WorldWideScience

Sample records for artifacts yield starch

  1. Gourd and squash artifacts yield starch grains of feasting foods from preceramic Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Neil A.; Pearsall, Deborah M.; Robert A. Benfer

    2009-01-01

    In a study of residues from gourd and squash artifacts, we recovered starch grains from manioc (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum sp.), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) from feasting contexts at the Buena Vista site, a central Peruvian preceramic site dating to ≈2200 calendar years B.C. This study has implications for the study of plant food use wherever gourds or squashes are preserved, documents the earliest evidence for the consu...

  2. Gourd and squash artifacts yield starch grains of feasting foods from preceramic Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Neil A; Pearsall, Deborah M; Benfer, Robert A

    2009-08-11

    In a study of residues from gourd and squash artifacts, we recovered starch grains from manioc (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum sp.), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) from feasting contexts at the Buena Vista site, a central Peruvian preceramic site dating to approximately 2200 calendar years B.C. This study has implications for the study of plant food use wherever gourds or squashes are preserved, documents the earliest evidence for the consumption of algarrobo and arrowroot in Peru, and provides insights into foods consumed at feasts. PMID:19633184

  3. Identification and reproducibility of diagnostic DNA markers for tuber starch and yield optimization in a novel association mapping population of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Schönhals, E. M.; Ortega, F.; Barandalla, L.; Aragones, A.; Ruiz de Galarreta, J.I.; Liao, J.-C.; Sanetomo, R.; Walkemeier, B.; Tacke, E.; Ritter, E.; Gebhardt, C.

    2016-01-01

    Key message SNPs in candidate genes Pain - 1, InvCD141 (invertases), SSIV (starch synthase), StCDF1 (transcription factor), LapN (leucine aminopeptidase), and cytoplasm type are associated with potato tuber yield, starch content and/or starch yield. Abstract Tuber yield (TY), starch content (TSC), and starch yield (TSY) are complex characters of high importance for the potato crop in general and for industrial starch production in particular. DNA markers associated with superior alleles of ge...

  4. Natural DNA variation at candidate loci is associated with potato chip color, tuber starch content, yield and starch yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L.; Paulo, M.J.; Strahwald, J.; Lubeck, J.; Hofferbert, H.R.; Tacke, E.; Junghans, H.; Wunder, J.; Draffehn, A.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Gebhardt, C.

    2008-01-01

    Complex characters of plants such as starch and sugar content of seeds, fruits, tubers and roots are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Understanding their molecular basis will facilitate diagnosis and combination of superior alleles in crop improvement programs (precision bre

  5. AMMI Model for Interpreting Clone-Environment Interaction in Starch Yield of Cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHOLIHIN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the interaction between clone and environment for starch yield in six month-old plants of cassava clones based on additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI model. The experiments were conducted on mineral soil in four different locations: Lumajang (inceptisol, Kediri (entisol, Pati (alfisol, and Tulangbawang (ultisol. The experiments were carried out during 2004-2005, using a split plot design withthree replications. The main plots were the simple and the improved technology. The clones used were fifteen clones. Parameter recorded was starch yield (kg/ha of the 6 month old plants. The data were analyzed using the AMMI model. Based on the AMMI analysis, environmental factors being important in determining the stability of the starch yield were soil density for subsoil, pH of topsoil, and the maximum air humidity four months after planting. The clones of CMM97001-87, CMM97002-183, CMM97011-191, CMM97006-44, and Adhira 4 were identified as stable clones in starch yield within 6 month-old plants. CMM97007-235 was adapted to maximum relative humidity 4 months after planting and to lower pH of topsoil, whereas, MLG 10311 was adapted to lower bulk density. The mean starch yield of MLG 10311 was the highest six months after planting.

  6. Biological implications in cassava for the production of amylose-free starch: impact on root yield and related traits.

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda eKarlström; Sandra eSalazar; Fernando eCalle; Nelson eMorante; Dominique eDufour; Hernán eCeballos

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an important food security crop, but it is becoming an important raw material for different industrial applications. Cassava is the second most important source of starch worldwide. Novel starch properties are of interest to the starch industry, and one them is the recently identified amylose-free (waxy) cassava starch. Waxy mutants have been found in different crops and have been often associated with a yield penalty. There are ongoing efforts to develo...

  7. Biological Implications in Cassava for the Production of Amylose-Free Starch: Impact on Root Yield and Related Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Karlström, Amanda; Calle, Fernando; Salazar, Sandra; Morante, Nelson; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an important food security crop, but it is becoming an important raw material for different industrial applications. Cassava is the second most important source of starch worldwide. Novel starch properties are of interest to the starch industry, and one them is the recently identified amylose-free (waxy) cassava starch. Waxy mutants have been found in different crops and have been often associated with a yield penalty. There are ongoing efforts to develo...

  8. Simultaneous boosting of source and sink capacities doubles tuber starch yield of potato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonik, Claudia; Sonnewald, Uwe; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Ludewig, Frank

    2012-12-01

    An important goal in biotechnological research is to improve the yield of crop plants. Here, we genetically modified simultaneously source and sink capacities in potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Desirée) plants to improve starch yield. Source capacity was increased by mesophyll-specific overexpression of a pyrophosphatase or, alternatively, by antisense expression of the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in leaves. Both approaches make use of re-routing photoassimilates to sink organs at the expense of leaf starch accumulation. Simultaneous increase in sink capacity was accomplished by overexpression of two plastidic metabolite translocators, that is, a glucose 6-phosphate/phosphate translocator and an adenylate translocator in tubers. Employing such a 'pull' approach, we have previously shown that potato starch content and yield can be increased when sink strength is elevated. In the current biotechnological approach, we successfully enhanced source and sink capacities by a combination of 'pull' and 'push' approaches using two different attempts. A doubling in tuber starch yield was achieved. This successful approach might be transferable to other crop plants in the future.

  9. Simultaneous boosting of source and sink capacities doubles tuber starch yield of potato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonik, Claudia; Sonnewald, Uwe; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Ludewig, Frank

    2012-12-01

    An important goal in biotechnological research is to improve the yield of crop plants. Here, we genetically modified simultaneously source and sink capacities in potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Desirée) plants to improve starch yield. Source capacity was increased by mesophyll-specific overexpression of a pyrophosphatase or, alternatively, by antisense expression of the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in leaves. Both approaches make use of re-routing photoassimilates to sink organs at the expense of leaf starch accumulation. Simultaneous increase in sink capacity was accomplished by overexpression of two plastidic metabolite translocators, that is, a glucose 6-phosphate/phosphate translocator and an adenylate translocator in tubers. Employing such a 'pull' approach, we have previously shown that potato starch content and yield can be increased when sink strength is elevated. In the current biotechnological approach, we successfully enhanced source and sink capacities by a combination of 'pull' and 'push' approaches using two different attempts. A doubling in tuber starch yield was achieved. This successful approach might be transferable to other crop plants in the future. PMID:22931170

  10. High-yield hydrogen production from starch and water by a synthetic enzymatic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y-H Percival Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The future hydrogen economy offers a compelling energy vision, but there are four main obstacles: hydrogen production, storage, and distribution, as well as fuel cells. Hydrogen production from inexpensive abundant renewable biomass can produce cheaper hydrogen, decrease reliance on fossil fuels, and achieve zero net greenhouse gas emissions, but current chemical and biological means suffer from low hydrogen yields and/or severe reaction conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate a synthetic enzymatic pathway consisting of 13 enzymes for producing hydrogen from starch and water. The stoichiometric reaction is C(6H(10O(5 (l+7 H(2O (l-->12 H(2 (g+6 CO(2 (g. The overall process is spontaneous and unidirectional because of a negative Gibbs free energy and separation of the gaseous products with the aqueous reactants. CONCLUSIONS: Enzymatic hydrogen production from starch and water mediated by 13 enzymes occurred at 30 degrees C as expected, and the hydrogen yields were much higher than the theoretical limit (4 H(2/glucose of anaerobic fermentations. SIGNIFICANCE: The unique features, such as mild reaction conditions (30 degrees C and atmospheric pressure, high hydrogen yields, likely low production costs ($ approximately 2/kg H(2, and a high energy-density carrier starch (14.8 H(2-based mass%, provide great potential for mobile applications. With technology improvements and integration with fuel cells, this technology also solves the challenges associated with hydrogen storage, distribution, and infrastructure in the hydrogen economy.

  11. Biological Implications in Cassava for the Production of Amylose-Free Starch: Impact on Root Yield and Related Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlström, Amanda; Calle, Fernando; Salazar, Sandra; Morante, Nelson; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an important food security crop, but it is becoming an important raw material for different industrial applications. Cassava is the second most important source of starch worldwide. Novel starch properties are of interest to the starch industry, and one them is the recently identified amylose-free (waxy) cassava starch. Waxy mutants have been found in different crops and have been often associated with a yield penalty. There are ongoing efforts to develop commercial cassava varieties with amylose-free starch. However, little information is available regarding the biological and agronomic implications of starch mutations in cassava, nor in other root and tuber crops. In this study, siblings from eight full-sib families, segregating for the waxy trait, were used to determine if the mutation has implications for yield, dry matter content (DMC) and harvest index in cassava. A total of 87 waxy and 87 wild-type starch genotypes from the eight families were used in the study. The only significant effect of starch type was on DMC (p cassava varieties will have competitive FRYs but special efforts will be required to attain adequate DMCs. This study contributes to the limited knowledge available of the impact of starch mutations on the agronomic performance of root and tuber crops. PMID:27242813

  12. Biological Implications in Cassava for the Production of Amylose-Free Starch: Impact on Root Yield and Related Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlström, Amanda; Calle, Fernando; Salazar, Sandra; Morante, Nelson; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an important food security crop, but it is becoming an important raw material for different industrial applications. Cassava is the second most important source of starch worldwide. Novel starch properties are of interest to the starch industry, and one them is the recently identified amylose-free (waxy) cassava starch. Waxy mutants have been found in different crops and have been often associated with a yield penalty. There are ongoing efforts to develop commercial cassava varieties with amylose-free starch. However, little information is available regarding the biological and agronomic implications of starch mutations in cassava, nor in other root and tuber crops. In this study, siblings from eight full-sib families, segregating for the waxy trait, were used to determine if the mutation has implications for yield, dry matter content (DMC) and harvest index in cassava. A total of 87 waxy and 87 wild-type starch genotypes from the eight families were used in the study. The only significant effect of starch type was on DMC (p < 0.01), with waxy clones having a 0.8% lower content than their wild type counterparts. There was no effect of starch type on fresh root yield (FRY), adjusted FRY and harvest index. It is not clear if lower DMC is a pleiotropic effect of the waxy starch mutation or else the result of linked genes introgressed along with the mutation. It is expected that commercial waxy cassava varieties will have competitive FRYs but special efforts will be required to attain adequate DMCs. This study contributes to the limited knowledge available of the impact of starch mutations on the agronomic performance of root and tuber crops. PMID:27242813

  13. Transcriptome analysis suggests that starch synthesis may proceed via multiple metabolic routes in high yielding potato cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacper Piotr Kaminski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate is imported into the amyloplast of potato tubers and thought to constitute the precursor for starch synthesis in potato tubers. However, recently it was shown that glucose-1-phosphate can also be imported into the amyloplast and incorporated into starch via an ATP independent mechanism under special conditions. Nonetheless, glucose-6-phosphate is believed to be the quantitatively important precursor for starch synthesis in potato. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Potato tubers of the high yielding cv Kuras had low gene expression of plastidial phophoglucomutase (PGM and normal levels of transcripts for other enzymes involved in starch metabolism in comparison with medium and low yielding cultivars as determined by DeepSAGE transcriptome profiling. The decrease in PGM activity in Kuras was confirmed by measuring the enzyme activity from potato tuber extracts. Contrary to expectations, this combination lead to a higher level of intracellular glucose-1-phosphate (G1P in Kuras suggesting that G1P is directly imported into plastids and can be quantitatively important for starch synthesis under normal conditions in high yielding cultivars. SIGNIFICANCE: This could open entirely new possibilities for metabolic engineering of the starch metabolism in potato via the so far uncharacterized G1P transporter. The perspectives are to increase yield and space efficiency of this important crop. In the light of the increasing demands imposed on agriculture to support a growing global population this presents an exciting new possibility.

  14. Transcriptome Analysis Suggests That Starch Synthesis May Proceed via Multiple Metabolic Routes in High Yielding Potato Cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaminski, Kacper Piotr; Petersen, Annabeth Høgh; Sønderkær, Mads;

    2012-01-01

    levels of transcripts for other enzymes involved in starch metabolism in comparison with medium and low yielding cultivars as determined by DeepSAGE transcriptome profiling. The decrease in PGM activity in Kuras was confirmed by measuring the enzyme activity from potato tuber extracts. Contrary......Background: Glucose-6-phosphate is imported into the amyloplast of potato tubers and thought to constitute the precursor for starch synthesis in potato tubers. However, recently it was shown that glucose-1-phosphate can also be imported into the amyloplast and incorporated into starch via an ATP...... independent mechanism under special conditions. Nonetheless, glucose-6-phosphate is believed to be the quantitatively important precursor for starch synthesis in potato. Principical finding: potato tubers of the high yielding cv Kuras had low gene expression of plastidial phophoglucomutase (PGM) and normal...

  15. MRI Artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed Al Nasser Assi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available   "nMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI has become more and more frequently used in medical imaging diagnostic in recent years. Radiologists and technicians working at these systems are relatively often confronted with image artifacts related to the radiowave with strong magnetic in the scanner. Many artifacts may be corrected or modulated through an understanding of their cause. This requires familiarity with scanner design; theory of operation; and image acquisition. The purpose of this review article is to present the most relevant artifacts that arise in MRI scanner, to provide some physical background on the formation of artifacts, and to suggest strategies to reduce or avoid these artifacts. The most frequent artifacts that can occur during MRI scanning are Motion related artifacts; Para-magnetic artifacts; Phase Wrap artifacts; Frequency artifacts; Susceptibility artifacts; Clipping artefact; Chemical Shift artifact and "Zebra" artefact .    "n  

  16. Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, J.; Hu, C.; Yan, X.; Jin, Y.; Chen, Z.; Guan, Q.; Wang, Y.; Zhong, D.; Jansson, Georg C.; Wang, F.; Schnrer, Anna; Sun, Chuanxin

    2015-07-22

    Atmospheric methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and is responsible for about 20% of the global warming effect since pre-industrial times. Rice paddies are the largest anthropogenic methane source and produce 7–17% of atmospheric methane. Warm waterlogged soil and exuded nutrients from rice roots provide ideal conditions for methanogenesis in paddies with annual methane emissions of 25–100-million tonnes. This scenario will be exacerbated by an expansion in rice cultivation needed to meet the escalating demand for food in the coming decades4. There is an urgent need to establish sustainable technologies for increasing rice production while reducing methane fluxes from rice paddies. However, ongoing efforts for methane mitigation in rice paddies are mainly based on farming practices and measures that are difficult to implement5. Despite proposed strategies to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions4,6, no high-starch low-methane-emission rice has been developed. Here we show that the addition of a single transcription factor gene, barley SUSIBA2, conferred a shift of carbon flux to SUSIBA2 rice, favouring the allocation of photosynthates to aboveground biomass over allocation to roots. The altered allocation resulted in an increased biomass and starch content in the seeds and stems, and suppressed methanogenesis, possibly through a reduction in root exudates. Three-year field trials in China demonstrated that the cultivation of SUSIBA2 rice was associated with a significant reduction in methane emissions and a decrease in rhizospheric methanogen levels. SUSIBA2 rice offers a sustainable means of providing increased starch content for food production while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation. Approaches to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions as seen in SUSIBA2 rice may be particularly beneficial in a future climate with rising temperatures resulting in increased methane

  17. Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J.; Hu, C.; Yan, X.; Jin, Y.; Chen, Z.; Guan, Q.; Wang, Y.; Zhong, D.; Jansson, C.; Wang, F.; Schnürer, A.; Sun, C.

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and is responsible for about 20% of the global warming effect since pre-industrial times. Rice paddies are the largest anthropogenic methane source and produce 7-17% of atmospheric methane. Warm waterlogged soil and exuded nutrients from rice roots provide ideal conditions for methanogenesis in paddies with annual methane emissions of 25-100-million tonnes. This scenario will be exacerbated by an expansion in rice cultivation needed to meet the escalating demand for food in the coming decades. There is an urgent need to establish sustainable technologies for increasing rice production while reducing methane fluxes from rice paddies. However, ongoing efforts for methane mitigation in rice paddies are mainly based on farming practices and measures that are difficult to implement. Despite proposed strategies to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions, no high-starch low-methane-emission rice has been developed. Here we show that the addition of a single transcription factor gene, barley SUSIBA2 (refs 7, 8), conferred a shift of carbon flux to SUSIBA2 rice, favouring the allocation of photosynthates to aboveground biomass over allocation to roots. The altered allocation resulted in an increased biomass and starch content in the seeds and stems, and suppressed methanogenesis, possibly through a reduction in root exudates. Three-year field trials in China demonstrated that the cultivation of SUSIBA2 rice was associated with a significant reduction in methane emissions and a decrease in rhizospheric methanogen levels. SUSIBA2 rice offers a sustainable means of providing increased starch content for food production while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation. Approaches to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions as seen in SUSIBA2 rice may be particularly beneficial in a future climate with rising temperatures resulting in increased

  18. Effect of phytase application during high gravity (HG) maize mashes preparation on the availability of starch and yield of the ethanol fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulski, D; Kłosowski, G; Rolbiecka, A

    2014-10-01

    Phytic acid present in raw materials used in distilling industry can form complexes with starch and divalent cations and thus limit their biological availability. The influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis of phytate complexes on starch availability during the alcoholic fermentation process using high gravity (HG) maize mashes was analyzed. Indicators of the alcoholic fermentation as well as the fermentation activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae D-2 strain were statistically evaluated. Phytate hydrolysis improved the course of the alcoholic fermentation of HG maize mashes. The final ethanol concentration in the media supplemented with phytase applied either before or after the starch hydrolysis increased by 1.0 and 0.6 % v/v, respectively, as compared to the control experiments. This increase was correlated with an elevated fermentation yield that was higher by 5.5 and 2.0 L EtOH/100 kg of starch, respectively. Phytate hydrolysis resulted also in a statistically significant increase in the initial concentration of fermenting sugars by 14.9 mg/mL of mash, on average, which was a consequence of a better availability of starch for enzymatic hydrolysis. The application of phytase increased the attenuation of HG media fermentation thus improving the economical aspect of the ethanol fermentation process.

  19. Studies on starch structure and the differential properties of starch branching enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Lena

    2001-01-01

    Starch is a staple food in human and animal diets, but also a raw material widely used for industrial purposes. By genetical modification of starch-synthesising enzymes in crop plants, starch yields could be increased and novel starches with particular qualities could be produced for industrial use. However, the process of starch biosynthesis and its regulation is still not completely understood. One of the major groups of enzymes in starch biosynthesis is the starch branching enzymes (SBEs),...

  20. Effects of Paclobutrazoi on Yield and Starch Content of Potato%多效唑对马铃薯产量和淀粉含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云亚; 杨如鸿

    2011-01-01

    At medium-term growth stages of potato,different concentrations of paclobutrazol were sprayed on leaves to study its effect on the agronomic traits, yield and starch content of potato. The results showed that paclobutrazol could dwarf the plant,inhibit the growth of stem, make leaf green, strengthen the photosynthesis of leaf and nutrient accumulation, improve root tuber expanding, and increase the yield and starch content of potato. In all treatments,the effects of spraying concentration 400 mg/L of 15% paelobutrazol solution at rate of 600 kg/hm2 were the best, and the yield of potato reached 16 572.22 kg/hm2, and increased 26.94% compared to the control. The starch content was 19.48%, and increased by 12.54% compared with the control.%在马铃薯生长中期以不同浓度的多效唑溶液进行叶面喷施,研究多效唑对马铃薯农艺性状、产量及淀粉舍量的影响。结果表明,马铃薯喷施多效唑能矮化植株,抑制地上茎杆生长,使植株叶色浓绿,增强光合作用,增加营养积累,促进薯块膨大,从而提高马铃薯的产量和淀粉含量,其中以喷施400mg/L的15%多效唑溶液600kg/hm2的处理效果最好,产量为16572.22kg/hm2,比对照增产3516.66kg/hm2,增幅为26.94%,淀粉含量最高迭19.48%,比对照增长12.54%。

  1. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  2. 甘薯淀粉产量及相关性状的遗传多样性和关联度分析%Genetic diversity and correlation analysis of starch yield-related traits in sweet potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯; 罗小敏; 王季春; 唐道彬; 吴正丹; 叶爽; 王莉

    2013-01-01

    As a major starch-based raw material for fuel ethanol production, sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] is a critical industrial material and a new energy resource.The development of new sweet potato varieties with high starch yield has been a key element of sweet potato research.To improve breeding efficiency of sweet potato varieties with high starch yield, short breeding cycle and valuable index supply for early selection of high starch yield sweet potato breed, this study used the Unweighted Pair Group and PSC- (Pair Similarity Coefficient) based Arithmetic Average Method to classify 48 main sweet potato germplasm resources in terms of starch yield, morphological traits and synthetic enzyme activity.Then correlation analysis was used to assess the relations of starch yield with agronomic traits and starch synthetic enzyme activity at different times.The results showed significant variations in agronomic traits of different sweet potato varieties/lines and periods.Cluster results indicated that agronomic traits in 100 days after planting were most relevant with starch yield.Among the agronomic traits, starch yield was significantly negatively correlated with plant branch (r = -0.428) and significantly positively correlated with dry matter rate (r = 0.423) in 100 days after planting.No significant correlation existed between starch yield and maximum vine length, root tuber number per plant or root tuber fresh weight per plant.It was possible to use plant branch and dry matter in 100 days after planting as indexes in early selection of high starch yield sweet potato breed.The cluster results for key starch synthesis enzymes (ADPG-PPase, SS and SPS) activities at different times were significantly different.The cluster results showed key starch synthesis enzymes activities in 50 days after planting was most relevant with starch yield.Among the enzymes activities in 50 days after planting, starch yield was negatively correlated with ADPG-PPase activity (r = -0

  3. Artifacts in digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung Whan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Shin Gu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Beakseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Digital Radiography is a big part of diagnostic radiology. Because uncorrected digital radiography image supported false effect of Patient’s health care. We must be manage the correct digital radiography image. Thus, the artifact images can have effect to make a wrong diagnosis. We report types of occurrence by analyzing the artifacts that occurs in digital radiography system. We had collected the artifacts occurred in digital radiography system of general hospital from 2007 to 2014. The collected data had analyzed and then had categorize as the occurred causes. The artifacts could be categorized by hardware artifacts, software artifacts, operating errors, system artifacts, and others. Hardware artifact from a Ghost artifact that is caused by lag effect occurred most frequently. The others cases are the artifacts caused by RF noise and foreign body in equipments. Software artifacts are many different types of reasons. The uncorrected processing artifacts and the image processing error artifacts occurred most frequently. Exposure data recognize (EDR) error artifacts, the processing error of commissural line, and etc., the software artifacts were caused by various reasons. Operating artifacts were caused when the user did not have the full understanding of the digital medical image system. System artifacts had appeared the error due to DICOM header information and the compression algorithm. The obvious artifacts should be re-examined, and it could result in increasing the exposure dose of the patient. The unclear artifact leads to a wrong diagnosis and added examination. The ability to correctly determine artifact are required. We have to reduce the artifact occurrences by understanding its characteristic and providing sustainable education as well as the maintenance of the equipments.

  4. Artifacts as Conventional Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Deborah R.; Callanan, Maureen A.

    2007-01-01

    What underlies children's understanding of artifacts? Studies suggest that beginning around age 7, people reason about artifacts in terms of the inventor's purpose--termed "the design stance." Our two studies emphasize another component of artifact understanding--the cultural nature of artifacts--by demonstrating people's sensitivity to an…

  5. Dynamics in artifact ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2012-01-01

    artifacts influence the use of others. Understanding this interplay becomes more and more essential for interaction design as our artifact ecologies grow. This paper continues a recent discourse on artifact ecologies. Through interviews with iPhone users, we demonstrate that relationships between artifacts...

  6. Starch synovitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Freemont, A. J.; Porter, M L; Tomlinson, I; Clague, R B; Jayson, M. I.

    1984-01-01

    Three patients with unexplained synovial inflammation were found to have an ulcerative, granulomatous synovitis on biopsy. Maize starch was identified in giant cells within the granulomata. Starch synovitis has clinical and histological similarities to starch peritonitis, which is thought to be an example of a cell mediated immune response.

  7. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  8. Withanolide artifacts formed in methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Cong-Mei; Zhang, Huaping; Gallagher, Robert J; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2013-11-22

    Methanol solutions of the main withanolides (6-8) naturally present in Physalis longifolia yielded five artificial withanolides (1-5), including three new compounds (1-3). Withanolides 1 and 2 were identified as intramolecular Michael addition derivatives, while withanolides 3-5 were the result of intermolecular Michael addition. A comprehensive literature investigation was conducted to identify potential withanolide Michael addition artifacts isolated from Solanaceous species to date.

  9. Preliminary organizational culture scale focused on artifacts

    OpenAIRE

    Bonavia, Tomas

    2006-01-01

    In this preliminary study, an organizational culture scale was developed to assess cultural artifacts according to Schein´s typology (1985). It includes a set of cultural artifacts to measure the extent to which an organization is more or less traditional. A total of 249 managers from a range of different companies responded to the items. Preliminary analysis yielded a one-dimensional scale with 14 items with high internal consistency and homogeneity.

  10. Starch Applications for Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Starch is one of the most abundant and economical renewable biopolymers in nature. Starch molecules are high molecular weight polymers of D-glucose linked by α-(1,4) and α-(1,6) glycosidic bonds, forming linear (amylose) and branched (amylopectin) structures. Octenyl succinic anhydride modified starches (OSA-starch) are designed by carefully choosing a proper starch source, path and degree of modification. This enables emulsion and micro-encapsulation delivery systems for oil based flavors, micronutrients, fragrance, and pharmaceutical actives. A large percentage of flavors are encapsulated by spray drying in today's industry due to its high throughput. However, spray drying encapsulation faces constant challenges with retention of volatile compounds, oxidation of sensitive compound, and manufacturing yield. Specialty OSA-starches were developed suitable for the complex dynamics in spray drying and to provide high encapsulation efficiency and high microcapsule quality. The OSA starch surface activity, low viscosity and film forming capability contribute to high volatile retention and low active oxidation. OSA starches exhibit superior performance, especially in high solids and high oil load encapsulations compared with other hydrocolloids. The submission is based on research and development of Ingredion

  11. Small Artifacts - Big Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    The computer IC is the heart of the information and telecommunication technology. It is a tiny artifact, but with incredible organizing powers. We use this physical artifact as the location for studying central problems of the knowledge economy. First, the paper describes the history of chip design...

  12. Artifacts in musculoskeletal ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taljanovic, Mihra S; Melville, David M; Scalcione, Luke R; Gimber, Lana H; Lorenz, Eileen J; Witte, Russell S

    2014-02-01

    During the past 2 decades, high-resolution ultrasonography (US) has been increasingly utilized in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal trauma and diseases with results comparable with MR imaging. US has an advantage over other cross-sectional modalities in many circumstances due to its superior spatial resolution and ability to allow dynamic assessment. When performing musculoskeletal US, the examiner has to be knowledgeable in the complex anatomy of the musculoskeletal system and US imaging technique. Additionally, he or she must be familiar with several common imaging artifacts in musculoskeletal US that may be mistaken for pathology, as well as several artifacts that frequently accompany pathologic conditions. These artifacts may occur with both B-mode gray-scale and Doppler imaging. In this article, we discuss common artifacts seen in musculoskeletal US and techniques to avoid or minimize these artifacts during clinical US examinations.

  13. Effect of dietary starch level and high rumen-undegradable protein on endocrine-metabolic status, milk yield, and milk composition in dairy cows during early and late lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Loor, J J; Seal, C J; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E

    2014-12-01

    Diet composition defines the amount and type of nutrients absorbed by dairy cows. Endocrine-metabolic interactions can influence these parameters, and so nutrient availability for the mammary gland can significantly vary and affect milk yield and its composition. Six dairy cows in early and then late lactation received, for 28 d in a changeover design, 2 diets designed to provide, within the same stage of lactation, similar amounts of rumen fermentable material but either high starch plus sugar (HS) content or low starch plus sugar content (LS). All diets had similar dietary crude protein and calculated supply of essential amino acids. Dry matter intake within each stage of lactation was similar between groups. Milk yield was similar between groups in early lactation, whereas a higher milk yield was observed in late lactation when feeding HS. At the metabolic level, the main difference observed between the diets in both stages of lactation was lower blood glucose in cows fed LS. The lower glucose availability during consumption of LS caused substantial modifications in the circulating and postprandial pattern of metabolic hormones. Feeding LS versus HS resulted in an increase in the ratio of bovine somatotropin to insulin. This increased mobilization of lipid reserves resulted in higher blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate, which contributed to the higher milk fat content in both stages of lactation in the LS group. This greater recourse to body fat stores was confirmed by the greater loss of body weight during early lactation and the slower recovery of body weight in late lactation in cows fed LS. The lower insulin to glucagon ratio observed in cows fed LS in early and late lactation likely caused an increase in hepatic uptake and catabolism of amino acids, as confirmed by the higher blood urea concentrations. Despite the higher catabolism of amino acids in LS in early lactation, similar milk protein output was observed for both

  14. Overexpressing Ferredoxins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Increase Starch and Oil Yields and Enhance Electric Power Production in a Photo Microbial Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Fen; Lin, Ji-Yu; Pan, Kui-You; Huang, Chun-Kai; Chu, Ying-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Ferredoxins (FDX) are final electron carrier proteins in the plant photosynthetic pathway, and function as major electron donors in diverse redox-driven metabolic pathways. We previously showed that overexpression of a major constitutively expressed ferredoxin gene PETF in Chlamydomonas decreased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and enhanced tolerance to heat stress. In addition to PETF, an endogenous anaerobic induced FDX5 was overexpressed in transgenic Chlamydomonas lines here to address the possible functions of FDX5. All the independent FDX transgenic lines showed decreased cellular ROS levels and enhanced tolerance to heat and salt stresses. The transgenic Chlamydomonas lines accumulated more starch than the wild-type line and this effect increased almost three-fold in conditions of nitrogen depletion. Furthermore, the lipid content was higher in the transgenic lines than in the wild-type line, both with and without nitrogen depletion. Two FDX-overexpressing Chlamydomonas lines were assessed in a photo microbial fuel cell (PMFC); power density production by the transgenic lines was higher than that of the wild-type cells. These findings suggest that overexpression of either PETF or FDX5 can confer tolerance against heat and salt stresses, increase starch and oil production, and raise electric power density in a PMFC.

  15. Overexpressing Ferredoxins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Increase Starch and Oil Yields and Enhance Electric Power Production in a Photo Microbial Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Fen Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ferredoxins (FDX are final electron carrier proteins in the plant photosynthetic pathway, and function as major electron donors in diverse redox-driven metabolic pathways. We previously showed that overexpression of a major constitutively expressed ferredoxin gene PETF in Chlamydomonas decreased the reactive oxygen species (ROS level and enhanced tolerance to heat stress. In addition to PETF, an endogenous anaerobic induced FDX5 was overexpressed in transgenic Chlamydomonas lines here to address the possible functions of FDX5. All the independent FDX transgenic lines showed decreased cellular ROS levels and enhanced tolerance to heat and salt stresses. The transgenic Chlamydomonas lines accumulated more starch than the wild-type line and this effect increased almost three-fold in conditions of nitrogen depletion. Furthermore, the lipid content was higher in the transgenic lines than in the wild-type line, both with and without nitrogen depletion. Two FDX-overexpressing Chlamydomonas lines were assessed in a photo microbial fuel cell (PMFC; power density production by the transgenic lines was higher than that of the wild-type cells. These findings suggest that overexpression of either PETF or FDX5 can confer tolerance against heat and salt stresses, increase starch and oil production, and raise electric power density in a PMFC.

  16. Controlling Modelling Artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Michael James Andrew; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    artifacts that were inadvertently introduced. In this paper, we propose a novel methodology to reason about modelling artifacts, given a detailed model and a highlevel (more abstract) model of the same system. By a series of automated abstraction steps, we lift the detailed model to the same state space......, and identify some modelling artifacts in the model. Since we can apply our abstractions on-the-fly, while exploring the state space of the detailed model, we can analyse larger networks than are possible with existing techniques....

  17. Physicochemical and Binder Properties of Starch Obtained from Cyperus esculentus

    OpenAIRE

    Manek, Rahul V.; Builders, Philip F.; Kolling, William M.; Emeje, Martins; Olobayo O. Kunle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate starch from the tubers of Cyperus esculentus L. and evaluate its physicochemical and binder properties. Extraction of starch using sodium metabisulfite yielded 37 g of starch per 100 g of the tubers. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that Cyperus starch consists of oval to elliptical particles with a smooth surface. Cyperus starch demonstrates a narrow particle size distribution with a mean of 8.25 μm. Cyperus starch conforms well to United States...

  18. Influence of phosphate esters on the annealing properties of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wischmann, Bente; Muhrbeck, Per

    1998-01-01

    The effects of annealing on native potato, waxy maize, and phosphorylated waxy maize starches were compared. Phosphorylated waxy maize starch responded to annealing in a manner between that of the naturally phosphorylated potato starch and that of the native waxy maize starch. The gelatinisation...... end-point temperature was increased, whereas in the native waxy maize it was decreased. On the other hand, the onset temperature change was much larger in potato starch than in the two waxy maize starches. Steeping also yielded intermediate effects on the phosphorylated waxy maize starch. It was...... concluded that the phosphate groups have similar effects as they do in the native, naturally phosphorylated potato starch, although the substitution pattern is not entirely the same in the artificially phosphorylated starch....

  19. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    OpenAIRE

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors meas...

  20. Physicochemical and binder properties of starch obtained from Cyperus esculentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manek, Rahul V; Builders, Philip F; Kolling, William M; Emeje, Martins; Kunle, Olobayo O

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate starch from the tubers of Cyperus esculentus L. and evaluate its physicochemical and binder properties. Extraction of starch using sodium metabisulfite yielded 37 g of starch per 100 g of the tubers. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that Cyperus starch consists of oval to elliptical particles with a smooth surface. Cyperus starch demonstrates a narrow particle size distribution with a mean of 8.25 μm. Cyperus starch conforms well to United States Pharmacopeia standards established for widely used starches like maize and potato. The X-ray powder diffraction pattern and moisture sorption profile of Cyperus starch were comparable to that of maize starch. Cyperus starch had lower swelling power than maize and potato starch, indicative of stronger associative forces within the granules. Carr's index and Hausner ratio indicate that Cyperus starch should have comparable flow properties with respect to maize and potato starch. Cyperus starch was employed as binder for the formulation of metronidazole tablets. Formulations containing 5%, 7.5%, and 10% Cyperus starch were compared with those containing 10% potato starch. At 10% binder concentration, the tablets containing Cyperus starch exhibited better hardness and negligible friability as compared with those with potato starch. Although the binder concentration had a significant effect on the disintegration time of the tablets, it did not seem to affect the dissolution profile. These results indicate that Cyperus starch provides excellent binding properties without compromising drug release characteristics and should be explored in pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:22350737

  1. iPhone 4s photoplethysmography: which light color yields the most accurate heart rate and normalized pulse volume using the iPhysioMeter Application in the presence of motion artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Kenta; Rolfe, Peter; Lee, Jihyoung; Yamakoshi, Takehiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in information and communication technologies has made it possible to measure heart rate (HR) and normalized pulse volume (NPV), which are important physiological indices, using only a smartphone. This has been achieved with reflection mode photoplethysmography (PPG), by using a smartphone's embedded flash as a light source and the camera as a light sensor. Despite its widespread use, the method of PPG is susceptible to motion artifacts as physical displacements influence photon propagation phenomena and, thereby, the effective optical path length. Further, it is known that the wavelength of light used for PPG influences the photon penetration depth and we therefore hypothesized that influences of motion artifact could be wavelength-dependant. To test this hypothesis, we made measurements in 12 healthy volunteers of HR and NPV derived from reflection mode plethysmograms recorded simultaneously at three different spectral regions (red, green and blue) at the same physical location with a smartphone. We then assessed the accuracy of the HR and NPV measurements under the influence of motion artifacts. The analyses revealed that the accuracy of HR was acceptably high with all three wavelengths (all rs > 0.996, fixed biases: -0.12 to 0.10 beats per minute, proportional biases: r =  -0.29 to 0.03), but that of NPV was the best with green light (r = 0.791, fixed biases: -0.01 arbitrary units, proportional bias: r = 0.11). Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio obtained with green and blue light PPG was higher than that of red light PPG. These findings suggest that green is the most suitable color for measuring HR and NPV from the reflection mode photoplethysmogram under motion artifact conditions. We conclude that the use of green light PPG could be of particular benefit in ambulatory monitoring where motion artifacts are a significant issue. PMID:24618594

  2. iPhone 4s photoplethysmography: which light color yields the most accurate heart rate and normalized pulse volume using the iPhysioMeter Application in the presence of motion artifact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Matsumura

    Full Text Available Recent progress in information and communication technologies has made it possible to measure heart rate (HR and normalized pulse volume (NPV, which are important physiological indices, using only a smartphone. This has been achieved with reflection mode photoplethysmography (PPG, by using a smartphone's embedded flash as a light source and the camera as a light sensor. Despite its widespread use, the method of PPG is susceptible to motion artifacts as physical displacements influence photon propagation phenomena and, thereby, the effective optical path length. Further, it is known that the wavelength of light used for PPG influences the photon penetration depth and we therefore hypothesized that influences of motion artifact could be wavelength-dependant. To test this hypothesis, we made measurements in 12 healthy volunteers of HR and NPV derived from reflection mode plethysmograms recorded simultaneously at three different spectral regions (red, green and blue at the same physical location with a smartphone. We then assessed the accuracy of the HR and NPV measurements under the influence of motion artifacts. The analyses revealed that the accuracy of HR was acceptably high with all three wavelengths (all rs > 0.996, fixed biases: -0.12 to 0.10 beats per minute, proportional biases: r =  -0.29 to 0.03, but that of NPV was the best with green light (r = 0.791, fixed biases: -0.01 arbitrary units, proportional bias: r = 0.11. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio obtained with green and blue light PPG was higher than that of red light PPG. These findings suggest that green is the most suitable color for measuring HR and NPV from the reflection mode photoplethysmogram under motion artifact conditions. We conclude that the use of green light PPG could be of particular benefit in ambulatory monitoring where motion artifacts are a significant issue.

  3. iPhone 4s photoplethysmography: which light color yields the most accurate heart rate and normalized pulse volume using the iPhysioMeter Application in the presence of motion artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Kenta; Rolfe, Peter; Lee, Jihyoung; Yamakoshi, Takehiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in information and communication technologies has made it possible to measure heart rate (HR) and normalized pulse volume (NPV), which are important physiological indices, using only a smartphone. This has been achieved with reflection mode photoplethysmography (PPG), by using a smartphone's embedded flash as a light source and the camera as a light sensor. Despite its widespread use, the method of PPG is susceptible to motion artifacts as physical displacements influence photon propagation phenomena and, thereby, the effective optical path length. Further, it is known that the wavelength of light used for PPG influences the photon penetration depth and we therefore hypothesized that influences of motion artifact could be wavelength-dependant. To test this hypothesis, we made measurements in 12 healthy volunteers of HR and NPV derived from reflection mode plethysmograms recorded simultaneously at three different spectral regions (red, green and blue) at the same physical location with a smartphone. We then assessed the accuracy of the HR and NPV measurements under the influence of motion artifacts. The analyses revealed that the accuracy of HR was acceptably high with all three wavelengths (all rs > 0.996, fixed biases: -0.12 to 0.10 beats per minute, proportional biases: r =  -0.29 to 0.03), but that of NPV was the best with green light (r = 0.791, fixed biases: -0.01 arbitrary units, proportional bias: r = 0.11). Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio obtained with green and blue light PPG was higher than that of red light PPG. These findings suggest that green is the most suitable color for measuring HR and NPV from the reflection mode photoplethysmogram under motion artifact conditions. We conclude that the use of green light PPG could be of particular benefit in ambulatory monitoring where motion artifacts are a significant issue.

  4. Hyperphosphorylation of cereal starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    phosphate compared with potato tuber starch and in order to investigate the effect of increased endosperm starch phosphate, the potato starch phosphorylating enzyme glucan water dikinase (StGWD) was overexpressed specifically in the developing barley endosperm. StGWD overexpressors showed wild......Plant starch is naturally phosphorylated at a fraction of the C6 and the C3 hydroxyl groups during its biosynthesis in plastids. Starch phosphate esters are important in starch metabolism and they also generate specific industrial functionality. Cereal grains starch contains little starch bound......-type phenotype. Transgenic cereal grains synthesized starch with higher starch bound phosphate content (7.5 (±0.67) nmol/mg) compared to control lines (0.8 (±0.05) nmol/mg) with starch granules showing altered morphology and lower melting enthalpy. Our data indicate specific action of GWD during starch...

  5. Facts in artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P R Bindhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of microscopic sections of animal tissues reveals facts which are not always related to its normal histology or pathology. Processing of tissue specimens consists of lengthy procedures from the stage of surgical removal to the stained and mounted microscopic sections. Defects are common in tissue sections as a result of faulty procedures. These defects are referred to as artifacts. They lead to misinterpretation of histopathological diagnosis but at times they throw limelight into diagnosis. This paper attempts to put together all the facts regarding the various artifacts that are encountered in histopathology.

  6. 地膜覆盖对木薯生长发育和产量及淀粉含量的影响%Effects of Plastic Film Mulching on Development and Yield and Starch Content of Cassava

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦威旭; 韦民政; 覃维治; 陆柳英; 唐秀桦; 韦哲; 何虎冀; 甘秀芹; 韦本辉

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to explore cultivation techniques with less cost and high benefit for cassava.[Method] 2 planting patterns of plastic film mulching and no mulching (CK) were taken to plant cassava, the effects of plastic film mulching on growth of stem and leaf, yield components and starch content of cassava were studied.[Result] Plastic film mulching could improve the growth of stem and leaf of cassava at early and middle stage and increase the biomass of cassava.After plastic film mulching, the length and diameter of root tuber, number and weight of root tuber per plant and fresh root tuber yield per plot of cassava were increased by 17.79%, 14.61%, 14.28%, 76.14%, 76.09% resp.than that of CK.After plastic film mulching the starch content of cassava was decreased by 2% than that of CK, while the starch yield of cassava of the same area was increased by 65.35% than that of CK.[Conclusion] Plastic film mulching was the effective measurement of cultivation with less cost and high benefit for cassava, the yield increasing effect was realized through promoting stem and leaf growth of cassava at early and middle sate, improving root tuber diameter and root tuber weight per plant, and increasing the plumpness of root tuber.%[目的]探索木薯节本增效栽培技术.[方法]分别采用地膜覆盖与不覆膜(对照)2种方式种植木薯,研究地膜覆盖对木薯茎叶生长、产量构成因素及淀粉含量的影响.[结果]地膜覆盖可促进木薯前中期茎叶生长,增加木薯生物量;地膜和覆盖后,木薯的块根长度、块根直径、单株块根数、单株块根重和小区鲜块根产量分别较对照增加了17.79%、14.61%、14.28%、76.14%和76.09%;地膜覆盖后木薯的淀粉含量较对照降低2%,但相同面积木薯的淀粉产量较对照增加65.35%.[结论]地膜覆盖是木薯节本增效栽培的有效措施,其增产效应主要是通过促进木薯前中期茎叶生长、提高块根直径和

  7. iPhone 4s Photoplethysmography: Which Light Color Yields the Most Accurate Heart Rate and Normalized Pulse Volume Using the iPhysioMeter Application in the Presence of Motion Artifact?

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, Kenta; Rolfe, Peter; Lee, Jihyoung; Yamakoshi, Takehiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in information and communication technologies has made it possible to measure heart rate (HR) and normalized pulse volume (NPV), which are important physiological indices, using only a smartphone. This has been achieved with reflection mode photoplethysmography (PPG), by using a smartphone’s embedded flash as a light source and the camera as a light sensor. Despite its widespread use, the method of PPG is susceptible to motion artifacts as physical displacements influence phot...

  8. Effect of diets with different content of starch and protein fed to dairy cows in early lactation on milk yield and traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to study the effect on milk yield and its traits of 2 different levels of fermentable carbohydrates (LS: 25.5%, and HS: 29.5% DM combined with 2 protein levels (LP: 15.5% and HP: 16.5% DM, 4 Italian Friesian dairy cows in early lactation housed in a tied stall were used. The experimental diets were obtained adjusting in 4 supplements the proportion of high energy fibrous (beet pulp, soybean hull or starchy (corn meal feeds and of meal protein more (soybean meal or less (Soy-Pass®: xylose-treated soybean meal degradable. The highest DMI was observed in HSHP which showed also a low content of NDF. Milk yield resulted over 45 kg/d throughout the study and higher when HSHP diet was fed (46.1 kg. Milk fat was always at high level and the lowest value (3.89% with HSHP and the highest (4.08% with LSLP were observed. The diets did not modified milk protein (their average levels resulted of 3.25% and lactose content. Milk acidity and renneting traits were higher when HSLP was fed, and resulted at adequate levels when all the diets were fed. When the diets for dairy cow are formulated to cover the animal requirements and respect their digestion physiology, it is possible to reach high milk yield level and maintaining, at the same time, a high milk quality .

  9. Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Andreas; Jensen, Susanne L;

    2012-01-01

    Background Starch is stored in higher plants as granules composed of semi-crystalline amylopectin and amorphous amylose. Starch granules provide energy for the plant during dark periods and for germination of seeds and tubers. Dietary starch is also a highly glycemic carbohydrate being degraded...... is preferentially derived from amylose, which can be increased by suppressing amylopectin synthesis by silencing of starch branching enzymes (SBEs). However all the previous works attempting the production of high RS crops resulted in only partly increased amylose-content and/or significant yield loss. Results...... In this study we invented a new method for silencing of multiple genes. Using a chimeric RNAi hairpin we simultaneously suppressed all genes coding for starch branching enzymes (SBE I, SBE IIa, SBE IIb) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), resulting in production of amylose-only starch granules in the endosperm...

  10. Metrological multispherical freeform artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blobel, Gernot; Wiegmann, Axel; Siepmann, Jens; Schulz, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Precisely known artifacts are required to characterize the accuracy of asphere and freeform measuring instruments. To this end the best knowledge of the surface characteristics in conjunction with a low measurement uncertainty are necessary. Because this is a challenging task for typical freeform surfaces used in optical systems, the concept of "metrological" artifacts is introduced. We have developed a multispherical freeform artifact for performance tests of tactile touch probe and contact-free optical measuring systems. The measurement accuracy of the complete form and the deviation from calibrated spherical sections can thus be determined. The radius calibration of multiple spherical sections is performed with an extended radius measuring procedure by interferometry. Evaluated surface forms of different measuring methods and the radii determined can be compared to each other. In this study, a multispherical freeform specimen made of copper, with two differing radii, has been measured by two optical measuring methods, a full field measuring tilted-wave interferometer and a high accuracy cylinder coordinate measuring machine with an optical probe. The surface form measurements are evaluated and compared, and the radii determined are compared to the results of a radius measurement bench.

  11. Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2012-01-01

    is preferentially derived from amylose, which can be increased by suppressing amylopectin synthesis by silencing of starch branching enzymes (SBEs). However all the previous works attempting the production of high RS crops resulted in only partly increased amylose-content and/or significant yield loss. Results...... In this study we invented a new method for silencing of multiple genes. Using a chimeric RNAi hairpin we simultaneously suppressed all genes coding for starch branching enzymes (SBE I, SBE IIa, SBE IIb) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), resulting in production of amylose-only starch granules in the endosperm...... yield in a living organism. This was achieved by a new method of simultaneous suppression of the entire complement of genes encoding starch branching enzymes. We demonstrate that amylopectin is not essential for starch granule crystallinity and integrity. However the slower initial growth of shoots from...

  12. Starch for health

    OpenAIRE

    Drago Šubarić; Đurđica Ačkar; Jurislav Babić; Borislav Miličević

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that part of starch is resistant to human amylases and escapes undigested to large bowel. This fraction of starch is resistant starch. Recent studies have shown that resistant starch may be a substrate for bacterial flora of the colon and serves as prebiotic. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced by colonic fermentation of resistant starch may have impact on colonic function and health of humans. This paper summarises current knowledge on properties and health impact ...

  13. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  14. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system.

  15. Radiation processing of cassava starch hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper consists of two topics on cassava starch (CS). The first paper deals with radiation-induced graft polymerization of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (VP) onto CS. The results from PVP -grafted-starch were subsequently compared with those of PVP hydrogels and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels. It was found that the PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels, with gel fraction higher than 80%, could be prepared at the dose of 20 kGy, while PVP and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels require at least 30 kGy to obtain gels with more than 80% gel fraction. And at the same dose used for irradiation, the gel strength of the PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels is significantly higher than that of the PVP and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels. Radiation crosslinking of carboxymethyl CS is the second topic. CS was chemically modified by sodium monochloroacetate (SMCA) to yield carboxymethyl starch (CMS). The aqueous solution of CMS was irradiated and underwent radiation-induced crosslinking, resulting in a crosslinked CMS (XLCMS) hydrogel. The optimum condition for obtaining hydrogels with desirable properties is irradiation at low dose, 2 kGy. At higher doses, the gel fraction tends to diminish, due to the domination of degradation over crosslinking. (author)

  16. From Ecological Sounding Artifacts Towards Sonic Artifact Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkut, Cumhur; Serafin, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The discipline of sonic interaction design has been focused on the interaction between a single user and an artifact. This strongly limits one of the fundamental aspects of music as a social and interactive experience. In this paper we propose sonic artifact ecologies as a mean to examine...... interactions between one or many users with one or many artifacts. Case studies from a recently run workshop on product sound design are examined....

  17. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana;

    2011-01-01

    of the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were......Starch is a biological polymer that can be industrially produced in massive amounts in a very pure form. Cereals is the main source for starch production and any improvement of the starch fraction can have a tremendous impact in food and feed applications. Barley ranks number four among cereal...... crops and barley is a genetically very well characterized. Aiming at producing new starch qualities in the cereal system, we used RNAi and overexpression strategies to produce pure amylose and high-phosphate starch, respectively, using the barley kernel as a polymer factory. By simultaneous silencing...

  18. 淀粉分子结构对形成抗性淀粉的影响%Influence of Molecular Structure of Starch on Formation of Resistant Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣杰荣; 姚惠源

    2001-01-01

    考察了几种大米淀粉和土豆淀粉形成抗性淀粉的能力,用分子排阻色谱的方法研究其分子结构。认为土豆淀粉比大米淀粉更适宜用来生产抗性淀粉。%The formation of resistant starch from several kinds of rice starch and potato starch was investigated. The resistant starch yield produced from potato starch was more than that of the rice strach. The molecular structure of starch was studied using the exclusion chromato graphy. It showed that the potato starch was more appropriate to produce resistant starch comparing with the rice starch.

  19. Sound as artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Jeffrey L.

    A distinguishing feature of the discipline of archaeology is its reliance upon sensory dependant investigation. As perceived by all of the senses, the felt environment is a unique area of archaeological knowledge. It is generally accepted that the emergence of industrial processes in the recent past has been accompanied by unprecedented sonic extremes. The work of environmental historians has provided ample evidence that the introduction of much of this unwanted sound, or "noise" was an area of contestation. More recent research in the history of sound has called for more nuanced distinctions than the noisy/quiet dichotomy. Acoustic archaeology tends to focus upon a reconstruction of sound producing instruments and spaces with a primary goal of ascertaining intentionality. Most archaeoacoustic research is focused on learning more about the sonic world of people within prehistoric timeframes while some research has been done on historic sites. In this thesis, by way of a meditation on industrial sound and the physical remains of the Quincy Mining Company blacksmith shop (Hancock, MI) in particular, I argue for an acceptance and inclusion of sound as artifact in and of itself. I am introducing the concept of an individual sound-form, or sonifact , as a reproducible, repeatable, representable physical entity, created by tangible, perhaps even visible, host-artifacts. A sonifact is a sound that endures through time, with negligible variability. Through the piecing together of historical and archaeological evidence, in this thesis I present a plausible sonifactual assemblage at the blacksmith shop in April 1916 as it may have been experienced by an individual traversing the vicinity on foot: an 'historic soundwalk.' The sensory apprehension of abandoned industrial sites is multi-faceted. In this thesis I hope to make the case for an acceptance of sound as a primary heritage value when thinking about the industrial past, and also for an increased awareness and acceptance

  20. Starch metabolism in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowski, Sławomir

    2008-01-01

    Starch is the most abundant storage carbohydrate produced in plants. The initiation of transitory starch synthesis and degradation in plastids depends mainly on diurnal cycle, post-translational regulation of enzyme activity and starch phosphorylation. For the proper structure of starch granule the activities of all starch synthase isoenzymes, branching enzymes and debranching enzymes are needed. The intensity of starch biosynthesis depends mainly on the activity of AGPase (adenosine 5'-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase). The key enzymes in starch degradation are beta-amylase, isoamylase 3 and disproportionating enzyme. However, it should be underlined that there are some crucial differences in starch metabolism between heterotrophic and autotrophic tissues, e.g. is the ability to build multiprotein complexes responsible for biosynthesis and degradation of starch granules in chloroplasts. The observed huge progress in understanding of starch metabolism was possible mainly due to analyses of the complete Arabidopsis and rice genomes and of numerous mutants with altered starch metabolism in leaves. The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge on transient starch metabolism in higher plants. PMID:18787712

  1. Starch-lignin foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Although starch foams are well known as biodegradable alternatives to foamed polystyrene, starch-lignin foams have not previously been reported. Lignin is an abundant byproduct of paper manufacture usually burned as fuel for lack of higher-value uses. We have prepared novel starch-kraft lignin foams with a known technique similar to compression molding. Replacing 20% of the starch with lignin has no deleterious effect on density or morphology as indicated by scanning electron microscopy: a thin outer layer of approximately 100 µm encloses a region of cellular structure containing 100–200 µm voids, with the major internal region of the foam consisting of large voids of up to 1 mm in size. Powder X-ray diffraction shows residual structure in both starch and starch-lignin foams. Differential scanning calorimetry displays endothermic transitions in the starch foam but not in the starch-lignin foam, indicating that lignin stabilizes the residual starch structure. Lignin decreases water absorption; diffusion constants for the starch and starch-lignin foams are 2.68•10–6 and 0.80•10–6 cm2/sec, respectively. The flexural strength of the starch-lignin foam is similar to that of foamed polystyrene, the strain at maximum stress is smaller, and the modulus of elasticity is larger.

