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Sample records for articular cartilage compared

  1. Imaging of articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawan K Paunipagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tried to review the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in understanding microscopic and morphologic structure of the articular cartilage. The optimal protocols and available spin-echo sequences in present day practice are reviewed in context of common pathologies of articular cartilage. The future trends of articular cartilage imaging have been discussed with their appropriateness. In diarthrodial joints of the body, articular cartilage is functionally very important. It is frequently exposed to trauma, degeneration, and repetitive wear and tear. MRI has played a vital role in evaluation of articular cartilage. With the availability of advanced repair surgeries for cartilage lesions, there has been an increased demand for improved cartilage imaging techniques. Recent advances in imaging strategies for native and postoperative articular cartilage open up an entirely new approach in management of cartilage-related pathologies.

  2. Deginerative changes of femoral articular cartilage in the knee : comparative study of specimen sonography and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju Youn; Hong, Sung Hwan; Sohn, Jin Hee; Wee, Young Hoon; Chang, Jun Dong; Park, Hong Seok; Lee, Eil Seoung; Kang Ik Won

    2001-01-01

    To determine the sonographic findings of degenerative change in femoral articular cartilage of the knee by comparative study of specimen sonography and pathology. We obtained 40 specimens of cartilage of the femur (20 medial and 20 lateral condylar) from 20 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee who had undergone total knee replacement. The specimens were placed in a saline-filled container and sonography was performed using a 10-MHz linear transducer. Sonographic abnormalities were evaluated at the cartilage surface, within the cartilage, and at the bone-cartilage interface, and were compared with the corresponding pathologic findings. In addition, cartilage thickness was measured at a representative portion of each femoral cartilage specimen and was compared with the thickness determined by sonography. 'Dot' lesions, irregularity or loss of the hyperechoic line, were demonstrated by sonography at the saline-cartilage interface of 14 cartilages. Pathologic examination showed that these findings corresponded to cleft, detachment, erosion, and degeneration. Irregularities in the hyperechoic line at the bone-cartilage interface were revealed by sonography in eight cartilages and were related to irregularity or loss of tidemark, downward displacement of the cartilage, and subchondral callus formation. Dot lesions, corresponding to cleft and degeneration, were noted within one cartilage. Cartilage thickness measured on specimen and by sonography showed no significant difference (p=0.446). Specimen sonography suggested that articular cartilage underwent degenerative histopathological change. Cartilage thickness measured by sonography exactly reflected real thickness

  3. Degenerated human articular cartilage at autopsy represents preclinical osteoarthritic cartilage: comparison with clinically defined osteoarthritic cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valburg, A. A.; Wenting, M. J.; Beekman, B.; te Koppele, J. M.; Lafeber, F. P.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    To investigate whether macroscopically fibrillated human articular knee cartilage observed at autopsy can be considered an early, preclinical phase of osteoarthritis (OA). Histological and biochemical characteristics of 3 types of articular knee cartilage were compared: macroscopically degenerated

  4. MR diagnosis of articular cartilage injury in the knee: compared with arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Min; Li Shiling; Guo Zhiping; Zhang Wei; Ma Xiaohui; Cai Pengli; Wei Peijian; Peng Zhigang; Sun Yingcai; Zhang Zekun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of FS-3D-FISP, FS-2D-FLASH and SE-T 1 WI sequences in the detection of articular cartilage injury of the knee. Methods: 34 consecutive patients with persistent symptoms of knee pain who were scheduled for arthroscopy underwent MR examination of the knee on a 1.5 TMR unit prior to arthroscopy. The 2D MR images were transferred to a workstation and processed tow-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstruction. Results: Compared with the arthroscopy, the sensitivity, specificity, and Kappa were 91.4%, 97%, and 0.818, respectively with FS-3D-F ISP sequence, 77.1%, 98%, and 0.531, respectively with FS-2D-FLASH sequence, 70%, 99%, and 0.518, respectively with SE-T 1 WI sequence. In the cases that had no acute trauma, 77.6% lesions were shown lower SI on T 1 -WI in the region of the subchondral bone and marrow near the lesions, and higher SI on FS-3D-FISP and FS-2D-FLASH sequences. Conclusion: Comparing with arthroscopy, the diagnosis accuracy of FS-3D-FISP sequence is obviously better than that of FS-2D-FLASH and SE-T 1 WI sequences. Correlation between FS-3D-FISP sequence and arthroscopy in detecting articular cartilage injury is remarkeble. Abnormal signal in the subchondral bone and marrow is an important indirect sign of articular cartilage injury. Three-dimensional reconstruction of articular cartilage is helpful for localization of the lesions after injury. (authors)

  5. Towards Regeneration of Articular Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Masahiro; Ohta, Yoichi; Larmour, Colleen; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    Articular cartilage is classified into permanent hyaline cartilage and has significant differences in structure, extracelluar matrix components, gene expression profile, and mechanical property from transient hyaline cartilage found in growth plate. In the process of synovial joint development, articular cartilage is originated from the interzone, developing at the edge of the cartilaginous anlagen, it establishes zonal structure over time and supports smooth movement of the synovial joint through life. The cascade actions of key regulators such as Wnts, GDF5, Erg, and PTHLH coordinate sequential steps of articular cartilage formation. Articular chondrocytes are restrictedly controlled not to differentiate into a hypertrophic stage by autocrine and paracrine factors and extracerllular matrix microenvironment, but retain potential to undergo hypertrophy. The basal calcified zone of articular cartilage is connected with subchondral bone, but not invaded by blood vessels nor replaced by bone, which is highly contrasted with the growth plate. Articular cartilage has limited regenerative capacity, but likely possesses and potentially uses intrinsic stem cell source in the superficial layer, Ranvier’s groove, the intra-articular tissues such as synovium and fat pad, and marrow below the subchondral bone. Considering the biological views on articular cartilage, several important points are raised for regeneration of articular cartilage. We should evaluate the nature of regenerated cartilage as permanent hyaline cartilage and not just hyaline cartilage. We should study how a hypertrophic phenotype of transplanted cells can be lastingly suppressed in regenerating tissue. Further, we should develop the methods and reagents to activate recruitment of intrinsic stem/progenitor cells into the damaged site. PMID:24078496

  6. MR imaging of articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, F.K.W.; Muhle, C.; Heller, M.; Brossmann, J.

    2001-01-01

    MR imaging has evolved to the best non-invasive method for the evaluation of articular cartilage. MR imaging helps to understand the structure and physiology of cartilage, and to diagnose cartilage lesions. Numerous studies have shown high accuracy and reliability concerning detection of cartilage lesions and early changes in both structure and biochemistry. High contrast-to-noise ratio and high spatial resolution are essential for analysis of articular cartilage. Fat-suppressed 3D-T 1 weighted gradient echo and T 2 -weighted fast spin echo sequences with or without fat suppression are recommended for clinical routine. In this article the anatomy and pathology of hyaline articular cartilage and the complex imaging characteristics of hyaline cartilage will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  7. Articular cartilage explant culture; an appropriate in vitro system to compare osteoarthritic and normal human cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber, F. P.; Vander Kraan, P. M.; van Roy, J. L.; Huber-Bruning, O.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Proteoglycan metabolism of normal and histologically mild to moderate osteoarthritic cartilage explants were studied. Explants were obtained from the human knee of donors aged over 40 years. Proteoglycan content, synthesis and release were very similar in normal cartilage obtained from donors with

  8. Development of artificial articular cartilage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mechanical strength of Poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA is improved up to 35 MPa. Manufacturing method is adopted considering colloidal stability of nano silica particle in PVA sol at specific pH = 1. An adhesive is also prepared from PVA/Si nanocomposite containing 40% TEOS for firm attachment of artificial articular cartilage on ...

  9. Postnatal development of articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage (AC) is the thin layer of tissue that covers the ends of the bones in the synovial joints in mammals. Functional adult AC has depth-dependent mechanical properties that are not yet present at birth. These depth-dependent mechanical properties in adult life are the result of a

  10. MRI evaluation of acute articular cartilage injury of knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jun; Wu Zhenhua; Fan Guoguang; Pan Shinong; Guo Qiyong

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the MRI manifestation of acute articular cartilage injury of knee for evaluating the extension and degree of the injury and guiding treatment. Methods: MRI of 34 patients with acute articular cartilage injury of knee within one day to fifteen days confirmed by arthroscopy and arthrotomy was reviewed and analyzed, with emphasis on articular cartilage and subchondral lesion. And every manifestation on MRI and that of arthroscopy and operation was compared. Results: The articular cartilage injury was diagnosed on MRI in 29 of 34 cases. Cartilage signal changes were found only in 4. The changes of cartilage shape were variable. Thinning of focal cartilage was showed in 3, osteochondral impaction in 3, creases of cartilage in 3, disrupted cartilage with fissuring in 13, cracks cartilage in 2, and cracks cartilage with displaced fragment in 1. Bone bruise and occult fracture were found only on MRI. Conclusion: The assessment of MRI and arthroscopy in acute articular cartilage injury are consistent. Combined with arthroscopy, MRI can succeed in assessing the extension and degree of acute articular injury and allowing treatment planning

  11. INJURED ARTICULAR CARTILAGE REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Barlič

    2008-02-01

    Surveys show that the most frequently used surgical methods are mosaicplasty and bonemarrow stimulation with microfracturing. The efficacy of the autologous chondrocyte implantationmethod should be superior to microfracturing on a long run. Especially when(regeneration of the hyaline cartilage instead of fibrous tissue (fibrocartilage is concerned.However, it has not been scientifically proved yet

  12. Imaging diagnosis of the articular cartilage disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sirun; Zhu Tianyuan; Huang Li; Leng Xiaoming

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnosis and differential diagnosis among the chronic osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic cartilage lesions on the plain films and MR images. Methods: Eighty-nine cases, including 115 joints, underwent plain film and MRI examination, and enhanced MRI scan was performed on 32 of them, including 44 joints. MRI scan sequences consisted of T 1 WI, T 2 WI + PDWI, STIR, and 3D FS SPGR. There were 90 knee joints in this group and each of the articular cartilage was divided into four parts: patella, femoral medial condyle, femoral lateral condyle, and tibia facet on MR images. The cartilage disorders were classified according to the outerbridge method. In addition, 61 cases including 75 joints were observed as a control group on the plain films and MR images. Results: 115 cartilage lesions were found on MR images, in which thinness of the cartilage (58 cases, 50.4%), bone changes under the cartilage (22 cases, 19.7%), medullar edema (22 cases, 19.7%), and synovial hyperplasia (52 cases, 45.2%) were seen. The patella cartilage was the most likely affected part (81/90, 90%). So the patellar cartilage lesions were divided as group 1 (grade I-II) and group 2 (grade III-IV) on MR images, which were compared with the plain film signs. The narrowing of the joint space and saccules under the articular surface were statistically significant with each other, and χ 2 values were 9.349 and 9.885, respectively (P=0.002). Conclusion: No constant signs could be seen on the plain films with grade I-II cartilage disorders. While the narrowing joint space and saccules under the joint surface could be seen on them with grade III-IV cartilage disorders, which were mainly correlated with the cartilage disorders and bone changes under the articular cartilages. A combination of the plain films and MR images is the best imaging method for examining the joints and joint cartilages. Enhanced MRI scan is very helpful on the diagnosis and differential

  13. Current status of imaging of articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodler, J.; Resnick, D.

    1996-01-01

    Various imaging methods have been applied to assessment of articular cartilage. These include standard radiography, arthrography, CT, CT arthrography, ultrasonography, and MR imaging. Radiography remains the initial musculoskeletal imaging method. However, it is insensitive to early stages of cartilage abnormalities. MR imaging has great potential in the assessment of articular cartilage, although high-quality scans are required because imaging signs of cartilage abnormalities may be subtle. The potential and limitations of various sequences and techniques are discussed, including MR arthrography. The role of the other imaging methods in assessment of articular cartilage appears to be limited. (orig.). With 8 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Oxygen, nitric oxide and articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Fermor

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Molecular oxygen is required for the production of nitric oxide (NO, a pro-inflammatory mediator that is associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. To date there has been little consideration of the role of oxygen tension in the regulation of nitric oxide production associated with arthritis. Oxygen tension may be particularly relevant to articular cartilage since it is avascular and therefore exists at a reduced oxygen tension. The superficial zone exists at approximately 6% O2, while the deep zone exists at less than 1% O2. Furthermore, oxygen tension can alter matrix synthesis, and the material properties of articular cartilage in vitro.The increase in nitric oxide associated with arthritis can be caused by pro-inflammatory cytokines and mechanical stress. Oxygen tension significantly alters endogenous NO production in articular cartilage, as well as the stimulation of NO in response to both mechanical loading and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mechanical loading and pro-inflammatory cytokines also increase the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. There is a complex interaction between NO and PGE2, and oxygen tension can alter this interaction. These findings suggest that the relatively low levels of oxygen within the joint may have significant influences on the metabolic activity, and inflammatory response of cartilage as compared to ambient levels. A better understanding of the role of oxygen in the production of inflammatory mediators in response to mechanical loading, or pro-inflammatory cytokines, may aid in the development of strategies for therapeutic intervention in arthritis.

  15. Supporting Biomaterials for Articular Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Campos, Daniela Filipa; Drescher, Wolf; Rath, Björn; Tingart, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Orthopedic surgeons and researchers worldwide are continuously faced with the challenge of regenerating articular cartilage defects. However, until now, it has not been possible to completely mimic the biological and biochemical properties of articular cartilage using current research and development approaches. In this review, biomaterials previously used for articular cartilage repair research are addressed. Furthermore, a brief discussion of the state of the art of current cell printing procedures mimicking native cartilage is offered in light of their use as future alternatives for cartilage tissue engineering. Inkjet cell printing, controlled deposition cell printing tools, and laser cell printing are cutting-edge techniques in this context. The development of mimetic hydrogels with specific biological properties relevant to articular cartilage native tissue will support the development of improved, functional, and novel engineered tissue for clinical application. PMID:26069634

  16. PRP and Articular Cartilage: A Clinical Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Roberto; Castoldi, Filippo; Michielon, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    The convincing background of the recent studies, investigating the different potentials of platelet-rich plasma, offers the clinician an appealing alternative for the treatment of cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. Recent evidences in literature have shown that PRP may be helpful both as an adjuvant for surgical treatment of cartilage defects and as a therapeutic tool by intra-articular injection in patients affected by osteoarthritis. In this review, the authors introduce the trophic and anti-inflammatory properties of PRP and the different products of the available platelet concentrates. Then, in a complex scenario made of a great number of clinical variables, they resume the current literature on the PRP applications in cartilage surgery as well as the use of intra-articular PRP injections for the conservative treatment of cartilage degenerative lesions and osteoarthritis in humans, available as both case series and comparative studies. The result of this review confirms the fascinating biological role of PRP, although many aspects yet remain to be clarified and the use of PRP in a clinical setting has to be considered still exploratory. PMID:26075244

  17. PRP and Articular Cartilage: A Clinical Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marmotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The convincing background of the recent studies, investigating the different potentials of platelet-rich plasma, offers the clinician an appealing alternative for the treatment of cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. Recent evidences in literature have shown that PRP may be helpful both as an adjuvant for surgical treatment of cartilage defects and as a therapeutic tool by intra-articular injection in patients affected by osteoarthritis. In this review, the authors introduce the trophic and anti-inflammatory properties of PRP and the different products of the available platelet concentrates. Then, in a complex scenario made of a great number of clinical variables, they resume the current literature on the PRP applications in cartilage surgery as well as the use of intra-articular PRP injections for the conservative treatment of cartilage degenerative lesions and osteoarthritis in humans, available as both case series and comparative studies. The result of this review confirms the fascinating biological role of PRP, although many aspects yet remain to be clarified and the use of PRP in a clinical setting has to be considered still exploratory.

  18. Rabbit articular cartilage defects treated by allogenic chondrocyte transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Boopalan, P. R. J. V. C.; Sathishkumar, Solomon; Kumar, Senthil; Chittaranjan, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Articular cartilage defects have a poor capacity for repair. Most of the current treatment options result in the formation of fibro-cartilage, which is functionally inferior to normal hyaline articular cartilage. We studied the effectiveness of allogenic chondrocyte transplantation for focal articular cartilage defects in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured in vitro from cartilage harvested from the knee joints of a New Zealand White rabbit. A 3 mm defect was created in the articular cartilag...

  19. Body Weight Independently Affects Articular Cartilage Catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Matt Denning, Jason G. Winward, Michael Becker Pardo, J. Ty Hopkins, Matthew K. Seeley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW, +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP was measured immediately before (baseline and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR and rate of perceived exertion (RPE were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response.

  20. The minor collagens in articular cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yunyun; Sinkeviciute, Dovile; He, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a connective tissue consisting of a specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) that dominates the bulk of its wet and dry weight. Type II collagen and aggrecan are the main ECM proteins in cartilage. However, little attention has been paid to less abundant molecular components......, especially minor collagens, including type IV, VI, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, and XIV, etc. Although accounting for only a small fraction of the mature matrix, these minor collagens not only play essential structural roles in the mechanical properties, organization, and shape of articular cartilage, but also...... fulfil specific biological functions. Genetic studies of these minor collagens have revealed that they are associated with multiple connective tissue diseases, especially degenerative joint disease. The progressive destruction of cartilage involves the degradation of matrix constituents including...

  1. Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of repaired articular cartilage after a microfracture

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    Dohi Yoshihiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical practice, surgeons differentiate color changes in repaired cartilage compared with surrounding intact cartilage, but cannot quantify these color changes. Objective assessments are required. A spectrocolorimeter was used to evaluate whether intact and repaired cartilage can be quantified. Findings We investigated the use of a spectrocolorimeter and the application of two color models (L* a* b* colorimetric system and spectral reflectance distribution to describe and quantify articular cartilage. In this study, we measured the colors of intact and repaired cartilage after a microfracture. Histologically, the repaired cartilage was a mixture of fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. In the L* a* b* colorimetric system, the L* and a* values recovered to close to the values of intact cartilage, whereas the b* value decreased over time after the operation. Regarding the spectral reflectance distribution at 12 weeks after the operation, the repaired cartilage had a higher spectral reflectance ratio than intact cartilage between wavelengths of 400 to 470 nm. Conclusion This study reports the first results regarding the relationship between spectrocolorimetric evaluation and the histological findings of repair cartilage after a microfracture. Our findings demonstrate the ability of spectrocolorimetric measurement to judge the repair cartilage after treatment on the basis of objective data such as the L*, a* and b* values and the SRP as a coincidence index of the spectral reflectance curve.

  2. Regulators of articular cartilage homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus

    2012-01-01

    Prevention of hypertrophic differentiation is essential for successful cartilage repair strategies. Although this process is essential for longitudinal growth, it also is part of degenerative cartilage diseases such as osteoarthiritis. Moreover, it limits the use of cell types prone to this process

  3. Advanced Strategies for Articular Cartilage Defect Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergal J. O'Brien

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a unique tissue owing to its ability to withstand repetitive compressive stress throughout an individual’s lifetime. However, its major limitation is the inability to heal even the most minor injuries. There still remains an inherent lack of strategies that stimulate hyaline-like articular cartilage growth with appropriate functional properties. Recent scientific advances in tissue engineering have made significant steps towards development of constructs for articular cartilage repair. In particular, research has shown the potential of biomaterial physico-chemical properties significantly influencing the proliferation, differentiation and matrix deposition by progenitor cells. Accordingly, this highlights the potential of using such properties to direct the lineage towards which such cells follow. Moreover, the use of soluble growth factors to enhance the bioactivity and regenerative capacity of biomaterials has recently been adopted by researchers in the field of tissue engineering. In addition, gene therapy is a growing area that has found noteworthy use in tissue engineering partly due to the potential to overcome some drawbacks associated with current growth factor delivery systems. In this context, such advanced strategies in biomaterial science, cell-based and growth factor-based therapies that have been employed in the restoration and repair of damaged articular cartilage will be the focus of this review article.

  4. Articular cartilage changes in chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, G

    1985-11-01

    Full thickness samples of articular cartilage were removed from areas of chondromalacia on the medial and "odd" facets of the patellae of 21 adults and examined by histology, autoradiography and electron microscopy. Surface fibrillation, loss of superficial matrix staining and reduced 35SO4 labelling was seen, with little change in the deep zone. Ten cases showed "fibrous metaplasia" of the superficial cartilage with definite evidence of cell division and apparent smoothing of the surface. Scattered chondrocyte replication appeared to occur in the surrounding intact cartilage. The findings suggest that early lesions in chondromalacia patellae may heal either by cartilage or fibrous metaplasia and that this may account for the resolution of clinical symptoms.

  5. Articular cartilage: from formation to tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero-Espinosa, Sandra; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Foster, E Johan; Weder, Christoph

    2016-05-26

    Hyaline cartilage is the nonlinear, inhomogeneous, anisotropic, poro-viscoelastic connective tissue that serves as friction-reducing and load-bearing cushion in synovial joints and is vital for mammalian skeletal movements. Due to its avascular nature, low cell density, low proliferative activity and the tendency of chondrocytes to de-differentiate, cartilage cannot regenerate after injury, wear and tear, or degeneration through common diseases such as osteoarthritis. Therefore severe damage usually requires surgical intervention. Current clinical strategies to generate new tissue include debridement, microfracture, autologous chondrocyte transplantation, and mosaicplasty. While articular cartilage was predicted to be one of the first tissues to be successfully engineered, it proved to be challenging to reproduce the complex architecture and biomechanical properties of the native tissue. Despite significant research efforts, only a limited number of studies have evolved up to the clinical trial stage. This review article summarizes the current state of cartilage tissue engineering in the context of relevant biological aspects, such as the formation and growth of hyaline cartilage, its composition, structure and biomechanical properties. Special attention is given to materials development, scaffold designs, fabrication methods, and template-cell interactions, which are of great importance to the structure and functionality of the engineered tissue.

