WorldWideScience

Sample records for artifacts yield starch

  1. Gourd and squash artifacts yield starch grains of feasting foods from preceramic Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Neil A.; Pearsall, Deborah M.; Robert A. Benfer

    2009-01-01

    In a study of residues from gourd and squash artifacts, we recovered starch grains from manioc (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum sp.), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) from feasting contexts at the Buena Vista site, a central Peruvian preceramic site dating to ≈2200 calendar years B.C. This study has implications for the study of plant food use wherever gourds or squashes are preserved, documents the earliest evidence for the consu...

  2. Gourd and squash artifacts yield starch grains of feasting foods from preceramic Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Neil A; Pearsall, Deborah M; Benfer, Robert A

    2009-08-11

    In a study of residues from gourd and squash artifacts, we recovered starch grains from manioc (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum sp.), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) from feasting contexts at the Buena Vista site, a central Peruvian preceramic site dating to approximately 2200 calendar years B.C. This study has implications for the study of plant food use wherever gourds or squashes are preserved, documents the earliest evidence for the consumption of algarrobo and arrowroot in Peru, and provides insights into foods consumed at feasts. PMID:19633184

  3. Improved yields of cyclic nigerosylnigerose from starch by pretreatment with a thermostable branching enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aga, Hajime; Okamoto, Iwao; Taniguchi, Mituki; Kawashima, Akira; Abe, Hiroko; Chaen, Hiroto; Fukuda, Shigeharu

    2010-04-01

    Cyclic nigerosylnigerose (CNN) is produced enzymatically from starch by the combined action of 6-alpha-glucosyltransferase and 3-alpha-isomaltosyltransferase. In our previous study, alpha-1,6-branching chains found in the structure of amylopectin and glycogen were shown to be favorable for CNN formation by the two enzymes. Therefore, we examined whether the introduction of alpha-1,6-branch points into starch using the action of branching enzyme (BE) could improve the yield of CNN from starch. Thermostable BE from Geobacillus stearothermophilus TC-91 was prepared as a purified recombinant protein. Pretreatment of amylose with BE considerably increased the CNN yield from 5% to 38%. When BE acted on tapioca starch, the CNN yield was elevated from 47% to 60%. Conversely, BE treatment of waxy corn starch containing very little amylose resulted in a negligible increase in CNN yield. In addition, BE exerted a beneficial effect when starch with a lower degree of hydrolysis was used as a substrate. The present results indicate that the addition of alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkages to starch using BE is an effective strategy to improve the yield of CNN from starch. PMID:20226381

  4. Identification and reproducibility of diagnostic DNA markers for tuber starch and yield optimization in a novel association mapping population of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Schönhals, E. M.; Ortega, F.; Barandalla, L.; Aragones, A.; Ruiz de Galarreta, J.I.; Liao, J.-C.; Sanetomo, R.; Walkemeier, B.; Tacke, E.; Ritter, E.; Gebhardt, C.

    2016-01-01

    Key message SNPs in candidate genes Pain - 1, InvCD141 (invertases), SSIV (starch synthase), StCDF1 (transcription factor), LapN (leucine aminopeptidase), and cytoplasm type are associated with potato tuber yield, starch content and/or starch yield. Abstract Tuber yield (TY), starch content (TSC), and starch yield (TSY) are complex characters of high importance for the potato crop in general and for industrial starch production in particular. DNA markers associated with superior alleles of ge...

  5. Natural DNA variation at candidate loci is associated with potato chip color, tuber starch content, yield and starch yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L.; Paulo, M.J.; Strahwald, J.; Lubeck, J.; Hofferbert, H.R.; Tacke, E.; Junghans, H.; Wunder, J.; Draffehn, A.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Gebhardt, C.

    2008-01-01

    Complex characters of plants such as starch and sugar content of seeds, fruits, tubers and roots are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Understanding their molecular basis will facilitate diagnosis and combination of superior alleles in crop improvement programs (precision bre

  6. Biological implications in cassava for the production of amylose-free starch: impact on root yield and related traits.

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda eKarlström; Sandra eSalazar; Fernando eCalle; Nelson eMorante; Dominique eDufour; Hernán eCeballos

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an important food security crop, but it is becoming an important raw material for different industrial applications. Cassava is the second most important source of starch worldwide. Novel starch properties are of interest to the starch industry, and one them is the recently identified amylose-free (waxy) cassava starch. Waxy mutants have been found in different crops and have been often associated with a yield penalty. There are ongoing efforts to develo...

  7. Biological Implications in Cassava for the Production of Amylose-Free Starch: Impact on Root Yield and Related Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Karlström, Amanda; Calle, Fernando; Salazar, Sandra; Morante, Nelson; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an important food security crop, but it is becoming an important raw material for different industrial applications. Cassava is the second most important source of starch worldwide. Novel starch properties are of interest to the starch industry, and one them is the recently identified amylose-free (waxy) cassava starch. Waxy mutants have been found in different crops and have been often associated with a yield penalty. There are ongoing efforts to develo...

  8. Effect of chlorocholine chloride on starch-synthesizing capacity and yield of potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors investigated the effect of chlorocholine chloride (CCC) on the yield and ability to absorb exogenous glucose and transform it into starch exhibition by different parts of the tubers of two potato cultivars with different precocity under conditions of the natural long days prevailing in the middle-taiga zone of the European part of the USSR. Plants were treated at stage VII of organogenesis. As a result of treatment, the yield rose by almost 30% without any decline of starch or protein content in the tubers. Tissues from tubers of CCC-treated plants absorbed exogenous 14C-glucose more actively and their starch contained more 14C. The effects of CCC on deposition of storage substances were more strongly manifested in the medium-late Ideal cultivar. It is concluded that the endogenous balance of phytohormones plays the main role in regulation of tuberization and the rate of tuber growth. The effect of CCC on the starch-synthesizing capacity of tubers is discussed within the framework of the anti-gibberellin hypothesis

  9. Biological Implications in Cassava for the Production of Amylose-Free Starch: Impact on Root Yield and Related Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlström, Amanda; Calle, Fernando; Salazar, Sandra; Morante, Nelson; Dufour, Dominique; Ceballos, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an important food security crop, but it is becoming an important raw material for different industrial applications. Cassava is the second most important source of starch worldwide. Novel starch properties are of interest to the starch industry, and one them is the recently identified amylose-free (waxy) cassava starch. Waxy mutants have been found in different crops and have been often associated with a yield penalty. There are ongoing efforts to develop commercial cassava varieties with amylose-free starch. However, little information is available regarding the biological and agronomic implications of starch mutations in cassava, nor in other root and tuber crops. In this study, siblings from eight full-sib families, segregating for the waxy trait, were used to determine if the mutation has implications for yield, dry matter content (DMC) and harvest index in cassava. A total of 87 waxy and 87 wild-type starch genotypes from the eight families were used in the study. The only significant effect of starch type was on DMC (p cassava varieties will have competitive FRYs but special efforts will be required to attain adequate DMCs. This study contributes to the limited knowledge available of the impact of starch mutations on the agronomic performance of root and tuber crops. PMID:27242813

  10. High-yield hydrogen production from starch and water by a synthetic enzymatic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y-H Percival Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The future hydrogen economy offers a compelling energy vision, but there are four main obstacles: hydrogen production, storage, and distribution, as well as fuel cells. Hydrogen production from inexpensive abundant renewable biomass can produce cheaper hydrogen, decrease reliance on fossil fuels, and achieve zero net greenhouse gas emissions, but current chemical and biological means suffer from low hydrogen yields and/or severe reaction conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate a synthetic enzymatic pathway consisting of 13 enzymes for producing hydrogen from starch and water. The stoichiometric reaction is C(6H(10O(5 (l+7 H(2O (l-->12 H(2 (g+6 CO(2 (g. The overall process is spontaneous and unidirectional because of a negative Gibbs free energy and separation of the gaseous products with the aqueous reactants. CONCLUSIONS: Enzymatic hydrogen production from starch and water mediated by 13 enzymes occurred at 30 degrees C as expected, and the hydrogen yields were much higher than the theoretical limit (4 H(2/glucose of anaerobic fermentations. SIGNIFICANCE: The unique features, such as mild reaction conditions (30 degrees C and atmospheric pressure, high hydrogen yields, likely low production costs ($ approximately 2/kg H(2, and a high energy-density carrier starch (14.8 H(2-based mass%, provide great potential for mobile applications. With technology improvements and integration with fuel cells, this technology also solves the challenges associated with hydrogen storage, distribution, and infrastructure in the hydrogen economy.

  11. Transcriptome analysis suggests that starch synthesis may proceed via multiple metabolic routes in high yielding potato cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacper Piotr Kaminski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate is imported into the amyloplast of potato tubers and thought to constitute the precursor for starch synthesis in potato tubers. However, recently it was shown that glucose-1-phosphate can also be imported into the amyloplast and incorporated into starch via an ATP independent mechanism under special conditions. Nonetheless, glucose-6-phosphate is believed to be the quantitatively important precursor for starch synthesis in potato. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Potato tubers of the high yielding cv Kuras had low gene expression of plastidial phophoglucomutase (PGM and normal levels of transcripts for other enzymes involved in starch metabolism in comparison with medium and low yielding cultivars as determined by DeepSAGE transcriptome profiling. The decrease in PGM activity in Kuras was confirmed by measuring the enzyme activity from potato tuber extracts. Contrary to expectations, this combination lead to a higher level of intracellular glucose-1-phosphate (G1P in Kuras suggesting that G1P is directly imported into plastids and can be quantitatively important for starch synthesis under normal conditions in high yielding cultivars. SIGNIFICANCE: This could open entirely new possibilities for metabolic engineering of the starch metabolism in potato via the so far uncharacterized G1P transporter. The perspectives are to increase yield and space efficiency of this important crop. In the light of the increasing demands imposed on agriculture to support a growing global population this presents an exciting new possibility.

  12. Yield potential and starch content of sari sweet potato mutant lines at different locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on mutation induction for agronomical traits improvement of sari sweet potato have been conducted at PATIR — BATAN. Four mutant lines of M1V5 generation ( D15.7.5; D15.7.7; D15.7.8 and D15.7.9 ) derived from irradiated bud by the dose of 40 Gy have been obtained. These mutant lines were planted at 4 different locations namely West Jawa Province (Bogor and Kuningan), and East Java Province (Malang and Mojokerto). The mutant lines, c.v. Sari and local cultivar were cultivated at 0.25 x 1 m distance in the field with a plot size of 4 x 5 m. The harvesting were done when the plants were 4 months of age and sugar and starch contents were analyzed using Spectrophotometer. The result showed that, the highest production obtained was 44.11 ton/ha by D15.7.5 mutant line from Mojokerto. This mutant line was stable at all four locations with average production of 30.04 ton/ha. Mojokerto is the best location compared to the others 3 locations. The dried starch was 96.47 % obtained by D15.7.9 mutant line, meanwhile sugar content was 8.80 % by D15.7.5 mutant line. The production, starch and sugar content of the mutant lines were all higher than that of the original plant. (author)

  13. Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, J.; Hu, C.; Yan, X.; Jin, Y.; Chen, Z.; Guan, Q.; Wang, Y.; Zhong, D.; Jansson, Georg C.; Wang, F.; Schnrer, Anna; Sun, Chuanxin

    2015-07-22

    Atmospheric methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and is responsible for about 20% of the global warming effect since pre-industrial times. Rice paddies are the largest anthropogenic methane source and produce 7–17% of atmospheric methane. Warm waterlogged soil and exuded nutrients from rice roots provide ideal conditions for methanogenesis in paddies with annual methane emissions of 25–100-million tonnes. This scenario will be exacerbated by an expansion in rice cultivation needed to meet the escalating demand for food in the coming decades4. There is an urgent need to establish sustainable technologies for increasing rice production while reducing methane fluxes from rice paddies. However, ongoing efforts for methane mitigation in rice paddies are mainly based on farming practices and measures that are difficult to implement5. Despite proposed strategies to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions4,6, no high-starch low-methane-emission rice has been developed. Here we show that the addition of a single transcription factor gene, barley SUSIBA2, conferred a shift of carbon flux to SUSIBA2 rice, favouring the allocation of photosynthates to aboveground biomass over allocation to roots. The altered allocation resulted in an increased biomass and starch content in the seeds and stems, and suppressed methanogenesis, possibly through a reduction in root exudates. Three-year field trials in China demonstrated that the cultivation of SUSIBA2 rice was associated with a significant reduction in methane emissions and a decrease in rhizospheric methanogen levels. SUSIBA2 rice offers a sustainable means of providing increased starch content for food production while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation. Approaches to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions as seen in SUSIBA2 rice may be particularly beneficial in a future climate with rising temperatures resulting in increased methane

  14. Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J.; Hu, C.; Yan, X.; Jin, Y.; Chen, Z.; Guan, Q.; Wang, Y.; Zhong, D.; Jansson, C.; Wang, F.; Schnürer, A.; Sun, C.

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and is responsible for about 20% of the global warming effect since pre-industrial times. Rice paddies are the largest anthropogenic methane source and produce 7-17% of atmospheric methane. Warm waterlogged soil and exuded nutrients from rice roots provide ideal conditions for methanogenesis in paddies with annual methane emissions of 25-100-million tonnes. This scenario will be exacerbated by an expansion in rice cultivation needed to meet the escalating demand for food in the coming decades. There is an urgent need to establish sustainable technologies for increasing rice production while reducing methane fluxes from rice paddies. However, ongoing efforts for methane mitigation in rice paddies are mainly based on farming practices and measures that are difficult to implement. Despite proposed strategies to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions, no high-starch low-methane-emission rice has been developed. Here we show that the addition of a single transcription factor gene, barley SUSIBA2 (refs 7, 8), conferred a shift of carbon flux to SUSIBA2 rice, favouring the allocation of photosynthates to aboveground biomass over allocation to roots. The altered allocation resulted in an increased biomass and starch content in the seeds and stems, and suppressed methanogenesis, possibly through a reduction in root exudates. Three-year field trials in China demonstrated that the cultivation of SUSIBA2 rice was associated with a significant reduction in methane emissions and a decrease in rhizospheric methanogen levels. SUSIBA2 rice offers a sustainable means of providing increased starch content for food production while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation. Approaches to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions as seen in SUSIBA2 rice may be particularly beneficial in a future climate with rising temperatures resulting in increased

  15. Impacts of irrigation and genotype on yield, protein, starch and oil contents in grain of maize inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josipovic Marko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four inbred lines of maize (Os 438-95 = C1, Os 30-8 = C2, Os 6 = C3 and Os 1-44 =C4 were grown for 4-year period (2006-2009 in the stationary field experiment on Osijek eutric cambisol. Impact of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization and genotype were tested. Soil moisture was maintained by two irrigation rates from 60-100% and 80-100% of the field water capacity. Two steps of N (0, 100 and 200 kg N ha-1 were applied, while P and K fertilization was equal (500 kg/ha NPK 0:30:20. Eight maize genotypes (four inbred lines and four hybrids were grown on each basic plot of fertilization. The experiment was duplicated for maize - soybean rotation. The experiment was set by split-split plot method according to randomized block design in three replicates. The basic plot areas were 617.2 m2 (irrigation, 313.6 m2 (fertilization and 39.2 m2 (genotype. Selection of N non-fertilized treatment and four inbred lines were made for this study with aim of testing year (A irrigation (B and genotype (C effects under natural N-soil conditions. Average grain yield in level 1809 kg ha-1without N fertilization is indication of very high fertility of the soil. Differences of yield among the years were from 823 (2007 to 2450 (2006 kg ha-1. Excessive drought and high air-temperature stress is responsible for the low maize yield in 2007. Irrigation considerable affected on maize yields (4-year averages: 1500, 1809 and 2118 kg ha-1, for B1, B2 and B3, respectively. Differences of the 4-year average yields among the genotypes were from 1259 (C3 to 2765 (C1 kg ha-1. Differences of yield among the genotypes in the different years were also considerable because the lowest yield was for 71% (A1, 23% (A2, 63% (A3 and 40% (A4 lower in comparison to the highest yield. The genotype effects under different water supplies were less influencing factor because the high-yielding C1 had for 128%, 129% and 106% the higher yield compared to the low-yielding C3, for B1, B2 and B3, respectively

  16. Effect of dietary starch concentration and fish oil supplementation on milk yield and composition, diet digestibility, and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirondini, M; Colombini, S; Mele, M; Malagutti, L; Rapetti, L; Galassi, G; Crovetto, G M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different starch concentrations and fish oil (FO) supplementation on lactation performance, in vivo total-tract nutrient digestibility, N balance, and methane (CH4) emissions in lactating dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement: 2 concentrations of dietary starch [low vs. high: 23.7 and 27.7% on a dry matter (DM) basis; neutral detergent fiber/starch ratios: 1.47 and 1.12], the presence or absence of FO supplement (0.80% on a DM basis), and their interaction were evaluated. Four Italian Friesian cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets in 4 consecutive 26-d periods: (1) low starch (LS), (2) low starch plus FO (LSO), (3) high starch (HS), and (4) high starch plus FO (HSO). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage, alfalfa and meadow hays). The starch concentration was balanced using different proportions of corn meal and soybean hulls. The cows were housed in metabolic stalls inside open-circuit respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emission and the collection of separate urine and feces. No differences among treatments were observed for DM intake. We observed a trend for FO to increase milk yield: 29.2 and 27.5kg/d, on average, for diets with and without FO, respectively. Milk fat was affected by the interaction between dietary starch and FO: milk fat decreased only in the HSO diet. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO on the LS diet. Fish oil supplementation decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio of milk polyunsaturated fatty acids. High-starch diets negatively influenced all digestibility parameters measured except starch, whereas FO improved neutral detergent fiber digestibility (41.9 vs. 46.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively, and ether extract digestibility (53.7 vs. 67.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively). We observed

  17. Transcriptome Analysis Suggests That Starch Synthesis May Proceed via Multiple Metabolic Routes in High Yielding Potato Cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaminski, Kacper Piotr; Høgh Petersen, Annabeth; Sønderkær, Mads;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Glucose-6-phosphate is imported into the amyloplast of potato tubers and thought to constitute the precursor for starch synthesis in potato tubers. However, recently it was shown that glucose-1-phosphate can also be imported into the amyloplast and incorporated into starch via an ATP...

  18. Radiographic artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early days of radiology, artifacts have appeared on radiographs. Actually, the first radiograph ever taken had an artifact present, a metallic ring on the patient's hand. Artifacts are a common cause of repeat radiographs; they often occur in unexpected places, with many peculiar internal objects being detected. Without a complete history many unusual artifactual shadows cannot be adequately identified. This chapter is presented in ''atlas'' format, using a pictorial review of various artifacts. Few radiological interpretation texts show any artifacts, despite their common occurrence. This provided the impetus to add this atlas to the book. In order to avoid the production of these artifacts, close attention to patient preparation and positioning and good darkroom procedures are necessary. The use of up-to-date, good quality x-ray equipment is also very helpful

  19. Resistant starch: an indigestible fraction of foods

    OpenAIRE

    Saura Calixto, F.; Abia, R.

    1991-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS), the dietary starch that scape digestion in the small intestine, can yields up to 20% of the starch in cereal and legume products. Several fractions contribute to the total RS of foods: retrograded amylose, starch inaccessible to digestive enzymes because of mechanical barriers, chemically modified starch fragments, undigested starch due to α-amylase inhibitors and starch complexed with other food components. RS is formed in products processed following heat tr...

  20. Studies on starch structure and the differential properties of starch branching enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Lena

    2001-01-01

    Starch is a staple food in human and animal diets, but also a raw material widely used for industrial purposes. By genetical modification of starch-synthesising enzymes in crop plants, starch yields could be increased and novel starches with particular qualities could be produced for industrial use. However, the process of starch biosynthesis and its regulation is still not completely understood. One of the major groups of enzymes in starch biosynthesis is the starch branching enzymes (SBEs),...

  1. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  2. Dynamics in artifact ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2012-01-01

    We increasingly interact with multiple interactive artifacts with overlapping capabilities during our daily activities. It has previously been shown that the use of an interactive artifact cannot be understood in isolation, but artifacts must be understood as part of an artifact ecology, where...... artifacts influence the use of others. Understanding this interplay becomes more and more essential for interaction design as our artifact ecologies grow. This paper continues a recent discourse on artifact ecologies. Through interviews with iPhone users, we demonstrate that relationships between artifacts...... in artifact ecologies cannot be understood as static, instead they evolve dynamically over time. We provide activity theory-based concepts to explain these dynamics....

  3. Effect of starch isolation method on properties of sweet potato starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SURENDRA BABU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Isolation method of starch with different agents influences starch properties, which provide attention for studying the most appropriate method for isolation of starch. In the present study sweet potato starch was isolated by Sodium metabisulphate (M1, Sodium chloride (M2, and Distilled water (M3 methods and these were assessed for functional, chemical, pasting and structural properties. M3 yielded the greatest recovery of starch (10.20%. Isolation methods significantly changed swelling power and pasting properties but starches exhibited similar chemical properties. Sweet potato starches possessed C-type diffraction pattern. Small size granules of 2.90 μm were noticed in SEM of M3 starch. A high degree positive correlation was found between ash, amylose, and total starch content. The study concluded that isolation methods brought changes in yield, pasting and structural properties of sweet potato starch.

  4. Starch synovitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Freemont, A. J.; Porter, M L; Tomlinson, I; Clague, R B; Jayson, M. I.

    1984-01-01

    Three patients with unexplained synovial inflammation were found to have an ulcerative, granulomatous synovitis on biopsy. Maize starch was identified in giant cells within the granulomata. Starch synovitis has clinical and histological similarities to starch peritonitis, which is thought to be an example of a cell mediated immune response.

  5. 甘薯淀粉产量及相关性状的遗传多样性和关联度分析%Genetic diversity and correlation analysis of starch yield-related traits in sweet potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯; 罗小敏; 王季春; 唐道彬; 吴正丹; 叶爽; 王莉

    2013-01-01

    As a major starch-based raw material for fuel ethanol production, sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] is a critical industrial material and a new energy resource.The development of new sweet potato varieties with high starch yield has been a key element of sweet potato research.To improve breeding efficiency of sweet potato varieties with high starch yield, short breeding cycle and valuable index supply for early selection of high starch yield sweet potato breed, this study used the Unweighted Pair Group and PSC- (Pair Similarity Coefficient) based Arithmetic Average Method to classify 48 main sweet potato germplasm resources in terms of starch yield, morphological traits and synthetic enzyme activity.Then correlation analysis was used to assess the relations of starch yield with agronomic traits and starch synthetic enzyme activity at different times.The results showed significant variations in agronomic traits of different sweet potato varieties/lines and periods.Cluster results indicated that agronomic traits in 100 days after planting were most relevant with starch yield.Among the agronomic traits, starch yield was significantly negatively correlated with plant branch (r = -0.428) and significantly positively correlated with dry matter rate (r = 0.423) in 100 days after planting.No significant correlation existed between starch yield and maximum vine length, root tuber number per plant or root tuber fresh weight per plant.It was possible to use plant branch and dry matter in 100 days after planting as indexes in early selection of high starch yield sweet potato breed.The cluster results for key starch synthesis enzymes (ADPG-PPase, SS and SPS) activities at different times were significantly different.The cluster results showed key starch synthesis enzymes activities in 50 days after planting was most relevant with starch yield.Among the enzymes activities in 50 days after planting, starch yield was negatively correlated with ADPG-PPase activity (r = -0

  6. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  7. Preliminary organizational culture scale focused on artifacts

    OpenAIRE

    Bonavia, Tomas

    2006-01-01

    In this preliminary study, an organizational culture scale was developed to assess cultural artifacts according to Schein´s typology (1985). It includes a set of cultural artifacts to measure the extent to which an organization is more or less traditional. A total of 249 managers from a range of different companies responded to the items. Preliminary analysis yielded a one-dimensional scale with 14 items with high internal consistency and homogeneity.

  8. Artifacts in Digital Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Stephen G.

    This paper discusses the preservation of digital resources in research libraries. The first section addresses the preservation imperative, including the challenges of quantity, stability of media, economics, and the contingent value of artifacts. The second section describes the artifact in question (i.e., an information resource in which the…

  9. Effect of dietary starch level and high rumen-undegradable protein on endocrine-metabolic status, milk yield, and milk composition in dairy cows during early and late lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Loor, J J; Seal, C J; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E

    2014-12-01

    Diet composition defines the amount and type of nutrients absorbed by dairy cows. Endocrine-metabolic interactions can influence these parameters, and so nutrient availability for the mammary gland can significantly vary and affect milk yield and its composition. Six dairy cows in early and then late lactation received, for 28 d in a changeover design, 2 diets designed to provide, within the same stage of lactation, similar amounts of rumen fermentable material but either high starch plus sugar (HS) content or low starch plus sugar content (LS). All diets had similar dietary crude protein and calculated supply of essential amino acids. Dry matter intake within each stage of lactation was similar between groups. Milk yield was similar between groups in early lactation, whereas a higher milk yield was observed in late lactation when feeding HS. At the metabolic level, the main difference observed between the diets in both stages of lactation was lower blood glucose in cows fed LS. The lower glucose availability during consumption of LS caused substantial modifications in the circulating and postprandial pattern of metabolic hormones. Feeding LS versus HS resulted in an increase in the ratio of bovine somatotropin to insulin. This increased mobilization of lipid reserves resulted in higher blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate, which contributed to the higher milk fat content in both stages of lactation in the LS group. This greater recourse to body fat stores was confirmed by the greater loss of body weight during early lactation and the slower recovery of body weight in late lactation in cows fed LS. The lower insulin to glucagon ratio observed in cows fed LS in early and late lactation likely caused an increase in hepatic uptake and catabolism of amino acids, as confirmed by the higher blood urea concentrations. Despite the higher catabolism of amino acids in LS in early lactation, similar milk protein output was observed for both

  10. Overexpressing Ferredoxins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Increase Starch and Oil Yields and Enhance Electric Power Production in a Photo Microbial Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Fen Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ferredoxins (FDX are final electron carrier proteins in the plant photosynthetic pathway, and function as major electron donors in diverse redox-driven metabolic pathways. We previously showed that overexpression of a major constitutively expressed ferredoxin gene PETF in Chlamydomonas decreased the reactive oxygen species (ROS level and enhanced tolerance to heat stress. In addition to PETF, an endogenous anaerobic induced FDX5 was overexpressed in transgenic Chlamydomonas lines here to address the possible functions of FDX5. All the independent FDX transgenic lines showed decreased cellular ROS levels and enhanced tolerance to heat and salt stresses. The transgenic Chlamydomonas lines accumulated more starch than the wild-type line and this effect increased almost three-fold in conditions of nitrogen depletion. Furthermore, the lipid content was higher in the transgenic lines than in the wild-type line, both with and without nitrogen depletion. Two FDX-overexpressing Chlamydomonas lines were assessed in a photo microbial fuel cell (PMFC; power density production by the transgenic lines was higher than that of the wild-type cells. These findings suggest that overexpression of either PETF or FDX5 can confer tolerance against heat and salt stresses, increase starch and oil production, and raise electric power density in a PMFC.

  11. Physicochemical and Binder Properties of Starch Obtained from Cyperus esculentus

    OpenAIRE

    Manek, Rahul V.; Builders, Philip F.; Kolling, William M.; Emeje, Martins; Olobayo O. Kunle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate starch from the tubers of Cyperus esculentus L. and evaluate its physicochemical and binder properties. Extraction of starch using sodium metabisulfite yielded 37 g of starch per 100 g of the tubers. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that Cyperus starch consists of oval to elliptical particles with a smooth surface. Cyperus starch demonstrates a narrow particle size distribution with a mean of 8.25 μm. Cyperus starch conforms well to United States...

  12. Influence of phosphate esters on the annealing properties of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wischmann, Bente; Muhrbeck, Per

    1998-01-01

    The effects of annealing on native potato, waxy maize, and phosphorylated waxy maize starches were compared. Phosphorylated waxy maize starch responded to annealing in a manner between that of the naturally phosphorylated potato starch and that of the native waxy maize starch. The gelatinisation...... end-point temperature was increased, whereas in the native waxy maize it was decreased. On the other hand, the onset temperature change was much larger in potato starch than in the two waxy maize starches. Steeping also yielded intermediate effects on the phosphorylated waxy maize starch. It was...... concluded that the phosphate groups have similar effects as they do in the native, naturally phosphorylated potato starch, although the substitution pattern is not entirely the same in the artificially phosphorylated starch....

  13. Hyperphosphorylation of cereal starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    Plant starch is naturally phosphorylated at a fraction of the C6 and the C3 hydroxyl groups during its biosynthesis in plastids. Starch phosphate esters are important in starch metabolism and they also generate specific industrial functionality. Cereal grains starch contains little starch bound...... phosphate compared with potato tuber starch and in order to investigate the effect of increased endosperm starch phosphate, the potato starch phosphorylating enzyme glucan water dikinase (StGWD) was overexpressed specifically in the developing barley endosperm. StGWD overexpressors showed wild......-type phenotype. Transgenic cereal grains synthesized starch with higher starch bound phosphate content (7.5 (±0.67) nmol/mg) compared to control lines (0.8 (±0.05) nmol/mg) with starch granules showing altered morphology and lower melting enthalpy. Our data indicate specific action of GWD during starch...

  14. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    OpenAIRE

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors meas...

  15. AFM image artifacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gołek, F., E-mail: golek@ifd.uni.wroc.pl; Mazur, P.; Ryszka, Z.; Zuber, S.

    2014-06-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has become an important tool in surface science and nanotechnology. It is obvious that the intrinsic limitations of AFM must be understood in order to get useful information about surface structure of the material under study. The ability to recognize artifacts should assist in reliable evaluation of instrument operation and in reporting of data. In this paper, we discuss the most frequently encountered image artifacts in atomic force microscopy. A variety of artifacts are illustrated by the results obtained with the aid of contact AFM (C-AFM), which can help avoid misinterpretations. It is shown that, despite inaccuracies in AFM image generation, in many cases valuable information can be obtained.

  16. Facts in artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P R Bindhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of microscopic sections of animal tissues reveals facts which are not always related to its normal histology or pathology. Processing of tissue specimens consists of lengthy procedures from the stage of surgical removal to the stained and mounted microscopic sections. Defects are common in tissue sections as a result of faulty procedures. These defects are referred to as artifacts. They lead to misinterpretation of histopathological diagnosis but at times they throw limelight into diagnosis. This paper attempts to put together all the facts regarding the various artifacts that are encountered in histopathology.

  17. iPhone 4s photoplethysmography: which light color yields the most accurate heart rate and normalized pulse volume using the iPhysioMeter Application in the presence of motion artifact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Matsumura

    Full Text Available Recent progress in information and communication technologies has made it possible to measure heart rate (HR and normalized pulse volume (NPV, which are important physiological indices, using only a smartphone. This has been achieved with reflection mode photoplethysmography (PPG, by using a smartphone's embedded flash as a light source and the camera as a light sensor. Despite its widespread use, the method of PPG is susceptible to motion artifacts as physical displacements influence photon propagation phenomena and, thereby, the effective optical path length. Further, it is known that the wavelength of light used for PPG influences the photon penetration depth and we therefore hypothesized that influences of motion artifact could be wavelength-dependant. To test this hypothesis, we made measurements in 12 healthy volunteers of HR and NPV derived from reflection mode plethysmograms recorded simultaneously at three different spectral regions (red, green and blue at the same physical location with a smartphone. We then assessed the accuracy of the HR and NPV measurements under the influence of motion artifacts. The analyses revealed that the accuracy of HR was acceptably high with all three wavelengths (all rs > 0.996, fixed biases: -0.12 to 0.10 beats per minute, proportional biases: r =  -0.29 to 0.03, but that of NPV was the best with green light (r = 0.791, fixed biases: -0.01 arbitrary units, proportional bias: r = 0.11. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio obtained with green and blue light PPG was higher than that of red light PPG. These findings suggest that green is the most suitable color for measuring HR and NPV from the reflection mode photoplethysmogram under motion artifact conditions. We conclude that the use of green light PPG could be of particular benefit in ambulatory monitoring where motion artifacts are a significant issue.

  18. iPhone 4s photoplethysmography: which light color yields the most accurate heart rate and normalized pulse volume using the iPhysioMeter Application in the presence of motion artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Kenta; Rolfe, Peter; Lee, Jihyoung; Yamakoshi, Takehiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in information and communication technologies has made it possible to measure heart rate (HR) and normalized pulse volume (NPV), which are important physiological indices, using only a smartphone. This has been achieved with reflection mode photoplethysmography (PPG), by using a smartphone's embedded flash as a light source and the camera as a light sensor. Despite its widespread use, the method of PPG is susceptible to motion artifacts as physical displacements influence photon propagation phenomena and, thereby, the effective optical path length. Further, it is known that the wavelength of light used for PPG influences the photon penetration depth and we therefore hypothesized that influences of motion artifact could be wavelength-dependant. To test this hypothesis, we made measurements in 12 healthy volunteers of HR and NPV derived from reflection mode plethysmograms recorded simultaneously at three different spectral regions (red, green and blue) at the same physical location with a smartphone. We then assessed the accuracy of the HR and NPV measurements under the influence of motion artifacts. The analyses revealed that the accuracy of HR was acceptably high with all three wavelengths (all rs > 0.996, fixed biases: -0.12 to 0.10 beats per minute, proportional biases: r =  -0.29 to 0.03), but that of NPV was the best with green light (r = 0.791, fixed biases: -0.01 arbitrary units, proportional bias: r = 0.11). Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio obtained with green and blue light PPG was higher than that of red light PPG. These findings suggest that green is the most suitable color for measuring HR and NPV from the reflection mode photoplethysmogram under motion artifact conditions. We conclude that the use of green light PPG could be of particular benefit in ambulatory monitoring where motion artifacts are a significant issue. PMID:24618594

  19. Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Andreas; Jensen, Susanne L;

    2012-01-01

    endosperm. This trait was segregating 3:1. Amylose-only starch granules were irregularly shaped and showed peculiar thermal properties and crystallinity. Transgenic lines retained high-yield possibly due to a pleiotropic upregualtion of other starch biosynthetic genes compensating the SBEs loss. For...

  20. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF STARCH-MALTODEXTRIN AND STARCH-MALTODEXTRIN-GLUCOSE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Grzelak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE Starch is a widely used food additive. The addition of other ingredients changes the physical properties of resulting systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the rheological characteristics and susceptibility to retrogradation of starch-maltodextrin and starch-maltodextrin-glucose systems. Flow curves of 5% starch - maltodextrin and starch-maltodextrin-glucose pastes were tested by using rotational rheometer. The susceptibility to retrogradation of 2% pastes starch-maltodextrin and starch-maltodextrin-glucose systems by means of turbidimetric method was evaluated. It was found that all samples (systems were a non-Newtonian, pseudoplastic fluids, with tend to the yield stress. Moreover addition of low and high DE maltodextrins and glucose to the starch caused a decrease in the values of shear stress throughout whole shear rate range. Starch pastes with greater concentration of the maltodextrins had less tendency to retrogradation. Also addition of glucose to starch-maltodextrin systems reduce the susceptibility to retrogradation.10.5219/196

  1. Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2012-01-01

    Background Starch is stored in higher plants as granules composed of semi-crystalline amylopectin and amorphous amylose. Starch granules provide energy for the plant during dark periods and for germination of seeds and tubers. Dietary starch is also a highly glycemic carbohydrate being degraded to...... glucose and rapidly absorbed in the small intestine. But a portion of dietary starch, termed "resistant starch" (RS) escapes digestion and reaches the large intestine, where it is fermented by colonic bacteria producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA) which are linked to several health benefits. The RS is...... preferentially derived from amylose, which can be increased by suppressing amylopectin synthesis by silencing of starch branching enzymes (SBEs). However all the previous works attempting the production of high RS crops resulted in only partly increased amylose-content and/or significant yield loss. Results In...

  2. iPhone 4s Photoplethysmography: Which Light Color Yields the Most Accurate Heart Rate and Normalized Pulse Volume Using the iPhysioMeter Application in the Presence of Motion Artifact?

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, Kenta; Rolfe, Peter; Lee, Jihyoung; Yamakoshi, Takehiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in information and communication technologies has made it possible to measure heart rate (HR) and normalized pulse volume (NPV), which are important physiological indices, using only a smartphone. This has been achieved with reflection mode photoplethysmography (PPG), by using a smartphone’s embedded flash as a light source and the camera as a light sensor. Despite its widespread use, the method of PPG is susceptible to motion artifacts as physical displacements influence phot...

  3. Aroma interactions with starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Dysted

    Starches are used to enhance aroma perception in low-fat foods. Aroma compounds can bind physically to the starch in grooves on the surface or they can form complexes inside amylose helices. This study has been divided into two parts: one part regarding binding of aromas to starches and their aroma......-release, and another part regarding stimulation of a fungal secretome using different carbohydrates. In the first part, nine aromas and one aroma-mixture were mixed with nine different starches, including genetically modified starches. The objective of this sub-project was to bind aromas to the starches to 15...... weight-percent. Aroma binding was tested on both amorphous starches and on native starch granules. A series of aldehydes and alcohols were also tested for binding to the starches. The aromas with the highest volatility were positively retained by starch, whereas for aromas with a lower volatility the...

  4. The Human-Artifact Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2011-01-01

    Although devices of all shapes and sizes currently dominate the technological landscape, human–computer interaction (HCI) as a field is not yet theoretically equipped to match this reality. In this article we develop the human–artifact model, which has its roots in activity theoretical HCI. By...... reinterpreting the activity theoretical foundation, we present a framework that helps addressing the analysis of individual interactive artifacts while embracing that they are part of a larger ecology of artifacts. We show how the human–artifact model helps structuring the understanding of an artifact's action...... framework needs to support such development through concepts and methods. This leads to a methodological approach that focuses on new artifacts to supplement and substitute existing artifacts. Through a design case, we develop the methodological approach and illustrate how the human–artifact model can be...

  5. The future of starch bioengineering: GM microorganisms or GM plants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Sagnelli, Domenico; Blennow, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    processing and modification, sometimes as an alternative to chemical or physical treatments. However, as a means to impart the modifications as early as possible in the starch production chain, similar recombinant enzymes may also be expressed in planta in the developing starch storage organ such as in roots...... concepts of hybrid starch-based polysaccharides. In planta starch bioengineering is generally challenged by yield penalties and inefficient production of the desired product. However, in some situations, GM crops for starch bioengineering without deleterious effects have been achieved....

  6. Starch for health

    OpenAIRE

    Drago Šubarić; Đurđica Ačkar; Jurislav Babić; Borislav Miličević

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that part of starch is resistant to human amylases and escapes undigested to large bowel. This fraction of starch is resistant starch. Recent studies have shown that resistant starch may be a substrate for bacterial flora of the colon and serves as prebiotic. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced by colonic fermentation of resistant starch may have impact on colonic function and health of humans. This paper summarises current knowledge on properties and health impact ...

  7. Effect of diets with different content of starch and protein fed to dairy cows in early lactation on milk yield and traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to study the effect on milk yield and its traits of 2 different levels of fermentable carbohydrates (LS: 25.5%, and HS: 29.5% DM combined with 2 protein levels (LP: 15.5% and HP: 16.5% DM, 4 Italian Friesian dairy cows in early lactation housed in a tied stall were used. The experimental diets were obtained adjusting in 4 supplements the proportion of high energy fibrous (beet pulp, soybean hull or starchy (corn meal feeds and of meal protein more (soybean meal or less (Soy-Pass®: xylose-treated soybean meal degradable. The highest DMI was observed in HSHP which showed also a low content of NDF. Milk yield resulted over 45 kg/d throughout the study and higher when HSHP diet was fed (46.1 kg. Milk fat was always at high level and the lowest value (3.89% with HSHP and the highest (4.08% with LSLP were observed. The diets did not modified milk protein (their average levels resulted of 3.25% and lactose content. Milk acidity and renneting traits were higher when HSLP was fed, and resulted at adequate levels when all the diets were fed. When the diets for dairy cow are formulated to cover the animal requirements and respect their digestion physiology, it is possible to reach high milk yield level and maintaining, at the same time, a high milk quality .

  8. Small Artifacts - Big Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    The computer IC is the heart of the information and telecommunication technology. It is a tiny artifact, but with incredible organizing powers. We use this physical artifact as the location for studying central problems of the knowledge economy. First, the paper describes the history of chip design...... and the emergence of the technological community involved in designing and manufacturing computer chips. The community is structured in a way that reflects the underlying physical nature silicon and the numerous other materials and chemicals involved. But it also reflects the human agency of defining...... new projects, of visioning the liberation from atoms, of committing to travel many detours in the labyrinths of development, and of perceiving and exploring the affordance that new technologies hide. Some of these characteristics are analyzed empirically in a case study of designing a chip for a...

  9. Metrological multispherical freeform artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blobel, Gernot; Wiegmann, Axel; Siepmann, Jens; Schulz, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Precisely known artifacts are required to characterize the accuracy of asphere and freeform measuring instruments. To this end the best knowledge of the surface characteristics in conjunction with a low measurement uncertainty are necessary. Because this is a challenging task for typical freeform surfaces used in optical systems, the concept of "metrological" artifacts is introduced. We have developed a multispherical freeform artifact for performance tests of tactile touch probe and contact-free optical measuring systems. The measurement accuracy of the complete form and the deviation from calibrated spherical sections can thus be determined. The radius calibration of multiple spherical sections is performed with an extended radius measuring procedure by interferometry. Evaluated surface forms of different measuring methods and the radii determined can be compared to each other. In this study, a multispherical freeform specimen made of copper, with two differing radii, has been measured by two optical measuring methods, a full field measuring tilted-wave interferometer and a high accuracy cylinder coordinate measuring machine with an optical probe. The surface form measurements are evaluated and compared, and the radii determined are compared to the results of a radius measurement bench.

  10. Radiation processing of cassava starch hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper consists of two topics on cassava starch (CS). The first paper deals with radiation-induced graft polymerization of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (VP) onto CS. The results from PVP -grafted-starch were subsequently compared with those of PVP hydrogels and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels. It was found that the PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels, with gel fraction higher than 80%, could be prepared at the dose of 20 kGy, while PVP and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels require at least 30 kGy to obtain gels with more than 80% gel fraction. And at the same dose used for irradiation, the gel strength of the PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels is significantly higher than that of the PVP and PVP-blended-starch hydrogels. Radiation crosslinking of carboxymethyl CS is the second topic. CS was chemically modified by sodium monochloroacetate (SMCA) to yield carboxymethyl starch (CMS). The aqueous solution of CMS was irradiated and underwent radiation-induced crosslinking, resulting in a crosslinked CMS (XLCMS) hydrogel. The optimum condition for obtaining hydrogels with desirable properties is irradiation at low dose, 2 kGy. At higher doses, the gel fraction tends to diminish, due to the domination of degradation over crosslinking. (author)

  11. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  12. Starch for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Šubarić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that part of starch is resistant to human amylases and escapes undigested to large bowel. This fraction of starch is resistant starch. Recent studies have shown that resistant starch may be a substrate for bacterial flora of the colon and serves as prebiotic. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA produced by colonic fermentation of resistant starch may have impact on colonic function and health of humans. This paper summarises current knowledge on properties and health impact of resistant starch.

  13. 淀粉分子结构对形成抗性淀粉的影响%Influence of Molecular Structure of Starch on Formation of Resistant Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣杰荣; 姚惠源

    2001-01-01

    考察了几种大米淀粉和土豆淀粉形成抗性淀粉的能力,用分子排阻色谱的方法研究其分子结构。认为土豆淀粉比大米淀粉更适宜用来生产抗性淀粉。%The formation of resistant starch from several kinds of rice starch and potato starch was investigated. The resistant starch yield produced from potato starch was more than that of the rice strach. The molecular structure of starch was studied using the exclusion chromato graphy. It showed that the potato starch was more appropriate to produce resistant starch comparing with the rice starch.

  14. Starch-lignin foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Although starch foams are well known as biodegradable alternatives to foamed polystyrene, starch-lignin foams have not previously been reported. Lignin is an abundant byproduct of paper manufacture usually burned as fuel for lack of higher-value uses. We have prepared novel starch-kraft lignin foams with a known technique similar to compression molding. Replacing 20% of the starch with lignin has no deleterious effect on density or morphology as indicated by scanning electron microscopy: a thin outer layer of approximately 100 µm encloses a region of cellular structure containing 100–200 µm voids, with the major internal region of the foam consisting of large voids of up to 1 mm in size. Powder X-ray diffraction shows residual structure in both starch and starch-lignin foams. Differential scanning calorimetry displays endothermic transitions in the starch foam but not in the starch-lignin foam, indicating that lignin stabilizes the residual starch structure. Lignin decreases water absorption; diffusion constants for the starch and starch-lignin foams are 2.68•10–6 and 0.80•10–6 cm2/sec, respectively. The flexural strength of the starch-lignin foam is similar to that of foamed polystyrene, the strain at maximum stress is smaller, and the modulus of elasticity is larger.

  15. Starch metabolism in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowski, Sławomir

    2008-01-01

    Starch is the most abundant storage carbohydrate produced in plants. The initiation of transitory starch synthesis and degradation in plastids depends mainly on diurnal cycle, post-translational regulation of enzyme activity and starch phosphorylation. For the proper structure of starch granule the activities of all starch synthase isoenzymes, branching enzymes and debranching enzymes are needed. The intensity of starch biosynthesis depends mainly on the activity of AGPase (adenosine 5'-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase). The key enzymes in starch degradation are beta-amylase, isoamylase 3 and disproportionating enzyme. However, it should be underlined that there are some crucial differences in starch metabolism between heterotrophic and autotrophic tissues, e.g. is the ability to build multiprotein complexes responsible for biosynthesis and degradation of starch granules in chloroplasts. The observed huge progress in understanding of starch metabolism was possible mainly due to analyses of the complete Arabidopsis and rice genomes and of numerous mutants with altered starch metabolism in leaves. The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge on transient starch metabolism in higher plants. PMID:18787712

  16. Rheological behaviour of heated potato starch dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczak, L.; Witczak, M.; Ziêba, T.; Fortuna, T.

    2012-10-01

    The study was designed to investigate the rheological properties of heated potato starch dispersions. Water suspensions of starch were heated at 65, 80 or 95°C for 5, 15, 30 or 60 min. The dispersions obtained were examined for granule size distribution and rheology. It was found that the starch dispersions significantly differed in both respects. The mean diameters of starch granules were largest for the dispersion heated at 65°C and smallest for that heated at 95°C. As the heating temperature was raised, the yield stresses and consistency coefficients decreased, while the flow behaviour indexes and Casson plastic viscosities increased. There were also differences in the viscoelastic properties of the dispersions: for those heated at 65°C the storage and loss moduli increased with heating time whereas for those heated at 80°C both moduli decreased.

  17. Proteomics of barley starch granules

    OpenAIRE

    Borén, Mats

    2005-01-01

    Starches in various forms are an important part of the human diet. Furthermore, the use of starch as a renewable and biodegradable raw material for various industrial applications is becoming increasingly attractive. Non-food applications of starch make new demands on quality and type of starches produced. Ideally these new demands should be met by tailoring starches within the plant. A number of such in planta produced specialty starches exist today, e.g. high-amylose starch. Our aims with t...

  18. Teaching World Cultures through Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauf, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching world cultures in the middle-level geography classroom presents challenges both because of the complexity of culture and because of the characteristics of students of this age. One effective way to teach about a culture is through the use of cultural artifacts. This article discusses how to collect and use cultural artifacts in the…

  19. Thermoplastic starch materials prepared from rice starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice starch is a source still little studied for the preparation of thermoplastic materials. However, its characteristics, such as the presence of proteins, fats and fibers may turn into thermoplastics with a better performance. The present study intends the evaluation of the viability of making starch thermoplastic from rice starch and glycerol as plasticizer. The results of X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy demonstrate the thermoplastic acquisition. The increase of plasticizer content brings on more hydrophilic thermoplastics with less resistance to tension and elongation at break. (author)

  20. Effect of alkaline treatment on the ultrastructure of starch granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starch is a plant polysaccharide that occurs as discrete and partially crystalline microscopic granules. The development of different extraction methods to isolate granules with high purity and well-defined physical properties has increased due to the wide utilization of starch as an ingredient in the food industry. Alternatives to the pattern alkaline extraction protocol have been investigated in order to improve the extraction yield while maintaining the functional properties of the starch granules. In this work, we focused our efforts on the evaluation of the effect of alkaline treatments on the ultrastructure of Araucaria angustifolia (pinhao) starch granules during their extraction. (author)

  1. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana;

    2011-01-01

    the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were...... irregular and showed no distinct melting enthalpy and very weak X-ray scattering. Hyperphosphorylated barley starch was achieved by endosperm specific overexpression of the potato glucan water dikinase1 (StGWD1). The content of phosphate esters in this starch was tenfold higher than the control lines...

  2. Artifacts in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging and foreign bodies within the patient’s body may be confused with a pathology or may reduce the quality of examinations. Radiologists are frequently not informed about the medical history of patients and face postoperative/other images they are not familiar with. A gallery of such images was presented in this manuscript. A truncation artifact in the spinal cord could be misinterpreted as a syrinx. Motion artifacts caused by breathing, cardiac movement, CSF pulsation/blood flow create a ghost artifact which can be reduced by patient immobilization, or cardiac/respiratory gating. Aliasing artifacts can be eliminated by increasing the field of view. An artificially hyperintense signal on FLAIR images can result from magnetic susceptibility artifacts, CSF/vascular pulsation, motion, but can also be found in patients undergoing MRI examinations while receiving supplemental oxygen. Metallic and other foreign bodies which may be found on and in patients’ bodies are the main group of artifacts and these are the focus of this study: e.g. make-up, tattoos, hairbands, clothes, endovascular embolization, prostheses, surgical clips, intraorbital and other medical implants, etc. Knowledge of different types of artifacts and their origin, and of possible foreign bodies is necessary to eliminate them or to reduce their negative influence on MR images by adjusting acquisition parameters. It is also necessary to take them into consideration when interpreting the images. Some proposals of reducing artifacts have been mentioned. Describing in detail the procedures to avoid or limit the artifacts would go beyond the scope of this paper but technical ways to reduce them can be found in the cited literature

  3. The future of starch bioengineering: GM microorganisms or GM plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebelstrup, Kim H; Sagnelli, Domenico; Blennow, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Plant starches regularly require extensive modification to permit subsequent applications. Such processing is usually done by the use of chemical and/or physical treatments. The use of recombinant enzymes produced by large-scale fermentation of GM microorganisms is increasingly used in starch processing and modification, sometimes as an alternative to chemical or physical treatments. However, as a means to impart the modifications as early as possible in the starch production chain, similar recombinant enzymes may also be expressed in planta in the developing starch storage organ such as in roots, tubers and cereal grains to provide a GM crop as an alternative to the use of enzymes from GM microorganisms. We here discuss these techniques in relation to important structural features and modifications of starches such as: starch phosphorylation, starch hydrolysis, chain transfer/branching and novel concepts of hybrid starch-based polysaccharides. In planta starch bioengineering is generally challenged by yield penalties and inefficient production of the desired product. However, in some situations, GM crops for starch bioengineering without deleterious effects have been achieved. PMID:25954284

  4. Breeding and Quality Characteristics of a New Sweetpotato Cultivar Xushu 27 with High Yield and High Starch Content%高产淀粉型甘薯新品种徐薯27的选育及品质特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐忠厚; 张爱君; 史新敏; 魏猛; 李洪民

    2012-01-01

    A new sweetpotato cultivar Xushu 27 with high yield and high starch content derived from female parent Xushu 18 of good quality and male parental materials of 20 varieties (lines) with great difference of genetic background by the open-pollinated group it was approved by Shandong Provincial Crop Varieties Appraisal Committee In 2009, Agronomic characteristics, productivity, disease resistance, quality characteristics, and starch pasting properties of Xushu 27 were studied. The results showes that Xushu 27 had strong sprout ability, smooth vine growth, strong storage ability, high resistance to root rot, and moderate resistance to rot nematode. Compares with Xushu 18, its fresh root yield and dry matter yield increased by 19.41% and 19.21% , respectively, which indicated a potentialy super-high yield. RVA (rapid Visco Analysis) curve of Xushu 27 starch showed a typical A-shape. starch RVA parameters with different fertilizer treatments had significant difference, organic can evidently redue of starch peak viscosity ( PKV), hot paste viscosity ( HPV) , and cool paste viscosity(CPV). its gelatinization temperature was in the range of 75 ~ 80?%高产淀粉型甘薯新品种徐薯27是以徐薯18为母本,选择遗传背景差异大的20个品种(系)为父本,放任授粉集团杂交后代中筛选.该品种2009年通过山东省农作物品种审定委员会审定.通过对徐薯27农艺性状特征、生产力、抗病性、品质特征性状以淀粉糊化特性等进行研究,结果表明:徐薯27萌芽性好,地上部长势平稳,耐贮藏;高抗根腐痛,中抗茎线虫病;鲜薯和薯干产量对照徐薯18,最高增产分别达19.41%和19.21%,具有超高产潜力;徐薯27淀粉RVA谱为A型,不同肥料处理下RVA参数值差异明显,有机肥能明显降低其淀粉最高粘度值(PKV)、最低粘度值(HPV)和最终粘度值(CPV),糊化温度在较高的75~80℃范围.