  2. Artifacts in musculoskeletal MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dinesh R; Chin, Michael S M; Peh, Wilfred C G

    2014-02-01

    MR imaging has become an important diagnostic tool in the evaluation of a vast number of pathologies and is of foremost importance in the evaluation of spine, joints, and soft tissue structures of the musculoskeletal system. MR imaging is susceptible to various artifacts that may affect the image quality or even simulate pathologies. Some of these artifacts have gained special importance with the use of higher field strength magnets and with the increasing need for MR imaging in postoperative patients, especially those with previous joint replacements or metallic implants. Artifacts may arise from patient motion or could be due to periodic motion, such as vascular and cardiac pulsation. Artifacts could also arise from various protocol errors including saturation, wraparound, truncation, shading, partial volume averaging, and radiofrequency interference artifacts. Susceptibility artifact occurs at interfaces with different magnetic susceptibilities and is of special importance with increasing use of metallic joint replacement prostheses. Magic angle phenomenon is a special type of artifact that occurs in musculoskeletal MR imaging. It is essential to recognize these artifacts and to correct them because they may produce pitfalls in image interpretation.

  3. Intention, History, and Artifact Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Claims that people determine whether something is a member of a given artifact kind by inferring that it was successfully created with the intention that it belong to that kind. Discusses function-based and intentional-historical accounts of artifact concepts. Concludes that a rich set of inferential capacities is needed to constitute a theory of…

  4. Proteomics of barley starch granules

    OpenAIRE

    Borén, Mats

    2005-01-01

    Starches in various forms are an important part of the human diet. Furthermore, the use of starch as a renewable and biodegradable raw material for various industrial applications is becoming increasingly attractive. Non-food applications of starch make new demands on quality and type of starches produced. Ideally these new demands should be met by tailoring starches within the plant. A number of such in planta produced specialty starches exist today, e.g. high-amylose starch. Our aims with t...

  5. Substituent distribution in highly branched dextrins from methylated starches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Burgt, Y.E.M. van der; Bergsma, J.; Bleeker, I.P.; Mijland, P.J.H.C.; Kamerling, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Granular potato starch and amylopectin potato starch were methylated to molar substitutions (MS) up to 0.29. Extensive alpha-amylase digestion gave mixtures of partially methylated oligomers. Precipitation of larger fragments by methanol yielded mainly alpha-limit dextrins (84–99%). Methanol precipi

  6. Breeding and Quality Characteristics of a New Sweetpotato Cultivar Xushu 27 with High Yield and High Starch Content%高产淀粉型甘薯新品种徐薯27的选育及品质特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐忠厚; 张爱君; 史新敏; 魏猛; 李洪民

    2012-01-01

    A new sweetpotato cultivar Xushu 27 with high yield and high starch content derived from female parent Xushu 18 of good quality and male parental materials of 20 varieties (lines) with great difference of genetic background by the open-pollinated group it was approved by Shandong Provincial Crop Varieties Appraisal Committee In 2009, Agronomic characteristics, productivity, disease resistance, quality characteristics, and starch pasting properties of Xushu 27 were studied. The results showes that Xushu 27 had strong sprout ability, smooth vine growth, strong storage ability, high resistance to root rot, and moderate resistance to rot nematode. Compares with Xushu 18, its fresh root yield and dry matter yield increased by 19.41% and 19.21% , respectively, which indicated a potentialy super-high yield. RVA (rapid Visco Analysis) curve of Xushu 27 starch showed a typical A-shape. starch RVA parameters with different fertilizer treatments had significant difference, organic can evidently redue of starch peak viscosity ( PKV), hot paste viscosity ( HPV) , and cool paste viscosity(CPV). its gelatinization temperature was in the range of 75 ~ 80?%高产淀粉型甘薯新品种徐薯27是以徐薯18为母本,选择遗传背景差异大的20个品种(系)为父本,放任授粉集团杂交后代中筛选.该品种2009年通过山东省农作物品种审定委员会审定.通过对徐薯27农艺性状特征、生产力、抗病性、品质特征性状以淀粉糊化特性等进行研究,结果表明:徐薯27萌芽性好,地上部长势平稳,耐贮藏;高抗根腐痛,中抗茎线虫病;鲜薯和薯干产量对照徐薯18,最高增产分别达19.41%和19.21%,具有超高产潜力;徐薯27淀粉RVA谱为A型,不同肥料处理下RVA参数值差异明显,有机肥能明显降低其淀粉最高粘度值(PKV)、最低粘度值(HPV)和最终粘度值(CPV),糊化温度在较高的75~80℃范围.

  7. Starch Bioengineering in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    by the amylolytic enzymes while the amylose-only endosperm starch exhibits high resistance to degradation and hence less available for degradation. With the aim to investigate the hypothesis, starch molecular structures were modulated with the above mentioned modifications and were studied for the effects....... This was achieved by endosperm-specific overexpression of Solanum tuberosum GWD to generate hyper-phosphorylated (HP) starch and endosperm-specific RNAi suppression of all three starch branching enzyme (SBE) isoforms to generate amylose-only (AO) starch in barley (cv. Golden Promise). In first and second study......Starch represents the most important carbohydrate used for food and feed purposes. Increasingly, it is also used as a renewable raw material, as a source of biofuel, and for many different industrial applications. Progress in understanding starch biosynthesis, and investigations of the genes...

  8. Gene expression analysis of starch metabolism using mRNAseq and the potato genome sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderkær, Mads; Kloosterman, Bjorn; Bachem, Christian;

    2010-01-01

    starch yield than presently possible, detailed knowledge about starch metabolism is crucial. Accumulation of carbohydrates in the form of starch in potato tubers is the result of both anabolic and catabolic processes. These processes are highly redundant in terms of gene isoforms and multiple metabolic...

  9. Turquoise Artifact from Teotihuacan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, Michael W.; Harbottle, Garman; Weigand, Phil C.

    1999-07-01

    Turquoise artifacts appeared sporadically in Mesoamerica as early as the Formative period (Merry de Morales 1987:100, Figure 8.4; Weigand 1989:43). Most occurrences, however, postdate the collapse of Teotihuacan. In the Late Classic and Postclassic periods increasing quantities are found, often in the form of elaborate mosaics, in a wide variety of contexts in central, west and northwest Mexico. Neutron activation analysis has determined that much of this turquoise derives from sources in the southwestern United States (Weigand et al. 1977; Harbottle and Weigand 1992; Weigand and Harbottle 1993). Teotihuacan played a major role in Mesoamerica during the Terminal Formative and Early-Middle Classic periods. It was the dominant power in central Mexico from about the time of Christ to its collapse at about A.D. 650 (Millon 1988, 1992; Cowgill 1996). Throughout this period goods flowed into Teotihuacan from many parts of the Mesoamerican world. Despite this widespread economic interaction, only two pieces of turquoise have been recovered in the city. In the following pages, the context and implications of one of these finds will be examined.

  10. The Human-Artifact Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2011-01-01

    Although devices of all shapes and sizes currently dominate the technological landscape, human–computer interaction (HCI) as a field is not yet theoretically equipped to match this reality. In this article we develop the human–artifact model, which has its roots in activity theoretical HCI. By re...... to analyze present artifacts and to design future ones. The model is used to structure such analysis and to reason about findings while providing leverage from activity theoretical insights on mediation, dialectics, and levels of activity.......Although devices of all shapes and sizes currently dominate the technological landscape, human–computer interaction (HCI) as a field is not yet theoretically equipped to match this reality. In this article we develop the human–artifact model, which has its roots in activity theoretical HCI....... By reinterpreting the activity theoretical foundation, we present a framework that helps addressing the analysis of individual interactive artifacts while embracing that they are part of a larger ecology of artifacts. We show how the human–artifact model helps structuring the understanding of an artifact's action...

  11. Thermoplastic starch materials prepared from rice starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice starch is a source still little studied for the preparation of thermoplastic materials. However, its characteristics, such as the presence of proteins, fats and fibers may turn into thermoplastics with a better performance. The present study intends the evaluation of the viability of making starch thermoplastic from rice starch and glycerol as plasticizer. The results of X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy demonstrate the thermoplastic acquisition. The increase of plasticizer content brings on more hydrophilic thermoplastics with less resistance to tension and elongation at break. (author)

  12. Morfología de la planta y características de rendimiento y calidad de almidón de sagú Plant morphology, yield and quality of sagú starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Piedad Valdés Restrepo

    2010-07-01

    estabilidad en el tiempo. Los índices de solubilidad y absorción de agua fueron de 1.23 y 2.8%, respectivamente.For Colombian people the edible fruit of Sagú Maranta arundinacea are the rhizome. This is used in an informal way by their starch in different products elaboration for human feeding. However, their agronomy is unknown. Plant propagation, dais to rhizome harvest, native starch production and chemical and phytochemical of the integral plant was analyzed. The cultivation settled down to open sky with 0.5x1.0 m. inside furrow and among furrows respectively. Uses descriptive statistic for the quantitative data (central tendency measures, of variation and of deviation. He mature plant reached a height among 50 y 75 cm. and a yield of fresh rhizome among 1.46 to 1.94 kg.plant-1. The crop index oscillates among 0.06 to 0.60. The native starch surrendered by the fresh rhizome fluctuated among 7.2 y 8.1%. The composition of the rhizome was 22.3; 7.4; 3.62; 1.02; 6.98 y 80.9% for DM, CP, CF, FNE and Ash respectively. The available fresh forage was negative for phytochemical tests and it presented 41.3; 22.0; 22.5; 15.06; 57.13; 32.3; 9.2; 23.13 y 24.8% for DM, CP, CF, ash, NDF, ADF, lignin, cellulose y hemicellulose respectively. The Relative feed value (RFV was 103.0. The granulate was ellipsoidal of 8 µm of diameter and compound for 20.54% amylose and 79.46% amylopectin, that it generates an opaque and resistant pasta to the retro gradation. The final temperature of jellification was 73° C, the maximum viscosity of the pasta was of 220 Brabender units (B. U., presenting a defined pick of viscosity and later conservation of the trajectory with stability in the time. The index of solubility and absorption of water was 1.23 y 2.8% respectively.

  13. The future of starch bioengineering: GM microorganisms or GM plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Henrik eHebelstrup

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant starches regularly require extensive modification to permit subsequent applications. Such processing is usually done by the use of chemical and/or physical treatments. The use of recombinant enzymes produced by large-scale fermentation of GM microorganisms is increasingly used in starch processing and modification, sometimes as an alternative to chemical or physical treatments. However, as a means to impart the modifications as early as possible in the starch production chain, similar recombinant enzymes may also be expressed in planta in the developing starch storage organ such as in roots, tubers and cereal grains to provide a GM crop as an alternative to the use of enzymes from GM microorganisms. We here discuss these techniques in relation to important structural features and modifications of starches such as: starch phosphorylation, starch hydrolysis, chain transfer/branching and novel concepts of hybrid starch-based polysaccharides. In planta starch bioengineering is generally challenged by yield penalties and inefficient production of the desired product. However in some situations, GM crops for starch bioengineering without deleterious effects have been achieved.

  14. Investigating media artifacts with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    The dissertation’s aim is to explore the everyday relevance media artifacts have for young children. It discusses and further develops analytical concepts that are committed to taking the children’s perspectives on possibilities and limitations of such artifacts seriously. These conceptual...... developments are rooted in the author’s participation in a daycare practice in Berlin, Germany. The daycare’s situational approach precisely attempted to draw on the children’s everyday life experiences so as to engage in problem-oriented learning projects, on media artifacts and beyond....

  15. Cytological artifacts masquerading interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Khushboo; Mehendiratta, Monica; Rehani, Shweta; Kumra, Madhumani; Sharma, Rashi; Kardam, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cytological artifacts are important to learn because an error in routine laboratory practice can bring out an erroneous result. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of delayed fixation and morphological discrepancies created by deliberate addition of extraneous factors on the interpretation and/or diagnosis of an oral cytosmear. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out using papanicolaou and hematoxylin and eosin-stained oral smears, 6 each from 66 volunteer dental students with deliberate variation in fixation delay timings, with and without changes in temperature, undue pressure while smear making and intentional addition of contaminants. The fixation delay at room temperature was carried out at an interval of every 30 minutes, 1 day and 1 week and was continued till the end of 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month, respectively. The temperature variations included 60 to 70°C and 3 to 4°C. Results: Light microscopically, the effect of delayed fixation at room temperature appeared first on cytoplasm followed by nucleus within the first 2 hours and on the 4th day, respectively, till complete cytoplasmic degeneration on the 23rd day. However, delayed fixation at variable temperature brought faster degenerative changes at higher temperature than lower temperature. Effect of extraneous factors revealed some interesting facts. Conclusions: In order to justify a cytosmear interpretation, a cytologist must be well acquainted with delayed fixation-induced cellular changes and microscopic appearances of common contaminants so as to implicate better prognosis and therapy. PMID:24648667

  16. Aroma interactions with starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Dysted

    -MS and solvent extractions. Addition of water to the extraction lowered the amount of aroma released, and addition of a starch-degrading enzyme, α-amylase, did not significantly change the amount extracted. Studies by differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray scattering did not show complete...... carbohydrates. Stimulation with starch induced expression of starch-degrading enzymes, while stimulation with the hemicellulose xylan induced expression of xylanases. One particular hypothetical protein was ubiquitously expressed. This protein had no apparent homology with known proteins, but may iv be involved......Starches are used to enhance aroma perception in low-fat foods. Aroma compounds can bind physically to the starch in grooves on the surface or they can form complexes inside amylose helices. This study has been divided into two parts: one part regarding binding of aromas to starches and their aroma...

  17. Resistant starch: an indigestible fraction of foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saura Calixto, F.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistant starch (RS, the dietary starch that scape digestion in the small intestine, can yields up to 20% of the starch in cereal and legume products. Several fractions contribute to the total RS of foods: retrograded amylose, starch inaccessible to digestive enzymes because of mechanical barriers, chemically modified starch fragments, undigested starch due to α-amylase inhibitors and starch complexed with other food components. RS is formed in products processed following heat treatments (baking, extrusion, autoclaving, etc.. RS produces significant fecal bulking and is partially fermentable by anaerobic bacteria of the colon. On the other hand, the relation of resistant starch with the glucose and insulin response in human subjects is an important nutritional effect. RS analytical methods are reported.

    El almidón resistente (RS, fracción de almidón de la dieta que no es digerido en el intestino delgado, puede alcanzar hasta un 20% del almidón en productos derivados de cereales y legumbres. Varias fracciones contribuyen al contenido total de almidón resistente: amilosa retrogradada, almidón inaccesible físicamente a los enzimas digestivos, almidón indigestible debido a inhibición de α-amilasas y almidón complejado con otros constituyentes de los alimentos. El almidón resistente se forma en productos que han sufrido tratamientos térmicos (panificación, extrusión, autoclave, etc. El RS aumenta el volumen de heces y es fermentado parcialmente en el colon por bacterias anaeróbicas. Igualmente, está relacionado con los niveles de glucosa en sangre y la respuesta de insulina en humanos. Se describen los métodos analíticos para su determinación.

  18. Starch nanoparticles: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Déborah; Bras, Julien; Dufresne, Alain

    2010-05-10

    Starch is a natural, renewable, and biodegradable polymer produced by many plants as a source of stored energy. It is the second most abundant biomass material in nature. The starch structure has been under research for years, and because of its complexity, an universally accepted model is still lacking (Buleon, A.; et al. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 1998, 23, 85-112). However, the predominant model for starch is a concentric semicrystalline multiscale structure that allows the production of new nanoelements: (i) starch nanocrystals resulting from the disruption of amorphous domains from semicrystalline granules by acid hydrolysis and (ii) starch nanoparticles produced from gelatinized starch. This paper intends to give a clear overview of starch nanoparticle preparation, characterization, properties, and applications. Recent studies have shown that they could be used as fillers to improve mechanical and barrier properties of biocomposites. Their use for industrial packaging, continuously looking for innovative solutions for efficient and sustainable systems, is being investigated. Therefore, recently, starch nanoparticles have been the focus of an exponentially increasing number of works devoted to develop biocomposites by blending starch nanoparticles with different biopolymeric matrices. To our knowledge, this topic has never been reviewed, despite several published strategies and conclusions. PMID:20405913

  19. Cassava flour and starch : progress in research and development

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, Eric; Brauman, Alain; Kéléke, S.; Gosselin, Laurent; Raimbault, Maurice

    1996-01-01

    An amylolytic lactic acid bacterium, identified as #Lactobacillus plantarum$, was isolated from cassava roots (#Manihot esculenta$ var. Ngansa) during retting. Cultured on starch, the strain displayed a growth rate of 0.43 per hour, a biomass yield of 0.19 g/g, and a lactate yield of 0.81 g/g. The growth kinetics were similar on starch and glucose. Enough enzyme was synthesized, and starch hydrolysis was not a limiting factor for growth. The synthesized amylolytic enzyme was purified by fract...

  20. Chlorophyll and starch assays

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophyll, starch, and sugar contents are good indicators of growth vigor in plants. To measure the chlorophyll content, we used a modified protocol (1,2). The starch content was determined using iodine staining (3) and enzymatic reactions (4-6).

  1. Characteristics of starch isolated from maize as a function of grain storage temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraginski, Ricardo Tadeu; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Moomand, Khalid; de Oliveira, Maurício; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Marques e Silva, Ricardo; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Elias, Moacir Cardoso

    2014-02-15

    Considering the importance of maize starch and the lack of knowledge about the effects of storage temperature on the isolated starch properties; maize grains were stored during 12 months at different temperatures (5, 15, 25 and 35 °C). The extraction yield and the physicochemical, thermal, pasting, crystallinity and morphological properties of starches were determined. The starch isolated from grains stored at 35 °C was yellowish and showed a 22.1% decrease in starch extraction yield compared to freshly harvested maize grains. At 35 °C, a reduction in crystallinity was observed by the end of 12 months, despite a parallel rearrangement of the starch chains which resulted in an increase in X-ray peak intensities, gelatinisation temperatures and enthalpy. The starch isolated from maize grains stored at 35 °C appears to have smaller granules, which presents some points in their surface, potentially attributed to the protein matrix compressing the granules within maize grains.

  2. Evaluation of Audio Compression Artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herrera Martinez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with subjective evaluation of audio-coding systems. From this evaluation, it is found that, depending on the type of signal and the algorithm of the audio-coding system, different types of audible errors arise. These errors are called coding artifacts. Although three kinds of artifacts are perceivable in the auditory domain, the author proposes that in the coding domain there is only one common cause for the appearance of the artifact, inefficient tracking of transient-stochastic signals. For this purpose, state-of-the art audio coding systems use a wide range of signal processing techniques, including application of the wavelet transform, which is described here. 

  3. Modification of Cilembu sweet potato starch with ethanoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudatussa’adah, A.; Rahmawati, Y.; Sudewi

    2016-04-01

    Cilembu sweet potato harvest was abundant, its use was still limited. Starch was required by various industries. Starch is generally beige, and requires a long time for the drying process. The purpose of this research was to produce a modified starch with ethanoic acid. The method used in this study was the experimental method. The results showed acid modified starch yield was 18%, with the color characteristics of L*: 96.38 ± 0.82; a*: -0.70±0.02 b*: 2.70±0.03 C: 2.79±0.02. Native starch yield was 16%, with the color characteristics of L*: 93.55 ± 0.91; a*: -0.86±0.06 b*: 2.93±0.04 C: 3.05±0.03. The conclusion of this study was modified starch of Cilembu sweet potato using ethanoic acid have higher yield and more white bright than native starch.

  4. Effects of Starch Addition on Low Fat Rennet Curd Properties and Their Partitioning Between Curd and Whey

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Kelly Marie

    2009-01-01

    This study determined the impact of starches on the properties of low fat rennet curd as measured by microstructural and instrumental analysis. In experiment 1, 17 starches were initially screened for swelling power, impact of curd yield at 5 g/L and 10 g/L in milk, and settling in rennet-induced partially acidified low fat curd. Starches examined were narrowed down to five in experiment 2; they included: modified waxy corn starch, waxy rice starch, instant tapioca starch, dextrin, and a mod...

  5. Characteristics and high yield cultivation techniques of new rich-starch sweet potato cv."Quanshu No. 19"%高淀粉甘薯新品种泉薯19特征特性及高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣荣

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarized yield and main characteristics of high starch content sweet potato cv."Quanshu No. 19"and its high yield cultivation techniques including cultivation of strong seedlings,meticulous land preparation,rational close planting,management of water and fertilizer,control of diseases and pests and harvest in time.%综述高淀粉甘薯新品种泉薯19产量及主要性状表现,并从培育壮苗、精细整地、合理密植、水肥管理、病虫防治、适时收获等方面总结其高产栽培技术.

  6. Characterization of starch nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymońska, J.; Targosz-Korecka, M.; Krok, F.

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials already attract great interest because of their potential applications in technology, food science and medicine. Biomaterials are biodegradable and quite abundant in nature, so they are favoured over synthetic polymer based materials. Starch as a nontoxic, cheap and renewable raw material is particularly suitable for preparation of nanoparticles. In the paper, the structure and some physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starch particles of the size between 50 to 100 nm, obtained by mechanical treatment of native starch, were presented. We demonstrated, with the aim of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM), that the shape and dimensions of the obtained nanoparticles both potato and cassava starch fit the blocklets - previously proposed as basic structural features of native starch granules. This observation was supported by aqueous solubility and swelling power of the particles as well as their iodine binding capacity similar to those for amylopectin-type short branched polysaccharide species. Obtained results indicated that glycosidic bonds of the branch linkage points in the granule amorphous lamellae might be broken during the applied mechanical treatment. Thus the released amylopectin clusters could escape out of the granules. The starch nanoparticles, for their properties qualitatively different from those of native starch granules, could be utilized in new applications.

  7. Characterization of starch nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanomaterials already attract great interest because of their potential applications in technology, food science and medicine. Biomaterials are biodegradable and quite abundant in nature, so they are favoured over synthetic polymer based materials. Starch as a nontoxic, cheap and renewable raw material is particularly suitable for preparation of nanoparticles. In the paper, the structure and some physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starch particles of the size between 50 to 100 nm, obtained by mechanical treatment of native starch, were presented. We demonstrated, with the aim of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM), that the shape and dimensions of the obtained nanoparticles both potato and cassava starch fit the blocklets - previously proposed as basic structural features of native starch granules. This observation was supported by aqueous solubility and swelling power of the particles as well as their iodine binding capacity similar to those for amylopectin-type short branched polysaccharide species. Obtained results indicated that glycosidic bonds of the branch linkage points in the granule amorphous lamellae might be broken during the applied mechanical treatment. Thus the released amylopectin clusters could escape out of the granules. The starch nanoparticles, for their properties qualitatively different from those of native starch granules, could be utilized in new applications.

  8. Toddlers View Artifact Function Normatively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casler, Krista; Terziyan, Treysi; Greene, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    When children use objects like adults, are they simply tracking regularities in others' object use, or are they demonstrating a normatively defined awareness that there are right and wrong ways to act? This study provides the first evidence for the latter possibility. Young 2- and 3-year-olds (n = 32) learned functions of 6 artifacts, both…

  9. Technical artifacts: An integrated perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgo, S.; Franssen, M.P.M.; Garbacz, P.; Kitamura, Y.; Mizoguchi, R.; Vermaas, P.E.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are always interested in distinguishing natural and artificial entities although there is no sharp demarcation between the two categories. Surprisingly, things do not improve when the second type of entities is restricted to the arguably more constrained realm of physical technical artifacts.

  10. Investigating media artifacts with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    developments are rooted in the author’s participation in a daycare practice in Berlin, Germany. The daycare’s situational approach precisely attempted to draw on the children’s everyday life experiences so as to engage in problem-oriented learning projects, on media artifacts and beyond....

  11. Food-starch granulomatous peritonitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, J D; Ansell, I D

    1983-01-01

    Two cases of peritoneal granulomatous reactions to food starch are described. They followed bowel perforation and clinically mimicked tuberculous and glove-powder starch peritonitis. Their histological differences from corn-starch peritonitis warrant attention in the absence of previous documentation of starch as a component of peritoneal food granulomas. Food-starch granules tend to be larger than those of glove powder, are often oval, and may be extremely resistant to salivary diastase dige...

  12. Resistant starch in cassava products

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Letícia Buzati Pereira; Magali Leonel

    2014-01-01

    Found in different foods, starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the diet. Some factors present in starchy foods influence the rate at which the starch is hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. Due the importance of cassava products in Brazilian diet, the objective of this study was to analyze total starch, resistant starch, and digestible starch contents in commercial cassava products. Thirty three commercial cassava products from different brands, classifications, and origin were...

  13. Single authentication: exposing weighted splining artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciptasari, Rimba W.

    2016-05-01

    A common form of manipulation is to combine parts of the image fragment into another different image either to remove or blend the objects. Inspired by this situation, we propose a single authentication technique for detecting traces of weighted average splining technique. In this paper, we assume that image composite could be created by joining two images so that the edge between them is imperceptible. The weighted average technique is constructed from overlapped images so that it is possible to compute the gray level value of points within a transition zone. This approach works on the assumption that although splining process leaves the transition zone smoothly. They may, nevertheless, alter the underlying statistics of an image. In other words, it introduces specific correlation into the image. The proposed idea dealing with identifying these correlations is to generate an original model of both weighting function, left and right functions, as references to their synthetic models. The overall process of the authentication is divided into two main stages, which are pixel predictive coding and weighting function estimation. In the former stage, the set of intensity pairs {Il,Ir} is computed by exploiting pixel extrapolation technique. The least-squares estimation method is then employed to yield the weighted coefficients. We show the efficacy of the proposed scheme on revealing the splining artifacts. We believe that this is the first work that exposes the image splining artifact as evidence of digital tampering.

  14. Metal artifact reduction in CT via ray profile correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sungsoo; Mueller, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    In computed tomography (CT), metal implants increase the inconsistencies between the measured data and the linear assumption made by the analytical CT reconstruction algorithm. The inconsistencies appear in the form of dark and bright bands and streaks in the reconstructed image, collectively called metal artifacts. The standard method for metal artifact reduction (MAR) replaces the inconsistent data with the interpolated data. However, sinogram interpolation not only introduces new artifacts but it also suffers from the loss of detail near the implanted metals. With the help of a prior image that is usually estimated from the metal artifact-degraded image via computer vision techniques, improvements are feasible but still no MAR method exists that is widely accepted and utilized. We propose a technique that utilizes a prior image from a CT scan taken of the patient before implanting the metal objects. Hence there is a sufficient amount of structural similarity to cover the loss of detail around the metal implants. Using the prior scan and a segmentation or model of the metal implant our method then replaces sinogram interpolation with ray profile matching and estimation which yields much more reliable data estimates for the affected sinogram regions. As preliminary work, we built a new MAR framework on fan-beam geometry and tested it to remove simulated metal artifacts on a thorax phantom. The comparison with two representative sinogram correction based MAR methods shows very promising results.

  15. Magnetic susceptibility artifacts with superparamagnetic gastrointestinal contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on superparamagnetic gastrointestinal contrast agents for MR imaging which have limited effectiveness because of magnetic susceptibility artifacts and image distortion. The authors hypothesize that these artifacts can be circumvented by optimizing the concentration and viscosity of the formulation. Phantom and canine studies (n = 39) were performed with a new superparamagnetic agent (WIN 39996, Sterling Drug). A 250 μg of iron per milliliter aqueous suspension was diluted from 10% - 100% wt/wt (10% increments). Viscosity varied from 1 to 600 CPS (150 CPS increments) using Xanthan gum. MR imaging was performed at 1.5 T with spin-echo (TR/TE 300/15 and 2,000/35,70 with fat saturation) and gradient-echo sequences (25-40/13/30 degrees), initially and after 1 hour of gravitational settling. All concentrations at 1 CPS caused susceptibility artifacts. For 150-600 CPS formulations, 50% - 60% wt/wt concentrations yielded good negative contrast with the same susceptibility changes as air in vitro, and no susceptibility artifacts seen in vivo, even with gradient-echo and fat-saturated sequences, up to 1 hour. Higher concentrations produced artifacts; lower concentrations provided insufficient negative contrast

  16. Effects of Elevated Ozone Concentration on Starch and Starch Synthesis Enzymes of Yangmai 16 Under Fully Open-Air Field Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ru-biao; HU Hai-juan; ZHAO Zheng; YANG Dan-dan; ZHU Xin-kai; GUO Wen-shan; ZHU Jian-guo; Kazuhiko Kobayashi

    2013-01-01

    O3 is not only greenhouse gas but also a primary gaseous contaminant in the atmosphere. It has long-lasting effects on crop growth, yield and quality, and brings a series of ecological and environmental problems. A free-air controlled enrichment (FACE) system was applied to study the effect of elevated ozone concentration on activities of key enzymes of starch synthesis of Yangmai 16 in 2009-2010. The main-plot treatment had two levels of O3: ambient level (A-O3) and 50% higher than ambient level (E-O3). The main results were that accumulation rate of amylose, amylopectin and starch were represented in a single peak curve, and their content and accumulation amount rose gradually. The O3elevation decreased the accumulation rate of amylose, amylopectin and starch amylase, reduced the accumulation amount of amylopectin and starch, and decreased the content of amylopectin and starch, but increased the content of amylose. With the increase of O3 concentration, the enzyme activity of grain granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS), soluble starch synthase (SSS) and starch branching enzyme (SBE) decreased after anthesis. The activities of GBSS and SSS had highly signiifcant correlations with amylose, amylopectin and starch accumulation rate, and the activity of SBE had signiifcant correlations with these items. So the O3elevation decreased the activity of key enzymes of starch synthesis, which led to the variation of starch synthesis.

  17. Enzymatic acylation of starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissandratos, Apostolos; Halling, Peter J

    2012-07-01

    Starch a cheap, abundant and renewable natural material has been chemically modified for many years. The popular modification acylation has been used to adjust rheological properties as well as deliver polymers with internal plasticizers and other potential uses. However the harsh reaction conditions required to produce these esters may limit their use, especially in sensitive applications (foods, pharmaceuticals, etc.). The use of enzymes to catalyse acylation may provide a suitable alternative due to high selectivities and mild reaction conditions. Traditional hydrolase-catalysed synthesis in non-aqueous apolar media is hard due to lack of polysaccharide solubility. However, acylated starch derivatives have recently been successfully produced in other non-conventional systems: (a) surfactant-solubilised subtilisin and suspended amylose in organic media; (b) starch nanoparticles dispersed in organic medium with immobilised lipase; (c) aqueous starch gels with lipase and dispersed fatty acids. We attempt a systematic review that draws parallels between the seemingly unrelated approaches described. PMID:22138593

  18. Enhancement of photoassimilate utilization by manipulation of starch regulatory enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, Thomas W. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2016-05-11

    maturation to a starch granule. Although Pho1 catalyzes a reversible reaction, our DoE supported studies clearly demonstrated that the kinetic properties of this enzyme strongly favor synthesis of starch and that these catalytic properties are independent of the L80 peptide, a structural domain that is absent in phosphorylases from other organisms. Interesting expression of a Pho1 lacking the L80 peptide enhanced plant growth and seed yields, suggesting that Pho1 has a second function in controlling growth. Overall, results from these biochemical and physiological studies have increased our fundamental understanding on how these important starch regulatory enzymes operate at the molecular level and in planta, which will collectively aid in efforts to increase the utilization of higher plants as a renewable source of energy.

  19. Coronatine Induces an Accumulation of Anthocyanin and Starch in Purple-fleshed Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoqing WANG; Beitao XIE; Haiyan ZHANG; Liming ZHANG; Qingmei WANG

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of this research was to examine the effects of COR on anthocyanin and starch content in storage roots of two PFS genotypes, and to explore the relationships between anthocyanin synthesis and starch accumula-tion. [Method] A field experiment was carried out to determine the changes in yield components, yield, contents of anthocyanin and starch, activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and adenosine 5-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase (AG-Pase) in two genotypes of PFS (Ipomoea batatas L., var. ‘Ayamurasaki’ and‘Jishu18’). [Result] The application of COR significantly increased starch and antho-cyanin content in storage roots of Jishu18 across developmental stages by inducing the activities of PAL and AGPase, and final y enhanced yield by promoting fresh weight of storage roots. Ayamurasaki was insensitive to treatment with COR al-though its PAL activity temporal y increased. The starch and anthocyanin content of Aya, and the anthocyanin content of Jishu18 increased progressively across devel-opmental stages with or without COR application, but the starch content of Jishu18 increased initial y, then decreased before increasing again without application of COR. Treatment with COR reduced downward trend of starch accumulation in Jishu18. Thus, the effect of COR on accumulation of anthocyanin and starch in storage roots of PFS differs according to genotypes. [Conclusion] The application of 0.05 μmol/L COR may increase starch and anthocyanin content in PFS genotypes with lower starch and anthocyanin content in storage roots.

  20. Effect of retrogradation time on preparation and characterization of proso millet starch nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingjie; Gong, Min; Li, Ying; Xiong, Liu

    2014-10-13

    Starch nanoparticles were prepared from proso millet starch using a green and facile method combined with enzymolysis and recrystallization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the morphology and crystal structure of the starch nanoparticles prepared with different retrogradation time (0.5, 4, 12, and 24h). The results showed that the sizes of the starch nanoparticles were between 20 nm and 100 nm. The crystal pattern changed from A-type (native starch) to B-type (nanoparticles), and the relative crystallinity of the nanoparticles increased obviously, as compared with the native starch. The nanoparticles prepared with the 12h retrogradation time had the highest degree of crystallinity (47.04%). Compared to conventional acid hydrolysis to make starch nanoparticles, the present approach has the advantage of being quite rapid and presenting a higher yield (about 55%).

  1. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    branching enzymes SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI by a chimeric hairpin. The construct was inherited as a single locus with a distinct 1:3 segregation in consecutive generations. The transgenic grains were shrunken and the yield was around 80% of that found in wildtype. The starch granules were irregularly....... This provides support for the presence of a general mechanism in starch degradation in the plant kingdom that phosphorylation carried out by ectopic expression of StGWD tags barley starch granules for degradation executed by endogenous enzymes. Our work demonstrates two new strategies for in planta starch...... bioengineering of cereals. Bioengineering may be used to obtain novel and technologically interesting cereal starches and to elucidate the complex pathways of starch biosynthesis and the roles of individual starch biosynthetic enzymes. References: Blennow, A., Engelsen, S. B. (2010). Helix-breaking news...

  2. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    branching enzymes SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI by a chimeric hairpin. The construct was inherited as a single locus with a distinct 1:3 segregation in consecutive generations. The transgenic grains were shrunken and the yield was around 80% of that found in wildtype. The starch granules were irregularly....... This provides support for the presence of a general mechanism in starch degradation in the plant kingdom that phosphorylation carried out by ectopic expression of StGWD tags barley starch granules for degradation executed by endogenous enzymes. Our work demonstrates two new strategies for in planta starch...... bioengineering of cereals. Bioengineering may be used to obtain novel and technologically interesting cereal starches and to elucidate the complex pathways of starch biosynthesis and the roles of individual starch biosynthetic enzymes. References: Blennow, A., Engelsen, S. B. (2010). Helix-breaking news...

  3. Starch addition in renneted milk gels: partitioning between curd and whey and effect on curd syneresis and gel microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K M; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

    2012-12-01

    Milk gels were made by renneting and acidifying skim milk containing 5 different starches, and then compressed by centrifugation to express whey and simulate curd syneresis during the manufacture of low-fat cheese. A series of 17 starches were examined, with 5 starches being selected for in-depth analysis: a modified waxy corn starch (WC), a waxy rice starch (WR), an instant tapioca starch (IT), a modified tapioca starch (MT), and dextrin (DX). Milks containing WC, WR, and DX were given a 72°C heat treatment, whereas those containing IT and MT had a 30-min treatment at 66°C that matched their optimum gelatinization treatments. Curd yields were calculated by weight, estimated starch content in whey was measured gravimetrically by alcohol precipitation, and starch retention in curd was calculated. Curd yields were 13.1% for the control milk (no added starch) and 18.4, 20.7, 21.5, 23.5, and 13.2% for the gels containing starches WC, WR, IT, MT, and DX, respectively. Estimated starch retentions in the curd were, respectively, 71, 90, 90, 21, and 1%. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to determine the location of the starches in the curd and their interaction with the protein matrix. Waxy corn, WR, and IT starches have potential to improve texture of low-fat cheese because they had high retention in the curd and they generated interruptions in the protein matrix network that may have helped limit extensive protein-protein interactions. Modified tapioca starch interfered with formation of the protein structure of the curd and produced a soft noncohesive gel, even though most (79%) of the MT starch was lost in the whey. Few distinct starch particles were present in the MT curd network. Dextrin was not retained in the curd and did not disrupt the protein network, making it unsuitable for use in low-fat cheese.

  4. Process optimization for bioethanol production from cassava starch using novel eco-friendly enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanavas, S.; Padmaja, G.; Moorthy, S.N.; Sajeev, M.S.; Sheriff, J.T. [Division of Crop Utilization, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 017 Kerala (India)

    2011-02-15

    Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a potential bioethanol crop, high operational costs resulted in a negative energy balance in the earlier processes. The present study aimed at optimizing the bioethanol production from cassava starch using new enzymes like Spezyme {sup registered} Xtra and Stargen trademark 001. The liquefying enzyme Spezyme was optimally active at 90 C and pH 5.5 on a 10% (w/v) starch slurry at levels of 20.0 mg (280 Amylase Activity Units) for 30 min. Stargen levels of 100 mg (45.6 Granular Starch Hydrolyzing Units) were sufficient to almost completely hydrolyze 10% (w/v) starch at room temperature (30 {+-} 1 C). Ethanol yield and fermentation efficiency were very high (533 g/kg and 94.0% respectively) in the Stargen + yeast process with 10% (w/v) starch for 48 h. Raising Spezyme and Stargen levels to 560 AAU and 91.2 GSHU respectively for a two step loading [initial 20% (w/v) followed by 20% starch after Spezyme thinning]/initial higher loading of starch (40% w/v) resulted in poor fermentation efficiency. Upscaling experiments using 1.0 kg starch showed that Stargen to starch ratio of 1:100 (w/w) could yield around 558 g ethanol/kg starch, with a high fermentation efficiency of 98.4%. The study showed that Spezyme level beyond 20.0 mg for a 10% (w/v) starch slurry was not critical for optimizing bioethanol yield from cassava starch, although an initial thinning of starch for 30 min by Spezyme facilitated rapid saccharification-fermentation by Stargen + yeast system. The specific advantage of the new process was that the reaction could be completed within 48.5 h at 30 {+-} 1 C. (author)

  5. Artifacts in three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faletra, Francesco Fulvio; Ramamurthi, Alamelu; Dequarti, Maria Cristina; Leo, Laura Anna; Moccetti, Tiziano; Pandian, Natesa

    2014-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is subject to the same types of artifacts encountered on two-dimensional TEE. However, when displayed in a 3D format, some of the artifacts appear more "realistic," whereas others are unique to image acquisition and postprocessing. Three-dimensional TEE is increasingly used in the setting of percutaneous catheter-based interventions and ablation procedures, and 3D artifacts caused by the metallic components of catheters and devices are particularly frequent. Knowledge of these artifacts is of paramount relevance to avoid misinterpretation of 3D images. Although artifacts and pitfalls on two-dimensional echocardiography are well described and classified, a systematic description of artifacts in 3D transesophageal echocardiographic images and how they affect 3D imaging is still absent. The aim of this review is to describe the most relevant artifacts on 3D TEE, with particular emphasis on those occurring during percutaneous interventions for structural heart disease and ablation procedures.

  6. Starch bioengineering in Brachypodium distachyon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanackovic, Vanja; Svensson, Jan Tommy; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas;

    2011-01-01

    identified starch biosynthesis genes including seven soluble starch synthases (SS), three granule bound starch syntheses (GBSS), four starch branching enzymes (SBE), two glucan- and one phosphoglucan- water dikinases (GWD, PWD). Phylogenetic analysis based on the SS genes provided evidence for a close......Brachypodium distachyon was recently introduced as a model plant for temperate cereals (Opanowicz et al., 2008). We aim to establish Brachypodium as a model for cereal starch metabolism. Grain starch from two lines: Bd21 and Bd21-3 are being characterized. Microscopic, chemical and structural data...... including amylopectin chain length distribution, phosphate content and amylose content provided further evidence for the close relationship to temperate cereals even though starch content and starch granule size were considerably lower than that for barley (Hordeum vulgare). Bioinformatics analyses...

  7. Preparation of crystalline starch nanoparticles using cold acid hydrolysis and ultrasonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Dong June; Kim, Jong-Yea; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2013-10-15

    Waxy maize starch in an aqueous sulfuric acid solution (3.16 M, 14.7% solids) was hydrolyzed for 2-6 days, either isothermally at 40 °C or 4 °C, or at cycled temperatures of 4 and 40 °C (1 day each). The starch hydrolyzates were recovered as precipitates after centrifuging the dispersion (10,000 rpm, 10 min). The yield of starch hydrolyzates depended on the hydrolysis temperature and time, which varied from 6.8% to 78%. The starch hydrolyzed at 40 °C or 4/40 °C exhibited increased crystallinity determined by X-ray diffraction analysis, but melted in broader temperature range (from 60 °C to 110 °C). However, the starch hydrolyzed at 4 °C displayed the crystallinity and melting endotherm similar to those of native starch. The starch hydrolyzates recovered by centrifugation were re-dispersed in water (15% solids), and the dispersion was treated by an ultrasonic treatment (60% amplitude, 3min). The ultrasonication effectively fragmented the starch hydrolyzates to nanoparticles. The hydrolyzates obtained after 6 days of hydrolysis were more resistant to the ultrasonication than those after 2 or 4 days, regardless of hydrolysis temperatures. The starch nanoparticles could be prepared with high yield (78%) and crystallinity by 4 °C hydrolysis for 6 days followed by ultrasonication. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the starch nanoparticles had globular shapes with diameters ranging from 50 to 90 nm.

  8. Bio-based thermoset composites from epoxidised linseed oil and expanded starch

    OpenAIRE

    Supanchaiyamat, Nontipa; Hunt, Andrew J.; Peter S. Shuttleworth; DING, CHENG; James H. Clark; Matharu, Avtar S.

    2014-01-01

    Bio-based thermoset composites comprising epoxidised linseed oil (ELO), a bio-derived diacid crosslinker (Pripol 1009) and starch are reported. High amylose corn starch in its native, gelatinised and retrograded forms were used in the formulation to yield water resistant films with good thermal stability. The textural properties of gelatinised and retrograded starches were characterised using scanning electron microscopy and porosimetry and their thermal stability was determined using thermog...

  9. Production, characterization, and mechanical properties of starch modified by Ophiostoma spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Saville, B. A.; Sain, M.; Jeng, R.; Huang, C. B.; Hubbes, M.

    2006-01-01

    Microbial modification of starch with Ophiostoma spp. was investigated, with the purpose of developing a novel packaging material for the food or pharmaceutical industries. Various starch sources, such as tapioca, potato, corn, rice and amylopectin were tested as raw materials. The initial screening demonstrated that tapioca and potato starch had better performance for biopolymer production. The yield was about 85%. Preliminary characterization of the modified biopolymer was also conducted. F...

  10. Steady and Dynamic Shear Rheological Properties of Buckwheat Starch-galactomannan Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Dong Won; Chang, Yoon Hyuk

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of galacomannans (guar gum, tara gum, and locust bean gum) on the rheological properties of buckwheat starch pastes under steady and dynamic shear conditions. The power law and Casson models were applied to describe the flow behavior of the buckwheat starch and galactomannan mixtures. The values of the apparent viscosity (ηa,100), consistency index (K), and yield stress (σoc) for buckwheat starch-galactomannan mixtures were significantly greater than those ...

  11. Effect of citric acid concentration and hydrolysis time on physicochemical properties of sweet potato starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra Babu, Ayenampudi; Parimalavalli, Ramanathan; Rudra, Shalini Gaur

    2015-09-01

    Physicochemical properties of citric acid treated sweet potato starches were investigated in the present study. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed using citric acid with different concentrations (1 and 5%) and time periods (1 and 11 h) at 45 °C and was denoted as citric acid treated starch (CTS1 to CTS4) based on their experimental conditions. The recovery yield of acid treated starches was above 85%. The CTS4 sample displayed the highest amylose (around 31%) and water holding capacity its melting temperature was 47.66 °C. The digestibility rate was slightly increased for 78.58% for the CTS3 and CTS4. The gel strength of acid modified starches ranged from 0.27 kg to 1.11 kg. RVA results of acid thinned starches confirmed a low viscosity profile. CTS3 starch illustrated lower enthalpy compared to all other modified starches. All starch samples exhibited a shear-thinning behavior. SEM analysis revealed that the extent of visible degradation was increased at higher hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The CTS3 satisfied the criteria required for starch to act as a fat mimetic. Overall results conveyed that the citric acid treatment of sweet potato starch with 5% acid concentration and 11h period was an ideal condition for the preparation of a fat replacer.

  12. Enzymatic modification of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    while others were able to largely retain granular structure. All products were, though, modified with regard to chain length distribution, which indicated an increased degree of branching. Also all products showed a decrease in molecular size. The products, which remained granular, were found to show......In the food industry approaches for using bioengineering are investigated as alternatives to conventional chemical and physical starch modification techniques in development of starches with specific properties. Enzyme-assisted post-harvest modification is an interesting approach to this, since...... substrate concentration (30-40% dry matter (DM)) and high enzyme activity (750-2250 BE units (BEU)/g sample). Starches from various botanical sources, representing a broad range of properties, were used as substrates. The effects of the used conditions on the BE-reaction were evaluated by characterization...

  13. Future cereal starch bioengineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Andreas; Jensen, Susanne Langgård; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana;

    2013-01-01

    data from cereal ancestors can potentially allow for the reintroduction of cereal traits including, for example, health-promoting carbohydrates that may have been lost during domestication. Raw materials produced in this manner can be processed by clean enzyme-assisted techniques or thermal treatment...... in combination to further functionalize or stabilize the starch polymers. Importantly, such products can be multifunctional in the sense of combined food/material or food/pharma purposes, for example, edible plastics, shape memory materials, and cycloamylose carriers and stabilizers for diverse bioactives......The importance of cereal starch production worldwide cannot be overrated. However, the qualities and resulting values of existing raw and processed starch do not fully meet future demands for environmentally friendly production of renewable, advanced biomaterials, functional foods, and biomedical...

  14. Radiation processing of starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starch is a polysaccharide material and generally, it is non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable. It mainly use as foodstuff, food additives, production of sugar and flavouring. Sago palm with scientific name Genus Metroxylon belonging to family Palmae is an important resource in the production of sago starch in Malaysia. Nearly 90% of sago planting areas is found in Sarawak State of Malaysia. It can easily grow under the harsh swampy environment. The sago starch content 4% polyphenol, which is an active compound with antioxidant property that has potential benefit in health and skin care applications. Renewal resources and environmental friendly of natural polymer reason for the researcher to explore the potential of this material in order to improve our quality of live. (author)

  15. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles from Gadong starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisika, Regina; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Fazry, Shazrul; Lazim, Azwan Mat

    2015-09-01

    Dioscorea hispida (Gadong tuber) was seldom used and forgotten as a food source due to their toxicity. In contrast to that, the Gadong tuber can be a source of polysaccharides which can be manipulated as an alternative source for industrial applications. This research reported on how to synthesize starch nanoparticles from Gadong tuber by using a simple acid hydrolysis process. The yield of starch nanoparticles obtained from seven days of acid hydrolysis was reduced to 13%. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the native Gadong starch particle is of the C-crystalline type, and that the synthesized nanoparticles showed an increase in crystallinity compared to the native particles. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that the starch particle morphologies were either round or irregular shape, with diameters ranging from 96-110 nm.

  16. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles from Gadong starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisika, Regina; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Lazim, Azwan Mat [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Fazry, Shazrul [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Dioscorea hispida (Gadong tuber) was seldom used and forgotten as a food source due to their toxicity. In contrast to that, the Gadong tuber can be a source of polysaccharides which can be manipulated as an alternative source for industrial applications. This research reported on how to synthesize starch nanoparticles from Gadong tuber by using a simple acid hydrolysis process. The yield of starch nanoparticles obtained from seven days of acid hydrolysis was reduced to 13%. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the native Gadong starch particle is of the C-crystalline type, and that the synthesized nanoparticles showed an increase in crystallinity compared to the native particles. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that the starch particle morphologies were either round or irregular shape, with diameters ranging from 96-110 nm.

  17. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles from Gadong starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dioscorea hispida (Gadong tuber) was seldom used and forgotten as a food source due to their toxicity. In contrast to that, the Gadong tuber can be a source of polysaccharides which can be manipulated as an alternative source for industrial applications. This research reported on how to synthesize starch nanoparticles from Gadong tuber by using a simple acid hydrolysis process. The yield of starch nanoparticles obtained from seven days of acid hydrolysis was reduced to 13%. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the native Gadong starch particle is of the C-crystalline type, and that the synthesized nanoparticles showed an increase in crystallinity compared to the native particles. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that the starch particle morphologies were either round or irregular shape, with diameters ranging from 96-110 nm

  18. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  19. Artifacts in digital coincidence timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, W W; Peng, Q

    2014-11-01

    Digital methods are becoming increasingly popular for measuring time differences, and are the de facto standard in PET cameras. These methods usually include a master system clock and a (digital) arrival time estimate for each detector that is obtained by comparing the detector output signal to some reference portion of this clock (such as the rising edge). Time differences between detector signals are then obtained by subtracting the digitized estimates from a detector pair. A number of different methods can be used to generate the digitized arrival time of the detector output, such as sending a discriminator output into a time to digital converter (TDC) or digitizing the waveform and applying a more sophisticated algorithm to extract a timing estimator.All measurement methods are subject to error, and one generally wants to minimize these errors and so optimize the timing resolution. A common method for optimizing timing methods is to measure the coincidence timing resolution between two timing signals whose time difference should be constant (such as detecting gammas from positron annihilation) and selecting the method that minimizes the width of the distribution (i.e. the timing resolution). Unfortunately, a common form of error (a nonlinear transfer function) leads to artifacts that artificially narrow this resolution, which can lead to erroneous selection of the 'optimal' method. The purpose of this note is to demonstrate the origin of this artifact and suggest that caution should be used when optimizing time digitization systems solely on timing resolution minimization. PMID:25321885

  20. Artifacts in digital coincidence timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, W. W.; Peng, Q.

    2014-11-01

    Digital methods are becoming increasingly popular for measuring time differences, and are the de facto standard in PET cameras. These methods usually include a master system clock and a (digital) arrival time estimate for each detector that is obtained by comparing the detector output signal to some reference portion of this clock (such as the rising edge). Time differences between detector signals are then obtained by subtracting the digitized estimates from a detector pair. A number of different methods can be used to generate the digitized arrival time of the detector output, such as sending a discriminator output into a time to digital converter (TDC) or digitizing the waveform and applying a more sophisticated algorithm to extract a timing estimator. All measurement methods are subject to error, and one generally wants to minimize these errors and so optimize the timing resolution. A common method for optimizing timing methods is to measure the coincidence timing resolution between two timing signals whose time difference should be constant (such as detecting gammas from positron annihilation) and selecting the method that minimizes the width of the distribution (i.e. the timing resolution). Unfortunately, a common form of error (a nonlinear transfer function) leads to artifacts that artificially narrow this resolution, which can lead to erroneous selection of the ‘optimal’ method. The purpose of this note is to demonstrate the origin of this artifact and suggest that caution should be used when optimizing time digitization systems solely on timing resolution minimization.

  1. Effects of Different Ways of Applying Zinc Fertilizer and the Amount of Zinc Fertilizer on the Content of Starch in Summer Maize and Yield of Summer Maize%锌肥施用量及方式对夏玉米籽粒淀粉含量和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘万祥; 高巍; 刘红恩; 王巧燕; 赵鹏

    2014-01-01

    There were many researches about the effect of zinc on the soluble sugar in the leaf,starch in the grain and grain yield of summer maize. But the research which was set up at three locations with different soil types and ecological conditions was too little. So we decorated a field plot test at Xunxian,Yuzhou and Yanshi for the re-search of zinc fertilizer application pattern the influence on grain starch content and the yield of summer maize un-der different soil types and ecological conditions. Six treatments were set up in the experiments. They were Zn0, Zn15,Zn30,Zn45,xZn15 and yZn30. The results showed that:the right amount of zinc fertilizer can increase the content of soluble sugar in the leaf and starch in the grain and grain yield of summer maize. The appropriate amount of zinc fertilizer was different among Xunxian,Yuzhou and Yanshi when the amount of the soluble sugar in the leaf of summer corn reached the maximum. Overall ,the best amount of zinc fertilizer was 30 kg/ha when corn leaf solu-ble sugar content reached the maximum for Yuzhou,Xunxian and Yanshi. For increasing the amount of the soluble sugar in the leaf of summer maize,Soil zinc fertilizer was better than Soil+Spary zinc fertilizer when the amount of zinc fertilizer was same. The content of starch in the grain of summer maize reached the maximum when the treat-ment was Zn15,Zn30,Zn30 in Xunxian,Yuzhou,Yanshi. For increasing the content of starch in the grain of summer maize,Soil zinc fertilizer was better than Soil+Spary zinc fertilizer at the same amount of zinc fertilizer. The dry matter yield of summer maize achieve maximum when the treatment was soil zinc fertilizer 15 kg/ha+twice each spraying zinc weight 7. 5 kg/ha,soil zinc fertilizer 30 kg/ha and soil zinc fertilizer 15 kg/ha for Xunxian,Yuzhou and Yanshi. Soil+Spary zinc fertilizer can gain dry matter of Xunxian summer corn,but the change of ground dry matter of summer maize was differernt between the different amount of zinc

  2. Cleaning MEG artifacts using external cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, I; Abeles, M

    2013-07-15

    Using EEG, ECoG, MEG, and microelectrodes to record brain activity is prone to multiple artifacts. The main power line (mains line), video equipment, mechanical vibrations and activities outside the brain are the most common sources of artifacts. MEG amplitudes are low, and even small artifacts distort recordings. In this study, we show how these artifacts can be efficiently removed by recording external cues during MEG recordings. These external cues are subsequently used to register the precise times or spectra of the artifacts. The results indicate that these procedures preserve both the spectra and the time domain wave-shapes of the neuromagnetic signal, while successfully reducing the contribution of the artifacts to the target signals without reducing the rank of the data.