  6. Laser biostimulation of articular cartilage: in vitro evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yali; Guo, Zhouyi; Yang, Xiaohong; Zeng, Chang-Chun

    2004-07-01

    In the orthopaedic field, the repair of ariticular cartilage is still a difficult problem, because of the physiological characters of cartilaginous tissues and chondrocytes. To find an effective method of stimulating their regeneration, this in vitro study focuses on the biostimulation of rabbit articular chondrocytes by low-power He-Ne laser. The articular chondrocytes isolated from the cartilage of the medial condyle of the femur of the rabbit were incubated in HamF12 medium. The second passage culture were spread on 24 petri dishes and were irradiated with laser at power density of 2 - 12 mW/cm2 for 6.5 minutes, corresponding to the energy density of 1-6 J/cm2. Laser treatment was performed three times at a 24-hour interval. After lasering, incubation was continued for 24 hours. Non-irradiated cells were kept under the same conditions as the irradiated ones. The cell proliferation activity was evaluated with a XTT colorimetric method. Irradiation of 4 - 6 J/cm2 revealed a considerably higher cell proliferation activity comparing to control cultures. Thereinto, the energy density of 4 and 5 J/cm2 remarkably increased cell growth (P<0.01). The present study showed that a particular laser irradiation stimulates articular chondrocytes proliferation. These findings might be clinically relevant, indicating that low-power laser irradiation treatment is likely to achieve the repair of articular cartilage in clinic.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage: ex vivo study on normal cartilage correlated with magnetic resonance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cova, M.; Frezza, F.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.; Dalla-Palma, L.; Toffanin, R.; Pozzi-Mucelli, M.; Mlynarik, V.; Vittur, F.

    1998-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to compare the MR appearance of normal articular cartilage in ex vivo MR imaging (MRI) and MR microscopy (MRM) images of disarticulated human femoral heads, (b) to evaluate by MRM the topographic variations in articular cartilage of disarticulated human femoral heads, and subsequently, (c) to compare MRM images with histology. Ten disarticulated femoral heads were examined. Magnetic resonance images were obtained using spin-echo (SE) and gradient-echo (GE) sequences. Microimages were acquired on cartilage-bone cylindrical plugs excised from four regions (superior, inferior, anterior, posterior) of one femoral head, using a modified SE sequence. Both MRI and MRM images were obtained before and after a 90 rotation of the specimen, around the axis perpendicular to the examined cartilage surface. Finally, MRM images were correlated with histology. A trilaminar appearance of articular cartilage was observed with MRI and with a greater detail with MRM. A good correlation between MRI and MRM features was demonstrated. Both MRI and MRM showed a loss of the trilaminar cartilage appearance after specimen rotation, with greater evidence on MRM images. Cartilage excised from the four regions of the femoral head showed a different thickness, being thickest in the samples excised from the superior site. The MRM technique confirms the trilaminar MRI appearance of human articular cartilage, showing good correlation with histology. The loss of the trilaminar appearance of articular cartilage induced by specimen rotation suggests that this feature is partially related to the collagen-fiber orientation within the different layers. The MRM technique also shows topographic variations in thickness of human articular cartilage. (orig.)

  8. Follistatin Alleviates Synovitis and Articular Cartilage Degeneration Induced by Carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yamada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activins are proinflammatory cytokines which belong to the TGFβ superfamily. Follistatin is an extracellular decoy receptor for activins. Since both activins and follistatin are expressed in articular cartilage, we hypothesized that activin-follistatin signaling participates in the process of joint inflammation and cartilage degeneration. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of follistatin in a carrageenan-induced mouse arthritis model. Synovitis induced by intra-articular injection of carrageenan was significantly alleviated by preinjection with follistatin. Macrophage infiltration into the synovial membrane was significantly reduced in the presence of follistatin. In addition, follistatin inhibited proteoglycan erosion induced by carrageenan in articular cartilage. These data indicate that activin-follistatin signaling is involved in joint inflammation and cartilage homeostasis. Our data suggest that follistatin can be a new therapeutic target for inflammation-induced articular cartilage degeneration.

  9. An in vitro comparative study of T2 and T2* mappings of human articular cartilage at 3-Tesla MRI using histology as the standard of reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehee; Park, Sunghoon; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Yoon, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hakil; Lee, Hyun Young; Kwack, Kyu-Sung

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between T2 value, T2* value, and histological grades of degenerated human articular cartilage. T2 mapping and T2* mapping of nine tibial osteochondral specimens were obtained using a 3-T MRI after total knee arthroplasty. A total of 94 ROIs were analyzed. Histological grades were assessed using the David-Vaudey scale. Spearman's rho correlation analysis and Pearson's correlation analysis were performed. The mean relaxation values in T2 map with different histological grades (0, 1, 2) of the cartilage were 51.9 ± 9.2 ms, 55.8 ± 12.8 ms, and 59.6 ± 10.2 ms, respectively. The mean relaxation values in T2* map with different histological grades (0, 1, 2) of the cartilage were 20.3 ± 10.3 ms, 21.1 ± 12.4 ms, and 15.4 ± 8.5 ms, respectively. Spearman's rho correlation analysis confirmed a positive correlation between T2 value and histological grade (ρ = 0.313, p < 0.05). Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between T2 and T2* (r = -0.322, p < 0.05). Although T2* values showed a decreasing trend with an increase in cartilage degeneration, this correlation was not statistically significant in this study (ρ = -0.192, p = 0.129). T2 mapping was correlated with histological degeneration, and it may be a good biomarker for osteoarthritis in human articular cartilage. However, the strength of the correlation was weak (ρ = 0.313). Although T2* values showed a decreasing trend with an increase in cartilage degeneration, the correlation was not statistically significant. Therefore, T2 mapping may be more appropriate for the initial diagnosis of articular cartilage degeneration in the knee joint. Further studies on T2* mapping are needed to confirm its reliability and mechanism in cartilage degeneration. (orig.)

  10. Osteoarthritis: Control of human cartilage hypertrophic differentiation. Research highlight van: Gremlin1, frizzled-related protein, and Dkk-1 are key regulators of human articular cartilage homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buckland, J.; Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of articular cartilage homeostasis is important in osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis, key to which is activation of articular chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation. Healthy articular cartilage is resistant to hypertrophic differentiation, whereas growth-plate cartilage is destined to

  11. Repair of articular cartilage defects in the knee with autologous iliac crest cartilage in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Lizhong; Zhang, Jiying; Leng, Huijie; Guo, Qinwei; Hu, Yuelin

    2015-04-01

    To demonstrate that iliac crest cartilage may be used to repair articular cartilage defects in the knees of rabbits. Full-thickness cartilage defects were created in the medial femoral condyle on both knees of 36 New Zealand white rabbits. The 72 defects were randomly assigned to be repaired with ipsilateral iliac crest cartilage (Group I), osteochondral tissues removed at defect creation (Group II), or no treatment (negative control, Group III). Animals were killed at 6, 12, and 24 weeks post-operatively. The repaired tissues were harvested for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histological studies (haematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining), and mechanical testing. At 6 weeks, the iliac crest cartilage graft was not yet well integrated with the surrounding articular cartilage, but at 12 weeks, the graft deep zone had partial ossification. By 24 weeks, the hyaline cartilage-like tissue was completely integrated with the surrounding articular cartilage. Osteochondral autografts showed more rapid healing than Group I at 6 weeks and complete healing at 12 weeks. Untreated defects were concave or partly filled with fibrous tissue throughout the study. MRI showed that Group I had slower integration with surrounding normal cartilage compared with Group II. The mechanical properties of Group I were significantly lower than those of Group II at 12 weeks, but this difference was not significant at 24 weeks. Iliac crest cartilage autografts were able to repair knee cartilage defects with hyaline cartilage and showed comparable results with osteochondral autografts in the rabbit model.

  12. MR diffusion weighted imaging experimental study on early stages of articular cartilage degeneration of knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Jingru; Dai Shipeng; Pang Jun; Xu Xiaokun; Wang Yuexin; Zhang Zhigang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the appearance of MR diffusion weighted imaging in early stages of cartilage degeneration and to detect its values. Methods: In 20 goat left knees, intra- articular injection of 5 units of papain was performed causing a loss of cartilage proteoglycan. Twenty right knees were used as control group. MR diffusion weighted imaging was performed at 24 hours after intra-articular injection of papain. ADC of each part of articular cartilage was measured and compared with each other. The proteoglycan content was measured biochemically and histochemically. Routine MRI and DWI were performed in 100 patients with osteoarthritis and 20 healthy people. The ADC of each interested part of articular cartilage was measured and compared with each other. Results: In experimental control group, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (14.2±2.3) x 10 -4 mm 2 /s. In early stages of cartilage degeneration group, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (17.5±4.2) x 10 -4 mm 2 /s. The ADCav of the control group was lower than that of the early stages of cartilage degeneration group (t=2.709; P=0.016). The proteloglycan content of articular cartilage was 4.22 x 10 6 μg/kg in control group, and 0.82 x 10 6 μg/kg in experimental group at 24 hours after injection of papain. The difference between control group and experimental group was significant (t=2.705, P=0.018). In healthy people, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (7.6±2.2) x 10 -4 mm 2 /s. In osteoarthritis group, the ADCav of articular cartilage was (10.3±4.2) x 10 -4 mm 2 /s. The ADCav in the healthy group was significantly lower than that in the osteoarthritis group (t=2.609,P=0.014). Conclusion: DWI is an useful method in detecting early stages of cartilage degeneration which can not be showed on routine sequences. (authors)

  13. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Blumenkrantz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage has recently been recognized as a tool for the characterization of cartilage morphology, biochemistry and function. In this paper advancements in cartilage imaging, computation of cartilage volume and thickness, and measurement of relaxation times (T2 and T1Ρ are presented. In addition, the delayed uptake of Gadolinium DTPA as a marker of proteoglycan depletion is also reviewed. The cross-sectional and longitudinal studies using these imaging techniques show promise for cartilage assessment and for the study of osteoarthritis.

  14. Sonographic evaluation of femoral articular cartilage in the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sung Hwan; Kong Keun Young; Chung, Hye Won; Choi, Young Ho; Song, Yeong Wook; Kang, Heung Sik

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of sonography for the evaluation of osteoarthritic articular cartilage. Ten asymptomatic volunteers and 20 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee underwent sonographic evaluation. For this, the knee was maintained of full flexion in order to expose the deep portion of femoral condylar cartilage. Both transverse and longitudinal scans were obtained in standardized planes. Sonographic images of the articular cartilages were analyzed in terms of surface sharpness, echogenicity and thickness, along with associated bone changes. Normal cartilages showed a clearly-defined surface, homogeneously low echogenicity and regular thickness. Among 20 patients, the findings for medial and lateral condyles, respectively, were as follows: poorly defined cartilage surface, 16 (80%) and ten (50%); increased echogenicity of cartilage, 17 (85%) and 16 (80%); cartilage thinning, 16 (80%) and 14 (70%) (two medial condyles demonstrated obvious cartilage thickening); the presence of thick subchondral hyperechoic bands, five (25%) and four (20%); the presence of osteophytes, 13 (65%) and 12 (60%). Sonography is a convenient and accurate modality for the evaluation of femoral articular cartilage. In particular, it can be useful for detecting early degenerative cartilaginous change and for studying such change during clinical follow-up. (author)

  15. An in vitro comparative study of T2 and T2* mappings of human articular cartilage at 3-Tesla MRI using histology as the standard of reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taehee; Park, Sunghoon [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Ajou University Medical Center, Musculoskeletal Imaging Laboratory, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byoung-Hyun [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Ajou University School of Medicine, Cartilage Regeneration Center, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung-Hyun [Ajou University School of Medicine, Cartilage Regeneration Center, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hakil [INHA University, School of Information and Communication Engineering, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Young [Ajou University Medical Center, Regional Clinical Trial Center, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwack, Kyu-Sung [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Ajou University Medical Center, Musculoskeletal Imaging Laboratory, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Ajou University School of Medicine, Cartilage Regeneration Center, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between T2 value, T2* value, and histological grades of degenerated human articular cartilage. T2 mapping and T2* mapping of nine tibial osteochondral specimens were obtained using a 3-T MRI after total knee arthroplasty. A total of 94 ROIs were analyzed. Histological grades were assessed using the David-Vaudey scale. Spearman's rho correlation analysis and Pearson's correlation analysis were performed. The mean relaxation values in T2 map with different histological grades (0, 1, 2) of the cartilage were 51.9 ± 9.2 ms, 55.8 ± 12.8 ms, and 59.6 ± 10.2 ms, respectively. The mean relaxation values in T2* map with different histological grades (0, 1, 2) of the cartilage were 20.3 ± 10.3 ms, 21.1 ± 12.4 ms, and 15.4 ± 8.5 ms, respectively. Spearman's rho correlation analysis confirmed a positive correlation between T2 value and histological grade (ρ = 0.313, p < 0.05). Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between T2 and T2* (r = -0.322, p < 0.05). Although T2* values showed a decreasing trend with an increase in cartilage degeneration, this correlation was not statistically significant in this study (ρ = -0.192, p = 0.129). T2 mapping was correlated with histological degeneration, and it may be a good biomarker for osteoarthritis in human articular cartilage. However, the strength of the correlation was weak (ρ = 0.313). Although T2* values showed a decreasing trend with an increase in cartilage degeneration, the correlation was not statistically significant. Therefore, T2 mapping may be more appropriate for the initial diagnosis of articular cartilage degeneration in the knee joint. Further studies on T2* mapping are needed to confirm its reliability and mechanism in cartilage degeneration. (orig.)

  16. The protective effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on articular cartilage: a systematic review of animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongen, J J; Hannink, G; van Tienen, T G; van Luijk, J; Hooijmans, C R

    2015-08-01

    Despite widespread reporting on clinical results, the effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on the development of osteoarthritis is still unclear. The aim of this study was to systematically review all studies on the effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on articular cartilage in animals. Pubmed and Embase were searched for original articles concerning the effect of meniscus allograft transplantation on articular cartilage compared with both its positive (meniscectomy) and negative (either sham or non-operated) control in healthy animals. Outcome measures related to assessment of damage to articular cartilage were divided in five principal outcome categories. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were calculated and pooled to obtain an overall SMD and 95% confidence interval. 17 articles were identified, representing 14 original animal cohorts with an average timing of data collection of 24 weeks [range 4 weeks; 30 months]. Compared to a negative control, meniscus allograft transplantation caused gross macroscopic (1.45 [0.95; 1.95]), histological (3.43 [2.25; 4.61]) damage to articular cartilage, and osteoarthritic changes on radiographs (3.12 [1.42; 4.82]). Moreover, results on histomorphometrics and cartilage biomechanics are supportive of this detrimental effect on cartilage. On the other hand, meniscus allograft transplantation caused significantly less gross macroscopic (-1.19 [-1.84; -0.54]) and histological (-1.70 [-2.67; -0.74]) damage to articular cartilage when compared to meniscectomy. However, there was no difference in osteoarthritic changes on plain radiographs (0.04 [-0.48; 0.57]), and results on histomorphometrics and biomechanics did neither show a difference in effect between meniscus allograft transplantation and meniscectomy. In conclusion, although meniscus allograft transplantation does not protect articular cartilage from damage, it reduces the extent of it when compared with meniscectomy. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis

  17. Comparison of friction and wear of articular cartilage on different length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Sandra; Boettcher, Kathrin; Wiegleb, Lorenz; Urban, Joanna; Burgkart, Rainer; Lieleg, Oliver; Hugel, Thorsten

    2015-09-18

    The exceptional tribological properties of articular cartilage are still far from being fully understood. Articular cartilage is able to withstand high loads and provide exceptionally low friction. Although the regeneration abilities of the tissue are very limited, it can last for many decades. These biomechanical properties are realized by an interplay of different lubrication and wear protection mechanisms. The deterioration of cartilage due to aging or injury leads to the development of osteoarthritis. A current treatment strategy focuses on supplementing the intra-articular fluid with a saline solution containing hyaluronic acid. In the work presented here, we investigated how changing the lubricating fluid affects friction and wear of articular cartilage, focusing on the boundary and mixed lubrication as well as interstitial fluid pressurization mechanisms. Different length and time scales were probed by atomic force microscopy, tribology and profilometry. We compared aqueous solutions with different NaCl concentrations to a viscosupplement containing hyaluronic acid (HA). In particular, we found that the presence of ions changes the frictional behavior and the wear resistance. In contrast, hyaluronic acid showed no significant impact on the friction coefficient, but considerably reduced wear. This study confirms the previous notion that friction and wear are not necessarily correlated in articular cartilage tribology and that the main role of HA might be to provide wear protection for the articular surface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Indentation stiffness does not discriminate between normal and degraded articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cameron P; Crawford, Ross W; Oloyede, Adekunle

    2007-08-01

    Relative indentation characteristics are commonly used for distinguishing between normal healthy and degraded cartilage. The application of this parameter in surgical decision making and an appreciation of articular cartilage biomechanics has prompted us to hypothesise that it is difficult to define a reference stiffness to characterise normal articular cartilage. This hypothesis is tested for validity by carrying out biomechanical indentation of articular cartilage samples that are characterised as visually normal and degraded relative to proteoglycan depletion and collagen disruption. Compressive loading was applied at known strain rates to visually normal, artificially degraded and naturally osteoarthritic articular cartilage and observing the trends of their stress-strain and stiffness characteristics. While our results demonstrated a 25% depreciation in the stiffness of individual samples after proteoglycan depletion, they also showed that when compared to the stiffness of normal samples only 17% lie outside the range of the stress-strain behaviour of normal samples. We conclude that the extent of the variability in the properties of normal samples, and the degree of overlap (81%) of the biomechanical properties of normal and degraded matrices demonstrate that indentation data cannot form an accurate basis for distinguishing normal from abnormal articular cartilage samples with consequences for the application of this mechanical process in the clinical environment.

  19. Development of hybrid scaffolds using ceramic and hydrogel for articular cartilage tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Young-Joon; Park, Ju Young; Jeong, Wonju; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-04-01

    The regeneration of articular cartilage consisting of hyaline cartilage and hydrogel scaffolds has been generally used in tissue engineering. However, success in in vivo studies has been rarely reported. The hydrogel scaffolds implanted into articular cartilage defects are mechanically unstable and it is difficult for them to integrate with the surrounding native cartilage tissue. Therefore, it is needed to regenerate cartilage and bone tissue simultaneously. We developed hybrid scaffolds with hydrogel scaffolds for cartilage tissue and with ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue. For in vivo study, hybrid scaffolds were press-fitted into osteochondral tissue defects in a rabbit knee joints and the cartilage tissue regeneration in blank, hydrogel scaffolds, and hybrid scaffolds was compared. In 12th week after implantation, the histological and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted to evaluate the cartilage tissue regeneration. In the blank and hydrogel scaffold groups, the defects were filled with fibrous tissues and the implanted hydrogel scaffolds could not maintain their initial position; in the hybrid scaffold group, newly generated cartilage tissues were morphologically similar to native cartilage tissues and were smoothly connected to the surrounding native tissues. This study demonstrates hybrid scaffolds containing hydrogel and ceramic scaffolds can provide mechanical stability to hydrogel scaffolds and enhance cartilage tissue regeneration at the defect site. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Photoshop-based image analysis of canine articular cartilage after subchondral damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahm, A; Uhl, M; Lehr, H A; Ihling, C; Kreuz, P C; Haberstroh, J

    2004-09-01

    The validity of histopathological grading is a major problem in the assessment of articular cartilage. Calculating the cumulative strength of signal intensity of different stains gives information regarding the amount of proteoglycan, glycoproteins, etc. Using this system, we examined the medium-term effect of subchondral lesions on initially healthy articular cartilage. After cadaver studies, an animal model was created to produce pure subchondral damage without affecting the articular cartilage in 12 beagle dogs under MRI control. Quantification of the different stains was provided using a Photoshop-based image analysis (pixel analysis) with the histogram command 6 months after subchondral trauma. FLASH 3D sequences revealed intact cartilage after impact in all cases. The best detection of subchondral fractures was achieved with fat-suppressed TIRM sequences. Semiquantitative image analysis showed changes in proteoglycan and glycoprotein quantities in 9 of 12 samples that had not shown any evidence of damage during the initial examination. Correlation analysis showed a loss of the physiological distribution of proteoglycans and glycoproteins in the different zones of articular cartilage. Currently available software programs can be applied for comparative analysis of histologic stains of hyaline cartilage. After subchondral fractures, significant changes in the cartilage itself occur after 6 months.

