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Sample records for artificial chromosome contig

  1. A yeast artificial chromosome contig of the critical region for cri-du-chat syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodart, S.A.; Rojas, K.; Overhauser, J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-11-01

    Cri-du-chat is a chromosomal deletion syndrome characterized by partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. The clinical symptoms include growth and mental retardation, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hyptonia, and a high-pitched monochromatic cry that is usually considered diagnostic for the syndrome. Recently, a correlation between clinical features and the extent of the chromosome 5 deletions has identified two regions of the short arm that appear to be critical for the abnormal development manifested in this syndrome. Loss of a small region in 5p15.2 correlates with all of the clinical features of cri-du-chat with the exception of the cat-like cry, which maps to 5p15.3. Here the authors report the construction of a YAC contig that spans the chromosomal region in 5p15.2 that plays a major role in the etiology of the cri-du-chat syndrome. YACs that span the 2-Mb cri-du-chat critical region have been identified and characterized. This YAC contig lays the groundwork for the construction of a transcriptional map of this region and the eventual identification of genes involved in the clinical features associated with the cri-du-chat syndrome. It also provides a new diagnostic tool for cri-du-chat in the shape of a YAC clone that may span the entire critical region. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig encompassing the critical region of the X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, A; Li, B; Li, S; Talmadge, C B; Brichacek, B; Davis, J R; Kozel, B A; Trask, B; van den Engh, G; Uzvolgyi, E; Stanbridge, E J; Nelson, D L; Chinault, C; Heslop, H; Gross, T G; Seemayer, T A; Klein, G; Purtilo, D T; Sumegi, J

    1997-01-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is characterized by a marked vulnerability to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Infection of XLP patients with EBV invariably results in fatal mononucleosis, agammaglobulinemia, or malignant lymphoma. Initially the XLP gene was assigned to a 10-cM region in Xq25 between DXS42 and DXS37. Subsequently, an interstitial, cytogenetically visible deletion in Xq25 was identified in one XLP family, 43. In this study we estimated the deletion in XLP patient 43-004 by dual-laser flow karyotyping to involve 2% of the X chromosome, or approximately 3 Mb of DNA sequence. From a human chromosome Xq25-specific yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) sublibrary, five YACs containing DNA sequences deleted in patient 43-004 have been isolated. Sequence-tagged sites (STSs) from these YACs have been used to identify interstitial deletions in unrelated XLP patients. Three more families with interstitial deletions were found. Two of the patients (63-003 and 73-032) carried an interstitial deletion of 3.0 Mb overlapping the 43-004 deletion. In one XLP patient (30-011) who exhibited the characteristic postinfectious mononucleosis phenotype of XLP with hypogammaglobulinemia and malignant lymphoma, a deletion of approximately 250 kb was detected overlapping the deletion detected in patients 43-004, 63-003, and 73-032. A YAC contig of 2.2 Mb spanning the XLP critical region, whose orientation on chromosome X was determined by double-color fluorescence in situ hybridization and which consists of 15 overlapping YAC clones, has been constructed. A detailed restriction enzyme map of the region has been constructed. YAC insert sizes were determined by counter-clamped homogenous electric field gel electrophoresis. Chimerism of YACs was determined by FISH and restriction mapping. On the basis of lambda subclones, YAC end-derived plasmids, and STSs with an average spacing of 100 kb, a long-range physical map was constructed using 5 rare-cutter restriction

  3. The construction of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig in the vicinity of the Usher syndrome type IIa (USH2A) gene in 1q41

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    Sumegi, Janos; Wang, Ji-Yi; Zhen, Dong-Kai [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    The gene for Usher syndrome type II (USH2A), and autosomal recessive syndromic deafness, has been mapped to a region of 1q41 flanked proximally by D1S217 and distally by D1S439. Using sequence-tagged sites (STSs) within the region, a total of 21 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones were isolated and ordered into a single contig that spans approximately 11.0 Mb. The order of microsatellite and STS markers in this region was established as D1S505-D1S425-DXS217-D1S556-D1S237-D1S474-EB1-KB6-AFM144XF2-KB1-KB4-D1S229-D1S490-D1S227-TGF{beta}2-D1S439. Analysis of newly positioned polymorphic markers in recombinant individuals in two Usher syndrome type IIa families has enabled us to identify DXS474 and AFM144XF2 as two flanking markers for the Usher type IIa locus. The physical distance between the two markers is 1.0 Mb. This region is covered by eight YACs from the CEPH library: 945f7, 867g9, 762a6, 919h3, 794b8, 785h4, 848b9, and 841g2. A long range physical map of the Usher type IIa critical region, using MluI, BssHII, NotI, EagI, and SacII, has been developed. 41 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Construction of a yeast artificial chromosome contig encompassing the human acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF1) gene: Toward the cloning of the ANLL/MDS tumor-suppressor gene

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    Chiu, Ing-Ming; Gilmore, E.C.; Liu, Yang; Payson, R.A. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States))

    1994-02-01

    The region surrounding the human acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF1) locus on chromosome 5q31 is of particular interest since it represents a critical region consistently lost in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients who have a demonstrable deletion of the distal portion of the long arm of chromosome 5. It is proposed that an ANLL/MDS leukemia suppressor gene resides on 5q31. The authors have previously shown that the gene is most likely localized between FGF1 and PDGFRB/CSF1R loci. The region has also been linked to at least four other genetic diseases, Treacher Collins syndrome, diastrophic dysplasia, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, and an autosomal dominant deafness, by linkage analysis. Here, they describe yeast artificial chromosomes (YAC) spanning 450 kb around the FGF1 gene. Six YAC clones were isolated from a human YAC library and their restriction enzyme maps were determined. The overlap of the clones with each other and with FGF1 cosmid and phage clones was characterized. Three of the YAC clones were found to contain the entire FGF1 gene, which spans more than 100 kb. Proximal and distal ends of several of these YAC clones were isolated for further overlap cloning. The proximal ends of both Y2 and Y4 were localized to previously isolated FGF1 DNA by sequence analysis. The distal ends of these two clones also hybridized to a human-hamster hybrid containing chromosome 5 as the only human genetic material. These results suggest that these YAC clones represent colinear DNA around the FGF1 locus. None of the YAC clones were found to contain the CD 14 and GRL genes, the closest known proximal and distal markers (relative to the centromere) to the FGF1 gene, respectively. This contig is useful for the overlap cloning of the 5q31 region and for reverse genetic strategies for the isolation of disease genes in the region. 46 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Feasibility of physical map construction from fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosome libraries of polyploid plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doležel Jaroslav

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of closely related genomes in polyploid species makes the assembly of total genomic sequence from shotgun sequence reads produced by the current sequencing platforms exceedingly difficult, if not impossible. Genomes of polyploid species could be sequenced following the ordered-clone sequencing approach employing contigs of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones and BAC-based physical maps. Although BAC contigs can currently be constructed for virtually any diploid organism with the SNaPshot high-information-content-fingerprinting (HICF technology, it is currently unknown if this is also true for polyploid species. It is possible that BAC clones from orthologous regions of homoeologous chromosomes would share numerous restriction fragments and be therefore included into common contigs. Because of this and other concerns, physical mapping utilizing the SNaPshot HICF of BAC libraries of polyploid species has not been pursued and the possibility of doing so has not been assessed. The sole exception has been in common wheat, an allohexaploid in which it is possible to construct single-chromosome or single-chromosome-arm BAC libraries from DNA of flow-sorted chromosomes and bypass the obstacles created by polyploidy. Results The potential of the SNaPshot HICF technology for physical mapping of polyploid plants utilizing global BAC libraries was evaluated by assembling contigs of fingerprinted clones in an in silico merged BAC library composed of single-chromosome libraries of two wheat homoeologous chromosome arms, 3AS and 3DS, and complete chromosome 3B. Because the chromosome arm origin of each clone was known, it was possible to estimate the fidelity of contig assembly. On average 97.78% or more clones, depending on the library, were from a single chromosome arm. A large portion of the remaining clones was shown to be library contamination from other chromosomes, a feature that is unavoidable during the

  6. A YAC contig of approximately 3 Mb from human chromosome 5q31 [yields] q33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang; Wang Jabs, E.; Hawkins, A.L.; Griffin, C.A. (John Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Wise, C.A.; Lovett, M. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)); Le Paslier, D. (CEPH, Paris (France)); Pittler, S.J. (Univ. of South Alabama College of Medicine, Mobile, AL (United States))

    1994-02-01

    The human chromosome 5q31-q33 region contains an interesting cluster of growth factor and receptor genes. In addition, several genetic disease loci have been localized within this region, but have not as yet been isolated as molecular clones. These include those loci involved in autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, diastrophic dysplasia, Treacher Collins syndrome, and myeloid disorders associated with the 5q-syndrome. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig of this region would assist in the further localization and isolation of these genes. The authors have used YACs isolated from the Washington University and Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain YAC libraries, including YACs from the large insert (mega) YAC library to build a contig greater than 3 Mb in size. An STS content strategy coupled with limited walking from YAC ends was used to isolate 22 overlapping YACs with as much as sixfold coverage. A total of 20 STSs, derived from genes, anonymous sequences, and vector Alu-PCR or inverse PCR products, were used to compile this contig. The order of loci, centromere-GRL-D5S207-D5S70-D5S545-D5S546-D5S547-D5S68-D5S548-D5S210-D5S549-D5S686- ADRB2-D5S559-CSF1R-D5S551-RPS14-D5S519-SPARC-telomere, was derived from the overlapping clones. This contig and clones derived from it will be useful substrates in selecting candidate cDNAs for the disease loci in this interval. 45 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Nephropathic cystinosis (CTNS-LSB): construction of a YAC contig comprising the refined critical region on chromosome 17p13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, U; Senger, G; Rählmann, M; Du Chesne, I; Stec, I; Köhler, M R; Weissenbach, J; Leal, S M; Koch, H G; Deufel, T; Harms, E

    1997-01-01

    A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig was constructed encompassing the entire region on chromosome 17p13 where the autosomal recessive disorder infantile nephropathic cystinosis (MIM 21980, CTNS-LSB) has been genetically mapped. It comprises seven clones ordered by their content of a series of six sequence-tagged sites (STSs). Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) revealed two chimaeric clones. The order of four polymorphic STSs mapped with the contig was consistent with that of the known genetic map with the exception of markers D17S1583 (AFMb307zg5) and D17S1798 (AFMa202xf5) where a telomeric location of D17S1583 was inferred from the contig; two non-polymorphic STSs were localised within the marker frame-work. From the analysis of recombination events in an unaffected individual as defined by leucocyte cystine levels we support the high-resolution mapping of this region to a small genetic interval and show that it is entirely represented on a single, non-chimaeric YAC clone in the contig.

  8. Construction of human chromosome 21-specific yeast artificial chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, M K; Shero, J H; Cheung, M C; Kan, Y W; Hieter, P A; Antonarakis, S E

    1989-12-01

    Chromosome 21-specific yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) have been constructed by a method that performs all steps in agarose, allowing size selection by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and the use of nanogram to microgram quantities of DNA. The DNA sources used were hybrid cell line WAV-17, containing chromosome 21 as the only human chromosome and flow-sorted chromosome 21. The transformation efficiency of ligation products was similar to that obtained in aqueous transformations and yielded YACs with sizes ranging from 100 kilobases (kb) to greater than 1 megabase when polyamines were included in the transformation procedure. Twenty-five YACs containing human DNA have been obtained from a mouse-human hybrid, ranging in size from 200 to greater than 1000 kb, with an average size of 410 kb. Ten of these YACs were localized to subregions of chromosome 21 by hybridization of RNA probes (corresponding to the YAC ends recovered in Escherichia coli) to a panel of somatic cell hybrid DNA. Twenty-one human YACs, ranging in size from 100 to 500 kb, with an average size of 150 kb, were obtained from approximately equal to 50 ng of flow-sorted chromosome 21 DNA. Three were localized to subregions of chromosome 21. YACs will aid the construction of a physical map of human chromosome 21 and the study of disorders associated with chromosome 21 such as Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome.

  9. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Mutagenesis Using Recombineering

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaran Narayanan; Qingwen Chen

    2011-01-01

    Gene expression from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones has been demonstrated to facilitate physiologically relevant levels compared to viral and nonviral cDNA vectors. BACs are large enough to transfer intact genes in their native chromosomal setting together with flanking regulatory elements to provide all the signals for correct spatiotemporal gene expression. Until recently, the use of BACs for functional studies has been limited because their large size has inherently presented...

  10. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Mutagenesis Using Recombineering

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    Kumaran Narayanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones has been demonstrated to facilitate physiologically relevant levels compared to viral and nonviral cDNA vectors. BACs are large enough to transfer intact genes in their native chromosomal setting together with flanking regulatory elements to provide all the signals for correct spatiotemporal gene expression. Until recently, the use of BACs for functional studies has been limited because their large size has inherently presented a major obstacle for introducing modifications using conventional genetic engineering strategies. The development of in vivo homologous recombination strategies based on recombineering in E. coli has helped resolve this problem by enabling facile engineering of high molecular weight BAC DNA without dependence on suitably placed restriction enzymes or cloning steps. These techniques have considerably expanded the possibilities for studying functional genetics using BACs in vitro and in vivo.

  11. [Cashmere goat bacterial artificial chromosome recombination and cell transfection system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tian; Cao, Zhongyang; Yang, Yaohui; Cao, Gengsheng

    2016-03-01

    The Cashmere goat is mainly used to produce cashmere, which is very popular for its delicate fiber, luscious softness and natural excellent warm property. Keratin associated protein (KAP) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) of the Cashmere goat play an important role in the proliferation and development of cashmere fiber follicle cells. Bacterial artificial chromosome containing kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4 genes were used to increase the production and quality of Cashmere. First, we constructed bacterial artificial chromosomes by homology recombination. Then Tol2 transposon was inserted into bacterial artificial chromosomes that were then transfected into Cashmere goat fibroblasts by Amaxa Nucleofector technology according to the manufacture's instructions. We successfully constructed the BAC-Tol2 vectors containing target genes. Each vector contained egfp report gene with UBC promoter, Neomycin resistant gene for cell screening and two loxp elements for resistance removing after transfected into cells. The bacterial artificial chromosome-Tol2 vectors showed a high efficiency of transfection that can reach 1% to 6% with a highest efficiency of 10%. We also obtained Cashmere goat fibroblasts integrated exogenous genes (kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4) preparing for the clone of Cashmere goat in the future. Our research demonstrates that the insertion of Tol2 transposons into bacterial artificial chromosomes improves the transfection efficiency and accuracy of bacterial artificial chromosome error-free recombination.

  12. [Cashmere goat bacterial artificial chromosome recombination and cell transfection system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tian; Cao, Zhongyang; Yang, Yaohui; Cao, Gengsheng

    2016-03-01

    The Cashmere goat is mainly used to produce cashmere, which is very popular for its delicate fiber, luscious softness and natural excellent warm property. Keratin associated protein (KAP) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) of the Cashmere goat play an important role in the proliferation and development of cashmere fiber follicle cells. Bacterial artificial chromosome containing kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4 genes were used to increase the production and quality of Cashmere. First, we constructed bacterial artificial chromosomes by homology recombination. Then Tol2 transposon was inserted into bacterial artificial chromosomes that were then transfected into Cashmere goat fibroblasts by Amaxa Nucleofector technology according to the manufacture's instructions. We successfully constructed the BAC-Tol2 vectors containing target genes. Each vector contained egfp report gene with UBC promoter, Neomycin resistant gene for cell screening and two loxp elements for resistance removing after transfected into cells. The bacterial artificial chromosome-Tol2 vectors showed a high efficiency of transfection that can reach 1% to 6% with a highest efficiency of 10%. We also obtained Cashmere goat fibroblasts integrated exogenous genes (kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4) preparing for the clone of Cashmere goat in the future. Our research demonstrates that the insertion of Tol2 transposons into bacterial artificial chromosomes improves the transfection efficiency and accuracy of bacterial artificial chromosome error-free recombination. PMID:27349114

  13. A YAC contig and an EST map in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 13 surrounding the loci for neurosensory nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB1 and DFNA3) and Limb-Girdle muscular dystrophy type 2C (LGMD2C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilford, P.; Crozet, F.; Blanchard, S. [Institut Pasteur, Paris (France)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Two forms of inherited childhood nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB1 and DFNA3) and a Duchenne-like form of progressive muscular dystrophy (LGMD2C) have been mapped to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 13. To clone the genes responsible for these diseases we constructed a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig spanning an 8-cM region between the polymorphic markers D13S221. The contig comprises 24 sequence-tagged sites, among which 15 were newly obtained. This contig allowed us to order the polymorphic markers centromere- D13S175-D13S141-D13S143-D13S115-AFM128yc1-D13S292-D13S283-AFM323vh5-D13S221-telomere. Eight expressed sequence tags, previously assigned to 13q11-q12 (D13S182E, D13S183E, D13S502E, D13S504E, D13S505E, D13S837E, TUBA2, ATP1AL1), were localized on the YAC contig. YAC screening of a cDNA library derived from mouse cochlea allowed us to identify an {alpha}-tubulin gene (TUBA2) that was subsequently precisely mapped within the candidate region. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Integrative bacterial artificial chromosomes for DNA integration into the Bacillus subtilis chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhas, Mario; Ajioka, James W

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a well-characterized model bacterium frequently used for a number of biotechnology and synthetic biology applications. Novel strategies combining the advantages of B. subtilis with the DNA assembly and editing tools of Escherichia coli are crucial for B. subtilis engineering efforts. We combined Gibson Assembly and λ red recombineering in E. coli with RecA-mediated homologous recombination in B. subtilis for bacterial artificial chromosome-mediated DNA integration into the well-characterized amyE target locus of the B. subtilis chromosome. The engineered integrative bacterial artificial chromosome iBAC(cav) can accept any DNA fragment for integration into B. subtilis chromosome and allows rapid selection of transformants by B. subtilis-specific antibiotic resistance and the yellow fluorescent protein (mVenus) expression. We used the developed iBAC(cav)-mediated system to integrate 10kb DNA fragment from E. coli K12 MG1655 into B. subtilis chromosome. iBAC(cav)-mediated chromosomal integration approach will facilitate rational design of synthetic biology applications in B. subtilis.

  15. HACking the centromere chromatin code: insights from human artificial chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Jan H; Martins, Nuno M C; Larionov, Vladimir; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Earnshaw, William C

    2012-07-01

    The centromere is a specialized chromosomal region that serves as the assembly site of the kinetochore. At the centromere, CENP-A nucleosomes form part of a chromatin landscape termed centrochromatin. This chromatin environment conveys epigenetic marks regulating kinetochore formation. Recent work sheds light on the intricate relationship between centrochromatin state, the CENP-A assembly pathway and the maintenance of centromere function. Here, we review the emerging picture of how chromatin affects mammalian kinetochore formation. We place particular emphasis on data obtained from Human Artificial Chromosome (HAC) biology and the targeted engineering of centrochromatin using synthetic HACs. We discuss implications of these findings, which indicate that a delicate balance of histone modifications and chromatin state dictates both de novo centromere formation and the maintenance of centromere identity in dividing cell populations.

  16. Mapping of the locus for autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta (AIH2) to a 4-Mb YAC contig on chromosome 4q11-q21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerrman, C.; Holmgren, G.; Forsman, K. [Univ. Hospital, Umea (Sweden)]|[Univ. of Umea (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-01-15

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (Al) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited enamel defects. We recently mapped a locus for autosomal dominant local hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta (AIH2) to the long arm of chromosome 4. The disease gene was localized to a 17.6-cM region between the markers D4S392 and D4S395. The albumin gene (ALB), located in the same interval, was a candidate gene for autosomal dominant AI (ADAI) since albumin has a potential role in enamel maturation. Here we describe refined mapping of the AIH2 locus and the construction of marker maps by radiation hybrid mapping and yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)-based sequence tagged site-content mapping. A radiation hybrid map consisting of 11 microsatellite markers in the 5-cM interval between D4S409 and D4S1558 was constructed. Recombinant haplotypes in six Swedish ADAI families suggest that the disease gene is located in the interval between D4S2421 and ALB. ALB is therefore not likely to be the disease-causing gene. Affected members in all six families share the same allele haplotypes, indicating a common ancestral mutation in all families. The AIH2 critical region is less than 4 cM and spans a physical distance of approximately 4 Mb as judged from radiation hybrid maps. A YAC contig over the AIH2 critical region including several potential candidate genes was constructed. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Construction of an Americn mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Hallers, Boudewijn ten; Nefedov, Michael;

    2011-01-01

    contigs (184 kb in average) were assembled. Knowing the complete sequences of these candidate genes will enable confirmation of the association with a phenotype and the finding of causative mutations for the targeted phenotypes.Additionally, 1577 BAC clones were end sequenced; 2505 BAC end sequences (80......BACKGROUND: Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. RESULTS: Here, we...... consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library...

  18. A complete YAC contig of the Prader-Willi/Angelman chromosome region (15q11-q13) and refined localization of the SNRPN gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutirangura, A.; Jayakumar, A.; Sutcliffe, J.S.; Nakao, M.; McKinney, M.J.; Beaudet, A.L.; Chinault, A.C.; Ledbetter, D.H. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Buiting, K.; Horsthemke, B. (Institut fur Humangenetik (Germany))

    1993-12-01

    Since a previous report of a partial YAC contig of the Prader-Willi/Angelman chromosome region (15q11-q13), a complete contig spanning approximately 3.5 Mb has been developed. YACs were isolated from two human genomic libraries by PCR and hybridization screening methods. Twenty-three sequence-tagged sites (STSs) were mapped within the contig, a density of [approximately]1 per 200 kb. Overlaps between YAC clones were identified by Alu-PCR dot-blot analysis and confirmed by STS mapping or hybridization with ends of YAC inserts. The gene encoding small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated peptide N (SNRPN), recently identified as a candidate gene for Prader-Willi syndrome, was localized within this contig between markers PW71 and TD3-21. Loci mapped within and immediately flanking the Prader-Willi/Angelman chromosome region contig are ordered as follows: cen-IR39-ML34-IR4-3R-TD189-1-PW71-SNRPN-TD3-21-LS6-1-GABRB3,D15S97-GABRA5-IR10-1-CMW1-tel. This YAC contig will be a useful resource for more detailed physical mapping of the region, for generation of new DNA markers, and for mapping or cloning candidate genes for the Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Construction and Characterization of Three Wheat Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjin Cao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We have constructed three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries of wheat cultivar Triticum aestivum Wangshuibai, germplasms T. monococcum TA2026 and TA2033. A total of 1,233,792,170,880 and 263,040 clones were picked and arrayed in 384-well plates. On the basis of genome sizes of 16.8 Gb for hexaploid wheat and 5.6 Gb for diploid wheat, the three libraries represented 9.05-, 2.60-, and 3.71-fold coverage of the haploid genomes, respectively. An improved descending pooling system for BAC libraries screening was established. This improved strategy can save 80% of the time and 68% of polymerase chain reaction (PCR with the same successful rate as the universal 6D pooling strategy.

  20. Human artificial chromosomes for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and beyond: challenges and hopes.

    OpenAIRE

    Tedesco, F. S.

    2015-01-01

    Safe and efficacious vectors able to carry large or several transgenes are of key importance for gene therapy. Human artificial chromosomes can fulfil this essential requirement; moreover, they do not integrate into the host genome. However, drawbacks such as the low efficiency of chromosome transfer and their relatively complex engineering still limit their widespread use. In this article, I summarise the key steps that brought human artificial chromosomes into preclinical research for Duche...

  1. From amplification to gene in thyroid cancer: A high-resolution mapped bacterial-artificial-chromosome resource for cancer chromosome aberrations guides gene discovery after comparative genome hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X.N.; Gonsky, R.; Korenberg, J.R. [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Cedars-Sinai Research Inst.; Knauf, J.A.; Fagin, J.A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Div. of Endocrinology/Metabolism; Wang, M.; Lai, E.H. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Pharmacology; Chissoe, S. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States). Genome Sequencing

    1998-08-01

    Chromosome rearrangements associated with neoplasms provide a rich resource for definition of the pathways of tumorigenesis. The power of comparative genome hybridization (CGH) to identify novel genes depends on the existence of suitable markers, which are lacking throughout most of the genome. The authors now report a general approach that translates CGH data into higher-resolution genomic-clone data that are then used to define the genes located in aneuploid regions. They used CGH to study 33 thyroid-tumor DNAs and two tumor-cell-line DNAs. The results revealed amplifications of chromosome band 2p21, with less-intense amplification on 2p13, 19q13.1, and 1p36 and with least-intense amplification on 1p34, 1q42, 5q31, 5q33-34, 9q32-34, and 14q32. To define the 2p21 region amplified, a dense array of 373 FISH-mapped chromosome 2 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) was constructed, and 87 of these were hybridized to a tumor-cell line. Four BACs carried genomic DNA that was amplified in these cells. The maximum amplified region was narrowed to 3--6 Mb by multicolor FISH with the flanking BACs, and the minimum amplicon size was defined by a contig of 420 kb. Sequence analysis of the amplified BAC 1D9 revealed a fragment of the gene, encoding protein kinase C epsilon (PKC{epsilon}), that was then shown to be amplified and rearranged in tumor cells. In summary, CGH combined with a dense mapped resource of BACs and large-scale sequencing has led directly to the definition of PKC{epsilon} as a previously unmapped candidate gene involved in thyroid tumorigenesis.

  2. A high-throughput strategy for screening of bacterial artificial chromosome libraries and anchoring of clones on a genetic map constructed with single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deal Karin R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current techniques of screening bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries for molecular markers during the construction of physical maps are slow, laborious and often assign multiple BAC contigs to a single locus on a genetic map. These limitations are the principal impediment in the construction of physical maps of large eukaryotic genomes. It is hypothesized that this impediment can be overcome by screening multidimensional pools of BAC clones using the highly parallel Illumina GoldenGate™ assay. Results To test the efficacy of the Golden Gate assay in BAC library screening, multidimensional pools involving 302976 Aegilops tauschii BAC clones were genotyped for the presence/absence of specific gene sequences with multiplexed Illumina GoldenGate oligonucleotide assays previously used to place single nucleotide polymorphisms on an Ae. tauschii genetic map. Of 1384 allele-informative oligonucleotide assays, 87.6% successfully clustered BAC pools into those positive for a BAC clone harboring a specific gene locus and those negative for it. The location of the positive BAC clones within contigs assembled from 199190 fingerprinted Ae. tauschii BAC clones was used to evaluate the precision of anchoring of BAC clones and contigs on the Ae. tauschii genetic map. For 41 (95% assays, positive BAC clones were neighbors in single contigs. Those contigs could be unequivocally assigned to loci on the genetic map. For two (5% assays, positive clones were in two different contigs and the relationships of these contigs to loci on the Ae. tauschii genetic map were equivocal. Screening of BAC libraries with a simple five-dimensional BAC pooling strategy was evaluated and shown to allow direct detection of positive BAC clones without the need for manual deconvolution of BAC clone pools. Conclusion The highly parallel Illumina oligonucleotide assay is shown here to be an efficient tool for screening BAC libraries and a strategy for high

  3. Refined human artificial chromosome vectors for gene therapy and animal transgenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuki, Y.; Hoshiya, H.; Takiguchi, M; Abe, S.; Iida, Y.; Osaki, M.; Katoh, M; Hiratsuka, M; Shirayoshi, Y; HIRAMATSU, K.; Ueno, E; Kajitani, N; Yoshino, T.; Kazuki, K; Ishihara, C.

    2010-01-01

    Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) have several advantages as gene therapy vectors, including stable episomal maintenance, and the ability to carry large gene inserts. We previously developed HAC vectors from the normal human chromosomes using a chromosome engineering technique. However, endogenous genes were remained in these HACs, limiting their therapeutic applications. In this study, we refined a HAC vector without endogenous genes from human chromosome 21 in homologous recombination-pro...

  4. YAC contigs of the Rab1 and wobbler (wr) spinal muscular atrophy gene region on proximal mouse chromosome 11 and of the homologous region on human chromosome 2p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedemeyer, N.; Lengeling, A.; Ronsiek, M. [Univ. of Bielefeld (Germany)] [and others

    1996-03-05

    Despite rapid progress in the physical characterization of murine and human genomes, little molecular information is available on certain regions, e.g., proximal mouse chromosome 11 (Chr 11) and human chromosome 2p (Chr2p). We have localized the wobbler spinal atrophy gene wr to proximal mouse Chr 11, tightly linked to Rab1, a gene coding for a small GTP-binding protein, and Glns-ps1, an intronless pseudogene of the glutamine synthetase gene. We have not used these markers to construct a 1.3-Mb yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig of the Rab1 region on mouse Chr 11. Four YAC clones isolated from two independent YAC libraries were characterized by rare-cutting analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and sequence-tagged site (STS) isolation and mapping. Rab1 and Glns-ps1 were found to be only 200 kb apart. A potential CpG island near a methylated NarI site and a trapped exon, ETG1.1, were found over 250 kb from Rab1. Two overlapping YACs were identified that contained a 150-kb region of human Chr 2p, comprising the RAB1 locus, AHY1.1, and the human homologue of ETG1.1, indicating a high degree of conservation of this region in the two species. We mapped AHY1.1 and thus human RAB1 on Chr 2p13.4-p14 using somatic cell hybrids and a radiation hybrid panel, thus extending a known region of conserved synteny between mouse Chr 11 and human Chr 2p. Recently, the gene LMGMD2B for a human recessive neuromuscular disease, limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B, has been mapped to 2p13-p16. The conservation between the mouse Rab1 and human RAB1 regions will be helpful in identifying candidate genes for the wobbler spinal muscular atrophy and in clarifying a possible relationship between wr and LMGMD2B. 33 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. A 4.5-megabase YAC contig and physical map over the hemochromatosis gene region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, M.J.; Smit, D.J.; Pyper, W.R.; Powell, L.W.; Jazwinska, E.C. [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)

    1996-04-15

    We have constructed a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig over the candidate hemochromatosis gene region. This contig comprises hemochromatosis gene region. This contig comprises 16 YACs from the CEPH, Washington University, and ICI YAC libraries and covers 4.5 Mb at 6p21.3-6p22. The complete contig has been restriction mapped, enabling the precise relationship between the YACs to be determined and the mapping of a total of 12 STSs. Nine of these are highly polymorphic STSs that are closely linked to hemochromatosis; this series includes D6S265 and D6S1260, which comprise the most proximal and distal markers linked to HC. This is the first YAC contig that spans the hemochromatosis candidate region, and it provides valuable resource material for the cloning of this and other genes in the region distal to the MHC class I complex. 33 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Narrowing the genetic interval and yeast artificial chromosome map in the branchio-oto-renal region on chromosome 8q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Shrawan; Kimberling, W.J.; Pinnt, J. [Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, NE (United States)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by branchial abnormality, hearing loss, and renal anomalies. Recently, the disease gene has been localized to chromosome 8q. Here, we report genetic studies that further refine the disease gene region to a smaller interval and identify several YACs from the critical region. We studied two large, clinically well-characterized BOR families with a set of 13 polymorphic markers spanning the D8S165-D8S275 interval from the chromosome 8q region. Based on multipoint analysis, the highest likelihood for the location of the BOR gene is between markers D8S543 and D8S530, a distance of about 2 cM. YACs that map in the BOR critical region have been identified and characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A YAC contig, based on the STS content map, that covers a minimum of 4 Mb of human DNA in the critical region of BOR is assembled. This lays the groundwork for the construction of a transcriptional map of this region and the eventual identification of genes involved in BOR syndrome. 40 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Rescue of end fragments of yeast artificial chromosomes by homologous recombination in yeast.

    OpenAIRE

    Hermanson, G G; Hoekstra, M F; McElligott, D. L.; Evans, G A

    1991-01-01

    Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) provide a powerful tool for the isolation and mapping of large regions of mammalian chromosomes. We developed a rapid and efficient method for the isolation of DNA fragments representing the extreme ends of YAC clones by the insertion of a rescue plasmid into the YAC vector by homologous recombination. Two rescue vectors were constructed containing a yeast LYS2 selectable gene, a bacterial origin of replication, an antibiotic resistance gene, a polylinker c...

  8. Chromosomal assignment of chicken clone contigs by extending the consensus linkage map

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J.; Veenendaal, T.; Poel, van der J.J.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The bacterial artificial clone-based physical map for chicken plays an important role in the integration of the consensus linkage map and the whole-genome shotgun sequence. It also provides a valuable resource for clone selection within applications such as fluorescent in situ hybridization and posi

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of a Human Cytomegalovirus Strain AD169 Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Eleonore; Spohn, Michael; Indenbirken, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The complete sequence of the human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 (variant ATCC) cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (AD169-BAC, also known as HB15 or pHB15) was determined. The viral genome has a length of 230,290 bp and shows 52 nucleotide differences compared to a previously sequenced AD169varATCC clone. PMID:27034483

  10. Refined human artificial chromosome vectors for gene therapy and animal transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazuki, Y; Hoshiya, H; Takiguchi, M; Abe, S; Iida, Y; Osaki, M; Katoh, M; Hiratsuka, M; Shirayoshi, Y; Hiramatsu, K; Ueno, E; Kajitani, N; Yoshino, T; Kazuki, K; Ishihara, C; Takehara, S; Tsuji, S; Ejima, F; Toyoda, A; Sakaki, Y; Larionov, V; Kouprina, N; Oshimura, M

    2011-04-01

    Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) have several advantages as gene therapy vectors, including stable episomal maintenance, and the ability to carry large gene inserts. We previously developed HAC vectors from the normal human chromosomes using a chromosome engineering technique. However, endogenous genes were remained in these HACs, limiting their therapeutic applications. In this study, we refined a HAC vector without endogenous genes from human chromosome 21 in homologous recombination-proficient chicken DT40 cells. The HAC was physically characterized using a transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning strategy followed by sequencing of TAR-bacterial artificial chromosome clones. No endogenous genes were remained in the HAC. We demonstrated that any desired gene can be cloned into the HAC using the Cre-loxP system in Chinese hamster ovary cells, or a homologous recombination system in DT40 cells. The HAC can be efficiently transferred to other type of cells including mouse ES cells via microcell-mediated chromosome transfer. The transferred HAC was stably maintained in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, tumor cells containing a HAC carrying the suicide gene, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK), were selectively killed by ganciclovir in vitro and in vivo. Thus, this novel HAC vector may be useful not only for gene and cell therapy, but also for animal transgenesis.

  11. Efficient manipulation of the human adenovirus genome as an infectious yeast artificial chromosome clone.

    OpenAIRE

    Ketner, G; Spencer, F; Tugendreich, S; C. Connelly; Hieter, P

    1994-01-01

    A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing a complete human adenovirus type 2 genome was constructed, and viral DNA derived from the YAC was shown to be infectious upon introduction into mammalian cells. The adenovirus YAC could be manipulated efficiently using homologous recombination-based methods in the yeast host, and mutant viruses, including a variant that expresses the human analog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC27 gene, were readily recovered from modified derivatives of the Y...

  12. Generalized Gap Model for Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clone Fingerprint Mapping and Shotgun Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Wendl, Michael C; Robert H Waterston

    2002-01-01

    We develop an extension to the Lander-Waterman theory for characterizing gaps in bacterial artificial chromosome fingerprint mapping and shotgun sequencing projects. It supports a larger set of descriptive statistics and is applicable to a wider range of project parameters. We show that previous assertions regarding inconsistency of the Lander-Waterman theory at higher coverages are incorrect and that another well-known but ostensibly different model is in fact the same. The apparent paradox ...

  13. Delineating Rearrangements in Single Yeast Artificial Chromosomes by Quantitative DNA Fiber Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Greulich-Bode, Karin M.; Wu, Jenny; Duell, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Cloning of large chunks of human genomic DNA in recombinant systems such as yeast or bacterial artificial chromosomes has greatly facilitated the construction of physical maps, the positional cloning of disease genes or the preparation of patient-specific DNA probes for diagnostic purposes. For this process to work efficiently, the DNA cloning process and subsequent clone propagation need to maintain stable inserts that are neither deleted nor otherwise rearranged. Some regions of the human g...

  14. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones of Viruses Comprising the Towne Cytomegalovirus Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohong Cui; Adler, Stuart P.; Davison, Andrew J.; Larry Smith; EL-Sayed E. Habib; McVoy, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones have proven invaluable for genetic manipulation of herpesvirus genomes. BAC cloning can also be useful for capturing representative genomes that comprise a viral stock or mixture. The Towne live attenuated cytomegalovirus vaccine was developed in the 1970s by serial passage in cultured fibroblasts. Although its safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy have been evaluated in nearly a thousand human subjects, the vaccine itself has been little studied. I...

  15. Complete Genomes of Classical Swine Fever Virus Cloned into Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Reimann, I; Uttenthal, Åse; De Beer, M.

    2011-01-01

    Complete genome amplification of viral RNA provides a new tool for the generation of modified pestiviruses. We have used our full-genome amplification strategy for generation of amplicons representing complete genomes of classical swine fever virus. The amplicons were cloned directly into a stable single-copy bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) generating full-length pestivirus DNAs from which infectious RNA transcripts could be also derived. Our strategy allows construction of stable infec...

  16. Drought-tolerant rice germplasm developed from an Oryza officinalis transformation-competent artificial chromosome clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R; Zhang, H H; Chen, Z X; Shahid, M Q; Fu, X L; Liu, X D

    2015-10-29

    Oryza officinalis has proven to be a natural gene reservoir for the improvement of domesticated rice as it carries many desirable traits; however, the transfer of elite genes to cultivated rice by conventional hybridization has been a challenge for rice breeders. In this study, the conserved sequence of plant stress-related NAC transcription factors was selected as a probe to screen the O. officinalis genomic transformation-competent artificial chromosome library by Southern blot; 11 positive transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones were subsequently detected. By Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, an indica rice variety, Huajingxian 74 (HJX74), was transformed with a TAC clone harboring a NAC gene-positive genomic fragment from O. officinalis. Molecular analysis revealed that the O. officinalis genomic fragment was integrated into the genome of HJX74. The transgenic lines exhibited high tolerance to drought stress. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of stress-related transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones, coupled with a transgenic validation approach, is an effective method of transferring agronomically important genes from O. officinalis to cultivated rice.