  5. Turquoise Artifact from Teotihuacan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, Michael W.; Harbottle, Garman; Weigand, Phil C.

    1999-07-01

    Turquoise artifacts appeared sporadically in Mesoamerica as early as the Formative period (Merry de Morales 1987:100, Figure 8.4; Weigand 1989:43). Most occurrences, however, postdate the collapse of Teotihuacan. In the Late Classic and Postclassic periods increasing quantities are found, often in the form of elaborate mosaics, in a wide variety of contexts in central, west and northwest Mexico. Neutron activation analysis has determined that much of this turquoise derives from sources in the southwestern United States (Weigand et al. 1977; Harbottle and Weigand 1992; Weigand and Harbottle 1993). Teotihuacan played a major role in Mesoamerica during the Terminal Formative and Early-Middle Classic periods. It was the dominant power in central Mexico from about the time of Christ to its collapse at about A.D. 650 (Millon 1988, 1992; Cowgill 1996). Throughout this period goods flowed into Teotihuacan from many parts of the Mesoamerican world. Despite this widespread economic interaction, only two pieces of turquoise have been recovered in the city. In the following pages, the context and implications of one of these finds will be examined.

  6. Starch Bioengineering in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    Starch represents the most important carbohydrate used for food and feed purposes. Increasingly, it is also used as a renewable raw material, as a source of biofuel, and for many different industrial applications. Progress in understanding starch biosynthesis, and investigations of the genes...... involved in this process, has enabled the genetic modification f crops in a rational manner to produce novel designer starches with improved functionality. The hypothesis of the present study is that the hyper-phosphorylation of cereal endosperm starch makes it easily accessible and degradable by the...... amylolytic enzymes while the amylose-only endosperm starch exhibits high resistance to degradation and hence less available for degradation. With the aim to investigate the hypothesis, starch molecular structures were modulated with the above mentioned modifications and were studied for the effects of...

  7. Investigating media artifacts with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    The dissertation’s aim is to explore the everyday relevance media artifacts have for young children. It discusses and further develops analytical concepts that are committed to taking the children’s perspectives on possibilities and limitations of such artifacts seriously. These conceptual...... developments are rooted in the author’s participation in a daycare practice in Berlin, Germany. The daycare’s situational approach precisely attempted to draw on the children’s everyday life experiences so as to engage in problem-oriented learning projects, on media artifacts and beyond....

  8. Resistant starch: an indigestible fraction of foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saura Calixto, F.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistant starch (RS, the dietary starch that scape digestion in the small intestine, can yields up to 20% of the starch in cereal and legume products. Several fractions contribute to the total RS of foods: retrograded amylose, starch inaccessible to digestive enzymes because of mechanical barriers, chemically modified starch fragments, undigested starch due to α-amylase inhibitors and starch complexed with other food components. RS is formed in products processed following heat treatments (baking, extrusion, autoclaving, etc.. RS produces significant fecal bulking and is partially fermentable by anaerobic bacteria of the colon. On the other hand, the relation of resistant starch with the glucose and insulin response in human subjects is an important nutritional effect. RS analytical methods are reported.

    El almidón resistente (RS, fracción de almidón de la dieta que no es digerido en el intestino delgado, puede alcanzar hasta un 20% del almidón en productos derivados de cereales y legumbres. Varias fracciones contribuyen al contenido total de almidón resistente: amilosa retrogradada, almidón inaccesible físicamente a los enzimas digestivos, almidón indigestible debido a inhibición de α-amilasas y almidón complejado con otros constituyentes de los alimentos. El almidón resistente se forma en productos que han sufrido tratamientos térmicos (panificación, extrusión, autoclave, etc. El RS aumenta el volumen de heces y es fermentado parcialmente en el colon por bacterias anaeróbicas. Igualmente, está relacionado con los niveles de glucosa en sangre y la respuesta de insulina en humanos. Se describen los métodos analíticos para su determinación.

  9. Starch nanoparticles: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Déborah; Bras, Julien; Dufresne, Alain

    2010-05-10

    Starch is a natural, renewable, and biodegradable polymer produced by many plants as a source of stored energy. It is the second most abundant biomass material in nature. The starch structure has been under research for years, and because of its complexity, an universally accepted model is still lacking (Buleon, A.; et al. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 1998, 23, 85-112). However, the predominant model for starch is a concentric semicrystalline multiscale structure that allows the production of new nanoelements: (i) starch nanocrystals resulting from the disruption of amorphous domains from semicrystalline granules by acid hydrolysis and (ii) starch nanoparticles produced from gelatinized starch. This paper intends to give a clear overview of starch nanoparticle preparation, characterization, properties, and applications. Recent studies have shown that they could be used as fillers to improve mechanical and barrier properties of biocomposites. Their use for industrial packaging, continuously looking for innovative solutions for efficient and sustainable systems, is being investigated. Therefore, recently, starch nanoparticles have been the focus of an exponentially increasing number of works devoted to develop biocomposites by blending starch nanoparticles with different biopolymeric matrices. To our knowledge, this topic has never been reviewed, despite several published strategies and conclusions. PMID:20405913

  10. Cassava flour and starch : progress in research and development

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, Eric; Brauman, Alain; Kéléke, S.; Gosselin, Laurent; Raimbault, Maurice

    1996-01-01

    An amylolytic lactic acid bacterium, identified as #Lactobacillus plantarum$, was isolated from cassava roots (#Manihot esculenta$ var. Ngansa) during retting. Cultured on starch, the strain displayed a growth rate of 0.43 per hour, a biomass yield of 0.19 g/g, and a lactate yield of 0.81 g/g. The growth kinetics were similar on starch and glucose. Enough enzyme was synthesized, and starch hydrolysis was not a limiting factor for growth. The synthesized amylolytic enzyme was purified by fract...

  11. Development of Sago Starch Extractor with Stirrer Rotary Blade for Improving Extraction Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although Indonesia has the largest potential of sago palm (Metroxylon sagu in the world, up to the present time sago starch production and utilization has been very low compared with its potential. This is because of farmers in this area still use traditional method to process sago starch which are inefficient and ineffective. The objective of this study was to develop sago starch extractor in order to improve its extraction performance with the focus on the effect of rotating speed of stirrer rotary blades and number of stationary blades. In the experiment, three levels of rotating speed i.e.100 rpm, 150 rpm and 200 rpm, and four levels of stationary blade numbers i.e. no blade, 4 blades, 8 blades, and 12 blades were examined. The extractor performance test was carried out by measuring extraction rate, starch percentage, starch yield, and starch left in sago pith waste (hampas. Results showed that the higher the rotating speed the higher the extraction rate, starch percentage, and starch yield. Meanwhile, the higher the rotating speed the lower the starch left in hampas. Likewise, the greater the number of stationary blade the higher the extraction rate, starch percentage, and starch yield while the starch left in hampas was lower. The highest extraction rate of 491 kg/hour, starch percentage of 20.54 %, and starch yield of 101 kg/hour and not at all starch left in hampas was resulted at the condition of 12 stationary blades and rotating speed of 200 rpm. Therefore, the best condition to achieve highest extraction performance was 12 stationary blades and rotating speed of 200 rpm.

  12. Chlorophyll and starch assays

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophyll, starch, and sugar contents are good indicators of growth vigor in plants. To measure the chlorophyll content, we used a modified protocol (1,2). The starch content was determined using iodine staining (3) and enzymatic reactions (4-6).

  13. Modification of Cilembu sweet potato starch with ethanoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudatussa’adah, A.; Rahmawati, Y.; Sudewi

    2016-04-01

    Cilembu sweet potato harvest was abundant, its use was still limited. Starch was required by various industries. Starch is generally beige, and requires a long time for the drying process. The purpose of this research was to produce a modified starch with ethanoic acid. The method used in this study was the experimental method. The results showed acid modified starch yield was 18%, with the color characteristics of L*: 96.38 ± 0.82; a*: -0.70±0.02 b*: 2.70±0.03 C: 2.79±0.02. Native starch yield was 16%, with the color characteristics of L*: 93.55 ± 0.91; a*: -0.86±0.06 b*: 2.93±0.04 C: 3.05±0.03. The conclusion of this study was modified starch of Cilembu sweet potato using ethanoic acid have higher yield and more white bright than native starch.

  14. Characterization of starch nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanomaterials already attract great interest because of their potential applications in technology, food science and medicine. Biomaterials are biodegradable and quite abundant in nature, so they are favoured over synthetic polymer based materials. Starch as a nontoxic, cheap and renewable raw material is particularly suitable for preparation of nanoparticles. In the paper, the structure and some physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starch particles of the size between 50 to 100 nm, obtained by mechanical treatment of native starch, were presented. We demonstrated, with the aim of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM), that the shape and dimensions of the obtained nanoparticles both potato and cassava starch fit the blocklets - previously proposed as basic structural features of native starch granules. This observation was supported by aqueous solubility and swelling power of the particles as well as their iodine binding capacity similar to those for amylopectin-type short branched polysaccharide species. Obtained results indicated that glycosidic bonds of the branch linkage points in the granule amorphous lamellae might be broken during the applied mechanical treatment. Thus the released amylopectin clusters could escape out of the granules. The starch nanoparticles, for their properties qualitatively different from those of native starch granules, could be utilized in new applications.

  15. Characterization of starch nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymońska, J.; Targosz-Korecka, M.; Krok, F.

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials already attract great interest because of their potential applications in technology, food science and medicine. Biomaterials are biodegradable and quite abundant in nature, so they are favoured over synthetic polymer based materials. Starch as a nontoxic, cheap and renewable raw material is particularly suitable for preparation of nanoparticles. In the paper, the structure and some physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starch particles of the size between 50 to 100 nm, obtained by mechanical treatment of native starch, were presented. We demonstrated, with the aim of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM), that the shape and dimensions of the obtained nanoparticles both potato and cassava starch fit the blocklets - previously proposed as basic structural features of native starch granules. This observation was supported by aqueous solubility and swelling power of the particles as well as their iodine binding capacity similar to those for amylopectin-type short branched polysaccharide species. Obtained results indicated that glycosidic bonds of the branch linkage points in the granule amorphous lamellae might be broken during the applied mechanical treatment. Thus the released amylopectin clusters could escape out of the granules. The starch nanoparticles, for their properties qualitatively different from those of native starch granules, could be utilized in new applications.

  16. Genetic Engineering of Cereal Grains with Starch Consisting of More Than 99% Amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Numerous textbooks tell us that plant starches are a mix of two starch types: amylopectin and amylose. We recently succeeded in engineering a cereal crop – a barley line – producing grain starch consisting of more than 99% amylose1. This amylose-only starch contains a high residual fraction that is...... resistant to enzymatic degradation, even when gelatinized by cooking. The barley plants producing the grains had a moderate yield loss of 25% in comparison with other barley plants of the same cultivar. We believe that the method can be applied to produce amylose-only starch in other cereal crops including...... wheat and corn...

  17. Effects of Starch Addition on Low Fat Rennet Curd Properties and Their Partitioning Between Curd and Whey

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Kelly Marie

    2009-01-01

    This study determined the impact of starches on the properties of low fat rennet curd as measured by microstructural and instrumental analysis. In experiment 1, 17 starches were initially screened for swelling power, impact of curd yield at 5 g/L and 10 g/L in milk, and settling in rennet-induced partially acidified low fat curd. Starches examined were narrowed down to five in experiment 2; they included: modified waxy corn starch, waxy rice starch, instant tapioca starch, dextrin, and a mod...

  18. Food-starch granulomatous peritonitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, J D; Ansell, I D

    1983-01-01

    Two cases of peritoneal granulomatous reactions to food starch are described. They followed bowel perforation and clinically mimicked tuberculous and glove-powder starch peritonitis. Their histological differences from corn-starch peritonitis warrant attention in the absence of previous documentation of starch as a component of peritoneal food granulomas. Food-starch granules tend to be larger than those of glove powder, are often oval, and may be extremely resistant to salivary diastase dige...

  19. Resistant starch in cassava products

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Letícia Buzati Pereira; Magali Leonel

    2014-01-01

    Found in different foods, starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the diet. Some factors present in starchy foods influence the rate at which the starch is hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. Due the importance of cassava products in Brazilian diet, the objective of this study was to analyze total starch, resistant starch, and digestible starch contents in commercial cassava products. Thirty three commercial cassava products from different brands, classifications, and origin were...

  20. Artifacts in CT: recognition and avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Julia F; Keat, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Artifacts can seriously degrade the quality of computed tomographic (CT) images, sometimes to the point of making them diagnostically unusable. To optimize image quality, it is necessary to understand why artifacts occur and how they can be prevented or suppressed. CT artifacts originate from a range of sources. Physics-based artifacts result from the physical processes involved in the acquisition of CT data. Patient-based artifacts are caused by such factors as patient movement or the presence of metallic materials in or on the patient. Scanner-based artifacts result from imperfections in scanner function. Helical and multisection technique artifacts are produced by the image reconstruction process. Design features incorporated into modern CT scanners minimize some types of artifacts, and some can be partially corrected by the scanner software. However, in many instances, careful patient positioning and optimum selection of scanning parameters are the most important factors in avoiding CT artifacts. PMID:15537976

  1. Characteristics and high yield cultivation techniques of new rich-starch sweet potato cv."Quanshu No. 19"%高淀粉甘薯新品种泉薯19特征特性及高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣荣

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarized yield and main characteristics of high starch content sweet potato cv."Quanshu No. 19"and its high yield cultivation techniques including cultivation of strong seedlings,meticulous land preparation,rational close planting,management of water and fertilizer,control of diseases and pests and harvest in time.%综述高淀粉甘薯新品种泉薯19产量及主要性状表现,并从培育壮苗、精细整地、合理密植、水肥管理、病虫防治、适时收获等方面总结其高产栽培技术.

  2. Enzymatic modification of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    In the food industry approaches for using bioengineering are investigated as alternatives to conventional chemical and physical starch modification techniques in development of starches with specific properties. Enzyme-assisted post-harvest modification is an interesting approach to this, since it...... is considered a clean and energy saving technology. This thesis aimed to investigate the effect of using reaction conditions, simulating an industrial process, for enzymatic treatment of starch with branching enzyme (BE) from Rhodothermus obamensis. Thus treatements were conducted at 70°C using very...... high substrate concentration (30-40% dry matter (DM)) and high enzyme activity (750-2250 BE units (BEU)/g sample). Starches from various botanical sources, representing a broad range of properties, were used as substrates. The effects of the used conditions on the BE-reaction were evaluated by...

  3. Enzymatic acylation of starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissandratos, Apostolos; Halling, Peter J

    2012-07-01

    Starch a cheap, abundant and renewable natural material has been chemically modified for many years. The popular modification acylation has been used to adjust rheological properties as well as deliver polymers with internal plasticizers and other potential uses. However the harsh reaction conditions required to produce these esters may limit their use, especially in sensitive applications (foods, pharmaceuticals, etc.). The use of enzymes to catalyse acylation may provide a suitable alternative due to high selectivities and mild reaction conditions. Traditional hydrolase-catalysed synthesis in non-aqueous apolar media is hard due to lack of polysaccharide solubility. However, acylated starch derivatives have recently been successfully produced in other non-conventional systems: (a) surfactant-solubilised subtilisin and suspended amylose in organic media; (b) starch nanoparticles dispersed in organic medium with immobilised lipase; (c) aqueous starch gels with lipase and dispersed fatty acids. We attempt a systematic review that draws parallels between the seemingly unrelated approaches described. PMID:22138593

  4. Effects of Elevated Ozone Concentration on Starch and Starch Synthesis Enzymes of Yangmai 16 Under Fully Open-Air Field Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ru-biao; HU Hai-juan; ZHAO Zheng; YANG Dan-dan; ZHU Xin-kai; GUO Wen-shan; ZHU Jian-guo; Kazuhiko Kobayashi

    2013-01-01

    O3 is not only greenhouse gas but also a primary gaseous contaminant in the atmosphere. It has long-lasting effects on crop growth, yield and quality, and brings a series of ecological and environmental problems. A free-air controlled enrichment (FACE) system was applied to study the effect of elevated ozone concentration on activities of key enzymes of starch synthesis of Yangmai 16 in 2009-2010. The main-plot treatment had two levels of O3: ambient level (A-O3) and 50% higher than ambient level (E-O3). The main results were that accumulation rate of amylose, amylopectin and starch were represented in a single peak curve, and their content and accumulation amount rose gradually. The O3elevation decreased the accumulation rate of amylose, amylopectin and starch amylase, reduced the accumulation amount of amylopectin and starch, and decreased the content of amylopectin and starch, but increased the content of amylose. With the increase of O3 concentration, the enzyme activity of grain granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS), soluble starch synthase (SSS) and starch branching enzyme (SBE) decreased after anthesis. The activities of GBSS and SSS had highly signiifcant correlations with amylose, amylopectin and starch accumulation rate, and the activity of SBE had signiifcant correlations with these items. So the O3elevation decreased the activity of key enzymes of starch synthesis, which led to the variation of starch synthesis.

  5. Enhancement of photoassimilate utilization by manipulation of starch regulatory enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, Thomas W. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2016-05-11

    maturation to a starch granule. Although Pho1 catalyzes a reversible reaction, our DoE supported studies clearly demonstrated that the kinetic properties of this enzyme strongly favor synthesis of starch and that these catalytic properties are independent of the L80 peptide, a structural domain that is absent in phosphorylases from other organisms. Interesting expression of a Pho1 lacking the L80 peptide enhanced plant growth and seed yields, suggesting that Pho1 has a second function in controlling growth. Overall, results from these biochemical and physiological studies have increased our fundamental understanding on how these important starch regulatory enzymes operate at the molecular level and in planta, which will collectively aid in efforts to increase the utilization of higher plants as a renewable source of energy.

  6. Radiolysis of starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amounts of formed desoxy-compounds, which produce malonic dialdehyde during HIO4-oxydation, as well as that of ω-hydroxymaltol have been determined in irradiated potato starch and irradiated wheat flour in dependence on irradiation doses. With pure potato starch, G-values of 0.03-0.04 for water soluble dosoxy-compounds and such ones of 0.02 for insoluble desoxy-compounds were obtained. G-values of desoxy-compounds in an ethyl acetate-acetone-water extract (4 : 5 : 1 v/v) of irradiated potato starch and irradiated wheat flour showed a ratio of about 3 : 1. When aqueous potato starch sols are irradiated desoxy-groups in the high-molecular starch molecule will also be found (in N2O atmosphere: G-values around 0.3). With ω-hydroxymaltol it became apparent that the main part of this compound is formed after irradiation during storage. With pure potato starch G-values around 0.015-0.02 were determined after 10 days of storage. When this material is heated after irradiation an increase of the hydroxy-maltol content (G-values: 0,025) is to be found. In the non-irradiated materials traces of desoxy-compounds as well as ω-hydroxymaltol were found. (orig.)

  7. Coronatine Induces an Accumulation of Anthocyanin and Starch in Purple-fleshed Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoqing WANG; Beitao XIE; Haiyan ZHANG; Liming ZHANG; Qingmei WANG

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of this research was to examine the effects of COR on anthocyanin and starch content in storage roots of two PFS genotypes, and to explore the relationships between anthocyanin synthesis and starch accumula-tion. [Method] A field experiment was carried out to determine the changes in yield components, yield, contents of anthocyanin and starch, activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and adenosine 5-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase (AG-Pase) in two genotypes of PFS (Ipomoea batatas L., var. ‘Ayamurasaki’ and‘Jishu18’). [Result] The application of COR significantly increased starch and antho-cyanin content in storage roots of Jishu18 across developmental stages by inducing the activities of PAL and AGPase, and final y enhanced yield by promoting fresh weight of storage roots. Ayamurasaki was insensitive to treatment with COR al-though its PAL activity temporal y increased. The starch and anthocyanin content of Aya, and the anthocyanin content of Jishu18 increased progressively across devel-opmental stages with or without COR application, but the starch content of Jishu18 increased initial y, then decreased before increasing again without application of COR. Treatment with COR reduced downward trend of starch accumulation in Jishu18. Thus, the effect of COR on accumulation of anthocyanin and starch in storage roots of PFS differs according to genotypes. [Conclusion] The application of 0.05 μmol/L COR may increase starch and anthocyanin content in PFS genotypes with lower starch and anthocyanin content in storage roots.

  8. Metal artifact reduction in CT via ray profile correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sungsoo; Mueller, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    In computed tomography (CT), metal implants increase the inconsistencies between the measured data and the linear assumption made by the analytical CT reconstruction algorithm. The inconsistencies appear in the form of dark and bright bands and streaks in the reconstructed image, collectively called metal artifacts. The standard method for metal artifact reduction (MAR) replaces the inconsistent data with the interpolated data. However, sinogram interpolation not only introduces new artifacts but it also suffers from the loss of detail near the implanted metals. With the help of a prior image that is usually estimated from the metal artifact-degraded image via computer vision techniques, improvements are feasible but still no MAR method exists that is widely accepted and utilized. We propose a technique that utilizes a prior image from a CT scan taken of the patient before implanting the metal objects. Hence there is a sufficient amount of structural similarity to cover the loss of detail around the metal implants. Using the prior scan and a segmentation or model of the metal implant our method then replaces sinogram interpolation with ray profile matching and estimation which yields much more reliable data estimates for the affected sinogram regions. As preliminary work, we built a new MAR framework on fan-beam geometry and tested it to remove simulated metal artifacts on a thorax phantom. The comparison with two representative sinogram correction based MAR methods shows very promising results.

  9. Magnetic susceptibility artifacts with superparamagnetic gastrointestinal contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on superparamagnetic gastrointestinal contrast agents for MR imaging which have limited effectiveness because of magnetic susceptibility artifacts and image distortion. The authors hypothesize that these artifacts can be circumvented by optimizing the concentration and viscosity of the formulation. Phantom and canine studies (n = 39) were performed with a new superparamagnetic agent (WIN 39996, Sterling Drug). A 250 μg of iron per milliliter aqueous suspension was diluted from 10% - 100% wt/wt (10% increments). Viscosity varied from 1 to 600 CPS (150 CPS increments) using Xanthan gum. MR imaging was performed at 1.5 T with spin-echo (TR/TE 300/15 and 2,000/35,70 with fat saturation) and gradient-echo sequences (25-40/13/30 degrees), initially and after 1 hour of gravitational settling. All concentrations at 1 CPS caused susceptibility artifacts. For 150-600 CPS formulations, 50% - 60% wt/wt concentrations yielded good negative contrast with the same susceptibility changes as air in vitro, and no susceptibility artifacts seen in vivo, even with gradient-echo and fat-saturated sequences, up to 1 hour. Higher concentrations produced artifacts; lower concentrations provided insufficient negative contrast

  10. Process optimization for bioethanol production from cassava starch using novel eco-friendly enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanavas, S.; Padmaja, G.; Moorthy, S.N.; Sajeev, M.S.; Sheriff, J.T. [Division of Crop Utilization, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 017 Kerala (India)

    2011-02-15

    Although cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a potential bioethanol crop, high operational costs resulted in a negative energy balance in the earlier processes. The present study aimed at optimizing the bioethanol production from cassava starch using new enzymes like Spezyme {sup registered} Xtra and Stargen trademark 001. The liquefying enzyme Spezyme was optimally active at 90 C and pH 5.5 on a 10% (w/v) starch slurry at levels of 20.0 mg (280 Amylase Activity Units) for 30 min. Stargen levels of 100 mg (45.6 Granular Starch Hydrolyzing Units) were sufficient to almost completely hydrolyze 10% (w/v) starch at room temperature (30 {+-} 1 C). Ethanol yield and fermentation efficiency were very high (533 g/kg and 94.0% respectively) in the Stargen + yeast process with 10% (w/v) starch for 48 h. Raising Spezyme and Stargen levels to 560 AAU and 91.2 GSHU respectively for a two step loading [initial 20% (w/v) followed by 20% starch after Spezyme thinning]/initial higher loading of starch (40% w/v) resulted in poor fermentation efficiency. Upscaling experiments using 1.0 kg starch showed that Stargen to starch ratio of 1:100 (w/w) could yield around 558 g ethanol/kg starch, with a high fermentation efficiency of 98.4%. The study showed that Spezyme level beyond 20.0 mg for a 10% (w/v) starch slurry was not critical for optimizing bioethanol yield from cassava starch, although an initial thinning of starch for 30 min by Spezyme facilitated rapid saccharification-fermentation by Stargen + yeast system. The specific advantage of the new process was that the reaction could be completed within 48.5 h at 30 {+-} 1 C. (author)

  11. Application of an extrusion starch-bearing reagent with the boring of salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisova, L.P.; Timoshchuk, Iu.D.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of the extrusion processing of corn matter, an extrusion starch-bearing reagent, which yields itself in quality to modified MK-1 starch, has been created. The advantage of the extrusion starch-bearing reagent is long-time preservation of the properties of the boring solution and the absence of complications in a the shaft of the well, the preservation of the frequency of the processes of the boring solution.

  12. Steady and Dynamic Shear Rheological Properties of Buckwheat Starch-galactomannan Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Dong Won; Chang, Yoon Hyuk

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of galacomannans (guar gum, tara gum, and locust bean gum) on the rheological properties of buckwheat starch pastes under steady and dynamic shear conditions. The power law and Casson models were applied to describe the flow behavior of the buckwheat starch and galactomannan mixtures. The values of the apparent viscosity (ηa,100), consistency index (K), and yield stress (σoc) for buckwheat starch-galactomannan mixtures were significantly greater than those ...

  13. Bio-based thermoset composites from epoxidised linseed oil and expanded starch

    OpenAIRE

    Supanchaiyamat, Nontipa; Hunt, Andrew J.; Peter S. Shuttleworth; DING, CHENG; James H. Clark; Matharu, Avtar S.

    2014-01-01

    Bio-based thermoset composites comprising epoxidised linseed oil (ELO), a bio-derived diacid crosslinker (Pripol 1009) and starch are reported. High amylose corn starch in its native, gelatinised and retrograded forms were used in the formulation to yield water resistant films with good thermal stability. The textural properties of gelatinised and retrograded starches were characterised using scanning electron microscopy and porosimetry and their thermal stability was determined using thermog...

  14. Production, characterization, and mechanical properties of starch modified by Ophiostoma spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Saville, B. A.; Sain, M.; Jeng, R.; Huang, C. B.; Hubbes, M.

    2006-01-01

    Microbial modification of starch with Ophiostoma spp. was investigated, with the purpose of developing a novel packaging material for the food or pharmaceutical industries. Various starch sources, such as tapioca, potato, corn, rice and amylopectin were tested as raw materials. The initial screening demonstrated that tapioca and potato starch had better performance for biopolymer production. The yield was about 85%. Preliminary characterization of the modified biopolymer was also conducted. F...

  15. Radiation processing of starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starch is a polysaccharide material and generally, it is non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable. It mainly use as foodstuff, food additives, production of sugar and flavouring. Sago palm with scientific name Genus Metroxylon belonging to family Palmae is an important resource in the production of sago starch in Malaysia. Nearly 90% of sago planting areas is found in Sarawak State of Malaysia. It can easily grow under the harsh swampy environment. The sago starch content 4% polyphenol, which is an active compound with antioxidant property that has potential benefit in health and skin care applications. Renewal resources and environmental friendly of natural polymer reason for the researcher to explore the potential of this material in order to improve our quality of live. (author)

  16. SURFACE PROPERTIES OF WATER SOLUBLE STARCH, STARCH ACETATES AND STARCH ACETATES/ALKENYLSUCCINATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface and interfacial tensions with hexadecane were measured for starch and water soluble starch ester solutions in order to determine their potential as stabilizers or emulsifiers. The surface tension for an acid hydrolysed starch (maltodextrin) initially declined with concentration and then rea...

  17. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles from Gadong starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisika, Regina; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Fazry, Shazrul; Lazim, Azwan Mat

    2015-09-01

    Dioscorea hispida (Gadong tuber) was seldom used and forgotten as a food source due to their toxicity. In contrast to that, the Gadong tuber can be a source of polysaccharides which can be manipulated as an alternative source for industrial applications. This research reported on how to synthesize starch nanoparticles from Gadong tuber by using a simple acid hydrolysis process. The yield of starch nanoparticles obtained from seven days of acid hydrolysis was reduced to 13%. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the native Gadong starch particle is of the C-crystalline type, and that the synthesized nanoparticles showed an increase in crystallinity compared to the native particles. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that the starch particle morphologies were either round or irregular shape, with diameters ranging from 96-110 nm.

  18. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles from Gadong starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dioscorea hispida (Gadong tuber) was seldom used and forgotten as a food source due to their toxicity. In contrast to that, the Gadong tuber can be a source of polysaccharides which can be manipulated as an alternative source for industrial applications. This research reported on how to synthesize starch nanoparticles from Gadong tuber by using a simple acid hydrolysis process. The yield of starch nanoparticles obtained from seven days of acid hydrolysis was reduced to 13%. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the native Gadong starch particle is of the C-crystalline type, and that the synthesized nanoparticles showed an increase in crystallinity compared to the native particles. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that the starch particle morphologies were either round or irregular shape, with diameters ranging from 96-110 nm

  19. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  20. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles from Gadong starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisika, Regina; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Lazim, Azwan Mat [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Fazry, Shazrul [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Dioscorea hispida (Gadong tuber) was seldom used and forgotten as a food source due to their toxicity. In contrast to that, the Gadong tuber can be a source of polysaccharides which can be manipulated as an alternative source for industrial applications. This research reported on how to synthesize starch nanoparticles from Gadong tuber by using a simple acid hydrolysis process. The yield of starch nanoparticles obtained from seven days of acid hydrolysis was reduced to 13%. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the native Gadong starch particle is of the C-crystalline type, and that the synthesized nanoparticles showed an increase in crystallinity compared to the native particles. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that the starch particle morphologies were either round or irregular shape, with diameters ranging from 96-110 nm.

  1. The characterization of modified starch branching enzymes: toward the control of starch chain-length distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Li

    Full Text Available Starch is a complex branched glucose polymer whose branch molecular weight distribution (the chain-length distribution, CLD influences nutritionally important properties such as digestion rate. Chain-stopping in starch biosynthesis is by starch branching enzyme (SBE. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to modify SBEIIa from Zea mays (mSBEIIa to produce mutants, each differing in a single conserved amino-acid residue. Products at different times from in vitro branching were debranched and the time evolution of the CLD measured by size-exclusion chromatography. The results confirm that Tyr352, Glu513, and Ser349 are important for mSBEIIa activity while Arg456 is important for determining the position at which the linear glucan is cut. The mutant mSBEIIa enzymes have different activities and suggest the length of the transferred chain can be varied by mutation. The work shows analysis of the molecular weight distribution can yield information regarding the enzyme branching sites useful for development of plants yielding starch with improved functionality.

  2. Hydroxyethyl starch in sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Nicolai Rosenkrantz Segelcke

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is a colloid that has been widely used for fluid resuscitation for decades. The newest generation of HES, tetrastarch, was believed to provide an efficient volume expansion without causing the side effects observed with former HES solutions. However, this...

  3. Hydroxyethyl starch for resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Nicolai; Perner, Anders

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Resuscitation with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is controversial. In this review, we will present the current evidence for the use of HES solutions including data from recent high-quality randomized clinical trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Meta-analyses of HES vs. control fluids show clear...

  4. Artifacts in digital coincidence timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, W W; Peng, Q

    2014-11-01

    Digital methods are becoming increasingly popular for measuring time differences, and are the de facto standard in PET cameras. These methods usually include a master system clock and a (digital) arrival time estimate for each detector that is obtained by comparing the detector output signal to some reference portion of this clock (such as the rising edge). Time differences between detector signals are then obtained by subtracting the digitized estimates from a detector pair. A number of different methods can be used to generate the digitized arrival time of the detector output, such as sending a discriminator output into a time to digital converter (TDC) or digitizing the waveform and applying a more sophisticated algorithm to extract a timing estimator.All measurement methods are subject to error, and one generally wants to minimize these errors and so optimize the timing resolution. A common method for optimizing timing methods is to measure the coincidence timing resolution between two timing signals whose time difference should be constant (such as detecting gammas from positron annihilation) and selecting the method that minimizes the width of the distribution (i.e. the timing resolution). Unfortunately, a common form of error (a nonlinear transfer function) leads to artifacts that artificially narrow this resolution, which can lead to erroneous selection of the 'optimal' method. The purpose of this note is to demonstrate the origin of this artifact and suggest that caution should be used when optimizing time digitization systems solely on timing resolution minimization. PMID:25321885

  5. Artifacts in digital coincidence timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, W. W.; Peng, Q.

    2014-11-01

    Digital methods are becoming increasingly popular for measuring time differences, and are the de facto standard in PET cameras. These methods usually include a master system clock and a (digital) arrival time estimate for each detector that is obtained by comparing the detector output signal to some reference portion of this clock (such as the rising edge). Time differences between detector signals are then obtained by subtracting the digitized estimates from a detector pair. A number of different methods can be used to generate the digitized arrival time of the detector output, such as sending a discriminator output into a time to digital converter (TDC) or digitizing the waveform and applying a more sophisticated algorithm to extract a timing estimator. All measurement methods are subject to error, and one generally wants to minimize these errors and so optimize the timing resolution. A common method for optimizing timing methods is to measure the coincidence timing resolution between two timing signals whose time difference should be constant (such as detecting gammas from positron annihilation) and selecting the method that minimizes the width of the distribution (i.e. the timing resolution). Unfortunately, a common form of error (a nonlinear transfer function) leads to artifacts that artificially narrow this resolution, which can lead to erroneous selection of the ‘optimal’ method. The purpose of this note is to demonstrate the origin of this artifact and suggest that caution should be used when optimizing time digitization systems solely on timing resolution minimization.

  6. Practical Artifact Cancellation for Myoelectric Prosthesis Control

    OpenAIRE

    Sæther, Marthe

    2008-01-01

    Prostheses are artificial body parts that can be used by amputees. Myoelectric prostheses are controlled by so-called surface electromyograms (sEMG) that are acquired on the skin surface of the residual limb. A well-known problem in myoelectric prostheses is motion artifacts, these artifacts cause unwanted behaviour of the prosthesis. The purpose of this study is to try to cancel the effect motion artifacts have on myoelectric prosthesis control, in order to avoid unsolicited prosthesis be...

  7. Rheological behavior of gamma-irradiated cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava starch is the by-product of the process of pressing water out of cassava to make cassava meal. The juice has a fine starch, similar to rice or potato starch that, when dried, yields polvilho doce (sweet manioc starch); from the fermented juice comes polvilho azedo (sour manioc starch). Cassava starch can perform most of the functions where maize, rice and wheat starch are currently used. The aim of the present work was to determine the influence or ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of aqueous preparations of gamma-irradiated cassava starch at different concentrations. Samples of polvilho doce and polvilho azedo were obtained at the local market and irradiated in plastic bags in a Gammacell 220 with doses of 1, 3 e 5 kGy, dose rate ∼ 1.2 kGy h-1. A Brooksfield viscometer was employed for the viscosity measurements. The results showed a strong dependence of the viscosity with the concentration of the starch solutions. In most of the cases there was a decrease of viscosity with the increase of the radiation dose usually seen in irradiated polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the dose response relation of the two kind of starch was different. (author)

  8. Rheological behavior of gamma-irradiated cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Orelio L.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Cassava starch is the by-product of the process of pressing water out of cassava to make cassava meal. The juice has a fine starch, similar to rice or potato starch that, when dried, yields polvilho doce (sweet manioc starch); from the fermented juice comes polvilho azedo (sour manioc starch). Cassava starch can perform most of the functions where maize, rice and wheat starch are currently used. The aim of the present work was to determine the influence or ionizing radiation on the rheological behavior of aqueous preparations of gamma-irradiated cassava starch at different concentrations. Samples of polvilho doce and polvilho azedo were obtained at the local market and irradiated in plastic bags in a Gammacell 220 with doses of 1, 3 e 5 kGy, dose rate ∼ 1.2 kGy h-1. A Brooksfield viscometer was employed for the viscosity measurements. The results showed a strong dependence of the viscosity with the concentration of the starch solutions. In most of the cases there was a decrease of viscosity with the increase of the radiation dose usually seen in irradiated polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the dose response relation of the two kind of starch was different. (author)

  9. Rheological Properties and Electrospinnability of High-Amylose Starch in Formic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancuški, Anica; Vasilyev, Gleb; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Zussman, Eyal

    2015-08-10

    Starch derivatives, such as starch-esters, are commonly used as alternatives to pure starch due to their enhanced mechanical properties. However, simple and efficient processing routes are still being sought out. In the present article, we report on a straightforward method for electrospinning high-amylose starch-formate nanofibers from 17 wt % aqueous formic acid (FA) dispersions. The diameter of the electrospun starch-formate fibers ranged from 80 to 300 nm. The electrospinnability window between starch gelatinization and phase separation was determined using optical microscopy and rheological studies. This window was shown to strongly depend on the water content in the FA dispersions. While pure FA rapidly gelatinized starch, yielding solutions suitable for electrospinning within a few hours at room temperature, the presence of water (80 and 90 vol % FA) significantly delayed gelatinization and dissolution, which deteriorated fiber quality. A complete destabilization of the electrospinning process was observed in 70 vol % FA dispersions. Optical micrographs showed that FA induced a disruption of starch granule with a loss of crystallinity confirmed by X-ray diffraction. As a result, starch fiber mats exhibited a higher elongation at break when compared to brittle starch films. PMID:26192477

  10. Granulomatous peritonitis caused by glove starch.

    OpenAIRE

    Michowitz, M.; Stavorovsky, M.; Ilie, B.

    1983-01-01

    Corn starch particles are used as a surgical glove lubricant. At present there is no better alternative for this lubricant. Implantation of corn starch particles into the peritoneal cavity can induce foreign body reactions, starch peritonitis and starch granulomata, and may cause adhesions and intestinal obstruction. Starch peritonitis should be treated conservatively.

  11. RHEOLOGY OF STARCH-LIPID COMPOSITES YOGURTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogurt is traditionally made by fermenting liquid milk. The ability of starches to thicken, gel, and hold water has been exploited in yogurt manufacture. The addition of starch increases the viscosity of yogurt, but some starches impart an undesirable taste and promote phase separation. Starch-li...

  12. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were made by transgenic methods. Cereals producing these kind of starches have not been reported before. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch...... branching enzymes SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI by a chimeric hairpin. The construct was inherited as a single locus with a distinct 1:3 segregation in consecutive generations. The transgenic grains were shrunken and the yield was around 80% of that found in wildtype. The starch granules were irregularly......, elongated and globose shaped. Transgenic grains also had a higher beta-glucan content. In order to increase barley starch phosphorylation, endosperm specific overexpression of glucan water dikinase from potato (StGWD) was conducted. The content of phosphate esters in starch from consecutive generations (T0...

  13. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    branching enzymes SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI by a chimeric hairpin. The construct was inherited as a single locus with a distinct 1:3 segregation in consecutive generations. The transgenic grains were shrunken and the yield was around 80% of that found in wildtype. The starch granules were irregularly......, elongated and globose shaped. Transgenic grains also had a higher beta-glucan content. In order to increase barley starch phosphorylation, endosperm specific overexpression of glucan water dikinase from potato (StGWD) was conducted. The content of phosphate esters in starch from consecutive generations (T0...... provides support for the presence of a general mechanism in starch degradation in the plant kingdom that phosphorylation carried out by ectopic expression of StGWD tags barley starch granules for degradation executed by endogenous enzymes. Our work demonstrates two new strategies for in planta starch...

  14. Cereal bioengineering: Amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    branching enzymes SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI by a chimeric hairpin. The construct was inherited as a single locus with a distinct 1:3 segregation in consecutive generations. The transgenic grains were shrunken and the yield was around 80% of that found in wildtype. The starch granules were irregularly......, elongated and globose shaped. Transgenic grains also had a higher beta-glucan content. In order to increase barley starch phosphorylation, endosperm specific overexpression of glucan water dikinase from potato (StGWD) was conducted. The content of phosphate esters in starch from consecutive generations (T0...... provides support for the presence of a general mechanism in starch degradation in the plant kingdom that phosphorylation carried out by ectopic expression of StGWD tags barley starch granules for degradation executed by endogenous enzymes. Our work demonstrates two new strategies for in planta starch...

  15. Cereal bioengineering: amylopectin-free and hyper-phosphorylated barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Jensen, Susanne Langgård;

    2011-01-01

    Barley lines producing grains with either amylopectin-free or hyper-phosphorylated starches were engineered by transgenic methods. Amylopectin-free barley was generated by simultaneously silencing the three genes encoding the starch branching enzymes (SBEIIa, SBEIIb and SBEI) by a chimeric hairpin...... demonstrates for the first time a way for production of pure amylose in plants with limited yield loss. In a different barley line endosperm specific overexpression of glucan water dikinase from potato (StGWD) was conducted. The content of phosphate esters in starch from consecutive generations (T0 and T1) of...... the presence of a general mechanism in starch degradation in the plant kingdom where phosphorylation carried out by ectopic expression of StGWD tags barley starch granules for degradation by endogenous enzymes. Together this work shows two new strategies for in planta starch bioengineering of cereals...

  16. The enzymatic determination of starch in food, feed and raw materials of the starch industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunt, K.; Sanders, P.; Rozema, T.

    1998-01-01

    An enzymatic starch determination which can be used for the analysis of starch in a very broad range of different samples is evaluated, ranging from starch in plants, feed and food to industrial applications as starch in starch. The method is based on a complete enzymatic conversion of the starch in

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Starch-Poly (Butyl Methacrylate) Graft Copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The graft copolymerization was carried out by buthyl methacrylate with starch in which azobisisobutyronitrile was used as an initiator. The grafting reactions were carried out within out a 70-90 oC temperature range, and the effect of the monomer, initiator concentrations, and the amount of starch on the graft yield were also investigated. The maximum graft yield was obtained at a azobisisobutyronitrile concentration of 1 : 0.3 - 1 : 1.5 mol/L. The grafted starches were characterized with infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetry. The cassava starch-g-BMA copolymer was synthesized by batch and continuous method. The graft copolymer confirmed initially by FT-IR spectra. The absorption band of C=O stretching appeared at 1730 cm-1. This band was characteristic band of the carbonyl group existing in PBMA. Therefore, this indicated that PBMA was grafted onto the cassava starch backbone. The formation of cassava starch -g-PBMA was also supported by SEM analysis. The grafting characteristics of the obtained cassava starch-g-PBMA were affected by several parameters, including the ratio of starch and BMA reactants, the reaction temperature and the reaction time. When the grafting characteristics were considered, especially the grafting yield in association with the amounts of reactants and initiator and also the time consumed in the process, the results suggested that the optimum performance were ratio starch/BMA 1 : 0.3, AIBN 0.5 % w/w at 90 oC proper for this graft copolymerization system with graft yield 36.7 % and optimum graft yield 75.6 % result from ratio starch/BMA 1 : 1.5, AIBN 0.5 % w/w at 80 oC. (author)

  18. The improvement of corn starch isolation process by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation was applied to non-glutinous and glutinous corns for improving starch isolation process. No significant changes in proximate composition of corn grains were observed by gamma irradiation. Irradiation at 1 and 5 kGy was effective for sterilizing all contaminated microorganisms of non-glutinous and glutinous corns, respectively. The moisture-uptake rate constants were increased in proportional to the steeping temperature and applied irradiation dose level. The irradiation efficacy on water absorption properties was also recognized in the corns stored for six months at room temperature. The combined use of gamma irradiation with sulfur dioxide solution was very effective for reducing steeping time. The starch yield gradually increased as irradiation dose levels increased. At 2 kGy, the sarch yield of non-glutinous and glutinous corns increased by 38% and 27%, respectively. No significant difference in Hunter's color value was observed between the starches isolated from nonirradiated and irradiated corn grains

  19. Process for oxidising starch

    OpenAIRE

    Sivasligil, D.S.; Slaghek, T.M.; Wit, de, S.; Gotlieb, K.F.

    1997-01-01

    A process for reducing the viscosity of polysaccharides such as starch by treatment with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of an acylated polysaccharide as an activator is described. The acylated polysaccharide is used in particular in an amount which is equivalent to at least 1 acyl group per 100 monosaccharide units. The hydrogen peroxide is preferably used at 2-20 wt.%, with respect to the total of polysaccharide and acylated polysaccharide.

  20. Hydroxyeyhyl starch: Controversies revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Rashmi; Nair, Rajeev; PANDEY, Anil; Kumar, Nitish; Sahoo, Tapan

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) family has been one of the cornerstones in fluid management for over four decades. Recent evidence from clinical studies and meta-analyses has raised few concerns about the safety of these fluids, especially in certain subpopulations of patients. High-quality clinical trials and meta-analyses have emphasized nephrotoxic effects, increased risk of bleeding, and a trend toward higher mortality in these patients after the use of HES solutions. Scientific evidence was de...

  1. Radiolysis of Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of the paper the results of work on the identification and determination of the gamma (60Co) radiolysis products of maize starch are brought together and, wherever possible, a balance drawn up by chemical class. The second part of the paper deals with the main parameters governing radiolysis: dose, irradiation temperature and atmosphere, water content and the conditions under which the irradiated starch is stored. The third part, devoted to the mechanisms believed to be involved, contains the following conclusions: (a) the formation of radiation-induced products with a carbon skeleton probably results from a breaking of the → C — O — C <- chains with rearrangement of the radicals and/or a reaction involving the water and the oxygen - the oxygen has an activating effect which does not fundamentally modify the mechanism, whereas the effect of the water is more complex and varies according to the product; (b) the formation of hydrogen peroxide probably implies the addition of atmospheric oxygen to the radiation-induced hydrogen atoms in the water or to the organic radicals obtained by abstraction of a hydrogen from the starch. Lastly, the different methods envisaged for confirming or improving the mechanistic hypotheses are discussed. (author)

  2. Radiolysis of starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of the paper the results of work on the identification and determination of the gamma (60Co) radiolysis products of maize starch are brought together and, wherever possible, a balance drawn up by chemical class. The second part of the paper deals with the main parameters governing radiolysis: dose, irradiation temperature and atmosphere, water content and the conditions under which the irradiated starch is stored. The third part, devoted to the mechanisms believed to be involved, contains the following conclusions: (a) the formation of radiation-induced products with a carbon skeleton probably results from a breaking of the -C-O-C- chains with rearrangement of the radicals and/or a reaction involving the water and the oxygen - the oxygen has an activating effect which does not fundamentally modify the mechanism, whereas the effect of the water is more complex and varies according to the product; (b) the formation of hydrogen peroxide probably implies the addition of atmospheric oxygen to the radiation-induced hydrogen atoms in the water or to the organic radicals obtained by abstraction of a hydrogen from the starch. Lastly, the different methods envisaged for confirming or improving the mechanistic hypotheses are discussed. (author)

  3. X-ray tomography studies of prehistoric ceramic artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a powerful non-destructive technique that can yield interesting structural information not discernible through visual examination only. This paper presents the results of the CT scans of four objects belonging to the Romanian cultural heritage attributed to the Vinca, Cucuteni and Cruceni-Belegis cultures. The study was performed with an X-ray tomographic device developed at the Department for Applied Nuclear Physics from Horia Hulubei National Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering in Magurele, Romania. This apparatus was specially designed for archaeometric studies of low-Z artifacts: ceramic, wood, bone. The tomographic investigations revealed the internal configuration of the objects and provided information about the degree to which the previous manipulations affected the archaeological items. Based on the X-ray images resulting from the CT scans, hints about the techniques used in the manufacturing of the artifacts were obtained, as well as some indications useful for conservation/restoration purposes. (author)

  4. Starch extraction process coupled to protein recovery from leguminous tuberous roots (Pachyrhizus ahipa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Andrea; Dini, Cecilia; Viña, Sonia Z; García, María A

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this work was to fit together the starch extraction from Pachyrhizus ahipa roots and the recovery of the proteins present in these storage organs, making an improved use of this novel raw material. The replacement of water by buffer PO4(-3)/NaCl as solvent in the first extraction steps improved protein extraction without lowering the starch yield. The starches obtained from the traditional and the proposed methods exhibited some differences in appearance and technological and thermal properties, which were endorsed to the adjustment in the methodology of extraction rather than to the use of buffer as solvent. Thus, P. ahipa starch obtaining procedure could be coupled to protein extraction with a minimum change in the methodology. This innovation did not significantly shift the characteristics of the starch obtained and allowed to obtain a protein yield of 135.7mg BSA equivalent protein/100g of fresh roots. PMID:27516269

  5. γ-Ray synthesis of starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles with antibacterial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are fabricated through γ-irradiation reduction of silver ions in aqueous starch solutions. The UV-vis analyses show smaller sizes of Ag NPs produced, with higher yields, as the irradiation doses and/or Ag+ concentrations are increased. Higher concentrations of starch enhance the yields of Ag NPs, with no significant effects on their size. The most economical Ag NPs are produced at 5 kGy γ-irradiation of a 2x10-3 M solution of AgNO3 containing 0.5% starch. They show a relatively narrow size distribution, indicated by TEM and its corresponding size distribution histogram. The XRD pattern confirms the face-centered cubic (fcc) Ag NPs embedded in starch molecules. Interactions between these nanoparticle surfaces and starch oxygen atoms are indicated by FT-IR. Antibacterial activities of Ag NPs against Escherichia coli appear dependent on the γ-ray doses applied

  6. Starch Suspensions with Different Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Melody; Melville, Audrey; Dijksman, Joshua; Behringer, Robert

    2014-03-01

    A suspension made of starch particles dispersed in water displays significant non-Newtonian behavior for high enough particulate concentration. This surprising behavior has recently inspired a series of experiments that have shed much light on the possible mechanism behind this phenomenon. In our studies we assess the role of the fluid phase in these suspensions. We find that using fluids other than water can significantly alter the behavior of starch suspensions. Through mechanical tests of various kinds, we assess the interaction between starch particles and different liquids, and how this interaction affects the non-Newtonian behavior of starch suspensions.

  7. Functional properties of irradiated starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation is an effective method capable of modifying the functional properties of starches. Its effect depends on the specific structural and molecular organization of starch granules from different botanical sources. In this study, we have studied the effect of gamma irradiation (3, 5, 10, 20, 35, 50 kGy) on the rheological properties of some varieties of starch (potato, cassava and wheat). First, we were interested in determining dry matter content; the results showed that the variation in dry matter compared to the control (native starch) is almost zero. So it does not depend on the dose of irradiation. Contrariwise, it differs from a botanical species to another. The viscometer has shown that these starches develop different behaviors during shearing. The native potato starch gave the highest viscosity followed by wheat and cassava which have almost similar viscosities. For all varieties, the viscosity of starch decreases dramatically with an increasing dose of irradiation. At high doses (35 and 50 kGy) the behavior of different starch is similar to that of a viscous pure liquid. The textural analysis via the back-extrusion test showed that increasing the dose of radiation causes a decrease in extrusion force and the energy spent of the different starch throughout the test. Indeed, the extrusion resistance decreases with increasing dose.

  8. The Ambivalent Ontology of Digital Artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallinikos, Jannis; Aaltonen, Aleksi; Marton, Attila

    2013-01-01

    Digital artifacts are embedded in wider and constantly shifting ecosystems such that they become increasingly editable, interactive, reprogrammable, and distributable. This state of flux and constant transfiguration renders the value and utility of these artifacts contingent on shifting webs of f...