  3. Effects of Soil Root Promoter on Soil Texture,Gain Yield and Starch Pasting Traits of Winter Wheat:a Result from a Field Experiment%松土促根剂对土壤质地、冬小麦产量和淀粉糊化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢迎新; 白雪莹; 张传忠; 靳海洋; 郭天财; 王晨阳

    2015-01-01

    为了解决近年来华北地区麦田因多年旋耕导致土壤耕层过浅、土壤质地变差、小麦根系发育不良以及小麦产量品质降低等问题,在平衡配方施肥的基础上,通过田间试验研究了Agri-star松土促根剂对土壤质地及小麦产量和淀粉糊化特性的影响。结果表明,施用松土促根剂和土壤深耕处理均可起到降低土壤容重,增加单位体积小麦根系质量,改善土壤理化性状的作用。此外,施用松土促根剂能够提高冬小麦成穗数和穗粒数,进而起到提高小麦籽粒产量的效果,其中以1号松土促根剂+配方肥处理籽粒产量最高,平均达7925 kg/hm2,较单施配方肥处理增产12.9%。研究还发现,施用配方肥、添加松土促根剂或者进行土壤深耕处理能够改善小麦籽粒淀粉品质,同样也以1号松土促根剂+配方肥处理效果最好。综合比较分析,在当前华北地区免耕、旋耕麦田,应用Agri-star松土促根剂可以改善土壤质地,提高小麦产量和改善小麦籽粒淀粉品质,具有广阔的应用前景。%In order to solve the problem of too shallow topsoil ,bad condition of soil texture ,poor root develop-ment and decrease of yield and quality in wheat field due to years of rotary tillage in North China , based on bal-anced fertilization,a field experiment was conducted to study the effect of a soil root promoter named Agri-star on soil texture ,gain yield and starch pasting traits of winter wheat .Results showed that the application of soil root pro-moter and deep tillage could reduce soil bulk density and increase the volume of wheat root mass ,resulting in impro-ving soil physical and chemical properties .In addition ,the application of soil root promoter could improve the spike number and grain number per spike of winter wheat that caused the increase of wheat grain yield ,and the 1 soil root promoter combined with fertilizer had the highest

  4. Synthesis, Characterization and Saponification of Poly (AN-Starch Composites and Properties of their Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hashem

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels based on saponified products of poly (acrylonitrile, AN-starch composites were prepared, characterized and their water abosrbency properties examined. The term composite refered to the resultant products of polymerizatin of AN with starch in presence of ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN as initiator, that is the composite consists of poly(AN-starch graft copolymer, homopoly(AN , oxidized starch and unreacted starch. Thus AN monomer was polymerized with gelatinized starch using the ceric ion method. Gelatinization of starch prior to polymerization was affected by heating certain weight of starch in certain volume of distilled water at different temperrature (65, 75 and 85°C. Polymerization was carried out under a variety of coditions. Saponification of poly (AN-starch composites was performed in sodium hydroxide to yield the hydrogels. The water absorbency properties of these hydrogels were found to rely on variables affecting the magnitudes of both polymerization and saponification. Among these variables mention was made of the starch/liquor ratio, cocentration of ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN, monomer/starch molar ratio, duration of grafting and gelatinization temperature as well as saponification time. Hydrogels display their maximum water absorbency when granular starch was firstly gelatinized at 85°C for 30 min and secondly subjected to polymerization with AN using AN/starch molar ratio of 4.8 and CAN concentration of 10 mmol/L liquor ratio of 12.5 and thirdly sample of the so obtained poly (AN-starch composite was saponified in sodium hydroxide (0.7 N at 95°C for 180 min. The saponified product was then precipitated in excess methanol, dried and finally converted into powder. The product (hydrogel in the powder form exhibited maximum water absorbency of 920 g water per gram hydrogel and 38 mL synthetic urine per gram hydrogel.

  5. The future of starch bioengineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Sagnelli, Domenico; Blennow, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Plant starches regularly require extensive modification to permit subsequent applications. Such processing is usually done by the use of chemical and/or physical treatments. The use of recombinant enzymes produced by large-scale fermentation of GM microorganisms is increasingly used in starch...... processing and modification, sometimes as an alternative to chemical or physical treatments. However, as a means to impart the modifications as early as possible in the starch production chain, similar recombinant enzymes may also be expressed in planta in the developing starch storage organ such as in roots......, tubers and cereal grains to provide a GM crop as an alternative to the use of enzymes from GM microorganisms. We here discuss these techniques in relation to important structural features and modifications of starches such as: starch phosphorylation, starch hydrolysis, chain transfer/branching and novel...

  6. Hydroxyethyl starch for resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Nicolai; Perner, Anders

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Resuscitation with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is controversial. In this review, we will present the current evidence for the use of HES solutions including data from recent high-quality randomized clinical trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Meta-analyses of HES vs. control fluids show clear...

  7. MADR: metal artifact detection and reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Sunil Prasad; Ha, Sungsoo; Mueller, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Metal in CT-imaged objects drastically reduces the quality of these images due to the severe artifacts it can cause. Most metal artifacts reduction (MAR) algorithms consider the metal-affected sinogram portions as the corrupted data and replace them via sophisticated interpolation methods. While these schemes are successful in removing the metal artifacts, they fail to recover some of the edge information. To address these problems, the frequency shift metal artifact reduction algorithm (FSMAR) was recently proposed. It exploits the information hidden in the uncorrected image and combines the high frequency (edge) components of the uncorrected image with the low frequency components of the corrected image. Although this can effectively transfer the edge information of the uncorrected image, it also introduces some unwanted artifacts. The essential problem of these algorithms is that they lack the capability of detecting the artifacts and as a result cannot discriminate between desired and undesired edges. We propose a scheme that does better in these respects. Our Metal Artifact Detection and Reduction (MADR) scheme constructs a weight map which stores whether a pixel in the uncorrected image belongs to an artifact region or a non-artifact region. This weight matrix is optimal in the Linear Minimum Mean Square Sense (LMMSE). Our results demonstrate that MADR outperforms the existing algorithms and ensures that the anatomical structures close to metal implants are better preserved.

  8. Effect of Cassava Starch Anaerobic Fermentation Liquid on Pumpkin Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality%木薯淀粉厌氧发酵液对南瓜生长发育、产量及果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓英毅; 陈群; 黄影花; 雷雪娇; 禤为翔; 韦仕飞; 韦思羽; 韦民政; 叶亦心; 郑虚; 张艺超; 莫干辉; 李韦柳; 张新宇; 王向导

    2016-01-01

    In order to ascertain the new resource utilizating way of cassava starch waste for environmental protection,this paper studied the effect of cassava starch anaerobic fermentation liquid (CSAFL)on pumpkin growth,yield and fruit quality,taking ‘Mibennangua’ as experimental material.The results showed that applying CSAFL could significantly promote the vegetative and reproductive growth,increase pumpkin yield and improve its fruit quality. Using CSAFL could also remarkably promote the growth of pumpkin main stem and leaves,increase leaf chlorophyll content. Besides,its fruit setting number per single plant,single fruit weight and yield were higher than that of the contrast by over 50%. Its fruit size,fruit shape index,contents of soluble solid,soluble sugar,soluble protein,starch and VC were significantly or very significantly increased than that of the contrast.Therefore,CSAFL can be used as additional fertilizer in pumpkin production,so as to realize the dual purposes of turning waste into wealth,and improving pumpkin yield and quality.%为了探明木薯淀粉废液的环保资源化利用新路子,以蜜本南瓜为试验材料,开展了木薯淀粉厌氧发酵液对南瓜生长发育、产量和果实品质的影响研究。结果表明,施用木薯淀粉厌氧发酵液能显著促进南瓜植株的营养生长和生殖生长,提高产量并改善果实的品质。施用木薯淀粉厌氧发酵液能显著促进植株主蔓和叶片的生长,增加叶片叶绿素含量,单株结瓜数、单瓜质量和产量均比常规施肥对照提高50%以上,其果实大小、果形指数、可溶性固形物、可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白、淀粉含量和VC含量也比对照显著或极显著提高。木薯淀粉厌氧发酵液可作为追肥在南瓜生产中应用,达到变废为宝、提高南瓜产量和品质的双重目的。

  9. Rheological behavior of gamma-irradiated cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava starch is the by-product of the process of pressing water out of cassava to make cassava meal. The juice has a fine starch, similar to rice or potato starch that, when dried, yields polvilho doce (sweet manioc starch); from the fermented juice comes polvilho azedo (sour manioc starch). Cassava starch can perform most of the functions where maize, rice and wheat starch are currently used. The aim of the present work was to determine the influence or ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of aqueous preparations of gamma-irradiated cassava starch at different concentrations. Samples of polvilho doce and polvilho azedo were obtained at the local market and irradiated in plastic bags in a Gammacell 220 with doses of 1, 3 e 5 kGy, dose rate ∼ 1.2 kGy h-1. A Brooksfield viscometer was employed for the viscosity measurements. The results showed a strong dependence of the viscosity with the concentration of the starch solutions. In most of the cases there was a decrease of viscosity with the increase of the radiation dose usually seen in irradiated polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the dose response relation of the two kind of starch was different. (author)

  10. Rheological behavior of gamma-irradiated cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Orelio L.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Cassava starch is the by-product of the process of pressing water out of cassava to make cassava meal. The juice has a fine starch, similar to rice or potato starch that, when dried, yields polvilho doce (sweet manioc starch); from the fermented juice comes polvilho azedo (sour manioc starch). Cassava starch can perform most of the functions where maize, rice and wheat starch are currently used. The aim of the present work was to determine the influence or ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of aqueous preparations of gamma-irradiated cassava starch at different concentrations. Samples of polvilho doce and polvilho azedo were obtained at the local market and irradiated in plastic bags in a Gammacell 220 with doses of 1, 3 e 5 kGy, dose rate ∼ 1.2 kGy h-1. A Brooksfield viscometer was employed for the viscosity measurements. The results showed a strong dependence of the viscosity with the concentration of the starch solutions. In most of the cases there was a decrease of viscosity with the increase of the radiation dose usually seen in irradiated polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the dose response relation of the two kind of starch was different. (author)

  11. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... branching enzymes SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI by a chimeric hairpin. The construct was inherited as a single locus with a distinct 1:3 segregation in consecutive generations. The transgenic grains were shrunken and the yield was around 80% of that found in wildtype. The starch granules were irregularly......, elongated and globose shaped. Transgenic grains also had a higher beta-glucan content. In order to increase barley starch phosphorylation, endosperm specific overexpression of glucan water dikinase from potato (StGWD) was conducted. The content of phosphate esters in starch from consecutive generations (T0...

  12. X-ray tomography studies of prehistoric ceramic artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a powerful non-destructive technique that can yield interesting structural information not discernible through visual examination only. This paper presents the results of the CT scans of four objects belonging to the Romanian cultural heritage attributed to the Vinca, Cucuteni and Cruceni-Belegis cultures. The study was performed with an X-ray tomographic device developed at the Department for Applied Nuclear Physics from Horia Hulubei National Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering in Magurele, Romania. This apparatus was specially designed for archaeometric studies of low-Z artifacts: ceramic, wood, bone. The tomographic investigations revealed the internal configuration of the objects and provided information about the degree to which the previous manipulations affected the archaeological items. Based on the X-ray images resulting from the CT scans, hints about the techniques used in the manufacturing of the artifacts were obtained, as well as some indications useful for conservation/restoration purposes. (author)

  13. RHEOLOGY OF STARCH-LIPID COMPOSITES YOGURTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogurt is traditionally made by fermenting liquid milk. The ability of starches to thicken, gel, and hold water has been exploited in yogurt manufacture. The addition of starch increases the viscosity of yogurt, but some starches impart an undesirable taste and promote phase separation. Starch-li...

  14. Granulomatous peritonitis caused by glove starch.

    OpenAIRE

    Michowitz, M.; Stavorovsky, M.; Ilie, B.

    1983-01-01

    Corn starch particles are used as a surgical glove lubricant. At present there is no better alternative for this lubricant. Implantation of corn starch particles into the peritoneal cavity can induce foreign body reactions, starch peritonitis and starch granulomata, and may cause adhesions and intestinal obstruction. Starch peritonitis should be treated conservatively.

  15. Compressional characteristics of four starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paronen, P; Juslin, M

    1983-10-01

    Compression data about barley, corn, potato and wheat starches were obtained by two methods: the ejected tablet method and the tablet-in-die-method. These data were analysed using the Heckel and the Cooper-Eaton equations. The Heckel equation appeared to be the more sensitive in distinguishing the various stages during the compression. Die filling and rearrangement processes for the starches were especially dependent on particle size and shape and thus on contact area between particles. Densification of large starch particles (potato starch) owed more to die filling and less to rearrangement. Densification of small particles (corn starch) was the reverse. Starch having a wide particle size distribution (wheat) or an irregular particle shape (barley) underwent a relatively small amount of densification as a result of die filling and a relatively great amount of densification because of rearrangement of particles during tableting. The tendency of the starches to total and pure plastic deformation was dependent on particle size, size distribution and particle shape. Corn starch was the most prone to plastic flow with only little elastic recovery. Potato starch also flowed plastically with ease. Barley and wheat starches were the more elastic. PMID:6139430

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Starch-Poly (Butyl Methacrylate) Graft Copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The graft copolymerization was carried out by buthyl methacrylate with starch in which azobisisobutyronitrile was used as an initiator. The grafting reactions were carried out within out a 70-90 oC temperature range, and the effect of the monomer, initiator concentrations, and the amount of starch on the graft yield were also investigated. The maximum graft yield was obtained at a azobisisobutyronitrile concentration of 1 : 0.3 - 1 : 1.5 mol/L. The grafted starches were characterized with infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetry. The cassava starch-g-BMA copolymer was synthesized by batch and continuous method. The graft copolymer confirmed initially by FT-IR spectra. The absorption band of C=O stretching appeared at 1730 cm-1. This band was characteristic band of the carbonyl group existing in PBMA. Therefore, this indicated that PBMA was grafted onto the cassava starch backbone. The formation of cassava starch -g-PBMA was also supported by SEM analysis. The grafting characteristics of the obtained cassava starch-g-PBMA were affected by several parameters, including the ratio of starch and BMA reactants, the reaction temperature and the reaction time. When the grafting characteristics were considered, especially the grafting yield in association with the amounts of reactants and initiator and also the time consumed in the process, the results suggested that the optimum performance were ratio starch/BMA 1 : 0.3, AIBN 0.5 % w/w at 90 oC proper for this graft copolymerization system with graft yield 36.7 % and optimum graft yield 75.6 % result from ratio starch/BMA 1 : 1.5, AIBN 0.5 % w/w at 80 oC. (author)

  17. Microbial starch-binding domains as a tool for modifying starch biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, Q.

    2004-01-01

    Modification of the starch biosynthesis pathway holds an enormous potential for tailoring novel starches in planta . In this thesis, we have explored the possibility of anchoring effector proteins in potato starch granules during starch biosynthesis by using starch-binding domains (SBDs) of starch d

  18. The enzymatic determination of starch in food, feed and raw materials of the starch industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunt, K.; Sanders, P.; Rozema, T.

    1998-01-01

    An enzymatic starch determination which can be used for the analysis of starch in a very broad range of different samples is evaluated, ranging from starch in plants, feed and food to industrial applications as starch in starch. The method is based on a complete enzymatic conversion of the starch in

  19. Dental material artifacts on MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, D B; Holshouser, B A; Engstrom, H I; Tjan, A H; Christiansen, E L; Catelli, W F

    1988-03-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the head and neck is becoming an important aid in evaluating pathologic conditions of the brain, midface, and pharynx. Certain dental materials cause artifacts during MR imaging of the lower midface. These artifacts can obscure the normal anatomy. This study describes the degree of artifact production caused by various materials commonly used in dental restorations. Of the materials tested, those causing artifacts were made of stainless steel, such as orthodontic bands used for braces, and pins or posts that are commonly drilled into teeth to provide structure or stability before filling. Materials used as temporary or permanent fillings or crowns--such as amalgam, gold alloy, aluminum, microfilled resin, and polyvinyl acrylics--did not cause artifacts in the images.

  20. Monoenergetic computed tomography reconstructions reduce beam hardening artifacts from dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzmann, Paul; Winklhofer, Sebastian; Schwendener, Nicole; Alkadhi, Hatem; Thali, Michael J; Ruder, Thomas D

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of monoenergetic computed tomography (CT) images to reduce beam hardening artifacts in comparison to standard CT images of dental restoration on dental post-mortem CT (PMCT). Thirty human decedents (15 male, 58 ± 22 years) with dental restorations were examined using standard single-energy CT (SECT) and dual-energy CT (DECT). DECT data were used to generate monoenergetic CT images, reflecting the X-ray attenuation at energy levels of 64, 69, 88 keV, and at an individually adjusted optimal energy level called OPTkeV. Artifact reduction and image quality of SECT and monoenergetic CT were assessed objectively and subjectively by two blinded readers. Subjectively, beam artifacts decreased visibly in 28/30 cases after monoenergetic CT reconstruction. Inter- and intra-reader agreement was good (k = 0.72, and k = 0.73 respectively). Beam hardening artifacts decreased significantly with increasing monoenergies (repeated-measures ANOVA p < 0.001). Artifact reduction was greatest on monoenergetic CT images at OPTkeV. Mean OPTkeV was 108 ± 17 keV. OPTkeV yielded the lowest difference between CT numbers of streak artifacts and reference tissues (-163 HU). Monoenergetic CT reconstructions significantly reduce beam hardening artifacts from dental restorations and improve image quality of post-mortem dental CT.

  1. Image-based iterative compensation of motion artifacts in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schretter, Colas; Rose, Georg; Bertram, Matthias [Philips Research Europe, Weisshausstrasse 2, 52066 Aachen, Germany and Otto-von-Guericke University, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39016 Magdeburg (Germany); Otto-von-Guericke University, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39016 Magdeburg (Germany); Philips Research Europe, Weisshausstrasse 2, 52066 Aachen (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: This article presents an iterative method for compensation of motion artifacts for slowly rotating computed tomography (CT) systems. Patient's motion introduces inconsistencies among projections and yields severe reconstruction artifacts for free-breathing acquisitions. Streaks and doubling of structures can appear and the resolution is limited by strong blurring. Methods: The rationale of the proposed motion compensation method is to iteratively correct the reconstructed image by first decomposing the perceived motion in projection space, then reconstructing the motion artifacts in image space, and finally subtracting the artifacts from an initial image. The initial image is reconstructed from the acquired data and might contain motion blur artifacts but, nevertheless, is considered as a reference for estimating the reconstruction artifacts. Results: Qualitative and quantitative figures are shown for experiments based on numerically simulated projections of a sequence of clinical images resulting from a respiratory-gated helical CT acquisition. The border of the diaphragm becomes progressively sharper and the contrast improves for small structures in the lungs. Conclusions: The originality of the technique stems from the fact that the patient motion is not explicitly estimated but the motion artifacts are reconstructed in image space. This approach could provide sharp static anatomical images on interventional C-arm systems or on slowly rotating X-ray equipments in radiotherapy.

  2. γ-Ray synthesis of starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles with antibacterial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are fabricated through γ-irradiation reduction of silver ions in aqueous starch solutions. The UV-vis analyses show smaller sizes of Ag NPs produced, with higher yields, as the irradiation doses and/or Ag+ concentrations are increased. Higher concentrations of starch enhance the yields of Ag NPs, with no significant effects on their size. The most economical Ag NPs are produced at 5 kGy γ-irradiation of a 2x10-3 M solution of AgNO3 containing 0.5% starch. They show a relatively narrow size distribution, indicated by TEM and its corresponding size distribution histogram. The XRD pattern confirms the face-centered cubic (fcc) Ag NPs embedded in starch molecules. Interactions between these nanoparticle surfaces and starch oxygen atoms are indicated by FT-IR. Antibacterial activities of Ag NPs against Escherichia coli appear dependent on the γ-ray doses applied

  3. Starch extraction process coupled to protein recovery from leguminous tuberous roots (Pachyrhizus ahipa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Andrea; Dini, Cecilia; Viña, Sonia Z; García, María A

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this work was to fit together the starch extraction from Pachyrhizus ahipa roots and the recovery of the proteins present in these storage organs, making an improved use of this novel raw material. The replacement of water by buffer PO4(-3)/NaCl as solvent in the first extraction steps improved protein extraction without lowering the starch yield. The starches obtained from the traditional and the proposed methods exhibited some differences in appearance and technological and thermal properties, which were endorsed to the adjustment in the methodology of extraction rather than to the use of buffer as solvent. Thus, P. ahipa starch obtaining procedure could be coupled to protein extraction with a minimum change in the methodology. This innovation did not significantly shift the characteristics of the starch obtained and allowed to obtain a protein yield of 135.7mg BSA equivalent protein/100g of fresh roots. PMID:27516269

  4. Hydroxyethyl starch in sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Nicolai Rosenkrantz Segelcke

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is a colloid that has been widely used for fluid resuscitation for decades. The newest generation of HES, tetrastarch, was believed to provide an efficient volume expansion without causing the side effects observed with former HES solutions. However, this bel......BACKGROUND: Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is a colloid that has been widely used for fluid resuscitation for decades. The newest generation of HES, tetrastarch, was believed to provide an efficient volume expansion without causing the side effects observed with former HES solutions. However...... in the modified-intention-to-treat population. At 90 days after randomisation, 201 of 398 patients (51%) assigned to HES 130/0.42 had died, as compared with 172 of 400 patients (43%) assigned to Ringer's acetate (relative risk 1.17, p=0.03); 1 patient in each group was dialysis-dependent at 90 days. In the 90 day...

  5. Hydroxyeyhyl starch: Controversies revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Rashmi; Nair, Rajeev; PANDEY, Anil; Kumar, Nitish; Sahoo, Tapan

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) family has been one of the cornerstones in fluid management for over four decades. Recent evidence from clinical studies and meta-analyses has raised few concerns about the safety of these fluids, especially in certain subpopulations of patients. High-quality clinical trials and meta-analyses have emphasized nephrotoxic effects, increased risk of bleeding, and a trend toward higher mortality in these patients after the use of HES solutions. Scientific evidence was de...

  6. Optimization of single-cell-protein production from cassava starch using Schwanniomyces castellii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongpattarakere, T; H-Kittikun, A

    1995-11-01

    Schwanniomyces castellii B5285 grew faster and produced greater biomass and higher protein yield than either S. alluvius ATCC 26074 or S. alluvius 81Y when these amylolytic yeasts were grown with 2% (w/v) cassava starch as sole C source. With 0.5% (w/v) glutamate as N source, S. castellii reached 7.12 g cell dry mass/l, with a protein yield of 6.4 g/100 g starch. The optimal agitation speed, aeration rate and pH for growth of this yeast in a fermenter were 400 rev/min, 1.67 vol./vol.min. and 5.0, respectively. Tween 80 at 0.1% increased cell dry mass to 8.90 g/l, cell yield to 44 g/100 g starch and protein yield to 7.4 g/100 g starch.

  7. Automated Artifact Rejection for Transient Identification in WFC3 IR Image Subtractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Kyle; Boone, Kyle; Hayden, Brian; Aldering, Greg Scott; Perlmutter, Saul; Supernova Cosmology Project

    2016-01-01

    We describe a set of features for identifying z>1 supernovae in reference-subtracted HST WFC3 IR images produced by the Supernova Cosmology Project's pipeline for the "See Change" project. These features, in combination with a random forest classifier, yield an effective system for automatically discriminating between supernovae and image artifacts produced by the instrumentation and the image processing procedure. When k-fold cross-validation is performed using a set of 30,000 artifacts and 10,000 synthetic supernovae, the classifier gives an efficiency comparable to that of a human scanner, correctly identifying 97 percent of the synthetic supernovae while rejecting 95 percent of the artifacts. This software will allow for less labor-intensive transient search procedures by automatically rejecting artifacts that would otherwise require human review.

  8. A particle accelerator probes artifacts

    CERN Document Server

    Dran, J C; Salomon, J

    2002-01-01

    The AGLAE system is made up of a 2 mega volts electrostatic accelerator and of 3 irradiation lines: one leads to a vacuum enclosure in which targets are irradiated and the 2 others lines are designed to irradiate targets under an air or helium atmosphere. The AGLAE system is located in the premises of the Louvre museum in Paris and is devoted to the study of cultural objects through ion beam analysis (IBA). 4 techniques are used: -) proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) -) proton-induced gamma ray (PIGE) -) Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (NRS) and -) nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). A decisive progress has permitted the direct analysis of artifacts without sampling. The object itself is set just a few millimeters away from the exit window of the beam in an air or helium atmosphere. The exit window must be resistant enough to bear the atmospheric pressure and the damages caused by the proton beam but must be thin enough to not deteriorate the quality of the beam. By using a 10 sup - sup 7 m thick exit w...

  9. Characterization of normal and waxy corn starch for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) Compare the differences of ethanol production between normal and waxy corn representing a diverse set of racial germplasm using a cold-fermentation process; 2) Understand the effects of starch structure and properties on ethanol production. Ethanol yields po...

  10. Light Microscopy Preparation Techniques for Starch and Lipid Containing Snack Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Flint, F. Olga

    1982-01-01

    Many processed foods lack the structural integrity associated with biological tissue so that the conventional methods of preparation and staining used in light microscopy may introduce misleading artifacts. Taking as examples of starch-based processed foods, potato chips (UK potato crisps) and three distinct potato snack foods, methods for preparing and demonstrating the constituents present in cryosections of whole and masticated products are discussed. To show constituents in their true ...

  11. Automatic Identification of Artifact-Related Independent Components for Artifact Removal in EEG Recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan; Nathan, Viswam; Jafari, Roozbeh

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity produced by the firing of neurons within the brain. These activities can be decoded by signal processing techniques. However, EEG recordings are always contaminated with artifacts which hinder the decoding process. Therefore, identifying and removing artifacts is an important step. Researchers often clean EEG recordings with assistance from independent component analysis (ICA), since it can decompose EEG recordings into a number of artifact-related and event-related potential (ERP)-related independent components. However, existing ICA-based artifact identification strategies mostly restrict themselves to a subset of artifacts, e.g., identifying eye movement artifacts only, and have not been shown to reliably identify artifacts caused by nonbiological origins like high-impedance electrodes. In this paper, we propose an automatic algorithm for the identification of general artifacts. The proposed algorithm consists of two parts: 1) an event-related feature-based clustering algorithm used to identify artifacts which have physiological origins; and 2) the electrode-scalp impedance information employed for identifying nonbiological artifacts. The results on EEG data collected from ten subjects show that our algorithm can effectively detect, separate, and remove both physiological and nonbiological artifacts. Qualitative evaluation of the reconstructed EEG signals demonstrates that our proposed method can effectively enhance the signal quality, especially the quality of ERPs, even for those that barely display ERPs in the raw EEG. The performance results also show that our proposed method can effectively identify artifacts and subsequently enhance the classification accuracies compared to four commonly used automatic artifact removal methods.

  12. Automatic Identification of Artifact-Related Independent Components for Artifact Removal in EEG Recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan; Nathan, Viswam; Jafari, Roozbeh

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity produced by the firing of neurons within the brain. These activities can be decoded by signal processing techniques. However, EEG recordings are always contaminated with artifacts which hinder the decoding process. Therefore, identifying and removing artifacts is an important step. Researchers often clean EEG recordings with assistance from independent component analysis (ICA), since it can decompose EEG recordings into a number of artifact-related and event-related potential (ERP)-related independent components. However, existing ICA-based artifact identification strategies mostly restrict themselves to a subset of artifacts, e.g., identifying eye movement artifacts only, and have not been shown to reliably identify artifacts caused by nonbiological origins like high-impedance electrodes. In this paper, we propose an automatic algorithm for the identification of general artifacts. The proposed algorithm consists of two parts: 1) an event-related feature-based clustering algorithm used to identify artifacts which have physiological origins; and 2) the electrode-scalp impedance information employed for identifying nonbiological artifacts. The results on EEG data collected from ten subjects show that our algorithm can effectively detect, separate, and remove both physiological and nonbiological artifacts. Qualitative evaluation of the reconstructed EEG signals demonstrates that our proposed method can effectively enhance the signal quality, especially the quality of ERPs, even for those that barely display ERPs in the raw EEG. The performance results also show that our proposed method can effectively identify artifacts and subsequently enhance the classification accuracies compared to four commonly used automatic artifact removal methods. PMID:25415992

  13. The impact of elevated CO2 concentration on the quality of algal starch as a potential biofuel feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanadul, Orn-U-Ma; VanderGheynst, Jean S; Beckles, Diane M; Powell, Ann L T; Labavitch, John M

    2014-07-01

    Cultured microalgae are viewed as important producers of lipids and polysaccharides, both of which are precursor molecules for the production of biofuels. This study addressed the impact of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) on Chlorella sorokiniana production of starch and on several properties of the starch produced. The production of C. sorokiniana biomass, lipid and starch were enhanced when cultures were supplied with 2% CO2. Starch granules from algae grown in ambient air and 2% CO2 were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The granules from algae grown in 2% CO2 were disk-shaped and contained mainly stromal starch; granules from cultures grown in ambient air were cup-shaped with primarily pyrenoid starch. The granules from cells grown in 2% CO2 had a higher proportion of the accumulated starch as the highly branched, amylopectin glucan than did granules from cells grown in air. The rate of hydrolysis of starch from 2% CO2-grown cells was 1.25 times greater than that from air-grown cells and 2-11 times higher than the rates of hydrolysis of starches from cereal grains. These data indicate that culturing C. sorokiniana in elevated CO2 not only increases biomass yield but also improves the structure and composition of starch granules for use in biofuel generation. These modifications in culture conditions increase the hydrolysis efficiency of the starch hydrolysis, thus providing potentially important gains for biofuel production.

  14. Brucite nanoplate reinforced starch bionanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper the mechanical reinforcement in a series of bionanocomposites films based on starch and nano-sized brucite, Mg(OH)2, was investigated. Brucite nanoplates with an aspect ratio of 9.25 were synthesized by wet precipitation and incorporated into starch matrices at different concentrations...

  15. The Ambivalent Ontology of Digital Artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallinikos, Jannis; Aaltonen, Aleksi; Marton, Attila

    2013-01-01

    Digital artifacts are embedded in wider and constantly shifting ecosystems such that they become increasingly editable, interactive, reprogrammable, and distributable. This state of flux and constant transfiguration renders the value and utility of these artifacts contingent on shifting webs...... of functional relations with other artifacts across specific contexts and organizations. By the same token, it apportions control over the development and use of these artifacts over a range of dispersed stakeholders and makes their management a complex technical and social undertaking. These ideas...... are illustrated with reference to (1) provenance and authenticity of digital documents within the overall context of archiving and social memory and (2) the content dynamics occasioned by the findability of content mediated by Internet search engines. We conclude that the steady change and transfiguration...

  16. Microbial starch binding domains are superior to granule bound starch synthase 1 for anchoring luciferase to potato starch granules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, Q.; Vincken, J.P.; Suurs, L.C.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2006-01-01

    Microbial starch-binding domains (SBD) and granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) are proteins which are accumulated in potato starch granules. The efficiency of SBD and GBSSI for targeting active luciferase reporter proteins to granules during starch biosynthesis was compared. GBSSI or SBD sequenc

  17. Substituent distribution within cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch and potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.; Schols, H.A.; Chen Zenghong,; Jin Zhengyu,; Buwalda, P.L.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Revealing the substituents distribution within starch can help to understand the changes of starch properties after modification. The distribution of substituents over cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch was investigated and compared with modified potato starch. The starches were

  18. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. J. G. Aller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  19. Amphoteric Starch in Simultaneous Process Preparation with Box-Behnken Design for Optimal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopa Cansee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch was chemically modified to produce an amphoteric starch. The amphoteric starch was prepared in a simultaneous process which was evaluated in relation to four factors: temperature (45-55 °C, 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (CHPTAC, 4-12% and sodium tripolyphosphate (STP, 2-8% concentrations, and reaction time (2-6 h. The extent of amphoteric starch produced was determined by the degree of substitution (DS of the nitrogen content and percentage of phosphorus content. In addition, a quantitative response of yield and whiteness as well as pasting characteristics were tested. Response surface analysis showed that the DS (0.01-0.05 increased with increasing temperature, CHPTAC and reaction time. The phosphorus content (0.09-0.34% followed a parabolic shape with all of the factors. Consequently, the response surface methodology appears to be a powerful technique to determine the optimal conditions for the production of amphoteric starches.

  20. Powder and compaction characteristics of pregelatinized starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, J; Uribe, Y; Zuluaga, A

    2012-06-01

    Pregelatinized starch is widely used as a pharmaceutical aid, especially as a filler-binder. It is known that the tableting performance of excipients could be affected by their source. The aim of this study was to evaluate the powder and tableting properties of pregelatinized starches obtained from yucca, corn and rice and compare those properties with those of Starch 1500. This material had the lowest particle size, and porosity and largest density and best flow. However, yucca starch and corn starch showed an irregular granule morphology, better compactibility and compressibility than Starch 1500. Their onset of plastic deformation and their strain rate sensitivity was comparable to that of Starch 1500. These two materials showed compact disintegration slower that Starch 1500. Conversely, rice starch showed a high elasticity, and friability, low compactibility, which are undesirable for direct compression. This study demonstrated the potential use of pregelatinized starches, especially those obtained from yucca and corn as direct compression filler-binders. PMID:22822539

  1. Drilling Mud Formulation Using Potato Starch(Ipomoea Batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WamiEmenikeNyeche

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the search for suitable local alternatives as additives in the manufacture of drilling muds which is an essential entity in the exploration of oil and gas, some vital considerations must be put in place such as cost and environmental effect. This study focuses on the suitability of locally processed potato starch as a viscosifier and fluid loss agent in drilling mud. Comparative analysis of properties obtained from the prepared potato starch mud and that formulated from Polyanionic cellulose (PAC were carried out. Results from this investigation showed that rheological properties (plastic viscosity and yield point of the potato starch mud increased when the content of both viscosifiers were equal at 1.0g/ 316.4ml of water. Plastic viscosity also increased by 13.6% when potato starch concentration increased by 50%. Also, a combination of PAC and potato starch at a ratio of 1:1 to 0.5:1.5 gave a fluid loss of 7.1 - 7.7 ml which were very close to that of the standard mud at 6.8ml. the pH, mud weight and specific gravity of the formulated mud samples ranged from 7.0 - 9.0, 7.0 - 9.1 and 0.83 - 1.09 respectively, which were all in line with the standard mud specifications.

  2. The effects of transducer geometry on artifacts common to diagnostic bone imaging with conventional medical ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, F William; Owen, Kevin; Tiouririne, Mohamed; Hossack, John A

    2012-06-01

    The portability, low cost, and non-ionizing radiation associated with medical ultrasound suggest that it has potential as a superior alternative to X-ray for bone imaging. However, when conventional ultrasound imaging systems are used for bone imaging, clinical acceptance is frequently limited by artifacts derived from reflections occurring away from the main axis of the acoustic beam. In this paper, the physical source of off-axis artifacts and the effect of transducer geometry on these artifacts are investigated in simulation and experimental studies. In agreement with diffraction theory, the sampled linear-array geometry possessed increased off-axis energy compared with single-element piston geometry, and therefore, exhibited greater levels of artifact signal. Simulation and experimental results demonstrated that the linear-array geometry exhibited increased artifact signal when the center frequency increased, when energy off-axis to the main acoustic beam (i.e., grating lobes) was perpendicularly incident upon off-axis surfaces, and when off-axis surfaces were specular rather than diffusive. The simulation model used to simulate specular reflections was validated experimentally and a correlation coefficient of 0.97 between experimental and simulated peak reflection contrast was observed. In ex vivo experiments, the piston geometry yielded 4 and 6.2 dB average contrast improvement compared with the linear array when imaging the spinous process and interlaminar space of an animal spine, respectively. This work indicates that off-axis reflections are a major source of ultrasound image artifacts, particularly in environments comprising specular reflecting (i.e., bone or bone-like) objects. Transducer geometries with reduced sensitivity to off-axis surface reflections, such as a piston transducer geometry, yield significant reductions in image artifact.

  3. Wavelet approach to artifact noise removal from Capacitive coupled Electrocardiograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Ko Keun; Park, Kwang Suk

    2008-01-01

    Capacitive coupled Electrocardiography (ECG) is introduced as non-invasive measurement technology for ubiquitous health care and appliance are spread out widely. Although it has many merits, however, capacitive coupled ECG is very weak for motion artifacts for its non-skin-contact property. There are many studies for artifact problems which treats all artifact signals below 0.8Hz. In our capacitive coupled ECG measurement system, artifacts exist not only below 0.8Hz but also over than 10Hz. Therefore, artifact noise removal algorithm using wavelet method is tested to reject artifact-wandered signal from measured signals. It is observed that using power calculation each decimation step, artifact-wandered signal is removed as low frequency artifacts as high frequency artifacts. Although some original ECG signal is removed with artifact signal, we could level the signal quality for long term measure which shows the best quality ECG signals as we can get. PMID:19163323

  4. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation ...

  5. Mixed Biopolymer Systems Based on Starch

    OpenAIRE

    Takahiro Noda; Karim, Alias A.; Md. Jahurul Haque Akanda; Amid Mehrnoush; Sahena Ferdosh; M. Abd Elgadir; Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2012-01-01

    A binary mixture of starch–starch or starch with other biopolymers such as protein and non-starch polysaccharides could provide a new approach in producing starch-based food products. In the context of food processing, a specific adjustment in the rheological properties plays an important role in regulating production processing and optimizing the applicability, stability, and sensory of the final food products. This review examines various biopolymer mixtures based on starch and the influenc...

  6. Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Joelise de Alencar Figueira; Priscila Hoffmann Carvalho; Hélia Harumi Sato

    2011-01-01

    Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and co...

  7. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Mottin Demiate; Valesca Kotovicz

    2011-01-01

    Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results ...

  8. Reconstructing design, explaining artifacts: philosophical reflections on the design and explanation of technical artifacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ridder, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Philosophers of science have by and large neglected technology. In this book, I have tried to do something about this lacuna by analyzing a few aspects of technical artifacts from a philosophical angle. The project was part of the research program "The Dual Nature of Technical Artifacts" based at De

  9. Dual energy CT: How well can pseudo-monochromatic imaging reduce metal artifacts?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchenbecker, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.kuchenbecker@dkfz.de; Faby, Sebastian; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Lell, Michael [Friedrich-Alexander-University (FAU), Erlangen 91054 (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Dual Energy CT (DECT) provides so-called monoenergetic images based on a linear combination of the original polychromatic images. At certain patient-specific energy levels, corresponding to certain patient- and slice-dependent linear combination weights, e.g., E = 160 keV corresponds to α = 1.57, a significant reduction of metal artifacts may be observed. The authors aimed at analyzing the method for its artifact reduction capabilities to identify its limitations. The results are compared with raw data-based processing. Methods: Clinical DECT uses a simplified version of monochromatic imaging by linearly combining the low and the high kV images and by assigning an energy to that linear combination. Those pseudo-monochromatic images can be used by radiologists to obtain images with reduced metal artifacts. The authors analyzed the underlying physics and carried out a series expansion of the polychromatic attenuation equations. The resulting nonlinear terms are responsible for the artifacts, but they are not linearly related between the low and the high kV scan: A linear combination of both images cannot eliminate the nonlinearities, it can only reduce their impact. Scattered radiation yields additional noncanceling nonlinearities. This method is compared to raw data-based artifact correction methods. To quantify the artifact reduction potential of pseudo-monochromatic images, they simulated the FORBILD abdomen phantom with metal implants, and they assessed patient data sets of a clinical dual source CT system (100, 140 kV Sn) containing artifacts induced by a highly concentrated contrast agent bolus and by metal. In each case, they manually selected an optimal α and compared it to a raw data-based material decomposition in case of simulation, to raw data-based material decomposition of inconsistent rays in case of the patient data set containing contrast agent, and to the frequency split normalized metal artifact reduction in case of the metal

  10. Grid line artifact formation: A comprehensive theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear focused grids are commonly used in general radiography and mammography to control scatter. In these applications, if lines would be visible when the grid was stationary, then the grid is moved during the x-ray exposure to blur out grid lines. Presented is a theoretical framework for estimating grid line artifact magnitude and evaluating artifact suppression techniques. The framework takes as parameters the grid pitch, septum thickness, and exposure time, and allows for a variation in grid velocity and in x-ray tube output during the exposure. Grid line artifacts are evaluated for a variety of conditions. These include a stationary grid, a grid moving at a constant velocity with no kV ripple, a grid moving at a constant velocity with large kV ripple, and a grid moving with decreasing velocity and no kV ripple. Also evaluated are grid line artifacts for a novel suppression technique in which the grid moves at a constant velocity and the x-ray exposure waveform is 'feathered', i.e., when the x-ray exposure waveform has a soft start and stop. Of practical interest is that it is possible to effectively eliminate grid line artifacts when the grid moves only a short distance with an appropriately 'feathered' exposure waveform. This capability permits one to design efficient and compact coarse strip density grid systems

  11. Mediating Artifact in Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Bodil

    2015-07-01

    This article focuses on teacher professional development (TPD) in natural science through the 5E model as mediating artifact. The study was conducted in an upper secondary school, grounded in a school-based intervention research project. My contribution to the field of research on TPD is founded on the hypothesis that teachers would be best facilitated to make their practice more inquiry based if they are provided with a mediating artifact. In this study the artifact is a model 5E, which is a conceptual way of thinking, to help teachers reflect on their practice. The aim is to encourage teachers to make changes themselves, by applying extended use of inquiry into their practice. This mediated artifact could thus be used across different national contexts. The main research question is; how can the 5E model as a mediating artifact enhance TPD? The article addresses the processes of the use of the 5E model and its influence on teachers' perception of the model. This is in order for teachers to conceptualize their goals related to inquiry and scientific thinking, and to solve the problems involved in achieving those goals in their own contexts. The study concludes that, after the intervention, the teachers' approaches and strategies demonstrate greater emphasis on learning.

  12. The effect of gamma irradiation on the functional properties of various starches: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation is one of the most effective methods able to change starch structure and its functional properties. Effects of irradiation are largely related to particular structure and molecular organisation of starch from various botanical sources. In this research, the effect of gamma irradiation (3, 5, 10, 20, 35 and 50kGy) on the rheological, structural, and morphological properties of three starch varieties (potato, tapioca and wheat) was studied. Rheological analyses show that all the starches develop different behaviours during gelatinization. Potato starch yielded the high swelling power (SP) and exhibited a maximum value of consistency during pasting, followed by that of tapioca one. The lower values of SP and maximum consistency were observed in the case of wheat starch. For all starch varieties, the pic consistency during pasting decrease with increasing irradiation dose. An increase in the SP was observed for all the studied starches irradiated with lower dose (until 20kGy). This parameter decreases at higher doses. On the other hand, irradiation improves the water solubility index (WSI) of all the studied starch. In addition, spectra of Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the irradiated starch displayed a significant decrease in the intensity of the OH stretch (3000; 3600 cm-1), C H stretch (between 2800 and 3000 cm-1), bending mode of water (between 1600 and 1800 cm-1) and in the bending mode of glycosidic linkage (between 900 and 950cm-1). Structural analysis using electron spins resonance (ESR) illustrates the presence of three signals in 3490, 3500 and 3510 G, respectively. These signals confirm the presence of free radicals in the tapioca and wheat starches through radiation treatment. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra showed that potato starch has B type morphology while tapioca and wheat starches have a crystalline A type morphology. In the same analysis, it was shown that irradiation treatment has no major changes in

  13. Characterization of starch extracted from the roots of Cissus simsiana Roem. & Schult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Palmiro Ramirez Ascheri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the characterization of starch from Cissus simsiana Roem. & Schult. roots. The starch was extracted by steeping, wet grinding and sedimentation processes and its yield was calculated. Isolated starch was then characterized for chemical composition, morphology and granules size distribution, X-ray diffraction, mid-infrared spectra, swelling powder and solubility, pasting and thermal properties and clarity and syneresis behavior. The starch yield, based on starch presence in the root that can be isolated, were between 13.68% with 3.12 10-3 mg/g of carotenoids. C. simsiana granules were predominantly ellipsoids with 50-60 mm length and 20-30 mm wide. They exhibited B-type X-ray diffraction pattern with 41.2% of crystallinity, apparent amylose content of 26.2% and presented similar mid-infrared spectra to other starches. Onset and peak gelatinization temperatures were 64.2 and 68.56°C, respectively, and gelatinization enthalpy was 19.2 J/g. The apparent viscosity profile was comparable to cassava starch, but with higher peak viscosity (6500 cP, lower set back viscosity (600 cP and less clear gel showing syneresis.

  14. Oligosaccharide and Substrate Binding in the Starch Debranching Enzyme Barley Limit Dextrinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Sofie; Windahl, Michael Skovbo; Sim, Lyann;

    2015-01-01

    Complete hydrolytic degradation of starch requires hydrolysis of both the α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucosidic bonds in amylopectin. Limit dextrinase (LD) is the only endogenous barley enzyme capable of hydrolyzing the α-1,6-glucosidic bond during seed germination, and impaired LD activity inevitably...... reduces the maltose and glucose yields from starch degradation. Crystal structures of barley LD and active-site mutants with natural substrates, products and substrate analogues were sought to better understand the facets of LD-substrate interactions that αconfine high activity of LD to branched...... starch synthesis....

  15. Artifacts in magnetic measurements of fluid samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekelheide, Z.; Dennis, C. L.

    2016-08-01

    Applications of magnetic fluids are ever increasing, as well as the corresponding need to be able to characterize these fluids in situ. Commercial magnetometers are accurate and well-characterized for solid and powder samples, but their use with fluid samples is more limited. Here, we describe artifacts which can occur in magnetic measurements of fluid samples and their impact. The most critical problem in the measurement of fluid samples is the dynamic nature of the sample position and size/shape. Methods to reduce these artifacts are also discussed, such as removal of air bubbles and dynamic centering.

  16. Beyond the interface: Encountering artifacts in use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Bannon, Liam

    1991-01-01

    this dialogue: our focus is on technology in use, where we emphasize the setting in which a piece of technology is used. We do not think that artifacts per se can be usefully studied in isolation. They need to be studied in their use settings. These use settings are developed over time - historically...... - they are not static and unchanging. For this reason the history of technology as well as of the organization of work become very important to us when we consider the (re)design of computer artifacts for people. What we do here is similar to Christiane Floyd's enterprise in her paper on software engineering...

  17. Artifacts of Functional Electrical Stimulation on Electromyograph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Ren-quan; ZHANG Ding-guo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate different factors of the artifact in surface electromyography (EMG) signal caused by functional electrical stimulation (FES). The factors investigated include the size of stimulation electrode pads, the amplitude, frequency, and pulse width of the stimulation waveform and the detecting electrode points. We calculate the root mean square (RMS) of EMG signal to analyze the effect of these factors on the M-wave properties. The results indicate that the M-wave mainly depends on the stimulation amplitude and the distribution of detecting electrodes, but not on the other factors. This study can assist the reduction of artifact and the selection of detecting electrode points.

  18. Structure and boosting activity of a starch-degrading lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo Leggio, Leila; Simmons, Thomas J.; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro;

    2015-01-01

    the activity, spectroscopy and three-dimensional structure of a starch-active LPMO, a representative of the new CAZy AA13 family. We demonstrate that these enzymes generate aldonic acid-terminated malto-oligosaccharides from retrograded starch and boost significantly the conversion of this recalcitrant...... substrate to maltose by β-amylase. The detailed structure of the enzyme's active site yields insights into the mechanism of action of this important class of enzymes....

  19. Sorghum grain as human food in Africa: relevance of content of starch and amylase activities

    OpenAIRE

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A S; Voragen, A. G. J.; Berkel, van, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sorghum is a staple food grain in many semi-arid and tropic areas of the world, notably in Sub-Saharan Africa because of its good adaptation to hard environments and its good yield of production. Among important biochemical components for sorghum processing are levels of starch (amylose and amylopectin) and starch depolymerizing enzymes. Current research focus on identifying varieties meeting specific agricultural and food requirements from the great biodiversity of sorghums to insure food se...

  20. Antimicrobial nanostructured starch based films for packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Ana S.; M. de OLIVEIRA; Rodrigues, Rui M.; Cerqueira, M. A.; Vicente, A.A.; Machado, A.V.; Sá, Arsénio Vasconcelos

    2015-01-01

    Montmorillonite modied with a quaternary ammonium salt C30B/starch nanocomposite (C30B/ST-NC), silver nanoparticles/starch nanocomposite (Ag-NPs/ST-NC) and both silver nanoparticles/C30B/starch nanocomposites (Ag-NPs/C30B/ST-NC) films were produced. The nanoclay (C30B) was dispersed in a starch solution using an ultrasonic probe. Different concentrations of Ag-NPs (0.3, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.0 mM) were synthesized directly in starch and in clay/starch solutions via chemical reduction method. Dispers...

  1. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lewicka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation are discussed. Properties of microwave radiation and its impact on starch (with particular regard to modifications described in literature are characterized.

  2. Hydrolysis of starch by sorghum malt for maltodextrin production [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonart, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Maltodextrin is a mixture of saccharides with a molecular weight between polysaccharides and oligosaccharides with DE lower than 20. Maltodextrin is more soluble in water than native starches, also is cheaper in comparison with other major edible hydrocolloids. Maltodextrin is obtained by moderate enzymatic or acidic hydrolysis of starch. The hydrolysis of starch, catalyzed by amylases, is the most important commercial enzyme process. The hydrolyzed products are widely applied in food, paper and textile industries. Because of the increasing demand for these enzymes in various industries, there is enormous interest in developing enzymes with better properties, such as raw starch-degrading amylases suitable for industrial applications and their cost-effective production techniques. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor is a widely grown crop in Africa. Obtaining enzymes from sorghum requires a transformation. The objective of this study was application of sorghum amylase for maltodextrin. Sorghum seeds were supplied by the ISRA (Bambey, Senegal. Seeds were germinated in the laboratory at 30°C for 72 h and the sorghum malt was dried at 40°C for 48 h. Corn starch (from Roquette, France hydrolysis was assayed in a bioreactor of 2 l at a temperature of 65°C gently stirred. Raw starch was slurried in water (30% w/v and sorghum malt was introduced, chloride calcium was added, pH was adjusted to 6. Maltodextrin was characterized in term of the dextrose equivalent (DE during the hydrolysis. The yield of hydrolysis was evaluated by soluble solids (° BRIX at different hydrolysis time. The glucose concentration released was measured by DNS method (Miller method.

  3. Conceptual Model of Artifacts for Design Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We present a conceptual model of design science research artifacts. The model views an artifact at three levels. At the artifact level a selected artifact is viewed as a combination of material and immaterial aspects and a set of representations hereof. At the design level the selected artifact...... is viewed through its design in terms of descriptions, models, prototypes etc. At the knowledge level the selected artifact is viewed through ontologies, categories and various types of relevant knowledge. The model is based on description...

  4. Information Design for Visualizing History Museum Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulin; Lai, Tingsheng; Yasuda, Takami; Yokoi, Shigeki

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years, museum visualization systems have become a hot topic that attracts many researchers' interests. Several systems provide Web services for browsing museum collections through the Web. In this paper, we proposed an intelligent museum system for history museum artifacts, and described a study in which we enable access to China…

  5. A Language of Objects and Artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    This is a conceptual inquiry about materiality. It gives an introductory overview to the vocabulary of materiality in a chosen selection of theories. The paper shows a language of artifacts and objects as it is used within practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. The examined intellec......This is a conceptual inquiry about materiality. It gives an introductory overview to the vocabulary of materiality in a chosen selection of theories. The paper shows a language of artifacts and objects as it is used within practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. The examined...... intellectual traditions are interpretive-cultural approaches; activity theory; and sociology of translation. Similarities and differences are presented in the way these three distinct intellectual traditions conceptualize the array of material objects and artifacts which are central in the tales of practice....... The paper looks into the mediatedness of knowing and doing in organizations. The intellectual traditions which are scrutinized all agree that ‘doing’ is materially embedded – that objects and artifacts are central to both knowing and learning. But what is their understanding of materiality? With which...

  6. On the reduction of hypercubic lattice artifacts

    CERN Document Server

    De Soto, F

    2007-01-01

    This note presents a comparative study of various options to reduce the errors coming from the discretization of a Quantum Field Theory in a lattice with hypercubic symmetry. We show that it is possible to perform an extrapolation towards the continuum which is able to eliminate systematically the artifacts which break the O(4) symmetry.

  7. A Social Language of Objects and Artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an inquiry about design. It gives an introductory overview of the vocabulary of 'materiality', which is used by a chosen selection of social theories. The paper shows a language of artifacts and objjects as it is used within practice-based approaches to knowing in organization  ...

  8. Microscopic Analysis of Corn Fiber Using Corn Starch- and Cellulose-Specific Molecular Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, S. E.; Donohoe, B. S.; Beery, K. E.; Xu, Q.; Ding, S.-Y.; Vinzant, T. B.; Abbas, C. A.; Himmel, M. E.