  17. Eleven X chromosome breakpoints associated with premature ovarian failure (POF) map to a 15-Mb YAC contig spanning Xq21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, C; Arrigo, G; Torri, G; Martinazzi, F; Riva, P; Larizza, L; Philippe, C; Jonveaux, P; Sloan, F; Labella, T; Toniolo, D

    1997-02-15

    Eleven balanced X-autosome translocations associated with premature ovarian failure (POF) were mapped to a YAC contig spanning most of Xq21 and constructed between the DXS223 and DXS1171 loci. The contig corresponds to a genomic region of about 15 Mb and contains the whole X-Y homologous region. The most proximal and most distal breakpoints associated with POF were mapped 15 Mb apart. The remaining breakpoints were localized along this large region, in the X-specific and in the X-Y homologous region. Four of the YACs contained two breakpoints in the same or in flanking STS intervals. Our results confirm the cytological findings and suggest that a minimum number of eight different genes in Xq21 may be involved with ovary development. Interruption of such loci could be the cause of POF.

  18. Final report. Human artificial episomal chromosome (HAEC) for building large genomic libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean-Michael H. Vos

    1999-12-09

    Collections of human DNA fragments are maintained for research purposes as clones in bacterial host cells. However for unknown reasons, some regions of the human genome appear to be unclonable or unstable in bacteria. Their team has developed a system using episomes (extrachromosomal, autonomously replication DNA) that maintains large DNA fragments in human cells. This human artificial episomal chromosomal (HAEC) system may prove useful for coverage of these especially difficult regions. In the broader biomedical community, the HAEC system also shows promise for use in functional genomics and gene therapy. Recent improvements to the HAEC system and its application to mapping, sequencing, and functionally studying human and mouse DNA are summarized. Mapping and sequencing the human genome and model organisms are only the first steps in determining the function of various genetic units critical for gene regulation, DNA replication, chromatin packaging, chromosomal stability, and chromatid segregation. Such studies will require the ability to transfer and manipulate entire functional units into mammalian cells.

  19. A new vector for recombination-based cloning of large DNA fragments from yeast artificial chromosomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, M S; Bollekens, J A; Ruddle, F H

    1995-01-01

    The functional analysis of genes frequently requires manipulation of large genomic regions embedded in yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). We have designed a yeast-bacteria shuttle vector, pClasper, that can be used to clone specific regions of interest from YACs by homologous recombination. The important feature of pClasper is the presence of the mini-F factor replicon. This leads to a significant increase in the size of the plasmid inserts that can be maintained in bacteria after cloning b...

  20. Cloning the simian varicella virus genome in E. coli as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Wayne L.; Zhou, Fuchun; Noffke, Juliane; Tischer, B Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Simian varicella virus (SVV) is closely related to human varicella-zoster virus and causes varicella and zoster-like disease in nonhuman primates. In this study, a mini-F replicon was inserted into a SVV cosmid and infectious SVV was generated by co-transfection of Vero cells with overlapping SVV cosmids. The entire SVV genome, cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), was stably propagated upon serial passage in E. coli. Transfection of pSVV-BAC DNA into Vero cells yielded infectiou...

  1. A YAC contig in 6p23 based on sequence tagged sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemani, M.; Cherif, D.; Chesne, H. [Foundation Jean Dausset, Paris (France)] [and others

    1994-07-15

    A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig located in 6p23 and spanning roughly 2.5 Mb has been constructed from the content of 10 sequence tagged sites (STSs) for YAC clones in 66 yeast colonies. Nine of the STSs have been genetically mapped in CEPH families. The order of STSs mapped with the contig is consistent with that of the genetic map. The order of loci that did not recombine with each other on the genetic map was inferred from the contig. Various regions of the contig are covered by multiple YAC clones that complement observed STS deletions. The STS for the CAG repeat sequence contained in the gene for spinal cerebellar ataxia 1 (gene symbol SCA1) is localized in the contig. It is likely that this gene is located in 6p23. The frequency of chimeric YAC clones in this contig is 35%. Eleven yeast colonies were found to carry two or more YACs. YAC subclones from some of these colonies showed size variation, and for several subclones, evidence consistent with deletion of a sequence tagged site. 27 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Construction and characterization of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) containing herpes simplex virus full-length genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Claus-Henning; Pohlmann, Anja; Sodeik, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are suitable vectors not only to maintain the large genomes of herpesviruses in Escherichia coli but also to enable the traceless introduction of any mutation using modern tools of bacterial genetics. To clone a herpes simplex virus genome, a BAC replication origin is first introduced into the viral genome by homologous recombination in eukaryotic host cells. As part of their nuclear replication cycle, genomes of herpesviruses circularize and these replication intermediates are then used to transform bacteria. After cloning, the integrity of the recombinant viral genomes is confirmed by restriction length polymorphism analysis and sequencing. The BACs may then be used to design virus mutants. Upon transfection into eukaryotic cells new herpesvirus strains harboring the desired mutations can be recovered and used for experiments in cultured cells as well as in animal infection models. PMID:24671676

  3. Construction of bacterial artificial chromosome libraries for Zhikong Scallop Chlamys farreri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yang; ZHANG Xiaojun; Chantel F.SCHEURING; ZHANG Hongbin; LI Fuhua; XIANG Jianhai

    2008-01-01

    Two Large-insert genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries of Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri were constructed to promote our genetic and genomic research.High-quality megabase-sized DNA was isolated from the adductor muscle of the scallop and partially digested by BamH I and Mbo I,respectively.The BamH I library consisted of 53760 clones while the Mbo I library consisted of 7680 clones.Approximately 96% of the clones in BamH I library contained nuclear DNA inserts in average size of 100 kb,providing a coverage of 5.3 haploid genome equivalents.Similarly,the Mbo I library with an average insert of 145 kb and no insert-empty clones,thus providing a genome coverage of 1.1 haploid genome equivalents.

  4. A Plasmid Set for Efficient Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) Transgenesis in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Fernando; Reynolds, Eric; Lewellis, Stephen W; Venkiteswaran, Gayatri; Knaut, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Transgenesis of large DNA constructs is essential for gene function analysis. Recently, Tol2 transposase-mediated transgenesis has emerged as a powerful tool to insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) DNA constructs into the genome of zebrafish. For efficient transgenesis, the genomic DNA piece in the BAC construct needs to be flanked by Tol2 transposon sites, and the constructs should contain a transgenesis marker for easy identification of transgenic animals. We report a set of plasmids that contain targeting cassettes that allow the insertion of Tol2 sites and different transgenesis markers into BACs. Using BACs containing these targeting cassettes, we show that transgenesis is as efficient as iTol2, that preselecting for expression of the transgenesis marker increases the transgenesis rate, and that BAC transgenics faithfully recapitulate the endogenous gene expression patterns and allow for the estimation of the endogenous gene expression levels. PMID:26818072

  5. DNA immunization with a herpes simplex virus 2 bacterial artificial chromosome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction of a herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is described. BAC vector sequences were inserted into the thymidine kinase gene of HSV-2 by homologous recombination. DNA from cells infected with the resulting recombinant virus was transformed into E. coli, and colonies containing the HSV-2 BAC (HSV2-BAC) were isolated and analyzed for the expected genotype. HSV2-BAC DNA was infectious when transfected back into mammalian cells and the resulting virus was thymidine kinase negative. When used to immunize mice, the HSV2-BAC DNA elicited a strong HSV-2 specific antibody response that was equal to or greater than live virus immunization. Further, HSV2-BAC immunization was protective when animals were challenged with a lethal dose of virus. The utility of the HSV2-BAC for construction of recombinant virus genomes was demonstrated by elimination of the HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) gene. A recombinant HSV-2 BAC with the gD gene deleted was isolated and shown to be incapable of producing infectious virus following transfection unless an HSV gD gene was expressed in a complementing cell line. Immunization of mice with the HSV2 gD-BAC also elicited an HSV-2 specific antibody response and was protective. The results demonstrate the feasibility of DNA immunization with HSV-2 bacterial artificial chromosomes for replicating and nonreplicating candidate HSV-2 vaccines, as well as the utility of BAC technology for construction and maintenance of novel HSV-2 vaccines. The results further suggest that such technology will be a powerful tool for dissecting the immune response to HSV-2

  6. Efficient assembly of de novo human artificial chromosomes from large genomic loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stromberg Gregory

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Artificial Chromosomes (HACs are potentially useful vectors for gene transfer studies and for functional annotation of the genome because of their suitability for cloning, manipulating and transferring large segments of the genome. However, development of HACs for the transfer of large genomic loci into mammalian cells has been limited by difficulties in manipulating high-molecular weight DNA, as well as by the low overall frequencies of de novo HAC formation. Indeed, to date, only a small number of large (>100 kb genomic loci have been reported to be successfully packaged into de novo HACs. Results We have developed novel methodologies to enable efficient assembly of HAC vectors containing any genomic locus of interest. We report here the creation of a novel, bimolecular system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs for the construction of HACs incorporating any defined genomic region. We have utilized this vector system to rapidly design, construct and validate multiple de novo HACs containing large (100–200 kb genomic loci including therapeutically significant genes for human growth hormone (HGH, polycystic kidney disease (PKD1 and ß-globin. We report significant differences in the ability of different genomic loci to support de novo HAC formation, suggesting possible effects of cis-acting genomic elements. Finally, as a proof of principle, we have observed sustained ß-globin gene expression from HACs incorporating the entire 200 kb ß-globin genomic locus for over 90 days in the absence of selection. Conclusion Taken together, these results are significant for the development of HAC vector technology, as they enable high-throughput assembly and functional validation of HACs containing any large genomic locus. We have evaluated the impact of different genomic loci on the frequency of HAC formation and identified segments of genomic DNA that appear to facilitate de novo HAC formation. These genomic loci

  7. Cloning of a very virulent plus, 686 strain of Marek’s disease virus as a bacterial artificial chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors were first developed to facilitate propagation and manipulation of large DNA fragments. This technology was later used to clone full-length genomes of large DNA viruses to study viral gene function. Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is a highly oncogenic herpe...

  8. Plant artificial chromosome technology and its potential application in genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weichang; Yau, Yuan-Yeu; Birchler, James A

    2016-05-01

    Genetic engineering with just a few genes has changed agriculture in the last 20 years. The most frequently used transgenes are the herbicide resistance genes for efficient weed control and the Bt toxin genes for insect resistance. The adoption of the first-generation genetically engineered crops has been very successful in improving farming practices, reducing the application of pesticides that are harmful to both human health and the environment, and producing more profit for farmers. However, there is more potential for genetic engineering to be realized by technical advances. The recent development of plant artificial chromosome technology provides a super vector platform, which allows the management of a large number of genes for the next generation of genetic engineering. With the development of other tools such as gene assembly, genome editing, gene targeting and chromosome delivery systems, it should become possible to engineer crops with multiple genes to produce more agricultural products with less input of natural resources to meet future demands. PMID:26369910

  9. Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosomes are structures found in the center (nucleus) of cells that carry long pieces of DNA. DNA ... is the building block of the human body. Chromosomes also contain proteins that help DNA exist in ...

  10. Construction and Characterization of an Infectious Murine Gammaherpesivrus-68 Bacterial Artificial Chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the cloning of a sequenced WUMS isolate of murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68, γHV-68, also known as MuHV-4 as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC. We engineered the insertion of the BAC sequence flanked by loxP sites into the left end of the viral genome before the M1 open reading frame. The infectious viruses were reconstituted following transfection of the MHV-68 BAC DNA into cells. The MHV-68 BAC-derived virus replicated indistinguishably from the wild-type virus in cultured cells. Excision of the BAC insert was efficiently achieved by coexpressing the Cre recombinase. Although the BAC insertion did not significantly affect acute productive infection in the lung, it severely compromised the ability of MHV-68 to establish splenic latency. Removal of the BAC sequence restored the wild-type level of latency. Site-specific mutagenesis was carried out by RecA-mediated recombination to demonstrate that this infectious BAC clone can be used for genetic studies of MHV-68.

  11. Pathogenicity of a Very Virulent Strain of Marek's Disease Herpesvirus Cloned as Infectious Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine P. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC vectors containing the full-length genomes of several herpesviruses have been used widely as tools to enable functional studies of viral genes. Marek's disease viruses (MDVs are highly oncogenic alphaherpesviruses that induce rapid-onset T-cell lymphomas in chickens. Oncogenic strains of MDV reconstituted from BAC clones have been used to examine the role of viral genes in inducing tumours. Past studies have demonstrated continuous increase in virulence of MDV strains. We have previously reported on the UK isolate C12/130 that showed increased virulence features including lymphoid organ atrophy and enhanced tropism for the central nervous system. Here we report the construction of the BAC clones (pC12/130 of this strain. Chickens were infected with viruses reconstituted from the pC12/130 clones along with the wild-type virus for the comparison of the pathogenic properties. Our studies show that BAC-derived viruses induced disease similar to the wild-type virus, though there were differences in the levels of pathogenicity between individual viruses. Generation of BAC clones that differ in the potential to induce cytolytic disease provide the opportunity to identify the molecular determinants of increased virulence by direct sequence analysis as well as by using reverse genetics approaches on the infectious BAC clones.

  12. Development of a Safeguard System Using an Episomal Mammalian Artificial Chromosome for Gene and Cell Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Narumi; Uno, Katsuhiro; Komoto, Shinya; Suzuki, Teruhiko; Hiratsuka, Masaharu; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    The development of a safeguard system to remove tumorigenic cells would allow safer clinical applications of stem cells for the treatment of patients with an intractable disease including genetic disorders. Such safeguard systems should not disrupt the host genome and should have long-term stability. Here, we attempted to develop a tumor-suppressing mammalian artificial chromosome containing a safeguard system that uses the immune rejection system against allogeneic tissue from the host. For proof-of-concept of the safeguard system, B16F10 mouse melanoma cells expressing the introduced H2-K(d) major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I)-allogenic haplotype were transplanted into recipient C57BL/6J mice expressing MHC H2-K(b). Subcutaneous implantation of B16F10 cells into C57BL/6J mice resulted in high tumorigenicity. The volume of tumors derived from B16F10 cells expressing allogenic MHC H2-K(d) was decreased significantly (P < 0.01). Suppression of MHC H2-K(d)-expressing tumors in C57BL/6J mice was enhanced by immunization with MHC H2-K(d)-expressing splenocytes (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the safeguard system is capable of suppressing tumor formation by the transplanted cells. PMID:26670279

  13. A bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model for visualization of neurite growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Tao; Chen, Chen; Sun, Jie; Peng, YaJing; Zhu, MinSheng

    2015-04-01

    Class III β-tubulin (Tubb3) is a component of the microtubules in neurons and contributes to microtubule dynamics that are required for axon outgrowth and guidance during neuronal development. We here report a novel bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mouse line that expresses Class III β-tubulin fused to mCherry, an improved monomeric red fluorescent protein, for the visualization of microtubules during neuronal development. A BAC containing Tubb3 gene was modified by insertion of mCherry complementary DNA downstream of Tubb3 coding sequence via homologous recombination. mCherry fusion protein was expressed in the nervous system and testis of the transgenic animal, and the fluorescent signal was observed in the neurons that located in the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, hippocampal formation, cerebellum, as well as the retina. Besides, Tubb3-mCherry fusion protein mainly distributed in neurites and colocalized with endogenous Class III β-tubulin. The fusion protein labels Purkinje cell dendrites during cerebellar circuit formation. Therefore, this transgenic line might be a novel tool for scientific community to study neuronal development both in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Multiplex sequencing of bacterial artificial chromosomes for assembling complex plant genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Sebastian; Himmelbach, Axel; Schmutzer, Thomas; Felder, Marius; Taudien, Stefan; Mayer, Klaus F X; Platzer, Matthias; Stein, Nils; Scholz, Uwe; Mascher, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Hierarchical shotgun sequencing remains the method of choice for assembling high-quality reference sequences of complex plant genomes. The efficient exploitation of current high-throughput technologies and powerful computational facilities for large-insert clone sequencing necessitates the sequencing and assembly of a large number of clones in parallel. We developed a multiplexed pipeline for shotgun sequencing and assembling individual bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) using the Illumina sequencing platform. We illustrate our approach by sequencing 668 barley BACs (Hordeum vulgare L.) in a single Illumina HiSeq 2000 lane. Using a newly designed parallelized computational pipeline, we obtained sequence assemblies of individual BACs that consist, on average, of eight sequence scaffolds and represent >98% of the genomic inserts. Our BAC assemblies are clearly superior to a whole-genome shotgun assembly regarding contiguity, completeness and the representation of the gene space. Our methods may be employed to rapidly obtain high-quality assemblies of a large number of clones to assemble map-based reference sequences of plant and animal species with complex genomes by sequencing along a minimum tiling path. PMID:26801048

  15. Phage p1-derived artificial chromosomes facilitate heterologous expression of the FK506 gene cluster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Jones

    Full Text Available We describe a procedure for the conjugative transfer of phage P1-derived Artificial Chromosome (PAC library clones containing large natural product gene clusters (≥70 kilobases to Streptomyces coelicolor strains that have been engineered for improved heterologous production of natural products. This approach is demonstrated using the gene cluster for FK506 (tacrolimus, a clinically important immunosuppressant of high commercial value. The entire 83.5 kb FK506 gene cluster from Streptomyces tsukubaensis NRRL 18488 present in one 130 kb PAC clone was introduced into four different S. coelicolor derivatives and all produced FK506 and smaller amounts of the related compound FK520. FK506 yields were increased by approximately five-fold (from 1.2 mg L(-1 to 5.5 mg L(-1 in S. coelicolor M1146 containing the FK506 PAC upon over-expression of the FK506 LuxR regulatory gene fkbN. The PAC-based gene cluster conjugation methodology described here provides a tractable means to evaluate and manipulate FK506 biosynthesis and is readily applicable to other large gene clusters encoding natural products of interest to medicine, agriculture and biotechnology.

  16. A bacterial artificial chromosome library for Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate snail host of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen M Adema

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available To provide a novel resource for analysis of the genome of Biomphalaria glabrata, members of the international Biomphalaria glabrata Genome Initiative (biology.unm.edu/biomphalaria-genome.html, working with the Arizona Genomics Institute (AGI and supported by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI, produced a high quality bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library. The BB02 strain B. glabrata, a field isolate (Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil that is susceptible to several strains of Schistosoma mansoni, was selfed for two generations to reduce haplotype diversity in the offspring. High molecular weight DNA was isolated from ovotestes of 40 snails, partially digested with HindIII, and ligated into pAGIBAC1 vector. The resulting B. glabrata BAC library (BG_BBa consists of 61824 clones (136.3 kb average insert size and provides 9.05 × coverage of the 931 Mb genome. Probing with single/low copy number genes from B. glabrata and fingerprinting of selected BAC clones indicated that the BAC library sufficiently represents the gene complement. BAC end sequence data (514 reads, 299860 nt indicated that the genome of B. glabrata contains ~ 63% AT, and disclosed several novel genes, transposable elements, and groups of high frequency sequence elements. This BG_BBa BAC library, available from AGI at cost to the research community, gains in relevance because BB02 strain B. glabrata is targeted whole genome sequencing by NHGRI.

  17. Delineating Rearrangements in Single Yeast Artificial Chromosomes by Quantitative DNA Fiber Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Greulich-Bode, Karin M.; Wu, Jenny; Duell, Thomas

    2009-09-18

    Cloning of large chunks of human genomic DNA in recombinant systems such as yeast or bacterial artificial chromosomes has greatly facilitated the construction of physical maps, the positional cloning of disease genes or the preparation of patient-specific DNA probes for diagnostic purposes. For this process to work efficiently, the DNA cloning process and subsequent clone propagation need to maintain stable inserts that are neither deleted nor otherwise rearranged. Some regions of the human genome; however, appear to have a higher propensity than others to rearrange in any host system. Thus, techniques to detect and accurately characterize such rearrangements need to be developed. We developed a technique termed 'Quantitative DNA Fiber Mapping (QDFM)' that allows accurate tagging of sequence elements of interest with near kilobase accuracy and optimized it for delineation of rearrangements in recombinant DNA clones. This paper demonstrates the power of this microscopic approach by investigating YAC rearrangements. In our examples, high-resolution physical maps for regions within the immunoglobulin lambda variant gene cluster were constructed for three different YAC clones carrying deletions of 95 kb and more. Rearrangements within YACs could be demonstrated unambiguously by pairwise mapping of cosmids along YAC DNA molecules. When coverage by YAC clones was not available, distances between cosmid clones were estimated by hybridization of cosmids onto DNA fibers prepared from human genomic DNA. In addition, the QDFM technology provides essential information about clone stability facilitating closure of the maps of the human genome as well as those of model organisms.

  18. Highly Efficient Modification of Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) Using Novel Shuttle Vectors Containing the R6Kγ Origin of Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Shiaoching; Yang, Xiangdong William; Li, Chenjian; Heintz, Nathaniel

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) mediated transgenesis has proven to be a highly reliable way to obtain accurate transgene expression for in vivo studies of gene expression and function. A rate-limiting step in use of this technology to characterize large numbers of genes has been the process with which BACs can be modified by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. We report here a highly efficient method for modifying BACs by using a novel set of shuttle vectors that contain the ...

  19. Visualization of lymphatic vessels by Prox1-promoter directed GFP reporter in a bacterial artificial chromosome-based transgenic mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Inho; Chung, Hee Kyoung; Ramu, Swapnika; Lee, Ha Neul; Kim, Kyu Eui; Lee, Sunju; Yoo, Jaehyuk; Choi, Dongwon; Lee, Yong Suk; Aguilar, Berenice; Hong, Young-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    Although the blood vessel-specific fluorescent transgenic mouse has been an excellent tool to study vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, a lymphatic-specific fluorescent mouse model has not been established to date. Here we report a transgenic animal model that expresses the green fluorescent protein under the promoter of Prox1, a master control gene in lymphatic development. Generated using an approximately 200-kb-long bacterial artificial chromosome harboring the entire Prox1 gene, this Prox1-g...

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Cell Culture-Attenuated Guinea Pig Cytomegalovirus Cloned as an Infectious Bacterial Artificial Chromosome

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Dongmei; Alam, Zohaib; Cui, Xiaohong; Chen, Michael; Sherrod, Carly J.; McVoy, Michael A.; Schleiss, Mark R.; Dittmer, Dirk P

    2014-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of attenuated guinea pig cytomegalovirus cloned as bacterial artificial chromosome N13R10 was determined. Comparison to pathogenic salivary gland-derived virus revealed 13 differences, 1 of which disrupted overlapping open reading frames encoding GP129 and GP130. Attenuation of N13R10 may arise from an inability to express GP129 and/or GP130.

  1. Use of Recombination-Mediated Genetic Engineering for Construction of Rescue Human Cytomegalovirus Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpana Dulal; Benjamin Silver; Hua Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology has contributed immensely to manipulation of larger genomes in many organisms including large DNA viruses like human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The HCMV BAC clone propagated and maintained inside E. coli allows for accurate recombinant virus generation. Using this system, we have generated a panel of HCMV deletion mutants and their rescue clones. In this paper, we describe the construction of HCMV BAC mutants using a homologous recombination syste...

  2. Cloning human herpes virus 6A genome into bacterial artificial chromosomes and study of DNA replication intermediates

    OpenAIRE

    Borenstein, Ronen; Frenkel, Niza

    2009-01-01

    Cloning of large viral genomes into bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) facilitates analyses of viral functions and molecular mutagenesis. Previous derivations of viral BACs involved laborious recombinations within infected cells. We describe a single-step production of viral BACs by direct cloning of unit length genomes, derived from circular or head-to-tail concatemeric DNA replication intermediates. The BAC cloning is independent of intracellular recombinations and DNA packaging constr...

  3. Molecular cloning of the interleukin-1 gene cluster: Construction of an integrated YAC/PAC contig and a partial transcriptional map in the region of chromosome 2q13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nothwang, H.G.; Strahm, B.; Denich, D. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany)] [and others

    1997-05-01

    Genes of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene cluster localized on chromosome 2q13 are implicated in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. We present here a high-resolution physical map of this region between markers D2S2008 and D2S43/PAX8. An integrated YAC/PAC contig and a partial transcriptional map were constructed by STS-content mapping using the CEPH YAC library and three PAC libraries. A total of 3 YACs, 34 PACs, and 56 STSs were integrated: 33 newly generated probes to PAC end sequences, 9 polymorphic and 4 nonpolymorphic markers, 5 known genes, 4 expressed sequence tags, and 1 pseudogene. Within the map, a complete PAC contig of > 1 Mb encompasses the IL-1 gene cluster and PAX8, a paired-box-containing gene. This allowed us to define the transcriptional orientation of GLVR1, IL1B, and IL1RN and to show that PAX8 is localized outside the IL-1 gene cluster. FISH analysis localized PAC clones containing the IL-1 gene cluster to 2q12-q13. The data provide the basis for further characterization of the IL-1 gene cluster and for the construction of a sequence-ready PAC contig of this region. 45 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION AND CHROMOSOMAL ASSIGNMENT OF YEAST ARTIFICIAL CHROMOSOMES CONTAINING HUMAN 3P13-P21-SPECIFIC SEQUENCE-TAGGED SITES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MICHAELIS, SC; BARDENHEUER, W; LUX, A; SCHRAMM, A; GOCKEL, A; SIEBERT, R; WILLERS, C; SCHMIDTKE, K; TODT, B; VANDERHOUT, AH; BUYS, CHCM; HEPPELLPARTON, AC; RABBITTS, PH; UNGAR, S; SMITH, D; LEPASLIER, D; COHEN, D; OPALKA, B; SCHUTTE, J

    1995-01-01

    Human chromosomal region 3p12-p23 is proposed to harbor at least three tumor suppressor genes involved in the development of lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and other neoplasias. In order to identify one of these genes we defined sequence tagged sites (STSs) specific for 3p13-p24.2 by analyzing a

  5. A comparative physical map reveals the pattern of chromosomal evolution between the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo and chicken (Gallus gallus genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delany Mary E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A robust bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based physical map is essential for many aspects of genomics research, including an understanding of chromosome evolution, high-resolution genome mapping, marker-assisted breeding, positional cloning of genes, and quantitative trait analysis. To facilitate turkey genetics research and better understand avian genome evolution, a BAC-based integrated physical, genetic, and comparative map was developed for this important agricultural species. Results The turkey genome physical map was constructed based on 74,013 BAC fingerprints (11.9 × coverage from two independent libraries, and it was integrated with the turkey genetic map and chicken genome sequence using over 41,400 BAC assignments identified by 3,499 overgo hybridization probes along with > 43,000 BAC end sequences. The physical-comparative map consists of 74 BAC contigs, with an average contig size of 13.6 Mb. All but four of the turkey chromosomes were spanned on this map by three or fewer contigs, with 14 chromosomes spanned by a single contig and nine chromosomes spanned by two contigs. This map predicts 20 to 27 major rearrangements distinguishing turkey and chicken chromosomes, despite up to 40 million years of separate evolution between the two species. These data elucidate the chromosomal evolutionary pattern within the Phasianidae that led to the modern turkey and chicken karyotypes. The predominant rearrangement mode involves intra-chromosomal inversions, and there is a clear bias for these to result in centromere locations at or near telomeres in turkey chromosomes, in comparison to interstitial centromeres in the orthologous chicken chromosomes. Conclusion The BAC-based turkey-chicken comparative map provides novel insights into the evolution of avian genomes, a framework for assembly of turkey whole genome shotgun sequencing data, and tools for enhanced genetic improvement of these important agricultural and

  6. Rapid construction of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosomal (BAC) expression vector using designer DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Zhao, Xinqing; Jin, Yingyu; Zhao, Zongbao Kent; Suh, Joo-Won

    2014-11-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosomal (BAC) vectors are increasingly being used in cloning large DNA fragments containing complex biosynthetic pathways to facilitate heterologous production of microbial metabolites for drug development. To express inserted genes using Streptomyces species as the production hosts, an integration expression cassette is required to be inserted into the BAC vector, which includes genetic elements encoding a phage-specific attachment site, an integrase, an origin of transfer, a selection marker and a promoter. Due to the large sizes of DNA inserted into the BAC vectors, it is normally inefficient and time-consuming to assemble these fragments by routine PCR amplifications and restriction-ligations. Here we present a rapid method to insert fragments to construct BAC-based expression vectors. A DNA fragment of about 130 bp was designed, which contains upstream and downstream homologous sequences of both BAC vector and pIB139 plasmid carrying the whole integration expression cassette. In-Fusion cloning was performed using the designer DNA fragment to modify pIB139, followed by λ-RED-mediated recombination to obtain the BAC-based expression vector. We demonstrated the effectiveness of this method by rapid construction of a BAC-based expression vector with an insert of about 120 kb that contains the entire gene cluster for biosynthesis of immunosuppressant FK506. The empty BAC-based expression vector constructed in this study can be conveniently used for construction of BAC libraries using either microbial pure culture or environmental DNA, and the selected BAC clones can be directly used for heterologous expression. Alternatively, if a BAC library has already been constructed using a commercial BAC vector, the selected BAC vectors can be manipulated using the method described here to get the BAC-based expression vectors with desired gene clusters for heterologous expression. The rapid construction of a BAC-based expression vector facilitates

  7. Bacterial artificial chromosome-derived molecular markers for early bolting in sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaafar, R M; Hohmann, U; Jung, C

    2005-04-01

    Early bolting in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is controlled by the dominant gene B. From an incomplete physical map around the B gene, 18 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) were selected for marker development. Three BACs were shotgun-sequenced, and 61 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified. Together with 104 BAC ends from 54 BACs, a total number of 55,464 nucleotides were sequenced. Of these, 37 BAC ends and 12 ORFs were selected for marker development. Thirty-one percent of the sequences were found to be single copy and 24%, low copy. From these sequences, 15 markers from ten different BACs were developed. Ten polymorphisms were determined by simple agarose gel electrophoresis of either restricted or non-restricted PCR products. Another five markers were determined by tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-PCR. In order to select candidate BACs for cloning the gene, genetic linkage between seven markers and the bolting gene was calculated using 1,617 plants from an F2 population segregating for early bolting. The recombination values ranged between 0.0033 and 0.0201. In addition, a set of 41 wild and cultivated Beta accessions differing in their early bolting character was genotyped with seven markers. A common haplotype encompassing two marker loci and the b allele was found in all sugar beet varieties, indicating complete linkage disequilibrium between these loci. This suggests that the bolting gene is located in close vicinity to these markers, and the corresponding BACs can be used for cloning the gene.

  8. Construction and characterization of the transformation-competent artificial chromosome(TAC)libraries of Leymus multicaulis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Transformation-competent artificial chromosome system is able to clone and transfer genes efficiently in plants.In order to clone genes highly tolerant to barley yellow dwarf virus(BYDV),Aphids,drought and salt from Leymus multicaulis,the two TAC genomic libraries I and II were constructed in vector pYLTAC17 and pYLTAC747H/sacB,which contain about 165000 and 236000 recombinant clones sepa-rately.The genome coverage of the two libraries was totally estimated to be about 3―5 haploid genome equivalents,as size selection of genomic DNA fragments was approximately from 9 to 300 kb.Clones of the genomic libraries were collected as bulked pools each containing 500 clones or so,stored in twelve 96-deep-well plates and then were gridding in triplicate onto a high-density colony hybridization filter with a 3×3 pattern using a GeneTAC?G3 arraying robot after being transferred manually into three 384-well plates.Meanwhile 2501 and 2890 clones of Library in pYLTAC17 and in pYLTAC747H/sacB were stored individually in fourteen 384-well plates and then were automatically gridding in duplicate onto a high-density colony hybridization filter with a 6×6 pattern after a replication of plates.Nineteen positive clones were detected by using the probe glutahione reductase gene of L.multicaulis.TAC libraries constructed here can be used to isolate genomic clones containing target genes,and to carry out genome walking for positional cloning.Once the target TAC clones were isolated,they could be immediately transferred into plant genomes with the Agrobacterium system.

  9. Construction and characterization of the transformation-competent artificial chromosome (TAC) libraries of Leymus multicaulis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU YueYu; ZHOU YuLei; SONG LinLin; ZHANG Yan; ZHAO MaoLin

    2008-01-01

    Transformation-competent artificial chromosome system is able to clone and transfer genes efficiently in plants. In order to clone genes highly tolerant to barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), Aphids, drought and salt from Leymus multicaulis, the two TAC genomic libraries Ⅰ and Ⅱ were constructed in vector pYLTAC17 and pYLTAC747H/sacB, which contain about 165000 and 236000 recombinant clones sepa-rately. The genome coverage of the two libraries was totally estimated to be about 3-5 haploid genome equivalents, as size selection of genomic DNA fragments was approximately from 9 to 300 kb. Clones of the genomic libraries were collected as bulked pools each containing 500 clones or so, stored in twelve 96-deep-well plates and then were gridding in triplicate onto a high-density colony hybridization filter with a 3×3 pattern using a GeneTACTM G3 arraying robot after being transferred manually into three 384-well plates. Meanwhile 2501 and 2890 clones of Library in pYLTAC17 and in pYLTAC747H/sacB were stored individually in fourteen 384-well plates and then were automatically gridding in duplicate onto a high-density colony hybridization filter with a 6×6 pattern after a replication of plates. Nineteen positive clones were detected by using the probe glutahione reductase gene of L. Multicaulis. TAC libraries constructed here can be used to isolate genomic clones containing target genes, and to carry out genome walking for positional cloning. Once the target TAC clones were isolated, they could be immediately transferred into plant genomes with the Agrobacterium system.

  10. Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: A Functional Genomics Tool for the Study of Positive-strand RNA Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sang-Im; Song, Byung-Hak; Kim, Jin-Kyoung; Lee, Young-Min

    2015-01-01

    Reverse genetics, an approach to rescue infectious virus entirely from a cloned cDNA, has revolutionized the field of positive-strand RNA viruses, whose genomes have the same polarity as cellular mRNA. The cDNA-based reverse genetics system is a seminal method that enables direct manipulation of the viral genomic RNA, thereby generating recombinant viruses for molecular and genetic studies of both viral RNA elements and gene products in viral replication and pathogenesis. It also provides a valuable platform that allows the development of genetically defined vaccines and viral vectors for the delivery of foreign genes. For many positive-strand RNA viruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), however, the cloned cDNAs are unstable, posing a major obstacle to the construction and propagation of the functional cDNA. Here, the present report describes the strategic considerations in creating and amplifying a genetically stable full-length infectious JEV cDNA as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) using the following general experimental procedures: viral RNA isolation, cDNA synthesis, cDNA subcloning and modification, assembly of a full-length cDNA, cDNA linearization, in vitro RNA synthesis, and virus recovery. This protocol provides a general methodology applicable to cloning full-length cDNA for a range of positive-strand RNA viruses, particularly those with a genome of >10 kb in length, into a BAC vector, from which infectious RNAs can be transcribed in vitro with a bacteriophage RNA polymerase. PMID:26780115

  11. Dysregulation of gene expression in the artificial human trisomy cells of chromosome 8 associated with transformed cell phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisakatsu Nawata

    Full Text Available A change in chromosome number, known as aneuploidy, is a common characteristic of cancer. Aneuploidy disrupts gene expression in human cancer cells and immortalized human epithelial cells, but not in normal human cells. However, the relationship between aneuploidy and cancer remains unclear. To study the effects of aneuploidy in normal human cells, we generated artificial cells of human primary fibroblast having three chromosome 8 (trisomy 8 cells by using microcell-mediated chromosome transfer technique. In addition to decreased proliferation, the trisomy 8 cells lost contact inhibition and reproliferated after exhibiting senescence-like characteristics that are typical of transformed cells. Furthermore, the trisomy 8 cells exhibited chromosome instability, and the overall gene expression profile based on microarray analyses was significantly different from that of diploid human primary fibroblasts. Our data suggest that aneuploidy, even a single chromosome gain, can be introduced into normal human cells and causes, in some cases, a partial cancer phenotype due to a disruption in overall gene expression.

  12. Telomere length homeostasis and telomere position effect on a linear human artificial chromosome are dictated by the genetic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weuts, An; Voet, Thierry; Verbeeck, Jelle; Lambrechts, Nathalie; Wirix, Evelyne; Schoonjans, Luc; Danloy, Sophie; Marynen, Peter; Froyen, Guy

    2012-12-01

    Telomere position effect (TPE) is the influence of telomeres on subtelomeric epigenetic marks and gene expression. Previous studies suggested that TPE depends on genetic background. As these analyses were performed on different chromosomes, cell types and species, it remains unclear whether TPE represents a chromosome-rather than genetic background-specific regulation. We describe the development of a Linear Human Artificial Chromosome (L-HAC) as a new tool for telomere studies. The L-HAC was generated through the Cre-loxP-mediated addition of telomere ends to an existing circular HAC (C-HAC). As it can be transferred to genetically distinct cell lines and animal models the L-HAC enables the study of TPE in an unprecedented manner. The HAC was relocated to four telomerase-positive cell lines via microcell-mediated chromosome transfer and subsequently to mice via blastocyst injection of L-HAC(+)-ES-cells. We could show consistent genetic background-dependent adaptation of telomere length and telomere-associated de novo subtelomeric DNA methylation in mouse ES-R1 cells as well as in mice. Expression of the subtelomeric neomycin gene was inversely correlated with telomere length and subtelomeric methylation. We thus provide a new tool for functional telomere studies and provide strong evidence that telomere length, subtelomeric chromatin marks and expression of subtelomeric genes are genetic background dependent.

  13. Recovery of infectious virus from full-length cowpox virus (CPXV) DNA cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)

    OpenAIRE

    Roth Swaantje J; Höper Dirk; Beer Martin; Feineis Silke; Tischer B Karsten; Osterrieder Nikolaus

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Transmission from pet rats and cats to humans as well as severe infection in felids and other animal species have recently drawn increasing attention to cowpox virus (CPXV). We report the cloning of the entire genome of cowpox virus strain Brighton Red (BR) as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) in Escherichia coli and the recovery of infectious virus from cloned DNA. Generation of a full-length CPXV DNA clone was achieved by first introducing a mini-F vector, which allows mainte...

