WorldWideScience

Sample records for articulated buses

  1. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-12-01

    Final technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington. The evaluation lasted 12 months.

  2. Interim Evaluation Results from New Flyer/Allison Hybrid Buses at King County Metro: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eberts, E.; Eudy, L.

    2005-05-01

    This paper prepared for the 2005 American Public Transportation Association Bus & Paratransit Conference discusses NREL/DOE evaluation of hybrid electric articulated transit buses operated by King County Metro.

  3. [Occlusion, articulated and articulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boever, J A

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the so-called 'normal' or 'ideal' occlusal relationships are described in static centric as well as in dynamic, eccentric positions. However, difference is made between the different occlusal concepts. There is no real antagonism between the 'physiologic occlusal concept' in natural dentition and the 'therapeutic occlusal concept' on which the treatment should be based in restoring the occlusion. The different forms of occlusion and articulation found in the natural dentition are the expression of physiologic, biological variations. The rest position of the mandible is an unreliable reference point in occlusal rehabilitation. Moderate attrition in older patients should not be considered as pathologic and there is no indication for treatment in absence of functional pathology.

  4. COMPARISON OF CLEAN DIESEL BUSES TO CNG BUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell, D.; Parsley, W.; Bush,C; Zupo, D.

    2003-08-24

    Using previously published data on regulated and unregulated emissions, this paper will compare the environmental performance of current generation transit buses operated on compressed natural gas (CNG) to current generation transit buses operated on ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) and incorporating diesel particulate filters (DPF). Unregulated emissions evaluated include toxic compounds associated with adverse health effects (carbonyl, PAH, NPAH, benzene) as well as PM particle count and size distribution. For all regulated and unregulated emissions, both technologies are shown to be comparable. DPF equipped diesel buses and CNG buses have virtually identical levels of PM mass emissions and particle number emissions. DPF-equipped diesel buses have lower HC and CO emissions and lower emissions of toxic substances such as benzene, carbonyls and PAHs than CNG buses. CNG buses have lower NOx emissions than DPF-equipped buses, though CNG bus NOx emissions are shown to be much more variable. In addition, this paper will compare the capital and operating costs of CNG and DPF-equipped buses. The cost comparison is primarily based on the experience of MTA New York City Transit in operating CNG buses since 1995 and DPF-equipped buses fueled with ULSD since 2001. Published data on the experience of other large transit agencies in operating CNG buses is used to validate the NYCT experience. The incremental cost (compared to ''baseline'' diesel) of operating a typical 200-bus depot is shown to be six times higher for CNG buses than for ''clean diesel'' buses. The contributors to this increased cost for CNG buses are almost equally split between increased capital costs for purchase of buses and installation of fueling infrastructure, and increased operating costs for purchase of fuel, bus maintenance, and fuel station maintenance.

  5. Articulating Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily...... experience in space, presented as middle ground experience. In the field of HCI, middle ground experiences complete the unarticulated spectrum between designing for foreground of attention or background awareness. When “Articulating Atmospheres through Middle Ground Experiences in Interaction Design...

  6. Processor arrays with asynchronous TDM optical buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zheng, S. Q.

    1997-04-01

    We propose a pipelined asynchronous time division multiplexing optical bus. Such a bus can use one of the two hardwared priority schemes, the linear priority scheme and the round-robin priority scheme. Our simulation results show that the performances of our proposed buses are significantly better than the performances of known pipelined synchronous time division multiplexing optical buses. We also propose a class of processor arrays connected by pipelined asynchronous time division multiplexing optical buses. We claim that our proposed processor array not only have better performance, but also have better scalabilities than the existing processor arrays connected by pipelined synchronous time division multiplexing optical buses.

  7. Swisstrolley 3 - An articulated trolley bus; SWISSTROLLEY 3. Gelenktrolleybus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, H.-J.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the Swisstrolley 3 low-floor, articulated trolley bus developed in Switzerland by the Hess AG company. Various features of the variants of the trolley bus, including single vehicle, single and double-articulated buses and bus trailers, are discussed. The reductions achieved in energy consumption, weight and noise are discussed. Typical values for power consumption are presented in graphical form. Economic viability and passenger-friendliness are examined, as are possibilities for further improvement.

  8. School Buses & Seat Belts: A Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Safety belts are not installed in school buses for several reasons. School buses are constructed differently from automobiles in terms of (1) the locations of doors and instrument panels relative to passengers, (2) outer construction, (3) seat design and padding, and (4) visibility on the road. Under current regulations, bus seats are constructed…

  9. Clean School Bus USA: Tomorrow's Buses for Today's Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is ensuring that all new buses meet tighter standards developed to reduce diesel emissions and improve safety. Today's new buses are cleaner--60 times cleaner than buses built before 1990--and feature additional emergency exits, improved mirror systems, and pedestrian safety devices. But replacing…

  10. The New Energy Buses in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of “low carbon” economy, new energy vehicles are increasingly favored by the Chinese government and manufacturers. New energy buses have become an important channel for the promotion of new energy utilizations. Based on the summary of policies, this paper conducts a thorough resea...... price. We draw the conclusions that clear direction and detailed plans will enhance the new energy bus promotion and rising oil prices will promote new energy buses as well.......With the advent of “low carbon” economy, new energy vehicles are increasingly favored by the Chinese government and manufacturers. New energy buses have become an important channel for the promotion of new energy utilizations. Based on the summary of policies, this paper conducts a thorough...... research on the technology and promotion achievements on new energy buses. We have found that the promotion achievements have difference with plans and gaps exist in different cities. In the paper we discuss the policy efficiency, the correlation between achievements, policies and the influence from oil...

  11. Seat Belts on School Buses: Some Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, David

    1982-01-01

    A representative of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration weighs advantages and discusses issues associated with installing seat belts in school buses. Federal regulations and research findings are considered. A list of guideline questions for school districts planning to install seat belts is included. (PP)

  12. The School Busing Controversy: 1970-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buncher, Judith F., Ed.

    Even though transportation of school children was long accepted by the public prior to the conflict over school integration, the school bus became a symbol representing the divergent emotions of both the integrationists and the supporters of "neighborhood schools." Busing was used as a means of overcoming the resistance and procrastination of…

  13. A Busing Program for Child Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Alan S.; Hung, John T.

    1991-01-01

    The University of British Columbia (Canada) dental school has implemented a clinical experience program in which children in grades 2-4 are bused to the university for dental treatment. The program has helped maintain undergraduate pediatric dental experiences, benefited the children's dental health, and cost parents less than traditional dental…

  14. The virtual articulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisler, A; Bockholt, U; Kordass, B; Suchan, M; Voss, G

    2002-01-01

    The virtual articulator (VA) is intended for use as a tool for the analysis fo the complex static and dynamic occlusal relations. Its chief application is in individual diagnosis and the simulation of the mechanical articulator. As entry data, the VA requires digital, 3-dimensional representations of the jaws and patient-specific data on jaw movement. It then simulates jaw movement and provides a dynamic visualization of the occlusal contacts. If no patient-specific data are available, the modus operandi of the mechanical articulator can be simulated. Virtual reality (VR) techniques applied in computer-aided diagnosis are revolutionizing medical routine in many disciplines. Particularly in the field of dental engineering, VR combined with CAD/CAM technology has great potential in implant planning and design in terms of greater precision and shorter treatment duration. The geometry of teeth can be digitized, the implant models can be designed with specialized CAD systems, and the final implants can be manufactured with a CNC machine. In this context, the virtual articulator completes the digital manufacturing process.

  15. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Electric Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of fast-charge battery electric buses compared to compressed natural gas (CNG) buses operated by Foothill Transit in West Covina, California. Launched in 2015 in collaboration with the California Air Resources Board, this study aims to improve understanding of the overall use and effectiveness of fast-charge electric buses and associated charging infrastructure in transit operation.

  16. How Busing Burdened Blacks: Critical Race Theory and Busing for Desegregation in Nashville-Davidson County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Jennifer R.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses critical race theory, court opinions, newspapers, and interviews to explain how the burden of busing for desegregation was placed upon Blacks in Nashville, Tennessee and why the agenda of the litigants in the Kelley v. Metropolitan Board of Education cases shifted over time. The deliberate pace of the initial desegregation…

  17. Introduction of MAN Lion’s City Conceptual Articulated Bus%德国曼恩客车系列愈加丰富

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云清文

    2016-01-01

    During IAA 2016, German based MAN demonstrated total of ten models of various buses including city-bus, city-to-city bus and long-distance bus, etc. Among all these models, the most innovative highlight is the model of MAN Lion’s City Conceptual Articulated bus, as well as the re-charging technology associated to it.

  18. Communication Buses and Protocols for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mason

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews existing digital communication buses which are commonly used in sensor networks, discusses sensor network architectures, and introduces a new sensor bus for low power microsystem applications. The new intra-module multi-element microsystem (IM2 bus is nine-line interface with 8b serial data which implements several advanced features such as power management and plug-n-play while maintaining minimum hardware overhead at the sensor node. Finally, some issues in wireless sensor networking are discussed. The coverage of these issues provides a guideline for choosing the appropriate bus for different sensor network applications.

  19. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  20. Face bow and articulator for planning orthognathic surgery: 2 articulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Fraser; Ayoub, Ashraf F; Moos, Khursheed F; Barbenel, Joseph

    2008-10-01

    Patients who require orthognathic surgery may have asymmetry of the position of the temporomandibular joints relative to the maxilla, which is impossible to reproduce on the current semiadjustable articulators used for surgical planning. We describe a highly-adjustable spirit level orthognathic face bow that allows records to be made of patients with asymmetrical maxillae. The orthognathic articulator also allows the position of the condylar components of the articulator to be adjusted in three dimensions. The use of the new face bow and articulator made it possible to mount the dental casts of asymmetrical faces to reproduce their clinical appearance. The devices were evaluated by comparing the measurements of anatomical variables obtained from cephalometric radiographs with equivalent values obtained from the orthognathic articulator and casts mounted on the articulator. Although the measurements showed significant intersubject variability, the angle between the horizontal and maxillary occlusal plane, occlusal cant angle, and intercondylar widths, were not significantly different.

  1. School Buses Answer Calls for Help in Crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2005-01-01

    Five days after Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans, a convoy of 142 air-conditioned school buses from the 209,000-student Texas district rumbled to life. Loaded with food and bottled water, staffed by 350 school employees, and accompanied by bus-repair trucks and a phalanx of school police cars, the yellow buses traveled all night to reach the…

  2. 46 CFR 111.30-19 - Buses and wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses and wiring. 111.30-19 Section 111.30-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-19 Buses and wiring. (a) General. Each bus must meet the requirements...

  3. Articulator selection for restorative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobo, S; Shillingburg, H T; Whitsett, L D

    1976-07-01

    There are many types of articulators that can be used for making fixed restorations. While unquestionably the most accurate, the fully adjustable instrument is not feasible or necessary for many forms of simple occlusal treatment. The effects of tooth-hinge axis radius, intercondylar distance, and condylar inclination on occlusal morphology have been discussed. Guidelines have been proposed for matching the type of articulator with the extent of treatment anticipated. The use of small, nonadjustable hinge articulators is not recommended.

  4. Dynamic Extra Buses Scheduling Strategy in Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic extra buses scheduling strategy to improve the transit service of transit routes. In this strategy, in order to decide when to dispatch an extra bus, the service reliability of transit route is assessed firstly. A model aimed at maximizing the benefit of the extra buses scheduling strategy is constructed to determine how many stops extra buses need to skip from the terminal to accommodate passengers at the following stops. A heuristic algorithm is defined and implemented to estimate the service reliability of transit route and to optimize the initial stop of extra buses scheduling strategy. Finally, the strategy is tested on two examples: a simple and a real-life transit route in the Dalian city in China. The results show that the extra buses scheduling strategy based on terminal stops with a reasonable threshold can save 8.01% waiting time of passengers.

  5. Intelligent Articulated Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyein, Aung Kyaw; Thu, Theint Theint

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, an articulated type of industrial used robot is discussed. The robot is mainly intended to be used in pick and place operation. It will sense the object at the specified place and move it to a desired location. A peripheral interface controller (PIC16F84A) is used as the main controller of the robot. Infrared LED and IR receiver unit for object detection and 4-bit bidirectional universal shift registers (74LS194) and high current and high voltage Darlington transistors arrays (ULN2003) for driving the arms' motors are used in this robot. The amount of rotation for each arm is regulated by the limit switches. The operation of the robot is very simple but it has the ability of to overcome resetting position after power failure. It can continue its work from the last position before the power is failed without needing to come back to home position.

  6. Articulating Material Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasling, Karen Marie

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the experiences and potentials with materials teaching at the Institute for Product Design at Kolding School of Design, using materials teaching as experiments in my PhD project. The project intents to create a stronger material awareness among product design students......, imitate and articulate the students’ inclusion of materials. This paper particularly discusses the experiences made and ideas generated after the execution of a material science course for second year students, with emphasis on the concept of the material selection matrix as an educational tool...... for material exploration. The course was the first course I was involved in as a PhD student and has served as the first observation case in my project. The purpose of this analysis has been to explore and demonstrate that data from material selection matrices generated during the course, help mature the tool...

  7. Hydrogen propulsion systems for transit buses - results of operation in passenger transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hipp, E.; Gruber, C. [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Advance Development (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Hydrogen is a source of energy which can in the long term play a major role in the energy and transport industries. It can be generated without using fossil products and against the background of ever shorter oil reserves it reduces the supply risks for transport and industry. Further advantages of hydrogen as a fuel for motor vehicles are its potential for reduction of greenhouse gases and pollutants from traffic. The hydrogen project at Munich airport aims to demonstrate the technical feasibility of autonomous hydrogen generation combined with operation of vehicles. MAN is participating in this project with two low-floor articulated buses with hydrogen engines. A further vehicles from Neoplan has also been fitted with MAN H{sub 2} driveline technology. The vehicles will be used for carrying passengers on the airport apron from early 1999 to the end of 2000 and are expected to supply important information on the use of hydrogen in day-to-day transport. (orig.)

  8. The psychoacoustics of musical articulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelberg, Scott Charles

    This dissertation develops psychoacoustical definitions of notated articulations, the necessary first step in articulation research. This research can be useful to theorists interested in timbre analysis, the psychology of performance, analysis and performance, the psychology of style differentiation, and performance pedagogy. An explanation of wavelet transforms precedes the development of new techniques for analyzing transient sounds. A history of timbre perception research reveals the inadequacies of current sound segmentation models, resulting in the creation of a new model, the Pitch/Amplitude/Centroid Trajectory (PACT) model of sound segmentation. The new analysis techniques and PACT model are used to analyze recordings of performers playing a melodic fragment in a series of notated articulations. Statistical tests showed that the performers generally agreed on the interpretation of five different articulation groups. A cognitive test of articulation similarity, using musicians and non-musicians as participants, revealed a close correlation between similarity judgments and physical attributes, though additional unknown factors are clearly present. A second psychological test explored the perceptual salience of articulation notation, by asking musically-trained participants to match stimuli to the same notations the performers used. The participants also marked verbal descriptors for each articulation, such as short/long, sharp/dull, loud/soft, harsh/gentle, and normal/extreme. These results were matched against the results of Chapters Five and Six, providing an overall interpretation of the psychoacoustics of articulation.

  9. Electric Buses in Urban Transport, The Situation and Development Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jakub Slavlk

    2014-01-01

    A study called "E-mobilita v MHD" (e-mobility in urban mass transit) has been conducted by the author's private consultancy to inform Czech public transport operators about the technologies and operational experience to date and stimulate the e-bus utilization as well as their involvement in e-bus research and development projects. The study covers trolley-buses, diesel hybrids and e-buses including fuel cell buses. These electric urban buses have been compared with combustion engine vehicles represented by diesel and CNG (compressed natural gas) buses, in terms of energy consumption and cost, greenhouse gas emissions, noise and life cycle cost. Relations between urban transport e-mobility and the "smart grid" concept have been presented as well. Comprehensive reports prepared on the European Union and the USA levels have been the basis for the study, completed by information from the field research, focused especially on the bus operational reliability and other parameters important for a transport operator and covering, interalia, 12 case studies. The results show electric buses as a promising urban transport mode with massive technology development overcoming their operational limitations. Synergies between electric buses and other urban systems, such as power supply, are notable as well.

  10. Recognizing articulated objects and object articulation in SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanu, Bir; Jones, Grinnell, III; Ahn, Joon S.

    1998-09-01

    The focus of this paper is recognizing articulated objects and the pose of the articulated parts in SAR images. Using SAR scattering center locations as features, the invariance with articulation (i.e. turret rotation for the T72, T80 and M1a tanks, missile erect vs. down for the SCUD launcher) is shown as a function of object azimuth. Similar data is shown for configuration differences in the MSTAR (Public) Targets. The UCR model-based recognition engine (which uses non- articulated models to recognize articulated, occluded and non-standard configuration objects) is described and target identification performance results are given as confusion matrices and ROC curves for six inch and one foot resolution XPATCH images and the one foot resolution MSTAR data. Separate body and turret models are developed that are independent of the relative positions between the body and the turret. These models are used with a subsequent matching technique to refine the pose of the body and determine the pose of the turret. An expression of the probability that a random match will occur is derived and this function is used to set thresholds to minimize the probability of a random match for the recognition system. Results for identification, body pose and turret pose are presented as a function of percent occlusion for articulated XPATCH data and results are given for identification and body pose for articulated MSTAR data.

  11. Lingual articulation in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthers, Roderick A; Rothgerber, John R; Jensen, Kenneth Kragh

    2016-02-01

    Lingual articulation in humans is one of the primary means of vocal tract resonance filtering that produces the characteristic vowel formants of speech. In songbirds, the function of the tongue in song has not been thoroughly examined, although recent research has identified the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity as a resonance filter that is actively tuned to the frequency of the song. In northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), the volume of this cavity is inversely proportional to the frequency of the song above 2 kHz. However, cardinal song extends below this range, leaving the question of whether and how the vocal tract is tracking these low frequencies. We investigated the possible role of the tongue in vocal tract filtering using X-ray cineradiography of northern cardinals. Below 2 kHz, there was prominent tongue elevation in which the tip of the tongue was raised until it seemed to touch the palate. These results suggest that tongue elevation lowers the resonance frequency below 2 kHz by reducing the area of the passage from the oral cavity into the beak. This is consistent with a computational model of the songbird vocal tract in which resonance frequencies are actively adjusted by both changing the volume of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity and constricting the opening into the beak.

  12. Articulation points in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Liang; Bashan, Amir; Shi, Da-Ning; Liu, Yang-Yu

    2017-01-01

    An articulation point in a network is a node whose removal disconnects the network. Those nodes play key roles in ensuring connectivity of many real-world networks, from infrastructure networks to protein interaction networks and terrorist communication networks. Despite their fundamental importance, a general framework of studying articulation points in complex networks is lacking. Here we develop analytical tools to study key issues pertinent to articulation points, such as the expected number of them and the network vulnerability against their removal, in an arbitrary complex network. We find that a greedy articulation point removal process provides us a different perspective on the organizational principles of complex networks. Moreover, this process results in a rich phase diagram with two fundamentally different types of percolation transitions. Our results shed light on the design of more resilient infrastructure networks and the effective destruction of terrorist communication networks. PMID:28139697

  13. Articulation Points in Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Liang; Shi, Da-Ning; Liu, Yang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    An articulation point in a network is a node whose removal disconnects the network. Those nodes play key roles in ensuring connectivity of many real-world networks, from infrastructure networks to protein interaction networks and terrorist communication networks. Despite their fundamental importance, a general framework of studying articulation points in complex networks is lacking. Here we develop analytical tools to study key issues pertinent to articulation points, e.g. the expected number of them and the network vulnerability against their removal, in an arbitrary complex network. We find that a greedy articulation point removal process provides us a novel perspective on the organizational principles of complex networks. Moreover, this process is associated with two fundamentally different types of percolation transitions with a rich phase diagram. Our results shed light on the design of more resilient infrastructure networks and the effective destruction of terrorist communication networks.

  14. Articulation points in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Liang; Bashan, Amir; Shi, Da-Ning; Liu, Yang-Yu

    2017-01-01

    An articulation point in a network is a node whose removal disconnects the network. Those nodes play key roles in ensuring connectivity of many real-world networks, from infrastructure networks to protein interaction networks and terrorist communication networks. Despite their fundamental importance, a general framework of studying articulation points in complex networks is lacking. Here we develop analytical tools to study key issues pertinent to articulation points, such as the expected number of them and the network vulnerability against their removal, in an arbitrary complex network. We find that a greedy articulation point removal process provides us a different perspective on the organizational principles of complex networks. Moreover, this process results in a rich phase diagram with two fundamentally different types of percolation transitions. Our results shed light on the design of more resilient infrastructure networks and the effective destruction of terrorist communication networks.

  15. Battery buses and light hybrid buses in modern town traffic. Batteriebusse und Leichthybridbusse im modernen Stadtverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R. (Neoplan Gottlob Anwaerter GmbH und Co., Stuttgart (Germany))

    1993-01-01

    Apart from the manufacture of standardised line buses, Neoplan has been intensively concerned with the development of ultra-light vehicle bodies. The individual technical steps have been tested and brought from the experimental stage to readiness for mass-production by four different types of application and 10 experimental vehicles which are used in genuine daily use in traffic concerns. 1. Battery changing technique; 2. Diesel-electric power transmission and developing a wheel motor drive; 3. Diesel-electric power transmission with multiple energy supply (hybrid system). (orig./BWI)

  16. Evaluation of Orion/BAE Hybrid Buses and Orion CNG Buses at New York City Transit: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Barnitt, R.; Chandler, K.

    2005-05-01

    This paper prepared for the 2005 American Public Transportation Association Bus & Paratransit Conference discusses the NREL/DOE evaluation of hybrid electric transit buses operated by New York City Transit.

  17. Comparative study of the work load between one-man buses and two-man buses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueno,Mitsuo

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available The differences in physiological and safety conditions of one-man buses and two-man buses were examined from the view point of occupational fatigue. This survey consisted of a work load study which included a time study, study of subsidiary behavior, auditory task, memory test, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR and physiological function tests and a self-administered questionnaire which involved items concerning safety and subjective fatigue complaints. The visual and postural restrictions in the one-man bus were greater than in the two-man bus. The mental capacity of the one-man bus drivers was found to be less. Greater mental fatigue and stress were observed in the one-man bus. More subjective fatigue complaints were observed in the one-man bus. More cases of near accidents were observed in the one-man bus. From these results it was concluded that the one-man bus caused bus drivers a greater mental and physical work load.

  18. 21 CFR 872.3150 - Articulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3150 Articulator. (a) Identification. An articulator is a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articulator. 872.3150 Section 872.3150 Food and... the patient's jaws. An articulator is intended to fit dentures or provide orthodontic treatment....

  19. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallquist, Å. M.; Jerksjö, M.; Fallgren, H.; Westerlund, J.; Sjödin, Å.

    2013-05-01

    In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz) and CO2 with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz). The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO) were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.). Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro III-V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEVs) with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average a higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN) were EFPN, DPF = 4.4 ± 3.5 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF = 2.1 ± 1.0 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 ×1015 kg fuel-1. In the accelerating mode, size-resolved emission factors (EFs) showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70-90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode, bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel)-1 and for the CNG buses 41 ± 26 g (kg

  20. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Å. M. Hallquist

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz and CO2 with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz. The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.. Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro III–V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEVs with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF. The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average a higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN were EFPN, DPF = 4.4 ± 3.5 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF = 2.1 ± 1.0 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 ×1015 kg fuel−1. In the accelerating mode, size-resolved emission factors (EFs showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70–90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode, bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel−1 and for the CNG buses 41

  1. RELIABILITY OF BRAKE SYSTEMS OF BUSES OF GROUP MAZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bessarab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available All over the world safety of maintained vehicles has the major value. For motor vehicles of the Republic of Belarus this problem is also actual. Maintenance of high reliability of brake systems of cars in operation is one of ways of the decision of a problem of increase of traffic safety.The analysis of reliability of brake systems of buses MAZ is carried out following the results of the state maintenance service in 2010 and the analysis of premature returns from routes of movement of buses MAZ-103 and МАZ-104 one of the motor transportation enterprises of a city of Minsk. Principal causes of structural parameters modification of brake pneumatic system of buses, the brake mechanism and elements АBS are considered.

  2. Reliability Evaluation Of The City Transport Buses Under Actual Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymarz Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to present a reliability comparison of two types of city transport buses. Case study on the example of the well-known brands of city buses: Solaris Urbino 12 and Mercedes-Benz 628 Conecto L used at Municipal Transport Company in Lublin was presented in details. A reliability index for the most failure parts and complex systems for the period of time failures was determined. The analysis covered damages of the following systems: engine, electrical system, pneumatic system, brake system, driving system, central heating and air-conditioning and doors. Reliability was analyzed based on Weibull model. It has been demonstrated, that during the operation significant reliability differences occur between the buses produced nowadays.

  3. The articulator: a diagnostic instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, Philip L

    2002-01-01

    The success of dental restorations depends on how we view the existing occlusion. Clinicians may be confounded with what aspects of the occlusion will contribute to the success of a restoration. This information can be reviewed with the dental laboratory when it is stored in a dental articulator in the form of dental casts with simulated movements.

  4. RELIABILITY OF BRAKE SYSTEMS OF BUSES OF GROUP MAZ

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bessarab

    2013-01-01

    All over the world safety of maintained vehicles has the major value. For motor vehicles of the Republic of Belarus this problem is also actual. Maintenance of high reliability of brake systems of cars in operation is one of ways of the decision of a problem of increase of traffic safety.The analysis of reliability of brake systems of buses MAZ is carried out following the results of the state maintenance service in 2010 and the analysis of premature returns from routes of movement of buses M...

  5. Occlusion: 3. Articulators and related instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Alex

    2003-11-01

    Dental articulators are instruments that reproduce jaw movements to varying degrees of accuracy. This article aims to give an overview of the various types of articulator and describe their applications and limitations.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of Diesel and Electric Public Transportation Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act identifies diesel powered motor vehicles, including transit buses, as significant sources of several criteria pollutants which contribute to ground level ozone formation or smog. The effects of air pollution in urban areas are often more significant due to con...

  7. No Breathing in the Aisles: Diesel Exhaust inside School Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gina M.; Campbell, Todd R.; Feuer, Gail Ruderman; Masters, Julie; Samkian, Artineh; Paul, Kavita Ann

    There is evidence that diesel exhaust causes cancer and premature death, and also exacerbates asthma and other respiratory illness. Noting that the vast majority of the nation's school buses run on diesel fuel, this report details a study examining the level of diesel exhaust to which children are typically exposed as they travel to and from…

  8. FCC in Viking articulated boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, E. S.

    1972-01-01

    The application requirements and manufacturing techniques for the flat conductor cable used in the Viking Lander Articulated Boom Unit are described. The Viking Boom is a 3-axis device utilized to position a soil sampler and provide digging forces. This application imposed severe restrictions on size, weight, materials, and choice of manufacturing processes. The final cable assembly design resulted in a combination of collated cable and flexible circuits assembled by resistance welding techniques.

  9. 21 CFR 872.6140 - Articulation paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articulation paper. 872.6140 Section 872.6140 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6140 Articulation paper. (a) Identification. Articulation paper is a device composed of paper coated with an ink dye intended to be placed between...

  10. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Å. M. Hallquist

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz and CO2 with non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz. The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.. Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA 3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro II–V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmental Friendly Vehicles (EEVs with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF. The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN were EFPN, DPF = 8.0 ± 3.1 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF =2.8 ± 1.6 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 × 1015 (kg fuel−1. In the accelerating mode size-resolved EFs showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70–90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm.

    Emission

  11. The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III : Trucks, Buses and Trains

    CERN Document Server

    Orellano, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International conference “The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III: Trucks, Buses and Trains” held in Potsdam, Germany, September 12-17, 2010 by Engineering Conferences International (ECI). Leading scientists and engineers from industry, universities and research laboratories, including truck and high-speed train manufacturers and operators were brought together to discuss computer simulation and experimental techniques to be applied for the design of more efficient trucks, buses and high-speed trains in the future.   This conference was the third in the series after Monterey-Pacific Groove in 2002 and Lake Tahoe in 2007.  The presentations address different aspects of train aerodynamics (cross wind effects, underbody flow, tunnel aerodynamics and aeroacoustics, experimental techniques), truck aerodynamics (drag reduction, flow control, experimental and computational techniques) as well as computational fluid dynamics and bluff body, wake and jet flows.

  12. To Evaluate Zero Emission Propulsion and Support Technology for Transit Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Chandler; Leslie Eudy

    2006-11-01

    This report provides evaluation results for prototype fuel cell transit buses operating at Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) in San Jose, California, in partnership with the San Mateo County Transit District in San Carlos, California. VTA has been operating three fuel cell transit buses in extra revenue service since February 28, 2005. This report provides descriptions of the equipment used, early experiences, and evaluation results from the operation of the buses and the supporting hydrogen infrastructure from March 2005 through July 2006.

  13. Articulation effects in melody recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee Hun Lim, Stephen; Goh, Winston D

    2013-09-01

    Various surface features-timbre, tempo, and pitch-influence melody recognition memory, but articulation format effects, if any, remain unknown. For the first time, these effects were examined. In Experiment 1, melodies that remained in the same, or appeared in a different but similar, articulation format from study to test were recognized better than were melodies that were presented in a distinct format at test. A similar articulation format adequately induced matching processes to enhance recognition. Experiment 2 revealed that melodies rated as perceptually dissimilar on the basis of the location of the articulation mismatch did not impair recognition performance, suggesting an important boundary condition for articulation format effects on memory recognition-the matching of the memory trace and recognition probe may depend more on the overall proportion, rather than the temporal location, of the mismatch. The present findings are discussed in terms of a global matching advantage hypothesis.

  14. Bay Area Transit Agencies Propel Fuel Cell Buses Toward Commercialization (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration of the next generation of fuel cells buses. Several transit agencies in the San Francisco Bay Area are participating in demonstrating the largest single fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States.

  15. 78 FR 719 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of... amendments to its emission standards for urban bus engines in a series of rulemakings. The rulemakings at... public transit agencies that operate urban buses and other transit vehicles; additionally,...

  16. 78 FR 44112 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of... for emission standards and related test procedures contained in its urban bus regulations as they affect the 2002 and later model years. Urban buses are conventionally powered by a heavy-duty...

  17. Pronunciation and Articulation for Singing Chinese Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑菲菲

    2013-01-01

    For singing Chinese works, pronunciation and articulation are the most essential and the most crucial factors. Their beginning should be brief, middle should be melodious and long-lasting, and end should be as clear and crisp as crystal. Considering from pronunciations, Chinese works can be divided into two categories:one is comprehensive style emphasizing clear enunciation; the other is local folk song that should be sung based on corresponding local accent of the works. Besides, based on correct pronunciation and articulation, balance between pro-nunciation and articulation should be achieved, both the essence of western traditional mode of singing and Chinese traditional music should be followed and inherited.

  18. Using Task Clarification, Goal Setting, and Feedback to Decrease Table Busing Times in a Franchise Pizza Restaurant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo, Seth; Smith, Andrew; Ludwig, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of task-clarification, and manager verbal and graphic feedback on employee busing times at a pizza restaurant. Using an ABC design, task-clarification was provided in a memo, which described the process, priority, and goal time of busing. The busing time decreased slightly, from an average of 315 seconds…

  19. The Busing Controversy. [NAESP] School Leadership Digest [Second Series, Number 6. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Dee

    To understand the controversy over busing, it is necessary to understand the relationship between busing and the issues that are actually at the root of the controversy: desegregation and freedom of choice. Much of the political activity surrounding busing is a subtle transfer of attention away from the basic issue of desegregation. Other…

  20. Design Articulations for Aesthetics of Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Krogh, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present three categories of design articulations addressing the characteristic qualities of aesthetics of interaction. By aesthetics of interaction we point to the process in which interactive technology brings about aesthetic experience in the use of interactive technology...... in everyday life. As designers we are prohibited access to the aesthetic experience of the user. However, we have the possibility of articulating intentions and values embedded in the artefact that can be interpreted in use and thereby providing the artefact an aesthetic potential for users to unleash. Design...... articulations serve as catalysts for developing and choosing design expressions in the design process. Design articulations are embodied in artifacts, that address desired, anticipated or identified user experiences and capabilities, carrying a format which enable discussions also with non...

  1. Unscented Kalman filtering for articulated human tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen Lindbo Larsen, Anders; Hauberg, Søren; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2011-01-01

    We present an articulated tracking system working with data from a single narrow baseline stereo camera. The use of stereo data allows for some depth disambiguation, a common issue in articulated tracking, which in turn yields likelihoods that are practically unimodal. While current state...... with superior results. Tracking quality is measured by comparing with ground truth data from a marker-based motion capture system....

  2. Solar array deployment qualification for the LMX of buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy

    2005-07-01

    The solar array deployment system for the LMX line of buses deploys rigid Solar Array Wing Assemblies (SAWAs). Each SAWA has a set of Solar Array Deployment Mechanisms (SADM), which consists of two hinges, a strut, and two Hold Down Release Mechanisms (HDRMs). To qualify the SADM for flight, each mechanism component was qualified individually, then assembled to a qualification SAWA on Special Test Equipment (STE) and deployed in a thermal vacuum chamber at ambient, hot, and cold temperatures. These mechanisms were designed, built, and tested by the Power and Mechanisms part of the Power, Thermal, Structures & Mechanisms Product Center, which develops products for both internal and external customers. This paper will discuss the qualification effort for the LMX Solar Array deployment, including qualification hardware and STE. It will focus on unique challenges presented by each aspect of the qualification, and lessons learned from the hardware integration and the qualification testing.

  3. Txatarra: vivienda transitoria con buses de transporte público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Arenas Vargas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente análisis del proyecto Casa Linda parte de una exploración conceptual en torno a un hábitat sostenible, mediante la generación de un tipo de vivienda transitoria que reutiliza buses de transporte público destinados a ser reducidos a chatarra. La necesidad de replantear la labor de configurar espacios con materiales y formas predeterminados llevó a los autores a comprender cómo resultan insuficientes los medios tradicionales de construcción, en los que se acostumbra emplear materias primas en presentaciones estandarizadas y con acabados predefinidos que se adaptan a los requerimientos y necesidades del proyecto. Enfrentar el proyecto a partir del reciclaje de materiales y objetos (chatarra, de diversas dimensiones y en variadas condiciones, generó un proceso cuya característica principal es la imposibilidad de anticipar con exactitud los procesos constructivos y los acabados finales.

  4. Resistojet control and power for high frequency ac buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Resistojets are operational on many geosynchronous communication satellites which all use dc power buses. Multipropellant resistojets were selected for the Initial Operating Capability (IOC) Space Station which will supply 208 V, 20 kHz power. This paper discusses resistojet heater temperature controllers and passive power regulation methods for ac power systems. A simple passive power regulation method suitable for use with regulated sinusoidal or square wave power was designed and tested using the Space Station multipropellant resistojet. The breadboard delivered 20 kHz power to the resistojet heater. Cold start surge current limiting, a power efficiency of 95 percent, and power regulation of better than 2 percent were demonstrated with a two component, 500 W breadboard power controller having a mass of 0.6 kg.

  5. [The controversy of routine articulator mounting in orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Han, Xianglong; Bai, Ding

    2013-06-01

    Articulators have been widely used by clinicians of dentistry. But routine articulator mounting is still controversial in orthodontics. Orthodontists oriented by gnathology approve routine articulator mounting while nongnathologic orthodontists disapprove it. This article reviews the thoughts of orthodontist that they agree or disagree with routine articulator mounting based on the considerations of biting, temporomandibular disorder (TMD), periodontitis, and so on.

  6. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2009-10-01

    This report documents progress in meeting the technological challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transportation based on current fuel cell transit bus demonstrations and plans for more fuel cell transit buses and hydrogen infrastructure.

  7. Extensional Information Articulation from the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasufumi Saruwatari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Information must have physical support and this physical universe comprisesphysical interactions. Hence actual information processes should have a description byinteractions alone, i.e., an extensional description. In this paper, such a model of the processof information articulation from the universe is developed by generalizing the extensivemeasurement theory in metrology. Moreover, a model of the attribute creation processis presented to exemplify a step of the informational articulation process. These modelsdemonstrate the valuableness of the extensional view and are expected to enhance theunderstanding of the extensional aspects of fundamentals of information.

  8. Cognitive predictors of articulation in writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormack, L

    1979-06-01

    Among 106 college students scores on a spontaneous 20-min. essay were regressed on referents of verbal and visual spatial ability. 26% of the variability in writing articulation among males was accounted for by the regression of graded writing scores against logical relations and embedded figures tests. 82% of the variability in writing ability among (females was accounted for by the regression of graded writing scores on visual closure, reading comprehension, spatial visualization, and embedded figures tests. The use of verbal and visual sptial referents as predictors of the degree of articulation in spontaneous writing samples consistent with sex-specific models of.cerebral lateralization was described.

  9. Cool Science: K-12 Climate Change Art Displayed on Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. F.; Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Thompson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Cool science is an art contest where K12 students create placards (7" x 22") to educate the public about climate change. Students are prompted to create their artwork in response to questions such as: What is the evidence for climate change? How does climate change impact your local community? What can you do to reduce the impacts of climate change? In each of three years, 500-600 student entrees have been submitted from more than 12 school districts across Massachusetts. A panel of judges including scientists, artists, rapid transit representatives, and educators chooses elementary, middle, and high school winners. Winners (6), runners-up (6), and honorable mentions (12) and their families and teachers are invited to an annual Cool Science Award Ceremony to be recognized and view winning artwork. All winning artwork is posted on the Cool Science website. The winning artwork (2 per grade band) is converted into placards (11" x 28") and posters (2.5' x 12') that are placed on the inside (placards) and outside (posters) of buses. Posters are displayed for one month. So far, Cool Science was implemented in Lowell, MA where over 5000 public viewers see the posters daily on the sides of Lowell Rapid Transit Authority (LRTA) buses, making approximately 1,000,000 impressions per year. Cool Science acts to increase climate literacy in children as well as the public, and as such promotes intergenerational learning. Using art in conjunction with science learning about climate change appears to be effective at engaging not just traditionally high achieving science students, but also those interested in the creative arts. Hearing winners' stories about how they created their artwork and what this contest meant to them supports the idea that Cool Science attracts a wide diversity of students. Parents discuss climate change with their children. Multiple press releases announcing the winners further promotes the awareness of climate change throughout school districts and their

  10. CNG buses fire safety : learnings from recent accidents in France and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Perrette, Lionel; Wiedemann, Helmut K.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The use of CNG in bus and private vehicles is growing steadily. Recent fire accidents involving CNG buses have shown that tanks may explode though compliant with current ECE UN R110 regulation. Such a repeated scenario is certainly not acceptable having in mind the tremendous amount of energy released when a compressed tank bursts. Investigation of German and French recent cases detailed in this article highlights potential improvements in current CNG buses fire safety...

  11. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

    2011-05-01

    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant.

  12. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 4, Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the fourth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide. The subject matter is concerned with displacements, speeds, scalers, vector sum, and vector analysis.The content is arranged in scrambled form, and the use of matrix transparencies is required for students to control their…

  13. Computer animation for articulated 3D characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the computer animation literature, mainly concentrating on articulated characters and at least some degree of interactivity or real time simulation. Advances in dierent techniques such as key-frame, motion capture (also known as mocap), dynamics, inverse kinematics (IK), contr

  14. Single Word versus Connected Speech Articulation Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, John P.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The study compared the productions of 35 articulation impaired children (ages 3 to 10) obtained by picture elicited single word and connected speech sampling methods. Productions were compared on the basis of both the number and type of errors made under the two testing conditions. (Author/PHR)

  15. Predicting articulated human motion from spatial processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2011-01-01

    We present a probabilistic interpretation of inverse kinematics and extend it to sequential data. The resulting model is used to estimate articulated human motion in visual data. The approach allows us to express the prior temporal models in spatial limb coordinates, which is in contrast to most...

  16. Articulation Research 2004: Summary of Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Jayne

    2005-01-01

    Most junior syndicate teachers have concerns about the speech clarity of some of the children in their class. It is difficult for teachers to know whether to refer such students for speech assessments by their speech-language therapist. This article outlines a project which gathered New Zealand normative data for a test of articulation. A summary…

  17. Intermediate transport in Southeast Asia. [Carts, cycles, mini-buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, A.K.

    1977-06-01

    Traffic flows through the streets of Southeast Asian countries even though they are used for almost all aspects of human and animal existence. The carts, bicycles, tricycles, and motorcycles, motorized three-wheelers, mini-buses are the so-called intermediate-transport vehicles. It is upon this group of vehicles that a culture--constrained by its own unique economic, environmental, and technological factors--exerts its influence most directly toward the solution of the transport problem. Transportation fills more service roles in Southeast Asian cities than in Western cities. Communication facilities such as telephones and postal services are notoriously unreliable. The personal encounter is all important in social and business interactions in Southeast Asia. Each of the transport modes is examined in view of design and use in a number of specific cultural settings for the countries in Southeast Asia. Present use of intermediate transport in developed countries is discussed briefly, and its further development predicted--pointing out the health and conservation advantages. (MCW)

  18. Evaluation of Alternative Field Buses for Lighting ControlApplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ed; Rubinstein, Francis

    2005-03-21

    The Subcontract Statement of Work consists of two major tasks. This report is the Final Report in fulfillment of the contract deliverable for Task 1. The purpose of Task 1 was to evaluate existing and emerging protocols and standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The detailed task description follows: Task 1. Evaluate alternative sensor/field buses. The objective of this task is to evaluate existing and emerging standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The protocols to be evaluated will include at least: (1) 1-Wire Net, (2) DALI, (3) MODBUS (or appropriate substitute such as EIB) and (4) ZigBee. The evaluation will include a comparative matrix for comparing the technical performance features of the different alternative systems. The performance features to be considered include: (1) directionality and network speed, (2) error control, (3) latency times, (4) allowable cable voltage drop, (5) topology, and (6) polarization. Specifically, Subcontractor will: (1) Analyze the proposed network architecture and identify potential problems that may require further research and specification. (2) Help identify and specify additional software and hardware components that may be required for the communications network to operate properly. (3) Identify areas of the architecture that can benefit from existing standards and technology and enumerate those standards and technologies. (4) Identify existing companies that may have relevant technology that can be applied to this research. (5) Help determine if new standards or technologies need to be developed.

  19. Generation of Articulated Mechanisms by Optimization Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawamoto, Atsushi

    2004-01-01

    that handles topological variations. In this thesis the technique is also extended so as to design the shape as well as the topology of the truss using cross-sectional areas and nodal positions as design variables. This leads to a technique for simultaneous type and dimensional synthesis of articulated...... optimization [Paper 2] 3. Branch and bound global optimization [Paper 3] 4. Path-generation problems [Paper 4] In terms of the objective of the articulated mechanism design problems, the first to third papers deal with maximization of output displacement, while the fourth paper solves prescribed path...... generation problems. From a mathematical programming point of view, the methods proposed in the first and third papers are categorized as deterministic global optimization, while those of the second and fourth papers are categorized as gradient-based local optimization. With respect to design variables, only...

  20. Generation of environments: three articulated concepts

    OpenAIRE

    REGO, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to expose three concepts, or idea connections, articulators of the concept of generation of environments: the relation environment round/environment among, the establishing interpretation, the dialogal relation of the logisc/dialogal relation of the dialogue. These concepts have been consolidated as idea connections and operational bases for the concept of generation of environments along the course of dialogues with several practices. O objetivo deste arti...

  1. The LPN-ADN articulation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlich, L J; Hopkin, L A; Kalunian, K; LeGault, G; Fried, M

    1989-01-01

    Faced with a staffing situation where RN positions were needed but there were more LPN positions than were needed. Tucson Medical Center began an LPN-ADN articulation project to rectify the situation without resorting to layoffs. With the cooperation of a local junior college, LPNs are enrolled in ADN programs that provide a more flexible work/study situation. This article describes the program and the results thus far.

  2. Self-service fare collection on buses in Portland, Oregon. Final report, Septtember 1980-April 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, D.; Harper, W.; Schueftan, O.

    1986-09-01

    In 1980, the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA) awarded grants to the Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District (TRI-MET) to implement self-service fare collection (SSFC) on its bus system. TRI-MET, the transit authority serving Portland, Oregon, is the second authority in the United States to use SSFC and the first to use it on buses. TRI-MET expected SSFC to improve bus productivity, facilitate distance-based fares, and reduce fare evasion. Problems encountered with SSFC on buses in Portland included increased fare evasion, high enforcement costs, no productivity improvements, low surcharge/ fine collections, overburdened courts, and increased vandalism. These problems need to be overcome before SSFC can be successful on buses in other U.S. cities.

  3. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2011-11-01

    This status report, fifth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), discusses the achievements and challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transit and summarizes the introduction of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. Progress this year includes an increase in the number of fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs), from 15 to 25, operating at eight transit agencies, as well as increased diversity of the fuel cell design options for transit buses. The report also provides an analysis of the combined results from fuel cell transit bus demonstrations evaluated by NREL with a focus on the most recent data through July 2011 including fuel cell power system reliability and durability; fuel economy; roadcall; and hydrogen fueling results. These evaluations cover 22 of the 25 FCEBs currently operating.

  4. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gigakis, C.

    2010-11-01

    This status report, fourth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, summarizes progress and accomplishments from demonstrations of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. This year's assessment report provides the results from the fifth year of operation of five Van Hool, ISE, and UTC Power fuel cell buses operating at AC Transit, SunLine, and CTTRANSIT. The achievements and challenges of this bus design, implementation, and operating are presented, with a focus on the next steps for implementing larger numbers and new and different designs of fuel cell buses. The major positive result from nearly five years of operation is the dramatic increase in reliability experienced for the fuel cell power system.

  5. Effectivness Of The Failure Rate On Maintenance Costs Of The City Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaciuk Piotr

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to present a failure rate and maintenance cost comparison for two types of city transport buses. The paper presents in detail a case study of well known bus brands used at Municipal Transport Company in Lublin. A failure index of all functional and constructional systems of the vehicles and their technical availability with regards to calendar time was determined. The paper also presents analysis of the factors related to maintenance costs of buses, including costs of fluids, repair costs and maintenance service. It has been demonstrated, that both analyzed buses generate similar maintenance costs, while their failures and technical availability differ significantly in operational practice. These differences are particularly evident in relation to the cumulative costs of repairs.

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

    2003-08-24

    Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about 14,000 units, consumes about 2 per cent of the total energy of city transport. It causes about 2 per cent of the HC emissions and from 4 to 6 per cent of the NOx emissions and particles. These vehicles typically have a long life span (about 15 years) and are relatively expensive to buy, about 150.000 euros per unit. Several technical solutions were evaluated to quantify, on a real condition cycle for buses, on one hand pollutants emissions, fuel consumption and on the other hand reliability, cost in real existing fleet. This paper presents main preliminary results on urban buses exhaust emission on two different cases: - existing Diesel buses, with fuel modifications (Diesel with low sulphur content), Diesel with water emulsion and bio-Diesel (30% oil ester in standard Diesel fuel); renovating CNG powered Euro II buses fleet, over representative driving cycles, set up by ADEME and partners. On these cycles, pollutants (regulated and unregulated) were measured as well as fuel consumption, at the beginning of a program and one year after to quantify reliability and increase/decrease of pollutants emissions. At the same time, some after-treatment technologies were tested under real conditions and several vehicles. Information such as fuel consumption, lubricant analysis, problem on the technology were following during a one year program. On the overall level, it is the combination of various action, pollution-reduction and renewal that will make it possible to meet the technological challenge of reducing emissions and fuel consumption by urban bus

  7. Topic-Focus Articulation of Isotopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Sova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with linguistic phenomena at suprasentential level. In particular, it looks into how textual analysis can be enhanced by supplementing the Parisian programme of interpretive semantics, as devised by François Rastier, namely his theory of isotopies, with elementary aspects of topic-focus articulation (TFA, as well as contextual boundness (CB and contextual non-boundness (CN, as elaborated within the Praguian linguistic tradition (V. Mathesius, P. Sgall, E. Hajičová, F. Daneš, J. Firbas, and how the descriptive power of the former can be increased by the latter. In this respect, it is argued that two types of TFA phenomena interact during any process of textual interpretation: those of topic-focus articulation at the level of sentence, conceiving lexical morphs as thematic (T and/or rhematic (R, as well as contextually bound (CB and/or contextually non-bound (CN, and those of topic-focus articulation at the level of isotopy, with each isotopy being conceived as structured around a center (an abstract semantic unit and periphery (a span of concrete utterances. Two types of such interaction are described, each defined by either correlation, or non-correlation of the CB and CN semes at the levels of isotopy and sentence, respectively: thematic-rhematic isotopy, induced by co-occurrence of the CB seme of the center and the CB seme of the periphery; and thematic-rhematic allotopy (i.e. non-isotopy, induced by co-occurrence of the CB seme of the center and the CN seme of the periphery. Since topic-focus isotopies and allotopies can be perceived as members of privative oppositions, a tentative system of such oppositions is presented, based on linguistic analyses of selected European Commission texts drafted in English and their Czech translations. The author’s ultimate intention is to show that the semantic features of topic-focus articulation at the sentential and suprasentential levels are both structurally parallel and

  8. Serpentine Locomotion Articulated Chain: ANA II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Cardona

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available When humanity faces challenges in solving problems beyond their technical resources, and has no foundation to solve a problem, engineering must search for an answer developing new concepts and innovative frameworks to excel these limitations and travel beyond our capabilities. This project “Serpentine locomotion articulated chain: ANA II” is a self-contained robot built to evaluate the behavior of the platform being capable of serpentine movements, in a modular chain mechanical design, based on a master/slave architecture.

  9. The velic traverse: an independent oral articulator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gick, Bryan; Francis, Naomi; Klenin, Anna; Mizrahi, Ezra; Tom, Denise

    2013-03-01

    Two speech functions have traditionally been ascribed to the velum: opening and closing the velopharyngeal port and providing a passive surface against which the tongue can produce oral constrictions. Contrary to this passive oral function, the present x-ray study finds that a substantial portion of the velum moves to constrict the oropharyngeal isthmus for French uvular /ʁ/. This substructure, designated the velic traverse, functions independently of the parts of the velum used for velopharyngeal port closure, thus acting as an oral articulator. An active velic traverse challenges methods for estimating vocal tract shapes based on tongue posture alone.

  10. Easy cross parameterization for articulated shapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-wei HU; Li-gang LIU; Guo-zhao WANG

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel interactive system for establishing compatible meshes for articulated shapes. Given two mesh surfaces, our system automatically generates both the global level component correspondence and the local level feature correspondence. Users can use some sketch-based tools to specify the correspondence in an intuitive and easy way. Then all the other vertex correspondences could be generated automatically. The cross parameterization preserves both high level and low level features of the shapes. The technique showed in the system benefits various applications in graphics including mesh inter-polation, deformation transfer, and texture transfer.