  1. Contrast Agent-Enhanced Computed Tomography of Articular Cartilage: Association with Tissue Composition and Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvast, T. S.; Jurvelin, J.S.; Aula, A.S.; Lammi, M.J.; Toeyraes, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Contrast agent-enhanced computed tomography may enable the noninvasive quantification of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content of articular cartilage. It has been reported that penetration of the negatively charged contrast agent ioxaglate (Hexabrix) increases significantly after enzymatic degradation of GAGs. However, it is not known whether spontaneous degradation of articular cartilage can be quantitatively detected with this technique. Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic potential of contrast agent-enhanced cartilage tomography (CECT) in quantification of GAG concentration in normal and spontaneously degenerated articular cartilage by means of clinical peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Material and Methods: In this in vitro study, normal and spontaneously degenerated adult bovine cartilage (n=32) was used. Bovine patellar cartilage samples were immersed in 21 mM contrast agent (Hexabrix) solution for 24 hours at room temperature. After immersion, the samples were scanned with a clinical pQCT instrument. From pQCT images, the contrast agent concentration in superficial as well as in full-thickness cartilage was calculated. Histological and functional integrity of the samples was quantified with histochemical and mechanical reference measurements extracted from our earlier study. Results: Full diffusion of contrast agent into the deep cartilage was found to take over 8 hours. As compared to normal cartilage, a significant increase (11%, P 0.5, P<0.01). Further, pQCT could be used to measure the thickness of patellar cartilage. Conclusion: The present results suggest that CECT can be used to diagnose proteoglycan depletion in spontaneously degenerated articular cartilage with a clinical pQCT scanner. Possibly, the in vivo use of clinical pQCT for CECT arthrography of human joints is feasible

  2. MR Imaging of Articular Hyaline Cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Uetani, Masataka

    2005-01-01

    MR imaging is still an evolving technique for the diagnosis of joint cartilage lesions. Early morphologic changes in the degenerative cartilage are not reliably diagnosed even with use of tailored MR imaging techniques. The detection of the biochemical changes of cartilage or high-resolution MRI will serve as an important tool for the early diagnosis of cartilage degeneration in near future. Further prospective studies are needed to establish the role of MR imaging in clinical use.

  3. Tribology approach to the engineering and study of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Markus A; Grad, Sibylle; Kaup, Thomas; Hänni, Markus; Schneider, Erich; Gogolewski, Sylwester; Alini, Mauro

    2004-01-01

    This study has been based on the assumption that articular motion is an important aspect of mechanotransduction in synovial joints. For this reason a new bioreactor concept, able to reproduce joint kinematics more closely, has been designed. The prototype consists of a rotating scaffold and/or cartilage pin, which is pressed onto an orthogonally rotating ball. By oscillating pin and ball in phase difference, elliptical displacement trajectories are generated that are similar to the motion paths occurring in vivo. Simultaneously, dynamic compression may be applied with a linear actuator, while two-step-motors generate the rotation of pin and ball. The whole apparatus is placed in an incubator. The control station is located outside. Preliminary investigations at the gene expression level demonstrated promising results. Compared with free-swelling control and/or simply compression-loaded samples, chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds as well as nasal cartilage explants exposed to interface motion both showed elevated levels of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein mRNA. The final design of the bioreactor will include four individual stations in line, which will facilitate the investigation of motion-initiated effects at the contacting surfaces in more detail.

  4. Matrix development in self-assembly of articular cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gidon Ofek

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a highly functional tissue which covers the ends of long bones and serves to ensure proper joint movement. A tissue engineering approach that recapitulates the developmental characteristics of articular cartilage can be used to examine the maturation and degeneration of cartilage and produce fully functional neotissue replacements for diseased tissue.This study examined the development of articular cartilage neotissue within a self-assembling process in two phases. In the first phase, articular cartilage constructs were examined at 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 28, 42, and 56 days immunohistochemically, histologically, and through biochemical analysis for total collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG content. Based on statistical changes in GAG and collagen levels, four time points from the first phase (7, 14, 28, and 56 days were chosen to carry into the second phase, where the constructs were studied in terms of their mechanical characteristics, relative amounts of collagen types II and VI, and specific GAG types (chondroitin 4-sulfate, chondroitin 6-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and hyaluronan. Collagen type VI was present in initial abundance and then localized to a pericellular distribution at 4 wks. N-cadherin activity also spiked at early stages of neotissue development, suggesting that self-assembly is mediated through a minimization of free energy. The percentage of collagen type II to total collagen significantly increased over time, while the proportion of collagen type VI to total collagen decreased between 1 and 2 wks. The chondroitin 6- to 4- sulfate ratio decreased steadily during construct maturation. In addition, the compressive properties reached a plateau and tensile characteristics peaked at 4 wks.The indices of cartilage formation examined in this study suggest that tissue maturation in self-assembled articular cartilage mirrors known developmental processes for native tissue. In terms of tissue engineering, it is

  5. Impact of exercise on articular cartilage: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bricca, Alessio

    2018-01-01

    This thesis summarizes the evidence on the impact of exercise on articular cartilage. No evidence was found to support beneficial effects of exercise on articular cartilage, although in people at risk of, or with, knee osteoarthritis, exercise is not harmful for articular cartilage structure and ...

  6. Professional ballet dancers have a similar prevalence of articular cartilage defects compared to age- and sex-matched non-dancing athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan; Ferris, April-Rose; Smith, Peter; Garnham, Andrew; Cook, Jill

    2016-12-01

    Ballet exposes the hip joint to repetitive loading in extreme ranges of movement and may predispose a dancer to pain and osteoarthritis (OA). The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of cartilage defects in professional ballet dancers and athletes and to determine the relationship of clinical signs and symptoms. Forty-nine male and female, current and retired professional ballet dancers and 49 age- and sex-matched non-dancing athletes completed hip pain questionnaires, including the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS), and underwent hip range of movement (ROM) testing and 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging to score cartilage defects (no defect, grade 1: focal partial defect and grade 2: diffuse or full thickness defect). Thirty (61 %) dancers and 27 (55 %) athletes had cartilage defects (p = 0.54). The frequency of grade 1 and 2 cartilage defects did not differ between dancers and athletes (p = 0.83). The frequency of cartilage defects was similar in male and female dancers (p = 0.34), and male and female athletes (p = 0.24). Cartilage defects were not related to history of hip pain (p = 0.34), HAGOS pain (p = 0.14), sports/rec (p = 0.15) scores or hip internal rotation ≤20° (p > 0.01). Cartilage defects were related to age in male dancers (p = 0.002). Ballet dancers do not appear to be at a greater risk of cartilage injury compared to non-dancing athletes. Male dancers develop cartilage defects at an earlier age than athletes and female dancers. Cartilage defects were not related to clinical signs and symptoms; thus, prospective studies are required to determine which cartilage defects progress to symptomatic hip OA.

  7. Segmenting articular cartilage automatically using a voxel classification approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Jenny; Dam, Erik B; Olsen, Ole F

    2007-01-01

    We present a fully automatic method for articular cartilage segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which we use as the foundation of a quantitative cartilage assessment. We evaluate our method by comparisons to manual segmentations by a radiologist and by examining the interscan...... reproducibility of the volume and area estimates. Training and evaluation of the method is performed on a data set consisting of 139 scans of knees with a status ranging from healthy to severely osteoarthritic. This is, to our knowledge, the only fully automatic cartilage segmentation method that has good...... agreement with manual segmentations, an interscan reproducibility as good as that of a human expert, and enables the separation between healthy and osteoarthritic populations. While high-field scanners offer high-quality imaging from which the articular cartilage have been evaluated extensively using manual...

  8. Comparison of MRI-based estimates of articular cartilage contact area in the tibiofemoral joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Christopher E; Higginson, Jill S; Barrance, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) detrimentally impacts the lives of millions of older Americans through pain and decreased functional ability. Unfortunately, the pathomechanics and associated deviations from joint homeostasis that OA patients experience are not well understood. Alterations in mechanical stress in the knee joint may play an essential role in OA; however, existing literature in this area is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of an existing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based modeling method to estimate articular cartilage contact area in vivo. Imaging data of both knees were collected on a single subject with no history of knee pathology at three knee flexion angles. Intra-observer reliability and sensitivity studies were also performed to determine the role of operator-influenced elements of the data processing on the results. The method's articular cartilage contact area estimates were compared with existing contact area estimates in the literature. The method demonstrated an intra-observer reliability of 0.95 when assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and was found to be most sensitive to changes in the cartilage tracings on the peripheries of the compartment. The articular cartilage contact area estimates at full extension were similar to those reported in the literature. The relationships between tibiofemoral articular cartilage contact area and knee flexion were also qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those previously reported. The MRI-based knee modeling method was found to have high intra-observer reliability, sensitivity to peripheral articular cartilage tracings, and agreeability with previous investigations when using data from a single healthy adult. Future studies will implement this modeling method to investigate the role that mechanical stress may play in progression of knee OA through estimation of articular cartilage contact area.

  9. Repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defect using stem cell-encapsulated thermogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanbo; Zhang, Jin; Chang, Fei; Xu, Weiguo; Ding, Jianxun

    2018-07-01

    Cartilage defect repair by hydrogel-based tissue engineering is becoming one of the most potential treatment strategies. In this work, a thermogel of triblock copolymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) was prepared as scaffold of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) for repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defect. At first, the copolymer solution showed a reversible sol-gel transition at physiological temperature range, and the mechanical properties of such thermogel were high enough to support the repair of cartilage. Additionally, excellent biodegradability and biocompatibility of the thermogel were demonstrated. By implanting the BMMSC-encapsulated thermogel into the full-thickness articular cartilage defect (5.0 mm in diameter and 4.0 mm in depth) in the rabbit, it was found that the regenerated cartilage integrated well with the surrounding normal cartilage and subchondral bone at 12 weeks post-surgery. The upregulated expression of glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen in the repaired cartilage, and the comparable biomechanical properties with normal cartilage suggested that the cell-encapsulated PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel had great potential in serving as the promising scaffold for cartilage regeneration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tribological evaluation of biomedical polycarbonate urethanes against articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanca, Yusuf; Milner, Piers; Dini, Daniele; Amis, Andrew A

    2018-06-01

    This research investigated the in-vitro wear and friction performance of polycarbonate urethane (PCU) 80A as they interact with articular cartilage, using a customised multidirectional pin-on-plate tester. Condyles were articulated against PCU 80A discs (Bionate ® I and Bionate ® II) (configuration 1) and the results arising from these tests were compared to those recorded during the sliding of PCU pins against cartilage plates (configuration 2). Configuration 1 produced steadily increasing coefficient of friction (COF) (up to 0.64 ± 0.05) and had the same trend as the cartilage-on-stainless steel articulation (positive control). When synovial fluid rather than bovine calf serum was used as lubricant, average COF significantly decreased from 0.50 ± 0.02-0.38 ± 0.06 for condyle-on-Bionate ® I (80AI) and from 0.41 ± 0.02-0.24 ± 0.04 for condyle-on-Bionate ® II (80AII) test configurations (p  0.05). A good correlation (R 2 =0.84) was found between the levels of average COF and the volume of cartilage lost during testing; increasing wear was found at higher levels of COF. Configuration 2 showed low and constant COF values (0.04 ± 0.01), which were closer to the negative control (0.03 ± 0.01) and significantly lower than configuration 1 (p tribological performance, which suggests it is more favourable for use in hemiarthroplasty design. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Noninvasive assessment of articular cartilage surface damage using reflected polarized light microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Ruby N.; Nehmetallah, George; Raub, Christopher B.

    2017-06-01

    Articular surface damage occurs to cartilage during normal aging, osteoarthritis, and in trauma. A noninvasive assessment of cartilage microstructural alterations is useful for studies involving cartilage explants. This study evaluates polarized reflectance microscopy as a tool to assess surface damage to cartilage explants caused by mechanical scraping and enzymatic degradation. Adult bovine articular cartilage explants were scraped, incubated in collagenase, or underwent scrape and collagenase treatments. In an additional experiment, cartilage explants were subject to scrapes at graduated levels of severity. Polarized reflectance parameters were compared with India ink surface staining, features of histological sections, changes in explant wet weight and thickness, and chondrocyte viability. The polarized reflectance signal was sensitive to surface scrape damage and revealed individual scrape features consistent with India ink marks. Following surface treatments, the reflectance contrast parameter was elevated and correlated with image area fraction of India ink. After extensive scraping, polarized reflectance contrast and chondrocyte viability were lower than that from untreated explants. As part of this work, a mathematical model was developed and confirmed the trend in the reflectance signal due to changes in surface scattering and subsurface birefringence. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of polarized reflectance microscopy to sensitively assess surface microstructural alterations in articular cartilage explants.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage abnormalities of the far posterior femoral condyle of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogino, Shuhei; Huang, Thomas; Watanabe, Atsuya; Iranpour-Boroujeni, Tannaz; Yoshioka, Hiroshi (Dept. of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)), e-mail: hiroshi@uci.edu

    2010-01-15

    Background: Incidental articular cartilage lesions of the far posterior femoral condyle (FPFC) are commonly detected. Whether or not these cartilage lesions are symptomatic or clinically significant is unknown. Purpose: To characterize and assess prevalence of articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC and associated bone marrow edema (BME) and/or internal derangements through magnetic resonance (MR) images. Material and Methods: 654 knee MR examinations were reviewed retrospectively. Sagittal fast spin-echo proton density-weighted images with and without fat suppression were acquired with a 1.5T scanner, and were evaluated by two readers by consensus. The following factors were assessed: 1) the prevalence of cartilage abnormalities, 2) laterality, 3) the type of cartilage abnormalities, 4) cartilage abnormality grading, 5) associated BME, 6) complications such as meniscal injury and cruciate ligament injury, and 7) knee alignment (femorotibial angle [FTA]). Results: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC were demonstrated in 157 of the 654 patients (24%). Of these, 40 patients demonstrated medial and lateral FPFC cartilage abnormalities and were thus counted as 80 cases. Focal lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 117 of 197 cases (59.4%), while diffuse lateral FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 24 of 197 cases (12.2%). Focal medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 23 of 197 cases (11.6%), while diffuse medial FPFC abnormalities were demonstrated in 33 of 197 cases (16.8%). No statistically significant pattern of associated BME, FTA, or internal derangements including meniscal and cruciate ligament injury was demonstrated. Conclusion: Articular cartilage abnormalities of the FPFC are common and were demonstrated in 24% of patients or 30% of cases. Lateral FPFC abnormalities occur 2.5 times more frequently than medial FPFC abnormalities and were more frequently focal compared with medial cohorts. BME is associated in 36.5% of cases

  13. Postnatal development of collagen structure in ovine articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.; Schipper, H.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.; Kranenbarg, S.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Articular cartilage (AC) is the layer of tissue that covers the articulating ends of the bones in diarthrodial joints. Across species, adult AC shows an arcade-like structure with collagen predominantly perpendicular to the subchondral bone near the bone, and collagen predominantly

  14. Postnatal development of collagen structure in ovine articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.; Schipper, H.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.; Kranenbarg, S.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Articular cartilage (AC) is the layer of tissue that covers the articulating ends of the bones in diarthrodial joints. Across species, adult AC shows an arcade-like structure with collagen predominantly perpendicular to the subchondral bone near the bone, and collagen predominantly

  15. Experimental articular cartilage repair in the Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjørn Borsøe; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Olesen, Morten Lykke

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A gold standard treatment for articular cartilage injuries is yet to be found, and a cost-effective and predictable large animal model is needed to bridge the gap between in vitro studies and clinical studies. Ideally, the animal model should allow for testing of clinically relevant...

  16. Automatic quantification of local and global articular cartilage surface curvature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Jenny; Dam, Erik B; Olsen, Ole F

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess the surface curvature of the articular cartilage from low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, and to investigate its role in populations with varying radiographic signs of osteoarthritis (OA), cross-sectionally and longitudinally...

  17. Solute transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Hooi Chuan; Moeini, Mohammad; Quinn, Thomas M

    2013-07-15

    Solute transport through extracellular matrix (ECM) is important to physiology and contrast agent-based clinical imaging of articular cartilage. Mechanical injury is likely to have important effects on solute transport since it involves alteration of ECM structure. Therefore it is of interest to characterize effects of mechanical injury on solute transport in cartilage. Using cartilage explants injured by an established mechanical compression protocol, effective partition coefficients and diffusivities of solutes for transport across the articular surface were measured. A range of fluorescent solutes (fluorescein isothiocyanate, 4 and 40kDa dextrans, insulin, and chondroitin sulfate) and an X-ray contrast agent (sodium iodide) were used. Mechanical injury was associated with a significant increase in effective diffusivity versus uninjured explants for all solutes studied. On the other hand, mechanical injury had no effects on effective partition coefficients for most solutes tested, except for 40kDa dextran and chondroitin sulfate where small but significant changes in effective partition coefficient were observed in injured explants. Findings highlight enhanced diffusive transport across the articular surface of injured cartilage, which may have important implications for injury and repair situations. Results also support development of non-equilibrium methods for identification of focal cartilage lesions by contrast agent-based clinical imaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A vision on the future of articular cartilage repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cucchiarini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An AO Foundation (Davos, Switzerland sponsored workshop "Cell Therapy in Cartilage Repair" from the Symposium "Where Science meets Clinics" (September 5-7, 2013, Davos gathered leaders from medicine, science, industry, and regulatory organisations to debate the vision of cell therapy in articular cartilage repair and the measures that could be taken to narrow the gap between vision and current practice. Cell-based therapy is already in clinical use to enhance the repair of cartilage lesions, with procedures such as microfracture and articular chondrocyte implantation. However, even though long term follow up is good from a clinical perspective and some of the most rigorous randomised controlled trials in the regenerative medicine/orthopaedics field show beneficial effect, none of these options have proved successful in restoring the original articular cartilage structure and functionality in patients so far. With the remarkable recent advances in experimental research in cell biology (new sources for chondrocytes, stem cells, molecular biology (growth factors, genes, biomaterials, biomechanics, and translational science, a combined effort between scientists and clinicians with broad expertise may allow development of an improved cell therapy for cartilage repair. This position paper describes the current state of the art in the field to help define a procedure adapted to the clinical situation for upcoming translation in the patient.

  19. Radiation synovectomy stimulates glycosaminoglycan synthesis by normal articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, S.L.; Slowman, S.D.; Brandt, K.D.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation synovectomy has been considered a therapeutic alternative to surgical synovectomy. Whether intraarticular irradiation affects the composition or biochemistry, and therefore the biomechanical properties, of normal articular cartilage has not been established. In the present study, yttrium 90 silicate was injected into one knee of nine normal adult dogs, and three other dogs received nonradioactive yttrium silicate. When the animals were killed 4 to 13 weeks after the injection, synovium from the irradiated knees showed areas of necrosis and fibrosis. Up to 29% less hyaluronate was synthesized in vitro by the synovial intima from irradiated knees than by the intima from the contralateral knees (mean difference 18%). Morphologic abnormalities were not observed in articular cartilage from either the irradiated or control knees, nor did the water content or concentrations of uronic acid or DNA in cartilage from the irradiated knees differ from that in cartilage from the contralateral knees. However, net 35 SO 4 -labeled glycosaminoglycan synthesis in organ cultures of cartilage from irradiated knees was increased (mean difference 21%, p = 0.03) in comparison with that in cultures of contralateral knee cartilage

  20. Radiation synovectomy stimulates glycosaminoglycan synthesis by normal articular cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, S.L.; Slowman, S.D.; Brandt, K.D.

    1989-07-01

    Radiation synovectomy has been considered a therapeutic alternative to surgical synovectomy. Whether intraarticular irradiation affects the composition or biochemistry, and therefore the biomechanical properties, of normal articular cartilage has not been established. In the present study, yttrium 90 silicate was injected into one knee of nine normal adult dogs, and three other dogs received nonradioactive yttrium silicate. When the animals were killed 4 to 13 weeks after the injection, synovium from the irradiated knees showed areas of necrosis and fibrosis. Up to 29% less hyaluronate was synthesized in vitro by the synovial intima from irradiated knees than by the intima from the contralateral knees (mean difference 18%). Morphologic abnormalities were not observed in articular cartilage from either the irradiated or control knees, nor did the water content or concentrations of uronic acid or DNA in cartilage from the irradiated knees differ from that in cartilage from the contralateral knees. However, net /sup 35/SO/sub 4/-labeled glycosaminoglycan synthesis in organ cultures of cartilage from irradiated knees was increased (mean difference 21%, p = 0.03) in comparison with that in cultures of contralateral knee cartilage.

  1. Particulated articular cartilage: CAIS and DeNovo NT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Jack; Cole, Brian J; Sherman, Seth; Karas, Vasili

    2012-03-01

    Cartilage Autograft Implantation System (CAIS; DePuy/Mitek, Raynham, MA) and DeNovo Natural Tissue (NT; ISTO, St. Louis, MO) are novel treatment options for focal articular cartilage defects in the knee. These methods involve the implantation of particulated articular cartilage from either autograft or juvenile allograft donor, respectively. In the laboratory and in animal models, both CAIS and DeNovo NT have demonstrated the ability of the transplanted cartilage cells to "escape" from the extracellular matrix, migrate, multiply, and form a new hyaline-like cartilage tissue matrix that integrates with the surrounding host tissue. In clinical practice, the technique for both CAIS and DeNovo NT is straightforward, requiring only a single surgery to affect cartilage repair. Clinical experience is limited, with short-term studies demonstrating both procedures to be safe, feasible, and effective, with improvements in subjective patient scores, and with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of good defect fill. While these treatment options appear promising, prospective randomized controlled studies are necessary to refine the indications and contraindications for both CAIS and DeNovo NT.

  2. Gremlin 1, Frizzled-related protein, and Dkk-1 are key regulators of human articular cartilage homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Emons, J.; Sticht, C.; van Gool, S.; Decker, E.; Uitterlinden, A.; Rappold, G.; Hofman, A.; Rivadeneira, F.; Scherjon, S.; Wit, J.M.; van Meurs, J.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Objective The development of osteoarthritis (OA) may be caused by activation of hypertrophic differentiation of articular chondrocytes. Healthy articular cartilage is highly resistant to hypertrophic differentiation, in contrast to other hyaline cartilage subtypes, such as growth plate cartilage.