  14. Artificially introduced aneuploid chromosomes assume a conserved position in colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundan Sengupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chromosomal aneuploidy is a defining feature of carcinomas. For instance, in colon cancer, an additional copy of Chromosome 7 is not only observed in early pre-malignant polyps, but is faithfully maintained throughout progression to metastasis. These copy number changes show a positive correlation with average transcript levels of resident genes. An independent line of research has also established that specific chromosomes occupy a well conserved 3D position within the interphase nucleus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated whether cancer-specific aneuploid chromosomes assume a 3D-position similar to that of its endogenous homologues, which would suggest a possible correlation with transcriptional activity. Using 3D-FISH and confocal laser scanning microscopy, we show that Chromosomes 7, 18, or 19 introduced via microcell-mediated chromosome transfer into the parental diploid colon cancer cell line DLD-1 maintain their conserved position in the interphase nucleus. CONCLUSIONS: Our data is therefore consistent with the model that each chromosome has an associated zip code (possibly gene density that determines its nuclear localization. Whether the nuclear localization determines or is determined by the transcriptional activity of resident genes has yet to be ascertained.

  15. Repetitive genome elements in a European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, bacterial artificial chromosome library were indicated by bacterial artificial chromosome end sequencing and development of sequence tag site markers: implications for lepidopteran genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Brad S; Sumerford, Douglas V; Hellmich, Richard L; Lewis, Leslie C

    2009-01-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, is a serious pest of food, fiber, and biofuel crops in Europe, North America, and Asia and a model system for insect olfaction and speciation. A bacterial artificial chromosome library constructed for O. nubilalis contains 36 864 clones with an estimated average insert size of >or=120 kb and genome coverage of 8.8-fold. Screening OnB1 clones comprising approximately 2.76 genome equivalents determined the physical position of 24 sequence tag site markers, including markers linked to ecologically important and Bacillus thuringiensis toxin resistance traits. OnB1 bacterial artificial chromosome end sequence reads (GenBank dbGSS accessions ET217010 to ET217273) showed homology to annotated genes or expressed sequence tags and identified repetitive genome elements, O. nubilalis miniature subterminal inverted repeat transposable elements (OnMITE01 and OnMITE02), and ezi-like long interspersed nuclear elements. Mobility of OnMITE01 was demonstrated by the presence or absence in O. nubilalis of introns at two different loci. A (GTCT)n tetranucleotide repeat at the 5' ends of OnMITE01 and OnMITE02 are evidence for transposon-mediated movement of lepidopteran microsatellite loci. The number of repetitive elements in lepidopteran genomes will affect genome assembly and marker development. Single-locus sequence tag site markers described here have downstream application for integration within linkage maps and comparative genomic studies. PMID:19132072

  16. Repetitive genome elements in a European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, bacterial artificial chromosome library were indicated by bacterial artificial chromosome end sequencing and development of sequence tag site markers: implications for lepidopteran genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Brad S; Sumerford, Douglas V; Hellmich, Richard L; Lewis, Leslie C

    2009-01-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, is a serious pest of food, fiber, and biofuel crops in Europe, North America, and Asia and a model system for insect olfaction and speciation. A bacterial artificial chromosome library constructed for O. nubilalis contains 36 864 clones with an estimated average insert size of >or=120 kb and genome coverage of 8.8-fold. Screening OnB1 clones comprising approximately 2.76 genome equivalents determined the physical position of 24 sequence tag site markers, including markers linked to ecologically important and Bacillus thuringiensis toxin resistance traits. OnB1 bacterial artificial chromosome end sequence reads (GenBank dbGSS accessions ET217010 to ET217273) showed homology to annotated genes or expressed sequence tags and identified repetitive genome elements, O. nubilalis miniature subterminal inverted repeat transposable elements (OnMITE01 and OnMITE02), and ezi-like long interspersed nuclear elements. Mobility of OnMITE01 was demonstrated by the presence or absence in O. nubilalis of introns at two different loci. A (GTCT)n tetranucleotide repeat at the 5' ends of OnMITE01 and OnMITE02 are evidence for transposon-mediated movement of lepidopteran microsatellite loci. The number of repetitive elements in lepidopteran genomes will affect genome assembly and marker development. Single-locus sequence tag site markers described here have downstream application for integration within linkage maps and comparative genomic studies.

  17. Identification and Preliminary Analysis of Several Centromere-associated Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones from a Diploid Wheat Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Although the centromeres of some plants have been investigated previously, our knowledge of the wheat centromere is still very limited. To understand the structure and function of the wheat centromere, we used two centromeric repeats (RCS1 and CCS1-5ab) to obtain some centromere-associated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones in 32 RCS1-related BAC clones that had been screened out from a diploid wheat (Triticum boeoticum Boiss.; 2n=2x=14) BAC library. Southern hybridization results indicated that, of the 32 candidates,there were 28 RCS1-positive clones. Based on gel blot patterns, the frequency of RCS1 was approximately one copy every 69.4 kb in these 28 RCS1-positive BAC clones. More bands were detected when the same filter was probed with CCS1-5ab. Furthermore, the CCS1 bands covered all the bands detected by RCS1, which suggests that some CCS1 repeats were distributed together with RCS1. The frequency of CCS1 families was once every 35.8 kb, nearly twice that of RCS1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicated that the five BAC clones containing RCS1 and CCS1 sequences all detected signals at the centromeric regions in hexaploid wheat, but the signal intensities on the A-genome chromosomes were stronger than those on the B- and/or D-genome chromosomes. The FISH analysis among nine Triticeae cereals indicated that there were A-genomespecific (or rich) sequences dispersing on chromosome arms in the BAC clone TbBAC5. In addition, at the interphase cells, the centromeres of diploid species usually clustered at one pole and formed a ring-like allocation in the period before metaphase.

  18. Use of Recombination-Mediated Genetic Engineering for Construction of Rescue Human Cytomegalovirus Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Dulal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC technology has contributed immensely to manipulation of larger genomes in many organisms including large DNA viruses like human cytomegalovirus (HCMV. The HCMV BAC clone propagated and maintained inside E. coli allows for accurate recombinant virus generation. Using this system, we have generated a panel of HCMV deletion mutants and their rescue clones. In this paper, we describe the construction of HCMV BAC mutants using a homologous recombination system. A gene capture method, or gap repair cloning, to seize large fragments of DNA from the virus BAC in order to generate rescue viruses, is described in detail. Construction of rescue clones using gap repair cloning is highly efficient and provides a novel use of the homologous recombination-based method in E. coli for molecular cloning, known colloquially as recombineering, when rescuing large BAC deletions. This method of excising large fragments of DNA provides important prospects for in vitro homologous recombination for genetic cloning.

  19. Genome-wide copy number profiling on high-density bacterial artificial chromosomes, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and oligonucleotide microarrays: a platform comparison based on statistical power analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hehir-Kwa, J.Y.; Egmont-Peterson, M.; Janssen, I.M.; Smeets, D.F.C.M.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.; Veltman, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, comparative genomic hybridization onto bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) arrays (array-based comparative genomic hybridization) has proved to be successful for the detection of submicroscopic DNA copy-number variations in health and disease. Technological improvements to achieve a high

  20. Artifically inserting a reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat into a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Marek's disease virus (MDV) alters expression of nearby MDV genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) was inserted into the very virulent Marek’s disease virus (MDV) Md5 bacterial artificial chromosome clone. The insertion site was nearly identical to the REV LTR that was naturally inserted into the JM/102W strain of MDV fo...

  1. Construction and Preliminary Characterization Analysis of Wuzhishan Miniature Pig Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library with Approximately 8-Fold Genome Equivalent Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries have been invaluable tools for the genome-wide genetic dissection of complex organisms. Here, we report the construction and characterization of a high-redundancy BAC library from a very valuable pig breed in China, Wuzhishan miniature pig (Sus scrofa, using its blood cells and fibroblasts, respectively. The library contains approximately 153,600 clones ordered in 40 superpools of 10 × 384-deep well microplates. The average insert size of BAC clones was estimated to be 152.3 kb, representing approximately 7.68 genome equivalents of the porcine haploid genome and a 99.93% statistical probability of obtaining at least one clone containing a unique DNA sequence in the library. 19 pairs of microsatellite marker primers covering porcine chromosomes were used for screening the BAC library, which showed that each of these markers was positive in the library; the positive clone number was 2 to 9, and the average number was 7.89, which was consistent with 7.68-fold coverage of the porcine genome. And there were no significant differences of genomic BAC library from blood cells and fibroblast cells. Therefore, we identified 19 microsatellite markers that could potentially be used as genetic markers. As a result, this BAC library will serve as a valuable resource for gene identification, physical mapping, and comparative genomics and large-scale genome sequencing in the porcine.

  2. Construction of Oryza Sativa genome contigs by fingerprint strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAOQUAZHOU; GUOFANHONG; 等

    1995-01-01

    We described the construction of BAC contigs of the genome of a indica variety of Oryza sativa.Guang Lu Ai 4. An entire representative(Sixfold coverage of rice chromosomes)and genetically stable BAC library of rice genome constructed in this lab has been systematically analysed by restriction enzyme fragmentation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.And all the images thus obtained were subject to image-processing,which consisted of preliminary location of bands,cooperative tracking of lanes by correlation of adjacent bads.a precise densitometric pass,alignment at the marker bands with the standard,optional interactive editing,and normalization of the accepted bands.The contigs were generated based on the Computer Software specially designed for genome mapping.The number of contigs with 600 kb in length on average was 464.of contigs with 1000kb in length on average was 107; of contigs with 1500 kb in length on average was Construction of Oryza Sativa genome contigs.23.Therefor,all the contigs we have obtained ampunted up to 420 megabases in length.Considering the size of rice genome(430 megabased),the contigs generated in this lab have covered nearly 98% of the rice genome.We are now in the process of mapping the contigs to chromosomes.

  3. Structure, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization of the prepronociceptin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollereau, C; Simons, M J; Soularue, P; Liners, F; Vassart, G; Meunier, J C; Parmentier, M

    1996-08-01

    Nociceptin (orphanin FQ), the newly discovered natural agonist of opioid receptor-like (ORL1) receptor, is a neuropeptide that is endowed with pronociceptive activity in vivo. Nociceptin is derived from a larger precursor, prepronociceptin (PPNOC), whose human, mouse, and rat genes we have now isolated. The PPNOC gene is highly conserved in the three species and displays organizational features that are strikingly similar to those of the genes of preproenkephalin, preprodynorphin, and preproopiomelanocortin, the precursors to endogenous opioid peptides, suggesting the four genes belong to the same family-i.e., have a common evolutionary origin. The PPNOC gene encodes a single copy of nociceptin as well as of other peptides whose sequence is strictly conserved across murine and human species; hence it is likely to be neurophysiologically significant. Northern blot analysis shows that the PPNOC gene is predominantly transcribed in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and, albeit weakly, in the ovary, the sole peripheral organ expressing the gene. By using a radiation hybrid cell line panel, the PPNOC gene was mapped to the short arm of human chromosome 8 (8p21), between sequence-tagged site markers WI-5833 and WI-1172, in close proximity of the locus encoding the neurofilament light chain NEFL. Analysis of yeast artificial chromosome clones belonging to the WC8.4 contig covering the 8p21 region did not allow to detect the presence of the gene on these yeast artificial chromosomes, suggesting a gap in the coverage within this contig.

  4. YAC contig information - RGP physicalmap | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us RGP physicalma...ents YAC contigs on the rice chromosomes Data file File name: rgp_physicalmap_yac_contigs.zip File URL: ftp:...//ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/rgp-physicalmap/LATEST/rgp_physicalmap_yac_contigs....zip File size: 1 KB Simple search URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/rgp_physicalmap_yac_contig...istory of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us YAC contig information - RGP physicalmap | LSDB Archive ...

  5. Construction and Analysis of Siberian Tiger Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library with Approximately 6.5-Fold Genome Equivalent Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries are extremely valuable for the genome-wide genetic dissection of complex organisms. The Siberian tiger, one of the most well-known wild primitive carnivores in China, is an endangered animal. In order to promote research on its genome, a high-redundancy BAC library of the Siberian tiger was constructed and characterized. The library is divided into two sub-libraries prepared from blood cells and two sub-libraries prepared from fibroblasts. This BAC library contains 153,600 individually archived clones; for PCR-based screening of the library, BACs were placed into 40 superpools of 10 × 384-deep well microplates. The average insert size of BAC clones was estimated to be 116.5 kb, representing approximately 6.46 genome equivalents of the haploid genome and affording a 98.86% statistical probability of obtaining at least one clone containing a unique DNA sequence. Screening the library with 19 microsatellite markers and a SRY sequence revealed that each of these markers were present in the library; the average number of positive clones per marker was 6.74 (range 2 to 12, consistent with 6.46 coverage of the tiger genome. Additionally, we identified 72 microsatellite markers that could potentially be used as genetic markers. This BAC library will serve as a valuable resource for physical mapping, comparative genomic study and large-scale genome sequencing in the tiger.

  6. Incorporation of a lambda phage recombination system and EGFP detection to simplify mutagenesis of Herpes simplex virus bacterial artificial chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weir Jerry P

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted mutagenesis of the herpesvirus genomes has been facilitated by the use of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC technology. Such modified genomes have potential uses in understanding viral pathogenesis, gene identification and characterization, and the development of new viral vectors and vaccines. We have previously described the construction of a herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2 BAC and the use of an allele replacement strategy to construct HSV-2 recombinants. While the BAC mutagenesis procedure is a powerful method to generate HSV-2 recombinants, particularly in the absence of selective marker in eukaryotic culture, the mutagenesis procedure is still difficult and cumbersome. Results Here we describe the incorporation of a phage lambda recombination system into an allele replacement vector. This strategy enables any DNA fragment containing the phage attL recombination sites to be efficiently inserted into the attR sites of the allele replacement vector using phage lambda clonase. We also describe how the incorporation of EGFP into the allele replacement vector can facilitate the selection of the desired cross-over recombinant BACs when the allele replacement reaction is a viral gene deletion. Finally, we incorporate the lambda phage recombination sites directly into an HSV-2 BAC vector for direct recombination of gene cassettes using the phage lambda clonase-driven recombination reaction. Conclusion Together, these improvements to the techniques of HSV BAC mutagenesis will facilitate the construction of recombinant herpes simplex viruses and viral vectors.

  7. Construction and characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of thermo-sensitive genic male-sterile rice 5460S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱芳; 金德敏; 伏健民; 张超良; 谢纬武; 王斌; 杨仁崔; 张洪斌

    1999-01-01

    In order to develop a detailed physical map of the thermo-sensitive genie male-sterile (TGMS) gene-encompassing region and finally clone the TGMS gene, a high-quality rice bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from TGMS rice 5460S was constructed. The method of constructing BAC library was examined and optimized. The 5460S library consists of 19 584 BAC clones with an average insert size of 110 kb, which represents about 5 times rice haploid genome equivalents. Rice inserts of up to 140 kb and 250 kb were isolated and appeared stable after 100 generations of serial growth. Hybridization of BAC clones with mitochondrial and chloroplastic genes as probes demonstrated that this library has no organellar contamination. The 5460S library was screened with 3 molecular markers linked to tmsl gene as probes and at least 1 BAC clone was identified with each probe. The insert ends of positive clones were successfully isolated using thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR) technique.

  8. Cloning of a very virulent plus, 686 strain of Marek's disease virus as a bacterial artificial chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sanjay M; Sun, Aijun; Khan, Owais A; Lee, Lucy F; Lupiani, Blanca

    2013-06-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors were first developed to facilitate propagation and manipulation of large DNA fragments. This technology was later used to clone full-length genomes of large DNA viruses to study viral gene function. Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a highly oncogenic herpesvirus that causes rapid induction of T-cell lymphomas in chickens. Based on the virus's ability to cause disease in vaccinated chickens, MDV strains are classified into pathotypes, with the most virulent strains belonging to the very virulent plus (vv+) pathotype. Here we report the construction of BAC clones of 686 (686-BAC), a vv+ strain of MDV. Transfection of DNA isolated from two independent clones into duck embryo fibroblasts resulted in recovery of infectious virus. Pathogenesis studies showed that the BAC-derived 686 viruses were more virulent than Md5, a vv strain of MDV. With the use of a two-step red-mediated mutagenesis process, both copies of viral interleukin 8 (vIL-8) were deleted from the MDV genome, showing that 686-BACs were amenable to mutagenesis techniques. The generation of BAC clones from a vv+ strain of MDV is a significant step toward understanding molecular basis of MDV pathogenesis.

  9. Construction and characterization of a 10-genome equivalent yeast artificial chromosome library for the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, L.; Zee, R.Y.L. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Schalkwyk, L.C. [Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin (Germany)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    Increasing attention has been focused in recent years on the rat as a model organism for genetic studies, in particular for the investigation of complex traits, but progress has been limited by the lack of availability of large-insert genomic libraries. Here, we report the construction and characterization of an arrayed yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library for the rat genome containing approximately 40,000 clones in the AB1380 host using the pCGS966 vector. An average size of 736 kb was estimated from 166 randomly chosen clones; thus the library provides 10-fold coverage of the genome, with a 99.99% probability of containing a unique sequence. Eight of 39 YACs analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization were found to be chimeric, indicating a proportion of about 20-30% of chimeric clones. The library was spotted on high-density filters to allow the identification of YAC clones by hybridization and was pooled using a 3-dimensional scheme for screening by PCR. Among 48 probes used to screen the library, an average of 9.3 positive clones were found, consistent with the calculated 10-fold genomic coverage of the library. This YAC library represents the first large-insert genomic library for the rat. It will be made available to the research community at large as an important new resource for complex genome analysis in this species. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Gata3 Hypomorphic Mutant Mice Rescued with a Yeast Artificial Chromosome Transgene Suffer a Glomerular Mesangial Cell Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Takashi; Yu, Lei; Otsuki, Akihito; Ainoya, Keiko; Lim, Kim-Chew; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Engel, James Douglas

    2016-09-01

    GATA3 is a zinc finger transcription factor that plays a crucial role in embryonic kidney development, while its precise functions in the adult kidney remain largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that GATA3 is specifically expressed in glomerular mesangial cells and plays a critical role in the maintenance of renal glomerular function. Newly generated Gata3 hypomorphic mutant mice exhibited neonatal lethality associated with severe renal hypoplasia. Normal kidney size was restored by breeding the hypomorphic mutant with a rescuing transgenic mouse line bearing a 662-kb Gata3 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC), and these animals (termed G3YR mice) survived to adulthood. However, most of the G3YR mice showed degenerative changes in glomerular mesangial cells, which deteriorated progressively during postnatal development. Consequently, the G3YR adult mice suffered severe renal failure. We found that the 662-kb Gata3 YAC transgene recapitulated Gata3 expression in the renal tubules but failed to direct sufficient GATA3 activity to mesangial cells. Renal glomeruli of the G3YR mice had significantly reduced amounts of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), which is known to participate in the development and maintenance of glomerular mesangial cells. These results demonstrate a critical role for GATA3 in the maintenance of mesangial cells and its absolute requirement for prevention of glomerular disease. PMID:27296697

  11. Physical mapping in large genomes: accelerating anchoring of BAC contigs to genetic maps through in silico analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paux, Etienne; Legeai, Fabrice; Guilhot, Nicolas; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Françoise; Alaux, Michaël; Salse, Jérôme; Sourdille, Pierre; Leroy, Philippe; Feuillet, Catherine

    2008-02-01

    Anchored physical maps represent essential frameworks for map-based cloning, comparative genomics studies, and genome sequencing projects. High throughput anchoring can be achieved by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library pools with molecular markers. However, for large genomes such as wheat, the development of high dimension pools and the number of reactions that need to be performed can be extremely large making the screening laborious and costly. To improve the cost efficiency of anchoring in such large genomes, we have developed a new software named Elephant (electronic physical map anchoring tool) that combines BAC contig information generated by FingerPrinted Contig with results of BAC library pools screening to identify BAC addresses with a minimal amount of PCR reactions. Elephant was evaluated during the construction of a physical map of chromosome 3B of hexaploid wheat. Results show that a one dimensional pool screening can be sufficient to anchor a BAC contig while reducing the number of PCR by 384-fold thereby demonstrating that Elephant is an efficient and cost-effective tool to support physical mapping in large genomes. PMID:18038165

  12. Complex Role of the Mitochondrial Targeting Signal in the Function of Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Revealed by Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Transgenesis in Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Goro; Ishii, Tomohiro; Jeyasuria, Pancharatnam; Jo, Youngah; Bahat, Assaf; Orly, Joseph; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Parker, Keith L.

    2008-01-01

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) stimulates the regulated production of steroid hormones in the adrenal cortex and gonads by facilitating the delivery of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane. To explore key aspects of StAR function within bona fide steroidogenic cells, we used a transgenic mouse model to explore the function of StAR proteins in vivo. We first validated this transgenic bacterial artificial chromosome reconstitution system by targeting enhanced green...

  13. Autoexcision of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Facilitated by Terminal Repeat-Mediated Homologous Recombination: a Novel Approach for Generating Traceless Genetic Mutants of Herpesviruses ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Fuchun; Li, Qiuhua; Wong, Scott W.; Gao, Shou-jiang

    2010-01-01

    Infectious bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) of herpesviruses are powerful tools for genetic manipulation. However, the presence of BAC vector sequence in the viral genomes often causes genetic and phenotypic alterations. While the excision of the BAC vector cassette can be achieved by homologous recombination between extra duplicate viral sequences or loxP site-mediated recombination, these methods either are inefficient or leave a loxP site mark in the viral genome. Here we describe t...

  14. Highly selective isolation of human DNAs from rodent–human hybrid cells as circular yeast artificial chromosomes by transformation-associated recombination cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Larionov, Vladimir; Kouprina, Natalya; Graves, Joan; Resnick, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Transformation-associated recombination (TAR) can be exploited in yeast to clone human DNAs. TAR cloning was previously accomplished using one or two telomere-containing vectors with a common human repeat(s) that could recombine with human DNA during transformation to generate yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). On basis of the proposal that broken DNA ends are more recombinogenic than internal sequences, we have investigated if TAR cloning could be applied to the...

  15. Cloning of the Full-Length Rhesus Cytomegalovirus Genome as an Infectious and Self-Excisable Bacterial Artificial Chromosome for Analysis of Viral Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, W. L. William; Peter A Barry

    2003-01-01

    Rigorous investigation of many functions encoded by cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) requires analysis in the context of virus-host interactions. To facilitate the construction of rhesus CMV (RhCMV) mutants for in vivo studies, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) cassette was engineered into the intergenic region between unique short 1 (US1) and US2 of the full-length viral genome by Cre/lox-mediated recombination. Infectious virions were re...

  16. A Self-Excisable Infectious Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clone of Varicella-Zoster Virus Allows Analysis of the Essential Tegument Protein Encoded by ORF9▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tischer, B. Karsten; Kaufer, Benedikt B; Sommer, Marvin; Wussow, Felix; Ann M Arvin; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2007-01-01

    In order to facilitate the generation of mutant viruses of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the agent causing varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles), we generated a full-length infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of the P-Oka strain. First, mini-F sequences were inserted into a preexisting VZV cosmid, and the SuperCos replicon was removed. Subsequently, mini-F-containing recombinant virus was generated from overlapping cosmid clones, and full-length VZV DNA recov...

  17. De novo assembly and identification of unique contigs in the bovine oviduct from animals with high and low circulating estradiol concentrations during timed artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive efficiency is a large concern for many cattle producers and understanding the mechanisms responsible for biological variation in reproduction is key to improving reproductive efficiency. Timed artificial insemination of beef cows with high circulating estradiol concentrations at time o...

  18. Recovery of infectious virus from full-length cowpox virus (CPXV DNA cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth Swaantje J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transmission from pet rats and cats to humans as well as severe infection in felids and other animal species have recently drawn increasing attention to cowpox virus (CPXV. We report the cloning of the entire genome of cowpox virus strain Brighton Red (BR as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC in Escherichia coli and the recovery of infectious virus from cloned DNA. Generation of a full-length CPXV DNA clone was achieved by first introducing a mini-F vector, which allows maintenance of large circular DNA in E. coli, into the thymidine kinase locus of CPXV by homologous recombination. Circular replication intermediates were then electroporated into E. coli DH10B cells. Upon successful establishment of the infectious BR clone, we modified the full-length clone such that recombination-mediated excision of bacterial sequences can occur upon transfection in eukaryotic cells. This self-excision of the bacterial replicon is made possible by a sequence duplication within mini-F sequences and allows recovery of recombinant virus progeny without remaining marker or vector sequences. The in vitro growth properties of viruses derived from both BAC clones were determined and found to be virtually indistinguishable from those of parental, wild-type BR. Finally, the complete genomic sequence of the infectious clone was determined and the cloned viral genome was shown to be identical to that of the parental virus. In summary, the generated infectious clone will greatly facilitate studies on individual genes and pathogenesis of CPXV. Moreover, the vector potential of CPXV can now be more systematically explored using this newly generated tool.

  19. Construction of a nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library and a preliminary genome survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoko Hidetoshi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sharks are members of the taxonomic class Chondrichthyes, the oldest living jawed vertebrates. Genomic studies of this group, in comparison to representative species in other vertebrate taxa, will allow us to theorize about the fundamental genetic, developmental, and functional characteristics in the common ancestor of all jawed vertebrates. Aims In order to obtain mapping and sequencing data for comparative genomics, we constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library for the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum. Results The BAC library consists of 313,344 clones with an average insert size of 144 kb, covering ~4.5 × 1010 bp and thus providing an 11-fold coverage of the haploid genome. BAC end sequence analyses revealed, in addition to LINEs and SINEs commonly found in other animal and plant genomes, two new groups of nurse shark-specific repetitive elements, NSRE1 and NSRE2 that seem to be major components of the nurse shark genome. Screening the library with single-copy or multi-copy gene probes showed 6–28 primary positive clones per probe of which 50–90% were true positives, demonstrating that the BAC library is representative of the different regions of the nurse shark genome. Furthermore, some BAC clones contained multiple genes, making physical mapping feasible. Conclusion We have constructed a deep-coverage, high-quality, large insert, and publicly available BAC library for a cartilaginous fish. It will be very useful to the scientific community interested in shark genomic structure, comparative genomics, and functional studies. We found two new groups of repetitive elements specific to the nurse shark genome, which may contribute to the architecture and evolution of the nurse shark genome.

  20. A method for producing transgenic cells using a multi-integrase system on a human artificial chromosome vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeyuki Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available The production of cells capable of expressing gene(s of interest is important for a variety of applications in biomedicine and biotechnology, including gene therapy and animal transgenesis. The ability to insert transgenes at a precise location in the genome, using site-specific recombinases such as Cre, FLP, and ΦC31, has major benefits for the efficiency of transgenesis. Recent work on integrases from ΦC31, R4, TP901-1 and Bxb1 phages demonstrated that these recombinases catalyze site-specific recombination in mammalian cells. In the present study, we examined the activities of integrases on site-specific recombination and gene expression in mammalian cells. We designed a human artificial chromosome (HAC vector containing five recombination sites (ΦC31 attP, R4 attP, TP901-1 attP, Bxb1 attP and FRT; multi-integrase HAC vector and de novo mammalian codon-optimized integrases. The multi-integrase HAC vector has several functions, including gene integration in a precise locus and avoiding genomic position effects; therefore, it was used as a platform to investigate integrase activities. Integrases carried out site-specific recombination at frequencies ranging from 39.3-96.8%. Additionally, we observed homogenous gene expression in 77.3-87.5% of colonies obtained using the multi-integrase HAC vector. This vector is also transferable to another cell line, and is capable of accepting genes of interest in this environment. These data suggest that integrases have high DNA recombination efficiencies in mammalian cells. The multi-integrase HAC vector enables us to produce transgene-expressing cells efficiently and create platform cell lines for gene expression.

  1. Human Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) Transgenesis Fully Rescues Noradrenergic Function in Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubells, Joseph F; Schroeder, Jason P; Barrie, Elizabeth S; Manvich, Daniel F; Sadee, Wolfgang; Berg, Tiina; Mercer, Kristina; Stowe, Taylor A; Liles, L Cameron; Squires, Katherine E; Mezher, Andrew; Curtin, Patrick; Perdomo, Dannie L; Szot, Patricia; Weinshenker, David

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) converts dopamine (DA) to norepinephrine (NE) in noradrenergic/adrenergic cells. DBH deficiency prevents NE production and causes sympathetic failure, hypotension and ptosis in humans and mice; DBH knockout (Dbh -/-) mice reveal other NE deficiency phenotypes including embryonic lethality, delayed growth, and behavioral defects. Furthermore, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the human DBH gene promoter (-970C>T; rs1611115) is associated with variation in serum DBH activity and with several neurological- and neuropsychiatric-related disorders, although its impact on DBH expression is controversial. Phenotypes associated with DBH deficiency are typically treated with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS), which can be converted to NE by aromatic acid decarboxylase (AADC) in the absence of DBH. In this study, we generated transgenic mice carrying a human bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) encompassing the DBH coding locus as well as ~45 kb of upstream and ~107 kb of downstream sequence to address two issues. First, we characterized the neuroanatomical, neurochemical, physiological, and behavioral transgenic rescue of DBH deficiency by crossing the BAC onto a Dbh -/- background. Second, we compared human DBH mRNA abundance between transgenic lines carrying either a "C" or a "T" at position -970. The BAC transgene drove human DBH mRNA expression in a pattern indistinguishable from the endogenous gene, restored normal catecholamine levels to the peripheral organs and brain of Dbh -/- mice, and fully rescued embryonic lethality, delayed growth, ptosis, reduced exploratory activity, and seizure susceptibility. In some cases, transgenic rescue was superior to DOPS. However, allelic variation at the rs1611115 SNP had no impact on mRNA levels in any tissue. These results indicate that the human BAC contains all of the genetic information required for tissue-specific, functional expression of DBH and can rescue all measured Dbh deficiency

  2. Construction and Identification of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library for 0-613-2R in Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library containing a large genomic DNA insert is an important tool for genome physical mapping, map-based cloning, and genome sequencing. To isolate genes via a map-based cloning strategy and to perform physical mapping of the cotton genome, a high-quality BAC library containing large cotton DNA inserts is needed. We have developed a BAC library of the restoring line 0-613-2R for isolating the fertility restorer (Rf1) gene and genomic research in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The BAC library contains 97 825 clones stored in 255 pieces of a 384-well microtiter plate. Random samples of BACs digested with the Notl enzyme indicated that the average insert size is approximately 130 kb, with a range of 80-275 kb,and 95.7% of the BAC clones in the library have an average insert size larger than 100 kb. Based on a cotton genome size of 2 250 Mb, library coverage is 5.7 x haploid genome equivalents. Four clones were selected randomly from the library to determine the stability of the BAC clones. There were no different fingerprints for 0 and 100 generations of each clone digested with Notl and Hindlll enzymes. Thus, the stability of a single BAC clone can be sustained at least for 100 generations. Eight simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers flanking the Rf1 gene were chosen to screen the BAC library by pool using PCR method and 25 positive clones were identified with 3.1 positive clones per SSR marker.

  3. Yeast artificial chromosomes employed for random assembly of biosynthetic pathways and production of diverse compounds in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Partha P

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural products are an important source of drugs and other commercially interesting compounds, however their isolation and production is often difficult. Metabolic engineering, mainly in bacteria and yeast, has sought to circumvent some of the associated problems but also this approach is impeded by technical limitations. Here we describe a novel strategy for production of diverse natural products, comprising the expression of an unprecedented large number of biosynthetic genes in a heterologous host. Results As an example, genes from different sources, representing enzymes of a seven step flavonoid pathway, were individually cloned into yeast expression cassettes, which were then randomly combined on Yeast Artificial Chromosomes and used, in a single transformation of yeast, to create a variety of flavonoid producing pathways. Randomly picked clones were analysed, and approximately half of them showed production of the flavanone naringenin, and a third of them produced the flavonol kaempferol in various amounts. This reflected the assembly of 5–7 step multi-species pathways converting the yeast metabolites phenylalanine and/or tyrosine into flavonoids, normally only produced by plants. Other flavonoids were also produced that were either direct intermediates or derivatives thereof. Feeding natural and unnatural, halogenated precursors to these recombinant clones demonstrated the potential to further diversify the type of molecules that can be produced with this technology. Conclusion The technology has many potential uses but is particularly suited for generating high numbers of structurally diverse compounds, some of which may not be amenable to chemical synthesis, thus greatly facilitating access to a huge chemical space in the search for new commercially interesting compounds

  4. First Birth after Sperm Selection through Discontinuous Gradient Centrifugation and Artificial Insemination from a Chromosomal Translocation Carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Rouen; Capucine Hyon; Richard Balet; Nicole Joyé; Nino Guy Cassuto; Jean-Pierre Siffroi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Balanced chromosomal carriers, though usually healthy, are confronted with recurrent spontaneous abortions and malformations in the offspring. Those are related to the transmission of an abnormal, chromosomally unbalanced genotype. We evidenced that the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa can be significantly decreased through a sperm preparation process called discontinuous gradient centrifugation (DGC). We therefore started offering intrauterine inseminations with this proced...

  5. A 1.5-Mb cosmid contig of the CMT1A duplication/HNPP deletion critical region in 17p11.2-p12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Tatsufumi; Lupski, J.R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-05-15

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is associated with a 1.5-Mb tandem duplication in chromosome 17p11.2-p12, and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is associated with a 1.5-Mb deletion at this locus. Both diseases appear to result from an altered copy number of the peripheral myelin protein-22 gene, PMP22, which maps within the critical region. To identify additional genes and characterize chromosomal elements, a 1.5-Mb cosmid contig of the CMT1A duplication/HNPP deletion critical region was assembled using a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)-based isolation and binning strategy. Whole YAC probes were used for screening a high-density arrayed chromosome 17-specific cosmid library. Selected cosmids were spotted on dot blots and assigned to bins defined by YACs. This binning of cosmids facilitated the subsequent fingerprint analysis. The 1.5-Mb region was covered by 137 cosmids with a minimum overlap set of 52 cosmids assigned to 17 bins and 9 contigs. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Cloning of human centromeres by transformation-associated recombination in yeast and generation of functional human artificial chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kouprina, N.; Ebersole, T.; Koriabine, M.; Pak, E; Rogozin, I. B.; Katoh, M; Oshimura, M; Ogi, K; Peredelchuk, M.; Solomon, G; Brown, W.; Barrett, J. C.; Larionov, V

    2003-01-01

    Human centromeres remain poorly characterized regions of the human genome despite their importance for the maintenance of chromosomes. In part this is due to the difficulty of cloning of highly repetitive DNA fragments and distinguishing chromosome-specific clones in a genomic library. In this work we report the highly selective isolation of human centromeric DNA using transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning. A TAR vector with alphoid DNA monomers as targeting sequences was used...

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02244-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ed Contig length 326 Chromosome number (1..6, M) - Chromosome length - Start point - End point - Strand...02244-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U02244-1Q.Seq.d Length = 336 Score = 91.7 bits (46), Expect = 5e-19 Identities = 46/46 (100%) Strand...tactctaaag 56 Score = 81.8 bits (41), Expect = 4e-16 Identities = 44/44 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 1... 6e-06 Identities = 24/24 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 312 tattttaatttactattttaccgg 335 ||||||||||||||...|||||||||| Sbjct: 312 tattttaatttactattttaccgg 335 Score = 40.1 bits (20), Expect = 0.001 Identities = 23/23 (100%) Strand

  8. YAC and cosmid contigs encompassing the Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) candidate region on 9q31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Masashi; Nakahori, Yutaka; Matsushita, Ikumi [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), the second most common form of childhood muscular dystrophy in Japan, is an autosomal recessive severe muscular dystrophy associated with an anomaly of the brain. We had mapped the FCMD gene to an approximately 5-cM interval between D9S127 and D9S2111 on 9q31-q33 and had also found evidence for linkage disequilibrium between FCMD and D9S306 in this candidate region. Through further analysis, we have defined another marker, D9S172, which showed stronger linkage disequilibrium than D9S306. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig spanning 3.5 Mb, which includes this D9S306-D9S172 interval on 9q31, has been constructed by a combination of sequence-tagged site, Alu-PCR, and restriction mapping. Also, cosmid clones subcloned from the YAC were assembled into three contigs, one of which contains D9S2107, which showed the strongest linkage disequilibrium with FCMD. These contigs also allowed us to order the markers as follows: cen-D9S127-({approximately}800 kb)-D9S306 (identical to D9S53)-({approximately}700 kb)-A107XF9-({approximately}500 kb)-D9S172-({approximately}30 kb)-D9S299 (identical to D9S774)-({approximately}120 kb)-WI2269-tel. Thus, we have constructed the first high-resolution physical map of the FCMD candidate region. The YAC and cosmid contigs established here will be a crucial resource for identification of the FCMD gene and other genes in this region. 37 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. A sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) reference FISH karyotype for chromosome and chromosome-arm identification, integration of genetic linkage groups and analysis of major repeat family distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesold, Susanne; Borchardt, Dietrich; Schmidt, Thomas; Dechyeva, Daryna

    2012-11-01

    We developed a reference karyotype for B. vulgaris which is applicable to all beet cultivars and provides a consistent numbering of chromosomes and genetic linkage groups. Linkage groups of sugar beet were assigned to physical chromosome arms by FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) using a set of 18 genetically anchored BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) markers. Genetic maps of sugar beet were correlated to chromosome arms, and North-South orientation of linkage groups was established. The FISH karyotype provides a technical platform for genome studies and can be applied for numbering and identification of chromosomes in related wild beet species. The discrimination of all nine chromosomes by BAC probes enabled the study of chromosome-specific distribution of the major repetitive components of sugar beet genome comprising pericentromeric, intercalary and subtelomeric satellites and 18S-5.8S-25S and 5S rRNA gene arrays. We developed a multicolor FISH procedure allowing the identification of all nine sugar beet chromosome pairs in a single hybridization using a pool of satellite DNA probes. Fiber-FISH was applied to analyse five chromosome arms in which the furthermost genetic marker of the linkage group was mapped adjacently to terminal repetitive sequences on pachytene chromosomes. Only on two arms telomere arrays and the markers are physically linked, hence these linkage groups can be considered as terminally closed making the further identification of distal informative markers difficult. The results support genetic mapping by marker localization, the anchoring of contigs and scaffolds for the annotation of the sugar beet genome sequence and the analysis of the chromosomal distribution patterns of major families of repetitive DNA.