  9. Improvement in lactic acid production from starch using alpha-amylase-secreting Lactococcus lactis cells adapted to maltose or starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kenji; Kimura, Sakurako; Narita, Junya; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2007-07-01

    To achieve direct and efficient lactic acid production from starch, a genetically modified Lactococcus lactis IL 1403 secreting alpha-amylase, which was obtained from Streptococcus bovis 148, was constructed. Using this strain, the fermentation of soluble starch was achieved, although its rate was far from efficient (0.09 g l(-1) h(-1) lactate). High-performance liquid chromatography revealed that maltose accumulated during fermentation, and this was thought to lead to inefficient fermentation. To accelerate maltose consumption, starch fermentation was examined using L. lactis cells adapted to maltose instead of glucose. This led to a decrease in the amount of maltose accumulation in the culture, and, as a result, a more rapid fermentation was accomplished (1.31 g l(-1) h(-1) lactate). Maximum volumetric lactate productivity was further increased (1.57 g l(-1) h(-1) lactate) using cells adapted to starch, and a high yield of lactate (0.89 g of lactate per gram of consumed sugar) of high optical purity (99.2% of L: -lactate) was achieved. In this study, we propose a new approach to lactate production by alpha-amylase-secreting L. lactis that allows efficient fermentation from starch using cells adapted to maltose or starch before fermentation. PMID:17384945

  10. Conceptual Model of Artifacts for Design Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We present a conceptual model of design science research artifacts. The model views an artifact at three levels. At the artifact level a selected artifact is viewed as a combination of material and immaterial aspects and a set of representations hereof. At the design level the selected artifact is...

  11. Silicon bulk micromachined hybrid dimensional artifact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudet, Andre A.; Tran, Hy D.; Bauer, Todd Marks; Shilling, Katherine Meghan; Oliver, Andrew David

    2010-03-01

    A mesoscale dimensional artifact based on silicon bulk micromachining fabrication has been developed and manufactured with the intention of evaluating the artifact both on a high precision coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and video-probe based measuring systems. This hybrid artifact has features that can be located by both a touch probe and a video probe system with a k=2 uncertainty of 0.4 {micro}m, more than twice as good as a glass reference artifact. We also present evidence that this uncertainty could be lowered to as little as 50 nm (k=2). While video-probe based systems are commonly used to inspect mesoscale mechanical components, a video-probe system's certified accuracy is generally much worse than its repeatability. To solve this problem, an artifact has been developed which can be calibrated using a commercially available high-accuracy tactile system and then be used to calibrate typical production vision-based measurement systems. This allows for error mapping to a higher degree of accuracy than is possible with a glass reference artifact. Details of the designed features and manufacturing process of the hybrid dimensional artifact are given and a comparison of the designed features to the measured features of the manufactured artifact is presented and discussed. Measurement results from vision and touch probe systems are compared and evaluated to determine the capability of the manufactured artifact to serve as a calibration tool for video-probe systems. An uncertainty analysis for calibration of the artifact using a CMM is presented.

  12. Light Microscopy Preparation Techniques for Starch and Lipid Containing Snack Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Flint, F. Olga

    1982-01-01

    Many processed foods lack the structural integrity associated with biological tissue so that the conventional methods of preparation and staining used in light microscopy may introduce misleading artifacts. Taking as examples of starch-based processed foods, potato chips (UK potato crisps) and three distinct potato snack foods, methods for preparing and demonstrating the constituents present in cryosections of whole and masticated products are discussed. To show constituents in their true ...

  13. A particle accelerator probes artifacts

    CERN Document Server

    Dran, J C; Salomon, J

    2002-01-01

    The AGLAE system is made up of a 2 mega volts electrostatic accelerator and of 3 irradiation lines: one leads to a vacuum enclosure in which targets are irradiated and the 2 others lines are designed to irradiate targets under an air or helium atmosphere. The AGLAE system is located in the premises of the Louvre museum in Paris and is devoted to the study of cultural objects through ion beam analysis (IBA). 4 techniques are used: -) proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) -) proton-induced gamma ray (PIGE) -) Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (NRS) and -) nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). A decisive progress has permitted the direct analysis of artifacts without sampling. The object itself is set just a few millimeters away from the exit window of the beam in an air or helium atmosphere. The exit window must be resistant enough to bear the atmospheric pressure and the damages caused by the proton beam but must be thin enough to not deteriorate the quality of the beam. By using a 10 sup - sup 7 m thick exit w...

  14. Brucite nanoplate reinforced starch bionanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper the mechanical reinforcement in a series of bionanocomposites films based on starch and nano-sized brucite, Mg(OH)2, was investigated. Brucite nanoplates with an aspect ratio of 9.25 were synthesized by wet precipitation and incorporated into starch matrices at different concentrations...

  15. Artifact reduction in industrial computed tomography via data fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the most stressed part of a gas turbine the first row of turbine blades is not only a challenge for the materials used. Also the testing of these parts have to meet the highest standards. Computed tomography (CT) as the technique which could reveal the most details also provides the biggest challenges [1]: A full penetration of large sized turbine blades is often only possible at high X-ray voltages causing disproportional high costs. A reduction of the X-ray voltage is able to reduce these arising costs but yields non penetration artifacts in the reconstructed CT image. In most instances, these artifacts manifests itself as blurred and smeared regions at concave edges due to a reduced signal to noise ratio. In order to complement the missing information and to increase the overall image quality of our reconstruction, we use further imaging modalities such as a 3-D Scanner and ultrasonic imaging. A 3-D scanner is easy and cost effective to implement and is able to acquire all relevant data simultaneously with the CT projections. If, however, the interior structure is of supplemental interest, an ultrasonic imaging method is additionally used. We consider this data as a priori knowledge to employ them in an iterative reconstruction. To do so, standard iterative reconstruction methods are modified to incorporate the a priori data in a regularization approach in combination with minimizing the total variation of our image. Applying this procedure on turbine blades, we are able to reduce the apparent artifacts almost completely

  16. Automatic Identification of Artifact-Related Independent Components for Artifact Removal in EEG Recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan; Nathan, Viswam; Jafari, Roozbeh

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity produced by the firing of neurons within the brain. These activities can be decoded by signal processing techniques. However, EEG recordings are always contaminated with artifacts which hinder the decoding process. Therefore, identifying and removing artifacts is an important step. Researchers often clean EEG recordings with assistance from independent component analysis (ICA), since it can decompose EEG recordings into a number of artifact-related and event-related potential (ERP)-related independent components. However, existing ICA-based artifact identification strategies mostly restrict themselves to a subset of artifacts, e.g., identifying eye movement artifacts only, and have not been shown to reliably identify artifacts caused by nonbiological origins like high-impedance electrodes. In this paper, we propose an automatic algorithm for the identification of general artifacts. The proposed algorithm consists of two parts: 1) an event-related feature-based clustering algorithm used to identify artifacts which have physiological origins; and 2) the electrode-scalp impedance information employed for identifying nonbiological artifacts. The results on EEG data collected from ten subjects show that our algorithm can effectively detect, separate, and remove both physiological and nonbiological artifacts. Qualitative evaluation of the reconstructed EEG signals demonstrates that our proposed method can effectively enhance the signal quality, especially the quality of ERPs, even for those that barely display ERPs in the raw EEG. The performance results also show that our proposed method can effectively identify artifacts and subsequently enhance the classification accuracies compared to four commonly used automatic artifact removal methods. PMID:25415992

  17. Substituent distribution within cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch and potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.; Schols, H.A.; Chen Zenghong,; Jin Zhengyu,; Buwalda, P.L.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Revealing the substituents distribution within starch can help to understand the changes of starch properties after modification. The distribution of substituents over cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch was investigated and compared with modified potato starch. The starches were

  18. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. J. G. Aller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  19. Powder and compaction characteristics of pregelatinized starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, J; Uribe, Y; Zuluaga, A

    2012-06-01

    Pregelatinized starch is widely used as a pharmaceutical aid, especially as a filler-binder. It is known that the tableting performance of excipients could be affected by their source. The aim of this study was to evaluate the powder and tableting properties of pregelatinized starches obtained from yucca, corn and rice and compare those properties with those of Starch 1500. This material had the lowest particle size, and porosity and largest density and best flow. However, yucca starch and corn starch showed an irregular granule morphology, better compactibility and compressibility than Starch 1500. Their onset of plastic deformation and their strain rate sensitivity was comparable to that of Starch 1500. These two materials showed compact disintegration slower that Starch 1500. Conversely, rice starch showed a high elasticity, and friability, low compactibility, which are undesirable for direct compression. This study demonstrated the potential use of pregelatinized starches, especially those obtained from yucca and corn as direct compression filler-binders. PMID:22822539

  20. Drilling Mud Formulation Using Potato Starch(Ipomoea Batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WamiEmenikeNyeche

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the search for suitable local alternatives as additives in the manufacture of drilling muds which is an essential entity in the exploration of oil and gas, some vital considerations must be put in place such as cost and environmental effect. This study focuses on the suitability of locally processed potato starch as a viscosifier and fluid loss agent in drilling mud. Comparative analysis of properties obtained from the prepared potato starch mud and that formulated from Polyanionic cellulose (PAC were carried out. Results from this investigation showed that rheological properties (plastic viscosity and yield point of the potato starch mud increased when the content of both viscosifiers were equal at 1.0g/ 316.4ml of water. Plastic viscosity also increased by 13.6% when potato starch concentration increased by 50%. Also, a combination of PAC and potato starch at a ratio of 1:1 to 0.5:1.5 gave a fluid loss of 7.1 - 7.7 ml which were very close to that of the standard mud at 6.8ml. the pH, mud weight and specific gravity of the formulated mud samples ranged from 7.0 - 9.0, 7.0 - 9.1 and 0.83 - 1.09 respectively, which were all in line with the standard mud specifications.

  1. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation ...

  2. Mixed Biopolymer Systems Based on Starch

    OpenAIRE

    Takahiro Noda; Karim, Alias A.; Md. Jahurul Haque Akanda; Amid Mehrnoush; Sahena Ferdosh; M. Abd Elgadir; Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2012-01-01

    A binary mixture of starch–starch or starch with other biopolymers such as protein and non-starch polysaccharides could provide a new approach in producing starch-based food products. In the context of food processing, a specific adjustment in the rheological properties plays an important role in regulating production processing and optimizing the applicability, stability, and sensory of the final food products. This review examines various biopolymer mixtures based on starch and the influenc...

  3. Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Joelise de Alencar Figueira; Priscila Hoffmann Carvalho; Hélia Harumi Sato

    2011-01-01

    Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and co...

  4. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Mottin Demiate; Valesca Kotovicz

    2011-01-01

    Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results ...

  5. Wavelet approach to artifact noise removal from Capacitive coupled Electrocardiograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Ko Keun; Park, Kwang Suk

    2008-01-01

    Capacitive coupled Electrocardiography (ECG) is introduced as non-invasive measurement technology for ubiquitous health care and appliance are spread out widely. Although it has many merits, however, capacitive coupled ECG is very weak for motion artifacts for its non-skin-contact property. There are many studies for artifact problems which treats all artifact signals below 0.8Hz. In our capacitive coupled ECG measurement system, artifacts exist not only below 0.8Hz but also over than 10Hz. Therefore, artifact noise removal algorithm using wavelet method is tested to reject artifact-wandered signal from measured signals. It is observed that using power calculation each decimation step, artifact-wandered signal is removed as low frequency artifacts as high frequency artifacts. Although some original ECG signal is removed with artifact signal, we could level the signal quality for long term measure which shows the best quality ECG signals as we can get. PMID:19163323

  6. The effect of gamma irradiation on the functional properties of various starches: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation is one of the most effective methods able to change starch structure and its functional properties. Effects of irradiation are largely related to particular structure and molecular organisation of starch from various botanical sources. In this research, the effect of gamma irradiation (3, 5, 10, 20, 35 and 50kGy) on the rheological, structural, and morphological properties of three starch varieties (potato, tapioca and wheat) was studied. Rheological analyses show that all the starches develop different behaviours during gelatinization. Potato starch yielded the high swelling power (SP) and exhibited a maximum value of consistency during pasting, followed by that of tapioca one. The lower values of SP and maximum consistency were observed in the case of wheat starch. For all starch varieties, the pic consistency during pasting decrease with increasing irradiation dose. An increase in the SP was observed for all the studied starches irradiated with lower dose (until 20kGy). This parameter decreases at higher doses. On the other hand, irradiation improves the water solubility index (WSI) of all the studied starch. In addition, spectra of Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the irradiated starch displayed a significant decrease in the intensity of the OH stretch (3000; 3600 cm-1), C H stretch (between 2800 and 3000 cm-1), bending mode of water (between 1600 and 1800 cm-1) and in the bending mode of glycosidic linkage (between 900 and 950cm-1). Structural analysis using electron spins resonance (ESR) illustrates the presence of three signals in 3490, 3500 and 3510 G, respectively. These signals confirm the presence of free radicals in the tapioca and wheat starches through radiation treatment. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra showed that potato starch has B type morphology while tapioca and wheat starches have a crystalline A type morphology. In the same analysis, it was shown that irradiation treatment has no major changes in

  7. Fabrication and characterization of citric acid-modified starch nanoparticles/plasticized-starch composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaofei; Jian, Ruijuan; Chang, Peter R; Yu, Jiugao

    2008-11-01

    Starch nanoparticles (SN) were prepared by delivering ethanol as the precipitant into starch-paste solution dropwise. Citric acid (CA) modified SN (CASN) were fabricated with the dry preparation technique. According to the characterization of CASN with Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, rapid visco analyzer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), amorphous CASN could not be gelatinized in hot water because of the cross-linking, and most of CASN ranged in size from about 50 to 100 nm. The nanocomposites were also prepared using CASN as the filler in glycerol plasticized-pea starch (GPS) matrix by the casting process. SEM revealed that CASN was dispersed evenly in the GPS matrix. As shown in dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, the introduction of CASN could improve the storage modulus and the glass transition temperature of CASN/GPS composites. The tensile yield strength and Young's modulus increased from 3.94 to 8.12 MPa and from 49.8 to 125.1 MPa, respectively, when the CASN contents varied from 0 to 4 wt %. Moreover, the values of water vapor permeability decreased from 4.76 x 10(-10) to 2.72 x 10(-10) g m(-1) s(-1) Pa(-1). The improvement of these properties could be attributed to the good interaction between CASN filler and GPS matrix. The comprehensive application of green chemistry principles were demonstrated in the preparation of CASN and CASN/GPS composites. PMID:18844405

  8. Metallic artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven metallic implants with different content of magnetic materials were compared in terms of the degree of MRI artifact. The degree of artifact well correlated with the total content of iron and cobalt than the total content of ferromagnets (iron, cobalt, nickel). No significant difference was observed regarding artifact among 4 titanium alloys containing very small amount of ferromagnet (0.058%-2.5%). Pedicle screws were made from different alloys in the same shape. Those screws were inserted into the swine vertebrae and artifact was evaluated by MRI. The degree of artifact was SUS316 (stainless steel)>MP-35N (cobalt alloy)>Ti-6AI-4V (titanium alloy), 1.5 Tesla>0.5 Tesla as for magnetic intensity, and T2 (gradient echo)>T2 (long SE)>proton density>T1 as for exposure condition. The condition of the site screw was inserted in the vertebral canal was detectable by T1-weighted images of titanium alloy and cobalt alloy in 0.5 Tesla and T1-weighted images of titanium alloy in 1.5 Tesla. (S.Y)

  9. Mediating Artifact in Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Bodil

    2015-07-01

    This article focuses on teacher professional development (TPD) in natural science through the 5E model as mediating artifact. The study was conducted in an upper secondary school, grounded in a school-based intervention research project. My contribution to the field of research on TPD is founded on the hypothesis that teachers would be best facilitated to make their practice more inquiry based if they are provided with a mediating artifact. In this study the artifact is a model 5E, which is a conceptual way of thinking, to help teachers reflect on their practice. The aim is to encourage teachers to make changes themselves, by applying extended use of inquiry into their practice. This mediated artifact could thus be used across different national contexts. The main research question is; how can the 5E model as a mediating artifact enhance TPD? The article addresses the processes of the use of the 5E model and its influence on teachers' perception of the model. This is in order for teachers to conceptualize their goals related to inquiry and scientific thinking, and to solve the problems involved in achieving those goals in their own contexts. The study concludes that, after the intervention, the teachers' approaches and strategies demonstrate greater emphasis on learning.

  10. Grid line artifact formation: A comprehensive theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear focused grids are commonly used in general radiography and mammography to control scatter. In these applications, if lines would be visible when the grid was stationary, then the grid is moved during the x-ray exposure to blur out grid lines. Presented is a theoretical framework for estimating grid line artifact magnitude and evaluating artifact suppression techniques. The framework takes as parameters the grid pitch, septum thickness, and exposure time, and allows for a variation in grid velocity and in x-ray tube output during the exposure. Grid line artifacts are evaluated for a variety of conditions. These include a stationary grid, a grid moving at a constant velocity with no kV ripple, a grid moving at a constant velocity with large kV ripple, and a grid moving with decreasing velocity and no kV ripple. Also evaluated are grid line artifacts for a novel suppression technique in which the grid moves at a constant velocity and the x-ray exposure waveform is 'feathered', i.e., when the x-ray exposure waveform has a soft start and stop. Of practical interest is that it is possible to effectively eliminate grid line artifacts when the grid moves only a short distance with an appropriately 'feathered' exposure waveform. This capability permits one to design efficient and compact coarse strip density grid systems

  11. Dual energy CT: How well can pseudo-monochromatic imaging reduce metal artifacts?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchenbecker, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.kuchenbecker@dkfz.de; Faby, Sebastian; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Lell, Michael [Friedrich-Alexander-University (FAU), Erlangen 91054 (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Dual Energy CT (DECT) provides so-called monoenergetic images based on a linear combination of the original polychromatic images. At certain patient-specific energy levels, corresponding to certain patient- and slice-dependent linear combination weights, e.g., E = 160 keV corresponds to α = 1.57, a significant reduction of metal artifacts may be observed. The authors aimed at analyzing the method for its artifact reduction capabilities to identify its limitations. The results are compared with raw data-based processing. Methods: Clinical DECT uses a simplified version of monochromatic imaging by linearly combining the low and the high kV images and by assigning an energy to that linear combination. Those pseudo-monochromatic images can be used by radiologists to obtain images with reduced metal artifacts. The authors analyzed the underlying physics and carried out a series expansion of the polychromatic attenuation equations. The resulting nonlinear terms are responsible for the artifacts, but they are not linearly related between the low and the high kV scan: A linear combination of both images cannot eliminate the nonlinearities, it can only reduce their impact. Scattered radiation yields additional noncanceling nonlinearities. This method is compared to raw data-based artifact correction methods. To quantify the artifact reduction potential of pseudo-monochromatic images, they simulated the FORBILD abdomen phantom with metal implants, and they assessed patient data sets of a clinical dual source CT system (100, 140 kV Sn) containing artifacts induced by a highly concentrated contrast agent bolus and by metal. In each case, they manually selected an optimal α and compared it to a raw data-based material decomposition in case of simulation, to raw data-based material decomposition of inconsistent rays in case of the patient data set containing contrast agent, and to the frequency split normalized metal artifact reduction in case of the metal

  12. PET/CT Artifacts, Pitfalls and Variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PET/CT artifacts and pitfalls can be defined as unwanted and spurious abnormalities which may obscure the normal and abnormal findings and simulate pathology. It is important for imaging specialist to recognize these artifacts and interpretative pitfalls and design strategies to prevent misinterpretation. The artifacts and pitfalls can be due to motion, technical factors and high attenuation materials. The motion artifacts / pitfalls are due to physiologic respiratory, cardiac, GI tract, bladder motion and patient motion during image acquisition. The technical factor artifacts / pitfalls are due to acquisition or processing (truncation / beam hardening / bed position) or uneven distribution of FDG (extravasation / clot / stasis) or prior nuclear medicine study. High attenuation material artifacts / pitfalls are due to metallic implants such as surgical clips, chemotherapy ports and dental amalgam fillings or oral and IV contrast. Respiratory motion during scanning causes the most prevalent artifact in PET/CT imaging. The artifact is due to the discrepancy between the chest position on the CT image and the chest position on the PET image. Because of the long acquisition time of a PET scan, it is acquired while the patient is freely breathing. The final image is hence an average of many breathing cycles. On the other hand, a CT scan is usually acquired during a specific stage of the breathing cycle. This difference in respiratory motion between PET scans and CT scans causes breathing artifacts on PET/CT images. The most common type of breathing artifact results in curvilinear cold areas. This artifact appears when CT scans are acquired at full inspiration, which results in a downward displacement of the diaphragm because of the expansion of the lungs. This downward displacement causes the CT attenuation coefficients in the normal location of the diaphragm region to be underestimated because they represent air rather than soft tissue. This type of artifact can

  13. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lewicka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation are discussed. Properties of microwave radiation and its impact on starch (with particular regard to modifications described in literature are characterized.

  14. Antimicrobial nanostructured starch based films for packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Ana S.; M. de OLIVEIRA; Rodrigues, Rui M.; Cerqueira, M. A.; Vicente, A.A.; Machado, A.V.; Sá, Arsénio Vasconcelos

    2015-01-01

    Montmorillonite modied with a quaternary ammonium salt C30B/starch nanocomposite (C30B/ST-NC), silver nanoparticles/starch nanocomposite (Ag-NPs/ST-NC) and both silver nanoparticles/C30B/starch nanocomposites (Ag-NPs/C30B/ST-NC) films were produced. The nanoclay (C30B) was dispersed in a starch solution using an ultrasonic probe. Different concentrations of Ag-NPs (0.3, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.0 mM) were synthesized directly in starch and in clay/starch solutions via chemical reduction method. Dispers...

  15. Sorghum grain as human food in Africa: relevance of content of starch and amylase activities

    OpenAIRE

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A S; Voragen, A. G. J.; Berkel, van, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sorghum is a staple food grain in many semi-arid and tropic areas of the world, notably in Sub-Saharan Africa because of its good adaptation to hard environments and its good yield of production. Among important biochemical components for sorghum processing are levels of starch (amylose and amylopectin) and starch depolymerizing enzymes. Current research focus on identifying varieties meeting specific agricultural and food requirements from the great biodiversity of sorghums to insure food se...

  16. Hydrolysis of starch by sorghum malt for maltodextrin production [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonart, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Maltodextrin is a mixture of saccharides with a molecular weight between polysaccharides and oligosaccharides with DE lower than 20. Maltodextrin is more soluble in water than native starches, also is cheaper in comparison with other major edible hydrocolloids. Maltodextrin is obtained by moderate enzymatic or acidic hydrolysis of starch. The hydrolysis of starch, catalyzed by amylases, is the most important commercial enzyme process. The hydrolyzed products are widely applied in food, paper and textile industries. Because of the increasing demand for these enzymes in various industries, there is enormous interest in developing enzymes with better properties, such as raw starch-degrading amylases suitable for industrial applications and their cost-effective production techniques. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor is a widely grown crop in Africa. Obtaining enzymes from sorghum requires a transformation. The objective of this study was application of sorghum amylase for maltodextrin. Sorghum seeds were supplied by the ISRA (Bambey, Senegal. Seeds were germinated in the laboratory at 30°C for 72 h and the sorghum malt was dried at 40°C for 48 h. Corn starch (from Roquette, France hydrolysis was assayed in a bioreactor of 2 l at a temperature of 65°C gently stirred. Raw starch was slurried in water (30% w/v and sorghum malt was introduced, chloride calcium was added, pH was adjusted to 6. Maltodextrin was characterized in term of the dextrose equivalent (DE during the hydrolysis. The yield of hydrolysis was evaluated by soluble solids (° BRIX at different hydrolysis time. The glucose concentration released was measured by DNS method (Miller method.

  17. Artifacts in magnetic measurements of fluid samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekelheide, Z.; Dennis, C. L.

    2016-08-01

    Applications of magnetic fluids are ever increasing, as well as the corresponding need to be able to characterize these fluids in situ. Commercial magnetometers are accurate and well-characterized for solid and powder samples, but their use with fluid samples is more limited. Here, we describe artifacts which can occur in magnetic measurements of fluid samples and their impact. The most critical problem in the measurement of fluid samples is the dynamic nature of the sample position and size/shape. Methods to reduce these artifacts are also discussed, such as removal of air bubbles and dynamic centering.

  18. Automatic Removal of Sparse Artifacts in Electroencephalogram

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichavský, Petr; Zima, Miroslav; Krajča, V.

    Lisabon: SciTePress, 2011, s. 530-535. ISBN 978-989-8425-35-5. [Biosignals, Int. Conf. on Bio-inspired Systems and Signal Processing. Rome (IT), 26.02.2011-29.01.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/09/1278 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : electroencephalogram * artifact removal * independent component analysis Subject RIV: FH - Neurology http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/SI/tichavsky-automatic removal of sparse artifacts in electroencephalogram.pdf

  19. Starch-degrading polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Van V; Marletta, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Polysaccharide degradation by hydrolytic enzymes glycoside hydrolases (GHs) is well known. More recently, polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs, also known as lytic PMOs or LPMOs) were found to oxidatively degrade various polysaccharides via a copper-dependent hydroxylation. PMOs were previously thought to be either GHs or carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), and have been re-classified in carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZY) database as auxiliary activity (AA) families. These enzymes include cellulose-active fungal PMOs (AA9, formerly GH61), chitin- and cellulose-active bacterial PMOs (AA10, formerly CBM33), and chitin-active fungal PMOs (AA11). These PMOs significantly boost the activity of GHs under industrially relevant conditions, and thus have great potential in the biomass-based biofuel industry. PMOs that act on starch are the latest PMOs discovered (AA13), which has expanded our perspectives in PMOs studies and starch degradation. Starch-active PMOs have many common structural features and biochemical properties of the PMO superfamily, yet differ from other PMO families in several important aspects. These differences likely correlate, at least in part, to the differences in primary and higher order structures of starch and cellulose, and chitin. In this review we will discuss the discovery, structural features, biochemical and biophysical properties, and possible biological functions of starch-active PMOs, as well as their potential application in the biofuel, food, and other starch-based industries. Important questions regarding various aspects of starch-active PMOs and possible economical driving force for their future studies will also be highlighted. PMID:27170366

  20. Pitfalls and Artifacts in Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is an important modality in the management of patients with cardiovascular disease. It is useful for the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, prognosis and evaluating viability. Although MPI is a valuable diagnostic modality, it is subject to several potential problems. These problems are the technical factors that alter the representation of the structures or displace it in the field of view. Technologists must be conscious of these pitfalls and artifacts as successful image interpretations depend on the prevention, recognition and correction of these problems. These technical issues are patient, equipment QC and processing related. Physiological patient related artifacts can be seen in cases of left bundle branch block, left ventricular hypertrophy, dextrocardia and heart valve disorders. Also incidental findings such as malignant tumor and pericardial effusion must be considered. Inappropriate patient preparation regarding fasting status, medications and adequacy of exercise are very critical in this imaging process. The attenuating structures between the heart and the detector cause apparent artifacts and this maybe the result of breast tissue or prosthesis, diaphragm, arm and adipose of the lateral chest wall. Patient motion is the most common artifacts leading to false positive readings and can be classified into vertical, horizontal and rotational movements. Generation of sinogram and linogram helps in the detection of movements. The presence of splanchnic activity as a normal excretory route for perfusion radiopharmaceuticals may lead to two problems: it obscures any defect in the inferior wall as a result of scatter and it may causes reduction in the activity in adjacent cardiac segments. An adequate amount of time between injection of the radiopharmaceutical and imaging is required to allow the clearance of this activity. Perfusion defects can also be artifactually created because of poor counting statistics as a result

  1. Microscopic Analysis of Corn Fiber Using Corn Starch- and Cellulose-Specific Molecular Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, S. E.; Donohoe, B. S.; Beery, K. E.; Xu, Q.; Ding, S.-Y.; Vinzant, T. B.; Abbas, C. A.; Himmel, M. E.

    2007-09-01

    Ethanol is the primary liquid transportation fuel produced from renewable feedstocks in the United States today. The majority of corn grain, the primary feedstock for ethanol production, has been historically processed in wet mills yielding products such as gluten feed, gluten meal, starch, and germ. Starch extracted from the grain is used to produce ethanol in saccharification and fermentation steps; however the extraction of starch is not 100% efficient. To better understand starch extraction during the wet milling process, we have developed fluorescent probes that can be used to visually localize starch and cellulose in samples using confocal microscopy. These probes are based on the binding specificities of two types of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), which are small substrate-specific protein domains derived from carbohydrate degrading enzymes. CBMs were fused, using molecular cloning techniques, to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or to the red fluorescent protein DsRed (RFP). Using these engineered probes, we found that the binding of the starch-specific probe correlates with starch content in corn fiber samples. We also demonstrate that there is starch internally localized in the endosperm that may contribute to the high starch content in corn fiber. We also surprisingly found that the cellulose-specific probe did not bind to most corn fiber samples, but only to corn fiber that had been hydrolyzed using a thermochemical process that removes the residual starch and much of the hemicellulose. Our findings should be of interest to those working to increase the efficiency of the corn grain to ethanol process.

  2. Starch phosphorylation in potato tubers is influenced by allelic variation in the genes encoding glucan water dikinase, starch branching enzymes I and II, and starch synthase III

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Ann Carpenter; Nigel eJoyce; Russell eGenet; Rebecca eCooper; Sarah eMurray; Alasdair eNoble; Ruth eButler; Gail eTimmerman-Vaughan

    2015-01-01

    Starch phosphorylation is an important aspect of plant metabolism due to its role in starch degradation. Moreover, the degree of phosphorylation of starch determines its physicochemical properties and is therefore relevant for industrial uses of starch. Currently, starch is chemically phosphorylated to increase viscosity and paste stability. Potato cultivars with elevated starch phosphorylation would make this process unnecessary, thereby bestowing economic and environmental benefits. Starch ...

  3. Effect of HRT on CSTR converting starch into biological hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are few reports on continuous bio hydrogen production from biopolymers like starch, because most previous studies on continuous operation were performed using simple hydrolysates such as glucose and sucrose. This study was, therefore, carried out to investigate the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on continuous bio hydrogen production in a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) using corn starch as a substrate for 158 days. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) profile supported the fact that butyrate to acetate (B/A) ratio was the most important parameter to justify hydrogen yield at various HRTs. Maximum hydrogen yield of 0.92 mol H/sub 2/mol, glucose/sub added/ was observed at 12 hr HRT with the highest B/A ratio of 4.3. Also, estimation modeling to quantify homoacetogenism was conducted and H/sub 2/-consuming acetate production, at various HRTs was estimated. (author)

  4. Comparison of Cationic and Unmodified Starches in Reactive Extrusion of Starch-Polyacrylamide Graft Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graft copolymers of starch and polyacrylamide (PAAm) were prepared using reactive extrusion in a corotating twin screw extruder. The effect of cationic starch modification was examined using unmodified and cationic dent starch (approximately 23% amylose) and waxy maize starch (approximately 2% amyl...

  5. Resistant starch content, in vitro starch digestibility and physico-chemical properties of flour and starch from Thai bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nednapis Vatanasuchart

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Flour and starch were prepared from six Thai banana cultivars: Kluai Hom, Kluai Khai,Kluai Lebmuenang, Kluai Namwa, Kluai Hakmuk and Kluai Hin, and their resistant starch (RS, invitro starch digestibility and physico-chemical properties were determined. The RS content of theflour is 52.2-68.1%, with flour from Kluai Hin containing the highest amount of RS, followed by thatfrom Kluai Hakmuk. The starch has a higher RS content (70.1-79.2%, the highest value comingfrom Kluai Hakmuk starch, followed by Kluai Hom starch. A significant linear relationship betweenapparent amylose and RS was observed. Interestingly, most of the flour showed a slower rate of invitro starch digestibility than that of the starch, with Kluai Hin flour exhibiting the slowest rate,followed by Kluai Namwa. Rapid viscosity analysis showed significantly higher peak viscosity of thestarch than the flour, the highest final and setback viscosity being obtained from Kluai Hin starch.Differential scanning calorimetry showed an endothermic transition enthalpy over a range of 17.4 J/gfor Kluai Lebmuenang starch to 18.6 J/g for Kluai Hin starch. X-ray diffractograms of the starchesexhibited a typical B-pattern with Kluai Hin showing the highest degree of relative crystallinity(31.3% with a sharp peak at 5.5. The overall results seemed to indicate an effect of the BBgenotype on the resistance of banana starch granules to enzymatic digestion due to amylosemolecules and the crystallinity of amylopectin.

  6. Rheological and microstructural properties of Irradiated starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation ia s fast and efficient method to improve the functional properties of straches. Wheat and potato starches were submitted, in the present study, at 3,5,10 and 20 kGy radiation dose. The changes induced by irradiation on the rheological properties of these starches showed a decrease in the viscosity with increasing radiation dose. Chemicals bond's hydrolysis has been induced by free radicals that have been identified by EPR. Wheat starch presents five EPR signals after irradiation, whiles potato starch has a weak EPR signal. On the other hand, irradiation caused decrease in amylose content. This decrease is more pronounced in potato starch. Dry irradiated starch's MEB revealed no change in the shape, size and distribution of the granules. While, the observation of wheat starch allowed the complete disappearance of the granular structure and the dissolution of its macromolecules after irradiation which justifies the significant decrease in wheat starch's viscosity irradiated at 20 kGy.

  7. On the reduction of hypercubic lattice artifacts

    CERN Document Server

    De Soto, F

    2007-01-01

    This note presents a comparative study of various options to reduce the errors coming from the discretization of a Quantum Field Theory in a lattice with hypercubic symmetry. We show that it is possible to perform an extrapolation towards the continuum which is able to eliminate systematically the artifacts which break the O(4) symmetry.

  8. "Things" that Work: The Artifacts of Industrialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenfield, Briann; Malone, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on teaching industrialization through the use of industrial artifacts, such as tools and products. Suggests field trips to museums and historic sites, building models of waterwheels or bridges, visiting an operating factory, and studying landscapes shaped by industrialization. Includes a bibliography. (CMK)

  9. Smoking artifacts: factors of source evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, L; Hickson, M; Hill, S R; Holt, G; Flick, H

    1978-12-01

    Responses from 323 students in communication indicated that credibility factors associated with nonverbal smoking artifacts are not the same as those associated with verbal stimuli; a character factor was absent for nonverbal stimuli. Verbosity, however, may permit inferences regarding potential verbal behavior. PMID:740490

  10. A Social Language of Objects and Artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an inquiry about design. It gives an introductory overview of the vocabulary of 'materiality', which is used by a chosen selection of social theories. The paper shows a language of artifacts and objjects as it is used within practice-based approaches to knowing in organization  ...

  11. A Language of Objects and Artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    This is a conceptual inquiry about materiality. It gives an introductory overview to the vocabulary of materiality in a chosen selection of theories. The paper shows a language of artifacts and objects as it is used within practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. The examined intellec......This is a conceptual inquiry about materiality. It gives an introductory overview to the vocabulary of materiality in a chosen selection of theories. The paper shows a language of artifacts and objects as it is used within practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. The examined...... intellectual traditions are interpretive-cultural approaches; activity theory; and sociology of translation. Similarities and differences are presented in the way these three distinct intellectual traditions conceptualize the array of material objects and artifacts which are central in the tales of practice....... The paper looks into the mediatedness of knowing and doing in organizations. The intellectual traditions which are scrutinized all agree that ‘doing’ is materially embedded – that objects and artifacts are central to both knowing and learning. But what is their understanding of materiality? With which...

  12. MORPHOLOGICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MAIZE STARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Corina Popescu; Alexandru Stoica; Elena Bărăscu; Maria Iordan

    2010-01-01

    Maize, rice, wheat and potato are the main sources of starches which differ significantly in composition, morphology,thermal, rheological and retrogradation properties. Starch has unique thermal properties and functionality that havepermitted its wide use in food products and industrial applications.The structure of the starch granule results from the physical arrangement of amylose and amylopectin. Amylose contentof starches from different maize types ranged between 15.3% and 25.1%. Amylopec...

  13. Ultrastructure of Maize Starch Granules. A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gallant, Daniel J.; Bouchet, Brigitte

    1986-01-01

    History of starch granule ultrastructure and the principal data obtained on maize starch granules are analyzed. New results are developed: i) growth and development of the maize starch granules during maturation depend on the maize varieties and the tissue site in the kernel, especially the horny and flloury endosperms; ii) cytochemical studies of the starch granules differing from their amylose/amylopectin ratio show important differences in the distribution of their crystalline and amorph...

  14. Cassava and corn starch in maltodextrin production

    OpenAIRE

    Geovana Rocha Plácido Moore; Luciana Rodrigues do Canto; Edna Regina Amante; Valdir Soldi

    2005-01-01

    Maltodextrin was produced from cassava and corn starch by enzymatic hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The cassava starch hydrolysis rate was higher than that of corn starches in maltodextrin production with shorter dextrose equivalent (DE). DE values do not show directly the nature of the obtained oligosaccharides. Maltodextrin produced from cassava and corn starch was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the analysis showed that maltodextrin production differs accordin...

  15. X-Ray Tomography Studies of Prehistoric Ceramic Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Carmen; Constantin, Florin; Suciu, Cosmin Ioan; Bugoi, Roxana

    2014-02-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a powerful non-destructive technique that can yield interesting structural information not discernible through visual examination only. This paper presents the results of the CT scans of four objects belonging to the Romanian cultural heritage attributed to the Vinča, Cucuteni and Cruceni-Belegiš cultures. The study was performed with an X-ray tomographic device developed at the Department for Applied Nuclear Physics from Horia Hulubei National Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering in Măgurele, Romania. This apparatus was specially designed for archaeometric studies of low-Z artifacts: ceramic, wood, bone. The tomographic investigations revealed the internal configuration of the objects and provided information about the degree to which the previous manipulations affected the archaeological items. Based on the X-ray images resulting from the CT scans, hints about the techniques used in the manufacturing of the artifacts were obtained, as well as some indications useful for conservation/restoration purposes.

  16. A Thermostable Glucoamylase from Bispora sp. MEY-1 with Stability over a Broad pH Range and Significant Starch Hydrolysis Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Huifang Hua; Huiying Luo; Yingguo Bai; Kun Wang; Canfang Niu; Huoqing Huang; Pengjun Shi; Caihong Wang; Peilong Yang; Bin Yao

    2014-01-01

    Background Glucoamylase is an exo-type enzyme that converts starch completely into glucose from the non-reducing ends. To meet the industrial requirements for starch processing, a glucoamylase with excellent thermostability, raw-starch degradation ability and high glucose yield is much needed. In the present study we selected the excellent Carbohydrate-Activity Enzyme (CAZyme) producer, Bispora sp. MEY-1, as the microbial source for glucoamylase gene exploitation. Methodology/Principal Findin...

  17. The influence of starch molecular mass on the properties of extruded thermoplastic starch

    OpenAIRE

    Vliegenthart, J. F. G.; van Soest, J.J.G.; Benes, K.; de Wit, D

    1996-01-01

    The mechanical properties of a low and a high molecular mass thermoplastic starch (TPS) were monitored at water contents in the range of 5–30% (w/w). The granular starches were plasticized by extrusion processing with glycerol and water. The low molecular mass starch was prepared by partial acid hydrolysis of potato starch. The extruded TPS materials were stored at 60% relative humidity for 12 months to level out differences in starch structure due to retrogradation. The water content was the...

  18. Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelise de Alencar Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and commercial bacterial and fungal α-amylase enzymes. Susceptibility to debranching amylolytic isoamylase enzyme from Flavobacterium sp. was also tested. Sugarcane starch had spherical shape with a diameter of 1-3 µm. Sugarcane starch formed complexes with iodine, which showed greater absorption in the range of 540 to 620 nm. Sugarcane starch showed higher susceptibility to glucoamylase compared to that of waxy maize, cassava, and potato starch. Sugarcane starch also showed susceptibility to debranching amylolytic pullulanases similar to that of waxy rice starch. It also showed susceptibility to α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Aspergillus oryzae similar to that of the other tested starches producing glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentose and limit α- dextrin.

  19. Esterification of Starch in Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    We shall discuss the use of various ionic liquids in the preparation of starch esters. Starch was reacted with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (bmim) salts as solvents in an effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution (DS) w...

  20. Starch in the Wet-End

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Clerck, Peter

    Starch has been used in papermaking almost since the invention of paper. The global paper industry consumes almost 5 million tonnes of starch per year, making starch the third most important raw material in papermaking. Roughly 20% of this is used in the wet-end.

  1. Novel formulation of low-fat spread using rice starch modified by 4-α-glucanotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Viet Ha; Mun, Saehun; Kim, Young-Lim; Rho, Shin-Joung; Park, Kwan Hwa; Kim, Yong-Ro

    2016-10-01

    Low-fat spreads were developed using a thermoreversible gelling agent, the 4-α-glucanotransferase (4αGT)-modified rice starch. The low-fat spreads consisted of the modified starch paste (or rice starch or maltodextrin), olive oil (0-30% w/w), egg yolk, salt, xanthan gum, and butter flavor, and were produced by homogenization, ultrasonic processing at 50% amplitude for 2min, and cold-gel setting at 4°C for 24h. Formulations with 15% and 20% of the modified starch paste resulted in highly stable oil-in-water low-fat spreads having varied textural properties and acceptable spreadability, whereas formulations with rice starch and maltodextrin did not yield enough stability and consistency. Moreover, the modified starch-based low-fat spreads showed high thermoreversibility. These results indicated that 4αGT-modified starch could be used in the preparation of low-fat spreads, allowing the formulation of functional products for healthy diets. PMID:27132833

  2. The optimization of isoamylase processing conditions for the preparation of high-amylose ginkgo starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lanlan; Zheng, Yi; Peng, Yujiao; Yao, Cheng; Zhang, Huanxin

    2016-05-01

    A high-amylose starch was prepared from ginkgo by hydrolysis using isoamylase and its structures (morphology and crystallinity) and physicochemical properties (swelling factor, water solubility and gelatinization) were determined. The experiments used response surface methodology to determine the optimum parameters for enzymatic hydrolysis: pH 5.0 at 52°C for 170min, using an enzyme dose greater than 100IU/ml. The experimentally observed maximum yield of ginkgo amylose under these conditions was 74.74% and the blue value was 0.756. The high-amylose ginkgo starch showed an irregular surface and porous inner structure while the native starch granules were oval with a smooth surface. X-ray showed that the high-amylose starch displayed a V-type structure. Because of its high amylose content and different structural characteristics, high-amylose starch exhibited a higher gelatinization peak temperature (109.25°C) and water solubility, and a lower crystallinity (19.13%), gelatinization enthalpy (63.83J/g), and swelling power. The present study has indicated that high-amylose starch prepared using isoamylase has unique functional properties, which lays the foundation for the wider application of ginkgo starch. PMID:26780467

  3. Resistant starch content, in vitro starch digestibility and physico-chemical properties of flour and starch from Thai bananas

    OpenAIRE

    Nednapis Vatanasuchart

    2012-01-01

    Flour and starch were prepared from six Thai banana cultivars: Kluai Hom, Kluai Khai,Kluai Lebmuenang, Kluai Namwa, Kluai Hakmuk and Kluai Hin, and their resistant starch (RS), invitro starch digestibility and physico-chemical properties were determined. The RS content of theflour is 52.2-68.1%, with flour from Kluai Hin containing the highest amount of RS, followed by thatfrom Kluai Hakmuk. The starch has a higher RS content (70.1-79.2%), the highest value comingfrom Kluai Hakmuk starch, fol...

  4. Applying Design Research Artifacts for Building Design Research Artifacts: A Process Model for Enterprise Architecture Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Aier, Stephan; Gleichauf, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Enterprise architecture (EA) describes the fundamental structure of an organization from business to IT. EA as a practice as well as a research topic has been around for several years. However, existing methods largely neglect the existence of time which is essential in order to systematically approach EA planning. The article at hand builds a process model for EA planning as a de-sign research artifact. We therefore use another more general design research artifact a method for process engi...

  5. A pragmatic approach to metal artifact reduction in CT: merging of metal artifact reduced images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to improve metal artifact reduction (MAR) in X-ray computed tomography (CT) by the combination of two artifact reduction methods. The presented method constitutes an image-based weighted superposition of images processed with two known methods for MAR: linear interpolation of reprojected metal traces (LI) and multi-dimensional adaptive filtering of the raw data (MAF). Two weighting concepts were realized that take into account mean distances of image points from metal objects or additional directional components. Artifact reduction on patient data from the jaw and the hip region shows that although the application of only one of the MAR algorithms can already improve image quality, these methods have specific drawbacks. While MAF does not correct corrupted CT values, LI often introduces secondary artifacts. The corrective impact of the merging algorithm is almost always superior to the application of only one of the methods. The results obtained with directional weighting are equal to or in many cases better than those of the distance weighting scheme. Merging combines the advantages of two fundamentally different approaches to artifact reduction and can improve the quality of images that are affected by metal artifacts. (orig.)

  6. Artifacts in PET/CT Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PET/CT fusion imaging increases the confidence and accuracy for the interpretation of PET studies. However, because both components of CT and PET are not acquired simultaneously, there are several artifacts that might affect the interpretation of the PET studies. Undesirable distribution of F-18 FDG because of improper patient preparation also can induce difficulties in the interpretation of PET studies. Other abnormal findings are related to current or previous treatments given to the patient. For good practice technologists and physicians have to be aware of these artifacts and undesirable uptake for the purpose of either avoiding or minimizing their effect during the acquisition or interpretation of the PET studies. These artifacts and undesirable distribution of FDG can be dived into different categories as follows: A. Undesirable F-18 FDG uptake due to patient preparation: 1. High glucose levels decreases the accuracy of the F- 18 FDG PET studies in recognizing abnormal pathology and accordingly the sensitivity for detection of malignant lesions 2. High insulin levels after eating or insulin injection increases muscle and myocardial uptake. Actually it is the insulin levels that are more important than the glucose levels. 3. Brown fat uptakes in cold weather 4. Cardiac uptake, especially for evaluating the mediastinum for oncology patients B. Motion artifacts: 1. Patient motion 2. Respiratory and diaphragmatic motion 3. Bowel artifacts 4. Bladder filling artefact C. Attenuation Artefacts: 1. Metallic prosthesis, metallic implants and I.V . ports 2. Oral and IV Contrast Media 3. Distended air in the stomach or large bowel 4. Calcified lymph nodes 5. Calcified atheroma D. System Design: 1. Trunction artifacts 2. 2D and 3D acquisition E. Body Habitus: 1. Overweight patients induce more scatter and low signal to noise ratio F . Current or Previous Patient Treatments: 1. one Marrow hyperplasia due to colony stimulating growth factors 2. Increased splenic uptake

  7. Batch fermentations on synthetic mixed sugar and starch medium with amylolytic lactic acid bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Guyot, J.P.; Kiel, P.

    2007-01-01

    process. A number of amylolytic lactic acid bacteria have been identified, and in this work, six different strains were tested for their ability to produce alpha-amylase and to utilise all sugars with high lactic acid yield in a medium with a complex composition of free sugars (brown juice) and starch...... brown juice. Brown juice was shown to be an excellent medium for lactic acid fermentation. The aim of this study was to investigate the utilisation of brown juice in the production of polylactic acid, where wheat starch would be added to increase the lactic acid yield and, thus, the feasibility of the....... Lactobacillus plantarum A6 was the only strain that showed both a good lactic acid production and utilisation of starch in this medium. The growth rate of this strain was approximately 0.4 h(-1) and the lactic acid yield was 0.7....

  8. Studies on the Pasting and Rheology of Rice Starch with Different Protein Residual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qinlu; Liu, Zhonghua; Xiao, Huaxi; Li, Lihui; Yu, Fengxiang; Tian, Wei

    Indica rice starch and japonica rice starch were used in the study. The protein contents of the two rice variety were respectively 0.43%, 0.62%, 0.84%, 1.08%, 1.25%. The pasting and rheological properties of samples were determined with Rapid Visco Analyzer and dynamic rheometer. The results indicated that, with the increase of protein content, the peak viscosity, breakdown viscosity and final viscosity of rice starch paste decreased, the setback viscosity increased and the pasting temperature did not change significantly. With the increase of protein content, the consistency coefficient of starch decreased, the corresponding yield stress also decreased, however, the flow behavior index increased with the decrease of consistency coefficient. At same temperature, the storage modulus G' was greater when the protein content was higher.

  9. Ascitic starch phagocytosis in experimental guinea-pig peritonitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, J. B.; Davies, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Phagocytosis of starch granules in ascitic fluid was sought in guinea-pigs 1 to 10 days after i.p. injection of a suspension of starch powder. Starch phagocytosis occurred in 75.9% of control animals with free peritoneal fluid. It probably represents a nonspecific reaction to the particulate nature of starch granules. Guinea-pigs sensitized to starch by nuchal inoculation of an emulsion of Freund's adjuvant and starch showed no increase in frequency or intensity of ascitic starch phagocytosis...

  10. Teaching and Learning the Nature of Technical Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederik, Ineke; Sonneveld, Wim; de Vries, Marc J.

    2011-01-01

    Artifacts are probably our most obvious everyday encounter with technology. Therefore, a good understanding of the nature of technical artifacts is a relevant part of technological literacy. In this article we draw from the philosophy of technology to develop a conceptualization of technical artifacts that can be used for educational purposes.…

  11. Neutron activation analysis of chert artifacts from a Hopewell mound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six artifacts from a Hopewell mound located near Mt. Vernon, Indiana, and 21 geologic specimens from three different chert sources in the Ohio River Valley were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Principal components analysis and posterior classification of the artifacts on the basis of Mahalanobis distance calculated probabilities were used to determine the most probable source for each of the artifacts. (author)

  12. Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

    . However, only retinyl palmitate formed a complex with amylopectin. In general, ascorbyl palmitate resulted in the highest complexation, followed by retinyl palmitate and phytosterol ester. The presence of native lipids in Hylon VII starch did not inhibit complex formation. On the contrary, native lipids appear to increase the complexation yield and thermal stability of the starch-fatty acid ester inclusion complexes, possibly due to the formation of ternary complexes. From the three fatty acid esters studied, only ascorbyl palmitate was entrapped in starch spherulites. Various structures including round spherulites, various sizes of torus-shape spherulites, non-spherulitic birefringent and non-birefringent particles, "balloon" morphologies, and gel-like material were formed depending on processing conditions. However, only the torus-shape spherulites, and some non-spherulitic birefringent and non-birefringent particles showed ascorbyl palmitate entrapment. The % yield of the precipitate increased with higher % of added Hylon VII, and decreased with higher heating temperature and faster cooling rates. The amount of entrapped ascorbyl palmitate in the starch precipitate seems to be governed by the amount of this compound added during processing. This study showed that starch can form inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters which may be used for the delivery of certain bioactive molecules. In addition, encapsulation of fatty acid esters in starch spherulites may be a good potential delivery system for water soluble bioactive molecules. However, further research is necessary to gain a better understanding of the type of molecules that can be entrapped in starch spherulites, and the factors affecting spherulitic crystallization and bioactive compound entrapment.