    2007-09-01

    Ethanol is the primary liquid transportation fuel produced from renewable feedstocks in the United States today. The majority of corn grain, the primary feedstock for ethanol production, has been historically processed in wet mills yielding products such as gluten feed, gluten meal, starch, and germ. Starch extracted from the grain is used to produce ethanol in saccharification and fermentation steps; however the extraction of starch is not 100% efficient. To better understand starch extraction during the wet milling process, we have developed fluorescent probes that can be used to visually localize starch and cellulose in samples using confocal microscopy. These probes are based on the binding specificities of two types of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), which are small substrate-specific protein domains derived from carbohydrate degrading enzymes. CBMs were fused, using molecular cloning techniques, to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or to the red fluorescent protein DsRed (RFP). Using these engineered probes, we found that the binding of the starch-specific probe correlates with starch content in corn fiber samples. We also demonstrate that there is starch internally localized in the endosperm that may contribute to the high starch content in corn fiber. We also surprisingly found that the cellulose-specific probe did not bind to most corn fiber samples, but only to corn fiber that had been hydrolyzed using a thermochemical process that removes the residual starch and much of the hemicellulose. Our findings should be of interest to those working to increase the efficiency of the corn grain to ethanol process.

  9. Starch-degrading polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Van V; Marletta, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Polysaccharide degradation by hydrolytic enzymes glycoside hydrolases (GHs) is well known. More recently, polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs, also known as lytic PMOs or LPMOs) were found to oxidatively degrade various polysaccharides via a copper-dependent hydroxylation. PMOs were previously thought to be either GHs or carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), and have been re-classified in carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZY) database as auxiliary activity (AA) families. These enzymes include cellulose-active fungal PMOs (AA9, formerly GH61), chitin- and cellulose-active bacterial PMOs (AA10, formerly CBM33), and chitin-active fungal PMOs (AA11). These PMOs significantly boost the activity of GHs under industrially relevant conditions, and thus have great potential in the biomass-based biofuel industry. PMOs that act on starch are the latest PMOs discovered (AA13), which has expanded our perspectives in PMOs studies and starch degradation. Starch-active PMOs have many common structural features and biochemical properties of the PMO superfamily, yet differ from other PMO families in several important aspects. These differences likely correlate, at least in part, to the differences in primary and higher order structures of starch and cellulose, and chitin. In this review we will discuss the discovery, structural features, biochemical and biophysical properties, and possible biological functions of starch-active PMOs, as well as their potential application in the biofuel, food, and other starch-based industries. Important questions regarding various aspects of starch-active PMOs and possible economical driving force for their future studies will also be highlighted. PMID:27170366

  10. Starch phosphorylation in potato tubers is influenced by allelic variation in the genes encoding glucan water dikinase, starch branching enzymes I and II, and starch synthase III

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Ann Carpenter; Nigel eJoyce; Russell eGenet; Rebecca eCooper; Sarah eMurray; Alasdair eNoble; Ruth eButler; Gail eTimmerman-Vaughan

    2015-01-01

    Starch phosphorylation is an important aspect of plant metabolism due to its role in starch degradation. Moreover, the degree of phosphorylation of starch determines its physicochemical properties and is therefore relevant for industrial uses of starch. Currently, starch is chemically phosphorylated to increase viscosity and paste stability. Potato cultivars with elevated starch phosphorylation would make this process unnecessary, thereby bestowing economic and environmental benefits. Starch ...

  11. Mammographic artifacts on full-field digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Jeong; Kim, Sung Hun; Kang, Bong Joo; Choi, Byung Gil; Song, ByungJoo; Jung, Haijo

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the incidence of full-field digital mammographic (FFDM) artifacts with three systems at two institutions and compares the artifacts between two detector types and two grid types. A total of 4,440 direct and 4,142 indirect FFDM images were reviewed by two radiologists, and artifacts were classified as patient related, hardware related, and software processing. The overall incidence of FFDM artifacts was 3.4% (292/8,582). Patient related artifacts (motion artifacts and skin line artifacts) were the most commonly detected types (1.7%). Underexposure among hardware related artifacts and high-density artifacts among software processing artifacts also were common (0.7 and 0.5%, respectively). These artifacts, specific to digital mammography, were more common with the direct detector type and the crossed air grid type than with the indirect type and linear grid type (p artifacts on FFDM were patient related, which might be controlled by the instruction of a patient and technologist. Underexposure and high-density artifacts were more common with direct detector and crossed air type of grid.

  12. Comparison of Cationic and Unmodified Starches in Reactive Extrusion of Starch-Polyacrylamide Graft Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graft copolymers of starch and polyacrylamide (PAAm) were prepared using reactive extrusion in a corotating twin screw extruder. The effect of cationic starch modification was examined using unmodified and cationic dent starch (approximately 23% amylose) and waxy maize starch (approximately 2% amyl...

  13. Resistant starch content, in vitro starch digestibility and physico-chemical properties of flour and starch from Thai bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nednapis Vatanasuchart

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Flour and starch were prepared from six Thai banana cultivars: Kluai Hom, Kluai Khai,Kluai Lebmuenang, Kluai Namwa, Kluai Hakmuk and Kluai Hin, and their resistant starch (RS, invitro starch digestibility and physico-chemical properties were determined. The RS content of theflour is 52.2-68.1%, with flour from Kluai Hin containing the highest amount of RS, followed by thatfrom Kluai Hakmuk. The starch has a higher RS content (70.1-79.2%, the highest value comingfrom Kluai Hakmuk starch, followed by Kluai Hom starch. A significant linear relationship betweenapparent amylose and RS was observed. Interestingly, most of the flour showed a slower rate of invitro starch digestibility than that of the starch, with Kluai Hin flour exhibiting the slowest rate,followed by Kluai Namwa. Rapid viscosity analysis showed significantly higher peak viscosity of thestarch than the flour, the highest final and setback viscosity being obtained from Kluai Hin starch.Differential scanning calorimetry showed an endothermic transition enthalpy over a range of 17.4 J/gfor Kluai Lebmuenang starch to 18.6 J/g for Kluai Hin starch. X-ray diffractograms of the starchesexhibited a typical B-pattern with Kluai Hin showing the highest degree of relative crystallinity(31.3% with a sharp peak at 5.5. The overall results seemed to indicate an effect of the BBgenotype on the resistance of banana starch granules to enzymatic digestion due to amylosemolecules and the crystallinity of amylopectin.

  14. Mixed Biopolymer Systems Based on Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Noda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A binary mixture of starch–starch or starch with other biopolymers such as protein and non-starch polysaccharides could provide a new approach in producing starch-based food products. In the context of food processing, a specific adjustment in the rheological properties plays an important role in regulating production processing and optimizing the applicability, stability, and sensory of the final food products. This review examines various biopolymer mixtures based on starch and the influence of their interaction on physicochemical and rheological properties of the starch-based foods. It is evident that the physicochemical and rheological characteristics of the biopolymers mixture are highly dependent on the type of starch and other biopolymers that make them up mixing ratios, mixing procedure and presence of other food ingredients in the mixture. Understanding these properties will lead to improve the formulation of starch–based foods and minimize the need to resort to chemically modified starch.

  15. Rheological and microstructural properties of Irradiated starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation ia s fast and efficient method to improve the functional properties of straches. Wheat and potato starches were submitted, in the present study, at 3,5,10 and 20 kGy radiation dose. The changes induced by irradiation on the rheological properties of these starches showed a decrease in the viscosity with increasing radiation dose. Chemicals bond's hydrolysis has been induced by free radicals that have been identified by EPR. Wheat starch presents five EPR signals after irradiation, whiles potato starch has a weak EPR signal. On the other hand, irradiation caused decrease in amylose content. This decrease is more pronounced in potato starch. Dry irradiated starch's MEB revealed no change in the shape, size and distribution of the granules. While, the observation of wheat starch allowed the complete disappearance of the granular structure and the dissolution of its macromolecules after irradiation which justifies the significant decrease in wheat starch's viscosity irradiated at 20 kGy.

  16. A Thermostable Glucoamylase from Bispora sp. MEY-1 with Stability over a Broad pH Range and Significant Starch Hydrolysis Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Huifang Hua; Huiying Luo; Yingguo Bai; Kun Wang; Canfang Niu; Huoqing Huang; Pengjun Shi; Caihong Wang; Peilong Yang; Bin Yao

    2014-01-01

    Background Glucoamylase is an exo-type enzyme that converts starch completely into glucose from the non-reducing ends. To meet the industrial requirements for starch processing, a glucoamylase with excellent thermostability, raw-starch degradation ability and high glucose yield is much needed. In the present study we selected the excellent Carbohydrate-Activity Enzyme (CAZyme) producer, Bispora sp. MEY-1, as the microbial source for glucoamylase gene exploitation. Methodology/Principal Findin...

  17. A pragmatic approach to metal artifact reduction in CT: merging of metal artifact reduced images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to improve metal artifact reduction (MAR) in X-ray computed tomography (CT) by the combination of two artifact reduction methods. The presented method constitutes an image-based weighted superposition of images processed with two known methods for MAR: linear interpolation of reprojected metal traces (LI) and multi-dimensional adaptive filtering of the raw data (MAF). Two weighting concepts were realized that take into account mean distances of image points from metal objects or additional directional components. Artifact reduction on patient data from the jaw and the hip region shows that although the application of only one of the MAR algorithms can already improve image quality, these methods have specific drawbacks. While MAF does not correct corrupted CT values, LI often introduces secondary artifacts. The corrective impact of the merging algorithm is almost always superior to the application of only one of the methods. The results obtained with directional weighting are equal to or in many cases better than those of the distance weighting scheme. Merging combines the advantages of two fundamentally different approaches to artifact reduction and can improve the quality of images that are affected by metal artifacts. (orig.)

  18. Artifacts and pitfalls of high-resolution CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, F J; Chu, W K; Anderson, J C; Dobry, C A

    1985-01-01

    Artifacts on CT images have been observed since the introduction of CT scanners. Some artifacts have been corrected with the improvement of technology and better understanding of the image formation and reconstruction algorithms. Some artifacts, however, are still observable in state-of-the-art high-resolution scans. Many investigations on CT artifacts have been reported. Some artifacts are obvious and some are similar to patterns commonly associated with pathological conditions. The present report summarizes some of the causes of artifacts and presents some artifacts that mimic pathology on clinical scans of the head and spine. It is the intention of this report to bring these artifacts and potential pitfalls to the attention of the radiologists so that misinterpretation can be avoided.

  19. Ultrastructure of Maize Starch Granules. A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gallant, Daniel J.; Bouchet, Brigitte

    1986-01-01

    History of starch granule ultrastructure and the principal data obtained on maize starch granules are analyzed. New results are developed: i) growth and development of the maize starch granules during maturation depend on the maize varieties and the tissue site in the kernel, especially the horny and flloury endosperms; ii) cytochemical studies of the starch granules differing from their amylose/amylopectin ratio show important differences in the distribution of their crystalline and amorph...

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MAIZE STARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Corina Popescu; Alexandru Stoica; Elena Bărăscu; Maria Iordan

    2010-01-01

    Maize, rice, wheat and potato are the main sources of starches which differ significantly in composition, morphology,thermal, rheological and retrogradation properties. Starch has unique thermal properties and functionality that havepermitted its wide use in food products and industrial applications.The structure of the starch granule results from the physical arrangement of amylose and amylopectin. Amylose contentof starches from different maize types ranged between 15.3% and 25.1%. Amylopec...

  1. Preparation and characterization of modified starch granules with high hydrophobicity and flowability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fengdan; He, Xiaowei; Fu, Xiong; Huang, Qiang; Qiu, Yaofang

    2014-01-01

    Normal cornstarch (NC) was chemically modified by octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) and Al2(SO4)3. The effects of the concentration of NaOH, OSA, and Al2(SO4)3 on the properties of modified starch(OS-starch-Al) were investigated. The OS-starch-Al was characterized by repose angle, activation index, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), light microscopy, SEM, FT-IR, and (27)Al NMR. The results showed that pH 4 was the optimum condition for Al(3+) cross-linking with OS-starch and for obtaining high flowability and hydrophobicity. When the concentration of OSA and Al2(SO4)3 was 2%, the OS-starch-Al was characterized by high flowability. A concentration of 4% OSA and Al2(SO4)3 yielded the highest activation index. The moisture content affected the flowability of native NC, but had a minor effect on OS-starch-Al. SEM and polarized microscopy revealed that the modification had slight effects on the crystalline structure and morphology of NC. During the preparation, some dust particles functioning as flow additives were produced on the surface of starch granules. The results of FT-IR, ICP-OES, and (27)Al NMR confirmed the formation of ester group and the cross-link with Al(3+).

  2. Novel formulation of low-fat spread using rice starch modified by 4-α-glucanotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Viet Ha; Mun, Saehun; Kim, Young-Lim; Rho, Shin-Joung; Park, Kwan Hwa; Kim, Yong-Ro

    2016-10-01

    Low-fat spreads were developed using a thermoreversible gelling agent, the 4-α-glucanotransferase (4αGT)-modified rice starch. The low-fat spreads consisted of the modified starch paste (or rice starch or maltodextrin), olive oil (0-30% w/w), egg yolk, salt, xanthan gum, and butter flavor, and were produced by homogenization, ultrasonic processing at 50% amplitude for 2min, and cold-gel setting at 4°C for 24h. Formulations with 15% and 20% of the modified starch paste resulted in highly stable oil-in-water low-fat spreads having varied textural properties and acceptable spreadability, whereas formulations with rice starch and maltodextrin did not yield enough stability and consistency. Moreover, the modified starch-based low-fat spreads showed high thermoreversibility. These results indicated that 4αGT-modified starch could be used in the preparation of low-fat spreads, allowing the formulation of functional products for healthy diets. PMID:27132833

  3. Synthesis and application of epoxy starch derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbrechts, A.M.L.; Haar, ter R.; Schols, H.A.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Boeriu, C.G.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Epoxy starch derivatives were synthesized by epoxidation of allylated starch. The reaction was performed with low substituted 1-allyloxy-2-hydroxypropyl-waxy maize starch (AHP-WMS; degree of substitution (DS) of 0.23) using hydrogen peroxide and acetonitrile Via a two step spectrophotometric assay,

  4. Esterification of Starch in Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    We shall discuss the use of various ionic liquids in the preparation of starch esters. Starch was reacted with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (bmim) salts as solvents in an effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution (DS) w...

  5. Defining Starch Binding by Glucan Phosphatases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auger, Kyle; Raththagala, Madushi; Wilkens, Casper;

    2015-01-01

    Starch is a vital energy molecule in plants that has a wide variety of uses in industry, such as feedstock for biomaterial processing and biofuel production. Plants employ a three enzyme cyclic process utilizing kinases, amylases, and phosphatases to degrade starch in a diurnal manner. Starch is ...

  6. Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelise de Alencar Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and commercial bacterial and fungal α-amylase enzymes. Susceptibility to debranching amylolytic isoamylase enzyme from Flavobacterium sp. was also tested. Sugarcane starch had spherical shape with a diameter of 1-3 µm. Sugarcane starch formed complexes with iodine, which showed greater absorption in the range of 540 to 620 nm. Sugarcane starch showed higher susceptibility to glucoamylase compared to that of waxy maize, cassava, and potato starch. Sugarcane starch also showed susceptibility to debranching amylolytic pullulanases similar to that of waxy rice starch. It also showed susceptibility to α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Aspergillus oryzae similar to that of the other tested starches producing glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentose and limit α- dextrin.

  7. Teaching and Learning the Nature of Technical Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederik, Ineke; Sonneveld, Wim; de Vries, Marc J.

    2011-01-01

    Artifacts are probably our most obvious everyday encounter with technology. Therefore, a good understanding of the nature of technical artifacts is a relevant part of technological literacy. In this article we draw from the philosophy of technology to develop a conceptualization of technical artifacts that can be used for educational purposes.…

  8. Properties of retrograded and acetylated starch produced via starch extrusion or starch hydrolysis with pullulanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelko, M; Zięba, T; Gryszkin, A; Styczyńska, M; Wilczak, A

    2013-09-12

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of serial modifications of starch, including firstly starch extrusion or hydrolysis with pullulanase, followed by retrogradation (through freezing and defrosting of pastes) and acetylation (under industrial conditions), on its susceptibility to amylolysis. The method of production had a significant effect on properties of the resultant preparations, whilst the direction and extent of changes depended on the type of modification applied. In the produced starch esters, the degree of substitution, expressed by the per cent of acetylation, ranged from 3.1 to 4.4 g/100 g. The acetylation had a significant impact on contents of elements determined with the atomic emission spectrometry, as it contributed to an increased Na content and decreased contents of Ca and K. The DSC thermal characteristics enabled concluding that the modifications caused an increase in temperatures and a decrease in heat of transition (or its lack). The acetylation of retrograded starch preparations increased their solubility in water and water absorbability. The modifications were found to exert various effects on the rheological properties of pastes determined based on the Brabender's pasting characteristics and flow curves determined with the use of an oscillatory-rotating viscosimeter. All starch acetates produced were characterized by ca. 40% resistance to amylolysis.

  9. Resistant starch content, in vitro starch digestibility and physico-chemical properties of flour and starch from Thai bananas

    OpenAIRE

    Nednapis Vatanasuchart

    2012-01-01

    Flour and starch were prepared from six Thai banana cultivars: Kluai Hom, Kluai Khai,Kluai Lebmuenang, Kluai Namwa, Kluai Hakmuk and Kluai Hin, and their resistant starch (RS), invitro starch digestibility and physico-chemical properties were determined. The RS content of theflour is 52.2-68.1%, with flour from Kluai Hin containing the highest amount of RS, followed by thatfrom Kluai Hakmuk. The starch has a higher RS content (70.1-79.2%), the highest value comingfrom Kluai Hakmuk starch, fol...

  10. A Language of Objects and Artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    intellectual traditions are interpretive-cultural approaches; activity theory; and sociology of translation. Similarities and differences are presented in the way these three distinct intellectual traditions conceptualize the array of material objects and artifacts which are central in the tales of practice....... The paper looks into the mediatedness of knowing and doing in organizations. The intellectual traditions which are scrutinized all agree that ‘doing’ is materially embedded – that objects and artifacts are central to both knowing and learning. But what is their understanding of materiality? With which...... to the further development of the conceptual understanding of the tangible, embedded, embodied, artifactual and object-related side of organizational knowing. The vocabulary is theoretically generated and is based on the anthology “Knowing in Organizations – A Practice-Based Approach” edited by Nicolini...

  11. Supporting Knowledge Transfer through Decomposable Reasoning Artifacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, William A.; May, Richard A.; Turner, Alan E.

    2007-01-03

    Technology to support knowledge transfer and cooperative inquiry must offer its users the ability to effectively interpret knowledge structures produced by collaborators. Communicating the reasoning processes that underlie a finding is one method for enhancing interpretation, and can result in more effective evaluation and application of shared knowledge. In knowledge management tools, interpretation is aided by creating knowledge artifacts that can expose their provenance to scrutiny and that can be transformed into diverse representations that suit their consumers’ perspectives and preferences. We outline the information management needs of inquiring communities characterized by hypothesis generation tasks, and propose a model for communication, based in theories of hermeneutics, semiotics, and abduction, in which knowledge structures can be decomposed into the lower-level reasoning artifacts that produced them. We then present a proof-of-concept implementation for an environment to support the capture and communication of analytic products, with emphasis on the domain of intelligence analysis.

  12. Augmented Reality For Museum Artifacts Visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Edmund Ng Giap Weng; Behrang Parhizkar; Lina Chai Hsiao Ping; Arash Habibi Lashkari

    2011-01-01

    Recently, advances in computer graphics and interactive techniques have increased the visual quality and field of Augmented Reality (AR) applications. Research into indoor exhibition systems associated with the use of AR technologies is getting general. This project describes an AR based system for overlaying computer generated information on the real world where museum artifacts are digitized in this project and superimposed in real scene. Furthermore, this project also presents the informat...

  13. Optimization Coaching for JavaScript (Artifact)

    OpenAIRE

    St-Amour, Vincent; Guo, Shu-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This artifact is based on our prototype optimization coach for the SpiderMonkey (https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Mozilla/Projects/SpiderMonkey) JavaScript engine. An optimization coach is a performance tool that aims to provide programmers with insight into how their compiler optimizes their programs and to help them better harness the optimization process. It does so by reporting optimization near misses, i.e., reports of optimizations that the compiler did not apply, but could appl...

  14. Brand Objects for Nominal Typing (Artifact)

    OpenAIRE

    Jones,Timothy; Homer, Michael; Noble, James

    2015-01-01

    In Brand Objects for Nominal Typing, we describe an implementation of a branding system for both runtime and static types. This artifact provides the extended form of Hopper, an interpreter for the Grace programming language, and extra modules which define both the dynamic objects and the modular static type checker. The extra modules extend the existing structural type checker in the provided version of Hopper, and are capable of statically checking code which interacts with statically deter...

  15. From digital interface to material artifact

    OpenAIRE

    Gwilt, Ian

    2008-01-01

    In previous works I have discussed how the image of the graphical user interface (GUI) has been appropriated as a referent for a creative practice beyond the screen, materialized as two-dimensional print and painted images. In this paper I will explore instances where the GUI has been referenced in the creation of three-dimensional physical artifacts and performative three-dimensional spaces. An examination of selected works will give us the opportunity to look critically at the evolution of ...

  16. Starch characteristics influencing resistant starch content of cooked buckwheat groats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzyme resistant starch (RS), owing to its health benefits such as colon cancer inhibition, reduced glycemic response, reduced cholesterol level, prevention of gall stone formation and obesity, has received an increasing attention from consumers and food manufacturers, whereas intrinsic and extrinsi...

  17. Sampling Artifacts from Conductive Silicone Tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timko, Michael T.; Yu, Zhenhong; Kroll, Jesse; Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Miake-Lye, Richard C.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Liscinsky, David; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Destaillats, Hugo; Holder, Amara L.; Smith, Jared D.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2009-05-15

    We report evidence that carbon impregnated conductive silicone tubing used in aerosol sampling systems can introduce two types of experimental artifacts: 1) silicon tubing dynamically absorbs carbon dioxide gas, requiring greater than 5 minutes to reach equilibrium and 2) silicone tubing emits organic contaminants containing siloxane that adsorb onto particles traveling through it and onto downstream quartz fiber filters. The consequence can be substantial for engine exhaust measurements as both artifacts directly impact calculations of particulate mass-based emission indices. The emission of contaminants from the silicone tubing can result in overestimation of organic particle mass concentrations based on real-time aerosol mass spectrometry and the off-line thermal analysis of quartz filters. The adsorption of siloxane contaminants can affect the surface properties of aerosol particles; we observed a marked reduction in the water-affinity of soot particles passed through conductive silicone tubing. These combined observations suggest that the silicone tubing artifacts may have wide consequence for the aerosol community and should, therefore, be used with caution. Gentle heating, physical and chemical properties of the particle carriers, exposure to solvents, and tubing age may influence siloxane uptake. The amount of contamination is expected to increase as the tubing surface area increases and as the particle surface area increases. The effect is observed at ambient temperature and enhanced by mild heating (<100 oC). Further evaluation is warranted.

  18. Physicochemical properties of native and γ-irradiated wild arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia L.) tuber starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Arif Ali; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Hussain, Peerzada Rashid; Gani, Adil; Wani, Touseef Ahmad; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Starch isolated from wild arrowhead tuber was treated by γ-irradiation at 0, 5, 10 and 15kGy doses. Arrowhead tubers yielded 40.33% starch and its chemical composition revealed moisture, protein, ash and fat were 8.34±0.09%, 0.26±0.04%, 0.58±0.02% and 0%, respectively. Physicochemical, morphological and pasting properties of native and irradiated tuber starches were investigated. The results showed that peak, trough, final, and setback viscosities were significantly (p≤0.05) reduced, whereas the breakdown viscosity increased following irradiation. Physicochemical properties differed significantly and showed strong dose dependent relationship. Solubility, water absorption capacity and transmittance increased, whereas swelling power, bulk density and syneresis decreased upon increase in irradiation of starch. Correlation studies showed that irradiation dose was positively correlated with water absorption capacity and solubility index while it correlated negatively with pasting properties, swelling index, syneresis, and freeze thaw stability.

  19. Development of starch-gelatin complex microspheres as sustained release delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B N Vedha Hari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The starch was isolated from jackfruit seeds and evaluated for its preformulation properties, like tapped density, bulk density, and particle size. The fourier transform infrared (FTIR analysis was done and compared with that of the commercially available starch which confirmed the properties. Using the various concentrations of jackfruit seed starch, the microspheres were prepared, combining with gelatin by ionotropic gelation technique. The developed microspheres were subjected to analysis of particle size, drug content, entrapment efficiency, and percentage yield. The spectral analysis confirmed the presence of drug and absence of interactions. Scanning electron microscope image showed that the particles were in spherical shape with a rough surface. The in vitro drug release in water for 12 hours proved to be in the range of 89 to 100%. The various kinetic models were applied using release data to confirm the mechanism of drug. It was concluded that the jackfruit starch-gelatin microspheres gave satisfactory results and met pharmacopieal limits.

  20. Studies on the Pasting and Rheology of Rice Starch with Different Protein Residual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qinlu; Liu, Zhonghua; Xiao, Huaxi; Li, Lihui; Yu, Fengxiang; Tian, Wei

    Indica rice starch and japonica rice starch were used in the study. The protein contents of the two rice variety were respectively 0.43%, 0.62%, 0.84%, 1.08%, 1.25%. The pasting and rheological properties of samples were determined with Rapid Visco Analyzer and dynamic rheometer. The results indicated that, with the increase of protein content, the peak viscosity, breakdown viscosity and final viscosity of rice starch paste decreased, the setback viscosity increased and the pasting temperature did not change significantly. With the increase of protein content, the consistency coefficient of starch decreased, the corresponding yield stress also decreased, however, the flow behavior index increased with the decrease of consistency coefficient. At same temperature, the storage modulus G' was greater when the protein content was higher.

  1. Continuous hydrogen production from starch by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Keigo; Tanisho, Shigeharu [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    This study was investigated the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on hydrogen production rate, hydrogen yield and the production rate of volatile fatty acid. The experiment was performed in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with a working volume of 1 L by using a Clostridium sp. The temperature of the CSTR was regulated 37 C. The pH was controlled 6.0 by the addition of 3 M of NaOH solution. Starch was used as the carbon source with the concentration of 30 g L{sup -1}. Hydrogen production rate increased from 0.9 L-H{sub 2} L-culture{sup -1} h{sup -1} to 3.2 L-H{sub 2} L-culture{sup -1} h{sup -1} along with the decrease of HRT from 9 h to 1.5 h. Hydrogen yield decreased at low HRT. The major volatile fatty acids are acetic acid, butyric acid and lactic acid. The production rates of acetic acid and butyric acid increased along with the decrease of HRT. On the other hand, the rate of lactic acid was low at high HRT while it increased at HRT 1.5 h. The increase of the production rate of lactic acid suggested one of the reasons that hydrogen yield decreased. (orig.)

  2. Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

    . However, only retinyl palmitate formed a complex with amylopectin. In general, ascorbyl palmitate resulted in the highest complexation, followed by retinyl palmitate and phytosterol ester. The presence of native lipids in Hylon VII starch did not inhibit complex formation. On the contrary, native lipids appear to increase the complexation yield and thermal stability of the starch-fatty acid ester inclusion complexes, possibly due to the formation of ternary complexes. From the three fatty acid esters studied, only ascorbyl palmitate was entrapped in starch spherulites. Various structures including round spherulites, various sizes of torus-shape spherulites, non-spherulitic birefringent and non-birefringent particles, "balloon" morphologies, and gel-like material were formed depending on processing conditions. However, only the torus-shape spherulites, and some non-spherulitic birefringent and non-birefringent particles showed ascorbyl palmitate entrapment. The % yield of the precipitate increased with higher % of added Hylon VII, and decreased with higher heating temperature and faster cooling rates. The amount of entrapped ascorbyl palmitate in the starch precipitate seems to be governed by the amount of this compound added during processing. This study showed that starch can form inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters which may be used for the delivery of certain bioactive molecules. In addition, encapsulation of fatty acid esters in starch spherulites may be a good potential delivery system for water soluble bioactive molecules. However, further research is necessary to gain a better understanding of the type of molecules that can be entrapped in starch spherulites, and the factors affecting spherulitic crystallization and bioactive compound entrapment.

  3. Granular starch hydrolysis for fuel ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping

    Granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE) convert starch into fermentable sugars at low temperatures (≤48°C). Use of GSHE in dry grind process can eliminate high temperature requirements during cooking and liquefaction (≥90°C). In this study, GSHE was compared with two combinations of commercial alpha-amylase and glucoamylase (DG1 and DG2, respectively). All three enzyme treatments resulted in comparable ethanol concentrations (between 14.1 to 14.2% v/v at 72 hr), ethanol conversion efficiencies and ethanol and DDGS yields. Sugar profiles for the GSHE treatment were different from DG1 and DG2 treatments, especially for glucose. During simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the highest glucose concentration for the GSHE treatment was 7% (w/v); for DG1 and DG2 treatments, maximum glucose concentration was 19% (w/v). GSHE was used in one of the fractionation technologies (enzymatic dry grind) to improve recovery of germ and pericarp fiber prior to fermentation. The enzymatic dry grind process with GSHE was compared with the conventional dry grind process using GSHE with the same process parameters of dry solids content, pH, temperature, time, enzyme and yeast usages. Ethanol concentration (at 72 hr) of the enzymatic process was 15.5% (v/v), which was 9.2% higher than the conventional process (14.2% v/v). Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) generated from the enzymatic process (9.8% db) was 66% less than conventional process (28.3% db). Three additional coproducts, germ 8.0% (db), pericarp fiber 7.7% (db) and endosperm fiber 5.2% (db) were produced. Costs and amounts of GSHE used is an important factor affecting dry grind process economics. Proteases can weaken protein matrix to aid starch release and may reduce GSHE doses. Proteases also can hydrolyze protein into free amino nitrogen (FAN), which can be used as a yeast nutrient during fermentation. Two types of proteases, exoprotease and endoprotease, were studied; protease and urea

  4. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Candidate Genes for Starch Content Regulation in Maize Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Xue, Yadong; Guo, Zhanyong; Li, Weihua; Tang, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    Kernel starch content is an important trait in maize (Zea mays L.) as it accounts for 65–75% of the dry kernel weight and positively correlates with seed yield. A number of starch synthesis-related genes have been identified in maize in recent years. However, many loci underlying variation in starch content among maize inbred lines still remain to be identified. The current study is a genome-wide association study that used a set of 263 maize inbred lines. In this panel, the average kernel starch content was 66.99%, ranging from 60.60 to 71.58% over the three study years. These inbred lines were genotyped with the SNP50 BeadChip maize array, which is comprised of 56,110 evenly spaced, random SNPs. Population structure was controlled by a mixed linear model (MLM) as implemented in the software package TASSEL. After the statistical analyses, four SNPs were identified as significantly associated with starch content (P ≤ 0.0001), among which one each are located on chromosomes 1 and 5 and two are on chromosome 2. Furthermore, 77 candidate genes associated with starch synthesis were found within the 100-kb intervals containing these four QTLs, and four highly associated genes were within 20-kb intervals of the associated SNPs. Among the four genes, Glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase (APS1; Gene ID GRMZM2G163437) is known as an important regulator of kernel starch content. The identified SNPs, QTLs, and candidate genes may not only be readily used for germplasm improvement by marker-assisted selection in breeding, but can also elucidate the genetic basis of starch content. Further studies on these identified candidate genes may help determine the molecular mechanisms regulating kernel starch content in maize and other important cereal crops.

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Candidate Genes for Starch Content Regulation in Maize Kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Xue, Yadong; Guo, Zhanyong; Li, Weihua; Tang, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    Kernel starch content is an important trait in maize (Zea mays L.) as it accounts for 65-75% of the dry kernel weight and positively correlates with seed yield. A number of starch synthesis-related genes have been identified in maize in recent years. However, many loci underlying variation in starch content among maize inbred lines still remain to be identified. The current study is a genome-wide association study that used a set of 263 maize inbred lines. In this panel, the average kernel starch content was 66.99%, ranging from 60.60 to 71.58% over the three study years. These inbred lines were genotyped with the SNP50 BeadChip maize array, which is comprised of 56,110 evenly spaced, random SNPs. Population structure was controlled by a mixed linear model (MLM) as implemented in the software package TASSEL. After the statistical analyses, four SNPs were identified as significantly associated with starch content (P ≤ 0.0001), among which one each are located on chromosomes 1 and 5 and two are on chromosome 2. Furthermore, 77 candidate genes associated with starch synthesis were found within the 100-kb intervals containing these four QTLs, and four highly associated genes were within 20-kb intervals of the associated SNPs. Among the four genes, Glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase (APS1; Gene ID GRMZM2G163437) is known as an important regulator of kernel starch content. The identified SNPs, QTLs, and candidate genes may not only be readily used for germplasm improvement by marker-assisted selection in breeding, but can also elucidate the genetic basis of starch content. Further studies on these identified candidate genes may help determine the molecular mechanisms regulating kernel starch content in maize and other important cereal crops. PMID:27512395

  6. Ascitic starch phagocytosis in experimental guinea-pig peritonitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, J. B.; Davies, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Phagocytosis of starch granules in ascitic fluid was sought in guinea-pigs 1 to 10 days after i.p. injection of a suspension of starch powder. Starch phagocytosis occurred in 75.9% of control animals with free peritoneal fluid. It probably represents a nonspecific reaction to the particulate nature of starch granules. Guinea-pigs sensitized to starch by nuchal inoculation of an emulsion of Freund's adjuvant and starch showed no increase in frequency or intensity of ascitic starch phagocytosis...

  7. Starch grains from dental calculus reveal ancient plant foodstuffs at Chenqimogou site, Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chenqimogou site, located at the south bank of Tao River, is comprised of a large group of graves dated to ~4000 a BP. For its large scale, unique mortuary system, and abundant of typical artifacts, the site was named one of "Top Ten Archaeological Discoveries of 2008 in China". Many intact human skeletons have been excavated from the graves. Three teeth from two adult skeletons excavated from graves M187 and M194 were examined. Forty-eight starch grains were retrieved from dental calculus of three teeth. Six of those starch grains could not be identified because of damage. The others were classified into seven groups. Most of them were from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and/or barley (Hordeum vulgare). Remains possibly from foxtail millet (Setaria italica), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), gingkgo (Ginkgo biloba), acorn (Quercus spp.), bean, roots or tubers were identified. Ancient starch grains from dental calculus indicate that human foodstuffs primarily sourced from wheat, buckwheat, and foxtail millet. Acorn, beans, tubers or roots were supplements. A variety of starch grains retrieved from dental calculus revealed that diverse crops were cultivated in the Chenqimogou site 4000 years ago, and both dry-land farming and gathering were engaged.

  8. Identification of QTLs for Starch Content in Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-xia; ZHAO Ning; LI Hui; JIE Qin; ZHAI Hong; HE Shao-zhen; LI Qiang; LIU Qing-chang

    2014-01-01

    Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) breeding is challenging due to its genetic complexity. In the present study, interval mapping (IM) and multiple quantitative trait locus (QTL) model (MQM) analysis were used to identify QTLs for starch content with a mapping population consisting of 202 F1 individuals of a cross between Xushu 18, a cultivar susceptible to stem nematodes, with high yield and moderate starch, and Xu 781, which is resistant to stem nematodes, has low yield and high starch content. Six QTLs for starch content were mapped on six linkage groups of the Xu 781 map, explaining 9.1-38.8% of the variation. Especially, one of them,DMFN_4, accounted for 38.8% of starch content variation, which is the QTL that explains the highest phenotypic variation detected to date in sweetpotato. All of the six QTLs had a positive effect on the variation of the starch content, which indicated the inheritance derived from the parent Xu 781. Two QTLs for starch content were detected on two linkage groups of the Xushu 18 map, explaining 14.3 and 16.1% of the variation, respectively. They had a negative effect on the variation, indicating the inheritance derived from Xu 781. Seven of eight QTLs were co-localized with a single marker. This is the ifrst report on the development of QTLs co-localized with a single marker in sweetpotato. These QTLs and their co-localized markers may be used in marker-assisted breeding for the starch content of sweetpotato.

  9. Mechanical properties and solubility in water of corn starch-collagen composite films: Effect of starch type and concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Wang, Wenhang; Ye, Ran; Liu, Anjun; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Yana

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the possibility of enhancing the properties of collagen with three different maize starches: waxy maize starch, normal starch, and high amylose starch. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that starch-collagen films had a rougher surface compared to pure collagen films which became smoother upon heating. Amylose starch and normal starch increased the tensile strength of unheated collagen films in both dry and wet states, while all starches increased tensile strength of collagen film by heating. Depending upon the amylose content and starch concentrations, film solubility in water decreased with the addition of starch. DSC thermograms demonstrated that addition of all starches improved the thermal stability of the collagen film. Moreover, X-ray diffraction results indicated that except for high amylose starch, the crystallinity of both starch and collagen was significantly decreased when subject to heating. FTIR spectra indicated that intermolecular interactions between starch and collagen were enhanced upon heating. PMID:27596411

  10. MORPHOLOGICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MAIZE STARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Corina Popescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize, rice, wheat and potato are the main sources of starches which differ significantly in composition, morphology,thermal, rheological and retrogradation properties. Starch has unique thermal properties and functionality that havepermitted its wide use in food products and industrial applications.The structure of the starch granule results from the physical arrangement of amylose and amylopectin. Amylose contentof starches from different maize types ranged between 15.3% and 25.1%. Amylopectin is considered responsible for thecrystalline structure of starch granules.The morphological and physicochemical characteristics of maize starch are related to the enzymes involved in itsbiosynthesis.The surface of the starch granule plays a fundamental rôle as the first barrier to processes such as granule hydration,enzyme attack, and chemical reaction with modifying agents. Major parameters describing the solid surface are:specific surface area, total pore volume, mean pore radius (diameter and pore volume distribution in relation to poreradius (diameter.

  11. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results showed that almost all modified starches were resistant to syneresis, produced pastes more stable to stirred cooking, and some of them were difficult to cook. The sour cassava starches presented high acidity and resulted in clear and unstable pastes during stirred cooking, susceptible to syneresis.

  12. Properties of baked foams from citric acid modified cassava starch and native cassava starch blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornsuksomboon, Kanlaya; Holló, Berta Barta; Szécsényi, Katalin Mészáros; Kaewtatip, Kaewta

    2016-01-20

    Starch foams from native cassava starch (NS) and citric acid modified cassava starch (CNS) were prepared using baking processes with blend ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80. The density, thickness, morphology, thermal stability and water absorption of the NS, CNS and blended starch foams were determined. The ratio of the two starch components had a significant influence on the density and thickness of the blended starch foams. All blended starch foams showed good water resistance. Moreover, the morphology of the blended starch foam with the NS/CNS ratio of 50/50 showed a more ordered distribution of cell sizes with thicker cell walls than for the NS and CNS foams. The thermal stability of the blended starch foams was somewhat lower than the stability of the NS foam but not to the extent that it affected any potential practical applications.

  13. Properties of baked foams from citric acid modified cassava starch and native cassava starch blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornsuksomboon, Kanlaya; Holló, Berta Barta; Szécsényi, Katalin Mészáros; Kaewtatip, Kaewta

    2016-01-20

    Starch foams from native cassava starch (NS) and citric acid modified cassava starch (CNS) were prepared using baking processes with blend ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80. The density, thickness, morphology, thermal stability and water absorption of the NS, CNS and blended starch foams were determined. The ratio of the two starch components had a significant influence on the density and thickness of the blended starch foams. All blended starch foams showed good water resistance. Moreover, the morphology of the blended starch foam with the NS/CNS ratio of 50/50 showed a more ordered distribution of cell sizes with thicker cell walls than for the NS and CNS foams. The thermal stability of the blended starch foams was somewhat lower than the stability of the NS foam but not to the extent that it affected any potential practical applications. PMID:26572335

  14. Detection and Removal of Artifacts in Astronomical Images

    CERN Document Server

    Desai, Shantanu; Bertin, Emmanuel; Kummel, Martin; Wetzstein, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Astronomical images from optical photometric surveys are typically contaminated with transient artifacts such as cosmic rays, satellite trails and scattered light. We have developed and tested an algorithm that removes these artifacts using a deep, artifact free, static sky coadd image built up through the median combination of point spread function (PSF) homogenized, overlapping single epoch images. Transient artifacts are detected and masked in each single epoch image through comparison with an artifact free, PSF-matched simulated image that is constructed using the PSF-corrected, model fitting catalog from the artifact free coadd image together with the position variable PSF model of the single epoch image. This approach works well not only for cleaning single epoch images with worse seeing than the PSF homogenized coadd, but also the traditionally much more challenging problem of cleaning single epoch images with better seeing. In addition to masking transient artifacts, we have developed an interpolation...

  15. Annealing properties of rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermal properties of starch can be modified by annealing, i.e., a pre-treatment in excessive amounts of water at temperatures below the gelatinization temperatures. This treatment is known to improve the crystalline properties, and is a useful tool to gain a better control of the functional proper...

  16. Starch composites with aconitic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfillan, William Neil; Doherty, William O S

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this project is to examine the effectiveness of using aconitic acid (AcA), a tricarboxylic acid which contains a carbon/carbon double bond (CC), to enhance the properties of starch-based films. Starch/glycerol cast films were prepared with 0, 2, 5, 10 and 15wt% AcA (starch wt% basis) and the properties analysed. It was shown that AcA acted as both a cross-linking agent and also a strong plasticising agent. The 5wt% AcA derived starch films were the most effectively cross-linked having the lowest solubility (28wt%) and decreased swelling coefficient (35vol.%) by approximately 3 times and 2.4 times respectively compared to the control film submerged in water (23°C). There was also a significant increase in the film elongation at break by approximately 35 times (compared to the control) with the addition of 15wt% AcA, emphasising the plasticising effect of AcA. However, generally there was a reduced tensile strength, softening of the film, and reduced thermal stability with increased amounts of AcA. PMID:26876996

  17. Starch Granule Re-Structuring by Starch Branching Enzyme and Glucan Water Dikinase Modulation Affects Caryopsis Physiology and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Shaik, Shahnoor S.; Obata, Toshihiro; Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Schwahn, Kevin; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Starch is of fundamental importance for plant development and reproduction and its optimized molecular assembly is potentially necessary for correct starch metabolism. Re-structuring of starch granules in-planta can therefore potentially affect plant metabolism. Modulation of granule micro-structure was achieved by decreasing starch branching and increasing starch-bound phosphate content in the barley caryopsis starch by RNAi suppression of all three Starch Branching Enzyme (SBE) isoforms or ...

  18. EVALUASI NILAI GIZI PATI RESISTEN PADA PRODUK KERUPUK DARI EMPAT JENIS PATI [Nutritional Evaluation of Resistant Starch of Crackers Made of Four Kinds of Starch

    OpenAIRE

    R o s i d a

    2009-01-01

    In this research, resistant starch content of crackers (=kerupuk) made of corn starch, cassava starch, sago starch and mungbean starch has been studied. Nutritional evaluation of crackers was conducted in experimental rats. It was found that starch content, amylose content and resistant starch content of sago starch were the highest, while those of mungbean starch were the lowest.Bioassay with rats revealed that starch flour diets had no effect on the water content of digesta, but these diets...

  19. [Ultrasound artifacts and their diagnostic significance in internal medicine and gastroenterology - Part 1: B-mode artifacts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, J; Jenssen, C; Möller, K; Cui, X W; Kinkel, H; Uebel, S; Dietrich, C F

    2016-05-01

    Artifacts in ultrasonographic diagnostics are a result of the physical properties of the ultrasound waves and are caused by interaction of the ultrasound waves with biological structures and tissues and with foreign bodies. On the one hand, they may be distracting and may lead to misdiagnosis. On the other hand, they may be diagnostically helpful. Ultrasound imaging suffers from artifacts, because in reality, parameters assumed to be constant values, such as sound speed, sound rectilinear propagation, attenuation, etc., are often different from the actual parameters. Moreover, inadequate device settings may cause artifacts. Profound knowledge of the causes, avoidance, and interpretation of artifacts is a necessary precondition for correct clinical appraisal of ultrasound images. Part 1 of this review comments on the physics of artifacts and describes the most important B-mode artifacts. Pitfalls, as well as diagnostic chances resulting from B-mode artifacts, are discussed. PMID:27171335

  20. Exogenous Application of Abscisic Acid or Gibberellin Acid Has Different Effects on Starch Granule Size Distribution in Grains of Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Dian-liang; CAI Tie; YIN Yan-ping; YANG Wei-bing; NI Ying-li; YANG Dong-qing; WANG Zhen-lin

    2013-01-01

    Granule size distribution of wheat starch is an important characteristic that can affect its chemical composition and the functionality of wheat products. Two high-yield winter wheat cultivars were used to evaluate the effects of the application of exogenous ABA or GA during the reproductive phase of the initial grain filling on starch granule size distribution and starch components in grains at maturity. The results indicated that a bimodal curve was found in the volume and surface area distribution of grain starch granules, and a unimodal curve was observed for the number distribution under all treatments. The exogenous ABA resulted in a significant increase in the proportions (both by volume and by surface area) of B-type (9.9μm) starch granules, while, the exogenous GA3 led to converse effects on size distribution of those starch granules. The exogenous ABA also increased starch, amylose and amylopectin contents at maturity but significantly reduced the ratio of amylose to amylopectin. Application of GA3 significantly reduced starch content, amylopectin content but increased the ratio of amylose to amylopectin. The ratio of amylose to amylopectin showed a significant and negative relationship with the volume proportion of granules<9.9μm, but was positively related to the volume proportion of granules 22.8-42.8μm.

  1. Doubling Power Output of Starch Biobattery Treated by the Most Thermostable Isoamylase from an Archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kun; Zhang, Fei; Sun, Fangfang; Chen, Hongge; Percival Zhang, Y-H

    2015-08-20

    Biobattery, a kind of enzymatic fuel cells, can convert organic compounds (e.g., glucose, starch) to electricity in a closed system without moving parts. Inspired by natural starch metabolism catalyzed by starch phosphorylase, isoamylase is essential to debranch alpha-1,6-glycosidic bonds of starch, yielding linear amylodextrin - the best fuel for sugar-powered biobattery. However, there is no thermostable isoamylase stable enough for simultaneous starch gelatinization and enzymatic hydrolysis, different from the case of thermostable alpha-amylase. A putative isoamylase gene was mined from megagenomic database. The open reading frame ST0928 from a hyperthermophilic archaeron Sulfolobus tokodaii was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant protein was easily purified by heat precipitation at 80 (o)C for 30 min. This enzyme was characterized and required Mg(2+) as an activator. This enzyme was the most stable isoamylase reported with a half lifetime of 200 min at 90 (o)C in the presence of 0.5 mM MgCl2, suitable for simultaneous starch gelatinization and isoamylase hydrolysis. The cuvett-based air-breathing biobattery powered by isoamylase-treated starch exhibited nearly doubled power outputs than that powered by the same concentration starch solution, suggesting more glucose 1-phosphate generated.

  2. Effect of Dietary-Resistant Starch on Inhibition of Colonic Preneoplasia and Wnt Signaling in Azoxymethane-Induced Rodent Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bridget; Cray, Nicole; Ai, Yongfeng; Fang, Yinan; Liu, Peng; Whitley, Elizabeth M; Birt, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fiber has been reported to prevent preneoplastic colon lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of resistant starches, novel dietary fibers, on the development of colonic preneoplasia and Wnt signaling in azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rats and mice fed resistant starches at 55% of the diet after AOM treatment. Another objective was to determine the effect of resistant starches on the development of preneoplasia in rats treated with antibiotics (Ab), administered between AOM treatment and resistant starch feeding. Diets containing resistant starches, high-amylose (HA7), high-amylose-octenyl succinic anhydride (OS-HA7), or high-amylose-stearic acid (SA-HA7) were compared with control cornstarch (CS). The resistant starch content of the diets did not alter the yield of colonic lesions but animals treated with AOM and fed the diet with the highest resistant starch content, SA-HA7 developed the highest average aberrant crypt foci (ACF) per animal. Mice fed the OS-HA7 diet had decreased expression of some upstream Wnt genes in the colonic crypts. This study suggests that further research is needed to determine if resistant starch impacts colon carcinogenesis in rodents. PMID:27367460

  3. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae for direct conversion of raw, uncooked or granular starch to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgens, Johann F; Bressler, David C; van Rensburg, Eugéne

    2015-01-01

    The production of raw starch-degrading amylases by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides opportunities for the direct hydrolysis and fermentation of raw starch to ethanol without cooking or exogenous enzyme addition. Such a consolidated bioprocess (CBP) for raw starch fermentation will substantially reduce costs associated with energy usage and commercial granular starch hydrolyzing (GSH) enzymes. The core purpose of this review is to provide comprehensive insight into the physiological impact of recombinant amylase production on the ethanol-producing yeast. Key production parameters, based on outcomes from modifications to the yeast genome and levels of amylase production, were compared to key benchmark data. In turn, these outcomes are of significance from a process point of view to highlight shortcomings in the current state of the art of raw starch fermentation yeast compared to a set of industrial standards. Therefore, this study provides an integrated critical assessment of physiology, genetics and process aspects of recombinant raw starch fermenting yeast in relation to presently used technology. Various approaches to strain development were compared on a common basis of quantitative performance measures, including the extent of hydrolysis, fermentation-hydrolysis yield and productivity. Key findings showed that levels of α-amylase required for raw starch hydrolysis far exceeded enzyme levels for soluble starch hydrolysis, pointing to a pre-requisite for excess α-amylase compared to glucoamylase for efficient raw starch hydrolysis. However, the physiological limitations of amylase production by yeast, requiring high biomass concentrations and long cultivation periods for sufficient enzyme accumulation under anaerobic conditions, remained a substantial challenge. Accordingly, the fermentation performance of the recombinant S. cerevisiae strains reviewed in this study could not match the performance of conventional starch fermentation processes

  4. Physicochemical Properties of Starch Isolated from Bracken (Pteridium aquilinim) Rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xurun; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Leilei; Wang, Zhong; Xiong, Fei

    2015-12-01

    Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) is an important wild plant starch resource worldwide. In this work, starch was separated from bracken rhizome, and the physicochemical properties of this starch were systematically investigated and compared with 2 other common starches, that is, starches from waxy maize and potato. There were significant differences in shape, birefringence patterns, size distribution, and amylose content between bracken and the 2 other starches. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that bracken starch exhibited a typical C-type crystalline structure. Bracken starch presented, respectively, lower and higher relative degree of crystallinity than waxy maize and potato starches. Ordered structures in particle surface differed among these 3 starches. The swelling power tendency of bracken starch in different temperature intervals was very similar to that of potato starch. The viscosity parameters during gelatinization were the lowest in waxy maize, followed by bracken and potato starches. The contents of 3 nutritional components, that is, rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches in native, gelatinized, and retrograded starch from bracken rhizome presented more similarities with potato starch than waxy maize starch. These finding indicated that physicochemical properties of bracken starch showed more similarities with potato starch than waxy maize starch. PMID:26551243

  5. Rheological and textural properties of pulse starch gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The properties of starch gels from black beans, chickpeas, lentils and navy beans were investigated. Differences were shown between starch sources, and effect of starch concentration was studied. Navy bean starch had the highest peak and final viscosities in pasting tests, while black bean starch h...

  6. Modified-starch Consolidation of Alumina Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Chenhui; WANG Yanmin; YE Jiandong; HUANG Yun

    2008-01-01

    The alumina ceramics with the homogeneous microstructure and the higher density were fabricated via the modified-starch consolidation process by 1.0 wt%of a modified starch as a consolidator/binder.The swelling behavior of the modified oxidized tapioca starch was analyzed by optical microscope,and two other corn starches(common corn starch and high amylose COrn starch)were also analyzed for comparison.The modified starch used as a binder for the consolidation swelled at about 55℃.began to gelatinize at 65℃ and then was completely gelatinized at 75℃.But the corn starches could not be completely gelatinized even at 80℃for 1 h.The high-strength green bodies(10.6 MPa)with the complex shapes were produced.The green bodies were sintered without any binder burnout procedure at 1700℃and a relative density of 95.3% was obtained for the sintered bodies,which is similar to that of the sintered sample formed by conventional slip casting.In addition,the effect of temperature on the apparent viscosity of the starch/alumina slurry in the process was investigated,and the corresponding mechanism for the starch consolidation was discussed.

  7. A REVIEW ON BIODEGRADABLE STARCH BASED FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Molavi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, biodegradable edible films have become very important in research related to food, due to their compatibility with the environment and their use in the food packaging industry. Various sources can be used in the production of biopolymers as biodegradable films that include polysaccharides, proteins and lipids. Among the various polysaccharides, starch due to its low price and its abundance in nature is of significant importance. Several factors affect the properties of starch films; such as the source which starch is obtained from, as well as the ratio of constituents of the starch. Starch films have advantages such as low thickness, flexibility and transparency though; there are some downsides to mention, such as the poor mechanical properties and water vapor permeability. Thus, using starch alone to produce the film will led to restrictions on its use. To improve the mechanical properties of starch films and also increases resistance against humidity, several methods can be used; including the starch modifying techniques such as cross linking of starch and combining starch with other natural polymers. Other methods such as the use of lipid in formulations of films to increase the resistance to moisture are possible, but lipids are susceptible to oxidation. Therefore, new approaches are based on the integration of different biopolymers in food packaging.

  8. Metallic artifact in MRI after removal of orthopedic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the metallic artifacts in MRI of the orthopedic patients after removal of metallic implants. Subjects and methods: From March to August 2009, 40 orthopedic patients operated for removal of orthopedic metallic implants were studied by post-operative MRI from the site of removal of implants. A grading scale of 0–3 was assigned for artifact in MR images whereby 0 was considered no artifact; and I–III were considered mild, moderate, and severe metallic artifacts, respectively. These grading records were correlated with other variables including the type, size, number, and composition of metallic devices; and the site and duration of orthopedic devices stay in the body. Results: Metallic susceptibly artifacts were detected in MRI of 18 of 40 cases (45%). Screws and pins in removed hardware were the most important factors for causing artifacts in MRI. The artifacts were found more frequently in the patients who had more screws and pins in the removed implants. Gender, age, site of implantation of the device, length of the hardware, composition of the metallic implants (stainless steel versus titanium), and duration of implantation of the hardware exerted no effect in producing metallic artifacts after removal of implants. Short TE sequences of MRI (such as T1 weighted) showed fewer artifacts. Conclusion: Susceptibility of metallic artifacts is a frequent phenomenon in MRI of patients upon removal of metallic orthopedic implants.