  10. A sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) reference FISH karyotype for chromosome and chromosome-arm identification, integration of genetic linkage groups and analysis of major repeat family distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesold, Susanne; Borchardt, Dietrich; Schmidt, Thomas; Dechyeva, Daryna

    2012-11-01

    We developed a reference karyotype for B. vulgaris which is applicable to all beet cultivars and provides a consistent numbering of chromosomes and genetic linkage groups. Linkage groups of sugar beet were assigned to physical chromosome arms by FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) using a set of 18 genetically anchored BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) markers. Genetic maps of sugar beet were correlated to chromosome arms, and North-South orientation of linkage groups was established. The FISH karyotype provides a technical platform for genome studies and can be applied for numbering and identification of chromosomes in related wild beet species. The discrimination of all nine chromosomes by BAC probes enabled the study of chromosome-specific distribution of the major repetitive components of sugar beet genome comprising pericentromeric, intercalary and subtelomeric satellites and 18S-5.8S-25S and 5S rRNA gene arrays. We developed a multicolor FISH procedure allowing the identification of all nine sugar beet chromosome pairs in a single hybridization using a pool of satellite DNA probes. Fiber-FISH was applied to analyse five chromosome arms in which the furthermost genetic marker of the linkage group was mapped adjacently to terminal repetitive sequences on pachytene chromosomes. Only on two arms telomere arrays and the markers are physically linked, hence these linkage groups can be considered as terminally closed making the further identification of distal informative markers difficult. The results support genetic mapping by marker localization, the anchoring of contigs and scaffolds for the annotation of the sugar beet genome sequence and the analysis of the chromosomal distribution patterns of major families of repetitive DNA. PMID:22775355

  11. The Selection and Use of Sorghum (Sorghum propinquum Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes as Cytogenetic FISH Probes for Maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie M. Figueroa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of genetic and physical maps of maize is progressing rapidly, but the cytogenetic maps lag behind, with the exception of the pachytene fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH maps of maize chromosome 9. We sought to produce integrated FISH maps of other maize chromosomes using Core Bin Marker loci. Because these 1 Kb restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP probes are below the FISH detection limit, we used BACs from sorghum, a small-genome relative of maize, as surrogate clones for FISH mapping. We sequenced 151 maize RFLP probes and compared in silico BAC selection methods to that of library filter hybridization and found the latter to be the best. BAC library screening, clone verification, and single-clone selection criteria are presented along with an example of transgenomic BAC FISH mapping. This strategy has been used to facilitate the integration of RFLP and FISH maps in other large-genome species.

  12. The selection and use of sorghum (Sorghum propinquum) bacterial artificial chromosomes as cytogenetic FISH probes for maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Debbie M; Davis, James D; Strobel, Cornelia; Conejo, Maria S; Beckham, Katherine D; Ring, Brian C; Bass, Hank W

    2011-01-01

    The integration of genetic and physical maps of maize is progressing rapidly, but the cytogenetic maps lag behind, with the exception of the pachytene fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) maps of maize chromosome 9. We sought to produce integrated FISH maps of other maize chromosomes using Core Bin Marker loci. Because these 1 Kb restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) probes are below the FISH detection limit, we used BACs from sorghum, a small-genome relative of maize, as surrogate clones for FISH mapping. We sequenced 151 maize RFLP probes and compared in silico BAC selection methods to that of library filter hybridization and found the latter to be the best. BAC library screening, clone verification, and single-clone selection criteria are presented along with an example of transgenomic BAC FISH mapping. This strategy has been used to facilitate the integration of RFLP and FISH maps in other large-genome species. PMID:21234422

  13. 棉花细菌人工染色体文库构建方法探讨%Studies on Construction Method of Cotton Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海燕; 王省芬; 刘方; 彭仁海; 张艳; 马峙英; 王坤波

    2013-01-01

    细菌人工染色体(Bacterial artificial chromosome,BAC)文库是开展基因组测序、基因图位克隆、分子标记、物理作图等研究的重要基因组资源.本文在构建了二倍体野生棉阿非利加棉(Gossypium herbaceum var.africanum)BAC文库的基础上,就棉花细菌人工染色体基因组文库构建过程中高分子量基因组DNA的提取、部分酶切片段选择、DNA的回收、连接转化以及BAC文库的保存等过程中一些细节和注意事项进行了比较详细的分析比较,希望能为棉花BAC文库的构建提供一些可供借鉴的经验.%Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library is an important genome resources to such research as genome sequencing, map-based cloning, molecular markers, and physical mapping. On the base of the construction of BAC library for Gossypi-um herbaceum var. africanum, this paper presents an exhaustive analysis on details and notices of the BAC library construction process. It includes extraction of high molecular weight (HMW) nuclear DNA, determination of the optimized enzyme for partial digestion of HMW DNA, two rounds of size fractionation, recovery of large fragments DNA, ligation and transformation of large fragments of DNA and storage of BAC library. Thus being able to supply an experience for constructing high efficiency cotton BAC library.

  14. First Birth after Sperm Selection through Discontinuous Gradient Centrifugation and Artificial Insemination from a Chromosomal Translocation Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rouen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Balanced chromosomal carriers, though usually healthy, are confronted with recurrent spontaneous abortions and malformations in the offspring. Those are related to the transmission of an abnormal, chromosomally unbalanced genotype. We evidenced that the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa can be significantly decreased through a sperm preparation process called discontinuous gradient centrifugation (DGC. We therefore started offering intrauterine inseminations with this procedure to couples with a male translocation carriers. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 37-year-old man carrying a t(3;10(q25;p13 reciprocal translocation. He and his partner had had trouble conceiving for ten years and had four spontaneous abortions. DGC in this patient decreased the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa from 63.6% to 52.3%. They were therefore offered intrauterine insemination with DGC, which eventually led to the birth of a healthy female child carrying the paternal translocation. Conclusion. We showed that translocation carriers could be offered intrauterine inseminations with DGC. Before this, the only two options were natural conception with prenatal diagnosis and termination of chromosomally unbalanced fetuses or preimplantation genetic diagnosis, which is a much heavier and costly procedure. We are currently offering this option through a multicentric program in France, and this is the first birth originating from it.

  15. First Birth after Sperm Selection through Discontinuous Gradient Centrifugation and Artificial Insemination from a Chromosomal Translocation Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouen, Alexandre; Hyon, Capucine; Balet, Richard; Joyé, Nicole; Cassuto, Nino Guy; Siffroi, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Balanced chromosomal carriers, though usually healthy, are confronted with recurrent spontaneous abortions and malformations in the offspring. Those are related to the transmission of an abnormal, chromosomally unbalanced genotype. We evidenced that the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa can be significantly decreased through a sperm preparation process called discontinuous gradient centrifugation (DGC). We therefore started offering intrauterine inseminations with this procedure to couples with a male translocation carriers. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 37-year-old man carrying a t(3;10)(q25;p13) reciprocal translocation. He and his partner had had trouble conceiving for ten years and had four spontaneous abortions. DGC in this patient decreased the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa from 63.6% to 52.3%. They were therefore offered intrauterine insemination with DGC, which eventually led to the birth of a healthy female child carrying the paternal translocation. Conclusion. We showed that translocation carriers could be offered intrauterine inseminations with DGC. Before this, the only two options were natural conception with prenatal diagnosis and termination of chromosomally unbalanced fetuses or preimplantation genetic diagnosis, which is a much heavier and costly procedure. We are currently offering this option through a multicentric program in France, and this is the first birth originating from it. PMID:24587925

  16. A physical map of Brassica oleracea shows complexity of chromosomal changes following recursive paleopolyploidizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giattina Emily

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of the Brassica species has been recursively affected by polyploidy events, and comparison to their relative, Arabidopsis thaliana, provides means to explore their genomic complexity. Results A genome-wide physical map of a rapid-cycling strain of B. oleracea was constructed by integrating high-information-content fingerprinting (HICF of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clones with hybridization to sequence-tagged probes. Using 2907 contigs of two or more BACs, we performed several lines of comparative genomic analysis. Interspecific DNA synteny is much better preserved in euchromatin than heterochromatin, showing the qualitative difference in evolution of these respective genomic domains. About 67% of contigs can be aligned to the Arabidopsis genome, with 96.5% corresponding to euchromatic regions, and 3.5% (shown to contain repetitive sequences to pericentromeric regions. Overgo probe hybridization data showed that contigs aligned to Arabidopsis euchromatin contain ~80% of low-copy-number genes, while genes with high copy number are much more frequently associated with pericentromeric regions. We identified 39 interchromosomal breakpoints during the diversification of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, a relatively high level of genomic change since their divergence. Comparison of the B. oleracea physical map with Arabidopsis and other available eudicot genomes showed appreciable 'shadowing' produced by more ancient polyploidies, resulting in a web of relatedness among contigs which increased genomic complexity. Conclusions A high-resolution genetically-anchored physical map sheds light on Brassica genome organization and advances positional cloning of specific genes, and may help to validate genome sequence assembly and alignment to chromosomes. All the physical mapping data is freely shared at a WebFPC site (http://lulu.pgml.uga.edu/fpc/WebAGCoL/brassica/WebFPC/; Temporarily password-protected: account

  17. High-resolution physical mapping and construction of a porcine contig spanning the intramuscular fat content QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, S; Hasebe, H; Sato, S; Asahi, Y; Hayashi, T; Kobayashi, E; Sugimoto, Y

    2006-04-01

    We previously mapped a locus for porcine intramuscular fat content (IMF) by linkage analysis to a 17.1-cM chromosome interval on Sus scrofa chromosome 7 (SSC7) flanked by microsatellite markers SW1083 and SW581. In this study, we identified 34 microsatellite markers and 14 STSs from the 17.1-cM IMF quantitative trait loci (QTL) region corresponding to HSA14q and aligned those loci using the INRA-University of Minnesota porcine radiation hybrid (IMpRH) panel. We then constructed a 5.2-Mb porcine bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig of this region that was aligned using the RH panel. Finally, the IMF QTL was fine-mapped to 12.6 cM between SJ169 and MM70 at the 0.1% chromosome-wise significance level by genotyping the previously studied F2 resource family with 17 additional microsatellites. We also demonstrated that the SJ169-MM70 interval spans approximately 3.0 Mb and contains at least 12 genes: GALC, GPR65, KCNK10, SPATA7, PTPN21, FLJ11806, EML5, TTC8, CHES1, CAP2P1, CHORDC2P and C14orf143. PMID:16573525

  18. Artificially inserting a reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat into a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Marek's disease virus (MDV) alters expression of nearby MDV genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taejoong; Mays, Jody; Fadly, Aly; Silva, Robert F

    2011-06-01

    Researchers reported that co-cultivating the JM/102W strain of Marek's disease virus (MDV) with reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) resulted in an REV long terminal repeat (LTR) being inserted into the internal repeat short (IRS) region of JM/102W. When the resulting recombinant virus was serially passed in cell culture, the initial LTR was duplicated and a second LTR spontaneously appeared in the terminal repeat short (TRS) region of the MDV genome. The virus, designated RM1, was significantly attenuated but still induced severe bursal and thymic atrophy (Isfort et al. PNAS 89:991-995). To determine whether the altered phenotype was due solely to the LTR, we cloned the LTR from the RM1 IRS region and inserted it into the IRS region of a very virulent bacterial artificial clone (BAC) of the Md5 strain of MDV, which we designated rMd5-RM1-LTR. During blind passage in duck embryo fibroblast cultures, the initial LTR in the rMd5-RM1-LTR was also duplicated, with LTRs appearing in both IRS and TRS regions of the MDV genome. The inserted LTR sequences and transcripts associated with the MDV open reading frames MDV085, MDV086, SORF2, US1, and US10 were molecularly characterized. The parental Md5 BAC contains a family of transcripts of 3, 2, and 1 kb that all terminate at the end of the US10 gene. The rMd5-RM1-LTR and RM1 viruses both express an additional 4 kb transcript that originates in the LTR and also terminates after US10. Collectively, the data suggest that our engineered rMd5-RM1-LTR virus very closely resembles the RM1 virus in its structure and transcription patterns.

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03376-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Contig-U03376-1 no gap 214 2 6424590 6424376 MINUS 2 1 U03376 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0...ngth 214 Chromosome number (1..6, M) 2 Chromosome length 8467578 Start point 6424590 End point 6424376 Stran

  20. Constructing chromosome- and region-specific cosmid maps of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrano, A V; de Jong, P J; Branscomb, E; Slezak, T; Watkins, B W

    1989-01-01

    A chromosome-specific ordered set of cosmids would be a significant contribution toward understanding human chromosome structure and function. We are developing two parallel approaches for creating an ordered cosmid library of human chromosome 19 and other selected subregions of the human genome. The "bottom up" approach is used to establish sets of overlapping cosmids as islands or "contigs" along the chromosome, while the "top down" approach, using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and yeast cloning, will establish a large-fragment map and close the inevitable gaps remaining from the "bottom up" approach. Source DNA consists of a single homolog of chromosome 19 from a hamster--human hybrid cell and human fragments cloned in yeast artificial chromosomes. We have constructed cosmid libraries in a vector that facilitates cloning small amounts of DNA, allows transcription of the insert termini, and contains unique sites for partial-digest mapping. Computer simulations of cosmid contig building suggest that near-optimal efficiency can be achieved with high-density restriction fragment digest schemes that can detect 20-30% overlap between cosmids. We developed the chemistry and data analysis tools to compare the ordering efficiencies of several cosmid restriction digest fingerprinting strategies. Restriction fragments from a four-cutter digest are labeled with a fluorochrome, separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and detected after laser excitation as they traverse a fixed point in the gel. We have also developed the software to rapidly process the output signal to define and analyze the fragment peaks. Up to three cosmids (or three different digests of the same cosmid) plus a size standard are analyzed simultaneously in a single gel lane.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2698823

  1. Plant Artificial Chromosome:The Vector for the Next Generation of Genetic Engineering%植物人工染色体:下一代基因工程的载体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨; 闫晓红; 杨洁; 杨清; 魏文辉

    2011-01-01

    The simultaneous expression of multiple genes and genetically modified (GM) food security research have been considered as the research focus for genetic engineering in plants presently. Unlike conventional gene transformation technologies,plant artificial chromosomes provide one solution to the stable expression of multiple transgenes. As plant artificial chromosome segregation is independent of host chromosomes, they provide a platform for accelerating plant breeding and for studying the specific chromatin domains inserted into them. The generation of artificial plant chromosomes and their applications were reviewed in this article.%植物基因工程技术中的多基因转化及转基因安全已经成为其研究的2个重要方面.植物人工染色体可以在一条不含标记基因的附加染色体上提供稳定的多基因表达,是新一代的转基因载体.由于植物人工染色体独立于宿主染色体,为植物育种提供了便利,同时,也为研究染色质特殊区域的结构与功能提供了平台.本文就植物人工染色体的产生、研究现状及其应用前景等进行了综述和讨论.

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13219-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available length 111 Chromosome number (1..6, M) 2 Chromosome length 8467578 Start point 5686662 End point 5686561 Strand...tig-U13219-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U13219-1Q.Seq.d Length = 111 Score = 58.0 bits (29), Expect = 2e-09 Identities = 32/32 (100%) Stran...U12594-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U12594-1Q.Seq.d Length = 977 Score = 36.2 bits (18), Expect = 0.007 Identities = 20/21 (95%) Strand...taaataaataagtaat 540 Score = 32.2 bits (16), Expect = 0.11 Identities = 16/16 (100%) Strand... = 32.2 bits (16), Expect = 0.11 Identities = 16/16 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 1 ataaataaataaataa 16

  3. Comparative fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of a 431-kb Arabidopsis thaliana bacterial artificial chromosome contig reveals the role of chromosomal duplications in the expansion of the Brassica rapa genome.

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, S A; Cheng, Z; Wang, M L; Goodman, H M; Jiang, J

    2000-01-01

    Comparative genome studies are important contributors to our understanding of genome evolution. Most comparative genome studies in plants have been based on genetic mapping of homologous DNA loci in different genomes. Large-scale comparative physical mapping has been hindered by the lack of efficient and affordable techniques. We report here the adaptation of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques for comparative physical mapping between Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa. A...

  4. AcEST: CL1509Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1509Contig1 1477 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1509contig1 sequence. Link... to clone list Show CL1509Contig1 Contig ID CL1509Contig1 Length 1477 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL1509contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916497 DK

  5. A BAC-based physical map of the Hessian fly genome anchored to polytene chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellers John P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor is an important insect pest of wheat. It has tractable genetics, polytene chromosomes, and a small genome (158 Mb. Investigation of the Hessian fly presents excellent opportunities to study plant-insect interactions and the molecular mechanisms underlying genome imprinting and chromosome elimination. A physical map is needed to improve the ability to perform both positional cloning and comparative genomic analyses with the fully sequenced genomes of other dipteran species. Results An FPC-based genome wide physical map of the Hessian fly was constructed and anchored to the insect's polytene chromosomes. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones corresponding to 12-fold coverage of the Hessian fly genome were fingerprinted, using high information content fingerprinting (HIFC methodology, and end-sequenced. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH co-localized two BAC clones from each of the 196 longest contigs on the polytene chromosomes. An additional 70 contigs were positioned using a single FISH probe. The 266 FISH mapped contigs were evenly distributed and covered 60% of the genome (95,668 kb. The ends of the fingerprinted BACs were then sequenced to develop the capacity to create sequenced tagged site (STS markers on the BACs in the map. Only 3.64% of the BAC-end sequence was composed of transposable elements, helicases, ribosomal repeats, simple sequence repeats, and sequences of low complexity. A relatively large fraction (14.27% of the BES was comprised of multi-copy gene sequences. Nearly 1% of the end sequence was composed of simple sequence repeats (SSRs. Conclusion This physical map provides the foundation for high-resolution genetic mapping, map-based cloning, and assembly of complete genome sequencing data. The results indicate that restriction fragment length heterogeneity in BAC libraries used to construct physical maps lower the length and the depth of the contigs, but is

  6. Rapid and efficient introduction of a foreign gene into bacterial artificial chromosome-cloned varicella vaccine by Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a rapid and reliable system based on Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition, we have successfully constructed a recombinant Oka varicella vaccine (vOka) expressing the mumps virus (MuV) fusion protein (F). The backbone of the vector was our previously reported vOka-BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) genome. We inserted the transposon Tn7 attachment sequence, LacZα-mini-attTn7, into the region between ORF12 and ORF13 to generate a vOka-BAC-Tn genome. The MuV-F expressing cassette was transposed into the vOka-BAC genome at the mini-attTn7 transposition site. MuV-F protein was expressed in recombinant virus, rvOka-F infected cells. In addition, the MuV-F protein was cleaved in the rvOka-F infected cells as in MuV-infected cells. The growth of rvOka-F was similar to that of the original recombinant vOka without the F gene. Thus, we show that Tn7-mediated transposition is an efficient method for introducing a foreign gene expression cassette into the vOka-BAC genome as a live virus vector.

  7. A novel system for simultaneous or sequential integration of multiple gene-loading vectors into a defined site of a human artificial chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruhiko Suzuki

    Full Text Available Human artificial chromosomes (HACs are gene-delivery vectors suitable for introducing large DNA fragments into mammalian cells. Although a HAC theoretically incorporates multiple gene expression cassettes of unlimited DNA size, its application has been limited because the conventional gene-loading system accepts only one gene-loading vector (GLV into a HAC. We report a novel method for the simultaneous or sequential integration of multiple GLVs into a HAC vector (designated as the SIM system via combined usage of Cre, FLP, Bxb1, and φC31 recombinase/integrase. As a proof of principle, we first attempted simultaneous integration of three GLVs encoding EGFP, Venus, and TdTomato into a gene-loading site of a HAC in CHO cells. These cells successfully expressed all three fluorescent proteins. Furthermore, microcell-mediated transfer of HACs enabled the expression of those fluorescent proteins in recipient cells. We next demonstrated that GLVs could be introduced into a HAC one-by-one via reciprocal usage of recombinase/integrase. Lastly, we introduced a fourth GLV into a HAC after simultaneous integration of three GLVs by FLP-mediated DNA recombination. The SIM system expands the applicability of HAC vectors and is useful for various biomedical studies, including cell reprogramming.

  8. Construction of an Excisable Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Containing a Full-Length Infectious Clone of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1: Viruses Reconstituted from the Clone Exhibit Wild-Type Properties In Vitro and In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Michiko; Kagawa, Hiroyuki; Yamanashi, Yuji; Sata, Tetsutaro; Kawaguchi, Yasushi

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, several laboratories have reported on the cloning of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genomes as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) in Escherichia coli and on procedures to manipulate these genomes by using the bacterial recombination machinery. However, the HSV-BACs reported so far are either replication incompetent or infectious, with a deletion of one or more viral genes due to the BAC vector insertion. For use as a multipurpose clone in research on HSV-1, we attem...

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06586-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gth 400 Chromosome number (1..6, M) 2 Chromosome length 8467578 Start point 6706112 End point 6706465 Strand..._Contig/Contig-U06586-1Q.Seq.d Length = 400 Score = 93.7 bits (47), Expect = 1e-19 Identities = 47/47 (100%) Strand... 130 Score = 77.8 bits (39), Expect = 8e-15 Identities = 48/48 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 294 cataat...t = 8e-09 Identities = 32/32 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 162 actgcnccctttcaagttcacacactccctac 193 |||... = 1e-07 Identities = 27/27 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 362 ccctttcaagttca

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15423-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ngth 400 Chromosome number (1..6, M) 3 Chromosome length 6358359 Start point 3471026 End point 3470623 Strand...) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U15423-1Q.Seq.d Length = 400 Score = 293 bits (148), Expect = 1e-79 Identities = 148/148 (100%) Strand... Expect = 2e-13 Identities = 37/37 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 331 cttaaaaattcttaaatctcatttcttattaatt...cttattaattttt 367 Score = 65.9 bits (33), Expect = 4e-11 Identities = 33/33 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Quer...Q.Seq.d Length = 4897 Score = 236 bits (119), Expect = 2e-62 Identities = 119/119 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plu

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13270-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Contig length 223 Chromosome number (1..6, M) 1 Chromosome length 4919822 Start point 634553 End point 634331 Strand...= 0.015 Identities = 18/18 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 141 taataattaataattaat 158 |||||||||||||||||| .../Contig-U12060-1Q.Seq.d Length = 1537 Score = 36.2 bits (18), Expect = 0.015 Identities = 18/18 (100%) Strand...re = 36.2 bits (18), Expect = 0.015 Identities = 18/18 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 141 taataattaataat... (18), Expect = 0.015 Identities = 18/18 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 141 taataattaataattaat 158 |||||

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14550-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ngth 124 Chromosome number (1..6, M) - Chromosome length - Start point - End point - Strand (PLUS/MINUS) - N...14550-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U14550-1Q.Seq.d Length = 124 Score = 75.8 bits (38), Expect = 9e-15 Identities = 38/38 (100%) Strand...04 Identities = 24/25 (96%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 1 atttttatttttttaattttcattt 25 |||||||||||||| ||||||...6 Identities = 13/13 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 2 tttttattttttt 14 ||||||||||||| Sbjct: 158 tttttatt...ttttt 170 Score = 26.3 bits (13), Expect = 7.6 Identities = 13/13 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 2 ttttt

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09503-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th 683 Chromosome number (1..6, M) - Chromosome length - Start point - End point - Strand (PLUS/MINUS) - Num...1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U09503-1Q.Seq.d Length = 693 Score = 103 bits (52), Expect = 2e-22 Identities = 52/52 (100%) Strand...acacacatcacatgatcac 52 Score = 83.8 bits (42), Expect = 2e-16 Identities = 42/42 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus...t = 2e-16 Identities = 51/51 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 340 tcttatntgcttgccnngtttttccacacttgacgggggg...ttgacggggggtggttcccccc 390 Score = 56.0 bits (28), Expect = 5e-08 Identities = 28/28 (100%) Strand

  14. Cloning of the Koi Herpesvirus Genome as an Infectious Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Demonstrates That Disruption of the Thymidine Kinase Locus Induces Partial Attenuation in Cyprinus carpio koi▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, B.; Fournier, G.; Michel, B.; Delforge, C.; Raj, V. Stalin; Dewals, B.; Gillet, L.; Drion, P.; Body, A.; Schynts, F.; Lieffrig, F.; Vanderplasschen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) is the causative agent of a lethal disease in koi and common carp. In the present study, we describe the cloning of the KHV genome as a stable and infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone that can be used to produce KHV recombinant strains. This goal was achieved by the insertion of a loxP-flanked BAC cassette into the thymidine kinase (TK) locus. This insertion led to a BAC plasmid that was stably maintained in bacteria and was able to regenerate virions when permissive cells were transfected with the plasmid. Reconstituted virions free of the BAC cassette but carrying a disrupted TK locus (the FL BAC-excised strain) were produced by the transfection of Cre recombinase-expressing cells with the BAC. Similarly, virions with a wild-type revertant TK sequence (the FL BAC revertant strain) were produced by the cotransfection of cells with the BAC and a DNA fragment encoding the wild-type TK sequence. Reconstituted recombinant viruses were compared to the wild-type parental virus in vitro and in vivo. The FL BAC revertant strain and the FL BAC-excised strain replicated comparably to the parental FL strain. The FL BAC revertant strain induced KHV infection in koi carp that was indistinguishable from that induced by the parental strain, while the FL BAC-excised strain exhibited a partially attenuated phenotype. Finally, the usefulness of the KHV BAC for recombination studies was demonstrated by the production of an ORF16-deleted strain by using prokaryotic recombination technology. The availability of the KHV BAC is an important advance that will allow the study of viral genes involved in KHV pathogenesis, as well as the production of attenuated recombinant candidate vaccines. PMID:18337580

  15. 白眉长臂猿基因组BAC文库的构建%Construction of Genome Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library of Hylobates Hoolock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王起明; 孙烨超; 厉申捷; 叶建平

    2015-01-01

    High quality genomic DNA of Hylobates hoolock was obtained by gentle physical homogenization. The DNA was partially digested with EcoRⅠand EcoRⅠmethylase, and cloned to pCC1BAC vector. The positive clones were stored in 384-well plates. The constructed BAC library consists of 85800 clones. DNA from randomly selected 250 BAC clones was restricted with Not I restriction enzyme and fragments were separated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The result shows that the average insert size is estimated as approximately 110 kb, and the ratio of non-recombinant clones is 10. 0%. If the genome size of Hylobates hoolock is 3 ×106 kilo-base, the library could cover 3 times the number of genome.%通过温和的物理方法获得白眉长臂猿高质量的基因组DNA,EcoRⅠ和EcoRⅠ甲基化酶部分酶切后经回收、连接、转化、阳性克隆的保存,构建了含有85800个克隆的全基因组BAC( Bacterial artificial chromosome)文库.随机选取250个BAC克隆进行Not I酶切及脉冲场电泳分析,结果表明该文库的平均插入片段大小为110 kb,非重组克隆(无插入片段)的比率为10.0%.假定白眉长臂猿的基因组大小为3×106 kb,根据文库的平均插入片段大小,则该文库具有3倍的基因组覆盖率.

  16. Insertion of reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat into a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of a very virulent Marek's disease virus alters its pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Jody K; Silva, Robert F; Kim, Taejoong; Fadly, Aly

    2012-01-01

    Co-cultivation of the JM/102W strain of Marek's disease virus (MDV) with reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) resulted in the generation of a recombinant MDV containing the REV long terminal repeat (LTR) named the RM1 strain of MDV, a strain that was highly attenuated for oncogenicity but induced severe bursal and thymic atrophy. We hypothesize that the phenotypic changes were solely due to the LTR insertion. Furthermore, we hypothesize that insertion of REV LTR into an analogous location in a different MDV would result in a similar phenotypic change. To test these hypotheses, we inserted the REV LTR into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of a very virulent strain of MDV, Md5, and designated the virus rMd5-RM1-LTR. The rMd5-RM1-LTR virus and the rMd5 virus were passaged in duck embryo fibroblast cells for up to 40 passages before pathogenicity studies. Susceptible chickens were inoculated intra-abdominally at hatch with the viruses rMd5-RM1-LTR, rMd5 BAC parental virus, wild-type strain Md5, or strain RM1 of MDV. The rMd5-RM1-LTR virus was attenuated at cell culture passage 40, whereas the rMd5 BAC without RM1 LTR retained its pathogenicity at cell culture passage 40. Using polymerase chain analysis, the RM1 LTR insert was detected in MDV isolated from buffy coat cells collected from chickens inoculated with rMd5-RM1-LTR, but only at 1 week post inoculation. The data suggest that the presence of the RM1 LTR insert within MDV genome for 1 week post inoculation with virus at hatch is sufficient to cause a reduction in pathogenicity of strain Md5 of MDV.

  17. AcEST: CL39Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL39Contig1 913 36 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL39contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL39C...ontig1 Contig ID CL39Contig1 Length 913 Number of clones 36 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL39c

  18. AcEST: CL89Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL89Contig1 651 21 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL89contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL89C...ontig1 Contig ID CL89Contig1 Length 651 Number of clones 21 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL89c

  19. AcEST: CL49Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL49Contig1 701 14 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL49contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL49C...ontig1 Contig ID CL49Contig1 Length 701 Number of clones 14 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL49c

  20. AcEST: CL59Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL59Contig1 769 28 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL59contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL59C...ontig1 Contig ID CL59Contig1 Length 769 Number of clones 28 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL59c

  1. AcEST: CL227Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL227Contig1 1060 9 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL227contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...27Contig1 Contig ID CL227Contig1 Length 1060 Number of clones 9 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2

  2. AcEST: CL22Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL22Contig1 1518 45 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL22contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...2Contig1 Contig ID CL22Contig1 Length 1518 Number of clones 45 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2

  3. AcEST: CL267Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL267Contig1 922 8 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL267contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...67Contig1 Contig ID CL267Contig1 Length 922 Number of clones 8 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2

  4. AcEST: CL270Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL270Contig1 687 7 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL270contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...70Contig1 Contig ID CL270Contig1 Length 687 Number of clones 7 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2

  5. AcEST: CL265Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL265Contig1 1000 8 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL265contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...65Contig1 Contig ID CL265Contig1 Length 1000 Number of clones 8 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2

  6. AcEST: CL230Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL230Contig1 829 9 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL230contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...30Contig1 Contig ID CL230Contig1 Length 829 Number of clones 9 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2

  7. AcEST: CL29Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL29Contig1 903 40 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL29contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...9Contig1 Contig ID CL29Contig1 Length 903 Number of clones 40 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2

  8. AcEST: CL253Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL253Contig1 644 8 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL253contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...53Contig1 Contig ID CL253Contig1 Length 644 Number of clones 8 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2

  9. AcEST: CL204Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL204Contig1 503 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL204contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...04Contig1 Contig ID CL204Contig1 Length 503 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2

  10. Construction of the Primary Physical Map of Rice Chromosome 12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A primary physical map of rice chromosome 12 was constructed using marker-based chromosome landing and chromosome walking. A BAC library from IR64 was screened using 84 RFLP markers, 4 STS markers and 6 microsatellite markers on chromosome 12 by colony hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. A total of 59 contigs consisting of 419 BAC clones including 5 single-clones were physically aligned on rice chromosome 12 with the largest BAC contig covering 855 kb. The whole physical map had a size of ~16 Mb and covered about 52% of rice chromosome 12. This physical map will be certainly helpful for map-based gene cloning of agronomically and biological important genes and understanding the genome structure of the chromosome.

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14427-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M) 6 Chromosome length 3595308 Start point 1680723 End point 1680896 Strand (PLUS/MINUS) PLUS Number of clo...M_Contig/Contig-U14427-1Q.Seq.d Length = 183 Score = 188 bits (95), Expect = 1e-48 Identities = 95/95 (100%) Strand..._Contig/Contig-U09104-1Q.Seq.d Length = 1120 Score = 42.1 bits (21), Expect = 2e-04 Identities = 21/21 (100%) Strand...ngth = 985 Score = 40.1 bits (20), Expect = 8e-04 Identities = 20/20 (100%) Strand = Plus / Minus Query: 38 ...ect = 2.9 Identities = 14/14 (100%) Strand = Plus / Minus Query: 38 attattattatta

  12. Identification of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) spanning the synovial sarcoma-specific t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) breakpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, B; Berger, W; Sinke, R J; Suijkerbuijk, R F; Gilgenkrantz, S; Geraghty, M T; Valle, D; Monaco, A P; Lehrach, H; Ropers, H H

    1993-01-01

    A somatic cell hybrid containing the synovial sarcoma-associated t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) derivative (der(X)) chromosome was used to characterize the translocation breakpoint region on the X chromosome. By using Southern hybridization of DNA from this der(X) hybrid in conjunction with Xp-region specific

  13. 染色体多态性对供精人工授精治疗结局的影响%Influence of chromosomal polymorphism on treatment outcome of artificial insemination by donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍园园; 郑立新; 祝小丽; 舒小妹; 郑炜炜

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the female chromosome polymorphism and the pregnancy outcome of artificial insemination by donors. Methods; The peripheral blood of patients was cultured rountinely for karotype analysis. Clinical pregnancy rate, cumulative pregnancy rate and early obortion rate were observed by treated patients with chromosomal polymorphism as the research group, and patients with normal chromosome as control group. Results: There was no significant difference in the clinical cycle pregnancy rate ( 19. 80% vs 19. 66% ) , cumulative pregnancy rate (44. 82% vs 41. 77% ) , early abortion rate ( 14. 58% vsl2. 07% ) between the two groups ( P > 0. 05 ) . Conclusion: Chromosomal polymorphism carrier status has no impact on treatment outcome of the patients receiving artificial insemination by donors.%目的 探讨女性染色体多态性与供精人工授精妊娠结局的关系.方法 对接受供精人工授精患者常规抽血行染色体检查,将发现有染色体多态的患者作为研究对象,与染色体正常群体对照,观察临床妊娠率、累积妊娠率和早期流产率.结果 染色体多态性组与正常组比较,临床周期妊娠率(19.80% vs 19.66%),累积妊娠率(44.82%vs 41.77%),早期流产率(14.58% vs12.07%),均无统计学差异(P>0.05).结论 染色体多态性携带状态不影响供精人工授精患者的治疗结局.