  3. Evaluation using MRI T2 mapping of the articular cartilage after anterior cruciate ligament injury in young athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Kohei; Ohdera, Toshihiro; Matsuda, Shusaku

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage damage coexisting in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in young athletes is not rare. We evaluated the conditions of the articular cartilage using MRI T2 mapping method and compared the vesults with the findings of arthroscopy. From June to August in 2010, we performed ACL reconstruction in 31 patients. We selected 17 cases (eleven men and six women, mean age 19.1 years old), all of whom were athletes and the under 29 years old. Articular cartilage damage was observed in six out of 10 cases, and their T2 values were high on MRI T2 mapping. On the other hand, damage was observed only in one out of seven cases, and T2 values were in the normal level of the mapping. Using MRI T2 mapping, we can evaluate the articular cartilage at an early phase noninvasively. MRI T2 mapping is useful and effective for athletes. (author)

  4. Tribological changes in the articular cartilage of a human femoral head with avascular necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eun-Min; Shrestha, Suman K; Duong, Cong-Truyen; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Kim, Tae-Woo; Vijayachandra, Ayyappan; Thompson, Mark S; Cho, Myung Guk; Park, Sungchan; Kim, Kwanghoon; Park, Seonghun; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2015-06-29

    The present study evaluated the tribological properties of the articular cartilage surface of the human femoral head with postcollapse stage avascular necrosis (AVN) using atomic force microscopy. The cartilage surface in the postcollapse stage AVN of the femoral head was reported to resemble those of disuse conditions, which suggests that the damage could be reversible and offers the possibilities of success of head-sparing surgeries. By comparing the tribological properties of articular cartilage in AVN with that of osteoarthritis, the authors intended to understand the cartilage degeneration mechanism and reversibility of AVN. Human femoral heads with AVN were explanted from the hip replacement surgery of four patients (60-83 years old). Nine cylindrical cartilage samples (diameter, 5 mm and height, 0.5 mm) were sectioned from the weight-bearing areas of the femoral head with AVN, and the cartilage surface was classified according to the Outerbridge Classification System (AVN0, normal; AVN1, softening and swelling; and AVN2, partial thickness defect and fissuring). Tribological properties including surface roughness and frictional coefficients and histochemistry including Safranin O and lubricin staining were compared among the three groups. The mean surface roughness Rq values of AVN cartilage increased significantly with increasing Outerbridge stages: Rq = 137 ± 26 nm in AVN0, Rq = 274 ± 49 nm in AVN1, and Rq = 452 ± 77 nm in AVN2. Significant differences in Rq were observed among different Outerbridge stages in all cases (p AVN0, μ = 0.143 ± 0.025 in AVN1, and μ = 0.171 ± 0.039 in AVN2. Similarly to the statistical analysis of surface roughness, significant statistical differences were detected between different Outerbridge stages in all cases (p AVN. The underlying mechanism of these results can be related to proteoglycan loss within the articular cartilage that is also observed in osteoarthritis. With regard to the tribological properties, the

  5. Hyaline Articular Matrix Formed by Dynamic Self-Regenerating Cartilage and Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meppelink, Amanda M; Zhao, Xing; Griffin, Darvin J; Erali, Richard; Gill, Thomas J; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Redmond, Robert W; Randolph, Mark A

    2016-07-01

    Injuries to the articular cartilage surface are challenging to repair because cartilage possesses a limited capacity for self-repair. The outcomes of current clinical procedures aimed to address these injuries are inconsistent and unsatisfactory. We have developed a novel method for generating hyaline articular cartilage to improve the outcome of joint surface repair. A suspension of 10(7) swine chondrocytes was cultured under reciprocating motion for 14 days. The resulting dynamic self-regenerating cartilage (dSRC) was placed in a cartilage ring and capped with fibrin and collagen gel. A control group consisted of chondrocytes encapsulated in fibrin gel. Constructs were implanted subcutaneously in nude mice and harvested after 6 weeks. Gross, histological, immunohistochemical, biochemical, and biomechanical analyses were performed. In swine patellar groove, dSRC was implanted into osteochondral defects capped with collagen gel and compared to defects filled with osteochondral plugs, collagen gel, or left empty after 6 weeks. In mice, the fibrin- and collagen-capped dSRC constructs showed enhanced contiguous cartilage matrix formation over the control of cells encapsulated in fibrin gel. Biochemically, the fibrin and collagen gel dSRC groups were statistically improved in glycosaminoglycan and hydroxyproline content compared to the control. There was no statistical difference in the biomechanical data between the dSRC groups and the control. The swine model also showed contiguous cartilage matrix in the dSRC group but not in the collagen gel and empty defects. These data demonstrate the survivability and successful matrix formation of dSRC under the mechanical forces experienced by normal hyaline cartilage in the knee joint. The results from this study demonstrate that dSRC capped with hydrogels successfully engineers contiguous articular cartilage matrix in both nonload-bearing and load-bearing environments.

  6. 1. 5 MRT of the hyaline articular cartilage of the knee joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, G.; Bohndorf, K.; Krasny, R.; Guenther, R.W.; Prescher, A.

    1988-06-01

    MRI is a new method for imaging the knee joint. There is still some uncertainty regarding the extent and the signal from hyaline articular cartilage. MRI images were therefore compared with anatomical and histological preparations of the knee joint and the difference between MRI and the anatomical sections have been determined. It was shown that demonstration of hyaline cartilage was obscured by an artifact. Further investigations are required to determine the cause of this artifact and to achieve accurate imaging of hyaline cartilage by MRI.

  7. Chondroitin sulfate reduces the friction coefficient of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalo, Ines M; Chahine, Nadeen O; Kaplun, Michael; Chen, Faye H; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chondroitin sulfate (CS)-C on the frictional response of bovine articular cartilage. The main hypothesis is that CS decreases the friction coefficient of articular cartilage. Corollary hypotheses are that viscosity and osmotic pressure are not the mechanisms that mediate the reduction in the friction coefficient by CS. In Experiment 1, bovine articular cartilage samples (n=29) were tested in either phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or in PBS containing 100mg/ml of CS following 48h incubation in PBS or in PBS+100mg/ml CS (control specimens were not subjected to any incubation). In Experiment 2, samples (n=23) were tested in four different solutions: PBS, PBS+100mg/ml CS, and PBS+polyethylene glycol (PEG) (133 or 170mg/ml). In Experiment 3, samples (n=18) were tested in three solutions of CS (0, 10 and 100mg/ml). Frictional tests (cartilage-on-glass) were performed under constant stress (0.5MPa) for 3600s and the time-dependent friction coefficient was measured. Samples incubated or tested in a 100mg/ml CS solution exhibited a significantly lower equilibrium friction coefficient than the respective PBS control. PEG solutions delayed the rise in the friction coefficient relative to the PBS control, but did not reduce the equilibrium value. Testing in PBS+10mg/ml of CS did not cause any significant decrease in the friction coefficient. In conclusion, CS at a concentration of 100mg/ml significantly reduces the friction coefficient of bovine articular cartilage and this mechanism is neither mediated by viscosity nor osmolarity. These results suggest that direct injection of CS into the joint may provide beneficial tribological effects.

  8. Molecular modulation of articular cartilage degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, Ellie

    2013-01-01

    Cartilage homeostasis is maintained due to a balance between anabolic and catabolic processes, that are regulated by a complex network of signaling pathways. Disturbance of one or more of these pathways disrupts this balance, resulting in excessive breakdown of the extracellular matrix and

  9. Cartilage damage involving extrusion of mineralisable matrix from the articular calcified cartilage and subchondral bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Boyde

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthropathy of the distal articular surfaces of the third metacarpal (Mc3 and metatarsal (Mt3 bones in the Thoroughbred racehorse (Tb is a natural model of repetitive overload arthrosis. We describe a novel pathology that affects the articular calcified cartilage (ACC and subchondral bone (SCB and which is associated with hyaline articular cartilage degeneration. Parasagittal slices cut from the palmar quadrant of the distal condyles of the left Mc3/Mt3 of 39 trained Tbs euthanased for welfare reasons were imaged by point projection microradiography, and backscattered electron (BSE scanning electron microscopy (SEM, light microscopy, and confocal scanning light microscopy. Mechanical properties were studied by nanoindentation. Data on the horses' training and racing career were also collected. Highly mineralised projections were observed extending from cracks in the ACC mineralising front into the hyaline articular cartilage (HAC up to two-thirds the thickness of the HAC, and were associated with focal HAC surface fibrillation directly overlying their site. Nanoindentation identified this extruded matrix to be stiffer than any other mineralised phase in the specimen by a factor of two. The presence of projections was associated with a higher cartilage Mankin histology score (P < 0.02 and increased amounts of gross cartilage loss pathologically on the condyle (P < 0.02. Presence of projections was not significantly associated with: total number of racing seasons, age of horse, amount of earnings, number of days in training, total distance galloped in career, or presence of wear lines.

  10. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments affect degeneration of cultured articular cartilage explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lijun; Ren, Yijin; van Kooten, Theo G.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Kuijer, Roelof

    PURPOSE: Articular cartilage has some capacity for self-repair. Clinically used low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments were compared in their potency to prevent degeneration using an explant model of porcine cartilage. METHODS: Explants of porcine

  11. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments affect degeneration of cultured articular cartilage explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lijun; Tan, Lijun; Ren, Yijin; van Kooten, Theo G.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Kuijer, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Articular cartilage has some capacity for self-repair. Clinically used low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatments were compared in their potency to prevent degeneration using an explant model of porcine cartilage. Methods: Explants of porcine

  12. The mechanobiology of articular cartilage development and degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Dennis R; Beaupré, Gary S; Wong, Marcy; Smith, R Lane; Andriacchi, Tom P; Schurman, David J

    2004-10-01

    The development, maintenance, and destruction of cartilage are regulated by mechanical factors throughout life. Mechanical cues in the cartilage fetal endoskeleton influence the expression of genes that guide the processes of growth, vascular invasion, and ossification. Intermittent fluid pressure maintains the cartilage phenotype whereas mild tension (or shear) promotes growth and ossification. The articular cartilage thickness is determined by the position at which the subchondral growth front stabilizes. In mature joints, cartilage is thickest and healthiest where the contact pressure and cartilage fluid pressure are greatest. The depth-dependent histomorphology reflects the local fluid pressure, tensile strain, and fluid exudation. Osteoarthritis represents the final demise and loss of cartilage in the skeletal elements. The initiation and progression of osteoarthritis can follow many pathways and can be promoted by mechanical factors including: (1) reduced loading, which activates the subchondral growth front by reducing fluid pressure; (2) blunt impact, causing microdamage and activation of the subchondral growth front by local shear stress; (3) mechanical abnormalities that increase wear at the articulating surface; and (4) other mechanically related factors. Research should be directed at integrating our mechanical understanding of osteoarthritis pathogenesis and progression within the framework of cellular and molecular events throughout ontogeny.

  13. The Influence of Articular Cartilage Thickness Reduction on Meniscus Biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczkiewicz, Piotr; Daszkiewicz, Karol; Chróścielewski, Jacek; Witkowski, Wojciech; Winklewski, Pawel J

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the biomechanical interaction between meniscus and cartilage in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. The finite element method was used to simulate knee joint contact mechanics. Three knee models were created on the basis of knee geometry from the Open Knee project. We reduced the thickness of medial cartilages in the intact knee model by approximately 50% to obtain a medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) model. Two variants of medial knee OA model with congruent and incongruent contact surfaces were analysed to investigate the influence of congruency. A nonlinear static analysis for one compressive load case was performed. The focus of the study was the influence of cartilage degeneration on meniscal extrusion and the values of the contact forces and contact areas. In the model with incongruent contact surfaces, we observed maximal compressive stress on the tibial plateau. In this model, the value of medial meniscus external shift was 95.3% greater, while the contact area between the tibial cartilage and medial meniscus was 50% lower than in the congruent contact surfaces model. After the non-uniform reduction of cartilage thickness, the medial meniscus carried only 48.4% of load in the medial compartment in comparison to 71.2% in the healthy knee model. We have shown that the change in articular cartilage geometry may significantly reduce the role of meniscus in load transmission and the contact area between the meniscus and cartilage. Additionally, medial knee OA may increase the risk of meniscal extrusion in the medial compartment of the knee joint.

  14. Articular Cartilage Thickness Measured with US is Not as Easy as It Appears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Søren; Bartels, E. M.; Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    2011-01-01

    insonation. If US measurements are compared to measurements with other techniques, they should be corrected for the higher sound speed in cartilage. Purpose: To study whether investigators correctly identify the articular cartilage, whether they insonate orthogonally, and whether they correct for sound speed....... Materials and Methods: A literature search limited to the last 10 years of studies applying US to measure cartilage thickness. Results: 15 studies were identified and they referred to another 8 studies describing methods of thickness measurement. 11 of the 15 studies identified the superficial cartilage...... border incorrectly, and 6 applied oblique insonation. 2 of the 15 studies corrected for sound speed. Of the further 8 studies, one might correctly identify the superficial cartilage border, 4 applied oblique insonation, and none corrected for sound speed. Conclusion: We found that the majority of studies...

  15. Serum Metabonomics of Articular Cartilage Destruction Induced by T-2 Toxin in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Zhao, Zhi Jun; Ren, Xiao Bin; Li, Qiang; Ding, Hua; Sun, Zhou; Kao, Qing Jun; Wang, Li Hua

    2018-01-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of T-2 toxin-induced cartilage destruction has not been fully unraveled yet. The aim of this study was to detect changes in serum metabolites in a rat anomaly model with articular cartilage destruction. Thirty healthy male Wistar rats were fed a diet containing T-2 toxin (300 ng/kg chow) for 3 months. Histopathological changes in femorotibial cartilage were characterized in terms of chondrocyte degeneration/necrosis and superficial cartilage defect, and the endogenous metabolite profile of serum was determined by UPLC/Q-TOF MS. Treated rats showed extensive areas of chondrocyte necrosis and superficial cartilage defect in the articular cartilage. In addition, 8 metabolites were found to change significantly in these rats compared to the control group, including lysoPE (18:0/0:0), lysoPC(14:0), lysoPC[18:4 (6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)], lysoPC[(16:1(9Z)], lysoPC(16:0), L-valine, hippuric acid, and asparaginyl-glycine. These 8 metabolites associated with cartilage injury are mainly involved in phospholipid and amino acid metabolic pathways. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  16. Articular Cartilage Increases Transition Zone Regeneration in Bone-tendon Junction Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ling; Lee, Kwong Man; Leung, Kwok Sui

    2008-01-01

    The fibrocartilage transition zone in the direct bone-tendon junction reduces stress concentration and protects the junction from failure. Unfortunately, bone-tendon junctions often heal without fibrocartilage transition zone regeneration. We hypothesized articular cartilage grafts could increase fibrocartilage transition zone regeneration. Using a goat partial patellectomy repair model, autologous articular cartilage was harvested from the excised distal third patella and interposed between the residual proximal two-thirds bone fragment and tendon during repair in 36 knees. We evaluated fibrocartilage transition zone regeneration, bone formation, and mechanical strength after repair at 6, 12, and 24 weeks and compared them with direct repair. Autologous articular cartilage interposition resulted in more fibrocartilage transition zone regeneration (69.10% ± 14.11% [mean ± standard deviation] versus 8.67% ± 7.01% at 24 weeks) than direct repair at all times. There was no difference in the amount of bone formation and mechanical strength achieved. Autologous articular cartilage interposition increases fibrocartilage transition zone regeneration in bone-tendon junction healing, but additional research is required to ascertain the mechanism of stimulation and to establish the clinical applicability. PMID:18987921

  17. Repair and tissue engineering techniques for articular cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Makris, Eleftherios A.; Gomoll, Andreas H.; Malizos, Konstantinos N.; Hu, Jerry C.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2014-01-01

    © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Chondral and osteochondral lesions due to injury or other pathology commonly result in the development of osteoarthritis, eventually leading to progressive total joint destruction. Although current progress suggests that biologic agents can delay the advancement of deterioration, such drugs are incapable of promoting tissue restoration. The limited ability of articular cartilage to regenerate renders joint arthroplasty an unavoidable s...

  18. Repair and tissue engineering techniques for articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Eleftherios A; Gomoll, Andreas H; Malizos, Konstantinos N; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2015-01-01

    Chondral and osteochondral lesions due to injury or other pathology commonly result in the development of osteoarthritis, eventually leading to progressive total joint destruction. Although current progress suggests that biologic agents can delay the advancement of deterioration, such drugs are incapable of promoting tissue restoration. The limited ability of articular cartilage to regenerate renders joint arthroplasty an unavoidable surgical intervention. This Review describes current, widely used clinical repair techniques for resurfacing articular cartilage defects; short-term and long-term clinical outcomes of these techniques are discussed. Also reviewed is a developmental pipeline of acellular and cellular regenerative products and techniques that could revolutionize joint care over the next decade by promoting the development of functional articular cartilage. Acellular products typically consist of collagen or hyaluronic-acid-based materials, whereas cellular techniques use either primary cells or stem cells, with or without scaffolds. Central to these efforts is the prominent role that tissue engineering has in translating biological technology into clinical products; therefore, concomitant regulatory processes are also discussed.

  19. The stimulation of mononuclear cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis to degrade articular cartilage is not modulated by cartilage itself

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roon, J. A.; van Roy, J. L.; Lafeber, F. P.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    To study the modulation of mononuclear cell (MNC) activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by constituents released from human articular cartilage, which may be present in vivo during early events of the disease, when articular cartilage is not only mildly damaged. In an attempt to

  20. Postnatal development of collagen structure in ovine articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranenbarg Sander

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Articular cartilage (AC is the layer of tissue that covers the articulating ends of the bones in diarthrodial joints. Across species, adult AC shows an arcade-like structure with collagen predominantly perpendicular to the subchondral bone near the bone, and collagen predominantly parallel to the articular surface near the articular surface. Recent studies into collagen fibre orientation in stillborn and juvenile animals showed that this structure is absent at birth. Since the collagen structure is an important factor for AC mechanics, the absence of the adult Benninghoff structure has implications for perinatal AC mechanobiology. The current objective is to quantify the dynamics of collagen network development in a model animal from birth to maturity. We further aim to show the presence or absence of zonal differentiation at birth, and to assess differences in collagen network development between different anatomical sites of a single joint surface. We use quantitative polarised light microscopy to investigate properties of the collagen network and we use the sheep (Ovis aries as our model animal. Results Predominant collagen orientation is parallel to the articular surface throughout the tissue depth for perinatal cartilage. This remodels to the Benninghoff structure before the sheep reach sexual maturity. Remodelling of predominant collagen orientation starts at a depth just below the future transitional zone. Tissue retardance shows a minimum near the articular surface at all ages, which indicates the presence of zonal differentiation at all ages. The absolute position of this minimum does change between birth and maturity. Between different anatomical sites, we find differences in the dynamics of collagen remodelling, but no differences in adult collagen structure. Conclusions The collagen network in articular cartilage remodels between birth and sexual maturity from a network with predominant orientation parallel to the

  1. MRI demonstration of hypertrophic articular cartilage repair in osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, E.M.; Brandt, K.D.; Albrecht, M.

    1990-01-01

    Transection of the anterior cruciate ligament in the dog produces changes in the unstable joint typical of osteoarthritis, although full-thickness catilage ulceration is rare. Information concerning the late fate of the cartilage after transection is meager. In the present study magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate cartilage abnormalities 3 years after transection. Plain radiographs of the osteoarthritic and contralateral knees were obtained serially. MRI was performed 3 years after anterior cruciate ligament transection, at which time all three animals exhibited knee instability. Radiographs of the osteoarthritic knees showed osteophytes and subchondral sclerosis with progression between 2 and 3 years. On MRI, articular cartilage margins in the knee were indistinct, and the cartilage was thicker than that in the contralateral knee (maximum difference = 2.7 mm). This increase in thickness is consistent with biochemical data from dogs killed up to 64 weeks after creation of knee instability, which showed marked increases in cartilage bulk and in proteoglycan synthesis and concentration. The findings emphasize that increased matrix synthesis after anterior cruciate ligament transection leads to functional cartilage repair sustained even in the presence of persistent alteration of joint mechanics. (orig.)

  2. Analysis of friction between articular cartilage and polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel artificial cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Wang, Anmin; Wang, Chengtao

    2016-05-01

    Many biomaterials are being used to repair damaged articular cartilage. In particular, poly vinyl alcohol hydrogel has similar mechanical properties to natural cartilage under compressive and shearing loading. Here, three-factor and two-level friction experiments and long-term tests were conducted to better evaluate its tribological properties. The friction coefficient between articular cartilage and the poly vinyl alcohol hydrogel depended primarily on the three factors of load, speed, and lubrication. When the speed increased from 10 to 20 mm/s under a load of 10 N, the friction coefficient increased from 0.12 to 0.147. When the lubricant was changed from Ringer's solution to a hyaluronic acid solution, the friction coefficient decreased to 0.084 with loads as high as 22 N. The poly vinyl alcohol hydrogel was severely damaged and lost its top surface layers, which were transferred to the articular cartilage surface. Wear was observed in the surface morphologies, which indicated the occurrence of surface adhesion of bovine cartilage. Surface fatigue and adhesive wear was the dominant wear mechanism.