  9. Starch and cellulose nanocrystals together into thermoplastic starch bionanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Kizkitza; Retegi, Aloña; González, Alba; Eceiza, Arantxa; Gabilondo, Nagore

    2015-03-01

    In the present work, thermoplastic maize starch based bionanocomposites were prepared as transparent films, plasticized with 35% of glycerol and reinforced with both waxy starch (WSNC) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), previously extracted by acidic hydrolysis. The influence of the nanofiller content was evaluated at 1 wt.%, 2.5 wt.% and 5 wt.% of WSNC. The effect of adding the two different nanoparticles at 1 wt.% was also investigated. As determined by tensile measurements, mechanical properties were improved at any composition of WSNC. Water vapour permeance values maintained constant, whereas barrier properties to oxygen reduced in a 70%, indicating the effectiveness of hydrogen bonding at the interphase. The use of CNC or CNC and WSNC upgraded mechanical results, but no significant differences in barrier properties were obtained. A homogeneous distribution of the nanofillers was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy, and a shift of the two relaxation peaks to higher temperatures was detected by dynamic mechanical analysis.

  10. A constructivist approach to artifact development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new theory on artifact development. The theory is built on the constructivist paradigm, and the research strategy applied is the constructivist approach to grounded theory. A conceptual framework was employed for the analysis of a number of food producers and retailers......, actions, concepts, meanings, etc. First, to position the new theory, the paper gives a short presentation of traditional approaches to product development followed by a brief presentation of the paradigm used for the development of the new theory. Then follows a section dealing with the conceptual...

  11. Accessing Cultural Artifacts Through Digital Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Jensen, Martin Lynge

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study that explores how the introduction of a digital companion agent for a museum exploration game changes children’s engagement with the presented artworks. To this end, a mobile application was developed featuring a monster agent that has eaten the artworks, which the chi...... the children had now to find in the museum. Results show that in comparison to the paper-based version of the exploration game, children engaged in more interactions with the actual cultural artifacts and showed a significantly higher retention rate for details of the involved artworks....

  12. Effects of organic fertilizers on yield and quality of potato tubers in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbe, Hartmut

    2006-01-01

    In this lecture, an overview was given over effects of organic fertilizers (compost, farmyard manure, slurry, organic commercial fertilizers) on yield and quality (DM, starch, contents of N, P, K) of potato tubers in organic farming.

  13. Fast and efficient benign oxidation of native wheat starch by acidic bromate under microwave activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komulainen, Sanna; Diaz, Estibaliz; Pursiainen, Jouni; Lajunen, Marja

    2013-02-15

    A simple oxidation of starch in water by bromate was substantially improved by microwave activation. In the oxidation of native wheat starch its advantages were the highly reduced need of oxidant from 1.05 to 0.1-0.25 equiv, shortened reaction time from 2 to 5.5h to 10 min, and moderate or high yields of oxidation content (degree of oxidation 0.22-0.55) of water-soluble products. Acidic treatment before the oxidation reaction promoted the carbonyl formation yielding higher contents of oxidized products (degree of oxidation 0.43-0.55) than without it (degree of oxidation 0.22-0.28). The pretreatment did not have similar effect on the amount of carboxyl groups. The oxidation route of acidic bromate oxidation of starch is discussed.

  14. Detection of artifacts from high energy bursts in neonatal EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sourya; Biswas, Arunava; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Majumdar, Arun Kumar; Majumdar, Bandana; Mukherjee, Suchandra; Singh, Arun Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Detection of non-cerebral activities or artifacts, intermixed within the background EEG, is essential to discard them from subsequent pattern analysis. The problem is much harder in neonatal EEG, where the background EEG contains spikes, waves, and rapid fluctuations in amplitude and frequency. Existing artifact detection methods are mostly limited to detect only a subset of artifacts such as ocular, muscle or power line artifacts. Few methods integrate different modules, each for detection of one specific category of artifact. Furthermore, most of the reference approaches are implemented and tested on adult EEG recordings. Direct application of those methods on neonatal EEG causes performance deterioration, due to greater pattern variation and inherent complexity. A method for detection of a wide range of artifact categories in neonatal EEG is thus required. At the same time, the method should be specific enough to preserve the background EEG information. The current study describes a feature based classification approach to detect both repetitive (generated from ECG, EMG, pulse, respiration, etc.) and transient (generated from eye blinking, eye movement, patient movement, etc.) artifacts. It focuses on artifact detection within high energy burst patterns, instead of detecting artifacts within the complete background EEG with wide pattern variation. The objective is to find true burst patterns, which can later be used to identify the Burst-Suppression (BS) pattern, which is commonly observed during newborn seizure. Such selective artifact detection is proven to be more sensitive to artifacts and specific to bursts, compared to the existing artifact detection approaches applied on the complete background EEG. Several time domain, frequency domain, statistical features, and features generated by wavelet decomposition are analyzed to model the proposed bi-classification between burst and artifact segments. A feature selection method is also applied to select the

  15. Physicochemical properties and starch structure of a rice mutant with reduction of starch paste viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variations in starch physicochemical properties and starch structure between the rice low-paste viscosity mutant RSV-1 and its original parent II-32B were investigated. The results indicated that the apparent amylose content (AAC), gel consistency (GC), alkali spreading value (ASV) of mutant RSV-1 were higher than the wild type. However, major parameters of starch paste viscosity in mutant RSV-1 starch, i. e. peak paste viscosity, hot paste viscosity, and cool paste viscosity were significantly lower than those of the original parent. Compared to the original parent, the mutant had a similar peak time, but less energy and longer time needed for gelatinization. The starch manifested C-type crystalline and starch granule in the endosperm were irregular with different diameters. The mutation of the starch structure might play a key role for the decrease of starch paste viscosity in the mutant RSV-1. (authors)

  16. Effects of processing methods on amaranth starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriles, V D; Coelho, K D; Guerra-Matias, A C; Arêas, J A G

    2008-09-01

    Amaranth has attracted a great deal of interest in recent decades due to its valuable nutritional, functional, and agricultural characteristics. Amaranth seeds can be cooked, popped, roasted, flaked, or extruded for consumption. This study compared the in vitro starch digestibility of processed amaranth seeds to that of white bread. Raw seeds yielded rapidly digestible starch content (RDS) of 30.7% db and predicted glycemic index (pGI) of 87.2, the lowest among the studied products. Cooked, extruded, and popped amaranth seeds had starch digestibility similar to that of white bread (92.4, 91.2, and 101.3, respectively), while flaked and roasted seeds generated a slightly increased glycemic response (106.0 and 105.8, respectively). Cooking and extrusion did not alter the RDS contents of the seeds. No significant differences were observed among popped, flaked, and roasted RDS contents (38.0%, 46.3%, and 42.9%, respectively), which were all lower than RDS content of bread (51.1%). Amaranth seed is a high glycemic food most likely because of its small starch granule size, low resistant starch content (< 1%), and tendency to completely lose its crystalline and granular starch structure during those heat treatments.

  17. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of a novel starch synthase in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanmei eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Starch is an important reserve of carbon and energy in plants, providing the majority of calories in the human diet and animal feed. Its synthesis is orchestrated by several key enzymes, and the amount and structure of starch, affecting crop yield and quality, are determined mainly by starch synthase (SS activity. To date, five SS isoforms, including SSI-IV and Granule Bound Starch Synthase (GBSS have been identified and their physiological functions have been well characterized. Here, we report the identification of a new SS isoform in maize, designated SSV. By searching sequenced genomes, SSV has been found in all green plants with conserved sequences and gene structures. Our phylogenetic analysis based on 780 base pairs has suggested that SSIV and SSV resulted from a gene duplication event, which may have occurred before the algae formation. An expression profile analysis of SSV in maize has indicated that ZmSSV is mainly transcribed in the kernel and ear leaf during the grain filling stage, which is partly similar to other SS isoforms. Therefore, it is likely that SSV may play an important role in starch biosynthesis. Subsequent analysis of SSV function may facilitate understanding the mechanism of starch granules formation, number and structure.

  18. Production, characterization, and mechanical properties of starch modified by Ophiostoma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saville, B. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial modification of starch with Ophiostoma spp. was investigated, with the purpose of developing a novel packaging material for the food or pharmaceutical industries. Various starch sources, such as tapioca, potato, corn, rice and amylopectin were tested as raw materials. The initial screening demonstrated that tapioca and potato starch had better performance for biopolymer production. The yield was about 85%. Preliminary characterization of the modified biopolymer was also conducted. Following microbial conversion, the percentage of molecules with molecular weight (abbreviated Mw more than 10M (abbreviations of million Daltons increased from 25% to 89% after 3 days, confirming that the modification increased the weight of the starch polymer. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR revealed changes in the chemical structure of the starch after the modification. Both pure starches and the modified biopolymers were cast into films and tested for mechanical properties. The tensile tests showed that after treatment with the fungus, the peak stress and modulus of the films increased about 10 and 40 times, respectively. Also, the water barrier property was improved. Therefore, microbial modification positively impacted proper-ties relevant to the proposed application. Although the role of the fungus in the modification and the function-property relationship of the biopolymer are not yet completely clear, the results of this study show promise for development of a novel biopolymer that competes with existing packaging materials.

  19. Biosynthesis of starch in chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, T; Nakayama, N; Murata, T; Akazawa, T

    1967-03-01

    The enzymic synthesis of ADP-glucose and UDP-glucose by chloroplastic pyrophosphorylase of bean and rice leaves has been demonstrated by paper chromatographic techniques. In both tissues, the activity of UDP-glucose-pyrophosphorylase was much higher than ADP-glucose-pyrophosphorylase. Glycerate-3-phosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate and fructose-1,6-diphosphate did not stimulate ADP-glucose formation by a pyrophosphorylation reaction. The major metabolic pathway for UDP-glucose utilization appears to be the synthesis of either sucrose or sucrose-P. On the other hand, a specific precursor role of ADP-glucose for synthesizing chloroplast starch by the ADP-glucose-starch transglucosylase reaction is supported by the coupled enzyme system of ADP-glucose-pyrophosphorylase and transglucosylase, isolated from chloroplasts. None of the glycolytic intermediates stimulated the glucose transfer in the enzyme sequence of reaction system employed. PMID:4292567

  20. Physicochemical properties of quinoa starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guantian; Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan

    2016-02-10

    Physicochemical properties of quinoa starches isolated from 26 commercial samples from a wide range of collection were studied. Swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), amylose leaching (AML), enzyme susceptibility, pasting, thermal and textural properties were analyzed. Apparent amylose contents (AAM) ranged from 7.7 to 25.7%. Great variations in the diverse physicochemical properties were observed. Correlation analysis showed that AAM was the most significant factor related to AML, WSI, and pasting parameters. Correlations among diverse physicochemical parameters were analyzed. Principal component analysis using twenty three variables were used to visualize the difference among samples. Six principal components were extracted which could explain 88.8% of the total difference. The wide variations in physicochemical properties could contribute to innovative utilization of quinoa starch for food and non-food applications. PMID:26686137

  1. Formation of nanoporous aerogels from wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeyitogullari, Ali; Ciftci, Ozan N

    2016-08-20

    Biodegradable nanoporous aerogels were obtained from wheat starch using a simple and green method based on supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) drying. Effects of processing parameters (temperature, wheat starch concentration and mixing rate during gelatinization; temperature, pressure, and flow rate of CO2, during SC-CO2 drying) on the aerogel formation were investigated, and optimized for the highest surface area and smallest pore size of the aerogels. At the optimized conditions, wheat starch aerogels had surface areas between 52.6-59.7m(2)/g and densities ranging between 0.05-0.29g/cm(3). The average pore size of the starch aerogels was 20nm. Starch aerogels were stable up to 280°C. Due to high surface area and nanoporous structure, wheat starch aerogels are promising carrier systems for bioactives and drugs in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:27178916

  2. Application of radiation technology in starch modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to commercialize the radiation modification of starch, corn starch was irradiated with different dose of 60Co gamma radiations. Some basic physical and chemical properties of the resulted modified starch paste were measured with emphasis on the viscosity stability and tensile strength. The results indicate that irradiation of corn starch with a dose of 4-10 kGy can decrease its viscosity to 5-14 mPa·s, and the tensile strength can meet the standard set up for textile paste. In comparison with chemical modification for starch, radiation modification is simpler in technology, more convenient in operation, more stable in modification quality, and easier to control. The mechanism of radiation modification of starch was also discussed. (authors)

  3. On the enzymatic hydrolysis of various starches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegge, G.; Richter, G.

    1986-10-01

    The behaviour of different commercial starches to amylolytic enzyme preparations and of their hydrolyzates during raffination was investigated. No significant differences in final degree of saccharification of starches from yellow maize, waxy maize, amylo-maize, potatoes and wheat were observed. The lower DE-values of waxy maize hydrolyzates after liquefaction were completely compensated during final saccharification phase. Determinations of viscosity after liquefaction and saccharification always showed highest viscosity in raw hydrolyzates these differences in viscosity were no more observed. Addition of pentosanase during saccharification period did not affect viscosity and filtration of the hydrolyzates. Glucoamylase with increased pentosanase activity affected filtration of wheat starch hydrolyzates positively; viscosity kept unchanged. Development of enzymatic liquefaction of the individual starches was studied by means of a Brabender Viscograph. By this informative differences between potatoe and waxy maize starches on one side and maize and wheat starches on the other side were observed.

  4. The Rheological Property of Potato Starch Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to use potato starch in the production of environmentally sound adhesives. ‘Three-formaldehyde glue’ pollutes the environment and harms to human health strongly, which widely used for wood-based panels preparation. Environment-friendly potato starch adhesives were prepared using method of oxidation-gelatinization, insteading of the three formaldehyde glue. The effects of the quality ratio of starch and water, temperature and shear rate on the apparent viscosity of the adhesive were studied. The rheological eigenvalue of apparent viscosity was studied through nonlinear regression. The results showed that the apparent viscosity of potato starch adhesives decreased with the increasing of temperature; the apparent viscosity decreased slowly with the increasing of rotor speed; the phenomenon of shear thinning appeared within potato starch adhesives which was pseudo-plastic fluids. Potato starch adhesives with characteristics of non-toxic, no smell and pollution could be applied in interior and upscale packaging.

  5. Evaluation of the types of starch for preparation of LDPE/starch blends

    OpenAIRE

    Glória Maria Vinhas; Suzana Moreira de Lima; Lívia Almeida Santos; Maria Alice Gomes de Andrade Lima; Yêda Medeiros Bastos de Almeida

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated in relation the growth, and the amylolytic activity of mixed and isolated cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Talaromyces wortmanni on different types of starch. The thermal and mechanical properties in polyethylene/starch blends (proportion: 80/20 (w/w) before and after inoculation of the mixed cultures were evaluated. The regular starch Amidex 3 and the modified starch Fox5901 stood out in relation to the cellular growth and production of the amylase enzyme. In ...

  6. The Simultaneous Abolition of Three Starch Hydrolases Blocks Transient Starch Breakdown in Arabidopsis *

    OpenAIRE

    Streb, Sebastian; Eicke, Simona; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated which enzymes are involved in debranching amylopectin during transient starch degradation. Previous studies identified two debranching enzymes, isoamylase 3 (ISA3) and limit dextrinase (LDA), involved in this process. However, plants lacking both enzymes still degrade substantial amounts of starch. Thus, other enzymes/mechanisms must contribute to starch breakdown. We show that the chloroplastic α-amylase 3 (AMY3) also participates in starch degradation and prov...

  7. Characteristics of cassava starch fermentation wastewater based on structural degradation of starch granules

    OpenAIRE

    Juliane Mascarenhas Pereira; Ana Carolina Moura de Sena Aquino; Daiana Cardoso de Oliveira; Gabriela Rocha; Alícia de Francisco; Pedro Luiz Manique Barreto; Edna Regina Amante

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Sour cassava starch is a naturally modified starch produced by fermentation and sun drying, achieving the property of expansion upon baking. Sour cassava starch' bakery products can be prepared without the addition of yeast and it is gluten free. The fermentation process associated with this product has been well studied, but the wastewater, with high acidity and richness in other organic compounds derived from starch degradation, requires further investigation. In this study, the s...

  8. Search for continuous gravitational waves: Improving robustness versus instrumental artifacts

    OpenAIRE

    Keitel, D.; Prix, R.; Papa, M.; Leaci, P.; Siddiqi, M.

    2013-01-01

    The standard multidetector F-statistic for continuous gravitational waves is susceptible to false alarms from instrumental artifacts, for example monochromatic sinusoidal disturbances ('lines'). This vulnerability to line artifacts arises because the F-statistic compares the signal hypothesis to a Gaussian-noise hypothesis, and hence is triggered by anything that resembles the signal hypothesis more than Gaussian noise. Various ad-hoc veto methods to deal with such line artifacts have been pr...

  9. Contrast Reversal of Topography Artifacts in a Transmission SNOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi; WANG Shu-Feng; ZHANG Jia-Sen; GONG Qi-Huang

    2005-01-01

    @@ We demonstrate the contrast reversal behaviour of topography artifacts by changing the diameter of the collection diaphragm in a transmission scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). This originates from the change of the approach curves. Such contrast reversal phenomenon is used to distinguish the artifact signal from the true optical signal of the SNOM image. We also show that continuously changing the diaphragm to a proper diameter can greatly reduce topography artifacts.

  10. A Review on Machine Learning Algorithms in Handling EEG Artifacts

    OpenAIRE

    Barua, Shaibal; Begum, Shahina

    2014-01-01

    Brain waves obtained by Electroencephalograms (EEG) recording are an important research area in medical and health and brain computer interface (BCI). Due to the nature of EEG signal, noises and artifacts can contaminate it, which leads to a serious misinterpretation in EEG signal analysis. These contaminations are referred to as artifacts, which are signals of other than brain activity. Moreover, artifacts can cause significant miscalculation of the EEG measurements that reduces the clinical...

  11. Preliminary Starch Grain Evidence of Ancient Stone Tool Use at the Early Archaic (9,000 B.P. Site of Sandy Hill, Mashantucket, Connecticut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Hart

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Early Archaic subsistence strategies of New England remain poorly understood despite their importance in helping researchers understand how people adapt to changing landscapes following the end of the last glacial maximum (21,000-14,000 B.P.. Excavations at the Mashantucket Pequot Reservation in Mashantucket, Connecticut during the 1990s revealed a large, semi-sedentary village nestled alongside a complex wetland ecosystem. In this paper, we present preliminary starch grain analysis of several stone tools recovered and curated from these excavations. The results of this study indicate that both transitory and reserve starch grains are preserved on these artifacts and that at least one of the artifacts may have been used for leaf or stem processing. The results of this study also demonstrate the potential for future research in which paired macrobotanical and residue analysis will allow for a better understanding of subsistence practices at the site and during the early Archaic in general.

  12. Starch aerogel beads obtained from inclusion complexes prepared from high amylose starch and sodium palmitate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch aerogels are a class of low density highly porous renewable materials currently prepared from retrograded starch gels and are of interest for their good surface area, porosity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Recently, we have reported on starches containing amylose-fatty acid salt h...

  13. Starch meets biotechnology : in planta modification of starch composition and functionalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Storage starch is an energy reservoir for plants and the major source of calories in the human diet. Starch is used in a broad range of industrial applications, as a cheap, abundant, renewable and biodegradable biopolymer. However, starch needs to be modified before it can fulfill the required prope

  14. Chemically Modified Starch; Allyl- and Epoxy-Starch Derivatives: Their Synthesis and Characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, M.C.R.; Boeriu, C.

    2014-01-01

    Both native and modified starches, such as starch that is pregelatinized, extruded, acid-converted, cross-linked, and substituted, are widely used in industry. This chapter describes a mild two-step process for the synthesis of novel, highly reactive granular epoxy-starch derivatives. Via this metho

  15. Position of modifying groups on starch chains of octenylsuccinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yanjie; Kaufman, Rhett C; Wilson, Jeff D; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2014-06-15

    Octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starches with a low (0.018) and high (0.092) degree of substitution (DS) were prepared from granular native waxy maize starch in aqueous slurry. The position of OS substituents along the starch chains was investigated by enzyme hydrolysis followed by chromatographic analysis. Native starch and two OS starches with a low and high DS had β-limit values of 55.9%, 52.8%, and 34.4%, respectively. The weight-average molecular weight of the β-limit dextrin from the OS starch with a low DS was close to that of the β-limit dextrin from native starch but lower than that of the β-limit dextrin from the OS starch with a high DS. Debranching of OS starches was incomplete compared with native starch. OS groups in the OS starch with a low DS were located on the repeat units near the branching points, whereas the OS substituents in the OS starch with a high DS occurred both near the branching points and the non-reducing ends.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Local Cassava Starches with Imported Starch for Drilling Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry, T.F.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Local cassava starches and an imported starch were characterized and evaluated for their performance as drilling fluid additives. Two local cassava cultivars, TMS 98/0581 and TMS 96/1632, starches and an imported starch were characterized by using X-ray diffraction techniques. Bentonite mud beneficiated with the starches were subjected to API viscosity and filtration tests. The local and imported starches were classified as B type crystal structure. The starches average particle sizes were 51.63nm, 23.57nm and 57.94nm for TMS 98/0581, TMS 96/1632 and imported starches respectively. The crystalline indices were between 22 and 35, while average specific surface areas were 151.65, 361.28 and 142.04 m2 /g for TMS 98/0581, TMS 96/1632 and imported starches respectively. The morphology indices, ranges were from 0.5 to 0.7485. The structural properties of TMS 98/0581 starch were found to be significantly close to that of the imported starch and were observed to be closer in performance as drilling fluid additive than TMS 96/1632. Local cassava starches with structural properties as TMS 98/0581, could serve as good substitute for drilling operation. The viscosity and fluid loss control results of the local samples compared favourably with the imported one.

  17. Classification of independent components of EEG into multiple artifact classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Laura; Andersen, Tobias; Mørup, Morten

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aim to automatically identify multiple artifact types in EEG. We used multinomial regression to classify independent components of EEG data, selecting from 65 spatial, spectral, and temporal features of independent components using forward selection. The classifier identified...... found that automatic separation of multiple artifact classes is possible with a small feature set. Our method can reduce manual workload and allow for the selective removal of artifact classes. Identifying artifacts during EEG recording may be used to instruct subjects to refrain from activity causing...

  18. CT metal artifact reduction by soft inequality constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalina, Marina; Nikolaev, Dmitry; Sokolov, Valerii; Ingacheva, Anastasiya; Buzmakov, Alexey; Prun, Victor

    2015-12-01

    The artifacts (known as metal-like artifacts) arising from incorrect reconstruction may obscure or simulate pathology in medical applications, hide or mimic cracks and cavities in the scanned objects in industrial tomographic scans. One of the main reasons caused such artifacts is photon starvation on the rays which go through highly absorbing regions. We indroduce a way to suppress such artifacts in the reconstructions using soft penalty mimicing linear inequalities on the photon starved rays. An efficient algorithm to use such information is provided and the effect of those inequalities on the reconstruction quality is studied.

  19. Artifact versus arrhythmia in pseudo-polymorphic tachycardia; case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed V

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaseem Ahmed, Anish Patel, Abhishek Sharma, Dennis Bloomfield Department of Medicine, Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY, USA Abstract: We present the case of a young male patient in sinus rhythm whose electrocardiogram (ECG was initially misinterpreted as ventricular tachycardia. Electrocardiographic artifact appearing to be ventricular tachycardia commonly occurs and ECG criteria have been described to aid in the discrimination between artifact and true arrhythmia. There are many causes of artifacts and prompt recognition is important to prevent unnecessary interventions. Keywords: artifact, ventricular tachycardia, pseudo-ventricular tachycardia, notch sign, sinus sign

  20. Development of modified starch by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to develop the production technology of modified starch. Corn starches were gamma irradiated at 0-110 kGy and the effect of irradiation dose levels on the physicochemical properties of corn starches were investigated. Blue value linearly decreased, while alkali number and solubility markedly increased as irradiation dose levels were increased. The optical transmittance increased as applied irradiation dose levels were increased in the temperature range of 65-95 deg. C. Water binding capacity and swelling power showed maximum value at 30 and 10 kGy, respectively and they tended to decrease thereafter. Gelatinization viscosity of the gamma irradiated starch considerably decreased as compared to that of the non-irradiated starch. Irradiation at 110kGy resulted in a marked reduction of peak viscosity and cooling viscosity at 30 deg. C by 100 and 300 times, respectively. The physicochemical properties of corn starch irradiated at 30 kGy were similar to those of commercial acid-modified starch, while those of corn starch irradiated at 100 kGy were similar to those if oxidized starch

  1. Characterization of Native and Modified Starches by Potentiometric Titration

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Soto; Jose Urdaneta; Kelly Pernia

    2014-01-01

    The use of potentiometric titration for the analysis and characterization of native and modified starches is highlighted. The polyelectrolytic behavior of oxidized starches (thermal and thermal-chemical oxidation), a graft copolymer of itaconic acid (IA) onto starch, and starch esters (mono- and diester itaconate) was compared with the behavior of native starch, the homopolymer, and the acid employed as a graft monomer and substituent. Starch esters showed higher percentages of acidity, follo...

  2. Influence of metallic artifact filtering on MEG signals for source localization during interictal epileptiform activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorelli, Carolina; Alonso, Joan F.; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miguel A.; Nowak, Rafał; Russi, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Medical intractable epilepsy is a common condition that affects 40% of epileptic patients that generally have to undergo resective surgery. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has been increasingly used to identify the epileptogenic foci through equivalent current dipole (ECD) modeling, one of the most accepted methods to obtain an accurate localization of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs). Modeling requires that MEG signals are adequately preprocessed to reduce interferences, a task that has been greatly improved by the use of blind source separation (BSS) methods. MEG recordings are highly sensitive to metallic interferences originated inside the head by implanted intracranial electrodes, dental prosthesis, etc and also coming from external sources such as pacemakers or vagal stimulators. To reduce these artifacts, a BSS-based fully automatic procedure was recently developed and validated, showing an effective reduction of metallic artifacts in simulated and real signals (Migliorelli et al 2015 J. Neural Eng. 12 046001). The main objective of this study was to evaluate its effects in the detection of IEDs and ECD modeling of patients with focal epilepsy and metallic interference. Approach. A comparison between the resulting positions of ECDs was performed: without removing metallic interference; rejecting only channels with large metallic artifacts; and after BSS-based reduction. Measures of dispersion and distance of ECDs were defined to analyze the results. Main results. The relationship between the artifact-to-signal ratio and ECD fitting showed that higher values of metallic interference produced highly scattered dipoles. Results revealed a significant reduction on dispersion using the BSS-based reduction procedure, yielding feasible locations of ECDs in contrast to the other two approaches. Significance. The automatic BSS-based method can be applied to MEG datasets affected by metallic artifacts as a processing step to improve the localization of

  3. Sorghum grain as human food in Africa: relevance of content of starch and amylase activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A.S.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Sorghum is a staple food grain in many semi-arid and tropic areas of the world, notably in Sub-Saharan Africa because of its good adaptation to hard environments and its good yield of production. Among important biochemical components for sorghum processing are levels of starch (amylose and amylopec

  4. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Maltodextrin-Based Acrylates from Starch and alpha-Cyclodextrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Wouter M. J.; Spoelstra-van Dijk, Gerda; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Novel 2-(beta-maltooligooxy)-ethyl (meth) acrylate monomers are successfully synthesized by CGTase from Bacillus macerans catalyzed coupling of 2-(beta-glucosyloxy)-ethyl acrylate and methacrylate with a-cyclodextrin or starch. HPLC-UV analysis shows that the CGTase catalyzed reaction yields 2-(beta

  5. Characterization of Native and Modified Starches by Potentiometric Titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Soto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of potentiometric titration for the analysis and characterization of native and modified starches is highlighted. The polyelectrolytic behavior of oxidized starches (thermal and thermal-chemical oxidation, a graft copolymer of itaconic acid (IA onto starch, and starch esters (mono- and diester itaconate was compared with the behavior of native starch, the homopolymer, and the acid employed as a graft monomer and substituent. Starch esters showed higher percentages of acidity, followed by graft copolymer of itaconic acid and finally oxidized starches. Analytical techniques and synthesis of modified starches were also described.

  6. Ethanol production of banana shell and cassava starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms saccharomyces cerevisiae nrrl y-2034 and zymomonas mobilis cp4. The banana shell has been characterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicelluloses that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to ph 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with saccharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92± 0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with zymomonas mobilis

  7. Ballistocardiogram artifact correction taking into account physiological signal preservation in simultaneous EEG-fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Rodolfo; Leite, Marco; Jorge, João; Grouiller, Frédéric; van der Zwaag, Wietske; Leal, Alberto; Figueiredo, Patrícia

    2016-07-15

    The ballistocardiogram (BCG) artifact is currently one of the most challenging in the EEG acquired concurrently with fMRI, with correction invariably yielding residual artifacts and/or deterioration of the physiological signals of interest. In this paper, we propose a family of methods whereby the EEG is decomposed using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and a novel approach for the selection of BCG-related independent components (ICs) is used (PROJection onto Independent Components, PROJIC). Three ICA-based strategies for BCG artifact correction are then explored: 1) BCG-related ICs are removed from the back-reconstruction of the EEG (PROJIC); and 2-3) BCG-related ICs are corrected for the artifact occurrences using an Optimal Basis Set (OBS) or Average Artifact Subtraction (AAS) framework, before back-projecting all ICs onto EEG space (PROJIC-OBS and PROJIC-AAS, respectively). A novel evaluation pipeline is also proposed to assess the methods performance, which takes into account not only artifact but also physiological signal removal, allowing for a flexible weighting of the importance given to physiological signal preservation. This evaluation is used for the group-level parameter optimization of each algorithm on simultaneous EEG-fMRI data acquired using two different setups at 3T and 7T. Comparison with state-of-the-art BCG correction methods showed that PROJIC-OBS and PROJIC-AAS outperformed the others when priority was given to artifact removal or physiological signal preservation, respectively, while both PROJIC-AAS and AAS were in general the best choices for intermediate trade-offs. The impact of the BCG correction on the quality of event-related potentials (ERPs) of interest was assessed in terms of the relative reduction of the standard error (SE) across trials: 26/66%, 32/62% and 18/61% were achieved by, respectively, PROJIC, PROJIC-OBS and PROJIC-AAS, for data collected at 3T/7T. Although more significant improvements were achieved at 7T, the

  8. Evaluation of Colocasia esculenta Starch as an Alternative Tablet Excipient to Maize Starch: Assessment by Preformulation and Formulation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kusuma. R; Venkat Reddy. P; Samba Shiva Rao. A

    2015-01-01

    Starch isolated from Colocasia esculenta plant was studied as an alternative pharmaceutical excipient to maize and potato starch. The Colocasia esculenta starch has been evaluated by series of tests as mentioned in Indian Pharmacopoeia before being used for evaluation. It was tested along with maize and potato starch as an alternative excipient by performing battery of preformulation and formulation tests. The results obtained for Colocasia esculenta starch was comparable with maize starch an...

  9. Effect of starch types on properties of biodegradable polymer based on thermoplastic starch process by injection molding technique

    OpenAIRE

    Yossathorn Tanetrungroj; Jutarat Prachayawarakorn

    2015-01-01

    In this study effects of different starch types on the properties of biodegradable polymer based on thermoplastic starch (TPS) were investigated. Different types of starch containing different contents of amylose and amylopectin were used, i.e. cassava starch, mungbean starch, and arrowroot starch. The TPS polymers were compounded and shaped using an internal mixer and an injection molding machine, respectively. It was found that the amount of amylose and amylopectin contents on n...

  10. Modification of potato starch granule structure and morphology in planta by expression of starch binding domain fusion proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, X.

    2010-01-01

    Producing starches with altered composition, structure and novel physico-chemical properties in planta by manipulating the enzymes which are involved in starch metabolism or (over)expressing heterologous enzymes has huge advantages such as broadening the range of starch applications and reducing the costs of the post-harvest starch modification. The starch binding domain (SBD) technology has been extensively explored in our lab for modifying starch in planta and producing so-called “tailored ...

  11. Phosphoglucan-bound structure of starch phosphatase Starch Excess4 reveals the mechanism for C6 specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Meekins, David A.; Raththagala, Madushi; Husodo, Satrio; White, Cory J.; Guo, Hou-Fu; Kötting, Oliver; Vander Kooi, Craig W.; Gentry, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    Starch is the main carbohydrate storage molecule in plants and is ubiquitous in human life. Reversible starch phosphorylation is the key regulatory event in starch catabolism. Starch Excess4 (SEX4) preferentially dephosphorylates the C6 position of starch glucose and its absence results in a dramatic accumulation of leaf starch. We present the structure of SEX4 bound to a phosphoglucan product, define its mechanism of specific activity, and reverse its specificity to the C3 position via mutag...

  12. Medical image of the week: polysomnogram artifact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartell J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A 54 year-old man with a past medical history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, low back pain, and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia presented to the sleep laboratory for evaluation of sleep disordered breathing. Pertinent medications include fluoxetine, ambien, and clonazepam. His Epworth sleepiness score was 18. He had a total sleep time of 12 min. On the night of his sleep study, the patient was restless and repeatedly changed positions in bed. Figures 1 and 2 show the artifact determined to be lead displacement of O1M2 after the patient shifted in bed, inadvertently removing one of his scalp electrodes. The sine waves are 60 Hz in frequency. Once the problem was identified, the lead was quickly replaced to its proper position.

  13. Artifacts of opinion dynamics at one dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Galam, Serge

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of a one dimensional Ising spin system is investigated using three families of local update rules, the Galam majority rules, Glauber inflow influences and Sznadj outflow drives. Given an initial density p of up spins the probability to reach a final state with all spins up is calculated exactly for each choice. The various formulas are compared to a series of previous calculations obtained analytically using the Kirkwood approximation. They turn out to be identical. The apparent discrepancy with the Galam unifying frame is addressed. The difference in the results seems to stem directly from the implementation of the local update rule used to perform the associated numerical simulations. The findings lead to view the non stepwise exit probability as an artifact of the one dimensional finite size system with fixed spins. The suitability and the significance to perform numerical simulations to model social behavior without solid constraints is discussed and the question of what it means to have a me...

  14. An extension to artifact-free projection overlaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In multipinhole single photon emission computed tomography, the overlapping of projections has been used to increase sensitivity. Avoiding artifacts in the reconstructed image associated with projection overlaps (multiplexing) is a critical issue. In our previous report, two types of artifact-free projection overlaps, i.e., projection overlaps that do not lead to artifacts in the reconstructed image, were formally defined and proved, and were validated via simulations. In this work, a new proposition is introduced to extend the previously defined type-II artifact-free projection overlaps so that a broader range of artifact-free overlaps is accommodated. One practical purpose of the new extension is to design a baffle window multipinhole system with artifact-free projection overlaps. Methods: First, the extended type-II artifact-free overlap was theoretically defined and proved. The new proposition accommodates the situation where the extended type-II artifact-free projection overlaps can be produced with incorrectly reconstructed portions in the reconstructed image. Next, to validate the theory, the extended-type-II artifact-free overlaps were employed in designing the multiplexing multipinhole spiral orbit imaging systems with a baffle window. Numerical validations were performed via simulations, where the corresponding 1-pinhole nonmultiplexing reconstruction results were used as the benchmark for artifact-free reconstructions. The mean square error (MSE) was the metric used for comparisons of noise-free reconstructed images. Noisy reconstructions were also performed as part of the validations. Results: Simulation results show that for noise-free reconstructions, the MSEs of the reconstructed images of the artifact-free multiplexing systems are very similar to those of the corresponding 1-pinhole systems. No artifacts were observed in the reconstructed images. Therefore, the testing results for artifact-free multiplexing systems designed using the

  15. SAXS investigations of structural changes after gamma ray irradiation of potato starch and starch suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The products obtained after gamma irradiation with doses 9.1, 18.2, 36.3, 54.5 kGy of native starch and water suspensions of starch were investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Relations between changes in the scattering curves (diminution of the intensity of the reflection related to distance d≅100 A and elevation of scattering curves) connected with destruction of long-range ordering in starch granules, and the conditions of the irradiation process were observed. Iradiation influences the long-range ordering more intensively in cases of native starch as compared with water suspensions of starch irradiated. (orig.)

  16. A Model-Based Scatter Artifacts Correction for Cone Beam CT

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Luyao; Xing, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide a fast and accurate scatter artifacts correction algorithm for cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging. The method starts with an estimation of coarse scatter profiles for a set of CBCT data in either image domain or projection domain. A denoising algorithm designed specifically for Poisson signals is then applied to derive the final scatter distribution. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations using thorax and abdomen phantoms with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, experimental Catphan phantom data, and in vivo human data acquired for a clinical image guided radiation therapy were performed. Results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce scatter artifacts and recover the correct HU in either projection domain or image domain. For the MC thorax phantom study, four components segmentation yield the best results, while the results of three components segmentation are still acceptable. For the Catphan phantom data, the mean value over all pixels in the residual image is...

  17. The Interpretation of Texts, People and Other Artifacts

    OpenAIRE

    DENNETT, Daniel C.

    1990-01-01

    I want to explore four different exercises of interpretation: (1) the interpretation of texts (or hermeneutics), (2) the interpretation of people (otherwise known as "attribution" psychology, or cognitive or intentional psychology), (3) the interpretation of other artifacts (which I shall call artifact hermeneutics), (4) the interpretation of organism design in evolutionary biology--the controversial interpretive activity known as adaptationism.

  18. Teaching and learning the nature of technical artifacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederik, I.; Sonneveld, W.; De Vries, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Artifacts are probably our most obvious everyday encounter with technology. Therefore, a good understanding of the nature of technical artifacts is a relevant part of technological literacy. In this article we draw from the philosophy of technology to develop a conceptualization of technical artifac

  19. 78 FR 4878 - Arts and Artifacts Indemnity Panel Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts and Artifacts Indemnity Panel Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Council... Artifacts Domestic Indemnity Panel. The purpose of the meeting is for panel review, discussion, evaluation... important to keep the values of objects to be indemnified and the methods of transportation and...

  20. 77 FR 40914 - Arts and Artifacts Indemnity Panel Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts and Artifacts Indemnity Panel Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Council... Arts and the Humanities will hold a meeting of the Arts and Artifacts Domestic Indemnity Panel. The..., and because it is important to keep the values of objects to be indemnified, and the methods...

  1. Naturalistic Experience and the Early Use of Symbolic Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troseth, Georgene L.; Casey, Amy M.; Lawver, Kelly A.; Walker, Joan M. T.; Cole, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Experience with a variety of symbolic artifacts has been proposed as a mechanism underlying symbolic development. In this study, the parents of 120 2-year-old children who participated in symbolic object retrieval tasks completed a questionnaire regarding their children's naturalistic experience with symbolic artifacts and activities. In separate…

  2. Kindergarten Children's Perceptions of "Anthropomorphic Artifacts" with Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Asi; Mioduser, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, children from a kindergarten in central Israel have been exposed to learning experiences in technology as part of the implementation of a curriculum based on technological thinking, including topics related to behaving-adaptive-artifacts (e.g., robots). This study aims to unveil children's stance towards behaving artifacts:…

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging susceptibility artifacts due to metallic foreign bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Silke; Adams, William H; Narak, Jill; Thomas, William B

    2011-01-01

    Susceptibility artifacts due to metallic foreign bodies may interfere with interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies. Additionally, migration of metallic objects may pose a risk to patients undergoing MR imaging. Our purpose was to investigate prevalence, underlying cause, and diagnostic implications of susceptibility artifacts in small animal MR imaging and report associated adverse effects. MR imaging studies performed in dogs and cats between April 2008 and March 2010 were evaluated retrospectively for the presence of susceptibility artifacts associated with metallic foreign bodies. Studies were performed using a 1.0 T scanner. Severity of artifacts was graded as 0 (no interference with area of interest), 1 (extension of artifact to area of interest without impairment of diagnostic quality), 2 (impairment of diagnostic quality but diagnosis still possible), or 3 (severe involvement of area of interest resulting in nondiagnostic study). Medical records were evaluated retrospectively to identify adverse effects. Susceptibility artifacts were present in 99/754 (13.1%) of MR imaging studies and were most common in examinations of the brachial plexus, thorax, and cervical spine. Artifacts were caused by identification microchips, ballistic fragments, skin staples/suture material, hemoclips, an ameroid constrictor, and surgical hardware. Three studies were nondiagnostic due to the susceptibility artifact. Adverse effects were not documented.

  4. 77 FR 64146 - Arts and Artifacts Indemnity Panel Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts and Artifacts Indemnity Panel Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Council... Artifacts International Indemnity Panel. The purpose of the meeting is for panel review, discussion... important to keep the values of objects to be indemnified and the methods of transportation and...

  5. 76 FR 25378 - Arts and Artifacts Indemnity Panel Advisory; Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Federal Council on the Arts and the Humanities Arts and Artifacts...) notice is hereby given that a meeting of the Arts and Artifacts Indemnity Panel of the Federal Council on... data and because it is important to keep values of objects, methods of transportation and...

  6. Detection and removal of artifacts in astronomical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, S.; Mohr, J. J.; Bertin, E.; Kümmel, M.; Wetzstein, M.

    2016-07-01

    Astronomical images from optical photometric surveys are typically contaminated with transient artifacts such as cosmic rays, satellite trails and scattered light. We have developed and tested an algorithm that removes these artifacts using a deep, artifact free, static sky coadd image built up through the median combination of point spread function (PSF) homogenized, overlapping single epoch images. Transient artifacts are detected and masked in each single epoch image through comparison with an artifact free, PSF-matched simulated image that is constructed using the PSF-corrected, model fitting catalog from the artifact free coadd image together with the position variable PSF model of the single epoch image. This approach works well not only for cleaning single epoch images with worse seeing than the PSF homogenized coadd, but also the traditionally much more challenging problem of cleaning single epoch images with better seeing. In addition to masking transient artifacts, we have developed an interpolation approach that uses the local PSF and performs well in removing artifacts whose widths are smaller than the PSF full width at half maximum, including cosmic rays, the peaks of saturated stars and bleed trails. We have tested this algorithm on Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data and present performance metrics. More generally, our algorithm can be applied to any survey which images the same part of the sky multiple times.

  7. Contrast artifacts in tapping tip atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhle, Anders; Sørensen, Alexis Hammer; Zandbergen, Julie Bjerring;

    1998-01-01

    When recording images with an atomic force microscope using the resonant vibrating cantilever mode, surprising strange results are often achieved. Typical artifacts are strange contours, unexpected height shifts, and sudden changes of the apparent resolution in the acquired images. Such artifacts...

  8. Starch Accumulation and Enzyme Activities Associated with Starch Synthesis in Maize Kernels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-yan; DONG Shu-ting; GAO Rong-qi; SUN Qing-quan

    2007-01-01

    The filling rate and the starch accumulation in developing maize kernel were analyzed. The changes of enzyme activities associated with sucrose metabolism and starch biosynthesis were investigated. The purpose is to discuss the enzymatic mechanisms responsible for starch synthesis. Two types of maize cultivars (Zea mays), high starch maize (Feiyu 3) and normal maize (Yuyu 22), were grown in a corn field. The factors involved in starch synthesis were performed during the growth period. The kernel filling rate, the sucrose content, the starch accumulating rates and the activities of SS (sucrose synthase), GBSS (granule-bound starch synthase), SBE (starch branching enzyme) of Feiyu 3, which has high starch content, were significantly higher than those of Yuyu 22, which has low starch content, after 10 DAP (days after pollination).Correlation analysis indicated that ADPGPPase (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase) and DBE (starch debranching enzyme)were not correlated with the starch accumulating rates and the kernel filling rate, but the SS activity at the middle and late period were highly significantly correlated with the starch accumulating rates and the kernel filling rate. The GBSS activity was highly significantly correlated with the amylose accumulating rate, but not correlated with the kernel filling rate. The SBE activity was highly significantly correlated with the amylopectin accumulating rate and the kernel filling rate. It was not ADPGPPase and DBE, but SS was the rate-limiting factor of starch biosynthesis in developing maize kernels. GBSS had an important effect on amylose accumulation, and SBE had a significant effect on amylopectin accumulation.

  9. Permeation of volatile compounds through starch films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yilmaz, G.; Jongboom, R.O.J.; Feil, H.; Dijk, van C.; Hennink, W.E.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the factors that affect the permeation of volatiles through starch films. These films were obtained by casting gelatinized starch/water/glycerol mixtures. The films were dried and conditioned under different conditions (temperature and relative humidity

  10. Development of starch-based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habeych Narvaez, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Starch-based materials show potential as fully degradable plastics. However, the current applicability of these materials is limited due to their poor moisture tolerance and mechanical properties. Starch is therefore frequently blended with other polymers to make the material more suitable for sp

  11. Antimicrobial nanostructured starch based films for packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Ana S; Oliveira, M; de Sá, Arsénio; Rodrigues, Rui M; Cerqueira, Miguel A; Vicente, António A; Machado, A V

    2015-09-20

    Montmorillonite modified with a quaternary ammonium salt C30B/starch nanocomposite (C30B/ST-NC), silver nanoparticles/starch nanocomposite (Ag-NPs/ST-NC) and both silver nanoparticles/C30B/starch nanocomposites (Ag-NPs/C30B/ST-NC) films were produced. The nanoclay (C30B) was dispersed in a starch solution using an ultrasonic probe. Different concentrations of Ag-NPs (0.3, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.0mM) were synthesized directly in starch and in clay/starch solutions via chemical reduction method. Dispersion of C30B silicate layers and Ag-NPs in ST films characterized by X-ray and scanning electron microscopy showed that the presence of Ag-NPs enhanced clay dispersion. Color and opacity measurements, barrier properties (water vapor and oxygen permeabilities), dynamic mechanical analysis and contact angle were evaluated and related with the incorporation of C30B and Ag-NPs. Films presented antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans without significant differences between Ag-NPs concentrations. The migration of components from the nanostructured starch films, assessed by food contact tests, was minor and under the legal limits. These results indicated that the starch films incorporated with C30B and Ag-NPs have potential to be used as packaging nanostructured material. PMID:26050897

  12. The Acetylation of Starch by Reactive Extrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Robbert A. de; Broekroelofs, Annet; Janssen, Léon P.B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Potato starch has been acetylated in a counter rotating twin screw extruder using vinylacetate and sodium hydroxide. The desired starch acetylation reaction is accompanied by an undesired parallel base catalysed hydrolysis reaction of vinylacetate and a consecutive hydrolysis reaction of the acetyla

  13. Recrystallization of amylopectin in concentrated starch gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keetels, CJAM; Oostergetel, GT; vanVliet, T

    1996-01-01

    The relation between the recrystallization of amylopectin and the increase in stiffness of starch gels during storage was studied by various techniques. From transmission electron microscopy it was concluded that the size of the crystalline domains in retrograded 30% w/w potato starch gels was about

  14. Friction Properties of Chemically Modified Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch is a high molecular weight polyglucose biopolymer that, in its native state, is insoluble in water at room temperature. One way of improving its water solubility is by esterification of its free hydroxyl groups. Waxy maize, normal corn, and high amylose corn starches were esterified with ac...

  15. Production of PLA-Starch Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composites of polylactic acid (PLA) with starch have been prepared previously in an effort to reduce cost as well as to modify other properties such as biodegradation rate. However, strength and elongation both decrease on addition of starch due to poor adhesion and stress concentration at the inte...

  16. Automatic detection of artifacts in converted S3D video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokov, Alexander; Vatolin, Dmitriy; Zachesov, Anton; Belous, Alexander; Erofeev, Mikhail

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present algorithms for automatically detecting issues specific to converted S3D content. When a depth-image-based rendering approach produces a stereoscopic image, the quality of the result depends on both the depth maps and the warping algorithms. The most common problem with converted S3D video is edge-sharpness mismatch. This artifact may appear owing to depth-map blurriness at semitransparent edges: after warping, the object boundary becomes sharper in one view and blurrier in the other, yielding binocular rivalry. To detect this problem we estimate the disparity map, extract boundaries with noticeable differences, and analyze edge-sharpness correspondence between views. We pay additional attention to cases involving a complex background and large occlusions. Another problem is detection of scenes that lack depth volume: we present algorithms for detecting at scenes and scenes with at foreground objects. To identify these problems we analyze the features of the RGB image as well as uniform areas in the depth map. Testing of our algorithms involved examining 10 Blu-ray 3D releases with converted S3D content, including Clash of the Titans, The Avengers, and The Chronicles of Narnia: The Voyage of the Dawn Treader. The algorithms we present enable improved automatic quality assessment during the production stage.

  17. Experimental study of flow artifact in MRI venous flow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venous flow models were constructed and experiments were done on the signal generation from blood flow. MRI apparatus used was 1.0T Shimadzu SMT100. Images were constructed by 2D Fourrier conversion. The magnetic intensity was 1.5 mT/m. Continuous 6 slices of 10, 7 and 5 mm thickness were imaged in T2-weighted condition at TR 2500 msec and TE 90 msec by the spin echo method, rephasing method, presaturation method, rephasing + presaturation method and rephasing + presaturation + low sampling cycle method for flow rate and pulsatile flow. The artificial blood vessels were made of polychlorinated vinyl tube with inner diameter 8 mm x 20 m length where 40 litre of water was circulated at a fixed flow rate of 5-30 cm/sec or pulsatile flow rate of 15 and 20 cm/sec. A tube filled with Gd-DTPA solution was used as a control. S/N ratio in every slice of the fixed and pulsatile flows, the difference by the direction of imaging, the presence or absence of rephasing and presaturation and sampling cycles were examined. A significant flow artifact was found yielded for the pulsatile flow relative to the fixed flow. (K.H.)

  18. Extracellular amylase(s) production by fungi Botryodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus oryzae grown on cassava starch residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R C

    2004-10-01

    The fungi Botryodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus oryzae produce extracellular amylase when grown on a liquid medium containing 2% (WN) soluble starch or cassava starch residue(CSR) (as starch equivalent), a waste generated after extraction of starch from cassava, as the sole carbon source. Using CSR as the sole carbon source, the highest amylase activity of 3.25 and 3.8 units (mg, glucose released x ml(-1) x h(-1)) were obtained in shake flask cultures during the late stationary phase of growth of B. theobromae and R. oryzae, respectively. These values were slightly lower than the values obtained using soluble starch as the carbon source. Maximum enzyme synthesis in CSR incorporated medium occurred at the growth temperature of 30 degrees C and pH 6.0. Presence of inorganic NH4+ salts like ammonium acetate and ammonium nitrate in culture medium yielded more amylase than the other nitrogen sources. Amylase(s) production in the controlled environment of a Table-Top glass Jar Fermenter (2-L capacity) was 4.8 and 5.1 units for B. theobromae and R. oryzae, respectively using CSR as the carbon substrate. It is concluded that CSR, a cheap agricultural waste obtained after starch extraction from cassava could replace soluble starch as carbon substrate for commercial production of fungal amylase(s).

  19. Synthesis of aliphatic amidediol and used as a novel mixed plasticizer for thermoplastic starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian She Zhang; Jiu Gao Yu; Ying Wu; Xiao Fei Ma

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,aliphatic amidediol was synthesized and mixed with glycerol used as a plasticizer for preparing thermoplastic starch (AGPTPS).The yield of aliphatic amidediol was 91%.FT-IR expressed that the mixture of aliphatic amidediol and glycerol formed stronger and stable hydrogen bond with starch molecules compared to the native cornstarch.By scanning electron microscope (SEM) native cornstarch granules were proved to transfer to a homogeneous continuous system.After being stored for a period time at room temperature,the mechanical properties of AGPTPS were also studied.As a mixed plasticizer,aliphatic amidediol and glycerol would be practical to extend TPS application scopes.

  20. New Blocking Artifacts Reduction Method Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Min; YI Qing-ming

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that a block discrete cosine transform compressed image exhibits visually annoying blocking artifacts at low-bit-rate. A new post-processing deblocking algorithm in wavelet domain is proposed. The algorithm exploits blocking-artifact features shown in wavelet domain. The energy of blocking artifacts is concentrated into some lines to form annoying visual effects after wavelet transform. The aim of reducing blocking artifacts is to capture excessive energy on the block boundary effectively and reduce it below the visual scope. Adaptive operators for different subbands are computed based on the wavelet coefficients. The operators are made adaptive to different images and characteristics of blocking artifacts. Experimental results show that the proposed method can significantly improve the visual quality and also increase the peak signal-noise-ratio(PSNR) in the output image.