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05010-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ap Contig length 427 Chromosome number (1..6, M) - Chromosome length - Start point - End point - Strand (PLU...5 Identities = 119/119 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 218 catcacttaatcantnntc... bits (49), Expect = 9e-21 Identities = 52/52 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 45 aatatttttacaatatattctaaa... Identities = 44/44 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 151 aaaattattantnttcnnattttagtaactttgaatcaatttcc 194 ...re = 60.0 bits (30), Expect = 2e-09 Identities = 30/30 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plu

  15. AcEST: CL3499Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3499Contig1 690 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3499contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3499Contig1 Contig ID CL3499Contig1 Length 690 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3499contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK948868 DK95

  16. AcEST: CL3229Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3229Contig1 791 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3229contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3229Contig1 Contig ID CL3229Contig1 Length 791 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3229contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK955761 DK96

  17. AcEST: CL3989Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3989Contig1 550 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3989contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3989Contig1 Contig ID CL3989Contig1 Length 550 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3989contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK946923 DK94

  18. AcEST: CL3009Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3009Contig1 571 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3009contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3009Contig1 Contig ID CL3009Contig1 Length 571 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3009contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP919782 BP91

  19. AcEST: CL4019Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4019Contig1 513 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4019contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4019Contig1 Contig ID CL4019Contig1 Length 513 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4019contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917846 BP91

  20. AcEST: CL2239Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2239Contig1 915 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2239contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2239Contig1 Contig ID CL2239Contig1 Length 915 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2239contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914517 DK95

  1. AcEST: CL4009Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4009Contig1 530 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4009contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4009Contig1 Contig ID CL4009Contig1 Length 530 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4009contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917355 BP91

  2. AcEST: CL4249Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4249Contig1 797 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4249contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4249Contig1 Contig ID CL4249Contig1 Length 797 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4249contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK950942 DK95

  3. AcEST: CL4079Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4079Contig1 514 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4079contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4079Contig1 Contig ID CL4079Contig1 Length 514 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4079contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914721 BP91

  4. AcEST: CL1049Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1049Contig1 704 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1049contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1049Contig1 Contig ID CL1049Contig1 Length 704 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1049contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP919672 DK94

  5. AcEST: CL4179Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4179Contig1 659 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4179contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4179Contig1 Contig ID CL4179Contig1 Length 659 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4179contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK946839 DK96

  6. AcEST: CL2939Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2939Contig1 595 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2939contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2939Contig1 Contig ID CL2939Contig1 Length 595 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2939contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912753 BP91

  7. AcEST: CL2869Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2869Contig1 543 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2869contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2869Contig1 Contig ID CL2869Contig1 Length 543 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2869contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917758 BP92

  8. AcEST: CL4169Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4169Contig1 508 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4169contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4169Contig1 Contig ID CL4169Contig1 Length 508 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4169contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918892 BP92

  9. AcEST: CL4189Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4189Contig1 527 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4189contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4189Contig1 Contig ID CL4189Contig1 Length 527 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4189contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK953497 DK95

  10. AcEST: CL2199Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2199Contig1 746 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2199contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2199Contig1 Contig ID CL2199Contig1 Length 746 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2199contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913617 DK95

  11. AcEST: CL1929Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1929Contig1 684 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1929contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1929Contig1 Contig ID CL1929Contig1 Length 684 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1929contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913609 BP91

  12. AcEST: CL2179Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2179Contig1 509 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2179contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2179Contig1 Contig ID CL2179Contig1 Length 509 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2179contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920806 BP91

  13. AcEST: CL3249Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3249Contig1 549 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3249contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3249Contig1 Contig ID CL3249Contig1 Length 549 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3249contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914216 BP91

  14. AcEST: CL2109Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2109Contig1 462 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2109contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2109Contig1 Contig ID CL2109Contig1 Length 462 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2109contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917476 BP91

  15. AcEST: CL2269Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2269Contig1 735 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2269contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2269Contig1 Contig ID CL2269Contig1 Length 735 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2269contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915041 BP91

  16. AcEST: CL2379Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2379Contig1 634 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2379contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2379Contig1 Contig ID CL2379Contig1 Length 634 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2379contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914162 DK95

  17. AcEST: CL2009Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2009Contig1 630 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2009contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2009Contig1 Contig ID CL2009Contig1 Length 630 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2009contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917084 BP91

  18. AcEST: CL289Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL289Contig1 1247 8 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL289contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL289C...ontig1 Contig ID CL289Contig1 Length 1247 Number of clones 8 Definition Adiantum cap...illus-veneris contig: CL289contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918911 DK95600

  19. AcEST: CL3129Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3129Contig1 736 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3129contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3129Contig1 Contig ID CL3129Contig1 Length 736 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3129contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK957418 DK96

  20. AcEST: CL119Contig2 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL119Contig2 1799 9 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL119contig2 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL119C...ontig2 Contig ID CL119Contig2 Length 1799 Number of clones 9 Definition Adiantum cap...illus-veneris contig: CL119contig2 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916247 BP92045

  1. AcEST: CL209Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL209Contig1 887 10 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL209contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL209C...ontig1 Contig ID CL209Contig1 Length 887 Number of clones 10 Definition Adiantum cap...illus-veneris contig: CL209contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK946036 DK94588

  2. AcEST: CL2049Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2049Contig1 590 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2049contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2049Contig1 Contig ID CL2049Contig1 Length 590 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2049contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915153 BP92

  3. AcEST: CL3879Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3879Contig1 724 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3879contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3879Contig1 Contig ID CL3879Contig1 Length 724 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3879contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912314 BP91

  4. AcEST: CL2519Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2519Contig1 671 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2519contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2519Contig1 Contig ID CL2519Contig1 Length 671 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2519contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK945822 DK95

  5. AcEST: CL1749Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1749Contig1 432 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1749contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1749Contig1 Contig ID CL1749Contig1 Length 432 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1749contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918055 BP91

  6. AcEST: CL1859Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1859Contig1 551 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1859contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1859Contig1 Contig ID CL1859Contig1 Length 551 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1859contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP911746 BP91

  7. AcEST: CL2629Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2629Contig1 552 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2629contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2629Contig1 Contig ID CL2629Contig1 Length 552 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2629contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916663 BP92

  8. AcEST: CL3749Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3749Contig1 529 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3749contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3749Contig1 Contig ID CL3749Contig1 Length 529 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3749contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912718 BP91

  9. AcEST: CL3239Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3239Contig1 584 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3239contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3239Contig1 Contig ID CL3239Contig1 Length 584 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3239contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914227 BP91

  10. AcEST: CL1679Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1679Contig1 879 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1679contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1679Contig1 Contig ID CL1679Contig1 Length 879 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1679contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912652 BP91

  11. AcEST: CL3819Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3819Contig1 519 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3819contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3819Contig1 Contig ID CL3819Contig1 Length 519 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3819contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920148 BP92

  12. AcEST: CL4209Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4209Contig1 573 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4209contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4209Contig1 Contig ID CL4209Contig1 Length 573 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4209contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP911729 BP91

  13. AcEST: CL139Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL139Contig1 724 15 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL139contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL139C...ontig1 Contig ID CL139Contig1 Length 724 Number of clones 15 Definition Adiantum cap...illus-veneris contig: CL139contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920076 DK94821

  14. AcEST: CL1109Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1109Contig1 592 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1109contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1109Contig1 Contig ID CL1109Contig1 Length 592 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1109contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912925 BP91

  15. AcEST: CL3119Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3119Contig1 745 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3119contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3119Contig1 Contig ID CL3119Contig1 Length 745 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3119contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918231 DK95

  16. AcEST: CL2019Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2019Contig1 584 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2019contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2019Contig1 Contig ID CL2019Contig1 Length 584 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2019contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912181 BP91

  17. AcEST: CL3319Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3319Contig1 535 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3319contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3319Contig1 Contig ID CL3319Contig1 Length 535 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3319contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK945469 DK94

  18. AcEST: CL1439Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1439Contig1 670 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1439contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1439Contig1 Contig ID CL1439Contig1 Length 670 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1439contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918356 DK95

  19. AcEST: CL4259Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4259Contig1 520 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4259contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4259Contig1 Contig ID CL4259Contig1 Length 520 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4259contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP921312 BP91

  20. AcEST: CL1999Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1999Contig1 785 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1999contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1999Contig1 Contig ID CL1999Contig1 Length 785 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1999contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK952297 DK95

  1. AcEST: CL2059Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2059Contig1 889 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2059contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2059Contig1 Contig ID CL2059Contig1 Length 889 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2059contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917351 BP91

  2. AcEST: CL3049Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3049Contig1 684 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3049contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3049Contig1 Contig ID CL3049Contig1 Length 684 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3049contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK957598 DK95

  3. AcEST: CL3429Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3429Contig1 693 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3429contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3429Contig1 Contig ID CL3429Contig1 Length 693 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3429contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK948061 DK95

  4. AcEST: CL4069Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4069Contig1 719 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4069contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4069Contig1 Contig ID CL4069Contig1 Length 719 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4069contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK953252 DK95

  5. AcEST: CL3069Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3069Contig1 683 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3069contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3069Contig1 Contig ID CL3069Contig1 Length 683 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3069contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK948634 DK96

  6. AcEST: CL2999Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2999Contig1 581 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2999contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2999Contig1 Contig ID CL2999Contig1 Length 581 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2999contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK957259 DK95

  7. AcEST: CL2799Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2799Contig1 939 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2799contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2799Contig1 Contig ID CL2799Contig1 Length 939 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2799contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912108 DK95

  8. AcEST: CL4059Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4059Contig1 629 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4059contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4059Contig1 Contig ID CL4059Contig1 Length 629 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4059contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK952423 BP91

  9. AcEST: CL3569Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3569Contig1 705 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3569contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3569Contig1 Contig ID CL3569Contig1 Length 705 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3569contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK953048 DK95

  10. AcEST: CL4239Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4239Contig1 526 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4239contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4239Contig1 Contig ID CL4239Contig1 Length 526 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4239contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914138 BP91

  11. AcEST: CL4029Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4029Contig1 668 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4029contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4029Contig1 Contig ID CL4029Contig1 Length 668 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4029contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917248 DK95

  12. AcEST: CL3139Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3139Contig1 584 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3139contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3139Contig1 Contig ID CL3139Contig1 Length 584 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3139contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913382 BP91

  13. AcEST: CL1259Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1259Contig1 722 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1259contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1259Contig1 Contig ID CL1259Contig1 Length 722 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1259contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK952711 DK95

  14. AcEST: CL1079Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1079Contig1 623 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1079contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1079Contig1 Contig ID CL1079Contig1 Length 623 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1079contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915698 BP91

  15. AcEST: CL2249Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2249Contig1 486 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2249contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2249Contig1 Contig ID CL2249Contig1 Length 486 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2249contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918790 BP92

  16. AcEST: CL109Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL109Contig1 546 18 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL109contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL109C...ontig1 Contig ID CL109Contig1 Length 546 Number of clones 18 Definition Adiantum cap...illus-veneris contig: CL109contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK945962 DK94394

  17. AcEST: CL3709Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3709Contig1 496 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3709contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3709Contig1 Contig ID CL3709Contig1 Length 496 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3709contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920778 BP92

  18. AcEST: CL3639Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3639Contig1 565 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3639contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3639Contig1 Contig ID CL3639Contig1 Length 565 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3639contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912278 BP91

  19. AcEST: CL4149Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4149Contig1 681 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4149contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4149Contig1 Contig ID CL4149Contig1 Length 681 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4149contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK953002 DK95

  20. AcEST: CL3169Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3169Contig1 578 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3169contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3169Contig1 Contig ID CL3169Contig1 Length 578 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3169contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK945610 DK95

  1. AcEST: CL2449Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2449Contig1 677 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2449contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2449Contig1 Contig ID CL2449Contig1 Length 677 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2449contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912531 BP91

  2. AcEST: CL3179Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3179Contig1 541 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3179contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3179Contig1 Contig ID CL3179Contig1 Length 541 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3179contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916723 BP92

  3. AcEST: CL1989Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1989Contig1 569 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1989contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1989Contig1 Contig ID CL1989Contig1 Length 569 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1989contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916431 BP91

  4. AcEST: CL1189Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1189Contig1 769 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1189contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1189Contig1 Contig ID CL1189Contig1 Length 769 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1189contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK955823 DK94

  5. AcEST: CL4129Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4129Contig1 580 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4129contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4129Contig1 Contig ID CL4129Contig1 Length 580 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4129contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920361 BP91

  6. AcEST: CL4219Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4219Contig1 746 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4219contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4219Contig1 Contig ID CL4219Contig1 Length 746 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4219contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK954211 DK95

  7. AcEST: CL1499Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1499Contig1 685 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1499contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1499Contig1 Contig ID CL1499Contig1 Length 685 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1499contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK951279 DK95

  8. AcEST: CL2689Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2689Contig1 977 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2689contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2689Contig1 Contig ID CL2689Contig1 Length 977 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2689contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916904 DK95

  9. AcEST: CL1329Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1329Contig1 918 3 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1329contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1329Contig1 Contig ID CL1329Contig1 Length 918 Number of clones 3 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1329contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK957626 DK94

  10. AcEST: CL3309Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3309Contig1 739 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3309contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3309Contig1 Contig ID CL3309Contig1 Length 739 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3309contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK950644 DK95

  11. AcEST: CL1889Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1889Contig1 491 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1889contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL1889Contig1 Contig ID CL1889Contig1 Length 491 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1889contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP919609 BP91

  12. AcEST: CL3059Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3059Contig1 695 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3059contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3059Contig1 Contig ID CL3059Contig1 Length 695 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3059contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK954354 DK95

  13. AcEST: CL2119Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2119Contig1 448 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2119contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2119Contig1 Contig ID CL2119Contig1 Length 448 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2119contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK944112 DK94

  14. AcEST: CL4199Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL4199Contig1 587 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL4199contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL4199Contig1 Contig ID CL4199Contig1 Length 587 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL4199contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913316 BP91

  15. AcEST: CL2069Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2069Contig1 568 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2069contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL2069Contig1 Contig ID CL2069Contig1 Length 568 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2069contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916627 BP92

  16. AcEST: CL3209Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3209Contig1 759 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3209contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3209Contig1 Contig ID CL3209Contig1 Length 759 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3209contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP921454 DK94

  17. AcEST: CL3019Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3019Contig1 749 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3019contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3019Contig1 Contig ID CL3019Contig1 Length 749 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3019contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK948832 DK95

  18. AcEST: CL3029Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3029Contig1 796 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3029contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3029Contig1 Contig ID CL3029Contig1 Length 796 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3029contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK951643 DK95

  19. AcEST: CL3389Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3389Contig1 639 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3389contig1 sequence. Link ...to clone list Show CL3389Contig1 Contig ID CL3389Contig1 Length 639 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3389contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK959149 DK96

  20. AcEST: CL2016Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2016Contig1 715 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2016contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2016...Contig1 Contig ID CL2016Contig1 Length 715 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2016contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK957912 DK95

  1. AcEST: CL2015Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2015Contig1 803 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2015contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2015...Contig1 Contig ID CL2015Contig1 Length 803 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2015contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK945591 DK94

  2. AcEST: CL2212Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2212Contig1 501 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2212contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...212Contig1 Contig ID CL2212Contig1 Length 501 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2212contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914042 BP91

  3. AcEST: CL2681Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2681Contig1 555 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2681contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...681Contig1 Contig ID CL2681Contig1 Length 555 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2681contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP911531 BP91

  4. AcEST: CL2393Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2393Contig1 527 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2393contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...393Contig1 Contig ID CL2393Contig1 Length 527 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2393contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915519 BP92

  5. AcEST: CL2065Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2065Contig1 463 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2065contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...065Contig1 Contig ID CL2065Contig1 Length 463 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2065contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916982 BP91

  6. AcEST: CL2343Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2343Contig1 904 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2343contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...343Contig1 Contig ID CL2343Contig1 Length 904 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2343contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916643 BP92

  7. AcEST: CL2295Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2295Contig1 482 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2295contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...295Contig1 Contig ID CL2295Contig1 Length 482 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2295contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916151 BP91

  8. AcEST: CL2861Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2861Contig1 1048 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2861contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...861Contig1 Contig ID CL2861Contig1 Length 1048 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2861contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912360 DK

  9. AcEST: CL2488Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2488Contig1 839 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2488contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...488Contig1 Contig ID CL2488Contig1 Length 839 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2488contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914436 BP92

  10. AcEST: CL2498Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2498Contig1 827 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2498contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...498Contig1 Contig ID CL2498Contig1 Length 827 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2498contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917993 DK95

  11. AcEST: CL2142Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2142Contig1 782 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2142contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...142Contig1 Contig ID CL2142Contig1 Length 782 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2142contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916901 DK95

  12. AcEST: CL2617Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2617Contig1 729 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2617contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...617Contig1 Contig ID CL2617Contig1 Length 729 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2617contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913961 BP92

  13. AcEST: CL2603Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2603Contig1 1169 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2603contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...603Contig1 Contig ID CL2603Contig1 Length 1169 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2603contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK953431 DK

  14. AcEST: CL215Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL215Contig1 2114 10 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL215contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...15Contig1 Contig ID CL215Contig1 Length 2114 Number of clones 10 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL215contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK951912 DK946

  15. AcEST: CL2928Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2928Contig1 682 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2928contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...928Contig1 Contig ID CL2928Contig1 Length 682 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2928contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915131 BP91

  16. AcEST: CL2738Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2738Contig1 1072 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2738contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...738Contig1 Contig ID CL2738Contig1 Length 1072 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2738contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915383 DK

  17. AcEST: CL2966Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2966Contig1 535 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2966contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...966Contig1 Contig ID CL2966Contig1 Length 535 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2966contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP919897 BP91

  18. AcEST: CL2655Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2655Contig1 503 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2655contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...655Contig1 Contig ID CL2655Contig1 Length 503 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2655contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912162 BP91

  19. AcEST: CL2370Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2370Contig1 760 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2370contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...370Contig1 Contig ID CL2370Contig1 Length 760 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2370contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913325 BP92

  20. AcEST: CL2500Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2500Contig1 581 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2500contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...500Contig1 Contig ID CL2500Contig1 Length 581 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2500contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK959826 DK96

  1. AcEST: CL2175Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2175Contig1 778 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2175contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...175Contig1 Contig ID CL2175Contig1 Length 778 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2175contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912837 DK95

  2. AcEST: CL2320Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2320Contig1 934 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2320contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...320Contig1 Contig ID CL2320Contig1 Length 934 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2320contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912683 DK96

  3. AcEST: CL2823Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2823Contig1 925 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2823contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...823Contig1 Contig ID CL2823Contig1 Length 925 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2823contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917209 DK94

  4. AcEST: CL2070Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2070Contig1 676 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2070contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...070Contig1 Contig ID CL2070Contig1 Length 676 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2070contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918735 DK94

  5. AcEST: CL2027Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2027Contig1 482 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2027contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...027Contig1 Contig ID CL2027Contig1 Length 482 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2027contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916735 BP91

  6. AcEST: CL2425Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2425Contig1 711 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2425contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...425Contig1 Contig ID CL2425Contig1 Length 711 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2425contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK948390 DK95

  7. AcEST: CL2533Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2533Contig1 1096 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2533contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...533Contig1 Contig ID CL2533Contig1 Length 1096 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2533contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK955367 DK

  8. AcEST: CL2535Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2535Contig1 260 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2535contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...535Contig1 Contig ID CL2535Contig1 Length 260 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2535contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920973 BP92

  9. AcEST: CL2683Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2683Contig1 1040 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2683contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...683Contig1 Contig ID CL2683Contig1 Length 1040 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2683contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920353 DK

  10. AcEST: CL2573Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2573Contig1 542 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2573contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...573Contig1 Contig ID CL2573Contig1 Length 542 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2573contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914432 BP92

  11. AcEST: CL2453Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2453Contig1 859 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2453contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...453Contig1 Contig ID CL2453Contig1 Length 859 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2453contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917255 DK95

  12. AcEST: CL2067Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2067Contig1 571 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2067contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...067Contig1 Contig ID CL2067Contig1 Length 571 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2067contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912097 BP91

  13. AcEST: CL2846Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2846Contig1 794 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2846contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...846Contig1 Contig ID CL2846Contig1 Length 794 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2846contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915179 BP92

  14. AcEST: CL2210Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2210Contig1 715 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2210contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...210Contig1 Contig ID CL2210Contig1 Length 715 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2210contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK943758 DK95

  15. AcEST: CL2753Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2753Contig1 543 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2753contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...753Contig1 Contig ID CL2753Contig1 Length 543 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2753contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912326 BP91

  16. AcEST: CL2798Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2798Contig1 577 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2798contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...798Contig1 Contig ID CL2798Contig1 Length 577 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2798contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916706 BP92

  17. AcEST: CL2177Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2177Contig1 559 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2177contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...177Contig1 Contig ID CL2177Contig1 Length 559 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2177contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912603 BP91

  18. AcEST: CL2821Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2821Contig1 683 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2821contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...821Contig1 Contig ID CL2821Contig1 Length 683 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2821contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920051 DK96

  19. AcEST: CL2367Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2367Contig1 716 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2367contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...367Contig1 Contig ID CL2367Contig1 Length 716 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2367contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912235 BP91

  20. AcEST: CL2032Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2032Contig1 517 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2032contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...032Contig1 Contig ID CL2032Contig1 Length 517 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2032contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918977 DK94

  1. AcEST: CL2933Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2933Contig1 686 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2933contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...933Contig1 Contig ID CL2933Contig1 Length 686 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2933contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK959920 DK96

  2. AcEST: CL2856Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2856Contig1 403 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2856contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...856Contig1 Contig ID CL2856Contig1 Length 403 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2856contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912144 BP91

  3. AcEST: CL2463Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2463Contig1 432 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2463contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...463Contig1 Contig ID CL2463Contig1 Length 432 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2463contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912920 BP91

  4. AcEST: CL2315Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2315Contig1 1068 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2315contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...315Contig1 Contig ID CL2315Contig1 Length 1068 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2315contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK948790 DK

  5. AcEST: CL2713Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2713Contig1 504 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2713contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...713Contig1 Contig ID CL2713Contig1 Length 504 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2713contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912885 BP91

  6. AcEST: CL2283Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2283Contig1 1088 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2283contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...283Contig1 Contig ID CL2283Contig1 Length 1088 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2283contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK948856 DK

  7. AcEST: CL2678Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2678Contig1 873 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2678contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...678Contig1 Contig ID CL2678Contig1 Length 873 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2678contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK952476 DK95

  8. AcEST: CL2931Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2931Contig1 704 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2931contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...931Contig1 Contig ID CL2931Contig1 Length 704 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2931contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915200 BP91

  9. AcEST: CL2873Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2873Contig1 604 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2873contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...873Contig1 Contig ID CL2873Contig1 Length 604 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2873contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914182 BP91

  10. AcEST: CL2818Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2818Contig1 611 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2818contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...818Contig1 Contig ID CL2818Contig1 Length 611 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2818contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920155 DK95

  11. AcEST: CL2791Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2791Contig1 484 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2791contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...791Contig1 Contig ID CL2791Contig1 Length 484 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2791contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920886 BP91

  12. AcEST: CL2260Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2260Contig1 565 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2260contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...260Contig1 Contig ID CL2260Contig1 Length 565 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2260contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917578 BP91

  13. AcEST: CL2751Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2751Contig1 885 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2751contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...751Contig1 Contig ID CL2751Contig1 Length 885 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2751contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK953070 DK96

  14. AcEST: CL2355Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2355Contig1 527 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2355contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...355Contig1 Contig ID CL2355Contig1 Length 527 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2355contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915676 BP92

  15. AcEST: CL2510Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2510Contig1 854 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2510contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...510Contig1 Contig ID CL2510Contig1 Length 854 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2510contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920473 BP92

  16. AcEST: CL2222Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2222Contig1 540 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2222contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...222Contig1 Contig ID CL2222Contig1 Length 540 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2222contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP919671 DK95

  17. AcEST: CL2896Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2896Contig1 559 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2896contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...896Contig1 Contig ID CL2896Contig1 Length 559 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2896contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918886 BP91

  18. AcEST: CL2180Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2180Contig1 665 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2180contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...180Contig1 Contig ID CL2180Contig1 Length 665 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2180contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917015 DK95

  19. AcEST: CL2568Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2568Contig1 603 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2568contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...568Contig1 Contig ID CL2568Contig1 Length 603 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2568contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914644 BP91

  20. AcEST: CL2571Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2571Contig1 788 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2571contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...571Contig1 Contig ID CL2571Contig1 Length 788 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2571contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914683 BP91

  1. AcEST: CL2140Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2140Contig1 528 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2140contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...140Contig1 Contig ID CL2140Contig1 Length 528 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2140contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP911849 BP91

  2. AcEST: CL2430Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2430Contig1 790 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2430contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...430Contig1 Contig ID CL2430Contig1 Length 790 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2430contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917565 DK96

  3. AcEST: CL2427Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2427Contig1 389 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2427contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...427Contig1 Contig ID CL2427Contig1 Length 389 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2427contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918213 BP92

  4. AcEST: CL2643Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2643Contig1 708 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2643contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...643Contig1 Contig ID CL2643Contig1 Length 708 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2643contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913636 BP91

  5. AcEST: CL2137Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2137Contig1 805 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2137contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...137Contig1 Contig ID CL2137Contig1 Length 805 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2137contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913369 DK94

  6. AcEST: CL2395Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2395Contig1 929 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2395contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...395Contig1 Contig ID CL2395Contig1 Length 929 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2395contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920655 DK95

  7. AcEST: CL2207Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2207Contig1 750 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2207contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...207Contig1 Contig ID CL2207Contig1 Length 750 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2207contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918838 DK94

  8. AcEST: CL2786Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2786Contig1 800 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2786contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...786Contig1 Contig ID CL2786Contig1 Length 800 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2786contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920244 DK94

  9. AcEST: CL2317Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2317Contig1 541 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2317contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...317Contig1 Contig ID CL2317Contig1 Length 541 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2317contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917682 BP91

  10. AcEST: CL2905Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2905Contig1 508 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2905contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...905Contig1 Contig ID CL2905Contig1 Length 508 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2905contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918928 BP91

  11. AcEST: CL2523Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2523Contig1 562 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2523contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...523Contig1 Contig ID CL2523Contig1 Length 562 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2523contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920992 DK96

  12. AcEST: CL2285Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2285Contig1 807 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2285contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...285Contig1 Contig ID CL2285Contig1 Length 807 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2285contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914617 DK94

  13. AcEST: CL2102Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2102Contig1 758 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2102contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...102Contig1 Contig ID CL2102Contig1 Length 758 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2102contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914542 BP91

  14. AcEST: CL2030Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2030Contig1 559 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2030contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...030Contig1 Contig ID CL2030Contig1 Length 559 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2030contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913053 BP91

  15. AcEST: CL2381Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2381Contig1 508 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2381contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...381Contig1 Contig ID CL2381Contig1 Length 508 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2381contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP912877 BP92

  16. AcEST: CL2858Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2858Contig1 857 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2858contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...858Contig1 Contig ID CL2858Contig1 Length 857 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2858contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK953967 DK95

  17. AcEST: CL2605Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2605Contig1 495 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2605contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...605Contig1 Contig ID CL2605Contig1 Length 495 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2605contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916819 BP92

  18. AcEST: CL2748Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2748Contig1 706 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2748contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...748Contig1 Contig ID CL2748Contig1 Length 706 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2748contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914439 BP91

  19. AcEST: CL2029Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2029Contig1 489 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2029contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...029Contig1 Contig ID CL2029Contig1 Length 489 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2029contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK947409 BP91

  20. AcEST: CL2257Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2257Contig1 1075 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2257contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...257Contig1 Contig ID CL2257Contig1 Length 1075 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2257contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK949703 DK

  1. AcEST: CL2788Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2788Contig1 614 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2788contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...788Contig1 Contig ID CL2788Contig1 Length 614 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2788contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914783 BP91

  2. AcEST: CL2250Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2250Contig1 403 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2250contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...250Contig1 Contig ID CL2250Contig1 Length 403 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2250contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP919205 BP92

  3. AcEST: CL2209Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2209Contig1 880 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2209contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...209Contig1 Contig ID CL2209Contig1 Length 880 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2209contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913872 DK94

  4. AcEST: CL2715Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2715Contig1 806 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2715contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...715Contig1 Contig ID CL2715Contig1 Length 806 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2715contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP913565 DK95

  5. AcEST: CL2139Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2139Contig1 481 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2139contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...139Contig1 Contig ID CL2139Contig1 Length 481 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2139contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916823 BP92

  6. AcEST: CL2971Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2971Contig1 1029 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2971contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...971Contig1 Contig ID CL2971Contig1 Length 1029 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2971contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK951083 DK

  7. AcEST: CL2968Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2968Contig1 554 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2968contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...968Contig1 Contig ID CL2968Contig1 Length 554 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2968contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP919866 BP91

  8. AcEST: CL2245Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2245Contig1 1056 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2245contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...245Contig1 Contig ID CL2245Contig1 Length 1056 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2245contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP917210 DK

  9. AcEST: CL2703Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2703Contig1 417 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2703contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...703Contig1 Contig ID CL2703Contig1 Length 417 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2703contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP916144 BP91

  10. AcEST: CL2465Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2465Contig1 1181 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2465contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...465Contig1 Contig ID CL2465Contig1 Length 1181 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2465contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK954174 DK

  11. AcEST: CL2247Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2247Contig1 1020 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2247contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...247Contig1 Contig ID CL2247Contig1 Length 1020 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2247contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK948571 DK

  12. AcEST: CL2628Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2628Contig1 555 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2628contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2...628Contig1 Contig ID CL2628Contig1 Length 555 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2628contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP920586 BP92

  13. AcEST: CL1984Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1984Contig1 553 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1984contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL1984...Contig1 Contig ID CL1984Contig1 Length 553 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1984contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP919579 DK94

  14. AcEST: CL1980Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1980Contig1 668 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1980contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL1980...Contig1 Contig ID CL1980Contig1 Length 668 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1980contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918473 BP92

  15. AcEST: CL3000Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL3000Contig1 615 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL3000contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL3000...Contig1 Contig ID CL3000Contig1 Length 615 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL3000contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK945747 DK94

  16. AcEST: CL1941Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL1941Contig1 803 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL1941contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL1941...Contig1 Contig ID CL1941Contig1 Length 803 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL1941contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID DK952552 DK95

  17. AcEST: CL2004Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2004Contig1 1142 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2004contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL200...4Contig1 Contig ID CL2004Contig1 Length 1142 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum... capillus-veneris contig: CL2004contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP918795 DK

  18. AcEST: CL2333Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2333Contig1 424 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2333contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2333...Contig1 Contig ID CL2333Contig1 Length 424 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2333contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP914560 BP91

  19. AcEST: CL2204Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL2204Contig1 498 2 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL2204contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL2204...Contig1 Contig ID CL2204Contig1 Length 498 Number of clones 2 Definition Adiantum c...apillus-veneris contig: CL2204contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Link to clone list Clone ID BP915725 BP91

  20. Assembly and sorting of homologous BAC contigs in allotetraploid cotton genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) is a diploidized allopolyploid species containing At and Dt sub-genomes that have partial homology. Assembly and sorting of homologous BAC contigs into their subgenomes and further to individual chromosomes are of both great interest and great challenge for genome-wide i...

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16120-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available parum strain PAK1 from Pakistan C... 32 6.1 3 ( AC115598 ) Dictyostelium discoideum chromosome 2 map 581427-... 18 ( AM479077 ) Vitis vinifera contig VV78X034366.12, whole genom... 40 6.1 5 ( AF134695 ) Plasmodium falci

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09340-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available olanum lycopersicum cv. Heinz 1706, chromosome 0... 44 5.7 1 ( DD147007 ) A method for assaying an inhibitor...31 ) Vitis vinifera contig VV78X115648.4, whole genome... 44 5.7 1 ( AC212306 ) S

  3. AcEST: CL889Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL889Contig1 598 4 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL889contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL889C...ontig1 Contig ID CL889Contig1 Length 598 Number of clones 4 Definition Adiantum capil

  4. AcEST: CL959Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL959Contig1 659 4 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL959contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL959C...ontig1 Contig ID CL959Contig1 Length 659 Number of clones 4 Definition Adiantum capil

  5. AcEST: CL49Contig2 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL49Contig2 1080 13 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL49contig2 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL49C...ontig2 Contig ID CL49Contig2 Length 1080 Number of clones 13 Definition Adiantum capil

  6. AcEST: CL719Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL719Contig1 679 4 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL719contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL719C...ontig1 Contig ID CL719Contig1 Length 679 Number of clones 4 Definition Adiantum capil

  7. AcEST: CL469Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL469Contig1 501 6 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL469contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL469C...ontig1 Contig ID CL469Contig1 Length 501 Number of clones 6 Definition Adiantum capil

  8. AcEST: CL359Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL359Contig1 717 7 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL359contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL359C...ontig1 Contig ID CL359Contig1 Length 717 Number of clones 7 Definition Adiantum capil

  9. AcEST: CL779Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL779Contig1 980 4 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL779contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL779C...ontig1 Contig ID CL779Contig1 Length 980 Number of clones 4 Definition Adiantum capil

  10. AcEST: CL609Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL609Contig1 522 5 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL609contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL609C...ontig1 Contig ID CL609Contig1 Length 522 Number of clones 5 Definition Adiantum capil

  11. AcEST: CL99Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL99Contig1 1138 14 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL99contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL99C...ontig1 Contig ID CL99Contig1 Length 1138 Number of clones 14 Definition Adiantum capil

  12. AcEST: CL539Contig1 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CL539Contig1 774 5 Adiantum capillus-veneris contig: CL539contig1 sequence. Link to clone list Show CL539C...ontig1 Contig ID CL539Contig1 Length 774 Number of clones 5 Definition Adiantum capil

  13. High-resolution physical map for chromosome 16q12.1-q13, the Blau syndrome locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonavita Gina

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Blau syndrome (MIM 186580, an autosomal dominant granulomatous disease, was previously mapped to chromosome 16p12-q21. However, inconsistent physical maps of the region and consequently an unknown order of microsatellite markers, hampered us from further refining the genetic locus for the Blau syndrome. To address this problem, we constructed our own high-resolution physical map for the Blau susceptibility region. Results We generated a high-resolution physical map that provides more than 90% coverage of a refined Blau susceptibility region. The map consists of four contigs of sequence tagged site-based bacterial artificial chromosomes with a total of 124 bacterial artificial chromosomes, and spans approximately 7.5 Mbp; however, three gaps still exist in this map with sizes of 425, 530 and 375 kbp, respectively, estimated from radiation hybrid mapping. Conclusions Our high-resolution map will assist genetic studies of loci in the interval from D16S3080, near D16S409, and D16S408 (16q12.1 to 16q13.

  14. Physical mapping of a large plant genome using global high-information-content-fingerprinting: the distal region of the wheat ancestor Aegilops tauschii chromosome 3DS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Frank M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical maps employing libraries of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones are essential for comparative genomics and sequencing of large and repetitive genomes such as those of the hexaploid bread wheat. The diploid ancestor of the D-genome of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, Aegilops tauschii, is used as a resource for wheat genomics. The barley diploid genome also provides a good model for the Triticeae and T. aestivum since it is only slightly larger than the ancestor wheat D genome. Gene co-linearity between the grasses can be exploited by extrapolating from rice and Brachypodium distachyon to Ae. tauschii or barley, and then to wheat. Results We report the use of Ae. tauschii for the construction of the physical map of a large distal region of chromosome arm 3DS. A physical map of 25.4 Mb was constructed by anchoring BAC clones of Ae. tauschii with 85 EST on the Ae. tauschii and barley genetic maps. The 24 contigs were aligned to the rice and B. distachyon genomic sequences and a high density SNP genetic map of barley. As expected, the mapped region is highly collinear to the orthologous chromosome 1 in rice, chromosome 2 in B. distachyon and chromosome 3H in barley. However, the chromosome scale of the comparative maps presented provides new insights into grass genome organization. The disruptions of the Ae. tauschii-rice and Ae. tauschii-Brachypodium syntenies were identical. We observed chromosomal rearrangements between Ae. tauschii and barley. The comparison of Ae. tauschii physical and genetic maps showed that the recombination rate across the region dropped from 2.19 cM/Mb in the distal region to 0.09 cM/Mb in the proximal region. The size of the gaps between contigs was evaluated by comparing the recombination rate along the map with the local recombination rates calculated on single contigs. Conclusions The physical map reported here is the first physical map using fingerprinting of a complete

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06182-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6, M) 5 Chromosome length 5062330 Start point 3210801 End point 3210986 Strand (PLUS/MINUS) PLUS Number of c...-35 Identities = 72/72 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 80 tttcgacaacaatccaaattggtaataaaaataatgatatagttact...||||| Sbjct: 140 taattaaataat 151 Score = 129 bits (65), Expect = 1e-30 Identities = 65/65 (100%) Strand = P... /CSM_Contig/Contig-U13650-1Q.Seq.d Length = 659 Score = 56.0 bits (28), Expect = 1e-08 Identities = 31/32 (96%) Strand...3 Identities = 22/23 (95%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 4 caccaacaacaacaaaaacaaca 26 ||||||||||||||| |||||||

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16510-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (1..6, M) - Chromosome length - Start point - End point - Strand (PLUS/MINUS) - ...1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U16510-1Q.Seq.d Length = 4601 Score = 890 bits (449), Expect = 0.0 Identities = 449/449 (100%) Strand... 0.0 Identities = 448/448 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 1 tcaaccatcgcaggctcaaccatcgcttcaattgcttctactatt... tcatcaagctctgcccccatcttcatct 448 Score = 761 bits (384), Expect = 0.0 Identities = 384/384 (100%) Strand...||| Sbjct: 3112 aaaatttatattaaattttatttt 3135 Score = 442 bits (223), Expect = e-123 Identities = 223/223 (100%) Strand

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16575-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available umber (1..6, M) 1 Chromosome length 4919822 Start point 4570803 End point 4569342 Strand (PLUS/MINUS) MINUS ...6575-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U16575-1Q.Seq.d Length = 1462 Score = 329 bits (166), Expect = 7e-90 Identities = 166/166 (100%) Strand...atcaacttcattattatcagcacaagcaatttcagc 388 Score = 121 bits (61), Expect = 3e-27 Identities = 61/61 (100%) Strand...= 8e-25 Identities = 57/57 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 663 gaattggctgataaattagagaaagaacgtcaagagaaagag... Identities = 52/54 (96%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 663 gaattggctgataaattagagaaagaacgtcaagagaaagagttggctga

  18. Construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Stevens and its application to physically map the Sw-5 locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassova, MI; Prins, M; Stevens, MR; Hille, J; Goldbach, RW; Spassova, Mariana I.; Stevens, Mikel R.; Goldbach, Rob W.

    1999-01-01

    The Sw-5 gene is a dominantly inherited resistance gene in tomato and functional against a number of tospovirus species. The gene has been mapped on chromosome 9, tightly linked to RFLP markers CT220 and SCAR421. To analyse the Sw-5 locus, a BAC genomic library was constructed of tomato cv. Stevens,

  19. Identification of a yeast artificial chromosome that spans the human papillary renal cell carcinoma-associated t(X;1) breakpoint in Xp11.2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijkerbuijk, R F; Meloni, A M; Sinke, R J; de Leeuw, B; Wilbrink, M; Janssen, H A; Geraghty, M T; Monaco, A P; Sandberg, A A; Geurts van Kessel, A

    1993-01-01

    Recently, a specific chromosome abnormality, t(X;1)(p11;q21), was described for a subgroup of human papillary renal cell carcinomas. The translocation breakpoint in Xp11 is located in the same region as that in t(X;18)(p11;q11)-positive synovial sarcoma. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization (F

  20. Estimation of long-terminal repeat element content in the Helicoverpa zea genome from next generation sequencing of reduced representation bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lepidopteran pest insect, Helicoverpa zea, feeds on cultivated corn and cotton crops in North America where control remains challenging due to evolution of resistance to chemical and transgenic insecticidal toxins, yet few genomic resources are available for this species. A bacterial artificial...

  1. Diagnosis and Prognostication of Ductal Adenocarcinomas of the Pancreas Based on Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiling by Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Array-Based Methylated CpG Island Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Gotoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish diagnostic criteria for ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas (PCs, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC array-based methylated CpG island amplification was performed using 139 tissue samples. Twelve BAC clones, for which DNA methylation status was able to discriminate cancerous tissue (T from noncancerous pancreatic tissue in the learning cohort with a specificity of 100%, were identified. Using criteria that combined the 12 BAC clones, T-samples were diagnosed as cancers with 100% sensitivity and specificity in both the learning and validation cohorts. DNA methylation status on 11 of the BAC clones, which was able to discriminate patients showing early relapse from those with no relapse in the learning cohort with 100% specificity, was correlated with the recurrence-free and overall survival rates in the validation cohort and was an independent prognostic factor by multivariate analysis. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling may provide optimal diagnostic markers and prognostic indicators for patients with PCs.