  11. Particle and gaseous emissions from compressed natural gas and ultralow sulphur diesel-fuelled buses at four steady engine loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, E R; Ristovski, Z D; Meyer, N; Morawska, L

    2009-04-01

    Exhaust emissions from thirteen compressed natural gas (CNG) and nine ultralow sulphur diesel in-service transport buses were monitored on a chassis dynamometer. Measurements were carried out at idle and at three steady engine loads of 25%, 50% and 100% of maximum power at a fixed speed of 60 km h(-1). Emission factors were estimated for particle mass and number, carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen for two types of CNG buses (Scania and MAN, compatible with Euro 2 and 3 emission standards, respectively) and two types of diesel buses (Volvo Pre-Euro/Euro1 and Mercedez OC500 Euro3). All emission factors increased with load. The median particle mass emission factor for the CNG buses was less than 1% of that from the diesel buses at all loads. However, the particle number emission factors did not show a statistically significant difference between buses operating on the two types of fuel. In this paper, for the very first time, particle number emission factors are presented at four steady state engine loads for CNG buses. Median values ranged from the order of 10(12) particles min(-)(1) at idle to 10(15) particles km(-)(1) at full power. Most of the particles observed in the CNG emissions were in the nanoparticle size range and likely to be composed of volatile organic compounds The CO2 emission factors were about 20% to 30% greater for the diesel buses over the CNG buses, while the oxides of nitrogen emission factors did not show any difference due to the large variation between buses.

  12. Articulation rate across dialect, age, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert A; O'Neill, Caitlin; Salmons, Joseph

    2009-07-01

    The understanding of sociolinguistic variation is growing rapidly, but basic gaps still remain. Whether some languages or dialects are spoken faster or slower than others constitutes such a gap. Speech tempo is interconnected with social, physical and psychological markings of speech. This study examines regional variation in articulation rate and its manifestations across speaker age, gender and speaking situations (reading vs. free conversation). The results of an experimental investigation show that articulation rate differs significantly between two regional varieties of American English examined here. A group of Northern speakers (from Wisconsin) spoke significantly faster than a group of Southern speakers (from North Carolina). With regard to age and gender, young adults read faster than older adults in both regions; in free speech, only Northern young adults spoke faster than older adults. Effects of gender were smaller and less consistent; men generally spoke slightly faster than women. As the body of work on the sociophonetics of American English continues to grow in scope and depth, we argue that it is important to include fundamental phonetic information as part of our catalog of regional differences and patterns of change in American English.

  13. Active steering control strategy for articulated vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyong-il KIM; Hsin GUAN; Bo WANG; Rui GUO; Fan LIANG

    2016-01-01

    To improve maneuverability and stability of articulated vehicles, we design an active steering controller, including tractor and trailer controllers, based on linear quadratic regulator (LQR) theory. First, a three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) model of the tractor-trailer with steered trailer axles is built. The simulated annealing particle swarm optimization (SAPSO) algorithm is applied to identify the key parameters of the model under specified vehicle speed and steering wheel angle. Thus, the key pa-rameters of the simplified model can be obtained according to the vehicle conditions using an online look-up table and interpola-tion. Simulation results show that vehicle parameter outputs of the simplified model and TruckSim agree well, thus providing the ideal reference yaw rate for the controller. Then the active steering controller of the tractor and trailer based on LQR is designed to follow the desired yaw rate and minimize their side-slip angle of the center of gravity (CG) at the same time. Finally, simulation tests at both low speed and high speed are conducted based on the TruckSim-Simulink program. The results show significant effects on the active steering controller on improving maneuverability at low speed and lateral stability at high speed for the articulated vehicle. The control strategy is applicable for steering not only along gentle curves but also along sharp curves.

  14. Transportation of Wheelchair Seated Students in School Buses: A Review of State Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Britta; Fuhrman, Susan; Karg, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study quantitatively reviews publicly available state policies as they relate to the transportation of wheelchair-seated students in school buses. Inclusion of best practices in specially equipped school bus and driver training policies was assessed. Key points of interest within state policies were identified based on site visits, common…

  15. Comparative study of fuel cell, battery and hybrid buses for renewable energy constrained areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempien, J. P.; Chan, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Fuel cell- and battery-based public bus technologies are reviewed and compared for application in tropical urban areas. This paper scrutinizes the reported literature on fuel cell bus, fuel cell electric bus, battery electric bus, hybrid electric bus, internal combustion diesel bus and compressed natural gas bus. The comparison includes the capital and operating costs, fuel consumption and fuel cycle emissions. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first study to holistically compare hydrogen and battery powered buses, which is the original contribution of this paper. Moreover, this is the first study to focus on supplying hydrogen and electricity from fossil resources, while including the associated emissions. The study shows that compressed natural gas and hybrid electric buses appear to be the cheapest options in terms of total cost of ownership, but they are unable to meet the EURO VI emissions' standard requirement. Only fuel cell based buses have the potential to achieve the emissions' standard when the fuel cycle based on fossil energy was considered. Fuel cell electric buses are identified as a technology allowing for the largest CO2 emission reduction, making ∼61% decrease in annual emissions possible.

  16. 40 CFR 52.263 - Priority treatment for buses and carpools-Los Angeles Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 52.263 Priority treatment for buses and carpools—Los Angeles Region. (a) Definitions: (1) “Carpool” means a vehicle containing three or more persons. (2) “Bus/carpool lane” means a lane on a street or... agencies to which legal authority has been delegated, shall establish the following system of...

  17. 76 FR 77888 - Student Transportation of America, Inc.-Control-Dairyland Buses, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board Student Transportation of America, Inc.--Control--Dairyland Buses, Inc... Transaction. SUMMARY: Student Transportation of America, Inc., a motor carrier of passengers (Student... 1182.8. DATES: Comments must be filed by January 27, 2012. Student Transportation may file a reply...

  18. Leadership Thrust of Urban School Educators for Meeting the Challenge of Busing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, Joseph C.

    Based on a nationwide survey of urban school administrators, personal experiences of the author, and a review of relevant desegregation literature, this paper explores the role of administrators in the achievement of the objectives of busing for school desegregation. Findings cited from the survey include: (1) peak periods of conflict occur in the…

  19. An introduction on the demonstration performance of fuel cell buses (FCB) in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1990’s, hydrogen has found broad use in the traffic segment. Compared with conventional ones, hydrogen fuelled vehicles, a new generation of clean vehicles, produce no pollutants, with higher energy efficiency. In today’s world where the pollution is tougher, the "Zero Pollution" fuel cell buses display a

  20. Seat Belts in School Buses: A Technical Analysis of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splaine, Pam; Frankel, Steven M.

    This report, prepared for the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools superintendent and board members, identifies the questions concerning seat belt use in school buses, examines relevant literature, and draws some conclusions. According to the literature, seat belts are one of many alternative and interdependent safety devices built into…

  1. 76 FR 53102 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Denial of Petition for Rulemaking; School Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... belt use, the effects on bus discipline, the attitudes of other stakeholders, the loss of capacity... the past 34 years that compartmentalization and the school bus safety standards have been in effect... requiring seat belts on large school buses would protect passengers against an unreasonable risk of death...

  2. 26 CFR 41.4483-2 - Exemption for certain transit-type buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the same facts as those stated in Example (1), except that the X Transit Company commences operation... the same facts as those stated in Example (1), except that the X Transit Company commences operation... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exemption for certain transit-type buses....

  3. CONSIDERATIONS UPON CONTACT STRESS MODELLING IN DENTAL ARTICULATOR PAIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ciornei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A dental articulator is a mechanism which simulates the temporo-mandibular joint. The articulator is essential as it replicates the basic motions of the upper and lower mandibles, both revolve and translational motions. In the present paper the stresses from an articulator TMJ modelled as a bronze sphere into a cylindrical steel cavity are analyzed by two methods, first applying the Hertzian contact theory and then numerically, by means of finite element analysis using the simulation module in CATIA.

  4. Efficiency evaluation of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, Tobias Alexander

    2013-07-01

    The following report evaluates the efficiency of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector on a theoretical basis. The results indicate that the combination of CHP power plants and electric driven buses reach an overall efficiency of about 51% throughout the production chain (Well-to-Wheel), including heat distribution losses. The overall Well-to-Wheel efficiency for conventional gas turbines without heat recovery decreases to around 28%. For gas fuelled buses the Well-to-Wheel efficiency is about 30%. The Co2-emissions are evaluated based on the example of a #Left Double Quotation Mark#Volvo B10L CNG#Right Double Quotation Mark# gas bus and the electric driven #Left Double Quotation Mark#Eurabus 600#Right Double Quotation Mark#. The low energy consumption of the electric driven bus results in Co2-emissions of only 181.4 g Co2/km (Grid-to-Wheel). Depending on the utilised power plant technology the overall Co2-emissions (Well-to-Wheel) amount to 307.5 g Co2/km for a CHP power plant and 553.5 g Co2/km for a conventional gas turbine. On the other hand, gas fuelled buses emit about 1.25 kg Co2/km (Tank-to-Wheel), which is eightfold the emissions of an electrical bus. The Well-to-Tank emissions further increase to about 1.32 kg Co2/km. The emission calculation is based on real gas consumption data from a Norwegian public transport utility. The results indicate that the combination of CHP plants and electrical buses provide a much higher efficiency while reducing Co2-emissions. (author)

  5. [Energy Conservation and Emissions Reduction Benefits Analysis for Battery Electric Buses Based on Travel Services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-dan; Tian, Liang; Lü, Bin; Yang, Jian-xin

    2015-09-01

    Battery Electric Bus (BEB) has become one of prior options of urban buses for its "zero emission" during the driving stage. However, the environmental performance of electric buses is affected by multi-factors from the point of whole life cycle. In practice, carrying capacity of BEB and power generation structures can both implement evident effects on the energy consumption and pollutants emission of BEB. Therefore, take the above factors into consideration, in this article, Life Cycle Assessment is employed to evaluate the energy conservation and emissions reduction benefits of BEB. Results indicate that, travel service is more reasonable as the functional unit, rather than mileage, since the carrying capacity of BEB is 15% lower than the diesel buses. Moreover, compared with diesel buses, the energy conservation and emissions reduction benefits of battery electric buses are all different due to different regional power structures. Specifically, the energy benefits are 7. 84%, 11. 91%, 26. 90%, 11. 15%, 19. 55% and 20. 31% respectively in Huabei, Huadong, Huazhong, Dongbei, Xibei and Nanfang power structure. From the point of comprehensive emissions reduction benefits, there is no benefit in Huabei power structure, as it depends heavily on coal. But in other areas, the comprehensive emissions reduction benefits of BEB are separately 3. 46%, 26. 81%, 1. 17%, 13. 74% and 17. 48% in Huadong, Huazhong, Dongbei, Xibei and Nanfang. Therefore, it suggests that, enlargement of carrying capacity should be taken as the most prior technology innovation direction for BEB, and the grids power structure should be taken into consideration when the development of BEB is in planning.

  6. The role of virtual articulator in prosthetic and restorative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koralakunte, Pavankumar Ravi; Aljanakh, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    Virtual reality is a computer based technology linked with the future of dentistry and dental practice. The virtual articulator is one such application in prosthetic and restorative dentistry based on virtual reality that will significantly reduce the limitations of the mechanical articulator, and by simulation of real patient data, allow analyses with regard to static and dynamic occlusion as well as to jaw relation. It is the purpose of this article to present the concepts and strategies for a future replacement of the mechanical articulator by a virtual one. Also, a brief note on virtual reality haptic system has been highlighted along with newly developed touch enabled virtual articulator.

  7. Bayesian distributed articulated object tracking using multiple collaborative trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Schonfeld, Dan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two novel articulated object tracking approaches. The Decentralized Articulated Object Tracking approach avoids the common practice of using a high-dimensional joint state representation for articulated object tracking. Instead, it introduces a decentralized scheme and models the inter-part interaction within an innovative Bayesian framework. To handle severe self-occlusions, we further extend the first approach by modeling high-level inter-unit interactions and develop the Hierarchical Articulated Object Tracking algorithm within a consistent hierarchical framework. Preliminary experimental results have demonstrated the superior performance of the proposed approaches for real-world videos sequences.

  8. Framework for articulating instructional practices and conceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Dancy

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We present and describe the development of a framework for assessing or categorizing instructional practices and related conceptions in the context of introductory physics instruction. The purpose of the framework is for articulating practices and conceptions of individual instructors or of curricula. It was developed based on the research literature and interviews with physics faculty and contains ideas with widespread acceptance as well as some outside mainstream rhetoric. We provide an example of how this framework can be applied by using it to categorize aspects of three well-known research-based curricula. The results of this categorization highlight areas that are common in research-based curricular designs and other areas that are less embraced but worthy of consideration.

  9. Kinematical Analysis of an Articulated Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischfresser, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is twofold: to present mathematical expressions for the kinematics of an articulated mechanism and to perform numerical experiments with the implemented Fortran code. The system of rigid parts is made of two slender bars and a disk. A constant 2 rad/s counterclockwise rotation rate is imposed on the disk triggering the planar motion of the longer bar (link) and the rotation of the shorter one (output). Angular relations, velocities and accelerations are analyzed for a 90-degree turn of the disk. The inversion of the linking bar sense of rotation is well captured by the simulation, and the paper and pencil solutions that may lead to wrong conclusions are explained. Equations are derived from first principles and the Fortran code is placed under version control (currently, v.0.8-beta). This computer project is relevant for those in charge of vector dynamics courses and wishing to expose students to project-based learning activities.

  10. The Oklahoma PN/ADN Articulation Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

    In response to a critical nursing shortage in the state of Oklahoma, the Oklahoma Practical Nursing (PN)/Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Articulation Project Coordinating Committee was formed in spring 1990 to develop a proposal for program articulation. A curriculum matrix was designed and adopted for use by five regional subcommittees which…

  11. Design and wear testing of a temporomandibular joint prosthesis articulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, JP; Verkerke, GJ; de Vries, MP; de Bont, LGM

    2000-01-01

    As part of the development of a total temporomandibular joint prosthesis, a prosthesis articulation was designed. The articulation consists of a spherical head (ball) of the mandibular part, rotating against an enveloping ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) disc with a flat cranial sid

  12. The use of articulators in UK dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, J R; Craddock, H L

    2006-11-01

    The increasing complexity of many restorative procedures often involves articulation of study and working casts to ensure accurate fabrication of restorations. Correct selection and use of articulators can be crucial to successful restoration. The aim of this paper is to determine which articulators are recommended for various restorative procedures in UK dental schools, for use by undergraduate students. A questionnaire-based study of all UK dental schools was carried out, with a 100% response rate. Recommended articulator application for specified procedures was established from the literature and questionnaire results were compared with this. The results indicated that dental schools in the UK generally teach appropriate articulator use for most procedures. However, there are some limited areas of what may be argued to be inappropriate recommendation in some establishments.

  13. BIOENERGETIC DIFFERENCES DURING WALKING AND RUNNING IN TRANSFEMORAL AMPUTEE RUNNERS USING ARTICULATING AND NON-ARTICULATING KNEE PROSTHESES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highsmith, M. Jason; Kahle, Jason T.; Miro, Rebecca M.; Mengelkoch, Larry J.

    2016-01-01

    Transfemoral amputation (TFA) patients require considerably more energy to walk and run than non-amputees. The purpose of this study was to examine potential bioenergetic differences (oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)) for TFA patients utilizing a conventional running prosthesis with an articulating knee mechanism versus a running prosthesis with a non-articulating knee joint. Four trained TFA runners (n = 4) were accommodated to and tested with both conditions. VO2 and HR were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in five of eight fixed walking and running speeds for the prosthesis with an articulating knee mechanism. TFA demonstrated a trend for lower RPE at six of eight walking speeds using the prosthesis with the articulated knee condition. A trend was observed for self-selected walking speed, self-selected running speed, and maximal speed to be faster for TFA subjects using the prosthesis with the articulated knee condition. Finally, all four TFA participants subjectively preferred running with the prosthesis with the articulated knee condition. These findings suggest that, for trained TFA runners, a running prosthesis with an articulating knee prosthesis reduces ambulatory energy costs and enhances subjective perceptive measures compared to using a non-articulating knee prosthesis. PMID:28066524

  14. Vocal tract articulation in zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena R Ohms

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birdsong and human vocal communication are both complex behaviours which show striking similarities mainly thought to be present in the area of development and learning. Recent studies, however, suggest that there are also parallels in vocal production mechanisms. While it has been long thought that vocal tract filtering, as it occurs in human speech, only plays a minor role in birdsong there is an increasing number of studies indicating the presence of sound filtering mechanisms in bird vocalizations as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Correlating high-speed X-ray cinematographic imaging of singing zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata to song structures we identified beak gape and the expansion of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC as potential articulators. We subsequently manipulated both structures in an experiment in which we played sound through the vocal tract of dead birds. Comparing acoustic input with acoustic output showed that OEC expansion causes an energy shift towards lower frequencies and an amplitude increase whereas a wide beak gape emphasizes frequencies around 5 kilohertz and above. CONCLUSION: These findings confirm that birds can modulate their song by using vocal tract filtering and demonstrate how OEC and beak gape contribute to this modulation.

  15. Gaseous emissions from compressed natural gas buses in urban road and highway tests in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tingting; Chai, Fahe; Hu, Jingnan; Jia, Ming; Bao, Xiaofeng; Li, Zhenhua; He, Liqang; Zu, Lei

    2016-10-01

    The natural gas vehicle market is rapidly developing throughout the world, and the majority of such vehicles operate on compressed natural gas (CNG). However, most studies on the emission characteristics of CNG vehicles rely on laboratory chassis dynamometer measurements, which do not accurately represent actual road driving conditions. To further investigate the emission characteristics of CNG vehicles, two CNG city buses and two CNG coaches were tested on public urban roads and highway sections. Our results show that when speeds of 0-10km/hr were increased to 10-20km/hr, the CO2, CO, nitrogen oxide (NOx), and total hydrocarbon (THC) emission factors decreased by (71.6±4.3)%, (65.6±9.5)%, (64.9±9.2)% and (67.8±0.3)%, respectively. In this study, The Beijing city buses with stricter emission standards (Euro IV) did not have lower emission factors than the Chongqing coaches with Euro II emission standards. Both the higher emission factors at 0-10km/hr speeds and the higher percentage of driving in the low-speed regime during the entire road cycle may have contributed to the higher CO2 and CO emission factors of these city buses. Additionally, compared with the emission factors produced in the urban road tests, the CO emission factors of the CNG buses in highway tests decreased the most (by 83.2%), followed by the THC emission factors, which decreased by 67.1%.

  16. A Hand-Eye Vision Measuring System for Articulate Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岁波; 都东; 陈强; 韩翔宇; 王力; 张骅

    2004-01-01

    To make dynamic measurements for an articulate robot, a hand-eye vision measuring system is built up.This system uses two charge coupled device (CCD) cameras mounted on the end-effector of the robot.System analysis is based on the stereovision theory and line-matching technology, using a computer to evaluate the dynamic performance parameters of an articulate robot from the two images captured by the two cameras.The measuring procedure includes four stages, namely, calibration, sampling, image processing, and calculation.The path accuracy of an articulate industrial robot was measured by this system.The results show that this system is a low-cost, easy to operate, and simple system for the dynamic performance testing of articulate robots.

  17. Functional occlusion: II. The role of articulators in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J R; Hutchinson, I; Sandy, J R

    2001-06-01

    Opinion is divided on whether there is a place for the use of semi-adjustable dental articulators in orthodontics. In this review we explore the validity and reproducibility of the techniques involved in mounting study models on a semi-adjustable dental articulator. We also look at the role of articulated study models in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, in the finishing stages of orthodontics and in planning for orthognathic surgery. We report that each of the many stages involved in mounting study models on a semi-adjustable articulator is a potential source of error and that only if the technique is carried out with a high degree of accuracy is it worth the additional chairside time.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF ARTICULATED WHEELED VEHICLES POSITION STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. Dubinin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With introducing a mobile measurement system with linear acceleration sensors there was experimentally determined the parameter of position stability of the articulated wheeled vehicle on the example of HTA-200 «Slobozhanets». It was determined that the position stability was provided within the entire range of operating speeds and accelerations. The obtained results can be used to enhance the traffic safety of articulated vehicles.

  19. Planar articulated mechanism design by graph theoretical enumeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawamoto, A; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with design of articulated mechanisms using a truss-based ground-structure representation. By applying a graph theoretical enumeration approach we can perform an exhaustive analysis of all possible topologies for a test example for which we seek a symmetric mechanism....... This guarantees that one can identify the global optimum solution. The result underlines the importance of mechanism topology and gives insight into the issues specific to articulated mechanism designs compared to compliant mechanism designs....

  20. Finding Strong Bridges and Strong Articulation Points in Linear Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italiano, Giuseppe F.; Laura, Luigi; Santaroni, Federico

    Given a directed graph G, an edge is a strong bridge if its removal increases the number of strongly connected components of G. Similarly, we say that a vertex is a strong articulation point if its removal increases the number of strongly connected components of G. In this paper, we present linear-time algorithms for computing all the strong bridges and all the strong articulation points of directed graphs, solving an open problem posed in [2].

  1. Chemical and toxicological properties of emissions from CNG transit buses equipped with three-way catalysts compared to lean-burn engines and oxidation catalyst technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seungju; Hu, Shaohua; Kado, Norman Y.; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Collins, John F.; Gautam, Mridul; Herner, Jorn D.; Ayala, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Chemical and toxicological properties of emissions from compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled transit buses with stoichiometric combustion engines and three-way catalyst (TWC) exhaust control systems were measured using a chassis dynamometer testing facility and compared to the data from earlier CNG engine and exhaust control technologies. Gaseous and particulate matter emissions from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were significantly lower than the emissions from buses with lean-burn engines. Carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were lower by more than 99% compared to buses with lean-burn engines. Elemental and organic carbons (EC and OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and trace elements from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were effectively controlled and significantly lower than the emissions from buses with lean-burn engines. Potential mutagenicity measured using a microsuspension modification of the Salmonella/microsome assay was lower by more than 99% for buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC, compared to buses with lean-burn engines and OxC.

  2. Virtual articulator for the analysis of dental occlusion: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre-Ferrín, Laura; Romero-Millán, Javier; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Peñarrocha-Diago, María

    2012-01-01

    The future of dental practice is closely linked to the utilization of computer-based technology, specifically virtual reality, which allows the dental surgeon to simulate true life situations in patients. The virtual articulator has been designed for the exhaustive analysis of static and dynamic occlusion, with the purpose of substituting mechanical articulators and avoiding their errors. These tools will help both odontologists and dental prosthetists to provide the best individualized treatment for each patient. The present review analyzes the studies published in the literature on the design, functioning and applications of virtual articulators. A Medline-PubMed search was made of dental journals, with the identification of 137 articles, of which 16 were finally selected. The virtual articulator can simulate the specific masticatory movement of the patient. During mandibular animation, the program calculates the sites where the opposing teeth come into contact. The studies made to assess the reliability of the virtual articulator show good correspondence in visualization of the number and position of the dynamic contacts. The virtual articulator is a precise tool for the full analysis of occlusion in a real patient.

  3. Sinkage and slippage estimation for an articulated vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes an approach to estimating in real-time the degree to which an articulated robotic vehicle is undergoing wheel slip and/or sinkage in soft terrain. Robotic vehicles generally have hazard avoidance sensors which measure the shape of the sensible surface, and these can be used to predict what the articulation pose of the vehicle will be as it moves over the surface. An articulated vehicle (one with three or more wheels on each side) can directly measure the shape of the loadbearing surface by combining inclination and articulation sensing. Delays between the actual articulations and the expectations can be explained by wheel slippage. Differences between the expectation and the actual articulations can be explained by sinkage below the sensed surface. If one assumes that successive wheels on each side follow the same profile as the front wheel (sinking the same amount, if any, into the soil), then it is possible to estimate sinkage and slippage separately. A Maximum-A-Posteriori estimation procedure formalizing this heuristic approach is developed and simulated, and the results presented and discussed.

  4. The Fuel Economy of Hybrid Buses: The Role of Ancillaries in Real Urban Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bottiglione

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present context of the global economic crisis and environmental emergency, transport science is asked to find innovative solutions to turn traditional vehicles into fuel-saving and eco-friendly devices. In the last few years, hybrid vehicles have been shown to have potential benefits in this sense. In this paper, the fuel economy of series hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses is simulated in two real driving situations: cold and hot weather driving in the city of Taranto, in Southern Italy. The numerical analysis is carried out by an inverse dynamic approach, where the bus speed is given as a velocity pattern measured in the field tests performed on one of the city bus routes. The city of Taranto drive schedule is simulated in a typical tempered climate condition and with a hot temperature, when the air conditioning system must be switched on for passenger comfort. The fuel consumptions of hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses are compared to each other and with a traditional bus powered by a diesel engine. It is shown that the series hybrid-electric vehicle outperforms both the traditional and the mechanical hybrid vehicles in the cold weather driving simulation, reducing the fuel consumption by about 35% with respect to the traditional diesel bus. However, it is also shown that the performance of the hybrid-electric bus gets dramatically worse when the air-cooling system is continuously turned on. In this situation, the fuel consumption of the three different technologies for city buses under investigation is comparable.

  5. Analysis of the cost of hydrogen infrastructure for buses in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayegan, S.; Hart, D.; Pearson, P.; Joffe, D.

    The use of hydrogen (H 2) as transport fuel is often said to suffer from the 'chicken and egg' problem: vehicles that depend on H 2 cannot go on the roads due to the lack of an adequate infrastructure, and the almost non-existent fleet of H 2 vehicles on the roads makes it economically unsound to build a H 2 infrastructure. Although both hydrogen vehicles (fuel cell and internal combustion engine) and the related infrastructure have been (and are being) developed and some are commercially available, cost is seen as a major barrier. With today's technologies, H 2 only becomes competitive with petrol and diesel when produced at large quantities, suitable for supplying e.g. thousands of H 2 buses. The question is, how might this point be reached, and are there least cost infrastructural pathways to reach it. This paper tries to address the latter question, using the early development of a H 2 infrastructure for buses in London as a case study. The paper presents some of the analyses and results from a Ph.D. project (in progress) being undertaken at Imperial College London, funded by EPSRC (Grant GR/R50790/01). The results presented here illustrate that cost of hydrogen production and delivery vary mainly with levels of hydrogen demand and delivery distances, as well as other logistic criteria; least cost production-delivery pathways have been identified for various hydrogen demand scenarios and refuelling station set-ups. Another important conclusion is that the pattern of converting a group of refuelling stations to hydrogen (e.g. a group of refuelling stations for buses in London) has a significant effect on the unit cost of hydrogen.

  6. Characteristics of cabin air quality in school buses in Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Donghyun; Siegel, Jeffrey; Spinhirne, Jarett; Webb, Alba; McDonald-Buller, Elena

    This study assessed in-cabin concentrations of diesel-associated air pollutants in six school buses with diesel engines during a typical route in suburban Austin, Texas. Air exchange rates measured by SF 6 decay were 2.60-4.55 h -1. In-cabin concentrations of all pollutants measured exhibited substantial variability across the range of tests even between buses of similar age, mileage, and engine type. In-cabin NO x concentrations ranged from 44.7 to 148 ppb and were 1.3-10 times higher than roadway NO x concentrations. Mean in-cabin PM 2.5 concentrations were 7-20 μg m -3 and were generally lower than roadway levels. In-cabin concentrations exhibited higher variability during cruising mode than frequent stops. Mean in-cabin ultrafine PM number concentrations were 6100-32,000 particles cm -3 and were generally lower than roadway levels. Comparison of median concentrations indicated that in-cabin ultrafine PM number concentrations were higher than or approximately the same as the roadway concentrations, which implied that, by excluding the bias caused by local traffic, ultrafine PM levels were higher in the bus cabin than outside of the bus. Cabin pollutant concentrations on three buses were measured prior to and following the phased installation of a Donaldson Spiracle Crankcase Filtration System and a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst. Following installation of the Spiracle, the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst provided negligible or small additional reductions of in-cabin pollutant levels. In-cabin concentration decreases with the Spiracle alone ranged from 24 to 37% for NO x and 26 to 62% and 6.6 to 43% for PM 2.5 and ultrafine PM, respectively. Comparison of the ranges of PM 2.5 and ultrafine PM variations between repetitive tests suggested that retrofit installation could not always be conclusively linked to the decrease of pollutant levels in the bus cabin.

  7. Operational integrity using field buses; Integridade operacional utilizando barramentos de campo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Carlos Henrique [Coester Automacao S.A., Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The device information is collected using standardized Filed Buses with high data transmission capacity, which allows the analysis of his operational status in real time. The quantity of information generated by the devices for the maintenance area is increasing and this data quantity transferred through the field bus should not interfere in the network performance to the point of degrade his control function. In this way, is presented a technique that can be used in different protocols, which allow sending of maintenance data using a small band of the communication channel. Operational integrity can be achieved using predictive maintenance techniques based on the collected data. (author)

  8. A newer technique to program a semi adjustable articulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Venkateshwaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The difficulty in reproducing accurate angle of condylar guidance in semi-adjustable articulators. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between the angle of horizontal condylar inclination obtained on a semi-adjustable articulator and the corresponding angle traced on a temporomandibular joint (TMJ radiograph in completely edentulous subject. Materials and Methods: The horizontal condylar inclination angle was obtained in a semi-adjustable articulator by means of height tracer (extra oral tracing device and interocclusal records to program the articulator in 21 subjects. TMJ radiograph were recorded by the same operator with same orthopantomogram (OPG machine (planmeca. Tracings of inclines of articular eminence on the radiograph were compared with the angle obtained on a semi-adjustable articulator. Each measurement was made using manual methods of measuring angle. The results were subjected to the Pearson correlation statistical analysis (α =0.01. Results: The outline of the articular eminence in a TMJ tomogram radiographic image was identified and traced. A significant correlation was found between the horizontal condylar inclination on a semi-adjustable and the corresponding TMJ tomogram radiographic image for both right (R = 0.789; P = 0.001 and left (i = 0.747; P = 0.004 sides. Conclusion: The articular eminence traced on a TMJ tomogram image represents the horizontal condylar inclination with a mean difference of 5° in 21 subjects evaluated.

  9. In-Use Fleet Evaluation of Fast-Charge Battery Electric Transit Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Kelly, Kenneth; Eudy; Leslie

    2016-06-27

    With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts real-world performance evaluations of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles. Evaluation results can help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and assist fleet managers in selecting fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their economic and operational goals. In 2015, NREL launched an in-service evaluation of 12 battery electric buses (BEBs) compared to conventional compressed natural gas (CNG) buses operated by Foothill Transit in West Covina, California. The study aims to improve understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of fast-charge BEBs and associated charging infrastructure in transit operation. To date, NREL researchers have analyzed more than 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. Foothill Transit purchased the BEBs with grant funding from the Federal Transit Administration's Transit Investments for Greenhouse Gas and Energy Reduction Program.

  10. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gikakis, Christina [Federal Transit Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-11

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. Various stakeholders, including FCEB developers, transit agencies, and system integrators, have expressed the value of this annual status report, which provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The annual status report tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. The 2015 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2014 through July 2015. The results for these buses account for more than 1,045,000 miles traveled and 83,000 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from two demonstrations of fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: the Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California and the American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California.

  11. VARIATIONAL MONTE-CARLO APPROACH FOR ARTICULATED OBJECT TRACKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Dwivedi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a novel variational Monte Carlo approach for modeling and tracking body parts of articulated objects. An articulated object (human target is represented as a dynamic Markov network of the different constituent parts. The proposed approach combines local information of individual body parts and other spatial constraints influenced by neighboring parts. The movement of the relative parts of the articulated body is modeled with local information of displacements from the Markov network and the global information from other neighboring parts. We explore the effect of certain model parameters (including the number of parts tracked; number of Monte-Carlo cycles, etc. on system accuracy and show that ourvariational Monte Carlo approach achieves better efficiency and effectiveness compared to other methods on a number of real-time video datasets containing single targets.

  12. The Landscape of Mass Mediated Articulations of Biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Maja

    The objective of this paper is to explore the associations made in mass mediatedarticulations of biotechnology. It serves as the basis for further analyses of massmediated controversies and the purpose is to establish a map of the landscape ofmass mediated articulation of biotechnology. Which kinds...... of genetic researchand technology are articulated in what way? What can be associated to what inthe mass mediation and when is it portrayed as controversial? In short this is astudy of associations in the news production that serves as a way of establishingan empirical archive for further work. It is based...

  13. Articulation for Elementary School Foreign Language Programs: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesola, Carol Ann

    While foreign language instruction for elementary school children is gaining attention, poor articulation is a problem that has become more complex because of the variety of foreign language program models being developed. Five main types are in use: total immersion, partial immersion, foreign languages in the elementary school (FLES),…

  14. Closed-loop analysis of an articulated railcar train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzl, P.; Ploechl, M.; Mack, W.; Lugner, P. [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Mechanik

    2000-07-01

    An articulated railcar train is modelled by a plane three-body linkage mechanism guided at two points along a given trajectory with a prescribed velocity of the front point. The closed-loop system is analyzed using a symbolic-numerical method leading to ordinary differential equations in minimal coordinates. (orig.)

  15. Stuart Hall and the Theory and Practice of Articulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the idea of articulation links three different dimensions of Stuart Hall's work: it is central to the work of cultural politics, to the work of hegemony and to his practice of embodied pedagogy. I claim that his approach to pedagogy entails the art of listening combined with the practice of theorising in the service…

  16. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Program Articulation, 1981-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas County Community Coll. District, TX.

    Based on a survey of high school programs and courses in the Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD), this articulated program is designed to prepare students for entry-level employment in the air conditioning and refrigeration industry, including residential and commercial air conditioning and commercial refrigeration. The skills and…

  17. Syllable reduction and articulation rates in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilton, N.H.; Schüppert, Anja; Gooskens, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation compares articulation rates of phonological and phonetic syllables in Norwegian, Swedish and Danish to investigate differences in degrees of syllable deletion (reduction) among these three languages. For the investigation two sets of data are used: one consisting of recorded speec

  18. GPU accelerated likelihoods for stereo-based articulated tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Hauberg, Søren; Erleben, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    For many years articulated tracking has been an active research topic in the computer vision community. While working solutions have been suggested, computational time is still problematic. We present a GPU implementation of a ray-casting based likelihood model that is orders of magnitude faster...

  19. Larval Myogenesis in the Articulate Brachiopod Argyrotheca cordata (Risso, 1826)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    and micromorphological data to this debate, we investigated muscle formation in larvae of the brooding articulate brachiopod Argyrotheca cordata using immunocytochemistry combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Full grown larvae are three-lobed and show two pairs of bristle bundles. During larval development...

  20. GPU Accelerated Likelihoods for Stereo-Based Articulated Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Hauberg, Søren; Erleben, Kenny

    For many years articulated tracking has been an active research topic in the computer vision community. While working solutions have been suggested, computational time is still problematic. We present a GPU implementation of a ray-casting based likelihood model that is orders of magnitude faster...

  1. Gaussian-like Spatial Priors for Articulated Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Sommer, Stefan Horst; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the spatial covariance structure of an articulated     motion prior in which joint angles have a known covariance structure. From this,     a well-known, but often ignored, deficiency of the kinematic skeleton     representation becomes clear: spatial variance not only...

  2. Data-driven importance distributions for articulated tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2011-01-01

    We present two data-driven importance distributions for particle filterbased articulated tracking; one based on background subtraction, another on depth information. In order to keep the algorithms efficient, we represent human poses in terms of spatial joint positions. To ensure constant bone...

  3. Stick it! Articulated tracking using spatial rigid object priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2010-01-01

    Articulated tracking of humans is a well-studied field, but most work has treated the humans as being independent of the environment. Recently, Kjellstrom et al. showed how knowledge of interaction with a known rigid object provides constraints that lower the degrees of freedom in the model. While...

  4. [Malignant otitis externa with disfunction of the temporomandibular articulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Casanova, P; Pila Pérez, R; Dieguez Tejada, R; Pila Peláez, M

    1993-01-01

    Here we present a case of a female patient 70 years old stricken with diabetes mellitud 40 years of evolution with manifestations of malignant external otitis accompanied by disfunction of the temporomandibular articulation. Here we will show the clinical characteristics and the diagnosis in our patient likewise its treatment. We will expound the most important aspects of the entity at this present time.

  5. College Level One: Articulation, Equity, and Literacy Issues. Workshop Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisgaard, Soren; Brillhart, Lia V.; Burgess, Ann B.; Cramer, Jane Harris; Denton, Denice D.; Downer, Janice D.; Dunwoody, Sharon L.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Hewson, Peter W.; Secada, Walter G.; Tobias, Sheila

    This document reports on a workshop entitled "Articulation, Equity, and Literacy Issues" hosted by the College Level One (CL-1) project of the National Institute for Science Education (NISE). CL-1 identifies important issues in undergraduate education and determines the best strategies for addressing them. Workshop discussions examine curriculum…

  6. Frida Kahlo: Visual Articulations of Suffering and Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Lois LaCivita

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates the value of interdisciplinary approaches to patient care by exploring visual articulations of suffering as rendered by one artist. Makes general observations about the nature of humanities courses offered to medical students and depicts a visual portrayal of an illness story representing personal perspectives about patient suffering…

  7. College Student Access: How Articulation Agreements Support Rural Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Audrey J.; Dunstan, Stephany Brett; Dixon, Karrie Gibson

    2015-01-01

    Students from rural areas face additional burdens, such as affordability, academic preparation, and lack of college-going resources that make seeking, enrolling, and attending college more difficult. Community colleges offer hope to achieve a college degree for many rural students, and well-developed articulation agreements can be one way of…

  8. Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC) in public buses of Pamplona, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, M A; Elustondo, D; Bermejo, R; Santamaría, J M

    2008-10-01

    This study examines the exposure level of passengers and drivers to VOC in public buses in a medium-size metropolitan area (Northern Spain). In-vehicle monitoring was performed on different routes, on peak and non-peak hours, during January and February 2007. A total of 112 air samples were collected onto adsorbent tubes and analysed by thermal desorption (TD) and gas chromatography/mass selective detector (GC/MSD) technique. Statistical differences were found among route to route concentrations, with those routes with major prevalence in the commercial area of the city displaying higher values; differences between peak and non-peak hours were also observed. A decrease in VOC concentrations was also registered during the weekend. BTEX ratios were estimated and found to be related to traffic emissions and similar for all the surveyed routes. Correlations confirmed traffic as the main emission source for BTEX and trimethylbenzene, their concentrations being highly associated to changes in meteorological conditions.

  9. The effect of skeletal pattern on determining articulator settings for prosthodontic rehabilitation: an in vivo study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Canning, Tom

    2011-01-01

    During extensive prosthodontic treatment, the use of an accurately adjusted articulator is recommended to simulate mandibular movements. This clinical study was undertaken to assess any possible effect of the underlying skeletal pattern on programming articulator settings.

  10. Design and Construction of Passively Articulated Ornithopter Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastro, Alexander Timothy

    Birds, bats, and insects are able to fly efficiently and execute impressive in-flight, landing, and takeoff maneuvers with apparent ease through actuation of their highly articulated wings. This contrasts the approach used to enable the flight of comparatively simple man-made rotary and fixed wing aircraft. The complex aerodynamics underlying flapping-based flight pose an everpresent challenge to scientists hoping to reveal the secrets of animal flight. Despite this, interest in engineering aircraft on the bird and insect scale is higher than ever. Herein, I present my attempt to design and construct bioinspired passively articulated ornithopter wings. Two different hinge-based joint design concepts are investigated across several design iterations. The advantages and disadvantages of each implementation are discussed. Finally, the necessary instrumentation to analyze the performance of the wings is designed and fabricated, followed by testing of the wings.

  11. The calculation of robot dynamics using articulated-body inertias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, R.

    1983-05-01

    This paper describes a new method for calculating the acceleration of a robot in response to given actuator forces. The method is applicable to open-loop kinematic chains containing revolute and prismatic joints. The algorithm is based on recursive formulas involving quantities called articulated-body inertias, which represent the inertia properties of collections of rigid bodies connected together by joints allowing constrained relative motion between the bodies. A new, matrix-based notation is introduced to represent articulated-body inertias and other spatial quantities. This notation is used to develop the algorithm, and results in a compact representation of the equations. The new algorithm has a computational requirement that varies linearly with the number of joints, and its efficiency is compared with other published algorithms.

  12. Facilitated Articulation of Implicit Knowledge in Textile Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise

    2009-01-01

    This is a report from an ongoing research project and as such it is work in progress. The paper proposes an exploratory approach in order to enable end-users to contribute with their experiences of emotional values of fabrics in use. It is suggested that the textile designer with her repertoire...... of (experiential, implicit and tacit) textile design knowledge should facilitate the articulation process. The paper specifically draws on a series of workshops conducted within the collaborating company inviting all employees to participate. The series of workshops were based on a game-like setting and introduced...... an emergent framework for accessing implicit knowledge in textile design. The framework is based on the distance to the fabric. Present at each workshop were materials, chairs and images as initiators for articulation. In each workshop rules for playing and gaming materials were introduced by the author...

  13. Gender recognition from unconstrained and articulated human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qin; Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Gender recognition has many useful applications, ranging from business intelligence to image search and social activity analysis. Traditional research on gender recognition focuses on face images in a constrained environment. This paper proposes a method for gender recognition in articulated human body images acquired from an unconstrained environment in the real world. A systematic study of some critical issues in body-based gender recognition, such as which body parts are informative, how many body parts are needed to combine together, and what representations are good for articulated body-based gender recognition, is also presented. This paper also pursues data fusion schemes and efficient feature dimensionality reduction based on the partial least squares estimation. Extensive experiments are performed on two unconstrained databases which have not been explored before for gender recognition.

  14. Note sur les articulations de la linéarité phrastique

    OpenAIRE

    Rostislav Kocourek

    2012-01-01

    The term structuring is here used as an equivalent of various meanings of terms sentence perspective or sentence articulation found in terms Functional Sentence Perspective (FSP), or Actual Sentence Articulation, or in phrases used in the present paper as l’articulation ordinaire or l’articulation poétique.The introductory sections of the paper deal with the typological and diachronic aspects of word order, and with the proposal to use permutation as a promising procedure preparing to obtain ...

  15. Oral approach-avoidance: affective consequences of muscular articulation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Maschmann, Ira Theresa; Pecher, Diane; Winkielman, Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Can mouth movements shape attitudes? When people articulate different consonants (e.g., B or K) they press the tongue and the lips against various spots in the mouth. This allows for construction of words that feature systematic wanderings of consonantal stricture spots either from the front to the rear (inward; e.g., BENOKA) or from the rear to the front (outward; e.g., KENOBA) of the mouth. These wanderings of muscular strictures resemble the oral kinematics during either deglution (swallowing-like, inward movement) or expectoration (spitting-like, outward movement). Thus, we predicted that the articulation of inward and outward words induces motivational states associated with deglutition and expectoration--namely, approach and avoidance--which was tested in 9 experiments (total N = 822). Inward words were preferred over outward words, being labeled as nonsense words (Experiments 1, 4, 5, 6, and 9), company names (Experiment 2), or person names (Experiments 3, 7, and 8), with control words falling in between (Experiment 5). As a social-behavioral consequence, ostensible chat partners were more often chosen to interact with when having inward compared to outward names (Experiment 7). The effect was found in German-speaking (Experiments 1-5) and English-speaking (Experiment 6) samples, and it occurred even under silent reading (all experiments) and for negatively labeled targets (names of villains; Experiment 8). Showing articulation simulations as being the causal undercurrent, this effect was absent in aphasia patients who lacked covert subvocalizations (Experiment 9).

  16. Functional Organization of Human Sensorimotor Cortex for Speech Articulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Kristofer E.; Mesgarani, Nima; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Speaking is one of the most complex actions we perform, yet nearly all of us learn to do it effortlessly. Production of fluent speech requires the precise, coordinated movement of multiple articulators (e.g., lips, jaw, tongue, larynx) over rapid time scales. Here, we used high-resolution, multi-electrode cortical recordings during the production of consonant-vowel syllables to determine the organization of speech sensorimotor cortex in humans. We found speech articulator representations that were somatotopically arranged on ventral pre- and post-central gyri and partially overlapping at individual electrodes. These representations were temporally coordinated as sequences during syllable production. Spatial patterns of cortical activity revealed an emergent, population-level representation, which was organized by phonetic features. Over tens of milliseconds, the spatial patterns transitioned between distinct representations for different consonants and vowels. These results reveal the dynamic organization of speech sensorimotor cortex during the generation of multi-articulator movements underlying our ability to speak. PMID:23426266

  17. Recognizing articulated objects using a region-based invariant transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Isaac; Ray, Manjit

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, we present a new method for representing and recognizing objects, based on invariants of the object's regions. We apply the method to articulated objects in low-resolution, noisy range images. Articulated objects such as a back-hoe can have many degrees of freedom, in addition to the unknown variables of viewpoint. Recognizing such an object in an image can involve a search in a high-dimensional space that involves all these unknown variables. Here, we use invariance to reduce this search space to a manageable size. The low resolution of our range images makes it hard to use common features such as edges to find invariants. We have thus developed a new "featureless" method that does not depend on feature detection. Instead of local features, we deal with whole regions of the object. We define a "transform" that converts the image into an invariant representation on a grid, based on invariant descriptors of entire regions centered around the grid points. We use these region-based invariants for indexing and recognition. While the focus here is on articulation, the method can be easily applied to other problems such as the occlusion of fixed objects.

  18. [Conceptual parameters of the facial arc and articulators adapted for black Africans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Dindin, A C; Djeredou, K B; N'Dindin-Guinan, B; Assi, K D

    2005-12-01

    Articulators and facial arc always used in dentistry are not adapted to African black people. Their use provokes many errors in the setting of models on articulators. In this work, authors propose facial arc and articulator parameters conceptions that are suited to black Africans.

  19. Urban transportation system optimum: The effect of accounting for the interaction of buses and cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Angelo Guevara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se usa un método iterativo para calcular tarifas Pigouvianascuando las vías son compartidas por autos y buses. Se comparan escenarios en los cuales: 1 la tarifa es calculada considerando sólo la externalidad sobre otros vehículos; 2 la tarifa considera además la externalidad sobre los pasajeros de los vehículos; 3 no se aplican tarifas; y 4 no se aplican tarifas, pero algunas pistas son reservadas para el uso exclusivo de buses. El método es aplicado primero a un modelo idealizado que considera homogenidad de la demanda y cierto grado de heterogenidad en la oferta. Luego el método es aplicado en un experimento con datos reales basado en un modelo simultáneo de cuatro etapas calibrado para la ciudad de Santiago, Chile. Todos los experimentos muestran que cuando se considera la externalidad sobre los pasajeros de los vehículos, las tarifas Pigouvianas crecen sustancialmente en las vías de uso mixto, lo cual se traduce en un menor flujo de automóviles en dichas vías. Por otro lado, las simulaciones con el modelo idealizado muestran que el efecto de la reservación de pistas depende fuertemente del diseño considerado. Respecto de la tarificación Pigouviana, el experimento con datos reales muestra, sorprendentemente, que dicha política resultaría ser inferior a un escenario en el cual no se aplican tarifas. Este resultado podría atribuirse a: 1 que el modelo con datos reales representa una situación de equilibrio general y en cambio las tarifas Pigouvianas se calculan usando un enfoque de equilibrio parcial; 2 limitaciones de modelación en el experimento con datos reales; o 3 una manifestación del contraejemplo de Coase para los impuestos Pigouvianos. El artículo termina discutiendo el impacto de estos resultados en el análisis de políticas de transporte urbano.

  20. Mechanised charging stations enable point-to-point service for battery operated buses; Mechanisierte Ladestationen eroeffnen Batteriebussen den Linienbetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggers, S. [Gottlob Auwaerter GmbH und Co., Stuttgart (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Buses operated by an electrical battery do not any longer have a major disadvantage: the relatively short period of use/application. By means of mobile exchange charging stations the batteries of the buses do not have to be recharged for hours at installed charging stations or to be exchanged on a rather complicated way by forklifts. The battery exchange is as easy as filling up a car tank with diesel and can be carried out by the bus-driver himself within a few minutes. (orig.) [Deutsch] Batterie-elektrisch betriebene Busse haben einen gefuerchteten Nachteil verloren: die relativ geringe Einsatzzeit. Durch die mobile Wechsel-/Ladestation muessen die Busse nunmehr nicht mehr stundenlang an fest installierten Ladestationen `nachtanken` oder dort umstaendliche Batteriewechsel mit Hilfe von Gabelstaplern in Kauf nehmen. Der Batteriewechsel ist so einfach wie das Tanken von Dieselkraftstoff und wird von dem Busfahrer sebst in wenigen Minuten vorgenommen. (orig.)

  1. SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR CALCULATING CLOSING IN OF SWITCH-GEAR FLEXIBLE BUSES AT SHORT CIRCUIT BY IMPULSE OF ELECTRODYNAMIC FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Sergey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains description of a simplified method for calculating closing-in of switch-gear flexible buses at short circuit. The developed method is based on integral and energy principles of  mechanics. In order to increase accuracy of the calculation corrections factors are introduced in an explicit formula for calculation of maximum horizontal deviations. These factors have been obtained with the help of a computer program that realized numerical method for calculating closing-in of wires by flexible thread levels.Diagrams are constructed with the purpose to find ymax and criteria of electro-dynamic resistance of flexible buses (permissible impulse of electro-dynamic forces and current of electro-dynamic resistance is determined.

  2. SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR CALCULATING CLOSING IN OF SWITCH-GEAR FLEXIBLE BUSES AT SHORT CIRCUIT BY IMPULSE OF ELECTRODYNAMIC FORCES

    OpenAIRE

    I. I. Sergey; E. G. Ponomarenko; W. M. Sammur; P. I. Klimkovich

    2005-01-01

    The paper contains description of a simplified method for calculating closing-in of switch-gear flexible buses at short circuit. The developed method is based on integral and energy principles of  mechanics. In order to increase accuracy of the calculation corrections factors are introduced in an explicit formula for calculation of maximum horizontal deviations. These factors have been obtained with the help of a computer program that realized numerical method for calculating closing-in of wi...

  3. Variability of particle number emissions from diesel and hybrid diesel-electric buses in real driving conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Darrell B; Gao, H Oliver; Holmén, Britt A

    2008-08-01

    A linear mixed model was developed to quantify the variability of particle number emissions from transit buses tested in real-world driving conditions. Two conventional diesel buses and two hybrid diesel-electric buses were tested throughout 2004 under different aftertreatments, fuels, drivers, and bus routes. The mixed model controlled the confounding influence of factors inherent to on-board testing. Statistical tests showed that particle number emissions varied significantly according to the after treatment, bus route, driver, bus type, and daily temperature, with only minor variability attributable to differences between fuel types. The daily setup and operation of the sampling equipment (electrical low pressure impactor) and mini-dilution system contributed to 30-84% of the total random variability of particle measurements among tests with diesel oxidation catalysts. By controlling for the sampling day variability, the model better defined the differences in particle emissions among bus routes. In contrast, the low particle number emissions measured with diesel particle filters (decreased by over 99%) did not vary according to operating conditions or bus type but did vary substantially with ambient temperature.