  3. Altered osmotic swelling behavior of proteoglycan-depleted bovine articular cartilage using high frequency ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q; Zheng, Y P; Leung, G; Mak, A F T; Lam, W L; Guo, X; Lu, H B; Qin, L

    2008-01-01

    Swelling behavior is an electrochemical mechanical property of articular cartilage. It plays an important role in weight bearing and joint lubrication. In this study, the altered transient and inhomogeneous swelling behavior of the degenerated articular cartilage was observed and quantified in situ using ultrasound. Three groups of bovine patellar articular cartilage samples (n = 10 x 3) were obtained and digested by trypsin for 10, 20 and 30 min respectively to mimic different levels of degeneration. The osmotic-free shrinkage and swelling behavior induced by changing the concentration of the bathing saline solution from 0.15 M to 2 M and then back to 0.15 M were characterized using high-frequency ultrasound (central frequency = 35 MHz) before and after digestion. It was found that the degenerated cartilage specimens showed a weaker shrinkage-swelling behavior compared with the normal cartilage samples. However, no significant differences in the peak shrinkage or swelling strains were observed between different groups. The absolute values of the peak shrinkage strain significantly (p < 0.05) decreased by 45.4%, 42.1% and 50.6% respectively after the trypsin digestion for 10, 20 and 30 min, but such significance was not demonstrated for the peak swelling strains. Due to the potential alterations in the collagen-PG matrix during trypsin digestion, the correlation between the swelling strain and the shrinkage strain of the degenerated samples changed slightly in comparison with the normal samples. The proposed ultrasound method has been successfully used to measure the transient and inhomogeneous swelling behavior of the degenerated articular cartilage and has the potential for the characterization of osteoarthritis

  4. Review on patents for mechanical stimulation of articular cartilage tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van C.C.; Schulz, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    To repair articular cartilage defects in osteoarthritic patients with three-dimensional tissue engineered chondrocyte grafts, requires the formation of new cartilage with sufficient mechanical properties. The premise is that mechanical stimulation during the culturing process is necessary to reach

  5. Synergy between Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels confers high-strain mechanosensitivity to articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Whasil; Leddy, Holly A.; Chen, Yong; Lee, Suk Hee; Zelenski, Nicole A.; McNulty, Amy L.; Wu, Jason; Beicker, Kellie N.; Coles, Jeffrey; Zauscher, Stefan; Grandl, Jörg; Sachs, Frederick; Liedtke, Wolfgang B.

    2014-01-01

    Diarthrodial joints are essential for load bearing and locomotion. Physiologically, articular cartilage sustains millions of cycles of mechanical loading. Chondrocytes, the cells in cartilage, regulate their metabolic activities in response to mechanical loading. Pathological mechanical stress can lead to maladaptive cellular responses and subsequent cartilage degeneration. We sought to deconstruct chondrocyte mechanotransduction by identifying mechanosensitive ion channels functioning at injurious levels of strain. We detected robust expression of the recently identified mechanosensitive channels, PIEZO1 and PIEZO2. Combined directed expression of Piezo1 and -2 sustained potentiated mechanically induced Ca2+ signals and electrical currents compared with single-Piezo expression. In primary articular chondrocytes, mechanically evoked Ca2+ transients produced by atomic force microscopy were inhibited by GsMTx4, a PIEZO-blocking peptide, and by Piezo1- or Piezo2-specific siRNA. We complemented the cellular approach with an explant-cartilage injury model. GsMTx4 reduced chondrocyte death after mechanical injury, suggesting a possible therapy for reducing cartilage injury and posttraumatic osteoarthritis by attenuating Piezo-mediated cartilage mechanotransduction of injurious strains. PMID:25385580

  6. Contrast agent enhanced pQCT of articular cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallioniemi, A S [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, POB 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Jurvelin, J S [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, POB 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nieminen, M T [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, POB 50, 90029 OYS, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Lammi, M J [Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Kuopio, POB 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Toeyraes, J [Department of Physics, University of Kuopio, POB 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2007-02-21

    The delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) technique is the only non-invasive means to estimate proteoglycan (PG) content in articular cartilage. In dGEMRIC, the anionic paramagnetic contrast agent gadopentetate distributes in inverse relation to negatively charged PGs, leading to a linear relation between T{sub 1,Gd} and spatial PG content in tissue. In the present study, for the first time, contrast agent enhanced peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was applied, analogously to dGEMRIC, for the quantitative detection of spatial PG content in cartilage. The suitability of two anionic radiographic contrast agents, gadopentetate and ioxaglate, to detect enzymatically induced PG depletion in articular cartilage was investigated. First, the interrelationships of x-ray absorption, as measured with pQCT, and the contrast agent solution concentration were investigated. Optimal contrast agent concentrations for the following experiments were selected. Second, diffusion rates for both contrast agents were investigated in intact (n = 3) and trypsin-degraded (n 3) bovine patellar cartilage. The contrast agent concentration of the cartilaginous layer was measured prior to and 2-27 h after immersion. Optimal immersion time for the further experiments was selected. Third, the suitability of gadopentetate and ioxaglate enhanced pQCT to detect the enzymatically induced specific PG depletion was investigated by determining the contrast agent concentrations and uronic acid and water contents in digested and intact osteochondral samples (n = 16). After trypsin-induced PG loss (-70%, p < 0.05) the penetration of gadopentetate and ioxaglate increased (p < 0.05) by 34% and 48%, respectively. Gadopentetate and ioxaglate concentrations both showed strong correlation (r = -0.95, r -0.94, p < 0.01, respectively) with the uronic acid content. To conclude, contrast agent enhanced pQCT provides a technique to quantify PG content in normal and experimentally

  7. Contrast agent enhanced pQCT of articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioniemi, A. S.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Nieminen, M. T.; Lammi, M. J.; Töyräs, J.

    2007-02-01

    The delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) technique is the only non-invasive means to estimate proteoglycan (PG) content in articular cartilage. In dGEMRIC, the anionic paramagnetic contrast agent gadopentetate distributes in inverse relation to negatively charged PGs, leading to a linear relation between T1,Gd and spatial PG content in tissue. In the present study, for the first time, contrast agent enhanced peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was applied, analogously to dGEMRIC, for the quantitative detection of spatial PG content in cartilage. The suitability of two anionic radiographic contrast agents, gadopentetate and ioxaglate, to detect enzymatically induced PG depletion in articular cartilage was investigated. First, the interrelationships of x-ray absorption, as measured with pQCT, and the contrast agent solution concentration were investigated. Optimal contrast agent concentrations for the following experiments were selected. Second, diffusion rates for both contrast agents were investigated in intact (n = 3) and trypsin-degraded (n = 3) bovine patellar cartilage. The contrast agent concentration of the cartilaginous layer was measured prior to and 2-27 h after immersion. Optimal immersion time for the further experiments was selected. Third, the suitability of gadopentetate and ioxaglate enhanced pQCT to detect the enzymatically induced specific PG depletion was investigated by determining the contrast agent concentrations and uronic acid and water contents in digested and intact osteochondral samples (n = 16). After trypsin-induced PG loss (-70%, p < 0.05) the penetration of gadopentetate and ioxaglate increased (p < 0.05) by 34% and 48%, respectively. Gadopentetate and ioxaglate concentrations both showed strong correlation (r = -0.95, r = -0.94, p < 0.01, respectively) with the uronic acid content. To conclude, contrast agent enhanced pQCT provides a technique to quantify PG content in normal and experimentally

  8. Contrast agent enhanced pQCT of articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallioniemi, A S; Jurvelin, J S; Nieminen, M T; Lammi, M J; Toeyraes, J

    2007-01-01

    The delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) technique is the only non-invasive means to estimate proteoglycan (PG) content in articular cartilage. In dGEMRIC, the anionic paramagnetic contrast agent gadopentetate distributes in inverse relation to negatively charged PGs, leading to a linear relation between T 1,Gd and spatial PG content in tissue. In the present study, for the first time, contrast agent enhanced peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was applied, analogously to dGEMRIC, for the quantitative detection of spatial PG content in cartilage. The suitability of two anionic radiographic contrast agents, gadopentetate and ioxaglate, to detect enzymatically induced PG depletion in articular cartilage was investigated. First, the interrelationships of x-ray absorption, as measured with pQCT, and the contrast agent solution concentration were investigated. Optimal contrast agent concentrations for the following experiments were selected. Second, diffusion rates for both contrast agents were investigated in intact (n = 3) and trypsin-degraded (n 3) bovine patellar cartilage. The contrast agent concentration of the cartilaginous layer was measured prior to and 2-27 h after immersion. Optimal immersion time for the further experiments was selected. Third, the suitability of gadopentetate and ioxaglate enhanced pQCT to detect the enzymatically induced specific PG depletion was investigated by determining the contrast agent concentrations and uronic acid and water contents in digested and intact osteochondral samples (n = 16). After trypsin-induced PG loss (-70%, p < 0.05) the penetration of gadopentetate and ioxaglate increased (p < 0.05) by 34% and 48%, respectively. Gadopentetate and ioxaglate concentrations both showed strong correlation (r = -0.95, r -0.94, p < 0.01, respectively) with the uronic acid content. To conclude, contrast agent enhanced pQCT provides a technique to quantify PG content in normal and experimentally degraded

  9. Laser solder welding of articular cartilage: tensile strength and chondrocyte viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züger, B J; Ott, B; Mainil-Varlet, P; Schaffner, T; Clémence, J F; Weber, H P; Frenz, M

    2001-01-01

    The surgical treatment of full-thickness cartilage defects in the knee joint remains a therapeutic challenge. Recently, new techniques for articular cartilage transplantation, such as mosaicplasty, have become available for cartilage repair. The long-term success of these techniques, however, depends not only on the chondrocyte viability but also on a lateral integration of the implant. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of cartilage welding by using albumin solder that was dye-enhanced to allow coagulation with 808-nm laser diode irradiation. Conventional histology of light microscopy was compared with a viability staining to precisely determine the extent of thermal damage after laser welding. Indocyanine green (ICG) enhanced albumin solder (25% albumin, 0.5% HA, 0.1% ICG) was used for articular cartilage welding. For coagulation, the solder was irradiated through the cartilage implant by 808-nm laser light and the tensile strength of the weld was measured. Viability staining revealed a thermal damage of typically 500 m in depth at an irradiance of approximately 10 W/cm(2) for 8 seconds, whereas conventional histologies showed only half of the extent found by the viability test. Heat-bath investigations revealed a threshold temperature of minimum 54 degrees C for thermal damage of chondrocytes. Efficient cartilage bonding was obtained by using bovine albumin solder as adhesive. Maximum tensile strength of more than 10 N/cm(2) was achieved. Viability tests revealed that the thermal damage is much greater (up to twice) than expected after light microscopic characterization. This study shows the feasibility to strongly laser weld cartilage on cartilage by use of a dye-enhanced albumin solder. Possibilities to reduce the range of damage are suggested. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Zn deposition at the bone-cartilage interface in equine articular cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: D.A.Bradley@surrey.ac.uk; Moger, C.J.; Winlove, C.P. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-21

    In articular cartilage metalloproteinases, a family of enzymes whose function relies on the presence of divalent cations such as Zn and Ca plays a central role in the normal processes of growth and remodelling and in the degenerative and inflammatory processes of arthritis. Another important enzyme, alkaline phosphatase, involved in cartilage mineralisation also relies on metallic cofactors. The local concentration of divalent cations is therefore of considerable interest in cartilage pathophysiology and several authors have used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to map metal ion distributions in bone and cartilage. We report use of a bench-top XRF analytical microscope, providing spatial resolution of 10 {mu}m and applicable to histological sections, facilitating correlation of the distribution with structural features. The study seeks to establish the elemental distribution in normal tissue as a precursor to investigation of changes in disease. For six samples prepared from equine metacarpophalangeal joint, we observed increased concentration of Zn and Sr ions around the tidemark between normal and mineralised cartilage. This is believed to be an active site of remodelling but its composition has hitherto lacked detailed characterization. We also report preliminary results on two of the samples using Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). This confirms our previous observations using synchrotron-based XRF of enhanced deposition of Sr and Zn at the surface of the subchondral bone and in articular cartilage.

  11. A Comparison of Outcomes of Particulated Juvenile Articular Cartilage and Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate for Articular Cartilage Lesions of the Talus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanham, Nathan S; Carroll, John J; Cooper, Minton T; Perumal, Venkat; Park, Joseph S

    2017-08-01

    Articular cartilage lesions of the talus remain a challenging clinical problem because of the lack of natural regeneration and limited treatment options. Microfracture is often the first-line therapy, however lesions larger than 1.5 cm 2 have been shown to not do as well with this treatment method. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the outcomes of iliac crest bone marrow aspirate concentrate/collagen scaffold (ICBMA) and particulated juvenile articular cartilage (PJAC) for larger articular cartilage lesions of the talus. Fifteen patients undergoing ICBMA or PJAC for articular cartilage lesions of the talus from 2010 to 2013 were reviewed. Twelve patients, 6 from each treatment option, were included in the study. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Surgeons (AOFAS), Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), and Short Form-12 (SF-12) outcome scores were collected for each patient. The mean age was 34.7 ± 14.8 years for ICBMA and 31.5 ± 7.4 years for PJAC. Lesion size was 2.0 ± 1.1 cm 2 for ICBMA and 1.9 ± 0.9 cm 2 for PJAC. At a mean follow-up of 25.7 months (range, 12-42 months), the mean AOFAS score was 71.33 for ICBMA and 95.83 for PJAC (  P = .019). The FAAM activities of daily living subscale mean was 77.77 for ICBMA and 97.02 for PJAC (   P = .027). The mean FAAM sports subscale was 45.14 for ICBMA and 86.31 for PJAC (  P = .054). The SF-12 physical health mean was 47.58 for ICBMA and 53.98 for PJAC (  P = .315). The SF-12 mental health mean was 53.25 for ICBMA and 57.8 for PJAC (  P = .315). One patient in treated initially with ICBMA underwent revision fixation for nonunion of their medial malleolar osteotomy, which ultimately resulted in removal of hardware and tibiotalar arthrodesis at 2 years from the index procedure. In the present analysis, PJAC yields better clinical outcomes at 2 years when compared with ICBMA for articular cartilage lesions of the talus that were on average greater than 1.5cm 2 . Therapeutic, Level

  12. In vitro of quantitative MR imaging of early degenerative changes in human articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Wha; Lee, Young Jun; Cha, Sung Suk; Hwa, Ryu Ji

    2004-01-01

    To assess the applicability of quantitative MR microscopy for the detection of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) depletion as an early sign of degeneration in the articular cartilage of humans treated by trypsin. Four cartilage-bone blocks were obtained from the patient who had suffered from osteoarthritis of the knee and underwent a total knee replacement arthroscopy. Each articular cartilage segment was resected as to a round disk shape (8 mm in diameter) with a remnant of subchondral bone 1 mm in thickness. Four different culture solutions were prepared, and these solutions were 0.2 mg/ml of trypsin solution (group 1), 1 mM of Gd (DTPA) 2-mixed trypsin solution (group 2), phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (group 3), and 1 mM of Gd (DTPA) 2-mixed PBS (group 4). The cartilages were cultured and then MR imagings were performed every hour for 5 hrs, and we continued the additional cultures of 24 hrs, 36 hrs and 48 hrs. Three imaging sequences were used: T1-weighted spin echo (TR/TE, 450/22), proton density turbo spin echo with fat suppression (TR/TE, 3000/25), and CPMG (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill) (TR/TE/TI, 760/21-168, 360). MR imaging data were analyzed with pixel-by-pixel comparisons in all groups. The GAG loss in the articular cartilage was increased proportionately to the culture duration. Mean changes of T1 relaxation time were 1.2% for group 1, -1.9% for group 3, -54.7% for group 2 and -64.2% for group 4 (p< 0.05). When comparing by linear profile on the T1-weighted images, SNR increased and T1 relaxation time decreased for group 2 and 4, as the culture duration increased (p< 0.05). On the correlation analysis, there is significant correlation between GAG loss and Gd (DTPA) 2-enhancement for group 2 (p=0.0431), but there was no significant difference for group 4 (p=0.0918). More enhancement with Gd (DTPA) 2-was noted for group 2 than for group 4. Group 2 showed a diffuse enhancement in all the layers of cartilage, but for group 4, prominent enhancement was noted only in

  13. Relative contribution of matrix metalloprotease and cysteine protease activities to cytokine-stimulated articular cartilage degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergaard, B C; Henriksen, K; Wulf, H

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Both matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity and cathepsin K (CK) activity have been implicated in cartilage turnover. We investigated the relative contribution of MMP activity and CK activity in cartilage degradation using ex vivo and in vivo models. METHODS: Bovine articular cartilage...... explants were stimulated with oncostatin M (OSM) 10 ng/ml and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) 20 ng/ml in the presence or absence of the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor GM6001 and the cysteine protease inhibitor, E64. Cartilage degradation was evaluated in the conditioned medium by glycosaminoglycans...... was measured from CK-deficient mice. RESULTS: OSM and TNF-alpha combined induced significant (Pcartilage degradation products measured by hydroxyproline and CTX-II compared to vehicle control. The cytokines potently induced MMP expression, assessed by zymography, and CK expression...

  14. Susceptibility tensor imaging and tractography of collagen fibrils in the articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongjiang; Gibbs, Eric; Zhao, Peida; Wang, Nian; Cofer, Gary P; Zhang, Yuyao; Johnson, G Allan; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the B 0 orientation-dependent magnetic susceptibility of collagen fibrils within the articular cartilage and to determine whether susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) can detect the 3D collagen network within cartilage. Multiecho gradient echo datasets (100-μm isotropic resolution) were acquired from fixed porcine articular cartilage specimens at 9.4 T. The susceptibility tensor was calculated using phase images acquired at 12 or 15 different orientations relative to B 0 . The susceptibility anisotropy of the collagen fibril was quantified and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was compared against STI. 3D tractography was performed to visualize and track the collagen fibrils with DTI and STI. STI experiments showed the distinct and significant anisotropic magnetic susceptibility of collagen fibrils within the articular cartilage. STI can be used to measure and quantify susceptibility anisotropy maps. Furthermore, STI provides orientation information of the underlying collagen network via 3D tractography. The findings of this study demonstrate that STI can characterize the orientation variation of collagen fibrils where diffusion anisotropy fails. We believe that STI could serve as a sensitive and noninvasive marker to study the collagen fibrils microstructure. Magn Reson Med 78:1683-1690, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  15. Measurements of surface layer of the articular cartilage using microscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryniewicz, A. M; Ryniewicz, W.; Ryniewicz, A.; Gaska, A.

    2010-01-01

    The articular cartilage is the structure that directly cooperates tribologically in biobearing. It belongs to the connective tissues and in the joints it assumes two basic forms: hyaline cartilage that builds joint surfaces and fibrocartilage which may create joint surfaces. From this fibrocartilage are built semilunar cartilage and joint disc are built as well. The research of articular cartilage have been done in macro, micro and nano scale. In all these measurement areas characteristic features occur which can identify biobearing tribology. The aim of the research was the identification of surface layer of articular cartilage by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM) and the analysis of topography of these layers. The material used in the research of surface layer was the animal articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage.

  16. Measurements of surface layer of the articular cartilage using microscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryniewicz, A. M.; Ryniewicz, A.; Ryniewicz, W.; Gaska, A.

    2010-07-01

    The articular cartilage is the structure that directly cooperates tribologically in biobearing. It belongs to the connective tissues and in the joints it assumes two basic forms: hyaline cartilage that builds joint surfaces and fibrocartilage which may create joint surfaces. From this fibrocartilage are built semilunar cartilage and joint disc are built as well. The research of articular cartilage have been done in macro, micro and nano scale. In all these measurement areas characteristic features occur which can identify biobearing tribology. The aim of the research was the identification of surface layer of articular cartilage by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM) and the analysis of topography of these layers. The material used in the research of surface layer was the animal articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage.

  17. MRI evaluation of the patellar articular cartilage in patients with subluxation of the patella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Katsuyuki; Inoue, Masahiro; Harada, Koushi; Murakami, Takamichi; Kim, Shougen; Fujita, Norihiko; Sakurai, Kousuke; Kozuka, Takahiro (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1991-04-01

    In patients with subluxation of the patella, injury of the patellar articular cartilage is frequently observed and correct evaluation is important to manage these patients. We examined 11 patients with subluxation of the patella and five normal volunteers. In 12 patellofemoral joints of seven patients with subluxation of the patella, the abnormalities observed on MRI were compared with those on arthroscopy and/or at operation. MRI was performed with a Magnetom 1.5 T (Siemens) using the round surface coil. Pulse sequences were SE (TR 400 ms/TE 19 ms), FLASH(TR 320 ms/TE 15 ms FA 90deg and 40deg), and SE (TR 2000 ms/TE 26, 70 ms). We analysed MR findings of the 12 abnormal joints and 10 normal joints according to the following classification of abnormalities observed on arthroscopy; normal appearance (n=3 joints), softening and fibrillation (n=6), fragmentation (n=3), and erosion to bone (n=0). In only one of the six cases with softening and fibrillation observed on arthroscopy, MRI could visualize the thickening of patellar articular cartilage, but in all three cases with fragmentation observed on arthroscopy, MRI could visualize the thin inhomogeneous cartilage with irregular surface. The combination of SE (TR 400 ms/TE 19 ms) and FLASH (TR 320 ms/TE 15 ms FA 90deg) are extremely effective pulse sequence to detect the abnormalities of patellar articular cartilage. We conclude that MRI is a useful noninvasive method of detecting advanced changes in patellar articular cartilage. (author).