  2. 454 sequencing of pooled BAC clones on chromosome 3H of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaji Nami

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome sequencing of barley has been delayed due to its large genome size (ca. 5,000Mbp. Among the fast sequencing systems, 454 liquid phase pyrosequencing provides the longest reads and is the most promising method for BAC clones. Here we report the results of pooled sequencing of BAC clones selected with ESTs genetically mapped to chromosome 3H. Results We sequenced pooled barley BAC clones using a 454 parallel genome sequencer. A PCR screening system based on primer sets derived from genetically mapped ESTs on chromosome 3H was used for clone selection in a BAC library developed from cultivar "Haruna Nijo". The DNA samples of 10 or 20 BAC clones were pooled and used for shotgun library development. The homology between contig sequences generated in each pooled library and mapped EST sequences was studied. The number of contigs assigned on chromosome 3H was 372. Their lengths ranged from 1,230 bp to 58,322 bp with an average 14,891 bp. Of these contigs, 240 showed homology and colinearity with the genome sequence of rice chromosome 1. A contig annotation browser supplemented with query search by unique sequence or genetic map position was developed. The identified contigs can be annotated with barley cDNAs and reference sequences on the browser. Homology analysis of these contigs with rice genes indicated that 1,239 rice genes can be assigned to barley contigs by the simple comparison of sequence lengths in both species. Of these genes, 492 are assigned to rice chromosome 1. Conclusions We demonstrate the efficiency of sequencing gene rich regions from barley chromosome 3H, with special reference to syntenic relationships with rice chromosome 1.

  3. Report of the Fourth International Workshop on human X chromosome mapping 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlessinger, D.; Mandel, J.L.; Monaco, A.P.; Nelson, D.L.; Willard, H.F. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    Vigorous interactive efforts by the X chromosome community have led to accelerated mapping in the last six months. Seventy-five participants from 12 countries around the globe contributed progress reports to the Fourth International X Chromosome Workshop, at St. Louis, MO, May 9-12, 1993. It became clear that well over half the chromosome is now covered by YAC contigs that are being extended, verified, and aligned by their content of STSs and other markers placed by cytogenetic or linkage mapping techniques. The major aim of the workshop was to assemble the consensus map that appears in this report, summarizing both consensus order and YAC contig information.

  4. Exploring function of conserved non-coding DNA in its chromosomal context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delores J. Grant

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is renewed interest in understanding expression of vertebrate genes in their chromosomal context because regulatory sequences that confer tissue-specific expression are often distributed over large distances along the DNA from the gene. One approach inserts a universal sensor/reporter-gene into the mouse or zebrafish genome to identify regulatory sequences in highly conserved non-coding DNA in the vicinity of the integrated reporter-gene. However detailed mechanisms of interaction of these regulatory elements among themselves and/or with the genes they influence remain elusive with the strategy. The inability to associate distant regulatory elements with the genes they regulate makes it difficult to examine the contribution of sequence changes in regulatory DNA to human disease. Such associations have been obtained in favorable circumstances by testing the regulatory potential of highly conserved non-coding DNA individually in small reporter-gene-containing plasmids. Alternative approaches use tiny fragments of chromosomes in Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes, BACs, where the gene of interest is tagged in vitro with a reporter/sensor gene and integrated into the germ-line of animals for expression. Mutational analysis of the BAC DNA identifies regulatory sequences. A recent approach inserts a sensor/reporter-gene into a BAC that is also truncated progressively from an end of genomic insert, and the end-deleted BAC carrying the sensor is then integrated into the genome of a developing animal for expression. The approach allows mechanisms of tissue-specific gene expression to be explored in much greater detail, although the chromosomal context of such mechanisms is limited to the length of the BAC. Here we discuss the relative strengths of the various approaches and explore how the integrated-sensor in the BACs method applied to a contig of BACs spanning a chromosomal region is likely to address mechanistic questions on interactions between

  5. A 1.7-Mb YAC contig around the human BDNF gene (11p13): integration of the physical, genetic, and cytogenetic maps in relation to WAGR syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosier, M.F.; Martin, A.; Houlgatte, R. [Genetique Moleculaire et Biologie du Development, Villejuif (France)] [and others

    1994-11-01

    WAGR (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genito-urinary abnormalities, mental retardation) syndrome in humans is associated with deletions of the 11p13 region. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene maps to this region, and its deletion seems to contribute to the severity of the patient`s mental retardation. Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) carrying the BDNF gene have been isolated and characterized. Localization of two known exons of this gene leads to a minimal estimation of its size of about 40 kb. Chimerism of the BDNF YACs has been investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization and chromosome assignment on somatic cell hybrids. Using the BDNF gene, YAC end sequence tagged sites (STS), and Genethon microsatellite markers, the authors constructed a 1.7-Mb contig and refined the cytogenetic map at 11p13. The resulting integrated physical, genetic, and cytogenetic map constitutes a resource for the characterization of genes that may be involved in the WAGR syndrome. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13693-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available length 126 Chromosome number (1..6, M) - Chromosome length - Start point - End point - Strand (PLUS/MINUS) -...ig-U13693-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U13693-1Q.Seq.d Length = 126 Score = 42.1 bits (21), Expect = 1e-04 Identities = 21/21 (100%) Strand...50-1Q.Seq.d Length = 143 Score = 42.1 bits (21), Expect = 1e-04 Identities = 21/21 (100%) Strand = Plus / Mi...bits (13), Expect = 7.8 Identities = 13/13 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 1 t...tttttttttttt 13 ||||||||||||| Sbjct: 57 ttttttttttttt 69 Score = 26.3 bits (13), Expect = 7.8 Identities = 13/13 (100%) Strand

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01610-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available h 121 Chromosome number (1..6, M) - Chromosome length - Start point - End point - Strand (PLUS/MINUS) - Numb...Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U01610-1Q.Seq.d Length = 121 Score = 81.8 bits (41), Expect = 2e-16 Identities = 41/41 (100%) Strand....1 bits (20), Expect = 7e-04 Identities = 20/20 (100%) Strand = Plus / Minus Query: 12 atttaaatttaaatttaaat ...31 |||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 31 atttaaatttaaatttaaat 12 Score = 36.2 bits (18), Expect = 0.011 Identities = 18/18 (100%) Strand...d Length = 687 Score = 50.1 bits (25), Expect = 7e-07 Identities = 31/33 (93%) Strand = Plus / Minus Query:

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01810-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 25 ) Vitis vinifera, whole genome shotgun sequence, co... 42 6.3 1 ( DL083629 ) Listeria innocua, genome and applications...32 4.2 2 ( AP010074 ) Lotus japonicus genomic DNA, chromosome 1, clone:... 36 5.5 4 ( DL081580 ) Listeria innocua, genome and applica...tions. 42 5.5 7 ( AM476110 ) Vitis vinifera contig VV78X267385.15, whole genom... 4

  9. Mapping of the human dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein gene (DMP1) to the dentinogenesis imperfecta type II critical region at chromosome 4q21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aplin, H.M.; Hirst, K.L.; Crosby, A.H.; Dixon, M.J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1995-11-20

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DGI1) is an autosomal dominant disorder of dentin formation, which has been mapped to human chromosome 4q12-q21. The region most likely to contain the DGI1 locus is a 3.2-cM region surrounding the osteopontin (SPP1) locus. Recently, a novel dentin-specific acidic phosphoprotein (dmp1) has been cloned in the rat and mapped to mouse chromosome 5q21. In the current investigation, we have isolated a cosmid containing the human DMP1 gene. The isolation of a short tandem repeat polymorphism at this locus has allowed us to map the DMP1 locus to human chromosome 4q21 and demonstrate that it is tightly linked to DGI1 in two families (Z{sub max} = 11.01, {theta} = 0.001). The creation of a yeast artificial chromosome contig around SPP1 has further allowed us to demonstrate that DMP1 is located within 150 kb of the bone sialoprotein and 490 kb of the SPP1 loci, respectively. DMP1 is therefore a strong candidate for the DGI1 locus. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. [Chromosomal organization of the genomes of small-chromosome plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravenko, O V; Zelenin, A V

    2009-11-01

    An effective approach to study the chromosome organization in genomes of plants with small chromosomes and/or with low-informative C-banding patterns was developed in the course of investigation of the karyotypes of cotton plant, camomile, flax, and pea. To increase the resolving power of chromosome analysis, methods were worked out for revealing early replication patterns on chromosomes and for artificial impairment of mitotic chromosome condensation with the use of a DNA intercalator, 9-aminoacridine (9-AMA). To estimate polymorphism of the patterns of C-banding of small chromosomes on preparations obtained with the use of 9-AMA, it is necessary to choose a length interval that must not exceed three average sizes of metaphase chromosomes without the intercalator. The use of 9-AMA increases the resolution of differential C- and OR-banding and the precision of physical chromosome mapping by the FISH method. Of particular importance in studying small chromosomes is optimization of the computer-aided methods used to obtain and process chromosome images. The complex approach developed for analysis of the chromosome organization in plant genomes was used to study the karyotypes of 24 species of the genus Linum L. It permitted their chromosomes to be identified for the first time, and, in addition, B chromosomes were discovered and studied in the karyotypes of the species of the section Syllinum. By similarity of the karyotypes, the studied flax species were distributed in eight groups in agreement with the clusterization of these species according to the results of RAPD analysis performed in parallel. Systematic positions and phylogenetic relationships of the studied flax species were verified. Out results can serve as an important argument in favour of the proposal to develop a special program for sequencing the genome of cultivated flax (L. usitatissimum L.), which is a major representative of small-chromosome species. PMID:20058798

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06679-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Contig length 345 Chromosome number (1..6, M) - Chromosome length - Start point - End point - Strand..., Expect = 1e-07 Identities = 42/42 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 200 aaatnaaattaaattaaatnccaatttnntttt...aa 241 Score = 36.2 bits (18), Expect = 0.024 Identities = 18/18 (100%) Strand = ...0.37 Identities = 18/19 (94%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 200 aaatnaaattaaattaaat 218 |||| |||||||||||||| Sb...jct: 402 aaattaaattaaattaaat 420 Score = 28.2 bits (14), Expect = 5.8 Identities = 14/14 (100%) Strand

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16021-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available p included Contig length 897 Chromosome number (1..6, M) 2 Chromosome length 8467578 Start point 4464700 End point 4463885 Strand... = e-151 Identities = 268/268 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 252 tgacagaaacatctactgctaaagttgccacaacaaaga...actgcttcagcttcttcatctgg 519 Score = 131 bits (66), Expect = 2e-30 Identities = 88/96 (91%) Strand = Plus / P...| Sbjct: 633 aaaatcattacagtttccattaattgtacatacatt 668 Score = 115 bits (58), Expect = 1e-25 Identities = 98/118 (83%) Strand...cattatcaataactcaaccaacc 233 Score = 67.9 bits (34), Expect = 3e-11 Identities = 34/34 (100%) Strand

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13720-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AAAAGAAN NNNNNNNN Gap no gap Contig length 558 Chromosome number (1..6, M) - Chromosome length - Start point - End point - Strand...), Expect = 8e-25 Identities = 56/56 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 244 ttggatgatcaagaatggaagagaaaggaaca...= 2e-19 Identities = 47/47 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 158 agagagaacttgaaattcgtaaacaacaacaattggaacacc...aaattcgtaaacaacaacaattggaacaccaattg 204 Score = 87.7 bits (44), Expect = 1e-17 Identities = 44/44 (100%) Strand... bits (21), Expect = 6e-04 Identities = 21/21 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 76 gttcaacaattattattaaaa 96

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09802-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ATTTTTT Gap gap included Contig length 427 Chromosome number (1..6, M) - Chromosome length - Start point - End point - Strand...9802-1Q.Seq.d Length = 437 Score = 46.1 bits (23), Expect = 3e-05 Identities = 23/23 (100%) Strand...tgtgtgttgaaacaaccc 40 Score = 42.1 bits (21), Expect = 5e-04 Identities = 24/24 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus ...re = 40.1 bits (20), Expect = 0.002 Identities = 20/20 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plu...ts (19), Expect = 0.008 Identities = 22/22 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 214 cccccnttttaaaaaaaaaaaa 235

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01743-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAA Gap no gap Contig length 163 Chromosome number (1..6, M) - Chromosome length - Start point - End point - Strand...Identities = 28/28 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 1 ttttaatatatatatatatatttaaccc 28 ||||||||||||||||||||...|||||||| Sbjct: 1 ttttaatatatatatatatatttaaccc 28 Score = 36.2 bits (18), Expect = 0.015 Identities = 18/18 (100%) Strand... 1102 Score = 52.0 bits (26), Expect = 2e-07 Identities = 26/26 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 1 ttttaat...s (18), Expect = 0.015 Identities = 18/18 (100%) Strand = Plus / Minus Query: 5 a

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09732-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BS7... 47 0.001 CP000615_1082( CP000615 |pid:none) Burkholderia vietnamiensis G4 ...398_2697( BX936398 |pid:none) Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP3... 35 5.9 AM286415_1175( AM286415 |pid:none) Yersinia enterocolitic...um discoideum chromosome 2 map 6245135... 36 0.34 8 ( CR382128 ) Yarrowia lipolytica chromosome ...; 5,674,871 total letters Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value Contig-U09732-1 (Conti...secretory system 8.0 %: endoplasmic reticulum 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: mitochondrial >> predicti

  17. Process for Assembly and Transformation into Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a Synthetic Yeast Artificial Chromosome Containing a Multigene Cassette to Express Enzymes That Enhance Xylose Utilization Designed for an Automated Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen R; Cox, Elby J; Bang, Sookie S; Pinkelman, Rebecca J; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Saha, Badal C; Qureshi, Nasib; Gibbons, William R; Fry, Michelle R; Moser, Bryan R; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Liu, Siqing; Sterner, David E; Butt, Tauseef R; Riedmuller, Steven B; Jones, Marjorie A; Riaño-Herrera, Néstor M

    2015-12-01

    A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing a multigene cassette for expression of enzymes that enhance xylose utilization (xylose isomerase [XI] and xylulokinase [XKS]) was constructed and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae to demonstrate feasibility as a stable protein expression system in yeast and to design an assembly process suitable for an automated platform. Expression of XI and XKS from the YAC was confirmed by Western blot and PCR analyses. The recombinant and wild-type strains showed similar growth on plates containing hexose sugars, but only recombinant grew on D-xylose and L-arabinose plates. In glucose fermentation, doubling time (4.6 h) and ethanol yield (0.44 g ethanol/g glucose) of recombinant were comparable to wild type (4.9 h and 0.44 g/g). In whole-corn hydrolysate, ethanol yield (0.55 g ethanol/g [glucose + xylose]) and xylose utilization (38%) for recombinant were higher than for wild type (0.47 g/g and 12%). In hydrolysate from spent coffee grounds, yield was 0.46 g ethanol/g (glucose + xylose), and xylose utilization was 93% for recombinant. These results indicate introducing a YAC expressing XI and XKS enhanced xylose utilization without affecting integrity of the host strain, and the process provides a potential platform for automated synthesis of a YAC for expression of multiple optimized genes to improve yeast strains.

  18. Sequence and analysis of chromosome 3 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanoubat, M; Lemcke, K; Rieger, M; Ansorge, W; Unseld, M; Fartmann, B; Valle, G; Blöcker, H; Perez-Alonso, M; Obermaier, B; Delseny, M; Boutry, M; Grivell, L A; Mache, R; Puigdomènech, P; De Simone, V; Choisne, N; Artiguenave, F; Robert, C; Brottier, P; Wincker, P; Cattolico, L; Weissenbach, J; Saurin, W; Quétier, F; Schäfer, M; Müller-Auer, S; Gabel, C; Fuchs, M; Benes, V; Wurmbach, E; Drzonek, H; Erfle, H; Jordan, N; Bangert, S; Wiedelmann, R; Kranz, H; Voss, H; Holland, R; Brandt, P; Nyakatura, G; Vezzi, A; D'Angelo, M; Pallavicini, A; Toppo, S; Simionati, B; Conrad, A; Hornischer, K; Kauer, G; Löhnert, T H; Nordsiek, G; Reichelt, J; Scharfe, M; Schön, O; Bargues, M; Terol, J; Climent, J; Navarro, P; Collado, C; Perez-Perez, A; Ottenwälder, B; Duchemin, D; Cooke, R; Laudie, M; Berger-Llauro, C; Purnelle, B; Masuy, D; de Haan, M; Maarse, A C; Alcaraz, J P; Cottet, A; Casacuberta, E; Monfort, A; Argiriou, A; flores, M; Liguori, R; Vitale, D; Mannhaupt, G; Haase, D; Schoof, H; Rudd, S; Zaccaria, P; Mewes, H W; Mayer, K F; Kaul, S; Town, C D; Koo, H L; Tallon, L J; Jenkins, J; Rooney, T; Rizzo, M; Walts, A; Utterback, T; Fujii, C Y; Shea, T P; Creasy, T H; Haas, B; Maiti, R; Wu, D; Peterson, J; Van Aken, S; Pai, G; Militscher, J; Sellers, P; Gill, J E; Feldblyum, T V; Preuss, D; Lin, X; Nierman, W C; Salzberg, S L; White, O; Venter, J C; Fraser, C M; Kaneko, T; Nakamura, Y; Sato, S; Kato, T; Asamizu, E; Sasamoto, S; Kimura, T; Idesawa, K; Kawashima, K; Kishida, Y; Kiyokawa, C; Kohara, M; Matsumoto, M; Matsuno, A; Muraki, A; Nakayama, S; Nakazaki, N; Shinpo, S; Takeuchi, C; Wada, T; Watanabe, A; Yamada, M; Yasuda, M; Tabata, S

    2000-12-14

    Arabidopsis thaliana is an important model system for plant biologists. In 1996 an international collaboration (the Arabidopsis Genome Initiative) was formed to sequence the whole genome of Arabidopsis and in 1999 the sequence of the first two chromosomes was reported. The sequence of the last three chromosomes and an analysis of the whole genome are reported in this issue. Here we present the sequence of chromosome 3, organized into four sequence segments (contigs). The two largest (13.5 and 9.2 Mb) correspond to the top (long) and the bottom (short) arms of chromosome 3, and the two small contigs are located in the genetically defined centromere. This chromosome encodes 5,220 of the roughly 25,500 predicted protein-coding genes in the genome. About 20% of the predicted proteins have significant homology to proteins in eukaryotic genomes for which the complete sequence is available, pointing to important conserved cellular functions among eukaryotes. PMID:11130713

  19. Strategies for sequencing human chromosome 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, G.R.

    1996-06-01

    This project funded for four years (02.92 to 01.96) was a renewal of a project funded for 2.5 years (07.89 to 01.92). This report covers the period 07.89 to 07.94. The original project was entitled {open_quotes}Correlation of physical and genetic maps of Human Chromosome 16{close_quotes}. The aim over this period was to construct a cytogenetic-based physical map of chromosome 16, to enable integration of its physical and genetic maps. This was achieved by collaboration and isolation of new markers until each bin on the physical map contained a polymorphic marker on the linkage map. A further aim was to integrate all mapping data for this chromosome and to achieve contig closure over band q24.

  20. Isolation and characterization of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 from a cow affected by post partum metritis and cloning of the genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavirani Sandro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 is a gammaherpesvirus with a Worldwide distribution in cattle and is often isolated from the uterus of animals with postpartum metritis or pelvic inflammatory disease. Virus strain adaptation to an organ, tissue or cell type is an important issue for the pathogenesis of disease. To explore the mechanistic role of viral strain variation for uterine disease, the present study aimed to develop a tool enabling precise genetic discrimination between strains of BoHV-4 and to easily manipulate the viral genome. Methods A strain of BoHV-4 was isolated from the uterus of a persistently infected cow and designated BoHV-4-U. The authenticity of the isolate was confirmed by RFLP-PCR and sequencing using the TK and IE2 loci as genetic marker regions for the BoHV-4 genome. The isolated genome was cloned as a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC and manipulated through recombineering technology Results The BoHV-4-U genome was successfully cloned as a BAC, and the stability of the pBAC-BoHV-4-U clone was confirmed over twenty passages, with viral growth similar to the wild type virus. The feasibility of using BoHV-4-U for mutagenesis was demonstrated using the BAC recombineering system. Conclusion The analysis of genome strain variation is a key method for investigating genes associated with disease. A resource for dissection of the interactions between BoHV-4 and host endometrial cells was generated by cloning the genome of BoHV-4 as a BAC.

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01628-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rus flaviplurus strain XP94-Colombia cytoch... 44 7.3 1 ( EU005474 ) Pedicia albivitta voucher O'Grady 20001...O0055325. 50 0.12 1 ( AR777056 ) Sequence 211 from patent US 6972197. 50 0.12 1 ( AC131128 ) Rattus norvegicus clo...ts) S2: 15 (30.2 bits) dna update 2009. 5. 3 Homology vs DNA Query= Contig-U01628-1 (Contig-U01628-1Q) /CSM_Co.... 44 7.3 1 ( BM627209 ) 17000687496537 A.Gam.ad.cDNA1 Anopheles gambiae c... 44 7.3 1 ( BM581988 ) 17000687275251 A.Gam.ad.cDNA.blo...5( AC006592 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 2 ... 52 2e-05 (Q6CLN2) RecName: Full=GPI ethanolamine phosphate tran

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11446-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 28175_627( CU928175 |pid:none) Zygosaccharomyces rouxii strain ... 47 0.004 (Q49XE1) RecName: Full=Nuclease sbcCD subunit...009400_23( AC009400 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome I... 44 0.021 (Q95JS9) RecName: Full=Coil...ed-coil domain-containing protein 110; 44 0.021 BX908798_779( BX908798 |pid:none) Parachlam...lvsnykrwksiktii kfnnynrifqlviirynnykliyklikmkllnlkkqfhnvinq*knh*ssvmifkmkpln *mitsy--- ---*fri*gsnskftrkn**kl*ltm*igsigtr...SM_Contig/Contig-U11446-1Q.Seq.d Length = 2402 Score = 4409 bits (2224), Expect = 0.0 Identities = 2272/2278 (99%) Stra

  3. A YAC contig spanning the ataxia-telangiectasia locus (groups A and C) at 11q22-q23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotman, G.; Savitsky, K.; Ziv, Y. [Tel Aviv Univ. Ramat Aviv (Israel)] [and others

    1994-11-15

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive disease involving cerebellar degeneration, immunodeficiency, cancer predisposition, chromosomal instability and radiosensitivity. A-T is heterogeneous, and the majority of A-T cases are associated with two complementation groups, A and C. The ATA and ATC loci are closely linked at chromosome 11q22-q23. Recombination mapping and linkage disequilibrium analysis have confined both loci between the markers D11S1817 and D11S927. Construction of this contig was expedited by prior generation of a region-specific ICRF sublibrary using Alu-PCR products derived from a radiation hybrid. The contig was expanded further by screening the libraries with Alu-PCR products derived from YAC clones and with STSs from YAC ends. YAC clones were aligned by fingerprinting with moderately repetitive probes. 56 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. A high-resolution interval map of the q21 region of the human X chromosome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, C.; Monaco, A.P. [ICRF Laboratories, Oxford (United Kingdom)] [and others; Arnould, C. [Laboratoire de Genetique Humaine, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)] [and others

    1995-06-10

    In a previous study, we have developed a panel of chromosomal rearrangements for the physical mapping of the q13-q21 region of the human X chromosome. Here, we report the physical localization of 36 additional polymorphic markers by polymerase chain reaction analysis. The high density of chromosomal breakpoints in Xq21 allows us to map 58 DNA loci in 22 intervals. As a result, this segment of the X chromosome is saturated with approximately three sequence tagged sites per megabase of DNA, which will facilitate the construction of a YAC contig of this region. 26 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  6. An integrated physical map covering 25 cM of human chromosome 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.; Hou, J.; Wagner, M.J.; Wells, D.E. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-02-15

    This article reports on an integrated physical map of human chromosome 8 using STS content analysis of somatic cell hybrids and YAC contigs. Such mapping efforts will help to localize genes linked to hereditary diseases. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. 大白菜细菌人工染色体文库的构建及鉴定%Construction and Characterization of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library from Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯大领; 石学萍; 杨煜; 王彦华; 轩淑欣; 赵建军; 申书兴

    2011-01-01

    以我国优良的大白菜自交系'85-1'为材料,利用 pIndigoBAC-5 为载体,通过对高分子量DNA 的制备、大片段 DNA 的选择、连接转化条件等几个方面的优化,构建了大白菜细菌人工染色体文库.该文库由 57 600个克隆组成,平均大小为98.4 kb,空载率为1.5%;覆盖大白菜基因组 10.3 倍;挑取 6 个克隆培养5 d 后,经HindⅢ完全酶切检测,其指纹图谱稳定一致.大白菜细菌人工染色体文库的构建为重要功能基因的克隆和定位及比较基因组研究奠定了基础.%A bacterial artificial chromosome library of Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis ( Lour.)Olsson (Chinese cabbage) was constructed from inbred line‘ 85-1’ with the vector pIndigoBAC-5. The key processes of the construction, such as preparation of high molecular weight DNA, selection of digested fragments, condition of ligation and transformation, were studied. The library consists of 57 600 clones in which the average insert size is about 98.4 kb and the empty clones are about 1.5%. The library represents an equivalent of 10.3 fold size of Chinese cabbage genome. Six clones randomly picked from this library show no HindⅢ fingerprint changes after 5 days' successive culture, which indicates that the clones in the library are stable. The library will lay the foundation for gene clone, location and comparative genomics research of Brassica.

  8. Towards sequencing the 1 Gb wheat chromosome 3B

    OpenAIRE

    Choulet, Frédéric; Paux, Etienne; Leroy, Philippe; Sourdille, Pierre; Schlub, Stéphane; Brunel, Dominique; Barbe, Valérie; Wincker, Patrick; Feuillet, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    * BACKGROUND: Wheat is the most widely grown crop worldwide but so far, the access to its genome sequence has been hampered by its size (17 Gb) and highly repetitive structure. We plan to sequence and annotate the largest bread wheat chromosome, 3B (1 Gb i.e. 2.5x the rice genome) using a hybrid approach combining Roche454 Titanium sequencing of BACs and Whole Chromosome Shotgun (WCS) with Illumina/Solexa GAII PE reads. In a pilot project, we sequenced and annotated 13 large contigs (18 Mb) ...

  9. Comparative physical mapping links conservation of microsynteny to chromosome structure and recombination in grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, John E.; Arias, Miguel A.; Asher, Rochelle; Avise, Jennifer A.; Ball, Robert T.; Brewer, Gene A.; Buss, Ryan W.; Chen, Amy H.; Edwards, Thomas M.; Estill, James C.; Exum, Heather E.; Goff, Valorie H.; Herrick, Kristen L.; Steele, Cassie L. James; Karunakaran, Santhosh; Lafayette, Gmerice K.; Lemke, Cornelia; Marler, Barry S.; Masters, Shelley L.; McMillan, Joana M.; Nelson, Lisa K.; Newsome, Graham A.; Nwakanma, Chike C.; Odeh, Rosana N.; Phelps, Cynthia A.; Rarick, Elizabeth A.; Rogers, Carl J.; Ryan, Sean P.; Slaughter, Keimun A.; Soderlund, Carol A.; Tang, Haibao; Wing, Rod A.; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2005-01-01

    Nearly finished sequences for model organisms provide a foundation from which to explore genomic diversity among other taxonomic groups. We explore genome-wide microsynteny patterns between the rice sequence and two sorghum physical maps that integrate genetic markers, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) fingerprints, and BAC hybridization data. The sorghum maps largely tile a genomic component containing 41% of BACs but 80% of single-copy genes that shows conserved microsynteny with rice and partially tile a nonsyntenic component containing 46% of BACs but only 13% of single-copy genes. The remaining BACs are centromeric (4%) or unassigned (8%). The two genomic components correspond to cytologically discernible “euchromatin” and “heterochromatin.” Gene and repetitive DNA distributions support this classification. Greater microcolinearity in recombinogenic (euchromatic) than nonrecombinogenic (heterochromatic) regions is consistent with the hypothesis that genomic rearrangements are usually deleterious, thus more likely to persist in nonrecombinogenic regions by virtue of Muller's ratchet. Interchromosomal centromeric rearrangements may have fostered diploidization of a polyploid cereal progenitor. Model plant sequences better guide studies of related genomes in recombinogenic than nonrecombinogenic regions. Bridging of 35 physical gaps in the rice sequence by sorghum BAC contigs illustrates reciprocal benefits of comparative approaches that extend at least across the cereals and perhaps beyond. PMID:16141333

  10. Artificial Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are missing an arm or leg, an artificial limb can sometimes replace it. The device, which ... activities such as walking, eating, or dressing. Some artificial limbs let you function nearly as well as ...

  11. Fourth international workshop on human chromosome 5. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The Fourth International Workshop on Human Chromosome 5 was held in Manchester, UK on November 9--10, 1996 and was hosted by the University of Manchester. The major goals of the workshop were: (1) to collate the various genetic, cytogenetic and physical maps of human chromosome 5; (2) to integrate these maps and identify/correct discrepancies between them wherever possible; (3) to catalogue the sequence-ready contigs of the chromosome; (4) to co-ordinate the various sequencing efforts to avoid future duplication; (5) to establish the first (to the author`s knowledge) web site for the human chromosome 5 community which contains the above information in a readily accessible form.

  12. Restriction mapping of a YAC contig in the hemochromatosis gene region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, M.J.; Smit, D.J.; Pyper, W.R. [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)

    1994-09-01

    Hemochromatosis is a common inherited disorder of iron metabolism that can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, cardiomyopathy, diabetes and anthropathy. We have mapped the hemochromatosis gene to within 1 cM of HLA-A and the microsatellite D6S105, and our allele association studies have shown that D6S105 is the marker most closely associated with the hemochromatosis gene. We are currently constructing a YAC contig and restriction map of this region as part of a positional cloning strategy to identify the hemochromatosis gene. YACs containing HLA-A or D6S105 were selected, and fluorescent-in-situ-hybridization (FISH) was performed to confirm chromosomal location and exclude chimerism. YAC DNA was digested with a panel of rare cutters, separated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, Southern blotted and probed with the vector arms to create restriction maps. YAC insert terminal ends were isolated using vectorette methodology. A contig extending 600 kb centromeric and 350 kb telomeric of HLA-A has been established. HLA-A, HLA-F and the microsatellite D6S265 have been positioned on this map. The contig does not yet overlap any D6S105 positive YACs but the telomeric end of the contig has been sequenced and is being used to identify additional YACs to bridge this interval. Restriction mapping of three D6S105 YACs has shown the presence of several CpG islands in this region. As these CpG islands are in close proximity to D6S105, they are being used to isolate coding sequences to determine whether any of these mark the position of the hemochromatosis gene.

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14702-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 531 ) Vitis vinifera contig VV78X013658.3, whole genome... 46 1.3 1 ( AC152147 ) Dasypus novemcinctus clone VMRC5-398G7, WORK...653 ) Bos taurus clone CH240-226L9, WORKING DRAFT SEQUE... 44 5.2 1 ( AC149560 ) Papio anubis clone RP41-278E20, WORK...ING DRAFT SEQ... 44 5.2 1 ( AC116539 ) Drosophila melanogaster clone RP98-18E1, WORK...ING ... 44 5.2 1 ( AC026085 ) Homo sapiens chromosome X clone RP11-517O1, WORKI... 44 5.2 1 ( AC...026084 ) Homo sapiens chromosome X clone RP11-477A22, WORK... 44 5.2 1 ( AC218883 ) Pteropus vampyrus clone CH279-316A8, WORK

  14. Chromosome Microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Over the last half century, knowledge about genetics, genetic testing, and its complexity has flourished. Completion of the Human Genome Project provided a foundation upon which the accuracy of genetics, genomics, and integration of bioinformatics knowledge and testing has grown exponentially. What is lagging, however, are efforts to reach and engage nurses about this rapidly changing field. The purpose of this article is to familiarize nurses with several frequently ordered genetic tests including chromosomes and fluorescence in situ hybridization followed by a comprehensive review of chromosome microarray. It shares the complexity of microarray including how testing is performed and results analyzed. A case report demonstrates how this technology is applied in clinical practice and reveals benefits and limitations of this scientific and bioinformatics genetic technology. Clinical implications for maternal-child nurses across practice levels are discussed. PMID:27276104

  15. Genetic modification of mammalian genome at chromosome level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLEG L. SEROV

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The review is concerned with a progress in genetic modification of a mammalian genome in vitro and in vivo at chromosomal level. Recently three new approaches for the chromosome biotechnology have been developed: Using Cre/loxP-system a researcher is able to produce targeted rearrangements of whole chromosomes or their segments or particular genes within the genome, and therefore to modify the set, position and copy number of the endogenous elements of the genome. Mammalian artificial chromosomes (MACs provide a possibility to introduce into genome relatively large segments of alien chromosome material, either artificially constructed or derived from the genome of different species. Using ES-somatic cell hybrids allows to transfer whole chromosomes or their fragments between different genomes within and between species. Advantages and limitations of these approaches are discussed.

  16. Integrated map of the chromosome 8p12-p21 region, a region involved in human cancers and Werner syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imbert, A.; Chaffanet, M.; Birnbaum, D.; Pebusque, M.J. [INSERM, Marseille (France)] [and others

    1996-02-15

    This article discusses the genetic mapping of the specific region on human chromosome 8, 8p12-p21, and its implications to human hereditary cancers and diseases. The localization of disease genes such as NEFL and FGFR1 are given, accomplished using contigs which span the region of deletion involved in these hereditary diseases. 59 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Association Between Pachytene Chromosomes and Linkage Groups in Carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome of carrot (Daucus carota L.) consists of ~ 480 Mb/1C organized in 9 chromosome pairs. The importance of carrots in human nutrition is triggering the development of genomic resources, including carrot linkage maps, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone library and BAC end sequence...

  18. Construction of two YAC contigs in human xp11.23-p11.22, one encompassing the loci OATL1, GATA, TFE3, and SYP, the other linking DXS255 to DXS146

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, S.E.; Hatchwell, E.; Chand, A.; Ockenden, N.; Craig, I.W. [Univ. of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-09-20

    We have constructed two YAC contigs in the Xp11.23-p11.22 interval of the human X chromosome, a region that was previously poorly characterized. One contig, of at least 1.4 Mb, links the pseudogene OATL1 to the genes GATA1, TFE3, and SYP and also contains loci implicated in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and synovial sarcoma. A second contig, mapping proximal to the first, is estimated to be over 2.1 Mb and links the hypervariable locus DXS255 to DXS146, and also contains a chloride channel gene that is responsible for hereditary nephrolithiasis. We have used plasmid rescue, inverse PCR, and Alu-PCR to generate 20 novel markers from this region, 1 of which is polymorphic, and have positioned these relative to one another on the basis of YAC analysis. The order of previously known markers within our contigs, Xpter-OATL1-GATA-TFE3-SYP-DXS255-DXS146-Xcen, agrees with genomic pulsed-field maps of the region. In addition, we have constructed a rare-cutter restriction map for a 710-kb region of the DXS255-DXS146 contig and have identified three CpG islands. These contigs and new markers will provide a useful resource for more detailed analysis of Xp11.23-p11.22, a region implicated in several genetic diseases. 32 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  20. A high-resolution physical map integrating an anchored chromosome with the BAC physical maps of wheat chromosome 6B

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, F; Wu, J. Z.; Kanamori, H; Tanaka, T.; Katagiri, S.; Karasawa, W.; Kaneko, S.; Watanabe, S; Sakaguchi, T; Šafář, J. (Jan); Šimková, H. (Hana); Mukai, Y.; M. Hamada; Saito, M; Hayakawa, K

    2015-01-01

    Background: A complete genome sequence is an essential tool for the genetic improvement of wheat. Because the wheat genome is large, highly repetitive and complex due to its allohexaploid nature, the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) chose a strategy that involves constructing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical maps of individual chromosomes and performing BAC-by-BAC sequencing. Here, we report the construction of a physical map of chromosome 6B with t...

  1. Efficient transfer of chromosome-based DNA constructs into mammalian cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberle, [No Value; de Jong, G; Drayer, JI; Hoekstra, D

    2004-01-01

    Artificial chromosomes, engineered minichromosomes and other chromosome-based DNA constructs are promising new vectors for use in gene therapy, protein production and transgenics. However, a major drawback in the application of chromosome-based DNA is the lack of a suitable and convenient procedure

  2. Artificial urushi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Uyama, H; Ikeda, R

    2001-11-19

    A new concept for the design and laccase-catalyzed preparation of "artificial urushi" from new urushiol analogues is described. The curing proceeded under mild reaction conditions to produce the very hard cross-linked film (artificial urushi) with a high gloss surface. A new cross-linkable polyphenol was synthesized by oxidative polymerization of cardanol, a phenol derivative from cashew-nut-shell liquid, by enzyme-related catalysts. The polyphenol was readily cured to produce the film (also artificial urushi) showing excellent dynamic viscoelasticity. PMID:11763444

  3. Artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  4. Artificial Reefs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An artificial reef is a human-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, control erosion, block...

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12850-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tcncttnattantttcgtttaaaaatttgtnnnaaacatgntnttgga 133 Query: 134 atcgccnaacntta 14...7 |||||||||||||| Sbjct: 134 atcgccnaacntta 147 >Contig-U13258-1 (Contig-U13258-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U13258...ttgtnnnaaacatgntnttgga 27 Query: 134 atcgccnaacntta 147 |||||||||||||| Sbjct: 26 atcgccnaacntta 13 Lambda K

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12668-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s / Plus Query: 13 aaaaagggacttgngagtntgntgatttngatccnaaaccnnnnnnnngnaaaantgntg 72 |||||||||||||||||||||||||...|||||||||||||||| || |||||||||||| Sbjct: 13 aaaaagggacttgngagtntgntgatttngatccnaaaccnttnntttgnaaaantgntg 72 Q...aaaggntntgnntnctggaaancnagncaaggngnttcaa 192 Query: 193 nggccccntnaaangccnatcccctt 218 |||||||||||||||||||||...||||| Sbjct: 193 nggccccntnaaangccnatcccctt 218 >Contig-U11508-1 (Contig-U11508-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U1150...us Query: 13 aaaaagggacttgngagtntgntgatttngatccnaaaccnnnnnnnngnaaaantgntg 72 ||||

  7. Report on sequencing the wheat chromosome 3B

    OpenAIRE

    Choulet, Frédéric; Wincker, Patrick; Quesneville, Hadi; Brunel, Dominique; Gill, Bikram S; Appels, Rudi; Keller, Beat; Feuillet, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Because of its 17 Gb hexaploid genome, wheat genomics has been lagging behind the one of the other major crops. Two years after the establishment of the first physical map of the biggest wheat chromosome, the 3B, which represents 1 Gb, its complete sequencing is now underway (ANR project 3BSEQ). In order to prepare for its complete sequencing and analysis, we performed a pilot project on 18 Mb of large BAC contigs which allowed us to improve our understanding of the wheat genome composition a...