  4. Influence of malfunctions of the maintenance activities on the urban buses fuel consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Crişan; Nicolae, Filip

    2014-06-01

    Optimization of activities with the aim to provide quality service in conditions of high profitability, is one of the main objectives chased by managers in transportation companies. As a consequence, directing the attention towards monitoring of maintenance activities of vehicles fleet, can achieve desired results. Two of the most important issues related to the maintenance activity, is the increase of reliability and reduction of fuel consumption of the vehicles fleet. Aforementioned actions represents a way forward for raising the quality and profitability of services offered. In this paper, the main ways of monitoring the fuel consumption, in order to reduce it and increase the reliability of transportation vehicles fleet, are presented. For the evaluation of the maintenance system and the degree of influence of malfunctions recorded on the fuel consumption, using the Pareto -ABC method, following case study on a fleet of buses for urban public transport has been conducted. Results obtained highlights the deficiencies of the maintenance process carried out and constitutes a solid base for the reorganization of the maintenance activity, involving preventive maintenance activities, in order to contribute decisively to the results targeted by the management of transport companies.

  5. A Model for the Stop Planning and Timetables of Customized Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Customized buses (CBs) are a new mode of public transportation and an important part of diversified public transportation, providing advanced, attractive and user-led service. The operational activity of a CB is planned by aggregating space–time demand and similar passenger travel demands. Based on an analysis of domestic and international research and the current development of CBs in China and considering passenger travel data, this paper studies the problems associated with the operation of CBs, such as stop selection, line planning and timetables, and establishes a model for the stop planning and timetables of CBs. The improved immune genetic algorithm (IIGA) is used to solve the model with regard to the following: 1) multiple population design and transport operator design, 2) memory library design, 3) mutation probability design and crossover probability design, and 4) the fitness calculation of the gene segment. Finally, a real-world example in Beijing is calculated, and the model and solution results are verified and analyzed. The results illustrate that the IIGA solves the model and is superior to the basic genetic algorithm in terms of the number of passengers, travel time, average passenger travel time, average passenger arrival time ahead of schedule and total line revenue. This study covers the key issues involving operational systems of CBs, combines theoretical research and empirical analysis, and provides a theoretical foundation for the planning and operation of CBs. PMID:28056041

  6. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. The report provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Funding for this effort is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration. The 2016 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2015 through July 2016. The results for these buses account for more than 550,000 miles traveled and 59,500 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from three demonstrations of two different fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California; American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California; and American Fuel Cell Bus Project at the University of California at Irvine.

  7. The life cycle assessment of alternative fuel chains for urban buses and trolleybuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliucininkas, L; Matulevicius, J; Martuzevicius, D

    2012-05-30

    This paper describes a comparative analysis of public transport alternatives in the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. An LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) inventory analysis of fuel chains was undertaken using the midi urban bus and a similar type of trolleybus. The inventory analysis of fuel chains followed the guidelines provided by the ISO 14040 and ISO 14044 standards. The ReCiPe Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodology was used to quantify weighted damage originating from five alternative fuel chains. The compressed biogas fuel chain had the lowest weighted damage value, namely 45.7 mPt/km, whereas weighted damage values of the fuel chains based on electricity generation for trolleybuses were 60.6 mPt/km (for natural gas) and 78.9 mPt/km (for heavy fuel oil). The diesel and compressed natural gas fuel chains exhibited considerably higher damage values of 114.2 mPt/km and 132.6 mPt/km, respectively. The comparative life cycle assessment of fuel chains suggested that biogas-powered buses and electric trolleybuses can be considered as the best alternatives to use when modernizing the public transport fleet in Kaunas.

  8. Dynamics and control of robotic aircraft with articulated wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Aditya Avinash

    There is a considerable interest in developing robotic aircraft, inspired by birds, for a variety of missions covering reconnaissance and surveillance. Flapping wing aircraft concepts have been put forth in light of the efficiency of flapping flight at small scales. These aircraft are naturally equipped with the ability to rotate their wings about the root, a form of wing articulation. This thesis covers some problems concerning the performance, stability and control of robotic aircraft with articulated wings in gliding flight. Specifically, we are interested in aircraft without a vertical tail, which would then use wing articulation for longitudinal as well as lateral-directional control. Although the dynamics and control of articulated wing aircraft share several common features with conventional fixed wing aircraft, the presence of wing articulation presents several unique benefits as well as limitations from the perspective of performance and control. One of the objective of this thesis is to understand these features using a combination of theoretical and numerical tools. The aircraft concept envisioned in this thesis uses the wing dihedral angles for longitudinal and lateral-directional control. Aircraft with flexible articulated wings are also investigated. We derive a complete nonlinear model of the flight dynamics incorporating dynamic CG location and the changing moment of inertia. We show that symmetric dihedral configuration, along with a conventional horizontal tail, can be used to control flight speed and flight path angle independently of each other. This characteristic is very useful for initiating an efficient perching maneuver. It is shown that wing dihedral angles alone can effectively regulate sideslip during rapid turns and generate a wide range of equilibrium turn rates while maintaining a constant flight speed and regulating sideslip. We compute the turning performance limitations that arise due to the use of wing dihedral for yaw control

  9. DISORDERS OF THE SOUND ARTICULATION IN PRETERM CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela MILANKOV

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech and language development is a good indicator of child’s cognitive development. The risk factors influencing development and functioning of prematurely born children are multiple. In addition to articulation disorder, there are motoric, conginitive and social aspects of delayed development. Premature babies are born before they physically ready to leave the womb. However, most babies born after about 26 weeks of gestational age have chances for survival, but they are at a greater risk of medical complications, since the earlier children are born, the less developed their organs are. Aim: To demonstrate basic parameters, establish differences, determine characteristics of disorder of sound articulation in fullterm and preterm children. Methodology: Research was conducted at the Clinics of Child’s Habilitation and Rehabilitation in Novi Sad. The prospective research study was carried out comprising 61 children with mean age of 4 years. The study inclusion criteria were gestational age and birth weight. Regarding these parameters, the children without major neurlologic or system disabilities were included, and they were Serbian speaking. The sample comprised 31 children with GS≥38 weeks and body weight of ≥3000 g, while the preterm group comprised 30 children with GS≤32 weeks and body weight of ≤1500 g. Results of the study indicate to a difference between fullterm children and preterm children with regard to articulation disorders, of which the statistically significant was a sound distortion. The overall sample showed that the substitution with distortion was most frequent disorder, while the interdental sigmatism was the most represented one. Conclusion: The obtained results lead to conclusion that preterm children, being a high-risk group, need to be followed up by age two, and provided timely proffesional help at pre-school age, since numerous adverse factors affect their overall development.

  10. Motion estimation of elastic articulated objects from image contours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Hai-lang; DAI Yue-wei; SHI Lei

    2008-01-01

    A new method of elastic articulated objects (human bodies) modeling was presented based on a new conic curve. The model includes 3D object deform able curves which can represent the deformation of human occluding contours. The deformation of human occluding contour can be represented by adjusting only four de-formation parameters for each limb. Then, the 3D deformation parameters are determined by corresponding 2Dcontours from a sequence of stereo images. The algorithm presented in this paper includes deform able conic curve parameters determination and the plane, 3D conic curve lying on, parameter determination.

  11. Modeling, Simulation and Position Control of 3DOF Articulated Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sadegh Lafmejani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the modeling, simulation and control of 3 degrees of freedom articulated robotic manipulator have been studied. First, we extracted kinematics and dynamics equations of the mentioned manipulator by using the Lagrange method. In order to validate the analytical model of the manipulator we compared the model simulated in the simulation environment of Matlab with the model was simulated with the SimMechanics toolbox. A sample path has been designed for analyzing the tracking subject. The system has been linearized with feedback linearization and then a PID controller was applied to track a reference trajectory. Finally, the control results have been compared with a nonlinear PID controller.

  12. A blind algorithm for recovering articulator positions from acoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogden, John E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    MIMICRI is a signal-processing algorithm that has been shown to blindly infer and invert memoryless nonlinear functions of unobservable bandlimited signals, such as the mapping from the unobservable positions of the speech articulators to observable speech sounds. We review results of using MIMICRI on toy problems and on human speech data. We note that MIMICRI requires that the user specify two parameters: the dimensionality and pass-band of the unobservable signals. We show how to use cross-validation to help estimate the passband. An unexpected consequence of this work is that it helps separate signals with overlapping frequency bands.

  13. Natural metrics and least-committed priors for articulated tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Sommer, Stefan Horst; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2012-01-01

    angle space. However, the metric of the joint angle space is rather unintuitive as it ignores both bone lengths and how bones are connected. As Brownian motion is strongly linked with the underlying metric, this has severe impact on the predictive models. We introduce the spatial kinematic manifold...... on the manifold that respects the natural metric. This model is expressed in terms of a stochastic differential equation, which we solve using a novel numerical scheme. Empirically, we validate the new model in a particle filter based articulated tracking system. Here, we not only outperform the standard Brownian...

  14. The physics of articulated toys - a jumping and rotating kangaroo

    CERN Document Server

    Güémez, J

    2014-01-01

    We describe the physics of an articulated toy with an internal source of energy provided by a spiral spring. The toy is a funny low cost kangaroo which jumps and rotates. The study consists of a mechanical and a thermodynamical analysis which makes use of the Newton and center of mass equations, the rotational equations and the first law of thermodynamics. This amazing toy provides a nice demonstrative example how new physics insights can be brought about when links with thermodynamics are established in the study of mechanical systems.

  15. [Prosthetic treatment of mandibular pseudarthrosis using an articulated prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidibe, C A; Razouk, O; Dichamp, J; Bertrand, J C; Vaillant, J M

    1994-01-01

    Two cases with complete loss of the tooth-bearing portion of the mandible were repaired with a prosthesis. This type of defect can involve the loss of a large number of teeth and aggression to the remaining teeth must be limited as much as possible. A two-part "articulated" prosthesis with two rings appears to be the best adapted system. This method takes into account the requirements of for additional conventional prostheses and thus makes it possible to save the remaining teeth.

  16. Articulated navigation testbed (ANT): an example of adaptable intrinsic mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosinsky, Chris A.; Hanna, Doug M.; Penzes, Steven G.

    2000-07-01

    An important but oft overlooked aspect of any robotic system is the synergistic benefit of designing the chassis to have high intrinsic mobility which complements rather than limits, its system capabilities. This novel concept continues to be investigated by the Defence Research Establishment Suffield (DRES) with the Articulated Navigation Testbed (ANT) Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV). The ANT demonstrates high mobility through the combination of articulated steering and a hybrid locomotion scheme which utilizes individually powered wheels on the edge of rigid legs; legs which are capable of approximately 450 degrees of rotation. The configuration can be minimally configured as a 4x4 and modularly expanded to 6x6, 8x8, and so on. This enhanced mobility configuration permits pose control and novel maneuvers such as stepping, bridging, crawling, etc. Resultant mobility improvements, particularly in unstructured and off-road environments, will reduce the resolution with which the UGV sensor systems must perceive its surroundings and decreases the computational requirements of the UGV's perception systems1 for successful semi-autonomous or autonomous terrain negotiation. This paper reviews critical vehicle developments leading up to the ANT concept, describes the basis for its configuration and speculates on the impact of the intrinsic mobility concept for UGV effectiveness.

  17. Nonlinearity between acoustics and articulation in Hungarian transparent vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benus, Stefan; Kirke, Karen D.; Gafos, Adamantios I.

    2001-05-01

    We present novel results from the acoustic and articulatory investigation of the production of the transparent vowels (TVs) /i/, /i:/, /e:/ in Hungarian (colon denotes length). The acoustic measurements of the front-back distinction (second formant, the difference of the first and second formants [Ladefoged, 1993]) show that the effect of adjacent back vowels on the front quality of the TVs is only weakly significant. The articulatory measurements of the same data, however, show that adjacent back vowels cause highly significant retraction of the tongue body during the production of the front TVs. The significance of this finding lies in its relevance to the relationship between phonetics and phonology. Our results demonstrate that minor phonetic differences in articulation, impossible to access by traditional theory, correlate with full-fledged phonological alternation of suffix selection in Hungarian. Traditional phonological accounts predict no effect of continuous phonetic details on discrete phonological generalizations. This is supported in our acoustic data but contrasts with our articulatory findings. In the paper we propose a dynamic model where phonological transparency is directly related to nonlinearity between acoustics and articulation [Stevens, 1989; Wood, 1979]. [Work supported by NIH.

  18. Articulated registration: elastic registration based on a wire-model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Fernandez, Miguel A.; Munyoz-Moreno, Emma; Martin-Fernandez, Marcos; Alberola-Lopez, Carlos

    2005-04-01

    In this paper we propose a new method of elastic registration of anatomical structures that bears an inner skeleton, such as the knee, hand or spine. Such a method has to deal with great degrees of variability, specially for the case of inter-subject registration; but even for the intra-subject case the degree of variability of images will be large since the structures we bear in mind are articulated. Rigid registration methods are clearly inappropriate for this problem, and well-known elastic methods do not usually incorporate the restriction of maintaining long skeletal structures straight. A new method is therefore needed to deal with such a situation; we call this new method "articulated registration". The inner bone skeleton is modeled with a wire model, where wires are drawn by connecting landmarks located in the main joints of the skeletal structure to be registered (long bones). The main feature of our registration method is that within the bone axis (specifically, where the wires are) an exact registration is guaranteed, while for the remaining image points an elastic registration is carried out based on a distance transform (with respect to the model wires); this causes the registration on long bones to be affine to all practical purposes, while the registration of soft tissue -- far from the bones -- is elastic. As a proof-of-concept of this method we describe the registration of hands on radiographs.

  19. Interacting effects of syllable and phrase position on consonant articulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Dani; Lee, Sungbok; Riggs, Daylen; Adams, Jason

    2005-12-01

    The complexities of how prosodic structure, both at the phrasal and syllable levels, shapes speech production have begun to be illuminated through studies of articulatory behavior. The present study contributes to an understanding of prosodic signatures on articulation by examining the joint effects of phrasal and syllable position on the production of consonants. Articulatory kinematic data were collected for five subjects using electromagnetic articulography (EMA) to record target consonants (labial, labiodental, and tongue tip), located in (1) either syllable final or initial position and (2) either at a phrase edge or phrase medially. Spatial and temporal characteristics of the consonantal constriction formation and release were determined based on kinematic landmarks in the articulator velocity profiles. The results indicate that syllable and phrasal position consistently affect the movement duration; however, effects on displacement were more variable. For most subjects, the boundary-adjacent portions of the movement (constriction release for a preboundary coda and constriction formation for a postboundary onset) are not differentially affected in terms of phrasal lengthening-both lengthen comparably.

  20. The oldest articulated chondrichthyan from the Early Devonian period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Randall F; Cloutier, Richard; Turner, Susan

    2003-10-01

    Chondrichthyans (including living sharks, skates, rays and chimaeras) have a fossil record of scales and dermal denticles perhaps dating back to the Late Ordovician period, about 455 million years ago. Their fossil tooth record extends to the earliest Devonian period, almost 418 million years ago, whereas the oldest known articulated shark remains date from the Early Devonian period, about 394 million years ago. Here we report the discovery of an articulated shark that is almost 409 million years old from the Early Devonian (early Emsian) period of New Brunswick, Canada. The specimen, identified as Doliodus problematicus (Woodward), sheds light on the earliest chondrichthyans and their interrelationships with basal jawed vertebrates. This species has been truly problematic. Previously known only from isolated teeth, it has been identified as an acanthodian and a chondrichthyan. This specimen is the oldest shark showing the tooth families in situ, and preserves one of the oldest chondrichthyan braincases. More notably, it shows the presence of paired pectoral fin-spines, previously unknown in cartilaginous fishes.

  1. An analysis of accident data for franchised public buses in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W A; Courtney, A J

    1985-10-01

    This paper analyses data on accidents involving franchised public buses operating in Hong Kong. The data were obtained from the Royal Hong Kong Police, the Hong Kong Government Transport Department, the two major franchised bus operators and international sources. The analysis includes an international comparison of accidents with emphasis on the situation in Hong Kong compared to urban areas in the United Kingdom. An attempt has been made to identify the characteristics of bus accidents; accident incidence has been related to time of day, day of the week, time of year, weather conditions, driver's age and experience, hours on duty and policy-reported cause. The results indicate that Hong Kong has a high accident rate compared to Japan, the U.K. and the U.S.A., with particularly high pedestrian involvement rates. Bus accidents peak at around 9:00 AM and 4:00 PM but the accident rate is high throughout the day. Monday and Saturday appear to have a higher than average accident rate. The variability of accident rate throughout the year does not seem to be significant and the accident rate does not appear to be influenced by weather conditions. Older, more experienced drivers generally have a safer driving record than their younger, less experienced colleagues. Accident occurrence is related to the time the driver has been on duty. The paper questions the reliability of police-reported accident causation data and suggests improvements in the design of the accident report form and in the training of police investigators. The relevance of the Hong Kong study for accident research in general is also discussed.

  2. Prediction of Emissions from Biodiesel Fueled Transit Buses Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhisek Mudgal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand of freight transportation and passenger cars has led to air pollution, green house gas emissions (especially CO2 and fuel supply concerns. Research has been carried out on biodiesel which is shown to generate lower emissions. However, the amount of emissions generated is not well understood which entails more vigorous data collection and development of emissions models. A comprehensive data collection plan was developed and emissions (NOx, HC, CO, CO2 and PM10 from biodiesel fueled transit buses were collected using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS. Linear models were developed and tested for each emission. However, the models could not capture the emissions spikes well resulting in very low R2 values. Artificial neural networks (ANNs based models were then employed on this data because of their ability to handle nonlinearity and not requiring assumptions on the input data as needed by statistical models. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the input parameters, number of hidden layers, learning rate and learning algorithm to arrive at an optimum ANN architecture. The optimal architecture for this study was found to be two hidden layers with 50 hidden nodes for each of NOx, HC, CO, and PM and one hidden layer for CO2. The emissions were predicted using best-performance ANN models for each emission. Scatter-plots of observed versus predicted values showed R2 of 0.96, 0.94, 0.82, 0.98 and 0.78 for NOx, HC, CO, CO2 and PM emissions, respectively. Histogram on prediction error showed low frequency for large errors.

  3. Evaluating real-world CO2 and NOX emissions for public transit buses using a remote wireless on-board diagnostic (OBD) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liuhanzi; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Chen, Qizheng; Niu, Tianlin; Huang, Xu; Zhang, Shida; Zhang, Liangjun; Zhou, Yu; Hao, Jiming

    2016-11-01

    The challenge to mitigate real-world emissions from vehicles calls for powerful in-use compliance supervision. The remote on-board diagnostic (OBD) approach, with wireless data communications, is one of the promising next-generation monitoring methods. We collected second-by-second profiles of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions, driving conditions and engine performance for three conventional diesel and three hybrid diesel buses participating in a remote OBD pilot program in Nanjing, China. Our results showed that the average CO2 emissions for conventional diesel and hybrid diesel buses were 816 ± 83 g km(-1) and 627 ± 54 g km(-1), respectively, under a typical driving pattern. An operating mode binning analysis indicated that CO2 emissions reduction by series-parallel hybrid technology was largely because of the significant benefits of the technology under the modes of low speed and low power demand. However, significantly higher CO2 emissions were observed for conventional diesel buses during rush hours, higher than 1200 g km(-1). The OBD data suggested no improvement in NOX emission reduction for hybrid buses compared with conventional buses; both were approximately 12 g km(-1) because of poor performance of the selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems in the real world. Speed-dependent functions for real-world CO2 and NOX emissions were also constructed. The CO2 emissions of hybrid buses were much less sensitive to the average speed than conventional buses. If the average speed decreased from 20 km h(-1) to 10 km h(-1), the estimated CO2 emission factor for conventional buses would be increased by 34%. Such a change in speed would increase NOX emissions for conventional and hybrid buses by 38% and 56%, respectively. This paper demonstrates the useful features of the remote OBD system and can inform policy makers how to take advantage of these features in monitoring in-use vehicles.

  4. Material opportunities for children’s participation, articulation and re-experiencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj; Kolmos, Marie

    to know whether the researcher and the child share understandings of verbal articulations. A similar challenge counts for phenomena and experiences that may be difficult to describe and articulate in verbal language such as sensory and body experiences and diverse experiences of awareness, attention....... In both studies the mutual material references offer new opportunities for the children’s participation, articulation and re-experiencing in the interview situations....

  5. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Study of an Articulating Turbine Blade Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    ARL-TR-7871 ● NOV 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Study of an Articulating Turbine Blade...ARL-TR-7871 ● NOV 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Study of an Articulating Turbine Blade Cascade by Luis...COVERED (From - To) 1 June–31 August 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Study of an Articulating Turbine Blade Cascade 5a

  6. Evaluation of relationship between feeding reflexes and articulation in spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Hadian

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy is the term used to describe a movement disorder though to be the result of nonprogressive brain damage. Due to damage to CNS, it is associated with articulation disorder and abnormal feeding reflex. Lack of oral function control and coordination following feeding reflex disorders. Articulation disorders are seen in most of the cerebral palsied patients.This research aimed to determine the relationship between feeding reflexes and articulation in cerebral palsy (spasticchildren. Methods: This study was cross sectionally carried out on 52 children with cerebral palsy, 5 to 10 yrs old, in rehabilitation centers and private clinics. The information related to feeding reflexes was collected through direct observation of patient and evaluation of sound articulation through phonetic information test. Results: Statistical analysis carried out by SPSS and chi-square and fisher exact tests. Abnomal chewing and tongue reflex are more prevalent than other feeding reflexes.The relationship between lip reflex and articulation of p/m/r/y/f/č and chewing reflex with articulation of/z/š/ is meaningful. The relationship between biting reflex with articulation of /z/j/l/š/ is meaningful. The relationship between tongue reflex and rooting reflex with articulation of sound is not meaningful. Conclusion: With regard to the result of this research, it can be suggested that in children with cerebral palsy following feeding reflex disorders, abnormal posture during speech occurs that could have effect on articulation.

  7. Articulation of sounds in Serbian language in patients who learned esophageal speech successfully

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vekić Maja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Articulation of pronounced sounds during the training and subsequent use of esophageal speech is very important because it contributes significantly to intelligibility and aesthetics of spoken words and sentences, as well as of speech and language itself. The aim of this research was to determine the quality of articulation of sounds of Serbian language by groups of sounds in patients who had learned esophageal speech successfully as well as the effect of age and tooth loss on the quality of articulation. Material and Methods. This retrospective - prospective study included 16 patients who had undergone total laryngectomy. Having completed the rehabilitation of speech, these patient used esophageal voice and speech. The quality of articulation was tested by the “Global test of articulation.” Results. Esophageal speech was rated with grade 5, 4 and 3 in 62.5%, 31.3% and one patient, respectively. Serbian was the native language of all the patients. The study included 30 sounds of Serbian language in 16 subjects (480 total sounds. Only two patients (12.5% articulated all sounds properly, whereas 87.5% of them had incorrect articulation. Conclusion. The articulation of affricates and fricatives, especially sound /h/ from the group of the fricatives, was found to be the worst in the patients who had successfully mastered esophageal speech. The age and the tooth loss of patients who have mastered esophageal speech do not affect the articulation of sounds in Serbian language.

  8. Evaluation of an improved orthognathic articulator system: 1. Accuracy of cast orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P E; Barbenel, J C; Walker, F S; Khambay, B S; Moos, K F; Ayoub, A F

    2012-02-01

    A systematic study was carried out using plastic model skulls to quantify the accuracy of the transfer of face bow registration to the articulator. A standard Dentatus semi-adjustable articulator system was compared to a purpose built orthognathic articulator system by measuring the maxillary occlusal plane angles of plastic model skulls and of dental casts mounted on the two different types of articulators. There was a statistically significant difference between the two systems; the orthognathic system showed small random errors, but the standard system showed systematic errors of up to 28°.

  9. A maximum likelihood approach to estimating articulator positions from speech acoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogden, J.

    1996-09-23

    This proposal presents an algorithm called maximum likelihood continuity mapping (MALCOM) which recovers the positions of the tongue, jaw, lips, and other speech articulators from measurements of the sound-pressure waveform of speech. MALCOM differs from other techniques for recovering articulator positions from speech in three critical respects: it does not require training on measured or modeled articulator positions, it does not rely on any particular model of sound propagation through the vocal tract, and it recovers a mapping from acoustics to articulator positions that is linearly, not topographically, related to the actual mapping from acoustics to articulation. The approach categorizes short-time windows of speech into a finite number of sound types, and assumes the probability of using any articulator position to produce a given sound type can be described by a parameterized probability density function. MALCOM then uses maximum likelihood estimation techniques to: (1) find the most likely smooth articulator path given a speech sample and a set of distribution functions (one distribution function for each sound type), and (2) change the parameters of the distribution functions to better account for the data. Using this technique improves the accuracy of articulator position estimates compared to continuity mapping -- the only other technique that learns the relationship between acoustics and articulation solely from acoustics. The technique has potential application to computer speech recognition, speech synthesis and coding, teaching the hearing impaired to speak, improving foreign language instruction, and teaching dyslexics to read. 34 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Articulations of Health and Poverty Among Women on WIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehya, Nadine A; Dutta, Mohan J

    2015-01-01

    With the global financial meltdown, the crisis of poverty has deepened in communities across the United States. This essay reports results from a culture-centered project on fostering spaces for listening to the voices of the poor in CrossRoads County, Indiana. It highlights the intersections of health and poverty as they emerge from the narratives of mothers utilizing the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Depression, humiliation, and inaccessibility to health care and healthy living outline the struggles of women as they negotiate their access to health. The articulations of agency are situated around competing cultural narratives that, on the one hand, draw on the threads of individual responsibility which resonate through mainstream discourses of poverty in the United States and, on the other hand, interrogate the structural erasure of the basic capacities of health.

  11. African American English: Dialect Mistaken As an Articulation Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, Sade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this literature review is to discuss the reasons speech-language pathologists often misdiagnose children using AAE as having articulation and phonological disorders. In my literature review, I will discuss three ruling explanations for why this problem occurs. The most common reason for this misdiagnosis is that speech-language pathologists (SLPs are unfamiliar with AAE acquisition and its phonological features. The second is that SLPs administer norm-referenced standardized tests that are culturally biased, which unfairly contributes to these errors. Finally, SLPs often do not realize that AAE speaking children are, in a way, learning a second dialect ¾ Standard American English ¾ in school. Each of these practices delivers inaccurate information about the child, placing the SLPs and their clients at a disadvantage. I will provide recommendations and suggestions for SLPs. My argument is that changes can, and should, be made.

  12. Articulating social science in the wild of global natures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Building on multisited ethnographic case studies, this paper seeks to contrastively compare the demonstration and articulation formats of two social science expert cultures—economics and anthropology—enrolled ‘in the wild’ of transnational environmental politics. How, the paper asks, do different...... social sciences come to be configured within, and do performative work upon, heterogeneous assemblages of global natures? In the first case US economists translate carbon markets into a world of Indian ecoprofessionals, across serious North–South conflicts in climate politics. In the second case a group...... the noneconomic social sciences (eg, anthropology) may also be consequential in enacting particular nature-cultures. Theoretically, the paper situates these inquiries at the intersection of science and technology studies (STS) and political anthropology, in addressing the question—important to environmental...

  13. Sensory Integration with Articulated Motion on a Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rojas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the integration of articulated motion with auditory and visual sensory information that enables a humanoid robot to achieve certain reflex actions that mimic those of people. Reflexes such as reach-and-grasp behavior enables the robot to learn, through experience, its own state and that of the world. A humanoid robot with binaural audio input, stereo vision, and pneumatic arms and hands exhibited tightly coupled sensory-motor behaviors in four different demonstrations. The complexity of successive demonstrations was increased to show that the reflexive sensory-motor behaviors combine to perform increasingly complex tasks. The humanoid robot executed these tasks effectively and established the groundwork for the further development of hardware and software systems, sensory-motor vector-space representations, and coupling with higher-level cognition.

  14. Articulated pipes conveying fluid pulsating with high frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    1999-01-01

    Stability and nonlinear dynamics of two articulated pipes conveying fluid with a high-frequency pulsating component is investigated. The non-autonomous model equations are converted into autonomous equations by approximating the fast excitation terms with slowly varying terms. The downward hanging...... pipe position will lose stability if the mean flow speed exceeds a certain critical value. Adding a pulsating component to the fluid flow is shown to stabilize the hanging position for high values of the ratio between fluid and pipe-mass, and to marginally destabilize this position for low ratios....... An approximate nonlinear solution for small-amplitude flutter oscillations is obtained using a fifth-order multiple scales perturbation method, and large-amplitude oscillations are examined by numerical integration of the autonomous model equations, using a path-following algorithm. The pulsating fluid component...

  15. Measurement uncertainty analysis on laser tracker combined with articulated CMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui-ning; Yu, Lian-dong; Du, Yun; Zhang, Hai-yan

    2013-10-01

    The combined measurement technology plays an increasingly important role in the digitalized assembly. This paper introduces a combined measurement system consists of a Laser tracker and a FACMM,with the applications in the inspection of the position of the inner parts in a large-scale device. When these measurement instruments are combined, the resulting coordinate data set contains uncertainties that are a function of the base data sets and complex interactions between the measurement sets. Combined with the characteristics of Laser Tracker and Flexible Articulated Coordinate Measuring Machine (FACMM),Monte-Claro simulation mothed is employed in the uncertainty evaluation of combined measurement systems. A case study is given to demonstrate the practical applications of this research.

  16. Visual servo simulation of EAST articulated maintenance arm robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang, E-mail: yangyang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd, Hefei, Anhui (China); Song, Yuntao; Pan, Hongtao; Cheng, Yong; Feng, Hansheng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd, Hefei, Anhui (China); Wu, Huapeng [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2016-03-15

    For the inspection and light-duty maintenance of the vacuum vessel in the EAST tokamak, a serial robot arm, called EAST articulated maintenance arm, is developed. Due to the 9-m-long cantilever arm, the large flexibility of the EAMA robot introduces a problem in the accurate positioning. This article presents an autonomous robot control to cope with the robot positioning problem, which is a visual servo approach in context of tile grasping for the EAMA robot. In the experiments, the proposed method was implemented in a simulation environment to position and track a target graphite tile with the EAMA robot. As a result, the proposed visual control scheme can successfully drive the EAMA robot to approach and track the target tile until the robot reaches the desired position. Furthermore, the functionality of the simulation software presented in this paper is proved to be suitable for the development of the robotic and computer vision application.

  17. [Articulation between child and adolescent mental health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfini, Patricia Santos de Souza; Reis, Alberto Olavo Advincula

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this paper was to describe and analyze the articulation between children and adolescent mental health care interventions undertaken by teams working under the Family Health Strategy (FHS) and Psychosocial Care Centers for Children and Adolescents (CAPSI). In order to achieve these objectives, semi-structured interviews were conducted with five CAPSI and 13 FHS managers from five different regions of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The 18 interviews were transcribed and analyzed froma hermeneutic perspective. It was found that interactions between the FHS and CAPSI occur mainly through referral of cases, matrix support or partnerships in cases concerning CAPSI. Obstacles, such as a lack of human resources, productivity goals and lack of training in mental health of FHS professionals were mentioned. The referral system and passing responsibility for mental health cases to specialized services and the hegemonic biomedical model and the fragmentation of care are common place in these services.

  18. Optimal visual-haptic integration with articulated tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Chie; Watt, Simon J

    2017-02-18

    When we feel and see an object, the nervous system integrates visual and haptic information optimally, exploiting the redundancy in multiple signals to estimate properties more precisely than is possible from either signal alone. We examined whether optimal integration is similarly achieved when using articulated tools. Such tools (tongs, pliers, etc) are a defining characteristic of human hand function, but complicate the classical sensory 'correspondence problem' underlying multisensory integration. Optimal integration requires establishing the relationship between signals acquired by different sensors (hand and eye) and, therefore, in fundamentally unrelated units. The system must also determine when signals refer to the same property of the world-seeing and feeling the same thing-and only integrate those that do. This could be achieved by comparing the pattern of current visual and haptic input to known statistics of their normal relationship. Articulated tools disrupt this relationship, however, by altering the geometrical relationship between object properties and hand posture (the haptic signal). We examined whether different tool configurations are taken into account in visual-haptic integration. We indexed integration by measuring the precision of size estimates, and compared our results to optimal predictions from a maximum-likelihood integrator. Integration was near optimal, independent of tool configuration/hand posture, provided that visual and haptic signals referred to the same object in the world. Thus, sensory correspondence was determined correctly (trial-by-trial), taking tool configuration into account. This reveals highly flexible multisensory integration underlying tool use, consistent with the brain constructing internal models of tools' properties.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of Articulate Brachiopod Terebratal ia transversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfenbein, Kevin G.; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2001-07-01

    We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the articulate brachiopod Terebratalia transversa. The circular genome is 14,291 bp in size, relatively small compared to other published metazoan mtDNAs. The 37 genes commonly found in animal mtDNA are present; the size decrease is due to the truncation of several tRNA, rRNA, and protein genes, to some nucleotide overlaps, and to a paucity of non-coding nucleotides. Although the gene arrangement differs radically from those reported for other metazoans, some gene junctions are shared with two other articulate brachiopods, Laqueus rubellus and Terebratulina retusa. All genes in the T. transversa mtDNA, unlike those in most metazoan mtDNAs reported, are encoded by the same strand. The A+T content (59.1 percent) is low for a metazoan mtDNA, and there is a high propensity for homopolymer runs and a strong base-compositional strand bias. The coding strand is quite G+T-rich, a skew that is shared by the confamilial (laqueid) specie s L. rubellus, but opposite to that found in T. retusa, a cancellothyridid. These compositional skews are strongly reflected in the codon usage patterns and the amino acid compositions of the mitochondrial proteins, with markedly different usage observed between T. retusa and the two laqueids. This observation, plus the similarity of the laqueid non-coding regions to the reverse complement of the non-coding region of the cancellothyridid, suggest that an inversion that resulted in a reversal in the direction of first-strand replication has occurred in one of the two lineages. In addition to the presence of one non-coding region in T. transversa that is comparable to those in the other brachiopod mtDNAs, there are two others with the potential to form secondary structures; one or both of these may be involved in the process of transcript cleavage.

  20. Tender for cleaning up business. New techniques and tender to reduce the emission of buses; Aanbesteding schoon busvervoer. Nieuwe technieken en aanbesteding bieden kansen voor emissiereductie bij bussen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorel, F.G.; Van den Broek, C.B.W.; Jansen, L. [Provincie Zuid-Holland, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2000-03-01

    Air pollution in urban areas in the Netherlands still causes health-problems, and the present air quality does not meet the new standards in the European Union. Every part of society (industry, traffic etc.) therefore has to contribute in reducing emissions. Regarding buses there are several options. New buses can be build with an engine suitable for LPG, or new and existing diesel buses can be equipped with so called 'Continuous Regenerating Traps' (CRT-filters). This article focuses on the new possibility of provinces and municipalities in the Netherlands to facilitate the introduction of these new techniques. For the first time, these governments are planning to call for tenders of bus companies publicly. In order to be granted permission to provide public transport in a certain area, a bus company has to agree upon reducing its present average bus emissions to a certain (fixed) extent. 10 refs.

  1. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-In-Motion Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses from Fleet Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud; Markel, Tony

    2016-05-16

    This study evaluated the costs and benefits associated with the use of stationary-wireless-power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric buses and determined the cost effectiveness relative to conventional buses and hybrid electric buses. A factorial design was performed over a number of different battery sizes, charging power levels, and f bus stop charging stations. The net present costs were calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The parameter sensitivity was also investigated under favorable and unfavorable market penetration assumptions.

  2. Accuracy of two face-bow/semi-adjustable articulator systems in transferring the maxillary occlusal cant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Nazir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The precision of an arbitrary face-bow in accurately transferring the orientation of the maxillary cast to the articulator has been questioned because the maxillary cast is mounted in relation to arbitrary measurements and anatomic landmarks that vary among individuals. Aim: This study was intended to evaluate the sagittal inclination of mounted maxillary casts on two semi-adjustable articulator/face-bow systems in comparison to the occlusal cant on lateral cephalograms. Materials and Methods: Maxillary casts were mounted on the Hanau and Girrbach semi-adjustable articulators following face-bow transfer with their respective face-bows. The sagittal inclination of these casts was measured in relation to the fixed horizontal reference plane using physical measurements. Occlusal cant was measured on lateral cephalograms. SPSS software (version 11.0, Chicago, IL, USA was used for statistical analysis. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey′s tests were used to evaluate the results (P < 0.05. Results: Comparison of the occlusal cant on the articulators and cephalogram revealed statistically significant differences. Occlusal plane was steeper on Girrbach Artex articulator in comparison to the Hanau articulator. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was found that the sagittal inclination of the mounted maxillary cast achieved with Hanau articulator was closer to the cephalometric occlusal cant as compared to that of the Girrbach articulator. Among the two articulators and face-bow systems, the steepness of sagittal inclination was greater on Girrbach semi-adjustable articulator. Different face-bow/articulator systems could result in different orientation of the maxillary cast, resulting in variation in stability, cuspal inclines and cuspal heights.

  3. Method for analyzing articulated torques of heavy-duty six-legged robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Hongchao; Gao, Haibo; Ding, Liang; Liu, Zhen; Deng, Zongquan

    2013-07-01

    The accuracy of an articulated torque analysis influences the comprehensive performances of heavy-duty multi-legged robots. Currently, the extremal estimation method and some complex methods are employed to calculate the articulated torques, which results in a large safety margin or a large number of calculations. To quickly obtain accurate articulated torques, an analysis method for the articulated torque is presented for an electrically driven heavy-duty six-legged robot. First, the rearmost leg that experiences the maximum normal contact force is confirmed when the robot transits a slope. Based on the ant-type and crab-type tripod gaits, the formulas of classical mechanics and MATLAB software are employed to theoretically analyze the relevant static torques of the joints. With the changes in the joint angles for the abductor joint, hip joint, and knee joint, variable tendency charts and extreme curves are obtained for the static articulated torques. Meanwhile, the maximum static articulated torques and the corresponding poses of the robot are also obtained. According to the poses of the robot under the maximum static articulated torques, ADAMS software is used to carry out a static simulation analysis. Based on the relevant simulation curves of the articulated torques, the maximum static articulated torques are acquired. A comparative analysis of the maximum static articulated torques shows that the theoretical calculation values are higher than the static simulation values, and the maximum error value is approximately 10%. The proposed method lays a foundation for quickly determining accurate articulated torques to develop heavy-duty six-legged robots.

  4. New energy-saving and environmentally friendly technologies for buses and trucks; Nieuwe energiezuinige en milieuvriendelijke technologien voor bussen en vracthtwagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, R.; De Keukeleere, D.; Lenaers, G.

    1998-09-01

    The point of departure was the statement that people find public transport buses highly polluting. A lot of attention went to the advantages and the disadvantages of buses and trucks on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and natural gas. These fuels don`t cause any particle emissions from the combustion process. To quantify the other environmental advantages of gas technology, the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO) carried out measurements of different bus technologies. Fuel consumption, emission of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxides and hydrocarbons of 8 buses were measured in the Brussels traffic. 3 technologies of the early nineties were taken as a reference: the Euro-1 diesel, the current Brussels public transport company natural gas bus and a LPG bus. Comparisons were made with the modern diesel bus (Euro-2) and the newest buses on natural gas and LPG. To achieve minimal emissions, the best available technology for buses on natural gas or LPG is multipoint injection, the constructors of engines for heavy-duty traffic are changing from carburetor to fuel injection. The best available gas technologies has emissions that can be 50 to 95 per cent lower than the most modern diesel bus. Users mentioned problems at the introduction of vehicles on gas, such as lower reliability and availability. The cost price continues to be a disadvantage of buses and trucks on gas. The extra consumption of fuel doesn`t necessarily imply higher costs. Often fuel suppliers and distributors offer a favourable unit price, which includes the cost for the infrastructure. The purchase price of the vehicle remains higher and the workplaces must be adjusted for maintenance and repairs of vehicles on gas. The bus or truck on diesel is very reliable and cheaper to use than a similar vehicle on gas. The environmental perspectives are much less marked. Heavy-duty traffic emits nitrogen oxides and particles. With respect to these harmful substances in particular, constructors must

  5. Evaluation of the use of bioethanol fuelled buses based on ambient air pollution screening and on-road measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aparicio, S; Hak, C

    2013-05-01

    Mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may have adverse effects on urban air quality and human exposure to harmful pollutants. The use of bioethanol fuelled vehicles is increasing worldwide and may create new undesired pollution effects. Different measurement campaigns were performed in a pilot study to contribute to the understanding of the consequences associated with the use of bioethanol blended fuel (E95) on a series of pollutants. Ambient screening measurements of NO2, O3, acetic acid, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were performed at different urban locations, exposed and not exposed to the circulation of bioethanol buses. In addition, volatile organic compounds were measured at the exhaust pipe of a bioethanol fuelled bus, both under idling conditions (carbonyls; DNPH cartridge) and under on-road driving conditions applying online monitoring (PTR-TOF). Higher ambient acetaldehyde values were measured at locations exposed to bioethanol fuelled buses than at locations not exposed, and very high acetaldehyde and acetic acid values were measured from the exhaust pipe during driving conditions (acetaldehyde>150 ppm; acetic acid ≈ 20-30 ppm) and modelled at close distance to the bioethanol bus. Human exposure to high concentration of acetaldehyde is expected, and it may involve a significantly increased chance in developing cancer. The high concentration of acetic acid will involve odour annoyance and significant material degradation or corrosion.

  6. The Articulation of Korean Coronal Obstruents: Data from Heritage Speakers and Second Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Insung

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated where the consonantal constrictions take place when Korean coronal obstruents are articulated since there is disagreement over the place of articulation of these consonants. Unlike other studies in Korean phonetics, which focus on various acoustic features, the current study used static palatography (SPG) in the form of…

  7. Children with Developmental Verbal Dyspraxia: Changes in Articulation and Perceived Resilience with Intensive Multimodal Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maureen K; Wright, Lindsay Elizabeth; Perry, Susan; Cornett, Daphne; Schraeder, Missy; Johnson, James T.

    2016-01-01

    Research into intervention strategies for developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD) clearly demonstrates the need to identify effective interventions. The goals of this study were to examine changes in articulation skills following the use of phonetic, multimodal intervention and to consider the relationship between these improved articulation skills…

  8. Articulation Rate and Its Relationship to Disfluency Type, Duration, and Temperament in Preschool Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanova, Victoria; Zebrowski, Patricia M.; Throneburg, Rebecca N.; Kayikci, Mavis E. Kulak

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between articulation rate, frequency and duration of disfluencies of different types, and temperament in preschool children who stutter (CWS). In spontaneous speech samples from 19 CWS (mean age = 3:9; years:months), we measured articulation rate, the frequency and duration of (a) sound…

  9. High Re-Operation Rates Using Conserve Metal-On-Metal Total Hip Articulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, S L; Jakobsen, Thomas; Christoffersen, Hardy;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Metal-on-metal hip articulations have been intensely debated after reports of adverse reactions and high failure rates. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the implant of a metal-on.metal total hip articulation (MOM THA) from a single manufacture in a two...

  10. Demanding Dynamics - Demand articulation of intermediary organisations in emerging pharmaceutical innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, W.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    User involvement in emerging technological fields is carried by so-called demand articulation processes. These demand articulation processes are interactive learning processes in which stakeholders try to address what they perceive as important characteristics of, and to unravel preferences for an e

  11. Articulation Error Migration: A Comparison of Single Word and Connected Speech Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Timothy J.; Madison, Charles L.

    1987-01-01

    The study compared frequency and type of articulation error, including error migration, between single word production and connected speech samples when vocabulary was held constant with 20 articulation disordered children (ages 5-12 years). There were significantly more errors in connected speech samples than in single word utterances. (Author/DB)

  12. Is Iẕlak a Subject of Articulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazife Nihal İnce

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this assay I have studied the structure of iẕlak which took place in disciplines that interested in Arabic phonetics in some way. The structure of iẕlak, in many field related to phonetics, has been used to express one of the conditions made by the organs during the process of producing speak sounds. But this structure didn’t mentioned in the earliest sources and in some of the latests. On the other hand we have noticed that the explanations of iẕlak term in the earliest works and the latest works of tacwid were different, and also that the new explanation was getting widely accepted. To follow this structure, which it’s all definitions were connected with its root meaning, we reviewed classical dictionaries, works concerned with Arabic language, tacwid works and other sources. The study has pointed out that although iẕlak is an affecting characteristic which influences the sound interactions, it is basically not an articulation subject.

  13. Inferring 3D Articulated Models for Box Packaging Robot

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Heran; Cong, Matthew; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    Given a point cloud, we consider inferring kinematic models of 3D articulated objects such as boxes for the purpose of manipulating them. While previous work has shown how to extract a planar kinematic model (often represented as a linear chain), such planar models do not apply to 3D objects that are composed of segments often linked to the other segments in cyclic configurations. We present an approach for building a model that captures the relation between the input point cloud features and the object segment as well as the relation between the neighboring object segments. We use a conditional random field that allows us to model the dependencies between different segments of the object. We test our approach on inferring the kinematic structure from partial and noisy point cloud data for a wide variety of boxes including cake boxes, pizza boxes, and cardboard cartons of several sizes. The inferred structure enables our robot to successfully close these boxes by manipulating the flaps.

  14. Articulated dental cast analysis of asymptomatic and symptomatic populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordray, Frank E

    2016-01-01

    Dental instrumentation has long provided insight into the mechanism of musculo-skeletal function of the gnathic system. While large population studies associate dental arch displacement (DAD), especially laterally, with symptoms, mandibular condyle displacement (CD) resulting from DAD has not been targeted as possibly etiologic in the production of common muscle contraction headache (CMCH) and temporo-mandibular dysfunction (TMD). The objective was to evaluate the three-dimensional nature of DAD and CD between the seated condylar position (SCP) and the intercuspal position (ICP) and to compare results derived from large deprogrammed asymptomatic and symptomatic populations. A total of 1 192 sets of dental casts collected from asymptomatic and symptomatic populations were articulated in the SCP. The initial occlusal contact, DAD, and condylar displacement were evaluated for frequency, direction, and magnitude of displacement between the SCP and ICP. The data revealed significant displacement between the SCP and ICP of the condyles (displaced most frequently inferior (down) and posterior (distal)) and substantially increased frequency and magnitude of displacement of the dental arches (with posterior premature occlusal contacts, increased overjet, decreased overbite, midline differences, and occlusal classification changes) in symptomatic subjects. These discrepancies were statistically significant and clinically significant. The data support the concept of increased DAD and CD with dysfunction. Transverse condylar displacement, commonly presenting with dental cross bite, may be associated with CMCH and TMD. Displacement of the mandibular condyle may be an etiologic factor in CMCH and dysfunction of the temporo-mandibular joint. PMID:27357324

  15. Decoding of covert vowel articulation using electroencephalography cortical currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsue eYoshimura

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the goal of providing assistive technology for the communication impaired, we proposed electroencephalography (EEG cortical currents as a new approach for EEG-based brain-computer interface spellers. EEG cortical currents were estimated with a variational Bayesian method that uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data as a hierarchical prior. EEG and fMRI data were recorded from ten healthy participants during covert articulation of Japanese vowels /a/ and /i/, as well as during a no-imagery control task. Applying a sparse logistic regression (SLR method to classify the three tasks, mean classification accuracy using EEG cortical currents was significantly higher than that using EEG sensor signals and was also comparable to accuracies in previous studies using electrocorticography. SLR weight analysis revealed vertices of EEG cortical currents that were highly contributive to classification for each participant, and the vertices showed discriminative time series signals according to the three tasks. Furthermore, functional connectivity analysis focusing on the highly contributive vertices revealed positive and negative correlations among areas related to speech processing. As the same findings were not observed using EEG sensor signals, our results demonstrate the potential utility of EEG cortical currents not only for engineering purposes such as brain-computer interfaces but also for neuroscientific purposes such as the identification of neural signaling related to language processing.

  16. Human-like Manipulation Planning for Articulated Manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yahui Gan; Xianzhong Dai

    2012-01-01

    A new method based on human-likeness assessment and optimization concept to solve the problem of human-like manipulation planning for articulated robot is proposed in this paper.This method intrinsically formulates the problem as a constrained optimization problem in robot configuration space.The robot configuration space is divided into different subregions by human likeness assessment.A widely used strategy,Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) in applied ergonomics,is adopted here to evaluate the human likeness of robot configuration.A task compatibility measurement of the robot velocity transmission ratio along a specified direction is used as the target function for the optimization problem.Simple illustrative examples of this method applied to a two Degree of Freedom (DOF) planar robot that resembles the upper limb of a human are presented.Further applications to a humanoid industrial robot SDA10D are also presented.The reasonable planning results for these applications assert the effectiveness of our method.

  17. Seat Belts in School Buses: A Study by the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction Prepared for the Wisconsin Legislature: S.B.7. Bulletin No. 9078.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, William T.

    The hypothesis of this study was that installation and use of seat belts in all large school buses are needed to prevent injuries and deaths to children in accidents as a result of no seat belts. Basic questions and summary arguments for and against the use of seat belts are listed. An analysis of research studies done on seat belts in school…

  18. State Estimation of the Electric Drive Articulated Dump Truck Based on UKF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Jin; Tong Liu; Yanhua Shen

    2015-01-01

    The requirements of vehicle dynamic stability control are higher than ever as the significant increase of electric drive articulated vehicle speed. According to the construction features of articulated dumping truck and nonlinear characteristics of moving vehicles, nonlinear observer of vehicle status is designed to strength robustness of dynamic control system in this paper. A 4⁃degree⁃of⁃freedom nonlinear dynamic model of articulated electric drive vehicle is built as reference model to estimate the state of the articulated vehicle. And by adopting Unscented Kalman Filter ( UKF ) algorithm, a series of state parameters such as longitudinal velocities of front and rear frames, yaw rate and side⁃slip angle are estimated. During the test of 60 t articulated electric drive vehicle, 2 inertial navigation modules are installed in the front frame and rear frame respectively and the speed of each electric drive wheel is obtained simultaneously. As the test results suggest, in various working conditions, the algorithm based on UKF is able to accurately estimate the state parameters of articulated vehicle with the estimated error less than 5%. The proposed method is justified to be the theoretical basis and application guidance for articulated vehicle stability control.

  19. Influence of Articulating Paper Thickness on Occlusal Contacts Registration: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizuela-Velasco, Aritza; Álvarez-Arenal, Ángel; Ellakuria-Echevarria, Joseba; del Río-Highsmith, Jaime; Santamaría-Arrieta, Gorka; Martín-Blanco, Nerea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to determine if the occlusal contact surface registered with an articulating paper during fixed prosthodontic treatment was contained within the area marked on a thicker articulating paper. This information would optimize any necessary occlusal adjustment of a prosthesis' veneering material. A convenience sample of 15 patients who were being treated with an implant-supported fixed singleunit dental prosthesis was selected. Occlusal registrations were obtained from each patient using 12-μm, 40-μm, 80-μm, and 200-μm articulating paper. Photographs of the occlusal registrations were obtained, and pixel measurements of the surfaces were taken and overlapped for comparison. The results showed that the thicker the articulating paper, the larger the occlusal contact area obtained. The differences were statistically significant. In all cases, the occlusal registrations obtained with the thinnest articulating paper were contained within the area marked on the thickest articulating paper. The results suggested that the use of thin articulating papers (12-μm or 40-μm) can avoid unnecessary grinding of veneering material or teeth during occlusal adjustment.