  18. MRI evaluation of the patellar articular cartilage in patients with subluxation of the patella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Katsuyuki; Inoue, Masahiro; Harada, Koushi; Murakami, Takamichi; Kim, Shougen; Fujita, Norihiko; Sakurai, Kousuke; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1991-01-01

    In patients with subluxation of the patella, injury of the patellar articular cartilage is frequently observed and correct evaluation is important to manage these patients. We examined 11 patients with subluxation of the patella and five normal volunteers. In 12 patellofemoral joints of seven patients with subluxation of the patella, the abnormalities observed on MRI were compared with those on arthroscopy and/or at operation. MRI was performed with a Magnetom 1.5 T (Siemens) using the round surface coil. Pulse sequences were SE (TR 400 ms/TE 19 ms), FLASH(TR 320 ms/TE 15 ms FA 90deg and 40deg), and SE (TR 2000 ms/TE 26, 70 ms). We analysed MR findings of the 12 abnormal joints and 10 normal joints according to the following classification of abnormalities observed on arthroscopy; normal appearance (n=3 joints), softening and fibrillation (n=6), fragmentation (n=3), and erosion to bone (n=0). In only one of the six cases with softening and fibrillation observed on arthroscopy, MRI could visualize the thickening of patellar articular cartilage, but in all three cases with fragmentation observed on arthroscopy, MRI could visualize the thin inhomogeneous cartilage with irregular surface. The combination of SE (TR 400 ms/TE 19 ms) and FLASH (TR 320 ms/TE 15 ms FA 90deg) are extremely effective pulse sequence to detect the abnormalities of patellar articular cartilage. We conclude that MRI is a useful noninvasive method of detecting advanced changes in patellar articular cartilage. (author)

  19. Freeze-thaw treatment effects on the dynamic mechanical properties of articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muldrew Ken

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a relatively non-regenerative tissue, articular cartilage has been targeted for cryopreservation as a method of mitigating a lack of donor tissue availability for transplant surgeries. In addition, subzero storage of articular cartilage has long been used in biomedical studies using various storage temperatures. The current investigation studies the potential for freeze-thaw to affect the mechanical properties of articular cartilage through direct comparison of various subzero storage temperatures. Methods Both subzero storage temperature as well as freezing rate were compared using control samples (4°C and samples stored at either -20°C or -80°C as well as samples first snap frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196°C prior to storage at -80°C. All samples were thawed at 37.5°C to testing temperature (22°C. Complex stiffness and hysteresis characterized load resistance and damping properties using a non-destructive, low force magnitude, dynamic indentation protocol spanning a broad loading rate range to identify the dynamic viscoelastic properties of cartilage. Results Stiffness levels remained unchanged with exposure to the various subzero temperatures. Hysteresis increased in samples snap frozen at -196°C and stored at -80°C, though remained unchanged with exposure to the other storage temperatures. Conclusions Mechanical changes shown are likely due to ice lens creation, where frost heave effects may have caused collagen damage. That storage to -20°C and -80°C did not alter the mechanical properties of articular cartilage shows that when combined with a rapid thawing protocol to 37.5°C, the tissue may successfully be stored at subzero temperatures.

  20. Small-Diameter Awls Improve Articular Cartilage Repair After Microfracture Treatment in a Translational Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Patrick; Duffner, Julia; Zurakowski, David; Cucchiarini, Magali; Madry, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Microfracture is the most commonly applied arthroscopic marrow stimulation procedure. Articular cartilage repair is improved when the subchondral bone is perforated by small-diameter microfracture awls compared with larger awls. Controlled laboratory study. Standardized rectangular (4 × 8 mm) full-thickness chondral defects (N = 24) were created in the medial femoral condyle of 16 adult sheep and debrided down to the subchondral bone plate. Three treatment groups (n = 8 defects each) were tested: 6 microfracture perforations using small-diameter awls (1.0 mm; group 1), large-diameter awls (1.2 mm; group 2), or without perforations (debridement control; group 3). Osteochondral repair was assessed at 6 months in vivo using established macroscopic, histological, immunohistochemical, biochemical, and micro-computed tomography analyses. Compared with control defects, histological cartilage repair was always improved after both microfracture techniques (P Subchondral bone cysts and intralesional osteophytes were frequently observed after either microfracture treatment. Macroscopic grading, DNA, proteoglycan, and type I and type II collagen contents as well as degenerative changes within the adjacent cartilage remained unaffected by the awl diameter. Small-diameter microfracture awls improve articular cartilage repair in the translational sheep model more effectively than do larger awls. These data support the use of small microfracture instruments for the surgical treatment of cartilage defects and warrant prolonged clinical investigations. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Diverse roles of integrin receptors in articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaei, M; Csaki, C; Mobasheri, A

    2008-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins made up of alpha and beta subunits. At least eighteen alpha and eight beta subunit genes have been described in mammals. Integrin family members are plasma membrane receptors involved in cell adhesion and active as intra- and extracellular signalling molecules in a variety of processes including embryogenesis, hemostasis, tissue repair, immune response and metastatic spread of tumour cells. Integrin beta 1 (beta1-integrin), the protein encoded by the ITGB1 gene (also known as CD29 and VLAB), is a multi-functional protein involved in cell-matrix adhesion, cell signalling, cellular defense, cell adhesion, protein binding, protein heterodimerisation and receptor-mediated activity. It is highly expressed in the human body (17.4 times higher than the average gene in the last updated revision of the human genome). The extracellular matrix (ECM) of articular cartilage is a unique environment. Interactions between chondrocytes and the ECM regulate many biological processes important to homeostasis and repair of articular cartilage, including cell attachment, growth, differentiation and survival. The beta1-integrin family of cell surface receptors appears to play a major role in mediating cell-matrix interactions that are important in regulating these fundamental processes. Chondrocyte mechanoreceptors have been proposed to incorporate beta1-integrins and mechanosensitive ion channels which link with key ECM, cytoskeletal and signalling proteins to maintain the chondrocyte phenotype, prevent chondrocyte apoptosis and regulate chondrocyte-specific gene expression. This review focuses on the expression and function of beta1-integrins in articular chondrocytes, its role in the unique biology of these cells and its distribution in cartilage.

  2. Subchondral drilling for articular cartilage repair: a systematic review of translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Goebel, Lars K H; Orth, Patrick; Cucchiarini, Magali; Madry, Henning

    2018-05-03

    Articular cartilage defects may initiate osteoarthritis. Subchondral drilling, a widely applied clinical technique to treat small cartilage defects, does not yield cartilage regeneration. Various translational studies aiming to improve the outcome of drilling have been performed, however, a robust systematic analysis of its translational evidence has been still lacking. Here, we performed a systematic review of the outcome of subchondral drilling for knee cartilage repair in translational animal models. A total of 12 relevant publications studying 198 animals were identified, detailed study characteristics were extracted, and methodological quality and risk of bias were analyzed. Subchondral drilling was superior to defects untreated or treated with abrasion arthroplasty for cartilage repair in multiple translational models. Considerable subchondral bone changes were observed, including subchondral bone cysts and intralesional osteophytes. Furthermore, extensive alterations of the subchondral bone microarchitecture appeared in a temporal pattern in small and large animal models, together with specific topographic aspects of repair. Moreover, variable technical aspects directly affected the outcomes of osteochondral repair. The data from this systematic review indicate that subchondral drilling yields improved short-term structural articular cartilage repair compared with spontaneous repair in multiple small and large animal models. These results have important implications for future investigations aimed at an enhanced translation into clinical settings for the treatment of cartilage defects, highlighting the importance of considering specific aspects of modifiable variables such as improvements in the design and reporting of preclinical studies, together with the need to better understand the underlying mechanisms of cartilage repair following subchondral drilling. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Wear and damage of articular cartilage with friction against orthopedic implant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oungoulian, Sevan R; Durney, Krista M; Jones, Brian K; Ahmad, Christopher S; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2015-07-16

    The objective of this study was to measure the wear response of immature bovine articular cartilage tested against glass or alloys used in hemiarthroplasties. Two cobalt chromium alloys and a stainless steel alloy were selected for these investigations. The surface roughness of one of the cobalt chromium alloys was also varied within the range considered acceptable by regulatory agencies. Cartilage disks were tested in a configuration that promoted loss of interstitial fluid pressurization to accelerate conditions believed to occur in hemiarthroplasties. Results showed that considerably more damage occurred in cartilage samples tested against stainless steel (10 nm roughness) and low carbon cobalt chromium alloy (27 nm roughness) compared to glass (10 nm) and smoother low or high carbon cobalt chromium (10 nm). The two materials producing the greatest damage also exhibited higher equilibrium friction coefficients. Cartilage damage occurred primarily in the form of delamination at the interface between the superficial tangential zone and the transitional middle zone, with much less evidence of abrasive wear at the articular surface. These results suggest that cartilage damage from frictional loading occurs as a result of subsurface fatigue failure leading to the delamination. Surface chemistry and surface roughness of implant materials can have a significant influence on tissue damage, even when using materials and roughness values that satisfy regulatory requirements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Wear and Damage of Articular Cartilage with Friction Against Orthopaedic Implant Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oungoulian, Sevan R.; Durney, Krista M.; Jones, Brian K.; Ahmad, Christopher S.; Hung, Clark T.; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the wear response of immature bovine articular cartilage tested against glass or alloys used in hemiarthroplasties. Two cobalt chromium alloys and a stainless steel alloy were selected for these investigations. The surface roughness of one of the cobalt chromium alloys was also varied within the range considered acceptable by regulatory agencies. Cartilage disks were tested in a configuration that promoted loss of interstitial fluid pressurization to accelerate conditions believed to occur in hemiarthroplasties. Results showed that considerably more damage occurred in cartilage samples tested against stainless steel (10 nm roughness) and low carbon cobalt chromium alloy (27 nm roughness) compared to glass (10 nm) and smoother low or high carbon cobalt chromium (10 nm). The two materials producing the greatest damage also exhibited higher equilibrium friction coefficients. Cartilage damage occurred primarily in the form of delamination at the interface between the superficial tangential zone and the transitional middle zone, with much less evidence of abrasive wear at the articular surface. These results suggest that cartilage damage from frictional loading occurs as a result of subsurface fatigue failure leading to the delamination. Surface chemistry and surface roughness of implant materials can have a significant influence on tissue damage, even when using materials and roughness values that satisfy regulatory requirements. PMID:25912663

  5. A study of crystalline biomaterials for articular cartilage bioengineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross-Aviv, Talia [Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, 84105 (Israel)], E-mail: taliag@bgu.ac.il; DiCarlo, Bryan B. [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77003 (United States)], E-mail: bdicarlo@rice.edu; French, Margaret M. [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77003 (United States)], E-mail: mmfrench@rice.edu; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A. [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77003 (United States)], E-mail: athanasiou@rice.edu; Vago, Razi [Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, 84105 (Israel)], E-mail: rvago@bgu.ac.il

    2008-12-01

    This study examines the suitability of marine origin coral species, Porites lutea (POR) and the hydrozoan Millepora dichotoma (MIL), for use as novel three dimensional growth matrices in the field of articular cartilage tissue engineering. Therefore, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes were grown on the skeletal material obtained from each of these two organisms to investigate their potential use as three dimensional scaffolding for cartilage tissue growth. Chondrogenic induction of MSCs was achieved by addition of transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) and insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I). Cell adherence, proliferation, differentiation and tissue development were investigated through six weeks of culture. Cartilage tissue growth and chondrocytic phenotype maintenance of each cell type were examined by cell morphology, histochemical analyses, expression of collagen type II and quantitative measures of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content. The MSCs and the chondrocytes were shown good adherence to the scaffolds and maintenance of the chondrocytic phenotype in the initial stages of culture. However after two weeks of culture on MIL and three weeks on POR these cultures began to exhibit signs of further differentiation and phenotypic loss. The shown results indicated that POR was a better substrate for chondrocytes phenotype maintenance than MIL. We believe that surface modification of POR combined with mechanical stimuli will provide a suitable environment for chondrogenic phenotype maintenance. Further investigation of POR and other novel coralline biomatrices is indicated and warranted in the field of cartilage tissue engineering applications.

  6. Compressive and swelling behavior of cuttlebone derived hydroxyapatite loaded PVA hydrogel implants for articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B. Y. Santosh; Kumar, G. C. Mohan; Isloor, Arun M.

    2018-04-01

    Developing a novel antibacterial, nontoxic and biocompatible hydrogel with superior physio mechanical properties is still becoming a challenge. Herein, we synthesize hydroxyapatite (HA) powder from cuttlefish bone and prepare a series of stiff, tough, high strength, biocompatible hydrogel reinforced with HA by integrating glutaraldehyde into PVA/HA. Powder was characterized by SEM and XRD. Compressive strength and swelling properties are studied and compare the results with the properties of healthy natural articular cartilage.

  7. Gender differences in knee joint cartilage thickness, volume and articular surface areas: assessment with quantitative three-dimensional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, S.C.; Reiser, M.; Englmeier, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the cartilage thickness, volume, and articular surface areas of the knee joint between young healthy, non-athletic female and male individuals. Subjects and design. MR imaging was performed in 18 healthy subjects without local or systemic joints disease (9 female, age 22.3±2.4 years, and 9 male, age 22.2.±1.9 years), using a fat-suppressed FLASH 3D pulse sequence (TR=41 ms, TE=11 ms, FA=30 ) with sagittal orientation and a spatial resolution of 2x0.31x0.31 mm 3 . After three-dimensional reconstruction and triangulation of the knee joint cartilage plates, the cartilage thickness (mean and maximal), volume, and size of the articular surface area were quantified, independent of the original section orientation. Results and conclusions: Women displayed smaller cartilage volumes than men, the percentage difference ranging from 19.9% in the patella, to 46.6% in the medial tibia. The gender differences of the cartilage thickness were smaller, ranging from 2.0% in the femoral trochlea to 13.3% in the medial tibia for the mean thickness, and from 4.3% in the medial femoral condyle to 18.3% in the medial tibia for the maximal cartilage thickness. The differences between the cartilage surface areas were similar to those of the volumes, with values ranging from 21.0% in the femur to 33.4% in the lateral tibia. Gender differences could be reduced for cartilage volume and surface area when normalized to body weight and body weight x body height. The study demonstrates significant gender differences in cartilage volume and surface area of men and women, which need to be taken into account when retrospectively estimating articular cartilage loss in patients with symptoms of degenerative joint disease. Differences in cartilage volume are primarily due to differences in joint surface areas (epiphyseal bone size), not to differences in cartilage thickness. (orig.)

  8. T2 star relaxation times for assessment of articular cartilage at 3 T: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamisch, Tallal Charles [University Bern, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); University Bern, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methodology, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Hughes, Timothy [Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen (Germany); Mosher, Timothy J. [Penn State University College of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Imaging and MRI, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Mueller, Christoph [University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Boesch, Chris [University Bern, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methodology, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Welsch, Goetz Hannes [University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-03-15

    T2 mapping techniques use the relaxation constant as an indirect marker of cartilage structure, and the relaxation constant has also been shown to be a sensitive parameter for cartilage evaluation. As a possible additional robust biomarker, T2* relaxation time is a potential, clinically feasible parameter for the biochemical evaluation of articular cartilage. The knees of 15 healthy volunteers and 15 patients after microfracture therapy (MFX) were evaluated with a multi-echo spin-echo T2 mapping technique and a multi-echo gradient-echo T2* mapping sequence at 3.0 Tesla MRI. Inline maps, using a log-linear least squares fitting method, were assessed with respect to the zonal dependency of T2 and T2* relaxation for the deep and superficial regions of healthy articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. There was a statistically significant correlation between T2 and T2* values. Both parameters demonstrated similar spatial dependency, with longer values measured toward the articular surface for healthy articular cartilage. No spatial variation was observed for cartilage repair tissue after MFX. Within this feasibility study, both T2 and T2* relaxation parameters demonstrated a similar response in the assessment of articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. The potential advantages of T2*-mapping of cartilage include faster imaging times and the opportunity for 3D acquisitions, thereby providing greater spatial resolution and complete coverage of the articular surface. (orig.)

  9. Snorc is a novel cartilage specific small membrane proteoglycan expressed in differentiating and articular chondrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, J; Taipaleenmäki, H; Roering, P

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Maintenance of chondrocyte phenotype is a major issue in prevention of degeneration and repair of articular cartilage. Although the critical pathways in chondrocyte maturation and homeostasis have been revealed, the in-depth understanding is deficient and novel modifying components...... subgroups. Cartilage specific expression was highest in proliferating and prehypertrophic zones during development, and in adult articular cartilage, expression was restricted to the uncalcified zone, including chondrocyte clusters in human osteoarthritic cartilage. Studies with experimental chondrogenesis...... chondrocytes and adult articular chondrocytes with possible functions associated with development and maintenance of chondrocyte phenotype....

  10. A multi-directional in vitro investigation into friction, damage and wear of innovative chondroplasty materials against articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwood, Ewen; Fisher, John

    2007-08-01

    The wear of the biomaterial/cartilage interface is vital for the development of innovative chondroplasty therapies. The aim of this study was to investigate potential chondroplasty biomaterials when sliding against natural articular cartilage under uniaxial reciprocating and multi-directional rotation/reciprocating motions. Three biphasic hydrogels were compared to articular cartilage (negative control) and stainless steel (positive control). Friction was measured by means of a simple geometry friction and wear simulator. All tests were completed in 25% bovine serum at 20 degrees C. Mechanical alterations to the surface structure were quantified using surface topography. Articular cartilage produced a constant friction value of 0.05 (confidence interval=0.015) with and without rotation. Stainless steel against articular cartilage produced an increase in friction over time resulting in a peak value of 0.7 (confidence interval=0.02) without rotation, increasing to 0.88 (confidence interval=0.03) with rotation. All biphasic hydrogels produced peak friction values lower than the positive control and demonstrated no difference between uni- and multi-directional motion. Degradation of the opposing cartilage surface showed a significant difference between the positive and negative controls, with the greater cartilage damage when sliding against stainless steel under uni-directional motion. The lower friction and reduction of opposing cartilage surface degradation with the potential chondroplasty biomaterials can be attributed to their biphasic properties. This study illustrated the importance of biphasic properties within the tribology of cartilage substitution materials and future work will focus on the optimisation of biphasic properties such that materials more closely mimic natural cartilage.

  11. Evaluation of influence of proteoglycans on hydration of articular cartilage with the use of ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-yi YANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To monitor the changes in hydration behaviour of articular cartilage induced by degradation of proteoglycans, and to explore the effect of proteoglycans on hydration behaviour of articular cartilage by using high-frequency ultrasound. Methods Twelve porcine patellae with smooth cartilage surface were prepared and equally divided into two groups: normal group without any enzyme treatment, and trypsin group they were treated with 0.25% trypsin for 8h to digest proteoglycan in the cartilage. The hydration behaviour of the cartilage tissue was scanned by high-frequency ultrasound system with a central frequency of 25MHz. Parameters including cartilage hydration strain and cartilage thickness were measured. The histopathological changes in the articular cartilage were observed under a light microscope. Results It took approximately 20min to reach equilibrium during the hydration process in the normal cartilages, while proteoglycan-degraded cartilage took only about 5min to achieve equilibrium. The equilibrium strain of normal cartilage was 3.5%±0.5%. The degradation of proteoglycans induced a significant decrease in equilibrium strain (1.8%±0.2%, P0.05. Conclusion Proteoglycans play an important role in hydration behaviour of articular cartilage. The degradation of proteoglycans could induce degeneration of cartilage structure and decrease in hydration behaviour after dehydration. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.03.03

  12. Correlation of laminated MR apperance of articular cartilage with histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Joon; Suh, Jin Suck; Jeong, Eun Kee; Shin, Kyu Ho; Yang, Woo Ick

    1999-01-01

    To determine the correlation of laminae of different signal intensities (SI) of articular cartilage, as seen on magnetic resonance(MR) imaging with histologic layers, using artificially constructed landmarks. For a landmark that can exactly correlate the cartilage specimen with the MR image, five 'V'-shaped markings of different depths were made on the surface of bovine patella. Both T1-weighted (TR/TE : 300/14) and FSE T2-weighted images (TR/TE : 2000/53) were obtained on a 1.5T system with high gradient echo strength (25mT/m) and a voxel size of 78X78X2000μm. Images were obtained with 1) changed frequency-encoding directions on T1-weighted study, and 2) changed readout gradient strength ( X2, X1/2) on T2-weighted sequence. Raw image data were transferred to a workstation and signal intensity profile was generated for each image. 1 : 1 correlation of histologic specimens and MR images was performed. Line profile through the cartilage showed few peaks, suggesting changes in signal intensity profile in the cartilage. On the basis of artificial landmarks, the histologic zone was accurately identified. The histologic tangential and transitional zones correlated with superficial high SI on T1WI, as well as high and low SI on T2WI. On T1WI, the radial zone correlated with a lamina of intermediate SI, and on T2WI, with a lamina for which SI gradually decreased from high to low. Additional well-defined low and intermediate SI bands were noted on bovine T1WI in the lower radial zone. In both T1 and T2 studies, calcified cartilage layers were of low SI. On T1-weighted study, changes in the direction of frequency gradient did not lead to changes in the laminae. The alteration of readout gradient strengths did not result in an inversely proportional difference in the thickness of the laminae. These became more distinct thus ruling out chemical shift and susceptibility artifacts. The laminated appearance of articular cartilage, as seen on spin echo and fast spin-echo MR

  13. T2 Mapping of Articular Cartilage of Glenohumeral Joint with Routine MRI Correlation—Initial Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Maizlin, Zeev V.; Clement, Jason J.; Patola, Wayne B.; Fenton, David M.; Gillies, Jean H.; Vos, Patrick M.; Jacobson, Jon A.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of articular cartilage currently relies primarily on the identification of morphological alterations of the articular cartilage. Unlike anatomic imaging, T2 mapping is sensitive to changes in the chemical composition and structure of the cartilage. Clinical evaluation of T2 mapping of the glenohumeral joint has not been previously reported. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance T2 mapping of the glenohumeral joint in routine clinica...