  8. Caracterização citogenética, viabilidade de pólen e hibridação artificial em gérbera Chromosome number, pollen viability and gerbera hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel DL Cardoso

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de confirmar o número de cromossomos em cultivares de Gerbera hybrida Hort., determinar o número de cromossomos em acessos não comerciais de Gerbera sp., avaliar a viabilidade de pólen e a possibilidade de cruzamentos entre cultivares e acessos não comerciais. Foram coletados ápices de raízes e pólen de seis cultivares e de sete acessos não comerciais. O material coletado foi corado com carmim acético a 45%. A contagem dos cromossomos foi realizada em células metafásicas intactas e a estimativa de viabilidade de pólen realizada por meio da contagem do número de grãos de pólen viáveis e não viáveis. A possibilidade de cruzamento entre as cultivares e entre as cultivares e acessos não comerciais foi avaliada por meio da hibridação entre os genitores femininos, cv. Terra Fame e acesso A8, e masculinos, cvs. Cariba e Azteca. Todos os acessos contiveram cinqüenta cromossomos, indicando que a variação morfológica nos capítulos (simples, semidobrado e dobrado não é devida a mutações cromossômicas numéricas ou a poliploidia. A viabilidade do pólen variou de 87,67% a 99,27%. A formação de sementes foi de 4,46% nos cruzamentos entre cultivares, e de 50% entre o A8 e as cultivares. A compatibilidade genômica entre os acessos, a alta viabilidade do pólen e o sucesso na obtenção de sementes entre acessos comercias e não comerciais, revela a possibilidade de produção de híbridos com novas combinações alélicas e transferência de caracteres desejáveis dos acessos não comerciais para os comerciaisThis work was conducted to confirm the chromosomes number of Gerbera hybrida Hort. cultivars, to determine the chromosomes number in the non commercial accessions of Gerbera sp., and to estimate the pollen viability and the possibility of crossings among different accessions. Root-tip and pollen were collected from six cultivars and seven non commercial accessions. The collected

  9. Artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vivid example of the growing need for frontier physics experiments to make use of frontier technology is in the field of artificial intelligence and related themes. This was reflected in the second international workshop on 'Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in High Energy and Nuclear Physics' which took place from 13-18 January at France Telecom's Agelonde site at La Londe des Maures, Provence. It was the second in a series, the first having been held at Lyon in 1990

  10. Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04657-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 04002 ) Sequence 68317 from patent US 7214786. 38 0.17 2 ( BJ236677 ) Triticum aestivum cDNA clone:whe22k05,...5135... 32 8.4 7 ( AX392734 ) Sequence 24 from Patent WO0212526. 32 8.4 5 ( AR707081 ) Sequence 24 from patent...ne RP24-95H13 from chromosome... 40 2.2 2 ( X77854 ) P.falciparum (FCBR-Columbia...SS *** f... 34 2.4 6 ( BX572083 ) Zebrafish DNA sequence from clone DKEY-232J4 in l... 40 2.4 5 ( AL049658 ) Arabidopsis thalian...670974928920 X1: 11 (21.8 bits) S2: 22 (44.1 bits) protein update 2009. 7.30 Homology vs Protein Query= Contig-U04657-1 (Co

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05501-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available c0... 40 1.0 2 ( GC696613 ) Sequence 11857 from patent US 6812339. 46 1.1 1 ( AL357127 ) Human...e GM_WBc0028K1... 30 9.4 6 ( GC700442 ) Sequence 15687 from patent US 6812339. 38 9.5 3 ( AC226709 ) Oryza minuta clo...e... 44 4.2 1 ( EA690864 ) Sequence 69743 from patent US 7365185. 44 4.2 1 ( EA625507 ) Sequence 4386 from patent...ts) S1: 12 (24.3 bits) S2: 14 (28.2 bits) dna update 2009. 7.28 Homology vs DNA Query= Contig-U05501-1 (Co...9( CP001324 |pid:none) Micromonas sp. RCC299 chromosome... 52 5e-06 BT003919_1( BT003919 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana clo

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01541-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ula chromosome 7 BAC clone mth2-7... 36 3.7 5 ( FG283242 ) 1108457714276 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C...1-1... 40 3.8 2 ( AM448784 ) Vitis vinifera contig VV78X077229.13, whole genom... 40 3.8 5 ( FG299281 ) 1108793334783 New World...malized cDNA li... 34 3.8 3 ( FG298782 ) 1108793320683 New World Screwworm Larvae 9387 EST... 40 3.8 2 ( AC2...) Populus trichocarpa clone POP011-A24, complete se... 38 3.9 5 ( FG298363 ) 1108793311332 New World Screwwo...rm Larvae 9387 EST... 40 3.9 2 ( AE017263 ) Mesoplasma florum L1 complete genome. 34 3.9 11 ( FG290177 ) 1108793315292 New World

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02687-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available osome number (1..6, M) - Chromosome length - Start point - End point - Strand (PLUS/MINUS) - Number of clone...ig/Contig-U02687-1Q.Seq.d Length = 110 Score = 50.1 bits (25), Expect = 5e-07 Identities = 28/28 (100%) Strand...-1Q.Seq.d Length = 192 Score = 36.2 bits (18), Expect = 0.007 Identities = 18/18 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus...xpect = 0.027 Identities = 17/17 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 1 ccccccccccc...cccccg 17 ||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 27 ccccccccccccccccg 43 Score = 32.2 bits (16), Expect = 0.11 Identities = 16/16 (100%) Strand

  15. Artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, Anne Birgitte; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners can be a helpful tool to reduce energy intake and body weight and thereby risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Considering the prevailing diabesity (obesity and diabetes) epidemic, this can, therefore, be an important alternative to natural, calorie-containin...

  16. Undetected sex chromosome aneuploidy by chromosomal microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus-Bustani, Keren; Yaron, Yuval; Goldstein, Myriam; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Ben-Shachar, Shay

    2012-11-01

    We report on a case of a female fetus found to be mosaic for Turner syndrome (45,X) and trisomy X (47,XXX). Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) failed to detect the aneuploidy because of a normal average dosage of the X chromosome. This case represents an unusual instance in which CMA may not detect chromosomal aberrations. Such a possibility should be taken into consideration in similar cases where CMA is used in a clinical setting.

  17. Chromatin structure and ionizing-radiation-induced chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible influence of chromatic structure or activity on chromosomal radiosensitivity was studied. A cell line was isolated which contained some 105 copies of an amplified plasmid in a single large mosquito artificial chromosome (MAC). This chromosome was hypersensitive to DNase I. Its radiosensitivity was some three fold greater than normal mosquito chromosomes in the same cell. In cultured human cells irradiated during G0, the initial breakage frequency in chromosome 4, 19 and the euchromatic and heterochromatic portions of the Y chromosome were measured over a wide range of doses by inducing Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) immediately after irradiation with Cs-137 gamma rays. No evidence was seen that Y heterochromatin or large fragments of it remained unbroken. The only significant deviation from the expected initial breakage frequency per Gy per unit length of chromosome was that observed for the euchromatic portion of the Y chromosome, with breakage nearly twice that expected. The development of aberrations involving X and Y chromosomes at the first mitosis after irradation was also studied. Normal female cells sustained about twice the frequency of aberrations involving X chromosomes for a dose of 7.3 Gy than the corresponding male cells. Fibroblasts from individuals with supernumerary X chromosomes did not show any further increase in X aberrations for this dos. The frequency of aberrations involving the heterochromatic portion of the long arm of the Y chromosome was about what would be expected for a similar length of autosome, but the euchromatic portion of the Y was about 3 times more radiosensitive per unit length. 5-Azacytidine treatment of cultured human female fibroblasts or fibroblasts from a 49,XXXXY individual, reduced the methylation of cytosine residues in DNA, and resulted in an increased chromosomal radiosensitivity in general, but it did not increase the frequency of aberrations involving the X chromosomes

  18. Identification of human chromosome 22 transcribed sequences with ORF expressed sequence tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Sandro J.; Camargo, Anamaria A.; Briones, Marcelo R. S.; Costa, Fernando F.; Nagai, Maria Aparecida; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Zago, Marco A.; Andrade, Luis Eduardo C.; Carrer, Helaine; El-Dorry, Hamza F. A.; Espreafico, Enilza M.; Habr-Gama, Angelita; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Gruber, Arthur; Hackel, Christine; Kimura, Edna T.; Maciel, Rui M. B.; Marie, Suely K. N.; Martins, Elizabeth A. L.; Nóbrega, Marina P.; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luisa; Pardini, Maria Inês M. C.; Pereira, Gonçalo G.; Pesquero, João Bosco; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Rogatto, Silvia R.; da Silva, Ismael D. C. G.; Sogayar, Mari C.; de Fátima Sonati, Maria; Tajara, Eloiza H.; Valentini, Sandro R.; Acencio, Marcio; Alberto, Fernando L.; Amaral, Maria Elisabete J.; Aneas, Ivy; Bengtson, Mário Henrique; Carraro, Dirce M.; Carvalho, Alex F.; Carvalho, Lúcia Helena; Cerutti, Janete M.; Corrêa, Maria Lucia C.; Costa, Maria Cristina R.; Curcio, Cyntia; Gushiken, Tsieko; Ho, Paulo L.; Kimura, Elza; Leite, Luciana C. C.; Maia, Gustavo; Majumder, Paromita; Marins, Mozart; Matsukuma, Adriana; Melo, Analy S. A.; Mestriner, Carlos Alberto; Miracca, Elisabete C.; Miranda, Daniela C.; Nascimento, Ana Lucia T. O.; Nóbrega, Francisco G.; Ojopi, Élida P. B.; Pandolfi, José Rodrigo C.; Pessoa, Luciana Gilbert; Rahal, Paula; Rainho, Claudia A.; da Ro's, Nancy; de Sá, Renata G.; Sales, Magaly M.; da Silva, Neusa P.; Silva, Tereza C.; da Silva, Wilson; Simão, Daniel F.; Sousa, Josane F.; Stecconi, Daniella; Tsukumo, Fernando; Valente, Valéria; Zalcberg, Heloisa; Brentani, Ricardo R.; Reis, Luis F. L.; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Simpson, Andrew J. G.

    2000-01-01

    Transcribed sequences in the human genome can be identified with confidence only by alignment with sequences derived from cDNAs synthesized from naturally occurring mRNAs. We constructed a set of 250,000 cDNAs that represent partial expressed gene sequences and that are biased toward the central coding regions of the resulting transcripts. They are termed ORF expressed sequence tags (ORESTES). The 250,000 ORESTES were assembled into 81,429 contigs. Of these, 1,181 (1.45%) were found to match sequences in chromosome 22 with at least one ORESTES contig for 162 (65.6%) of the 247 known genes, for 67 (44.6%) of the 150 related genes, and for 45 of the 148 (30.4%) EST-predicted genes on this chromosome. Using a set of stringent criteria to validate our sequences, we identified a further 219 previously unannotated transcribed sequences on chromosome 22. Of these, 171 were in fact also defined by EST or full length cDNA sequences available in GenBank but not utilized in the initial annotation of the first human chromosome sequence. Thus despite representing less than 15% of all expressed human sequences in the public databases at the time of the present analysis, ORESTES sequences defined 48 transcribed sequences on chromosome 22 not defined by other sequences. All of the transcribed sequences defined by ORESTES coincided with DNA regions predicted as encoding exons by genscan. (http://genes.mit.edu/GENSCAN.html). PMID:11070084

  19. Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  20. Artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Duda, Antonín

    2009-01-01

    Abstract : Issue of this work is to acquaint the reader with the history of artificial inteligence, esspecialy branch of chess computing. Main attention is given to progress from fifties to the present. The work also deals with fighting chess programs against each other, and against human opponents. The greatest attention is focused on 1997 and duel Garry Kasparov against chess program Deep Blue. The work is divided into chapters according to chronological order.

  1. Artificial vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbin, M; Montemagno, C; Leary, J; Ritch, R

    2011-09-01

    A number treatment options are emerging for patients with retinal degenerative disease, including gene therapy, trophic factor therapy, visual cycle inhibitors (e.g., for patients with Stargardt disease and allied conditions), and cell transplantation. A radically different approach, which will augment but not replace these options, is termed neural prosthetics ("artificial vision"). Although rewiring of inner retinal circuits and inner retinal neuronal degeneration occur in association with photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), it is possible to create visually useful percepts by stimulating retinal ganglion cells electrically. This fact has lead to the development of techniques to induce photosensitivity in cells that are not light sensitive normally as well as to the development of the bionic retina. Advances in artificial vision continue at a robust pace. These advances are based on the use of molecular engineering and nanotechnology to render cells light-sensitive, to target ion channels to the appropriate cell type (e.g., bipolar cell) and/or cell region (e.g., dendritic tree vs. soma), and on sophisticated image processing algorithms that take advantage of our knowledge of signal processing in the retina. Combined with advances in gene therapy, pathway-based therapy, and cell-based therapy, "artificial vision" technologies create a powerful armamentarium with which ophthalmologists will be able to treat blindness in patients who have a variety of degenerative retinal diseases.

  2. Fetal chromosome analysis: screening for chromosome disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philip, J; Tabor, Ann; Bang, J;

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the rationale of the current indications for fetal chromosome analysis. 5372 women had 5423 amniocentesis performed, this group constituting a consecutive sample at the chromosome laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from March 1973 to September 1980 (Group...... A + B). Pregnant women 35 years of age, women who previously had a chromosomally abnormal child, families with translocation carriers or other heritable chromosomal disease, families where the father was 50 years or more and women in families with a history of Down's syndrome (group A), were compared...... to women having amniocentesis, although considered not to have any increased risk of fetal chromosome abnormality (1390 pregnancies, group B). They were also compared with 750 consecutive pregnancies in women 25-34 years of age, in whom all heritable diseases were excluded (group C). The risk of unbalanced...

  3. Chromosome Disorder Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BLOG Join Us Donate You are not alone. Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc. is a non-profit organization, ... Support For all those diagnosed with any rare chromosome disorder. Since 1992, CDO has supported the parents ...

  4. ZEBRAFISH CHROMOSOME-BANDING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PIJNACKER, LP; FERWERDA, MA

    1995-01-01

    Banding techniques were carried out on metaphase chromosomes of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. The karyotypes with the longest chromosomes consist of 12 metacentrics, 26 submetacentrics, and 12 subtelocentrics (2n = 50). All centromeres are C-band positive. Eight chromosomes have a pericentric C-b

  5. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in si

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U00819-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 61 acaaaatnnacnagntnnacaaaatnnacnagntcnacaaaatnnacnagntcnacaaaa 120 Query: 121 tnnacnagnncaacaaaatccccna...||||||||||||| Sbjct: 121 tnnacnagnncaacaaaatccccnagntcnacnagntcnacaaaacc 167 >Contig-U16510-1 (Contig-U16510...aagctcaacaaaatcaacaagctcaacaaaatcaacaagctcaacaaa 2335 Query: 102 atnnacnagntcnacaaaatnnacnagnncaacaaaatccccna...uery: 102 atnnacnagntcnacaaaatnnacnagnncaacaaaatccccnagntcnacnagntcnac 161 || || || || ||||||| || || |||||||...173 acaaaatnnacnagntnnacaaaatnnacnagntcnacaaaatnnacnagntcnacaaaa 114 Query: 121 tnnacnagnncaacaaaatccccna

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12624-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 24-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U12624-1Q.Seq.d NNNNNNNNNNGTCATTATANTTCAGAATNNGTAGCTTGCCGTAANTGTNA NAGTNCAAACNCTGTN...NTGGAAANAAACNACCGTTTAAACTTTTTANGTT GTAATGCTTGNAACTNTCAAAAATCCGTNNCNGTCATTAANAAAG...ttcagaatnngtagcttgccgtaantgtnanagtncaaacnctgtnntgg 70 |||||||||||||||||||||||||||...||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 11 gtcattatanttcagaatnngtagcttgccgtaantgtnanagtncaaacnctgtnntgg 70 ...Query: 71 aaanaaacnaccgtttaaactttttangttgtaatgcttgnaactntcaaaaatccgtnn 130 |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

  8. High-quality genome (re)assembly using chromosomal contact data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Nelly, Hervé; Marbouty, Martial; Cournac, Axel; Flot, Jean-François; Liti, Gianni; Parodi, Dante Poggi; Syan, Sylvie; Guillén, Nancy; Margeot, Antoine; Zimmer, Christophe; Koszul, Romain

    2014-12-17

    Closing gaps in draft genome assemblies can be costly and time-consuming, and published genomes are therefore often left 'unfinished.' Here we show that genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (3C) data can be used to overcome these limitations, and present a computational approach rooted in polymer physics that determines the most likely genome structure using chromosomal contact data. This algorithm--named GRAAL--generates high-quality assemblies of genomes in which repeated and duplicated regions are accurately represented and offers a direct probabilistic interpretation of the computed structures. We first validated GRAAL on the reference genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as other yeast isolates, where GRAAL recovered both known and unknown complex chromosomal structural variations. We then applied GRAAL to the finishing of the assembly of Trichoderma reesei and obtained a number of contigs congruent with the know karyotype of this species. Finally, we showed that GRAAL can accurately reconstruct human chromosomes from either fragments generated in silico or contigs obtained from de novo assembly. In all these applications, GRAAL compared favourably to recently published programmes implementing related approaches.

  9. Chimpanzee chromosome 12 is homologous to human chromosome 2q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, N. C.; Sun, C. R.Y.; Ho, T.

    1977-01-01

    Most of the 46 human chromosomes find their counterparts in the 48 chimpanzee chromosomes except for chromosome 2 which has been hypothesized to have been derived from a centric fusion of two chimpanzee acrocentric chromosomes. These two chromosomes correspond to the human chromosomes 2p and 2g. This conclusion is based primarily on chromosome banding techniques, and the somatic cell hybridization technique has also been used. (HLW)

  10. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-03-16

    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14796-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0.2 bits (15), Expect = 1.0 Identities = 21/21 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 11 tcccnaaaanccccccccccc 3...1 ||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 11 tcccnaaaanccccccccccc 31 >Contig-U13959-1 (Contig-U13959-1Q) /CSM_Contig/C...d = Plus / Minus Query: 11 tcccnaaaanccccccccccc 31 ||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 239 tcccnaaaanccccccccccc 2

  12. Acentric chromosome ends are prone to fusion with functional chromosome ends through a homology-directed rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yuko; Ogiyama, Yuki; Kubota, Yoshino; Kubo, Takuya; Ishii, Kojiro

    2016-01-01

    The centromeres of many eukaryotic chromosomes are established epigenetically on potentially variable tandem repeats; hence, these chromosomes are at risk of being acentric. We reported previously that artificially created acentric chromosomes in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe can be rescued by end-to-end fusion with functional chromosomes. Here, we show that most acentric/functional chromosome fusion events in S. pombe cells harbouring an acentric chromosome I differed from the non-homologous end-joining-mediated rearrangements that result in deleterious dicentric fusions in normal cells, and were elicited by a previously unidentified homologous recombination (HR) event between chromosome end-associated sequences. The subtelomere repeats associated with the non-fusogenic ends were also destabilized in the surviving cells, suggesting a causal link between general subtelomere destabilization and acentric/functional chromosome fusion. A mutational analysis indicated that a non-canonical HR pathway was involved in the rearrangement. These findings are indicative of a latent mechanism that conditionally induces general subtelomere instability, presumably in the face of accidental centromere loss events, resulting in rescue of the fatal acentric chromosomes by interchromosomal HR.

  13. Evolution of Chromosome 6 of Solanum Species Revealed by Comparative Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative genome mapping is an important tool in evolutionary research. Here we demonstrate a comparative fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) mapping strategy. A set of 13 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones derived from potato chromosome 6 was used for FISH mapping in seven differen...

  14. Physical Map and Organization of Chromosome 7 in the Rice Blast Fungus, Magnaporthe grisea

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Heng; Blackmon, Barbara P.; Sasinowski, Maciek; Dean, Ralph A.

    1999-01-01

    The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea is a highly destructive plant pathogen and one of the most important for studying various aspects of host-plant interactions. It has been widely adopted as a model organism because it is ideally suited for genetic and biological studies. To facilitate map-based cloning, chromosome walking, and genome organization studies of M. grisea, a complete physical map of chromosome 7 was constructed using a large-insert (130 kb) bacterial artificial chromosome (...

  15. The Precarious Prokaryotic Chromosome

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzminov, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary selection for optimal genome preservation, replication, and expression should yield similar chromosome organizations in any type of cells. And yet, the chromosome organization is surprisingly different between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The nuclear versus cytoplasmic accommodation of genetic material accounts for the distinct eukaryotic and prokaryotic modes of genome evolution, but it falls short of explaining the differences in the chromosome organization. I propose that the t...

  16. Ring chromosome 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, C A; Hertz, Jens Michael; Petersen, M B;

    1992-01-01

    A stillborn male child with anencephaly and multiple malformations was found to have the karyotype 46,XY,r(13) (p11q21.1). The breakpoint at 13q21.1, determined by high resolution banding, is the most proximal breakpoint ever reported in patients with ring chromosome 13. In situ hybridisation...... with the probe L1.26 confirmed the derivation from chromosome 13 and DNA polymorphism analysis showed maternal origin of the ring chromosome. Our results, together with a review of previous reports of cases with ring chromosome 13 with identified breakpoints, could neither support the theory of distinct clinical...

  17. Artificial Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru JIVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to eliminate, a routine in the economic thinking, claimed to be responsible for the negative essence of economic developments, from the point of view, of the ecological implications (employment in the planetary ecosystem. The methodological foundations start from the natural origins of the functionality of the human economic society according to the originary physiocrat liberalism, and from specific natural characteristics of the humankind. This paper begins with a comment-analysis of the difference between natural and artificial within the economy, and then explains some of the most serious diversions from the natural essence of economic liberalism. It shall be explained the original (heterodox interpretation of the Classical political economy (economics, by making calls to the Romanian economic thinking from aggravating past century. Highlighting the destructive impact of the economy - which, under the invoked doctrines, we call unnatural - allows an intuitive presentation of a logical extension of Marshall's market price, based on previous research. Besides the doctrinal arguments presented, the economic realities inventoried along the way (major deficiencies and effects, determined demonstrate the validity of the hypothesis of the unnatural character and therefore necessarily to be corrected, of the concept and of the mechanisms of the current economy.The results of this paper consist of original heterodox methodspresented, intuitive or developed that can be found conclusively within the key proposals for education and regulation.

  18. Related polymorphic F-box protein genes between haplotypes clustering in the BAC contig sequences around the S-RNase of Japanese pear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kazuma; Tonaka, Nozomi; Taguchi, Tomio; Ichikawa, Takehiko; Sawamura, Yutaka; Nakanishi, Tetsu; Takasaki-Yasuda, Takeshi

    2011-03-01

    Most fruit trees in the Rosaceae exhibit self-incompatibility, which is controlled by the pistil S gene, encoding a ribonuclease (S-RNase), and the pollen S gene at the S-locus. The pollen S in Prunus is an F-box protein gene (SLF/SFB) located near the S-RNase, but it has not been identified in Pyrus and Malus. In the Japanese pear, various F-box protein genes (PpSFBB(-α-γ)) linked to the S-RNase are proposed as the pollen S candidate. Two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contigs around the S-RNase genes of Japanese pear were constructed, and 649 kb around S(4)-RNase and 378 kb around S(2)-RNase were sequenced. Six and 10 pollen-specific F-box protein genes (designated as PpSFBB(4-u1-u4, 4-d1-d2) and PpSFBB(2-u1-u5,) (2-d1-d5), respectively) were found, but PpSFBB(4-α-γ) and PpSFBB(2-γ) were absent. The PpSFBB(4) genes showed 66.2-93.1% amino acid identity with the PpSFBB(2) genes, which indicated clustering of related polymorphic F-box protein genes between haplotypes near the S-RNase of the Japanese pear. Phylogenetic analysis classified 36 F-box protein genes of Pyrus and Malus into two major groups (I and II), and also generated gene pairs of PpSFBB genes and PpSFBB/Malus F-box protein genes. Group I consisted of gene pairs with 76.3-94.9% identity, while group II consisted of gene pairs with higher identities (>92%) than group I. This grouping suggests that less polymorphic PpSFBB genes in group II are non-S pollen genes and that the pollen S candidates are included in the group I PpSFBB genes.

  19. The use of chromosome-based vectors for animal transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroiwa, Y; Yoshida, H; Ohshima, T; Shinohara, T; Ohguma, A; Kazuki, Y; Oshimura, M; Ishida, I; Tomizuka, K

    2002-06-01

    This article summarizes our efforts to use chromosome-based vectors for animal transgenesis, which may have a benefit for overcoming the size constraints of cloned transgenes in conventional techniques. Since the initial trial for introducing naturally occurring human chromosome fragments (hCFs) with large and complex immunogulobulin (Ig) loci into mice we have obtained several lines of trans-chromosomic (Tc) mice with transmittable hCFs. As expected the normal tissue-specific expression of introduced human genes was reproduced in them by inclusion of essential remote regulatory elements. Recent development of 'chromosome cloning' technique that enable construction of human artificial chromosomes (HACs) containing a defined chromosomal region should prevent the introduction of additional genes other than genes of interest and thus enhance the utility of chromosome vector system. Using this technique a panel of HACs harboring inserts ranging in size from 1.5 to 10 Mb from three human chromosomes (hChr2, 7, 22) has been constructed. Tc animals containing the HACs may be valuable not only as a powerful tool for functional genomics but also as an in vivo model to study therapeutic gene delivery by HACs.

  20. An efficient algorithm for the contig ordering problem under algebraic rearrangement distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chin Lung

    2015-11-01

    Assembling a genome from short reads currently obtained by next-generation sequencing techniques often results in a collection of contigs, whose relative position and orientation along the genome being sequenced are unknown. Given two sets of contigs, the contig ordering problem is to order and orient the contigs in each set such that the genome rearrangement distance between the resulting sets of ordered and oriented contigs is minimized. In this article, we utilize the permutation groups in algebra to propose a near-linear time algorithm for solving the contig ordering problem under algebraic rearrangement distance, where the algebraic rearrangement distance between two sets of ordered and oriented contigs is the minimum weight of applicable rearrangement operations required to transform one set into the other. PMID:26247343

  1. Development and physical analysis of YAC contigs covering 7 Mb of Xp22.3-p22.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrell, S.; Novo, F.J.; Charlton, R. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-01-20

    A total of YAC clones have been isolated from the region of Xp22.2-p22.3 extending from the amelogenin gene locus to DXS31. Restriction analysis of these clones in association with STS contenting and end clone analysis has facilitated the construction of 6 contigs covering a total of 7 Mb in which 20 potential CpG islands have been located. Thirty new STSs have been developed from probe and YAC end clone sequences, and these have been used in the analysis of patients suffering from different combinations of chondrodysplasia punctata, mental retardation, X-linked ichthyosis, and Kallmann syndrome. The results suggest that (1) the gene for chondrodysplasia punctata must lie between the X chromosome pseudoautosomal boundary (PABX) and DXS1145; (2) a gene for mental retardation lies between DXS1145 and the sequence tagged site GS1; and (3) the gene for ocular albinism type 1 lies proximal to the STS G13. The CpG islands within the YAC contigs constitute valuable markers for the potential positions of genes. Genes found associated with any of these potential CpG islands would be possible candidates for the disease genes mentioned above. 47 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Electochemical detection of chromosome translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria; Silahtaroglu, Asli;

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetics is a study of the cell structure with a main focus on chromosomes content and their structure. Chromosome abnormalities, such as translocations may cause various genetic disorders and heametological malignancies. Chromosome translocations are structural rearrangements of two chromoso...

  3. The testis and ovary transcriptomes of the rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus: A bony fish with a unique neo Y chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus is considerably one of the most economically important marine fish in East Asia and has a unique neo-Y chromosome system that is a good model to study the sex determination and differentiation in fish. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the testis and ovary tissues of rock bream. A total of 40,004,378 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406649 and 53,108,992 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406648 high quality reads were obtained from testis and ovary RNA sequencing, respectively, and 60,421 contigs (with average length of 1301 bp were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 14,036 contigs that show gender-enriched expressional profile with either testis-enriched (237 contigs or ovary-enriched (581 contigs with RPKM >100. There are 237 male- and 582 female-abundant expressed genes that show sex dimorphic expression. We hope that the gonad transcriptome and those gender-enriched transcripts of rock bream can provide some insight into the understanding of genome-wide transcriptome profile of teleost gonad tissue and give useful information in fish gonad development.

  4. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacks, S.A.

    1991-12-31

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA and chromosomal DNA cloned by this method are disclosed. The method includes the selection of a target organism having a segment of chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned. A first DNA segment, having a first restriction enzyme site on either side. homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

  5. CHROMOSOMES OF AMERICAN MARSUPIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIGGERS, J D; FRITZ, H I; HARE, W C; MCFEELY, R A

    1965-06-18

    Studies of the chromosomes of four American marsupials demonstrated that Caluromys derbianus and Marmosa mexicana have a diploid number of 14 chromosomes, and that Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis have a diploid number of 22. The karyotypes of C. derbianus and M. mexicana are similar, whereas those of P. opossum and D. marsupialis are dissimilar. If the 14-chromosome karyotype represents a reduction from a primitive number of 22, these observations suggest that the change has occurred independently in the American and Australasian forms.

  6. Sequencing and association analysis of the type 1 diabetes – linked region on chromosome 10p12-q11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barratt Bryan J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an effort to locate susceptibility genes for type 1 diabetes (T1D several genome-wide linkage scans have been undertaken. A chromosomal region designated IDDM10 retained genome-wide significance in a combined analysis of the main linkage scans. Here, we studied sequence polymorphisms in 23 Mb on chromosome 10p12-q11, including the putative IDDM10 region, to identify genes associated with T1D. Results Initially, we resequenced the functional candidate genes, CREM and SDF1, located in this region, genotyped 13 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and found no association with T1D. We then undertook analysis of the whole 23 Mb region. We constructed and sequenced a contig tile path from two bacterial artificial clone libraries. By comparison with a clone library from an unrelated person used in the Human Genome Project, we identified 12,058 SNPs. We genotyped 303 SNPs and 25 polymorphic microsatellite markers in 765 multiplex T1D families and followed up 22 associated polymorphisms in up to 2,857 families. We found nominal evidence of association in six loci (P = 0.05 – 0.0026, located near the PAPD1 gene. Therefore, we resequenced 38.8 kb in this region, found 147 SNPs and genotyped 84 of them in the T1D families. We also tested 13 polymorphisms in the PAPD1 gene and in five other loci in 1,612 T1D patients and 1,828 controls from the UK. Overall, only the D10S193 microsatellite marker located 28 kb downstream of PAPD1 showed nominal evidence of association in both T1D families and in the case-control sample (P = 0.037 and 0.03, respectively. Conclusion We conclude that polymorphisms in the CREM and SDF1 genes have no major effect on T1D. The weak T1D association that we detected in the association scan near the PAPD1 gene may be either false or due to a small genuine effect, and cannot explain linkage at the IDDM10 region.

  7. A panel of sequence tagged sites for chromosome band 11q23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunnacliffe, A.; Perry, H. (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Radice, P. (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom) Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy)); Budarf, M.L.; Emanuel, B.S. (Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1993-09-01

    A panel of sequence tagged sites (STSs) representing 30 markers previously assigned to human chromosome band 11q23 has been assembled. Eleven STSs represent cloned genes, and the remainder are from anonymous DNA segments. The STSs have been used in PCR experiments to localize their cognate sequences further with respect to five translocation breakpoints that define three intervals in 11q23. Two of these translocation breakpoints have been mapped more precisely by the STS assignments. The STS panel will form a useful starting point for the generation of a genomic contig of band 11q23. 32 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  9. Chromosome condensation and segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of chromosome condensation in mammalians -humans especially- were studied by means of cytogenetic techniques of chromosome banding. Two further approaches were adopted: a study of normal condensation as early as prophase, and an analysis of chromosome segmentation induced by physical (temperature and γ-rays) or chemical agents (base analogues, antibiotics, ...) in order to show out the factors liable to affect condensation. Here 'segmentation' means an abnormal chromosome condensation appearing systematically and being reproducible. The study of normal condensation was made possible by the development of a technique based on cell synchronization by thymidine and giving prophasic and prometaphasic cells. Besides, the possibility of inducing R-banding segmentations on these cells by BrdU (5-bromodeoxyuridine) allowed a much finer analysis of karyotypes. Another technique was developed using 5-ACR (5-azacytidine), it allowed to induce a segmentation similar to the one obtained using BrdU and identify heterochromatic areas rich in G-C bases pairs

  10. Chromosomal Abnormalties with Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between specific chromosome abnormalties and various epilepsies was investigated by a study of 76 patients’ records obtained by questionnaires distributed to members of Kyoto Multi-institutional Study Group of Pediatric Neurology.

  11. Chimpanzee chromosome 13 is homologous to human chromosome 2p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, N. C.; Sun, C. R.Y.; Ho, T.

    1977-01-01

    Similarities between human and chimpanzee chromosomes are shown by chromosome banding techniques and somatic cell hybridization techniques. Cell hybrids were obtained from the chimpanzee lymphocyte LE-7, and the Chinese hamster mutant cell, Gal-2. Experiments showed that the ACPL, MDHs, and Gal-Act genes could be assigned to chimpanzee chromosome 13, and since these genes have been assigned to human chromosme 2p, it is suggested that chimpanzee chromosome 13 is homologous to human chromosome 2p. (HLW)

  12. Chromosome doubling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Akio

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.

  13. Micromechanics of human mitotic chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eukaryote cells dramatically reorganize their long chromosomal DNAs to facilitate their physical segregation during mitosis. The internal organization of folded mitotic chromosomes remains a basic mystery of cell biology; its understanding would likely shed light on how chromosomes are separated from one another as well as into chromosome structure between cell divisions. We report biophysical experiments on single mitotic chromosomes from human cells, where we combine micromanipulation, nano-Newton-scale force measurement and biochemical treatments to study chromosome connectivity and topology. Results are in accord with previous experiments on amphibian chromosomes and support the 'chromatin network' model of mitotic chromosome structure. Prospects for studies of chromosome-organizing proteins using siRNA expression knockdowns, as well as for differential studies of chromosomes with and without mutations associated with genetic diseases, are also discussed

  14. Detailed comparison between the wheat chromosome group 7 short arms and the rice chromosome arms 6S and 8L with special reference to genes involved in starch biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhongyi; Huang, Bingyan; Rampling, Lynette;

    2004-01-01

    Rice bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones have been identified that contain sequences orthologous to each EST localized to wheat chromosome 7AS deletion stocks by Southern blot hybridization. This information has been used to relate the DNA sequence included in each wheat deletion stock t...

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01736-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nce, co... 34 5.4 2 ( AM456841 ) Vitis vinifera contig VV78X132511.10, whole genom... 34 5.4 2 ( EA102738 ) Sequence 121 from patent...ts) S2: 15 (30.2 bits) dna update 2009. 5. 5 Homology vs DNA Query= Contig-U01736-1 (Contig-U01736-1Q) /CSM_Co...ella piezotolerans WP3, c... 35 5.1 CP000440_1321( CP000440 |pid:none) Burkholderia ambifaria...LTKAHNLTQINQKQXLK**********x*****************xx*******yi ikiif**k*ihldi*q*k own update 2004. 6. 7 Homology vs CSM-cDNA Query= Co...ts) protein update 2009. 7.18 Homology vs Protein Query= Contig-U01736-1 (Contig-U01736-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Co

  16. Trends in Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the foundations of artificial intelligence as a science and the types of answers that may be given to the question, "What is intelligence?" The paradigms of artificial intelligence and general systems theory are compared. (Author/VT)

  17. Artificial Inteligence and Law

    OpenAIRE

    Fuková, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    Submitted diploma work Artificial Intelligence and Law deals with the rule of law and its position in the process of new advanced technologies in computer cybernetics and further scientific disciplines related with artificial intelligence and its creation. The first part of the work introduces the history of the first imagines about artificial intelligence and concerns with its birth. This chapter presents main theoretical knowledge and hypotheses defined artificial intelligence and progre...

  18. Development of a novel HAC-based "gain of signal" quantitative assay for measuring chromosome instability (CIN) in cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hee Sheung; Lee, Nicholas C.O.; Goncharov, Nikolay V.; Kumeiko, Vadim; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Earnshaw, William C.; Kouprina, Natalay; Larionov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating data indicates that chromosome instability (CIN) common to cancer cells can be used as a target for cancer therapy. At present the rate of chromosome mis-segregation is quantified by laborious techniques such as coupling clonal cell analysis with karyotyping or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Recently, a novel assay was developed based on the loss of a non-essential human artificial chromosome (HAC) carrying a constitutively expressed EGFP transgene ("loss of signal" a...

  19. ClEST cluster :Clmt_contig0033 [ClEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Clmt_contig0033 graves disease carrier mitochondrial gene 709 TCGCCCCCTCGCTTTCTTCAG...TATTTCAGCATGAAGGAGGGATTAAAGGGTTGTACAGAGGTTTCGTGCCTACTCTGTGTGGAATGATTCCATATGCAGGCCTATCATTCTATTG fb09024 fs17058 2 PREDICTED: graves

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01905-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LFKFYNSKPEELSVKEIKQLLNEYNSLVDKYFETK*lfh*cnhtinfnnnnnnpikk qkriailqlkfnnlqtktfnqkttqnftrk*kenfiiggnpptc... qkriailqlkfnnlqtktfnqkttqnftrk*kenfiiggnpptcilkkk own update 2004. 6. 9 Homology vs CSM-cDNA Query= Contig-

  1. Chromosome duplication in Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselaine Cristina Pereira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial chromosome duplication of diploid genotypes of Lolium multiflorum (2n=2x=14 is worthy to breeding, and aims to increase the expression of traits with agronomic interest. The purpose of this study was to obtain polyploid plants of L. multiflorum from local diploid populations in order to exploit adaptation and future verification of the effects of polyploidy in agronomic traits. Seedlings were immersed in different colchicine solutions for an exposure time of 3h and 24h. Ploidy determination was made by the DNA content and certified by chromosomes counts. The plants confirmed as tetraploids were placed in a greenhouse, and, at flowering, pollen viability was evaluated, and seeds were harvested to assess the stability of the progenies. The percentage of polyploids obtained was 20%. Pollen viability of the tetraploids generated ranged from 58% to 69%. The tetraploid plants obtained in the experiment generated 164 progenies, of which 109 presented DNA content compatible with the tetraploid level, showing stability of chromosome duplication in the filial generation.