  20. Cross-language differences of articulation rate and its transfer into Japanese as a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino, Kanae; Osanai, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    Recently, the articulation rate has been attracting attention in forensic speech investigation as an acoustic feature that varies across speakers, dialects, and languages. The present study investigates how cross-language differences in the articulation rate are transferred into Japanese as a second language. Participants were speakers of Japanese, Chinese, Korean, and Thai. They were recorded while they read a passage in their native language and in Japanese. Local and global articulation rates were calculated based on the number of syllables as well as the number of morae for Japanese speech. When we compared the articulation rate of the native languages, Japanese was the fastest, then Korean, Chinese, and Thai in that order. Also, a significant positive correlation was observed between the articulation rate of the native language and that of the second language. A gender difference was found in the articulation rate of some languages, with males speaking faster than females. The effect of age was limited to Thai speakers only. Accent discrimination and identification experiments were conducted and the results revealed that native and non-native accents could be correctly discriminated just by the articulation rate.

  1. Very fast motion planning for highly dexterous-articulated robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challou, Daniel J.; Gini, Maria; Kumar, Vipin

    1994-01-01

    Due to the inherent danger of space exploration, the need for greater use of teleoperated and autonomous robotic systems in space-based applications has long been apparent. Autonomous and semi-autonomous robotic devices have been proposed for carrying out routine functions associated with scientific experiments aboard the shuttle and space station. Finally, research into the use of such devices for planetary exploration continues. To accomplish their assigned tasks, all such autonomous and semi-autonomous devices will require the ability to move themselves through space without hitting themselves or the objects which surround them. In space it is important to execute the necessary motions correctly when they are first attempted because repositioning is expensive in terms of both time and resources (e.g., fuel). Finally, such devices will have to function in a variety of different environments. Given these constraints, a means for fast motion planning to insure the correct movement of robotic devices would be ideal. Unfortunately, motion planning algorithms are rarely used in practice because of their computational complexity. Fast methods have been developed for detecting imminent collisions, but the more general problem of motion planning remains computationally intractable. However, in this paper we show how the use of multicomputers and appropriate parallel algorithms can substantially reduce the time required to synthesize paths for dexterous articulated robots with a large number of joints. We have developed a parallel formulation of the Randomized Path Planner proposed by Barraquand and Latombe. We have shown that our parallel formulation is capable of formulating plans in a few seconds or less on various parallel architectures including: the nCUBE2 multicomputer with up to 1024 processors (nCUBE2 is a registered trademark of the nCUBE corporation), and a network of workstations.

  2. Improving the digital workflow: direct transfer from patient to virtual articulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaberrieta, Eneko; Minguez, Rikardo; Etxaniz, Olatz; Barrenetxea, Lander

    2013-01-01

    When designing a custom-made dental restoration, using a digital workflow represents an important advance over mechanical tools such as facebows or mechanical articulators. When using virtual scanning procedures, there is a direct transfer from the patient to the articulator. This paper presents a novel methodology to design custom-made restorations. This new approach permits the transfer of all data directly from the patient to the virtual articulator, always taking into account the kinematics of the mandible. Rapid further developments can be expected in the near future.

  3. Imitation of suprasegmental patterns by five-year-old children with adequate and inadequate articulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadden, B B; Asp, C W; Tonkovich, J D; Mason, D

    1980-08-01

    Ten five-year-old children with adequate articulation skills and 10 five-year-old children with inadequate articulation skills were administered the Templin-Darley Test of Articulation and the Test of Rhythm and Intonation Patterns (TRIP). Differences between the adequate and inadequate groups in terms of the mean percentage correct and the correlations between TRIP and Templin-Darley Test scores within groups were statistically nonsignificant. Item analysis revealed no differences between groups in the pattern of performance on the three subtests of the TRIP or on specific test items. The possible effects of therapy enrollment on suprasegmental test performance are discussed, and future research needs are suggested.

  4. Robust Clamping Force Control of an Electro-Mechanical Brake System for Application to Commercial City Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjune Eum

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a sensor-less robust force control method for improving the control performance of an electro-mechanical brake (EMB which is applicable to commercial city buses. The EMB generates the accurate clamping force commanded by a driver through an independent motor control at each wheel instead of using existing mechanical components. In general, an EMB undergoes parameter variation and a backdrivability problem. For this reason, the cascade control strategy (e.g., force-position cascade control structure is proposed and the disturbance observer is employed to enhance control robustness against model variations. Additionally, this paper proposed the clamping force estimation method for a sensor-less control, i.e., the clamping force observer (CFO. Finally, in order to confirm the performance and effectiveness of a proposed robust control method, several experiments are performed and analyzed.

  5. Real-world operation conditions and on-road emissions of Beijing diesel buses measured by using portable emission measurement system and electric low-pressure impactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihua; Ge, Yunshan; Johnson, Kent C; Shah, Asad Naeem; Tan, Jianwei; Wang, Chu; Yu, Linxiao

    2011-03-15

    On-road measurement is an effective method to investigate real-world emissions generated from vehicles and estimate the difference between engine certification cycles and real-world operating conditions. This study presents the results of on-road measurements collected from urban buses which propelled by diesel engine in Beijing city. Two widely used Euro III emission level buses and two Euro IV emission level buses were chosen to perform on-road emission measurements using portable emission measurement system (PEMS) for gaseous pollutant and Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) for particulate matter (PM) number emissions. The results indicate that considerable discrepancies of engine operating conditions between real-world driving cycles and engine certification cycles have been observed. Under real-world operating conditions, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions can easily meet their respective regulations limits, while brake specification nitrogen oxide (bsNO(x)) emissions present a significant deviation from its corresponding limit. Compared with standard limits, the real-world bsNO(x) emission of the two Euro III emission level buses approximately increased by 60% and 120% respectively, and bsNO(x) of two Euro IV buses nearly twice standard limits because Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system not active under low exhaust temperature. Particle mass were estimated via particle size distribution with the assumption that particle density and diameter is liner. The results demonstrate that nanometer size particulate matter make significant contribution to total particle number but play a minor role to total particle mass. It is suggested that specific certified cycle should be developed to regulate bus engines emissions on the test bench or use PEMS to control the bus emissions under real-world operating conditions.

  6. Real-world emissions and fuel consumption of diesel buses and trucks in Macao: From on-road measurement to policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Li, Zhenhua; Zhou, Yu; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-11-01

    A total of 13 diesel buses and 12 diesel trucks in Macao were tested using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) including a SEMTECH-DS for gaseous emissions and a SEMTECH-PPMD for PM2.5. The average emission rates of gaseous pollutants and CO2 are developed with the operating mode defined by the instantaneous vehicle specific power (VSP) and vehicle speed. Both distance-based and fuel mass-based emission factors for gaseous pollutants (e.g., CO, THC and NOX) are further estimated under typical driving conditions. The average distance-based NOX emission of heavy-duty buses (HDBs) is higher than 13 g km-1. Considering the unfavorable conditions for selective reductions catalyst (SCR) systems, such as low-speed driving conditions, more effective technology options (e.g., dedicated natural gas buses and electric buses) should be considered by policy makers in Macao. We identified strong effects of the vehicle size, engine displacement and driving conditions on real-world CO2 emission factors and fuel consumption for diesel vehicles. Therefore, detailed profiles regarding vehicle specifications can reduce the uncertainty in their fleet-average on-road fuel consumption. In addition, strong correlations between relative emission factors and driving conditions indicated by the average speed of generated micro-trips are identified based on a micro-trip method. For example, distance-based emission factors of HDBs will increase by 39% for CO, 29% for THC, 43% for NOX and 26% for CO2 when the average speed decreases from 30 km h-1 to 20 km h-1. The mitigation of on-road emissions from diesel buses and trucks by improving traffic conditions through effective traffic and economic management measures is therefore required. This study demonstrates the important role of PEMS in understanding vehicle emissions and mitigation strategies from science to policy perspectives.

  7. Practice of making web multimedia courseware with Articulate Storyline%用 Articulate Storyline制作网络多媒体课件的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李变锋; 王江栓

    2015-01-01

    Web multimedia courseware made with Articulate Storyline that can be run on PC and mobile terminals have such characteristics as rich content , novel design , easy operation and effectively interaction with readers .Therefore, it is an effective complement to the traditional teaching model .%利用Articulate Storyline软件制作可用于PC和移动端运行的网络多媒体课件,具有内容丰富、设计新颖、便于读者操作并能与读者有效互动等特点,是传统教学模式的有效补充。

  8. Articulated Lifting System Modeling Based on Dynamics of Flexible Multi-Body Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In lifting sub-system of deep-sea mining system, spherical joint is used to connect lifting pipes to replace fixed joint. Based on Dynamics of Flexible Multi-body systems, the mechanics model of articulated lifting system is established. Under the four-grade and six-grade oceanic condition, dynamic responses of lifting system are simulated and experiment verified. The simulation results are consistent with experimental ones. The maximum moment of flexion is 322 kN-m on the first pipe under six-grade sea condition. It is seen that the articulated connection can reduce the moment of flexion. The bending deformation of pipe center is researched, and the maximum is 0.000479 m on the first pipe. Deformation has a little effect on the motion of system. It is feasible to analyze articulated lifting system by applying the theory of flexible multi-body dynamics. The articulated lifting system is obviously better than the fixed one.

  9. Demand articulation in emerging technologies: Intermediary user organisations as co-producers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Wouter P.C.; Moors, Ellen H.M.; Kuhlmann, Stefan; Smits, Ruud E.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    User involvement is assumed to be beneficial to innovation processes. Intermediary user organisations contribute to articulating societal demands for innovations. However, the learning processes inside these organisations are still not understood well. Therefore, this paper empirically investigates

  10. Demand articulation in emerging technologies: intermediary user organizations as co-producers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, W.P.C.; Moors, E.H.M.; Kuhlmann, S.; Smits, R.E.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    User involvement is assumed to be beneficial to innovation processes. Intermediary user organisations contribute to articulating societal demands for innovations. However, the learning processes inside these organisations are still not understood well. Therefore, this paper empirically investigates

  11. Direct and indirect measures of speech articulator motions using low power EM sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T; Burnett, G; Gable, T; Holzrichter, J F; Ng, L

    1999-05-12

    Low power Electromagnetic (EM) Wave sensors can measure general properties of human speech articulator motions, as speech is produced. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J.Acoust.Soc.Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). Experiments have demonstrated extremely accurate pitch measurements (< 1 Hz per pitch cycle) and accurate onset of voiced speech. Recent measurements of pressure-induced tracheal motions enable very good spectra and amplitude estimates of a voiced excitation function. The use of the measured excitation functions and pitch synchronous processing enable the determination of each pitch cycle of an accurate transfer function and, indirectly, of the corresponding articulator motions. In addition, direct measurements have been made of EM wave reflections from articulator interfaces, including jaw, tongue, and palate, simultaneously with acoustic and glottal open/close signals. While several types of EM sensors are suitable for speech articulator measurements, the homodyne sensor has been found to provide good spatial and temporal resolution for several applications.

  12. Production and perception of legato, portato and staccato articulation in saxophone playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eHofmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the production and perception of different articulation techniques on the saxophone. In a production experiment, two melodies were recorded that required different effectors to play the tones (tongue actions alone, finger actions alone, combined tongue and finger actions at three different tempi. A sensor saxophone reed was developed to monitor tongue-reed interactions during performance. At the slow tempo condition, combined tongue-finger actions showed improved timing, compared to the timing of the tongue alone. This observation supports the multiple timer hypothesis where the tongue's timekeeper benefits from a coupling to the timekeeper of the fingers. At the fast tempo condition, finger alone actions were less precise than the tongue alone and combined tongue-finger actions led to more variable timing. This suggests that the finger actions have a dominant influence on the overall timing of saxophone performance. In a listening experiment we investigated whether motor expertise in music performance influences the perception of articulation techniques in saxophone performance. Participants with different backgrounds in music making (saxophonists, musicians not playing the saxophone, and non-musicians attended an AB-X listening test. They had to discriminate between saxophone phrases played with different articulation techniques (legato, portato, staccato. Participants across all three groups discriminated the sound of staccato articulation well from the sound of portato articulation and legato articulation. Errors occurred across all groups of listeners when legato articulation (no tonguing and portato articulation (soft tonguing had to be discriminated. Saxophonists' results were superior compared to the results of the other two groups, suggesting that expertise in saxophone playing facilitated the discrimination task.

  13. Direct transfer of the position of digitized casts to a virtual articulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaberrieta, Eneko; Mínguez, Rikardo; Barrenetxea, Lander; Etxaniz, Olatz

    2013-06-01

    This article describes a digital technique to transfer the location of digitized casts obtained directly from the patient to a virtual articulator (digital/virtual facebow transfer). The primary advantage of this technique is that it allows the dentist and the dental laboratory technician to work in a fully digital environment without having to mount stone casts on a physical articulator. This results in a significant time reduction and a higher degree of accuracy in the cast location.

  14. GROSS MORPHOLOGY OF THE HIP ARTICULATION OF BUFFALO CALVES (BUBALUS BUBALIS)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Back ground: The vulnerability of the buffalo to the luxation of the hip articulation previous to and during parturition encouraged the investigation in this species. The literature reviewed did not reveal complete anatomical descriptions of the coxofemoral articulation of buffalo. Hence the study was undertaken. Purpose: to study the different anatomical aspects of the hip joint which are specific to buffaloes. Methods and Results: A total number of fifteen hip joints of buffalo cal...

  15. Comparison of mechanical properties of silicone and PVC (polyvinylchloride) cosmetic gloves for articulating hand prostheses

    OpenAIRE

    Gerwin Smit, MSc; Dick H. Plettenburg, MSc, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Current articulating electric and body-powered hands have a lower pinch force (15–34 N) than electric hands with stiff fingers (55–100 N). The cosmetic glove, which covers a hand prosthesis, negatively affects the mechanical efficiency of a prosthesis. The goal of this study is to mechanically compare polyvinylchloride (PVC) and silicone cosmetic gloves and quantify the stiffness of the finger joints, the required actuation energy, and the energy dissipation during joint articulation. Six cos...

  16. Articulation of speech sounds of Serbian language in children aged six to eight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Phonetic and phonological system of the healthy members of one linguistic community is fully formed around 8 years of age. The auditory and articulatory habits are established with age and tend to be more difficult to be upgraded and completed later. Material and Methods. The research was done as a cross-sectional study, conducted at the preschool institution “Radosno detinjstvo” and primary school “Branko Radičević” in Novi Sad. It included 66 children of both genders, aged 6 to 8. The quality of articulation was determined according to the Global Articulation Test by working with each child individually. Results. In each individual vowel, plosive, nasal, lateral and fricative, the quality of articulation was statistically significantly better in the first graders compared to the preschool children (p<0.01. In each affricate, except for the sound /ć/, the quality of articulation was statistically significantly better in the first graders than in the preschool children (p<0.01. The quality of articulation of all speech sounds was statistically significantly better in the first graders than in the preschool children (p<0.01. Discussion and Conclusion. The most common disorder of articulation is distortion, while only substitution and substitution associated with distortion are less common. Omission does not occur in children from 6 to 8 years of age. Girls have slightly better quality of articulation. The articulatory disorders are more common in preschool children than in children who are in the first grade of primary school. The most commonly mispronounced sounds belong to the group of affricates and fricatives.

  17. Evaluation of city buses installed diesel particulate filter systems on fleet test; Diesel particulate filter system wo tosaishita rosen bus no soko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, H. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An environmental air quality of suspended particulate matter is insufficient in the big city area. To reduce the particulate matter, improvement of engine and development of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) system are carrying. The purpose of this report is to investigate a possibility of practical use of the city buses installed DPF systems. From March 1995, investigation for practical use of these DPF systems on a route buses was carried in regular service operation of the Tokyo and Yokohama Transportation Bureau. The investigation items are service situation, smoke density and preparation inspection. From the result for 2 years service operation, each DPF systems needed some failure correspondence. but these were not fatal problem on using the DPF system. Then the subject of relative to durability and reliability became clear, and the performance of a low particulate emission DPF system obtained the high value evaluation for users. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. 佛山市发展公交车尾气削减潜力分析%Emission Reduction Potentiality by Developing Buses in Foshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包艳萍; 刘永红; 黄建彰; 徐伟嘉

    2013-01-01

    Emission factors of buses, motorcycles and passenger cars of Foshan City, Guangdong Province were calculated with COPERT Ⅳ model integrated with information regarding amounts and annual mileages, case analysis was done for their emission, environmental effects and emissions reduction potentiality of buses.Results indicated that buses emission in Foshan in 2011 was 804.57 t CO,283.85 t VOC,3 365.32 t NOx and 73.00 t PM.Emissions of CO and VOC of buses were less than that of motorcycles and passenger cars, but emission of NOx was more.Emission of buses for one person travelling one kilometer would decrease by 32.00%,51.43% and 57.50% by increasing the number of passengers from 17 to 25,35 and 45.Annual emissions could be reduced by 611.66 t CO, 151.6 t VOC, 1,231.18 t NOx and 58.39 t PM respectively by changing all the emission standard of diesel buses from lower to Euro Ⅳ.Annual emissions could be reduced by 293.71 t CO, 2 086.87 t NOx and 70.34 t PM by changing diesel buses to environmentally-friendly vehicle (EEV) CNG buses, but annual emissions of VOC increased by 228.01 t.%采用COPERTⅣ模型计算佛山市公交车、摩托车和小型客车排放因子,结合保有量、年平均行驶里程计算其排放量,对佛山市公交车出行环境效果及尾气削减潜力进行情景分析.结果表明:2011年佛山市公交车CO 、VOC 、NOx和PM的排放量为804.57、283.85、3 365.32和73.00 t.单人单次公交车出行CO和VOC的排放量较摩托车和小型客车低,但NOx则较高.公交车载客人数从17人上升至25、35、45人,单人单次出行每公里排放量分别下降32.00%、51.43%和57.50%.佛山市低排放标准的柴油公交车全部更换成国Ⅳ排放标准柴油车、CO、VOC、NOx和PM的年排放量分别削减611.66、151.6、1 231.18和58.39 t.EEV标准天然气公交车替代柴油公交车可减少NOx和PM的排放,但对VOC的削减并无优势.佛山市现有柴油公交车更换

  19. Preliminary study on field buses for the control system of the high voltage of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter; Etude preliminaire d`un reseau de terrain pour le systeme de controle des hautes tensions du calorimetre hadronique d`Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevet, F.; Chadelas, R.; Montarou, G.

    1996-12-31

    We present here after a preliminary study on field buses for the control system of the high voltage of the photomultipliers of the TILECAL calorimeter. After some generalities, different commercial buses are reviewed (CAN, ARCET, WorldFIP, Profibus and LonWorks). The Profibus and LonWorks solution are more extensively studies as a possible solution for the high voltage system of the TILE hadronic calorimeter. (authors).

  20. The brief history of articulator%牙合架的发展简史

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国锋

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the origin of articulator and its development process from humble to perfect in the past more than 200 years. The development of articulator is divided into 3 historical periods by the author:Early articulator,modern articulator and contemporary articula-tor.Meanwhile,the detailed basic design principle of articulator,the development of condylar guidance and incisal guidance are explained.%该文以历史时间为轴,详细讲述了牙合架从无到有、从简陋到完善的200多年发展过程。作者将牙合架发展史分为早期牙合架、近代牙合架和现代牙合架3个时期,详细讲解了牙合架的基本设计原理,并列举了髁导、切导等重要牙合架结构的演变由来。

  1. Scan-based volume animation driven by locally adaptive articulated registrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Taehyun; Lewis, J P; Neumann, Ulrich; Nayak, Krishna S

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes a complete system to create anatomically accurate example-based volume deformation and animation of articulated body regions, starting from multiple in vivo volume scans of a specific individual. In order to solve the correspondence problem across volume scans, a template volume is registered to each sample. The wide range of pose variations is first approximated by volume blend deformation (VBD), providing proper initialization of the articulated subject in different poses. A novel registration method is presented to efficiently reduce the computation cost while avoiding strong local minima inherent in complex articulated body volume registration. The algorithm highly constrains the degrees of freedom and search space involved in the nonlinear optimization, using hierarchical volume structures and locally constrained deformation based on the biharmonic clamped spline. Our registration step establishes a correspondence across scans, allowing a data-driven deformation approach in the volume domain. The results provide an occlusion-free person-specific 3D human body model, asymptotically accurate inner tissue deformations, and realistic volume animation of articulated movements driven by standard joint control estimated from the actual skeleton. Our approach also addresses the practical issues arising in using scans from living subjects. The robustness of our algorithms is tested by their applications on the hand, probably the most complex articulated region in the body, and the knee, a frequent subject area for medical imaging due to injuries.

  2. Technological capability assessment of suppliers to support product development: case study on a buses and coaches manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Comerlato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management has become a critical issue in the global collaboration scenario. Suppliers are not expected to provide just commodities or pre-defined components, but also collaborative engineering design solutions within the product development cycle. Thus, the selection criteria for defining supply partner go beyond the production and logistic capabilities, but must also include technical and engineering competence. This, in some sense, can be considered a common scenario of big companies, but is still challenging when dealing with SME´s. This work discusses how SME´s can be included in a supply chains taking in consideration a set of parameters to assess their technical competence related to product development collaboration. A set of eight parameters has been proposed to assess the engineering team competence, physical and technological structure and further legal responsibility. For each parameter values and weights were defined also. The assessment was applied to three companies that are suppliers of a buses and coaches manufacturer from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The results show that even when dealing with objective parameters, the suppliers and costumer can have different perceptions about same issues.

  3. Development of a Wave Energy -Responsive Self-Actuated Blade Articulation Mechanism for an OWC Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis A. Di Bella

    2010-06-01

    The Phase I SBIR effort completed the feasibility design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of a self-actuated blade articulation mechanism that uses a torsion bar and a lightweight airfoil to affect the articulation of the Wells airfoil. The articulation is affected only by the air stream incident on the airfoil. The self-actuating blade eliminates the complex and costly linkage mechanism that is now needed to perform this function on either a variable pitch Wells-type or Dennis-Auld air turbine. Using the results reported by independent researchers, the projected improvement in the Wells-type turbine efficiency is 20-40%, in addition to an increase in the operating air flow range by 50-100%, therefore enabling a smaller or slower single turbine to be used.

  4. Numerical method for estimation of kinematical parameters for articulated rovers on loose rough terrain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xin-yi; GAO Hai-bo; DENG Zong-quan

    2009-01-01

    Based on the study of passive articulated rover, a complete suspension kinematics model from wheel to inertial reference frame is presented, which uses D-H method of manipulator and presentation with Euler an-gle of pitch, roll and yaw. An improved contact model is adopted aimed at the loose and rough lunar terrain. U-sing this kinematics model and numerical continuous and discrete Newton' s method with iterative factor, the numerical method for estimation of kinematical parameters of articulated rovers on loose and rough terrain is con-strueted. To demonstrate this numerical method, an example of two torsion bar rocker-bogie lunar rover with eight wheels is presented. Simulation results show that the numerical method for estimation of kinematical pa-rameters of articulated rovers based on improved contact model can improve the precision of kinematical estima-tion on loose and rough terrain and decrease errors caused by contact models established based on general hy-pothesis.

  5. Acoustic Cues to Fricatives Place of Articulation Produced in Moroccan Dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Elmazouzi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to examine acoustic characteristics of Moroccan fricatives in order to find invariant cues that classify fricatives into their place of articulation. Fricative consonants of Moroccan Arabic dialect were elicited from 8 adult speakers (4 male and 4 female in 3 vowel contexts (/i, a, u/. The cues investigated included temporal measurement (duration of fricative consonant and formant information at fricative-vowel transition (F1 and F2 at vowel onset and locus equation. The effects of voicing, speaker’s gender and post-fricative vowel on both formants onset values and locus equations were investigated. The results obtained showed that F1 onset values differentiated voiceless from voiced fricatives. F2 onset values distinguished fricatives in term of place of articulation. The locus equation slope and intercept differentiated voiceless from voiced fricative and distinguished clearly palatal fricatives from the other places of articulation

  6. Comparison of mechanical properties of silicone and PVC (polyvinylchloride) cosmetic gloves for articulating hand prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Gerwin; Plettenburg, Dick H

    2013-01-01

    Current articulating electric and body-powered hands have a lower pinch force (15-34 N) than electric hands with stiff fingers (55-100 N). The cosmetic glove, which covers a hand prosthesis, negatively affects the mechanical efficiency of a prosthesis. The goal of this study is to mechanically compare polyvinylchloride (PVC) and silicone cosmetic gloves and quantify the stiffness of the finger joints, the required actuation energy, and the energy dissipation during joint articulation. Six cosmetic gloves, identical in size but made from different materials, were mechanically tested: three PVC and three silicone. The silicone gloves required less work and dissipated less energy during flexing. They also had a lower joint stiffness and required a lower maximum joint torque. Based on energy requirements, joint stiffness, and required joint torque, the tested silicone glove is most suitable for application on an articulating hand prosthesis.

  7. A Novel Relative Navigation Control Strategy Based on Relation Space Method for Autonomous Underground Articulated Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqian Dou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel relative navigation control strategy based on the relation space method (RSM for articulated underground trackless vehicles. In the RSM, a self-organizing, competitive neural network is used to identify the space around the vehicle, and the spatial geometric relationships of the identified space are used to determine the vehicle’s optimal driving direction. For driving control, the trajectories of the articulated vehicles are analyzed, and data-based steering and speed control modules are developed to reduce modeling complexity. Simulation shows that the proposed RSM can choose the correct directions for articulated vehicles in different tunnels. The effectiveness and feasibility of the resulting novel relative navigation control strategy are validated through experiments.

  8. Tribology considerations for hip joint articulations in relation to the "new orthopaedic patient".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieker, C B

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine alternative bearings used in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and discuss the specific tribologic needs of the "New Orthopaedic Patient". As orthopaedic patients today are younger and more active, there is a clear need for hip joint implants and articulations minimising the amount of wear and guarantying better stability. Recent modern developments in tribology with highly cross-linked polyethylenes and hard-on-hard bearings allow the safe and effective use of larger diameter articulations in THA.

  9. Fuzzy Reliability Design for the Interference Articulation of a Roller Shaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With regard to function, the strengths for interference articulation of a roller shaft formed a series system. As the three strength reliabilities conditioned each other, there was a problem for the system reliability to apportion rationally. In fact, there was a transition from safety to deactivation. The state of structure was fuzziness which was in both safety and non-safety states. Therefore the reliability was a fuzzy event which considered the randomness for some design parameters and the fuzziness for the thresholds between generalized strength safety and deactivation. The mathematical model of fuzzy reliability design for the interference articulation of the roller shaft was presented. Eight design examples were calculated. ``

  10. Sensory integration dysfunction affects efficacy of speech therapy on children with functional articulation disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung LC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Li-Chen Tung,1,# Chin-Kai Lin,2,# Ching-Lin Hsieh,3,4 Ching-Chi Chen,1 Chin-Tsan Huang,1 Chun-Hou Wang5,6 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, 2Program of Early Intervention, Department of Early Childhood Education, National Taichung University of Education, Taichung, 3School of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, 5School of Physical Therapy, College of Medical Science and Technology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, 6Physical Therapy Room, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan#These authors contributed equally Background: Articulation disorders in young children are due to defects occurring at a certain stage in sensory and motor development. Some children with functional articulation disorders may also have sensory integration dysfunction (SID. We hypothesized that speech therapy would be less efficacious in children with SID than in those without SID. Hence, the purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of speech therapy in two groups of children with functional articulation disorders: those without and those with SID.Method: A total of 30 young children with functional articulation disorders were divided into two groups, the no-SID group (15 children and the SID group (15 children. The number of pronunciation mistakes was evaluated before and after speech therapy.Results: There were no statistically significant differences in age, sex, sibling order, education of parents, and pretest number of mistakes in pronunciation between the two groups (P > 0.05. The mean and standard deviation in the pre- and posttest number of mistakes in pronunciation were 10.5 ± 3.2 and 3.3 ± 3.3 in the no-SID group, and 10.1 ± 2.9 and 6.9 ± 3.5 in the SID group, respectively. Results showed great changes after speech therapy treatment (F

  11. Inner speech in anarthria: neuropsychological evidence of differential effects of cerebral lesions on subvocal articulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubelli, R; Nichelli, P

    1992-07-01

    The role of articulation in verbal short-term memory was investigated in two anarthric patients, C.M. and F.C., both showing normal comprehension for written and spoken language, above average intelligence and visuo-spatial abilities. Based on experimental results, we propose that subvocal articulation might be impaired in anarthric patients in different ways, according to the site of lesion: in 'locked-in' patients only the articulatory rehearsal processes necessary to enhance memory performances is involved, while in cortical anarthric patients the lesion affects the articulatory recoding processes involved in transferring visually presented material into an articulatory form for better retention.

  12. The Use of the Articulated Total Body Model as a Robot Dynamics Simulation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    AARL-SR-90-512 AD-A235 930l[liill ~i 11111111111 iIII J The Use of the Articulated Total Body Model as a Robot Dynamics Simulation Tool Louise A...R 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS The Use of the Articulated Total Body Model as a Robot Dynamics Simulation Tool PE 62202F 6. AUTHOR(S) PR...Lagrange method. In this paper the use of the ATH model as a robot dynamics simulation tool is discussed and various simulations are demonstrated. For this

  13. Des competences collectives en pratique: le cas du travail d’articulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA IANEVA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current context of rapid technological and organizational changes, identifying and managing individual and collective competencies is of a crucial importance for organizations. This article aims at understanding the competencies involved in a specific kind of work, referred to as “articulation work”. Grounded on activity theory as well as situated action and cognition, our approach highlights the relations between individual and collective competencies. Our results build upon two ethnographic studies within a health call center and a sports equipment manufacturing company. Thus, we identify four core competencies, which could be used to support the design of competencies framework taking into account the too often neglected articulation work

  14. Simultaneous type and dimensional synthesis of articulated mechanisms for path-generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawamoto, Atsushi

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with a path-generation problem for articulated mechanisms using a truss-based ground-structure representation. The proposed method uses both cross-sectional areas and nodal positions as design variables and thus leads to a simultaneous type and dimensional synthesis. For the anal......This paper deals with a path-generation problem for articulated mechanisms using a truss-based ground-structure representation. The proposed method uses both cross-sectional areas and nodal positions as design variables and thus leads to a simultaneous type and dimensional synthesis...

  15. Improved digital transfer of the maxillary cast to a virtual articulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaberrieta, Eneko; Otegi, Jose Ramon; Mínguez, Rikardo; Etxaniz, Olatz

    2014-10-01

    The clinical procedure described provides a quantifiable, repeatable, and reliable method of transferring the location of the maxillary dental arch from the patient directly to a virtual articulator (virtual facebow transfer) by means of reverse engineering devices to design a customized dental restoration. This procedure allows the dentist and the dental laboratory technician to work in a fully digital environment without having to mount stone casts on a mechanical articulator. In addition, specific suggestions are provided for designing the transfer device to enhance patient comfort during the data transfer process and reduce deviation.

  16. Design of a Mobile Low-Cost Sensor Network Using Urban Buses for Real-Time Ubiquitous Noise Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina-Pagès, Rosa Ma; Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; Alías, Francesc; Angulo, Ignacio

    2016-12-29

    One of the main priorities of smart cities is improving the quality of life of their inhabitants. Traffic noise is one of the pollutant sources that causes a negative impact on the quality of life of citizens, which is gaining attention among authorities. The European Commission has promoted the Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC (END) to inform citizens and to prevent the harmful effects of noise exposure. The measure of acoustic levels using noise maps is a strategic issue in the END action plan. Noise maps are typically calculated by computing the average noise during one year and updated every five years. Hence, the implementation of dynamic noise mapping systems could lead to short-term plan actions, besides helping to better understand the evolution of noise levels along time. Recently, some projects have started the monitoring of noise levels in urban areas by means of acoustic sensor networks settled in strategic locations across the city, while others have taken advantage of collaborative citizen sensing mobile applications. In this paper, we describe the design of an acoustic low-cost sensor network installed on public buses to measure the traffic noise in the city in real time. Moreover, the challenges that a ubiquitous bus acoustic measurement system entails are enumerated and discussed. Specifically, the analysis takes into account the feature extraction of the audio signal, the identification and separation of the road traffic noise from urban traffic noise, the hardware platform to measure and process the acoustic signal, the connectivity between the several nodes of the acoustic sensor network to store the data and, finally, the noise maps' generation process. The implementation and evaluation of the proposal in a real-life scenario is left for future work.

  17. Feasibility of an LPN to ADN Articulation Program at LSUA. Vocational Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Univ., Alexandria.

    A feasibility study examined the need for and likelihood of success for a Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) to Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN) articulation program for Louisiana State University (LSU) at Alexandria. Following a literature search on the theoretical establishment and implementation of such a program, three schools with successful…

  18. Effects of Abnormal Oral Reflexes on Speech Articulation in Persian Speaking Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DADGAR, Hooshang; HADIAN, Mohammad Reza; LIRA, Ortega Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the presence of abnormal oral reflexes and speech sound production in children with severe cerebral palsy. Materials & Methods Seven oral reflexes such as, rooting, mouth-opening, biting, chewing, lip, tongue, and suckling were examined in 52Persian-speaking monolingual children with spastic cerebral palsy (ages 5-10 yr).Phonetic information tests were administered to investigate their ability for articulation of the speech sounds. Results A significant relationship between three (i.e. the chewing, lip, and biting reflexes) out of the seven abnormal oral reflexes and the speech articulation was noticed. The presence of the chewing reflex was associated with deficits in production of /s, z, š,č/ sounds. The lip reflex was associated with deficits in the production of /p, m, r, j, f, č/ sounds. The biting reflex was associated with deficits in the production of /z, l, y and š/ sounds. No significant relationship was found between the rooting, mouth-opening, tongue, and suckling reflexes and sound articulation. Conclusion The presence of abnormal reflexes in the children with spastic cerebral palsy would suggest a correlation between these reflexes and sound articulation in Iranian children with spastic cerebral palsy. Hence, these observations might suggest some disturbances in normal speech development. PMID:27375753

  19. The Effects of Otitis Media on Articulation. Final Report for 1982-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joanne Erwick

    The study examined the relationship in 44 preschoolers (considered to have varying degrees of predicted risk for poor school performance) between otitis media (middle ear disease) during the first 3 years of life and speech production (articulation) during preschool and school age years. Speech production accuracy was assessed by the number of…

  20. Cognitive Levels Regarding Articulation Marks among Violin Students in Department of Music Education in Gazi University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taninmis, Gamze Elif

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine violin students' cognitive levels about articulation marks in Department of Music Education, Fine Arts Education, Gazi Faculty of Education, Gazi University (GUGEF), and to identify the variables on which the cognitive levels vary. It is a descriptive research considering the study purpose, method and…

  1. A K-12 Articulation Model for the Orange Unified School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Louie S.

    This Maxi II practicum documents the development of a model articulation process and the implementation of that process in the Orange (California) Unified School District. The model was intended to improve the continuity of student progression through the grades from elementary to junior high to senior high school. Primary concerns of the…

  2. Articulation of Industrial R&D with Higher Education in the Telecommunications Sector in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This article shows how and why particular higher education?industry research and development networks articulate with the South African telecommunications sector. The range of competing and complementary data telecommunications technologies available in the South African market provide varying opportunities for enterprises to engage in R&D. Two…

  3. Understanding Teachers' Professional Growth through Their Articulation of Personal Practical Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Julu

    2002-01-01

    Explored methods of helping Indian teachers articulate their concerns, experiences, and personal practical knowledge, surveying and interviewing teachers regarding their workplace and teaching experiences and critical incidents in their lives and examining their beliefs about students, colleagues, subject matter knowledge, and context. Overall,…

  4. Student Transfer Guide and General Education Articulation Matrix, 1999-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Board of Regents, Baton Rouge.

    The Louisiana State Board of Regents' 1999-2000 Student Transfer Guide and General Education Articulation Matrix represents Louisiana public higher education's ongoing effort to improve the transfer process. The courses in this guide's matrix are typically referred to as "general education" or "core curriculum" courses. Students should note that…

  5. Bilingual Children’s Phonological Awareness: The Effect of Articulation Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Yu Chiang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate whether unbalanced Chinese-English bilingual children’s phonological awareness skills are limited to language experience, and whether these skills are improved after a short period of articulation training with L2 (English tongue twisters. Sixty kindergarten children in Taipei whose English proficiency was lower than their mother tongue, Chinese, participated in a series of tests. They were divided into two age groups with an average age of 5;3 and 6;3 respectively. An English proficiency test was first administrated to understand these children’s command of English. Then, phonological awareness pre-tests in Chinese and English were used to tap these children’s phonological awareness in both languages. Tests include onset/ rhyme detection test, onset deletion test, and onset/ rhyme substitution tests. Based on the causal link between articulation and phonological awareness, an English articulation training was given to the experimental group of children after the pre-tests, to examine whether enhanced English phonological awareness skills transfer to Chinese. Results showed that phonological awareness acquired in L1 were also found in L2. A period of articulation training in English led to an improvement of these children’s performances in both English and Chinese, which implies a backward transfer from weaker L2 to stronger L1. Cross-language transfers in phonological awareness abilities also imply that an abstract underlying capacity facilitates language processing across languages.

  6. Activating a Teaching Philosophy in Social Work Education: Articulation, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Larry W.; Miller, J. Jay; Grise-Owens, Erlene

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how to develop a comprehensive teaching philosophy from articulation through implementation to evaluation. Using literature and teaching-learning experiences, we discuss pragmatic steps for using a teaching philosophy to inform, engage, and evaluate teaching-learning. We promote an integrated teaching philosophy to ensure…

  7. Encouraging Student Reflection and Articulation Using a Learning Companion: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Bradley; Linton, Frank; Gaimari, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Our 1998 paper "Encouraging Student Reflection and Articulation using a Learning Companion" (Goodman et al. 1998) was a stepping stone in the progression of learning companions for intelligent tutoring systems (ITS). A simulated learning companion, acting as a peer in an intelligent tutoring environment ensures the availability of a…

  8. Part-type Segmentation of Articulated Voxel-Shapes using the Junction Rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Dennie; Telea, Alexandru

    2008-01-01

    We present a part-type segmentation method for articulated voxel-shapes based on curve skeletons. Shapes are considered to consist of several simpler, intersecting shapes. Our method is based on the junction rule : the observation that two intersecting shapes generate an additional junction in their

  9. Part-type Segmentation of Articulated Voxel-Shapes using the Junction Rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Dennie; Telea, Alexandru

    2008-01-01

    We present a part-type segmentation method for articulated voxel-shapes based on curve skeletons. Shapes are considered to consist of several simpler, intersecting shapes. Our method is based on the junction rule: the observation that two intersecting shapes generate an additional junction in their

  10. Lubrication Specialist: Task List and Competency Record. Developed for Vocational-Technical Curriculum Articulation in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    Intended for the vocational instructor, the booklet presents a task list and competency record for the occupational program of lubrication specialist. The list was developed by a working committee of auto mechanics instructors and industry representatives throughout the state of Minnesota for use in program articulation between secondary and…

  11. MyReDiary: Co-Designing for Collaborative Articulation in Physical Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagalkot, Naveen L.; Sokoler, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    , and Interoperability. We highlight Magic-Mirror- Spiral, the design ideal guiding the co-designing of MyReDiary that is aimed to support the three facets as an example in this regard. We offer the conceptual understanding of Collaborative Articulation, the Magic-Mirror-Spiral and MyReDiary as a ‘compositional Whole...

  12. Informal work and formal plans: Articulating the active role of patients in cancer trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsted, R.; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Kousgaard, MB;

    2013-01-01

    Formal pathways models outline that patients should receive information in order to experience a coherent journey but do not describe an active role for patients or their relatives. The aim of this is paper is to articulate and discuss the active role of patients during their cancer trajectories...

  13. Development of the material selection practice - a study exploring articulation of material requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Hasling, Karen Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how the material selection matrix is used in a materials and sustainability course. The matrix encourages the students to articulate material selection requirements to become more competent in exploring new materials and selecting materials for a given design task. The study...

  14. Size, strength and allometry of joints in the articulated coralline Calliarthron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martone, Patrick T

    2006-05-01

    Articulated coralline algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) dominate low-intertidal, wave-exposed habitats around the world, yet the mechanics of this diverse group of organisms has been almost completely unexplored. In contrast to fleshy seaweeds, articulated corallines consist of calcified segments (intergenicula) separated by uncalcified joints (genicula). This jointed construction makes calcified fronds as flexible as fleshy seaweeds, allowing them to ;go with the flow' when struck by breaking waves. In addition to functioning as joints, genicula act as breakage points along articulated fronds. Here, I describe the allometric scaling of geniculum size, breaking force and tissue strength along articulated fronds in two species of Calliarthron. Genicular material is much stronger than tissue from fleshy macroalgae. Moreover, as fronds grow, genicula get bigger and their tissue strengthens, two processes that help them resist breakage. Within individual fronds, larger branches, which presumably experience greater drag force, are supported by bigger, stronger genicula. However, frond growth greatly outpaces genicular strengthening. As a result, Calliarthron fronds most likely break at their bases when critically stressed by incoming waves. Shedding fronds probably reduces the drag force that threatens to dislodge coralline crusts and may constitute a reproductive strategy.

  15. CHIHARAEA AND YAMADAIA (CORALLINALES, RHODOPHYTA) REPRESENT REDUCED AND RECENTLY DERIVED ARTICULATED CORALLINE MORPHOLOGIES(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martone, Patrick T; Lindstrom, Sandra C; Miller, Kathy Ann; Gabrielson, Paul W

    2012-08-01

    Phycologists have hypothesized that the diminutive fronds produced by species in the genera Chiharaea and Yamadaia, which are composed of comparatively few genicula and intergenicula, represent morphological intermediates in the evolution of articulated corallines from crustose ancestors. We test this "intermediate frond hypothesis" by comparing rbcL sequences from the generitype species Chiharaea bodegensis and Yamadaia melobesioides to sequences from other coralline genera. We demonstrate that Chiharaea includes two other NE Pacific species, Arthrocardia silvae and Yamadaia americana. Chiharaea species are characterized morphologically by inflated intergenicula and axial conceptacles with apical or acentric pores. Although relationships among the three species are unresolved, Chiharaea bodegensis, C. americana comb. nov., and C. silvae comb. nov. are distinguished from one another by DNA sequences, morphology, habitat, and biogeography. Chiharaea occurs together with Alatocladia, Bossiella, Calliarthron, and Serraticardia macmillanii in a strongly supported clade of nearly endemic north Pacific articulated coralline genera and species that have evolved relatively recently compared to other articulated corallines. In contrast, NW Pacific Yamadaia melobesioides belongs in a clade with Corallina officinalis, the generitype species of Corallina, and therefore we reduce Yamadia to a synonym of Corallina and propose Corallina melobesioides comb. nov. We reject the 'intermediate frond hypothesis' and conclude that Chiharaea and Yamadaia are recently derived taxa that evolved from articulated coralline ancestors and represent a reduction in the number of genicula and intergenicula.

  16. Jazz Style and Articulation: How to Get Your Band or Choir to Swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    The interpretation of jazz style is crucial to the element of swing in any jazz ensemble performance. Today, many charts for both large and small instrumental and vocal jazz ensembles are well marked with articulations and expression markings. However, in some cases, there is nothing to guide the musician. This article addresses some common jazz…

  17. Transfer and Articulation in the 1990s: California in the Larger Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    This report puts California's current efforts to find solutions to its problems of transfer and articulation in the broader context of national concerns. Following a brief summary and overview, part 1 sets forth a seris of conclusions and six recommendations for action by the University of California, the California State University, the…

  18. Development of a New Type of Incisal Table for Prosthetic Articulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Tasora

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study illustrates the effectiveness of an advanced incisal table surface, featuring adjustable curvature, in the sake of more accurate articulator kinematics in anterior teeth reconstruction. Prosthetic articulators, used by dental technicians in reconstructive dentistry, are adjustable instruments that simulate the motion of mastication between dental casts: usually, the forward motion (protrusion of the mandible is guided by sliding a pin over a flat table in order to recreate those movements when incisal teeth are missing. However, such protrusion is an approximation of the exact motion, since flat incisal tables have a limited set of adjustments. Customized software has been developed in order to simulate the kinematics of articulators in three-dimensional space: animations and measures of the envelope of teeth profiles show the unfeasibility of reconstructing with good approximation the profile of incisive teeth, when a simple ‘flat’ incisal table is used. A new incisal table with an adjustable curvature has been proposed, simulated, and built, and computer simulations demonstrated the superior precision of the new design when compared to a conventional articulator which uses a flat incisal table.

  19. A Sequence for Helping Children Having Mild to Moderate Functional Articulation Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Robert A.

    Presented are specific sequential procedures for use by paraprofessionals in correcting children's mild to moderate articulation problems. The sequence consists of eight activities to prepare the child for the program, five steps in the area of ear training, and ten steps to teach speech production. Activities and minimum teaching times are…

  20. Articulating Scientific Practice: Understanding Dean Hamer's "Gay Gene" Study as Overlapping Material, Social and Rhetorical Registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Rhetoricians have tried to develop a better understanding of the connection between words and things, but these attempts often employ a logic of representation that undermines a full examination of materiality and the complexity of scientific practice. A logic of articulation offers a viable alternative by focusing attention on the linkages…

  1. Gender Equality in Media Content and Operations: Articulating Academic Studies and Policy--A Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Mirta Edith

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Mirta Lourenço explains the prospects when higher education studies interface with UNESCO for policy change. The baseline is that education institutions' articulation with media organizations, media professionals, policy-makers, and civil society groups is essential to achieve gender equality in and through media.

  2. Interinstitutional Collaboration Practices between Virginia Community Colleges and High Schools Involved in Dual Enrollment Articulation Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caradona, Sally Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to build on the previous work of articulation practices of Virginia's public school divisions and community colleges participating in dual enrollment partnerships, and to understand the role of the community college in initiating, developing, and implementing dual enrollment programs. The primary focus involved…

  3. An Articulation Model in Dental Assisting for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. A Continuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylves, Jane M.; Boody, Sandra

    A curriculum development project was conducted to generate additional competency-based modules to be used within the articulation model for Pennsylvania dental assisting programs, established in 1988. Project activities included reviewing, modifying, and providing parallel competency-based structure for the courses at the A.W. Beattie Technical…

  4. Is Tongue Strength an Important Influence on Rate of Articulation in Diadochokinetic and Reading Tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Amy T.; Palmer, Phyllis M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between tongue strength and rate of articulation in 2 speech tasks, diadochokinetic rates and reading aloud, in healthy men and women between 20 and 78 years of age. Method: Diadochokinetic rates were measured for the syllables /p[wedge]/, /t[wedge]/, /k[wedge]/, and…

  5. Larval Myogenesis in the Articulate Brachiopod Argyrotheca cordata (Risso, 1826)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    and micromorphological data to this debate, we investigated muscle formation in larvae of the brooding articulate brachiopod Argyrotheca cordata using immunocytochemistry combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Full grown larvae are three-lobed and show two pairs of bristle bundles. During larval development...

  6. Comparison of mechanical properties of silicone and PVC (polyvinylchloride) cosmetic gloves for articulating hand prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.; Plettenburg, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Current articulating electric and body-powered hands have a lower pinch force (15–34 N) than electric hands with stiff fingers (55–100 N). The cosmetic glove, which covers a hand prosthesis, negatively affects the mechanical efficiency of a prosthesis. The goal of this study is to mechanically compa

  7. Attitudes of Fourth and Sixth Graders toward Peers with Mild Articulation Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Barbara J. Crowe

    1991-01-01

    This study examined attitudes of 348 fourth and sixth graders toward peers with and without mild articulatory errors. A videotape was shown of peer speakers with and without various articulation errors and viewer attitudes assessed. Significantly more negative attitudes were found toward peers who exhibited articulatory errors. (Author/PB)

  8. "Articulation"与后马克思主义的偶然性逻辑--从拉克劳和墨菲的"articulation"谈起%Articulation and the Post-Marxist Logic of Contingency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔明安

    2006-01-01

    该文认为,"articulation"是拉克劳、墨菲的后马克思主义的一个核心概念,它的基本意思是"链结".该文从词源上考察了"articulation"一词的意义及其历史演变,并对其基本含义和特征做了深入的分析.该文认为,链接是理解后马克思主义的偶然性逻辑的核心概念.链接是发生在主体身份之间的,话语性的,偶然性的建构实践活动.但拉克劳、墨菲的链接虽然力图避免近代哲学的本质主义和还原主义,但却仍然避免不了其精致的"唯心"倾向和向上的还原论的嫌疑.我们对此要有清晰的认识.

  9. Developing the moral person: the concepts of human, godmanhood, and feelings in some Russian articulations of morality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zigon, J.

    2009-01-01

    Based on ethnographic research done in Moscow, Russia, this article describes how some Muscovites articulate their moral consciousness, that is, the ways in which persons articulate to themselves and others how they conceptualize morality. While it may be possible, and indeed is often the case, that

  10. Speech therapy for compensatory articulations and velopharyngeal function: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachale Helen Maciel Bispo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the process of intensive speech therapy for a 6-year-old child using compensatory articulations while presenting with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI and a history of cleft lip and palate. The correction of VPI was temporarily done with a pharyngeal obturator since the child presented with very little movement of the pharyngeal walls during speech, compromising the outcome of a possible pharyngeal flap procedure (pharyngoplasty. The program of intensive speech therapy involved 3 phases, each for duration of 2 weeks incorporating 2 daily sessions of 50 minutes of therapy. A total of 60 sessions of intervention were done with the initial goal of eliminating the use of compensatory articulations. Evaluation before the program indicated the use of co-productions (coarticulations of voiceless plosive and fricative sounds with glottal stops (simultaneous production of 2 places of productions, along with weak intraoral pressure and hypernasality, all compromising speech intelligibility. To address place of articulation, strategies to increase intraoral air pressure were used along with visual, auditory and tactile feedback, emphasizing the therapy target and the air pressure and airflow during plosive and fricative sound productions. After the first two phases of the program, oral place of articulation of the targets were achieved consistently. During the third phase, velopharyngeal closure during speech was systematically addressed using a bulb reduction program with the objective of achieving velopharyngeal closure during speech consistently. After the intensive speech therapy program involving the use of a pharyngeal obturator, we observed absence of hypernasality and compensatory articulation with improved speech intelligibility.