  1. Preparation and characterization of octenylsuccinylated plantain starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Flores, Christopher A; Nuñez-Santiago, Maria C; San Martín-Gonzalez, María F; BeMiller, James N; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2014-09-01

    Plantain starch was esterified with octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) at two concentrations (3 and 15% w/w) of OSA. The morphology, granule size distribution, pasting, gelatinization, swelling, and solubility of granules and structural features of the starch polymers were evaluated. Granules of the OSA-modified starches increased in size during cooking more than did the granules of the native starch, and the effect was greater at the higher OSA concentration. Pasting viscosities also increased, but gelatinization and pasting temperatures and enthalpy of gelatinization decreased in the OSA-modified starches. It was concluded that insertion of OS groups effected disorder in the granular structure. Solubility, weight average molar mass, Mw¯, and z-average radius of gyration, RGz, of the amylopectin decreased as the OSA concentration increased, indicating a decrease in molecular size. PMID:25036604

  2. IN VITRO UTILIZATION OF NPN SOURCES BY INCREASING LEVELS OF CORN STARCH IN STRAW BASED DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. ALI, T. KHALIQ1, A. JAVAID, M. SARWAR, M. A. KHAN2, M. A. SHAHZAD AND S. ZAKIR3

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of replacement of 50% cottonseed meal (CSM nitrogen with various non protein nitrogen (NPN sources i.e. urea (CU, biuret (CB and diammonium phosphate (CD. The four energy sources were: wheat straw with no corn starch (WS, WS + 20% corn starch, WS + 30% corn starch and WS + 40% corn starch. These substrates were fermented with rumen liquor to measure in vitro dry matter digestibility (DMD, bacterial count and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N concentrations. The protein sources provided 2% nitrogen (12.5% CP. The control substrate contained CSM as the sole source of nitrogen and ground wheat straw as the sole sources of energy. The in vitro DMD increased to 49.10, 40.06 and 31.52% in substrates containing CB, CU and CD compared to 23.10% for CSM (P<0.01. Similarly, supplementation of straw with 20, 30 and 40% corn starch gave 24.31, 38.03 and 45.48% DMD compared to 23.10% for control (P<0.01. Increase of corn starch from 20 to 30% resulted in 13.72 units higher DMD which increased to a mere 7.45 units when the corn starch was raised from 30 to 40%. The interactions between nitrogen sources and starch levels revealed that substrate CB x 40% corn starch yielded 70.73% DMD, followed by 49.66% DMD with CU x 40% starch (P<0.01. The NH3-N increased due to 50% replacement of CSM with NPN sources on isonitrogenous basis. It was maximum with CU as nitrogen source, followed by CD, CB and CSM. The differences among the four nitrogen sources were significant (P<0.01. The substrates containing CU resulted in highest bacterial counts of 33.78x108 compared to 20.41x108, 17.06x108 and 11.34x108 for CB, CSM and CD, respectively (P<0.01. Addition of corn starch up to 20 and 30% to straw based substrates increased the bacterial counts to 23.25x108 and 23.12x108 and 40% corn starch yielded 15.58x108 bacterial counts which was significantly (P<0.01 lesser than 17.06x108 for substrates containing 0% corn starch. Bacterial count

  3. Effects of various starch feeding regimens on responses of dairy cows to intramammary lipopolysaccharide infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gott, P N; Hogan, J S; Weiss, W P

    2015-03-01

    Endotoxin tolerance (ET) can develop in mammals that have been challenged repeatedly with sublethal amounts of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Previous research has shown that subclinical ruminal acidosis can increase circulating concentrations of LPS. We investigated whether ET would develop in Holstein cows that were subjected to chronic subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) or acute SARA followed by intramammary infusion of LPS. Twenty-four cows, both primiparous and multiparous, were assigned to 8 blocks of 3 cows. Cows within blocks were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) control (diet DM was 24% starch and 35% NDF), (2) high starch (formulated to induce chronic milk fat depression with 29% starch and 32% NDF), and (3) acidosis (designed to cause acute bouts of milk fat depression by short-term feeding of a diet with 32% starch, some of which came from wheat grain, and 30% NDF). Cows on the control and high-starch treatments were fed their respective diets throughout the 24-d trial. The acidosis cows were fed the control diet during most of the experiment, except during two 2-d bouts (d 10 and 11 and 17 and 18 of the experiment) in which a high-starch diet was fed. Cows on the high-starch and acidosis treatments produced milk fat with an altered fatty acid profile indicative of SARA (e.g., increased concentrations of specific trans, and odd-, and branched-chain fatty acids), but only cows on the high-starch treatment had milk fat depression. Concentrations of serum amyloid A were elevated in cows on the acidosis treatment, but did not differ between control and high-starch cows. On d 20 of the experiment, all cows were given an intramammary infusion of 10 µg of LPS into 1 mammary quarter 3h after morning milking. Milk yield and DMI decreased the day of the infusion, but the response was not affected by dietary treatment. No systemic indicators of ET were observed among treatments, but evidence of an ET response at the local level of the mammary gland was

  4. Using biomass of starch-rich transgenic Arabidopsis vacuolar as feedstock for fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Yung-Chung; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Chen, Chun-Yen [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Huang, Li-Fen; Chang, Jo-Shu [Yuan Ze Univ., Tao-yuan, Taiwan (China). Graduate School of Biotechnology and Bioengineering

    2010-07-01

    Cellulose is the major constitute of plant biomass and highly available in agricultural wastes and industrial effluents, thereby being a cost-effective feedstock for bioenergy production. However, most hydrogen producing bacteria (HPB) could not directly convert cellulosic materials (such as rice husk and rice straw) into hydrogen whereas most HPB could utilize sugar and starch for hydrogen production. In this work, we used an indigenous bacterial isolate Clostridium butyricum CGS2 as HPB, which could directly convert soluble starch into H2 with a maximum H2 production rate and a H2 yield of 205.07 ml H2/h/l and 6.46 mmol H2/g starch, respectively. However, C. butyricum CGS2 could not ferment pure cellulosic materials such as carboxymethyl cellulose and xylan. Moreover, we found that C. butyricum CGS2 could utilize rich husk to produce H2 at a rate of 13.19 ml H2/h/l due to the starch content in rice husk (H2 yield = 1.49 mmol H2/g rice husk). In contrast, since lacking starch content, rice straw cannot be converted to H2 by C. butyricum CGS2. The foregoing results suggest that increasing the starch content in the natural agricultural wastes may make them better feedstock for fermentative H2 production. Hence, a genetically modified plant (Arabidopsis vacuolar) was constructed to enhance its starch concentration. The starch concentration of mutant plant S1 increased to 10.67 mg/fresh weight, which is four times higher than that of wild type plant. Using mutant plant S1 as carbon source, C. butyricum CGS2 was able to give a high cumulative H2 production and H2 production rate of 285.4 ml H2/l and 43.6 ml/h/l, respectively. The cumulative H2 production and H2 production rate both increased when the concentration of the transgenic plant was increased. Therefore, this study successful demonstrated the feasibility of expressing starch on genetically-modified plants to create a more effective feedstock for dark H2 fermentation. (orig.)

  5. Chemical and rheological properties of a starch-rich fraction from the pulp of the fruit cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulp obtained from the fruit of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) was extracted with hot aqueous 0.1% citric acid to give fraction 0.1CA-2 in 15% yield. This was the predominant component polysaccharide, 91% of which was composed of starch, by an iodine test and monosaccharide composition, and its 13C NMR spectrum was consistent with that of a high amylose starch. The content of amylose found in fraction 0.1CA-2 was 71%. This value is higher than those of common starches of cereal grains, tubers, roots, and other fruits. The fraction was submitted to rheological examination, gels being prepared on heating with concentrations of 4 to 7% (w/w). A non-Newtonian behavior was observed, and gel viscosity and strength depended on the concentration. The presence of starch, as well as the presence of previously investigated pectin, conferred the high viscosity and gelling capability of the pulp

  6. Chemical and rheological properties of a starch-rich fraction from the pulp of the fruit cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vriesmann, Lucia C.; Silveira, Joana L.M. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, CP 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba-PR (Brazil); Petkowicz, Carmen L. de O [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, CP 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba-PR (Brazil)], E-mail: clop@ufpr.br

    2009-03-01

    The pulp obtained from the fruit of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) was extracted with hot aqueous 0.1% citric acid to give fraction 0.1CA-2 in 15% yield. This was the predominant component polysaccharide, 91% of which was composed of starch, by an iodine test and monosaccharide composition, and its {sup 13}C NMR spectrum was consistent with that of a high amylose starch. The content of amylose found in fraction 0.1CA-2 was 71%. This value is higher than those of common starches of cereal grains, tubers, roots, and other fruits. The fraction was submitted to rheological examination, gels being prepared on heating with concentrations of 4 to 7% (w/w). A non-Newtonian behavior was observed, and gel viscosity and strength depended on the concentration. The presence of starch, as well as the presence of previously investigated pectin, conferred the high viscosity and gelling capability of the pulp.

  7. Wheat bran biorefinery: an investigation on the starch derived glucose extraction accompanied by pre- and post-treatment steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirpanalan, Özge; Reisinger, Michael; Huber, Florian; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Novalin, Senad

    2014-07-01

    Wheat bran, a side product of the milling industry, can be considered as a feedstock for biorefineries. Unlike other lignocellulosic feedstock, wheat bran contains a reasonable amount of starch, which is not of recalcitrant nature. Therefore, it can be extracted without a costly pretreatment process. The present work evaluates the extraction of starch derived glucose in relation to a wheat bran biorefinery. The purity of free glucose extracted quantitatively was 44%. The extract was concentrated by threefold via nanofiltration, thereby reaching a glucose concentration of 49 g/L. Hydrothermal treatment (180°C - 20 min) of the starch-free bran did not induce the formation of hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid. Interestingly, the furfural level increased compared to the process, in which bran was treated hydrothermally without a preceding starch extraction. By separation of water-extractables prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, the free glucose purity was increased to 58%, however the yield of glucose decreased to 61%. PMID:24835741

  8. Effect of Nutrient Starvation under High Irradiance on Lipid and Starch Accumulation in Chlorella fusca (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez, Celia G; Malapascua, José R; Sergejevová, Magda; Figueroa, Félix L; Masojídek

    2016-02-01

    The effect of nitrogen and sulphur limitation under high irradiance (PAR) was studied in the green microalga Chlorella fusca (Chlorophyta) in order to follow lipid and/or starch accumulation. Growth, biomass composition and the changes in photosynthetic activity (in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence) were followed in the trials. The full nutrient culture showed high biomass production and starch accumulation at Day 1, when photosynthetic activity was high. Gradual deprivation (no nutrients added) became evident when photosynthesis was significantly suppressed (Day 3 onwards), which entailed a decrease of maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax) and increase of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), accompanied by the onset of lipid accumulation and decline in starch content. In N- and S-starved cultures, rETRmax significantly decreased by Day 3, which caused a substantial drop in biomass production, cell number, biovolume and induction of lipid and starch accumulation. High starch content (45-50 % of DW) was found at the initial stage in full nutrient culture and at the stationary phase in nutrient-starved cultures. By the end of the trial, all treatments showed high lipid content (~30 % of DW). The full nutrient culture had higher biomass yield than starved treatments although starch (~0.2 g L(-1) day(-1)) and lipid (~0.15 g L(-1) day(-1) productivities were fairly similar in all the cultures. Our results showed that we could enrich biomass of C. fusca (% DW) in lipids using a two-stage strategy (a nutrient replete stage followed by gradual nutrient limitation) while under either procedure, N- or S-starvation, both high lipid and starch contents could be achieved.

  9. Combined steam pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of starch-free wheat fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmarola-Adrados, Beatriz; Galbe, Mats; Zacchi, Guido

    2004-01-01

    Steam treatment of an industrial process stream, denoted starch-free wheat fiber, was investigated to improve the formation of monomeric sugars in subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis for further bioconversion into ethanol. The solid fraction in the process stream, derived from a combined starch and ethanol factory, was rich in arabinose (21.1%), xylose (30.1%), and glucose (18.6%), in the form of polysaccharides. Various conditions of steam pretreatment (170-220 degrees C for 5-30 min) were evaluated, and their effect was assessed by enzymatic hydrolysis with 2 g of Celluclast + Ultraflo mixture/100 g of starch-free fiber (SFF) slurry at 5% dry matter (DM). The highest overall sugar yield for the combined steam pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, 52 g/100 g of DM of SFF, corresponding to 74% of the theoretical, was achieved with pretreatment at 190 degrees C for 10 min followed by enzymatic hydrolysis.

  10. Chemical modification of Sago starch by solvent less esterification with fatty acid chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sago starch was chemically modified by esterification reaction with fatty acid chlorides to produce a non-polar sago ester in the absence of an organic solvent. The sago esters were prepared by first pretreatment of sago starch with excess formic acid at 90 degree Celsius for 40 minutes followed by acetylation with acid chloride (octanoyl and lauroyl chlorides). The maximum yields of 80 % and 73 % with the same degree of substitution (DS) of 1.2 for octanoate and lauroate sago esters were obtained respectively. The presence of ester carbonyl group in the FT-IR spectra of the ester products showed that the sago starch has been esterified. The intensities of carbonyl and methyl peaks were decreased with the increasing of DS. (author)

  11. 21 CFR 172.892 - Food starch-modified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Food starch-modified. 172.892 Section 172.892 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.892 Food starch-modified. Food starch-modified as described in this section may be... limitation prescribed. To insure safe use of the food starch-modified, the label of the food...

  12. 21 CFR 178.3520 - Industrial starch-modified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Industrial starch-modified. 178.3520 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3520 Industrial starch-modified. Industrial starch... provisions of this section. (a) Industrial starch-modified is identified as follows: (1) A food...

  13. Adiabatic Low-Pass J Filters for Artifact Suppression in Heteronuclear NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sebastian; Benie, Andrew J; Duus, Jens Øllgaard;

    2009-01-01

    NMR artifact purging: Modern NMR experiments depend on efficient coherence transfer pathways for their sensitivity and on suppression of undesired pathways leading to artifacts for their spectral clarity. A novel robust adiabatic element suppresses hard-to-get-at artifacts....

  14. Effect of tapioca starch and amyloglucosidase concentration on very high gravity simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (VHG-SSF) of bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugih, A. K.; Santoso, I. V.; Kristijarti, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Tapioca starch is isolated from the root of cassava plant (Manihot esculenta). It is produced in a large quantity in Indonesia and other south east Asian countries. Tapioca starch has been commonly used as a feedstock for food as well as non-food industries. Due to its high carbohydrate content, tapioca starch has the potentiality to be used as a raw material for bioethanol production. In this research, a novel approach (Very High Gravity Simultaneous Sacharification and Fermentation/ VHG-SSF) to synthesise highly concentrated ethanol from tapioca starch was investigated. Tapioca starch suspension was first gelatinised for two hours at 90°C and hydrolised at the same temperature for another two hours using commercial α- amylase (Liquozyme Supra, 0.16%-v/ w starch). The pretreated suspension was sterilised and mixed with nitrogenous supplement. In order to start the fermentation, Saccharomyces cereviseae NRRL Y-132 inoculum (10%-v/v; 107 cells/ ml) and commercial amyloglucosidase (Dextrozyme GA, 35-105 AGU/ g starch) were added to the mixture. The initial total carbohydrate, yeast extract, and peptone concentrations of the fermentation broths were 30-40 %-w/v, 1%-w/v, and 2%-w/v, respectively. VHG-SSF was allowed to proceed for 6 days at 30°C with rotary shaker speed of 100 rpm. The concentration of glucose and ethanol during fermentation was monitored using HPLC. The experimental result shows that tapioca starch has been successfully converted to ethanol with a final concentration of 10.12-16.14 %-w/v, which is corresponding to yield of 34.68-56.83 %-w ethanol/ w-converted sugar. The result suggests that VHG-SSF is a prospective method to synthesise bioethanol from tapioca starch.

  15. Colorectal Cancer "Methylator Phenotype": Fact or Artifact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Anacleto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that human colorectal tumors can be classified into two groups: one in which methylation is rare, and another with methylation of several loci associated with a "CpG island methylated phenotype (CIMP," characterized by preferential proximal location in the colon, but otherwise poorly defined. There is considerable overlap between this putative methylator phenotype and the well-known mutator phenotype associated with microsatellite instability (MSI. We have examined hypermethylation of the promoter region of five genes (DAPK, MGMT, hMLH1, p16INK4a, and p14ARF in 106 primary colorectal cancers. A graph depicting the frequency of methylated loci in the series of tumors showed a continuous, monotonically decreasing distribution quite different from the previously claimed discontinuity. We observed a significant association between the presence of three or more methylated loci and the proximal location of the tumors. However, if we remove from analysis the tumors with hMLH1 methylation or those with MSI, the significance vanishes, suggesting that the association between multiple methylations and proximal location was indirect due to the correlation with MSI. Thus, our data do not support the independent existence of the so-called methylator phenotype and suggest that it rather may represent a statistical artifact caused by confounding of associations.

  16. Automating Traceability for Generated Software Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Julian; Green, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Program synthesis automatically derives programs from specifications of their behavior. One advantage of program synthesis, as opposed to manual coding, is that there is a direct link between the specification and the derived program. This link is, however, not very fine-grained: it can be best characterized as Program is-derived- from Specification. When the generated program needs to be understood or modified, more $ne-grained linking is useful. In this paper, we present a novel technique for automatically deriving traceability relations between parts of a specification and parts of the synthesized program. The technique is very lightweight and works -- with varying degrees of success - for any process in which one artifact is automatically derived from another. We illustrate the generality of the technique by applying it to two kinds of automatic generation: synthesis of Kalman Filter programs from speci3cations using the Aut- oFilter program synthesis system, and generation of assembly language programs from C source code using the GCC C compilel: We evaluate the effectiveness of the technique in the latter application.

  17. Methodology to calculate starch in castor seed cake residue from biodiesel production; Metodologia de quantificacao de amido em torta de mamona residual da producao de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Aline Machado de [Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras (CENPES). Gerencia de Energias Renovaveis, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: alinebio@petrobras.com.br; Pereira Junior, Nei [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Departamento de Engenharia Bioquimica. Escola de Quimica, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: nei@eq.ufrj.br

    2009-04-15

    When castor seeds are used in the production of biodiesel a solid residue is obtained from the seed crushing process (castor seed cake). This residue, due to its high starch content, is a potential biomass for second generation bioethanol production. The starch in this biomass presents some peculiarities that are associated with the proteins and other structures of the seed. The challenge of this study was to standardize a method to quantify the starch, tailored for this biomass. This methodology was confirmed with a comparative study using commercial methods and a standard starch sample. This study is an important aspect in bioethanol production from castor seed cake. This is because to evaluate the potential of cakes from different sources it is necessary to determine the starch content in the biomass to calculate the mass balance as well as the process yield.

  18. The specific contribution of object's origin on artifacts categorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yuhao; WANG Zhe; FU Xiaolan

    2006-01-01

    Gelman and Bloom found that adults and children's object naming was sensitive to how an object was created (man-made or not), but they did not reveal on which specific level of conceptual system this effect was. Using a free-naming task and a force-choice task, two experiments were conducted to test a hypothesis that this effect was specifically on domain level ("artifact/non-artifact" distinction). In Experiment 1, participants were asked to name shortly-depicted objects, rate their confidence, and report their reasons for each naming response. Results showed that most of the naming responses in "man-made" condition were in artifact domain, and most in "natural" condition were in non-artifact domain, although in both conditions names were very divergent on basic level. In Experiment 2, another group of participants were asked to choose one from two names (one in artifact domain and the other in non-artifact domain) to match the same shortly-depicted objects presented in the first experiment. Results of Experiment 1 on domain level were replicated in Experiment 2. These convergent findings supported the hypothesis that the effect of object's origin is specifically on domain level of conceptual system of objects. Reasons explicitly reported for naming responses in Experiment 1 suggested that participants might automatically infer objects' functions in "man-made" condition but not in "natural" condition.Here the function-based hypothesis of artifacts classification is discussed.

  19. Native starch in tablet formulations: properties on compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, C E; Bolhuis, G K; Van Doorne, H; Lerk, C F

    1987-10-16

    Maize, potato, rice and tapioca (cassava) starch were evaluated with respect to their properties on direct compression. Rice starch showed much better compactibility as compared to maize, potato and tapioca starch. Moreover, its binding capacity proved to be almost insensitive to mixing with magnesium stearate. This in contrast to the dramatic decrease in crushing strength of potato starch tablets containing the lubricant. The compactibility of the starches was found to be strongly affected by the equilibrium moisture content of the starches, which is dependent on the relative humidity of the atmosphere under which the powders were stored. All starches showed adequate capacity for water uptake to act as a disintegrant. Rice starch exhibited worst flowability, caused by its fine particle size as compared to the other starches. Granulation of rice starch changed it into a potential filler-binder in tablets prepared by direct compression.

  20. A new NMR method for directly monitoring and quantifying the dissolution kinetics of starch in DMSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dona, Anthony; Yuen, Chun-Wai Wayne; Peate, Jonathan; Gilbert, Robert G; Castignolles, Patrice; Gaborieau, Marianne

    2007-12-10

    The kinetics of dissolution of starch is needed for (i) understanding digestive processes; (ii) providing data that could correlate with higher levels of starch structure; (iii) improving techniques for starch characterization in solution. A novel method is presented here to directly monitor these dissolution kinetics by time-resolved (1)H solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); studies were carried out in deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO-d(6)). By assuming pseudo-first-order kinetics with respect to starch concentration, the data for various starch samples yield values of the apparent rate coefficients for the rate of appearance of completely dissolved anhydroglucose units, results which have not been obtained hitherto. The presence of a limited amount of water in DMSO had a drastic effect on dissolution kinetics (slowing it down at high temperatures), indicating multiple pathways for the dissolution mechanism. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) appears to be more limited than the NMR method to monitor the kinetics of dissolution. The newly developed NMR method can be extended to other solvents and polysaccharides. PMID:17892866

  1. Universal artifacts affect the branching of phylogenetic trees, not universal scaling laws.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian R Altaba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The superficial resemblance of phylogenetic trees to other branching structures allows searching for macroevolutionary patterns. However, such trees are just statistical inferences of particular historical events. Recent meta-analyses report finding regularities in the branching pattern of phylogenetic trees. But is this supported by evidence, or are such regularities just methodological artifacts? If so, is there any signal in a phylogeny? METHODOLOGY: In order to evaluate the impact of polytomies and imbalance on tree shape, the distribution of all binary and polytomic trees of up to 7 taxa was assessed in tree-shape space. The relationship between the proportion of outgroups and the amount of imbalance introduced with them was assessed applying four different tree-building methods to 100 combinations from a set of 10 ingroup and 9 outgroup species, and performing covariance analyses. The relevance of this analysis was explored taking 61 published phylogenies, based on nucleic acid sequences and involving various taxa, taxonomic levels, and tree-building methods. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All methods of phylogenetic inference are quite sensitive to the artifacts introduced by outgroups. However, published phylogenies appear to be subject to a rather effective, albeit rather intuitive control against such artifacts. The data and methods used to build phylogenetic trees are varied, so any meta-analysis is subject to pitfalls due to their uneven intrinsic merits, which translate into artifacts in tree shape. The binary branching pattern is an imposition of methods, and seldom reflects true relationships in intraspecific analyses, yielding artifactual polytomies in short trees. Above the species level, the departure of real trees from simplistic random models is caused at least by two natural factors--uneven speciation and extinction rates; and artifacts such as choice of taxa included in the analysis, and imbalance introduced by outgroups

  2. Plant-crafted starches for bioplastics production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnelli, Domenico; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Leroy, Eric; Rolland-Sabaté, Agnès; Guilois, Sophie; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Mortensen, Kell; Lourdin, Denis; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Transgenically-produced amylose-only (AO) starch was used to manufacture bioplastic prototypes. Extruded starch samples were tested for crystal residues, elasticity, glass transition temperature, mechanical properties, molecular mass and microstructure. The AO starch granule crystallinity was both of the B- and Vh-type, while the isogenic control starch was mainly A-type. The first of three endothermic transitions was attributed to gelatinization at about 60°C. The second and third peaks were identified as melting of the starch and amylose-lipid complexes, respectively. After extrusion, the AO samples displayed Vh- and B-type crystalline structures, the B-type polymorph being the dominant one. The AO prototypes demonstrated a 6-fold higher mechanical stress at break and 2.5-fold higher strain at break compared to control starch. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed a significant increase in the storage modulus (E') for AO samples compared to the control. The data support the use of pure starch-based bioplastics devoid of non-polysaccharide fillers. PMID:27516287

  3. Rheological and Thermal Properties of Potato Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Geng; Li Tian-zhen; Zhang Wei-min; Li Hao-nan

    2005-01-01

    Particle size, rheological and thermal properties of potato starch from Yunnan province of China was in-vestigated. The particle size ranges from 0.429-102.3 um determined by laser light-scatter. The major flow type of 6 w/v% potato starch was shear-thinning fluid even the shear rate up to 800·s-1, and the gel formed by 6 w/v% potato starch fell to weak gel for its little difference between G' and G'', high dependence on frequency and low value of G'(Pa). The hardness and cohesiveness of potato starch gel were 31.3 g and 131.9 g·s, respectively. The thermal properties of potato starch were also determined by DSC at the starch:water=3:1. The To, Tp, and ΔH of potato starch were 62.23℃,67.31℃, and 2.22 J·g-1.

  4. 75 FR 879 - National Starch and Chemical Company Specialty Starches Division Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ..., applicable to workers of National Starch and Chemical Company, Specialty Starches Division, Island Falls, Maine. The notice was published in the Federal Register on December 31, 2007 (72 FR 74343). At the... Employment and Training Administration National Starch and Chemical Company Specialty Starches...

  5. Towards a concept of community artifact ecology in HCI?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Korsgaard, Henrik

    or workplaces do. This has implications on understanding how to research and design HCI for communities but also on refining the ecological perspective in HCI. We look in particular at examples from preliminary research on a local self-organised urban community and discuss what existing concepts in the ecology......In this paper we introduce the concept of community artifact ecology. We argue that taking a community perspective on the concept of artifact ecologies is relevant in HCI because communities are also dealing with multitudes of artifacts, in ways di↵erent that individuals, organizations...

  6. Artifact reduction strategies for prosthetic heart valve CT imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Habets, Jesse; Symersky, Petr; Leiner, Tim; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.; Willem P Th M Mali; Budde, Ricardo P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Multislice CT evaluation of prosthetic heart valves (PHV) is limited by PHV-related artifacts. We assessed the influence of different kV settings, a metal artifact reduction filter (MARF) and an iterative reconstruction algorithm (IR) on PHV-induced artifacts in an in vitro model. A Medtronic-Hall tilting disc and St Jude bileafet PHV were imaged using a 64-slice scanner with 100 kV/165 mAs, 120 kV/100 mAs, 140 kV/67 mAs at an equal CTDIvol. Images were reconstructed with (1) filtered back pr...

  7. A POCS-Based Algorithm for Blocking Artifacts Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi-hong; CHENG Guo-hua; YU Song-yu

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm for blocking artifacts reduction in DCT domain for block-based image coding was developed. The algorithm is based on the projection onto convex set (POCS) theory. Due to the fact that the DCT characteristics of shifted blocks are different caused by the blocking artifacts, a novel smoothness constraint set and the corresponding projection operator were proposed to reduce the blocking artifacts by discarding the undesired high frequency coefficients in the shifted DCT blocks. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the conventional algorithms in terms of objective quality, subjective quality, and convergence property.

  8. Artifacts interfering with interpretation of cone beam computed tomography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makins, Scott R

    2014-07-01

    Artifacts in radiographic imaging are discrepancies between the reconstructed visual image and the content of the subject. In radiographic imaging, this means the grayscale values in the image do not accurately reflect the attenuation values of the subject. Structures may also appear that do not exist in the subject. Whatever the source or appearance of image artifacts, their presence degrades the accuracy of the image in relation to the true characteristics of the subject. One should therefore be aware of the presence of artifacts and be familiar with their characteristic appearances in order to enhance the extraction of diagnostic information.

  9. Correction of ring artifacts in X-ray tomographic images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Johnson, G.; Tafforeau, P.

    2011-01-01

    the same intensity level as the grain boundaries and thus make it impossible to perform grain segmentation. This paper describes an implementation of a method for correcting the ring artifacts in tomographic X-ray images of simple objects such as metal samples where the object and the background......Ring artifacts are systematic intensity distortions located on concentric circles in reconstructed tomographic X-ray images. When using X-ray tomography to study for instance low-contrast grain boundaries in metals it is crucial to correct for the ring artifacts in the images as they may have...

  10. Reduction of phase artifacts in differential phase contrast computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerjen, Iwan; Revol, Vincent; Schuetz, Philipp; Kottler, Christian; Kaufmann, Rolf; Luethi, Thomas; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Urban, Claus; Sennhauser, Urs

    2011-07-01

    X-ray differential phase contrast computed tomography (DPC CT) with a Talbot-Lau interferometer setup allows visualizing the three-dimensional distribution of the refractive index by measuring the shifts of an interference pattern due to phase variations of the X-ray beam. Unfortunately, severe reconstruction artifacts appear in the presence of differential phase wrapping and clipping. In this paper, we propose to use the attenuation contrast, which is obtained from the same measurement, for correcting the DPC signal. Using the example of a DPC CT measurement with pronounced phase artifacts, we will discuss the efficiency of our phase artifact correction method. PMID:21747516

  11. Kinetics of starch digestion and performance of broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Weurding, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: starch, digestion rate, broiler chickens, peas, tapiocaStarch is stored in amyloplasts of various plants like cereals and legumes and seeds of these plants are used as feedstuffs for farm animals. Starch is the major energy source in broiler feeds. The properties of starch from different origin vary condiderably and these properties determine its resistance to enzymatic digestion. The objective of the research project described in this thesis was to study starch digestion behaviour ...

  12. Evaluation of Colocasia esculenta Starch as an Alternative Tablet Excipient to Maize Starch: Assessment by Preformulation and Formulation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma. R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch isolated from Colocasia esculenta plant was studied as an alternative pharmaceutical excipient to maize and potato starch. The Colocasia esculenta starch has been evaluated by series of tests as mentioned in Indian Pharmacopoeia before being used for evaluation. It was tested along with maize and potato starch as an alternative excipient by performing battery of preformulation and formulation tests. The results obtained for Colocasia esculenta starch was comparable with maize starch and the Colocasia esculenta starch can be used as a pharmaceutical excipient in tablets preparation.

  13. Physicochemical properties of starches from two different yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) residues

    OpenAIRE

    Yugao Wang; Liming Zhang; Xinglin Li; Wenyuan Gao

    2011-01-01

    The starches obtained from two different yam residues, which were treated with alkali(starch-A) or enzyme (starch-E), were studied and compared with yam starch isolated using ordinary method (starch-O) for morphological, crystalline pattern, thermal, and pasting properties. The results revealed that the amylose content of three starches ranged from 19.47 to 22.17%. The granule surfaces of starch-A and starch-E were as smooth as that of starch-O. The crystalline pattern of the three starches w...

  14. Starch Granule Re-Structuring by Starch Branching Enzyme and Glucan Water Dikinase Modulation Affects Caryopsis Physiology and Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor S.; Obata, Toshihiro; Hebelstrup, Kim H;

    2016-01-01

    -structure was achieved by decreasing starch branching and increasing starch-bound phosphate content in the barley caryopsis starch by RNAi suppression of all three Starch Branching Enzyme (SBE) isoforms or overexpression of potato Glucan Water Dikinase (GWD). The resulting lines displayed Amylose-Only (AO) and Hyper......Starch is of fundamental importance for plant development and reproduction and its optimized molecular assembly is potentially necessary for correct starch metabolism. Re-structuring of starch granules in-planta can therefore potentially affect plant metabolism. Modulation of granule micro......-Phosphorylated (HP) starch chemotypes, respectively. We studied the influence of these alterations on primary metabolism, grain composition, starch structural features and starch granule morphology over caryopsis development at 10, 20 and 30 days after pollination (DAP) and at grain maturity. While HP showed...

  15. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n = 3) or without (n = 3) pancreatic...

  16. Genetic evidence that outer membrane binding of starch is required for starch utilization by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, K.L.; Salyers, A A

    1989-01-01

    Mutagenesis of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron with the transposon Tn4351 produced five classes of mutants that were not able to grow on amylose or amylopectin. These classes of mutants differed in their ability to grow on maltoheptaose (G7) and in the level of starch-degrading enzymes produced when bacteria were grown on maltose. All of the mutants were deficient in starch binding. Since one class of mutants retained normal levels of starch-degrading enzymes, this indicates that binding of the ...

  17. Cecropia peltata accumulates starch or soluble glycogen by differentially regulating starch biosynthetic genes

    OpenAIRE

    Bischof, Sylvain; Umhang, Martin; Eicke, Simona; Streb, Sebastian; Qi, Weihong; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2013-01-01

    The branched glucans glycogen and starch are the most widespread storage carbohydrates in living organisms. The production of semicrystalline starch granules in plants is more complex than that of small, soluble glycogen particles in microbes and animals. However, the factors determining whether glycogen or starch is formed are not fully understood. The tropical tree Cecropia peltata is a rare example of an organism able to make either polymer type. Electron micrographs and quantitative measu...

  18. Functional demonstrations of starch binding domains present in Ostreococcus tauri starch synthases isoforms

    OpenAIRE

    Barchiesi, Julieta; Hedin, Nicolás; Gomez-Casati, Diego F.; Miguel A Ballicora; Busi, María V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Starch-binding domains are key modules present in several enzymes involved in polysaccharide metabolism. These non-catalytic modules have already been described as essential for starch-binding and the catalytic activity of starch synthase III from the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In Ostreococcus tauri, a unicellular green alga of the Prasinophyceae family, there are three SSIII isoforms, known as Ostta SSIII-A, SSIII-B and SSIII-C. Results In this work, using in silico and in...

  19. Artifact Diamond Its Allure And Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Max N.

    1989-01-01

    While the preponderance of the mechanical, optical, and electronic properties of natural diamond have been known for over a decade, only recently has artifact diamond in technologically useful form factors become an exciting possibility. The advent of sacrificial, lattice matched crystalline substrates provides the basis not only for semiconducting applications of diamond, but for optical mirrors, lenses, and windows as well. As a semiconductor, diamond has the highest resistivity, the highest saturated electron velocity, the highest thermal conductivity, the lowest dielectric constant, the highest dielectric strength, the greatest hardness, the largest bandgap and the smallest lattice constant of any material. It also has electron and hole mobilities greater than those of silicon. Its figure of merit as a microwave power amplifier is unexcelled and exceeds that of silicon by a multiplier of 8200. For integrated circuit potential, its thermal conductivity, saturated velocity, and dielectric constant also place it in the premier position (32 times that of silicon, 46 times that of GaAs). Although not verified, its radiation hardness should also be unmatched. Aside from its brilliant sparkle as a gemstone, there has been little use of diamond in the field of optics. Processing of the diamond surface now appears to be as simple as that of any other material --albeit with different techniques. In fact, it may be possible to etch diamond far more controllably (at economically viable rates) than any other material as the product of the etch is gaseous and the etched trough is self-cleaning. Other properties of diamond make it an ideal optical material. Among them are its unmatched thermal conductivity, its extremely low absorption loss above 228 nanometers, and unmatched Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, tensile strength, hardness, thermal shock, and modulus of elasticity. If the recently-found mechanisms by which erbium impurities in III-V junctions can be made to "lase

  20. Analytic solutions of an unclassified artifact /

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent, Bruce C.

    2012-03-01

    This report provides the technical detail for analytic solutions for the inner and outer profiles of the unclassified CMM Test Artifact (LANL Part Number 157Y-700373, 5/03/2001) in terms of radius and polar angle. Furthermore, analytic solutions are derived for the legacy Sheffield measurement hardware, also in terms of radius and polar angle, using part coordinates, i.e., relative to the analytic profile solutions obtained. The purpose of this work is to determine the exact solution for the “cosine correction” term inherent to measurement with the Sheffield hardware. The cosine correction is required in order to interpret the actual measurements taken by the hardware in terms of an actual part definition, or “knot-point spline definition,” that typically accompanies a component drawing. Specifically, there are two portions of the problem: first an analytic solution must be obtained for any point on the part, e.g., given the radii and the straight lines that define the part, it is required to find an exact solution for the inner and outer profile for any arbitrary polar angle. Next, the problem of the inspection of this part must be solved, i.e., given an arbitrary sphere (representing the inspection hardware) that comes in contact with the part (inner and outer profiles) at any arbitrary polar angle, it is required to determine the exact location of that intersection. This is trivial for the case of concentric circles. In the present case, however, the spherical portion of the profiles is offset from the defined center of the part, making the analysis nontrivial. Here, a simultaneous solution of the part profiles and the sphere was obtained.

  1. Provenance studies of archaeological artifacts using PGNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis PGAA is a neutron based non destructive analytical method for measurements of the elemental composition of samples. In the method, the slow neutron radiative capture transmutes the sample nuclides, which then emit prompt gamma radiations. The energy distribution of the radiation is characteristic for each element and the intensitiesof the peaks are proportional to the quantity of the element and the intensities of the peaks are proportionnal to the quantity of the elements in the sample. The PGAA is useful for quantitative determination of major elements and one of the best for light elements, being especially sensitive for hydrogen. In some cases, when the capture cross section is high (B, Cd, Sm, Dy), it can provide trace element concentrations. It is insensitive to the chemical composition of the sample, wich complements methods that are sensitive to the chemical forms. One of our main fields of applications in the provenance of archecological artifacts, which will be presented in the talk. The non destructive PGAA can be used to perform provenance studies in the case of obsidian finds from West Belkan region (Croatia and Bosnia) using statistical methods for analysing elemental composition data. Boron and chlorine based classification of obsidians is new; thus it cannot be compared to litterature data. Analysis based on major components is in agreement with the boron and chlorine results. The Croatian archeological finds without local geological sources can be associated with Carpathian or mediterranean sources. Sardinia and Melos can be excluded from the possible sources of raw materials. Within the Carpathian obsidians, source regions C1, C2 and C3 can be also distinguished with PGAA.

  2. Dilute solution properties of canary seed (Phalaris canariensis) starch in comparison to wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Mahdi; Razavi, Seyed M A; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Hucl, Pierre; Patterson, Carol Ann

    2016-06-01

    Dilute solution properties of an unknown starch are important to understand its performance and applications in food and non-food industries. In this paper, rheological and molecular properties (intrinsic viscosity, molecular weight, shape factor, voluminosity, conformation and coil overlap parameters) of the starches from two hairless canary seed varieties (CO5041 & CDC Maria) developed for food use were evaluated in the dilute regime (Starch dispersions in DMSO (0.5g/dl)) and compared with wheat starch (WS). The results showed that Higiro model is the best among five applied models for intrinsic viscosity determination of canary seed starch (CSS) and WS on the basis of coefficient of determination (R(2)) and root mean square error (RMSE). WS sample showed higher intrinsic viscosity value (1.670dl/g) in comparison to CSS samples (1.325-1.397dl/g). Berry number and the slope of master curve demonstrated that CSS and WS samples were in dilute domain without entanglement occurrence. The shape factor suggested spherical and ellipsoidal structure for CO5041 starch and ellipsoidal for CDC Maria starch and WS. The molecular weight, coil radius and coil volume of CSSs were smaller than WS. The behavior and molecular characterization of canary seed starch showed its unique properties compared with wheat starch.

  3. Electron microscopy and composition of raw acorn starch in relation to in vivo starch digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappai, Maria Grazia; Alesso, Giuseppe Andrea; Nieddu, Giuseppa; Sanna, Marina; Pinna, Walter

    2013-06-01

    The structure and composition of starch play an important role as co-factors affecting raw starch digestibility: such features were investigated in raw acorn starch from the most diffused oak trees in the Mediterranean basin. A total of 620 whole ripe acorns from Holm (Quercus ilex L., n = 198), Downy (Quercus pubescens Willd., n = 207) and Cork (Quercus suber L., n = 215) oaks sampled on the Sardinia Isle (40° 56' 0'' N; 9° 4' 0'' E; 545 m above the mean sea level) in the same geographical area, were analyzed for their chemical composition. The starch contents ranged between 51.2% and 53.5% of dry matter. The starch granules displayed a spheroid/ovoid and cylindrical shape; on scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analyses, a bimodal distribution of starch granule size was observed both for Holm and Cork oak acorns, whereas the starch granules of Downy oak acorns showed diameters between 10.2 and 13.8 μm. The specific amylose to amylopectin ratio of acorn starch was 25.8%, 19.5% and 34.0% in the Holm, Downy and Cork oaks, respectively. The (13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) signal analysis displayed a pivotal spectrum for the identification of the amylose peaks in raw acorn starch, as a basis for the amylose to amylopectin ratio determination.

  4. Starch synthase 4 is essential for coordination of starch granule formation with chloroplast division during Arabidopsis leaf expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Crumpton-Taylor, Matilda; Pike, Marilyn; Lu, Kuan-Jen; Hylton, Christopher M.; Feil, Regina; Eicke, Simona; Lunn, John E.; Zeeman, Samuel C.; Smith, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking the SS4 isoform of starch synthase have strongly reduced numbers of starch granules per chloroplast, suggesting that SS4 is necessary for the normal generation of starch granules. To establish whether it plays a direct role in this process, we investigated the circumstances in which granules are formed in ss4 mutants. Starch granule numbers and distribution and the accumulation of starch synthase substrates and products were investigated during ss4 leaf de...

  5. Inter-deriving Semantic Artifacts for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    We present a new abstract machine for Abadi and Cardelli's untyped calculus of objects. What is special about this semantic artifact (i.e., man-made construct) is that is mechanically corresponds to both the reduction semantics (i.e., small-step operational semantics) and the natural semantics (i...... actual substitutions, we then represent object methods as closures and in the same inter-derivational spirit, we present three new semantic artifacts: a reduction semantics for a version of Abadi and Cardelli's untyped calculus of objects with explicit substitutions, an environment-based abstract machine......, and a natural semantics (i.e., an interpreter) with environments. These three new semantic artifacts mechanically correspond to each other, and furthermore, they are coherent with the previous ones since as we show, the two abstract machines are bisimilar. Overall, though, the significance of these artifacts...

  6. Automatic correction of dental artifacts in PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Claes N.; Andersen, Flemming L.; Keller, Sune;

    2015-01-01

    A challenge when using current magnetic resonance (MR)-based attenuation correction in positron emission tomography/MR imaging (PET/MRI) is that the MRIs can have a signal void around the dental fillings that is segmented as artificial air-regions in the attenuation map. For artifacts connected...... to the background, we propose an extension to an existing active contour algorithm to delineate the outer contour using the non-attenuation corrected PET image and the original attenuation map. We propose a combination of two different methods for differentiating the artifacts within the body from the anatomical...... air-regions by first using a template of artifact regions, and second, representing the artifact regions with a combination of active shape models and k-nearest-neighbors. The accuracy of the combined method has been evaluated using 25 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/MR patients. Results showed...

  7. How Do Artifact Models Help Direct SPI Projects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Richardson, Ita

    2015-01-01

    To overcome shortcomings associated with software process improvement (SPI), we previously recommended that process engineers focus on the artifacts to be developed in SPI projects. These artifacts should define desired outcomes, rather than specific methods. During this prior research, we...... developed a model for Artifact-based Software Process Improvement & Management (ArSPI). We are now carrying out studies to confirm our claims that ArSPI will provide benefits such as quality assurance. In this paper, we report on an experimental setting in which we developed and analyzed a strategy to use...... artifact models to direct process model improvement. We analyzed a process specification, the realized model, and the generated electronic process guide. We used ArSPI v0.9 as our process model and the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) as an external reference to provide a set of overall...

  8. Metal artifact reduction based on the combined prior image

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yanbo

    2014-01-01

    Metallic implants introduce severe artifacts in CT images, which degrades the image quality. It is an effective method to reduce metal artifacts by replacing the metal affected projection with the forward projection of a prior image. How to find a good prior image is the key of this class methods, and numerous algorithms have been proposed to address this issue recently. In this work, by using image mutual correlation, pixels in the original reconstructed image or linear interpolation corrected image, which are less affected by artifacts, are selected to build a combined image. Thereafter, a better prior image is generated from the combined image by using tissue classification. The results of three patients' CT images show that the proposed method can reduce metal artifacts remarkably.

  9. A patient-specific scatter artifacts correction method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Wei; Brunner, Stephen; NIU, KAI; Schafer, Sebastian; Royalty, Kevin; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a fast and patient-specific scatter artifact correction method for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) used in image-guided interventional procedures. Due to increased irradiated volume of interest in CBCT imaging, scatter radiation has increased dramatically compared to 2D imaging, leading to a degradation of image quality. In this study, we propose a scatter artifact correction strategy using an analytical convolution-based model whose free parameters are estimated usin...

  10. Artifact suppression and analysis of brain activities with electroencephalography signals

    OpenAIRE

    Rashed-Al-Mahfuz, Md.; Islam, Md. Rabiul; Hirose, Keikichi; Molla, Md. Khademul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interface is a communication system that connects the brain with computer (or other devices) but is not dependent on the normal output of the brain (i.e., peripheral nerve and muscle). Electro-oculogram is a dominant artifact which has a significant negative influence on further analysis of real electroencephalography data. This paper presented a data adaptive technique for artifact suppression and brain wave extraction from electroencephalography signals to detect regional bra...

  11. Mitigation of artifacts in rtm with migration kernel decomposition

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge

    2012-01-01

    The migration kernel for reverse-time migration (RTM) can be decomposed into four component kernels using Born scattering and migration theory. Each component kernel has a unique physical interpretation and can be interpreted differently. In this paper, we present a generalized diffraction-stack migration approach for reducing RTM artifacts via decomposition of migration kernel. The decomposition leads to an improved understanding of migration artifacts and, therefore, presents us with opportunities for improving the quality of RTM images.

  12. A new interpretation of distortion artifacts in sweep measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    The characterization of acoustical spaces by means of impulse response measurements is often biased by the nonlinear behavior of the loudspeaker used to excite the system under test. In this context the distortion immunity provided by the sweep technique has been investigated. The results show th...... that the sweep method can reject a significant amount of distortion artifacts but, in contrast to what is claimed in the literature, it cannot exclude all distortion artifacts from the causal part of the estimated impulse response....

  13. Artifact versus arrhythmia in pseudo-polymorphic tachycardia; case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed V; Patel A; Sharma A; Bloomfield D

    2015-01-01

    Vaseem Ahmed, Anish Patel, Abhishek Sharma, Dennis Bloomfield Department of Medicine, Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY, USA Abstract: We present the case of a young male patient in sinus rhythm whose electrocardiogram (ECG) was initially misinterpreted as ventricular tachycardia. Electrocardiographic artifact appearing to be ventricular tachycardia commonly occurs and ECG criteria have been described to aid in the discrimination between artifact and true arrhythmia. Ther...

  14. Production of modified starches by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a new processing method for the production of modified starch, gamma irradiation and four kinds of inorganic peroxides were applied to commercial corn starch. The addition of inorganic peroxides without gamma irradiation or gamma irradiation without the addition of inorganic peroxides effectively decreased initial viscosity, but did not sufficiently keep viscosity stable. The combination of adding ammonium persulfate (APS) and gamma irradiation showed the lowest initial viscosity and the best stability out of the tested four kinds of inorganic peroxides. Among the tested mixing methods of APS, soaking was found to be more effective than dry blending or spraying. Therefore, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with sufficient viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added APS to starch

  15. Starch Modification by Graft Copolymerization of Acrylonitrile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞贤; 李莉; 茹宗玲; 张黎明; 高建平; 田汝川

    2003-01-01

    The graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) onto starch under the initiation of potassium permanganate was investigated. The effect of various reaction conditions on the graft copolymerization was studied. The relationships between the grafting rate and the initiator concentration of potassium permanganate, monomer acrylonitrile and backbone starch, as well as reaction temperature were established. The oxidation reaction of starch with manganic ions and valence changes of manganic ions during the graft copolymerization were discussed. The results show that manganic ion Mn7+ underwent a series of valence changes during the graft copolymerization: Mn(Ⅶ) → Mn(Ⅳ) → Mn(Ⅲ) → Mn(Ⅱ). The grafting rate of the graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto starch is also given.

  16. Immobilization of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase onto ion-exchange resin beads and hydrolysis of natural starch at high concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kapish; Jana, Asim Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Maiti, Mithu

    2013-11-01

    α-Amylase was immobilized on Dowex MAC-3 with 88 % yield and amyloglucosidase on Amberlite IRA-400 ion-exchange resin beads with 54 % yield by adsorption process. Immobilized enzymes were characterized to measure the kinetic parameters and optimal operational parameters. Optimum substrate concentration and temperature were higher for immobilized enzymes. The thermal stability of the enzymes enhanced after the immobilization. Immobilized enzymes were used in the hydrolysis of the natural starch at high concentration (35 % w/v). The time required for liquefaction of starch to 10 dextrose equivalent (DE) and saccharification of liquefied starch to 96 DE increased. Immobilized enzymes showed the potential for use in starch hydrolysis as done in industry.

  17. Artifact reduction in HARP strain maps using anisotropic smoothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elmoniem, Khaled Z.; Parthasarathy, Vijay; Prince, Jerry L.

    2006-03-01

    Harmonic phase (HARP) MRI is used to measure myocardial motion and strain from tagged MR images. HARP MRI uses limited number of samples from the spectrum of the tagged images to reconstruct motion and strain. The HARP strain maps, however, suffer from artifacts that limit the accuracy of the computations and degrade the appearance of the strain maps. Causes of these, so called 'zebra', artifacts include image noise, Gibbs ringing, and interference from other Fourier spectral peaks. Computing derivatives of the HARP phase, which are needed to estimate strain, further accentuates these artifacts. Previous methods to reduce these artifacts include 1-D and 2-D nonlinear filtering of the HARP derivatives, and a 2-D linear filtering of unwrapped HARP phase. A common drawback among these methods is the lack of proper segmentation of the myocardium from the blood pool. Because of the lack of segmentation, the noisy phase values from the blood pool enter into the computation in the smoothed strain maps, which causes artifacts. In this work, we propose a smoothing method based on anisotropic diffusion that filters the HARP derivatives strictly within the myocardium without the need for prior segmentation. The information about tissue geometry and the strain distribution is used to restrict the smoothing to within the myocardium, thereby ensuring minimum distortion of the final strain map. Preliminary results demonstrate the ability of anisotropic diffusion for better artifact reduction and lesser strain distortion than the existing methods.

  18. Clinical application of MR PROPELLER technology in artifacts reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical value of PROPELLER (periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines enhanced reconstruction, PROPELLER). Methods: Four sequences of conventionality and PROPELLER axial T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and/or diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) were performed in ten normal volunteers with head ceaseless motion and 64 clinical subjects. Motion artifacts were observed in 56 patients in unconsciousness and magnetic-sensitive artifacts in other 8 patients with metallic implants. PROPELLER images and the conventionality images were compared. Results: Sixty-four clinical subjects included the cerebral infarction (n=41), brain metastasis (n=3) and other's disorders (n=20). PROPELLER T2WI had clearer and motion-artifact-free images in both volunteers and patients in unconsciousness. In dental treatment cases, magnetic-susceptibility artifacts were greatly reduced to an accepted level. Comparing with conventional sequences, PROPELLER T2WI/DWI sequences showed promising feature in reduction of artifacts and distinctly defined pathological profile. Conclusion: MR PROPELLER technique offers a means of reducing motion and metallic artifacts, and improving image quality. Intracranial pathology is equally or better demonstrated with PROPELLER. (authors)

  19. Detection of eye blink artifacts from single prefrontal channel electroencephalogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Won-Du; Cha, Ho-Seung; Kim, Kiwoong; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Eye blinks are one of the most influential artifact sources in electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded from frontal channels, and thereby detecting and rejecting eye blink artifacts is regarded as an essential procedure for improving the quality of EEG data. In this paper, a novel method to detect eye blink artifacts from a single-channel frontal EEG signal was proposed by combining digital filters with a rule-based decision system, and its performance was validated using an EEG dataset recorded from 24 healthy participants. The proposed method has two main advantages over the conventional methods. First, it uses single-channel EEG data without the need for electrooculogram references. Therefore, this method could be particularly useful in brain-computer interface applications using headband-type wearable EEG devices with a few frontal EEG channels. Second, this method could estimate the ranges of eye blink artifacts accurately. Our experimental results demonstrated that the artifact range estimated using our method was more accurate than that from the conventional methods, and thus, the overall accuracy of detecting epochs contaminated by eye blink artifacts was markedly increased as compared to conventional methods. The MATLAB package of our library source codes and sample data, named Eyeblink Master, is open for free download.

  20. Artifact removal from EEG signals using adaptive filters in cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artifacts in EEG (electroencephalogram) records are caused by various factors, like line interference, EOG (electro-oculogram) and ECG (electrocardiogram). These noise sources increase the difficulty in analyzing the EEG and to obtaining clinical information. For this reason, it is necessary to design specific filters to decrease such artifacts in EEG records. In this paper, a cascade of three adaptive filters based on a least mean squares (LMS) algorithm is proposed. The first one eliminates line interference, the second adaptive filter removes the ECG artifacts and the last one cancels EOG spikes. Each stage uses a finite impulse response (FIR) filter, which adjusts its coefficients to produce an output similar to the artifacts present in the EEG. The proposed cascade adaptive filter was tested in five real EEG records acquired in polysomnographic studies. In all cases, line-frequency, ECG and EOG artifacts were attenuated. It is concluded that the proposed filter reduces the common artifacts present in EEG signals without removing significant information embedded in these records

  1. Inference and coherence in causal-based artifact categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puebla, Guillermo; Chaigneau, Sergio E

    2014-01-01

    In four experiments, we tested conditions under which artifact concepts support inference and coherence in causal categorization. In all four experiments, participants categorized scenarios in which we systematically varied information about artifacts' associated design history, physical structure, user intention, user action and functional outcome, and where each property could be specified as intact, compromised or not observed. Consistently across experiments, when participants received complete information (i.e., when all properties were observed), they categorized based on individual properties and did not show evidence of using coherence to categorize. In contrast, when the state of some property was not observed, participants gave evidence of using available information to infer the state of the unobserved property, which increased the value of the available information for categorization. Our data offers answers to longstanding questions regarding artifact categorization, such as whether there are underlying causal models for artifacts, which properties are part of them, whether design history is an artifact's causal essence, and whether physical appearance or functional outcome is the most central artifact property.

  2. Sampling artifact in volume weighted velocity measurement. I. Theoretical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengjie; Zheng, Yi; Jing, Yipeng

    2015-02-01

    Cosmology based on large scale peculiar velocity prefers volume weighted velocity statistics. However, measuring the volume weighted velocity statistics from inhomogeneously distributed galaxies (simulation particles/halos) suffers from an inevitable and significant sampling artifact. We study this sampling artifact in the velocity power spectrum measured by the nearest particle velocity assignment method by Zheng et al., [Phys. Rev. D 88, 103510 (2013).]. We derive the analytical expression of leading and higher order terms. We find that the sampling artifact suppresses the z =0 E -mode velocity power spectrum by ˜10 % at k =0.1 h /Mpc , for samples with number density 10-3 (Mpc /h )-3 . This suppression becomes larger for larger k and for sparser samples. We argue that this source of systematic errors in peculiar velocity cosmology, albeit severe, can be self-calibrated in the framework of our theoretical modelling. We also work out the sampling artifact in the density-velocity cross power spectrum measurement. A more robust evaluation of related statistics through simulations will be presented in a companion paper by Zheng et al., [Sampling artifact in volume weighted velocity measurement. II. Detection in simulations and comparison with theoretical modelling, arXiv:1409.6809.]. We also argue that similar sampling artifact exists in other velocity assignment methods and hence must be carefully corrected to avoid systematic bias in peculiar velocity cosmology.