  13. Granular starch hydrolysis for fuel ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping

    Granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE) convert starch into fermentable sugars at low temperatures (≤48°C). Use of GSHE in dry grind process can eliminate high temperature requirements during cooking and liquefaction (≥90°C). In this study, GSHE was compared with two combinations of commercial alpha-amylase and glucoamylase (DG1 and DG2, respectively). All three enzyme treatments resulted in comparable ethanol concentrations (between 14.1 to 14.2% v/v at 72 hr), ethanol conversion efficiencies and ethanol and DDGS yields. Sugar profiles for the GSHE treatment were different from DG1 and DG2 treatments, especially for glucose. During simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the highest glucose concentration for the GSHE treatment was 7% (w/v); for DG1 and DG2 treatments, maximum glucose concentration was 19% (w/v). GSHE was used in one of the fractionation technologies (enzymatic dry grind) to improve recovery of germ and pericarp fiber prior to fermentation. The enzymatic dry grind process with GSHE was compared with the conventional dry grind process using GSHE with the same process parameters of dry solids content, pH, temperature, time, enzyme and yeast usages. Ethanol concentration (at 72 hr) of the enzymatic process was 15.5% (v/v), which was 9.2% higher than the conventional process (14.2% v/v). Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) generated from the enzymatic process (9.8% db) was 66% less than conventional process (28.3% db). Three additional coproducts, germ 8.0% (db), pericarp fiber 7.7% (db) and endosperm fiber 5.2% (db) were produced. Costs and amounts of GSHE used is an important factor affecting dry grind process economics. Proteases can weaken protein matrix to aid starch release and may reduce GSHE doses. Proteases also can hydrolyze protein into free amino nitrogen (FAN), which can be used as a yeast nutrient during fermentation. Two types of proteases, exoprotease and endoprotease, were studied; protease and urea

  14. Mechanical properties and solubility in water of corn starch-collagen composite films: Effect of starch type and concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Wang, Wenhang; Ye, Ran; Liu, Anjun; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Yana

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the possibility of enhancing the properties of collagen with three different maize starches: waxy maize starch, normal starch, and high amylose starch. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that starch-collagen films had a rougher surface compared to pure collagen films which became smoother upon heating. Amylose starch and normal starch increased the tensile strength of unheated collagen films in both dry and wet states, while all starches increased tensile strength of collagen film by heating. Depending upon the amylose content and starch concentrations, film solubility in water decreased with the addition of starch. DSC thermograms demonstrated that addition of all starches improved the thermal stability of the collagen film. Moreover, X-ray diffraction results indicated that except for high amylose starch, the crystallinity of both starch and collagen was significantly decreased when subject to heating. FTIR spectra indicated that intermolecular interactions between starch and collagen were enhanced upon heating. PMID:27596411

  15. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results showed that almost all modified starches were resistant to syneresis, produced pastes more stable to stirred cooking, and some of them were difficult to cook. The sour cassava starches presented high acidity and resulted in clear and unstable pastes during stirred cooking, susceptible to syneresis.

  16. MORPHOLOGICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MAIZE STARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Corina Popescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize, rice, wheat and potato are the main sources of starches which differ significantly in composition, morphology,thermal, rheological and retrogradation properties. Starch has unique thermal properties and functionality that havepermitted its wide use in food products and industrial applications.The structure of the starch granule results from the physical arrangement of amylose and amylopectin. Amylose contentof starches from different maize types ranged between 15.3% and 25.1%. Amylopectin is considered responsible for thecrystalline structure of starch granules.The morphological and physicochemical characteristics of maize starch are related to the enzymes involved in itsbiosynthesis.The surface of the starch granule plays a fundamental rôle as the first barrier to processes such as granule hydration,enzyme attack, and chemical reaction with modifying agents. Major parameters describing the solid surface are:specific surface area, total pore volume, mean pore radius (diameter and pore volume distribution in relation to poreradius (diameter.

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Candidate Genes for Starch Content Regulation in Maize Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Xue, Yadong; Guo, Zhanyong; Li, Weihua; Tang, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    Kernel starch content is an important trait in maize (Zea mays L.) as it accounts for 65–75% of the dry kernel weight and positively correlates with seed yield. A number of starch synthesis-related genes have been identified in maize in recent years. However, many loci underlying variation in starch content among maize inbred lines still remain to be identified. The current study is a genome-wide association study that used a set of 263 maize inbred lines. In this panel, the average kernel starch content was 66.99%, ranging from 60.60 to 71.58% over the three study years. These inbred lines were genotyped with the SNP50 BeadChip maize array, which is comprised of 56,110 evenly spaced, random SNPs. Population structure was controlled by a mixed linear model (MLM) as implemented in the software package TASSEL. After the statistical analyses, four SNPs were identified as significantly associated with starch content (P ≤ 0.0001), among which one each are located on chromosomes 1 and 5 and two are on chromosome 2. Furthermore, 77 candidate genes associated with starch synthesis were found within the 100-kb intervals containing these four QTLs, and four highly associated genes were within 20-kb intervals of the associated SNPs. Among the four genes, Glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase (APS1; Gene ID GRMZM2G163437) is known as an important regulator of kernel starch content. The identified SNPs, QTLs, and candidate genes may not only be readily used for germplasm improvement by marker-assisted selection in breeding, but can also elucidate the genetic basis of starch content. Further studies on these identified candidate genes may help determine the molecular mechanisms regulating kernel starch content in maize and other important cereal crops.

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Candidate Genes for Starch Content Regulation in Maize Kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Xue, Yadong; Guo, Zhanyong; Li, Weihua; Tang, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    Kernel starch content is an important trait in maize (Zea mays L.) as it accounts for 65-75% of the dry kernel weight and positively correlates with seed yield. A number of starch synthesis-related genes have been identified in maize in recent years. However, many loci underlying variation in starch content among maize inbred lines still remain to be identified. The current study is a genome-wide association study that used a set of 263 maize inbred lines. In this panel, the average kernel starch content was 66.99%, ranging from 60.60 to 71.58% over the three study years. These inbred lines were genotyped with the SNP50 BeadChip maize array, which is comprised of 56,110 evenly spaced, random SNPs. Population structure was controlled by a mixed linear model (MLM) as implemented in the software package TASSEL. After the statistical analyses, four SNPs were identified as significantly associated with starch content (P ≤ 0.0001), among which one each are located on chromosomes 1 and 5 and two are on chromosome 2. Furthermore, 77 candidate genes associated with starch synthesis were found within the 100-kb intervals containing these four QTLs, and four highly associated genes were within 20-kb intervals of the associated SNPs. Among the four genes, Glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase (APS1; Gene ID GRMZM2G163437) is known as an important regulator of kernel starch content. The identified SNPs, QTLs, and candidate genes may not only be readily used for germplasm improvement by marker-assisted selection in breeding, but can also elucidate the genetic basis of starch content. Further studies on these identified candidate genes may help determine the molecular mechanisms regulating kernel starch content in maize and other important cereal crops. PMID:27512395

  19. Supporting Knowledge Transfer through Decomposable Reasoning Artifacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, William A.; May, Richard A.; Turner, Alan E.

    2007-01-03

    Technology to support knowledge transfer and cooperative inquiry must offer its users the ability to effectively interpret knowledge structures produced by collaborators. Communicating the reasoning processes that underlie a finding is one method for enhancing interpretation, and can result in more effective evaluation and application of shared knowledge. In knowledge management tools, interpretation is aided by creating knowledge artifacts that can expose their provenance to scrutiny and that can be transformed into diverse representations that suit their consumers’ perspectives and preferences. We outline the information management needs of inquiring communities characterized by hypothesis generation tasks, and propose a model for communication, based in theories of hermeneutics, semiotics, and abduction, in which knowledge structures can be decomposed into the lower-level reasoning artifacts that produced them. We then present a proof-of-concept implementation for an environment to support the capture and communication of analytic products, with emphasis on the domain of intelligence analysis.

  20. Continuous hydrogen production from starch by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Keigo; Tanisho, Shigeharu [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    This study was investigated the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on hydrogen production rate, hydrogen yield and the production rate of volatile fatty acid. The experiment was performed in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with a working volume of 1 L by using a Clostridium sp. The temperature of the CSTR was regulated 37 C. The pH was controlled 6.0 by the addition of 3 M of NaOH solution. Starch was used as the carbon source with the concentration of 30 g L{sup -1}. Hydrogen production rate increased from 0.9 L-H{sub 2} L-culture{sup -1} h{sup -1} to 3.2 L-H{sub 2} L-culture{sup -1} h{sup -1} along with the decrease of HRT from 9 h to 1.5 h. Hydrogen yield decreased at low HRT. The major volatile fatty acids are acetic acid, butyric acid and lactic acid. The production rates of acetic acid and butyric acid increased along with the decrease of HRT. On the other hand, the rate of lactic acid was low at high HRT while it increased at HRT 1.5 h. The increase of the production rate of lactic acid suggested one of the reasons that hydrogen yield decreased. (orig.)

  1. Properties of baked foams from citric acid modified cassava starch and native cassava starch blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornsuksomboon, Kanlaya; Holló, Berta Barta; Szécsényi, Katalin Mészáros; Kaewtatip, Kaewta

    2016-01-20

    Starch foams from native cassava starch (NS) and citric acid modified cassava starch (CNS) were prepared using baking processes with blend ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80. The density, thickness, morphology, thermal stability and water absorption of the NS, CNS and blended starch foams were determined. The ratio of the two starch components had a significant influence on the density and thickness of the blended starch foams. All blended starch foams showed good water resistance. Moreover, the morphology of the blended starch foam with the NS/CNS ratio of 50/50 showed a more ordered distribution of cell sizes with thicker cell walls than for the NS and CNS foams. The thermal stability of the blended starch foams was somewhat lower than the stability of the NS foam but not to the extent that it affected any potential practical applications. PMID:26572335

  2. Annealing properties of rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermal properties of starch can be modified by annealing, i.e., a pre-treatment in excessive amounts of water at temperatures below the gelatinization temperatures. This treatment is known to improve the crystalline properties, and is a useful tool to gain a better control of the functional proper...

  3. Hydrothermal modification of rice starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice starch of long grain and waxy cultivars were annealed (ANN) in excess water at 50 oC for 4 hrs. They were also modified under heat-moisture treatment (HMT) conditions at 110 oC, and various moisture contents (20%, 30%, and 40%) for 8 hrs. These treatments altered the pasting and gelling prope...

  4. Augmented Reality For Museum Artifacts Visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Edmund Ng Giap Weng; Behrang Parhizkar; Lina Chai Hsiao Ping; Arash Habibi Lashkari

    2011-01-01

    Recently, advances in computer graphics and interactive techniques have increased the visual quality and field of Augmented Reality (AR) applications. Research into indoor exhibition systems associated with the use of AR technologies is getting general. This project describes an AR based system for overlaying computer generated information on the real world where museum artifacts are digitized in this project and superimposed in real scene. Furthermore, this project also presents the informat...

  5. Brand Objects for Nominal Typing (Artifact)

    OpenAIRE

    Jones,Timothy; Homer, Michael; Noble, James

    2015-01-01

    In Brand Objects for Nominal Typing, we describe an implementation of a branding system for both runtime and static types. This artifact provides the extended form of Hopper, an interpreter for the Grace programming language, and extra modules which define both the dynamic objects and the modular static type checker. The extra modules extend the existing structural type checker in the provided version of Hopper, and are capable of statically checking code which interacts with statically deter...

  6. From digital interface to material artifact

    OpenAIRE

    Gwilt, Ian

    2008-01-01

    In previous works I have discussed how the image of the graphical user interface (GUI) has been appropriated as a referent for a creative practice beyond the screen, materialized as two-dimensional print and painted images. In this paper I will explore instances where the GUI has been referenced in the creation of three-dimensional physical artifacts and performative three-dimensional spaces. An examination of selected works will give us the opportunity to look critically at the evolution of ...

  7. Optimization Coaching for JavaScript (Artifact)

    OpenAIRE

    St-Amour, Vincent; Guo, Shu-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This artifact is based on our prototype optimization coach for the SpiderMonkey (https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Mozilla/Projects/SpiderMonkey) JavaScript engine. An optimization coach is a performance tool that aims to provide programmers with insight into how their compiler optimizes their programs and to help them better harness the optimization process. It does so by reporting optimization near misses, i.e., reports of optimizations that the compiler did not apply, but could appl...

  8. Identification of QTLs for Starch Content in Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-xia; ZHAO Ning; LI Hui; JIE Qin; ZHAI Hong; HE Shao-zhen; LI Qiang; LIU Qing-chang

    2014-01-01

    Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) breeding is challenging due to its genetic complexity. In the present study, interval mapping (IM) and multiple quantitative trait locus (QTL) model (MQM) analysis were used to identify QTLs for starch content with a mapping population consisting of 202 F1 individuals of a cross between Xushu 18, a cultivar susceptible to stem nematodes, with high yield and moderate starch, and Xu 781, which is resistant to stem nematodes, has low yield and high starch content. Six QTLs for starch content were mapped on six linkage groups of the Xu 781 map, explaining 9.1-38.8% of the variation. Especially, one of them,DMFN_4, accounted for 38.8% of starch content variation, which is the QTL that explains the highest phenotypic variation detected to date in sweetpotato. All of the six QTLs had a positive effect on the variation of the starch content, which indicated the inheritance derived from the parent Xu 781. Two QTLs for starch content were detected on two linkage groups of the Xushu 18 map, explaining 14.3 and 16.1% of the variation, respectively. They had a negative effect on the variation, indicating the inheritance derived from Xu 781. Seven of eight QTLs were co-localized with a single marker. This is the ifrst report on the development of QTLs co-localized with a single marker in sweetpotato. These QTLs and their co-localized markers may be used in marker-assisted breeding for the starch content of sweetpotato.

  9. Sampling Artifacts from Conductive Silicone Tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timko, Michael T.; Yu, Zhenhong; Kroll, Jesse; Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Miake-Lye, Richard C.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Liscinsky, David; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Destaillats, Hugo; Holder, Amara L.; Smith, Jared D.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2009-05-15

    We report evidence that carbon impregnated conductive silicone tubing used in aerosol sampling systems can introduce two types of experimental artifacts: 1) silicon tubing dynamically absorbs carbon dioxide gas, requiring greater than 5 minutes to reach equilibrium and 2) silicone tubing emits organic contaminants containing siloxane that adsorb onto particles traveling through it and onto downstream quartz fiber filters. The consequence can be substantial for engine exhaust measurements as both artifacts directly impact calculations of particulate mass-based emission indices. The emission of contaminants from the silicone tubing can result in overestimation of organic particle mass concentrations based on real-time aerosol mass spectrometry and the off-line thermal analysis of quartz filters. The adsorption of siloxane contaminants can affect the surface properties of aerosol particles; we observed a marked reduction in the water-affinity of soot particles passed through conductive silicone tubing. These combined observations suggest that the silicone tubing artifacts may have wide consequence for the aerosol community and should, therefore, be used with caution. Gentle heating, physical and chemical properties of the particle carriers, exposure to solvents, and tubing age may influence siloxane uptake. The amount of contamination is expected to increase as the tubing surface area increases and as the particle surface area increases. The effect is observed at ambient temperature and enhanced by mild heating (<100 oC). Further evaluation is warranted.

  10. Starch grains from dental calculus reveal ancient plant foodstuffs at Chenqimogou site, Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chenqimogou site, located at the south bank of Tao River, is comprised of a large group of graves dated to ~4000 a BP. For its large scale, unique mortuary system, and abundant of typical artifacts, the site was named one of "Top Ten Archaeological Discoveries of 2008 in China". Many intact human skeletons have been excavated from the graves. Three teeth from two adult skeletons excavated from graves M187 and M194 were examined. Forty-eight starch grains were retrieved from dental calculus of three teeth. Six of those starch grains could not be identified because of damage. The others were classified into seven groups. Most of them were from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and/or barley (Hordeum vulgare). Remains possibly from foxtail millet (Setaria italica), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), gingkgo (Ginkgo biloba), acorn (Quercus spp.), bean, roots or tubers were identified. Ancient starch grains from dental calculus indicate that human foodstuffs primarily sourced from wheat, buckwheat, and foxtail millet. Acorn, beans, tubers or roots were supplements. A variety of starch grains retrieved from dental calculus revealed that diverse crops were cultivated in the Chenqimogou site 4000 years ago, and both dry-land farming and gathering were engaged.

  11. Starch Granule Re-Structuring by Starch Branching Enzyme and Glucan Water Dikinase Modulation Affects Caryopsis Physiology and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Shaik, Shahnoor S.; Obata, Toshihiro; Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Schwahn, Kevin; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Starch is of fundamental importance for plant development and reproduction and its optimized molecular assembly is potentially necessary for correct starch metabolism. Re-structuring of starch granules in-planta can therefore potentially affect plant metabolism. Modulation of granule micro-structure was achieved by decreasing starch branching and increasing starch-bound phosphate content in the barley caryopsis starch by RNAi suppression of all three Starch Branching Enzyme (SBE) isoforms or ...

  12. EVALUASI NILAI GIZI PATI RESISTEN PADA PRODUK KERUPUK DARI EMPAT JENIS PATI [Nutritional Evaluation of Resistant Starch of Crackers Made of Four Kinds of Starch

    OpenAIRE

    R o s i d a

    2009-01-01

    In this research, resistant starch content of crackers (=kerupuk) made of corn starch, cassava starch, sago starch and mungbean starch has been studied. Nutritional evaluation of crackers was conducted in experimental rats. It was found that starch content, amylose content and resistant starch content of sago starch were the highest, while those of mungbean starch were the lowest.Bioassay with rats revealed that starch flour diets had no effect on the water content of digesta, but these diets...

  13. Voting strategy for artifact reduction in digital breast tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artifacts are observed in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) reconstructions due to the small number of projections and the narrow angular range that are typically employed in tomosynthesis imaging. In this work, we investigate the reconstruction artifacts that are caused by high-attenuation features in breast and develop several artifact reduction methods based on a 'voting strategy'. The voting strategy identifies the projection(s) that would introduce artifacts to a voxel and rejects the projection(s) when reconstructing the voxel. Four approaches to the voting strategy were compared, including projection segmentation, maximum contribution deduction, one-step classification, and iterative classification. The projection segmentation method, based on segmentation of high-attenuation features from the projections, effectively reduces artifacts caused by metal and large calcifications that can be reliably detected and segmented from projections. The other three methods are based on the observation that contributions from artifact-inducing projections have higher value than those from normal projections. These methods attempt to identify the projection(s) that would cause artifacts by comparing contributions from different projections. Among the three methods, the iterative classification method provides the best artifact reduction; however, it can generate many false positive classifications that degrade the image quality. The maximum contribution deduction method and one-step classification method both reduce artifacts well from small calcifications, although the performance of artifact reduction is slightly better with the one-step classification. The combination of one-step classification and projection segmentation removes artifacts from both large and small calcifications

  14. Detection and Removal of Artifacts in Astronomical Images

    CERN Document Server

    Desai, Shantanu; Bertin, Emmanuel; Kummel, Martin; Wetzstein, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Astronomical images from optical photometric surveys are typically contaminated with transient artifacts such as cosmic rays, satellite trails and scattered light. We have developed and tested an algorithm that removes these artifacts using a deep, artifact free, static sky coadd image built up through the median combination of point spread function (PSF) homogenized, overlapping single epoch images. Transient artifacts are detected and masked in each single epoch image through comparison with an artifact free, PSF-matched simulated image that is constructed using the PSF-corrected, model fitting catalog from the artifact free coadd image together with the position variable PSF model of the single epoch image. This approach works well not only for cleaning single epoch images with worse seeing than the PSF homogenized coadd, but also the traditionally much more challenging problem of cleaning single epoch images with better seeing. In addition to masking transient artifacts, we have developed an interpolation...

  15. Rheological and textural properties of pulse starch gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The properties of starch gels from black beans, chickpeas, lentils and navy beans were investigated. Differences were shown between starch sources, and effect of starch concentration was studied. Navy bean starch had the highest peak and final viscosities in pasting tests, while black bean starch h...

  16. Physicochemical Properties of Starch Isolated from Bracken (Pteridium aquilinim) Rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xurun; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Leilei; Wang, Zhong; Xiong, Fei

    2015-12-01

    Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) is an important wild plant starch resource worldwide. In this work, starch was separated from bracken rhizome, and the physicochemical properties of this starch were systematically investigated and compared with 2 other common starches, that is, starches from waxy maize and potato. There were significant differences in shape, birefringence patterns, size distribution, and amylose content between bracken and the 2 other starches. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that bracken starch exhibited a typical C-type crystalline structure. Bracken starch presented, respectively, lower and higher relative degree of crystallinity than waxy maize and potato starches. Ordered structures in particle surface differed among these 3 starches. The swelling power tendency of bracken starch in different temperature intervals was very similar to that of potato starch. The viscosity parameters during gelatinization were the lowest in waxy maize, followed by bracken and potato starches. The contents of 3 nutritional components, that is, rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches in native, gelatinized, and retrograded starch from bracken rhizome presented more similarities with potato starch than waxy maize starch. These finding indicated that physicochemical properties of bracken starch showed more similarities with potato starch than waxy maize starch. PMID:26551243

  17. Modified-starch Consolidation of Alumina Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Chenhui; WANG Yanmin; YE Jiandong; HUANG Yun

    2008-01-01

    The alumina ceramics with the homogeneous microstructure and the higher density were fabricated via the modified-starch consolidation process by 1.0 wt%of a modified starch as a consolidator/binder.The swelling behavior of the modified oxidized tapioca starch was analyzed by optical microscope,and two other corn starches(common corn starch and high amylose COrn starch)were also analyzed for comparison.The modified starch used as a binder for the consolidation swelled at about 55℃.began to gelatinize at 65℃ and then was completely gelatinized at 75℃.But the corn starches could not be completely gelatinized even at 80℃for 1 h.The high-strength green bodies(10.6 MPa)with the complex shapes were produced.The green bodies were sintered without any binder burnout procedure at 1700℃and a relative density of 95.3% was obtained for the sintered bodies,which is similar to that of the sintered sample formed by conventional slip casting.In addition,the effect of temperature on the apparent viscosity of the starch/alumina slurry in the process was investigated,and the corresponding mechanism for the starch consolidation was discussed.

  18. A REVIEW ON BIODEGRADABLE STARCH BASED FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Molavi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, biodegradable edible films have become very important in research related to food, due to their compatibility with the environment and their use in the food packaging industry. Various sources can be used in the production of biopolymers as biodegradable films that include polysaccharides, proteins and lipids. Among the various polysaccharides, starch due to its low price and its abundance in nature is of significant importance. Several factors affect the properties of starch films; such as the source which starch is obtained from, as well as the ratio of constituents of the starch. Starch films have advantages such as low thickness, flexibility and transparency though; there are some downsides to mention, such as the poor mechanical properties and water vapor permeability. Thus, using starch alone to produce the film will led to restrictions on its use. To improve the mechanical properties of starch films and also increases resistance against humidity, several methods can be used; including the starch modifying techniques such as cross linking of starch and combining starch with other natural polymers. Other methods such as the use of lipid in formulations of films to increase the resistance to moisture are possible, but lipids are susceptible to oxidation. Therefore, new approaches are based on the integration of different biopolymers in food packaging.

  19. Effect of Dietary-Resistant Starch on Inhibition of Colonic Preneoplasia and Wnt Signaling in Azoxymethane-Induced Rodent Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bridget; Cray, Nicole; Ai, Yongfeng; Fang, Yinan; Liu, Peng; Whitley, Elizabeth M; Birt, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fiber has been reported to prevent preneoplastic colon lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of resistant starches, novel dietary fibers, on the development of colonic preneoplasia and Wnt signaling in azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rats and mice fed resistant starches at 55% of the diet after AOM treatment. Another objective was to determine the effect of resistant starches on the development of preneoplasia in rats treated with antibiotics (Ab), administered between AOM treatment and resistant starch feeding. Diets containing resistant starches, high-amylose (HA7), high-amylose-octenyl succinic anhydride (OS-HA7), or high-amylose-stearic acid (SA-HA7) were compared with control cornstarch (CS). The resistant starch content of the diets did not alter the yield of colonic lesions but animals treated with AOM and fed the diet with the highest resistant starch content, SA-HA7 developed the highest average aberrant crypt foci (ACF) per animal. Mice fed the OS-HA7 diet had decreased expression of some upstream Wnt genes in the colonic crypts. This study suggests that further research is needed to determine if resistant starch impacts colon carcinogenesis in rodents. PMID:27367460

  20. Physicochemical properties and starch structure of a rice mutant with reduction of starch paste viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variations in starch physicochemical properties and starch structure between the rice low-paste viscosity mutant RSV-1 and its original parent II-32B were investigated. The results indicated that the apparent amylose content (AAC), gel consistency (GC), alkali spreading value (ASV) of mutant RSV-1 were higher than the wild type. However, major parameters of starch paste viscosity in mutant RSV-1 starch, i. e. peak paste viscosity, hot paste viscosity, and cool paste viscosity were significantly lower than those of the original parent. Compared to the original parent, the mutant had a similar peak time, but less energy and longer time needed for gelatinization. The starch manifested C-type crystalline and starch granule in the endosperm were irregular with different diameters. The mutation of the starch structure might play a key role for the decrease of starch paste viscosity in the mutant RSV-1. (authors)

  1. Physicochemical properties of quinoa starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guantian; Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan

    2016-02-10

    Physicochemical properties of quinoa starches isolated from 26 commercial samples from a wide range of collection were studied. Swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), amylose leaching (AML), enzyme susceptibility, pasting, thermal and textural properties were analyzed. Apparent amylose contents (AAM) ranged from 7.7 to 25.7%. Great variations in the diverse physicochemical properties were observed. Correlation analysis showed that AAM was the most significant factor related to AML, WSI, and pasting parameters. Correlations among diverse physicochemical parameters were analyzed. Principal component analysis using twenty three variables were used to visualize the difference among samples. Six principal components were extracted which could explain 88.8% of the total difference. The wide variations in physicochemical properties could contribute to innovative utilization of quinoa starch for food and non-food applications. PMID:26686137

  2. Biosynthesis of starch in chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, T; Nakayama, N; Murata, T; Akazawa, T

    1967-03-01

    The enzymic synthesis of ADP-glucose and UDP-glucose by chloroplastic pyrophosphorylase of bean and rice leaves has been demonstrated by paper chromatographic techniques. In both tissues, the activity of UDP-glucose-pyrophosphorylase was much higher than ADP-glucose-pyrophosphorylase. Glycerate-3-phosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate and fructose-1,6-diphosphate did not stimulate ADP-glucose formation by a pyrophosphorylation reaction. The major metabolic pathway for UDP-glucose utilization appears to be the synthesis of either sucrose or sucrose-P. On the other hand, a specific precursor role of ADP-glucose for synthesizing chloroplast starch by the ADP-glucose-starch transglucosylase reaction is supported by the coupled enzyme system of ADP-glucose-pyrophosphorylase and transglucosylase, isolated from chloroplasts. None of the glycolytic intermediates stimulated the glucose transfer in the enzyme sequence of reaction system employed. PMID:4292567

  3. Metal artifact suppression in megavoltage computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, L. John; Rogers, Myron; Salomons, Greg; Kerr, Andrew

    2005-04-01

    There has been considerable interest in megavoltage CT (MVCT) imaging associated with the development of image guided radiation therapy. It is clear that MVCT can provide good image quality for patient setup verification with soft tissue contrast much better than noted in conventional megavoltage portal imaging. In addition, it has been observed that MVCT images exhibit considerably reduced artifacts surrounding metal implants (e.g., surgical clips, hip implants, dental fillings) compared to conventional diagnostic CT images (kVCT). When encountered, these artifacts greatly limit the usefulness of kVCT images, and a variety of solutions have been proposed to remove the artifacts, but these have met with only partial success. In this paper, we investigate the potential for CT imaging in regions surrounding metal implants using high-energy photons from a Cobalt-60 source and from a 4 MV linear accelerator. MVCT and kVCT images of contrast phantoms and a phantom containing a hip prosthesis are compared and analysed. We show that MVCT scans provide good fidelity for CT number quantification in the high-density regions of the images, and in the regions immediately adjacent to the metal implants. They also provide structural details within the high-density inserts and implants. Calculations will show that practical clinical MVCT imaging, able to detect 3% contrast objects, should be achievable with doses of about 2.5cGy. This suggests that MVCT not only has a role in radiotherapy treatment planning and guidance, but may also be indicated for surgical guidance and follow-up in regions where metal implants cannot be avoided.

  4. Improving consensus structure by eliminating averaging artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KC Dukka B

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common structural biology methods (i.e., NMR and molecular dynamics often produce ensembles of molecular structures. Consequently, averaging of 3D coordinates of molecular structures (proteins and RNA is a frequent approach to obtain a consensus structure that is representative of the ensemble. However, when the structures are averaged, artifacts can result in unrealistic local geometries, including unphysical bond lengths and angles. Results Herein, we describe a method to derive representative structures while limiting the number of artifacts. Our approach is based on a Monte Carlo simulation technique that drives a starting structure (an extended or a 'close-by' structure towards the 'averaged structure' using a harmonic pseudo energy function. To assess the performance of the algorithm, we applied our approach to Cα models of 1364 proteins generated by the TASSER structure prediction algorithm. The average RMSD of the refined model from the native structure for the set becomes worse by a mere 0.08 Å compared to the average RMSD of the averaged structures from the native structure (3.28 Å for refined structures and 3.36 A for the averaged structures. However, the percentage of atoms involved in clashes is greatly reduced (from 63% to 1%; in fact, the majority of the refined proteins had zero clashes. Moreover, a small number (38 of refined structures resulted in lower RMSD to the native protein versus the averaged structure. Finally, compared to PULCHRA 1, our approach produces representative structure of similar RMSD quality, but with much fewer clashes. Conclusion The benchmarking results demonstrate that our approach for removing averaging artifacts can be very beneficial for the structural biology community. Furthermore, the same approach can be applied to almost any problem where averaging of 3D coordinates is performed. Namely, structure averaging is also commonly performed in RNA secondary prediction 2, which

  5. On the enzymatic hydrolysis of various starches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegge, G.; Richter, G.

    1986-10-01

    The behaviour of different commercial starches to amylolytic enzyme preparations and of their hydrolyzates during raffination was investigated. No significant differences in final degree of saccharification of starches from yellow maize, waxy maize, amylo-maize, potatoes and wheat were observed. The lower DE-values of waxy maize hydrolyzates after liquefaction were completely compensated during final saccharification phase. Determinations of viscosity after liquefaction and saccharification always showed highest viscosity in raw hydrolyzates these differences in viscosity were no more observed. Addition of pentosanase during saccharification period did not affect viscosity and filtration of the hydrolyzates. Glucoamylase with increased pentosanase activity affected filtration of wheat starch hydrolyzates positively; viscosity kept unchanged. Development of enzymatic liquefaction of the individual starches was studied by means of a Brabender Viscograph. By this informative differences between potatoe and waxy maize starches on one side and maize and wheat starches on the other side were observed.

  6. The Rheological Property of Potato Starch Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to use potato starch in the production of environmentally sound adhesives. ‘Three-formaldehyde glue’ pollutes the environment and harms to human health strongly, which widely used for wood-based panels preparation. Environment-friendly potato starch adhesives were prepared using method of oxidation-gelatinization, insteading of the three formaldehyde glue. The effects of the quality ratio of starch and water, temperature and shear rate on the apparent viscosity of the adhesive were studied. The rheological eigenvalue of apparent viscosity was studied through nonlinear regression. The results showed that the apparent viscosity of potato starch adhesives decreased with the increasing of temperature; the apparent viscosity decreased slowly with the increasing of rotor speed; the phenomenon of shear thinning appeared within potato starch adhesives which was pseudo-plastic fluids. Potato starch adhesives with characteristics of non-toxic, no smell and pollution could be applied in interior and upscale packaging.

  7. Application of radiation technology in starch modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to commercialize the radiation modification of starch, corn starch was irradiated with different dose of 60Co gamma radiations. Some basic physical and chemical properties of the resulted modified starch paste were measured with emphasis on the viscosity stability and tensile strength. The results indicate that irradiation of corn starch with a dose of 4-10 kGy can decrease its viscosity to 5-14 mPa·s, and the tensile strength can meet the standard set up for textile paste. In comparison with chemical modification for starch, radiation modification is simpler in technology, more convenient in operation, more stable in modification quality, and easier to control. The mechanism of radiation modification of starch was also discussed. (authors)

  8. Formation of nanoporous aerogels from wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeyitogullari, Ali; Ciftci, Ozan N

    2016-08-20

    Biodegradable nanoporous aerogels were obtained from wheat starch using a simple and green method based on supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) drying. Effects of processing parameters (temperature, wheat starch concentration and mixing rate during gelatinization; temperature, pressure, and flow rate of CO2, during SC-CO2 drying) on the aerogel formation were investigated, and optimized for the highest surface area and smallest pore size of the aerogels. At the optimized conditions, wheat starch aerogels had surface areas between 52.6-59.7m(2)/g and densities ranging between 0.05-0.29g/cm(3). The average pore size of the starch aerogels was 20nm. Starch aerogels were stable up to 280°C. Due to high surface area and nanoporous structure, wheat starch aerogels are promising carrier systems for bioactives and drugs in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:27178916

  9. Fermentation of grain sorghum starch by co-cultivation of Schwanniomyces occidentalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, C.H.; Preez, J.C. du; Kilian, S.G. (Orange Free State Univ., Bloemfontein (ZA). Dept. of Microbiology and Biochemistry)

    1992-01-01

    The amylases of a Schwanniomyces occidentalis mutant hydrolysed grain sorghum starch completely. Heat pretreatment to effect gelatinization was essential for total starch hydrolysis. Ethanol fermentations were conducted by using a stationary-phase culture of S. occidentalis in conjunction with Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment the sugars liberated from the grain sorghum starch by the amylases of S. occidentalis. Increasing the grain sorghum concentration from 8 to 28% (m/v) did not affect the final ethanol yield of 0.45 g ethanol/g glucose equivalents, although the fermentation rate decreased considerably at the higher slurry concentration, requiring 8 days for completion of the fermentation. A 28% grain sorghum slurry yielded 12.5% (w/v) ethanol, indicating that nearly 390 1 of ethanol could be produced per tonne grain sorghum, with about 430 kg residual biomass containing 43% crude protein. (Author).

  10. Accessing Cultural Artifacts Through Digital Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Jensen, Martin Lynge

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study that explores how the introduction of a digital companion agent for a museum exploration game changes children’s engagement with the presented artworks. To this end, a mobile application was developed featuring a monster agent that has eaten the artworks, which the...... children had now to find in the museum. Results show that in comparison to the paper-based version of the exploration game, children engaged in more interactions with the actual cultural artifacts and showed a significantly higher retention rate for details of the involved artworks....

  11. Evaluation of the types of starch for preparation of LDPE/starch blends

    OpenAIRE

    Glória Maria Vinhas; Suzana Moreira de Lima; Lívia Almeida Santos; Maria Alice Gomes de Andrade Lima; Yêda Medeiros Bastos de Almeida

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated in relation the growth, and the amylolytic activity of mixed and isolated cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Talaromyces wortmanni on different types of starch. The thermal and mechanical properties in polyethylene/starch blends (proportion: 80/20 (w/w) before and after inoculation of the mixed cultures were evaluated. The regular starch Amidex 3 and the modified starch Fox5901 stood out in relation to the cellular growth and production of the amylase enzyme. In ...

  12. The Simultaneous Abolition of Three Starch Hydrolases Blocks Transient Starch Breakdown in Arabidopsis *

    OpenAIRE

    Streb, Sebastian; Eicke, Simona; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated which enzymes are involved in debranching amylopectin during transient starch degradation. Previous studies identified two debranching enzymes, isoamylase 3 (ISA3) and limit dextrinase (LDA), involved in this process. However, plants lacking both enzymes still degrade substantial amounts of starch. Thus, other enzymes/mechanisms must contribute to starch breakdown. We show that the chloroplastic α-amylase 3 (AMY3) also participates in starch degradation and prov...

  13. Characteristics of cassava starch fermentation wastewater based on structural degradation of starch granules

    OpenAIRE

    Juliane Mascarenhas Pereira; Ana Carolina Moura de Sena Aquino; Daiana Cardoso de Oliveira; Gabriela Rocha; Alícia de Francisco; Pedro Luiz Manique Barreto; Edna Regina Amante

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Sour cassava starch is a naturally modified starch produced by fermentation and sun drying, achieving the property of expansion upon baking. Sour cassava starch' bakery products can be prepared without the addition of yeast and it is gluten free. The fermentation process associated with this product has been well studied, but the wastewater, with high acidity and richness in other organic compounds derived from starch degradation, requires further investigation. In this study, the s...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl potato starch and its application in reactive dye printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Gong, Honghong; Lü, Shaoyu; Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Gao, Chunmei; Huang, Yinjuan; Han, Fei

    2012-11-01

    Carboxymethyl potato starch (CMPS) was synthesized with a simple dry and multi-step method as a product of the reaction of native potato starch and monochloroacetic acid in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The influence of the molar ratio of sodium hydroxide to anhydroglucose unit, the volume of 95% (v/v) ethanol, the rotation rate of motor driven stirrer and the reaction time for degree of substitution (DS) were evaluated. The product was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). FTIR spectrometry showed new bonds at 1618 and 1424 cm⁻¹ when native starch underwent carboxymethylation. SEM pictures showed that the smooth surface of native starch particles was mostly ruptured. XRD revealed that starch crystallinity was reduced after carboxymethylation. The viscosity of the mixture paste of carboxymethyl starch and sodium alginate (SA) was measured using a rotational viscometer. In addition, the applied effect of mixed paste in reactive dye printing was examined by assessing the fabric stiffness, color yield and sharp edge to the printed image in comparison with SA. And the results indicated that the mixed paste could partially replace SA as thickener in reactive dye printing. The study also showed that the method was low cost and eco-friendly and the product would have an extensive application in reactive dye printing. PMID:22782070

  15. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of a novel starch synthase in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanmei eLiu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Starch is an important reserve of carbon and energy in plants, providing the majority of calories in the human diet and animal feed. Its synthesis is orchestrated by several key enzymes, and the amount and structure of starch, affecting crop yield and quality, are determined mainly by starch synthase (SS activity. To date, five SS isoforms, including SSI-IV and Granule Bound Starch Synthase (GBSS have been identified and their physiological functions have been well characterized. Here, we report the identification of a new SS isoform in maize, designated SSV. By searching sequenced genomes, SSV has been found in all green plants with conserved sequences and gene structures. Our phylogenetic analysis based on 780 base pairs has suggested that SSIV and SSV resulted from a gene duplication event, which may have occurred before the algae formation. An expression profile analysis of SSV in maize has indicated that ZmSSV is mainly transcribed in the kernel and ear leaf during the grain filling stage, which is partly similar to other SS isoforms. Therefore, it is likely that SSV may play an important role in starch biosynthesis. Subsequent analysis of SSV function may facilitate understanding the mechanism of starch granules formation, number and structure.

  16. Production, characterization, and mechanical properties of starch modified by Ophiostoma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saville, B. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial modification of starch with Ophiostoma spp. was investigated, with the purpose of developing a novel packaging material for the food or pharmaceutical industries. Various starch sources, such as tapioca, potato, corn, rice and amylopectin were tested as raw materials. The initial screening demonstrated that tapioca and potato starch had better performance for biopolymer production. The yield was about 85%. Preliminary characterization of the modified biopolymer was also conducted. Following microbial conversion, the percentage of molecules with molecular weight (abbreviated Mw more than 10M (abbreviations of million Daltons increased from 25% to 89% after 3 days, confirming that the modification increased the weight of the starch polymer. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR revealed changes in the chemical structure of the starch after the modification. Both pure starches and the modified biopolymers were cast into films and tested for mechanical properties. The tensile tests showed that after treatment with the fungus, the peak stress and modulus of the films increased about 10 and 40 times, respectively. Also, the water barrier property was improved. Therefore, microbial modification positively impacted proper-ties relevant to the proposed application. Although the role of the fungus in the modification and the function-property relationship of the biopolymer are not yet completely clear, the results of this study show promise for development of a novel biopolymer that competes with existing packaging materials.

  17. Metallic artifact in MRI after removal of orthopedic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the metallic artifacts in MRI of the orthopedic patients after removal of metallic implants. Subjects and methods: From March to August 2009, 40 orthopedic patients operated for removal of orthopedic metallic implants were studied by post-operative MRI from the site of removal of implants. A grading scale of 0–3 was assigned for artifact in MR images whereby 0 was considered no artifact; and I–III were considered mild, moderate, and severe metallic artifacts, respectively. These grading records were correlated with other variables including the type, size, number, and composition of metallic devices; and the site and duration of orthopedic devices stay in the body. Results: Metallic susceptibly artifacts were detected in MRI of 18 of 40 cases (45%). Screws and pins in removed hardware were the most important factors for causing artifacts in MRI. The artifacts were found more frequently in the patients who had more screws and pins in the removed implants. Gender, age, site of implantation of the device, length of the hardware, composition of the metallic implants (stainless steel versus titanium), and duration of implantation of the hardware exerted no effect in producing metallic artifacts after removal of implants. Short TE sequences of MRI (such as T1 weighted) showed fewer artifacts. Conclusion: Susceptibility of metallic artifacts is a frequent phenomenon in MRI of patients upon removal of metallic orthopedic implants.

  18. Issues of Starch in Sugarcane Processing and Prospects of Breeding for Low Starch Content in Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch is a sugarcane impurity that adversely affects the quantity and quality of sugar processes and products. The increased production of combine and green harvested sugarcane has increased delivery of starch to sugarcane factories. Starch occurs as granules composed of amylose and amylopectin p...

  19. Starch aerogel beads obtained from inclusion complexes prepared from high amylose starch and sodium palmitate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch aerogels are a class of low density highly porous renewable materials currently prepared from retrograded starch gels and are of interest for their good surface area, porosity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Recently, we have reported on starches containing amylose-fatty acid salt h...

  20. A novel technique for muscle onset detection using surface EMG signals without removal of ECG artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface electromyography (EMG) signal from trunk muscles is often contaminated by electrocardiography (ECG) artifacts. This study presents a novel method for muscle activity onset detection by processing surface EMG against ECG artifacts. The method does not require removal of ECG artifacts from raw surface EMG signals. Instead, it applies the sample entropy (SampEn) analysis to highlight EMG activity and suppress ECG artifacts in the signal complexity domain. A SampEn threshold can then be determined for detection of muscle activity. The performance of the proposed method was examined with different SampEn analysis window lengths, using a series of combinations of ‘clean’ experimental EMG and ECG recordings over a wide range of signal to noise ratios (SNRs) from −10 to 10 dB. For all the examined SNRs, the window length of 128 ms yielded the best performance among all the tested lengths. Compared with the conventional amplitude thresholding and integrated profile methods, the SampEn analysis based method achieved significantly better performance, demonstrated as the shortest average latency or error among the three methods (p < 0.001 for any of the examined SNRs except 10 dB). (paper)

  1. Defining Starch Binding by Glucan Phosphatases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auger, Kyle; Raththagala, Madushi; Wilkens, Casper;

    2015-01-01

    Starch is a vital energy molecule in plants that has a wide variety of uses in industry, such as feedstock for biomaterial processing and biofuel production. Plants employ a three enzyme cyclic process utilizing kinases, amylases, and phosphatases to degrade starch in a diurnal manner. Starch is...... comprised of the branched glucan amylopectin and the more linear glucan amylose. Our lab has determined the first structures of these glucan phosphatases and we have defined their enzymatic action. Despite this progress, we lacked a means to quickly and efficiently quantify starch binding to glucan...

  2. Development of modified starch by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to develop the production technology of modified starch. Corn starches were gamma irradiated at 0-110 kGy and the effect of irradiation dose levels on the physicochemical properties of corn starches were investigated. Blue value linearly decreased, while alkali number and solubility markedly increased as irradiation dose levels were increased. The optical transmittance increased as applied irradiation dose levels were increased in the temperature range of 65-95 deg. C. Water binding capacity and swelling power showed maximum value at 30 and 10 kGy, respectively and they tended to decrease thereafter. Gelatinization viscosity of the gamma irradiated starch considerably decreased as compared to that of the non-irradiated starch. Irradiation at 110kGy resulted in a marked reduction of peak viscosity and cooling viscosity at 30 deg. C by 100 and 300 times, respectively. The physicochemical properties of corn starch irradiated at 30 kGy were similar to those of commercial acid-modified starch, while those of corn starch irradiated at 100 kGy were similar to those if oxidized starch

  3. Microalgae--novel highly efficient starch producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brányiková, Irena; Maršálková, Barbora; Doucha, Jiří; Brányik, Tomáš; Bišová, Kateřina; Zachleder, Vilém; Vítová, Milada

    2011-04-01

    The freshwater alga Chlorella, a highly productive source of starch, might substitute for starch-rich terrestrial plants in bioethanol production. The cultivation conditions necessary for maximizing starch content in Chlorella biomass, generated in outdoor scale-up solar photobioreactors, are described. The most important factor that can affect the rate of starch synthesis, and its accumulation, is mean illumination resulting from a combination of biomass concentration and incident light intensity. While 8.5% DW of starch was attained at a mean light intensity of 215 µmol/(m2 s1), 40% of DW was synthesized at a mean light intensity 330 µmol/(m2 s1). Another important factor is the phase of the cell cycle. The content of starch was highest (45% of DW) prior to cell division, but during the course of division, its cellular level rapidly decreased to about 13% of DW in cells grown in light, or to about 4% in those kept in the dark during the division phase. To produce biomass with high starch content, it is necessary to suppress cell division events, but not to disturb synthesis of starch in the chloroplast. The addition of cycloheximide (1 mg/L), a specific inhibitor of cytoplasmic protein synthesis, and the effect of element limitation (nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus) were tested. The majority of the experiments were carried out in laboratory-scale photobioreactors, where culture treatments increased starch content to up to about 60% of DW in the case of cycloheximide inhibition or sulfur limitation. When the cells were limited by phosphorus or nitrogen supply, the cellular starch content increased to 55% or 38% of DW, respectively, however, after about 20 h, growth of the cultures stopped producing starch, and the content of starch again decreased. Sulfur limited and cycloheximide-treated cells maintained a high content of starch (60% of DW) for up to 2 days. Sulfur limitation, the most appropriate treatment for scaled-up culture of starch-enriched biomass

  4. Regulation of starch synthesis in cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Baguma, Yona

    2004-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a root crop, one of the world’s most important but under-exploited staple food crops and source of income. It is a high starch producer with levels between 73.7 and 84.9% of its total storage root dry weight. Increasingly, there is a need for diverse novel starches for both food and non-food applications. In response, sbeII encoding starch branching enzyme II was cloned. The relationship between spatial-temporal expression patterns of starch synthesis gen...

  5. Characterization of Native and Modified Starches by Potentiometric Titration

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Soto; Jose Urdaneta; Kelly Pernia

    2014-01-01

    The use of potentiometric titration for the analysis and characterization of native and modified starches is highlighted. The polyelectrolytic behavior of oxidized starches (thermal and thermal-chemical oxidation), a graft copolymer of itaconic acid (IA) onto starch, and starch esters (mono- and diester itaconate) was compared with the behavior of native starch, the homopolymer, and the acid employed as a graft monomer and substituent. Starch esters showed higher percentages of acidity, follo...

  6. Influence of phosphate esters on the annealing properties of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wischmann, Bente; Muhrbeck, Per

    1998-01-01

    The effects of annealing on native potato, waxy maize, and phosphorylated waxy maize starches were compared. Phosphorylated waxy maize starch responded to annealing in a manner between that of the naturally phosphorylated potato starch and that of the native waxy maize starch. The gelatinisation ...... concluded that the phosphate groups have similar effects as they do in the native, naturally phosphorylated potato starch, although the substitution pattern is not entirely the same in the artificially phosphorylated starch....

  7. Artifacts with uneven sampling of red noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milotti, Edoardo

    2007-01-01

    The vast majority of sampling systems operate in a standard way: at each tick of a fixed-frequency master clock a digitizer reads out a voltage that corresponds to the value of some physical quantity and translates it into a bit pattern that is either transmitted, stored, or processed right away. Thus signal sampling at evenly spaced time intervals is the rule: however, this is not always the case, and uneven sampling is sometimes unavoidable. While periodic or quasiperiodic uneven sampling of a deterministic signal can reasonably be expected to produce artifacts, it is much less obvious that the same happens with noise: here I show that this is indeed the case only for long-memory noise processes, i.e., power-law noises 1f;{alpha} with alpha>2 . The resulting artifacts are usually a nuisance although they can be eliminated with a proper processing of the signal samples, but they could also be turned to advantage and used to encode information. PMID:17358123

  8. Artifacts with uneven sampling of red noise

    CERN Document Server

    Milotti, E

    2006-01-01

    The vast majority of sampling systems operate in a standard way: at each tick of a fixed-frequency master clock a digitizer reads out a voltage that corresponds to the value of some physical quantity and translates it into a bit pattern that is either transmitted, stored, or processed right away. Thus signal sampling at evenly spaced time intervals is the rule: however this is not always the case, and uneven sampling is sometimes unavoidable. While periodic or quasi-periodic uneven sampling of a deterministic signal can reasonably be expected to produce artifacts, it is much less obvious that the same happens with noise: here I show that this is indeed the case only for long-memory noise processes, i.e., power-law noises $1/f^\\alpha$ with $\\alpha > 2$. The resulting artifacts are usually a nuisance although they can be eliminated with a proper processing of the signal samples, but they could also be turned to advantage and used to encode information.

  9. Artifacts with uneven sampling of red noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milotti, Edoardo

    2007-01-01

    The vast majority of sampling systems operate in a standard way: at each tick of a fixed-frequency master clock a digitizer reads out a voltage that corresponds to the value of some physical quantity and translates it into a bit pattern that is either transmitted, stored, or processed right away. Thus signal sampling at evenly spaced time intervals is the rule: however, this is not always the case, and uneven sampling is sometimes unavoidable. While periodic or quasiperiodic uneven sampling of a deterministic signal can reasonably be expected to produce artifacts, it is much less obvious that the same happens with noise: here I show that this is indeed the case only for long-memory noise processes, i.e., power-law noises 1/fα with α>2 . The resulting artifacts are usually a nuisance although they can be eliminated with a proper processing of the signal samples, but they could also be turned to advantage and used to encode information.

  10. Ontological System for Context Artifacts and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Chung, N. T.; Mukherjee, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Adaptive Vehicle Make (AVM) program is a portfolio of programs, managed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It was established to revolutionize how DoD designs, verifies, and manufactures complex defense systems and vehicles. The Component, Context, and Manufacturing Model Library (C2M2L; pronounced "camel") seeks to develop domain-specific models needed to enable design, verification, and fabrication of the Fast Adaptable Next-Generation (FANG) infantry fighting vehicle using in its overall infrastructure. Terrain models are being developed to represent the surface/fluid that an amphibious infantry fighting vehicle would traverse, ranging from paved road surfaces to rocky, mountainous terrain, slope, discrete obstacles, mud, sand snow, and water fording. Context models are being developed to provide additional data for environmental factors, such as: humidity, wind speed, particulate presence and character, solar radiation, cloud cover, precipitation, and more. The Ontological System for Context Artifacts and Resources (OSCAR) designed and developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is semantic web data system that enables context artifacts to be registered and searched according to their meaning, rather than indexed according to their syntactic structure alone (as in the case for traditional search engines). The system leverages heavily on the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies to model physical terrain environment and context model characteristics. In this talk, we focus on the application of the SWEET ontologies and the design of the OSCAR system architecture.

  11. Effect of non-starch polysaccharides on the in vitro digestibility and rheological properties of rice starch gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tomoko; Kohyama, Kaoru

    2011-07-15

    The starch digestibility and rheological properties of gels were evaluated in the presence of three non-starch polysaccharides (agar, xanthan gum and konjac glucomannan) with rice starch. Each polysaccharide was added to 30% (w/w) rice starch suspension at defined concentrations and starch gels were prepared. The extent of starch gel digestibility was determined by an in vitro method and rheological properties by a dynamic oscillatory test and a compression test. The added polysaccharides suppressed starch hydrolysis in the gels compared with the control, and a concentration dependency of this suppressive effect was observed. Adding agar and xanthan gum increased the storage shear modulus (G') of starch gels, while adding konjac glucomannan decreased G' values. The results indicate that the suppressive effect of non-starch polysaccharides on starch digestibility appears to be not only due to the rigidity of the gel, but also the interaction between starch and non-starch polysaccharides. PMID:23140698

  12. Effects of organic fertilizers on yield and quality of potato tubers in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbe, Hartmut

    2006-01-01

    In this lecture, an overview was given over effects of organic fertilizers (compost, farmyard manure, slurry, organic commercial fertilizers) on yield and quality (DM, starch, contents of N, P, K) of potato tubers in organic farming.

  13. Preliminary Starch Grain Evidence of Ancient Stone Tool Use at the Early Archaic (9,000 B.P. Site of Sandy Hill, Mashantucket, Connecticut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Hart

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Early Archaic subsistence strategies of New England remain poorly understood despite their importance in helping researchers understand how people adapt to changing landscapes following the end of the last glacial maximum (21,000-14,000 B.P.. Excavations at the Mashantucket Pequot Reservation in Mashantucket, Connecticut during the 1990s revealed a large, semi-sedentary village nestled alongside a complex wetland ecosystem. In this paper, we present preliminary starch grain analysis of several stone tools recovered and curated from these excavations. The results of this study indicate that both transitory and reserve starch grains are preserved on these artifacts and that at least one of the artifacts may have been used for leaf or stem processing. The results of this study also demonstrate the potential for future research in which paired macrobotanical and residue analysis will allow for a better understanding of subsistence practices at the site and during the early Archaic in general.