  2. Sex determination by chromosome manipulation in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since it is impossible to artificially remove only sex chromosomes in sperm, gamma- or UV-irradiation has been used in destroying all chromosomes without loss of abilities of sperm movement and egg activation. It has been shown that a dose of gamma rays required for this purpose is 105 rad in any species of fish. For UV-irradiation, a 15 W lamp is used and irradiation for 60 to 120 seconds is required. With such an irradiation technique, gynogenetic haploid embryogenesis is induced. In developing normal diploid embryos of eggs inseminated with irradiated sperm (gynogenetic diploid embryogenesis with XX type), it is furthermore necessary to use physical procedures, such as low or high temperature and hydrostatic pressure. Irradiated sperm of different species of fish has also been used in inducing gynogenesis. As the most desirable technique, it is proposed to physiologically convert the sex of gynogenetic diploid embryos into males and to use sperm from those physiological males with XX chromosomes. Theoretical possibility of developing androgenetic haploid embryogenesis has been suggested. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Chromosome numbers in Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotias-de-Oliveira Ana Lúcia Pires

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports chromosome numbers of 17 species of Bromeliaceae, belonging to the genera Encholirium, Bromelia, Orthophytum, Hohenbergia, Billbergia, Neoglaziovia, Aechmea, Cryptanthus and Ananas. Most species present 2n = 50, however, Bromelia laciniosa, Orthophytum burle-marxii and O. maracasense are polyploids with 2n = 150, 2n = 100 and 2n = 150, respectively, while for Cryptanthus bahianus, 2n = 34 + 1-4B. B chromosomes were observed in Bromelia plumieri and Hohenbergia aff. utriculosa. The chromosome number of all species was determined for the first time, except for Billbergia chlorosticta and Cryptanthus bahianus. Our data supports the hypothesis of a basic number of x = 25 for the Bromeliaceae family and decreasing aneuploidy in the genus Cryptanthus.

  4. Those amazing dinoflagellate chromosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PETER J RIZZO

    2003-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are a very large and diverse group of eukaryotic algae that play a major role in aquatic food webs of both fresh water and marine habitats. Moreover, the toxic members of this group pose a health threat in the form of red tides. Finally, dinoflagellates are of great evolutionary importance,because of their taxonomic position, and their unusual chromosome structure and composition. While the cytoplasm of dinoflagellates is typically eukaryotic, the nucleus is unique when compared to the nucleus of other eukaryotes. More specifically, while the chromosomes of all other eukaryotes contain histones,dinoflagellate chromosomes lack histones completely. There are no known exceptions to this observation: all dinoflagellates lack histones, and all other eukaryotes contain histones. Nevertheless, dinoflagellates remain a relatively unstudied group of eukaryotes.

  5. FISH-mapped CEPH YACs spanning 0 to 46 cM on human chromosome 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray-Ward, P.; Bowlus, C.; Choi, J. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-15

    Seventy-six CEPH YACs were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to human metaphase chromosomes. These clones have been ordered from pter to 46 cM by combining the results of FISH with sequence-tagged site content mapping using data from the public databases. This created a minimal tiling path containing at least 37 Mb of human genomic DNA from 0 to 46 cM on chromosome 6 that contains up to four gaps not greater than 200 kb. These data provide an integration of the FLpter physical map values with cytogenetic band localization and markers on the genetic and radiation hybrid maps. We also assessed YAC chimerism and placed three additional Whitehead contigs within the integrated map. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Generation of physical map contig-specific sequences useful for whole genome sequence scaffolding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanliang Jiang

    Full Text Available Along with the rapid advances of the nextgen sequencing technologies, more and more species are added to the list of organisms whose whole genomes are sequenced. However, the assembled draft genome of many organisms consists of numerous small contigs, due to the short length of the reads generated by nextgen sequencing platforms. In order to improve the assembly and bring the genome contigs together, more genome resources are needed. In this study, we developed a strategy to generate a valuable genome resource, physical map contig-specific sequences, which are randomly distributed genome sequences in each physical contig. Two-dimensional tagging method was used to create specific tags for 1,824 physical contigs, in which the cost was dramatically reduced. A total of 94,111,841 100-bp reads and 315,277 assembled contigs are identified containing physical map contig-specific tags. The physical map contig-specific sequences along with the currently available BAC end sequences were then used to anchor the catfish draft genome contigs. A total of 156,457 genome contigs (~79% of whole genome sequencing assembly were anchored and grouped into 1,824 pools, in which 16,680 unique genes were annotated. The physical map contig-specific sequences are valuable resources to link physical map, genetic linkage map and draft whole genome sequences, consequently have the capability to improve the whole genome sequences assembly and scaffolding, and improve the genome-wide comparative analysis as well. The strategy developed in this study could also be adopted in other species whose whole genome assembly is still facing a challenge.

  7. The Y Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Y chromosome is of great interest to students and can be used to teach about many important biological concepts in addition to sex determination. This paper discusses mutation, recombination, mammalian sex determination, sex determination in general, and the evolution of sex determination in mammals. It includes a student activity that…

  8. Chromosomes, cancer and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some specific chromosomal abnormalities are associated with certain cancers. The earliest description of such a specific association is the one of the Philadelphia chromosome and myelogenous leukemia (1960). Other congenital karyotype abnormalities are associated with specific cancers. Examples of these are Down's syndrome with leukemia and Klinefelter's syndrome with male breast cancer. Genetic diseases of increased chromosome breakage, or of defective chromosome repair, are associated with greatly increased cancer incidence. Three such diseases have been recognized: 1) Fanconi's anemia, associated with leukemias and lymphomas, 2) Bloom's syndrome, associated with acute leukemias and lymphosarcoma, and 3) ataxia telangiectasia, associated with Hodgkin's disease, leukemia, and lymphosarcomas. Ten percent of individuals with ataxia telangiectasia will develop one of these neoplasms. Individuals with certain of these syndromes display an unusually high radiosensitivity. Radiation therapy for cancers has been fatal in patients who received as low as 3000 rad. This remarkable radiosensitivity has been quantitated in cell cultures from such cases. Evidence suggests that the apparent sensitivity may reflect subnormal ability to repair radiation damage. The rapid proliferation of information in this field stems from the interdigitation of many disciplines and specialties, including cytogenetics, cell biology, molecular biology, epidemiology, radiobiology, and several others. This paper is intended for clinicians; it presents a structured analytic scheme for correlating and classifying this multidisciplinary information as it becomes available

  9. Chromosomes, cancer and radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samouhos, E.

    1983-08-01

    Some specific chromosomal abnormalities are associated with certain cancers. The earliest description of such a specific association is the one of the Philadelphia chromosome and myelogenous leukemia (1960). Other congenital karyotype abnormalities are associated with specific cancers. Examples of these are Down's syndrome with leukemia and Klinefelter's syndrome with male breast cancer. Genetic diseases of increased chromosome breakage, or of defective chromosome repair, are associated with greatly increased cancer incidence. Three such diseases have been recognized: 1) Fanconi's anemia, associated with leukemias and lymphomas, 2) Bloom's syndrome, associated with acute leukemias and lymphosarcoma, and 3) ataxia telangiectasia, associated with Hodgkin's disease, leukemia, and lymphosarcomas. Ten percent of individuals with ataxia telangiectasia will develop one of these neoplasms. Individuals with certain of these syndromes display an unusually high radiosensitivity. Radiation therapy for cancers has been fatal in patients who received as low as 3000 rad. This remarkable radiosensitivity has been quantitated in cell cultures from such cases. Evidence suggests that the apparent sensitivity may reflect subnormal ability to repair radiation damage. The rapid proliferation of information in this field stems from the interdigitation of many disciplines and specialties, including cytogenetics, cell biology, molecular biology, epidemiology, radiobiology, and several others. This paper is intended for clinicians; it presents a structured analytic scheme for correlating and classifying this multidisciplinary information as it becomes available.

  10. Identification of Chromosomes from Multiple Rice Genomes Using a Universal Molecular Cytogenetic Marker System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomin Tang; Weidong Bao; Wenli Zhang; Zhukuan Cheng

    2007-01-01

    To develop reliable techniques for chromosome identification is critical for cytogenetic research, especially for genomes with a large number and smaller-sized chromosomes. An efficient approach using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAG) clones as molecular cytological markers has been developed for many organisms. Herein, we present a set of chromosomal arm-specific molecular cytological markers derived from the gene-enriched regions of the sequenced rice genome. All these markers are able to generate very strong signals on the pachytene chromosomes of Oryza satlva L. (AA genome) when used as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes. We further probed those markers to the pachytene chromosomes of O. punctata (BB genome) and O. officinalis (CC genome) and also got very strong signals on the relevant pachytene chromosomes. The signal position of each marker on the related chromosomes from the three different rice genomes was pretty much stable, which enabled us to identify different chromosomes among various rice genomes. We also constructed the karyotype for both O. punctata and O. officinalis with the BB and CC genomes, respectively, by analysis of 10 pachytene cells anchored by these chromosomal arm-specific markers.

  11. Construction of BAC Libraries from Flow-Sorted Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šafář, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Cloned DNA libraries in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) are the most widely used form of large-insert DNA libraries. BAC libraries are typically represented by ordered clones derived from genomic DNA of a particular organism. In the case of large eukaryotic genomes, whole-genome libraries consist of a hundred thousand to a million clones, which make their handling and screening a daunting task. The labor and cost of working with whole-genome libraries can be greatly reduced by constructing a library derived from a smaller part of the genome. Here we describe construction of BAC libraries from mitotic chromosomes purified by flow cytometric sorting. Chromosome-specific BAC libraries facilitate positional gene cloning, physical mapping, and sequencing in complex plant genomes. PMID:27511172

  12. Telomere dysfunction and chromosome instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, John P., E-mail: jmurnane@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, 2340 Sutter Street, San Francisco, CA 94143-1331 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The ends of chromosomes are composed of a short repeat sequence and associated proteins that together form a cap, called a telomere, that keeps the ends from appearing as double-strand breaks (DSBs) and prevents chromosome fusion. The loss of telomeric repeat sequences or deficiencies in telomeric proteins can result in chromosome fusion and lead to chromosome instability. The similarity between chromosome rearrangements resulting from telomere loss and those found in cancer cells implicates telomere loss as an important mechanism for the chromosome instability contributing to human cancer. Telomere loss in cancer cells can occur through gradual shortening due to insufficient telomerase, the protein that maintains telomeres. However, cancer cells often have a high rate of spontaneous telomere loss despite the expression of telomerase, which has been proposed to result from a combination of oncogene-mediated replication stress and a deficiency in DSB repair in telomeric regions. Chromosome fusion in mammalian cells primarily involves nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), which is the major form of DSB repair. Chromosome fusion initiates chromosome instability involving breakage-fusion-bridge (B/F/B) cycles, in which dicentric chromosomes form bridges and break as the cell attempts to divide, repeating the process in subsequent cell cycles. Fusion between sister chromatids results in large inverted repeats on the end of the chromosome, which amplify further following additional B/F/B cycles. B/F/B cycles continue until the chromosome acquires a new telomere, most often by translocation of the end of another chromosome. The instability is not confined to a chromosome that loses its telomere, because the instability is transferred to the chromosome donating a translocation. Moreover, the amplified regions are unstable and form extrachromosomal DNA that can reintegrate at new locations. Knowledge concerning the factors promoting telomere loss and its consequences is

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06096-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |||||||||||| Sbjct: 64 gaaatngatgntncaacnccaacaatggctgcaaanattttttnnccnttttcaattggt 123 Query: 124 ggnaatgttggngatgntacaacnccna...ctt 154 ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 124 ggnaatgttggngatgntacaacnccnactt 154 Sc...us Query: 219 atcncaacnatnncaacaacnaactgaatcagaattacnaccnattcaaa 268 |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||...||||||||||| Sbjct: 219 atcncaacnatnncaacaacnaactgaatcagaattacnaccnattcaaa 268 >Contig-U11917-1 (Contig-U1191...atgntncaacnccaacaatggctgcaaanattttttnnccnttttcaattggt 147 Query: 124 ggnaatgttggngatgntacaacnccnacttnaaaanaa

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12752-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s (55), Expect = 1e-24 Identities = 182/193 (94%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 11 gagtttgttgatttngatccnaaaccn...nnnnnnngnaaaantgntgctgttgtttcantt 70 ||||||||||||||||||||||||||| || |||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 11 gagtttgttgatttngatccna...Sbjct: 131 ggtaaaaaangttntnactnctggaaancnagtcaaggngntncaanggccncntcaaan 190 Query: 191 gccna...tccccttt 203 ||||||||||||| Sbjct: 191 gccnatccccttt 203 >Contig-U11508-1 (Contig-U11508-1Q) /CSM_...) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 11 gagtttgttgatttngatccnaaaccnnnnnnnngnaaaantgntgctgttgtttcantt 70 ||||||| |||

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13193-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4 (97%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 13 aatagaggnacccnacatggtgaacttggncaaagaaatcatagatttnaattgaaaatc 72 |||||...||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 13 aatagaggnacccnacatggtgaacttggncaaagaaatcat...| Sbjct: 313 gatgaaaaanaagaagatcnagatgctgatgaagaagaaaatgaagaagatagagcntgg 372 Query: 373 attgatgatattggnttgaatgatgatgatganacccna...||||||||||||| Sbjct: 373 attgatgatattggnttgaatgatgatgatganacccnagttgataattccacc 426 >Contig-U08437-1 (Contig...trand = Plus / Minus Query: 13 aatagaggnacccnacatggtgaacttggncaaagaaatcatagatttnaattgaaaatc 72 |||||||||||||

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08421-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Plus / Plus Query: 11 tgatgaatgngntcnatcancaaanaattttccngaaccccnaaaaagnttattagattg 70 |||||||||||||||||||||...||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 11 tgatgaatgngntcnatcancaaanaattttccngaaccccna...gatgncnataaaacgncagcnca 130 Query: 131 aaatttagccatcgntgntgcnccnaattta 161 ||||||...||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 131 aaatttagccatcgntgntgcnccnaattta 161 >Contig-U13983-1 (Contig-U13983-1Q)... (82%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 11 tgatgaatgngntcnatcancaaanaattttccngaaccccnaaaaagnttattagattg 70 ||||||

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14610-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ttttangccngnanggaantgttanttttgctttaaaaantgnggaattccnngan 66 Query: 67 cnctnttggccnactggaatagt 89 |||||||||||...|||||||||||| Sbjct: 67 cnctnttggccnactggaatagt 89 >Contig-U12363-1 (Contig-U12363...cngnanggaantgttanttttgctttaaaaantgnggaattccnngan 132 Query: 67 cnctnttggccnactgga...atagt 89 ||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 131 cnctnttggccnactggaatagt 109 Lambda K H 1.37 0.711 1.31 Matrix: b

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14318-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aaacnann 109 Query: 110 caaggngntncaaaggncncatnaaaagccnancccctttaagaaaac 157 |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||...||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 110 caaggngntncaaaggncncatnaaaagccnancccctttaagaaaac 157 >Contig-U11143-1 (Contig-U...ttanttttggtggnaaaaaaggntangantantggaaancaanncaaggngn 337 Query: 118 tncaaaggncncatnaaaagccna...ncccctttaagaaa 155 |||||||| ||||| |||||||||||||||||| |||| Sbjct: 338 tncaaaggccncatcaaaagccnanccc...inus Query: 120 caaaggncncatnaaaagccnancccctttaagaaaac 157 |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 42 caaaggncncatnaaaagccna

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04080-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 80-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U04080-1Q.Seq.d CCCGTCACNGATTTTCGTNTTGGGNCAAATNGTNTCNCTTTNGANGANGG TAACTTGGATTTCNCNGNTAAGGAAAANCCCAANTTGGAN...GGGAANCAAN GGGANGNCAAANGCCAANGGNTTNTTGAAANCAANGANTGGGAAA...NTGCN CAATTTAAAAAAGTNGNTGNTGCTAAATTTGGTTNCNGNTGGAATTNTTG TGGTAATTNTTGGGAAGAANGGGANGAANGGNTTAAANCCNCNGCTTCAA ...36/336 (100%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 1 cccgtcacngattttcgtnttgggncaaatngtntcnctttngangang...ttttcgtnttgggncaaatngtntcnctttnganganggtaacttggat 60 Query: 61 ttcncngntaaggaaaancccaanttggangggaancaangggang

  20. Genetic and physical mapping of the bovine X chromosome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Chen Chen; Taylor, J.F.; Sanders, J. O. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Three hundred eighty reciprocal backcross and F{sub 2} full sib progeny from 33 families produced by embryo transfer from 77 Angus (Bos taurus), Brahman (Bos indicus), and F{sub 1} parents and grandparents were used to construct genetic maps of the bovine X and Y chromosomes. All individuals were scored for 15 microsatellite loci, with an average of 608 informative meioses per locus. The length of the bovine X chromosome genetic map was 118.7 cM (female only) and of the pseudoautosomal region was 13.0 cM (male only). The 15-marker framework map in Kosambi centimorgans is (BM6017-6.1-TGLA89-35.8-TEXAN13-3.4-TGLA128-1.3-BM2713-21.1-BM4604-2.4-BR215-12.9-TGLA68-10.0-BM4321-1.0-HEL14-4.9-TGLA15-2.3-INRA120-12.5-TGLA325-1.6-MAF45-3.2-INRA30), with an average interval of 7.91 cM. Clones containing pseudoautosomal or sex-linked microsatellites were isolated from a bovine bacterial artificial chromosome library and were physically mapped to bovine metaphase chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization to orient the X and Y chromosome maps. BAC57, containing the pseudoautosomal microsatellite INRA30, mapped to the distal end of the long arm of the X chromosome at q42-ter and to the short arm of the Y chromosome at p13-ter. This confirms the published assignment of this region to Yp12-ter, but challenges the published assignment of Xp14-ter and thus reorients the X chromosome physical map. BAC204, containing the X-linked microsatellite BM4604, mapped to the middle of the long arm of the X chromosome at q26-q31. The position of the physically mapped to the middle of the long arm of the X chromosome at q26-q31. The position of the physically mapped markers indicates either a lack of microsatellite markers for a large (30 to 50 cM) region of the short arm of the X chromosome or heterogeneity of recombination along the X chromosome. 46 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Screening and chromosome localization of two cotton BAC clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xinglei; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yuling; Zhou, Zhongli; Wang, Chunying; Yanyan Zhao; Meng, Fei; Wang, Xingxing; Cai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yuhong; Peng, Renhai; Wang, Kunbo

    2016-01-01

    Two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones (350B21 and 299N22) of Pima 90-53 cotton [Gossypium barbadense Linnaeus, 1753 (2n=4x=52)] were screened from a BAC library using SSR markers. Strong hybridization signals were detected at terminal regions of all A genome (sub-genome) chromosomes, but were almost absent in D genome (sub-genome) chromosomes with BAC clone 350B21 as the probe. The results indicate that specific sequences, which only exist at the terminal parts of A genome (sub-genome) chromosomes with a huge repeat number, may be contained in BAC clone 350B21. When utilizing FISH with the BAC clone 299N22 as probe, a pair of obvious signals was detected on chromosome 13 of D genome (sub-genome), while strong dispersed signals were detected on all A genome (sub-genome) chromosomes. The results showed that peculiar repetitive sequence, which was distributed throughout all A genome (sub-genome) chromosomes, may exist in BAC clone 299N22. The absence of the repetitive sequences, which exist in the two BAC clones, in D genome may account for the genome-size variation between A and D genomes. In addition, the microcolinearity analysis of the clone 299N22 and its homologous region on Gossypium raimondii Ulbrich, 1932 chromosome 13 (D513) indicated that the clone 299N22 might come from A sub-genome of sea island cotton (Gossypium barbadense), and a huge number of small deletions, illegitimate recombination, translocation and rearrangements may have occurred during the genus evolution. The two BAC clones studied here can be used as cytological markers but will be also be helpful to research in cotton genome evolution and comparative genomics. PMID:27186333

  2. Genetic and physical mapping of the Chediak-Higashi syndrome on chromosome 1q42-43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrat, F.J.; Auloge, L.; Pastural, E. [INSERM, Paris (France)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    The Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a severe autosomal recessive condition, features of which are partial oculocutaneous albinism, increased susceptibility to infections, deficient natural killer cell activity, and the presence of large intracytoplasmic granulations in various cell types. Similar genetic disorders have been described in other species, including the beige mouse. On the basis of the hypothesis that the murine chromosome 13 region containing the beige locus was homologous to human chromosome 1, we have mapped the CHS locus to a 5-cM interval in chromosome segment 1q42.1-q42.2. The highest LOD score was obtained with the marker D1S235 (Z{sub max} = 5.38; {theta} = 0). Haplotype analysis enabled us to establish D1S2680 and D1S163, respectively, as the telomeric and the centromeric flanking markers. Multipoint linkage analysis confirms the localization of the CHS locus in this interval. Three YAC clones were found to cover the entire region in a contig established by YAC end-sequence characterization and sequence-tagged site mapping. The YAC contig contains all genetic markers that are nonrecombinant for the disease in the nine CHS families studied. This mapping confirms the previous hypothesis that the same gene defect causes CHS in human and beige phenotype in mice and provides a genetic framework for the identification of candidate genes. 36 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Chromosomal breakpoints characterization of two supernumerary ring chromosomes 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guediche, N; Brisset, S; Benichou, J-J; Guérin, N; Mabboux, P; Maurin, M-L; Bas, C; Laroudie, M; Picone, O; Goldszmidt, D; Prévot, S; Labrune, P; Tachdjian, G

    2010-02-01

    The occurrence of an additional ring chromosome 20 is a rare chromosome abnormality, and no common phenotype has been yet described. We report on two new patients presenting with a supernumerary ring chromosome 20 both prenatally diagnosed. The first presented with intrauterine growth retardation and some craniofacial dysmorphism, and the second case had a normal phenotype except for obesity. Conventional cytogenetic studies showed for each patient a small supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, these SMCs corresponded to ring chromosomes 20 including a part of short and long arms of chromosome 20. Detailed molecular cytogenetic characterization showed different breakpoints (20p11.23 and 20q11.23 for Patient 1 and 20p11.21 and 20q11.21 for Patient 2) and sizes of the two ring chromosomes 20 (13.6 Mb for case 1 and 4.8 Mb for case 2). Review of the 13 case reports of an extra r(20) ascertained postnatally (8 cases) and prenatally (5 cases) showed varying degrees of phenotypic abnormalities. We document a detailed molecular cytogenetic chromosomal breakpoints characterization of two cases of supernumerary ring chromosomes 20. These results emphasize the need to characterize precisely chromosomal breakpoints of supernumerary ring chromosomes 20 in order to establish genotype-phenotype correlation. This report may be helpful for prediction of natural history and outcome, particularly in prenatal diagnosis.

  4. Anticipatory Artificial Autopoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    DuBois, Daniel; Holmberg, Stig C.

    2010-01-01

    In examining relationships between autopoiesis and anticipation in artificial life (Alife) systems it is demonstrated that anticipation may increase efficiency and viability in artificial autopoietic living systems. This paper, firstly, gives a review of the Varela et al [1974] automata algorithm of an autopoietic living cell. Some problems in this algorithm must be corrected. Secondly, a new and original anticipatory artificial autopoiesis algorithm for automata is presented. ...

  5. Inteligencia artificial en vehiculo

    OpenAIRE

    Amador Díaz, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Desarrollo de un robot seguidor de líneas, en el que se implementan diversas soluciones de las áreas de sistemas embebidos e inteligencia artificial. Desenvolupament d'un robot seguidor de línies, en el qual s'implementen diverses solucions de les àrees de sistemes encastats i intel·ligència artificial. Follower robot development of lines, in which various solutions are implemented in the areas of artificial intelligence embedded systems.

  6. Artificial cognition architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Friess, Shelli A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this book is to establish the foundation, principles, theory, and concepts that are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. Presented here are some basic human intelligence concepts framed for Artificial Intelligence systems. These include concepts like Metacognition and Metamemory, along with architectural constructs for Artificial Intelligence versions of human brain functions like the prefrontal cortex. Also presented are possible hardware and software architectures that lend themselves to learning, reasoning, and self-evolution

  7. Familial complex chromosomal rearrangement resulting in a recombinant chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berend, Sue Ann; Bodamer, Olaf A F; Shapira, Stuart K; Shaffer, Lisa G; Bacino, Carlos A

    2002-05-15

    Familial complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are rare and tend to involve fewer breakpoints and fewer chromosomes than CCRs that are de novo in origin. We report on a CCR identified in a child with congenital heart disease and dysmorphic features. Initially, the child's karyotype was thought to involve a straightforward three-way translocation between chromosomes 3, 8, and 16. However, after analyzing the mother's chromosomes, the mother was found to have a more complex rearrangement that resulted in a recombinant chromosome in the child. The mother's karyotype included an inverted chromosome 2 and multiple translocations involving chromosomes 3, 5, 8, and 16. No evidence of deletion or duplication that could account for the clinical findings in the child was identified.

  8. Physical and transcription map of a 25 Mb region on human chromosome 7 (region q21-q22)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, S. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)]|[Hosptial for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Little, S.; Vandenberg, A. [Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We are interested in the q21-q22 region of chromosome 7 because of its implication in a number of diseases. This region of about 25 Mb appears to be involved in ectrodactyly/ectodermal dysplasia/cleft plate (EEC) and split hand/split foot deformity (SHFD1), as well as myelodysplastic syndrome and acute non-lymphocyte leukemia. In order to identify the genes responsible for these and other diseases, we have constructed a physical map of this region. The proximal and distal boundaries of the region were operationally defined by the microsatellite markers D7S660 and D7S692, which are about 35 cM apart. This region between these two markers could be divided into 13 intervals on the basis of chromosome breakpoints contained in somatic cell hybrids. The map positions for 43 additional microsatellite markers and 25 cloned genes were determined with respect to these intervals. A physical map based on contigs of over 250 YACs has also been assembled. While the contigs encompass all of the known genetic markers mapped to the region and almost cover the entire 25-Mb region, there are 3 gaps on the map. One of these gaps spans a set of DNA markers for which no corresponding YAC clones could be identified. To connect the two adjacent contigs we have initiated cosmid walking with a chromosome 7-specific library (Lawrence Livermore Laboratory). A tiling path of 60 contiguous YAC clones has been assembled and used for direct cDNA selection. Over 300 cDNA clones have been isolated and characterized. They are being grouped into transcription units by Northern blot analysis and screening of full-length cDNA libraries. Further, exon amplification and direct cDNA library screening with evolutionarily conserved sequences are being performed for a 1-Mb region spanning the SHFD1 locus to ensure detection of all transcribed sequences.

  9. The B chromosomes of the African cichlid fish Haplochromis obliquidens harbour 18S rRNA gene copies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Cesar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diverse plant and animal species have B chromosomes, also known as accessory, extra or supernumerary chromosomes. Despite being widely distributed among different taxa, the genomic nature and genetic behavior of B chromosomes are still poorly understood. Results In this study we describe the occurrence of B chromosomes in the African cichlid fish Haplochromis obliquidens. One or two large B chromosome(s occurring in 39.6% of the analyzed individuals (both male and female were identified. To better characterize the karyotype and assess the nature of the B chromosomes, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH was performed using probes for telomeric DNA repeats, 18S and 5S rRNA genes, SATA centromeric satellites, and bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs enriched in repeated DNA sequences. The B chromosomes are enriched in repeated DNAs, especially non-active 18S rRNA gene-like sequences. Conclusion Our results suggest that the B chromosome could have originated from rDNA bearing subtelo/acrocentric A chromosomes through formation of an isochromosome, or by accumulation of repeated DNAs and rRNA gene-like sequences in a small proto-B chromosome derived from the A complement.

  10. Artificial life and life artificialization in Tron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinema constantly shows the struggle between the men and artificial intelligences. Fiction, and more specifically fiction films, lends itself to explore possibilities asking “what if?”. “What if”, in this case, is related to the eventual rebellion of artificial intelligences, theme explored in the movies Tron (1982 and Tron Legacy (2010 trat portray the conflict between programs and users. The present paper examines these films, observing particularly the possibility programs empowering. Finally, is briefly mentioned the concept of cyborg as a possibility of response to human concerns.

  11. Genetic and physical mapping of the bovine X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, C C; Taylor, J F; Gallagher, D S; Sanders, J O; Turner, J W; Davis, S K

    1996-03-01

    Three hundred eighty reciprocal backcross and F(2) full sib progeny from 33 families produced by embryo transfer from 77 Angus (Bos taurus), Brahman (Bos indicus), and F1 parents and grandparents were used to construct genetic maps of the bovine X and Y chromosomes. Ml individuals were scored for 15 microsatellite loci, with an average of 608 informative meioses per locus. The length of the bovine X chromosome genetic map was 118.7 cM (female only) and of the pseudoautosomal region was 13.0 cM (male only). The 15-marker framework map in Kosambi centimorgans is [BM6017-6.1 -TGLA89-35.8-TEXAN13-3.4-TGLA128-1.3 -BM2713 -21.1 -BM4604-2.4-BR215 - 12.9-TGLA68-10.0-BM4321 - 1.0-HEL14-4.9-TGLA15-2.3-INRA12O- 12.5-TGLA325- 1.6-MAF45-3.2-INRA3O], with an average interval of 7.91 cM. Clones containing pseudoautosomal or sex-linked microsatellites were isolated from a bovine bacterial artificial chromosome library and were physically mapped to bovine metaphase chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization to orient the X and Y chromosome maps. BAC57, containing the pseudoautosomal microsatellite INRA3O, mapped to the distal end of the long arm of the X chromosome at q42-ter and to the short arm of the Y chromosome at p13-ter. This confirms the published assignment of this region to Ypl2-ter, but challenges the published assignment of Xpl4-ter and thus reorients the X chromosome physical map. BAC2O4, containing the X-linked microsatellite BM4604, mapped to the middle of the long arm of the X chromosome at q26-q31. The position of the physically mapped markers indicates either a lack of microsatellite markers for a large (30 to 50 cM) region of the short arm of the X chromosome or heterogeneity of recombination along the X chromosome. PMID:8833151

  12. Artificial insemination in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial insemination is a relative simple yet powerful tool geneticists can employ for the propagation of economically important traits in livestock and poultry. In this chapter, we address the fundamental methods of the artificial insemination of poultry, including semen collection, semen evalu...

  13. Chromosome numbers and meiotic analysis in the pre-breeding of Brachiaria decumbens (Poaceae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gléia Cristina Laverde Ricci; Alice Maria De Souza-Kaneshima; Mariana Ferrari Felismino; Andrea Beatriz Mendes-Bonato; Maria Suely Pagliarini; Cacilda Borges Do Valle

    2011-08-01

    A total of 44 accessions of Brachiaria decumbens were analysed for chromosome count and meiotic behaviour in order to identify potential progenitors for crosses. Among them, 15 accessions presented $2n = 18$; 27 accessions, $2n = 36$; and 2 accessions, $2n = 45$ chromosomes. Among the diploid accessions, the rate of meiotic abnormalities was low, ranging from 0.82% to 7.93%. In the 27 tetraploid accessions, the rate of meiotic abnormalities ranged from 18.41% to 65.83%. The most common meiotic abnormalities were related to irregular chromosome segregation, but chromosome stickiness and abnormal cytokinesis were observed in low frequency. All abnormalities can compromise pollen viability by generating unbalanced gametes. Based on the chromosome number and meiotic stability, the present study indicates the apomictic tetraploid accessions that can act as male genitor to produce interspecific hybrids with B. ruziziensis or intraspecific hybrids with recently artificially tetraploidized accessions.

  14. Assignment of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) linkage groups to specific chromosomes reveals a karyotype with multiple rearrangements of the chromosome arms of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ruth B; Park, Linda K; Naish, Kerry A

    2013-12-09

    The Chinook salmon genetic linkage groups have been assigned to specific chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization with bacterial artificial chromosome probes containing genetic markers mapped to each linkage group in Chinook salmon and rainbow trout. Comparison of the Chinook salmon chromosome map with that of rainbow trout provides strong evidence for conservation of large syntenic blocks in these species, corresponding to entire chromosome arms in the rainbow trout as expected. In almost every case, the markers were found at approximately the same location on the chromosome arm in each species, suggesting conservation of marker order on the chromosome arms of the two species in most cases. Although theoretically a few centric fissions could convert the karyotype of rainbow trout (2N = 58-64) into that of Chinook salmon (2N = 68) or vice versa, our data suggest that chromosome arms underwent multiple centric fissions and subsequent new centric fusions to form the current karyotypes. The morphology of only approximately one-third of the chromosome pairs have been conserved between the two species.

  15. Onion artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An

    2015-05-01

    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  16. Whole-genome and chromosome evolution associated with host adaptation and speciation of the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva H Stukenbrock

    Full Text Available The fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola has been a pathogen of wheat since host domestication 10,000-12,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent. The wheat-infecting lineage emerged from closely related Mycosphaerella pathogens infecting wild grasses. We use a comparative genomics approach to assess how the process of host specialization affected the genome structure of M. graminicola since divergence from the closest known progenitor species named M. graminicola S1. The genome of S1 was obtained by Illumina sequencing resulting in a 35 Mb draft genome sequence of 32X. Assembled contigs were aligned to the previously sequenced M. graminicola genome. The alignment covered >90% of the non-repetitive portion of the M. graminicola genome with an average divergence of 7%. The sequenced M. graminicola strain is known to harbor thirteen essential chromosomes plus eight dispensable chromosomes. We found evidence that structural rearrangements significantly affected the dispensable chromosomes while the essential chromosomes were syntenic. At the nucleotide level, the essential and dispensable chromosomes have evolved differently. The average synonymous substitution rate in dispensable chromosomes is considerably lower than in essential chromosomes, whereas the average non-synonymous substitution rate is three times higher. Differences in molecular evolution can be related to different transmission and recombination patterns, as well as to differences in effective population sizes of essential and dispensable chromosomes. In order to identify genes potentially involved in host specialization or speciation, we calculated ratios of synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates in the >9,500 aligned protein coding genes. The genes are generally under strong purifying selection. We identified 43 candidate genes showing evidence of positive selection, one encoding a potential pathogen effector protein. We conclude that divergence of these pathogens was

  17. Report of the fifth international workshop on human X chromosome mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, H.F.; Cremers, F.; Mandel, J.L.; Monaco, A.P.; Nelson, D.L.; Schlessinger, D.

    1994-12-31

    A high-quality integrated genetic and physical map of the X chromosome from telomere to telomere, based primarily on YACs formatted with probes and STSs, is increasingly close to reality. At the Fifth International X Chromosome Workshop, organized by A.M. Poustka and D. Schlessinger in Heidelberg, Germany, April 24--27, 1994, substantial progress was recorded on extension and refinement of the physical map, on the integration of genetic and cytogenetic data, on attempts to use the map to direct gene searches, and on nascent large-scale sequencing efforts. This report summarizes physical and genetic mapping information presented at the workshop and/or published since the reports of the fourth International X Chromosome Workshop. The principle aim of the workshop was to derive a consensus map of the chromosome, in terms of physical contigs emphasizing the location of genes and microsatellite markers. The resulting map is presented and updates previous versions. This report also updates the list of highly informative microsatellites. The text highlights the working state of the map, the genes known to reside on the X, and the progress toward integration of various types of data.

  18. Characterization of the OmyY1 region on the rainbow trout Y chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ruth B.; DeKoning, Jenefer J.; Brunelli, Joseph P.; Faber-Hammond, Joshua J.; Hansen, John D.; Christensen, Kris A.; Renn, Suzy C.P.; Thorgaard, Gary H.

    2013-01-01

    We characterized the male-specific region on the Y chromosome of rainbow trout, which contains both sdY (the sex-determining gene) and the male-specific genetic marker, OmyY1. Several clones containing the OmyY1 marker were screened from a BAC library from a YY clonal line and found to be part of an 800 kb BAC contig. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), these clones were localized to the end of the short arm of the Y chromosome in rainbow trout, with an additional signal on the end of the X chromosome in many cells. We sequenced a minimum tiling path of these clones using Illumina and 454 pyrosequencing. The region is rich in transposons and rDNA, but also appears to contain several single-copy protein-coding genes. Most of these genes are also found on the X chromosome; and in several cases sex-specific SNPs in these genes were identified between the male (YY) and female (XX) homozygous clonal lines. Additional genes were identified by hybridization of the BACs to the cGRASP salmonid 4x44K oligo microarray. By BLASTn evaluations using hypothetical transcripts of OmyY1-linked candidate genes as query against several EST databases, we conclude at least 12 of these candidate genes are likely functional, and expressed.

  19. A YAC contig encompassing the XRCC5 (Ku80) DNA repair gene and complementation of defective cells by YAC protoplast fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blunt, T.; Priestley, A.; Hafezparast, M.; McMillan, T. [Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-11-20

    The Chinese hamster ovary xrs mutants are sensitive to ionizing radiation, defective in DNA double-strand break rejoining, and unable to carry out V(D)J recombination effectively. Recently, the gene defective in these mutants, XRCC5, has been shown to encode Ku80, a component of the Ku protein and DNA-dependent protein kinase. We present here a YAC contig involving 25 YACs mapping to the region 2q33-q34, which encompasses the XRCC5 gene. Eight new markers for this region of chromosome 2 are identified. YACs encoding the Ku80 gene were transferred to xrs cells by protoplast fusion, and complementation of all the defective phenotypes has been obtained with two YACs. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this approach as a strategy for cloning human genes complementing defective rodent cell lines. 44 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. RESULTS: The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. DISCUSSION: Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting. PMID:15333167