  3. Artifact-Based Transformation of IBM Global Financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tian; Cohn, David; Flatgard, Adrian; Hahn, Sandy; Linehan, Mark; Nandi, Prabir; Nigam, Anil; Pinel, Florian; Vergo, John; Wu, Frederick Y.

    IBM Global Financing (IGF) is transforming its business using the Business Artifact Method, an innovative business process modeling technique that identifies key business artifacts and traces their life cycles as they are processed by the business. IGF is a complex, global business operation with many business design challenges. The Business Artifact Method is a fundamental shift in how to conceptualize, design and implement business operations. The Business Artifact Method was extended to solve the problem of designing a global standard for a complex, end-to-end process while supporting local geographic variations. Prior to employing the Business Artifact method, process decomposition, Lean and Six Sigma methods were each employed on different parts of the financing operation. Although they provided critical input to the final operational model, they proved insufficient for designing a complete, integrated, standard operation. The artifact method resulted in a business operations model that was at the right level of granularity for the problem at hand. A fully functional rapid prototype was created early in the engagement, which facilitated an improved understanding of the redesigned operations model. The resulting business operations model is being used as the basis for all aspects of business transformation in IBM Global Financing.

  4. Biodegradable starch-based polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorova, Anna I.; Tyukova, Irina S.; Trufanova, Elena I.

    2000-05-01

    The effects of low-molecular-weight additives, temperature and mechanical action on the structure and properties of starch are discussed. Special attention is given to mixtures of starch with synthetic polymers, e.g., co-polymers of ethylene with vinyl acetate, vinyl alcohol, acrylic acid, cellulose derivatives and other natural polymers. These mixtures can be used in the development of novel environmentally safe materials (films, coatings, packaging materials) and various articles for short-term use. The bibliography includes 105 references.

  5. Development of starch-based materials

    OpenAIRE

    Habeych Narvaez, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Starch-based materials show potential as fully degradable plastics. However, the current applicability of these materials is limited due to their poor moisture tolerance and mechanical properties. Starch is therefore frequently blended with other polymers to make the material more suitable for special or severe circumstances. By varying the components of the blend and the process conditions, the morphology and hence the properties can be controlled. A clear understanding over the structure fo...

  6. Genetic modification of cassava enhances starch production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Recently, a field test of transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) for enhanced starch production by the Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology & Ecology (SIPPE), the CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, proved successful. Through application of transgenic technologies in cassava, the starch quality of this tropical root crop was largely improved. The new cassava cultivars are believed to have a tremendous potential for industrial application in the future.

  7. Preparation of porous hydroxyapatite ceramics with starch additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lei; NING Xiao-shan; CHEN Ke-xin; XIAO Qun-fang; ZHOU He-ping

    2005-01-01

    Porous ceramics prepared from nano-sized hydroxyapatite powders by adding water soluble starch and insoluble starch were investigated. The results show that small pores of several micrometers or less can be produced by adding water soluble starch as a pore former. Two kinds of starch have different pore forming mechanisms. The permeability of the porous ceramics can be greatly improved by adding the insoluble starch to channel the small pores rather than solely using water soluble starch. The control of permeability can be achieved by adjusting the content ratio of water soluble starch to insoluble starch. Strength tests show the ceramics have rather high strength. Therefore a kind of porous filtering material with small pores, controllable permeability and good strength can be prepared by using starch additives.

  8. Physicochemical properties and digestibility of hydrothermally treated waxy rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Feng; Ma, Fei; Kong, Fansheng; Gao, Qunyu; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-04-01

    Waxy rice starch was subjected to annealing (ANN) and heat-moisture treatment (HMT). These starches were also treated by a combination of ANN and HMT. The impact of single and dual modifications (ANN-HMT and HMT-ANN) on the molecular weight (M(w)), crystalline structure, thermal properties, and the digestibility were investigated. The relative crystallinity and short-range order on the granule surface increased on ANN, whereas decreased on HMT. All treated starches showed lower M(w) than that of the native starch. Gelatinization onset temperature, peak temperature and conclusion temperature increased for both single and dual treatments. Increased slowly digestible starch content was found on HMT and ANN-HMT. However, resistant starch levels decreased in all treated starches as compared with native starch. The results would imply that hydrothermal treatment induced structural changes in waxy rice starch significantly affected its digestibility.

  9. Radiation grafting of styrene on starch with high efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, N.; Akhavan, A.; Ataeivarjovi, E.

    2013-04-01

    Wheat starch grafted with polystyrene (PS-g-starch) was synthesized via polymerization grafting of styrene on starch by gamma-ray. The effects of starch/styrene weight ratio, and amount of applied doses (5-40 kGy) on the percentage of grafting, G (%), were investigated. The results showed that G (%) increased with increasing starch content. The optimum condition, starch/styrene weight ratio 1/3 and the applied dose 10 kGy, led to 252.9% of grafting. The obtained graft copolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. FTIR spectroscopy as well as the XRD analysis exhibited the changes in chemical and crystalline structure of starch after grafting reaction. TGA demonstrated the changes in thermal stability of PS-g-starch copolymer. SEM micrographs indicated porous patches of PS adhering on the starch.

  10. Enhanced accumulation of starch and total carbohydrates in alginate-immobilized Chlorella spp. induced by Azospirillum brasilense: II. Heterotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choix, Francisco J; de-Bashan, Luz E; Bashan, Yoav

    2012-10-10

    The effect of the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense jointly immobilized with Chlorella vulgaris or C. sorokiniana in alginate beads on total carbohydrates and starch was studied under dark and heterotrophic conditions for 144 h in synthetic growth medium supplemented with either d-glucose or Na-acetate as carbon sources. In all treatments, enhanced total carbohydrates and starch content per culture and per cell was obtained after 24h; only jointly immobilized C. vulgaris growing on d-glucose significantly increased total carbohydrates and starch content after 96 h. Enhanced accumulation of carbohydrate and starch under jointly immobilized conditions was variable with time of sampling and substrate used. Similar results occurred when the microalgae was immobilized alone. In both microalgae growing on either carbon sources, the bacterium promoted accumulation of carbohydrates and starch; when the microalgae were immobilized alone, they used the carbon sources for cell multiplication. In jointly immobilized conditions with Chlorella spp., affinity to carbon source and volumetric productivity and yield were higher than when Chlorella spp. were immobilized alone; however, the growth rate was higher in microalgae immobilized alone. This study demonstrates that under heterotrophic conditions, A. brasilense promotes the accumulation of carbohydrates in two strains Chlorella spp. under certain time-substrate combinations, producing mainly starch. As such, this bacterium is a biological factor that can change the composition of compounds in microalgae in dark, heterotrophic conditions.

  11. Characteristics of Hydroxypropyl Starch of Sorghum Mutant Line Zh-30 and its Potential use in Paper Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorghum mutant line Zh-30 is a breeding line developed at the Center for the Application of Isotope and Radiation Technology, BATAN by using mutation techniques. Gamma Irradiation with the dose of 300 Gy was used to induced plant genetic variability. Through selection processes in several generations, the mutant line Zh-30 was identified to have better agronomic characteristics, better grain quality and higher yield than the original variety. Research on starch quality of this mutant line was done to identify its potential use in a paper industry. Hydroxypropyl starch derivatives of this sorghum lines were prepared by varying alkalinity of the reaction mixtures using propylene oxide to reach Molar of Substitution (MS) of 0-0.180. Its pasting behavior, paste properties and application in wet end paper processing were evaluated. The optimal amount of addition of hydroxypropyl starch was 1-2 %. At this level, drainage time was lower, so that it decreased paper machine speed. At higher level, it did not improve the burst and tensile strengths but tended to decrease the tear strength of handsheets. The properties of lower pasting temperature, higher water holding capacity lower retrogradation susceptibility, increased viscosity and stability of pastes suggested that hydroxypropyl starch of sorghum Zh-30 was suitable for use in wet end paper processing. Comparing to the original starch, the hydroxypropyl starch of sorghum Zh-30 could significantly improve the strength of handsheets. (author)

  12. Starch and lipid accumulation in eight strains of six Chlorella species under comparatively high light intensity and aeration culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Tsuyoshi; Ota, Shuhei; Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Hirata, Aiko; Zachleder, Vilém; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2014-04-01

    The microalgae family Chlorella species are known to accumulate starch and lipids. Although nitrogen or phosphorous deficiencies promote starch and lipids formation in many microalgae, these deficiencies also limit their growth and productivity. Therefore, the Chlorellaceae strains were attempted to increase starch and lipids productivity under high-light-intensity conditions (600-μmol photons m(-2)s(-1)). The 12:12-h light-dark (LD) cycle conditions elicited more stable growth than the continuous light (LL) conditions, whereas the starch and lipids yields increased in LL conditions. The amount of starch and lipids per cell increased in Chlorella viscosa and Chlorella vulgaris in sulfur-deficient medium, and long-chain fatty acids with 20 or more carbon atoms accumulated in cells grown in sulfur-deficient medium. Accumulation of starch and lipids was investigated in eight strains. The accumulation was strain-dependent, and varied according to the medium and light conditions. Five of the eight Chlorella strains exhibited similar accumulation patterns.

  13. Using co-metabolism to accelerate synthetic starch wastewater degradation and nutrient recovery in photosynthetic bacterial wastewater treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haifeng; Zhang, Guangming; Lu, Yufeng; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Starch wastewater is a type of nutrient-rich wastewater that contains numerous macromolecular polysaccharides. Using photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) to treat starch wastewater can reduce pollutants and enhance useful biomass production. However, PSB cannot directly degrade macromolecular polysaccharides, which weakens the starch degradation effect. Therefore, co-metabolism with primary substances was employed in PSB wastewater treatment to promote starch degradation. The results indicated that co-metabolism is a highly effective method in synthetic starch degradation by PSB. When malic acid was used as the optimal primary substrate, the chemical oxygen demand, total sugar, macromolecules removal and biomass yield were considerably higher than when primary substances were not used, respectively. Malic acid was the primary substrate that played a highly important role in starch degradation. It promoted the alpha-amylase activity to 46.8 U and the PSB activity, which induced the degradation of macromolecules. The products in the wastewater were ethanol, acetic acid and propionic acid. Ethanol was the primary product throughout the degradation process. The introduction of co-metabolism with malic acid to treat wastewater can accelerate macromolecules degradation and bioresource production and weaken the acidification effect. This method provides another pathway for bioresource recovery from wastewater. This approach is a sustainable and environmentally friendly wastewater treatment technology.

  14. Effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat on milk production and energy partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Lock, A L

    2015-10-01

    The effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat to provide a diet with similar net energy for lactation (NEL) density on yields of milk and milk components and on energy partitioning were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n = 32; 109 ± 22 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence. Treatments were a high-starch diet containing 33% corn grain (mixture of dry ground and high-moisture corn; HS) or a high-fiber, high-fat diet containing 2.5% palmitic acid-enriched fatty acid (FA) supplement (HFF). Diets contained corn silage, alfalfa silage, and wheat straw as forage sources; HS contained 32% starch, 3.2% FA, and 25% neutral detergent fiber, whereas HFF contained 16% starch, 5.4% FA, and 33% neutral detergent fiber. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced milk yield, milk protein concentration, and milk protein yield, but increased milk fat concentration, milk fat yield, milk energy output, and milk to feed ratio (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake). The HFF treatment reduced the yield of de novo synthesized ( 16-carbon) milk FA was not different. The HFF treatment increased plasma concentrations of triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids, but decreased plasma concentration of insulin. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced body weight gain, change in body condition score, and fat thickness over the rump and rib. Calculated body energy gain, as a fraction of NEL use, was less for HFF than HS, whereas milk energy as a fraction of NEL use was increased for HFF. We concluded that the 2 treatments resulted in similar apparent NEL densities and intakes, but the HS treatment partitioned more energy toward body gain whereas the HFF treatment partitioned more energy toward milk. A high-fiber, high-fat diet might diminish the incidence of over conditioning in mid-lactation cows while maintaining high milk production. PMID:26233447

  15. The use of dialdehyde starch derivatives in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonkiewicz, Jacek; Para, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Products of the reaction between dialdehyde starch and Y-NH2 compounds (e.g. semicarbazide or hydrazine) are effective ligands for metal ions. The usefulness of these derivatives was tested in the experiment, both in terms of the immobilization of heavy metal ions in soil and the potential application in phytoextraction processes. The experimental model comprised maize and the ions of such metals as: Zn(II), Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II). The amount of maize yield, as well as heavy metal content and uptake by the aboveground parts and roots of maize, were studied during a three-year pot experiment. The results of the study indicate the significant impact of heavy metals on reduced yield and increased heavy metal content in maize. Soil-applied dialdehyde starch derivatives resulted in lower yields, particularly disemicarbazone (DASS), but in heavy metal-contaminated soils they largely limited the negative impact of these metals both on yielding and heavy metal content in plants, particularly dihydrazone (DASH). It was demonstrated that the application of dihydrazone (DASH) to a soil polluted with heavy metals boosted the uptake of Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd from the soil, hence there is a possibility to use this compound in the phytoextraction of these metals from the soil. Decreased Ni uptake was also determined, hence the possibility of using this compound in the immobilization of this metal. The study showed that dialdehyde starch disemicarbazone was ineffective in the discussed processes.

  16. The coherent artifact in modern pulse measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Justin; Wong, Tsz Chun; Bartels, Randy; Trebino, Rick

    2012-01-01

    We simulate multi-shot intensity-and-phase measurements of unstable ultrashort-pulse trains using frequency-resolved-optical-gating (FROG) and spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER). Both techniques fail to reveal the pulse structure. FROG yields the average pulse duration and suggests the instability by exhibiting disagreement between measured and retrieved traces. SPIDER under-estimates the average pulse duration but retrieves the correct average pulse spectral phase. An analytical calculation confirms this behavior.

  17. Effect of waxy rice flour and cassava starch on freeze-thaw stability of rice starch gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenrein, Sanguansri; Preechathammawong, Nutsuda

    2012-10-01

    Repeatedly frozen and thawed rice starch gel affects quality. This study investigated how incorporating waxy rice flour (WF) and cassava starch (CS) in rice starch gel affects factors used to measure quality. When rice starch gels containing 0-2% WF and CS were subjected to 5 freeze-thaw cycles, both WF and CS reduced the syneresis in first few cycles. However CS was more effective in reducing syneresis than WF. The different composite arrangement of rice starch with WF or CS caused different mechanisms associated with the rice starch gel retardation of retrogradation, reduced the spongy structure and lowered syneresis. Both swollen granules of rice starch and CS caused an increase in the hardness of the unfrozen and freeze-thawed starch gel while highly swollen WF granules caused softer gels. These results suggested that WF and CS were effective in preserving quality in frozen rice starch based products.

  18. Effect of starch types on properties of biodegradable polymer based on thermoplastic starch process by injection molding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossathorn Tanetrungroj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study effects of different starch types on the properties of biodegradable polymer based on thermoplastic starch (TPS were investigated. Different types of starch containing different contents of amylose and amylopectin were used, i.e. cassava starch, mungbean starch, and arrowroot starch. The TPS polymers were compounded and shaped using an internal mixer and an injection molding machine, respectively. It was found that the amount of amylose and amylopectin contents on native starch influence the properties of the TPS polymer. A high amylose starch of TPMS led to higher strength, hardness, degree of crystallization than the high amylopectin starch of TPCS. In addition, function group analysis by Fourier transforms infrared spectrophotometer, water absorption, and biodegradation by soil burial test were also examined.

  19. Characterization of starch films containing starch nanoparticles: part 1: physical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ai-Min; Wang, Li-Jun; Li, Dong; Adhikari, Benu

    2013-07-25

    We report, for the first time, the preparation method and characteristics of starch films incorporating spray dried and vacuum freeze dried starch nanoparticles. Physical properties of these films such as morphology, crystallinity, water vapor permeability (WVP), opacity, and glass transition temperature (Tg) and mechanical properties (strain versus temperature, strain versus stress, Young's modulus and toughness) were measured. Addition of both starch nanoparticles in starch films increased roughness of surface, lowered degree of crystallinity by 23.5%, WVP by 44% and Tg by 4.3°C, respectively compared to those of starch-only films. Drying method used in preparation of starch nanoparticles only affected opacity of films. The incorporation of nanoparticles in starch films resulted into denser films due to which the extent of variation of strain with temperature was much lower. The toughness and Young's modulus of films containing both types of starch nanoparticles were lower than those of control films especially at <100°C. PMID:23768605

  20. Green starch conversions : Studies on starch acetylation in densified CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muljana, Henky; Picchioni, Francesco; Heeres, Hero J.; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.

    2010-01-01

    The acetylation of potato starch with acetic anhydride (AAH) and sodium acetate (NaOAc) as catalyst in densified CO2 was explored in a batch reactor setup. The effects of process variables such as pressure (6-9.8 MPa), temperature (40-90 degrees C), AAH to starch ratio (2-5 mol/mol AGU), NaOAc to st

  1. In vitro starch digestion correlates well with rate and extent of starch digestion in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.; Veldman, R.; Veen, W.A.G.; Aar, van der P.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for poultry are based on digested components (fat, protein and nitrogen-free extracts). Digestible starch is the most important energy source in broiler chicken feeds and is part of the nitrogen-free extract fraction. Digestible starch may be predicted using an in vit

  2. Polymer-polymer miscibility in PEO/cationic starch and PEO/hydrophobic starch blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purposes were evaluating the influence of different starches on the miscibility with Poly(ethylene oxide (PEO and their effects on the spherulite growth rate. Polymer-polymer miscibility in PEO/cationic starch and PEO/hydrophobic starch blends consisting of different w/w ratios (100/0, 95/05, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 65/35 and 60/40 was investigated. This analysis was based on the depression in the equilibrium melting temperature (Tm0. By treating the data of thermal analysis (Differential Scanning Calorimetry – DSC with Nishi-Wang equation, a positive value (0.68 was found for the interaction parameter of PEO/cationic starch. For PEO/hydrophobic starch blends, a negative value (–0.63 was obtained for the interaction parameter. The results suggested that PEO/cationic starch system should be immiscible. However, the system PEO/hydrophobic starch was considered to be miscible in the whole range of studied compositions. Through optical microscopy analysis, it was concluded that the spherulite growth rate is significantly affected by changing the amount and the type of starch as well.

  3. STARCH-OIL INTERACTION IN DRY FILM LUBRICANTS WITH CHEMICALLY MODIFIED STARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch is one of the most abundant farm-based raw materials. It is a significant component of such high volume commodity crops as corn, potato, rice, wheat, and barley. Because of the large surplus of these crops over demand, there is a great deal of interest in developing new uses for starch-base...

  4. Physicochemical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of potato starch/protein blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhan-Hui; Donner, Elizabeth; Yada, Rickey Y; Liu, Qiang

    2016-12-10

    This study aimed to investigate effects of starch-protein interactions on physicochemical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of composite potato starch/protein blends (0, 5, 10, or 15% protein) during processing (cooking, cooling and reheating). The effect on recrystallization and short-range ordering in starch was studied by light microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that protein in the blend proportionally restricted starch granule swelling during cooking and facilitated amylopectin recrystallization during cold-storage. The facilitating effect of protein diminished with increasing blend ratio. Resistant starch content in the processed blends was positively correlated to intensity ratio of 1053/1035cm(-1) in FTIR spectra arising from slow retrogradation of amylopectin (r(2)>0.88, P≤0.05), whose formation was favored by the presence of protein in the blends and further enhanced by cooling of cooked blends. As a conclusion, starch-protein interaction reduced starch digestibility of the processed blends. PMID:27577912

  5. Effect of Drought Stress During Flowering Stage on Starch Accumulation and Starch Synthesis Enzymes in Sorghum Grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Bing; ZHOU Yu-fei; GAO Ming-yue; ZHANG Zhuang; HAN Yi; YANG Guang-dong; XU Wen-juan; HUANG Rui-dong

    2014-01-01

    Starch content is a key factor affecting sorghum grain quality. The research of sorghum grain starch accumulation and the related synthesis enzyme activities has great signiifcance for understanding the mechanisms of starch metabolisms. The differences between a high and a low starch content sorghum hybrids (Tieza 17 and Liaoza 11, respectively) in grain starch accumulation and the related synthesis enzyme activities were assessed following imposition of water stress during lfowering stage. The total starch, amylase and amylopectin accumulation all decreased at the mid-late stage of grain iflling under drought stress during lfowering stage. The maximum and mean accumulation rates also decreased. During grain iflling, soluble starch synthase (SSS), granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS), starch branching enzyme (SBE), and starch debranching enzymes (DBE) activities were all affected, though differently. Drought stress reduced starch accumulation in a larger extent for Tieza 17 than Liaoza 11. Drought stress during lfowing stage reduced starch synthesis enzyme activities, thus reducing starch accumulation in grains, and the differences between starch components were also demonstrated under drought stress.

  6. Effects of Weak Light on Starch Accumulation and Starch Synthesis Enzyme Activities in Rice at the Grain Filling Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tian; Ryu OHSUGI; Tohru YAMAGISHI; Haruto SASAKI

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic changes of starch, amylose, sucrose contents and the activities of starch synthesis enzymes under shading treatments after flowering were studied using two dce varieties IR72 (indica) and Nipponbare (japonica) as materials. Under shading treatments, the starch,amylose and sucrose contents decreased, while ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADPGPPase) activity only changed a little, soluble starch synthase activity and granule bound starch synthase activity decreased, soluble starch branching enzyme (SSBE, Q-enzyme) activity and granule bound starch branching enzyme (GBSBE, Q-enzyme) activity increased, and starch debranching enzyme (DBE, R-enzyme) activity vaded with varieties. Correlation analyses showed that the changes of starch content were positively and significantly correlated with the changes of sucrose content in the weak light. Both ADPGPPase activity and SSBE activity were positively and significantly correlated with starch accumulation rate. It was implied that the decline of starch synthase activities was related to the decrease of starch content and the increase of the activity of starch branching enzyme played an important role in the decrease of the ratio of amylose to the total starch under the weak light.

  7. Physicochemical Properties of Gamma-Irradiated Corn Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural modification of corn starch by gamma irradiation was evaluated for under dry conditions at varied intensities from 0 to 40 kGy. Under scanning electron microscopy, the granule shape of corn starch was not significantly affected by the irradiation up to 40 kGy. In addition, X-ray diffraction and melting patterns of the irradiated starches were similar to those of the native starch, indicating that crystalline regions in the starch granules were not changed by irradiation. However, the pattern of gel permeation column chromatography showed a significant increase in partial hydrolysis of gamma irradiated starch samples

  8. Degradation of corn starch under the influence of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of corn (maize) starch with different doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 1 x 105 rad to 1 x 106 rad resulted in the increase of starch acidity and reducing power. Molecular degradation was observed as a result of marked decrease in starch viscosity and intinsic viscosity as well as swelling capacity. The gelatinization time and temperature of the irradiated starch became shorter than in the control sample. Internal changes in the irradiated starch occured as a result of lowering the number of glucose unit per segment in the irradiated starch molecules. All changes were proportional to the doses of gamma irradiation used. (orig.)

  9. Water diffusivity in starch-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, R B; Carillo, P J; Chung, T Y; Gilbert, S G; Hayakawa, K; Marousis, S; Saravacos, G D; Solberg, M

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of structure, and component interactions, on the sorption and transport properties of water in starch-based systems. We compared the effective diffusivity (Deff) of water in two starches, with differing amylose-amylopectin ratios, using either kinetics of water adsorption or analysis of drying curves (water desorption) to estimate Deff. The effect of incorporating small sugar molecules into the granular or gelatinized starch matrices on Deff was measured by drying curve analysis. To investigate the possible mechanisms of water transport, the porosity and microscopic appearance of the samples at different stages of drying were determined. In a complementary study, sorption isotherms and the number of accessible "binding" sites in the starch and starch-sugar systems were determined using gravimetric analysis and inverse gas chromatography (IGC) 'probe analysis'. In the case of the starch-sugar systems, the measurements were made after the components had been 'mechanically mixed', or after more intimate mixing had been achieved by a co-freeze-drying process. The Deff of the starches was found to depend, in a complex way, on the moisture content of the samples. At relatively high moisture contents, the predominant mode of water transport was by liquid diffusion. As the samples became drier, their porosity increased, and the predominant mode of moisture transport was by vapor phase diffusion. As the samples became very dry (less than 10% water content), Deff fell significantly. Incorporation of sugars, in general, led to a reduction of Deff, which was correlated with a corresponding fall in porosity. In agreement with the findings of other workers, for the starches studied, the value of Deff determined from water adsorption measurements was significantly less than Deff determined from water desorption (drying curve analysis). The form of the Deff versus moisture content relationship was, however, independent

  10. PATI RESISTEN SAGU HASIL PROSES HIDROLISIS ASAM DAN AUTOCLAVING-COOLING [Resistant Starch of Sago from Acid Hydrolyzis and Autoclaving-Cooling Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feri Kusnandar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to produce resistant starch (RS from a combination of acid hydrolysis and autoclaving-cooling processes of sago starch. This study compared two methods of starch modification to produce RS, i.e. (1 acid hydrolysis treatment followed by autoclaving-cooling cycles (AH-AC, and (2 autoclaving-cooling cycles followed by acid hydrolysis treatment (AC-AH. The acid hydrolysis used 1 and 2% HCl while autoclaving-cooling process consisted of three-cycle of autoclaving at 121°C for 30 min followed by cooling at 4°C for 72 hrs. Both AH-AC and AC-AH modification methods decreased starch content, altered amylose and amylopectin ratio, and increased RS contents. Both modification methods also yielded nearly flat pasting profiles at both heating and cooling phases as compared to that of native sago starch. At the same HCl concentration, the AH-AC process yielded a higher RS content than that of AC-AH. Among all treatments, the acid hydrolysis treatment using 1% HCl followed by three cycles of autoclaving-cooling process yielded the highest RS content (74.28%. The crystallinity of RS was also lower than of native sago starch, but its A crystalline type remained the same.

  11. The study of dental material artifact on magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze possible metal-induced artifacts developed in dental MR images, quantitative analyses were done in a basic experiment using a medium intensity magnetic field. To simplify the relationship between the skull and dental restorations, we prepared metal (Nickel-chromium alloys, Cobalt-chromium alloys, Titanium alloys, Au alloys, Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloys, silver) as well as acrylic resin specimens as 5 mm cubes and as a phantom. Imaging conditions were fast spin echo T2 weight, spin echo T2 weight, spin echo proton density weight, spin echo T1 weight and gradient echo T2*, and imaging directions were transverse, sagittal and coronal. Therefore, 645 different combinations were possible. Nickel-chromium alloys, Cobalt-chromium alloys and Titanium alloys showed artifacts when compared with the acrylic resin control. Au alloys, Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloys and silver did not show a consistent tendency, and images obtained tended to differ from those of the acrylic resin control depending on imaging conditions and direction. The order of artifact development range was Nickel-chromium alloys, Cobalt-chromium alloys, Titanium alloys, Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloys, Au alloys and silver. The strongest and weakest artifacts were observed under the condition of spin echo T2 weight and spin echo T1 weight, respectively. There was no consistent tendency observed among imaging directions; in Nickel-chromium alloys, Cobalt-chromium alloys and Titanium alloys, the artifact area increased in proportion to the increase in the number of specimens. In silver, Au alloys and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloys, the artifact area increased in proportion to the increase in the number of specimens, but only when specimens were arranged parallel to the imaging direction. In Nickel-chromium alloys, Cobalt-chromium alloys and Titanium alloys, artifacts were larger in the horizontal imaging direction than in the vertical direction. (K.H.)

  12. Starch phosphorylation in potato tubers is influenced by allelic variation in the genes encoding glucan water dikinase, starch branching enzymes I and II, and starch synthase III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Ann Carpenter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Starch phosphorylation is an important aspect of plant metabolism due to its role in starch degradation. Moreover, the degree of phosphorylation of starch determines its physicochemical properties and is therefore relevant for industrial uses of starch. Currently, starch is chemically phosphorylated to increase viscosity and paste stability. Potato cultivars with elevated starch phosphorylation would make this process unnecessary, thereby bestowing economic and environmental benefits. Starch phosphorylation is a complex trait which has been previously shown by antisense gene repression to be influenced by a number of genes including those involved in starch synthesis and degradation. We have used an association mapping approach to discover genetic markers associated with the degree of starch phosphorylation. A diverse collection of 193 potato lines was grown in replicated field trials, and the levels of starch phosphorylation at the C6 and C3 positions of the glucosyl residues were determined by mass spectrometry of hydrolyzed starch from tubers. In addition, the potato lines were genotyped by amplicon sequencing and microsatellite analysis, focusing on candidate genes known to be involved in starch synthesis. As potato is an autotetraploid, genotyping included determination of allele dosage. Significant associations (p<0.001 were found with SNPs in the glucan water dikinase (GWD, starch branching enzyme I (SBEI and the starch synthase III (SSIII genes, and with a SSR allele in the SBEII gene. SNPs in the GWD gene were associated with C6 phosphorylation, whereas polymorphisms in the SBEI and SBEII genes were associated with both C6 and C3 phosphorylation and the SNP in the SSIII gene was associated with C3 phosphorylation. These allelic variants have potential as genetic markers for starch phosphorylation in potato.

  13. Effects of cooking methods and starch structures on starch hydrolysis rates of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Michael O; Ai, Yongfeng; Leutcher, Josh L; Jane, Jay-lin

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to understand effects of different cooking methods, including steamed, pilaf, and traditional stir-fried, on starch hydrolysis rates of rice. Rice grains of 3 varieties, japonica, indica, and waxy, were used for the study. Rice starch was isolated from the grain and characterized. Amylose contents of starches from japonica, indica, and waxy rice were 13.5%, 18.0%, and 0.9%, respectively. The onset gelatinization temperature of indica starch (71.6 °C) was higher than that of the japonica and waxy starch (56.0 and 56.8 °C, respectively). The difference was attributed to longer amylopectin branch chains of the indica starch. Starch hydrolysis rates and resistant starch (RS) contents of the rice varieties differed after they were cooked using different methods. Stir-fried rice displayed the least starch hydrolysis rate followed by pilaf rice and steamed rice for each rice variety. RS contents of freshly steamed japonica, indica, and waxy rice were 0.7%, 6.6%, and 1.3%, respectively; those of rice pilaf were 12.1%, 13.2%, and 3.4%, respectively; and the stir-fried rice displayed the largest RS contents of 15.8%, 16.6%, and 12.1%, respectively. Mechanisms of the large RS contents of the stir-fried rice were studied. With the least starch hydrolysis rate and the largest RS content, stir-fried rice would be a desirable way of preparing rice for food to reduce postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses and to improve colon health of humans.

  14. Cross-linking of starch with 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane or 1,2,7,8-diepoxyoctane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simkovic, I.; Hricovini, M.; Mendichi, R.; Soest, van J.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Water-soluble and native potato starches were modified with 1, 2, 3, 4-diepoxybutane (DEB) or 1, 2, 7, 8-diepoxyoctane (DEO). Optimal reaction conditions and the effectiveness of the cross-linkers were determined on the basis of yields of water-soluble and insoluble material. The presence of the int

  15. Preparation of metallic nanoparticles by irradiation in starch aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemţanu, Monica R., E-mail: monica.nemtanu@inflpr.ro; Braşoveanu, Mirela, E-mail: monica.nemtanu@inflpr.ro; Iacob, Nicuşor, E-mail: monica.nemtanu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Electron Accelerators Laboratory, 409 Atomiştilor St., PO Box MG-36, 077125, Bucharest-Măgurele (Romania)

    2014-11-24

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in a single step by electron beam irradiation reduction of silver ions in aqueous solution containing starch. The nanoparticles were characterized by spectrophotocolorimetry and compared with those obtained by chemical (thermal) reduction method. The results showed that the smaller sizes of AgNPs were prepared with higher yields as the irradiation dose increased. The broadening of particle size distribution occurred by increasing of irradiation dose and dose rate. Chromatic parameters such as b* (yellow-blue coordinate), C* (chroma) and ΔE{sub ab} (total color difference) could characterize the nanoparticles with respect of their concentration. Hue angle h{sup o} was correlated to the particle size distribution. Experimental data of the irradiated samples were also subjected to factor analysis using principal component extraction and varimax rotation in order to reveal the relation between dependent variables and independent variables and to reduce their number. The radiation-based method provided silver nanoparticles with higher concentration and narrower size distribution than those produced by chemical reduction method. Therefore, the electron beam irradiation is effective for preparation of silver nanoparticles using starch aqueous solution as dispersion medium.

  16. COMPRESSIONAL PROPERTY STUDY OF DIGITARIA IBURUA (POACEAE STARCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIDEON O. OKPANACHI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research work was aimed at determining the compression behavior of Digitaria iburua starch (DS and acid hydrolyzed starch (MCS using gelatin (GEL as a standard compressible excipient. Methods: DS was extracted from the grains and then acid hydrolyzed to produce MCS. The particle density of DS, MCS and GEL were determined. Compacts (500 mg of DS, MCS and GEL were produced by compressing the powder at various pre-determined pressures (56.625-311.438 MNm-2. The compression properties of the compacts were evaluated using the Heckel equation. Results: The Heckel plots for DS, MCS and GEL possessed nonlinear curves at the lower and higher pressures and linear curves in between. The mean yield pressure (PY was high which is indicative of higher resistance against plastic deformation. Modification of DS to MCS increased PY for deformation with corresponding decline in onset of deformation and lesser total deformation. The PY, the relative density at zero pressure (DO and the total deformation occurring in the powder (DA values ranked in the following order; GEL>MCS>DS. The fragmentation tendency of the powder (DB ranked in this order; MCS>GEL>DS. Conclusion: DS and MCS fragmented on compaction. DS and MCS are not suitable direct compressible excipient.

  17. Method for reducing windmill artifacts in multislice CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kevin M.; Žabic, Stanislav

    2011-03-01

    Thin-slice images reconstructed from helical multi-slice CT scans typically display artifacts known as windmill artifacts, which arise from not satisfying the Nyquist sampling criteria in the patient longitudinal direction. Since these are essentially aliasing artifacts, they can be reduced or removed by trading off resolution, either globally (by reconstructing thicker slices) or locally (by local smoothing of the strong gradients). The obvious drawback to this approach is the associated loss in resolution. Another approach is to utilize an x-ray tube with the capability to modulate the focal spot in the z-direction, to effectively improve the sampling rate. This work presents a new method for windmill artifact reduction based on total variation minimization in the image domain, which is capable of removing windmill artifacts while at the same time preserving the resolution of anatomic structures within the images. This is a big improvement over previous reconstruction methods that sacrifice resolution, and it provides practically the same benefits as a z-switching x-ray tube with a much simpler impact to the overall CT system.

  18. Metal artifact reduction method using metal streaks image subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pua, Rizza D.; Cho, Seung Ryong [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Many studies have been dedicated for metal artifact reduction (MAR); however, the methods are successful to varying degrees depending on situations. Sinogram in-painting, filtering, iterative method are some of the major categories of MAR. Each has its own merits and weaknesses. A combination of these methods or hybrid methods have also been developed to make use of the different benefits of two techniques and minimize the unfavorable results. Our method focuses on the in-paitning approach and a hybrid MAR described by Xia et al. Although in-painting scheme is an effective technique in reducing the primary metal artifacts, a major drawback is the reintroduction of new artifacts that can be caused by an inaccurate interpolation process. Furthermore, combining the segmented metal image to the corrected nonmetal image in the final step of a conventional inpainting approach causes an issue of incorrect metal pixel values. Our proposed method begins with a sinogram in-painting approach and ends with an image-based metal artifact reduction scheme. This work provides a simple, yet effective solution for reducing metal artifacts and acquiring the original metal pixel information. The proposed method demonstrated its effectiveness in a simulation setting. The proposed method showed image quality that is comparable to the standard MAR; however, quantitatively more accurate than the standard MAR.

  19. Artifacts by dental materials on magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved to be a valuable method for evaluation of the head and neck. Unfortunately, metallic devices associated with certain dental fillings and appliances often cause variable artifacts that can obscure normal or pathologic conditions on MR and computed tomography. In this work, we assessed the MR appearance of dental prosthetic materials in vitro and in vivo including precious alloys, nonprecions alloys, resin, amalgam and titanium alloy. For in vivo studies, these materials were placed in healthy volunteer's mouths and then images were assessed. Analysis of the appearance of shape and extent of artifact, and observed influence of these artifacts on the image interpretation at 0.2 Tesla permanent type MR scanner were valuated. Material used as temporary or permanent filling of crowns such as amalgam, precious alloy and, microfilled resin did not cause artifact on the image. The size of the artifact produced by the nonprecious alloys was influenced by the ferromagnetism of the object and the volume prosthesis, and was related to the scanning sequence. Nonprecious alloys produced minimal local signal distortion, where precious alloys, and dental resin had no effect on the MR images in vivo. These results were mainly from a low field strength MR scanner used in this study

  20. Motion Artifact in the MR imaging of temporomandibular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is indispensable for the diagnosis of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Motion Artifacts of MRI occur more frequently than in other conventional methods, because it takes a long time to obtain the images. This paper reported on Motion Artifacts on MRI. MRI studies of 232 temporomandibular joints were performed in 116 patients with TMD by using a 0.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner, with spin echo sequence: protondensity-weighted. And we took MRI slices at opening phase and closing phase. So 232 slices were gathered and we evaluated clinically the incidence of Motion Artifacts, that is to say, double and multiple images and other factors. The 103 slices in 56 patients showed Motion Artifacts. There is no significant difference between sexes. By age group, those in their teens were most frequent, followed by those in their fifties, forties, thirties and twenties. Also the same results were obtained for double image and multiple image. Incidence of Motion Artifact was most frequent at the opening phase. There is no significant difference between double and multiple image. (author)

  1. Image Degradation in Microscopic Images: Avoidance, Artifacts, and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roels, Joris; Aelterman, Jan; De Vylder, Jonas; Lippens, Saskia; Luong, Hiêp Q; Guérin, Christopher J; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    The goal of modern microscopy is to acquire high-quality image based data sets. A typical microscopy workflow is set up in order to address a specific biological question and involves different steps. The first step is to precisely define the biological question, in order to properly come to an experimental design for sample preparation and image acquisition. A better object representation allows biological users to draw more reliable scientific conclusions. Image restoration can manipulate the acquired data in an effort to reduce the impact of artifacts (spurious results) due to physical and technical limitations, resulting in a better representation of the object of interest. However, precise usage of these algorithms is necessary so as to avoid further artifacts that might influence the data analysis and bias the conclusions. It is essential to understand image acquisition, and how it introduces artifacts and degradations in the acquired data, so that their effects on subsequent analysis can be minimized. This paper provides an overview of the fundamental artifacts and degradations that affect many micrographs. We describe why artifacts appear, in what sense they impact overall image quality, and how to mitigate them by first improving the acquisition parameters and then applying proper image restoration techniques.

  2. Artifacts by dental materials on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Choi, Deuk Lin; Kim, Ki Jung [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-05-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved to be a valuable method for evaluation of the head and neck. Unfortunately, metallic devices associated with certain dental fillings and appliances often cause variable artifacts that can obscure normal or pathologic conditions on MR and computed tomography. In this work, we assessed the MR appearance of dental prosthetic materials in vitro and in vivo including precious alloys, nonprecions alloys, resin, amalgam and titanium alloy. For in vivo studies, these materials were placed in healthy volunteer's mouths and then images were assessed. Analysis of the appearance of shape and extent of artifact, and observed influence of these artifacts on the image interpretation at 0.2 Tesla permanent type MR scanner were valuated. Material used as temporary or permanent filling of crowns such as amalgam, precious alloy and, microfilled resin did not cause artifact on the image. The size of the artifact produced by the nonprecious alloys was influenced by the ferromagnetism of the object and the volume prosthesis, and was related to the scanning sequence. Nonprecious alloys produced minimal local signal distortion, where precious alloys, and dental resin had no effect on the MR images in vivo. These results were mainly from a low field strength MR scanner used in this study.

  3. Adaptive motion artifact reducing algorithm for wrist photoplethysmography application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingwei; Wang, Guijin; Shi, Chenbo

    2016-04-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) technology is widely used in wearable heart pulse rate monitoring. It might reveal the potential risks of heart condition and cardiopulmonary function by detecting the cardiac rhythms in physical exercise. However the quality of wrist photoelectric signal is very sensitive to motion artifact since the thicker tissues and the fewer amount of capillaries. Therefore, motion artifact is the major factor that impede the heart rate measurement in the high intensity exercising. One accelerometer and three channels of light with different wavelengths are used in this research to analyze the coupled form of motion artifact. A novel approach is proposed to separate the pulse signal from motion artifact by exploiting their mixing ratio in different optical paths. There are four major steps of our method: preprocessing, motion artifact estimation, adaptive filtering and heart rate calculation. Five healthy young men are participated in the experiment. The speeder in the treadmill is configured as 12km/h, and all subjects would run for 3-10 minutes by swinging the arms naturally. The final result is compared with chest strap. The average of mean square error (MSE) is less than 3 beats per minute (BPM/min). Proposed method performed well in intense physical exercise and shows the great robustness to individuals with different running style and posture.

  4. Real time ECG artifact removal for myoelectric prosthesis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Lock, Blair; Kuiken, Todd A

    2007-04-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) artifact is a major noise source contaminating the electromyogram (EMG) of torso muscles. This study investigates removal of ECG artifacts in real time for myoelectric prosthesis control, a clinical application that demands speed and efficiency. Three methods with simple and fast implementation were investigated. Removal of ECG artifacts by digital high-pass filtering was implemented. The effects of the cutoff frequency and filter order of high-pass filtering on the resulting EMG signal were quantified. An alternative adaptive spike-clipping approach was also developed to dynamically detect and suppress the ECG artifacts in the signal. Finally, the two methods were combined. Experimental surface EMG recordings with different ECG/EMG ratios were used as testing signals to evaluate the proposed methods. As a key parameter for clinical myoelectric prosthesis control, the average rectified amplitude of the signal was used as the performance indicator to quantitatively analyze the EMG content distortion and the ECG artifact suppression imposed by the two methods. Aiming at clinical application, the optimal parameter assignment for each method was determined on the basis of the performance using the suite of testing signals with various ECG/EMG ratios. PMID:17395995

  5. STARCH SULFURIC ACID: AN ALTERNATIVE, ECO-FRIENDLY CATALYST FOR BIGINELLI REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Rezaei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The one-pot multicomponent synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidinone derivatives using starch sulfuric acid as an environmentally friendly biopolymer-based solid acid catalyst from aldehydes, β-keto esters and urea/ thiourea without solvent is described. Compared with classical Biginelli reaction conditions, this new method has the advantage of minimizing the cost operational hazards and environmental pollution, good yields, shorter reaction times and simple work-up.

  6. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene plays a key role in the quality of corm and yield of cormels in gladiolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Shanshan; Wu, Jian; Sui, Juanjuan; Wu, Chenyu; Zhong, Xionghui; Liu, Chen; Liu, Chao; Gong, Benhe; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2016-05-20

    Starch is the main storage compound in underground organs like corms. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) plays a key role in regulating starch biosynthesis in storage organs and is likely one of the most important determinant of sink strength. Here, we identify an AGPase gene (GhAGPS1) from gladiolus. The highest transcriptional levels of GhAGPS1 were observed in cormels and corms. Transformation of GhAGPS1 into Arabidopsis rescued the phenotype of aps1 mutant. Silencing GhAGPS1 in gladiolus corms by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) decreased the transcriptional levels of two genes and starch content. Transmission electron microscopy analyses of leaf and corm sections confirmed that starch biosynthesis was inhibited. Corm weight and cormel number reduced significantly in the silenced plants. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibiting the expression of AGPase gene could impair starch synthesis, which results in the lowered corm quality and cormel yield in gladiolus. PMID:27107698

  7. Starch: its metabolism, evolution, and biotechnological modification in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeman, Samuel C; Kossmann, Jens; Smith, Alison M

    2010-01-01

    Starch is the most widespread and abundant storage carbohydrate in plants. We depend upon starch for our nutrition, exploit its unique properties in industry, and use it as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Here, we review recent advances in research in three key areas. First, we assess progress in identifying the enzymatic machinery required for the synthesis of amylopectin, the glucose polymer responsible for the insoluble nature of starch. Second, we discuss the pathways of starch degradation, focusing on the emerging role of transient glucan phosphorylation in plastids as a mechanism for solubilizing the surface of the starch granule. We contrast this pathway in leaves with the degradation of starch in the endosperm of germinated cereal seeds. Third, we consider the evolution of starch biosynthesis in plants from the ancestral ability to make glycogen. Finally, we discuss how this basic knowledge has been utilized to improve and diversify starch crops.

  8. Rheological properties of sweet potato starch before and after denaturalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖华西; 林亲录; 夏新剑; 李丽辉; 林利忠; 吴卫国

    2008-01-01

    Based on the sweet potato starch,cationic starch,acetic starch and cationic-acetic compoundedly modified starch were made through chemical denaturalization.The above three kinds of static rheological parameter and dynamic rheological parameter were measured,respectively.The experimental result reveals that the thermal stability of starchy viscosity increases after chemical denaturalization.Under the condition of identical shearing rate,the shear stress of cationic-acetic ester compoundedly modified sweet potato starch paste is the largest among these kinds of sweet potato starch.This attributes to a phenomenon of shearing thinning.Furthermore,raw sweet potato starch has a larger gel intensity than that of modified starch.

  9. Starch-related Enzymes during Potato Tuber Dormancy and Sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sergeeva, L.I.; Claassens, M.M.J.; Jamar, D.C.L.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Vreugdenhil, D.

    2012-01-01

    Activities of enzymes presumably involved in starch biosynthesis (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, AGPase) and/or breakdown (starch phosphorylase, STP; amylases) were determined during potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber dormancy and sprouting. Overall activities of all these enzymes decreased during

  10. Regulation of starch synthesis in potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following tuber excision from the mother plant sucrose synthase activity fell from 3,120 to 960 nmol/g.f. wt./h within 7 days and starch synthesis (14C sucrose incorporated into isolated discs) from 23 to 7 nmol/g.f. wt./h. While the maximum catalytic activity of sucrose synthase was more than sufficient to account for the observed rate of starch synthesis a maximum of 27% of sucrose incorporated by discs was converted into starch within 3 h. This compared with 80% conversion of 14C glucose incorporated. Tuber excision also reduced the rate of starch biosynthesis with glucose as a substrate (from 206 to 64 nmol/g.f. wt./h). The activities of UDPG-pyrophosphorylase, PPi-PFK, ATP-PFK, starch synthase and hexokinase (glucose or fructose substrates) were unaffected by tuber removal. ADPG pyrophosphorylase activity was reduced from 8,000 to 4,500 nmol/g.f. wt./h. Preliminary experiments indicate that the decline in sucrose synthease activity is prevented by maintaining sucrose flux into tubers through the cut stolon

  11. Comparison of different mixed cultures for bio-hydrogen production from ground wheat starch by combined dark and light fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmihci, Serpil; Kargi, Fikret

    2010-04-01

    Composition of the mixed culture was varied in combined dark-light fermentation of wheat powder starch in order to improve hydrogen gas formation rate and yield. Heat-treated anaerobic sludge and pure culture of Clostridium beijerinckii (DSMZ 791T) were combined with two different light fermentation bacteria of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RS-NRRL and RS-RV) in order to select a more suitable mixture resulting in high hydrogen yield and formation rate. A combination of the anaerobic sludge and RS-NRRL yielded the highest cumulative hydrogen (CHF = 140 ml), the highest yield (0.36 mol H2 mol(-1) glucose) and specific hydrogen formation rate (2.5 ml H2 g(-1) biomass h(-1)). During dark fermentation (70 h) hydrogen was produced simultaneously by the dark and light fermentation bacteria using glucose from hydrolyzed starch. However, only light fermentation bacteria produced hydrogen from VFA's derived from dark fermentation after a long adaptation period.

  12. A patient-specific scatter artifacts correction method

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Wei; Niu, Kai; Schafer, Sebastian; Royalty, Kevin; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a fast and patient-specific scatter artifact correction method for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) used in image-guided interventional procedures. Due to increased irradiated volume of interest in CBCT imaging, scatter radiation has increased dramatically compared to 2D imaging, leading to a degradation of image quality. In this study, we propose a scatter artifact correction strategy using an analytical convolution-based model whose free parameters are estimated using a rough estimation of scatter profiles from the acquired cone-beam projections. It was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations with both monochromatic and polychromatic X-ray sources. The results demonstrated that the proposed method significantly reduced the scatter-induced shading artifacts and recovered CT numbers.

  13. Motion artifacts reduction from PPG using cyclic moving average filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junyeon

    2014-01-01

    The photoplethysmogram (PPG) is an extremely useful medical diagnostic tool. However, PPG signals are highly susceptible to motion artifacts. In this paper, we propose a cyclic moving average filter that use similarity of Photoplethysmogram. This filtering method has the average value of each samples through separating the cycle of PPG signal. If there are some motion artifacts in continuous PPG signal, disjoin the signal based on cycle. And then, we made these signals to have same cycle by coordinating the number of sample. After arrange these cycles in 2 dimension, we put the average value of each samples from starting till now. So, we can eliminate the motion artifacts without damaged PPG signal. PMID:24704660

  14. Coevolution of variability models and related software artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passos, Leonardo; Teixeira, Leopoldo; Dinztner, Nicolas;

    2015-01-01

    .g., systems options) and the constraints they impose. The explicit representation of features allows them to be referenced in different variation points across different artifacts, enabling the latter to vary according to specific feature selections. In such settings, the evolution of variability models...... interplays with the evolution of related artifacts, requiring the two to evolve together, or coevolve. Interestingly, little is known about how such coevolution occurs in real-world systems, as existing research has focused mostly on variability evolution as it happens in variability models only. Furthermore...... to the evolution of different kinds of software artifacts, it is not surprising that industry reports existing tools and solutions ineffective, as they do not handle the complexity found in practice. Attempting to mitigate this overall lack of knowledge and to support tool builders with insights on how variability...

  15. A patient-specific scatter artifacts correction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Brunner, Stephen; Niu, Kai; Schafer, Sebastian; Royalty, Kevin; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2014-03-01

    This paper provides a fast and patient-specific scatter artifact correction method for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) used in image-guided interventional procedures. Due to increased irradiated volume of interest in CBCT imaging, scatter radiation has increased dramatically compared to 2D imaging, leading to a degradation of image quality. In this study, we propose a scatter artifact correction strategy using an analytical convolution-based model whose free parameters are estimated using a rough estimation of scatter profiles from the acquired cone-beam projections. It was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations with both monochromatic and polychromatic X-ray sources. The results demonstrated that the proposed method significantly reduced the scatter-induced shading artifacts and recovered CT numbers.

  16. Rheological properties of concentrated solutions of carboxymethyl starch

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanović Željko; Jeremić Katarina B.; Jovanović Slobodan M.

    2003-01-01

    Carboxymethyl starch was synthesized by the esterification of starch with monochloroacetic acid in ethanol as a reaction medium. Three samples of carboxymethyl starch having different degrees of substitution were prepared. The influence of temperature on the viscosity of concentrated carboxymethyl starch solutions, as well as the dynamic-mechanical properties of the concentrated solutions were investigated. The activation energy of viscous flow was determined and it was found that it decrease...

  17. Molecular Characteristics of New Wheat Starch and Its Digestion Behaviours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhong-kai; HUA Ze-tian; YANG Yan; ZHENG Pai-yun; ZHANG Yan; CHEN Xiao-shan

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the effect of starch molecular characteristics on the gel structure, which subsequently inlfuence the gel digestion behaviours, three wheat starches, control (conventional wheat starch), two new wheat cultivars with different genetic backgrounds (by knocking out SBE IIb and SBE IIa, respectively) were used in this study. In comparison with control, slight differences in the morphology of the starch granules of new wheat 1 were observed, whereas the starch granules of new wheat 2 had irregular shapes both for A-type granules and B-type granules. Starch molecular weight size was determined by SE-HPLC, and the results indicate that there was a subtle increase in the amylose content in the starch of new wheat 1 compared to that of control. The starch of new wheat 2 had the highest amylose content, and the molecular weight (MW) of its amylopectin was the lowest among the three starches. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to investigate starch gel structure and the results suggest that the molecules of starch gel from new wheat 2 are more likely to re-associate to form an organized conformation. The digestion behaviours of the three starch gels were measured using a mixture of pancreatinα-amylase and amyloglucosidase. The results indicated that the starch gels of control and new wheat 1 had very high digestibility of 91.7 and 91.9%, respectively, whereas the digestibility of wheat 2 starch gel was only 36.2%. In comparison with the digestion curve patterns of control and new wheat 1 starch gels, the new wheat 2 exhibited a much lower initial velocity. These results indicated that the molecules in the starch of new wheat 2 are more readily to re-associate to form an organized structure during gel formation because of its unique molecular characteristics.

  18. Effect of wheat puroindoline alleles on functional properties of starch

    OpenAIRE

    Brites, Carla Moita; Santos, Carla Alexandra Lourenço; Bagulho, Ana Sofia; Beirão-da-Costa, Maria Luisa

    2008-01-01

    Puroindoline a and b (Pina, Pinb) form the molecular basis of bread wheat grain hardness. Varieties with a softer endosperm and a wild genotype, in which both Pina and Pinb were present, seemed to produce less damaged starch Xour than hard varieties, where Pin mutations occurred and changed the starch rheological properties. The functional property of starch samples extracted from wheat varieties with diVerent Pin alleles was evaluated. Starch morphology was characteri...