  14. Characterization of Native and Modified Starches by Potentiometric Titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Soto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of potentiometric titration for the analysis and characterization of native and modified starches is highlighted. The polyelectrolytic behavior of oxidized starches (thermal and thermal-chemical oxidation, a graft copolymer of itaconic acid (IA onto starch, and starch esters (mono- and diester itaconate was compared with the behavior of native starch, the homopolymer, and the acid employed as a graft monomer and substituent. Starch esters showed higher percentages of acidity, followed by graft copolymer of itaconic acid and finally oxidized starches. Analytical techniques and synthesis of modified starches were also described.

  15. Direct fermentation of raw starch using a Kluyveromyces marxianus strain that expresses glucoamylase and alpha-amylase to produce ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongliang; Wang, Dongmei; Gao, Xiaolian; Hong, Jiong

    2014-01-01

    Raw starch and raw cassava tuber powder were directly and efficiently fermented at elevated temperatures to produce ethanol using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus that expresses α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae as well as α-amylase and glucoamylase from Debaryomyces occidentalis. Among the constructed K. marxianus strains, YRL 009 had the highest efficiency in direct starch fermentation. Raw starch from corn, potato, cassava, or wheat can be fermented at temperatures higher than 40°C. At the optimal fermentation temperature 42°C, YRL 009 produced 66.52 g/L ethanol from 200 g/L cassava starch, which was the highest production among the selected raw starches. This production increased to 79.75 g/L ethanol with a 78.3% theoretical yield (with all cassava starch were consumed) from raw cassava starch at higher initial cell densities. Fermentation was also carried out at 45 and 48°C. By using 200 g/L raw cassava starch, 137.11 and 87.71 g/L sugar were consumed with 55.36 and 32.16 g/L ethanol produced, respectively. Furthermore, this strain could directly ferment 200 g/L nonsterile raw cassava tuber powder (containing 178.52 g/L cassava starch) without additional nutritional supplements to produce 69.73 g/L ethanol by consuming 166.07 g/L sugar at 42°C. YRL 009, which has consolidated bioprocessing ability, is the best strain for fermenting starches at elevated temperatures that has been reported to date. PMID:24478139

  16. Evaluation of lower-starch diets for lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, H M; Tucker, H A; Cotanch, K W; Krawczel, P D; Mooney, C S; Grant, R J; Eguchi, T

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure ruminal and lactational responses of Holstein dairy cows fed diets containing 3 different starch levels: 17.7 (low; LS), 21.0 (medium; MS), or 24.6% (high; HS). Twelve multiparous cows (118 ± 5 d in milk) were assigned randomly to dietary treatment sequence in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3-wk periods. All diets were fed as total mixed rations and contained approximately 30.2% corn silage, 18.5% grass silage, and 5.0% chopped alfalfa hay. Dietary starch content was manipulated by increasing dry ground corn inclusion (% of dry matter) from 3.4 (LS) to 10.1 (MS) and 16.9 (HS) and decreasing inclusion of beet pulp and wheat middlings from 6.7 and 13.4 (LS) to 3.4 and 10.1 (MS) or 0 and 6.8 (HS). In vitro 6-h starch digestibility of the diet increased as nonforage sources of fiber replaced corn grain (% of dry matter; 73.6, HS; 77.3, MS; 82.5, LS) resulting in rumen-fermentable starch content by 14.6, 16.2, and 18.1% for the LS, MS, and HS diets, respectively. Diets had similar neutral detergent fiber from forage and particle size distributions. Dry matter intake, solids-corrected milk yield, and efficiency of solids-corrected milk production were unaffected by diet, averaging 26.5 ± 0.8, 40.8 ± 1.6, and 1.54 ± 0.05 kg/d, respectively. Reducing dietary starch did not affect chewing time (815 ± 23 min/d), mean ruminal pH over 24h (6.06 ± 0.12), acetate-to-propionate ratio (2.4 ± 0.3), or microbial N synthesized in the rumen (585 ± 24 g/d). Total tract organic matter digestibility was higher for HS compared with MS and LS diets (69.2, 67.3, and 67.0%, respectively), but crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and starch digestibilities were unaffected. As dietary starch content decreased, in vitro ruminal starch fermentability increased and, consequently, the range between HS and LS in rumen-fermentable starch (3.5 percentage units) was less than the range in starch content (6.9 percentage units

  17. Phosphoglucan-bound structure of starch phosphatase Starch Excess4 reveals the mechanism for C6 specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Meekins, David A.; Raththagala, Madushi; Husodo, Satrio; White, Cory J.; Guo, Hou-Fu; Kötting, Oliver; Vander Kooi, Craig W.; Gentry, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    Starch is the main carbohydrate storage molecule in plants and is ubiquitous in human life. Reversible starch phosphorylation is the key regulatory event in starch catabolism. Starch Excess4 (SEX4) preferentially dephosphorylates the C6 position of starch glucose and its absence results in a dramatic accumulation of leaf starch. We present the structure of SEX4 bound to a phosphoglucan product, define its mechanism of specific activity, and reverse its specificity to the C3 position via mutag...

  18. Effect of starch types on properties of biodegradable polymer based on thermoplastic starch process by injection molding technique

    OpenAIRE

    Yossathorn Tanetrungroj; Jutarat Prachayawarakorn

    2015-01-01

    In this study effects of different starch types on the properties of biodegradable polymer based on thermoplastic starch (TPS) were investigated. Different types of starch containing different contents of amylose and amylopectin were used, i.e. cassava starch, mungbean starch, and arrowroot starch. The TPS polymers were compounded and shaped using an internal mixer and an injection molding machine, respectively. It was found that the amount of amylose and amylopectin contents on n...

  19. Evaluation of Colocasia esculenta Starch as an Alternative Tablet Excipient to Maize Starch: Assessment by Preformulation and Formulation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kusuma. R; Venkat Reddy. P; Samba Shiva Rao. A

    2015-01-01

    Starch isolated from Colocasia esculenta plant was studied as an alternative pharmaceutical excipient to maize and potato starch. The Colocasia esculenta starch has been evaluated by series of tests as mentioned in Indian Pharmacopoeia before being used for evaluation. It was tested along with maize and potato starch as an alternative excipient by performing battery of preformulation and formulation tests. The results obtained for Colocasia esculenta starch was comparable with maize starch an...

  20. Modification of potato starch granule structure and morphology in planta by expression of starch binding domain fusion proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, X.

    2010-01-01

    Producing starches with altered composition, structure and novel physico-chemical properties in planta by manipulating the enzymes which are involved in starch metabolism or (over)expressing heterologous enzymes has huge advantages such as broadening the range of starch applications and reducing the costs of the post-harvest starch modification. The starch binding domain (SBD) technology has been extensively explored in our lab for modifying starch in planta and producing so-called “tailored ...

  1. Ethanol production of banana shell and cassava starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the acid hydrolysis of the starch was evaluated in cassava and the cellulose shell banana and its later fermentation to ethanol, the means of fermentation were adjusted for the microorganisms saccharomyces cerevisiae nrrl y-2034 and zymomonas mobilis cp4. The banana shell has been characterized, which possesses a content of starch, cellulose and hemicelluloses that represent more than 80% of the shell deserve the study of this as source of carbon. The acid hydrolysis of the banana shell yield 20g/l reducing sugar was obtained as maximum concentration. For the cassava with 170 g/l of starch to ph 0.8 in 5 hours complete conversion is achieved to you reducing sugars and any inhibitory effect is not noticed on the part of the cultivations carried out with banana shell and cassava by the cyanide presence in the cassava and for the formation of toxic compounds in the acid hydrolysis the cellulose in banana shell. For the fermentation carried out with saccharomyces cerevisiae a concentration of ethanol of 7.92± 0.31% it is achieved and a considerable production of ethanol is not appreciated (smaller than 0.1 g/l) for none of the means fermented with zymomonas mobilis

  2. A Review on Machine Learning Algorithms in Handling EEG Artifacts

    OpenAIRE

    Barua, Shaibal; Begum, Shahina

    2014-01-01

    Brain waves obtained by Electroencephalograms (EEG) recording are an important research area in medical and health and brain computer interface (BCI). Due to the nature of EEG signal, noises and artifacts can contaminate it, which leads to a serious misinterpretation in EEG signal analysis. These contaminations are referred to as artifacts, which are signals of other than brain activity. Moreover, artifacts can cause significant miscalculation of the EEG measurements that reduces the clinical...

  3. Search for continuous gravitational waves: Improving robustness versus instrumental artifacts

    OpenAIRE

    Keitel, D.; Prix, R.; Papa, M.; Leaci, P.; Siddiqi, M.

    2013-01-01

    The standard multidetector F-statistic for continuous gravitational waves is susceptible to false alarms from instrumental artifacts, for example monochromatic sinusoidal disturbances ('lines'). This vulnerability to line artifacts arises because the F-statistic compares the signal hypothesis to a Gaussian-noise hypothesis, and hence is triggered by anything that resembles the signal hypothesis more than Gaussian noise. Various ad-hoc veto methods to deal with such line artifacts have been pr...

  4. SAXS investigations of structural changes after gamma ray irradiation of potato starch and starch suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The products obtained after gamma irradiation with doses 9.1, 18.2, 36.3, 54.5 kGy of native starch and water suspensions of starch were investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Relations between changes in the scattering curves (diminution of the intensity of the reflection related to distance d≅100 A and elevation of scattering curves) connected with destruction of long-range ordering in starch granules, and the conditions of the irradiation process were observed. Iradiation influences the long-range ordering more intensively in cases of native starch as compared with water suspensions of starch irradiated. (orig.)

  5. Sorghum grain as human food in Africa: relevance of content of starch and amylase activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A.S.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Sorghum is a staple food grain in many semi-arid and tropic areas of the world, notably in Sub-Saharan Africa because of its good adaptation to hard environments and its good yield of production. Among important biochemical components for sorghum processing are levels of starch (amylose and amylopec

  6. CT metal artifact reduction by soft inequality constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalina, Marina; Nikolaev, Dmitry; Sokolov, Valerii; Ingacheva, Anastasiya; Buzmakov, Alexey; Prun, Victor

    2015-12-01

    The artifacts (known as metal-like artifacts) arising from incorrect reconstruction may obscure or simulate pathology in medical applications, hide or mimic cracks and cavities in the scanned objects in industrial tomographic scans. One of the main reasons caused such artifacts is photon starvation on the rays which go through highly absorbing regions. We indroduce a way to suppress such artifacts in the reconstructions using soft penalty mimicing linear inequalities on the photon starved rays. An efficient algorithm to use such information is provided and the effect of those inequalities on the reconstruction quality is studied.

  7. Classification of independent components of EEG into multiple artifact classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Laura; Andersen, Tobias; Mørup, Morten

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aim to automatically identify multiple artifact types in EEG. We used multinomial regression to classify independent components of EEG data, selecting from 65 spatial, spectral, and temporal features of independent components using forward selection. The classifier identified...... found that automatic separation of multiple artifact classes is possible with a small feature set. Our method can reduce manual workload and allow for the selective removal of artifact classes. Identifying artifacts during EEG recording may be used to instruct subjects to refrain from activity causing...

  8. Artifact versus arrhythmia in pseudo-polymorphic tachycardia; case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed V

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaseem Ahmed, Anish Patel, Abhishek Sharma, Dennis Bloomfield Department of Medicine, Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY, USA Abstract: We present the case of a young male patient in sinus rhythm whose electrocardiogram (ECG was initially misinterpreted as ventricular tachycardia. Electrocardiographic artifact appearing to be ventricular tachycardia commonly occurs and ECG criteria have been described to aid in the discrimination between artifact and true arrhythmia. There are many causes of artifacts and prompt recognition is important to prevent unnecessary interventions. Keywords: artifact, ventricular tachycardia, pseudo-ventricular tachycardia, notch sign, sinus sign

  9. Process for depolymerizing starch by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for depolymerising starch by irradiation characterised in that the granular starch, of which the water content is not more than around 23%, undergoes, in the presence of an acid, a dose of radiation which depends on the nature and quantity of the chemical agent employed

  10. Permeation of volatile compounds through starch films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yilmaz, G.; Jongboom, R.O.J.; Feil, H.; Dijk, van C.; Hennink, W.E.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the factors that affect the permeation of volatiles through starch films. These films were obtained by casting gelatinized starch/water/glycerol mixtures. The films were dried and conditioned under different conditions (temperature and relative humidity

  11. Recrystallization of amylopectin in concentrated starch gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keetels, CJAM; Oostergetel, GT; vanVliet, T

    1996-01-01

    The relation between the recrystallization of amylopectin and the increase in stiffness of starch gels during storage was studied by various techniques. From transmission electron microscopy it was concluded that the size of the crystalline domains in retrograded 30% w/w potato starch gels was about

  12. Friction Properties of Chemically Modified Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch is a high molecular weight polyglucose biopolymer that, in its native state, is insoluble in water at room temperature. One way of improving its water solubility is by esterification of its free hydroxyl groups. Waxy maize, normal corn, and high amylose corn starches were esterified with ac...

  13. Development of starch-based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habeych Narvaez, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Starch-based materials show potential as fully degradable plastics. However, the current applicability of these materials is limited due to their poor moisture tolerance and mechanical properties. Starch is therefore frequently blended with other polymers to make the material more suitable for sp

  14. Starch Accumulation and Enzyme Activities Associated with Starch Synthesis in Maize Kernels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-yan; DONG Shu-ting; GAO Rong-qi; SUN Qing-quan

    2007-01-01

    The filling rate and the starch accumulation in developing maize kernel were analyzed. The changes of enzyme activities associated with sucrose metabolism and starch biosynthesis were investigated. The purpose is to discuss the enzymatic mechanisms responsible for starch synthesis. Two types of maize cultivars (Zea mays), high starch maize (Feiyu 3) and normal maize (Yuyu 22), were grown in a corn field. The factors involved in starch synthesis were performed during the growth period. The kernel filling rate, the sucrose content, the starch accumulating rates and the activities of SS (sucrose synthase), GBSS (granule-bound starch synthase), SBE (starch branching enzyme) of Feiyu 3, which has high starch content, were significantly higher than those of Yuyu 22, which has low starch content, after 10 DAP (days after pollination).Correlation analysis indicated that ADPGPPase (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase) and DBE (starch debranching enzyme)were not correlated with the starch accumulating rates and the kernel filling rate, but the SS activity at the middle and late period were highly significantly correlated with the starch accumulating rates and the kernel filling rate. The GBSS activity was highly significantly correlated with the amylose accumulating rate, but not correlated with the kernel filling rate. The SBE activity was highly significantly correlated with the amylopectin accumulating rate and the kernel filling rate. It was not ADPGPPase and DBE, but SS was the rate-limiting factor of starch biosynthesis in developing maize kernels. GBSS had an important effect on amylose accumulation, and SBE had a significant effect on amylopectin accumulation.

  15. Influence of metallic artifact filtering on MEG signals for source localization during interictal epileptiform activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorelli, Carolina; Alonso, Joan F.; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miguel A.; Nowak, Rafał; Russi, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Medical intractable epilepsy is a common condition that affects 40% of epileptic patients that generally have to undergo resective surgery. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has been increasingly used to identify the epileptogenic foci through equivalent current dipole (ECD) modeling, one of the most accepted methods to obtain an accurate localization of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs). Modeling requires that MEG signals are adequately preprocessed to reduce interferences, a task that has been greatly improved by the use of blind source separation (BSS) methods. MEG recordings are highly sensitive to metallic interferences originated inside the head by implanted intracranial electrodes, dental prosthesis, etc and also coming from external sources such as pacemakers or vagal stimulators. To reduce these artifacts, a BSS-based fully automatic procedure was recently developed and validated, showing an effective reduction of metallic artifacts in simulated and real signals (Migliorelli et al 2015 J. Neural Eng. 12 046001). The main objective of this study was to evaluate its effects in the detection of IEDs and ECD modeling of patients with focal epilepsy and metallic interference. Approach. A comparison between the resulting positions of ECDs was performed: without removing metallic interference; rejecting only channels with large metallic artifacts; and after BSS-based reduction. Measures of dispersion and distance of ECDs were defined to analyze the results. Main results. The relationship between the artifact-to-signal ratio and ECD fitting showed that higher values of metallic interference produced highly scattered dipoles. Results revealed a significant reduction on dispersion using the BSS-based reduction procedure, yielding feasible locations of ECDs in contrast to the other two approaches. Significance. The automatic BSS-based method can be applied to MEG datasets affected by metallic artifacts as a processing step to improve the localization of

  16. Medical image of the week: polysomnogram artifact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartell J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A 54 year-old man with a past medical history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, low back pain, and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia presented to the sleep laboratory for evaluation of sleep disordered breathing. Pertinent medications include fluoxetine, ambien, and clonazepam. His Epworth sleepiness score was 18. He had a total sleep time of 12 min. On the night of his sleep study, the patient was restless and repeatedly changed positions in bed. Figures 1 and 2 show the artifact determined to be lead displacement of O1M2 after the patient shifted in bed, inadvertently removing one of his scalp electrodes. The sine waves are 60 Hz in frequency. Once the problem was identified, the lead was quickly replaced to its proper position.

  17. Artifacts in single-molecule localization microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgert, Anne; Letschert, Sebastian; Doose, Sören; Sauer, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Single-molecule localization microscopy provides subdiffraction resolution images with virtually molecular resolution. Through the availability of commercial instruments and open-source reconstruction software, achieving super resolution is now public domain. However, despite its conceptual simplicity, localization microscopy remains prone to user errors. Using direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, we investigate the impact of irradiation intensity, label density and photoswitching behavior on the distribution of membrane proteins in reconstructed super-resolution images. We demonstrate that high emitter densities in combination with inappropriate photoswitching rates give rise to the appearance of artificial membrane clusters. Especially, two-dimensional imaging of intrinsically three-dimensional membrane structures like microvilli, filopodia, overlapping membranes and vesicles with high local emitter densities is prone to generate artifacts. To judge the quality and reliability of super-resolution images, the single-molecule movies recorded to reconstruct the images have to be carefully investigated especially when investigating membrane organization and cluster analysis. PMID:26138928

  18. An extension to artifact-free projection overlaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In multipinhole single photon emission computed tomography, the overlapping of projections has been used to increase sensitivity. Avoiding artifacts in the reconstructed image associated with projection overlaps (multiplexing) is a critical issue. In our previous report, two types of artifact-free projection overlaps, i.e., projection overlaps that do not lead to artifacts in the reconstructed image, were formally defined and proved, and were validated via simulations. In this work, a new proposition is introduced to extend the previously defined type-II artifact-free projection overlaps so that a broader range of artifact-free overlaps is accommodated. One practical purpose of the new extension is to design a baffle window multipinhole system with artifact-free projection overlaps. Methods: First, the extended type-II artifact-free overlap was theoretically defined and proved. The new proposition accommodates the situation where the extended type-II artifact-free projection overlaps can be produced with incorrectly reconstructed portions in the reconstructed image. Next, to validate the theory, the extended-type-II artifact-free overlaps were employed in designing the multiplexing multipinhole spiral orbit imaging systems with a baffle window. Numerical validations were performed via simulations, where the corresponding 1-pinhole nonmultiplexing reconstruction results were used as the benchmark for artifact-free reconstructions. The mean square error (MSE) was the metric used for comparisons of noise-free reconstructed images. Noisy reconstructions were also performed as part of the validations. Results: Simulation results show that for noise-free reconstructions, the MSEs of the reconstructed images of the artifact-free multiplexing systems are very similar to those of the corresponding 1-pinhole systems. No artifacts were observed in the reconstructed images. Therefore, the testing results for artifact-free multiplexing systems designed using the

  19. Prior-based artifact correction (PBAC) in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Image quality in computed tomography (CT) often suffers from artifacts which may reduce the diagnostic value of the image. In many cases, these artifacts result from missing or corrupt regions in the projection data, e.g., in the case of metal, truncation, and limited angle artifacts. The authors propose a generalized correction method for different kinds of artifacts resulting from missing or corrupt data by making use of available prior knowledge to perform data completion. Methods: The proposed prior-based artifact correction (PBAC) method requires prior knowledge in form of a planning CT of the same patient or in form of a CT scan of a different patient showing the same body region. In both cases, the prior image is registered to the patient image using a deformable transformation. The registered prior is forward projected and data completion of the patient projections is performed using smooth sinogram inpainting. The obtained projection data are used to reconstruct the corrected image. Results: The authors investigate metal and truncation artifacts in patient data sets acquired with a clinical CT and limited angle artifacts in an anthropomorphic head phantom data set acquired with a gantry-based flat detector CT device. In all cases, the corrected images obtained by PBAC are nearly artifact-free. Compared to conventional correction methods, PBAC achieves better artifact suppression while preserving the patient-specific anatomy at the same time. Further, the authors show that prominent anatomical details in the prior image seem to have only minor impact on the correction result. Conclusions: The results show that PBAC has the potential to effectively correct for metal, truncation, and limited angle artifacts if adequate prior data are available. Since the proposed method makes use of a generalized algorithm, PBAC may also be applicable to other artifacts resulting from missing or corrupt data

  20. Ballistocardiogram artifact correction taking into account physiological signal preservation in simultaneous EEG-fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Rodolfo; Leite, Marco; Jorge, João; Grouiller, Frédéric; van der Zwaag, Wietske; Leal, Alberto; Figueiredo, Patrícia

    2016-07-15

    The ballistocardiogram (BCG) artifact is currently one of the most challenging in the EEG acquired concurrently with fMRI, with correction invariably yielding residual artifacts and/or deterioration of the physiological signals of interest. In this paper, we propose a family of methods whereby the EEG is decomposed using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and a novel approach for the selection of BCG-related independent components (ICs) is used (PROJection onto Independent Components, PROJIC). Three ICA-based strategies for BCG artifact correction are then explored: 1) BCG-related ICs are removed from the back-reconstruction of the EEG (PROJIC); and 2-3) BCG-related ICs are corrected for the artifact occurrences using an Optimal Basis Set (OBS) or Average Artifact Subtraction (AAS) framework, before back-projecting all ICs onto EEG space (PROJIC-OBS and PROJIC-AAS, respectively). A novel evaluation pipeline is also proposed to assess the methods performance, which takes into account not only artifact but also physiological signal removal, allowing for a flexible weighting of the importance given to physiological signal preservation. This evaluation is used for the group-level parameter optimization of each algorithm on simultaneous EEG-fMRI data acquired using two different setups at 3T and 7T. Comparison with state-of-the-art BCG correction methods showed that PROJIC-OBS and PROJIC-AAS outperformed the others when priority was given to artifact removal or physiological signal preservation, respectively, while both PROJIC-AAS and AAS were in general the best choices for intermediate trade-offs. The impact of the BCG correction on the quality of event-related potentials (ERPs) of interest was assessed in terms of the relative reduction of the standard error (SE) across trials: 26/66%, 32/62% and 18/61% were achieved by, respectively, PROJIC, PROJIC-OBS and PROJIC-AAS, for data collected at 3T/7T. Although more significant improvements were achieved at 7T, the

  1. Apparent interfacial shear strength of short-flax-fiber/starch acetate composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersons, J.; Modniks, J.; Joffe, R.;

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with an indirect industry-friendly method for identification of the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) in a fully bio-based composite. The IFSS of flax fiber/starch acetate is evaluated by a modified Bowyer and Bader method based on an analysis of the stress-strain curve of a short...... IFSS of flax/starch acetate is within the range of 5.5-20.5 MPa, depending on composition of the material. The IFSS is found to be greater for composites with a higher fiber loading and to decrease with increasing content of plasticizer. The IFSS is equal or greater than the yield strength of the neat...

  2. A Model-Based Scatter Artifacts Correction for Cone Beam CT

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Luyao; Xing, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide a fast and accurate scatter artifacts correction algorithm for cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging. The method starts with an estimation of coarse scatter profiles for a set of CBCT data in either image domain or projection domain. A denoising algorithm designed specifically for Poisson signals is then applied to derive the final scatter distribution. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations using thorax and abdomen phantoms with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, experimental Catphan phantom data, and in vivo human data acquired for a clinical image guided radiation therapy were performed. Results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce scatter artifacts and recover the correct HU in either projection domain or image domain. For the MC thorax phantom study, four components segmentation yield the best results, while the results of three components segmentation are still acceptable. For the Catphan phantom data, the mean value over all pixels in the residual image is...

  3. Contrast artifacts in tapping tip atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhle, Anders; Sørensen, Alexis Hammer; Zandbergen, Julie Bjerring;

    1998-01-01

    interaction. The oscillating cantilever will be in a specific swing mode according to which type of interaction is dominating, and it is the switching between these modes that is responsible for a range of artifacts observed during image acquisition. This includes the artifact often referred to as "contrast...

  4. Detection and removal of artifacts in astronomical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, S.; Mohr, J. J.; Bertin, E.; Kümmel, M.; Wetzstein, M.

    2016-07-01

    Astronomical images from optical photometric surveys are typically contaminated with transient artifacts such as cosmic rays, satellite trails and scattered light. We have developed and tested an algorithm that removes these artifacts using a deep, artifact free, static sky coadd image built up through the median combination of point spread function (PSF) homogenized, overlapping single epoch images. Transient artifacts are detected and masked in each single epoch image through comparison with an artifact free, PSF-matched simulated image that is constructed using the PSF-corrected, model fitting catalog from the artifact free coadd image together with the position variable PSF model of the single epoch image. This approach works well not only for cleaning single epoch images with worse seeing than the PSF homogenized coadd, but also the traditionally much more challenging problem of cleaning single epoch images with better seeing. In addition to masking transient artifacts, we have developed an interpolation approach that uses the local PSF and performs well in removing artifacts whose widths are smaller than the PSF full width at half maximum, including cosmic rays, the peaks of saturated stars and bleed trails. We have tested this algorithm on Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data and present performance metrics. More generally, our algorithm can be applied to any survey which images the same part of the sky multiple times.

  5. Kindergarten Children's Perceptions of "Anthropomorphic Artifacts" with Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Asi; Mioduser, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, children from a kindergarten in central Israel have been exposed to learning experiences in technology as part of the implementation of a curriculum based on technological thinking, including topics related to behaving-adaptive-artifacts (e.g., robots). This study aims to unveil children's stance towards behaving artifacts:…

  6. The Interpretation of Texts, People and Other Artifacts

    OpenAIRE

    DENNETT, Daniel C.

    1990-01-01

    I want to explore four different exercises of interpretation: (1) the interpretation of texts (or hermeneutics), (2) the interpretation of people (otherwise known as "attribution" psychology, or cognitive or intentional psychology), (3) the interpretation of other artifacts (which I shall call artifact hermeneutics), (4) the interpretation of organism design in evolutionary biology--the controversial interpretive activity known as adaptationism.

  7. Naturalistic Experience and the Early Use of Symbolic Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troseth, Georgene L.; Casey, Amy M.; Lawver, Kelly A.; Walker, Joan M. T.; Cole, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Experience with a variety of symbolic artifacts has been proposed as a mechanism underlying symbolic development. In this study, the parents of 120 2-year-old children who participated in symbolic object retrieval tasks completed a questionnaire regarding their children's naturalistic experience with symbolic artifacts and activities. In separate…

  8. Experimental study of flow artifact in MRI venous flow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venous flow models were constructed and experiments were done on the signal generation from blood flow. MRI apparatus used was 1.0T Shimadzu SMT100. Images were constructed by 2D Fourrier conversion. The magnetic intensity was 1.5 mT/m. Continuous 6 slices of 10, 7 and 5 mm thickness were imaged in T2-weighted condition at TR 2500 msec and TE 90 msec by the spin echo method, rephasing method, presaturation method, rephasing + presaturation method and rephasing + presaturation + low sampling cycle method for flow rate and pulsatile flow. The artificial blood vessels were made of polychlorinated vinyl tube with inner diameter 8 mm x 20 m length where 40 litre of water was circulated at a fixed flow rate of 5-30 cm/sec or pulsatile flow rate of 15 and 20 cm/sec. A tube filled with Gd-DTPA solution was used as a control. S/N ratio in every slice of the fixed and pulsatile flows, the difference by the direction of imaging, the presence or absence of rephasing and presaturation and sampling cycles were examined. A significant flow artifact was found yielded for the pulsatile flow relative to the fixed flow. (K.H.)

  9. Automatic detection of artifacts in converted S3D video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokov, Alexander; Vatolin, Dmitriy; Zachesov, Anton; Belous, Alexander; Erofeev, Mikhail

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present algorithms for automatically detecting issues specific to converted S3D content. When a depth-image-based rendering approach produces a stereoscopic image, the quality of the result depends on both the depth maps and the warping algorithms. The most common problem with converted S3D video is edge-sharpness mismatch. This artifact may appear owing to depth-map blurriness at semitransparent edges: after warping, the object boundary becomes sharper in one view and blurrier in the other, yielding binocular rivalry. To detect this problem we estimate the disparity map, extract boundaries with noticeable differences, and analyze edge-sharpness correspondence between views. We pay additional attention to cases involving a complex background and large occlusions. Another problem is detection of scenes that lack depth volume: we present algorithms for detecting at scenes and scenes with at foreground objects. To identify these problems we analyze the features of the RGB image as well as uniform areas in the depth map. Testing of our algorithms involved examining 10 Blu-ray 3D releases with converted S3D content, including Clash of the Titans, The Avengers, and The Chronicles of Narnia: The Voyage of the Dawn Treader. The algorithms we present enable improved automatic quality assessment during the production stage.

  10. 21 CFR 178.3520 - Industrial starch-modified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Industrial starch-modified. 178.3520 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3520 Industrial starch-modified. Industrial starch... provisions of this section. (a) Industrial starch-modified is identified as follows: (1) A food...

  11. 21 CFR 172.892 - Food starch-modified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Food starch-modified. 172.892 Section 172.892 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.892 Food starch-modified. Food starch-modified as described in this section may be... limitation prescribed. To insure safe use of the food starch-modified, the label of the food...

  12. Using biomass of starch-rich transgenic Arabidopsis vacuolar as feedstock for fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Yung-Chung; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Chen, Chun-Yen [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Huang, Li-Fen; Chang, Jo-Shu [Yuan Ze Univ., Tao-yuan, Taiwan (China). Graduate School of Biotechnology and Bioengineering

    2010-07-01

    Cellulose is the major constitute of plant biomass and highly available in agricultural wastes and industrial effluents, thereby being a cost-effective feedstock for bioenergy production. However, most hydrogen producing bacteria (HPB) could not directly convert cellulosic materials (such as rice husk and rice straw) into hydrogen whereas most HPB could utilize sugar and starch for hydrogen production. In this work, we used an indigenous bacterial isolate Clostridium butyricum CGS2 as HPB, which could directly convert soluble starch into H2 with a maximum H2 production rate and a H2 yield of 205.07 ml H2/h/l and 6.46 mmol H2/g starch, respectively. However, C. butyricum CGS2 could not ferment pure cellulosic materials such as carboxymethyl cellulose and xylan. Moreover, we found that C. butyricum CGS2 could utilize rich husk to produce H2 at a rate of 13.19 ml H2/h/l due to the starch content in rice husk (H2 yield = 1.49 mmol H2/g rice husk). In contrast, since lacking starch content, rice straw cannot be converted to H2 by C. butyricum CGS2. The foregoing results suggest that increasing the starch content in the natural agricultural wastes may make them better feedstock for fermentative H2 production. Hence, a genetically modified plant (Arabidopsis vacuolar) was constructed to enhance its starch concentration. The starch concentration of mutant plant S1 increased to 10.67 mg/fresh weight, which is four times higher than that of wild type plant. Using mutant plant S1 as carbon source, C. butyricum CGS2 was able to give a high cumulative H2 production and H2 production rate of 285.4 ml H2/l and 43.6 ml/h/l, respectively. The cumulative H2 production and H2 production rate both increased when the concentration of the transgenic plant was increased. Therefore, this study successful demonstrated the feasibility of expressing starch on genetically-modified plants to create a more effective feedstock for dark H2 fermentation. (orig.)

  13. Motion artifacts in dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allec, Nicholas; Abbaszadeh, Shiva; Lewin, John M.; Karim, Karim S.

    2012-03-01

    Several strategies have been investigated to acquire both low- and high-energy images simultaneously for contrastenhanced mammography (CEM). However, for the dual-energy technique where the existing conventional mammography infrastructure can be leveraged, low- and high-energy images are acquired using two separate exposures and the finite time between image acquisition leads to motion artifacts in the combined image. Motion artifacts lead to greater noise in the combined image and affect image quality, however the relationship between them is not clear. In this study we examine motion artifacts in dual-energy CEM and their impact on anatomical noise in the combined image and tumor detectability. To study the impact of motion artifacts, a cascaded systems model is extended to include such motion artifacts. An ideal observer model is used to quantify the performance and CEM images from a previous clinical study are used for comparison of the extended model.

  14. Synthesis and property characterization of cassava starch grafted poly(acrylamide-co-(maleic acid)) superabsorbent via γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graft copolymerizations of acrylamide and maleic acid onto cassava starch by a simultaneous irradiation technique using γ-rays as a initiator were carried out. Various important parameters of total dose, dose rate, monomer-to-cassava starch ratio and maleic acid content were studied. Addition of 2% ww-1 diprotic acid of maleic acid into the reaction mixture yields a saponified starch graft copolymer with a water absorption in distilled water as high as 2256g g -1 of its dried weight. The water absorption of these saponified graft copolymers insaline and buffer solutions was also measured. The water absorption depends largely on the cationic type and concentration of these solutions in terms of ionic strength. This research explains a charge transfer mechanism for graft copolymerization of maleic acid and acrylamide onto cassava starch, and describes the influential parameters that affect grafting efficiency and water absorption. (author)

  15. Chemical and rheological properties of a starch-rich fraction from the pulp of the fruit cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vriesmann, Lucia C.; Silveira, Joana L.M. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, CP 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba-PR (Brazil); Petkowicz, Carmen L. de O [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, CP 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba-PR (Brazil)], E-mail: clop@ufpr.br

    2009-03-01

    The pulp obtained from the fruit of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) was extracted with hot aqueous 0.1% citric acid to give fraction 0.1CA-2 in 15% yield. This was the predominant component polysaccharide, 91% of which was composed of starch, by an iodine test and monosaccharide composition, and its {sup 13}C NMR spectrum was consistent with that of a high amylose starch. The content of amylose found in fraction 0.1CA-2 was 71%. This value is higher than those of common starches of cereal grains, tubers, roots, and other fruits. The fraction was submitted to rheological examination, gels being prepared on heating with concentrations of 4 to 7% (w/w). A non-Newtonian behavior was observed, and gel viscosity and strength depended on the concentration. The presence of starch, as well as the presence of previously investigated pectin, conferred the high viscosity and gelling capability of the pulp.

  16. Chemical and rheological properties of a starch-rich fraction from the pulp of the fruit cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulp obtained from the fruit of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) was extracted with hot aqueous 0.1% citric acid to give fraction 0.1CA-2 in 15% yield. This was the predominant component polysaccharide, 91% of which was composed of starch, by an iodine test and monosaccharide composition, and its 13C NMR spectrum was consistent with that of a high amylose starch. The content of amylose found in fraction 0.1CA-2 was 71%. This value is higher than those of common starches of cereal grains, tubers, roots, and other fruits. The fraction was submitted to rheological examination, gels being prepared on heating with concentrations of 4 to 7% (w/w). A non-Newtonian behavior was observed, and gel viscosity and strength depended on the concentration. The presence of starch, as well as the presence of previously investigated pectin, conferred the high viscosity and gelling capability of the pulp

  17. Wheat bran biorefinery: an investigation on the starch derived glucose extraction accompanied by pre- and post-treatment steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirpanalan, Özge; Reisinger, Michael; Huber, Florian; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Novalin, Senad

    2014-07-01

    Wheat bran, a side product of the milling industry, can be considered as a feedstock for biorefineries. Unlike other lignocellulosic feedstock, wheat bran contains a reasonable amount of starch, which is not of recalcitrant nature. Therefore, it can be extracted without a costly pretreatment process. The present work evaluates the extraction of starch derived glucose in relation to a wheat bran biorefinery. The purity of free glucose extracted quantitatively was 44%. The extract was concentrated by threefold via nanofiltration, thereby reaching a glucose concentration of 49 g/L. Hydrothermal treatment (180°C - 20 min) of the starch-free bran did not induce the formation of hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid. Interestingly, the furfural level increased compared to the process, in which bran was treated hydrothermally without a preceding starch extraction. By separation of water-extractables prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, the free glucose purity was increased to 58%, however the yield of glucose decreased to 61%. PMID:24835741

  18. Synthesis and characterization of hydrolysed starch-g-poly(methacrylic acid) composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Magdy K; Ahmed, Enas M; El-Rafie, Mohamed H

    2016-06-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of starch-g-poly(methacrylic acid) composite was adopted by graft polymerization of hydrolysed starch (HS) and methacrylic acid (MAA) in aqueous medium using an efficient sodium perborate (SPB)-thiourea (TU) redox initiation system. The parameters influencing the redox system efficiency and thence the polymerization method were considered. These parameters comprehended the concentrations of MAA, SPB, TU and SPB/TU molar ratio as well as the polymerization temperature. The polymerization reaction was scrutinized through calculation of the MAA total conversion percent (TC%). The resultant poly(MAA-HS) composite was assessed by evaluating the polymer criteria (the graft yield, GY%; the grafting efficiency, GE%; the homopolymer, HP%; and the total conversion). The comportment of the apparent viscosity of the cooked poly(MAA)-starch composite paste, obtained under diverse polymerization conditions, was examined. Tentative mechanisms, which depict all occasions that happen amid the entire course of the polymerization reaction, have been proffered. PMID:26968925

  19. Chemical modification of Sago starch by solvent less esterification with fatty acid chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sago starch was chemically modified by esterification reaction with fatty acid chlorides to produce a non-polar sago ester in the absence of an organic solvent. The sago esters were prepared by first pretreatment of sago starch with excess formic acid at 90 degree Celsius for 40 minutes followed by acetylation with acid chloride (octanoyl and lauroyl chlorides). The maximum yields of 80 % and 73 % with the same degree of substitution (DS) of 1.2 for octanoate and lauroate sago esters were obtained respectively. The presence of ester carbonyl group in the FT-IR spectra of the ester products showed that the sago starch has been esterified. The intensities of carbonyl and methyl peaks were decreased with the increasing of DS. (author)

  20. Morphology-mechanical Property Relationship of Polypropylene/starch Blends

    OpenAIRE

    C.H. Azhari; Wong, S F

    2001-01-01

    The influence of morphology on mechanical property of several polypropylene/starch (PP/starch) blends of varying compositions was studied. The blends prepared were at wt%PP/wt%starch of 97.5/2.5, 95/5, 92.5/7.7, 90/10, 87.5/12.5 and 85/15. The morphology of the blends observed, using scanning electron microscopy showed them to be immiscible blends with distinct polymer-starch domains at high starch volume fractions (85%PP/15%starch-87.5%PP/12.5%starch), which gradually showed the morphology o...

  1. Effect of tapioca starch and amyloglucosidase concentration on very high gravity simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (VHG-SSF) of bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugih, A. K.; Santoso, I. V.; Kristijarti, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Tapioca starch is isolated from the root of cassava plant (Manihot esculenta). It is produced in a large quantity in Indonesia and other south east Asian countries. Tapioca starch has been commonly used as a feedstock for food as well as non-food industries. Due to its high carbohydrate content, tapioca starch has the potentiality to be used as a raw material for bioethanol production. In this research, a novel approach (Very High Gravity Simultaneous Sacharification and Fermentation/ VHG-SSF) to synthesise highly concentrated ethanol from tapioca starch was investigated. Tapioca starch suspension was first gelatinised for two hours at 90°C and hydrolised at the same temperature for another two hours using commercial α- amylase (Liquozyme Supra, 0.16%-v/ w starch). The pretreated suspension was sterilised and mixed with nitrogenous supplement. In order to start the fermentation, Saccharomyces cereviseae NRRL Y-132 inoculum (10%-v/v; 107 cells/ ml) and commercial amyloglucosidase (Dextrozyme GA, 35-105 AGU/ g starch) were added to the mixture. The initial total carbohydrate, yeast extract, and peptone concentrations of the fermentation broths were 30-40 %-w/v, 1%-w/v, and 2%-w/v, respectively. VHG-SSF was allowed to proceed for 6 days at 30°C with rotary shaker speed of 100 rpm. The concentration of glucose and ethanol during fermentation was monitored using HPLC. The experimental result shows that tapioca starch has been successfully converted to ethanol with a final concentration of 10.12-16.14 %-w/v, which is corresponding to yield of 34.68-56.83 %-w ethanol/ w-converted sugar. The result suggests that VHG-SSF is a prospective method to synthesise bioethanol from tapioca starch.

  2. Motion artifacts in cardiac CT. The Novacor left ventricular assist device and its implications for clinical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knollman, F.D. [Strahlenklinik, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet der Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin (Germany); Klinik fuer Herz-, Thorax- und Gefaesschirurgie, Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin (Germany); Halfmann, R. [Baxter Deutschland GmbH, Unterschleissheim (Germany); Regn, J. [Siemens AG Bereich Medizin, Erlangen (Germany); Loebe, M.; Ewert, R.; Hetzer, R. [Klinik fuer Herz-, Thorax- und Gefaesschirurgie, Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin (Germany); Felix, R. [Strahlenklinik, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet der Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    Purpose: Cardiovascular applications of CT are primarily limited by temporal resolution of the scanner. Recent development in scanner technology has greatly increased temporal resolution. We here describe a standardized method of assessing temporal properties of various CT techniques. Material and Methods: The Novacor left ventricular assist device was mounted in a water-filled circulation phantom and scanned at different pump rates with a spiral CT unit and an electron beam unit. We also evaluated the use of ECG-triggered subsecond scanning on a spiral CT unit. Results: Using the fastest conventional scanning protocol, severe motion artifacts occurred. These artifacts could not be reproduced from image to image, even if the pump rate was adjusted to scan rate (1/s). Electron beam tomography (EBT) reproducibly yielded few artifacts at 100 ms and practically no artifacts at 50 ms scanning time. Even without ECG-triggering, pump motion could be reproduced as a cine-cycle. With the ECG-triggered partial scanning CT technique, limited motion artifacts could be reproduced during diastole at a heart rate of 70-80 beats/min. Conclusion: The Novacor ventricular assist device may serve as a benchmark test in the evaluation of new scanning techniques for cardiovascular CT. While EBT presently remains the only CT technique to freeze cardiac motion throughout its cycle, ECG-triggered subsecond scans may, under certain conditions, capture cardiac anatomy in diastole. (orig.)

  3. Rheological and Thermal Properties of Potato Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Geng; Li Tian-zhen; Zhang Wei-min; Li Hao-nan

    2005-01-01

    Particle size, rheological and thermal properties of potato starch from Yunnan province of China was in-vestigated. The particle size ranges from 0.429-102.3 um determined by laser light-scatter. The major flow type of 6 w/v% potato starch was shear-thinning fluid even the shear rate up to 800·s-1, and the gel formed by 6 w/v% potato starch fell to weak gel for its little difference between G' and G'', high dependence on frequency and low value of G'(Pa). The hardness and cohesiveness of potato starch gel were 31.3 g and 131.9 g·s, respectively. The thermal properties of potato starch were also determined by DSC at the starch:water=3:1. The To, Tp, and ΔH of potato starch were 62.23℃,67.31℃, and 2.22 J·g-1.

  4. 75 FR 879 - National Starch and Chemical Company Specialty Starches Division Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ..., applicable to workers of National Starch and Chemical Company, Specialty Starches Division, Island Falls, Maine. The notice was published in the Federal Register on December 31, 2007 (72 FR 74343). At the... Employment and Training Administration National Starch and Chemical Company Specialty Starches...

  5. Kinetics of starch digestion and performance of broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Weurding, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: starch, digestion rate, broiler chickens, peas, tapiocaStarch is stored in amyloplasts of various plants like cereals and legumes and seeds of these plants are used as feedstuffs for farm animals. Starch is the major energy source in broiler feeds. The properties of starch from different origin vary condiderably and these properties determine its resistance to enzymatic digestion. The objective of the research project described in this thesis was to study starch digestion behaviour ...

  6. Retrogradation of starches and maltodextrins of various origin

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Sobolewska-Zielińska; Teresa Fortuna

    2010-01-01

    Background. The retrogradation which occurs during the processes food storage is an essential problem in food industry. In this study, the ability to retrogradate of native starches and maltodextrins of different botanical origin was analysed. Material and methods. The materials were starches of various botanical origin, including commercial samples: potato, tapioca, wheat, corn, waxy corn starches, and laboratory isolated samples: triticale and rice starches. The above starches were use...

  7. Evaluation of Colocasia esculenta Starch as an Alternative Tablet Excipient to Maize Starch: Assessment by Preformulation and Formulation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma. R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch isolated from Colocasia esculenta plant was studied as an alternative pharmaceutical excipient to maize and potato starch. The Colocasia esculenta starch has been evaluated by series of tests as mentioned in Indian Pharmacopoeia before being used for evaluation. It was tested along with maize and potato starch as an alternative excipient by performing battery of preformulation and formulation tests. The results obtained for Colocasia esculenta starch was comparable with maize starch and the Colocasia esculenta starch can be used as a pharmaceutical excipient in tablets preparation.

  8. Physicochemical properties of starches from two different yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.) residues

    OpenAIRE

    Yugao Wang; Liming Zhang; Xinglin Li; Wenyuan Gao

    2011-01-01

    The starches obtained from two different yam residues, which were treated with alkali(starch-A) or enzyme (starch-E), were studied and compared with yam starch isolated using ordinary method (starch-O) for morphological, crystalline pattern, thermal, and pasting properties. The results revealed that the amylose content of three starches ranged from 19.47 to 22.17%. The granule surfaces of starch-A and starch-E were as smooth as that of starch-O. The crystalline pattern of the three starches w...

  9. Automating Traceability for Generated Software Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Julian; Green, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Program synthesis automatically derives programs from specifications of their behavior. One advantage of program synthesis, as opposed to manual coding, is that there is a direct link between the specification and the derived program. This link is, however, not very fine-grained: it can be best characterized as Program is-derived- from Specification. When the generated program needs to be understood or modified, more $ne-grained linking is useful. In this paper, we present a novel technique for automatically deriving traceability relations between parts of a specification and parts of the synthesized program. The technique is very lightweight and works -- with varying degrees of success - for any process in which one artifact is automatically derived from another. We illustrate the generality of the technique by applying it to two kinds of automatic generation: synthesis of Kalman Filter programs from speci3cations using the Aut- oFilter program synthesis system, and generation of assembly language programs from C source code using the GCC C compilel: We evaluate the effectiveness of the technique in the latter application.

  10. Cecropia peltata accumulates starch or soluble glycogen by differentially regulating starch biosynthetic genes

    OpenAIRE

    Bischof, Sylvain; Umhang, Martin; Eicke, Simona; Streb, Sebastian; Qi, Weihong; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2013-01-01

    The branched glucans glycogen and starch are the most widespread storage carbohydrates in living organisms. The production of semicrystalline starch granules in plants is more complex than that of small, soluble glycogen particles in microbes and animals. However, the factors determining whether glycogen or starch is formed are not fully understood. The tropical tree Cecropia peltata is a rare example of an organism able to make either polymer type. Electron micrographs and quantitative measu...

  11. Functional demonstrations of starch binding domains present in Ostreococcus tauri starch synthases isoforms

    OpenAIRE

    Barchiesi, Julieta; Hedin, Nicolás; Gomez-Casati, Diego F.; Miguel A Ballicora; Busi, María V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Starch-binding domains are key modules present in several enzymes involved in polysaccharide metabolism. These non-catalytic modules have already been described as essential for starch-binding and the catalytic activity of starch synthase III from the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In Ostreococcus tauri, a unicellular green alga of the Prasinophyceae family, there are three SSIII isoforms, known as Ostta SSIII-A, SSIII-B and SSIII-C. Results In this work, using in silico and in...

  12. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n = 3) or without (n = 3) pancreatic...

  13. Genetic evidence that outer membrane binding of starch is required for starch utilization by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, K.L.; Salyers, A A

    1989-01-01

    Mutagenesis of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron with the transposon Tn4351 produced five classes of mutants that were not able to grow on amylose or amylopectin. These classes of mutants differed in their ability to grow on maltoheptaose (G7) and in the level of starch-degrading enzymes produced when bacteria were grown on maltose. All of the mutants were deficient in starch binding. Since one class of mutants retained normal levels of starch-degrading enzymes, this indicates that binding of the ...

  14. Dilute solution properties of canary seed (Phalaris canariensis) starch in comparison to wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Mahdi; Razavi, Seyed M A; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Hucl, Pierre; Patterson, Carol Ann

    2016-06-01

    Dilute solution properties of an unknown starch are important to understand its performance and applications in food and non-food industries. In this paper, rheological and molecular properties (intrinsic viscosity, molecular weight, shape factor, voluminosity, conformation and coil overlap parameters) of the starches from two hairless canary seed varieties (CO5041 & CDC Maria) developed for food use were evaluated in the dilute regime (Starch dispersions in DMSO (0.5g/dl)) and compared with wheat starch (WS). The results showed that Higiro model is the best among five applied models for intrinsic viscosity determination of canary seed starch (CSS) and WS on the basis of coefficient of determination (R(2)) and root mean square error (RMSE). WS sample showed higher intrinsic viscosity value (1.670dl/g) in comparison to CSS samples (1.325-1.397dl/g). Berry number and the slope of master curve demonstrated that CSS and WS samples were in dilute domain without entanglement occurrence. The shape factor suggested spherical and ellipsoidal structure for CO5041 starch and ellipsoidal for CDC Maria starch and WS. The molecular weight, coil radius and coil volume of CSSs were smaller than WS. The behavior and molecular characterization of canary seed starch showed its unique properties compared with wheat starch. PMID:26902890

  15. Motion artifact detection in four-dimensional computed tomography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouilhol, G.; Ayadi, M.; Pinho, R.; Rit, S.; Sarrut, D.

    2014-03-01

    Motion artifacts appear in four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) images because of suboptimal acquisition parameters or patient breathing irregularities. Frequency of motion artifacts is high and they may introduce errors in radiation therapy treatment planning. Motion artifact detection can be useful for image quality assessment and 4D reconstruction improvement but manual detection in many images is a tedious process. We propose a novel method to evaluate the quality of 4DCT images by automatic detection of motion artifacts. The method was used to evaluate the impact of the optimization of acquisition parameters on image quality at our institute. 4DCT images of 114 lung cancer patients were analyzed. Acquisitions were performed with a rotation period of 0.5 seconds and a pitch of 0.1 (74 patients) or 0.081 (40 patients). A sensitivity of 0.70 and a specificity of 0.97 were observed. End-exhale phases were less prone to motion artifacts. In phases where motion speed is high, the number of detected artifacts was systematically reduced with a pitch of 0.081 instead of 0.1 and the mean reduction was 0.79. The increase of the number of patients with no artifact detected was statistically significant for the 10%, 70% and 80% respiratory phases, indicating a substantial image quality improvement.

  16. PREPARATION, CHRACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF STARCH CITRATE- A NEW MODIFIED STARCH AS A DISINTEGRANT IN TABLET FORMULATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    K. P. R. Chowdary

    2011-01-01

    Starch citrate prepared by reacting potato starch with citric acid at elevated temperatures was found to be a white, crystalline, non-hygroscopic powder. Starch citrate prepared exhibited excellent flow characteristics. Starch citrate was insoluble in water and aqueous fluids of acidic and alkaline pHs. It also exhibited good swelling (1500%) in water. It has no pasting or gelling property when heated at 1000C in water for 30 min. As starch citrate exhibited good swelling in water it is consi...

  17. Starch synthase 4 is essential for coordination of starch granule formation with chloroplast division during Arabidopsis leaf expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Crumpton-Taylor, Matilda; Pike, Marilyn; Lu, Kuan-Jen; Hylton, Christopher M.; Feil, Regina; Eicke, Simona; Lunn, John E.; Zeeman, Samuel C.; Smith, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking the SS4 isoform of starch synthase have strongly reduced numbers of starch granules per chloroplast, suggesting that SS4 is necessary for the normal generation of starch granules. To establish whether it plays a direct role in this process, we investigated the circumstances in which granules are formed in ss4 mutants. Starch granule numbers and distribution and the accumulation of starch synthase substrates and products were investigated during ss4 leaf de...