  11. Report on FS survey for project of introduction of highly energy-efficient trolley buses into the Mexico Metropolitan Area in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Mexico city eno sho energy gata trolley bus donyu project FS chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Traffic jam and air pollution by automobiles are currently getting severe in the Mexico Metropolitan Area. Trolley buses were introduced for improving the environment more than ten years ago. Vehicles become too old for use, and their energy efficiency is low. In this project, 200 highly energy-efficient trolley buses are introduced to replace old inefficient trolley buses, which results in the improved traffic convenience in the City and enhanced energy efficiency. The new energy-efficient trolley buses are made of energy-efficient control VVVF inverters produced and exported by MELCO (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation), energy-efficient motors by MELMEX (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Mexico), and bodies by MASA which is a major manufacturer of bus bodies. The objective of this research is to analyze the background of introduction of new energy-efficient trolley buses and the effects of the present project. The results of analysis are going to be utilized for future promotion of the Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism. 30 refs., 30 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. ARTICULATION CHARACTERISTICS IN CHILDREN SUFFERING FROM SLI IN EARLY SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana POPOSKA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Getting closer to the articulation segment of SLI is important for diagnosis of children in early school age. Phonologic and articulation status of this population is specific, and acknowledging it, will secure adequate rehabilitation.The theory offers wide analysis of physiology of all speech-language aspects of the developmental period, as well as its pathology. The emphasis is put on the articulation segment in children with SLI.The goal of this study was to establish direct relation between speech-language development delay and the process of sound forming in children with SLI, and in the same time comparing it with the normal speech-language development.In this study a group of 35 children with SLI, and a group of 35 children without this problem were included.The examination was performed with four relevant tests: Global articulation test, Test for examining articulation, Articulation test for analytic estimation of phonologic and articulation disorders and Test for understanding speech.For processing data from empiric frequencies for specific categories in both tested groups, c2 test was used. In the same time, establishing correlation level between groups of different characteristics in examinees, quotient of contingency was included. Since the necessary confirmation of results correlation among different test results scored in both groups, Pearson test of correlation was also used. The results showed some important characteristics of phonologic-articulation disorders. Children suffering from SLI have approximately 20 well pronounced sounds. The biggest problem is pronunciation of sounds from fricative and affricate group, medial position of sound in a word, and the most frequent sound disorder is substitution. Detailed analysis resulted with dominant problem with the place of sound production, except in cases of sound mispronunciation of vowels and nasals.When estimating sound quality in word and sentence order, deviation of

  13. Development and evaluation of an articulated registration algorithm for human skeleton registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Stephen; Perk, Timothy; Jeraj, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Accurate registration over multiple scans is necessary to assess treatment response of bone diseases (e.g. metastatic bone lesions). This study aimed to develop and evaluate an articulated registration algorithm for the whole-body skeleton registration in human patients. In articulated registration, whole-body skeletons are registered by auto-segmenting into individual bones using atlas-based segmentation, and then rigidly aligning them. Sixteen patients (weight = 80-117 kg, height = 168-191 cm) with advanced prostate cancer underwent the pre- and mid-treatment PET/CT scans over a course of cancer therapy. Skeletons were extracted from the CT images by thresholding (HU>150). Skeletons were registered using the articulated, rigid, and deformable registration algorithms to account for position and postural variability between scans. The inter-observers agreement in the atlas creation, the agreement between the manually and atlas-based segmented bones, and the registration performances of all three registration algorithms were all assessed using the Dice similarity index—DSIobserved, DSIatlas, and DSIregister. Hausdorff distance (dHausdorff) of the registered skeletons was also used for registration evaluation. Nearly negligible inter-observers variability was found in the bone atlases creation as the DSIobserver was 96 ± 2%. Atlas-based and manual segmented bones were in excellent agreement with DSIatlas of 90 ± 3%. Articulated (DSIregsiter = 75 ± 2%, dHausdorff = 0.37 ± 0.08 cm) and deformable registration algorithms (DSIregister = 77 ± 3%, dHausdorff = 0.34 ± 0.08 cm) considerably outperformed the rigid registration algorithm (DSIregsiter = 59 ± 9%, dHausdorff = 0.69 ± 0.20 cm) in the skeleton registration as the rigid registration algorithm failed to capture the skeleton flexibility in the joints. Despite superior skeleton registration performance, deformable registration algorithm failed to preserve the local rigidity of bones as over 60% of the

  14. Note sur les articulations de la linéarité phrastique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostislav Kocourek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The term structuring is here used as an equivalent of various meanings of terms sentence perspective or sentence articulation found in terms Functional Sentence Perspective (FSP, or Actual Sentence Articulation, or in phrases used in the present paper as l’articulation ordinaire or l’articulation poétique.The introductory sections of the paper deal with the typological and diachronic aspects of word order, and with the proposal to use permutation as a promising procedure preparing to obtain a complete list of meaningful sequences to be further explored. There is also a brief note on contextuality, on the spoken and written norms of language and on the poetic and specialized languages/styles, all as related to word order.The FSP is seen as one type of structuring sentence linearity. As such, the FSP is considered to be an important, more recent parallel to the contemporary varieties of what is here called ordinary structuring (articulation, i.e. types of grammatical subject-predicate structuring (articulation. In contrast to ‘ordinary’ approaches, the FSP structuring is supported by communicatively oriented pragma-psycho-linguistic foundations, i.e. using key terms like situation of communication, addresser intention, addressee response, etc. That is why the next step is to compare the two conceptions (FSP and ordinary structuring. The main result of the comparison is the parallel nature of the two : They share texts to analyze and, to do so, they use different principles and terminologies (see the table of terms in section 8. The successful contemporary development of FSP, as well as its pioneerig steps in the pre-1945 period, have been made mainly by Prague linguists, who, together with a number of interested scholars from abroad, work out its theory trying to make of it a standard component of syntactic research. The problem of a certain tension between the original Praguian functional-structural and later communicative approach

  15. Comparative analysis of articulated and behavioural social networks in a social news sharing website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbrunner, Andreas; Gonzalez, Gustavo; Ruiz De Querol, Ricard; Volkovich, Yana

    2011-12-01

    This study analyses and contrasts the explicit (articulated) and implicit (behavioural) social networks on the Spanish Digg-like social news website meneame.net. The explicit network is given in the form of declared but not necessarily bidirectional friendship links; the behavioural network is extracted from conversations through comments to the shared links. These two directed social networks and their intersection are analysed and described in detail, which leads to some important conclusions about user behaviour on link sharing websites and online conversation habits in general. We find that reply interactions are more likely to occur between non-friends and that these interactions are (if bidirectional) also more balanced in the case of non-friends. A k-core decomposition of the networks reveals a fundamental difference in the practice of establishing behavioural and articulated links.

  16. Prevention of violence against women: challenges in the articulation of an intersetorial network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Krieger Grossi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article has the objective of highlighting the importance of sectoriality action in the prevention of violence against women through the articulation of different social actors concerned and committed to the reduction of the violence against women rates, and consequently with a more fair and equal society. These challenges in the articulation of the network of protection services for women in domestic violence are illustrated by the managers of the social welfare policies, coordinators of women´s policies and professionals that work in Reference Centers for Women, Reference Centers of Social Welfare (CRAS and Specialized Reference Center of Social Welfare (CREAS in municipalities of the State of Rio Grande do Sul.

  17. Extracting hand articulations from monocular depth images using curvature scale space descriptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-fan WANG[1; Chun LI[1; De-hui KONG[1; Bao-cai YIN[2,1,3

    2016-01-01

    We propose a framework of hand articulation detection from a monocular depth image using curvature scale space (CSS) descriptors. We extract the hand contour from an input depth image, and obtain the fingertips and finger-valleys of the contour using the local extrema of a modified CSS map of the contour. Then we recover the undetected fingertips according to the local change of depths of points in the interior of the contour. Compared with traditional appearance-based approaches using either angle detectors or convex hull detectors, the modified CSS descriptor extracts the fingertips and finger-valleys more precisely since it is more robust to noisy or corrupted data; moreover, the local extrema of depths recover the fingertips of bending fingers well while traditional appearance-based approaches hardly work without matching models of hands. Experimental results show that our method captures the hand articulations more precisely compared with three state-of-the-art appearance-based approaches.

  18. Extracting hand articulations from monocular depth images using curvature scale space descriptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-fan WANG; Chun LI; De-hui KONG; Bao-cai YIN

    2016-01-01

    We propose a framework of hand articulation detection from a monocular depth image using curvature scale space (CSS) descriptors. We extract the hand contour from an input depth image, and obtain the fingertips and finger-valleys of the contour using the local extrema of a modified CSS map of the contour. Then we recover the undetected fingertips according to the local change of depths of points in the interior of the contour. Compared with traditional appearance-based approaches using either angle detectors or convex hull detectors, the modified CSS descriptor extracts the fingertips and finger-valleys more precisely since it is more robust to noisy or corrupted data;moreover, the local extrema of depths recover the fingertips of bending fingers well while traditional appearance-based approaches hardly work without matching models of hands. Experimental results show that our method captures the hand articulations more precisely compared with three state-of-the-art appearance-based approaches.

  19. Computer-assisted three-dimensional surgical planning: 3D virtual articulator: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanai, S; Marmulla, R; Wiechnik, J; Mühling, J; Kotrikova, B

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a computer-assisted planning system for dysgnathia treatment. It describes the process of information gathering using a virtual articulator and how the splints are constructed for orthognathic surgery. The deviation of the virtually planned splints is shown in six cases on the basis of conventionally planned cases. In all cases the plaster models were prepared and scanned using a 3D laser scanner. Successive lateral and posterior-anterior cephalometric images were used for reconstruction before surgery. By identifying specific points on the X-rays and marking them on the virtual models, it was possible to enhance the 2D images to create a realistic 3D environment and to perform virtual repositioning of the jaw. A hexapod was used to transfer the virtual planning to the real splints. Preliminary results showed that conventional repositioning could be replicated using the virtual articulator.

  20. Alternative Energy Busing

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFee, Scott

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, school districts have converted portions of their bus fleets to cleaner-burning, sometimes cheaper, alternative fossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas or propane. Others have adopted biodiesel, which combines regular diesel with fuel derived from organic sources, usually vegetable oils or animal fats. The number of biodiesel…

  1. Buses, Bikes or Boots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL O'NEAL

    2010-01-01

    @@ If you have been in Beijing for any length of time, you will have come to realize that there are several modes of trans-portation available to commuters, all of them relatively inexpensive, especially when compared to fares in the Western world. The choice is not only a matter of frugality, but also of convenience, comfort and speed.

  2. Making the Buses Run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickes, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Examines issues concerning outsourcing student transportation services: cost; management needs and capabilities; goals; and politics. Critical areas of transportation management are highlighted such as personnel management, student management and discipline, risk management, fleet analysis, and routing and scheduling. (GR)

  3. Electrical circuit analysis and technical english: articulation in a project-based learning environment

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, José Manuel; Branco, Denise; Oliveira, João Pedro Estima de

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of Electrical Circuit Analysis and Technical English in the same curricular module, in the context of a Project Based Learning (PBL) environment. The idea consists in taking advantage of the PBL setting to provide a context for the learning of the two different subjects in an articulated manner. The results of the evaluation of the first iteration of this experiment will also be discussed.

  4. Design of articulated mechanisms with a degree of freedom constraint using global optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawamoto, Atsushi; Stolpe, Mathias

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with design of articulated mechanisms using a truss ground structure representation. The considered mechanism design problem is to maximize the output displacement for a given input force by choosing a prescribed number of truss elements out of all the available elements, so...... displacements. The problem is formulated as a non-convex mixed integer problem and solved using a convergent deterministic global optimization method based on branch and bound with convex relaxations....

  5. Articulated Total Body Model Enhancements. Volume 3. Programmer’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    BY U INDEX OF NTAB ARRAY. FRCDFL C DERIVATIVE, FUNCTION OR INTEGRAL IS EVALUATED AS N =0,1 OR 2. FRCDFL C ETAB (N) - INDEX TO TAB ARRAY FOR REAL DATA...6. Leetch, B.D., Bowman, W.L., "Articulated Total Body (AmB) VIEW Program Software Report," Report Nos. AMRL-TR-81-111, Vols 1 & 2, June * 1983 (NTIS

  6. Phonation takes precedence over articulation in development as well as evolution of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, D Kimbrough

    2014-12-01

    Early human vocal development is characterized first by emerging control of phonation and later by prosodic and supraglottal articulation. The target article has missed the opportunity to use these facts in the characterization of evolution in language-specific brain mechanisms. Phonation appears to be the initial human-specific brain change for language, and it was presumably a key target of selection in early hominin evolution.

  7. The Effect of Inflated Backrest Stiffness on Shearing Loads Estimated with Articulated Total Body

    CERN Document Server

    Scurlock, Bob J; Borsa, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    In the construction of simulations of rear-end vehicle impacts, the Articulated Total Body (ATB) software package can be a useful tool. In this article we discuss the effect of using artificially inflated values for seat-backrest stiffness in ATB simulations. We will also present methods for quickly assessing the quality of simulation results. In this connection, we will discuss the perils of using the default contact-force models that are included in ATB package releases.

  8. [Effects of articulating paper on mandibular paths in lateral and protrusive excursions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T; Kawaguchi, T; Katto, K; Kano, N; Takeuchi, K; Tanaka, K; Usami, H; Naka, Y; Asakura, Y

    1989-12-01

    Mandibular movements in 7 normal dentulous subjects during lateral and protrusive excursions were studied to investigate the effects of the clinical use of articulating paper on mandibular paths. Mandibular movements with or without the intraoral articulating paper (thickness: 35 microns) were detected as the lower incisal point displacement and were recorded three-dimensionally with the Selspot system. The date displayed on the X-Y chart recorder on the selected plane were analyzed quantitatively. 1. The paths of the mandible differed between the outward (from the intercuspal position) and the return (backward to the intercuspal position) movements. In lateral excursions the return path tended to be antero-inferior to the outward path, whereas in protrusive excursions the former tended to be dextro-inferior to the latter. 2. In lateral excursions the return path tended to be less stable than the outward path. In protrusive excursions no significant difference was found between the two paths. 3. In lateral excursions, 21-34% of the movements performed using the articulating paper deviated from the normal paths made without using the paper, and in the case of protrusive excursions, deviation was found in 21-50%. At or near the intercuspal position, the return path showed a greater deviation than the outward path. Near the edge-to-edge position, however, the relationship between these two path was reversed. 4. It is suggested that, when the articulating paper is used, the directions of the movement should be taken into account and sufficient care should be paid in occlusal adjustment because the range of functional movement may be overestimated.

  9. Competence articulation:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Bo; Bardram, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    . The concept has emerged out of a longitudinal participatory design process investigating telemedical treatment of diabetic foot ulcers using video phones. We analyze the transitions occurring with the introduction of synchronous telemedical consultations and detail how the online video facilitates...

  10. Digital Hardware Realization of Forward and Inverse Kinematics for a Five-Axis Articulated Robot Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Thi Hai Linh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When robot arm performs a motion control, it needs to calculate a complicated algorithm of forward and inverse kinematics which consumes much CPU time and certainty slows down the motion speed of robot arm. Therefore, to solve this issue, the development of a hardware realization of forward and inverse kinematics for an articulated robot arm is investigated. In this paper, the formulation of the forward and inverse kinematics for a five-axis articulated robot arm is derived firstly. Then, the computations algorithm and its hardware implementation are described. Further, very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language (VHDL is applied to describe the overall hardware behavior of forward and inverse kinematics. Additionally, finite state machine (FSM is applied for reducing the hardware resource usage. Finally, for verifying the correctness of forward and inverse kinematics for the five-axis articulated robot arm, a cosimulation work is constructed by ModelSim and Simulink. The hardware of the forward and inverse kinematics is run by ModelSim and a test bench which generates stimulus to ModelSim and displays the output response is taken in Simulink. Under this design, the forward and inverse kinematics algorithms can be completed within one microsecond.

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALISYS OF ARTICULATION AND PHONOLOGY DISORDERS IN FUNCTION OF DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana POPOSKA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sound expression is the first impression of speech and language. Whatever its origin, false pronunciation is the first sign. In the early school years of developmental speech – if a language disorder appears, it is often followed by the disruption of the phonological – articulation segment.This research aims to establish and compare frequency, type, and every articulate and acoustic characteristics of the disordered sound in both children with Dyslalia, as well as those with SLI.This micro investigation was done using 71 examinees ages 6 to 8. Thirty-five examinees were with Dyslalia and 36 had SLI. Their achievements are underlined using comparative analysis, tested with two relevant tests.Some of the more important conclusions are:Children with Dyslalia mostly showed distorted sounds, while those with SLI mostly substituted the disordered sound. In Dyslalia, fricatives were most affected, but in the case of SLI, all sound groups were disordered usually. In both tested groups, the type of disorder was due to the misplacement of sound formation. All children having articulation disorders while also having sound discrimination have not only phonetic contrasts, but were also being influenced by the rest of the linguistic aspects.

  12. Effect of visual biofeedback of posterior tongue movement on articulation rehabilitation in dysarthria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, J; Shirahige, C; Oki, K; Oisaka, N; Kumakura, I; Tsubahara, A; Minagi, S

    2015-08-01

    Articulation is driven by various combinations of movements of the lip, tongue, soft palate, pharynx and larynx, where the tongue plays an especially important role. In patients with cerebrovascular disorder, lingual motor function is often affected, causing dysarthria. We aimed to evaluate the effect of visual biofeedback of posterior tongue movement on articulation rehabilitation in dysarthria patients with cerebrovascular disorder. Fifteen dysarthria patients (10 men and 5 women; mean age, 70.7 ± 10.3 years) agreed to participate in this study. A device for measuring the movement of the posterior part of the tongue was used for the visual biofeedback. Subjects were instructed to produce repetitive articulation of [ka] as fast and steadily as possible between a lungful with/without visual biofeedback. For both the unaffected and affected sides, the range of ascending and descending movement of the posterior tongue with visual biofeedback was significantly larger than that without visual biofeedback. The coefficient of variation for these movements with visual biofeedback was significantly smaller than that without visual biofeedback. With visual biofeedback, the range of ascent exhibited a significant and strong correlation with that of descent for both the unaffected and affected sides. The results of this study revealed that the use of visual biofeedback leads to prompt and preferable change in the movement of the posterior part of the tongue. From the standpoint of pursuing necessary rehabilitation for patients with attention and memory disorders, visualization of tongue movement would be of marked clinical benefit.

  13. Conceptual design main progress of EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm (EAMA) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Shanshuang, E-mail: shiss@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland); Song, Yuntao; Cheng, Yong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Villedieu, Eric; Bruno, Vincent [CEA-IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Feng, Hansheng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Huapeng [Laboratory of Intelligent Machines, Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland); Wang, Peng [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Hao, Zhiwei; Li, Yang; Wang, Kun; Pan, Hongtao [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm (EAMA) system is being collaboratively developed by ASIPP and CEA-IRFM. • Conceptual design for a 3-DOF wrist end effector with gripper has been finished. • Kinematic design can reach 90% of the workspace inside EAST tokamak vessel. • A prototype of EAMA arm segment has been built to validate the design. - Abstract: EAST articulated maintenance arm (EAMA) system is being collaboratively developed by ASIPP and CEA-IRFM for the purpose of remote inspection and simple maintenance operations in EAST vacuum vessel during physical experiments without breaking the ultra-high vacuum condition. The EAMA system design is based on a similar articulated inspection arm robot successfully demonstrated in Tore Supra in 2008. In order to better meet EAST configurations and maintenance requirements, optimized mechanisms and dimensions are considered for EAMA robot as upgrades. Besides, the segmented arm is equipped with a 3-DOF wrist end effector and gripper for gripping operation as well as inspection. Some calculations and simulations on statics, kinematics and workspace of EAMA have been presented to validate the feasibility. This paper introduces the overall design of the EAMA robot and presents implementation progress.

  14. Gaseous and particulate composition of fresh and aged emissions of diesel, RME and CNG buses using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psichoudaki, Magda; Le Breton, Michael; Hallquist, Mattias; Watne, Ågot; Hallquist, Asa

    2016-04-01

    Urban air pollution is becoming a significant global problem, especially for large cities around the world. Traffic emissions contribute significantly to both elevated particle concentrations and to gaseous pollutants in cities. The latter also have the potential of forming more particulate mass via their photochemical oxidation in the atmosphere. The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the US EPA have characterised diesel exhausts as a likely human carcinogen that can also contribute to other health problems. In order to meet the challenges with increased transportation and enhanced greenhouse gas emissions, the European Union have decided on a 10% substitution of traditional fuels in the road transport sector by alternative fuels (e.g. biodiesel, CNG) before the year 2020. However, it is also important to study the influence of fuel switches on other primary pollutants as well as the potential to form secondary aerosol mass. This work focuses on the characterisation of the chemical composition of the gas and the condensed phase of fresh bus emissions during acceleration, in order to mimic the exhaust plume that humans would inhale under realistic conditions. In addition, photochemical aging of the exhaust emissions was achieved by employing a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) flow reactor, allowing the characterization of the composition of the corresponding aged emissions. The PAM reactor uses UV lamps and high concentrations of oxidants (OH radicals and O3) to oxidize the organic species present in the chamber. The oxidation that takes place within the reactor can be equivalent to up to one week of atmospheric oxidation. Preliminary tests showed that the oxidation employed in these measurements corresponded to a range from 4 to 8 days in the atmosphere. During June and July 2015, a total of 29 buses, 5 diesel, 13 CNG and 11 RME (rapeseed methyl ester), were tested in two different locations with limited influence from other types of emissions and traffic

  15. Value of acoustic perceptual method for analysis of compensatory articulation errors in postoperative patients with cleft palate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To establish an acoustic perceptual method analyzing the compensatory articulation errors in children with operated cleft palate via the formants of Chinese pure vowels. Methods The first three formants which represent vocal transmission character in Chinese pure vowels of 84 subjects with operated cleft palate, were measured by Computerized Speech Signal Processing System (CSSPS). The Chinese vowel graph of postoperative patients with cleft palate was stated by the first formant frequencies (F1) and the second formant frequencies (F2) of the Chinese pure vowels between the two groups. Results Values of F1 and F2 of vowels except [a] in the poor articulation group (Group A) were significantly different from those in the good articulation group (Group B) (P<0.05 or P<0.01). As compared with that in Group B, the vowel graph demonstrated the decreased perceptual distances in Group A. These findings indicated that there might still be the backward movements of tongue, perverted mandibular movements and disharmonious lip movements in addition to the velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) in Group A. Conclusion The speech articulation of children with repaired cleft palate should be gained by correcting the aberrant compensatory articulation errors in the condition of velopharyngeal competence. Computerized Speech Signal Processing System (CSSPS), which is regarded as the content of objective quantitative measurement, is a precise, simple, reliable and atroumatic technique for children with cleft palate to analyze pathological compensatory articulation errors.

  16. Impact of arbitrary and mean transfer of dental casts to the articulator on centric occlusal errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morneburg, Thomas R; Pröschel, Peter A

    2011-06-01

    When fabricating dental restorations, casts are usually transferred to the articulator based on arbitrary hinge axes or mean values instead of true hinge axis points. Using arbitrary hinge axis points or mean values can lead to occlusal errors if the vertical relation is changed in the articulator (e.g., when a centric record is used). This study predicted the probability of occlusal errors occurring in a group of subjects when casts are mounted based on arbitrary hinge axis points or mean values. In 57 healthy volunteers, true hinge axis points, arbitrary hinge axis points, right infraorbital point, maxillary incisal point, and the palatal cusps of the second molars were determined. Mean hinge axis points were established based on Balkwill angles between 17° and 25°. Occlusal errors evoked by cast mounting in relation to arbitrary or mean axes compared to true hinge axes were calculated. Errors were determined for vertical relation settings of 2 and 4 mm. With 2 mm vertical relation, occlusal errors ≥340 µm occurred with a 10% probability with arbitrary hinge axis mounting. At the same probability level, the error increased moderately to ≥440 µm with mean value mounting and a Balkwill angle of 17°. With a Balkwill angle of 25° occlusal errors ≥1,120 µm occurred with 10% probability. Occlusal errors increased considerably with a vertical relation setting of 4 mm. If vertical relation shall be altered, a transfer of the casts according to arbitrary hinge axes is recommended. If casts are transferred according to mean values, errors are bigger depending on the articulator used.

  17. Articulating addiction in alcohol and other drug policy: A multiverse of habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Suzanne

    2016-05-01

    Concepts of addiction differ across time and place. This article is based on an international research project currently exploring this variation and change in concepts of addiction, in particular in the field of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. Taking AOD policy in Australia and Canada as its empirical focus, and in-depth interviews with policy makers, service providers and advocates in each country as its key method (N=60), the article compares the addiction concepts articulated by professionals working in each setting. Drawing on Bruno Latour's theoretical work on the body and his proposal for a better science based on the 'articulation of differences', it explores the accounts of addiction offered across the Australian and Canadian project sites, identifying a shared dynamic in all: the juggling of difference and unity in discussions of the nature of addiction, its composite parts and how best to respond to it. The article maps two simultaneous trajectories in the data - one moving towards difference in participants' insistence on the multitude and diversity of factors that make up addiction problems and solutions, and the other towards unity in their tendency to return to narrow disease models of addiction in uncomfortable, sometimes dissonant, strategic choices. As I will argue, the AOD professionals interviewed for my project operate in two modes treated as distinct in Latour's proposal: in turning to reifying disease labels of addiction they take for granted, and work within, a 'universe of essences', but in articulating the multiplicity and diversity of addiction, they grope towards a vision of a 'multiverse of habits'. The article concludes by addressing this tension directly, scrutinising its practical implications for the development of policy and delivery of services in the future, asking how new thinking, and therefore new opportunities, might be allowed to emerge.

  18. GROSS MORPHOLOGY OF THE HIP ARTICULATION OF BUFFALO CALVES (BUBALUS BUBALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya. B

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: The vulnerability of the buffalo to the luxation of the hip articulation previous to and during parturition encouraged the investigation in this species. The literature reviewed did not reveal complete anatomical descriptions of the coxofemoral articulation of buffalo. Hence the study was undertaken. Purpose: to study the different anatomical aspects of the hip joint which are specific to buffaloes. Methods and Results: A total number of fifteen hip joints of buffalo calves procured from the local slaughter house and department of Veterinary Anatomy were studied in the Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Science, Tirupati irrespective of breed, sex and nutritional status. The gross morphology of joints and relations were studied. The round ligament of buffalo was stronger compared to cattle. A thick fibrous stratum of articular capsule was present. A few arched and semi-circular fibers were seen in the articular capsule but zona orbicularis was absent. The best developed periarticular ligament in the buffalo hip was the iliofemoral ligament. It was a thick cord of connective tissue extending from a nodule below and behind the ischiatic spine and spreaded over the capsula articularis and finally attached to the trochanter major and trochanteric ridge. The pubocapsular ligament was located on the ventral surface of the joint capsule and blended with it. Compared to the most of other quadripeds the periarticular ligaments were well developed in buffalo. The iliofemoral ligament was mostly helpful in preventing the hip from excessive extension and adduction. The relative development of the periarticular ligaments in the biped and quadrupeds were probably in accordance with comparative weight that this articulation must support. Potential implications: An understanding of the basic anatomy of the hip helps in understanding pathology and can greatly assist the surgeon in appropriately diagnosing and treating the

  19. Woman and language in darkest Africa: The quest for articulation in two postcolonial novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Brink

    1992-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on issues raised by Conrad’s Heart of Darkness and on ways in which two recent novels, The Expedition to the Baobab Tree (Stockenstrdni and The Whales in Lake Tanganyika (Hagerfors employ the same model of the journey of exploration in order to break down phallo- and eurocentric concepts of language in an attempt to arrive at a new articulation of Africa. In Heart of Darkness Marlow crosses the limits of language in his confrontation with the Other (Kurtz, and Africa, both of which have a female dimension and has to invent a ‘new’ language, post facto, to explain his discovery to the Woman who awaits him at the other end. In the Stockenstrdm text, the narrator and central personage is already female, but she is illiterate; and in order to articulate her body, in which her journey is subsumed, an implied narrator may have to narrate on her behalf, in a language which first has to liberate itself from the processes of bondage and appropriation to which the slave woman has been subjected all her life. In The Whales in Lake Tanganyika an interiext arises from the dialogue of this narrative with H.M. Stanley's historical journal; and this projects the diarist Shaw as the deconstructor of male and European dichotomies. Shedding conventional langitage, linearity and 'reality’, his diary becomes the translation of an inaccessible ‘new’ language which is the only way in which Spivak’s 'subaltern’ can attain speech to articulate the femininity implicit in Africa.

  20. Major upgrade of the articulated inspection arm control system to fulfill daily operation requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, P., E-mail: patrick.pastor@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, Institut de Recherche sur la Fusion par confinement Magnétique (France); Villedieu, E.; Allegretti, L.; Vincent, B.; Barbuti, A.; Bruno, V.; Coquillat, P.; Dechelle, C.; Gargiulo, L.; Le, R.; Malard, P.; Martinez, A.; Nouailletas, R. [CEA, IRFM, Institut de Recherche sur la Fusion par confinement Magnétique (France); Yuntao, Song; Yong, Cheng; Chen, Liu; Hansheng, Feng; Shanshuang, Shi [ASIPP, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We propose an overview of the work which has been done to upgrade the control system of the AIA robot (articulated inspection arm) to fulfill daily operation requirements for tokamak inspection. • The control system is based on the use of new position sensors, new electronics design and new supervisor software. • Final tests are ongoing in the EAST scale 1 tokamak mock-up. Routine operation of the robot at EAST will start in the beginning of 2015. - Abstract: An articulated inspection arm (AIA) has been developed by CEA for visual inspection between pulses inside the Tore Supra tokamak vacuum vessel without breaking temperature and vacuum conditions. The eight meters length robot is composed of a shuttle and six articulated segments with a video camera at its end. A demonstration prototype has been achieved in 2008 at Tore Supra (Gargiulo, 2007; Houry, 2008; Perrot, 2003). A project to upgrade the AIA into a fully operational robot has been undertaken by IRFM and ASIPP in an Associated Laboratory. It will be in operation first in the EAST machine and afterwards in Tore Supra in its WEST (W/Tungsten Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) configuration where it is of paramount importance to survey possible degradation of W component surface. The control system of the robot has been extensively upgraded. The effort has been focused on three areas: (1) improvement of the arm position accuracy, (2) increase of the operational robustness, (3) use of a powerful graphical user interface including simulation of trajectories and robot deployment capabilities in a 3D viewer environment. The aim of this paper is to detail the architecture of the AIA control system.

  1. [Working conditions on public buses and common mental disorders among drivers and fare collectors: Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; Silva, Luiz Sérgio; Silva, Luiz Sérgio da

    2013-12-01

    Common mental disorders (CMD) contribute to overall burden of disease. The current study aimed to describe the prevalence of CMD among a sample of bus drivers and fare collectors in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and investigate whether traffic conditions and conditions inside buses were associated with the outcome. This non-probabilistic sample of 1,607 workers was estimated from the size of the effective workforce (n = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews used a digital questionnaire with online data processing. Overall prevalence of CMD was 23.6%. Bad traffic conditions lost statistical significance in the multivariate analysis, while higher income and adverse working conditions and inadequate safety remained associated with the outcome. Harmful behavior and vulnerable health situations were associated with CMD. This study of urban bus workers' health is a unique contribution that can provide backing for public policies targeting metropolitan populations.

  2. Complications Related to Metal-on-Metal Articulation in Trapeziometacarpal Joint Total Joint Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Frølich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adverse reactions to metal-on-metal (MoM prostheses are well known from total hip joint resurfacing arthroplasty with elevated serum chrome or cobalt, pain and pseudo tumor formation. It may, however, also be seen after total joint replacement of the trapeziometacarpal joint using MoM articulation, and we present two cases of failure of MoM prostheses due to elevated metal-serum levels in one case and pseudo tumor formation in another case. Furthermore, we suggest a diagnostic algorithm for joint pain after MoM trapeziometacarpal joint replacement based on published experiences from MoM hip prostheses and adverse reactions to metal.

  3. Complications Related to Metal-on-Metal Articulation in Trapeziometacarpal Joint Total Joint Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Christina; Hansen, Torben Bæk

    2015-01-01

    Adverse reactions to metal-on-metal (MoM) prostheses are well known from total hip joint resurfacing arthroplasty with elevated serum chrome or cobalt, pain and pseudo tumor formation. It may, however, also be seen after total joint replacement of the trapeziometacarpal joint using MoM articulation......, and we present two cases of failure of MoM prostheses due to elevated metal-serum levels in one case and pseudo tumor formation in another case. Furthermore, we suggest a diagnostic algorithm for joint pain after MoM trapeziometacarpal joint replacement based on published experiences from MoM hip...

  4. Use of low power EM radar sensors for speech articulator measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Burnett, G.C.

    1997-05-14

    Very low power electromagnetic (EM) wave sensors are being used to measure speech articulator motions such as the vocal fold oscillations, jaw, tongue, and the soft palate. Data on vocal fold motions, that correlate well with established laboratory techniques, as well as data on the jaw, tongue, and soft palate are shown. The vocal fold measurements together with a volume air flow model are being used to perform pitch synchronous estimates of the voiced transfer functions using ARMA (autoregressive moving average) techniques. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Construction of Haptic Transmission Network for Haptic Broadcasting by Articulated Multilateral Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takumi; Katsura, Seiichiro

    Recently, haptic broadcasting technology has received considerable attention, and the construction of haptic broadcasting network is desired. In this paper, we propose a method of the construction of haptic transmission networks for haptic broadcasting by articulated multilateral control. The proposed method can be used to realize the following; 1) real-time-controlled haptic transmission between many systems and 2) change in the number of systems without modifying the control systems. As a result, it is possible to receive force feedback from remote environments when many haptic devices are connected to each other. The experimental results prove the feasibility of the proposed method.

  6. Fuzzy Control of Yaw and Roll Angles of a Simulated Helicopter Model Includes Articulated Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sadegh Lafmejani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy logic controller (FLC is a heuristic method by If-Then Rules which resembles human intelligence and it is a good method for designing Non-linear control systems. In this paper, an arbitrary helicopter model includes articulated manipulators has been simulated with Matlab SimMechanics toolbox. Due to the difficulties of modeling this complex system, a fuzzy controller with simple fuzzy rules has been designed for its yaw and roll angles in order to stabilize the helicopter while it is in the presence of disturbances or its manipulators are moving for a task. Results reveal that a simple FLC can appropriately control this system.

  7. Modeling, Simulation and Position Control of 3 Degree of Freedom Articulated Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sadegh Lafmejani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the modeling, simulation and control of 3 degree of freedom articulated robotic manipulator have been studied. First, we extracted kinematics and dynamics equations of the mentioned manipulator by using the Lagrange method. In order to validate the analytical model of the manipulator we compared the model simulated in the simulation environment of Matlab with the model was simulated with the SimMechanics toolbox. A sample path has been designed for analyzing the tracking subject. The system has been linearized with feedback linearization and then a PID controller was applied to track a reference trajectory. Finally, the control results have been compared with a nonlinear PID controller.

  8. Effect of emotion and articulation of speech on the Uncanny Valley in virtual characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinwell, Angela; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Abdel Nabi, Debbie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study of how exaggerated facial expression in the lower face region affects perception of emotion and the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in realistic, human-like, virtual characters. Characters communicated the six basic emotions, anger, disgust, fear, sadness and surprise...... with normal and exaggerated mouth movements. Measures were taken for perceived familiarity and human-likness. the results showed that: an increased intensity of articulation significantly reduced the uncanny for anger, yet increased perception of the uncanny for characters expressing happiness...... with an exaggeration of mouth movement. the practical implications of these findings are considered when controlling the uncanny in virtual characters....

  9. Tackling indifference--clowning, dementia, and the articulation of a sensitive body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Ruud

    2012-01-01

    In this auto-ethnographic study, I focus on a special form of clowning for people at an advanced stage of dementia. The miMakkus clown is presented as a specialist in contact with people with whom communication is no longer possible by the usual (linguistic, cognitive) means. I illustrate how the miMakkus clown tries to reach people with dementia, focusing specifically on the role of the sensitive body as an instrument for attunement. As I demonstrate, in their contact, the clown and the person with dementia are involved in a process of mutual articulation.

  10. Space Photovoltaic Concentrator Using Robust Fresnel Lenses, 4-Junction Cells, Graphene Radiators, and Articulating Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Mark; McDanal, A. J.; Brandhorst, Henry; Spence, Brian; Iqbal, Shawn; Sharps, Paul; McPheeters, Clay; Steinfeldt, Jeff; Piszczor, Michael; Myers, Matt

    2016-01-01

    At the 42nd PVSC, our team presented recent advances in our space photovoltaic concentrator technology. These advances include more robust Fresnel lenses for optical concentration, more thermally conductive graphene radiators for waste heat rejection, improved color-mixing lens technology to minimize chromatic aberration losses with 4-junction solar cells, and an articulating photovoltaic receiver enabling single-axis sun-tracking, while maintaining a sharp focal line despite large beta angles of incidence. In the past year, under a NASA Phase II SBIR program, our team has made much additional progress in the development of this new space photovoltaic concentrator technology, as described in this paper.

  11. Sous-espaces de Mouvements Articulés ou Contraints et leurs Signatures

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    National audience; Les objets articulés ou à trajectoires contraintes représentent une grande part des objets de notre quotidien. La détection automatique de ces restrictions de mouvement entre objets et l'extraction des paramètres correspondant est donc importante, p. ex. pour augmenter une reconstruction 3D statique avec des paramètres dynamiques tels qu'axes de rotation, ou directions possibles de translation de certains objets. C'est pourquoi nous présentons ici une nouvelle théorie pour ...

  12. Articulation of young adult readers in a digitalized and medialized landscape of texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Ayoe Qvist

    2015-01-01

    The digital turn does not bring about changes in young adultliterature considered as aesthetic artifacts and literary works but it changes the perception and reception of the reader. Digital young adult literature is increasingly multimodal, including interactivity and the integration of elements...... of game aesthetics. The way the young person is articulated within such texts must be presumed to be new, and the pivotal point of this paper will be to explore how the young adult reader is thematized in content, form, and medium in digital young adult literature....

  13. Nonlinear dynamics and control of flexible, articulated spacecraft - Application to SSF/MRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, W. H.; Kwatny, H. G.; Baek, M.-J.

    1992-08-01

    Results are presented of a study on the application of partial feedback linearization methods to the attitude control of an articulated spacecraft configuration representative of the Space Station Freedom with a mobile remote manipulator system (SSF/MRMS). The case considered is the attitude regulation of the SSF while the MRMS undergoes arbitrary prescribed maneuvers. The results of calculations confirm previous observations that MRMS motion can significantly degrade and even destabilize attitude regulation when linear controllers are applied to this nonlinear system. It is shown that, in the flexible case, the linear regulator must be significantly detuned in order to achieve stable responses.

  14. OCCLUSION AND ARTICULATION IN BRUXISM AND BRUXOMANIA INVESTIGATED WITH THE SYSTEM T-SCAN III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Dimova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To be analyzed common features of occlusal relationships in patients with bruxism and bruxomania at maximum intercuspation (MIP and eccentric jaw movements. Materials and Methods: 30 patients (22 women and 8 men, mean aged of 42,8 ± 13,3 with bruxism and/or bruxomania are examined with the system T-Scan III. Sequence of records is - at maximum intercuspation (MIP; in manual leading to central relation and in eccentric jaw movements. In the same sequence is investigated control group - 30 people (15 women and 15 men aged between 21 and 45 who didn’t have bruxism and/or bruxomania and dentition is preserved. Results: In the control group 85% of cases there is a balance of forces in both halves of the dental arch. In patients with bruxism is established uneven distribution of forces in MIP and articulation blockages (95%. There are three major reasons that impede spontaneous bilateral closing - force outliers (93% of cases; low force outliers (82% and presence of interceptive contacts and sliding occurring in the beginning of occlusion time until MIP (in all patients. Conclusions: In order to achieve a balanced occlusion in patients with bruxism and/or bruxomania required are correct diagnosis, registration and removal of preliminary contacts, articulation blockages and infraocclusion. Occlusal analysis is objective and an indicator of subsequent treatment only when it is a combination of clinical, instrumental and computerized occlusal analysis.

  15. Detecting self-produced speech errors before and after articulation: An ERP investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Michael Trewartha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that speech production errors are monitored by the same neural system involved in monitoring other types of action errors. Behavioral evidence has shown that speech errors can be detected and corrected prior to articulation, yet the neural basis for such pre-articulatory speech error monitoring is poorly understood. The current study investigated speech error monitoring using a phoneme-substitution task known to elicit speech errors. Stimulus-locked event-related potential (ERP analyses comparing correct and incorrect utterances were used to assess pre-articulatory error monitoring and response-locked ERP analyses were used to assess post-articulatory monitoring. Our novel finding in the stimulus-locked analysis revealed that words that ultimately led to a speech error were associated with a larger P2 component at midline sites (FCz, Cz, and CPz. This early positivity may reflect the detection of an error in speech formulation, or a predictive mechanism to signal the potential for an upcoming speech error. The data also revealed that general conflict monitoring mechanisms are involved during this task as both correct and incorrect responses elicited an anterior N2 component typically associated with conflict monitoring. The response-locked analyses corroborated previous observations that self-produced speech errors led to a fronto-central ERN. These results demonstrate that speech errors can be detected prior to articulation, and that speech error monitoring relies on a central error monitoring mechanism.

  16. Articulation-based sound perception in verbal repetition: A functional NIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejin eYoo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Verbal repetition is a fundamental language capacity where listening and speaking are inextricably coupled with each other. We have recently reported that the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG harbors articulation-based codes, as evidenced by activation during repetition of meaningless speech sounds, i.e., pseudowords. In this study, we aimed at confirming this finding and further investigating the possibility that sound perception as well as articulation is subserved by neural circuits in this region. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS, we monitored changes of hemoglobin (Hb concentration at IFG bilaterally, while subjects verbally repeated pseudowords and words. The results revealed that the proportion of oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb over total Hb was significantly higher at the left IFG during repetition of pseudowords than that of words, replicating the observation by functional MRI and indicating that the region processes articulatory codes for verbal repetition. More importantly for this study, hemodynamic modulations were observed at both IFG during passive listening without repetition to various sounds, including natural environmental sounds, animal vocalizations, and human nonspeech sounds. Furthermore, the O2Hb concentration increased at the left IFG but decreased at the right IFG for both speech and non-speech sounds. These findings suggest that both speech and non-speech sounds may be processed and maintained by a neural mechanism for sensorimotor integration using articulatory codes at the left IFG.

  17. Multiple effects of consonant manner of articulation and intonation type on F0 in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Wallace, Andrew

    2001-05-01

    In this study we examine how consonant manner of articulation interacts with intonation type in shaping the F0 contours in English. Native speakers of American English read aloud words differing in vowel length, consonant manner of articulation and consonant position in word. They produced each word in either a statement or question carrier. F0 contours of their speech were extracted by measuring every complete vocal period. Preliminary results based on graphic analysis of three speakers' data suggest that there are three distinct consonantal effects: F0 interruption due to devoicing, a large but brief (10-40 ms) F0 raising at the onset of voicing, and a smaller but longer-lasting F0 raising throughout a large proportion of the preceding and following vowels. These effects appear to be imposed on a continuously changing F0 curve that is either rising-falling or falling-rising, depending on whether the carrier sentence is a statement or a question. Further analysis will test the hypothesis that these continuous curves result from local pitch targets that are assigned to individual syllables and implemented with them in synchrony regardless of their segmental composition. [Work supported by NIDCD Grant No. R01 DC03902.

  18. The use of the articulated total body model as a robot dynamics simulation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obergfell, Louise A.; Avula, Xavier J. R.; Kalegs, Ints

    1988-01-01

    The Articulated Total Body (ATB) model is a computer sumulation program which was originally developed for the study of aircrew member dynamics during ejection from high-speed aircraft. This model is totally three-dimensional and is based on the rigid body dynamics of coupled systems which use Euler's equations of motion with constraint relations of the type employed in the Lagrange method. In this paper the use of the ATB model as a robot dynamics simulation tool is discussed and various simulations are demonstrated. For this purpose the ATB model has been modified to allow for the application of torques at the joints as functions of state variables of the system. Specifically, the motion of a robotic arm with six revolute articulations with joint torques prescribed as functions of angular displacement and angular velocity are demonstrated. The simulation procedures developed in this work may serve as valuable tools for analyzing robotic mechanisms, dynamic effects, joint load transmissions, feed-back control algorithms employed in the actuator control and end-effector trajectories.

  19. Changes to articulation following LSVT(R) and traditional dysarthria therapy in non-progressive dysarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, Rachel J; Cornwell, Petrea; Theodoros, Deborah G

    2010-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT(R)) on acoustic and perceptual measures of articulation in non-progressive dysarthria in comparison to traditional dysarthria therapy. The study involved 26 individuals with non-progressive dysarthria who were randomly allocated to receive either LSVT(R) or traditional dysarthria therapy (TRAD), both of which were administered for 16 hourly sessions over 4 weeks. Participants' speech samples were collected over a total of six testing sessions during three assessment phases: (1) prior to treatment, (2) immediately post-treatment, and (3) 6 months post-treatment (FU). Speech samples were analysed perceptually to determine articulatory precision and intelligibility as well as acoustically using vowel space (and vowel formant measures) and first moment differences. Results revealed short and long-term significant increases in vowel space area following LSVT(R). Significantly increased intelligibility was also found at FU in the LSVT(R) group. No significant differences between groups for any variables were found. The study reveals that LSVT(R) may be a suitable treatment option for improving vowel articulation and subsequent intelligibility in some individuals with non-progressive dysarthria.

  20. Anti-jackknife reverse tracking control of articulated vehicles in the presence of actuator saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, H.; Zhu, H.

    2016-10-01

    It is well known that backward motion control of an articulated vehicle is difficult because it is an open loop unstable system and such motion is also dangerous due to 'jackknifing'. In this paper, an anti-jackknife reverse tracking control strategy for autonomous articulated vehicles is proposed based on the combined longitudinal and lateral control scheme. In the proposed lateral-longitudinal control scheme, the major task is to control the reverse heading of the trailer by automatic steering strategies that observe both the anti-jackknife condition and input limitations. The main contribution of this paper is the development of globally asymptotic anti-jackknife stabilising and tracking controls of heading angles with both state and input constraints considered a priori. The proposed control inherently has an anti-windup mechanism that prevents the hitch angle from going beyond any specified critical value to avoid jackknifing, during which time, the steering angle remains at its limit. Stability of the controller is theoretically proven via the Lyapunov argument. Effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated by CarSim and Simulink joint simulations.

  1. Desi Films: Articulating Images of South Asian Identity in a Global Communication Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although India itself has been an important source of information about the Indian identity for Western audiences, a specialized genre of desi media have also garnered more recognition in recent years. Desi films—movies created by and/or for South Asian immigrants—are capable of reaching large numbers of people regardless of their educational level, economic status, or linguistic proficiency. Most are produced in English or with English subtitles and are easily accessible in most areas, either in theatres, video rental stores, libraries, or via Internet movie sites. This paper examines Indian diasporic films as a vehicle for cultural articulation and debate. First, it provides a theoretical foundation of hegemony and resistance with regard to notions of ethnicity and immigrants’ articulations of identity in interstitial zones. Second, it discusses sources of hegemony from Indian and Western media. Third, it explores the creation of a hybrid identity as reflected in Indian diasporic films, pointing out some of the themes and conventions of this emerging genre.

  2. Articulated inspection arm for ITER, a demonstration in the Tore Supra tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordier, J.J.; Gargiulo, L.; Grisolia, C.; Samaille, F. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Friconneau, J.P.; Perrot, Y. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, LIST Robotics and Interactive Systems Unit, 92 (France); Palmer, J.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik Boltzmannstr.2, Garching (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this program is to demonstrate for ITER the feasibility of an in-vessel remote handling inspection using a long reach, limited payload carrier (1 to 10 kg) for penetration of the ITER chamber through the openings. This device is dedicated to close inspection of the Plasma Facing Components (PFC). An articulated demonstrator called articulated inspection arm (AIA) has been manufactured. A feasibility study of a full AIA operation in Tore Supra was performed, taking into account ITER reference requirements. A scale one demonstration of the AIA under ITER relevant condition is feasible on Tore Supra and would give significant improvement in research results for ITER remote Handling equipment. The test of the AIA demonstrator behaviour is foreseen in 2005 in real Tokamak conditions. The paper presents the full robot concept, the results of the first test campaign, the AIA new design and its integration on Tore Supra. Several potential uses of the AIA for the in vessel components inspection are being studied such as PFC visual inspection, water loop leak testing, laser ablation for wall detritiation and carbon dust and flakes removal are foreseen as utilities to be placed at the AIA head. These various systems are described in the paper.

  3. Sideslip estimation for articulated heavy vehicles at the limits of adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Graeme; Cebon, David

    2016-11-01

    Various active safety systems proposed for articulated heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) require an accurate estimate of vehicle sideslip angle. However in contrast to passenger cars, there has been minimal published research on sideslip estimation for articulated HGVs. State-of-the-art observers, which rely on linear vehicle models, perform poorly when manoeuvring near the limits of tyre adhesion. This paper investigates three nonlinear Kalman filters (KFs) for estimating the tractor sideslip angle of a tractor-semitrailer. These are compared to the current state-of-the-art, through computer simulations and vehicle test data. An unscented KF using a 5 degrees-of-freedom single-track vehicle model with linear adaptive tyres is found to substantially outperform the state-of-the-art linear KF across a range of test manoeuvres on different surfaces, both at constant speed and during emergency braking. Robustness of the observer to parameter uncertainty is also demonstrated. Data supporting this research can be accessed at http://dx.doi.org/10.17863/CAM.1234

  4. An improvement in rollover detection of articulated vehicles using the grey system theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Tao; Chu, Tzyy-Wen

    2014-05-01

    A Rollover Index combined with the grey system theory, called a Grey Rollover Index (GRI), is proposed to assess the rollover threat for articulated vehicles with a tractor-semitrailer combination. This index can predict future trends of vehicle dynamics based on current vehicle motion; thus, it is suitable for vehicle-rollover detection. Two difficulties are encountered when applying the GRI for rollover detection. The first difficulty is effectively predicting the rollover threat of the vehicles, and the second difficulty is achieving a definite definition of the real rollover timing of a vehicle. The following methods are used to resolve these problems. First, a nonlinear mathematical model is constructed to accurately describe the vehicle dynamics of articulated vehicles. This model is combined with the GRI to predict rollover propensity. Finally, TruckSim™ software is used to determine the real rollover timing and facilitate the accurate supply of information to the rollover detection system through the GRI. This index is used to verify the simulation based on the common manoeuvres that cause rollover accidents to reduce the occurrence of false signals and effectively increase the efficiency of the rollover detection system.

