptic connections. Extension of mathematical model described in "Adaptive Neurons For Artificial Neural Networks" (NPO-17803). Dynamics of neural network represented in new model by less-restrictive continuous formalism.

  7. A Primer on Artificial Intelligence. (United States)

    Leal, Ralph A.

    A survey of literature on recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence provides a comprehensive introduction to this field for the non-technical reader. Important areas covered are: (1) definitions, (2) the brain and thinking, (3) heuristic search, and (4) programing languages used in the research of artificial intelligence. Some…

  8. Instructional Applications of Artificial Intelligence. (United States)

    Halff, Henry M.


    Surveys artificial intelligence and the development of computer-based tutors and speculates on the future of artificial intelligence in education. Includes discussion of the definitions of knowledge, expert systems (computer systems that solve tough technical problems), intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), and specific ITSs such as GUIDON, MYCIN,…

  9. Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Vasilaras, Tatjana H; Astrup, Arne


    There is a lack of appetite studies in free-living subjects supplying the habitual diet with either sucrose or artificially sweetened beverages and foods. Furthermore, the focus of artificial sweeteners has only been on the energy intake (EI) side of the energy-balance equation. The data are from...

  10. Artificial Ligaments: Promise or Panacea? (United States)

    Lubell, Adele


    The Food and Drug Administration has approved a prosthetic ligament for limited use in persons with damaged anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). This article addresses ligament repair, ACL tears, current treatment, development of the Gore-Tex artificial ligament, other artificial ligaments in process, and arguments for and against their use.…

  11. Artificial insemination in marsupials. (United States)

    Rodger, John C; Paris, Damien B B P; Czarny, Natasha A; Harris, Merrilee S; Molinia, Frank C; Taggart, David A; Allen, Camryn D; Johnston, Stephen D


    Assisted breeding technology (ART), including artificial insemination (AI), has the potential to advance the conservation and welfare of marsupials. Many of the challenges facing AI and ART for marsupials are shared with other wild species. However, the marsupial mode of reproduction and development also poses unique challenges and opportunities. For the vast majority of marsupials, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding basic reproductive biology to guide an AI strategy. For threatened or endangered species, only the most basic reproductive information is available in most cases, if at all. Artificial insemination has been used to produce viable young in two marsupial species, the koala and tammar wallaby. However, in these species the timing of ovulation can be predicted with considerably more confidence than in any other marsupial. In a limited number of other marsupials, such precise timing of ovulation has only been achieved using hormonal treatment leading to conception but not live young. A unique marsupial ART strategy which has been shown to have promise is cross-fostering; the transfer of pouch young of a threatened species to the pouches of foster mothers of a common related species as a means to increase productivity. For the foreseeable future, except for a few highly iconic or well studied species, there is unlikely to be sufficient reproductive information on which to base AI. However, if more generic approaches can be developed; such as ICSI (to generate embryos) and female synchronization (to provide oocyte donors or embryo recipients), then the prospects for broader application of AI/ART to marsupials are promising.

  12. Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Zackova, Eva; Kelemen, Jozef; Beyond Artificial Intelligence : The Disappearing Human-Machine Divide


    This book is an edited collection of chapters based on the papers presented at the conference “Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams” held in Pilsen in November 2012. The aim of the conference was to question deep-rooted ideas of artificial intelligence and cast critical reflection on methods standing at its foundations.  Artificial Dreams epitomize our controversial quest for non-biological intelligence, and therefore the contributors of this book tried to fully exploit such a controversy in their respective chapters, which resulted in an interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from engineering, natural sciences and humanities.   While pursuing the Artificial Dreams, it has become clear that it is still more and more difficult to draw a clear divide between human and machine. And therefore this book tries to portrait such an image of what lies beyond artificial intelligence: we can see the disappearing human-machine divide, a very important phenomenon of nowadays technological society, the phenomenon which i...

  13. Conservative smoothing versus artificial viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, C.; Hicks, D.L. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Swegle, J.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Solid and Structural Mechanics Dept.


    This report was stimulated by some recent investigations of S.P.H. (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method). Solid dynamics computations with S.P.H. show symptoms of instabilities which are not eliminated by artificial viscosities. Both analysis and experiment indicate that conservative smoothing eliminates the instabilities in S.P.H. computations which artificial viscosities cannot. Questions were raised as to whether conservative smoothing might smear solutions more than artificial viscosity. Conservative smoothing, properly used, can produce more accurate solutions than the von Neumann-Richtmyer-Landshoff artificial viscosity which has been the standard for many years. The authors illustrate this using the vNR scheme on a test problem with known exact solution involving a shock collision in an ideal gas. They show that the norms of the errors with conservative smoothing are significantly smaller than the norms of the errors with artificial viscosity.

  14. Soft computing in artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Matson, Eric


    This book explores the concept of artificial intelligence based on knowledge-based algorithms. Given the current hardware and software technologies and artificial intelligence theories, we can think of how efficient to provide a solution, how best to implement a model and how successful to achieve it. This edition provides readers with the most recent progress and novel solutions in artificial intelligence. This book aims at presenting the research results and solutions of applications in relevance with artificial intelligence technologies. We propose to researchers and practitioners some methods to advance the intelligent systems and apply artificial intelligence to specific or general purpose. This book consists of 13 contributions that feature fuzzy (r, s)-minimal pre- and β-open sets, handling big coocurrence matrices, Xie-Beni-type fuzzy cluster validation, fuzzy c-regression models, combination of genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization, building expert system, fuzzy logic and neural network, ind...

  15. Permanent deformation of asphalt mixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraya, P.M.


    This dissertation describes the results of a research that was conducted on the permanent deformation of asphalt mixtures. Central to this research was the separate characterization of the contribution of the aggregate skeleton and the bituminous mortar towards resistance to permanent deformation. T

  16. Deformation of the ABJM Theory


    Faizal, Mir


    In this paper we analyse the ABJM theory on deformed spacetime. We show that this theory reduces to a deformed super-Yang-Mills theory when one of the scalar superfields is given a non-vanishing vacuum expectation value. Our analyse is done in N=1 superspace formulism.

  17. Fraktalnist deformational relief polycrystalline aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.В. Карускевич


    Full Text Available  The possibility of the fractal geometry method application for the analisys of surface deformation structures under cyclic loading is presented.It is shown, that deformation relief of the alclad aluminium alloyes meets the criteria of the fractality. For the fractal demention estimation the method of  “box-counting”can be applied.

  18. Metastable vacua and geometric deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Amariti, A; Girardello, L; Mariotti, A


    We study the geometric interpretation of metastable vacua for systems of D3 branes at non isolated toric deformable singularities. Using the L^{aba} examples, we investigate the relations between the field theoretic susy breaking and restoration and the complex deformations of the CY singularities.

  19. What Is a Total Artificial Heart? (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Total Artificial Heart? A total artificial heart (TAH) is a device ... outside power source. Normal Heart and CardioWest Total Artificial Heart Figure A shows the normal structure and location ...

  20. Neural Network method for Inverse Modeling of Material Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J.D., Jr.; Ivezic, N.D.; Zacharia, T.


    A method is described for inverse modeling of material deformation in applications of importance to the sheet metal forming industry. The method was developed in order to assess the feasibility of utilizing empirical data in the early stages of the design process as an alternative to conventional prototyping methods. Because properly prepared and employed artificial neural networks (ANN) were known to be capable of codifying and generalizing large bodies of empirical data, they were the natural choice for the application. The product of the work described here is a desktop ANN system that can produce in one pass an accurate die design for a user-specified part shape.