  18. Cooking behavior and starch digestibility of NUTRIOSE® (resistant starch) enriched noodles from sweet potato flour and starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Renjusha; Padmaja, G; Sajeev, M S

    2015-09-01

    The effect of a resistant starch source, NUTRIOSE® FB06 at 10%, 15% and 20% in sweet potato flour (SPF) and 5% and 10% in sweet potato starch (SPS) in reducing the starch digestibility and glycaemic index of noodles was investigated. While NUTRIOSE (10%) significantly reduced the cooking loss in SPF noodles, this was enhanced in SPS noodles and guar gum (GG) supplementation reduced CL of both noodles. In vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) was significantly reduced in test noodles compared to 73.6g glucose/100g starch in control SPF and 65.9 g in SPS noodles. Resistant starch (RS) was 54.96% for NUTRIOSE (15%)+GG (1%) fortified SPF noodles and 53.3% for NUTRIOSE (5%)+GG (0.5%) fortified SPS noodles, as against 33.8% and 40.68%, respectively in SPF and SPS controls. Lowest glycaemic index (54.58) and the highest sensory scores (4.23) were obtained for noodles with 15% NUTRIOSE+1% GG. PMID:25842330

  19. Adiabatic Low-Pass J Filters for Artifact Suppression in Heteronuclear NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sebastian; Benie, Andrew J; Duus, Jens Øllgaard;

    2009-01-01

    NMR artifact purging: Modern NMR experiments depend on efficient coherence transfer pathways for their sensitivity and on suppression of undesired pathways leading to artifacts for their spectral clarity. A novel robust adiabatic element suppresses hard-to-get-at artifacts.......NMR artifact purging: Modern NMR experiments depend on efficient coherence transfer pathways for their sensitivity and on suppression of undesired pathways leading to artifacts for their spectral clarity. A novel robust adiabatic element suppresses hard-to-get-at artifacts....

  20. Towards a concept of community artifact ecology in HCI?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Korsgaard, Henrik

    workplaces do. This has implications on understanding how to research and design HCI for communities but also on refining the ecological perspective in HCI. We look in particular at examples from preliminary research on a local self-organised urban community and discuss what existing concepts in the ecology......In this paper we introduce the concept of community artifact ecology. We argue that taking a community perspective on the concept of artifact ecologies is relevant in HCI because communities are also dealing with multitudes of artifacts, in ways di↵erent that individuals, organizations or...... literature are relevant to consider and how they change with the community perspective....

  1. Automatic correction of dental artifacts in PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Claes N.; Andersen, Flemming L.; Keller, Sune;

    2015-01-01

    A challenge when using current magnetic resonance (MR)-based attenuation correction in positron emission tomography/MR imaging (PET/MRI) is that the MRIs can have a signal void around the dental fillings that is segmented as artificial air-regions in the attenuation map. For artifacts connected to...... anatomical air-regions by first using a template of artifact regions, and second, representing the artifact regions with a combination of active shape models and k-nearest-neighbors. The accuracy of the combined method has been evaluated using 25 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/MR patients. Results showed that...

  2. Artifact reduction strategies for prosthetic heart valve CT imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Habets, Jesse; Symersky, Petr; Leiner, Tim; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.; Willem P Th M Mali; Budde, Ricardo P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Multislice CT evaluation of prosthetic heart valves (PHV) is limited by PHV-related artifacts. We assessed the influence of different kV settings, a metal artifact reduction filter (MARF) and an iterative reconstruction algorithm (IR) on PHV-induced artifacts in an in vitro model. A Medtronic-Hall tilting disc and St Jude bileafet PHV were imaged using a 64-slice scanner with 100 kV/165 mAs, 120 kV/100 mAs, 140 kV/67 mAs at an equal CTDIvol. Images were reconstructed with (1) filtered back pr...

  3. Starch-based completely biodegradable polymer materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Starch is a natural polymer which possesses many unique properties and some shortcoming simultaneously. Some synthetic polymers are biodegradable and can be tailor-made easily. Therefore, by combining the individual advantages of starch and synthetic polymers, starch-based completely biodegradable polymers (SCBP are potential for applications in biomedical and environmental fields. Therefore it received great attention and was extensively investigated. In this paper, the structure and characteristics of starch and some synthetic degradable polymers are briefly introduced. Then, the recent progress about the preparation of SCBP via physical blending and chemical modification is reviewed and discussed. At last, some examples have been presented to elucidate that SCBP are promising materials for various applications and their development is a good solution for reducing the consumption of petroleum resources and environmental problem.

  4. Production of modified starches by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a new processing method for the production of modified starch, gamma irradiation and four kinds of inorganic peroxides were applied to commercial corn starch. The addition of inorganic peroxides without gamma irradiation or gamma irradiation without the addition of inorganic peroxides effectively decreased initial viscosity, but did not sufficiently keep viscosity stable. The combination of adding ammonium persulfate (APS) and gamma irradiation showed the lowest initial viscosity and the best stability out of the tested four kinds of inorganic peroxides. Among the tested mixing methods of APS, soaking was found to be more effective than dry blending or spraying. Therefore, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with sufficient viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added APS to starch

  5. Starch Modification by Graft Copolymerization of Acrylonitrile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞贤; 李莉; 茹宗玲; 张黎明; 高建平; 田汝川

    2003-01-01

    The graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) onto starch under the initiation of potassium permanganate was investigated. The effect of various reaction conditions on the graft copolymerization was studied. The relationships between the grafting rate and the initiator concentration of potassium permanganate, monomer acrylonitrile and backbone starch, as well as reaction temperature were established. The oxidation reaction of starch with manganic ions and valence changes of manganic ions during the graft copolymerization were discussed. The results show that manganic ion Mn7+ underwent a series of valence changes during the graft copolymerization: Mn(Ⅶ) → Mn(Ⅳ) → Mn(Ⅲ) → Mn(Ⅱ). The grafting rate of the graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto starch is also given.

  6. Waxy maize starch nanocrystals for composite applications

    OpenAIRE

    Angellier, Hélène

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous suspensions of waxy maize starch nanocrystals are obtained by acid hydrolysis of native starch granules. The first objective was to optimize the preparation of such nanocrystals using a response surface methodology. Then, their molecular structure has been studied by enzymatic analysis and their surface chemical modification has been investigated. The second objective was to use these nanocrystals in a polymer matrix. Two natural polymers have been chosen: a latex of natural rubber an...

  7. Development of starch-based materials

    OpenAIRE

    Habeych Narvaez, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Starch-based materials show potential as fully degradable plastics. However, the current applicability of these materials is limited due to their poor moisture tolerance and mechanical properties. Starch is therefore frequently blended with other polymers to make the material more suitable for special or severe circumstances. By varying the components of the blend and the process conditions, the morphology and hence the properties can be controlled. A clear understanding over the structure fo...

  8. Genetic modification of cassava enhances starch production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Recently, a field test of transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) for enhanced starch production by the Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology & Ecology (SIPPE), the CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, proved successful. Through application of transgenic technologies in cassava, the starch quality of this tropical root crop was largely improved. The new cassava cultivars are believed to have a tremendous potential for industrial application in the future.

  9. Analytic solutions of an unclassified artifact /

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent, Bruce C.

    2012-03-01

    This report provides the technical detail for analytic solutions for the inner and outer profiles of the unclassified CMM Test Artifact (LANL Part Number 157Y-700373, 5/03/2001) in terms of radius and polar angle. Furthermore, analytic solutions are derived for the legacy Sheffield measurement hardware, also in terms of radius and polar angle, using part coordinates, i.e., relative to the analytic profile solutions obtained. The purpose of this work is to determine the exact solution for the “cosine correction” term inherent to measurement with the Sheffield hardware. The cosine correction is required in order to interpret the actual measurements taken by the hardware in terms of an actual part definition, or “knot-point spline definition,” that typically accompanies a component drawing. Specifically, there are two portions of the problem: first an analytic solution must be obtained for any point on the part, e.g., given the radii and the straight lines that define the part, it is required to find an exact solution for the inner and outer profile for any arbitrary polar angle. Next, the problem of the inspection of this part must be solved, i.e., given an arbitrary sphere (representing the inspection hardware) that comes in contact with the part (inner and outer profiles) at any arbitrary polar angle, it is required to determine the exact location of that intersection. This is trivial for the case of concentric circles. In the present case, however, the spherical portion of the profiles is offset from the defined center of the part, making the analysis nontrivial. Here, a simultaneous solution of the part profiles and the sphere was obtained.

  10. Provenance studies of archaeological artifacts using PGNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis PGAA is a neutron based non destructive analytical method for measurements of the elemental composition of samples. In the method, the slow neutron radiative capture transmutes the sample nuclides, which then emit prompt gamma radiations. The energy distribution of the radiation is characteristic for each element and the intensitiesof the peaks are proportional to the quantity of the element and the intensities of the peaks are proportionnal to the quantity of the elements in the sample. The PGAA is useful for quantitative determination of major elements and one of the best for light elements, being especially sensitive for hydrogen. In some cases, when the capture cross section is high (B, Cd, Sm, Dy), it can provide trace element concentrations. It is insensitive to the chemical composition of the sample, wich complements methods that are sensitive to the chemical forms. One of our main fields of applications in the provenance of archecological artifacts, which will be presented in the talk. The non destructive PGAA can be used to perform provenance studies in the case of obsidian finds from West Belkan region (Croatia and Bosnia) using statistical methods for analysing elemental composition data. Boron and chlorine based classification of obsidians is new; thus it cannot be compared to litterature data. Analysis based on major components is in agreement with the boron and chlorine results. The Croatian archeological finds without local geological sources can be associated with Carpathian or mediterranean sources. Sardinia and Melos can be excluded from the possible sources of raw materials. Within the Carpathian obsidians, source regions C1, C2 and C3 can be also distinguished with PGAA.

  11. Preparation of porous hydroxyapatite ceramics with starch additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lei; NING Xiao-shan; CHEN Ke-xin; XIAO Qun-fang; ZHOU He-ping

    2005-01-01

    Porous ceramics prepared from nano-sized hydroxyapatite powders by adding water soluble starch and insoluble starch were investigated. The results show that small pores of several micrometers or less can be produced by adding water soluble starch as a pore former. Two kinds of starch have different pore forming mechanisms. The permeability of the porous ceramics can be greatly improved by adding the insoluble starch to channel the small pores rather than solely using water soluble starch. The control of permeability can be achieved by adjusting the content ratio of water soluble starch to insoluble starch. Strength tests show the ceramics have rather high strength. Therefore a kind of porous filtering material with small pores, controllable permeability and good strength can be prepared by using starch additives.

  12. Radiation grafting of styrene on starch with high efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, N.; Akhavan, A.; Ataeivarjovi, E.

    2013-04-01

    Wheat starch grafted with polystyrene (PS-g-starch) was synthesized via polymerization grafting of styrene on starch by gamma-ray. The effects of starch/styrene weight ratio, and amount of applied doses (5-40 kGy) on the percentage of grafting, G (%), were investigated. The results showed that G (%) increased with increasing starch content. The optimum condition, starch/styrene weight ratio 1/3 and the applied dose 10 kGy, led to 252.9% of grafting. The obtained graft copolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. FTIR spectroscopy as well as the XRD analysis exhibited the changes in chemical and crystalline structure of starch after grafting reaction. TGA demonstrated the changes in thermal stability of PS-g-starch copolymer. SEM micrographs indicated porous patches of PS adhering on the starch.

  13. Estimates of cluster-impact fusion yields

    OpenAIRE

    Carraro, C.; Chen, B. Q.; Schramm, S.; Koonin, S. E.

    1990-01-01

    We present several theoretical estimates of D+D fusion rates for heavy-water molecular clusters impacting on TiD targets. Our considerations range from the simple thick-target yield to single- and multiple-deuteron knock-on to thermonuclear and thermal-spike models; detailed molecular-dynamics simulations are also presented. Each of our models fails, by many orders of magnitude, to reproduce the yields observed in recent experiments. We consider the extent to which experimental artifacts migh...

  14. Reduction of artifacts caused by metallic objects in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new algorithm for the reduction of artifacts on computed tomographic scans caused by the presence of metallic objects has been compared with a simpler algorithm. Comparisons have been made on a number of cases, including dental fillings, surgical clips, vertebral support rods, and metal hip prostheses. The simpler method removes the projection data corresponding to paths through the metal by curve fitting to data and both sides of the metal. The simpler method successfully removes the original artifacts but introduces new artifacts from bone-tissue and tissue-air interfaces. The new techniques produces improved results by estimating the contributions from other high-density structures with use of a high-resolution reprojector. The results obtained with the new method are free of the additional artifacts produced in the simpler method, particularly in the case of coronal head scans with dental fillings

  15. Medical image of the week: PSG sweat artifact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A 61-year-old man, with a past medical history significant for hypertension, COPD and morbid obesity with a body mass index (BMI of 45.81 is referred for an overnight sleep study for suspicion of obstructive sleep apnea. Artifact was noted on the polysomnogram recording as shown above (Figures 1-3. Sweat artifact is characterized by slow undulating movement of the baseline recording in the affected channels due to perspiration altering the potential of the involved electrodes (1. Sweat artifact may mimic delta waves and scored as non-rapid eye movement (NREM stage 3 sleep. Lowering the room temperature, using a fan on the scalp or replacing the conductive paste on the electrodes may help eliminate the artifact.

  16. Metal artifact reduction based on the combined prior image

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yanbo

    2014-01-01

    Metallic implants introduce severe artifacts in CT images, which degrades the image quality. It is an effective method to reduce metal artifacts by replacing the metal affected projection with the forward projection of a prior image. How to find a good prior image is the key of this class methods, and numerous algorithms have been proposed to address this issue recently. In this work, by using image mutual correlation, pixels in the original reconstructed image or linear interpolation corrected image, which are less affected by artifacts, are selected to build a combined image. Thereafter, a better prior image is generated from the combined image by using tissue classification. The results of three patients' CT images show that the proposed method can reduce metal artifacts remarkably.

  17. Contrast artifacts in tapping tip atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhle, Anders; Sørensen, Alexis Hammer; Zandbergen, Julie Bjerring; Bohr, Jakob

    When recording images with an atomic force microscope using the resonant vibrating cantilever mode, surprising strange results are often achieved. Typical artifacts are strange contours, unexpected height shifts, and sudden changes of the apparent resolution in the acquired images. Such artifacts...... can be related to the dynamical properties of the cantilever under the influence of the force between the tip and the sample. The damping of the cantilever oscillation can be either due to attractive interaction between the tip and the sample or due to a combination of attractive and repulsive...... interaction. The oscillating cantilever will be in a specific swing mode according to which type of interaction is dominating, and it is the switching between these modes that is responsible for a range of artifacts observed during image acquisition. This includes the artifact often referred to as "contrast...

  18. Pulse transducer with artifact signal attenuator. [heart rate sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, W. H., Jr.; Polhemus, J. T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An artifact signal attenuator for a pulse rate sensor is described. The circuit for attenuating background noise signals is connected with a pulse rate transducer which has a light source and a detector for light reflected from blood vessels of a living body. The heart signal provided consists of a modulated dc signal voltage indicative of pulse rate. The artifact signal resulting from light reflected from the skin of the body comprises both a constant dc signal voltage and a modulated dc signal voltage. The amplitude of the artifact signal is greater and the frequency less than that of the heart signal. The signal attenuator circuit includes an operational amplifier for canceling the artifact signal from the output signal of the transducer and has the capability of meeting packaging requirements for wrist-watch-size packages.

  19. Characteristics of Hydroxypropyl Starch of Sorghum Mutant Line ZH-30 and its Potential use in Paper Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Human

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum mutant line Zh-30 is a breeding line developed at the Center for the Application of Isotope and Radiation Technology, BATAN by using mutation techniques. Gamma irradiation with the dose of 300 Gy was used to induced plant genetic variability. Through selection processes in several generations, the mutant line Zh-30 was identified to have better agronomic characteristics, better grain quality and higher yield than the original variety. Research on starch quality of this mutant line was done to identify its potential use in a paper industry. Hydroxypropyl starch derivatives of this sorghum lines were prepared by varying alkalinity of the reaction mixtures using propylene oxide to reach Molar of Substitution (MS of 0–0.180. Its pasting behavior, paste properties and application in wet end paper processing were evaluated. The optimal amount of addition of hydroxypropyl starch was 1-2 %. At this level, drainage time was lower, so that it decreased paper machine speed. At higher level, it did not improve the burst and tensile strengths but tended to decrease the tear strength of handsheets. The properties of lower pasting temperature, higher water holding capacity lower retrogradation susceptibility, increased viscosity and stability of pastes suggested that hydroxypropyl starch of sorghum ZH-30 was suitable for use in wet end paper processing. Comparing to the original starch, the hydroxypropyl starch of sorghum Zh-30 could significantly improve the strength of handsheets.

  20. Characteristics of Hydroxypropyl Starch of Sorghum Mutant Line Zh-30 and its Potential use in Paper Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorghum mutant line Zh-30 is a breeding line developed at the Center for the Application of Isotope and Radiation Technology, BATAN by using mutation techniques. Gamma Irradiation with the dose of 300 Gy was used to induced plant genetic variability. Through selection processes in several generations, the mutant line Zh-30 was identified to have better agronomic characteristics, better grain quality and higher yield than the original variety. Research on starch quality of this mutant line was done to identify its potential use in a paper industry. Hydroxypropyl starch derivatives of this sorghum lines were prepared by varying alkalinity of the reaction mixtures using propylene oxide to reach Molar of Substitution (MS) of 0-0.180. Its pasting behavior, paste properties and application in wet end paper processing were evaluated. The optimal amount of addition of hydroxypropyl starch was 1-2 %. At this level, drainage time was lower, so that it decreased paper machine speed. At higher level, it did not improve the burst and tensile strengths but tended to decrease the tear strength of handsheets. The properties of lower pasting temperature, higher water holding capacity lower retrogradation susceptibility, increased viscosity and stability of pastes suggested that hydroxypropyl starch of sorghum Zh-30 was suitable for use in wet end paper processing. Comparing to the original starch, the hydroxypropyl starch of sorghum Zh-30 could significantly improve the strength of handsheets. (author)

  1. Aerobic oxidation of starch catalyzed by isopolyoxovanadate Na4Co(H2O)6V10O28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Yan, Siqi; Wang, Hang; Hu, Zhiyun; Wang, Xiaohong; Huo, Mingxin

    2015-03-01

    The partial oxidation of starch was achieved in the presence of oxygen with Na4Co(H2O)6V10O28·18H2O (abbreviated as CoV10) as catalyst. The oxidation degree of starch was determined by FT-IR, XRD and SEM measurements, which indicated that the aerobic oxidation of starch was promoted by oxidative catalyst CoV10. The application of CoV10 could give a high oxidation degree (DO) of 1.35 COOH/100 GU and 2.07 CO/100 GU with 86 wt.% yield of solid starch under mild reaction conditions (pH=6; reaction time, 8 h; temperature, 50 °C; catalyst amount, 8 mg, when 1.5 g starch was used as substrate; atmospheric pressure). Among some vanadium compounds, CoV10 exhibited 4-fold activity higher than orthovanadate due to its coordination effect of cobalt and V10O28. Meanwhile, CoV10 could be recycled for six times with only a slight decrease in activity. Thus, CoV10/O2 is one of the most efficient systems for partial oxidation of starch reported so far. PMID:25498687

  2. Mitigation of artifacts in rtm with migration kernel decomposition

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge

    2012-01-01

    The migration kernel for reverse-time migration (RTM) can be decomposed into four component kernels using Born scattering and migration theory. Each component kernel has a unique physical interpretation and can be interpreted differently. In this paper, we present a generalized diffraction-stack migration approach for reducing RTM artifacts via decomposition of migration kernel. The decomposition leads to an improved understanding of migration artifacts and, therefore, presents us with opportunities for improving the quality of RTM images.

  3. A patient-specific scatter artifacts correction method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Wei; Brunner, Stephen; NIU, KAI; Schafer, Sebastian; Royalty, Kevin; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a fast and patient-specific scatter artifact correction method for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) used in image-guided interventional procedures. Due to increased irradiated volume of interest in CBCT imaging, scatter radiation has increased dramatically compared to 2D imaging, leading to a degradation of image quality. In this study, we propose a scatter artifact correction strategy using an analytical convolution-based model whose free parameters are estimated usin...

  4. A new interpretation of distortion artifacts in sweep measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    The characterization of acoustical spaces by means of impulse response measurements is often biased by the nonlinear behavior of the loudspeaker used to excite the system under test. In this context the distortion immunity provided by the sweep technique has been investigated. The results show that...... the sweep method can reject a significant amount of distortion artifacts but, in contrast to what is claimed in the literature, it cannot exclude all distortion artifacts from the causal part of the estimated impulse response....

  5. Reduction of metal artifacts: beam hardening and photon starvation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadava, Girijesh K.; Pal, Debashish; Hsieh, Jiang

    2014-03-01

    The presence of metal-artifacts in CT imaging can obscure relevant anatomy and interfere with disease diagnosis. The cause and occurrence of metal-artifacts are primarily due to beam hardening, scatter, partial volume and photon starvation; however, the contribution to the artifacts from each of them depends on the type of hardware. A comparison of CT images obtained with different metallic hardware in various applications, along with acquisition and reconstruction parameters, helps understand methods for reducing or overcoming such artifacts. In this work, a metal beam hardening correction (BHC) and a projection-completion based metal artifact reduction (MAR) algorithms were developed, and applied on phantom and clinical CT scans with various metallic implants. Stainless-steel and Titanium were used to model and correct for metal beam hardening effect. In the MAR algorithm, the corrupted projection samples are replaced by the combination of original projections and in-painted data obtained by forward projecting a prior image. The data included spine fixation screws, hip-implants, dental-filling, and body extremity fixations, covering range of clinically used metal implants. Comparison of BHC and MAR on different metallic implants was used to characterize dominant source of the artifacts, and conceivable methods to overcome those. Results of the study indicate that beam hardening could be a dominant source of artifact in many spine and extremity fixations, whereas dental and hip implants could be dominant source of photon starvation. The BHC algorithm could significantly improve image quality in CT scans with metallic screws, whereas MAR algorithm could alleviate artifacts in hip-implants and dentalfillings.

  6. Artifact suppression and analysis of brain activities with electroencephalography signals

    OpenAIRE

    Rashed-Al-Mahfuz, Md.; Islam, Md. Rabiul; Hirose, Keikichi; Molla, Md. Khademul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interface is a communication system that connects the brain with computer (or other devices) but is not dependent on the normal output of the brain (i.e., peripheral nerve and muscle). Electro-oculogram is a dominant artifact which has a significant negative influence on further analysis of real electroencephalography data. This paper presented a data adaptive technique for artifact suppression and brain wave extraction from electroencephalography signals to detect regional bra...

  7. Artifact versus arrhythmia in pseudo-polymorphic tachycardia; case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed V; Patel A; Sharma A; Bloomfield D

    2015-01-01

    Vaseem Ahmed, Anish Patel, Abhishek Sharma, Dennis Bloomfield Department of Medicine, Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY, USA Abstract: We present the case of a young male patient in sinus rhythm whose electrocardiogram (ECG) was initially misinterpreted as ventricular tachycardia. Electrocardiographic artifact appearing to be ventricular tachycardia commonly occurs and ECG criteria have been described to aid in the discrimination between artifact and true arrhythmia. Ther...

  8. Radiation Induced Preparation of Compatibilizer (Starch-g-PS) and Its Application for PS/Starch Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starch is added to polystyrene (PS) for the purpose of increasing degradability of PS. The use of compatibilizer can promote compatibility for PS/Starch blends. The most common form of compatibilizers is graft copolymers. In this work graft copolymerization of styrene onto gelatinized wheat starch by a mutual irradiation technique was carried out. Irradiation was done under γ-rays in nitrogen atmosphere and product was characterized by FTIR, DSC and SEM techniques. PS was blended with wheat starch using the addition of Starch-g-PS as the compatibilizer. Also similar blend without the presence of compatibilizer was prepared as control sample. Both of blends, PS/Starch-g-PS/Starch and PS/Starch, were tested by measuring the tensile properties, water absorption and microscopic observation of surface structure. The results showed that the presence of Starch-g-PS in blend lead to the improvement of miscibility and properties

  9. Effect of starch types on properties of biodegradable polymer based on thermoplastic starch process by injection molding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossathorn Tanetrungroj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study effects of different starch types on the properties of biodegradable polymer based on thermoplastic starch (TPS were investigated. Different types of starch containing different contents of amylose and amylopectin were used, i.e. cassava starch, mungbean starch, and arrowroot starch. The TPS polymers were compounded and shaped using an internal mixer and an injection molding machine, respectively. It was found that the amount of amylose and amylopectin contents on native starch influence the properties of the TPS polymer. A high amylose starch of TPMS led to higher strength, hardness, degree of crystallization than the high amylopectin starch of TPCS. In addition, function group analysis by Fourier transforms infrared spectrophotometer, water absorption, and biodegradation by soil burial test were also examined.

  10. Physicochemical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of potato starch/protein blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhan-Hui; Donner, Elizabeth; Yada, Rickey Y; Liu, Qiang

    2016-12-10

    This study aimed to investigate effects of starch-protein interactions on physicochemical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of composite potato starch/protein blends (0, 5, 10, or 15% protein) during processing (cooking, cooling and reheating). The effect on recrystallization and short-range ordering in starch was studied by light microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that protein in the blend proportionally restricted starch granule swelling during cooking and facilitated amylopectin recrystallization during cold-storage. The facilitating effect of protein diminished with increasing blend ratio. Resistant starch content in the processed blends was positively correlated to intensity ratio of 1053/1035cm(-1) in FTIR spectra arising from slow retrogradation of amylopectin (r(2)>0.88, P≤0.05), whose formation was favored by the presence of protein in the blends and further enhanced by cooling of cooked blends. As a conclusion, starch-protein interaction reduced starch digestibility of the processed blends. PMID:27577912

  11. Resistant-starch Formation in High-amylose Maize Starch During Kernel Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to understand the resistant-starch (RS) formation during the kernel development of high-amylose maize, GEMS-0067 line. RS content of the starch, determined using AOAC Method 991.43 for total dietary fiber, increased with kernel maturation and the increase in amylose/...

  12. Characterization of enzyme-resistant starch in maize amylose-extender mutant starches

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the human digestive system, a type of starch known as resistant starch (RS) can not be digested. RS is not absorbed in the small intestine, and is passed to the large intestine where it is fermented by bacteria to produce short-chain fatty acids, which have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory prop...

  13. STARCH-OIL INTERACTION IN DRY FILM LUBRICANTS WITH CHEMICALLY MODIFIED STARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch is one of the most abundant farm-based raw materials. It is a significant component of such high volume commodity crops as corn, potato, rice, wheat, and barley. Because of the large surplus of these crops over demand, there is a great deal of interest in developing new uses for starch-base...

  14. Characterization of starch films containing starch nanoparticles: part 1: physical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ai-Min; Wang, Li-Jun; Li, Dong; Adhikari, Benu

    2013-07-25

    We report, for the first time, the preparation method and characteristics of starch films incorporating spray dried and vacuum freeze dried starch nanoparticles. Physical properties of these films such as morphology, crystallinity, water vapor permeability (WVP), opacity, and glass transition temperature (Tg) and mechanical properties (strain versus temperature, strain versus stress, Young's modulus and toughness) were measured. Addition of both starch nanoparticles in starch films increased roughness of surface, lowered degree of crystallinity by 23.5%, WVP by 44% and Tg by 4.3°C, respectively compared to those of starch-only films. Drying method used in preparation of starch nanoparticles only affected opacity of films. The incorporation of nanoparticles in starch films resulted into denser films due to which the extent of variation of strain with temperature was much lower. The toughness and Young's modulus of films containing both types of starch nanoparticles were lower than those of control films especially at <100°C. PMID:23768605

  15. Polymer-polymer miscibility in PEO/cationic starch and PEO/hydrophobic starch blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purposes were evaluating the influence of different starches on the miscibility with Poly(ethylene oxide (PEO and their effects on the spherulite growth rate. Polymer-polymer miscibility in PEO/cationic starch and PEO/hydrophobic starch blends consisting of different w/w ratios (100/0, 95/05, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 65/35 and 60/40 was investigated. This analysis was based on the depression in the equilibrium melting temperature (Tm0. By treating the data of thermal analysis (Differential Scanning Calorimetry – DSC with Nishi-Wang equation, a positive value (0.68 was found for the interaction parameter of PEO/cationic starch. For PEO/hydrophobic starch blends, a negative value (–0.63 was obtained for the interaction parameter. The results suggested that PEO/cationic starch system should be immiscible. However, the system PEO/hydrophobic starch was considered to be miscible in the whole range of studied compositions. Through optical microscopy analysis, it was concluded that the spherulite growth rate is significantly affected by changing the amount and the type of starch as well.

  16. In vitro starch digestion correlates well with rate and extent of starch digestion in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.; Veldman, R.; Veen, W.A.G.; Aar, van der P.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for poultry are based on digested components (fat, protein and nitrogen-free extracts). Digestible starch is the most important energy source in broiler chicken feeds and is part of the nitrogen-free extract fraction. Digestible starch may be predicted using an in vit

  17. Effect of Drought Stress During Flowering Stage on Starch Accumulation and Starch Synthesis Enzymes in Sorghum Grains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Bing; ZHOU Yu-fei; GAO Ming-yue; ZHANG Zhuang; HAN Yi; YANG Guang-dong; XU Wen-juan; HUANG Rui-dong

    2014-01-01

    Starch content is a key factor affecting sorghum grain quality. The research of sorghum grain starch accumulation and the related synthesis enzyme activities has great signiifcance for understanding the mechanisms of starch metabolisms. The differences between a high and a low starch content sorghum hybrids (Tieza 17 and Liaoza 11, respectively) in grain starch accumulation and the related synthesis enzyme activities were assessed following imposition of water stress during lfowering stage. The total starch, amylase and amylopectin accumulation all decreased at the mid-late stage of grain iflling under drought stress during lfowering stage. The maximum and mean accumulation rates also decreased. During grain iflling, soluble starch synthase (SSS), granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS), starch branching enzyme (SBE), and starch debranching enzymes (DBE) activities were all affected, though differently. Drought stress reduced starch accumulation in a larger extent for Tieza 17 than Liaoza 11. Drought stress during lfowing stage reduced starch synthesis enzyme activities, thus reducing starch accumulation in grains, and the differences between starch components were also demonstrated under drought stress.

  18. Effects of Weak Light on Starch Accumulation and Starch Synthesis Enzyme Activities in Rice at the Grain Filling Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tian; Ryu OHSUGI; Tohru YAMAGISHI; Haruto SASAKI

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic changes of starch, amylose, sucrose contents and the activities of starch synthesis enzymes under shading treatments after flowering were studied using two dce varieties IR72 (indica) and Nipponbare (japonica) as materials. Under shading treatments, the starch,amylose and sucrose contents decreased, while ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADPGPPase) activity only changed a little, soluble starch synthase activity and granule bound starch synthase activity decreased, soluble starch branching enzyme (SSBE, Q-enzyme) activity and granule bound starch branching enzyme (GBSBE, Q-enzyme) activity increased, and starch debranching enzyme (DBE, R-enzyme) activity vaded with varieties. Correlation analyses showed that the changes of starch content were positively and significantly correlated with the changes of sucrose content in the weak light. Both ADPGPPase activity and SSBE activity were positively and significantly correlated with starch accumulation rate. It was implied that the decline of starch synthase activities was related to the decrease of starch content and the increase of the activity of starch branching enzyme played an important role in the decrease of the ratio of amylose to the total starch under the weak light.

  19. Physicochemical Properties of Gamma-Irradiated Corn Starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural modification of corn starch by gamma irradiation was evaluated for under dry conditions at varied intensities from 0 to 40 kGy. Under scanning electron microscopy, the granule shape of corn starch was not significantly affected by the irradiation up to 40 kGy. In addition, X-ray diffraction and melting patterns of the irradiated starches were similar to those of the native starch, indicating that crystalline regions in the starch granules were not changed by irradiation. However, the pattern of gel permeation column chromatography showed a significant increase in partial hydrolysis of gamma irradiated starch samples

  20. Degradation of corn starch under the influence of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of corn (maize) starch with different doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 1 x 105 rad to 1 x 106 rad resulted in the increase of starch acidity and reducing power. Molecular degradation was observed as a result of marked decrease in starch viscosity and intinsic viscosity as well as swelling capacity. The gelatinization time and temperature of the irradiated starch became shorter than in the control sample. Internal changes in the irradiated starch occured as a result of lowering the number of glucose unit per segment in the irradiated starch molecules. All changes were proportional to the doses of gamma irradiation used. (orig.)

  1. Effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat on milk production and energy partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Lock, A L

    2015-10-01

    The effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat to provide a diet with similar net energy for lactation (NEL) density on yields of milk and milk components and on energy partitioning were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n = 32; 109 ± 22 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence. Treatments were a high-starch diet containing 33% corn grain (mixture of dry ground and high-moisture corn; HS) or a high-fiber, high-fat diet containing 2.5% palmitic acid-enriched fatty acid (FA) supplement (HFF). Diets contained corn silage, alfalfa silage, and wheat straw as forage sources; HS contained 32% starch, 3.2% FA, and 25% neutral detergent fiber, whereas HFF contained 16% starch, 5.4% FA, and 33% neutral detergent fiber. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced milk yield, milk protein concentration, and milk protein yield, but increased milk fat concentration, milk fat yield, milk energy output, and milk to feed ratio (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake). The HFF treatment reduced the yield of de novo synthesized ( 16-carbon) milk FA was not different. The HFF treatment increased plasma concentrations of triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids, but decreased plasma concentration of insulin. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced body weight gain, change in body condition score, and fat thickness over the rump and rib. Calculated body energy gain, as a fraction of NEL use, was less for HFF than HS, whereas milk energy as a fraction of NEL use was increased for HFF. We concluded that the 2 treatments resulted in similar apparent NEL densities and intakes, but the HS treatment partitioned more energy toward body gain whereas the HFF treatment partitioned more energy toward milk. A high-fiber, high-fat diet might diminish the incidence of over conditioning in mid-lactation cows while maintaining high milk production. PMID:26233447

  2. Artifact removal from EEG signals using adaptive filters in cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artifacts in EEG (electroencephalogram) records are caused by various factors, like line interference, EOG (electro-oculogram) and ECG (electrocardiogram). These noise sources increase the difficulty in analyzing the EEG and to obtaining clinical information. For this reason, it is necessary to design specific filters to decrease such artifacts in EEG records. In this paper, a cascade of three adaptive filters based on a least mean squares (LMS) algorithm is proposed. The first one eliminates line interference, the second adaptive filter removes the ECG artifacts and the last one cancels EOG spikes. Each stage uses a finite impulse response (FIR) filter, which adjusts its coefficients to produce an output similar to the artifacts present in the EEG. The proposed cascade adaptive filter was tested in five real EEG records acquired in polysomnographic studies. In all cases, line-frequency, ECG and EOG artifacts were attenuated. It is concluded that the proposed filter reduces the common artifacts present in EEG signals without removing significant information embedded in these records

  3. MR imaging artifacts caused by abrasion of metallic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen patients with vertebral body fractures that had been stabilized by an internal spinal skeletal fixation system were prospectively examined by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging between February 1989 and November 1990 at the Department of Diagnostic Radiology of the University Hospital Freiburtg 3-7 days after removal of the metallic implants. In most cases imaging artifacts in the paraspinal extensor muscles were evident on MR studies. These were found especially in the region of the previous site of the metal clip jaw bearing. In a few cases artifacts were also present within the vertebral body and/or vertebral arch, but only if the vertebral body had been surgically reconstructed by transpedicular spongiosa implantation. None or only minor artifacts by abrasion of metal were detected if the (modified Schanz's) screws appeared to be tigth at surgical removal of the implants. Therefore, marked metal artifacts on MR imaging retrospectively indicate a chronic straining of the implants, which has been shown to be a risk factor for implant loosening. Additional in vitro studies with powdered metallic alloy showed that as little as 1 mg of metal could be detected as artifacts in routine spin-echo sequences. When the metallic pieces were large enough to be seen on conventional radiographs or computed tomograms, they caused severe, distorting artifacts on MR imaging. It is concluded that MR imaging is the method of choice for detection of small amounts of metal. (orig.)

  4. Detection of eye blink artifacts from single prefrontal channel electroencephalogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Won-Du; Cha, Ho-Seung; Kim, Kiwoong; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Eye blinks are one of the most influential artifact sources in electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded from frontal channels, and thereby detecting and rejecting eye blink artifacts is regarded as an essential procedure for improving the quality of EEG data. In this paper, a novel method to detect eye blink artifacts from a single-channel frontal EEG signal was proposed by combining digital filters with a rule-based decision system, and its performance was validated using an EEG dataset recorded from 24 healthy participants. The proposed method has two main advantages over the conventional methods. First, it uses single-channel EEG data without the need for electrooculogram references. Therefore, this method could be particularly useful in brain-computer interface applications using headband-type wearable EEG devices with a few frontal EEG channels. Second, this method could estimate the ranges of eye blink artifacts accurately. Our experimental results demonstrated that the artifact range estimated using our method was more accurate than that from the conventional methods, and thus, the overall accuracy of detecting epochs contaminated by eye blink artifacts was markedly increased as compared to conventional methods. The MATLAB package of our library source codes and sample data, named Eyeblink Master, is open for free download. PMID:26560852

  5. Clinical application of MR PROPELLER technology in artifacts reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical value of PROPELLER (periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines enhanced reconstruction, PROPELLER). Methods: Four sequences of conventionality and PROPELLER axial T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and/or diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) were performed in ten normal volunteers with head ceaseless motion and 64 clinical subjects. Motion artifacts were observed in 56 patients in unconsciousness and magnetic-sensitive artifacts in other 8 patients with metallic implants. PROPELLER images and the conventionality images were compared. Results: Sixty-four clinical subjects included the cerebral infarction (n=41), brain metastasis (n=3) and other's disorders (n=20). PROPELLER T2WI had clearer and motion-artifact-free images in both volunteers and patients in unconsciousness. In dental treatment cases, magnetic-susceptibility artifacts were greatly reduced to an accepted level. Comparing with conventional sequences, PROPELLER T2WI/DWI sequences showed promising feature in reduction of artifacts and distinctly defined pathological profile. Conclusion: MR PROPELLER technique offers a means of reducing motion and metallic artifacts, and improving image quality. Intracranial pathology is equally or better demonstrated with PROPELLER. (authors)

  6. Direct Production of Ethanol from Raw Corn Starch via Fermentation by Use of a Novel Surface-Engineered Yeast Strain Codisplaying Glucoamylase and α-Amylase

    OpenAIRE

    Shigechi, Hisayori; Koh, Jun; Fujita, Yasuya; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Bito, Yohei; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; SATOH, Eiichi; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2004-01-01

    Direct and efficient production of ethanol by fermentation from raw corn starch was achieved by using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae codisplaying Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase and Streptococcus bovis α-amylase by using the C-terminal-half region of α-agglutinin and the flocculation functional domain of Flo1p as the respective anchor proteins. In 72-h fermentation, this strain produced 61.8 g of ethanol/liter, with 86.5% of theoretical yield from raw corn starch.

  7. [Effects of water-nitrogen interaction on the contents and components of protein and starch in wheat grains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xue-Li; Wang, Chen-Yang; Guo, Tian-Cai; Zhu, Yun-Ji; Ma, Dong-Yun; Wang, Yong-Hua

    2008-02-01

    With wheat cultivars Yumai 34 (strong-gluten wheat) and Yumai 50 (weak-gluten wheat) as test materials, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of three irrigation treatments (irrigation at jointing stage, at jointing and grain-filling stages, and at jointing, grain-filling, and pre-maturing stages), three nitrogen application rates (0, 150, and 270 kg x hm(-2)), and their combinations on the contents and components of protein and starch in wheat grains. The results showed that for strong-gluten wheat cultivar Yumai 34, applying 270 kg x hm(-2) of N increased the total content of protein and the contents of albumin, gliadin and glutelin, and enhanced the glutelin/gliadin ratio. This application rate of nitrogen also increased the total content of starch and the content of amylopectin, and decreased the amylose/amylopetin ratio. For weak-gluten wheat cultivar Yumai 50, applying 150 kg x hm(-2) of N increased the contents of albumin and gliadin, and decreased the contents of globulin and glutelin and the glutelin/gliadin ratio. The amylopectin and starch contents also increased when the N application rate was 150 kg x hm(-2). Non-N fertilization or applying 270 kg x hm(-2) of N decreased the accumulation of protein and starch, and resulted in a decrease of grain yield. Among the irrigation treatments, irrigation at jointing and grain-filling stages promoted the accumulation of protein and starch in grains and increased the grain yield, while the other two treatments were unbeneficial to the accumulation of protein and starch and decreased the grain yield. Applying 270 kg x hm(-2) and 150 kg x hm(-2) of N combined with irrigation at jointing and grain-filling stages was the ideal management regime for the high yield and good quality of strong- and weak-gluten wheat cultivars, respectively. PMID:18464637

  8. Starch phosphorylation in potato tubers is influenced by allelic variation in the genes encoding glucan water dikinase, starch branching enzymes I and II, and starch synthase III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Ann Carpenter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Starch phosphorylation is an important aspect of plant metabolism due to its role in starch degradation. Moreover, the degree of phosphorylation of starch determines its physicochemical properties and is therefore relevant for industrial uses of starch. Currently, starch is chemically phosphorylated to increase viscosity and paste stability. Potato cultivars with elevated starch phosphorylation would make this process unnecessary, thereby bestowing economic and environmental benefits. Starch phosphorylation is a complex trait which has been previously shown by antisense gene repression to be influenced by a number of genes including those involved in starch synthesis and degradation. We have used an association mapping approach to discover genetic markers associated with the degree of starch phosphorylation. A diverse collection of 193 potato lines was grown in replicated field trials, and the levels of starch phosphorylation at the C6 and C3 positions of the glucosyl residues were determined by mass spectrometry of hydrolyzed starch from tubers. In addition, the potato lines were genotyped by amplicon sequencing and microsatellite analysis, focusing on candidate genes known to be involved in starch synthesis. As potato is an autotetraploid, genotyping included determination of allele dosage. Significant associations (p<0.001 were found with SNPs in the glucan water dikinase (GWD, starch branching enzyme I (SBEI and the starch synthase III (SSIII genes, and with a SSR allele in the SBEII gene. SNPs in the GWD gene were associated with C6 phosphorylation, whereas polymorphisms in the SBEI and SBEII genes were associated with both C6 and C3 phosphorylation and the SNP in the SSIII gene was associated with C3 phosphorylation. These allelic variants have potential as genetic markers for starch phosphorylation in potato.

  9. Effects of starch synthase IIa gene dosage on grain, protein and starch in endosperm of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konik-Rose, Christine; Thistleton, Jenny; Chanvrier, Helene; Tan, Ihwa; Halley, Peter; Gidley, Michael; Kosar-Hashemi, Behjat; Wang, Hong; Larroque, Oscar; Ikea, Joseph; McMaugh, Steve; Regina, Ahmed; Rahman, Sadequr; Morell, Matthew; Li, Zhongyi

    2007-11-01

    Starch synthases (SS) are responsible for elongating the alpha-1,4 glucan chains of starch. A doubled haploid population was generated by crossing a line of wheat, which lacks functional ssIIa genes on each genome (abd), and an Australian wheat cultivar, Sunco, with wild type ssIIa alleles on each genome (ABD). Evidence has been presented previously indicating that the SGP-1 (starch granule protein-1) proteins present in the starch granule in wheat are products of the ssIIa genes. Analysis of 100 progeny lines demonstrated co-segregation of the ssIIa alleles from the three genomes with the SGP-1 proteins, providing further evidence that the SGP-1 proteins are the products of the ssIIa genes. From the progeny lines, 40 doubled haploid lines representing the eight possible genotypes for SSIIa (ABD, aBD, AbD, ABd, abD, aBd, Abd, abd) were characterized for their grain weight, protein content, total starch content and starch properties. For some properties (chain length distribution, pasting properties, swelling power, and gelatinization properties), a progressive change was observed across the four classes of genotypes (wild type, single nulls, double nulls and triple nulls). However, for other grain properties (seed weight and protein content) and starch properties (total starch content, granule morphology and crystallinity, granule size distribution, amylose content, amylose-lipid dissociation properties), a statistically significant change only occurred for the triple nulls, indicating that all three genes had to be missing or inactive for a change to occur. These results illustrate the importance of SSIIa in controlling grain and starch properties and the importance of amylopectin fine structure in controlling starch granule properties in wheat. PMID:17721773

  10. The coherent artifact in modern pulse measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Ratner, Justin; Steinmeyer, Günter; Wong, Tsz Chun; Bartels, Randy; Trebino, Rick

    2012-01-01

    We simulate multi-shot intensity-and-phase measurements of unstable ultrashort-pulse trains using frequency-resolved-optical-gating (FROG) and spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER). Both techniques fail to reveal the pulse structure. FROG yields the average pulse duration and suggests the instability by exhibiting disagreement between measured and retrieved traces. SPIDER under-estimates the average pulse duration but retrieves the correct average pul...

  11. The coherent artifact in modern pulse measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Justin; Wong, Tsz Chun; Bartels, Randy; Trebino, Rick

    2012-01-01

    We simulate multi-shot intensity-and-phase measurements of unstable ultrashort-pulse trains using frequency-resolved-optical-gating (FROG) and spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER). Both techniques fail to reveal the pulse structure. FROG yields the average pulse duration and suggests the instability by exhibiting disagreement between measured and retrieved traces. SPIDER under-estimates the average pulse duration but retrieves the correct average pulse spectral phase. An analytical calculation confirms this behavior.

  12. Starch Granule Re-Structuring by Starch Branching Enzyme and Glucan Water Dikinase Modulation Affects Caryopsis Physiology and Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor S.; Obata, Toshihiro; Hebelstrup, Kim H;

    2016-01-01

    -structure was achieved by decreasing starch branching and increasing starch-bound phosphate content in the barley caryopsis starch by RNAi suppression of all three Starch Branching Enzyme (SBE) isoforms or overexpression of potato Glucan Water Dikinase (GWD). The resulting lines displayed Amylose-Only (AO) and Hyper...... high levels of some important stress-related metabolites and potentially protective metabolites, possibly to elude deleterious effects. Investigations on starch molecular structure revealed significant increase in starch phosphate and amylose content in HP and AO respectively with obvious differences...

  13. PATI RESISTEN SAGU HASIL PROSES HIDROLISIS ASAM DAN AUTOCLAVING-COOLING [Resistant Starch of Sago from Acid Hydrolyzis and Autoclaving-Cooling Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feri Kusnandar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to produce resistant starch (RS from a combination of acid hydrolysis and autoclaving-cooling processes of sago starch. This study compared two methods of starch modification to produce RS, i.e. (1 acid hydrolysis treatment followed by autoclaving-cooling cycles (AH-AC, and (2 autoclaving-cooling cycles followed by acid hydrolysis treatment (AC-AH. The acid hydrolysis used 1 and 2% HCl while autoclaving-cooling process consisted of three-cycle of autoclaving at 121°C for 30 min followed by cooling at 4°C for 72 hrs. Both AH-AC and AC-AH modification methods decreased starch content, altered amylose and amylopectin ratio, and increased RS contents. Both modification methods also yielded nearly flat pasting profiles at both heating and cooling phases as compared to that of native sago starch. At the same HCl concentration, the AH-AC process yielded a higher RS content than that of AC-AH. Among all treatments, the acid hydrolysis treatment using 1% HCl followed by three cycles of autoclaving-cooling process yielded the highest RS content (74.28%. The crystallinity of RS was also lower than of native sago starch, but its A crystalline type remained the same.

  14. Low-fat sodium-reduced sausages: Effect of the interaction between locust bean gum, potato starch and κ-carrageenan by a mixture design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Elizabeth; Totosaus, Alfonso

    2008-04-01

    A mixture design approach was used to evaluate interactions between potato starch, locust bean gum and κ-carrageenan and their effect on cooking yield, expressible moisture, texture and color in low-fat sodium-reduced sausages formulated with potassium and calcium chloride. Starch had a notable influence on cooking yield and texture, increasing product hardness and resilience as starch proportion increased. The added salt did not allow complete starch granule gelatinization and swelling, which negatively affected water retention, cohesiveness and lightness. Locust bean gum and κ-carrageenan improved cooking yield and reduced expressible moisture in formulations containing higher proportions of potato starch. The presence of other ions could have enhanced κ-carrageenan functionality and its synergistic interaction with locust bean gum, improving texture and water retention, with only minor effects on sausage color. At the lower tested proportions starch can be used as an extender in low-fat cooked meat products if κ-carrageenan and locust bean gum are included in similar proportions. PMID:22062459

  15. Historical Artifact Collection at the East Tennessee Technology Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) was originally built during World War II as part of the Manhattan Project. Known as the K-25 Site, its primary mission was to enrich uranium for use in atomic weapons. During the Cold War, the site's mission was changed to include the enrichment of uranium for nuclear reactor fuel elements and to recycle spent fuel. In the 1980's, a reduction in the demand for nuclear fuel resulted in the shutdown of the enrichment process and production ceased. The emphasis of the mission for the ETTP was then changed to environmental management and restoration operation. Beginning in the 1990's, re-industrialization (conversion of under-utilized government facilities for use by the private sector) became a major mission at the ETTP. These activities involve cleaning and demolishing facilities. Decommission and demolition (D and D) of facilities at the ETTP or Manhattan Project K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) presented significant challenges complying with the requirements of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) that was negotiated with the stakeholders. Development of a process to identify, record and preserve the artifacts and the cooperation of several agencies and contractors were critical to completing the collection of the artifacts without impacting the D and D project schedule. Additional challenges included contaminated and classified artifacts, entry to facilities with hazardous conditions, schedule pressures and funding for collection and permanent storage. A process was developed to achieve compliance with the requirements of the NHPA. The NHPA requirements and implementing instruments at the ETTP as well as the process developed to preserve significant Manhattan Project era artifacts at the ETTP will be discussed. Implementation of the artifact collection process is also summarized. The challenge of complying with the

  16. Preparation of metallic nanoparticles by irradiation in starch aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemţanu, Monica R., E-mail: monica.nemtanu@inflpr.ro; Braşoveanu, Mirela, E-mail: monica.nemtanu@inflpr.ro; Iacob, Nicuşor, E-mail: monica.nemtanu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Electron Accelerators Laboratory, 409 Atomiştilor St., PO Box MG-36, 077125, Bucharest-Măgurele (Romania)

    2014-11-24

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in a single step by electron beam irradiation reduction of silver ions in aqueous solution containing starch. The nanoparticles were characterized by spectrophotocolorimetry and compared with those obtained by chemical (thermal) reduction method. The results showed that the smaller sizes of AgNPs were prepared with higher yields as the irradiation dose increased. The broadening of particle size distribution occurred by increasing of irradiation dose and dose rate. Chromatic parameters such as b* (yellow-blue coordinate), C* (chroma) and ΔE{sub ab} (total color difference) could characterize the nanoparticles with respect of their concentration. Hue angle h{sup o} was correlated to the particle size distribution. Experimental data of the irradiated samples were also subjected to factor analysis using principal component extraction and varimax rotation in order to reveal the relation between dependent variables and independent variables and to reduce their number. The radiation-based method provided silver nanoparticles with higher concentration and narrower size distribution than those produced by chemical reduction method. Therefore, the electron beam irradiation is effective for preparation of silver nanoparticles using starch aqueous solution as dispersion medium.

  17. COMPRESSIONAL PROPERTY STUDY OF DIGITARIA IBURUA (POACEAE STARCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIDEON O. OKPANACHI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research work was aimed at determining the compression behavior of Digitaria iburua starch (DS and acid hydrolyzed starch (MCS using gelatin (GEL as a standard compressible excipient. Methods: DS was extracted from the grains and then acid hydrolyzed to produce MCS. The particle density of DS, MCS and GEL were determined. Compacts (500 mg of DS, MCS and GEL were produced by compressing the powder at various pre-determined pressures (56.625-311.438 MNm-2. The compression properties of the compacts were evaluated using the Heckel equation. Results: The Heckel plots for DS, MCS and GEL possessed nonlinear curves at the lower and higher pressures and linear curves in between. The mean yield pressure (PY was high which is indicative of higher resistance against plastic deformation. Modification of DS to MCS increased PY for deformation with corresponding decline in onset of deformation and lesser total deformation. The PY, the relative density at zero pressure (DO and the total deformation occurring in the powder (DA values ranked in the following order; GEL>MCS>DS. The fragmentation tendency of the powder (DB ranked in this order; MCS>GEL>DS. Conclusion: DS and MCS fragmented on compaction. DS and MCS are not suitable direct compressible excipient.