  5. Malay Wordlist Modeling for Articulation Disorder Patient by Using Computerized Speech Diagnosis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nizam Mazenan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the quality and the impact of using computerized speech diagnosis system to overcome the problem of speech articulation disorder among Malaysian context. The prototype of the system is already been develop in order to help Speech Therapist (ST or Speech Language Pathologist (SLP in diagnosis, preventing and treatment for an early stage. Few assessments will be conducted by ST over the patient and mostly the process is still using manual technique whereby the ST relies from their human hearing and their years of experience. This study will surveys the technique and method use by ST at Hospital Sultanah Aminah (HSA (Speech therapist at Speech Therapy Center to help patient that suffer from speech disorder especially in articulation disorder cases. Few experiment and result had also been present in this study where the computerized speech diagnosis system is being tested by using real patient voice sample that been collected from HSA and the students from Sekolah Kebangsaan Taman Universiti Satu.

  6. Methodical features of physical rehabilitation of sportsmen with intra articulate injuries of ankle joint at the out-patient stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Charbel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the analysis of modern approaches to application of means and forms of physical rehabilitation of sportsmen with intra articulate injuries of ankle joint at the out-patient stage. Material & Methods: the analysis of urgent special references on the problem of treatment and rehabilitation at intra articulate injuries of ankle joint. Results: it is defined that together with the broad application of traditional complex techniques of medical physical culture, classical massage and physical therapy, the percent of use of nonconventional methods of non-drug therapy grows objectively and significantly in the last decade in physical rehabilitation. Conclusions: the connected application of east bath and special techniques of east massage for rehabilitation of sportsmen with intra articulate injuries of ankle joint at the out-patient stage in special literature is described not enough that in turn demands the additional practical researches among methods of non-drug therapy.

  7. Design and Development of an Automatic Tool Changer for an Articulated Robot Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, H.; Karamanoglu, M.

    2014-07-01

    In the creative industries, the length of time between the ideation stage and the making of physical objects is decreasing due to the use of CAD/CAM systems and adicitive manufacturing. Natural anisotropic materials, such as solid wood can also be transformed using CAD/CAM systems, but only with subtractive processes such as machining with CNC routers. Whilst some 3 axis CNC routing machines are affordable to buy and widely available, more flexible 5 axis routing machines still present themselves as a too big investment for small companies. Small refurbished articulated robots can be a cheaper alternative but they require a light end-effector. This paper presents a new lightweight tool changer that converts a small 3kg payload 6 DOF robot into a robot apprentice able to machine wood and similar soft materials.

  8. Nitinol Stent Fatigue in a Peripheral Human Artery Subjected to Pulsatile and Articulation Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Sean Michael

    2011-07-01

    Nitinol self-expanding stents are used to treat peripheral occluded vessels such as the superficial femoral artery or the carotid. The complex vessel articulation requires a stent device that is flexible and kink resistant yet durable. The present study shows how the latest advances in commercially available engineering software tools permit engineering simulations of the many aspects of the Nitinol stent design and analysis. Two stent geometries are evaluated: a helical type stent design, and a more traditional straight strut, with multiple crowns design. The fatigue performance of the two stents is compared. The results show that advanced nonlinear finite element simulations and fatigue predictions of the Nitinol stent are possible today inside realistic simulated human arteries. The finite element analysis software used in this study is SimXpert, Marc, and Mentat (MSC Software, Santa Ana, CA).

  9. A USPL functional system with articulated mirror arm for in-vivo applications in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelle, Florian; Meister, Jörg; Dehn, Claudia; Oehme, Bernd; Bourauel, Christoph; Frentzen, Mathias

    Ultra-short pulsed laser (USPL) systems for dental application have overcome many of their initial disadvantages. However, a problem that has not yet been addressed and solved is the beam delivery into the oral cavity. The functional system that is introduced in this study includes an articulated mirror arm, a scanning system as well as a handpiece, allowing for freehand preparations with ultra-short laser pulses. As laser source an Nd:YVO4 laser is employed, emitting pulses with a duration of tp cavity preparation are being demonstrated on mammoth ivory. This study indicates that freehand preparation employing an USPL system is possible but challenging, and accompanied by a variety of side-effects. The ablation rate with fixed handpiece is about 10 mm3/min. Factors like defocussing and blinding affect treatment efficiency. Laser sources with higher average output powers might be needed in order to reach sufficient preparation speeds.

  10. Articulating the strategies for maximising the inclusion of people with dementia in qualitative research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kathy; Jordan, Fionnuala; Hunter, Andrew; Cooney, Adeline; Casey, Dympna

    2015-11-01

    It is essential to understand the experience of living with dementia from the perspective of the person with dementia so that services can be appropriately constructed. This review paper, drawing on prior work, identifies key strategies for the meaningful inclusion of persons with dementia within qualitative research studies, it examines the articulation of these strategies and shares how these strategies were operationalised within one national research study in Ireland. Strategies within the literature were categorised and then synthesized into a guide consisting of four main areas; gaining COnsent, maximizing Responses, Telling the story, and Ending on a high (CORTE). The CORTE guideline was used to as a tool for analysing relevant research reports. CORTE is a synthesized account of grouped strategies that could be used to maximize the meaningful involvement of persons with dementia and can also provide a guide for reporting the strategies used so that researchers can learn from each other.

  11. Articulated Wiwaxia from the Cambrian Stage 3 Xiaoshiba Lagerstätte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Smith, Martin R.; Lan, Tian; Hou, Jin-Bo; Zhang, Xi-Guang

    2014-04-01

    Wiwaxia is a bizarre metazoan that has been interpreted as a primitive mollusc and as a polychaete annelid worm. Extensive material from the Burgess Shale provides a detailed picture of its morphology and ontogeny, but the fossil record outside this lagerstätte is scarce, and complete wiwaxiids are particularly rare. Here we report small articulated specimens of Wiwaxia foliosa sp. nov. from the Xiaoshiba fauna (Cambrian Stage 3, Hongjingshao Formation, Kunming, south China). Although spines are absent, the fossils' sclerites - like those of W. corrugata - are symmetrically arranged in five distinct zones. They form rows across the body, and were individually added and shed throughout growth to retain an approximately symmetrical body shape. Their development pattern suggests a molluscan affinity. The basic body plan of wiwaxiids is fundamentally conserved across two continents through Cambrian Stages 3-5 - revealing morphological stasis in the wake of the Cambrian explosion.

  12. Measurement accuracy of articulated arm CMMs with circular grating eccentricity errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dateng; Yin, Sanfeng; Luo, Zhiyang; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Taiping

    2016-11-01

    The 6 circular grating eccentricity errors model attempts to improve the measurement accuracy of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) without increasing the corresponding hardware cost. We analyzed the AACMM’s circular grating eccentricity and obtained the 6 joints’ circular grating eccentricity error model parameters by conducting circular grating eccentricity error experiments. We completed the calibration operations for the measurement models by using home-made standard bar components. Our results show that the measurement errors from the AACMM’s measurement model without and with circular grating eccentricity errors are 0.0834 mm and 0.0462 mm, respectively. Significantly, we determined that measurement accuracy increased by about 44.6% when the circular grating eccentricity errors were corrected. This study is significant because it promotes wider applications of AACMMs both in theory and in practice.

  13. Real-time integrated process supervision for autotuners and modified cerebellar model articulation controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Abdul; Quek, H. C.; Lim, B. H.

    1998-10-01

    This paper presents the use of a micro-controller-based Integrated Process Supervision as a tool for investigate work in expert control. Two different control theories integrated within process serve as examples of structured approach to expert control. The Integrated Process Supervision is a refinement of the Expert Control Architecture as proposed by Karl J. Astrom by allowing integration of several control techniques in a single generic framework. Specifically, the paper presents the result for experiments performed on an implementation of the Integrated Process Supervision on a PC and micro-controller environment. Autotuning techniques were first integrated within the process supervision. Three Autotuners based on specification of phase and amplitude margins were investigated. A modified version of Cerebellar MOdel Articulation Controller was then implemented in IPS as a direct controller. Results collected verify its integration in the integrated process supervision and also provide evidence of improved performance as compared to Autotuning.

  14. 基于Articulate Storyline的微课程设计与开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕玲

    2016-01-01

    随着网络技术的发展、教学观念的转变,教学资源的开发越来越关注"以学为中心"、"交互性强"等,对教师设计和开发微课程提出了新的要求。本文从微课程的知识呈现、学习交互、学习评价、学习辅助四个方面,介绍基于Articulate Storyline的交互式微课程设计与开发过程,以期为广大普通教师设计交互式微课程提供参考。

  15. Fitting hearing aids with the Articulation Index: impact on hearing aid effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, P E; Yueh, B; Sarubbi, M; Loovis, C F

    2000-01-01

    Although most clinical tests focus on how much a particular hearing aid improves speech audibility under controlled conditions, it is unclear how these measures relate to hearing aid effectiveness, or the benefit perceived by the patient under everyday conditions. In this study, the relationship between audibility and hearing aid effectiveness was examined in a cohort of patients who obtained hearing aids through the Veteran's Administration. The measure of audibility was the Articulation Index, a common index of speech audibility. Measures of effectiveness included two hearing-specific surveys and self-reported ratings of global satisfaction and hearing aid use adherence. Results indicated that there were no systematic relationships between measurements of improved audibility and patient ratings of communication ability. Additionally, improved audibility was not related to overall satisfaction with the amplification characteristics of the hearing aid (fitting). However, improved audibility is related to hearing aid use adherence, with patients who achieve better audibility reporting that they use their hearing aids more frequently.

  16. Study on Roll Instability Mechanism and Stability Index of Articulated Steering Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the roll instability mechanism and stability index of articulated steering vehicles (ASVs by taking wheel loaders as the research object. A seven-degree-of-freedom nonlinear dynamics model of the ASVs is built on the basis of multibody dynamics. A physical prototype model of an ASV is designed and manufactured to validate the dynamic model. Test results reasonably agree with the simulation results, which indicates that the established dynamic model can reasonably describe ASV movements. Detailed analysis of the rollover stability of the wheel loader is performed with the use of the established dynamic model. Analysis results show that rollover will occur when the roll angular velocity exceeds a critical threshold, which is affected by lateral acceleration and slope angle. On this basis, a dynamic stability index applicable to the ASVs is presented.

  17. Modélisation de la liaison os-ligament dans l'articulation du genou

    OpenAIRE

    SUBIT, D

    2001-01-01

    Cette thèse est une contribution à l'amélioration de la connaissance des comportements mécaniques des tissus biologiques, en particulier dans le contexte accidentologique. L'objectif de cette étude biomécanique est de faire le lien entre les notions de lésions utilisées en clinique et celles d'endommagement et de rupture utilisées en mécanique. Elle porte sur la modélisation du comportement des ligaments dans l'articulation du genou humain, et s'intéresse plus particulièrement à l'insertion d...

  18. Articulating learning activities for design between university and the workplace. A didactic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Abdelkarim

    2013-08-01

    This paper accounts for research looking at the following question: in what way can university-located training activities be articulated with those in companies for work-based engineering students? Here, we will present an overview of research about both training periods, i.e. in the companies and at university. We focus on the trainee's actual activities and written work from a didactic point of view, a perspective which has been rarely mentioned in previous studies about work-based training in engineering. We aim to describe the activities of trainee engineers during industrial and academic training. Training activities in design engineering will be analysed in terms of knowledge acquisition and how this knowledge is put into practice during the two parts of the training. In doing so, we will obtain a better picture of what trainees, trainers and tutors really do.

  19. A computed torque method based attitude control with optimal force distribution for articulated body mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, Edwardo F.; Hirose, Shigeo [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    This paper introduces an attitude control scheme based in optimal force distribution using quadratic programming which minimizes joint energy consumption. This method shares similarities with force distribution for multifingered hands, multiple coordinated manipulators and legged walking robots. In particular, an attitude control scheme was introduced inside the force distribution problem, and successfully implemented for control of the articulated body mobile robot KR-II. This is an actual mobile robot composed of cylindrical segments linked in series by prismatic joints and has a long snake-like appearance. These prismatic joints are force controlled so that each segment's vertical motion can automatically follow the terrain irregularities. An attitude control is necessary because this system acts like a system of wheeled inverted pendulum carts connected in series, being unstable by nature. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by computer simulation and experiments with the robot KR-II. (author)

  20. Simulating Dynamics of the System of Articulated Rigid Bodies with Joint Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Michaylyuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the work is to simulate dynamics of the system of articulated rigid bodies in the virtual environment complexes. The work aim is to develop algorithms and methods to simulate the multi-body system dynamics with joint friction to ensure all calculations in real time in line with visual realistic behavior of objects in a scene.The paper describes the multibody system based on a maximal set of coordinates, and to simulate the joint friction is used a Coulomb's law of dry friction. Joints are described using the holonomic constraints and their derivatives that specify the constraints on velocities of joined bodies. Based on The Coulomb’s law a correlation for the friction impulse values has been derived as an inequality. If the friction impulse performs a constraint that is a lack of relative motion of two joint-joined bodies, there is a static friction in the joint. Otherwise, there is a dynamic friction in the joint. Using a semi-implicit Euler method allows us to describe dynamics of articulated rigid bodies with joint friction as a system of linear algebraic equations and inequalities for the unknown velocities and impulse values.To solve the obtained system of equations and inequalities is used an iterative method of sequential impulses, which sequentially processes constraints for each joint with impulse calculation and its application to the joined bodies rather than considers the entire system. To improve the method convergence, at each iteration the calculated impulses are accumulated for their further using as an initial approximation at the next step of simulation.The proposed algorithms and methods have been implemented in the training complex dynamics subsystem, developed in SRISA RAS. Evaluation of these methods and algorithms has demonstrated their full adequacy to requirements for virtual environment systems and training complexes.

  1. Articulated dual modality photoacoustic and optical coherence tomography probe for preclinical and clinical imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengyang; Zabihian, Behrooz; Weingast, Jessika; Hermann, Boris; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Edward Z.; Beard, Paul C.; Pehamberger, Hubert; Drexler, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    The combination of photoacoustic tomography (PAT) with optical coherence tomography (OCT) has seen steady progress over the past few years. With the benchtop and semi-benchtop configurations, preclinical and clinical results have been demonstrated, paving the way for wider applications using dual modality PAT/OCT systems. However, as for the most updated semi-benchtop PAT/OCT system which employs a Fabry-Perot polymer film sensor, it is restricted to only human palm imaging due to the limited flexibility of the probe. The passband limit of the polymer film sensor further restricts the OCT source selection and reduces the sensitivity of the combined OCT system. To tackle these issues, we developed an articulated PAT/OCT probe for both preclinical and clinical applications. In the probe design, the sample arm of OCT sub-system and the interrogation part of the PAT sub-system are integrated into one compact unit. The polymer film sensor has a quick release function so that before each OCT scan, the sensor can be taken off to avoid the sensitivity drop and artefacts in OCT. The holding mechanism of the sensor is also more compact compared to previous designs, permitting access to uneven surfaces of the subjects. With the help of the articulated probe and a patient chair, we are able to perform co-registered imaging on human subjects on both upper and lower extremities while they are at rest positions. An increase in performance characteristics is also achieved. Patients with skin diseases are currently being recruited to test its clinical feasibility.

  2. A Parametric Model of Shoulder Articulation for Virtual Assessment of Space Suit Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. Han; Young, Karen S.; Bernal, Yaritza; Boppana, Abhishektha; Vu, Linh Q.; Benson, Elizabeth A.; Jarvis, Sarah; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.

    2016-01-01

    Shoulder injury is one of the most severe risks that have the potential to impair crewmembers' performance and health in long duration space flight. Overall, 64% of crewmembers experience shoulder pain after extra-vehicular training in a space suit, and 14% of symptomatic crewmembers require surgical repair (Williams & Johnson, 2003). Suboptimal suit fit, in particular at the shoulder region, has been identified as one of the predominant risk factors. However, traditional suit fit assessments and laser scans represent only a single person's data, and thus may not be generalized across wide variations of body shapes and poses. The aim of this work is to develop a software tool based on a statistical analysis of a large dataset of crewmember body shapes. This tool can accurately predict the skin deformation and shape variations for any body size and shoulder pose for a target population, from which the geometry can be exported and evaluated against suit models in commercial CAD software. A preliminary software tool was developed by statistically analyzing 150 body shapes matched with body dimension ranges specified in the Human-Systems Integration Requirements of NASA ("baseline model"). Further, the baseline model was incorporated with shoulder joint articulation ("articulation model"), using additional subjects scanned in a variety of shoulder poses across a pre-specified range of motion. Scan data was cleaned and aligned using body landmarks. The skin deformation patterns were dimensionally reduced and the co-variation with shoulder angles was analyzed. A software tool is currently in development and will be presented in the final proceeding. This tool would allow suit engineers to parametrically generate body shapes in strategically targeted anthropometry dimensions and shoulder poses. This would also enable virtual fit assessments, with which the contact volume and clearance between the suit and body surface can be predictively quantified at reduced time and

  3. Trajectory control of an articulated robot with a parallel drive arm based on splines under tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Seung-Jong

    Today's industrial robots controlled by mini/micro computers are basically simple positioning devices. The positioning accuracy depends on the mathematical description of the robot configuration to place the end-effector at the desired position and orientation within the workspace and on following the specified path which requires the trajectory planner. In addition, the consideration of joint velocity, acceleration, and jerk trajectories are essential for trajectory planning of industrial robots to obtain smooth operation. The newly designed 6 DOF articulated robot with a parallel drive arm mechanism which permits the joint actuators to be placed in the same horizontal line to reduce the arm inertia and to increase load capacity and stiffness is selected. First, the forward kinematic and inverse kinematic problems are examined. The forward kinematic equations are successfully derived based on Denavit-Hartenberg notation with independent joint angle constraints. The inverse kinematic problems are solved using the arm-wrist partitioned approach with independent joint angle constraints. Three types of curve fitting methods used in trajectory planning, i.e., certain degree polynomial functions, cubic spline functions, and cubic spline functions under tension, are compared to select the best possible method to satisfy both smooth joint trajectories and positioning accuracy for a robot trajectory planner. Cubic spline functions under tension is the method selected for the new trajectory planner. This method is implemented for a 6 DOF articulated robot with a parallel drive arm mechanism to improve the smoothness of the joint trajectories and the positioning accuracy of the manipulator. Also, this approach is compared with existing trajectory planners, 4-3-4 polynomials and cubic spline functions, via circular arc motion simulations. The new trajectory planner using cubic spline functions under tension is implemented into the microprocessor based robot controller and

  4. 循环球式电动助力转向器在纯电动客车上的应用%Application of Circulating Ball Type Electric Power Steering Gear to Pure Electric Buses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶成友

    2015-01-01

    In view of the problems of the traditional circulating ball type steering gear now used in pure electric bus-es, such as difficult arrangement, high cost and great electric power consumption,the author introduces a circulating ball type electric power steering gear on pure electric buses.%针对目前纯电动客车上采用的传统循环球式转向器存在布置难度大、成本高、耗电量大等问题,介绍一种循环球式电动助力转向器在纯电动客车上的解决方案。

  5. The Active Role of Instruments in Articulating Knowing and Knowledge: The Case of Animal Qualification Practices in Breeding Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labatut, Julie; Aggeri, Franck; Astruc, Jean-Michel; Bibe, Bernard; Girard, Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of instruments defined as artefacts, rules, models or norms, in the articulation between knowing-in-practice and knowledge, in learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on a distributed, knowledge-intensive and instrumented activity at the core of any collective…

  6. Testing Orofacial Abilities of Children Who Stutter: The Movement, Articulation, Mandibular and Sensory Awareness (MAMS) Assessment Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Susanne; Rieger, Martina; Donlan, Chris; Howell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to introduce a new assessment designed to measure the orofacial abilities of children who stutter (CWS), the Movement, Articulation, Mandibular and Sensory Awareness (MAMS) Orofacial Assessment. The new instrument was developed and validated to measure orofacial abilities in a comprehensive manner. Design:…

  7. Using Standardized Tests to Inventory Consonant and Vowel Production: A Comparison of 11 Tests of Articulation and Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Hitchcock, Elaine R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This report considered the validity of making conclusions about a child's phonetic inventory (the sounds a child can and cannot produce spontaneously without a prior model or other stimulation) based on the data from standardized single-word tests of articulation or phonology. Method: We evaluated the opportunities for production of…

  8. Investigating the Effects of Professional Practice Program on Teacher Education Students' Ability to Articulate Educational Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weshah, Hani A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in pre-service student teachers' ability to articulate a philosophy education during the field experience. Educational philosophy change for the participants (77) was measured by using Jersin's scale. Evaluations of scores involved comparison of pre and post the training program.…

  9. Sharing the Vision: Curriculum Articulation in Math and Science K-U in an Urban School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Karen I.; And Others

    This paper presents a site and project description and the conceptual framework of the Curriculum Articulation Project (CAP) and its relation to current math and science education reform initiatives. CAP is based on the notion that the teacher is the best individual to ascertain the learning needs of the urban, and often economically…

  10. The impact of mandibular advancement on articulation, resonance and voice characteristics in Flemish speaking adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lierde, K M; Schepers, S; Timmermans, L; Verhoye, I; Van Cauwenberge, P

    2006-02-01

    Bilateral saggital split osteotomy (BSSO) of the mandible is a frequently performed mandibular orthognathic procedure, used to resolve mandibular disharmonies. Literature review showed contradictory findings regarding the effect of the orthognathic surgery on speech characteristics. The purpose of the present study was to determine a detailed analysis of the articulation, resonance and voice characteristics after BSSO with mandibular advancement for the treatment of Class II malocclusions using objective and subjective assessment techniques (perceptual evaluations, Dysphonia Severity Index, nasalance scores) in eight subjects. The findings of the present study indicate that before and after BSSO with mandibular advancement three types of articulation disorders may predominate in the Flemish language: the incorrect production of the trill sound /r/ and the /s/ sound and devoicing of the /z/. After orthognathic surgery most patients showed an identical articulation pattern (normal or disturbed pattern) as in the presurgical condition. In this study the BSSO with mandibular advancement had no significant impact on the nasality characteristics and the nasalance values probably due to the competent velopharyngeal valving in the presurgical condition. And, as expected the vocal quality revealed no significant difference. The maxillofacial surgeon and the speech language pathologist must be aware of the persistency of these preoperative articulation errors in the postsurgical condition.

  11. Malocclusion and articulation disorders in mouth breathing children from public schools in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Toniolo da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the occurrence and types of malocclusion and articulation disorders in mouth breathing children at public schools.Methods: An evaluation was made of 219 children of both genders, between 5 and 12 years of age, attending two public schools in the city of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; with 121 mouth breather children being selected for this study. Orthodontic and phonoaudiological evaluation were made to verify the breathing mode and presence or absence of malocclusion and articulation disorders.Results: It was observed that 100% of the mouth breather children presented malocclusion, 49.60% being Angle’s Class II, 48.76% ClassI and 1.65% Class III. It was also verified that 18.2% of the mouth breather children presented articulation disturbance. Conclusion: All mouth breathing children presented some type of malocclusion, the majority being Angle’s Class II, followed by Class I. The articulation disorders most frequently observed was anterior lisping.

  12. To bend a coralline: effect of joint morphology on flexibility and stress amplification in an articulated calcified seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martone, Patrick T; Denny, Mark W

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that fleshy seaweeds resist wave-induced drag forces in part by being flexible. Flexibility allows fronds to 'go with the flow', reconfiguring into streamlined shapes and reducing frond area projected into flow. This paradigm extends even to articulated coralline algae, which produce calcified fronds that are flexible only because they have distinct joints (genicula). The evolution of flexibility through genicula was a major event that allowed articulated coralline algae to grow elaborate erect fronds in wave-exposed habitats. Here we describe the mechanics of genicula in the articulated coralline Calliarthron and demonstrate how segmentation affects bending performance and amplifies bending stresses within genicula. A numerical model successfully predicted deflections of articulated fronds by assuming genicula to be assemblages of cables connecting adjacent calcified segments (intergenicula). By varying the dimensions of genicula in the model, we predicted the optimal genicular morphology that maximizes flexibility while minimizing stress amplification. Morphological dimensions of genicula most prone to bending stresses (i.e. genicula near the base of fronds) match model predictions.

  13. Positive Role Models vs. Bullies: Can They Be Distinguished by Following Articulate Animals into Worlds of Suspended Disbelief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Orally and later in written form, stories have been used to identify and reinforce the values of a culture. The parables of the Bible and the vocalization of articulate animals in Aesop fables continue to be used to teach morals to children. While the majority of existing research investigates the effective use of animals as a tool in character…

  14. Datafication and empowerment : How the open data movement re-articulates notions of democracy, participation, and journalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baack, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This article shows how activists in the open data movement re-articulate notions of democracy, participation, and journalism by applying practices and values from open source culture to the creation and use of data. Focusing on the Open Knowledge Foundation Germany and drawing from a combination of

  15. High-Resolution, Non-Invasive Imaging of Upper Vocal Tract Articulators Compatible with Human Brain Recordings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer E Bouchard

    Full Text Available A complete neurobiological understanding of speech motor control requires determination of the relationship between simultaneously recorded neural activity and the kinematics of the lips, jaw, tongue, and larynx. Many speech articulators are internal to the vocal tract, and therefore simultaneously tracking the kinematics of all articulators is nontrivial--especially in the context of human electrophysiology recordings. Here, we describe a noninvasive, multi-modal imaging system to monitor vocal tract kinematics, demonstrate this system in six speakers during production of nine American English vowels, and provide new analysis of such data. Classification and regression analysis revealed considerable variability in the articulator-to-acoustic relationship across speakers. Non-negative matrix factorization extracted basis sets capturing vocal tract shapes allowing for higher vowel classification accuracy than traditional methods. Statistical speech synthesis generated speech from vocal tract measurements, and we demonstrate perceptual identification. We demonstrate the capacity to predict lip kinematics from ventral sensorimotor cortical activity. These results demonstrate a multi-modal system to non-invasively monitor articulator kinematics during speech production, describe novel analytic methods for relating kinematic data to speech acoustics, and provide the first decoding of speech kinematics from electrocorticography. These advances will be critical for understanding the cortical basis of speech production and the creation of vocal prosthetics.

  16. High-Resolution, Non-Invasive Imaging of Upper Vocal Tract Articulators Compatible with Human Brain Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumanchipalli, Gopala K.; Dichter, Benjamin; Chaisanguanthum, Kris S.; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F.

    2016-01-01

    A complete neurobiological understanding of speech motor control requires determination of the relationship between simultaneously recorded neural activity and the kinematics of the lips, jaw, tongue, and larynx. Many speech articulators are internal to the vocal tract, and therefore simultaneously tracking the kinematics of all articulators is nontrivial—especially in the context of human electrophysiology recordings. Here, we describe a noninvasive, multi-modal imaging system to monitor vocal tract kinematics, demonstrate this system in six speakers during production of nine American English vowels, and provide new analysis of such data. Classification and regression analysis revealed considerable variability in the articulator-to-acoustic relationship across speakers. Non-negative matrix factorization extracted basis sets capturing vocal tract shapes allowing for higher vowel classification accuracy than traditional methods. Statistical speech synthesis generated speech from vocal tract measurements, and we demonstrate perceptual identification. We demonstrate the capacity to predict lip kinematics from ventral sensorimotor cortical activity. These results demonstrate a multi-modal system to non-invasively monitor articulator kinematics during speech production, describe novel analytic methods for relating kinematic data to speech acoustics, and provide the first decoding of speech kinematics from electrocorticography. These advances will be critical for understanding the cortical basis of speech production and the creation of vocal prosthetics. PMID:27019106

  17. What to Read on Love, not Sex: Freud, Fiction, and the Articulation of Truth in Modern Psychological Science

    OpenAIRE

    Miyawaki, Edison M.D.

    2012-01-01

    What to Read on Love, not Sex examines Sigmund Freud’s career-long reliance on tragedy, myth, scripture, and art to articulate a psychology of love. The author, a neurologist and psychiatrist at Harvard, rethinks Freud’s relevance for modern psychology.

  18. Boundaries to the articulation of possible selves through social networking sites: the case of Facebook profilers' social connectedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, S.; Araujo, T.; Boukes, M.; Willemsen, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to an emerging literature that seeks to understand how identity markers on social networking sites (SNSs) shape interpersonal impressions, and particularly the boundaries that SNSs present for articulating unconstrained 'hoped-for possible selves.' An experiment employi

  19. Natural gas engines; An eco-friendly alternative for buses, communal and distribution vehicles. Erdgasmotoren; Eine umweltfreundliche Alternative fuer Busse, Kommunal- und Verteilerfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signer, M. (Iveco Motorenforschung AG, Arbon (Switzerland))

    1994-01-01

    Natural gas engines for buses, communal and distribution vehicles are an eco-friendly alternative. The exhaust emission values are distinctly lower than the Euro 2-Limit Values for 1995/1996 and lower than the discussed Euro 3 limits. As a result of the change to spark ignition and the reduced engine efficiency obtained, the natural gas engines consume 20 and more per cent energy. The CO[sub 2] emission are, however, comparable with those of a diesel engine. The vehicle fuel tanks are voluminous and heavy. Compromises must be made for the installation in vehicles which results in a reduction of the payload. Cost-favourable and lighter tanks would increase the attractivity of such vehicles. The natural gas vehicle is, at least today, dependent on a central refueling system (compressor station) at the vehicle operator or in his nearer neighbourhood. For the general and flexible operation of any type of utility vehicle, the diesel engine is and remains the optimum solution in view of ecology and economy. (orig.)

  20. Shaping the Future of Foreign Language Education: FLES, Articulation, and Proficiency. Report of Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, John F. II, Ed.

    Selected papers from the 1988 conference on foreign language issues for the future include: "Articulation for Elementary School Foreign Language Programs: Challenges and Opportunities" (Carol Ann Pesola); "Articulation: A Resolvable Problem?" (Dale L. Lange); "Profiles of Frustration: Second Language Learners with Specific Learning Disabilities"…

  1. Few adverse reactions to metal on metal articulation in total hip arthroplasty in a review study on 358 consecutive cases with 1 to 5 years follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stürup, Jens; Dahl, Line; Jensen, Karl Erik;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of adverse reaction to metal on metal total hip arthroplasty using a M2a-38 articulation and a Magnum articulation, (Biomet Warsaw, Indiana).All patients who had received a Metal on Metal bearing prosthesis, in two centres in Copenhagen...

  2. Un Programa de Espanol para Colegio Universitario: Esfuerzos por Lograr una Mejor Articulacion (A Spanish Program for Colleges and Universities: Efforts to Improve Articulation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latoja, Luis E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a three-year plan for colleges and universities in which the Spanish program attempts to increase its course offerings and improve articulation within the institution. The program is designed to put into practice the goals of a regional collaborative project on articulation of which the university is an integral part. (six references)…

  3. Forum for Change. An Articulation Workshop for Secondary and Post-Secondary Educators to Promote Equal Access in Vocational Education (Harlingen, Texas, February 17, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Service Center Region 2, Corpus Christi, TX.

    This volume contains materials for use in conducting an articulation workshop to train secondary and postsecondary educators to promote equal access to vocational education. Addressed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: inequalities in the workplace, the role of articulation in promoting equal access, outreach, career…

  4. Using articulation and inscription as catalysts for reflection: Design principles for reflective inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Ben Tun-Bin

    2003-07-01

    The demand for students to engage in complex student-driven and information-rich inquiry investigations poses challenges to existing learning environments. Students are not familiar with this style of work, and lack the skills, tools, and expectations it demands, often forging blindly forward in the investigation. If students are to be successful, they need to learn to be reflective inquirers, periodically stepping back from an investigation to evaluate their work. The fundamental goal of my dissertation is to understand how to design learning environments to promote and support reflective inquiry. I have three basic research questions: how to define this mode of work, how to help students learn it, and understanding how it facilitates reflection when enacted in a classroom. I take an exploratory approach in which, through iterative cycles of design, development, and reflection, I develop principles of design for reflective inquiry, instantiate those principles in the design of a software environment, and test that software in the context of classroom work. My work contributes to the understanding of reflective inquiry in three ways: First, I define a task model that describes the kinds of operations (cognitive tasks) that students should engage in as reflective inquirers. These operations are defined in terms of two basic tasks: articulation and inscription, which serve as catalysts for externalizing student thinking as objects of and triggers for reflection. Second, I instantiate the task model in the design of software tools (the Progress Portfolio). And, through proof of concept pilot studies, I examine how the task model and tools helped students with their investigative classroom work. Finally, I take a step back from these implementations and articulate general design principles for reflective inquiry with the goal of informing the design of other reflective inquiry learning environments. There are three design principles: (1) Provide a designated work space

  5. Dimensionality Reduction in Controlling Articulated Snake Robot for Endoscopy Under Dynamic Active Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Ka-Wai; Tsoi, Kuen Hung; Vitiello, Valentina; Clark, James; Chow, Gary C. T.; Luk, Wayne; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time control framework for a snake robot with hyper-kinematic redundancy under dynamic active constraints for minimally invasive surgery. A proximity query (PQ) formulation is proposed to compute the deviation of the robot motion from predefined anatomical constraints. The proposed method is generic and can be applied to any snake robot represented as a set of control vertices. The proposed PQ formulation is implemented on a graphic processing unit, allowing for fast updates over 1 kHz. We also demonstrate that the robot joint space can be characterized into lower dimensional space for smooth articulation. A novel motion parameterization scheme in polar coordinates is proposed to describe the transition of motion, thus allowing for direct manual control of the robot using standard interface devices with limited degrees of freedom. Under the proposed framework, the correct alignment between the visual and motor axes is ensured, and haptic guidance is provided to prevent excessive force applied to the tissue by the robot body. A resistance force is further incorporated to enhance smooth pursuit movement matched to the dynamic response and actuation limit of the robot. To demonstrate the practical value of the proposed platform with enhanced ergonomic control, detailed quantitative performance evaluation was conducted on a group of subjects performing simulated intraluminal and intracavity endoscopic tasks. PMID:24741371

  6. Audiovisual contrast enhancement is articulated primarily via the M-pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekl, Philip M; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2010-12-17

    Although it has been previously reported that audiovisual integration can modulate performance on some visual tasks, multisensory interactions have not been explicitly assessed in the context of different visual processing pathways. In the present study, we test auditory influences on visual processing employing a psychophysical paradigm that reveals distinct spatial contrast signatures of magnocellular and parvocellular visual pathways. We found that contrast thresholds are reduced when noninformative sounds are presented with transient, low-frequency Gabor patch stimuli and thus favor the M-system. In contrast, visual thresholds are unaffected by concurrent sounds when detection is primarily attributed to P-pathway processing. These results demonstrate that the visual detection enhancement resulting from multisensory integration is mainly articulated by the magnocellular system, which is most sensitive at low spatial frequencies. Such enhancement may subserve stimulus-driven processes including the orientation of spatial attention and fast, automatic ocular and motor responses. This dissociation helps explain discrepancies between the results of previous studies investigating visual enhancement by sounds.

  7. Automatic detection of articulation disorders in children with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Andreas; Hönig, Florian; Bocklet, Tobias; Nöth, Elmar; Stelzle, Florian; Nkenke, Emeka; Schuster, Maria

    2009-11-01

    Speech of children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) is sometimes still disordered even after adequate surgical and nonsurgical therapies. Such speech shows complex articulation disorders, which are usually assessed perceptually, consuming time and manpower. Hence, there is a need for an easy to apply and reliable automatic method. To create a reference for an automatic system, speech data of 58 children with CLP were assessed perceptually by experienced speech therapists for characteristic phonetic disorders at the phoneme level. The first part of the article aims to detect such characteristics by a semiautomatic procedure and the second to evaluate a fully automatic, thus simple, procedure. The methods are based on a combination of speech processing algorithms. The semiautomatic method achieves moderate to good agreement (kappa approximately 0.6) for the detection of all phonetic disorders. On a speaker level, significant correlations between the perceptual evaluation and the automatic system of 0.89 are obtained. The fully automatic system yields a correlation on the speaker level of 0.81 to the perceptual evaluation. This correlation is in the range of the inter-rater correlation of the listeners. The automatic speech evaluation is able to detect phonetic disorders at an experts'level without any additional human postprocessing.

  8. How theory is used and articulated in qualitative research: development of a new typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie; Herber, Oliver

    2014-11-01

    There is a long tradition within qualitative research of theory being central and of critical importance. Qualitative research theory often equates with the methodologies used but this is a complex relationship, plagued by lack of consensus among scholars regarding how theory and methodology are related. This article furthers the debates on how theories are used in qualitative research, how they might influence a study and how they are articulated in publications. The aim is to provide a framework through which the relationship between theory and qualitative research can be understood. We propose a five-point typology on the levels of theoretical visibility, testing this against a range of published research from five key international health, medicine and social science journals. The typology captures a range of visibility--from seemingly absent through to highly visible and applied throughout. There was a clear gradient in this assessment--only a minority appeared to use theory consistently throughout a study. We outline several challenges to consistently applying theory in qualitative research and suggest potential solutions. This article is based on the argument that lack of theory in qualitative research undermines its quality. The typology is offered to assist researchers in applying theory in their own research and critiquing its use in the work of others.

  9. The intelligibility of words, sentences, and continuous discourse using the articulation index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaolis, R. A.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of message redundancy upon intelligibility. The original methodology for the Articulation Index (AI) French and Steinberg, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 19, 90-119, 1947 was used to examine the relation between words, meaningful sentences, and continuous discourse (CD). One primary consideration was to derive the relations between the three speech types with tightly controlled, highly repeatable experimental conditions such that any difference between them could be attributed solely to inherent contextual differences. One male speaker recorded 616 monosyllabic words, 176 meaningful speech perception in noise (SPIN) sentences, and 44 seventh-grade reading level CD passages. Twenty-four normal hearing subjects made intelligibility estimates of the CD and sentences and identified words at each of 44 conditions of filtering and signal-to-noise ratio. The sentence intelligibility scores and continuous discourse intelligibility scores plotted versus the AI (transfer function) were within 0.05 AI of each other. The word recognition scores were considerably lower for equivalent AI values of both sentences and CD.

  10. Little value creation, articulation and propagating forces: A hypothesis for the Mexican manufacturing sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Roca T

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the impact of Mexican trade and productive integration processes during the last 20 years. It finds evidence that growing per capita income in Mexico is directly related to its “trade opening”, but is inversely related to the growth of its manufacturing export industry. Specifically, for each point of growth in “trade opening” (as a proportion of GDP per capita income grew by 0.22%; while each point of increase in the share of industrial exports reduced income per person by 0.09%. To explain this apparent contradiction between the positive effect of “trade opening” and the negative impact of productive manufacturing specialization, we examined the characteristics of Mexico's industry. Results show that although Mexico's export-led industrialization successfully adapted to the world market and transformed its productive, business, organizational and technological structure, it did not translate into adequate macroeconomic benefits due to the absence of strong value dissemination forces over the rest of the economy. In this sense, poor internal linkages in the maquila industry, its high propensity to import, and its limited value added generation, among other elements, led the Mexican industry to operate as an export enclave. In those circumstances, manufacturing does not generates positive externalities nor articulations, nor strong disseminations that increase and multiplies value in other sectors of industry, thus limiting expansion effects and restraining or even reducing-under some specific circumstances-per capita income growth.

  11. What's in and what's out in branding? A novel articulation effect for brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Zürn, Michael; Schneider, Iris K

    2015-01-01

    The present approach exploits the biomechanical connection between articulation and ingestion-related mouth movements to introduce a novel psychological principle of brand name design. We constructed brand names for diverse products with consonantal stricture spots either from the front to the rear of the mouth, thus inwards (e.g., BODIKA), or from the rear to the front, thus outwards (e.g., KODIBA). These muscle dynamics resemble the oral kinematics during either ingestion (inwards), which feels positive, or expectoration (outwards), which feels negative. In 7 experiments (total N = 1261), participants liked products with inward names more than products with outward names (Experiment 1), reported higher purchase intentions (Experiment 2), and higher willingness-to-pay (Experiments 3a-3c, 4, 5), with the price gain amounting to 4-13% of the average estimated product value. These effects occurred across English and German language, under silent reading, for both edible and non-edible products, and even in the presence of a much stronger price determinant, namely fair-trade production (Experiment 5).

  12. Sometimes it does hurt to ask: the constructive role of articulating impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lee C; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2014-10-01

    Decisions can sometimes have a constructive role, so that the act of, for example, choosing one option over another creates a preference for that option (e.g., Ariely & Norton, 2008; Payne, Bettman, & Johnson, 1993; Sharot, Velasquez, & Dolan, 2010; Sherman, 1980). In this work we explore the constructive role of just articulating an impression, for a presented visual stimulus, as opposed to making a choice (specifically, the judgments we employ are affective evaluations). Using quantum probability theory, we outline a cognitive model formalizing such a constructive process. We predict a simple interaction, in relation to how a second image is evaluated, following the presentation of a first image, depending on whether there is a rating for the first image or not. The interaction predicted by the quantum model was confirmed across three experiments and a variety of control manipulations. The advantages of using quantum probability theory to model the present results, compared with existing models of sequence order effects in judgment (e.g., Hogarth & Einhorn, 1992) or other theories of constructive processes when a choice is made (e.g., Festinger, 1957; Sharot et al., 2010) are discussed.

  13. Development of a long reach articulated manipulator for ITER in vessel inspection under vacuum and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrot, Y. E-mail: yann.perrot@cea.fr; Cordier, J.J.; Friconneau, J.P.; Maisonnier, D.; Martin, E.; Palmer, J.D

    2003-09-01

    This project takes place in the EFDA Remote Handling (RH) activities for the fusion reactor International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The aim of the R and D program is to demonstrate the feasibility of in-vessel RH intervention by a long reach, limited payload manipulator which penetrates the first wall using the six IVVS penetrations. Potential activities for this device include close inspection of the plasma facing surfaces and leak detection. The work includes the design, manufacture and testing of a demonstrator articulated manipulator called the In-Vessel Penetrator (IVP). The first part of this work concerned the analysis of the requirements and resulted in the development of the conceptual design of the overall manipulator, comprising a 5 module, 11 d.o.f robot based on a parallelogram structure. A scale one mock up of a representative segment was manufactured and tested. In parallel, a feasibility study of the IVP operation was made and provided recommendations to modify the design for intervention under vacuum and temperature. Some technologies were selected and analysed to determine their suitability to the IVP application and items identified for further validation. This paper presents the whole robot concept, the results of the test campaign on the prototype demonstrator and the vacuum and temperature technologies study.

  14. Experiment and Simulation for Articulated Lifting Subsystem of 1000 m Deep Sea Mining System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The experiment system of 1000 m deep sea mining system is built up with the similarity theory. Sine mechanism is used to simulate mining ship to generate lateral shock excitation by ocean wave. Simulation and experiment of spherical joint connecting deep sea mining system has been done in band six marine conditions. The results indicate that the moment of spherical joint connecting deep sea mining is smaller than that of the thread connected ones, the lifting pipe of spherical joint is "flexible pipe". The flexural torque of the articulated lifting pipe system in pump and buffer is generally periodic variation with some irregularity, the value is stable on 60 N·S, and it is obviously smaller than that of the fixed lifting pipe system; The total displacement exhibits cyclic variation pattern, and the periodicity of them is longer than that of sea current. The results of experiment and simulation are basically consistent. And the analysis in the paper offers theoretical foundation of 1000 m deep sea mining system in China.

  15. Ertapenem Articulating Spacer for the Treatment of Polymicrobial Total Knee Arthroplasty Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Radoicic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs are the primary cause of early failure of the total knee arthroplasty (TKA. Polymicrobial TKA infections are often associated with a higher risk of treatment failure. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of ertapenem loaded spacers in the treatment of polymicrobial PJI. Methods. There were 18 patients enrolled; nine patients with polymicrobial PJI treated with ertapenem loaded articulating spacers were compared to the group of 9 patients treated with vancomycin or ceftazidime loaded spacers. Results. Successful reimplantation with revision implants was possible in 66.67%. Ertapenem spacers were used in 6 cases in primary two-stage procedure and in 3 cases in secondary spacer exchange. Successful infection eradication was achieved in all cases; final reimplantation with revision knee arthroplasty implants was possible in 6 cases. Conclusion. Ertapenem can be successfully used as antimicrobial addition to the cement spacers in two-stage revision treatment of polymicrobial PJIs. However, this type of spacer may also be useful in the treatment of infections caused by monomicrobial extended spectrum beta-lactamases producing gram-negative bacilli. Further clinical studies are required to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ertapenem spacers in the treatment of polymicrobial and monomicrobial PJIs.

  16. A New Flatness Pattern Recognition Model Based on Cerebellar Model Articulation Controllers Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hai-tao; LI Yan

    2008-01-01

    In the traditional flatness pattern recognition neural network,the topologic configurations need to be rebuilt with a changing width of cold strip.Furthermore,the large learning assignment,slow convergence,and local minimum in the network are observed.Moreover,going by the structure of the tradtional neural network,according to experience,the model is time-consuming and complex.Thus,a new approach of flatness pattern recognition is proposed based on the CMAC (cerebellar model articulation controllers) neural network.The difference in fuzzy distances between samples and the basic patterns is introduced as the input of the CMAC network.Simultaneously,the adequate learning rate is improved in the error correction algorithm of this neural network.The new approach with advantages,such as high learning speed,good generalization,and easy implementation,is efficient and intelligent.The simulation results show that the speed and accuracy of the flatness pattern recognition model are obviously improved.

  17. The challenge of to be psychotherapist: articulations between inspiration heideggerian and winnicottian clinical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Maria Aragão Ximenes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The welcoming in the clinical psychology appeared as one of the greatest clashes in contemporary times. This paper intends to reflect the be psychotherapist a perspective approaching ourselves even more of experience of to lean front to suffering of another in a welcoming attitude Inspired by the central concepts of "care" in daseinsanalytic clinic and "holding" in Winnicott's thinking, we will search for elucidate the theme, detaching  the ethical commitment this professional in the context of psychological clinic. To this, we will make a brief outline of the guiding characteristics of Daseinsanalyse and of the clinic in Winnicott's perspective, specifically highlighting the figure of the psychotherapist and its implications in relation to the other; We will propose to make possible bind off between these different looks, safeguarding the immediate experience of what for us representing your practice. In a last moment, we will point out that such articulations lead us to think beyond a psychological clinic to service of an adaptation to the social context.

  18. Computer vision system R&D for EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Linglong, E-mail: linglonglin@ipp.ac.cn; Song, Yuntao, E-mail: songyt@ipp.ac.cn; Yang, Yang, E-mail: yangy@ipp.ac.cn; Feng, Hansheng, E-mail: hsfeng@ipp.ac.cn; Cheng, Yong, E-mail: chengyong@ipp.ac.cn; Pan, Hongtao, E-mail: panht@ipp.ac.cn

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • We discussed the image preprocessing, object detection and pose estimation algorithms under poor light condition of inner vessel of EAST tokamak. • The main pipeline, including contours detection, contours filter, MER extracted, object location and pose estimation, was carried out in detail. • The technical issues encountered during the research were discussed. - Abstract: Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) is the first full superconducting tokamak device which was constructed at Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). The EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm (EAMA) robot provides the means of the in-vessel maintenance such as inspection and picking up the fragments of first wall. This paper presents a method to identify and locate the fragments semi-automatically by using the computer vision. The use of computer vision in identification and location faces some difficult challenges such as shadows, poor contrast, low illumination level, less texture and so on. The method developed in this paper enables credible identification of objects with shadows through invariant image and edge detection. The proposed algorithms are validated through our ASIPP robotics and computer vision platform (ARVP). The results show that the method can provide a 3D pose with reference to robot base so that objects with different shapes and size can be picked up successfully.

  19. Mechanism and Design Analysis of Articulated Ankle Foot Orthoses for Drop-Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morshed Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotic technologies are being employed increasingly in the treatment of lower limb disabilities. Individuals suffering from stroke and other neurological disorders often experience inadequate dorsiflexion during swing phase of the gait cycle due to dorsiflexor muscle weakness. This type of pathological gait, mostly known as drop-foot gait, has two major complications, foot-slap during loading response and toe-drag during swing. Ankle foot orthotic (AFO devices are mostly prescribed to resolve these complications. Existing AFOs are designed with or without articulated joint with various motion control elements like springs, dampers, four-bar mechanism, series elastic actuator, and so forth. This paper examines various AFO designs for drop-foot, discusses the mechanism, and identifies limitations and remaining design challenges. Along with two commercially available AFOs some designs possess promising prospective to be used as daily-wear device. However, the design and mechanism of AFO must ensure compactness, light weight, low noise, and high efficiency. These entailments present significant engineering challenges to develop a new design with wide consumer adoption.

  20. Computerized Method for Diagnosing and Analyzing Speech Articulation Disorder for Malay Language Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Nizam Mazenan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a computerized technique that uses speech recognition as a helping tool in speech therapy diagnosis for early detection. Somehow speech disorder can be divided into few categories which not all type will be fully covered in this research. This study only purposes a solving method for diagnosis of a patient that suffers from articulation disorder. Therefore a set of Malay language vocabulary has already been designed to tackle this issue where it will cover selected Malay consonants as a target words. Ten Malay target words had been choose to test the recognition accuracy of this system and the sample are taken from real patient from Hospital Sultanah Aminah (HSA: Speech therapist at Speech Therapy Center where the hospital assists in the clinical trial. The result accuracy of the systems will help the Speech Therapist (ST to give an early diagnosis analysis for the patient before next step can be purposed. An early percentage of correct sample achieved almost 50% in this experiment.

  1. The Optimal Design of Articulated Point Location Articulated Mechanical Change Diretion Hydraulic Pressure Vat%铰接式机械转向液压缸铰接点位置的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张中元

    2001-01-01

    According to the most left and right side for front m achine frame, this paper introduces the optimal design of articulated point loca tion of change direction hydraulic pressure vat.%以前车架在最左和最右转向位置为计算点,对转向液压缸铰接点位置进行了优化设计。

  2. 铰接式车体应用及研究现状概述%Summary of Articulated Vehicle Application and Research Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨众; 贾小平; 于魁龙; 马骏

    2015-01-01

    为使车辆研究领域相关人员对铰接式车体有更加深刻的认识,通过对典型铰接式车辆、铰接式机器人的应用情况以及铰接式车体最新理论研究成果进行梳理总结,概述了铰接式车体的应用及研究现状。认为小型化、多自由度化及功能可拓展化是铰接式车体的未来发展趋势,为以后铰接式车体的设计研究提供了一定的思路。%To let the research personnel have more profound understanding at articulated vehicles, the application of typical articulated vehicles and articulated robots as well as the latest theoretical research results of articulated vehicle bodies are sum-marized, the application and research status of articulated vehicles are described. It’s considered that miniaturization, multi-de-gree of freedom and function expandable is the future development trend of articulated vehicles , providing some ideas for future design and research of articulated vehicle body.

  3. Implications of Shared Interactive Displays for Work at a Surgery Ward: Coordination, Articulation Work and Context-awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Jensen, Lis Witte Kjær

    2008-01-01

    appropriate meaning to new clues by clinicians and learning new ways of cooperating. Trade-offs had to be made, since work and benefits were differentially redistributed. We propose that computer support for medical work should support flexible appropriation and learning.......We report on experiences gained from the use at a surgery ward of shared interactive displays to support coordination and communication.  The displays merge large displays, video feed, RFID tag, chat and mobile phones to facilitate better coordination and articulation of work tasks and enhance...... context-awareness of collaborating physicians, nurses and surgery technicians. We focus on the implication of the systems for work and describe the changes in coordination, articulation work and context-awareness that occurred. This implied creating a fit between technology and work, attributing...