  14. Fractional calculus model of articular cartilage based on experimental stress-relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, P. A.; Green, I.

    2015-05-01

    Articular cartilage is a unique substance that protects joints from damage and wear. Many decades of research have led to detailed biphasic and triphasic models for the intricate structure and behavior of cartilage. However, the models contain many assumptions on boundary conditions, permeability, viscosity, model size, loading, etc., that complicate the description of cartilage. For impact studies or biomimetic applications, cartilage can be studied phenomenologically to reduce modeling complexity. This work reports experimental results on the stress-relaxation of equine articular cartilage in unconfined loading. The response is described by a fractional calculus viscoelastic model, which gives storage and loss moduli as functions of frequency, rendering multiple advantages: (1) the fractional calculus model is robust, meaning that fewer constants are needed to accurately capture a wide spectrum of viscoelastic behavior compared to other viscoelastic models (e.g., Prony series), (2) in the special case where the fractional derivative is 1/2, it is shown that there is a straightforward time-domain representation, (3) the eigenvalue problem is simplified in subsequent dynamic studies, and (4) cartilage stress-relaxation can be described with as few as three constants, giving an advantage for large-scale dynamic studies that account for joint motion or impact. Moreover, the resulting storage and loss moduli can quantify healthy, damaged, or cultured cartilage, as well as artificial joints. The proposed characterization is suited for high-level analysis of multiphase materials, where the separate contribution of each phase is not desired. Potential uses of this analysis include biomimetic dampers and bearings, or artificial joints where the effective stiffness and damping are fundamental parameters.

  15. Techniques and Applications of in vivo Diffusion Imaging of Articular Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya, José G.

    2014-01-01

    Early in the process of osteoarthritis (OA) the composition (water, proteoglycan [PG], and collagen) and structure of articular cartilage is altered leading to changes in its mechanical properties. A technique that can assess the composition and structure of the cartilage in vivo can provide insight in the mechanical integrity of articular cartilage and become a powerful tool for the early diagnosis of OA. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been proposed as a biomarker for cartilage composition and structure. DTI is sensitive to the PG content through the mean diffusivity (MD) and to the collagen architecture through the fractional anisotropy (FA). However, the acquisition of DTI of articular cartilage in vivo is challenging due to the short T2 of articular cartilage (~40 ms at 3 T) and the high resolution needed (0.5–0.7 mm in plane) to depict the cartilage anatomy. We describe the pulse sequences used for in vivo DTI of articular cartilage and discus general strategies for protocol optimization. We provide a comprehensive review of measurements of DTI of articular cartilage from ex vivo validation experiments to its recent clinical applications. PMID:25865215

  16. An Experimental and Finite Element Protocol to Investigate the Transport of Neutral and Charged Solutes across Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi, Vahid; Pouran, Behdad; Zadpoor, Amir A; Weinans, Harrie

    2017-04-23

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating disease that is associated with degeneration of articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Degeneration of articular cartilage impairs its load-bearing function substantially as it experiences tremendous chemical degradation, i.e. proteoglycan loss and collagen fibril disruption. One promising way to investigate chemical damage mechanisms during OA is to expose the cartilage specimens to an external solute and monitor the diffusion of the molecules. The degree of cartilage damage (i.e. concentration and configuration of essential macromolecules) is associated with collisional energy loss of external solutes while moving across articular cartilage creates different diffusion characteristics compared to healthy cartilage. In this study, we introduce a protocol, which consists of several steps and is based on previously developed experimental micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT) and finite element modeling. The transport of charged and uncharged iodinated molecules is first recorded using micro-CT, which is followed by applying biphasic-solute and multiphasic finite element models to obtain diffusion coefficients and fixed charge densities across cartilage zones.

  17. Thermal energy effects on articular cartilage: a multidisciplinary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Lee D.; Ernsthausen, John; Ionescu, Dan S.; Studer, Rebecca K.; Bradley, James P.; Chu, Constance R.; Fu, Freddie H.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2002-05-01

    Partial thickness articular cartilage lesions are commonly encountered in orthopedic surgery. These lesions do not have the ability to heal by themselves, due to lack of vascular supply. Several types of treatment have addressed this problem, including mechanical debridement and thermal chondroplasty. The goal of these treatments is to provide a smooth cartilage surface and prevent propagation of the lesions. Early thermal chondroplasty was performed using lasers, and yielded very mixed results, including severe damage to the cartilage, due to poor control of the induced thermal effects. This led to the development (including commercial) of probes using radiofrequency to generate the thermal effects desired for chondroplasty. Similar concerns over the quantitative aspects and control ability of the induced thermal effects in these treatments led us to test the whole range of complex issues and parameters involved. Our investigations are designed to simultaneously evaluate clinical conditions, instrument variables for existing radiofrequency probes (pressure, speed, distance, dose) as well as the associated basic science issues such as damage temperature and controllability (down to the subcellular level), damage geometry, and effects of surrounding conditions (medium, temperature, flow, pressure). The overall goals of this work are (1) to establish whether thermal chondroplasty can be used in a safe and efficacious manner, and (2) provide a prescription for multi-variable optimization of the way treatments are delivered, based on quantitative analysis. The methods used form an interdisciplinary set, to include precise mechanical actuation, high accuracy temperature and temperature gradient control and measurement, advanced imaging approaches and mathematical modeling.

  18. POSSIBILITIES OF CURRENT CELLULAR TECHNOLOGIES FOR ARTICULAR CARTILAGE REPAIR (ANALYTICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Bozhokin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a wide variety of surgical procedures utilized in clinical practice for treatment of articular cartilage lesions, the search for other options of articular reconstruction remains a relevant and open issue at the current stage of medicine and biotechnologies development. The recent years demonstrated a strong belief in cellular methods of hyaline cartilage repair such as implantation of autologous chondrocytes (ACI or cultures of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC including techniques for genetic modification of cells.The purpose of presented review is to summarize the published scientific data on up to date results of perspective cellular technologies for articular cartilage repair that are being developed. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation originally performed by Swedish researchers in 1987 is considered the first clinically applied technique for restoration of hyaline cartilage using cellular technologies. However, the transplanted cell culture featured low proliferative capacity and inability to form a regenerate resistant to high physical activity. Another generation of methods originated at the turn of the century utilized mesenchymal stem cells instead of autologous chondrocytes. Preparation of MSCs is a less invasive procedure compared to chondrocytes harvesting and the culture is featured by a higher proliferative ability. Researchers use various biodegradable carriers (matrices to secure cell fixation. Despite good clinical mid-term outcomes the transplanted tissue-engineering structures deteriorate with time due to cellular de-differentiation. Next generation of techniques being currently under pre-clinical studies is featured by the preliminary chondrogenic modification of transplanted cell culture. Usage of various growth factors, modified cell product and gene-activated matrices allow to gain a stable regulatory and key proteins synthesis and achieve a focused influence on regenerate's chondrogenic proliferation and in result

  19. MR microscopy of articular cartilage at 1.5 T: orientation and site dependence of laminar structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Anno, Izumi; Echigo, Junko; Itai, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8575 (Japan); Haishi, Tomoyuki; Uematsu, Takaaki; Matsuda, Yoshimasa; Kose, Katsumi [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Lang, Philipp [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Abstract Objective. To evaluate MR microscopic images of normal-appearing porcine hyaline cartilage (n=15) in vitro obtained with an MR microscope using an independent console system (MRMICS) at 1.5 T.Design and results. The MRMICS is a portable imaging system consisting of a radiofrequency system, gradient power supplies and a personal computer. The images from the MRMICS showed a laminar structure of porcine cartilage similar to the structure demonstrated with other MR imaging techniques. The laminar structures of the articular cartilage, were, however heterogeneous in respect of signal intensity and thickness, which varied according to the site resected. The MR laminar appearance was most comparable to the staining with Masson's trichrome for collagen.Conclusion. MRMICS is a useful add-on system for obtaining microscopic MR images of articular cartilage in vitro. (orig.)

  20. MR microscopy of articular cartilage at 1.5 T: orientation and site dependence of laminar structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Anno, Izumi; Echigo, Junko; Itai, Yuji; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Uematsu, Takaaki; Matsuda, Yoshimasa; Kose, Katsumi; Lang, Philipp

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To evaluate MR microscopic images of normal-appearing porcine hyaline cartilage (n=15) in vitro obtained with an MR microscope using an independent console system (MRMICS) at 1.5 T.Design and results. The MRMICS is a portable imaging system consisting of a radiofrequency system, gradient power supplies and a personal computer. The images from the MRMICS showed a laminar structure of porcine cartilage similar to the structure demonstrated with other MR imaging techniques. The laminar structures of the articular cartilage, were, however heterogeneous in respect of signal intensity and thickness, which varied according to the site resected. The MR laminar appearance was most comparable to the staining with Masson's trichrome for collagen.Conclusion. MRMICS is a useful add-on system for obtaining microscopic MR images of articular cartilage in vitro. (orig.)

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells can survive on the extracellular matrix-derived decellularized bovine articular cartilage scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Tavassoli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective (s: The scarcity of articular cartilage defect to repair due to absence of blood vessels and tissue engineering is one of the promising approaches for cartilage regeneration. The objective of this study was to prepare an extracellular matrix derived decellularized bovine articular cartilage scaffold and investigate its interactions with seeded rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs. Materials and Methods: Bovine articular cartilage that was cut into pieces with 2 mm thickness, were decellularized by combination of physical and chemical methods including snap freeze-thaw and treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. The scaffolds were then seeded with 1, 1’-dioctadecyl-3, 3, 3’, 3’-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI labeled BM-MSCs and cultured for up to two weeks. Results: Histological studies of decellularized bovine articular cartilage showed that using 5 cycles of snap freeze-thaw in liquid nitrogen and treatment with 2.5% SDS for 4 hr led to the best decellularization, while preserving the articular cartilage structure. Adherence and penetration of seeded BM-MSCs on to the scaffold were displayed by histological and florescence examinations and also confirmed by electron microscopy. Conclusion: ECM-derived decellularized articular cartilage scaffold provides a suitable environment to support adhesion and maintenance of cultured BM-MSCs and could be applied to investigate cellular behaviors in this system and may also be useful for studies of cartilage tissue engineering.

  2. Contact mechanics of articular cartilage layers asymptotic models

    CERN Document Server

    Argatov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive and unifying approach to articular contact mechanics with an emphasis on frictionless contact interaction of thin cartilage layers. The first part of the book (Chapters 1–4) reviews the results of asymptotic analysis of the deformational behavior of thin elastic and viscoelastic layers. A comprehensive review of the literature is combined with the authors’ original contributions. The compressible and incompressible cases are treated separately with a focus on exact solutions for asymptotic models of frictionless contact for thin transversely isotropic layers bonded to rigid substrates shaped like elliptic paraboloids. The second part (Chapters 5, 6, and 7) deals with the non-axisymmetric contact of thin transversely isotropic biphasic layers and presents the asymptotic modelling methodology for tibio-femoral contact. The third part of the book consists of Chapter 8, which covers contact problems for thin bonded inhomogeneous transversely isotropic elastic layers, and Cha...

  3. Biological knee reconstruction for combined malalignment, meniscal deficiency, and articular cartilage disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joshua D; Hussey, Kristen; Wilson, Hillary; Pilz, Kyle; Gupta, Anil K; Gomoll, Andreas; Cole, Brian J

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze patient-reported outcomes in those undergoing the triad of simultaneous osteotomy, meniscal transplantation, and articular cartilage repair. Patients undergoing simultaneous meniscal transplantation, distal femoral or proximal tibial osteotomy, and articular cartilage surgery by a single surgeon (B.J.C.) were analyzed. Meniscal transplantation was performed using bone-in-slot techniques. Distal femoral and high tibial osteotomies were performed for valgus and varus malalignment, respectively. Microfracture, autologous chondrocyte implantation, and osteochondral autograft or allograft were performed for articular cartilage disease. Validated patient-reported and surgeon-measured outcomes were collected. Preoperative and postoperative outcomes and medial versus lateral disease were compared using Student t tests. Eighteen participants (mean age, 34 ± 7.8 years; symptomatic patients, 7.4 ± 5.6 years; 2.4 ± 1.0 surgical procedures before study enrollment; mean follow-up, 6.5 ± 3.2 years) were analyzed. Two thirds of participants had medial compartment pathologic conditions and one third had lateral compartment pathologic processes. At final follow-up, there were statistically significant clinically meaningful improvements in International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective classification, Lysholm score, and 4 Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscores. Postoperative 12-item short form (SF-12) physical and mental component scores were not significantly different from preoperative scores. The Kellgren-Lawrence classification grade was 1.5 ± 1.1 at 2.5 ± 3.0 years after surgery. There was a significantly higher preoperative SF-12 physical composite score (PCS) in participants with lateral compartment pathologic conditions (v medial compartment conditions) (P = .011). Although there were 13 reoperations in 10 patients (55.5% reoperation rate), only one patient was converted to knee arthroplasty (5

  4. Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells Derived from Articular Cartilage, Synovial Membrane and Synovial Fluid for Cartilage Regeneration: Current Status and Future Perspectives.

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    Huang, Yi-Zhou; Xie, Hui-Qi; Silini, Antonietta; Parolini, Ornella; Zhang, Yi; Deng, Li; Huang, Yong-Can

    2017-10-01

    Large articular cartilage defects remain an immense challenge in the field of regenerative medicine because of their poor intrinsic repair capacity. Currently, the available medical interventions can relieve clinical symptoms to some extent, but fail to repair the cartilaginous injuries with authentic hyaline cartilage. There has been a surge of interest in developing cell-based therapies, focused particularly on the use of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells with or without scaffolds. Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells are promising graft cells for tissue regeneration, but the most suitable source of cells for cartilage repair remains controversial. The tissue origin of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells notably influences the biological properties and therapeutic potential. It is well known that mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells derived from synovial joint tissues exhibit superior chondrogenic ability compared with those derived from non-joint tissues; thus, these cell populations are considered ideal sources for cartilage regeneration. In addition to the progress in research and promising preclinical results, many important research questions must be answered before widespread success in cartilage regeneration is achieved. This review outlines the biology of stem/progenitor cells derived from the articular cartilage, the synovial membrane, and the synovial fluid, including their tissue distribution, function and biological characteristics. Furthermore, preclinical and clinical trials focusing on their applications for cartilage regeneration are summarized, and future research perspectives are discussed.

  5. Benefits of Ilizarov automated bone distraction for nerves and articular cartilage in experimental leg lengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchudlo, Nathalia; Varsegova, Tatyana; Stupina, Tatyana; Shchudlo, Michael; Saifutdinov, Marat; Yemanov, Andrey

    2017-09-18

    To determine peculiarities of tissue responses to manual and automated Ilizarov bone distraction in nerves and articular cartilage. Twenty-nine dogs were divided in two experimental groups: Group M - leg lengthening with manual distraction (1 mm/d in 4 steps), Group A - automated distraction (1 mm/d in 60 steps) and intact group. Animals were euthanized at the end of distraction, at 30 th day of fixation in apparatus and 30 d after the fixator removal. M-responses in gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles were recorded, numerical histology of peroneal and tibialis nerves and knee cartilage semi-thin sections, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray electron probe microanalysis were performed. Better restoration of M-response amplitudes in leg muscles was noted in A-group. Fibrosis of epineurium with adipocytes loss in peroneal nerve, subperineurial edema and fibrosis of endoneurium in some fascicles of both nerves were noted only in M-group, shares of nerve fibers with atrophic and degenerative changes were bigger in M-group than in A-group. At the end of experiment morphometric parameters of nerve fibers in peroneal nerve were comparable with intact nerve only in A-group. Quantitative parameters of articular cartilage (thickness, volumetric densities of chondrocytes, percentages of isogenic clusters and empty cellular lacunas, contents of sulfur and calcium) were badly changed in M-group and less changed in A-group. Automated Ilizarov distraction is more safe method of orthopedic leg lengthening than manual distraction in points of nervous fibers survival and articular cartilage arthrotic changes.

  6. Evaluation of articular cartilage following rotational acetabular osteotomy for hip dysplasia using T2 mapping MRI.

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    Shoji, Takeshi; Yamasaki, Takuma; Izumi, Soutaro; Sawa, Mikiya; Akiyama, Yuji; Yasunaga, Yuji; Adachi, Nobuo

    2018-04-27

    Rotational acetabular osteotomy (RAO) is one of the surgical treatments for acetabular dysplasia, and satisfactory results have been reported. We evaluated the postoperative changes of articular cartilage and whether the pre-operative condition of the articular cartilage influences the clinical results using T2 mapping MRI. We reviewed 31 hips with early stage osteoarthritis in 31 patients (mean age, 39.6 years), including three men and 28 women who underwent RAO for hip dysplasia. Clinical evaluations including Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score and Japanese Orthopedic Association Hip Disease Evaluation Questionnaire (JHEQ), and radiographical evaluations on X-ray were performed. Longitudinal qualitative assessment of articular cartilage was also performed using 3.0-T MRI with T2 mapping technique preoperatively, 6 months, and at 1 and 2 years postoperatively. There was no case with progression of osteoarthritis. The mean JOA score improved from 70.1 to 93.4 points, the mean postoperative JHEQ score was 68.8 points, and radiographical data also improved postoperatively. We found that the T2 values of the cartilage at both femoral head and acetabulum increased at 6 months on coronal and sagittal views. However, they significantly decreased 1 and 2 years postoperatively. The T2 values of the center to anterolateral region of acetabulum negatively correlated with postoperative JHEQ score, particularly in pain score. This study suggests that biomechanical and anatomical changes could apparently cause decreased T2 values 1-2 years postoperatively compared with those preoperatively. Furthermore, preoperative T2 values of the acetabulum can be prognostic factors for the clinical results of RAO.

  7. Effects of immobilization on thickness of superficial zone of articular cartilage of patella in rats

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    Khadija Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Each segment of superficial zone behaves differentially on immobilization and remobilization. Perhaps a much longer duration of remobilization is required to reverse changes of immobilization in articular cartilage and plays a significant role in knee joint movements.

  8. Effect of glutaraldehyde fixation on the frictional response of immature bovine articular cartilage explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oungoulian, Sevan R; Hehir, Kristin E; Zhu, Kaicen; Willis, Callen E; Marinescu, Anca G; Merali, Natasha; Ahmad, Christopher S; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2014-02-07

    This study examined functional properties and biocompatibility of glutaraldehyde-fixed bovine articular cartilage over several weeks of incubation at body temperature to investigate its potential use as a resurfacing material in joint arthroplasty. In the first experiment, treated cartilage disks were fixed using 0.02, 0.20 and 0.60% glutaraldehyde for 24h then incubated, along with an untreated control group, in saline for up to 28d at 37°C. Both the equilibrium compressive and tensile moduli increased nearly twofold in treated samples compared to day 0 control, and remained at that level from day 1 to 28; the equilibrium friction coefficient against glass rose nearly twofold immediately after fixation (day 1) but returned to control values after day 7. Live explants co-cultured with fixed explants showed no quantitative difference in cell viability over 28d. In general, no significant differences were observed between 0.20 and 0.60% groups, so 0.20% was deemed sufficient for complete fixation. In the second experiment, cartilage-on-cartilage frictional measurements were performed under a migrating contact configuration. In the treated group, one explant was fixed using 0.20% glutaraldehyde while the apposing explant was left untreated; in the control group both explants were left untreated. From day 1 to 28, the treated group exhibited either no significant difference or slightly lower friction coefficient than the untreated group. These results suggest that a properly titrated glutaraldehyde treatment can reproduce the desired functional properties of native articular cartilage and maintain these properties for at least 28d at body temperature. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The influence of collagen network integrity on the accumulation of gadolinium-based MR contrast agents in articular cartilage

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    Wiener, Edzard; Schmidt, C.; Diederichs, G. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Settles, M. [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Weirich, G. [Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie und Pathologische Anatomie

    2011-03-15

    Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of cartilage is used to quantify the proteoglycan loss in early osteoarthritis. It is assumed that T 1 after Gd-DTPA administration in the near equilibrium state reflects selective proteoglycan loss from cartilage. To investigate the influence of the collagen network integrity on contrast accumulation, the relaxation rates {delta}R1 and {delta}R2 were compared after Gd-DTPA administration in a well established model of osteoarthritis. Collagen or proteoglycan depletion was induced by the proteolytic enzymes papain and collagenase in healthy bovine patellar cartilage. Using a dedicated MRI sequence, T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} maps were simultaneously acquired before and 11 h after Gd-DTPA administration. Depth-dependent profiles of {delta}R1 and {delta}R2 were calculated in healthy, proteoglycan and collagen-depleted articular cartilage and the mean values of different cartilage layers were compared using the Mann-Whitney-U test. In superficial layers (1 mm) there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in either {delta}R1 or {delta}R2 between proteoglycan-depleted (16.6 {+-} 1.2 s{sup -1}, 15.9 {+-} 1.0 s{sup -1}) and collagen-depleted articular cartilage (15.3 {+-} 0.9 s{sup -1}, 15.5 {+-} 0.9 s{sup -1}). In deep layers (3 mm) both parameters were significantly higher (p = 0.005, 0.03) in proteoglycan-depleted articular cartilage (12.3 {+-} 1.1 s{sup -1}, 9.8 {+-} 0.8 s{sup -1}) than in collagen-depleted articular cartilage (9.1 {+-} 1.1 s{sup -1}, 8.7 {+-} 0.7 s{sup -1}). Both proteoglycan loss and alterations in the collagen network influence the accumulation of Gd-DTPA in articular cartilage with significant differences between superficial and deep cartilage layers. (orig.)