  18. Comparison of microwave processing and excess steam jet cooking for spherulite production of from starch:palmitic acid inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was previously shown that toroid and spherical/lobed spherulites were formed upon slow cooling of aqueous dispersions of corn starch and palmitic acid after passing through an excess steam jet cooker. Spherulite yield was 86% based on amylose. In order to determine whether excess steam jet cookin...

  19. The study of dental material artifact on magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze possible metal-induced artifacts developed in dental MR images, quantitative analyses were done in a basic experiment using a medium intensity magnetic field. To simplify the relationship between the skull and dental restorations, we prepared metal (Nickel-chromium alloys, Cobalt-chromium alloys, Titanium alloys, Au alloys, Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloys, silver) as well as acrylic resin specimens as 5 mm cubes and as a phantom. Imaging conditions were fast spin echo T2 weight, spin echo T2 weight, spin echo proton density weight, spin echo T1 weight and gradient echo T2*, and imaging directions were transverse, sagittal and coronal. Therefore, 645 different combinations were possible. Nickel-chromium alloys, Cobalt-chromium alloys and Titanium alloys showed artifacts when compared with the acrylic resin control. Au alloys, Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloys and silver did not show a consistent tendency, and images obtained tended to differ from those of the acrylic resin control depending on imaging conditions and direction. The order of artifact development range was Nickel-chromium alloys, Cobalt-chromium alloys, Titanium alloys, Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloys, Au alloys and silver. The strongest and weakest artifacts were observed under the condition of spin echo T2 weight and spin echo T1 weight, respectively. There was no consistent tendency observed among imaging directions; in Nickel-chromium alloys, Cobalt-chromium alloys and Titanium alloys, the artifact area increased in proportion to the increase in the number of specimens. In silver, Au alloys and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloys, the artifact area increased in proportion to the increase in the number of specimens, but only when specimens were arranged parallel to the imaging direction. In Nickel-chromium alloys, Cobalt-chromium alloys and Titanium alloys, artifacts were larger in the horizontal imaging direction than in the vertical direction. (K.H.)

  20. Applications and uses of resistant starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ian L

    2004-01-01

    For the past 30 years there has been a steady increase in our knowledge of the sources, uses and physiological effects of resistant starch. However, it has only been in the past decade that the use of ingredients with a high resistant starch content has occurred in foods, initially in Australia but now throughout the world. Foods containing these resistant starch-rich ingredients include not only staple foods, such as bread and breakfast cereals, but also foods designed for those with special physiological or medical needs, such as celiac sensitivity and ulcerative colitis, or for individuals who are seeking to manage energy intake and control weight. Resistant starch has other benefits when compared with traditional sources of dietary fiber in that the preparation and design of foods with additional health benefits have the appearance, taste, and texture characteristics that encourage people to consume these "better for you" foods. As our knowledge of the range of physiological effects that occur through the consumption of resistant starch increases, more applications will be found for their inclusion in an expanding range of foods around the world. PMID:15287672

  1. Regulation of starch synthesis in potato tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following tuber excision from the mother plant sucrose synthase activity fell from 3,120 to 960 nmol/g.f. wt./h within 7 days and starch synthesis (14C sucrose incorporated into isolated discs) from 23 to 7 nmol/g.f. wt./h. While the maximum catalytic activity of sucrose synthase was more than sufficient to account for the observed rate of starch synthesis a maximum of 27% of sucrose incorporated by discs was converted into starch within 3 h. This compared with 80% conversion of 14C glucose incorporated. Tuber excision also reduced the rate of starch biosynthesis with glucose as a substrate (from 206 to 64 nmol/g.f. wt./h). The activities of UDPG-pyrophosphorylase, PPi-PFK, ATP-PFK, starch synthase and hexokinase (glucose or fructose substrates) were unaffected by tuber removal. ADPG pyrophosphorylase activity was reduced from 8,000 to 4,500 nmol/g.f. wt./h. Preliminary experiments indicate that the decline in sucrose synthease activity is prevented by maintaining sucrose flux into tubers through the cut stolon

  2. Starch bioengineering in Brachypodium distachyon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanackovic, Vanja; Svensson, Jan Tommy; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas;

    2011-01-01

    Brachypodium distachyon was recently introduced as a model plant for temperate cereals (Opanowicz et al., 2008). We aim to establish Brachypodium as a model for cereal starch metabolism. Grain starch from two lines: Bd21 and Bd21-3 are being characterized. Microscopic, chemical and structural data...... including amylopectin chain length distribution, phosphate content and amylose content provided further evidence for the close relationship to temperate cereals even though starch content and starch granule size were considerably lower than that for barley (Hordeum vulgare). Bioinformatics analyses...... identified starch biosynthesis genes including seven soluble starch synthases (SS), three granule bound starch syntheses (GBSS), four starch branching enzymes (SBE), two glucan- and one phosphoglucan- water dikinases (GWD, PWD). Phylogenetic analysis based on the SS genes provided evidence for a close...

  3. Rheological properties of sweet potato starch before and after denaturalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖华西; 林亲录; 夏新剑; 李丽辉; 林利忠; 吴卫国

    2008-01-01

    Based on the sweet potato starch,cationic starch,acetic starch and cationic-acetic compoundedly modified starch were made through chemical denaturalization.The above three kinds of static rheological parameter and dynamic rheological parameter were measured,respectively.The experimental result reveals that the thermal stability of starchy viscosity increases after chemical denaturalization.Under the condition of identical shearing rate,the shear stress of cationic-acetic ester compoundedly modified sweet potato starch paste is the largest among these kinds of sweet potato starch.This attributes to a phenomenon of shearing thinning.Furthermore,raw sweet potato starch has a larger gel intensity than that of modified starch.

  4. Starch-related Enzymes during Potato Tuber Dormancy and Sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sergeeva, L.I.; Claassens, M.M.J.; Jamar, D.C.L.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Vreugdenhil, D.

    2012-01-01

    Activities of enzymes presumably involved in starch biosynthesis (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, AGPase) and/or breakdown (starch phosphorylase, STP; amylases) were determined during potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber dormancy and sprouting. Overall activities of all these enzymes decreased during

  5. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle Juel;

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule...... structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics...... showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and β-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated...

  6. Change in digestibility of raw starch by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation effect on digestion of raw starch by glucoamylase has been investigated as a basic research for application of radiosterilization on uncooked starch fermentation. The digestibility of raw tapioca starch decreased with an increase in dose while that of other starches such as wheat, corn, sweet potato and potato were little changed by irradiation. Tapioca starch granules coagulated by irradiation and were sedimented rapidly in suspension. The coagulation of irradiated tapioca starch granules can be dispersed completely by ultrasonic treatment. These results show that the decrease in digestion of raw tapioca starch depends on the coagulation of starch granules but other factors also contribute because the recovery of digestibility by ultrasonic treatment was not complete. (orig.)

  7. Towards high-quality simultaneous EEG-fMRI at 7 T: Detection and reduction of EEG artifacts due to head motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, João; Grouiller, Frédéric; Gruetter, Rolf; van der Zwaag, Wietske; Figueiredo, Patrícia

    2015-10-15

    The enhanced functional sensitivity offered by ultra-high field imaging may significantly benefit simultaneous EEG-fMRI studies, but the concurrent increases in artifact contamination can strongly compromise EEG data quality. In the present study, we focus on EEG artifacts created by head motion in the static B0 field. A novel approach for motion artifact detection is proposed, based on a simple modification of a commercial EEG cap, in which four electrodes are non-permanently adapted to record only magnetic induction effects. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI data were acquired with this setup, at 7 T, from healthy volunteers undergoing a reversing-checkerboard visual stimulation paradigm. Data analysis assisted by the motion sensors revealed that, after gradient artifact correction, EEG signal variance was largely dominated by pulse artifacts (81-93%), but contributions from spontaneous motion (4-13%) were still comparable to or even larger than those of actual neuronal activity (3-9%). Multiple approaches were tested to determine the most effective procedure for denoising EEG data incorporating motion sensor information. Optimal results were obtained by applying an initial pulse artifact correction step (AAS-based), followed by motion artifact correction (based on the motion sensors) and ICA denoising. On average, motion artifact correction (after AAS) yielded a 61% reduction in signal power and a 62% increase in VEP trial-by-trial consistency. Combined with ICA, these improvements rose to a 74% power reduction and an 86% increase in trial consistency. Overall, the improvements achieved were well appreciable at single-subject and single-trial levels, and set an encouraging quality mark for simultaneous EEG-fMRI at ultra-high field. PMID:26169325

  8. STARCH SULFURIC ACID: AN ALTERNATIVE, ECO-FRIENDLY CATALYST FOR BIGINELLI REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Rezaei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The one-pot multicomponent synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidinone derivatives using starch sulfuric acid as an environmentally friendly biopolymer-based solid acid catalyst from aldehydes, β-keto esters and urea/ thiourea without solvent is described. Compared with classical Biginelli reaction conditions, this new method has the advantage of minimizing the cost operational hazards and environmental pollution, good yields, shorter reaction times and simple work-up.

  9. Fermentation of wort from a starch-containing raw material prepared using cellulases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinchenko, V.A.; Nosik, S.V.; Tiunova, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    Wort was prepared from powdered barley by treatment with cellulase from Geotrichum candidum or the enzyme preparation cellocandin G3X. After fermentation the alcohol concentration increased and the amount of nonmetabolized starch significantly decreased. The use of cellulolytic enzymes in the production of beer not only reduces the requirements for amylolytic enzymes but also increases the EtOh yield by 2.0-3.5%.

  10. Irradiation detection in spices applying PSL, ESR, or iodometric starch analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation detection in spices is possible applying a combination of various methods. The method of first choice is PSL, which yields a quick result for a great variety of samples and does not require specific sample preparation. When there is need for verification of PSL test results, ESR, viscosity measurements, determination of starch contents or hydrocarbons in spices containing lipids are suitable tests. (orig./CB)

  11. Molecular Characteristics of New Wheat Starch and Its Digestion Behaviours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhong-kai; HUA Ze-tian; YANG Yan; ZHENG Pai-yun; ZHANG Yan; CHEN Xiao-shan

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the effect of starch molecular characteristics on the gel structure, which subsequently inlfuence the gel digestion behaviours, three wheat starches, control (conventional wheat starch), two new wheat cultivars with different genetic backgrounds (by knocking out SBE IIb and SBE IIa, respectively) were used in this study. In comparison with control, slight differences in the morphology of the starch granules of new wheat 1 were observed, whereas the starch granules of new wheat 2 had irregular shapes both for A-type granules and B-type granules. Starch molecular weight size was determined by SE-HPLC, and the results indicate that there was a subtle increase in the amylose content in the starch of new wheat 1 compared to that of control. The starch of new wheat 2 had the highest amylose content, and the molecular weight (MW) of its amylopectin was the lowest among the three starches. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to investigate starch gel structure and the results suggest that the molecules of starch gel from new wheat 2 are more likely to re-associate to form an organized conformation. The digestion behaviours of the three starch gels were measured using a mixture of pancreatinα-amylase and amyloglucosidase. The results indicated that the starch gels of control and new wheat 1 had very high digestibility of 91.7 and 91.9%, respectively, whereas the digestibility of wheat 2 starch gel was only 36.2%. In comparison with the digestion curve patterns of control and new wheat 1 starch gels, the new wheat 2 exhibited a much lower initial velocity. These results indicated that the molecules in the starch of new wheat 2 are more readily to re-associate to form an organized structure during gel formation because of its unique molecular characteristics.

  12. New Starch Phenotypes Produced by TILLING in Barley

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Sparla; Giuseppe Falini; Ermelinda Botticella; Claudia Pirone; Valentina Talamè; Riccardo Bovina; Silvio Salvi; Roberto Tuberosa; Francesco Sestili; Paolo Trost

    2014-01-01

    Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant...

  13. Starch branching enzymes and their genes in Sorghum

    OpenAIRE

    Mutisya, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Starch is an important raw material both for food and non-food purposes. It is synthesized and stored in source and sink tissues in plants. The starch deposited in amyloplasts of storage tissues possesses several physico-chemical properties, which makes it desirable for diverse applications. For industrial applications, starches high in either amylose or amylopectin are preferred in order to minimize chemical modification. The main purpose in our research is to understand starch synthesis in ...

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Recovered Starch from Industrial Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Devereux, Sabrina; Shuttleworth, Peter; Macquarrie, Duncan; Paradisi, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    The wastewater generated at a facility specialising in potato processing was found to contain high levels of insoluble potato starch. Several separation methods were employed to obtain maximum potato starch recovery from the industrial wastewater. Centrifugation was proved to be the most effective means of separation. Following potato starch recovery, a variety of chemical and physico-chemical properties were investigated. Potato starch quality and consistency were assessed and monitore...

  15. Effect of wheat puroindoline alleles on functional properties of starch

    OpenAIRE

    Brites, Carla Moita; Santos, Carla Alexandra Lourenço; Bagulho, Ana Sofia; Beirão-da-Costa, Maria Luisa

    2008-01-01

    Puroindoline a and b (Pina, Pinb) form the molecular basis of bread wheat grain hardness. Varieties with a softer endosperm and a wild genotype, in which both Pina and Pinb were present, seemed to produce less damaged starch Xour than hard varieties, where Pin mutations occurred and changed the starch rheological properties. The functional property of starch samples extracted from wheat varieties with diVerent Pin alleles was evaluated. Starch morphology was characteri...

  16. Production of amorphous starch powders by solution spray drying

    OpenAIRE

    Niazi, Muhammad B. K.; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2012-01-01

    The spray drying of starch/maltodextrin formulations was evaluated as a potential technology for the manufacturing of amorphous thermoplastic starches. Mixtures of starches with high to low amylose (Am)amylopectin (Ap) ratios were spray-dried from water-based solutions and granular dispersions. The effects of the feed composition on the morphology and physical properties of the end product were investigated with the spray-drying conditions kept constant. Powders obtained from the starch solut...

  17. Artifacts by dental materials on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Choi, Deuk Lin; Kim, Ki Jung [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-05-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved to be a valuable method for evaluation of the head and neck. Unfortunately, metallic devices associated with certain dental fillings and appliances often cause variable artifacts that can obscure normal or pathologic conditions on MR and computed tomography. In this work, we assessed the MR appearance of dental prosthetic materials in vitro and in vivo including precious alloys, nonprecions alloys, resin, amalgam and titanium alloy. For in vivo studies, these materials were placed in healthy volunteer's mouths and then images were assessed. Analysis of the appearance of shape and extent of artifact, and observed influence of these artifacts on the image interpretation at 0.2 Tesla permanent type MR scanner were valuated. Material used as temporary or permanent filling of crowns such as amalgam, precious alloy and, microfilled resin did not cause artifact on the image. The size of the artifact produced by the nonprecious alloys was influenced by the ferromagnetism of the object and the volume prosthesis, and was related to the scanning sequence. Nonprecious alloys produced minimal local signal distortion, where precious alloys, and dental resin had no effect on the MR images in vivo. These results were mainly from a low field strength MR scanner used in this study.

  18. Method for reducing windmill artifacts in multislice CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kevin M.; Žabic, Stanislav

    2011-03-01

    Thin-slice images reconstructed from helical multi-slice CT scans typically display artifacts known as windmill artifacts, which arise from not satisfying the Nyquist sampling criteria in the patient longitudinal direction. Since these are essentially aliasing artifacts, they can be reduced or removed by trading off resolution, either globally (by reconstructing thicker slices) or locally (by local smoothing of the strong gradients). The obvious drawback to this approach is the associated loss in resolution. Another approach is to utilize an x-ray tube with the capability to modulate the focal spot in the z-direction, to effectively improve the sampling rate. This work presents a new method for windmill artifact reduction based on total variation minimization in the image domain, which is capable of removing windmill artifacts while at the same time preserving the resolution of anatomic structures within the images. This is a big improvement over previous reconstruction methods that sacrifice resolution, and it provides practically the same benefits as a z-switching x-ray tube with a much simpler impact to the overall CT system.

  19. Motion Artifact in the MR imaging of temporomandibular disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamamura, Kiyoharu; Miyajima, Hisashi; Nihei, Yoshinobu; Nemoto, Ryuichi; Ohno, Tomoya [Ohu Univ., Koriyama, Fukushima (Japan). School of Dentistry

    1997-09-01

    Recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is indispensable for the diagnosis of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Motion Artifacts of MRI occur more frequently than in other conventional methods, because it takes a long time to obtain the images. This paper reported on Motion Artifacts on MRI. MRI studies of 232 temporomandibular joints were performed in 116 patients with TMD by using a 0.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner, with spin echo sequence: protondensity-weighted. And we took MRI slices at opening phase and closing phase. So 232 slices were gathered and we evaluated clinically the incidence of Motion Artifacts, that is to say, double and multiple images and other factors. The 103 slices in 56 patients showed Motion Artifacts. There is no significant difference between sexes. By age group, those in their teens were most frequent, followed by those in their fifties, forties, thirties and twenties. Also the same results were obtained for double image and multiple image. Incidence of Motion Artifact was most frequent at the opening phase. There is no significant difference between double and multiple image. (author)

  20. Adaptive motion artifact reducing algorithm for wrist photoplethysmography application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingwei; Wang, Guijin; Shi, Chenbo

    2016-04-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) technology is widely used in wearable heart pulse rate monitoring. It might reveal the potential risks of heart condition and cardiopulmonary function by detecting the cardiac rhythms in physical exercise. However the quality of wrist photoelectric signal is very sensitive to motion artifact since the thicker tissues and the fewer amount of capillaries. Therefore, motion artifact is the major factor that impede the heart rate measurement in the high intensity exercising. One accelerometer and three channels of light with different wavelengths are used in this research to analyze the coupled form of motion artifact. A novel approach is proposed to separate the pulse signal from motion artifact by exploiting their mixing ratio in different optical paths. There are four major steps of our method: preprocessing, motion artifact estimation, adaptive filtering and heart rate calculation. Five healthy young men are participated in the experiment. The speeder in the treadmill is configured as 12km/h, and all subjects would run for 3-10 minutes by swinging the arms naturally. The final result is compared with chest strap. The average of mean square error (MSE) is less than 3 beats per minute (BPM/min). Proposed method performed well in intense physical exercise and shows the great robustness to individuals with different running style and posture.

  1. Artifacts by dental materials on magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved to be a valuable method for evaluation of the head and neck. Unfortunately, metallic devices associated with certain dental fillings and appliances often cause variable artifacts that can obscure normal or pathologic conditions on MR and computed tomography. In this work, we assessed the MR appearance of dental prosthetic materials in vitro and in vivo including precious alloys, nonprecions alloys, resin, amalgam and titanium alloy. For in vivo studies, these materials were placed in healthy volunteer's mouths and then images were assessed. Analysis of the appearance of shape and extent of artifact, and observed influence of these artifacts on the image interpretation at 0.2 Tesla permanent type MR scanner were valuated. Material used as temporary or permanent filling of crowns such as amalgam, precious alloy and, microfilled resin did not cause artifact on the image. The size of the artifact produced by the nonprecious alloys was influenced by the ferromagnetism of the object and the volume prosthesis, and was related to the scanning sequence. Nonprecious alloys produced minimal local signal distortion, where precious alloys, and dental resin had no effect on the MR images in vivo. These results were mainly from a low field strength MR scanner used in this study

  2. Image Degradation in Microscopic Images: Avoidance, Artifacts, and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roels, Joris; Aelterman, Jan; De Vylder, Jonas; Lippens, Saskia; Luong, Hiêp Q; Guérin, Christopher J; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    The goal of modern microscopy is to acquire high-quality image based data sets. A typical microscopy workflow is set up in order to address a specific biological question and involves different steps. The first step is to precisely define the biological question, in order to properly come to an experimental design for sample preparation and image acquisition. A better object representation allows biological users to draw more reliable scientific conclusions. Image restoration can manipulate the acquired data in an effort to reduce the impact of artifacts (spurious results) due to physical and technical limitations, resulting in a better representation of the object of interest. However, precise usage of these algorithms is necessary so as to avoid further artifacts that might influence the data analysis and bias the conclusions. It is essential to understand image acquisition, and how it introduces artifacts and degradations in the acquired data, so that their effects on subsequent analysis can be minimized. This paper provides an overview of the fundamental artifacts and degradations that affect many micrographs. We describe why artifacts appear, in what sense they impact overall image quality, and how to mitigate them by first improving the acquisition parameters and then applying proper image restoration techniques. PMID:27207362

  3. Motion Artifact in the MR imaging of temporomandibular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is indispensable for the diagnosis of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Motion Artifacts of MRI occur more frequently than in other conventional methods, because it takes a long time to obtain the images. This paper reported on Motion Artifacts on MRI. MRI studies of 232 temporomandibular joints were performed in 116 patients with TMD by using a 0.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner, with spin echo sequence: protondensity-weighted. And we took MRI slices at opening phase and closing phase. So 232 slices were gathered and we evaluated clinically the incidence of Motion Artifacts, that is to say, double and multiple images and other factors. The 103 slices in 56 patients showed Motion Artifacts. There is no significant difference between sexes. By age group, those in their teens were most frequent, followed by those in their fifties, forties, thirties and twenties. Also the same results were obtained for double image and multiple image. Incidence of Motion Artifact was most frequent at the opening phase. There is no significant difference between double and multiple image. (author)

  4. Kinetics of starch digestion and performance of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: starch, digestion rate, broiler chickens, peas, tapiocaStarch is stored in amyloplasts of various plants like cereals and legumes and seeds of these plants are used as feedstuffs for farm animals. Starch is the major energy source in broiler feeds. The properties of star

  5. HRP-Mediated Synthesis of Starch-Polyacrylamide Graft Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modified starch-based polymers can be engineered for specific properties by combining starch with synthetic polymers through graft copolymerization. Polyacrylamide grafted starch have received a great deal of applications in areas such as superabsorbent paper-making additives, drag reduction and te...

  6. Mechanochemical degradation of potato starch paste under ultrasonic irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-bin; LI Lin; LI Bing; CHEN Ling; GUI Lin

    2006-01-01

    In the paper, changes in the molecular weight, the intrinsic viscosity and the polydispersity (molecular mass distribution) of treated potato starch paste were studied under different ultrasonic conditions which include irradiation time, ultrasonic intensity, potato starch paste concentration, and distance from probe tip on the degradation of potato starch paste. Intrinsic viscosity of potato starch paste was determined following the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard practice for dilute solution viscosity of polymers. Molecular mass and polydispersity of potato starch paste were measured on GPC (Gel Permeation Chromatography). The results showed that the average molecular mass and the intrinsic viscosity of starch strongly depended on irradiation time. Degradation increased with prolonged ultrasonic irradiation time, and the increase of ultrasonic intensity could accelerate the degradation, resulting in a faster degradation rate, a lower limiting value and a higher degradation extent. Starch samples were degraded faster in dilute solutions than in concentrated solutions. The molecular mass and the intrinsic viscosity of starch increased with the increase of distance from probe tip. Our results also showed that the polydispersity decreased with ultrasonic irradiation under all ultrasonic conditions. Ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste occured based on the mechanism of molecular relaxation of starch paste. In the initial stage, ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste was a random process, and the molecular mass distribution was broad. After that, ultrasonic degradation of potato starch paste changed to a nonrandom process, and the molecular mass distribution became narrower. Finally, molecular mass distribution tended toward a saturation value.

  7. SCANDIUM TRIFLATE CATALYZED ACETYLATION OF STARCH UNDER MILD CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandium (III) trifluoromethan sulfonate (Sc(OTf)3) was investigated as a catalyst for the acetylation of starch in order to determine the potential for preparing new types of starch esters under mild conditions. At room temperature, dry granular corn starch reacts with acetic anhydride in the pres...

  8. The oxidation of the aldehyde groups in dialdehyde starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaksman, I.K.; Besemer, A.C.; Jetten, J.M.; Timmermans, J.W.; Slaghek, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the difference in relative reactivity of the aldehyde groups present in dialdehyde starch towards different oxidising agents. The oxidation of dialdehyde starch with peracetic acid and sodium bromide leads to only partial oxidation to give mono-aldehyde-carboxy starch, while oxi

  9. Preparation and characterization of aqueous dispersions of high amylose starch and conjugated linoleic acid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Tae-Rang; Kim, Hee-Young; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-11-15

    Crystalline starch-CLA complexes were prepared by blending an alcoholic solution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in an aqueous high-amylose maize starch dispersion. Recovery yield of CLA in the precipitates obtained by centrifuging the dispersion was dependent on reaction conditions such as temperature, time and pH. The CLA recovery reached a maximum when the reaction was performed at 90°C for 6h at neutral pH, with 67.7% of the initial CLA being co-precipitated with starch. The precipitates contained amylose-CLA complex exhibiting a V6I-type crystalline structure under X-ray diffraction analysis and a type II polymorph under DSC analysis. Ultrasonic treatment for the re-dispersed starch-CLA complex in water resulted in the reduction of hydrodynamic diameter of the complex particles to 201.5nm. The dispersion exhibited a zeta potential of -27.0mV and remained stable in an ambient storage without forming precipitates for more than 4weeks. PMID:27283663

  10. The Effect of Three Gums on the Retrogradation of Indica Rice Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Retrograded starch (RS3 was produced from indica rice starch with three kinds of gums (konjac glucomannan, KGM; carrageenan, CA, USA; and gellan, GA, USA by autoclaving, respectively, and the effect of the gums on the retrogradation behavior of starch was estimated. The influences of polysaccharide concentration, sodium chloride concentration, autoclaving time, refrigerated time, and pH value on RS3 formation were discussed. Except for sodium chloride’s persistent restraint on RS3, the others all forced RS3 yields higher at first, but lowered it after the peak value. The influencing sequence of these impact factors was: sodium chloride concentration > polysaccharide concentration > autoclaving time > refrigerated time > pH value. The results also proved that in the three gums, KGM plays the most significant role in RS3 changing. It was concluded that the incorporation of each of these three gums into starch, especially KGM, results in an increase or decrease of RS3 under different conditions. This phenomenon could be taken into consideration when developing starchy food with appropriate amount of RS3.

  11. Increasing the Triacylglycerol Content in Dunaliella tertiolecta through Isolation of Starch-Deficient Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirikhachornkit, Anchalee; Vuttipongchaikij, Supachai; Suttangkakul, Anongpat; Yokthongwattana, Kittisak; Juntawong, Piyada; Pokethitiyook, Prayad; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Meetam, Metha

    2016-05-28

    The production cost of biodiesel from microalgae is still not competitive, compared with that of petroleum fuels. The genetic improvement of microalgal strains to increase triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation is one way to reduce production costs. One of the most promising approaches is the isolation of starch-deficient mutants, which have been reported to successfully increase TAG yields. To date, such a stable mutant is not available in an oleaginous marine microalga, despite several advantages of using marine species for biodiesel production. Algae in the genus Dunaliella are known to tolerate high salt concentration and other environmental stresses. In addition, the cultivation processes for large-scale outdoor commercialization have been well established for this genus. In this study, Dunaliella tertiolecta was used to screen for starch-deficient mutants, using an iodine vapor-staining method. Four out of 20,016 UV-mutagenized strains showed a substantial reduction of starch content. A significantly higher TAG content, up to 3-fold of the wild-type level, was observed in three of the mutants upon induction by nitrogen depletion. The carotenoid production and growth characteristics of these mutants, under both normal and oxidative stress conditions, were not compromised, suggesting that these processes are not necessarily affected by starch deficiency. The results from this work open up new possibilities for exploring Dunaliella for biodiesel production. PMID:26869603

  12. Recycle bioreactor for bioethanol production from wheat starch. 2. Fermentation and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, X.; Hill, G.A.; MacDonald, D.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    Bioethanol has been produced using sugars from cold hydrolysis of pure wheat starch, sterile wheat flour, and unsterile wheat flour. The conversion of sugars to ethanol from pure starch reached 96% of the theoretical maximum while that from sterile wheat flour was 69% and from unsterile wheat flour only 35%. These data indicate that sequential hydrolysis and fermentation of wheat flour is not feasible. However, the simultaneous cold hydrolysis and fermentation of both wheat starch and wheat flour proved successful. Both sugar sources produced 95% of the theoretical maximum amount of ethanol. The process could be repeated in a sequential batch fashion for over 110 h of operation, achieving high ethanol yields in each run. A scale-up design of bioethanol production using sequential batch, simultaneous cold starch hydrolysis, and fermentation indicates that this process would be economically feasible. High levels of revenue are generated from both the bioethanol and the byproduct: food-grade wheat gluten. The payback period is predicted to be < 2 years with a discounted cash flow rate of return of 46%. (author)

  13. Starch granule formation and protein deposition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starchy endosperm cells is altered by high temperature during grain fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurkman, William J.; Wood, Delilah F.

    2010-06-01

    High temperatures during wheat grain fill decrease starch and protein levels, adversely affecting wheat yield and flour quality. To determine the effect of high temperature on starchy endosperm cell development, grain (Triticum aestivum L. 'Butte 86') was produced under a 24/17°C or 37/28°C day/night regimen imposed from flowering to maturity and starch and protein deposition examined using scanning electron microscopy. The high temperature regimen shortened the duration of grain fill from 40 to 18 days. Under the 37/28°C regimen, A- and B-type starch granules decreased in size. A-type starch granules also exhibited pitting, suggesting enhanced action of starch degradative enzymes. Under both temperature regimens, protein bodies originated early in development and coalesced during mid to late development to form a continuous protein matrix surrounding the starch granules. Under the 37/28°C regimen, the proportion of protein matrix increased in endosperm cells of mature grain. Taken together, the changes in starch granule number and size and in protein matrix amount provide clues for understanding how high temperature during grain fill can affect end use properties of wheat flour.

  14. Starch Granule Re-Structuring by Starch Branching Enzyme and Glucan Water Dikinase Modulation Affects Caryopsis Physiology and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Shahnoor S; Obata, Toshihiro; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Schwahn, Kevin; Fernie, Alisdair R; Mateiu, Ramona V; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Starch is of fundamental importance for plant development and reproduction and its optimized molecular assembly is potentially necessary for correct starch metabolism. Re-structuring of starch granules in-planta can therefore potentially affect plant metabolism. Modulation of granule micro-structure was achieved by decreasing starch branching and increasing starch-bound phosphate content in the barley caryopsis starch by RNAi suppression of all three Starch Branching Enzyme (SBE) isoforms or overexpression of potato Glucan Water Dikinase (GWD). The resulting lines displayed Amylose-Only (AO) and Hyper-Phosphorylated (HP) starch chemotypes, respectively. We studied the influence of these alterations on primary metabolism, grain composition, starch structural features and starch granule morphology over caryopsis development at 10, 20 and 30 days after pollination (DAP) and at grain maturity. While HP showed relatively little effect, AO showed significant reduction in starch accumulation with re-direction to protein and β-glucan (BG) accumulation. Metabolite profiling indicated significantly higher sugar accumulation in AO, with re-partitioning of carbon to accumulate amino acids, and interestingly it also had high levels of some important stress-related metabolites and potentially protective metabolites, possibly to elude deleterious effects. Investigations on starch molecular structure revealed significant increase in starch phosphate and amylose content in HP and AO respectively with obvious differences in starch granule morphology at maturity. The results demonstrate that decreasing the storage starch branching resulted in metabolic adjustments and re-directions, tuning to evade deleterious effects on caryopsis physiology and plant performance while only little effect was evident by increasing starch-bound phosphate as a result of overexpressing GWD. PMID:26891365

  15. SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES IN DMSO SOLUTIONS OF STARCH: A COMPARATIVE INVESTIGATION OF NATIVE AND SOLUBLE STARCHES

    OpenAIRE

    KOCHKINA N.E.; SKOBELEVA O.A.; KHOKHLOVA YU. V.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in solutions of native and soluble starches in DMSO for the first time. The starches acted as reducing and stabilizing agents simultaneously. The kinetics of the process and its activation energy were determined by using UV-vis spectroscopy. The DMSO solution of soluble starch was characterized by better reductive activity than the native starch solution. The morphology and dispersion characteristics of AgNPs sols were evaluated from transmission ...

  16. Study on radiosterilization of pharmaceutical starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After treated with γ-ray, the loading of microbe in pharmaceutical starch was decreased sharply. If the microbe loading is in the range of 1.0∼1.5 x 104, the optimum absorbed dose is 3.0∼5.0 kGy. The results showed that there was a significant relationship between absorbed dose and amount of survival bacteria. The D10 value of bacteria is 0.7 kGy. On the other hand, change of radiation technology in the same radiation field could affect the result of radiosterilization. No toxicity was found with irradiated starch in the test period in mouse

  17. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene plays a key role in the quality of corm and yield of cormels in gladiolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Shanshan; Wu, Jian; Sui, Juanjuan; Wu, Chenyu; Zhong, Xionghui; Liu, Chen; Liu, Chao; Gong, Benhe; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2016-05-20

    Starch is the main storage compound in underground organs like corms. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) plays a key role in regulating starch biosynthesis in storage organs and is likely one of the most important determinant of sink strength. Here, we identify an AGPase gene (GhAGPS1) from gladiolus. The highest transcriptional levels of GhAGPS1 were observed in cormels and corms. Transformation of GhAGPS1 into Arabidopsis rescued the phenotype of aps1 mutant. Silencing GhAGPS1 in gladiolus corms by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) decreased the transcriptional levels of two genes and starch content. Transmission electron microscopy analyses of leaf and corm sections confirmed that starch biosynthesis was inhibited. Corm weight and cormel number reduced significantly in the silenced plants. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibiting the expression of AGPase gene could impair starch synthesis, which results in the lowered corm quality and cormel yield in gladiolus. PMID:27107698

  18. Motion artifacts reduction from PPG using cyclic moving average filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junyeon

    2014-01-01

    The photoplethysmogram (PPG) is an extremely useful medical diagnostic tool. However, PPG signals are highly susceptible to motion artifacts. In this paper, we propose a cyclic moving average filter that use similarity of Photoplethysmogram. This filtering method has the average value of each samples through separating the cycle of PPG signal. If there are some motion artifacts in continuous PPG signal, disjoin the signal based on cycle. And then, we made these signals to have same cycle by coordinating the number of sample. After arrange these cycles in 2 dimension, we put the average value of each samples from starting till now. So, we can eliminate the motion artifacts without damaged PPG signal. PMID:24704660

  19. A patient-specific scatter artifacts correction method

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Wei; Niu, Kai; Schafer, Sebastian; Royalty, Kevin; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a fast and patient-specific scatter artifact correction method for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) used in image-guided interventional procedures. Due to increased irradiated volume of interest in CBCT imaging, scatter radiation has increased dramatically compared to 2D imaging, leading to a degradation of image quality. In this study, we propose a scatter artifact correction strategy using an analytical convolution-based model whose free parameters are estimated using a rough estimation of scatter profiles from the acquired cone-beam projections. It was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations with both monochromatic and polychromatic X-ray sources. The results demonstrated that the proposed method significantly reduced the scatter-induced shading artifacts and recovered CT numbers.

  20. Synthesis of poly-(epsilon)-caprolactone grafted starch co-polymers by ring-opening polymerisation using silylated starch precursors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugih, Asaf K.; Picchioni, Francesco; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2009-01-01

    Poly-(epsilon)-caprolactone grafted corn starch co-polymers were synthesized using a hydrophobised silylated starch precursor. The silylation reaction was performed using hexamethyl disilazane (HMDS) as the reagent in DMSO at 70 degrees C. Silylated starch with a degree of substitution (DS) between

  1. Modification of potato starch granule structure and morphology in planta by expression of starch binding domain fusion proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.

    2010-01-01

    Producing starches with altered composition, structure and novel physico-chemical properties in planta by manipulating the enzymes which are involved in starch metabolism or (over)expressing heterologous enzymes has huge advantages such as broadening the range of starch applications and reducing the

  2. Morphological and mechanical characterization of thermoplastic starch and its blends with polylactic acid using cassava starch and bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aims the use of an agro waste coming from the industrialization of cassava starch, known as cassava bagasse (BG). This material contains residual starch and cellulose fibers which can be used to obtain thermoplastic starch (TPS) and /or blends reinforced with fibers. In this context, it w...

  3. Properties of thermoplastic starch from cassave bagasse and cassava starch and their blends with poly (lactic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava bagasse is an inexpensive and broadly available waste byproduct from cassava starch production. It contains roughly 50% cassava starch along with mostly fiber and could be a valuable feedstock for various bioproducts. Cassava bagasse and cassava starch were used in this study to make fiber-r...

  4. Chemical and molecular properties of irradiated starch extrudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn starch samples containing 0, 25, 50, and 70% amylose were gamma-irradiated at 0 (native), 5, 10, 20, and 30 kGy. All starch samples were extrusion cooked at 140 degrees C barrel temperature, 140 rpm screw speed, and 18% moisture content (db) using a C. W. Brabender single-screw extruder. Starches irradiated at a 20-kGy dosage were extrusion cooked with and without hydrogen peroxide, potassium persulfate, or ceric ammonium nitrate. The quantity of free radicals produced on the starch increased with increasing irradiation dosages (0-30 kGy). Stability of the free radicals was greater for high-amylose starches than for those with low amylose. Extrusion-cooked starches had traces of free radical activity. Acidity of the irradiated starches increased (pH decreased) with increasing irradiation dosages. Gel permeation chromatographic separation of variously treated starches gave three fractions. Fraction I, mostly amylopectin, eluted at the void volume, whereas fraction II, mostly amylose, eluted at the latter part of the gel. Fraction 0, degraded products of amylopectin and amylose, mostly eluted closer to the total volume of the gel. Fraction I quantities of irradiated starches decreased with increasing irradiation dosages, whereas fraction II and III quantities correspondingly increased. Native starches with 0% amylose exhibited more than a fourfold decrease in fraction I content, whereas 70% amylose native starches showed less than a twofold decrease due to increasing irradiation dosages from 0 to 30 kGy. Extrusion cooking accelerated the degradation of fraction I for 0% amylose starches more than for 70% amylose starches. Both 2.5 and 5% concentrations of chemical additives caused excessive degradation of fraction I of starches irradiated at 20 kGy, consequently increasing reducing powers. Ceric ammonium nitrate caused the highest decrease in the iodine binding capacity of the starches. Fraction I clearly suffered more degradation due to irradiation, extrusion

  5. EEG artifact removal—state-of-the-art and guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urigüen, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Zapirain, Begoña

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an extensive review on the artifact removal algorithms used to remove the main sources of interference encountered in the electroencephalogram (EEG), specifically ocular, muscular and cardiac artifacts. We first introduce background knowledge on the characteristics of EEG activity, of the artifacts and of the EEG measurement model. Then, we present algorithms commonly employed in the literature and describe their key features. Lastly, principally on the basis of the results provided by various researchers, but also supported by our own experience, we compare the state-of-the-art methods in terms of reported performance, and provide guidelines on how to choose a suitable artifact removal algorithm for a given scenario. With this review we have concluded that, without prior knowledge of the recorded EEG signal or the contaminants, the safest approach is to correct the measured EEG using independent component analysis—to be precise, an algorithm based on second-order statistics such as second-order blind identification (SOBI). Other effective alternatives include extended information maximization (InfoMax) and an adaptive mixture of independent component analyzers (AMICA), based on higher order statistics. All of these algorithms have proved particularly effective with simulations and, more importantly, with data collected in controlled recording conditions. Moreover, whenever prior knowledge is available, then a constrained form of the chosen method should be used in order to incorporate such additional information. Finally, since which algorithm is the best performing is highly dependent on the type of the EEG signal, the artifacts and the signal to contaminant ratio, we believe that the optimal method for removing artifacts from the EEG consists in combining more than one algorithm to correct the signal using multiple processing stages, even though this is an option largely unexplored by researchers in the area.

  6. Artifacts caused by cosmetics in MR imaging of the head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, D C; Steiger, D A; Bellon, E M; Coleman, P E; Haacke, E M

    1987-05-01

    Cosmetics can produce severe distortion of the orbital contents in MR imaging. This distortion, typical of compounds that exhibit a permanent magnetic moment, results from iron oxide in the pigments used to produce dark shades of makeup. In general, the artifact created by cosmetics does not interfere with interpreting routine head scans. However, if the orbital contents are the subject of clinical concern, the images may then be rendered nondiagnostic. The artifact created by the makeup is propagated along the frequency-encoding axis of the images. PMID:3495103

  7. Analysis of main artifacts in scanning probe microscopy (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of experiment carrying methodology in the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) region is carried out, the main parameters influencing on image quality are revealed. In order to reveal the artifact reason the main components of SPM signal which are divided on 5 groups : the useful signal; noises connected with external influences and temperature drift; distortions connected with piezoceramics and piezo-scanner non-ideality; probe geometry influence; apparatus noises are considered. The main methods of removal and minimization of the given artifacts are considered. The second and third groups of main components of SPM signal are considered in the articles first part

  8. EEG Artifact Removal Using a Wavelet Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang-Anh T.; Musson, John; Li, Jiang; McKenzie, Frederick; Zhang, Guangfan; Xu, Roger; Richey, Carl; Schnell, Tom

    2011-01-01

    !n this paper we developed a wavelet neural network. (WNN) algorithm for Electroencephalogram (EEG) artifact removal without electrooculographic (EOG) recordings. The algorithm combines the universal approximation characteristics of neural network and the time/frequency property of wavelet. We. compared the WNN algorithm with .the ICA technique ,and a wavelet thresholding method, which was realized by using the Stein's unbiased risk estimate (SURE) with an adaptive gradient-based optimal threshold. Experimental results on a driving test data set show that WNN can remove EEG artifacts effectively without diminishing useful EEG information even for very noisy data.

  9. Clinical results with CT metal artifact reduction software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic implants often cause considerable artifacts on computed tomographic (CT) scans. The authors developed a new program for metal artifact reduction (MAR). The authors' clinical experience is based on 109 examinations so far, including 70 hip endoprostheses, 12 fixateurs, 15 cerebral vessel clips, 11 metallic dental findings, and one projectile in the lung. In 60% of all examinations, decisive additional information was gained with MAR and permitted better diagnostic assessment. In endroprothesis diagnostics, a comprehensive diagnostic assessability was attained with MAR in all cases. The short computing times of 2-3 minutes per scan permit application in daily diagnostics. An advanced version of the program is presented too

  10. Resources, co-evolution and artifacts theory in CSCW

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerman, Mark S; Erickson, Thomas; Kellogg, Wendy A

    2007-01-01

    A topic of significant interest to the CSCW, IT and IS communities is the issue of how software and other technical systems come to be adopted and used. We know from considerable research that people use systems in many ways, and that the process of incorporating them in their everyday activities can require a great deal of effort. One way of understanding adoption and use is by considering artifacts as resources in people's environments. ""Resources, Co-Evolution and Artifacts: Theory in CSCW"" looks at how resources get created, adopted, modified, and die, by using a number of theoretical an

  11. Starch nanocrystals and starch nanoparticles from waxy maize as nanoreinforcement: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel Haaj, Sihem; Thielemans, Wim; Magnin, Albert; Boufi, Sami

    2016-06-01

    The morphological, structural and thermal behavior of starch nanocrystals (SNCs) extracted from waxy maize starch through an acid hydrolysis were compared with those of starch nanoparticles (SNPs) obtained through an ultrasound treatment starting from the same waxy maize starch. The SNPs were found to be completely amorphous, slightly smaller and had no surface charge, whereas the SNCs had the expected platelet-like morphology with a negative surface charge introduced as a result of the use of sulphuric acid in the acid hydrolysis step. SNCs also showed better thermal stability than SNPs in the presence of water. As a result of their platelet-like morphology, the SNCs performed better in reinforcing a polymer film. On the other hand, SNPs reduced the transparency of the nanocomposite films to a lesser extent than the SNCs due to their smaller size. PMID:27083374

  12. Studies on semi-technical separation of Mung bean starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, N.U.; Tegge, G.; Thu, N.M. (Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Getreide- und Kartoffelverarbeitung, Detmold (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-02-01

    Starch of mung beans is the raw material for high grade glass noodles, but until now industrial starch separation is often less efficient. For testing new fields of commercial use it is of benerfit to experiment with very pure starches. Regarding this, possibilities of starch isolation on a semi-technical scale are described, which resulted in most pure starches. Crude protein content could be lowered down to 0.3% and crude fibre content down to 0.5% dry matter base. (orig.).

  13. Evaluation of Native and Carboxymethyl Yam (Dioscorea esculenta) Starches as Tablet Disintegrants

    OpenAIRE

    Nattawat Nattapulwat; Narumol Purkkao; Ornamphai Suwithayapanth

    2008-01-01

    Native yam starch and carboxymethyl yam starch (CMS) were evaluated as tablet disintegrants in comparison with various starches i.e., corn starch, tapioca starch and rice starch. Direct compression composition comprised dibasic calcium phosphate as a filler, each starch at various concentrations between 3-15% w/w as a disintegrant and magnesium stearate as a lubricant. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) was used as a model drug for drug dissolution testing. Tablet properties including hardness, friab...

  14. Modified ADM1 for modelling an UASB reactor laboratory plant treating starch wastewater and synthetic substrate load tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinken, L; Huber, M; Weichgrebe, D; Rosenwinkel, K-H

    2014-11-01

    A laboratory plant consisting of two UASB reactors was used for the treatment of industrial wastewater from the wheat starch industry. Several load tests were carried out with starch wastewater and the synthetic substrates glucose, acetate, cellulose, butyrate and propionate to observe the impact of changing loads on gas yield and effluent quality. The measurement data sets were used for calibration and validation of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1). For a precise simulation of the detected glucose degradation during load tests with starch wastewater and glucose, it was necessary to incorporate the complete lactic acid fermentation into the ADM1, which contains the formation and degradation of lactate and a non-competitive inhibition function. The modelling results of both reactors based on the modified ADM1 confirm an accurate calculation of the produced gas and the effluent concentrations. Especially, the modelled lactate effluent concentrations for the load cases are similar to the measurements and justified by literature. PMID:25043796

  15. Relationships of damaged starch granules and particle size distribution with pasting and thermal profiles of milled MR263 rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmeda, R; Noorlaila, A; Norziah, M H

    2016-01-15

    This research was conducted to investigate the effects of different grinding techniques (dry, semi-wet and wet) of milled rice grains on the damaged starch and particle size distribution of flour produced from a new variety, MR263, specifically related to the pasting and thermal profiles. The results indicated that grinding techniques significantly (pflour. Wet grinding process yields flour with lowest percentage of starch damage (7.37%) and finest average particle size (8.52μm). Pasting and gelatinization temperature was found in the range of 84.45-89.63°C and 59.86-75.31°C, respectively. Dry ground flour attained the lowest pasting and gelatinization temperature as shown by the thermal and pasting profiles. Correlation analysis revealed that percentage of damaged starch granules had a significant, negative relationship with pasting temperature while average particle size distribution had a significant, strong negative relationship with gelatinization temperature. PMID:26258700

  16. Redox Impact on Starch Biosynthetic Enzymes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skryhan, Katsiaryna

    Summary The thesis provides new insight into the influence of the plant cell redox state on the transient starch metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana with a focus on starch biosynthetic enzymes. Two main hypotheses forms the basis of this thesis: 1) photosynthesis and starch metabolism are coordina...... of these amino acids for targeted stress-tolerant enzyme bioengineering.......Summary The thesis provides new insight into the influence of the plant cell redox state on the transient starch metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana with a focus on starch biosynthetic enzymes. Two main hypotheses forms the basis of this thesis: 1) photosynthesis and starch metabolism...... are coordinated by the redox state of the cell via post-translational modification of the starch metabolic enzymes containing redox active cysteine residues and these cysteine residues became cross-linked upon oxidation providing a conformational change leading to activity loss; 2) cysteine residues...

  17. Preparation, physicochemical characterization and application of acetylated lotus rhizome starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Suling; Zhang, Ganwei; Ma, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Acetylated lotus rhizome starches were prepared, physicochemically characterized and used as food additives in puddings. The percentage content of the acetyl groups and degree of substitution increased linearly with the amount of acetic anhydride used. The introduction of acetyl groups was confirmed via Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The values of the pasting parameters were lower for acetylated starch than for native starch. Acetylation was found to increase the light transmittance (%), the freeze-thaw stability, the swelling power and the solubility of the starch. Sensorial scores for puddings prepared using native and acetylated lotus rhizome starches as food additives indicated that puddings produced from the modified starches with superior properties over those prepared from native starch. PMID:26453845

  18. Analysis of octenylsuccinate rice and tapioca starches: Distribution of octenylsuccinic anhydride groups in starch granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Kristin; Reuhs, Bradley L; Ovando Martinez, Maribel; Simsek, Senay

    2016-11-15

    Characterization of the fine structure of octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) starch would lead to a better understanding of functional properties. OSA rice and tapioca starches were analyzed using microscopy, liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Chain length distribution of amylopectin changed significantly (P<0.05) after OSA esterification. Weight averaged degree of polymerization (DPw) decreased significantly (P<0.05) from 16.47 to 13.29 and from 14.87 to 12.47 in native and OSA rice and tapioca starches, respectively. The chain length distribution of pure amylopectin fractions suggested that OSA groups were not present in the amylopectin portion of the starch. (1)H NMR analysis of pure amylose and amylopectin fractions indicated that OSA substitution was present only in amylose fractions of rice and tapioca starches. Esterification with 3% OSA results in starch that has OSA substituted mainly on amylose chains or possibly on amylopectin chains that have been hydrolyzed from the amylopectin molecules during esterification. PMID:27283674

  19. Starch-lipid composites containing cimmamaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    The formulation of a starch-lipid composite containing cinnamaldehyde as antimicrobial agent has been studied. Cinnamaldehyde was incorporated as an emulsion using Acetem 90-50K as a carrier and Tween 60 as the emulsifier. Oil in water emulsions were prepared by direct emulsification using a high sh...

  20. Reactions of Starch in Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    We found that starches are found to be soluble at 80 ºC in ionic liquids such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (BMIMdca) in concentration up to 10% (w/w). Higher concentrations of biopolymers in these novel solvents resulted in solutions w...

  1. Iodine catalyzed acetylation of starch and cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch and cellulose, earth's most abundant biopolymers, are of tremendous economic importance. Over 90% of cotton and 50% of wood are made of cellulose. Wood and cotton are the major resources for all cellulose products such as paper, textiles, construction materials, cardboard, as well as such c...

  2. Wheat B-starch based polymeric materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotek, Jiří; Kruliš, Zdeněk; Šárka, E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 9 (2011), s. 731. ISSN 0009-2770. [International Conference on Polysaccharides-Glycoscience /7./. 02.11.2011-04.11.2011, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/09/0607 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : biodegradable plastic * polycaprolactone * B- starch Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  3. LOW WASTEWATER POTATO STARCH/PROTEIN PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    While potato starch has been an item of commerce for many years, traditional processing methods have incurred large volumes of high BOD effluents. The research summarized by this report has lead to a modified process which upgrades the soluble components formerly discarded in the...

  4. Starch: chemistry, microstructure, processing and enzymatic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch is recognized as one of the most abundant and important commodities containing value added attributes for a vast number of industrial applications. Its chemistry, structure, property and susceptibility to various chemical, physical and enzymatic modifications offer a high technological value ...

  5. Experimental study of the radiodepolymerization of starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiodepolymerization of starch is studied by means of investigating the variations of intrinsic viscosity and of the rate of water-soluble products. The experimental results corroborate the theoretical laws proposed in an earlier paper. Special study of watersoluble products shows how the theoretical laws can be used to investigate the chemical functions radioinduced on the chains of dextrins. (orig.)