  4. Value of acoustic perceptual method for analysis of compensatory articulation errors in postoperative patients with cleft palate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To establish an acoustic perceptual method analyzing the compensatory articulation errors in children with operated cleft palate via the formants of Chinese pure vowels. Methods The first three formants which represent vocal transmission character in Chinese pure vowels of 84 subjects with operated cleft palate, were measured by Computerized Speech Signal Processing System (CSSPS). The Chinese vowel graph of postoperative patients with cleft palate was stated by the first formant frequencies (F1) ...

  5. Pivotal connection for articulated column of sea-bed working structure. Leddforbindelse for en soeyle for arbeide paa havbunnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuson, S.; Chilardi, J.P.

    1984-08-20

    The invention relates to a pivotal connecting device of the kind forming a universal Cardan joint coupling in particular for a compliant or articulated column of a sea-bed working structure, said column being pivotally connected to a base member, wherein said universal Cardan joint coupling is associated with one or more rigid connecting ducts for conveying the flow of at least one fluid between said base member and said column. 4 drawings.

  6. Modelling and Calibration Technique of Laser Triangulation Sensors for Integration in Robot Arms and Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Juan J.; Albajez, José A.; Carlos Cajal; David Guillomía; Jorge Santolaria

    2009-01-01

    A technique for intrinsic and extrinsic calibration of a laser triangulation sensor (LTS) integrated in an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. After applying a novel approach to the AACMM kinematic parameter identification problem, by means of a single calibration gauge object, a one-step calibration method to obtain both intrinsic―laser plane, CCD sensor and camera geometry―and extrinsic parameters related to the AACMM main frame has been develope...

  7. Single-incision laparoscopic colectomy without using special articulating instruments: an initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trakarnsanga Atthaphorn

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-incision laparoscopic colectomy (SILC was introduced as a novel minimally invasive technique. The benefits of this technique include reducing number of the incision and cosmetic improvement. Unlike the conventional laparoscopic colectomy, majority of previously reported SILC need to be performed using special curved or articulated instruments. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate our initial experience of SILC, which could be performed using the standard laparoscopic instruments. Material and methods Retrospective review of 14 patients who underwent SILC at Siriraj Hospital from May to December 2010, patient's demographic data, perioperative outcomes, early postoperative complications and pathological data were collected and analyzed. Results The mean age of all patients was 60 years. The most common operation with SILC was sigmoidectomy (n = 9, followed by right hemicolectomy (n = 2, left hemicolectomy (n = 1, anterior resection (n = 1, and total colectomy (n = 1. The trocar insertion techniques were multi-fascial incision using regular port (n = 11 and GelPOINT® (n = 3. The mean operative time was 155 minutes (range 90-280 and the mean estimate blood loss was 32.1 mL (range 10-100. All patients were successfully operated without conversion. The mean length of hospital stay was 9 days (range 5-20. There was no mortality. The pathological results revealed colorectal cancer (n = 12, neoplastic polyp (n = 1 and Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP (n = 1. The mean number of lymph nodes retrieval was 16.6 (range 3-34. Conclusion SILC can successfully and safely be performed with standard laparoscopic instruments. This technique might be an alternative procedure to conventional laparoscopic colectomy with better cosmetic result.

  8. Articulating uncertainty as part of scientific argumentation during model-based exoplanet detection tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Sun; Pallant, Amy; Pryputniewicz, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    critiquing scientists' discovery encouraged students' articulation of scientific uncertainty sources in different ways.

  9. Articulated Entity Relationship (AER Diagram for Complete Automation of Relational Database Normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Dhabe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an Articulated Entity Relationship (AER diagram is proposed, which is an extension of EntityRelationship (ER diagram to accommodate the Functional Dependency (FD information as its integral partfor complete automation of normalization. In current relational databases (RDBMS automation ofnormalization by top down approach is possible using ER diagram as an input, provided the FD informationis available independently, meanwhile, through user interaction. Such automation we call partial andconditional automation. To avoid this user interaction, there is a strong need to accommodate FDinformation as an element of ER diagram itself. Moreover, ER diagrams are not designed by taking intoaccount the requirements of normalization. However, for better automation of normalization it must be anintegral part of conceptual design (ER Diagram. The prime motivation behind this paper to design a systemthat need only proposed AER diagram as a sole input and normalize the database up to a given normal formin one go. This would allow more amount of automation than the current approach. Such automation we callas total and unconditional automation, which is better and complete in true sense. As the proposed AERdiagram is designed by taking in to account the normalization process, normalization up to Boyce CoddNormal Form (BCNF becomes an integral part of conceptual design. Additional advantage of AER diagramis that any modifications (addition, deletion or updation of attributes made to the AER diagram willautomatically be reflected in its FD information. Thus description of schema and FD information isguaranteed to be consistent. This cannot be assured in current approach using ER diagrams, as schema andFD information are provided to the system at two different times, separately.

  10. Production of pre-basic potato seed by polyvinyl chloride PVC: articulate gutters hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Everson Scherwinski-Pereira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of more efficient and productive systems for pre-basic seed potato production would improve the quality of the propagative material used by the potato growers, directly affecting the crop yields. A two-year experiment was carried out to evaluate the potato pre-basic seed production by two types of hydroponic systems (fibrocement tiles and articulated PVC gutters, two cultivars (`Baronesa` and `Eliza` and two types of propagative material (plants coming from in vitro culture and minitubers. The PVC gutters system was highly efficient. When using minitubers, this system reached multiplication rates up to 74 tubers per plant. Minitubers were more productive than in vitro plants, independent of cultivar and hydroponic system utilized.Um experimento realizado por dois anos consecutivos avaliou a produção de sementes pré-básicas de batata por meio de sistemas de cultivo hidropônico. O trabalho testou a combinação de dois sistemas de cultivo (telha de fibrocimento e calhas de PVC articuladas, duas cultivares (Baronesa e Eliza e dois tipos de material propagativo (plântulas oriundas do cultivo in vitro e minitubérculos. O sistema de calhas de PVC foi altamente eficiente. Quando foi utilizado minitubérculos, este sistema alcançou taxas de multiplicação de até 74 tubérculos por planta. De modo geral, o uso de minitubérculos como material propagativo apresentou os melhores resultados de produtividade quando comparada ao material in vitro, independentemente da cultivar e sistemas hidropônicos utilizados.

  11. Effect of Concave Sound Reflecting Surfaces on Speech Intelligibility and Articulation Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaiyat, Sami Abdulrahman

    Three different methods are used to assess speech intelligibility in spaces with and without concave sound reflecting surfaces: calculated articulation index (AI), measured rapid speech transmission index (RASTI), and modified rhyme tests (MRT) with occupants. Factors such as the room size, size of curvature, the speaker's position, and the background noise level are considered in the two on -site testing methods. The MRT results show unexpectedly significant deviation from results obtained through the other methods such that they are de-emphasized in all discussions. Results from rooms without curvatures show no significant differences between the AI and RASTI values; whereas, these differences are significant when rooms with curvatures are considered. A modification factor to be subtracted from calculated AI values to account for erosional effects of the curved surfaces is developed according to further analysis of the differences between the AI and RASTI values. The magnitude of the modification factors depends on all the above factors as well as the location of the listeners within the room. There are no clear indications of any dead spots, however, the sound foci from both the 2ft. and 8ft. curvatures have caused certain group locations to have smaller modification factors than that of all other locations. The magnitude of the developed modification factors ranges between 0.01, for the 16ft. curvature in the small rooms, to 0.17, for the 8ft. curvature in the large room with NC-45 and the speaker's position is on the center. This range is of almost the same magnitude as that of the erosional corrections to calculated AI due to elevated reverberation time. This range is also of almost same magnitude as that of improvement in calculated AI due to presence of visual cues.

  12. The extraordinary joint material of an articulated coralline alga. I. Mechanical characterization of a key adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark W; King, Felicia A

    2016-06-15

    Flexibility is key to survival for seaweeds exposed to the extreme hydrodynamic environment of wave-washed rocky shores. This poses a problem for coralline algae, whose calcified cell walls make them rigid. Through the course of evolution, erect coralline algae have solved this problem by incorporating joints (genicula) into their morphology, allowing their fronds to be as flexible as those of uncalcified seaweeds. To provide the flexibility required by this structural innovation, the joint material of Calliarthron cheilosporioides, a representative articulated coralline alga, relies on an extraordinary tissue that is stronger, more extensible and more fatigue resistant than the tissue of other algal fronds. Here, we report on experiments that reveal the viscoelastic properties of this material. On the one hand, its compliance is independent of the rate of deformation across a wide range of deformation rates, a characteristic of elastic solids. This deformation rate independence allows joints to maintain their flexibility when loaded by the unpredictable - and often rapidly imposed - hydrodynamic force of breaking waves. On the other hand, the genicular material has viscous characteristics that similarly augment its function. The genicular material dissipates much of the energy absorbed as a joint is deformed during cyclic wave loading, which potentially reduces the chance of failure by fatigue, and the material accrues a limited amount of deformation through time. This limited creep increases the flexibility of the joints while preventing them from gradually stretching to the point of failure. These new findings provide the basis for understanding how the microscale architecture of genicular cell walls results in the adaptive mechanical properties of coralline algal joints.

  13. Effects of articulation training on the production of trained and untrained phonemes in conversations and formal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paatsch, L E; Blamey, P J; Sarant, J Z

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of articulation training for specific phonemes on the production of phonemes in conversational language samples, the 108 Single Word Articulation Test (Paatsch, 1997), and the Phonetic Level Evaluation (Ling, 1976). Speech production skills of 12 hearing-impaired children were assessed using these evaluation tools pre- and posttraining. A total of six phonemes were selected for each child to be trained during 15-to 20-minute daily sessions throughout an 8-week speech production program. Three phonemes, with a particularly high error rate, were trained at a phonetic level (category 1) while three phonemes, with an intermediate error rate of 40% to 70%, were trained at a phonological level (category 2). Results showed improvements in the percentage of correctly articulated category 1 phonemes and category 2 phonemes. The improvements for category 2 phonemes were larger than for category 1 phonemes for all test materials. It may be that phonological level training is more effective than phonetic level training or that phonemes with an intermediate error rate are easier to train than phonemes with a high error rate. Untrained vowels and consonants also improved slightly after training. Phonological process analysis showed that many of the errors apparent in the trained phonemes also had occurred in the untrained phonemes. This may have resulted in the generalization and carryover of taught speech skills into other aspects of the child's spoken language.

  14. The Research of Electric Buses Power Plant Charging Optimization Based on Load Shifting%考虑削峰填谷的电动公交换电站充电优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗淼; 雷霞; 何建平; 李菲

    2015-01-01

    The electric buses which work in battery swapping mode achieve rapid growth in the field of public transportation. The normal operation of electric buses power plant is related to many factors, such as the replacement of the battery,battery charging and power load and so on. In order to improve the economy of power plant operation, the daily charging demands of electric buses are ana-lyzed and calculated. We set up the charging model of double objective optimization considering load shifting to minimum the charging costand reduce the load fluctuation. Lastly, the weight factor transformation method is utilized to analyze the example based on genetic algorithm and the simulation results show that the optimized charging cost can be saved 30 % with the sharpening peak effect.%采用换电模式的电动公交车在公共交通领域内发展迅速。电动公交换电站的正常运营与电池更换、充电和电网负荷等多方面因素有关。为提高电动公交换电站运营的经济性,首先分析和计算电动公交车的日换电量需求,然后以充电成本最小和减小负荷波动为目标建立考虑削峰填谷作用的双目标充电优化模型,最后利用遗传算法的权重系数变换法对实例进行求解。实例仿真计算结果表明,优化后的充电成本可节约30%,同时达到削峰填谷作用。

  15. Fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia: will the proposed policy of banning the early-hour operation reduce fatigue-related crashes and benefit overall road safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Norlen; Mohd-Yusoff, Mohammad-Fadhli; Othman, Ilhamah; Zulkipli, Zarir-Hafiz; Osman, Mohd Rasid; Voon, Wong Shaw

    2012-03-01

    Fatigue-related crashes have long been the topic of discussion and study worldwide. The relationship between fatigue-related crashes and time of day is well documented. In Malaysia, the possibility of banning express buses from operating during the early-hours of the morning has emerged as an important consideration for passenger safety. This paper highlights the findings of an impact assessment study. The study was conducted to determine all possible impacts prior to the government making any decision on the proposed banning. This study is an example of a simple and inexpensive approach that may influence future policy-making process. The impact assessment comprised two major steps. The first step involved profiling existing operation scenarios, gathering information on crashes involving public express buses and stakeholders' views. The second step involved a qualitative impact assessment analysis using all information gathered during the profiling stage to describe the possible impacts. Based on the assessment, the move to ban early-hour operations could possibly result in further negative impacts on the overall road safety agenda. These negative impacts may occur if the fundamental issues, such as driving and working hours, and the need for rest and sleep facilities for drivers, are not addressed. In addition, a safer and more accessible public transportation system as an alternative for those who choose to travel at night would be required. The proposed banning of early-hour operations is also not a feasible solution for sustainability of express bus operations in Malaysia, especially for those operating long journeys. The paper concludes by highlighting the need to design a more holistic approach for preventing fatigue-related crashes involving express buses in Malaysia.

  16. Care articulation by the Family Physician: improvement in the quality of life in terminal patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Filipe Cavadas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to the definition of the role of the Family Physician (FP presented in the statement of the European Wonca 2002, one of her/his features is the ability of coordination of care, and management of the interface with other specialties. However, there are serious problems of coordination between the levels of assistance, as showed by the discontinuity of care when patients are hospitalized. With the aim of raising awareness and analyze a particular case of interface between the Primary Health Care (PHC and Hospital, and how important is the success of a good collaboration, this case is reported. Description of case: Male, 50 years old, caucasian race, inserted into a nuclear family in the stage VI Duvall’s cycle. A gastric adenocarcinoma by his FP was diagnosed at 49 years old. The patient was referenced to urgent consultation of general surgery. With various surgical complications he had a long internment. A poorly differentiated and infiltrating gastric carcinoma at the stage T3 N1 Mx, with poor prognosis, was confirmed. There was serious lack of interface and gaps in information between the hospital and the PHC. There was a bad care of the patient, with worsening of his condition. At the insistence of the FP, the articulation becomes effective and there was improved in quality of care and of the general condition of the patient. Conclusion: A proper interface and coordination of care contributed to better quality of life and satisfaction of patients, with positive repercussions for their families, to health professionals involved and to the National Health Service. The completion of the FP core competencies will only be possible when his/her proper function will be recognized and known by all the other health professionals.Note: The speciality physician denomination changes according to the country; in Brazil, it receives the name of Medicina de Família e Comunidade. In Portugal, country of the author of this paper

  17. [Mechanisms of articulation between the informal and the formal urban sectors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, L

    1978-01-01

    This article utilizes field data from Mexico City squatter settlements and personal interviews with employers to analyze some aspects of social relations between the informal sector and the formal urban sector, and compares the results with findings of other anthropologists in Mexico and elsewhere to derive a series of theoretical generalizations concerning mechanisms of articulation between the marginal sector and the formal economic and political institutions of the society. The formal sector is postulated to consist of the 3 subsectors of power, capital, and labor, which are in permanent conflict among themselves but all of which enjoy labor security and an assured minimal level of income. The marginal or informal sector lacks employment security, a minimal income level, and bargaining power. It is characterized by a small scale economy utilizing intensive familial labor. The informal sector is marginal to the dominant industrial system of production and the state apparatus, although it fulfills functions in terms of the national economy. 2 types of relationships may be distinguished in the social organization of the marginal sector: reciprocal relations between equals which form a network for the exchange of goods and services, or patron/client relations which are used, for example, in the case of petty entrepreneurs utilizing their relatives and acquaintances to create units of production. The functions of reciprocal relations are affected by social, physical, economic, and psychosocial distance or proximity and may result in exchanges of information, labor assistance, loans, services, or moral support. Patron/client relations may be direct, or the "patron" may be an intermediary. Some reciprocal networks display a pattern of incipient asymmetry leading to formation of true patron/client ties and some petty entrepreneurs or intermediaries manage to develop true patron/client networks; case histories are used to illustrate both phenomena. Intermediaries

  18. Sailplane Glide Performance and Control Using Fixed and Articulating Winglets. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colling, James David

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of controllable articulating winglets on glide performance and yawing moments of high performance sailplanes. Testing was conducted in the Texas A&M University 7 x 10 foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel using a full-scale model of the outboard 5.6 feet of a 15 meter class high performance sailplane wing. Different wing tip configurations could be easily mounted to the wing model. A winglet was designed in which the cant and toe angles as well as a rudder on the winglet could be adjusted to a range of positions. Cant angles used in the investigation consisted of 5, 25, and 40 degrees measured from the vertical axis. Toe-out angles ranged from 0 to 22.5 degrees. A rudder on the winglet was used to study the effects of changing the camber of the winglet airfoil on wing performance and wing yawing moments. Rudder deflections consisted of-10, 0, and 10 degrees. Test results for a fixed geometry winglet and a standard wing tip are presented to show the general behavior of winglets on sailplane wings, and the effects of boundary-layer turbulators on the winglets are also presented. By tripping the laminar boundary-layer to turbulent before laminar separation occurs, the wing performance was increased at low Reynolds numbers. The effects on the lift and drag, yawing moment, pitching moment, and wing root bending moment of the model are presented. Oil flows were used on the wing model with the fixed geometry winglet and the standard wing tip to visualize flow directions and areas of boundary layer transition. A cant angle of 25 degrees and a toe-out angle of 2.5 degrees provided an optimal increase in wing performance for the cant and toe angles tested. Maximum performance was obtained when the winglet rudder remained in the neutral position of zero degrees. By varying the cant, toe, and rudder angles from their optimized positions, wing performance decreases. Although the winglet rudder proved to be more effective in

  19. Biomechanical Aspects of Shoulder and Hip Articulations: A Comparison of Two Ball and Socket Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Qusay Ismael

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder and hip joints though essentially both are ball and socket joints, show structural variability to serve functional needs.study aims at revealing some of the structural and functional properties of each of the two joints regarding the factors that contribute to the stability of any joint in the body, namely: bone, ligament, and muscleTwenty dried scapula, hip, humerus, and femur were used. The area of the articular surfaces was estimated by molding a sheet of dental wax. Using special graphics software, a novel procedure was described to calculate the area under the curve, which was postulated to indicate the degree of curvature. Tension test was applied using a testometric machine, which was locally modified to suit biological specimens. A finite element analysis was designed to study the articulating bones under different loading conditionsIn the hip joint, the area of the articular surface of the head of the femur and that of the lunate showed no significant statistical difference. For the shoulder joint, the articular areas of the head of the humerus and the glenoid were statistically different. No statistical significance was observed regarding curvature of the articular surfaces within both the hip and shoulder joints; however, the values were significantly different between the hip and shoulder. In the tension test, the site of rupture of the capsule of the shoulder joint was found to be at its anteroinferior part. The more contact between the area of the cup and ball, as was demonstrated in the hip joint, the more stable the joint. On the contrary, the shoulder articular surfaces have less area of contact, which makes it more mobile and decreases stability. The insignificant difference in curvature within both joints indicates a good congruity and thus more stability especially during joint movement. The curvature difference between the head of femur and the head of humerus indicates that the range of motion is quite

  20. A clinical study of the variation in horizontal condylar guidance obtained by using three anterior points of reference and two different articulator systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paranjay Prajapati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: For mounting the maxillary cast to articulator, minimum three reference points not on single line, decide the plane to which maxillary cast is mounted. Variations exist in condylar guidance when different anterior reference points are used to mount the cast. Type of articulator may have influence on condylar guidance.A clinical study was planned to evaluate the effects of different anterior points of reference and two different articulator systems on condylar guidance. Materials and Methods: Total 15 subjects were selected. Six sets of maxillary casts were obtained. Face bow record was made using orbitale as anterior point of reference and the record was transferred to the Arcon and Non-Arcon articulator. The second and third mounting on Arcon and Non-Arcon articulator were done using Superior and inferior annular groove on incisal pin of articulator. Protrusive interocclusal records were made for all the subjects. Two lateral cephalograms one in maximum intercuspation and the other in protrusion for left and right side were taken. Anatomic condylar guidance of the subject were obtained from radiograph tracing. Arcon and Non-arcon articulator were programmed with Protrusive interocclusal record of the subjects and the condylar guidance was tabulated for right and left side. The procedure was repeated for all three mountings for both the articulators. Results: The orbitale is the best reference point which mounts maxillary cast closer to anatomic position. Inferior annular groove can also be used as anterior point of the reference. The superior annular groove is not recommended anterior point of reference.

  1. REGISTRATION OF CENTRIC OCCLUSION IN PATIENTS WITH BRUXISM AND BRUXOMANIA THROUGH ARTICULATING PAPER AND THE SYSTEM T-SCAN - COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The study and documentation of occlusal-articulation relationships has a high diagnostic significance in patients with bruxism and bruxomania. The study aims on the basis of registration of occlusal contacts via articulating paper and the T-Scan system to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of both methods in occlusal diagnosis of patients with bruxism and bruxomania. Material and Methods: 40 patients with bruxism and / or bruxomania (29 women and 11 men) aged between 21 and 77 ye...

  2. Uncertainty in particle number modal analysis during transient operation of compressed natural gas, diesel, and trap-equipped diesel transit buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmén, Britt A; Qu, Yingge

    2004-04-15

    The relationships between transient vehicle operation and ultrafine particle emissions are not well-known, especially for low-emission alternative bus technologies such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and diesel buses equipped with particulate filters/traps (TRAP). In this study, real-time particle number concentrations measured on a nominal 5 s average basis using an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) for these two bus technologies are compared to that of a baseline catalyst-equipped diesel bus operated on ultralow sulfur fuel (BASE) using dynamometer testing. Particle emissions were consistently 2 orders of magnitude lower for the CNG and TRAP compared to BASE on all driving cycles. Time-resolved total particle numbers were examined in terms of sampling factors identified as affecting the ability of ELPI to quantify the particulate matter number emissions for low-emitting vehicles such as CNG and TRAP as a function of vehicle driving mode. Key factors were instrument sensitivity and dilution ratio, alignment of particle and vehicle operating data, sampling train background particles, and cycle-to-cycle variability due to vehicle, engine, after-treatment, or driver behavior. In-cycle variability on the central business district (CBD) cycle was highest for the TRAP configuration, but this could not be attributed to the ELPI sensitivity issues observed for TRAP-IDLE measurements. Elevated TRAP emissions coincided with low exhaust temperature, suggesting on-road real-world particulate filter performance can be evaluated by monitoring exhaust temperature. Nonunique particle emission maps indicate that measures other than vehicle speed and acceleration are necessary to model disaggregated real-time particle emissions. Further testing on a wide variety of test cycles is needed to evaluate the relative importance of the time history of vehicle operation and the hysteresis of the sampling train/dilution tunnel on ultrafine particle emissions. Future studies should

  3. On the Power of Music: Using 'Cosmos' and 'Anthropos' to Articulate a Holistic Approach to Discussing the Power of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Cates

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Music is an experience that is universal to all of mankind, no matter one’s race, gender, culture, or socioeconomic status. Whether it’s beholding one of Mahler’s symphonies in Carnegie Hall or listening to the “No. 1 Top Single” on iTunes using headphones, one truth is evident: music moves. The statement “music moves” inherently possesses an implication of the 'cosmic' and the 'anthropic’ nature of music – a holistic union of both mystery and humanity. This one truth has been the subject of an ongoing 2,000 year-old discussion that attempts to articulate the powerful reaction that results from experiencing music in all forms, beginning with the ancient Greeks of antiquity who possessed a cosmologically-grounded explanation to the power of music. However, as time moved forward, this cosmological, mysterious paradigm of the power of music slowly began to incorporate explainable and tangible anthropological articulations of the power of the music with respect to the human emotions, senses, and thoughts. This incorporation of anthropos reached a climax in the Renaissance era with the ushering in of humanism, which stripped away the mysterious and replaced the cosmologically-grounded explanation of music with the anthropologically-grounded view of naturalism. Since this profound departure from cosmos, society seems to be at a loss in articulating accurate reactions to music. This paper offers two proposals with respect to musical thought, one for society at large and one for the individual. I assert in this paper that society, in general, needs to return to an appreciation of the cosmos, the answerable, and the mysterious in nature, and that the individual needs to commence thinking holistically with respect to music—incorporating both cosmic and anthropic thought. I have reached my conclusions, assertions, and propositions based on this thesis by critically analyzing both primary and secondary resources in the form of the

  4. Articulations on form properties and action-function couplings of maker technologies in children’s education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kasper Skov; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a framework to expand the design language used to articulate form properties and types of feedback that happen between children’s actions and the intended functionality of maker technologies. Based on field observations in Danish schools we analyze children’s (aged 11-14....... Researchers can use the expanded design language to analyze maker technologies in the context of school maker settings. Finally, teachers can make better decisions on how and when to use different maker technologies when school children work through design processes.......In this paper, we present a framework to expand the design language used to articulate form properties and types of feedback that happen between children’s actions and the intended functionality of maker technologies. Based on field observations in Danish schools we analyze children’s (aged 11......-14 years old) interactions with three maker technologies used to work through design processes in school maker settings. Our findings are beneficial on three factors for designers, researchers and teachers involved in work within maker contexts. (1) reflections on form properties of maker technologies, (2...

  5. Effects of coronal plane conformity on tibial loading in TKA: a comparison of AGC© flat versus conforming articulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berend, Michael E; Small, Scott R; Ritter, Merrill A; Buckley, Christine A; Merk, James C; Dierking, W Kurt

    2009-04-01

    Conforming articulations potentially decrease polyethylene contact stresses in total knee arthroplasty (TKA); however, less is known about the effect of coronal geometry on tibial loading and clinical failure. This study examined the relationship between coronal plane geometry and loading patterns in the proximal tibia. Composite tibiae were implanted with modular, metal-backed tibial trays and were compressively loaded with conforming and nonconforming ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) tibial bearings and comparable femoral components. Changes in strain on the proximal tibia were quantified using a photoelastic strain analysis method. In balanced loading, coronally dished components created a strain increase in the anterior medial tibia while creating a significant strain decrease in the posterior tibia. Proximal tibial strains were decreased and centralized in conforming versus flat articulations. This centralization of loading may lead to a reduction in edge loading during gait. Lower strains were observed with coronally dished implants in key regions corresponding to the clinical overload of the tibia leading to aseptic loosening.

  6. Tribo-biological deposits on the articulating surfaces of metal-on-polyethylene total hip implants retrieved from patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhiwei; Tian, Yi-Xing; Yue, Wen; Yang, Lei; Li, Qunyang

    2016-01-01

    Artificial total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most effective orthopaedic surgeries that has been used for decades. However, wear of the articulating surfaces is one of the key failure causes limiting the lifetime of total hip implant. In this paper, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to explore the composition and formation mechanism of the tribo-layer on the articulating surfaces of metal-on-polyethylene (MoPE) implants retrieved from patients. Results showed that, in contrast to conventional understanding, the attached tribo-layer contained not only denatured proteins but also a fraction of polymer particles. The formation of the tribo-layer was believed to relate to lubrication regime, which was supposed to be largely affected by the nature of the ultra-high-molecule-weight-polyethylene (UHMWPE). Wear and formation of tribo-layer could be minimized in elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) regime when the UHMWPE was less stiff and have a morphology containing micro-pits; whereas the wear was more severe and tribo-layer formed in boundary lubrication. Our results and analyses suggest that enhancing interface lubrication may be more effective on reducing wear than increasing the hardness of material. This finding may shed light on the design strategy of artificial hip joints. PMID:27345704

  7. Measuring changes in articulate brachiopod morphology before and after the Permian mass extinction event: do developmental constraints limit morphological innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampaglio, Charles N

    2004-01-01

    The pattern of decreasing disparity has been observed in both the metazoans and metaphytes throughout the Phanerozoic. The pattern is manifest as a decreasing trend in the origination of higher taxa. Currently, two competing evolutionary hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon: the empty ecospace hypothesis and the developmental constraint hypothesis. To empirically distinguish between these hypotheses, the change in disparity before and after the end-Permian mass extinction event was measured in the articulated brachiopods. The assumption is that ecospace-limiting constraints are removed after mass extinctions revealing the effect of developmental constraints. For each taxon within the group, both continuous and discrete character sets were analyzed. Four different measures of disparity were used to analyze each character suite. Additionally, a separate analysis was performed on a subset of the articulated brachiopods, the rhynchonellids and terebratulids. In most cases investigated, disparity rebounded to comparable levels, with the rhynchonellids and terebratulids showing the largest increase in disparity after the end-Permian extinction, a clear example of an increase in disparity without a significant increase in taxonomic diversity. The results indicate that developmental constraints may not be responsible for the decreasing disparity in this group. The more likely scenario is that increasingly structured ecological guilds have made it much more difficult for large increases in disparity to occur.

  8. Investigating pianists' individuality in the performance of five timbral nuances through patterns of articulation, touch, dynamics and pedalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eBernays

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Timbre is an essential expressive feature in piano performance. Concert pianists use a vast palette of timbral nuances to colour their performances at the microstructural level. Although timbre is generally envisioned in the pianistic community as an abstract concept carried through an imaged vocabulary, performers may share some common strategies of timbral expression in piano performance. Yet there may remain further leeway for idiosyncratic processes in the production of piano timbre nuances. In this study, we examined the patterns of timbral expression in performances by four expert pianists. Each pianist performed four short pieces, each with five different timbral intentions (bright, dark, dry, round, and velvety. The performances were recorded with the high-accuracy Bösendorfer CEUS system. Fine-grained performance features of dynamics, touch, articulation and pedalling were extracted. Reduced PCA performance spaces and descriptive performance portraits confirmed that pianists exhibited unique, specific profiles for different timbral intentions, derived from underlying traits of general individuality, while sharing some broad commonalities of dynamics and articulation for each timbral intention. These results confirm that pianists’ abstract notions of timbre correspond to reliable patterns of performance technique. Furthermore, these effects suggest that pianists can express individual styles while complying with specific timbral intentions.

  9. Waveguide and articulated arm for Er:YAG laser system: shape and depth of laser cavity in hard dental tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinkova, Helena; Dostalova, Tatjana; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Wang, You; Shi, Yi-Wei; Dolezalova, Libuse; Hamal, Karel; Krejsa, Otakar; Kubelka, Jiri; Prochazka, Stanislav

    1998-04-01

    The aim of our study was to verify the efficiency of delivery systems for Er:YAG laser radiation which could be used in dentistry. The influence of increasing energy and number of pulses on a profile and depth of drilled holes was investigated. Er:YAG laser was operating in a free-running mode, generating a length of pulses 200 microsecond with a maximum energy of 500 mJ. The delivery systems investigated were an articulated arm and a fluorocarbon polymer-coated silver hollow glass waveguide. The prepared hard tissues were a sliced part of enamel, dentine and ivory. The laser radiation was directed on them by focusing optics (CaF2 lens) together with the cooling water to ensure that the tissues will not be burned. For the evaluation of shapes, depth and profiles of the prepared cavities the metallographic microscope, x-ray microtomograph and scanning electron microscope were used. From the results it was observed that the profile and depth of the cavities prepared by the laser radiation delivered by the various systems (waveguide or articulated arm) are not the same. The laser radiation delivered by waveguide produces a larger diameter cavity with a lower depth. The holes are smoother and without side effects.

  10. A closed-loop dynamic simulation-based design method for articulated heavy vehicles with active trailer steering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjurul Islam, Md.; Ding, Xuejun; He, Yuping

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a closed-loop dynamic simulation-based design method for articulated heavy vehicles (AHVs) with active trailer steering (ATS) systems. AHVs have poor manoeuvrability at low speeds and exhibit low lateral stability at high speeds. From the design point of view, there exists a trade-off relationship between AHVs' manoeuvrability and stability. For example, fewer articulation points and longer wheelbases will improve high-speed lateral stability, but they will degrade low-speed manoeuvrability. To tackle this conflicting design problem, a systematic method is proposed for the design of AHVs with ATS systems. In order to evaluate vehicle performance measures under a well-defined testing manoeuvre, a driver model is introduced and it 'drivers' the vehicle model to follow a prescribed route at a given speed. Considering the interactions between the mechanical trailer and the ATS system, the proposed design method simultaneously optimises the active design variables of the controllers and passive design variables of the trailer in a single design loop (SDL). Through the design optimisation of an ATS system for an AHV with a truck and a drawbar trailer combination, this SDL method is compared against a published two design loop method. The benchmark investigation shows that the former can determine better trade-off design solutions than those derived by the latter. This SDL method provides an effective approach to automatically implement the design synthesis of AHVs with ATS systems.

  11. Tribo-biological deposits on the articulating surfaces of metal-on-polyethylene total hip implants retrieved from patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhiwei; Tian, Yi-Xing; Yue, Wen; Yang, Lei; Li, Qunyang

    2016-06-01

    Artificial total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most effective orthopaedic surgeries that has been used for decades. However, wear of the articulating surfaces is one of the key failure causes limiting the lifetime of total hip implant. In this paper, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to explore the composition and formation mechanism of the tribo-layer on the articulating surfaces of metal-on-polyethylene (MoPE) implants retrieved from patients. Results showed that, in contrast to conventional understanding, the attached tribo-layer contained not only denatured proteins but also a fraction of polymer particles. The formation of the tribo-layer was believed to relate to lubrication regime, which was supposed to be largely affected by the nature of the ultra-high-molecule-weight-polyethylene (UHMWPE). Wear and formation of tribo-layer could be minimized in elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) regime when the UHMWPE was less stiff and have a morphology containing micro-pits; whereas the wear was more severe and tribo-layer formed in boundary lubrication. Our results and analyses suggest that enhancing interface lubrication may be more effective on reducing wear than increasing the hardness of material. This finding may shed light on the design strategy of artificial hip joints.

  12. Asking for help online: Lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans youth, self-harm and articulating the 'failed' self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    International evidence suggests that young people are less likely to seek help for mental health problems in comparison with adults. This study focused on lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans young people who are a population group with an elevated risk of suicide and self-harm, and little is known about their help-seeking behaviour. Utilising qualitative virtual methods, lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans youth web-based discussions about seeking help for suicidal feelings and self-harming were investigated. Findings from a thematic analysis indicate that these young people wanted assistance but found it difficult to (1) ask for help, (2) articulate emotional distress and (3) 'tell' their selves as 'failed'. This analysis suggests that key to understanding these problems are emotions such as shame which arise from negotiating norms connected to heterosexuality, adolescence and rationality. I argue that these norms act to regulate what emotions it is possible to feel, what emotions it is possible to articulate and what type of young lives that can be told. The future development of health and social care interventions which aim to reduce lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans youth suicide and self-harm need to work with a nuanced understanding of the emotional life of young people if they are to be effective.

  13. Importance of numerosity and distribution of articulations within the digits, wrists, and arms of telemanipulators confronted with dextrous assembly tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiker, Steven F.; Duffie, Nell; Yen, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of successive exclusion of degrees-of-freedom within digits (thumb and index finger) and wrist when performing tasks demanding varying degrees of end effector kinematic complexity. The analysis was performed by successive constraining articulations in the fingers (thumb and index) and wrists or human subjects via splints, and then timing performance of part movement, positioning, and assembly operations requiring different levels of kinematic freedom. Analysis of performance times showed that transferring degrees-of-freedom, or articulations, from the digits to the wrist and arm had little or no material affect upon manipulation performance times if wrist and arm kinematics were unrestricted. If wrist and arm kinematics are not constrained and are of high-quality, our findings show that transferring kinematic freedom from the digits to the wrist and arms or remote end effectors offers limited or no consequence in terms of remote assembly operations. The importance of such findings, in terms of development and implementation of commercially attractive telemanipulators, is discussed.

  14. Wear, creep, and frictional heat of femoral implant articulating surfaces and the effect on long-term performance--Part I, A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J A; Schwartz, G

    1987-12-01

    Creep and wear of articulating reconstructed joints is a complex process, resulting in adverse tissue response, decreased range of motion, and eventual revision. As improvements are made in the design and surgical techniques of reconstructed joints, the long-term performance of the articulating system and materials becomes more important, particularly for younger, heavier, and more active patients. One aspect previously ignored in the long-term performance of articulating systems is the tendency for these systems to generate heat during articulation, particularly for extended periods of relatively strenuous activity. The present study reviews the various aspects of joint lubrication, friction, wear, and overall system performance. Local heating can increase the creep, wear, and oxidation degradation of UHMWPE, thus, specific attention is given to the effect that heat generation can have on long-term performance of these systems. Because of the complexity of this issue, the treatment of these various performance aspects is divided into two parts. The present part, Part I, reviews the various aspects of articulation performance. Part II presents results of friction, heating, and torque testing of various metal and ceramic hip systems. Criteria for frictional heating is also presented, along with discussion related to the various heat transfer mechanisms involved with heat dissipation.

  15. Evaluation of condylar inclination of dentulous subjects determined by axiograph and to compare with manual programming of articulators using protrusive interocclusal record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna D Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine the average condylar inclination using ultrasonic axiograph; to determine the average condylar inclination using protrusive interocclusal bite records; to compare whether there is any marked difference in the values obtained by these techniques. Settings and Design: This clinical study compares the mean horizontal condylar inclination of the ultrasonic axiograph (Axioquick system and the manual programming using protrusive interocclusal records. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on a group of 30 subjects reporting to Department of Prosthodontics. Axioquick software system of SAM III (School Articulator Munich fully-adjustable articulator was used, and interocclusal recording of condylar inclination is the manual method used in semi-adjustable articulators using Aluwax. The condylar inclination of the articulator was adjusted and set using protrusive interocclusal record. Statistical Analysis: The horizontal condylar inclination values of both methods were collected, and the mean of right and left condylar inclination was compared using paired t-test. Results: A statistically significant difference exists between Axioquick system and the manual method of programming articulator with protrusive interocclusal records (P ≤ 0.001. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, the following conclusions were drawn: The average condylar inclination by axiograph is 42.125°. The average condylar inclination by interocclusal record is 33.25°. Comparison of both values shows a difference of 8.88° ± 4.03° that showed a significant difference (P < 0.001.

  16. 沃尔沃铰接头修复及安装工艺%Volvo Articulated Joint Repair and Installation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴蓓蕾; 江福

    2015-01-01

    沃尔沃铰卡在井采作业时,工况条件较为复杂,运输作业时铰接处受碰撞频率高,特别是重车的情况下,铰接销孔极易变形及磨损,造成铰接头故障频次高、铰接轴承损坏及铰接销断裂等现象.为了解决这一问题,技术人员对铰接销孔制定出相关修复工艺及措施,并对损坏的铰接头进行了更换,有效地处理了沃尔沃铰接头故障,实现了设备的正常运行.%during underground mining operations, operating conditions were more complex, Volvo articulated trucks' articulated joint was frequent colliding, especially during the heavy loading, the hinged pin holes were very easy to deformed and wearied, causing the phenomenon of high frequency joint fault, the articulated bearing damage and pin broken etc. In order to solve this problem, the technical personnel made corresponding repair process and method, and changed the damaged articulated joint which high efficiently solve the fault of Volvo articulated joint, equipment normal operation was realized.

  17. Evaluation of condylar inclination of dentulous subjects determined by axiograph and to compare with manual programming of articulators using protrusive interocclusal record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Krishna D.; Shetty, Manoj; Chandy, Binoj K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To determine the average condylar inclination using ultrasonic axiograph; to determine the average condylar inclination using protrusive interocclusal bite records; to compare whether there is any marked difference in the values obtained by these techniques. Settings and Design: This clinical study compares the mean horizontal condylar inclination of the ultrasonic axiograph (Axioquick system) and the manual programming using protrusive interocclusal records. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on a group of 30 subjects reporting to Department of Prosthodontics. Axioquick software system of SAM III (School Articulator Munich) fully-adjustable articulator was used, and interocclusal recording of condylar inclination is the manual method used in semi-adjustable articulators using Aluwax. The condylar inclination of the articulator was adjusted and set using protrusive interocclusal record. Statistical Analysis: The horizontal condylar inclination values of both methods were collected, and the mean of right and left condylar inclination was compared using paired t-test. Results: A statistically significant difference exists between Axioquick system and the manual method of programming articulator with protrusive interocclusal records (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, the following conclusions were drawn: The average condylar inclination by axiograph is 42.125°. The average condylar inclination by interocclusal record is 33.25°. Comparison of both values shows a difference of 8.88° ± 4.03° that showed a significant difference (P < 0.001). PMID:26321837

  18. Influence of the clearance on in-vitro tribology of large diameter metal-on-metal articulations pertaining to resurfacing hip implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieker, Claude B; Schön, Rolf; Konrad, Reto; Liebentritt, Gernot; Gnepf, Patric; Shen, Ming; Roberts, Paul; Grigoris, Peter

    2005-04-01

    Large-diameter metal-on-metal articulations may provide an opportunity for wear reduction in total hip implants because earlier studies have shown that the formation of a fluid film that completely separates the bearing surfaces is theoretically possible. In such a lubrication mode and under ideal conditions, there is theoretically no amount of wear. Studies have suggested that the two primary parameters controlling the lubrication mode are the diameter and the clearance of the articulation. The goal of the present study was to experimentally investigate the influence of these two parameters on the wear behavior of large-diameter metal-on-metal articulations pertaining to resurfacing hip implants. The results of this in vitro investigation showed that longer running-in periods and higher amounts of running-in wear were associated with larger clearances.

  19. Diseño de un entorno educativo heterogéneo de buses de campo y supervisión remota para procesos de automatización industrial

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Garcia, José Luis; Gallardo León, Juan Antonio; Berbel Artal, Néstor; Salvador Sola, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    El documento presenta la estructura de un laboratorio de automatización industrial enfocado a la enseñanza y aprendizaje de entornos de comunicación, control y supervisión industrial. La aplicación práctica de los conocimientos sobre un entorno real de fabricación, permite poner a disposición del alumno una serie de equipos de comunicación en los buses de campo estándar (Profibus, CanOpen y AS-i), así como de las tecnologías de comunicación Ethernet para desarrollar proyectos de automatizació...

  20. 65例功能性构音障碍儿童训练效果分析%Functional Articulation Disorders: 65 Children Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴萍; 李丽华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical characteristics and treatment of functional articulation disorders. Methods 65 children with functional articulation disorders were reported. Results The main erroneous articulation pattern in these children was substitution, followed by omission and/or distortion. They were trained from oral function and articulation motion for 2-6 months. 58 children were corrected completely, and 7 were corrected partially. Conclusion The main erroneous articulation pattern of functional articulation disorder in children is substitution. Speech training is effective on it.%目的 研究功能性构音障碍儿童错误构音的特点与语音训练方案。方法 对65例功能性构音障碍儿童进行回顾性分析。结果 65例儿童主要的构音错误方式为置换,其次为省略和歪曲音。经过2~6个月口腔功能训练、构音运动训练以及靶音位训练,58例全部纠正,7例部分纠正。结论 置换音是儿童功能性构音障碍最主要的构音错误方式;语音训练是治疗功能性构音障碍的有效措施。

  1. Wear, creep, and frictional heating of femoral implant articulating surfaces and the effect on long-term performance--Part II, Friction, heating, and torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J A; Schwartz, G; Lynch, G; Gir, S

    1988-04-01

    In Part I, (J.A. Davidson and G. Schwartz, "Wear, creep, and frictional heating of femoral implant articulating surfaces and the effect on long-term performance--Part I, A review," J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 21, 000-000 (1987) it was shown that lubrication of the artificial hip joint was complex and that long-term performance is governed by the combined wear, creep, and to a lesser extent, oxidation degradation of the articulating materials. Importantly, it was shown that a tendency for heating exists during articulation in the hip joint and that elevated temperatures can increase the wear, creep, and oxidation degradation rate of UHMWPE. The present study was performed to examine closely the propensity to generate heat during articulation in a hip joint simulator. The systems investigated were polished Co-Cr-Mo alloy articulating against UHMWPE, polished alumina ceramic against UHMWPE, and polished alumina against itself. Frictional torque was also evaluated for each system at various levels of applied loads. A walking load history was used in both the frictional heating and torque tests. The majority of tests were performed with 5 mL of water lubricant. However, the effect of various concentrations of hyaluronic acid was also evaluated. Results showed frictional heating to occur in all three systems, reaching an equilibrium after roughly 30 min articulation time. Ceramic systems showed reduced levels of heating compared to the cobalt alloy-UHMWPE system. The level of frictional torque for each system ranked similar to their respective tendencies to generate heat. Hyaluronic acid had little effect, while dry conditions and the presence of small quantities of bone cement powder in water lubricant significantly increased frictional torque.

  2. The articulation of voices in two film projects about violence: The Act of Killing and Gzim Rewind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Frølunde

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores two experimental documentary films that present memories of acts of mass violence: The Act of Killing (Denmark, 2012, director Joshua Oppenheimer about the Indonesian anti-Communist purge in the 1960s and Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011, director Knutte Wester about the fate of a boy who fled from Kosovo in the 1990s. Using dialogic theory (Bakhtin, 1981; Phillips, 2011, we analyse the voices that are articulated about past violent events in the films. The focus is on how different voices interrelate in the filmic presentation of mass violence, including victims and killers. Primarily, the analysis focuses on The Act of Killing and its reception by an Indonesian audience. The discussion concerns how these kinds of film projects open up very different voices and how this diversity potentially contributes to new understandings of the past, thereby fuelling social and political change. 

  3. Modelling and calibration technique of laser triangulation sensors for integration in robot arms and articulated arm coordinate measuring machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria, Jorge; Guillomía, David; Cajal, Carlos; Albajez, José A; Aguilar, Juan J

    2009-01-01

    A technique for intrinsic and extrinsic calibration of a laser triangulation sensor (LTS) integrated in an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. After applying a novel approach to the AACMM kinematic parameter identification problem, by means of a single calibration gauge object, a one-step calibration method to obtain both intrinsic-laser plane, CCD sensor and camera geometry-and extrinsic parameters related to the AACMM main frame has been developed. This allows the integration of LTS and AACMM mathematical models without the need of additional optimization methods after the prior sensor calibration, usually done in a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) before the assembly of the sensor in the arm. The experimental tests results for accuracy and repeatability show the suitable performance of this technique, resulting in a reliable, quick and friendly calibration method for the AACMM final user. The presented method is also valid for sensor integration in robot arms and CMMs.

  4. Reaction time analysis of two types of motor preparation for speech articulation: action as a sequence of chunks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, Stuart T

    2003-06-01

    Reaction time (RT) prior to speech articulation increased as a function of response complexity. The RT findings formed 2 patterns, each of which was a different Response Complexity x Paradigm (choice RT vs. simple RT) interaction. That result extends previous findings from manual button-pressing tasks (S. T. Klapp, 1995) to a different action modality. Two different types of response programming, INT and SEQ, are assumed in the interpretation. Whereas INT can be identified with response programming within a word, SEQ fits a different interpretation related to timing of onsets of speech units. A critical assumption is that a long response is represented as a sequence of chunks; that organization is subject to manipulation. New findings suggest some modifications of the previous theory.

  5. Articulations on form properties and action-function couplings of maker technologies in children’s education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kasper Skov; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a framework to expand the design language used to articulate form properties and types of feedback that happen between children’s actions and the intended functionality of maker technologies. Based on field observations in Danish schools we analyze children’s (aged 11......-14 years old) interactions with three maker technologies used to work through design processes in school maker settings. Our findings are beneficial on three factors for designers, researchers and teachers involved in work within maker contexts. (1) reflections on form properties of maker technologies, (2......) analysis of relationship between user action and technology function (action-function couplings), and (3) how this relates to feedback when children use these technologies to design digital prototypes. Designers can use the presented framework to improve existing, or prepare them for future designs...

  6. Modelling and Calibration Technique of Laser Triangulation Sensors for Integration in Robot Arms and Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Aguilar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A technique for intrinsic and extrinsic calibration of a laser triangulation sensor (LTS integrated in an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM is presented in this paper. After applying a novel approach to the AACMM kinematic parameter identification problem, by means of a single calibration gauge object, a one-step calibration method to obtain both intrinsic―laser plane, CCD sensor and camera geometry―and extrinsic parameters related to the AACMM main frame has been developed. This allows the integration of LTS and AACMM mathematical models without the need of additional optimization methods after the prior sensor calibration, usually done in a coordinate measuring machine (CMM before the assembly of the sensor in the arm. The experimental tests results for accuracy and repeatability show the suitable performance of this technique, resulting in a reliable, quick and friendly calibration method for the AACMM final user. The presented method is also valid for sensor integration in robot arms and CMMs.

  7. Modélisation cinématique du contact pour les Systèmes Articulés

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    National audience; La synthèse d'animations réalistes nécessite un paramétrage rigoureux des systèmes articulés qui permette d'exprimer les champs de vitesses absolues tout en respectant les contraintes géométriques aux liaisons. Les contacts extérieurs sont les liaisons les plus difficiles à traiter. Cet article en propose une modélisation qui permet d'exprimer toutes les vitesses instantanées en coordonnées articulaires, ainsi que de résoudre les problèmes de maintien du contact au cours du...

  8. From subjects to relations: Bioethics and the articulation of postcolonial politics in the Cambodia Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jenna M

    2016-04-01

    Controversies about global clinical trials, particularly HIV trials, tend to be framed in terms of ethics. In this article, I explore debates about ethics in the Cambodia Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial, which was designed to test the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as a prevention for HIV infection. Bringing together studies of public participation in science with studies of bioethics, I show how activists around the Cambodian Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial circulated and provoked debates about standards of research ethics, as opposed to research methodology. This postcolonial bioethics was configured through the circulation of and debate about ethics guidelines, and historically and culturally specific relations of vulnerability and responsibility between foreigners and Cambodians and between Cambodian leaders and Cambodian subjects. I argue that this shift in the object of ethical concern, from the experimental human subject to the relation between subjects and researchers, illustrates how a postcolonial field of articulation reformulates classical bioethics.

  9. Differential language expertise related to white matter architecture in regions subserving sensory-motor coupling, articulation, and interhemispheric transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Stefan; Hänggi, Jürgen; Meyer, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2011-12-01

    The technique of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used to investigate alterations in white matter architecture following long-term training and expertise. Professional simultaneous interpreters (SI) provide an ideal model for the investigation of training-induced plasticity due to the high demands placed on sound to motor mapping mechanisms, which are vital for executing fast interpretations. In line with our hypothesis, we found clusters with decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the SI group in brain regions previously shown to support sensory-motor coupling mechanisms and speech articulation (cluster extent family-wise error corrected, P language expertise is accompanied by plastic adaptations in regions strongly involved in motor aspects of speech and in interhemispheric information transfer. These results have implications for our understanding of language expertise in relation to white matter adaptations.