  19. New Starch Phenotypes Produced by TILLING in Barley

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Sparla; Giuseppe Falini; Ermelinda Botticella; Claudia Pirone; Valentina Talamè; Riccardo Bovina; Silvio Salvi; Roberto Tuberosa; Francesco Sestili; Paolo Trost

    2014-01-01

    Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant...

  20. Starch branching enzymes and their genes in Sorghum

    OpenAIRE

    Mutisya, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Starch is an important raw material both for food and non-food purposes. It is synthesized and stored in source and sink tissues in plants. The starch deposited in amyloplasts of storage tissues possesses several physico-chemical properties, which makes it desirable for diverse applications. For industrial applications, starches high in either amylose or amylopectin are preferred in order to minimize chemical modification. The main purpose in our research is to understand starch synthesis in ...

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Recovered Starch from Industrial Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Devereux, Sabrina; Shuttleworth, Peter; Macquarrie, Duncan; Paradisi, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    The wastewater generated at a facility specialising in potato processing was found to contain high levels of insoluble potato starch. Several separation methods were employed to obtain maximum potato starch recovery from the industrial wastewater. Centrifugation was proved to be the most effective means of separation. Following potato starch recovery, a variety of chemical and physico-chemical properties were investigated. Potato starch quality and consistency were assessed and monitore...

  2. Production of amorphous starch powders by solution spray drying

    OpenAIRE

    Niazi, Muhammad B. K.; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2012-01-01

    The spray drying of starch/maltodextrin formulations was evaluated as a potential technology for the manufacturing of amorphous thermoplastic starches. Mixtures of starches with high to low amylose (Am)amylopectin (Ap) ratios were spray-dried from water-based solutions and granular dispersions. The effects of the feed composition on the morphology and physical properties of the end product were investigated with the spray-drying conditions kept constant. Powders obtained from the starch solut...

  3. Production of resistant starch by extrusion cooking of acid-modified normal-maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasjim, Jovin; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to utilize extrusion cooking and hydrothermal treatment to produce resistant starch (RS) as an economical alternative to a batch-cooking process. A hydrothermal treatment (110 degrees C, 3 d) of batch-cooked and extruded starch samples facilitated propagation of heat-stable starch crystallites and increased the RS contents from 2.1% to 7.7% up to 17.4% determined using AOAC Method 991.43 for total dietary fiber. When starch samples were batch cooked and hydrothermally treated at a moisture content below 70%, acid-modified normal-maize starch (AMMS) produced a greater RS content than did native normal-maize starch (NMS). This was attributed to the partially hydrolyzed, smaller molecules in the AMMS, which had greater mobility and freedom than the larger molecules in the NMS. The RS contents of the batch-cooked and extruded AMMS products after the hydrothermal treatment were similar. A freezing treatment of the AMMS samples at -20 degrees C prior to the hydrothermal treatment did not increase the RS content. The DSC thermograms and the X-ray diffractograms showed that retrograded amylose and crystalline starch-lipid complex, which had melting temperatures above 100 degrees C, accounted for the RS contents.

  4. Preparation and characterization of aqueous dispersions of high amylose starch and conjugated linoleic acid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Tae-Rang; Kim, Hee-Young; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-11-15

    Crystalline starch-CLA complexes were prepared by blending an alcoholic solution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in an aqueous high-amylose maize starch dispersion. Recovery yield of CLA in the precipitates obtained by centrifuging the dispersion was dependent on reaction conditions such as temperature, time and pH. The CLA recovery reached a maximum when the reaction was performed at 90°C for 6h at neutral pH, with 67.7% of the initial CLA being co-precipitated with starch. The precipitates contained amylose-CLA complex exhibiting a V6I-type crystalline structure under X-ray diffraction analysis and a type II polymorph under DSC analysis. Ultrasonic treatment for the re-dispersed starch-CLA complex in water resulted in the reduction of hydrodynamic diameter of the complex particles to 201.5nm. The dispersion exhibited a zeta potential of -27.0mV and remained stable in an ambient storage without forming precipitates for more than 4weeks. PMID:27283663

  5. Increasing the Triacylglycerol Content in Dunaliella tertiolecta through Isolation of Starch-Deficient Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirikhachornkit, Anchalee; Vuttipongchaikij, Supachai; Suttangkakul, Anongpat; Yokthongwattana, Kittisak; Juntawong, Piyada; Pokethitiyook, Prayad; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Meetam, Metha

    2016-05-28

    The production cost of biodiesel from microalgae is still not competitive, compared with that of petroleum fuels. The genetic improvement of microalgal strains to increase triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation is one way to reduce production costs. One of the most promising approaches is the isolation of starch-deficient mutants, which have been reported to successfully increase TAG yields. To date, such a stable mutant is not available in an oleaginous marine microalga, despite several advantages of using marine species for biodiesel production. Algae in the genus Dunaliella are known to tolerate high salt concentration and other environmental stresses. In addition, the cultivation processes for large-scale outdoor commercialization have been well established for this genus. In this study, Dunaliella tertiolecta was used to screen for starch-deficient mutants, using an iodine vapor-staining method. Four out of 20,016 UV-mutagenized strains showed a substantial reduction of starch content. A significantly higher TAG content, up to 3-fold of the wild-type level, was observed in three of the mutants upon induction by nitrogen depletion. The carotenoid production and growth characteristics of these mutants, under both normal and oxidative stress conditions, were not compromised, suggesting that these processes are not necessarily affected by starch deficiency. The results from this work open up new possibilities for exploring Dunaliella for biodiesel production. PMID:26869603

  6. Recycle bioreactor for bioethanol production from wheat starch. 2. Fermentation and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, X.; Hill, G.A.; MacDonald, D.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    Bioethanol has been produced using sugars from cold hydrolysis of pure wheat starch, sterile wheat flour, and unsterile wheat flour. The conversion of sugars to ethanol from pure starch reached 96% of the theoretical maximum while that from sterile wheat flour was 69% and from unsterile wheat flour only 35%. These data indicate that sequential hydrolysis and fermentation of wheat flour is not feasible. However, the simultaneous cold hydrolysis and fermentation of both wheat starch and wheat flour proved successful. Both sugar sources produced 95% of the theoretical maximum amount of ethanol. The process could be repeated in a sequential batch fashion for over 110 h of operation, achieving high ethanol yields in each run. A scale-up design of bioethanol production using sequential batch, simultaneous cold starch hydrolysis, and fermentation indicates that this process would be economically feasible. High levels of revenue are generated from both the bioethanol and the byproduct: food-grade wheat gluten. The payback period is predicted to be < 2 years with a discounted cash flow rate of return of 46%. (author)

  7. Starch granule formation and protein deposition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starchy endosperm cells is altered by high temperature during grain fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurkman, William J.; Wood, Delilah F.

    2010-06-01

    High temperatures during wheat grain fill decrease starch and protein levels, adversely affecting wheat yield and flour quality. To determine the effect of high temperature on starchy endosperm cell development, grain (Triticum aestivum L. 'Butte 86') was produced under a 24/17°C or 37/28°C day/night regimen imposed from flowering to maturity and starch and protein deposition examined using scanning electron microscopy. The high temperature regimen shortened the duration of grain fill from 40 to 18 days. Under the 37/28°C regimen, A- and B-type starch granules decreased in size. A-type starch granules also exhibited pitting, suggesting enhanced action of starch degradative enzymes. Under both temperature regimens, protein bodies originated early in development and coalesced during mid to late development to form a continuous protein matrix surrounding the starch granules. Under the 37/28°C regimen, the proportion of protein matrix increased in endosperm cells of mature grain. Taken together, the changes in starch granule number and size and in protein matrix amount provide clues for understanding how high temperature during grain fill can affect end use properties of wheat flour.

  8. Influence of tryptophan and indole-3-acetic acid on starch accumulation in the synthetic mutualistic Chlorella sorokiniana-Azospirillum brasilense system under heterotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Oskar A; Choix, Francisco J; Bashan, Yoav; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2016-06-01

    This study measured the relations between tryptophan production, the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the metabolism and accumulation of starch during synthetic mutualism between the microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana and the microalgae growth-promoting bacteria Azospirillum brasilense, created by co-immobilization in alginate beads. Experiments used two wild-type A. brasilense strains (Cd and Sp6) and an IAA-attenuated mutant (SpM7918) grown under nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-starved conditions tested under dark, heterotrophic and aerobic growth conditions. Under all incubating conditions, C. sorokiniana, but not A. brasilense, produced tryptophan. A significant correlation between IAA-production by A. brasilense and starch accumulation in C. sorokiniana was found, since the IAA-attenuated mutant was not producing increased starch levels. The highest ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) activity, starch content and glucose uptake were found during the interaction of A. brasilense wild type strains with the microalgae. When the microalgae were grown alone, they produced only small amounts of starch. Supplementation with synthetic IAA to C. sorokiniana grown alone enhanced the above parameters, but only transiently. Activity of α-amylase decreased under nitrogen-replete conditions, but increased under nitrogen-starved conditions. In summary, this study demonstrated that, during synthetic mutualism, the exchange of tryptophan and IAA between the partners is a mechanism that governs several changes in starch metabolism of C. sorokiniana, yielding an increase in starch content.

  9. Kinetics of starch digestion and performance of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: starch, digestion rate, broiler chickens, peas, tapiocaStarch is stored in amyloplasts of various plants like cereals and legumes and seeds of these plants are used as feedstuffs for farm animals. Starch is the major energy source in broiler feeds. The properties of star

  10. Synthesis, analysis and reduction of 2-nitropropyl starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, A; van Doren, HA; Gotlieb, KF; Bleeker, IP; Kellogg, RM; Doren, Henk A. van; Gotlieb, Kees F.; Bleeker, Ido P.

    2001-01-01

    Granular 3-nitropropyl potato starch was synthesized by reaction with 3-nitropropyl acetate in an aqueous suspension. Nitroalkylation occurs preferentially with the amylose fraction of potato starch, as was confirmed by leaching experiments and digestion of the modified starch with alpha -amylase. T

  11. The oxidation of the aldehyde groups in dialdehyde starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaksman, I.K.; Besemer, A.C.; Jetten, J.M.; Timmermans, J.W.; Slaghek, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the difference in relative reactivity of the aldehyde groups present in dialdehyde starch towards different oxidising agents. The oxidation of dialdehyde starch with peracetic acid and sodium bromide leads to only partial oxidation to give mono-aldehyde-carboxy starch, while oxi

  12. SCANDIUM TRIFLATE CATALYZED ACETYLATION OF STARCH UNDER MILD CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandium (III) trifluoromethan sulfonate (Sc(OTf)3) was investigated as a catalyst for the acetylation of starch in order to determine the potential for preparing new types of starch esters under mild conditions. At room temperature, dry granular corn starch reacts with acetic anhydride in the pres...

  13. Function-structure relationships of acetylated pea starches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.

    2006-01-01

    Cowpea, chickpea and yellow pea starches were studied and the results showed that their properties were strongly related to the chemical fine structures of the starches. Furthermore, granular starches were modified using two types of chemical acetylation reagents and then separated into different si

  14. Mechanochemical degradation of potato starch paste under ultrasonic irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-bin; LI Lin; LI Bing; CHEN Ling; GUI Lin

    2006-01-01

    In the paper, changes in the molecular weight, the intrinsic viscosity and the polydispersity (molecular mass distribution) of treated potato starch paste were studied under different ultrasonic conditions which include irradiation time, ultrasonic intensity, potato starch paste concentration, and distance from probe tip on the degradation of potato starch paste. Intrinsic viscosity of potato starch paste was determined following the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard practice for dilute solution viscosity of polymers. Molecular mass and polydispersity of potato starch paste were measured on GPC (Gel Permeation Chromatography). The results showed that the average molecular mass and the intrinsic viscosity of starch strongly depended on irradiation time. Degradation increased with prolonged ultrasonic irradiation time, and the increase of ultrasonic intensity could accelerate the degradation, resulting in a faster degradation rate, a lower limiting value and a higher degradation extent. Starch samples were degraded faster in dilute solutions than in concentrated solutions. The molecular mass and the intrinsic viscosity of starch increased with the increase of distance from probe tip. Our results also showed that the polydispersity decreased with ultrasonic irradiation under all ultrasonic conditions. Ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste occured based on the mechanism of molecular relaxation of starch paste. In the initial stage, ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste was a random process, and the molecular mass distribution was broad. After that, ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste changed to a nonrandom process, and the molecular mass distribution became narrower. Finally, molecular mass distribution tended toward a saturation value.

  15. Retention of Cationic Starch onto Cellulose Fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missaoui, Mohamed; Mauret, Evelyne; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur

    2008-08-01

    Three methods of cationic starch titration were used to quantify its retention on cellulose fibres, namely: (i) the complexation of CS with iodine and measurement of the absorbency of the ensuing blue solution by UV-vis spectroscopy; (ii) hydrolysis of the starch macromolecules followed by the conversion of the resulting sugars to furan-based molecules and quantifying the ensuing mixture by measuring their absorbance at a Ι of 490 nm, using the same technique as previous one and; finally (iii) hydrolysis of starch macromolecules by trifluoro-acetic acid and quantification of the sugars in the resulting hydrolysates by high performance liquid chromatography. The three methods were found to give similar results within the range of CS addition from 0 to 50 mg per g of cellulose fibres.

  16. Ring artifacts correction in compressed sensing tomographic reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Paleo, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel approach to handle ring artifacts correction in compressed sensing tomographic reconstruction. The correction is part of the reconstruction process, which differs from classical sinogram pre-processing and image post-processing techniques. The principle of compressed sensing tomographic reconstruction is presented. Then, we show that the ring artifacts correction can be integrated in the reconstruction problem formalism. We provide numerical results for both simulated and real data. This technique is included in the PyHST2 code which is used at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility for tomographic reconstruction.

  17. Towards the Paperless Office : Ecology of artifacts at work

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Stepping one step closer to the paperless office by looking into existing technologies. Looking at the whole ecology of digital artifacts of users. Only by understanding how people use paper, how they relate to their digital ecology of artifacts, and what makes them adopt new products can we hope to get one step closer to the paperless office. There has been an extreme growth in mobile devices the last couple of year, and there have been a couple of new platforms emerging in the mobil...

  18. Resources, co-evolution and artifacts theory in CSCW

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, Mark S; Erickson, Thomas; Kellogg, Wendy A

    2007-01-01

    A topic of significant interest to the CSCW, IT and IS communities is the issue of how software and other technical systems come to be adopted and used. We know from considerable research that people use systems in many ways, and that the process of incorporating them in their everyday activities can require a great deal of effort. One way of understanding adoption and use is by considering artifacts as resources in people's environments. ""Resources, Co-Evolution and Artifacts: Theory in CSCW"" looks at how resources get created, adopted, modified, and die, by using a number of theoretical an

  19. EEG Artifact Removal Using a Wavelet Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang-Anh T.; Musson, John; Li, Jiang; McKenzie, Frederick; Zhang, Guangfan; Xu, Roger; Richey, Carl; Schnell, Tom

    2011-01-01

    !n this paper we developed a wavelet neural network. (WNN) algorithm for Electroencephalogram (EEG) artifact removal without electrooculographic (EOG) recordings. The algorithm combines the universal approximation characteristics of neural network and the time/frequency property of wavelet. We. compared the WNN algorithm with .the ICA technique ,and a wavelet thresholding method, which was realized by using the Stein's unbiased risk estimate (SURE) with an adaptive gradient-based optimal threshold. Experimental results on a driving test data set show that WNN can remove EEG artifacts effectively without diminishing useful EEG information even for very noisy data.

  20. Clinical results with CT metal artifact reduction software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic implants often cause considerable artifacts on computed tomographic (CT) scans. The authors developed a new program for metal artifact reduction (MAR). The authors' clinical experience is based on 109 examinations so far, including 70 hip endoprostheses, 12 fixateurs, 15 cerebral vessel clips, 11 metallic dental findings, and one projectile in the lung. In 60% of all examinations, decisive additional information was gained with MAR and permitted better diagnostic assessment. In endroprothesis diagnostics, a comprehensive diagnostic assessability was attained with MAR in all cases. The short computing times of 2-3 minutes per scan permit application in daily diagnostics. An advanced version of the program is presented too

  1. SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES IN DMSO SOLUTIONS OF STARCH: A COMPARATIVE INVESTIGATION OF NATIVE AND SOLUBLE STARCHES

    OpenAIRE

    KOCHKINA N.E.; SKOBELEVA O.A.; KHOKHLOVA YU. V.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in solutions of native and soluble starches in DMSO for the first time. The starches acted as reducing and stabilizing agents simultaneously. The kinetics of the process and its activation energy were determined by using UV-vis spectroscopy. The DMSO solution of soluble starch was characterized by better reductive activity than the native starch solution. The morphology and dispersion characteristics of AgNPs sols were evaluated from transmission ...

  2. Starch Granule Re-Structuring by Starch Branching Enzyme and Glucan Water Dikinase Modulation Affects Caryopsis Physiology and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Shahnoor S; Obata, Toshihiro; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Schwahn, Kevin; Fernie, Alisdair R; Mateiu, Ramona V; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Starch is of fundamental importance for plant development and reproduction and its optimized molecular assembly is potentially necessary for correct starch metabolism. Re-structuring of starch granules in-planta can therefore potentially affect plant metabolism. Modulation of granule micro-structure was achieved by decreasing starch branching and increasing starch-bound phosphate content in the barley caryopsis starch by RNAi suppression of all three Starch Branching Enzyme (SBE) isoforms or overexpression of potato Glucan Water Dikinase (GWD). The resulting lines displayed Amylose-Only (AO) and Hyper-Phosphorylated (HP) starch chemotypes, respectively. We studied the influence of these alterations on primary metabolism, grain composition, starch structural features and starch granule morphology over caryopsis development at 10, 20 and 30 days after pollination (DAP) and at grain maturity. While HP showed relatively little effect, AO showed significant reduction in starch accumulation with re-direction to protein and β-glucan (BG) accumulation. Metabolite profiling indicated significantly higher sugar accumulation in AO, with re-partitioning of carbon to accumulate amino acids, and interestingly it also had high levels of some important stress-related metabolites and potentially protective metabolites, possibly to elude deleterious effects. Investigations on starch molecular structure revealed significant increase in starch phosphate and amylose content in HP and AO respectively with obvious differences in starch granule morphology at maturity. The results demonstrate that decreasing the storage starch branching resulted in metabolic adjustments and re-directions, tuning to evade deleterious effects on caryopsis physiology and plant performance while only little effect was evident by increasing starch-bound phosphate as a result of overexpressing GWD. PMID:26891365

  3. Time course based artifact identification for independent components of resting state fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eRummel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI coherent oscillations of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal can be detected. These arise when brain regions respond to external stimuli or are activated by tasks. The same networks have been characterized during wakeful rest when functional connectivity of the human brain is organized in generic resting state networks (RSN. Alterations of RSN emerge as neurobiological markers of pathological conditions such as altered mental state. In single-subject fMRI data the coherent components can be identified by blind source separation of the pre-processed BOLD data using spatial independent component analysis (ICA and related approaches. The resulting maps may represent physiological RSNs or may be due to various artifacts. In this methodological study, we propose a conceptually simple and fully automatic time course based filtering procedure to detect obvious artifacts in the ICA output for resting state fMRI. The filter is trained on six and tested on 29 healthy subjects, yielding mean filter accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 0.80, 0.82 and 0.75 in out-of-sample tests. To estimate the impact of clearly artifactual single-subject components on group resting state studies we analyze unfiltered and filtered output with a second level ICA procedure. Although the automated filter does not reach performance values of visual analysis by human raters, we propose that resting state compatible analysis of ICA time courses could be very useful to complement the existing map or task/event oriented artifact classification algorithms.

  4. Yield and yield components of minituber potato under direct cultivation and transplanting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ghorbani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was performed to study the effect of direct planting and transplanting of potato minituber on its yield and yield components. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete blocks with nine treatments and three replications. Treatments were one direct and eight indirect planting. In order to prepare the nursery, two types of pots (peat and nylon and four types of substrates including sand + peat moss (1:1, sand + Kimiya organic fertilizer (1:1, sand + vermicompost (1:1 and sand + farm soil (1:1 were used. Results showed that there was significant difference in regard to mean yield per plant, mean wet weight of tuber, number of tubers smaller and greater than 80 g, percent dry weight of tuber, biologic yield, starch percentage and nitrate content of tubers. The highest mean tuber yield per plant, number of tubers greater than 80 gr and biologic yield belonged to plants in nylon pots with substrate of sand + Kimiya organic fertilizer. The highest percentage of starch and tuber dry matter belonged to plants in peat pots with substrate of sand + soil. The highest mean wet weight of tubers belonged to nylon pots with substrate of sand + peat moss. The highest number of tubers lower than 80 g and the highest nitrate content was obtained by direct planting. The sand+ Kimiya organic fertilizer, which provides the necessary elements for plant growth, with more yield and number of marketable tubers, could be the best substrate as compared to other substrates used in this experiment.

  5. Genetic association among root morphology, root quality and root yield in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ramesh R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera is a dryland medicinal crop and roots are used as valuable drug in traditional systems of medicine. Morphological variants (morphotypes and the parental populations were evaluated for root - morphometric, quality and yield traits to study genetic association among them. Root morphometric traits (root length, root diameter, number of secondary roots/ plant and crude fiber content exhibited strong association among them and showed significant positive genotypic correlation with yield. Starch-fiber ratio (SFR, determinant of brittle root texture showed strong negative association with root yield. The total alkaloid content had positive genotypic correlation with root yield. So genetic upgradation should aim at optimum balance between two divergent groups of traits i.e. root yield traits (root morphometric traits and crude fiber content and root textural quality traits (starch content and SFR to develop superior genotypes with better yield and quality.

  6. Properties of thermoplastic starch from cassave bagasse and cassava starch and their blends with poly (lactic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava bagasse is an inexpensive and broadly available waste byproduct from cassava starch production. It contains roughly 50% cassava starch along with mostly fiber and could be a valuable feedstock for various bioproducts. Cassava bagasse and cassava starch were used in this study to make fiber-r...

  7. Modification of potato starch granule structure and morphology in planta by expression of starch binding domain fusion proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.

    2010-01-01

    Producing starches with altered composition, structure and novel physico-chemical properties in planta by manipulating the enzymes which are involved in starch metabolism or (over)expressing heterologous enzymes has huge advantages such as broadening the range of starch applications and reducing the

  8. Synthesis of poly-(epsilon)-caprolactone grafted starch co-polymers by ring-opening polymerisation using silylated starch precursors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugih, Asaf K.; Picchioni, Francesco; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2009-01-01

    Poly-(epsilon)-caprolactone grafted corn starch co-polymers were synthesized using a hydrophobised silylated starch precursor. The silylation reaction was performed using hexamethyl disilazane (HMDS) as the reagent in DMSO at 70 degrees C. Silylated starch with a degree of substitution (DS) between

  9. Morphological and mechanical characterization of thermoplastic starch and its blends with polylactic acid using cassava starch and bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aims the use of an agro waste coming from the industrialization of cassava starch, known as cassava bagasse (BG). This material contains residual starch and cellulose fibers which can be used to obtain thermoplastic starch (TPS) and /or blends reinforced with fibers. In this context, it w...

  10. Chemical and molecular properties of irradiated starch extrudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn starch samples containing 0, 25, 50, and 70% amylose were gamma-irradiated at 0 (native), 5, 10, 20, and 30 kGy. All starch samples were extrusion cooked at 140 degrees C barrel temperature, 140 rpm screw speed, and 18% moisture content (db) using a C. W. Brabender single-screw extruder. Starches irradiated at a 20-kGy dosage were extrusion cooked with and without hydrogen peroxide, potassium persulfate, or ceric ammonium nitrate. The quantity of free radicals produced on the starch increased with increasing irradiation dosages (0-30 kGy). Stability of the free radicals was greater for high-amylose starches than for those with low amylose. Extrusion-cooked starches had traces of free radical activity. Acidity of the irradiated starches increased (pH decreased) with increasing irradiation dosages. Gel permeation chromatographic separation of variously treated starches gave three fractions. Fraction I, mostly amylopectin, eluted at the void volume, whereas fraction II, mostly amylose, eluted at the latter part of the gel. Fraction 0, degraded products of amylopectin and amylose, mostly eluted closer to the total volume of the gel. Fraction I quantities of irradiated starches decreased with increasing irradiation dosages, whereas fraction II and III quantities correspondingly increased. Native starches with 0% amylose exhibited more than a fourfold decrease in fraction I content, whereas 70% amylose native starches showed less than a twofold decrease due to increasing irradiation dosages from 0 to 30 kGy. Extrusion cooking accelerated the degradation of fraction I for 0% amylose starches more than for 70% amylose starches. Both 2.5 and 5% concentrations of chemical additives caused excessive degradation of fraction I of starches irradiated at 20 kGy, consequently increasing reducing powers. Ceric ammonium nitrate caused the highest decrease in the iodine binding capacity of the starches. Fraction I clearly suffered more degradation due to irradiation, extrusion

  11. Pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation alleviates the negative effects of postanthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrates remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai;

    2012-01-01

    The potential role of pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation in alleviating the negative effects of post-anthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrate remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat was investigated. The treatments included no heat-stress (CC), heat stress at pre......-anthesis only (HC), heat at post-anthesis only (CH), and heat stress at both stages (HH). Post-anthesis heat stress decreased grain starch content, reduced the content of fructans and depressed activities of related synthesis enzymes of sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase and fructan......:fructan fructosyltransferase. Interestingly, HH plants had significantly higher grain yield than the CH plants. In addition, post-anthesis high temperature lowered grain starch content and increased percentages of volume, number and surface area of B-type starch granules in CH and HH than in CC treatment. However, HH plants...

  12. Modified ADM1 for modelling an UASB reactor laboratory plant treating starch wastewater and synthetic substrate load tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinken, L; Huber, M; Weichgrebe, D; Rosenwinkel, K-H

    2014-11-01

    A laboratory plant consisting of two UASB reactors was used for the treatment of industrial wastewater from the wheat starch industry. Several load tests were carried out with starch wastewater and the synthetic substrates glucose, acetate, cellulose, butyrate and propionate to observe the impact of changing loads on gas yield and effluent quality. The measurement data sets were used for calibration and validation of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1). For a precise simulation of the detected glucose degradation during load tests with starch wastewater and glucose, it was necessary to incorporate the complete lactic acid fermentation into the ADM1, which contains the formation and degradation of lactate and a non-competitive inhibition function. The modelling results of both reactors based on the modified ADM1 confirm an accurate calculation of the produced gas and the effluent concentrations. Especially, the modelled lactate effluent concentrations for the load cases are similar to the measurements and justified by literature. PMID:25043796

  13. Ballistocardiogram artifacts in simultaneous EEG-fMRI acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderperren, K.; Ramautar, J.R.; Novitskiy, N.; de Vos, M.; Mennes, M.; Vanrumste, B.; Stiers, P.; van den Bergh, B.; Wagemans, J.; Lagae, L.; Sunaert, S.; Van Huffel, S.

    2007-01-01

    Vanderperren, K., Ramautar, J., Novitskiy, N., De Vos, M., Mennes, M., Vanrumste, B., Stiers, P., Van den Bergh, B., Wagemans, J., Lagae, L., Sunaert, S., Van Huffel, S. (2007). Ballistocardiogram artifacts in simultaneous EEG-fMRI acquisitions. International Journal of Bioelectromagnetism, 9 (3), 1

  14. Artifacts as Stories: Understanding Families, Digital Literacies, and Storied Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis Ellison, Tisha

    2016-01-01

    This column focuses on the interactions during family and group conversation circles that not only helped participants talk about personal, emotional, and social issues in their digital stories but also helped them make sense of artifacts and the meanings that stories carry in shared spaces and practices. This work adds to the bourgeoning…

  15. Artifact suppression and analysis of brain activities with electroencephalography signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Rashed-Al-Mahfuz; Md. Rabiul Islam; Keikichi Hirose; Md. Khademul Islam Molla

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interface is a communication system that connects the brain with computer (or other devices) but is not dependent on the normal output of the brain (i.e., peripheral nerve and muscle). Electro-oculogram is a dominant artifact which has a significant negative influence on further analysis of real electroencephalography data. This paper presented a data adaptive technique for artifact suppression and brain wave extraction from electroencephalography signals to detect regional brain activities. Empirical mode decomposition based adaptive thresholding approach was employed here to suppress the electro-oculogram artifact. Fractional Gaussian noise was used to determine the threshold level derived from the analysis data without any training. The purified electroencephalography signal was composed of the brain waves also called rhythmic components which represent the brain activities. The rhythmic components were extracted from each electroencephalography channel using adaptive wiener filter with the original scale. The regional brain activities were mapped on the basis of the spatial distribution of rhythmic components, and the results showed that different regions of the brain are activated in response to different stimuli. This research analyzed the activities of a single rhythmic component, alpha with respect to different motor imaginations. The experimental results showed that the proposed method is very efficient in artifact suppression and identifying individual motor imagery based on the activities of alpha component.

  16. Soft tissue artifact in canine kinematic gait analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwencke, M.; Smolders, L.A.; Bergknut, N.; Gustas, P.; Meij, B.P.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Vet Surg. 2012 Oct;41(7):829-37. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2012.01021.x. Soft tissue artifact in canine kinematic gait analysis. Schwencke M, Smolders LA, Bergknut N, Gustås P, Meij BP, Hazewinkel HA. Source Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals,, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrech

  17. Science Teachers Sharing Artifacts from Practice like Students’ Tablet Productions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    2013-01-01

    to support the success of integrating technology. Experiences from a large-scale, long-term TPD project for primary and secondary science teachers supporting the teachers in trying out innovative practices and new ICT tools in own classes, and in sharing artifacts from these trials in teacher networks...

  18. Design of educational artifacts as support to learning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Adson Eduardo; Vasconcelos, Flávio Henrique

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify utilization schemes developed by students and teachers in their interaction with educational workstations in the electronic measurement and instrumentation laboratory at the Department of Electrical Engineering in the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Brazil. After that, these schemes were used to design a new workstation. For this, it was important to bear in mind that the mentioned artifacts contain two key characteristics: (1) one from the designers themselves, resulting from their experience and their technical knowledge of what they are designing and (2) the experience from users and the means through which they take advantage of and develop these artifacts, in turn rendering them appropriate to perform the proposed task - the utilization schemes developed in the process of mediation between the user and the artifact. The satisfactory fusion of these two points makes these artifacts a functional unit - the instruments. This research aims to demonstrate that identifying the utilization schemes by taking advantage of user experience and incorporating this within the design, facilitates its appropriation and, consequently, its efficiency as an instrument of learning.

  19. Communication in the Digital City and Artifact Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryssanov, Victor V.; Okabe, Masayuki; Kakusho, Koh; Minoh, Michihiko

    This paper proposes a theoretical basis for the design and analysis of distributed information systems. A quantitative criterion is defined to estimate the efficiency of computer-mediated communication, and to monitor artifact lives as well. The theoretical concepts are discussed in a context of an example related to car use and servicing.

  20. Sampling Artifact in Volume Weighted Velocity Measurement.--- I. Theoretical Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Pengjie; Jing, Yipeng

    2014-01-01

    Cosmology based on large scale peculiar velocity preferes volume weighted velocity statistics. However, measuring the volume weighted velocity statistics from inhomogeneously distributed galaxies (simulation particles/halos) suffer from an inevitable and significant sampling artifact. We study this sampling artifact in the velocity power spectrum measured by the nearest-particle (NP) velocity assignment method \\cite{paperII}. We derive the analytical expression of leading and higher order terms. We find that the sampling artifact suppresses the $z=0$ E-mode velocity power spectrum by $\\sim 10\\%$ at $k=0.1h/$Mpc, for samples with number density $10^{-3}({\\rm Mpc}/h)^{-3}$. This suppression becomes larger for larger $k$ and for sparser samples. We argue that, this source of systematic errors in peculiar velocity cosmology, albeit severe, can be self-calibrated in the framework of our theoretical modelling. We also work out the sampling artifact in the density-velocity cross power spectrum measurement. More robu...

  1. Optical standing-wave artifacts in reflection-absorption FTIR microspectroscopy of biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reflection-absorption spectra obtained with an infrared microscope should yield the same absorption coefficients as direct micro-transmission measurements as long as the correct effective sample thickness is used, but in practice, severe optical artifacts can complicate the spectra. Using deposited protein gel fdms as a homogenous model for biological cell-like samples, we demonstrate the effect of standing-wave interference of the IR beam at the reflective substrate surface which dramatically and systematically alters the absorbance intensity across the spectrum as a function of sample thickness. To explain the observed spectral artifacts, we simulate the optical standing-wave for the focussed IR beam, and insert the parameters into an existing standing-wave absorption theory. By introducing an additional term to the theory representing a component of the standing-wave resonant with the film thickness, the data are accurately reproduced, and the relative band intensities can be corrected to the direct transmission values. This approach may be generally applicable in reflection-absorption experiments to obtain reliable absorbance spectra of homogenous samples even when the sample thickness is larger than the IR wavelength.

  2. Rotational artifacts in on-board cone beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotational artifacts in image guidance systems lead to registration errors that affect non-isocentric treatments and dose to off-axis organs-at-risk. This study investigates a rotational artifact in the images acquired with the on-board cone beam computed tomography system XVI (Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden). The goals of the study are to identify the cause of the artifact, to characterize its dependence on other quantities, and to investigate possible solutions. A 30 cm diameter cylindrical phantom is used to acquire clockwise and counterclockwise scans at five speeds (120 to 360 deg min−1) on six Elekta linear accelerators from three generations (MLCi, MLCi2 and Agility). Additional scans are acquired with different pulse widths and focal spot sizes for the same mAs. Image quality is evaluated using a common phantom with an in-house three dimensional contrast transfer function attachment. A robust, operator-independent analysis is developed which quantifies rotational artifacts with 0.02° accuracy and imaging system delays with 3 ms accuracy. Results show that the artifact is caused by mislabelling of the projections with a lagging angle due to various imaging system delays. For the most clinically used scan speed (360 deg min−1), the artifact is ∼0.5°, which corresponds to ∼0.25° error per scan direction with the standard Elekta procedure for angle calibration. This leads to a 0.5 mm registration error at 11 cm off-center. The artifact increases linearly with scan speed, indicating that the system delay is independent of scan speed. For the most commonly used pulse width of 40 ms, this delay is 34 ± 1 ms, part of which is half the pulse width. Results are consistent among the three linac generations. A software solution that corrects the angles of individual projections is shown to eliminate the rotational error for all scan speeds and directions. Until such a solution is available from the manufacturer, three clinical solutions are

  3. A suite of Lotus japonicus starch mutants reveals both conserved and novel features of starch metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriet, Cécile; Welham, Tracey; Brachmann, Andreas; Pike, Marilyn; Pike, Jodie; Perry, Jillian; Parniske, Martin; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Smith, Alison M; Wang, Trevor L

    2010-10-01

    The metabolism of starch is of central importance for many aspects of plant growth and development. Information on leaf starch metabolism other than in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is scarce. Furthermore, its importance in several agronomically important traits exemplified by legumes remains to be investigated. To address this issue, we have provided detailed information on the genes involved in starch metabolism in Lotus japonicus and have characterized a comprehensive collection of forward and TILLING (for Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) reverse genetics mutants affecting five enzymes of starch synthesis and two enzymes of starch degradation. The mutants provide new insights into the structure-function relationships of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and glucan, water dikinase1 in particular. Analyses of the mutant phenotypes indicate that the pathways of leaf starch metabolism in L. japonicus and Arabidopsis are largely conserved. However, the importance of these pathways for plant growth and development differs substantially between the two species. Whereas essentially starchless Arabidopsis plants lacking plastidial phosphoglucomutase grow slowly relative to wild-type plants, the equivalent mutant of L. japonicus grows normally even in a 12-h photoperiod. In contrast, the loss of GLUCAN, WATER DIKINASE1, required for starch degradation, has a far greater effect on plant growth and fertility in L. japonicus than in Arabidopsis. Moreover, we have also identified several mutants likely to be affected in new components or regulators of the pathways of starch metabolism. This suite of mutants provides a substantial new resource for further investigations of the partitioning of carbon and its importance for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, legume seed development, and perenniality and vegetative regrowth.

  4. Modificação enzimática da farinha de arroz visando a produção de amido resistente Enzymatic modification on rice flour seeking the production of resitant starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Garcia Severo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the enzymatic modification on rice flour using lipase pancreatic and amyloglucosidase to obtain resistant starch. For this, Response Surface Methodology (RSM was used to determine the best operating conditions for each enzyme. For lypase pancreatic, the highest value for resistant starch (45% was achieved within 2 h reaction at pH 7 using an enzyme/substrate ratio of 4% (w/w and Dp= 100/200 tyler. For amyloglucosidase, optima conditions corresponded to an enzyme/substrate ratio of 0,006 mL/g and Dp= 100/200 tyler at 45 ºC, yielding 57% of resistant starch in 2 h reaction. These results show the potential of using both enzymes to modified rice flour, increasing the resistant starch in about 5.7 folds in relation to the flour without treatment (resistant starch=10.6%.

  5. Branching patterns in leaf starches from Arabidopsis mutants deficient in diverse starch synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Bertoft, Eric; Szydlowski, Nicolas; d'Hulst, Christophe; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2015-01-12

    This is the first report on the cluster structure of transitory starch from Arabidopsis leaves. In addition to wild type, the molecular structures of leaf starch from mutants deficient in starch synthases (SS) including single enzyme mutants ss1-, ss2-, or ss3-, and also double mutants ss1-ss2- and ss1-ss3- were characterized. The mutations resulted in increased amylose content. Clusters from whole starch were isolated by partial hydrolysis using α-amylase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The clusters were then further hydrolyzed with concentrated α-amylase of B. amyloliquefaciens to produce building blocks (α-limit dextrins). Structures of the clusters and their building blocks were characterized by chromatography of samples before and after debranching treatment. While the mutations increased the size of clusters, the reasons were different as reflected by the composition of their unit chains and building blocks. In general, all mutants contained more of a-chains that preferentially increased the number of small building blocks with only two chains. The clusters of the double mutant ss1-ss3- were very large and possessed also more of large building blocks with four or more chains. The results from transitory starch are compared with those from agriculturally important crops in the context that to what extent the Arabidopsis can be a true biotechnological reflection for starch modifications through genetic means.

  6. Analysis of octenylsuccinate rice and tapioca starches: Distribution of octenylsuccinic anhydride groups in starch granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Kristin; Reuhs, Bradley L; Ovando Martinez, Maribel; Simsek, Senay

    2016-11-15

    Characterization of the fine structure of octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) starch would lead to a better understanding of functional properties. OSA rice and tapioca starches were analyzed using microscopy, liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Chain length distribution of amylopectin changed significantly (P<0.05) after OSA esterification. Weight averaged degree of polymerization (DPw) decreased significantly (P<0.05) from 16.47 to 13.29 and from 14.87 to 12.47 in native and OSA rice and tapioca starches, respectively. The chain length distribution of pure amylopectin fractions suggested that OSA groups were not present in the amylopectin portion of the starch. (1)H NMR analysis of pure amylose and amylopectin fractions indicated that OSA substitution was present only in amylose fractions of rice and tapioca starches. Esterification with 3% OSA results in starch that has OSA substituted mainly on amylose chains or possibly on amylopectin chains that have been hydrolyzed from the amylopectin molecules during esterification. PMID:27283674

  7. High-fidelity artifact correction for cone-beam CT imaging of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT is the frontline imaging modality for diagnosis of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI), involving the detection of fresh blood in the brain (contrast of 30–50 HU, detail size down to 1 mm) in a non-contrast-enhanced exam. A dedicated point-of-care imaging system based on cone-beam CT (CBCT) could benefit early detection of TBI and improve direction to appropriate therapy. However, flat-panel detector (FPD) CBCT is challenged by artifacts that degrade contrast resolution and limit application in soft-tissue imaging. We present and evaluate a fairly comprehensive framework for artifact correction to enable soft-tissue brain imaging with FPD CBCT. The framework includes a fast Monte Carlo (MC)-based scatter estimation method complemented by corrections for detector lag, veiling glare, and beam hardening. The fast MC scatter estimation combines GPU acceleration, variance reduction, and simulation with a low number of photon histories and reduced number of projection angles (sparse MC) augmented by kernel de-noising to yield a runtime of ∼4 min per scan. Scatter correction is combined with two-pass beam hardening correction. Detector lag correction is based on temporal deconvolution of the measured lag response function. The effects of detector veiling glare are reduced by deconvolution of the glare response function representing the long range tails of the detector point-spread function. The performance of the correction framework is quantified in experiments using a realistic head phantom on a testbench for FPD CBCT. Uncorrected reconstructions were non-diagnostic for soft-tissue imaging tasks in the brain. After processing with the artifact correction framework, image uniformity was substantially improved, and artifacts were reduced to a level that enabled visualization of ∼3 mm simulated bleeds throughout the brain. Non-uniformity (cupping) was reduced by a factor of 5, and contrast of simulated bleeds was improved from ∼7 to 49.7 HU, in good

  8. High-fidelity artifact correction for cone-beam CT imaging of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Xu, J.; Dang, H.; Stayman, J. W.; Yorkston, J.; Aygun, N.; Koliatsos, V.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2015-02-01

    CT is the frontline imaging modality for diagnosis of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI), involving the detection of fresh blood in the brain (contrast of 30-50 HU, detail size down to 1 mm) in a non-contrast-enhanced exam. A dedicated point-of-care imaging system based on cone-beam CT (CBCT) could benefit early detection of TBI and improve direction to appropriate therapy. However, flat-panel detector (FPD) CBCT is challenged by artifacts that degrade contrast resolution and limit application in soft-tissue imaging. We present and evaluate a fairly comprehensive framework for artifact correction to enable soft-tissue brain imaging with FPD CBCT. The framework includes a fast Monte Carlo (MC)-based scatter estimation method complemented by corrections for detector lag, veiling glare, and beam hardening. The fast MC scatter estimation combines GPU acceleration, variance reduction, and simulation with a low number of photon histories and reduced number of projection angles (sparse MC) augmented by kernel de-noising to yield a runtime of ~4 min per scan. Scatter correction is combined with two-pass beam hardening correction. Detector lag correction is based on temporal deconvolution of the measured lag response function. The effects of detector veiling glare are reduced by deconvolution of the glare response function representing the long range tails of the detector point-spread function. The performance of the correction framework is quantified in experiments using a realistic head phantom on a testbench for FPD CBCT. Uncorrected reconstructions were non-diagnostic for soft-tissue imaging tasks in the brain. After processing with the artifact correction framework, image uniformity was substantially improved, and artifacts were reduced to a level that enabled visualization of ~3 mm simulated bleeds throughout the brain. Non-uniformity (cupping) was reduced by a factor of 5, and contrast of simulated bleeds was improved from ~7 to 49.7 HU, in good agreement

  9. Structural basis for the roles of starch and sucrose in homo-exopolysaccharide formation by Lactobacillus reuteri 35-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuxiang; Dobruchowska, Justyna M; van der Kaaij, Rachel M; Gerwig, Gerrit J; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2016-10-20

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) that are important for biofilm formation in the mammalian oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. Sucrose is a well-known substrate for homo-EPS formation by Lactobacillus reuteri glucansucrases (GS). Starch is the main fermentable carbohydrate in the human diet, and often consumed simultaneously with sucrose. Recently we have characterized L. reuteri strains that also possess 4,6-α-glucanotransferases (4,6-α-GTases) that act on starch yielding isomalto-/malto-polysaccharides. In this study we have characterized the EPS formed by L. reuteri 35-5 cells and enzymes from sucrose plus starch. The data show that both in vivo and in vitro the L. reuteri 35-5 GS and 4,6-α-GTase enzymes, incubated with sucrose plus starch, cross-react and contribute to synthesis of the final hybrid EPS products. This may have strong effects on the EPS functional properties, influence biofilm formation, and affect the relationship between dietary intake of sucrose and starch, and dental caries formation. PMID:27474540

  10. Starch: chemistry, microstructure, processing and enzymatic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch is recognized as one of the most abundant and important commodities containing value added attributes for a vast number of industrial applications. Its chemistry, structure, property and susceptibility to various chemical, physical and enzymatic modifications offer a high technological value ...

  11. Development of starch based wound dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sago starch is the one of the commodity crops that produce abundantly in Sarawak, Malaysia and mainly use for food consumption. The physical and chemical characteristics of starch such as improve strength, semi-gel form, non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable will be useful to be use as the based material for wound dressing application. Presently almost all dressings of biomaterial product are imported that increase cost liability to the country. Development of starch based hydrogel for wound dressing application give promising results based on the properties of the hydrogel and also from the clinical test carried out on rabbit. Blend of sago starch with water-soluble polymers such as polyvinyl pyyrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) produce hydrogel with good strength and elasticity that one of the criteria for dressing. The typical property of hydrogel that content above 80% water will keep the moisture environment for healing process of the wound. Based on the tissue development such as fibroblast and endothelial cells, and rate of epitheliazation from the clinical study, the healing process taken place less than 10 days with the this hydrogel. (Author)

  12. Reactions of Starch in Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    We found that starches are found to be soluble at 80 ºC in ionic liquids such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (BMIMdca) in concentration up to 10% (w/w). Higher concentrations of biopolymers in these novel solvents resulted in solutions w...

  13. Fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of native corn starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Grajek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The most important innovations in boethanol production in the last decade were: simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes (SSF, high gravity fermentation, the use of new enzyme preparation able to hydrolyse native granular starch and construction of genetically modified strains of microorganisms able to carry out simultaneous production of hydrolytic enzymes and fermentation of C6 and C5 sugars. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of ethanol fermentation using new type of amylolytic enzymes able to hydrolyse native corn starch in a SSF process. Material and methods. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of raw corn flour by fed-batch processes using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Red Star Ethanol Red and Stargen 001 enzyme preparation was performed. As experimental variable were investigated: fermentation temperature (35-37-40°C, rate of mash stirring (100 and 200 rpm, fermentation time (0-92 h and dosage of corn flour (different portion and different time. Results. It was found that optimal temperature for fed-batch SSF process was 37°C at initial pH of 5.0. However, the yeast intensively fermented the saccharides also at 40°C. The fermentation stirring rate has significant effect on starch utilization and fermentation production. The prolongation of fermentation time over 72 h has no substantiation in additional ethanol production. In all experimental fermentations the level of produced organic acids was very low, significantly below toxic concentration for the yeast. Conclusions. It was stated that the use of new method of starch raw material preparation resulted in satisfied fermentation yield and allowed to reduce energy requirements for starch liquefaction.  

  14. Nanostructures Derived from Starch and Chitosan for Fluorescence Bio-Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinxue Zu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent nanostructures (NSs derived from polysaccharides have drawn great attention as novel fluorescent probes for potential bio-imaging applications. Herein, we reported a facile alkali-assisted hydrothermal method to fabricate polysaccharide NSs using starch and chitosan as raw materials. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM demonstrated that the average particle sizes are 14 nm and 75 nm for starch and chitosan NSs, respectively. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy analysis showed that there are a large number of hydroxyl or amino groups on the surface of these polysaccharide-based NSs. Strong fluorescence with an excitation-dependent emission behaviour was observed under ultraviolet excitation. Interestingly, the photostability of the NSs was found to be superior to fluorescein and rhodamine B. The quantum yield of starch NSs could reach 11.12% under the excitation of 360 nm. The oxidative metal ions including Cu(II, Hg(IIand Fe(III exhibited a quench effect on the fluorescence intensity of the prepared NSs. Both of the two kinds of the multicoloured NSs showed a maximum fluorescence intensity at pH 7, while the fluorescence intensity decreased dramatically when they were put in an either acidic or basic environment (at pH 3 or 11. The cytotoxicity study of starch NSs showed that low cell cytotoxicity and 80% viability was found after 24 h incubation, when their concentration was less than 10 mg/mL. The study also showed the possibility of using the multicoloured starch NSs for mouse melanoma cells and guppy fish imaging.

  15. Modification of rice starch by gamma irradiation to produce soluble starch of low viscosity for industrial purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because starch of low viscosity is important for industrial purposes this research was carried out to study the possibility of producing this sort of starch by treating rice starch with γ-irradiation. Results indicated than when rice starch was modified by γ-irradiation, the reducing power increased and degradation as well as molecular breakdown occured followed by sharp decrease of its viscosity, specific viscosity and intrisinc viscosity. Results showed that starch became more soluble by treating with γ-irradiation and lost its resistance to water as its swelling capacity decreased. All these changes were proportional to the doses of γ-irradiation. (orig.)

  16. PROTEIN TARGETING TO STARCH is required for localising GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE to starch granules and for normal amylose synthesis in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Seung

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The domestication of starch crops underpinned the development of human civilisation, yet we still do not fully understand how plants make starch. Starch is composed of glucose polymers that are branched (amylopectin or linear (amylose. The amount of amylose strongly influences the physico-chemical behaviour of starchy foods during cooking and of starch mixtures in non-food manufacturing processes. The GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE (GBSS is the glucosyltransferase specifically responsible for elongating amylose polymers and was the only protein known to be required for its biosynthesis. Here, we demonstrate that PROTEIN TARGETING TO STARCH (PTST is also specifically required for amylose synthesis in Arabidopsis. PTST is a plastidial protein possessing an N-terminal coiled coil domain and a C-terminal carbohydrate binding module (CBM. We discovered that Arabidopsis ptst mutants synthesise amylose-free starch and are phenotypically similar to mutants lacking GBSS. Analysis of granule-bound proteins showed a dramatic reduction of GBSS protein in ptst mutant starch granules. Pull-down assays with recombinant proteins in vitro, as well as immunoprecipitation assays in planta, revealed that GBSS physically interacts with PTST via a coiled coil. Furthermore, we show that the CBM domain of PTST, which mediates its interaction with starch granules, is also required for correct GBSS localisation. Fluorescently tagged Arabidopsis GBSS, expressed either in tobacco or Arabidopsis leaves, required the presence of Arabidopsis PTST to localise to starch granules. Mutation of the CBM of PTST caused GBSS to remain in the plastid stroma. PTST fulfils a previously unknown function in targeting GBSS to starch. This sheds new light on the importance of targeting biosynthetic enzymes to sub-cellular sites where their action is required. Importantly, PTST represents a promising new gene target for the biotechnological modification of starch composition, as it is

  17. Identification a Novel Raw-Starch-Degrading-α-Amylase from a Tropical Marine Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeily Nurachman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Bacteria from the surface of the tropical marine hard coral Acropora sp. were screened for producing raw-starch-degrading-á-amylase. Approach: Based on its 16s rDNA sequence, a bacterium that produced the highest amylolitic activity was identified as Bacillus amyloliquifaciens ABBD. The bacterial isolate secreted a á-amylase extracellularly and then the enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by anion exchange chromatography. Results: Electrophoresis results both SDS-PAGE and native PAGE suggested that the enzyme was a heterodimeric protein (97 kDa consisting of 45 and 55 kDa subunits. The á-amylase had an optimum pH of 7.0 and temperature of 60°C. More than 80% activity of the enzyme was retained under high salt conditions (up to 20% NaCl. The enzyme remained stable at 50°C for 1 h. Starch hydrolysis by the enzyme at 70°C yielded oligosaccharides (G2-G4 and at room temperature yielded glucose/maltose (G1 and G2. Conclusion: The B. amyloliquifaciens ABBD á-amylase was capable of degrading various raw starch granules from corn, rice, cassava and sago at room temperature.

  18. Deficiency of Starch Synthase IIIa and IVb Alters Starch Granule Morphology from Polyhedral to Spherical in Rice Endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyosawa, Yoshiko; Kawagoe, Yasushi; Matsushima, Ryo; Crofts, Naoko; Ogawa, Masahiro; Fukuda, Masako; Kumamaru, Toshihiro; Okazaki, Yozo; Kusano, Miyako; Saito, Kazuki; Toyooka, Kiminori; Sato, Mayuko; Ai, Yongfeng; Jane, Jay-Lin; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujita, Naoko

    2016-03-01

    Starch granule morphology differs markedly among plant species. However, the mechanisms controlling starch granule morphology have not been elucidated. Rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm produces characteristic compound-type granules containing dozens of polyhedral starch granules within an amyloplast. Some other cereal species produce simple-type granules, in which only one starch granule is present per amyloplast. A double mutant rice deficient in the starch synthase (SS) genes SSIIIa and SSIVb (ss3a ss4b) produced spherical starch granules, whereas the parental single mutants produced polyhedral starch granules similar to the wild type. The ss3a ss4b amyloplasts contained compound-type starch granules during early developmental stages, and spherical granules were separated from each other during subsequent amyloplast development and seed dehydration. Analysis of glucan chain length distribution identified overlapping roles for SSIIIa and SSIVb in amylopectin chain synthesis, with a degree of polymerization of 42 or greater. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy of wild-type developing rice seeds revealed that the majority of SSIVb was localized between starch granules. Therefore, we propose that SSIIIa and SSIVb have crucial roles in determining starch granule morphology and in maintaining the amyloplast envelope structure. We present a model of spherical starch granule production. PMID:26747287

  19. A no-reference blocking artifact metric for B-DCT video

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Fu-zheng; WAN Shuai; CHANG Yi-lin; LUO Zhong

    2006-01-01

    A new no-reference blocking artifact metric for B-DCT compression video is presented in this paper. We first present a new definition of blocking artifact and a new method for measuring perceptive blocking artifact based on HVS taking into account the luminance masking and activity masking characteristic. Then, we propose a new concept of blocking artifact cluster and the algorithm for clustering blocking artifacts. Considering eye movement and fixation, we select several clusters with most serious blocking artifacts and utilize the average of their blocking artifacts to assess the total blocking artifact of B-DCT reconstructed video. Experimental results illustrating the performance of the proposed method are presented and evaluated.

  20. Home-Explorer: Ontology-Based Physical Artifact Search and Hidden Object Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Guo; Satoru Satake; Michita Imai

    2008-01-01

    A new system named Home-Explorer that searches and finds physical artifacts in a smart indoor environment is proposed. The view on which it is based is artifact-centered and uses sensors attached to the everyday artifacts (called smart objects) in the real world. This paper makes two main contributions: First, it addresses, the robustness of the embedded sensors, which is seldom discussed in previous smart artifact research. Because sensors may sometimes be broken or fail to work under certai...