  6. Development of starch based wound dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sago starch is the one of the commodity crops that produce abundantly in Sarawak, Malaysia and mainly use for food consumption. The physical and chemical characteristics of starch such as improve strength, semi-gel form, non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable will be useful to be use as the based material for wound dressing application. Presently almost all dressings of biomaterial product are imported that increase cost liability to the country. Development of starch based hydrogel for wound dressing application give promising results based on the properties of the hydrogel and also from the clinical test carried out on rabbit. Blend of sago starch with water-soluble polymers such as polyvinyl pyyrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) produce hydrogel with good strength and elasticity that one of the criteria for dressing. The typical property of hydrogel that content above 80% water will keep the moisture environment for healing process of the wound. Based on the tissue development such as fibroblast and endothelial cells, and rate of epitheliazation from the clinical study, the healing process taken place less than 10 days with the this hydrogel. (Author)

  7. Starch Overproduction by Means of Algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zachleder, Vilém; Brányiková, I.

    Dordrecht, Heidelberg, london, New York: Springer Science+Business Media, 2014 - (Bajpai, R.; Prokop, A.; Zappi, M.), s. 217-240. (Cultivation of cells and products. Volume 1). ISBN 978-94-007-7493-3 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OE 221; GA MŠk OE09025 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : starch * alga * overproduction Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  8. Milk production responses to a change in dietary starch concentration vary by production level in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2015-07-01

    The effects of dietary starch concentration on yield of milk and milk components were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n=32; 115±22 d in milk) with a wide range in milk yield (28 to 62kg/d) were assigned randomly within level of milk yield to a treatment sequence. Treatments were diets containing 30% dry ground corn (CG) or 30% soyhulls (SH) on a DM basis. Diets containing corn silage and alfalfa silage were formulated to contain 16% crude protein, 24% forage neutral detergent fiber, and either 27 or 44% neutral detergent fiber and 30 or 12% starch for CG and SH, respectively. Cows were fed a diet intermediate to the treatments during a preliminary 14-d period. Treatment periods were 28 d with measurements taken throughout the period for energy calculations and the final 5 d used for data and sample collection for production variables. Compared with SH, CG increased dry matter intake, and yields of milk, milk protein, milk fat, and energy-corrected milk, as well as milk protein concentration. Treatment did not affect milk fat concentration. Yield of de novo synthesized and preformed milk fatty acids increased with CG. Treatment interacted with level of preliminary milk production for several response variables (yields of milk, milk protein, milk fat, energy-corrected milk, and 3.5% fat-corrected milk). Compared with SH, the CG treatment increased energy-corrected milk in higher-producing cows with a lesser response to CG as milk yield decreased. The CG treatment increased milk:feed compared with the SH treatment, but not body weight or body condition score. In conclusion, higher-producing cows benefited from the high-starch diet, and lower-producing cows were able to maintain production when most of the starch was replaced with nonforage fiber. PMID:25981075

  9. Modification of rice starch by gamma irradiation to produce soluble starch of low viscosity for industrial purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because starch of low viscosity is important for industrial purposes this research was carried out to study the possibility of producing this sort of starch by treating rice starch with γ-irradiation. Results indicated than when rice starch was modified by γ-irradiation, the reducing power increased and degradation as well as molecular breakdown occured followed by sharp decrease of its viscosity, specific viscosity and intrisinc viscosity. Results showed that starch became more soluble by treating with γ-irradiation and lost its resistance to water as its swelling capacity decreased. All these changes were proportional to the doses of γ-irradiation. (orig.)

  10. PROTEIN TARGETING TO STARCH is required for localising GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE to starch granules and for normal amylose synthesis in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Seung

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The domestication of starch crops underpinned the development of human civilisation, yet we still do not fully understand how plants make starch. Starch is composed of glucose polymers that are branched (amylopectin or linear (amylose. The amount of amylose strongly influences the physico-chemical behaviour of starchy foods during cooking and of starch mixtures in non-food manufacturing processes. The GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE (GBSS is the glucosyltransferase specifically responsible for elongating amylose polymers and was the only protein known to be required for its biosynthesis. Here, we demonstrate that PROTEIN TARGETING TO STARCH (PTST is also specifically required for amylose synthesis in Arabidopsis. PTST is a plastidial protein possessing an N-terminal coiled coil domain and a C-terminal carbohydrate binding module (CBM. We discovered that Arabidopsis ptst mutants synthesise amylose-free starch and are phenotypically similar to mutants lacking GBSS. Analysis of granule-bound proteins showed a dramatic reduction of GBSS protein in ptst mutant starch granules. Pull-down assays with recombinant proteins in vitro, as well as immunoprecipitation assays in planta, revealed that GBSS physically interacts with PTST via a coiled coil. Furthermore, we show that the CBM domain of PTST, which mediates its interaction with starch granules, is also required for correct GBSS localisation. Fluorescently tagged Arabidopsis GBSS, expressed either in tobacco or Arabidopsis leaves, required the presence of Arabidopsis PTST to localise to starch granules. Mutation of the CBM of PTST caused GBSS to remain in the plastid stroma. PTST fulfils a previously unknown function in targeting GBSS to starch. This sheds new light on the importance of targeting biosynthetic enzymes to sub-cellular sites where their action is required. Importantly, PTST represents a promising new gene target for the biotechnological modification of starch composition, as it is

  11. Retrogradation of starches and maltodextrins of various origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sobolewska-Zielińska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The retrogradation which occurs during the processes food storage is an essential problem in food industry. In this study, the ability to retrogradate of native starches and maltodextrins of different botanical origin was analysed. Material and methods. The materials were starches of various botanical origin, including commercial samples: potato, tapioca, wheat, corn, waxy corn starches, and laboratory isolated samples: triticale and rice starches. The above starches were used as material for laboratory production of maltodextrins of medium dextrose equivalents (DE in the range from 8.27 to 12.75. Starches were analysed for amylose content, while the ratio of non-branched/long-chain-branched to short-chain-branched fractions of maltodextrins was calculated from gel permeation chromatography data. The susceptibility to retrogradation of 2% starch pastes and 2% maltodextrin solutions was evaluated according to turbidimetric method of Jacobson. Results. The greatest starch in turbidance of starch gels was observed within initial of the test. days. Initial retrogradation degree of cereal starches was higher than that of tuber and root starches. The waxy corn starch was the least prone to retrogradate. The increase in turbidance of maltodextrin solutions were minimal. Waxy corn maltodextrin was not susceptible to retrogradation. Among other samples, the lowest susceptibility to retrogradation after 14 days was found for rice maltodextrin, while the highest for wheat and triticale maltodextrin. Conclusions. On the basis of this study, the retrogradation dependence on the kind of starches and the maltodextrins was established and the author stated that all the maltodextrins have a much less ability to retrogradation than the native starches.

  12. Structural basis for the roles of starch and sucrose in homo-exopolysaccharide formation by Lactobacillus reuteri 35-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuxiang; Dobruchowska, Justyna M; van der Kaaij, Rachel M; Gerwig, Gerrit J; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2016-10-20

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) that are important for biofilm formation in the mammalian oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. Sucrose is a well-known substrate for homo-EPS formation by Lactobacillus reuteri glucansucrases (GS). Starch is the main fermentable carbohydrate in the human diet, and often consumed simultaneously with sucrose. Recently we have characterized L. reuteri strains that also possess 4,6-α-glucanotransferases (4,6-α-GTases) that act on starch yielding isomalto-/malto-polysaccharides. In this study we have characterized the EPS formed by L. reuteri 35-5 cells and enzymes from sucrose plus starch. The data show that both in vivo and in vitro the L. reuteri 35-5 GS and 4,6-α-GTase enzymes, incubated with sucrose plus starch, cross-react and contribute to synthesis of the final hybrid EPS products. This may have strong effects on the EPS functional properties, influence biofilm formation, and affect the relationship between dietary intake of sucrose and starch, and dental caries formation. PMID:27474540

  13. Fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of native corn starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Grajek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The most important innovations in boethanol production in the last decade were: simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes (SSF, high gravity fermentation, the use of new enzyme preparation able to hydrolyse native granular starch and construction of genetically modified strains of microorganisms able to carry out simultaneous production of hydrolytic enzymes and fermentation of C6 and C5 sugars. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of ethanol fermentation using new type of amylolytic enzymes able to hydrolyse native corn starch in a SSF process. Material and methods. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of raw corn flour by fed-batch processes using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Red Star Ethanol Red and Stargen 001 enzyme preparation was performed. As experimental variable were investigated: fermentation temperature (35-37-40°C, rate of mash stirring (100 and 200 rpm, fermentation time (0-92 h and dosage of corn flour (different portion and different time. Results. It was found that optimal temperature for fed-batch SSF process was 37°C at initial pH of 5.0. However, the yeast intensively fermented the saccharides also at 40°C. The fermentation stirring rate has significant effect on starch utilization and fermentation production. The prolongation of fermentation time over 72 h has no substantiation in additional ethanol production. In all experimental fermentations the level of produced organic acids was very low, significantly below toxic concentration for the yeast. Conclusions. It was stated that the use of new method of starch raw material preparation resulted in satisfied fermentation yield and allowed to reduce energy requirements for starch liquefaction.  

  14. Nanostructures Derived from Starch and Chitosan for Fluorescence Bio-Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinxue Zu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent nanostructures (NSs derived from polysaccharides have drawn great attention as novel fluorescent probes for potential bio-imaging applications. Herein, we reported a facile alkali-assisted hydrothermal method to fabricate polysaccharide NSs using starch and chitosan as raw materials. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM demonstrated that the average particle sizes are 14 nm and 75 nm for starch and chitosan NSs, respectively. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy analysis showed that there are a large number of hydroxyl or amino groups on the surface of these polysaccharide-based NSs. Strong fluorescence with an excitation-dependent emission behaviour was observed under ultraviolet excitation. Interestingly, the photostability of the NSs was found to be superior to fluorescein and rhodamine B. The quantum yield of starch NSs could reach 11.12% under the excitation of 360 nm. The oxidative metal ions including Cu(II, Hg(IIand Fe(III exhibited a quench effect on the fluorescence intensity of the prepared NSs. Both of the two kinds of the multicoloured NSs showed a maximum fluorescence intensity at pH 7, while the fluorescence intensity decreased dramatically when they were put in an either acidic or basic environment (at pH 3 or 11. The cytotoxicity study of starch NSs showed that low cell cytotoxicity and 80% viability was found after 24 h incubation, when their concentration was less than 10 mg/mL. The study also showed the possibility of using the multicoloured starch NSs for mouse melanoma cells and guppy fish imaging.

  15. Deficiency of Starch Synthase IIIa and IVb Alters Starch Granule Morphology from Polyhedral to Spherical in Rice Endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyosawa, Yoshiko; Kawagoe, Yasushi; Matsushima, Ryo; Crofts, Naoko; Ogawa, Masahiro; Fukuda, Masako; Kumamaru, Toshihiro; Okazaki, Yozo; Kusano, Miyako; Saito, Kazuki; Toyooka, Kiminori; Sato, Mayuko; Ai, Yongfeng; Jane, Jay-Lin; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujita, Naoko

    2016-03-01

    Starch granule morphology differs markedly among plant species. However, the mechanisms controlling starch granule morphology have not been elucidated. Rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm produces characteristic compound-type granules containing dozens of polyhedral starch granules within an amyloplast. Some other cereal species produce simple-type granules, in which only one starch granule is present per amyloplast. A double mutant rice deficient in the starch synthase (SS) genes SSIIIa and SSIVb (ss3a ss4b) produced spherical starch granules, whereas the parental single mutants produced polyhedral starch granules similar to the wild type. The ss3a ss4b amyloplasts contained compound-type starch granules during early developmental stages, and spherical granules were separated from each other during subsequent amyloplast development and seed dehydration. Analysis of glucan chain length distribution identified overlapping roles for SSIIIa and SSIVb in amylopectin chain synthesis, with a degree of polymerization of 42 or greater. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy of wild-type developing rice seeds revealed that the majority of SSIVb was localized between starch granules. Therefore, we propose that SSIIIa and SSIVb have crucial roles in determining starch granule morphology and in maintaining the amyloplast envelope structure. We present a model of spherical starch granule production. PMID:26747287

  16. SAMPLING ARTIFACT ESTIMATES FOR ALKANES, HOPANES, AND ALIPHATIC CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampling artifacts for molecular markers from organic speciation of particulate matter were investigated by analyzing forty-one samples collected in Philadelphia as a part of the Northeast Oxidant and Particulate Study (NEOPS). Samples were collected using a high volume sampler ...

  17. Coevolution of variability models and related software artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passos, Leonardo; Teixeira, Leopoldo; Dinztner, Nicolas;

    2015-01-01

    models coevolve with other artifact types, we study a large and complex real-world variant-rich software system: the Linux kernel. Specifically, we extract variability-coevolution patterns capturing changes in the variability model of the Linux kernel with subsequent changes in Makefiles and C source...

  18. Inter-deriving Semantic Artifacts for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    We present a new abstract machine for Abadi and Cardelli's untyped calculus of objects. What is special about this semantic artifact (i.e., man-made construct) is that is mechanically corresponds to both the reduction semantics (i.e., small-step operational semantics) and the natural semantics (i...

  19. 77 FR 64146 - Arts and Artifacts Indemnity Panel Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts and Artifacts Indemnity Panel Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Council on the Arts and the Humanities, National Endowment for the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting... hereby given that the Federal Council on the Arts and the Humanities will hold a meeting of the Arts...

  20. 77 FR 40914 - Arts and Artifacts Indemnity Panel Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts and Artifacts Indemnity Panel Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Council on the Arts and the Humanities, National Endowment for the Humanities, National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 10(a)(2) of...

  1. Negligible motion artifacts in scalp electroencephalography (EEG during treadmill walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent Mobile Brain/Body Imaging (MoBI techniques based on active electrode scalp electroencephalogram (EEG allow the acquisition and real-time analysis of brain dynamics during active unrestrained motor behavior involving whole body movements such as treadmill walking, over-ground walking and other locomotive and non-locomotive tasks. Unfortunately, MoBI protocols are prone to physiological and non-physiological artifacts, including motion artifacts that may contaminate the EEG recordings. A few attempts have been made to quantify these artifacts during locomotion tasks but with inconclusive results due in part to methodological pitfalls. In this paper, we investigate the potential contributions of motion artifacts in scalp EEG during treadmill walking at three different speeds (1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 km/h using a wireless 64 channel active EEG system and a wireless inertial sensor attached to the subject’s head. The experimental setup was designed according to good measurement practices using state-of-the-art commercially-available instruments, and the measurements were analyzed using Fourier analysis and wavelet coherence approaches. Contrary to prior claims, the subjects’ motion did not significantly affect their EEG during treadmill walking although precaution should be taken when gait speeds approach 4.5 km/h. Overall, these findings suggest how MoBI methods may be safely deployed in neural, cognitive, and rehabilitation engineering applications.

  2. Enhanced Automatic Wavelet Independent Component Analysis for Electroencephalographic Artifact Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Mammone

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG is a fundamental diagnostic instrument for many neurological disorders, and it is the main tool for the investigation of the cognitive or pathological activity of the brain through the bioelectromagnetic fields that it generates. The correct interpretation of the EEG is misleading, both for clinicians’ visual evaluation and for automated procedures, because of artifacts. As a consequence, artifact rejection in EEG is a key preprocessing step, and the quest for reliable automatic processors has been quickly growing in the last few years. Recently, a promising automatic methodology, known as automatic wavelet-independent component analysis (AWICA, has been proposed. In this paper, a more efficient and sensitive version, called enhanced-AWICA (EAWICA, is proposed, and an extensive performance comparison is carried out by a step of tuning the different parameters that are involved in artifact detection. EAWICA is shown to minimize information loss and to outperform AWICA in artifact removal, both on simulated and real experimental EEG recordings.

  3. Artifact suppression and analysis of brain activities with electroencephalography signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Rashed-Al-Mahfuz; Md. Rabiul Islam; Keikichi Hirose; Md. Khademul Islam Molla

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interface is a communication system that connects the brain with computer (or other devices) but is not dependent on the normal output of the brain (i.e., peripheral nerve and muscle). Electro-oculogram is a dominant artifact which has a significant negative influence on further analysis of real electroencephalography data. This paper presented a data adaptive technique for artifact suppression and brain wave extraction from electroencephalography signals to detect regional brain activities. Empirical mode decomposition based adaptive thresholding approach was employed here to suppress the electro-oculogram artifact. Fractional Gaussian noise was used to determine the threshold level derived from the analysis data without any training. The purified electroencephalography signal was composed of the brain waves also called rhythmic components which represent the brain activities. The rhythmic components were extracted from each electroencephalography channel using adaptive wiener filter with the original scale. The regional brain activities were mapped on the basis of the spatial distribution of rhythmic components, and the results showed that different regions of the brain are activated in response to different stimuli. This research analyzed the activities of a single rhythmic component, alpha with respect to different motor imaginations. The experimental results showed that the proposed method is very efficient in artifact suppression and identifying individual motor imagery based on the activities of alpha component.

  4. Rotational artifacts in on-board cone beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, E. S. M.; Webb, R.; Nyiri, B. J.

    2015-02-01

    Rotational artifacts in image guidance systems lead to registration errors that affect non-isocentric treatments and dose to off-axis organs-at-risk. This study investigates a rotational artifact in the images acquired with the on-board cone beam computed tomography system XVI (Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden). The goals of the study are to identify the cause of the artifact, to characterize its dependence on other quantities, and to investigate possible solutions. A 30 cm diameter cylindrical phantom is used to acquire clockwise and counterclockwise scans at five speeds (120 to 360 deg min-1) on six Elekta linear accelerators from three generations (MLCi, MLCi2 and Agility). Additional scans are acquired with different pulse widths and focal spot sizes for the same mAs. Image quality is evaluated using a common phantom with an in-house three dimensional contrast transfer function attachment. A robust, operator-independent analysis is developed which quantifies rotational artifacts with 0.02° accuracy and imaging system delays with 3 ms accuracy. Results show that the artifact is caused by mislabelling of the projections with a lagging angle due to various imaging system delays. For the most clinically used scan speed (360 deg min-1), the artifact is ˜0.5°, which corresponds to ˜0.25° error per scan direction with the standard Elekta procedure for angle calibration. This leads to a 0.5 mm registration error at 11 cm off-center. The artifact increases linearly with scan speed, indicating that the system delay is independent of scan speed. For the most commonly used pulse width of 40 ms, this delay is 34 ± 1 ms, part of which is half the pulse width. Results are consistent among the three linac generations. A software solution that corrects the angles of individual projections is shown to eliminate the rotational error for all scan speeds and directions. Until such a solution is available from the manufacturer, three clinical solutions are presented, which reduce the

  5. Rotational artifacts in on-board cone beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotational artifacts in image guidance systems lead to registration errors that affect non-isocentric treatments and dose to off-axis organs-at-risk. This study investigates a rotational artifact in the images acquired with the on-board cone beam computed tomography system XVI (Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden). The goals of the study are to identify the cause of the artifact, to characterize its dependence on other quantities, and to investigate possible solutions. A 30 cm diameter cylindrical phantom is used to acquire clockwise and counterclockwise scans at five speeds (120 to 360 deg min−1) on six Elekta linear accelerators from three generations (MLCi, MLCi2 and Agility). Additional scans are acquired with different pulse widths and focal spot sizes for the same mAs. Image quality is evaluated using a common phantom with an in-house three dimensional contrast transfer function attachment. A robust, operator-independent analysis is developed which quantifies rotational artifacts with 0.02° accuracy and imaging system delays with 3 ms accuracy. Results show that the artifact is caused by mislabelling of the projections with a lagging angle due to various imaging system delays. For the most clinically used scan speed (360 deg min−1), the artifact is ∼0.5°, which corresponds to ∼0.25° error per scan direction with the standard Elekta procedure for angle calibration. This leads to a 0.5 mm registration error at 11 cm off-center. The artifact increases linearly with scan speed, indicating that the system delay is independent of scan speed. For the most commonly used pulse width of 40 ms, this delay is 34 ± 1 ms, part of which is half the pulse width. Results are consistent among the three linac generations. A software solution that corrects the angles of individual projections is shown to eliminate the rotational error for all scan speeds and directions. Until such a solution is available from the manufacturer, three clinical solutions are

  6. Identification a Novel Raw-Starch-Degrading-α-Amylase from a Tropical Marine Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeily Nurachman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Bacteria from the surface of the tropical marine hard coral Acropora sp. were screened for producing raw-starch-degrading-á-amylase. Approach: Based on its 16s rDNA sequence, a bacterium that produced the highest amylolitic activity was identified as Bacillus amyloliquifaciens ABBD. The bacterial isolate secreted a á-amylase extracellularly and then the enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by anion exchange chromatography. Results: Electrophoresis results both SDS-PAGE and native PAGE suggested that the enzyme was a heterodimeric protein (97 kDa consisting of 45 and 55 kDa subunits. The á-amylase had an optimum pH of 7.0 and temperature of 60°C. More than 80% activity of the enzyme was retained under high salt conditions (up to 20% NaCl. The enzyme remained stable at 50°C for 1 h. Starch hydrolysis by the enzyme at 70°C yielded oligosaccharides (G2-G4 and at room temperature yielded glucose/maltose (G1 and G2. Conclusion: The B. amyloliquifaciens ABBD á-amylase was capable of degrading various raw starch granules from corn, rice, cassava and sago at room temperature.

  7. Genetic association among root morphology, root quality and root yield in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ramesh R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera is a dryland medicinal crop and roots are used as valuable drug in traditional systems of medicine. Morphological variants (morphotypes and the parental populations were evaluated for root - morphometric, quality and yield traits to study genetic association among them. Root morphometric traits (root length, root diameter, number of secondary roots/ plant and crude fiber content exhibited strong association among them and showed significant positive genotypic correlation with yield. Starch-fiber ratio (SFR, determinant of brittle root texture showed strong negative association with root yield. The total alkaloid content had positive genotypic correlation with root yield. So genetic upgradation should aim at optimum balance between two divergent groups of traits i.e. root yield traits (root morphometric traits and crude fiber content and root textural quality traits (starch content and SFR to develop superior genotypes with better yield and quality.

  8. Optical standing-wave artifacts in reflection-absorption FTIR microspectroscopy of biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reflection-absorption spectra obtained with an infrared microscope should yield the same absorption coefficients as direct micro-transmission measurements as long as the correct effective sample thickness is used, but in practice, severe optical artifacts can complicate the spectra. Using deposited protein gel fdms as a homogenous model for biological cell-like samples, we demonstrate the effect of standing-wave interference of the IR beam at the reflective substrate surface which dramatically and systematically alters the absorbance intensity across the spectrum as a function of sample thickness. To explain the observed spectral artifacts, we simulate the optical standing-wave for the focussed IR beam, and insert the parameters into an existing standing-wave absorption theory. By introducing an additional term to the theory representing a component of the standing-wave resonant with the film thickness, the data are accurately reproduced, and the relative band intensities can be corrected to the direct transmission values. This approach may be generally applicable in reflection-absorption experiments to obtain reliable absorbance spectra of homogenous samples even when the sample thickness is larger than the IR wavelength.

  9. Yield and yield components of minituber potato under direct cultivation and transplanting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ghorbani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was performed to study the effect of direct planting and transplanting of potato minituber on its yield and yield components. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete blocks with nine treatments and three replications. Treatments were one direct and eight indirect planting. In order to prepare the nursery, two types of pots (peat and nylon and four types of substrates including sand + peat moss (1:1, sand + Kimiya organic fertilizer (1:1, sand + vermicompost (1:1 and sand + farm soil (1:1 were used. Results showed that there was significant difference in regard to mean yield per plant, mean wet weight of tuber, number of tubers smaller and greater than 80 g, percent dry weight of tuber, biologic yield, starch percentage and nitrate content of tubers. The highest mean tuber yield per plant, number of tubers greater than 80 gr and biologic yield belonged to plants in nylon pots with substrate of sand + Kimiya organic fertilizer. The highest percentage of starch and tuber dry matter belonged to plants in peat pots with substrate of sand + soil. The highest mean wet weight of tubers belonged to nylon pots with substrate of sand + peat moss. The highest number of tubers lower than 80 g and the highest nitrate content was obtained by direct planting. The sand+ Kimiya organic fertilizer, which provides the necessary elements for plant growth, with more yield and number of marketable tubers, could be the best substrate as compared to other substrates used in this experiment.

  10. High-fidelity artifact correction for cone-beam CT imaging of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Xu, J.; Dang, H.; Stayman, J. W.; Yorkston, J.; Aygun, N.; Koliatsos, V.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2015-02-01

    CT is the frontline imaging modality for diagnosis of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI), involving the detection of fresh blood in the brain (contrast of 30-50 HU, detail size down to 1 mm) in a non-contrast-enhanced exam. A dedicated point-of-care imaging system based on cone-beam CT (CBCT) could benefit early detection of TBI and improve direction to appropriate therapy. However, flat-panel detector (FPD) CBCT is challenged by artifacts that degrade contrast resolution and limit application in soft-tissue imaging. We present and evaluate a fairly comprehensive framework for artifact correction to enable soft-tissue brain imaging with FPD CBCT. The framework includes a fast Monte Carlo (MC)-based scatter estimation method complemented by corrections for detector lag, veiling glare, and beam hardening. The fast MC scatter estimation combines GPU acceleration, variance reduction, and simulation with a low number of photon histories and reduced number of projection angles (sparse MC) augmented by kernel de-noising to yield a runtime of ~4 min per scan. Scatter correction is combined with two-pass beam hardening correction. Detector lag correction is based on temporal deconvolution of the measured lag response function. The effects of detector veiling glare are reduced by deconvolution of the glare response function representing the long range tails of the detector point-spread function. The performance of the correction framework is quantified in experiments using a realistic head phantom on a testbench for FPD CBCT. Uncorrected reconstructions were non-diagnostic for soft-tissue imaging tasks in the brain. After processing with the artifact correction framework, image uniformity was substantially improved, and artifacts were reduced to a level that enabled visualization of ~3 mm simulated bleeds throughout the brain. Non-uniformity (cupping) was reduced by a factor of 5, and contrast of simulated bleeds was improved from ~7 to 49.7 HU, in good agreement

  11. High-fidelity artifact correction for cone-beam CT imaging of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT is the frontline imaging modality for diagnosis of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI), involving the detection of fresh blood in the brain (contrast of 30–50 HU, detail size down to 1 mm) in a non-contrast-enhanced exam. A dedicated point-of-care imaging system based on cone-beam CT (CBCT) could benefit early detection of TBI and improve direction to appropriate therapy. However, flat-panel detector (FPD) CBCT is challenged by artifacts that degrade contrast resolution and limit application in soft-tissue imaging. We present and evaluate a fairly comprehensive framework for artifact correction to enable soft-tissue brain imaging with FPD CBCT. The framework includes a fast Monte Carlo (MC)-based scatter estimation method complemented by corrections for detector lag, veiling glare, and beam hardening. The fast MC scatter estimation combines GPU acceleration, variance reduction, and simulation with a low number of photon histories and reduced number of projection angles (sparse MC) augmented by kernel de-noising to yield a runtime of ∼4 min per scan. Scatter correction is combined with two-pass beam hardening correction. Detector lag correction is based on temporal deconvolution of the measured lag response function. The effects of detector veiling glare are reduced by deconvolution of the glare response function representing the long range tails of the detector point-spread function. The performance of the correction framework is quantified in experiments using a realistic head phantom on a testbench for FPD CBCT. Uncorrected reconstructions were non-diagnostic for soft-tissue imaging tasks in the brain. After processing with the artifact correction framework, image uniformity was substantially improved, and artifacts were reduced to a level that enabled visualization of ∼3 mm simulated bleeds throughout the brain. Non-uniformity (cupping) was reduced by a factor of 5, and contrast of simulated bleeds was improved from ∼7 to 49.7 HU, in good

  12. Total Variation-Based Reduction of Streak Artifacts, Ring Artifacts and Noise in 3D Reconstruction from Optical Projection Tomography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michálek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2015), s. 1602-1615. ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH13028; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-12412S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : optical projection tomography * microscopy * artifacts * total variation * data mismatch Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.877, year: 2014

  13. A thermostable glucoamylase from Bispora sp. MEY-1 with stability over a broad pH range and significant starch hydrolysis capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifang Hua

    Full Text Available Glucoamylase is an exo-type enzyme that converts starch completely into glucose from the non-reducing ends. To meet the industrial requirements for starch processing, a glucoamylase with excellent thermostability, raw-starch degradation ability and high glucose yield is much needed. In the present study we selected the excellent Carbohydrate-Activity Enzyme (CAZyme producer, Bispora sp. MEY-1, as the microbial source for glucoamylase gene exploitation.A glucoamylase gene (gla15 was cloned from Bispora sp. MEY-1 and successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris with a high yield of 34.1 U/ml. Deduced GLA15 exhibits the highest identity of 64.2% to the glucoamylase from Talaromyces (Rasamsonia emersonii. Purified recombinant GLA15 was thermophilic and showed the maximum activity at 70°C. The enzyme was stable over a broad pH range (2.2-11.0 and at high temperature up to 70°C. It hydrolyzed the breakages of both α-1,4- and α-1,6-glycosidic linkages in amylopectin, soluble starch, amylose, and maltooligosaccharides, and had capacity to degrade raw starch. TLC and H1-NMR analysis showed that GLA15 is a typical glucoamylase of GH family 15 that releases glucose units from the non-reducing ends of α-glucans. The combination of Bacillus licheniformis amylase and GLA15 hydrolyzed 96.14% of gelatinized maize starch after 6 h incubation, which was about 9% higher than that of the combination with a commercial glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger.GLA15 has a broad pH stability range, high-temperature thermostability, high starch hydrolysis capacity and high expression yield. In comparison with the commercial glucoamylase from A. niger, GLA15 represents a better candidate for application in the food industry including production of glucose, glucose syrups, and high-fructose corn syrups.

  14. Zinc chloride aqueous solution as a solvent for starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meiying; Shang, Xiaoqin; Liu, Peng; Xie, Fengwei; Chen, Xiaodong; Sun, Yongyi; Wan, Junyan

    2016-01-20

    It is important to obtain starch-based homogeneous systems for starch modification. Regarding this, an important key point is to find cheap, low-cost and low-toxicity solvents to allow complete dissolution of starch and its easy regeneration. This study reveals that a ZnCl2 aqueous solution is a good non-derivatizing solvent for starch at 50 °C, and can completely dissolve starch granules. The possible formation of a "zinc-starch complex" might account for the dissolution; and the degradation of starch, which was caused by the H(+) inZnCl2 aqueous solution, could not contribute to full dissolution. From polarized light microscopic observation combined with the solution turbidity results, it was found that the lowest ZnCl2 concentration for full dissolution was 29.6 wt.% at 50 °C, with the dissolving time being 4h. Using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), solid state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), it was revealed that ZnCl2 solution had no chemical reaction with starch glucosides, but only weakened starch hydrogen bonding and converted the crystalline regions to amorphous regions. In addition, as shown by intrinsic viscosity and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), ZnCl2 solution caused degradation of starch macromolecules, which was more serious with a higher concentration of ZnCl2 solution. PMID:26572355

  15. The potential of resistant starch as a prebiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Siti A; Sarbini, Shahrul R

    2016-06-01

    Resistant starch is defined as the total amount of starch and the products of starch degradation that resists digestion in the small intestine. Starches that were able to resist the digestion will arrive at the colon where they will be fermented by the gut microbiota, producing a variety of products which include short chain fatty acids that can provide a range of physiological benefits. There are several factors that could affect the resistant starch content of a carbohydrate which includes the starch granule morphology, the amylose-amylopectin ratio and its association with other food component. One of the current interests on resistant starch is their potential to be used as a prebiotic, which is a non-digestible food ingredient that benefits the host by stimulating the growth or activity of one or a limited number of beneficial bacteria in the colon. A resistant starch must fulfill three criterions to be classified as a prebiotic; resistance to the upper gastrointestinal environment, fermentation by the intestinal microbiota and selective stimulation of the growth and/or activity of the beneficial bacteria. The market of prebiotic is expected to reach USD 198 million in 2014 led by the export of oligosaccharides. Realizing this, novel carbohydrates such as resistant starch from various starch sources can contribute to the advancement of the prebiotic industry. PMID:25582732

  16. Characters related to higher starch accumulation in cassava storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You-Zhi; Zhao, Jian-Yu; Wu, San-Min; Fan, Xian-Wei; Luo, Xing-Lu; Chen, Bao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is valued mainly for high content starch in its roots. Our understanding of mechanisms promoting high starch accumulation in the roots is, however, still very limited. Two field-grown cassava cultivars, Huanan 124(H124) with low root starch and Fuxuan 01(F01) with high root starch, were characterised comparatively at four main growth stages. Changes in key sugars in the leaves, stems and roots seemed not to be strongly associated with the final amount of starch accumulated in the roots. However, when compared with H124, F01 exhibited a more compact arrangement of xylem vascular bundles in the leaf axils, much less callose around the phloem sieve plates in the stems, higher starch synthesis-related enzymatic activity but lower amylase activity in the roots, more significantly up-regulated expression of related genes, and a much higher stem flow rate (SFR). In conclusion, higher starch accumulation in the roots results from the concurrent effects of powerful stem transport capacity highlighted by higher SFR, high starch synthesis but low starch degradation in the roots, and high expression of sugar transporter genes in the stems. A model of high starch accumulation in cassava roots was therefore proposed and discussed. PMID:26892156

  17. Characterization of banana starches obtained from cultivars grown in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Mesquita, Camila; Leonel, Magali; Franco, Célia Maria Landi; Leonel, Sarita; Garcia, Emerson Loli; Dos Santos, Thaís Paes Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    The starch market is constantly evolving and studies that provide information about the physical and rheological properties of native starches to meet the diverse demands of the sector are increasingly necessary. In this study starches obtained from five cultivars of banana were analyzed for size and shape of granules, crystallinity, chemical composition, resistant starch, swelling power, solubility, thermal and paste properties. The granules of starch were large (36.58-47.24μm), oval, showed crystallinity pattern type B and the index of crystallinity ranged from 31.94 to 34.06%. The phosphorus content ranged from 0.003 to 0.011%, the amylose ranged from 25.13 to 29.01% and the resistant starch ranged from 65.70 to 80.28%. The starches showed high peak viscosity and breakdown, especially those obtained from 'Nanicão' and 'Grand Naine'. Peak temperature of gelatinization was around 71°C, the enthalpy change (ΔH) ranged from 9.45 to 14.73Jg(-1). The starch from 'Grand Naine' showed higher swelling power (15.19gg(-1)) and the starch from 'Prata-Anã' higher solubility (11.61%). The starches studied are highlighted by their physical and chemical characteristics and may be used in several applications. PMID:27180297

  18. Second Harmonic Generation Mediated by Aligned Water in Starch Granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisek, Richard; Tokarz, Danielle; Krouglov, Serguei; Steup, Martin; Emes, Michael J; Tetlow, Ian J; Barzda, Virginijus

    2014-12-26

    The origin of second harmonic generation (SHG) in starch granules was investigated using ab initio quantum mechanical modeling and experimentally examined using polarization-in, polarization-out (PIPO) second harmonic generation microscopy. Ab initio calculations revealed that the largest contribution to the SHG signal from A- and B-type allomorphs of starch originates from the anisotropic organization of hydroxide and hydrogen bonds mediated by aligned water found in the polymers. The hypothesis was experimentally tested by imaging maize starch granules under various hydration and heat treatment conditions that alter the hydrogen bond network. The highest SHG intensity was found in fully hydrated starch granules, and heat treatment diminished the SHG intensity. The PIPO SHG imaging showed that dried starch granules have a much higher nonlinear optical susceptibility component ratio than fully hydrated granules. In contrast, deuterated starch granules showed a smaller susceptibility component ratio demonstrating that SHG is highly sensitive to the organization of the hydroxyl and hydrogen bond network. The polarization SHG imaging results of potato starch granules, representing starch allomorph B, were compared to those of maize starch granules representing allomorph A. The results showed that the amount of aligned water was higher in the maize granules. Nonlinear microscopy of starch granules provides evidence that varying hydration conditions leads to significant changes in the nonlinear susceptibility ratio as well as the SHG intensity, supporting the hypothesis from ab initio calculations that the dominant contribution to SHG is due to the ordered hydroxide and hydrogen bond network. PMID:25427055

  19. Changes in the activities of starch metabolism enzymes in rice grains in response to elevated CO2 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li-Yong; Lin, Er-Da; Zhao, Hong-Liang; Feng, Yong-Xiang

    2016-05-01

    of starch and protein in the rice grains. Our results will provide a foundation for understanding the physiological mechanisms of rice yield under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  20. Mixture design of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch for optimization of gluten free bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, Camino M; Merino, Cristina; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Gluten-free bread production requires gluten-free flours or starches. Rice flour and maize starch are two of the most commonly used raw materials. Over recent years, gluten-free wheat starch is available on the market. The aim of this research was to optimize mixtures of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch using an experimental mixture design. For this purpose, dough rheology and its fermentation behaviour were studied. Quality bread parameters such as specific volume, texture, cell structure, colour and acceptability were also analysed. Generally, starch incorporation reduced G* and increased the bread specific volume and cell density, but the breads obtained were paler than the rice flour breads. Comparing the starches, wheat starch breads had better overall acceptability and had a greater volume than maize-starch bread. The highest value for sensorial acceptability corresponded to the bread produced with a mixture of rice flour (59 g/100 g) and wheat starch (41 g/100 g). PMID:26396377

  1. Characteristics of cassava starch fermentation wastewater based on structural degradation of starch granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Mascarenhas Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sour cassava starch is a naturally modified starch produced by fermentation and sun drying, achieving the property of expansion upon baking. Sour cassava starch' bakery products can be prepared without the addition of yeast and it is gluten free. The fermentation process associated with this product has been well studied, but the wastewater, with high acidity and richness in other organic compounds derived from starch degradation, requires further investigation. In this study, the structure of solids present in this residue was studied, seeking to future applications for new materials. The solids of the wastewater were spray dried with maltodextrin (MD with dextrose equivalent (DE of 5 and 15 and the structure of the powder was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. A regular structure with a network arrangement was observed for the dried material with MD of 5 DE, in contrast to the original and fermented starches structure, which suggests a regular organization of this new material, to be studied in future applications.

  2. PROTEIN TARGETING TO STARCH Is Required for Localising GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE to Starch Granules and for Normal Amylose Synthesis in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Sedwick, Caitlin

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism by which plants make starch—a vital foodstuff for billions of humans—is poorly understood, with a clear role for just one enzyme, granular binding starch synthase. A new study identifies a protein needed to recruit this enzyme to the starch granule. Read the Research Article.

  3. A Novel Technique for Muscle Onset Detection Using Surface EMG Signals without Removal of ECG Artifacts

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Surface electromyogram (EMG) signal from trunk muscles is often contaminated by electrocardiogram (ECG) artifacts. This study presents a novel method for muscle activity onset detection by processing surface EMG against ECG artifacts. The method does not require removal of ECG artifacts from raw surface EMG signals. Instead, it applies the sample entropy (SampEn) analysis to highlight EMG activity and suppress ECG artifacts in the signal complexity domain. A SampEn threshold can then be deter...

  4. Home-Explorer: Ontology-Based Physical Artifact Search and Hidden Object Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Guo; Satoru Satake; Michita Imai

    2008-01-01

    A new system named Home-Explorer that searches and finds physical artifacts in a smart indoor environment is proposed. The view on which it is based is artifact-centered and uses sensors attached to the everyday artifacts (called smart objects) in the real world. This paper makes two main contributions: First, it addresses, the robustness of the embedded sensors, which is seldom discussed in previous smart artifact research. Because sensors may sometimes be broken or fail to work under certai...

  5. Inhibition of bacilli in industrial starches by nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirttijärvi, T S; Wahlström, G; Rainey, F A; Saris, P E; Salkinoja-Salonen, M S

    2001-03-01

    The properties of Bacillus coagulans and of other bacilli that contaminate paper and paperboard manufacturing processes were investigated under simulated industrial conditions. Nisin (0.05 to 0.125 microg ml(-1) blocked growth of indigenous bacilli that contaminate sizing starches. B. coagulans starch isolates, B. licheniformis, B. amyloliquefaciens, and B. stearothermophilus grew at > or = 50 degrees C in industrial starch and produced alpha-glucosidase and cyclodextrins. The industrial isolates and reference strains of B. amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, B. coagulans, B. flexus, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. sporothermodurans, B. stearothermophilus and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris were inhibited by DBNPA ml(-1) in industrial starch. B. licheniformis and B. amyloliquefaciens strains were less sensitive. About 40% of nisin added to starch was retained after cooking. Fifty percent of the nisin remained active after 11 h of storage at 60 degrees C. The results show that nisin has potential as a preservative for modified industrial starches. PMID:11420648

  6. Study on the Rheological Property of Cassava Starch Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to use cassava starch in the production of environmentally sound adhesives. ‘Three-formaldehyde glue’ pollutes the environment and harms to human health strongly, which widely used for wood-based panels preparation. Environment-friendly cassava starch adhesives were prepared using method of oxidation-gelatinization, insteading of the three formaldehyde glue. The effects of the quality ratio of starch and water, temperature and shear rate on the apparent viscosity of the adhesive were studied. The rheological eigenvalue of apparent viscosity was studied through nonlinear regression. The results showed that the apparent viscosity of cassava starch adhesives decreased with the increasing of temperature; the apparent viscosity decreased slowly with the increasing of rotor speed; the phenomenon of shear thinning appeared within cassava starch adhesives which was pseudo-plastic fluids. Cassava starch adhesives with characteristics of non-toxic, no smell and pollution could be applied in interior and upscale packaging.

  7. Wheat B-starch based polymeric materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotek, Jiří; Kruliš, Zdeněk; Šárka, E.

    Prague : Czech Chemical Society, 2011 - (Řápková, R.; Čopíková, J.; Šárka, E.), s. 37-39 ISBN 978-80-86238-90-6. [International Conference on Polysaccharides-Glycoscience /7./. Prague (CZ), 02.11.2011-04.11.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/09/0607 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : biodegradable plastic * polycaprolactone * B- starch Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  8. Polymer based on chemically modified starch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Pavel; Kruliš, Zdeněk; Šárka, E.; Kobera, Libor

    Praha : Ústav makromolekulární chemie AV ČR, v. v. i, 2014. s. 82. ISBN 978-80-85009-81-1. [Česko-slovenská konference POLYMERY 2014 /8./. 06.10.2014-09.10.2014, Třešť] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA04020853 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : starch * chemical modification * degree of substitution Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  9. Polymers based on chemically modified starch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Pavel; Kruliš, Zdeněk; Šárka, E.; Kobera, Libor

    Prague : Czech Chemical Society, 2014 - (Řápková, R.; Čopíková, J.; Šárka, E.), s. 88-90 ISBN 978-80-86238-70-8. [International Conference on Polysaccharides-Glycoscience /10./. Prague (CZ), 22.10.2014-24.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA04020853 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : starch * chemical modification * degree of substitution Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  10. Amylase action pattern on starch polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Bijttebier, Annabel; Goesaert, Hans; Delcour, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Several decades ago, the first reports on differences in action pattern between amylases from different sources indicated that the starch polymers are not degraded in a completely random manner. We here give an overview of different action patterns of amylases on amylose and amylopectin, focusing on the so-called multiple attack action of the enzymes. Nowadays, the multiple attack action is generally an accepted concept to explain the differences in amylase action pattern. However, the pancre...

  11. 损伤淀粉含量对小麦粉品质及淀粉和谷朊粉分离效果的影响%Influence of damage starch on the quality of wheat flour and the separation effect of starch and gluten

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明菲; 郑学玲; 卞科; 刘翀; 洪静; 刘志强

    2015-01-01

    With the refined wheat flour of Jinyuan as raw material ,treatment for 0 ,5 ,10 ,15 h by a planetary ball mill , respectively ,the wheat flour of different content of damage starch were prepared .With varying degrees of damage starch as raw material ,A‐starch and gluten were separated and extracted ,then the yield of wet gluten and starch were measured ,after freeze‐drying ,the yield and purity ,water‐soluble content and sample whiteness were measured to explore the influence of damage starch on the separation effect of starch and gluten .The experimental results showed that :for the milled wheat flour , the longer the milling time ,the higher the damage starch content in wheat flour ;with the milling time increasing ,smaller particle content increased ,moisture content and falling number decreased .In the separation processing of starch and gluten flour ,damage starch content was significantly positive correlated with the yield of A‐starch (r=0 .990) ,and no significant correlation with gluten yield (P>0 .05) .%以市售金苑特制一等粉为原料,采用行星式球磨机,分别处理0、5、10、15 h ,制得不同损伤淀粉含量的小麦粉。用不同损伤淀粉含量的小麦粉为原料,分离、提取A淀粉和谷朊粉,随即测定淀粉和谷朊粉湿基的得率,冷冻干燥后测定各样品的得率与纯度、水溶物含量及样品白度等,探索损伤淀粉含量对淀粉和谷朊粉分离效果的影响。试验结果表明,经研磨处理后的小麦粉,研磨时间越长,小麦粉中损伤淀粉含量越高;随着研磨时间的增加,小粒径粉含量增大,水分降低,降落数值降低。在淀粉和谷朊粉分离过程中,损伤淀粉含量与淀粉得率呈极显著正相关(r=0.990),与谷朊粉得率无显著相关性(P>0.05)。

  12. Digital Library Archaeology: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Library Use through Artifact-Based Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Archaeologists have used material artifacts found in a physical space to gain an understanding about the people who occupied that space. Likewise, as users wander through a digital library, they leave behind data-based artifacts of their activity in the virtual space. Digital library archaeologists can gather these artifacts and employ inductive…

  13. Anaerobic digestion of by-products of sugar beet and starch potato processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryvoruchko, Vitaliy; Machmueller, Andrea; Bodiroza, Vitomir; Amon, Barbara; Amon, Thomas [Division of Agricultural Engineering, Department of Sustainable Agricultural Systems, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Peter-Jordan Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-04-15

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a promising option for the environmentally friendly recycling of agricultural by-products. However, overloading of the digester with sugar, starch or protein might cause inhibition of the anaerobic processes. The aim of the present project was to investigate the AD of sugar beet, starch potato by-products and effect of pre-treatment by steam on methane yield of potatoes pulp. The investigated by-products have been: sugar beet pulp silage (SBP), sugar beet tail silage (SBT), potato pulp (PP), potato peel pulp (PPP) and potato fruit water (PFW). All by-products were digested in 1 l eudiometer-batch digesters at 37.5 C during 28-38 days. The specific methane yields of SBP and SBT were 430 and 481 l{sub N} kg{sup -1} volatile solids (VS), respectively. The specific methane yields of PP, PPP and PFW were 332, 377 and 323 l{sub N} (kg VS){sup -1}. A steam pre-treatment significantly increased the specific methane yield of PP up to 373 l{sub N} (kg VS){sup -1}. (author)

  14. Transfer action of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase on starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transglycosylation reaction of the cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus megaterium (No. 5 enzyme) and Bacillus macerans (BMA) were examined. No.5 enzyme was more efficient in transglycosylation reaction than BMA in the every acceptor employed in the present study. The order of the efficient acceptors for No. 5 enzyme was maltose (G2), glucose (G1), maltotriose (G3) and sucrose (GF). On the other hand, that found for BMA was G1, G2, GF and G3. The transglycosylation products to glucose formed by the action of No. 5 enzyme on starch were G2, G3, maltotetraose (G4), maltopentaose (G5), maltohexaose (G6) and maltoheptaose (G7) in the order of their quantities, while, in the case of BMA, they were G2, G3, G5, G7 = G4 and G6. The larger transglycosylation products to sucrose formed by the action of No. 5 enzyme on starch were maltosylfructose. On the other hand, that formed by the action of BMA was maltoheptaosylfructose. It was suggested that cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase could transfer the glucosyl residues to an acceptor directly from starch, as well as through cyclodextrin. (auth.)

  15. Dental artifacts in the head and neck region:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Claes N.; Hansen, Adam E.; Keller, Sune;

    2015-01-01

    images were evaluated visually and quantitatively using regions of interests in reference regions. The volume of the artifacts and the computed relative differences in mean and max standardized uptake value (SUV) between the two PET images are reported. RESULTS: The MR-based volume of the susceptibility......-induced signal voids on the MR-AC attenuation maps was between 1.6 and 520.8 mL. The corresponding/resulting bias of the reconstructed tracer distribution was localized mainly in the area of the signal void. The mean and maximum SUVs averaged across all patients increased after inpainting by 52% (± 11%) and 28......% (± 11%), respectively, in the corrected region. SUV underestimation decreased with the distance to the signal void and correlated with the volume of the susceptibility artifact on the MR-AC attenuation map. CONCLUSIONS: Metallic dental work may cause severe MR signal voids. The resulting PET...

  16. Optical nano artifact metrics using silicon random nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Nishio, Shumpei; Hoga, Morihisa; Ohyagi, Yasuyuki; Tate, Naoya; Naruse, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Nano artifact metrics exploit unique physical attributes of nanostructured matter for authentication and clone resistance, which is vitally important in the age of Internet-of-Things where securing identities is critical. However, high-cost and huge experimental apparatuses, such as scanning electron microscopy, have been required in the former studies. Herein, we demonstrate an optical approach to characterise the nanoscale-precision signatures of silicon random structures towards realising low-cost and high-value information security technology. Unique and versatile silicon nanostructures are generated via resist collapse phenomena, which contains dimensions that are well below the diffraction limit of light. We exploit the nanoscale precision ability of confocal laser microscopy in the height dimension, and our experimental results demonstrate that the vertical precision of measurement is essential in satisfying the performances required for artifact metrics. Furthermore, by using state-of-the-art nanostru...

  17. Approaches to eliminate near field artifact of MURA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ren-Song; RONG Jun-Yan; WEI Long

    2008-01-01

    Since the coded aperture technique has been successfully applied on X-ray imaging space telescopes, attentions of its development have also been cast on the application in medical imaging, for it has a very tempting quality to greatly enhance the detection sensitivity without gravely lowering the spacial resolution. But when the coded aperture technique is applied to image a nearby object, the so called "near-field artifact"comes up, that is, the reconstructed image has a sort of distortion. Among types of coded apertures the MURA (Modified Uniformly Redundant Array) is one of the most discussed. Roberto Arrcosi came up with the solution to remove the artifacts utilizing mask and antimask. In this article we present two ways to eliminate the second order aberration based on his work.

  18. Automatic Crash Recovery Artifacts From Internet Explorer 8 And 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Moran

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A good portion of today’s investigations include, at least in part, an examination of the user’s web history.Although it has lost ground over the past several years, Microsoft’s Internet Explorer still accounts for a large portion of the web browser market share.Most users are now aware that Internet Explorer will save browsing history, user names, passwords and form history.Consequently some users seek to eliminate these artifacts, leaving less for examiners to discover during investigations.However, most users, and probably a good portion of examiners are unaware Automatic Crash Recovery, can leave a gold mine of recent browsing history in spite of the users attempts to delete historical artifacts.

  19. Regulator Artifacts in Uniform Matter for Chiral Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Dyhdalo, A; Hebeler, K; Tews, I

    2016-01-01

    Regulator functions applied to two- and three-nucleon forces are a necessary ingredient in many-body calculations based on chiral effective field theory interactions. These interactions have been developed recently with a variety of different cutoff forms, including regulating both the momentum transfer (local) and the relative momentum (nonlocal). While in principle any regulator that suppresses high momentum modes can be employed, in practice artifacts are inevitable in current power counting schemes. Artifacts from particular regulators may cause significant distortions of the physics or may affect many-body convergence rates, so understanding their nature is important. Here we characterize the differences between cutoff effects using uniform matter at Hartree-Fock and second-order in the interaction as a testbed. This provides a clean laboratory to isolate phase-space effects of various regulators on both two- and three-nucleon interactions. We test the normal-ordering approximation for three-nucleon forc...

  20. Gibbs artifact reduction for POCS super-resolution image reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuangbai XIAO; Jing YU; Kaina SU

    2008-01-01

    The topic of super-resolution image reconstruc-tion has recently received considerable attention among the research community. Super-resolution image reconstruc-tion methods attempt to create a single high-resolution image from a number of low-resolution images (or a video sequence). The method of projections onto convex sets (POCS) for super-resolution image reconstruction attracts many researchers' attention. In this paper, we propose an improvement to reduce the amount of Gibbs artifacts pre-senting on the edges of the high-resolution image recon-structed by the POCS method. The proposed method weights the blur PSF centered at an edge pixel with an exponential function, and consequently decreases the coef-ficients of the PSF in the direction orthogonal to the edge. Experiment results show that the modification reduces effectively the visibility of Gibbs artifacts on edges and improves obviously the quality of the reconstructed high-resolution image.