  10. "Meetings on the work": an analysis device for understanding the articulation between outsourcing and other organizational innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Denise; Figueiredo, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss professional education and training programs offered to teams of operators by the main company in the area of Bacia de Campos (Petrobras), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It also discusses the necessary skills to the new functions derived from the implementation of an organizational innovation, the polyvalence, and how such innovation has impacted operators' activity. By using elements of WEA and the device "Meetings on the Work" it was possible to gain a better understanding of both the distance between the dimensions of prescribed work and real work, and the articulation between outsourcing and the proposition of polyvalence, which have stimulated the creation of new functions, namely, the polyvalent operator and the operator-maintainer, this latter being in fact an evolvement of the first.

  11. REGISTRATION OF CENTRIC OCCLUSION IN PATIENTS WITH BRUXISM AND BRUXOMANIA THROUGH ARTICULATING PAPER AND THE SYSTEM T-SCAN - COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Dimova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study and documentation of occlusal-articulation relationships has a high diagnostic significance in patients with bruxism and bruxomania. The study aims on the basis of registration of occlusal contacts via articulating paper and the T-Scan system to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of both methods in occlusal diagnosis of patients with bruxism and bruxomania. Material and Methods: 40 patients with bruxism and / or bruxomania (29 women and 11 men aged between 21 and 77 years from October 2010 to February 2014 was conducted computerized occlusal analysis using the systems T-Scan II (in 12 patients, T-Scan III (in 28 patients and the software T-Scan III. All patients were subjected to registration of occlusal relationships in centric occlusion (CO with articulating paper Bausch PROGRESS 100 µ and Bausch® Arti-Fol® 8 µ. Results and Discussion: In 90.0% of patients it is established unevenly distributed, irregular in size and intensity occlusal contacts. Essential factor for preventing the spontaneous bilateral closure with balanced forces is the presence of interceptive contacts and sliding occurring in the first frame of the occlusion time until the maximum intercuspation - MIP. Conclusion: Registration with articulating paper visualizes cumulative picture of the contacts in CO and interceptive contacts without being able to distinguish them in size and time of onset. Computerized occlusal analysis objectively and quantitatively determines interceptive contacts and distinguishes them from contacts in MIP and gives real meaning to the terms "strong" and "light contacts".

  12. Dairy Products Management. 2+2+2 Articulated Curriculum in Agricultural Technology: First Year Final Report. July 1, 1989-June 30, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeast Texas Community Coll., Mount Pleasant.

    This guide is for an articulated two-year high school, two-year college curriculum for dairy products management developed by two postsecondary and five secondary institutions and representatives of the private sector in Texas. The guide includes the following: (1) a brief description of the occupation of dairy products manager; (2) the basic…

  13. Grades and Withdrawal Rates in Cell Biology and Genetics Based upon Institution Type for General Biology and Implications for Transfer Articulation Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Kimberly Fayette

    2016-01-01

    General biology courses (for majors) are often transferred from one institution to another. These courses must prepare students for upper division courses in biology. In Colorado, a Biology Transfer Articulation Agreement that includes general biology has been created across the state. An evaluation was conducted of course grades in two upper…

  14. Effects of Intensive Voice Treatment (the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment [LSVT]) on Vowel Articulation in Dysarthric Individuals with Idiopathic Parkinson Disease: Acoustic and Perceptual Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Shimon; Spielman, Jennifer L.; Ramig, Lorraine O.; Story, Brad H.; Fox, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of intensive voice treatment targeting vocal loudness (the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment [LSVT]) on vowel articulation in dysarthric individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: A group of individuals with PD receiving LSVT (n = 14) was compared to a group of individuals with PD not receiving LSVT…

  15. State Articulated Instructional Objectives Guide for Occupational Education Programs. State Pilot Model for Automotive Mechanics (DCC V-003) and Automotive Mechanics (High School).

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    This articulation instructional objective guide for automotive mechanics contains summary information on fifteen blocks (courses) of instruction. They are introduction to automotive technology; lubrication and vehicle operating maintenance; cooling system maintenance and repair; automobile heater maintenance and repair; braking system maintenance…

  16. A case study in nonlinear dynamics and control of articulated spacecraft: The Space Station Freedom with a mobile remote manipulator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, William H.; Kwatny, Harry G.; Lavigna, Chris; Blankenship, Gilmer

    1994-06-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) modeling of articulated spacecraft as multi-flex-body systems; (2) nonlinear attitude control by adaptive partial feedback linearizing (PFL) control; (3) attitude dynamics and control for SSF/MRMS; and (4) performance analysis results for attitude control of SSF/MRMS.

  17. Poultry Products Management. 2+2+2 Articulated Curriculum in Agricultural Technology: First Year Final Report. July 1, 1989-June 30, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeast Texas Community Coll., Mount Pleasant.

    This guide is for an articulated two-year high school, two-year college curriculum for poultry products management developed by two postsecondary and five secondary institutions and representatives of the private sector in Texas. The guide includes the following: (1) a brief description of the occupation of poultry products manager; (2) the basic…

  18. A Cross-Linguistic Perspective on the Acquisition of Manner of Articulation Contrasts in the Productions of Dutch and German Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Fikkert, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The present article investigates the acquisition of Manner of Articulation (MoA) contrasts in child language production. We analyzed spontaneous longitudinal speech data of four German and six Dutch 1- to 3-year-olds. The data suggest that the acquisition of MoA contrasts is influenced by various co-occurrence constraints at the word level.…

  19. XML6185J13C Low Floor Articulated Puller Bus%XML6185J13C型低地板拉式铰接客车研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆军; 刘军鹏

    2012-01-01

    The development process, general layout, structure characterisitics and main technical parameters about XML6185J13C articulated puller bus are introduced.%介绍XML6185J13C型拉式铰接客车的研制过程、总体布置、结构特点及主要技术参数。

  20. What’s In and What’s Out in Branding? A Novel Articulation Effect for Brand Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha eTopolinski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present approach exploits the biomechanical connection between articulation and ingestion-related mouth movements to introduce a novel psychological principle of brand name design. We constructed brand names for diverse products with consonantal stricture spots either from the front to the rear of the mouth, thus inwards (e.g., BODIKA, or from the rear to the front, thus outwards (e.g., KODIBA. These muscle dynamics resemble the oral kinematics during either ingestion (inwards, which feels positive, or expectoration (outwards, which feels negative. In 7 experiments (total N = 1261, participants liked products with inward names more than products with outward names (Experiment 1, reported higher purchase intentions (Experiment 2, and higher willingness-to-pay (Experiments 3a-3c, 4, 5, with the price gain amounting to 4 % to 13 % of the average estimated product value. These effects occurred across English and German language, under silent reading, for both edible and non-edible products, and even in the presence of a much stronger price determinant, namely fair-trade production (Experiment 5.

  1. Una articulación (casi imposible: derecho y psicoanálisis. // An (almost impossible articulation: law and psychoanalysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Winkler.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Law constitutes a normative system with self-validation rules, and tries to be objective and timeless. Psychoanalysis, on the other hand, is interested in the subject. The legal ought-to-be of the rule of law intersects with the subject, and the subject, at the same time, intersects with the law. The present article is an attempt to articulate both disciplines, given that Law mediates between the symbolic law of the family novel and the social rule that intends to regulate or distribute the joy; however, as a symptom, Law also performs its own faults. // El Derecho constituye un sistema normativo con reglas de autovalidación, se pretende objetivo y atemporal. El psicoanálisis, por su parte, se interesa en el sujeto. El deber ser jurídico de la norma legal está atravesado por el sujeto, y el sujeto, a su vez, por la ley. En el presente artículo nos interesa articular ambas disciplinas, por cuanto el derecho constituye una mediación entre la ley simbólica del relato familiar y la regla social que intenta regular o distribuir el goce; no obstante, como síntoma, el Derecho también actúa sus propias falencias.

  2. Treatment of severe late onset Perthes' disease with soft tissue release and articulated hip distraction: early results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Eitan; Ezra, Elias; Wientroub, Shlomo; Yaniv, Moshe

    2004-05-01

    Sixteen children with late onset Perthes' disease were surgically treated at an average age of 12 years 1 month (9 years 4 months to 15 years) by soft tissue release and articulated hip distraction. Two patients had additional diagnosis of Down syndrome and one suffered from geleophysic epiphyseal dysplasia. Fifteen hips were graded Catterall IV and Herring C and one hip was graded Catterall III Herring B. On preoperative arthrograms, 14 patients had a saddle-shape subluxating femoral head with hinge abduction. The distraction discontinued when Shenton line was corrected. The fixation lasted 4-5 months. At a mean follow-up of 2 years 7 months (1-5 years), an improvement of hip range of motion was found in all patients. Hip joint arthrograms upon removal of the fixator showed disappearance of the saddle-shape femoral head in 10 of the 14 patients with this deformation. Shenton line breakage improved from 7.6 mm to 2.1 mm at last follow-up. The epiphyseal index improved by 14%. The average pain score on an analog scale dropped from a preoperative 7.0 to 1.6 at last follow-up (filled in by patients or parents in case of Down syndrome). Separate analysis of data from the group having only Perthes disease (13 children) showed better results. These preliminary data suggest that soft tissue release combined with unloading of the femoral head and restoration of joint space can improve the function and epiphyseal height.

  3. Understanding the notion of function and articulation of semiotic records that represent between students entering a program Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Prada-Núñez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the understanding of the notion of function and the ability to articulate different semiotic registers for representation by new students in the university in Colombia. Immediate context is taken as the Faculty of Engineering at a public university. Epistemologically the study is based on symbolic interaction by analyzing the meanings that students attributed to this mathematical concept when addressing problem solving. The methodology, therefore, is qualitatively and use of theoretical coding is done. For analysis of the results it has been applied grounded theory with a structured approach. The information generated by this study corresponds to a test that showed students two graphic representations with the intent to identify which of them was a function, besides which should argue their response. Altogether 86 arguments around the concept are analyzed. Data analysis was done through atlas.ti 7.0 software. The system allows a glimpse of emerging categories the following findings: conceptual deficiencies, diversity in conceptual approaches, conceptual referents, semiotic representations, and finally highlight the various conceptual variations.

  4. HYBRID TEACHER TRAINING: THE CONSTRUCTION OF PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICE AS ARTICULATOR AXIS FOR THE USE OF TECHNOLOGIES IN AN INCLUSIVE SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Aparecida do Nascimento dos Santos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present data related to the preparation, implementation, monitoring, development and evaluation of Articulator Axis: Inclusion and Special Education of hybrid Pedagogy UNIVESP/UNESP course. It is explained the theoretical, methodological and practical contributions that supported the organization of the discipline, designed with the premise to train teachers in order to provide analysis tools on the policies and practices of school inclusion of students of Special Education. As well as offering elements to teachers who attend the course for an analysis of practices and resources that can be used in the context of an inclusive school, through the promotion of school activities that develop the skills of all. The discipline was developed in five (5 blocks of 24 (twenty four hours per week, which were proposed activities and studies on the activities related to elementary and high school, aggregated to Specialized Educational Service and the use of Digital Information and Communication Technologies, according to the specific educational needs of students of Special Education and considering its importance within the policies of inclusion and its application in school contexts linked to the disciplines of didactic contents of the course.

  5. Differential Control Strategy based on an Equal Slip Rate for an All-wheel Electricdrive Underground Articulated Dumping Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Chun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A differential control strategy based on equal slip rates is introduced to improve the steering stability of an all-wheelelectric-drive underground articulated dumping truck. Steering kinematic and dynamic models of the truck are derived to describe the movement relationship and force of the driving wheels. In consideration of the difficulty of obtaining the absolute velocity for an all-wheel-drive truck, an acceleration sensor was set on a test truck, and a kalman filter was applied to obtain the actual value for the truck body. Simulation results for an equal-slip control strategy were compared with experimental results for an equal-torque control strategy. In the simulation, the four-wheel slip rate was 0.08 and the steering system of the truck was stable. The results verify that the equal-slip control strategy makes better use of the ground adhesion coefficient, is able to reasonably distribute drive power, notably reduces tire wear, and improves the use of driving power.

  6. Teaching Research on Articulation of Singing%歌唱咬字吐字的教学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹玲玲

    2015-01-01

    清晰的语言是声乐艺术的灵魂。正确的咬字、吐字在声乐演唱中具有重要意义,掌握科学的咬字、吐字的方法和能力,是歌唱表现的有力手段。一位成功的演唱者,必须做到发音和吐字的完美结合,因此在歌唱的过程中既要注重发声的方法,又要重视咬字、吐字在歌唱中的应用。%The correct and clear pronunciation is of great significance in the vocal music.Mastering the scientific method of pronunciation is a powerful means for the singing performance.For a successful singer,it is necessary to achieve the perfect com-bination of pronunciation and enunciation,thus we should not only pay attention to pronunciation,but also pay attention to articu-lation in the application of singing.

  7. Field study of growth and calcification rates of three species of articulated coralline algae in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, K; Martone, P T

    2014-04-01

    Ocean acidification caused by rising atmospheric CO₂ is predicted to negatively impact growth and calcification rates of coralline algae. Decreases in coralline abundance may have cascading effects on marine ecosystems and on carbon sequestration worldwide. In this study, we measured growth and calcification rates of three common species of articulated coralline algae (Bossiella plumosa, Calliarthron tuberculosum, and Corallina vancouveriensis) at an intertidal field site in British Columbia. Linear growth rates measured in the field were slow, although Bossiella grew significantly faster (0.22 cm mon⁻¹) than Calliarthron and Corallina (0.17 and 0.15 cm mon⁻¹, respectively). Growth rates in the field were generally slower than growth rates in the laboratory, suggesting that data generated in the laboratory may not be representative of natural field conditions. Growth rates did not decrease as fronds approached their maximum observed size, suggesting that maximum frond size might be determined not by intrinsic factors but by external factors such as wave-induced drag forces. Using growth data, we estimate that the largest observed Bossiella frond (20 cm²) and Calliarthron frond (40 cm²) were about 4- and 11-years-old, respectively, and had deposited approximately 1 and 6 g CaCO₃ in that time. Given the great abundance of coralline algae along the coast of British Columbia, deposition rates of CaCO₃ are expected to play a significant but poorly characterized role in carbon sequestration.

  8. Articulated coralline algae of the genus Amphiroa are highly effective natural inducers of settlement in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elizabeth A; Craigie, Alina; Yeates, Alice; Degnan, Sandie M

    2008-08-01

    The initiation of metamorphosis in marine invertebrates is strongly linked to the environment. Planktonic larvae typically are induced to settle and metamorphose by external cues such as coralline algae (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta). Although coralline algae are globally abundant, invertebrate larvae of many taxa settle in response to a very limited suite of species. This specificity impacts population structure, as only locations with the appropriate coralline species can attract new recruits. Abalone (Gastropoda, Haliotidae) are among those taxa in which closely related species are known to respond to different coralline algae. Here we identify highly inductive natural cues of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. In contrast to reports for other abalone, the greatest proportion of H. asinina larvae are induced to settle and metamorphose (92.8% to 100% metamorphosis by 48 h postinduction) by articulated corallines of the genus Amphiroa. Comparison with field distribution data for different corallines suggests larvae are likely to be settling on the seaward side of the reef crest. We then compare the response of six different H. asinina larval families to five different coralline species to demonstrate that induction by the best inductive cue (Amphiroa spp.) effectively extinguishes substantial intraspecific variation in the timing of settlement.

  9. Borders and Modal Articulations. Semiotic Constructs of Sensemaking Processes Enabling a Fecund Dialogue Between Cultural Psychology and Clinical Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca Picione, Raffaele; Freda, Maria Francesca

    2016-03-01

    The notion of the border is an interesting advancement in research on the processes of meaning making within the cultural psychology. The development of this notion in semiotic key allows to handle with adequate complexity construction, transformation, stability and the breakup of the relationship between person/world/otherness. These semiotic implications have already been widely discussed and exposed by authors such Valsiner (2007, 2014), Neuman (2003, 2008), Simão (Culture & Psychology, 9, 449-459, 2003, Theory & Psychology, 15, 549-574, 2005, 2015), with respect to issues of identity/relatedness, inside/outside, stability/change in the irreversible flow of the time. In this work, after showing some of the basics of such semiotic notion of border, we discuss the processes of construction and transformation of borders through the modal articulation, defined as the contextual positioning that the person assumes with respect to the establishment of a boundary in terms of necessity, obligation, willingness, possibility, permission, ability. This modal subjective positioning acquires considerable interest from the clinical point of view since its degree of plasticity vs that of rigidity is the basis of processes of development or stiffening of relations between person/world/otherness.

  10. Datafication and empowerment: How the open data movement re-articulates notions of democracy, participation, and journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Baack

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article shows how activists in the open data movement re-articulate notions of democracy, participation, and journalism by applying practices and values from open source culture to the creation and use of data. Focusing on the Open Knowledge Foundation Germany and drawing from a combination of interviews and content analysis, it argues that this process leads activists to develop new rationalities around datafication that can support the agency of datafied publics. Three modulations of open source are identified: First, by regarding data as a prerequisite for generating knowledge, activists transform the sharing of source code to include the sharing of raw data. Sharing raw data should break the interpretative monopoly of governments and would allow people to make their own interpretation of data about public issues. Second, activists connect this idea to an open and flexible form of representative democracy by applying the open source model of participation to political participation. Third, activists acknowledge that intermediaries are necessary to make raw data accessible to the public. This leads them to an interest in transforming journalism to become an intermediary in this sense. At the same time, they try to act as intermediaries themselves and develop civic technologies to put their ideas into practice. The article concludes with suggesting that the practices and ideas of open data activists are relevant because they illustrate the connection between datafication and open source culture and help to understand how datafication might support the agency of publics and actors outside big government and big business.

  11. An Adaptive Supervisory Sliding Fuzzy Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller for Sensorless Vector-Controlled Induction Motor Drive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Yuan Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation of an adaptive supervisory sliding fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller (FCMAC in the speed sensorless vector control of an induction motor (IM drive system. The proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC comprised a supervisory controller, integral sliding surface, and an adaptive FCMAC. The integral sliding surface was employed to eliminate steady-state errors and enhance the responsiveness of the system. The adaptive FCMAC incorporated an FCMAC with a compensating controller to perform a desired control action. The proposed controller was derived using the Lyapunov approach, which guarantees learning-error convergence. The implementation of three intelligent control schemes—the adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC, adaptive sliding FCMAC, and adaptive sliding CMAC—were experimentally investigated under various conditions in a realistic sensorless vector-controlled IM drive system. The root mean square error (RMSE was used as a performance index to evaluate the experimental results of each control scheme. The analysis results indicated that the proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC substantially improved the system performance compared with the other control schemes.

  12. High-precision robotic microcontact printing (R-μCP) utilizing a vision guided selectively compliant articulated robotic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Jason D; Klann, Tyler; Sha, Jin; Salick, Max; Knight, Gavin T; Turng, Lih-Sheng; Ashton, Randolph S

    2014-06-01

    Increased realization of the spatial heterogeneity found within in vivo tissue microenvironments has prompted the desire to engineer similar complexities into in vitro culture substrates. Microcontact printing (μCP) is a versatile technique for engineering such complexities onto cell culture substrates because it permits microscale control of the relative positioning of molecules and cells over large surface areas. However, challenges associated with precisely aligning and superimposing multiple μCP steps severely limits the extent of substrate modification that can be achieved using this method. Thus, we investigated the feasibility of using a vision guided selectively compliant articulated robotic arm (SCARA) for μCP applications. SCARAs are routinely used to perform high precision, repetitive tasks in manufacturing, and even low-end models are capable of achieving microscale precision. Here, we present customization of a SCARA to execute robotic-μCP (R-μCP) onto gold-coated microscope coverslips. The system not only possesses the ability to align multiple polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps but also has the capability to do so even after the substrates have been removed, reacted to graft polymer brushes, and replaced back into the system. Plus, non-biased computerized analysis shows that the system performs such sequential patterning with <10 μm precision and accuracy, which is equivalent to the repeatability specifications of the employed SCARA model. R-μCP should facilitate the engineering of complex in vivo-like complexities onto culture substrates and their integration with microfluidic devices.

  13. Towards Contactless Silent Speech Recognition Based on Detection of Active and Visible Articulators Using IR-UWB Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Hoon; Seo, Jiwon

    2016-10-29

    People with hearing or speaking disabilities are deprived of the benefits of conventional speech recognition technology because it is based on acoustic signals. Recent research has focused on silent speech recognition systems that are based on the motions of a speaker's vocal tract and articulators. Because most silent speech recognition systems use contact sensors that are very inconvenient to users or optical systems that are susceptible to environmental interference, a contactless and robust solution is hence required. Toward this objective, this paper presents a series of signal processing algorithms for a contactless silent speech recognition system using an impulse radio ultra-wide band (IR-UWB) radar. The IR-UWB radar is used to remotely and wirelessly detect motions of the lips and jaw. In order to extract the necessary features of lip and jaw motions from the received radar signals, we propose a feature extraction algorithm. The proposed algorithm noticeably improved speech recognition performance compared to the existing algorithm during our word recognition test with five speakers. We also propose a speech activity detection algorithm to automatically select speech segments from continuous input signals. Thus, speech recognition processing is performed only when speech segments are detected. Our testbed consists of commercial off-the-shelf radar products, and the proposed algorithms are readily applicable without designing specialized radar hardware for silent speech processing.

  14. Towards Contactless Silent Speech Recognition Based on Detection of Active and Visible Articulators Using IR-UWB Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Hoon Shin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available People with hearing or speaking disabilities are deprived of the benefits of conventional speech recognition technology because it is based on acoustic signals. Recent research has focused on silent speech recognition systems that are based on the motions of a speaker’s vocal tract and articulators. Because most silent speech recognition systems use contact sensors that are very inconvenient to users or optical systems that are susceptible to environmental interference, a contactless and robust solution is hence required. Toward this objective, this paper presents a series of signal processing algorithms for a contactless silent speech recognition system using an impulse radio ultra-wide band (IR-UWB radar. The IR-UWB radar is used to remotely and wirelessly detect motions of the lips and jaw. In order to extract the necessary features of lip and jaw motions from the received radar signals, we propose a feature extraction algorithm. The proposed algorithm noticeably improved speech recognition performance compared to the existing algorithm during our word recognition test with five speakers. We also propose a speech activity detection algorithm to automatically select speech segments from continuous input signals. Thus, speech recognition processing is performed only when speech segments are detected. Our testbed consists of commercial off-the-shelf radar products, and the proposed algorithms are readily applicable without designing specialized radar hardware for silent speech processing.

  15. Modeling Modal Shift of Car Travelers to Buses Based on Public Transport Priority%基于公交优先的小汽车出行向公交转移模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左忠义; 杨广川; 邵春福

    2012-01-01

    在实施公交优先政策时,往往因没有对公交专用道和社会车道所应分担的交通量做出正确的估算而造成道路资源的浪费,以至于无法真正实现公交优先的目的.本文以公交车与社会车辆的行程速度差异为研究对象,通过分析设置公交专用道后两种交通方式间的转移情况,在保证公交车服务水平的前提下基于路阻函数研究了不同公交车比例下公交车和社会车辆的行程速度曲线,并确立了小汽车向公交车的转移关系.研究结果表明,针对不同的居民出行量及模型参数值,公交车在一定的比例范围内时小汽车用户选择公交出行,并使道路交通系统达到最优.该模型可应用于城市现有道路改造时公交专用道设置及确定公交车发车间隔的参考依据.%For the implementation of public transport priority, the deviation on estimating traffic flow assignment to bus lane and general lanes may lead to the waste of road space resource, consequently fail to achieve the goal of public transport priority. In this paper, the differences between travel speed of buses and cars and modal shift relationship are explored. A travel speed curve of bus and car speed variation under various bus proportion is obtained based on road impedance function. The result shows that in accordance with distinct passenger trip volumes and modal parameter values, there is an appropriate range of bus. Within this range, car travelers are willing to shift to buses, and road traffic system can be optimized as well. The proposed model serves the installation of bus lane on existing urban roads together with determining the bus dispatch interval.

  16. Long-term impact of tongue reduction on speech intelligibility, articulation and oromyofunctional behaviour in a child with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lierde, K M; Mortier, G; Huysman, E; Vermeersch, H

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of the present case study was to determine the long-term impact of partial glossectomy (using the keyhole technique) on overall speech intelligibility and articulation in a Dutch-speaking child with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). Furthermore the present study is meant as a contribution to the further delineation of the phonation, resonance, articulation and language characteristics and oral behaviour in a child with BWS. Detailed information on the speech and language characteristics of children with BWS may lead to better guidance of pediatric management programs. The child's speech was assessed 9 years after partial glossectomy with regard to ENT characteristics, overall intelligibility (perceptual consensus evaluation), articulation (phonetic and phonological errors), voice (videostroboscopy, vocal quality), resonance (perceptual, nasometric assessment), language (expressive and receptive) and oral behaviour. A class III malocclusion, an anterior open bite, diastema, overangulation of lower incisors and an enlarged but normal symmetric shaped tongue were present. The overall speech intelligibility improved from severely impaired (presurgical) to slightly impaired (5 months post-glossectomy) to normal (9 years postoperative). Comparative phonetic inventory showed a remarkable improvement of articulation. Nine years post-glossectomy three types of distortions seemed to predominate: a rhotacism and sigmatism and the substitution of the alveolar /z/. Oral behaviour, vocal characteristics and resonance were normal, but problems with expressive syntactic abilities were present. The long-term impact of partial glossectomy, using the keyhole technique (preserving the vascularity and the nervous input of the remaining intrinsic tongue muscles), on speech intelligibility, articulation, and oral behaviour in this Dutch-speaking child with congenital macroglossia can be regarded as successful. It is not clear how these expressive syntactical problems

  17. A comparative study to evaluate the discrepancy in condylar guidance values between two commercially available arcon and non-arcon articulators: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Goyal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was comparative evaluation of sagittal condylar values of arcon and non-arcon articulators with cephalometric readings and to determine the amount of discrepancy in sagittal condylar guidance values between arcon and non-arcon articulators using same protrusive record. Materials and Methods: Twenty subjects in the age group of 19-35 years, free from temporomandibular joint dysfunction, and occlusal disharmony, with healthy dentition participated in the study. Hanau H2 (non-arcon type and Hanau Wide-Vue (arcon type articulators were programmed for sagittal condylar guidance values using the same protrusive record made in polysiloxane bite registration material with edge to edge degree of protrusion. The resultant values for both the articulators on either side were compared with values obtained from tracing of digital lateral cephalogram using Kodak Dental imaging Window software 6.6.3.0-C program. The tabulated data were subjected to statistical analysis, ANOVA (Fishers ′F′ test for group comparison, Tukey′s HSD test for inter-comparison, student′s unpaired ′t′ test for intra-group comparison, and level of significance (P was calculated using the same. Results: The mean sagittal condylar guidance values of the three different groups were found to be very highly significant (P=0.001 and highly significant (P=0.002 on the right and left sides respectively. There was a very highly significant difference (P=0.001 and highly significant difference (P=0.003 between the arcon and non-arcon group on the right and left side respectively. No significant difference was found between the arcon and cephalometric group (P=0.284 right, P=0.853 left and a statistically significant difference was found between the non-arcon and cephalometric group (P=0.049 right, P=0.015 left. On intragroup comparison there was no statistically significant difference in sagittal condylar values on the right and left sides. Conclusion

  18. Determination of the transient parameters of synchronous machines by the finite element method considering the characteristic effect in the shock absorber buses; Determinacao dos parametros transitorios de maquinas sincronas pelo metodo dos elementos finitos considerando o efeito pelicular nas barras amortecedoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabeta, Silvio Ikuyo; Cardoso, Jose Roberto [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Foggia, Albert; Coulomb, Jean Louis; Reyne, Gilbert [Institut National Polytechnique, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1995-12-31

    This work presents the determination of the parameters of a hydro generator through the simulation of the frequency response test. The special characteristic of this work is that it takes into consideration shock absorbers buses, which are sites of induced currents when the peculiar effect is present and require that sub-transients parameters are analysed. Simulation results are analysed and compared to the obtained values when the traditional three-phase short circuit test is used 8 figs., 2 tabs., 13 refs.

  19. 金地藏“菩萨钩锁”考%Bodhisattva "Clasp-Like Articulation-Bone" of King Ksitigarbharaja

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦得水

    2012-01-01

    金地藏因其寂后三年肉身不腐,且"菩萨钩锁,百骸鸣矣",而被世人认定为地藏菩萨应化,然则"菩萨钩锁"究指何意?佛经有何记载?本文详考佛经有关记载,一一述说。%After parinirvana of King Ksitigarbharaja,his flesh body remained immortal for three years."Bodhisattva has the clasp-like articulation bones,and sound rings every joint of skeleton",which is said to be the transformation of Kshitigarbha.The paper conducts a detailed study of the meaning of Bodhisattva "clasp-like articulation-bone" and the record in Buddhism sutra.

  20. The extraordinary joint material of an articulated coralline alga. II. Modeling the structural basis of its mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark W; King, Felicia A

    2016-06-15

    By incorporating joints into their otherwise rigid fronds, erect coralline algae have evolved to be as flexible as other seaweeds, which allows them to thrive - and even dominate space - on wave-washed shores around the globe. However, to provide the required flexibility, the joint tissue of Calliarthron cheilosporioides, a representative articulated coralline alga, relies on an extraordinary tissue that is stronger, more extensible and more fatigue resistant than that of other algae. Here, we used the results from recent experiments to parameterize a conceptual model that links the microscale architecture of cell walls to the adaptive mechanical properties of joint tissue. Our analysis suggests that the theory of discontinuous fiber-wound composite materials (with cellulose fibrils as the fibers and galactan gel as the matrix) can explain key aspects of the material's mechanics. In particular, its adaptive viscoelastic behavior can be characterized by two, widely separated time constants. We speculate that the short time constant (∼14 s) results from the viscous response of the matrix to the change in cell-wall shape as a joint is stretched, a response that allows the material both to remain flexible and to dissipate energy as a frond is lashed by waves. We propose that the long time constant (∼35 h), is governed by the shearing of the matrix between cellulose fibrils. The resulting high apparent viscosity ensures that joints avoid accumulating lethal deformation in the course of a frond's lifetime. Our synthesis of experimental measurements allows us to draw a chain of mechanistic inference from molecules to cell walls to fronds and community ecology.

  1. Vibration Control of Articulated Tower Platform%铰接塔海洋平台的振动控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡蕴斌; 刘锟; 蔡国平

    2013-01-01

    A tuned mass damper (TMD) was designed in the vibration control for an articulated tower platform.The motion equation of the system was firstly given with considering gravity,water pressure difference and wave force,and this equation was discreted using the finite difference method.Then active controller was designed using the optimal control method.The determination of parameters of TMD was also given in this paper.Simulation results indicate that the control effectiveness using active TMD control is better than that using passive TMD control,and the displacement of the TMD using active TMD control is smaller than that using passive TMD control.%采用调谐质量阻尼器(Tuned Mass Damper,TMD)设计了铰接塔海洋平台的振动主动控制方法.首先给出了考虑重力梯度、水压力差、波浪力等外部载荷作用的系统动力学方程,并采用有限差分法对方程进行了离散,而后采用最优控制方法设计TMD的主动控制,并给出了TMD参数的设计方法.仿真结果表明,主动TMD的控制效果优于被动TMD,而且主动控制时的TMD位移量明显小于被动控制方法.

  2. Weak responses to auditory feedback perturbation during articulation in persons who stutter: evidence for abnormal auditory-motor transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanqing Cai

    Full Text Available Previous empirical observations have led researchers to propose that auditory feedback (the auditory perception of self-produced sounds when speaking functions abnormally in the speech motor systems of persons who stutter (PWS. Researchers have theorized that an important neural basis of stuttering is the aberrant integration of auditory information into incipient speech motor commands. Because of the circumstantial support for these hypotheses and the differences and contradictions between them, there is a need for carefully designed experiments that directly examine auditory-motor integration during speech production in PWS. In the current study, we used real-time manipulation of auditory feedback to directly investigate whether the speech motor system of PWS utilizes auditory feedback abnormally during articulation and to characterize potential deficits of this auditory-motor integration. Twenty-one PWS and 18 fluent control participants were recruited. Using a short-latency formant-perturbation system, we examined participants' compensatory responses to unanticipated perturbation of auditory feedback of the first formant frequency during the production of the monophthong [ε]. The PWS showed compensatory responses that were qualitatively similar to the controls' and had close-to-normal latencies (∼150 ms, but the magnitudes of their responses were substantially and significantly smaller than those of the control participants (by 47% on average, p<0.05. Measurements of auditory acuity indicate that the weaker-than-normal compensatory responses in PWS were not attributable to a deficit in low-level auditory processing. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that stuttering is associated with functional defects in the inverse models responsible for the transformation from the domain of auditory targets and auditory error information into the domain of speech motor commands.

  3. An Attempt at Articulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Sztaba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Witkacy’s Pure Form expresses the metaphysical essence of art. On the one side, it symbolizes the structure of the world, the unity in plurality (which is demonstrated in the picture’s composition and, on the other, the notion deals with the processes of creating and perceiving an art work. The moment in which the self feels itself embedded in the wholeness of the world is the moment in which the metaphysical feeling arises, and in which the experience of art is fulfilled. Witkacy provides many examples for situations evoking this feeling. He describes them in his novels, he finds synonyms as suchness, curiosity of existence, mystery of being or unity of identity, he switches from scientific to poetic language. And he emphasizes that this feeling, while defying verbalization, is a real, not a supernatural one: a psychophysical phenomenon accessible to introspection, and inseparable from one's cultural and individual background.

  4. Articulating Design Approaches?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kensing, Finn; Bødker, Keld; Simonsen, Jesper

    We are working on an approach for designing CSCW systems since we advocate the importance of generalizing from own work practice as designers and from studies of designers working under industrial conditions. We use the term approach as something in between commodified methods and isolated techni...

  5. Cross-linguistic preference and the phonetics of geminates: Place of articulation and duration of phonologically short and long consonants in Guinaang Bontok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Katsura

    2003-10-01

    It is reported that there is a preference for the place-of-articulation in geminates among world languages; alveolar, labial, velar geminate consonants always appear in that order with respect to one another (G. Thurgood, Papers in Honor of Frederick H. Brengelman, 1993, pp. 129-137). This study investigated whether the phonetic contrasts in duration are larger in cross-linguistically favored place-of-articulation (e.g., alveolar) than in the less favored place-of-articulation (e.g., velar). The data is from a language called Guinaang Bontok. Four speakers of Guinaang Bontok produced thirty-five words that have either a singleton or a geminate of /p t k m n rhookn/. Eighteen words included a singleton and the other seventeen words included a geminate. The participants produced the target word in isolation first, and then repeated it in a frame sentence twice. The recordings were digitized at 22.05 Hz, and the durations of the consonants were measured. A total of 420 tokens (35 words ×3 repetitions ×4 participants) were analyzed. The results partially supported the hypothesis; the durational contrasts were indeed larger in alveolar consonants (/t n/) than in labial consonants (/p m/) and velar consonants (/rhookn/). However, contrasts in velar stop (/k/) were as large as in the alveolar stop (/t/).

  6. The virtual articulator of CAD/CAM system for dental labs%口腔修复 CAD/CAM系统中的虚拟牙合架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冰; 吴国锋

    2016-01-01

    随着数字化技术在口腔临床的广泛应用,虚拟(牙合)架已经成为口腔修复 CAD/CAM系统中的一个重要工具。本文从虚拟(牙合)架的分类、特点和设置3个方面对其进行了全面介绍,并结合临床实际和国内现有商用虚拟(牙合)架产品进行了点评。%With the wide application of digital technique in dental clinic,the virtual articulator has become an important tool of CAD/CAM systems for dental labs.The presented article introduces the classification,advantages and setting parameters of the virtual articulator.The authors also comment on the current commercial products of the virtual articulators in the domestic market.

  7. Audio logo recognition, reduced articulation and coding orientation: Rudiments of quantitative research integrating branding theory, social semiotics and music psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Bonde

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore an interdisciplinary theoretical framework for the analysis of corporate audio logos and their effectiveness regarding recognisability and identification. This is done by combining three different academic disciplines: 1 social semiotics, 2 branding theory and 3 music psychology. Admittedly, the idea of integrating sonic semiotics with marketing or branding has been proposed elsewhere (cf. Jekosch, 2005; Arning & Gordon, 2006; Winter, 2011, though it appears novel to apply this cross-disciplinary field from a social-semiotic perspective while, at the same time, focusing on musicological descriptors. We consider as a starting point Kress and Van Leeuwen’s (1996, 2006 conceptualisation of ‘modality’, which is central to their ‘visual grammar’ theory and subsequently extended to auditory expressions such as spoken language, music and sound effects (Van Leeuwen, 1999. While originally developed on the basis of linguistics and systemic-functional grammar (Halliday, 1978, 1985 and further reinforced by theories of ‘intersemiotic translation’ (cf. Jakobson, 1959; Eco, 2001 and ‘coding orientation’ (Bernstein, 1971, 1981, Kress and Van Leeuwen’s idea of modality is in this paper connected to notions of brand recognisability and brand identification, thus resulting in the concept of ‘Reduced Articulation Form’ (RAF. The concept has been tested empirically through a survey of 137 upper secondary school students. On the basis of a conditioning experiment, manipulating five existing audio logos in terms of tempo, rhythm, pitch and timbre, the students filled out a structured questionnaire and assessed at which condition they were able to recognise the logos and the corresponding brands. The results indicated that pitch is a much more recognisable trait than rhythm. Also, while timbre turned out to be a decisive element, RAF did actually cause logo and brand recognition in a substantial way. Finally, there

  8. An Analysis of Triple Articulation of Cinematic Code in Eco's Image Criticism%浅析艾柯形象批评中电影代码的三层分节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙恒存

    2012-01-01

      Articulation theory has developed from linguistics to semiotics, from general articulation to limited articulation, and from double-articulation to triple articulation. Eco's triple articulation is derived mainly from Metz's, Puri Eto's, and Pasolini's cinematic and semiotic theories. In his image criticism, Eco has established a model of triple articulation: rhetoric, sign, and seme, and then he ana-lyzed photographic photos and moving images and then established a triple articulation of cinematic code, all of which emphasize the semantic richness of cinematic communication and refresh the understanding of the image.%  分节理论经历了从语言学扩展到符号学,从普遍分节到有限分节,从双重分节到三层分节的发展过程。艾柯的三层分节主要源自麦茨、普里埃托和帕索里尼的电影和符号学理论。艾柯在对形象的批评中建立了一套肖似代码的三层分节模式:修辞元、记号、意素。艾柯先后在摄影照片和活动影像上进行模式化分析,从而建立了电影代码的三层分节方式。艾柯的三层分节及其在电影代码中的分析,强调了电影通信形式的语义丰富性,翻新了对影像的理解

  9. 一种改进的多关节目标跟踪算法%Improved multi-articulated object tracking algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟群

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the tracking efficiency and precise of multi-articulated object tracking, this paper proposed an algorithm of object tracking.Firstly constructed a graphical model that employed clique potentials which to denote multi-articulated object, since it made use of clique potential function etc.To reduce the complexity of graphical model such as traditional graphical model, and it also combined some information such as depth, edges, colors.Then it ultilized the K-means, Mean-shift algorithm and particle filtering to track mobile.Experiment results show that the proposed algorithm maintains the high precision and the ability to control the occlusion ,and it can meet requirements of mutil-articulated object tracking.%为提高多关节物体的跟踪效率和精确度,提出了一种目标跟踪算法.首先建立多关节物体的团结构模型,模型的建立结合团势函数等有效降低了传统图模型的冗余度,并结合目标物理的深度、边缘、颜色等信息,利用K-means、Mean-shift算法、粒子滤波实现目标跟踪.实验结果表明,该推理算法能够提高跟踪效率,有较强的鲁棒性,能够满足多关节目标的跟踪要求.

  10. 铰接车辆转向系统液压管路动态特性%Dynamic characteristics of hydraulic pipelines of steering system of articulated vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯友山; 石博强; 肖成勇; 王慧; 郭朋彦

    2009-01-01

    对于铰接车辆转向系统,管路特性对转向系统性能影响较大,其影响因素不能被忽略.基于功率键合图-方块图方法及SIMULINK控制仿真软件,建立了铰接车辆转向系统液压管路至油缸及负载的通用数学模型.定量地研究分析了铰接车辆转向系统液压管路的动态特性以及液压管路参数对转向系统动态特性的影响.研究结果表明:对于小管径管路,液阻和液感较大,液容较小,系统振荡幅度小,响应速度快;随着管路长度的增加,液阻、液感和液容皆逐渐增大,系统振荡次数逐渐减少,振荡幅度逐渐减小,但是系统动态响应较慢;提高油液的等效体积弹性模量有利于改善系统的动态响应速度和稳定性.%For articulated vehicles steering system, the pipelines characteristics have great effects on the steering system performance, the impacts can not be ignored. Based on power bond graph-block diagram method and SIMULINK software, the general mathematical model of the hydraulic pipelines to the load of the articulated vehicles steering system was established. The dynamic characteristics of hydraulic pipelines of the articulated vehicles and the influence of the pipelines parameters on the articulated vehicles steering system were analyzed quantitatively. The study results show that for smaller diameter pipelines, the fluid resistance and fluid sense get larger, the fluid capacity gets smaller instead. The system oscillation amplitude is smaller and the dynamic response is faster; with an increase in the length of pipelines, the fluid sense, fluid resistance and fluid capacity are all increasing gradually, the system oscillation frequency reduces gradually, the oscillation amplitude also gradually decreases, but the dynamic response is getting slower. Increasing the oil volume elastic modulus of the system is conducive to improve the dynamic response speed and stability.

  11. Méthodologie pour l'identification des systèmes mécaniques articulés : Application au compacteur

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Si l'identification du modèle dynamique des systèmes mécaniques articulés est maintenant un processus bien maîtrisé dans le domaine de la robotique, son application aux engins de chantiers est peu courante. Ce papier présente l'identification du modèle dynamique d'un compacteur en insistant plus sur la méthodologie que sur les équations. La méthodologie comprend trois étapes d'égale importance : planification de mouvements, analyse de chaque mouvement, puis seulement, identification des param...

  12. 等韵发音部位认知探源%Exploring the Source of the Cognition of the Place of Articulation in Dengyun Xue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储泰松

    2015-01-01

    Generally speaking,there are five places of articulation of Dengyun Xue (Synchronous Chinese Phonology):labial,tongue,velar,dental and larynx.Through an investigation the Chinese literature before late the Tang Dynasty,we found that the Chinese understanding of the place of artic-ulation had undergone a tortuous and complicated process.Under the influence of the Sanskrit Sid-dham Chapter,such knowledge has become more mature than ever.Before the Wei and Jin Dynas-ties,Chinese didn’t have the complete concept of Wuyin (Five Places of Articulation).The advent and prosperity of Siddhirastu has gradually enhanced the understanding of places of articulation of Chi-nese phonology.The distribution pattern of the Siddham Chapter was borrowed into the analysis of Wuyin.An analytical system of Chinese phonology according to this pattern was established ever since resulting in the embryonic form of the Rhyme Table.The Dengyun Xue has made great innovations in the process of adopting the principles of the Siddham Chapter rather than a mere replication of its pat-terns.%等韵学上的发音部位一般是指唇舌牙齿喉五个,通过考察唐末以前的汉文文献,可知汉人对发音部位的认知过程颇为曲折复杂。它是在梵文悉昙章的启发下发展成熟的。魏晋以前,汉语还没有完整的五音概念,随着悉昙学的兴起与繁荣,人们对汉语发音部位的认识逐渐清晰,并借用了悉昙章的五音分布模式,建立起汉语五音的分析体系,有了等韵图的雏形。同时,等韵在吸收悉昙章的过程中,并不是一味地照搬照抄,而是根据汉语自身的特点做了较大的创新。

  13. Thirteen-Year Evaluation of Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene Articulating With Either 28-mm or 36-mm Femoral Heads Using Radiostereometric Analysis and Computerized Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nebergall, Audrey K; Greene, Meridith E; Rubash, Harry

    2016-01-01

    radiograph, and CT follow-up. The 1-year and 13-year plain radiographs as well as the CT scans were analyzed for the presence of osteolysis. RESULTS: The 13-year mean ± standard error steady-state wear was 0.05 ± 0.02 mm with no significant increase over time or between the 2 head size groups. Two patients......BACKGROUND: The objective of this 13-year prospective evaluation of highly cross-linked ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (HXLPE) was to (1) assess the long-term wear of HXLPE articulating with 2 femoral head sizes using radiostereometric analysis (RSA) and to (2) determine if osteolysis...

  14. Analysis of production models and hydrogen supply for urban collective transportation buses: a case study at Foz do Iguacu; Analise de modelos de producao e abastecimento de hidrogenio para onibus de transporte coletivo urbano: estudo de caso em Foz do Iguacu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros-Godoy, Gustavo [Universidade Nacional de Assuncao (Paraguay). Faculdade de Ciencias Quimicas]. E-mail: riveros@qui.una.py; Cavaliero, Carla; Peres, Ennio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica

    2008-07-01

    Even though technical-economical barriers still exist for the development of an economy based in the hydrogen, these difficulties are opportunities for the appearance of new business of goods and services, energetic matrix diversification, focusing of researches activities, development and support to provide sustainability to the new economy. This study presents the technical-economical comparison of hydrogen production and supply models, using the so-called Spilled Turbinable Energy of the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant and available for the transport sector. The substitution of the urban collective diesel bus fleet with fuel cell buses in Foz do Iguacu city was used as a case study in this work. (author)

  15. Microfluidic Integration of a Cloth-Based Hybridization Array System (CHAS) for Rapid, Colorimetric Detection of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) Using an Articulated, Centrifugal Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Matthias; Clime, Liviu; Hoa, Xuyen D; Morton, Keith J; Hébert, Harold; Poncelet, Lucas; Mounier, Maxence; Deschênes, Mylène; Gauthier, Martine E; Huszczynski, George; Corneau, Nathalie; Blais, Burton W; Veres, Teodor

    2015-10-20

    We describe the translation of a cloth-based hybridization array system (CHAS), a colorimetric DNA detection method that is used by food inspection laboratories for colony screening of pathogenic agents, onto a microfluidic chip format. We also introduce an articulated centrifugal platform with a novel fluid manipulation concept based on changes in the orientation of the chip with respect to the centrifugal force field to time the passage of multiple components required for the process. The platform features two movable and motorized carriers that can be reoriented on demand between 0 and 360° during stage rotation. Articulation of the chip can be used to trigger on-the-fly fluid dispensing through independently addressable siphon structures or to relocate solutions against the centrifugal force field, making them newly accessible for downstream transfer. With the microfluidic CHAS, we achieved significant reduction in the size of the cloth substrate as well as the volume of reagents and wash solutions. Both the chip design and the operational protocol were optimized to perform the entire process in a reliable, fully automated fashion. A demonstration with PCR-amplified genomic DNA confirms on-chip detection and identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from colony isolates in a colorimetric multiplex assay using rfbO157, fliCH7, vt1, and vt2 genes.

  16. 抗松型流体管道螺纹活接头%Anti-loosing type flow pipeline thread articulated joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江绍成; 戴再农; 张顺祥

    2012-01-01

    抗松型流体管道螺纹活接头,就是在锁紧螺母外侧的活动管接头上,加一个与锁紧螺母螺纹旋向相反且螺距较小的抗松螺母,旋紧锁紧螺母后,再反向转动抗松螺母使两螺母接触面并紧,此时,锁紧螺母松动的转向恰是抗松螺母并紧之转向,因此,抗松螺母能强力阻止锁紧螺母的松动.%Anti-loosing type flow pipeline thread articulated joint has been put forward by adding anti-loosing nut with small pitch which is opposite to the locknut thread direction to the outside articulated joint of the locknut. After the locknut has been locked, the anti-loosing nut has been rotated in an opposite direction and the surface of the two nuts can be very close and tight. The loosing direction of the locknut is just the locking direction of the antiloosing nut. Thus in this way, the anti-loosing nut can greatly prevent the loosing of the locknut.

  17. Buses and Boards Making the right choice

    CERN Document Server

    Gipper, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    From motherboard to backplane to blade based computer systems, the choices are numerous. This paper will cover the markets and trends within those markets that influence decisions made by board suppliers. Discussion will focus on the various form factors, the development and evolution of industry standards, and the consortia that support and develop these standards, including VITA, PICMG, and others. This paper will conclude with suggestions for choosing the right form factor for your application.

  18. Snow, buses, and mobile data services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomin, Vladislav

    2006-01-01

    and Daniel Robey [2002], in wich the authors use anecdotes to demonstrate what advanced service possibilities are afforded by ubiquitous technology as contrasted to the residue of social behavior.This story illustrates that the succes of establishing Information Society should not be measured by the number...... of available services to citizens over the wireline and mobile Internet. The ultimate measure for success must be the extent to which poeple are aware about the availability of relevant content and are using the services [Daniel and Wilson, 2003, p.285]....

  19. High Energy Batteries for Hybrid Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Lu

    2010-12-31

    EnerDel batteries have already been employed successfully for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Compared to EV applications, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) bus applications may be less stressful, but are still quite demanding, especially compared to battery applications for consumer products. This program evaluated EnerDel cell and pack system technologies with three different chemistries using real world HEV-Bus drive cycles recorded in three markets covering cold, hot, and mild climates. Cells were designed, developed, and fabricated using each of the following three chemistries: (1) Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) - hard carbon (HC); (2) Lithium manganese oxide (LMO) - HC; and (3) LMO - lithium titanium oxide (LTO) cells. For each cell chemistry, battery pack systems integrated with an EnerDel battery management system (BMS) were successfully constructed with the following features: real time current monitoring, cell and pack voltage monitoring, cell and pack temperature monitoring, pack state of charge (SOC) reporting, cell balancing, and over voltage protection. These features are all necessary functions for real-world HEV-Bus applications. Drive cycle test data was collected for each of the three cell chemistries using real world drive profiles under hot, mild, and cold climate conditions representing cities like Houston, Seattle, and Minneapolis, respectively. We successfully tested the battery packs using real-world HEV-Bus drive profiles under these various climate conditions. The NMC-HC and LMO-HC based packs successfully completed the drive cycles, while the LMO-LTO based pack did not finish the preliminary testing for the drive cycles. It was concluded that the LMO-HC chemistry is optimal for the hot or mild climates, while the NMC-HC chemistry is optimal for the cold climate. In summary, the objectives were successfully accomplished at the conclusion of the project. This program provided technical data to DOE and the public for assessing EnerDel technology, and helps DOE to evaluate the merits of underlying technology. The successful completion of this program demonstrated the capability of EnerDel battery packs to satisfactorily supply all power and energy requirements of a real-world HEV-Bus drive profile. This program supports green solutions to metropolitan public transportation problems by demonstrating the effectiveness of EnerDel lithium ion batteries for HEV-Bus applications.

  20. Seat Belt Usage on School Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Ernest

    1985-01-01

    Studies on seat belt usage conducted under contract with governmental organizations or prepared by professional societies, state and local organizations, and transportation specialists have made significant contributions, but none has successfully resolved the issue. (MLF)