  10. Spatial regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in postnatal articular and growth plate cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Presley; Yue, Shanna; Hanson, Jeffrey; Baron, Jeffrey; Lui, Julian C.

    2017-01-01

    Articular and growth plate cartilage both arise from condensations of mesenchymal cells, but ultimately develop important histological and functional differences. Each is composed of three layers—the superficial, mid and deep zones of articular cartilage and the resting, proliferative and hypertrophic zones of growth plate cartilage. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) system plays an important role in cartilage development. A gradient in expression of BMP-related genes has been observed across growth plate cartilage, likely playing a role in zonal differentiation. To investigate the presence of a similar expression gradient in articular cartilage, we used laser capture microdissection (LCM) to separate murine growth plate and articular cartilage from the proximal tibia into their six constituent zones, and used a solution hybridization assay with color-coded probes (nCounter) to quantify mRNAs for 30 different BMP-related genes in each zone. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were then used to confirm spatial expression patterns. Expression gradients for Bmp2 and 6 were observed across growth plate cartilage with highest expression in hypertrophic zone. However, intracellular BMP signaling, assessed by phospho-Smad1/5/8 immunohistochemical staining, appeared to be higher in the proliferative zone and prehypertrophic area than in hypertrophic zone, possibly due to high expression of Smad7, an inhibitory Smad, in the hypertrophic zone. We also found BMP expression gradients across the articular cartilage with BMP agonists primarily expressed in the superficial zone and BMP functional antagonists primarily expressed in the deep zone. Phospho-Smad1/5/8 immunohistochemical staining showed a similar gradient. In combination with previous evidence that BMPs regulate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, the current findings suggest that BMP signaling gradients exist across both growth plate and articular cartilage and that these gradients may

  11. Evaluation on Cartilage Morphology after Intra-Articular Injection of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Gao, Y.; Hou, Y.; Zhao, F.; Pu, F.; Liu, X.; Fan, Y.; Wu, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Nano scale wear particles would generate from orthopedic implants with nano scale surface topography because of residual stress. In this study, the effect of TiO 2 nanoparticles on articular cartilage was investigated by intra-articular injection in rats. Using contrast-enhanced high-resolution micro computed tomography (micro-CT) technology, the decreased thickness of articular cartilage in distal femur was determined at 1, 7, 14, and 30 days after nanoparticle exposure. A strong linear correlation (r=0.928, P 2 nanoparticles, cartilage thickness showed time-dependent decrease, and cartilage volume was decreased too. Further, the histopathological examination showed the edema chondrocyte and shrinked nucleus in the radial and calcified zone of cartilage. The ultrastructure of articular cartilage implied that the chondrocytes was degenerated, expressing as the condensed chromatin, the dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and the rich mitochondria. Even, the fragments of ruptured endoplasmic reticulum were observed in the cytoplasm of chondrocytes at postexposure day 30. Results indicate that potential damage of articular cartilage was induced by particles existed in knee joint and imply that the bio monitoring should be strengthened in patients with prostheses replacement.

  12. On the genesis of articular cartilage. Embryonic joint development and gene expression - implications for tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, F

    2013-01-01

    Articular chondrocytes descend from a distinct cohort of progenitor cells located in the embryonic joint anlagen, termed interzones. Their unique lineage might explain some of the problems encountered using chondrocytes of different lineages for articular cartilage tissue engineering. While it is

  13. Changes of articular cartilage and subchondral bone after extracorporeal shockwave therapy in osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Jen; Cheng, Jai-Hong; Chou, Wen-Yi; Hsu, Shan-Ling; Chen, Jen-Hung; Huang, Chien-Yiu

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the pathological changes of articular cartilage and subchondral bone on different locations of the knee after extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) in early osteoarthritis (OA). Rat knees under OA model by anterior cruciate ligament transaction (ACLT) and medial meniscectomy (MM) to induce OA changes. Among ESWT groups, ESWT were applied to medial (M) femur (F) and tibia (T) condyles was better than medial tibia condyle, medial femur condyle as well as medial and lateral (L) tibia condyles in gross osteoarthritic areas (posteophyte formation and subchondral sclerotic bone (psubchondral bone repair in all ESWT groups compared to OA group (p T(M+L) > F(M) in OA rat knees.

  14. Delayed Gadolinium Enhanced MRI of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) can be effectively applied for longitudinal cohort evaluation of articular cartilage regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, J.E.J.; Lambertus, W.B.; Benink, R.J.; Tsuchida, A.I.; Vincken, K.L.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Creemers, L.B.; Saris, Daniël B.F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) facilitates non-invasive evaluation of the glycosaminoglycan content in articular cartilage. The primary aim of this study was to show that the dGEMRIC technique is able to monitor cartilage repair following regenerative cartilage

  15. Using Costal Chondrocytes to Engineer Articular Cartilage with Applications of Passive Axial Compression and Bioactive Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwe, Le W; Sullan, Gurdeep K; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2018-03-01

    Generating neocartilage with suitable mechanical integrity from a cell source that can circumvent chondrocyte scarcity is indispensable for articular cartilage regeneration strategies. Costal chondrocytes of the rib eliminate donor site morbidity in the articular joint, but it remains unclear how neocartilage formed from these cells responds to mechanical loading, especially if the intent is to use it in a load-bearing joint. In a series of three experiments, this study sought to determine efficacious parameters of passive axial compressive stimulation that would enable costal chondrocytes to synthesize mechanically robust cartilage. Experiment 1 determined a suitable time window for stimulation by its application during either the matrix synthesis phase, the maturation phase, or during both phases of the self-assembling process. The results showed that compressive stimulation at either time was effective in increasing instantaneous moduli by 92% and 87% in the synthesis and maturation phases, respectively. Compressive stimulation during both phases did not further improve properties beyond a one-time stimulation. The magnitude of passive axial compression was examined in Experiment 2 by applying 0, 3.3, 5.0, or 6.7 kPa stresses to the neocartilage. Unlike 6.7 kPa, both 3.3 and 5.0 kPa significantly increased neocartilage compressive properties by 42% and 48% over untreated controls, respectively. Experiment 3 examined how the passive axial compression regimen developed from the previous phases interacted with a bioactive regimen (transforming growth factor [TGF]-β1, chondroitinase ABC, and lysyl oxidase-like 2). Passive axial compression significantly improved the relaxation modulus compared with bioactive treatment alone. Furthermore, a combined treatment of compressive and bioactive stimulation improved the tensile properties of neocartilage 2.6-fold compared with untreated control. The ability to create robust articular cartilage from passaged costal

  16. Mechanical Stimulation Protocols of Human Derived Cells in Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering - A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozoee, Baktash; Mafi, Pouya; Mafi, Reza; Khan, Wasim S

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation is a key factor in articular cartilage generation and maintenance. Bioreactor systems have been designed and built in order to deliver specific types of mechanical stimulation. The focus has been twofold, applying a type of preconditioning in order to stimulate cell differentiation, and to simulate in vivo conditions in order to gain further insight into how cells respond to different stimulatory patterns. Due to the complex forces at work within joints, it is difficult to simulate mechanical conditions using a bioreactor. The aim of this review is to gain a deeper understanding of the complexities of mechanical stimulation protocols by comparing those employed in bioreactors in the context of tissue engineering for articular cartilage, and to consider their effects on cultured cells. Allied and Complementary Medicine 1985 to 2016, Ovid MEDLINE[R] 1946 to 2016, and Embase 1974 to 2016 were searched using key terms. Results were subject to inclusion and exclusion criteria, key findings summarised into a table and subsequently discussed. Based on this review it is overwhelmingly clear that mechanical stimulation leads to increased chondrogenic properties in the context of bioreactor articular cartilage tissue engineering using human cells. However, given the variability and lack of controlled factors between research articles, results are difficult to compare, and a standardised method of evaluating stimulation protocols proved challenging. With improved standardisation in mechanical stimulation protocol reporting, bioreactor design and building processes, along with a better understanding of joint behaviours, we hope to perform a meta-analysis on stimulation protocols and methods. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Is magnetic resonance imaging reliable in predicting clinical outcome after articular cartilage repair of the knee?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Windt, T.S.; Welsch, G.H.; Brittberg, M.; Vonk, L.A.; Marlovits, S.; Trattnig, S.; Saris, Daniël B.F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: While MRI can provide a detailed morphological evaluation after articular cartilage repair, its additional value in determining clinical outcome has yet to be determined. Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between MRI and clinical outcome after cartilage repair and to identify

  18. Transcriptional profiling differences for articular cartilage and repair tissue in equine joint surface lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stromberg Arnold J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Full-thickness articular cartilage lesions that reach to the subchondral bone yet are restricted to the chondral compartment usually fill with a fibrocartilage-like repair tissue which is structurally and biomechanically compromised relative to normal articular cartilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate transcriptional differences between chondrocytes of normal articular cartilage and repair tissue cells four months post-microfracture. Methods Bilateral one-cm2 full-thickness defects were made in the articular surface of both distal femurs of four adult horses followed by subchondral microfracture. Four months postoperatively, repair tissue from the lesion site and grossly normal articular cartilage from within the same femorotibial joint were collected. Total RNA was isolated from the tissue samples, linearly amplified, and applied to a 9,413-probe set equine-specific cDNA microarray. Eight paired comparisons matched by limb and horse were made with a dye-swap experimental design with validation by histological analyses and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. Results Statistical analyses revealed 3,327 (35.3% differentially expressed probe sets. Expression of biomarkers typically associated with normal articular cartilage and fibrocartilage repair tissue corroborate earlier studies. Other changes in gene expression previously unassociated with cartilage repair were also revealed and validated by RT-qPCR. Conclusion The magnitude of divergence in transcriptional profiles between normal chondrocytes and the cells that populate repair tissue reveal substantial functional differences between these two cell populations. At the four-month postoperative time point, the relative deficiency within repair tissue of gene transcripts which typically define articular cartilage indicate that while cells occupying the lesion might be of mesenchymal origin, they have not recapitulated differentiation to

  19. Chronic Changes in the Articular Cartilage and Meniscus Following Traumatic Impact to the Lapine Knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischenich, Kristine M.; Button, Keith D.; Coatney, Garrett A.; Fajardo, Ryan S.; Leikert, Kevin M.; Haut, Roger C.; Haut Donahue, Tammy L.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to induce anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and meniscal damage, via a single tibiofemoral compressive impact, in order to document articular cartilage and meniscal changes post impact. Tibiofemoral joints of Flemish Giant rabbits were subjected to a single blunt impact that ruptured the ACL and produced acute meniscal damage. Animals were allowed unrestricted cage activity for 12 weeks before euthanasia. India ink analysis of the articular cartilage revealed higher degrees of surface damage on the impacted tibias (p=0.018) and femurs (p<0.0001) compared to controls. Chronic meniscal damage was most prevalent in the medial central and medial posterior regions. Mechanical tests revealed an overall 19.4% increase in tibial plateau cartilage thickness (p=0.026), 34.8% increase in tibial plateau permeability (p=0.054), 40.8% increase in femoral condyle permeability (p=0.029), and 20.1% decrease in femoral condyle matrix modulus (p=0.012) in impacted joints compared to controls. Both the instantaneous and equilibrium moduli of the lateral and medial menisci were decreased compared to control (p<0.02). Histological analyses revealed significantly increased presence of fissures in the medial femur (p = 0.036). In both the meniscus and cartilage there was a significant decrease in GAG coverage for the impacted limbs. Based on these results it is clear that an unattended combined meniscal and ACL injury results in significant changes to the soft tissues in this experimental joint 12 weeks post injury. Such changes are consistent with a clinical description of mid to late stage PTOA of the knee. PMID:25523754

  20. MR imaging of canine osteoarthritis shows sustained hypertrophic repair of articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, E.M.; Albrecht, M.; Brandt, K.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports MR imaging used to evaluate cartilage abnormalities in three dogs in which the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of one hind limb had been transected to produce osteoarthritis. In this model changes mirror those in human osteoarthritis, but they are not progressive after a few months. The authors performed serial plain radiography and MR imaging of the osteoarthritic knee and control knee 3 years after ACL transection. Coronal T1- weighted images and sagittal multiecho and field echo summed images were obtained. Radiographs showed osteophytes, geodes, and subchondral sclerosis of the operated knees, with no progression between 2 and 3 years. Contralateral knees were normal. On MR images in each case there was indistinctness and thickening of articular cartilage in the abnormal knee compared with the contralateral knee

  1. Identification and clonal characterisation of a progenitor cell sub-population in normal human articular cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Williams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage displays a poor repair capacity. The aim of cell-based therapies for cartilage defects is to repair damaged joint surfaces with a functional replacement tissue. Currently, chondrocytes removed from a healthy region of the cartilage are used but they are unable to retain their phenotype in expanded culture. The resulting repair tissue is fibrocartilaginous rather than hyaline, potentially compromising long-term repair. Mesenchymal stem cells, particularly bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC, are of interest for cartilage repair due to their inherent replicative potential. However, chondrocyte differentiated BMSCs display an endochondral phenotype, that is, can terminally differentiate and form a calcified matrix, leading to failure in long-term defect repair. Here, we investigate the isolation and characterisation of a human cartilage progenitor population that is resident within permanent adult articular cartilage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Human articular cartilage samples were digested and clonal populations isolated using a differential adhesion assay to fibronectin. Clonal cell lines were expanded in growth media to high population doublings and karyotype analysis performed. We present data to show that this cell population demonstrates a restricted differential potential during chondrogenic induction in a 3D pellet culture system. Furthermore, evidence of high telomerase activity and maintenance of telomere length, characteristic of a mesenchymal stem cell population, were observed in this clonal cell population. Lastly, as proof of principle, we carried out a pilot repair study in a goat in vivo model demonstrating the ability of goat cartilage progenitors to form a cartilage-like repair tissue in a chondral defect. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we propose that we have identified and characterised a novel cartilage progenitor population resident in human articular cartilage which will greatly benefit future cell

  2. Articular Cartilage of the Human Knee Joint: In Vivo Multicomponent T2 Analysis at 3.0 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang Won; Samsonov, Alexey; Spencer, Richard G.; Wilson, John J.; Block, Walter F.; Kijowski, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare multicomponent T2 parameters of the articular cartilage of the knee joint measured by using multicomponent driven equilibrium single-shot observation of T1 and T2 (mcDESPOT) in asymptomatic volunteers and patients with osteoarthritis. Materials and Methods This prospective study was performed with institutional review board approval and with written informed consent from all subjects. The mcDESPOT sequence was performed in the knee joint of 13 asymptomatic volunteers and 14 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Single-component T2 (T2Single), T2 of the fast-relaxing water component (T2F) and of the slow-relaxing water component (T2S), and the fraction of the fast-relaxing water component (FF) of cartilage were measured. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and multivariate linear regression models were used to compare mcDESPOT parameters between volunteers and patients with osteoarthritis. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess diagnostic performance with mcDESPOT parameters for distinguishing morphologically normal cartilage from morphologically degenerative cartilage identified at magnetic resonance imaging in eight cartilage subsections of the knee joint. Results Higher cartilage T2Single (P cartilage FF (P cartilage T2F (P = .079) and T2S (P = .124) values were seen in patients with osteoarthritis compared with those in asymptomatic volunteers. Differences in T2Single and FF remained significant (P cartilage (P cartilage T2Single and significantly lower cartilage FF than did asymptomatic volunteers, and receiver operating characteristic analysis results suggested that FF may allow greater diagnostic performance than that with T2Single for distinguishing between normal and degenerative cartilage. © RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26024307

  3. Traumatic humeral articular cartilage shear (THACS) lesion in a professional rugby player: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, I-H; Wallace, W A

    2004-08-01

    A 20 year old male professional rugby player was seen at the clinic for evaluation of shoulder pain after rugby play. Magnetic resonance imaging showed extensive subchondral bone bruising of the humeral head with defect of the articular cartilage. Arthroscopy showed that the inferior half of the humeral head had extensive articular cartilage loss with nearly 70% of the inferior head having lost its cartilage. Sports medicine doctors should be aware that the shoulder joint in young competitive athletes playing contact sports may be exposed to greater risk of this kind of injury.

  4. Enhanced regulatory gene expressions in the blood and articular cartilage of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

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    Elena Vasilyevna Chetina

    2012-01-01

    accompanied by the elevated concentrations of the corresponding proteins in the cell lysates of the patients with RA compared to the controls. Conclusion. The findings suggest for the first time that regulatory mTOR, ATG1, p21, and TNFа gene expressions are enhanced in the blood and articular cartilage of RA patients. These changes are accompanied by the increased expression of MMP 13 gene that is responsible for articular cartilage resorption. Therefore, the higher expression of the examined regulatory genes in the blood of RA patients may be indicative of articular cartilage degradation.

  5. Evaluation of articular cartilage degeneration with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, Mikihiro

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentration is important in the clinical diagnosis of articular cartilage degeneration. Glycosaminoglycan provides a large number of fixed negative charges. When manganese ion (Mn 2+ ) is administered to the cartilage matrix, this cation diffuses into the matrix and accumulates in accordance with the distribution of fixed negative charges owing to the electrostatic interaction. The accumulation of Mn 2+ causes a shortening of the relaxation times, resulting in high signal intensity in the MR image, when a T 1 -weighted image is obtained. The present study applied this new method to the articular cartilage to evaluate the degree of the cartilage degeneration. Small pieces of articular cartilage were dissected from the knee joints of young chickens. Experimentally degenerated articular cartilage was obtained by treating the specimen with various concentrations of papain solution. Then specimens were soaked in manganese solution until they obtained equilibrium and served for MR microimaging. The fixed charge density (FCD), the concentration of Mn 2+ and Na + , T 1 and T 2 relaxation times were also measured. In degenerated cartilage, lower accumulation of Mn 2+ due to lower GAG density caused a lower than normal signal intensity. Thus, administration of Mn 2+ enhances the biochemical change in the cartilage matrix in terms of differences in the relaxation time. The actual signal intensity on MRI of each specimen corresponded to the theoretical signal intensity, which was calculated from the FCD. It was concluded that MR images taken with contrast enhancement by Mn 2+ give direct visual information about the GAG density in the articular cartilage. MRI with cationic contrast agent could develop into a new method for early non-invasive diagnosis of cartilage dysfunction and degeneration. (author)

  6. X-ray dark field imaging of human articular cartilage: Possible clinical application to orthopedic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisada, Toshiyuki; Shimao, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Takeda, Ken; Ozaki, Toshifumi; Ando, Masami

    2008-01-01

    Despite its convenience and non-invasiveness on daily clinical use, standard X-ray radiography cannot show articular cartilage. We developed a novel type of X-ray dark field imaging (DFI), which forms images only by a refracted beam with very low background illumination. We examined a disarticulated distal femur and a shoulder joint with surrounding soft tissue and skin, both excised from a human cadaver at the BL20B2 synchrotron beamline at SPring-8. The field was 90 mm wide and 90 mm high. Articular cartilage of the disarticulated distal femur was obvious on DFI, but not on standard X-ray images. Furthermore, DFI allowed visualization in situ of articular cartilage of the shoulder while covered with soft tissue and skin. The gross appearance of the articular cartilage on the dissected section of the proximal humerus was identical to the cartilage shown on the DFI image. These results suggested that DFI could provide a clinically accurate method of assessing articular cartilage. Hence, DFI would be a useful imaging tool for diagnosing joint disease such as osteoarthritis

  7. X-ray dark field imaging of human articular cartilage: Possible clinical application to orthopedic surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunisada, Toshiyuki [Department of Medical Materials for Musculoskeletal Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)], E-mail: toshi-kunisada@umin.ac.jp; Shimao, Daisuke [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, Ibaraki 300-2394 (Japan); Sugiyama, Hiroshi [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Takeda, Ken; Ozaki, Toshifumi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Ando, Masami [Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2008-12-15

    Despite its convenience and non-invasiveness on daily clinical use, standard X-ray radiography cannot show articular cartilage. We developed a novel type of X-ray dark field imaging (DFI), which forms images only by a refracted beam with very low background illumination. We examined a disarticulated distal femur and a shoulder joint with surrounding soft tissue and skin, both excised from a human cadaver at the BL20B2 synchrotron beamline at SPring-8. The field was 90 mm wide and 90 mm high. Articular cartilage of the disarticulated distal femur was obvious on DFI, but not on standard X-ray images. Furthermore, DFI allowed visualization in situ of articular cartilage of the shoulder while covered with soft tissue and skin. The gross appearance of the articular cartilage on the dissected section of the proximal humerus was identical to the cartilage shown on the DFI image. These results suggested that DFI could provide a clinically accurate method of assessing articular cartilage. Hence, DFI would be a useful imaging tool for diagnosing joint disease such as osteoarthritis.

  8. Quantitative ultrasound imaging detects degenerative changes in articular cartilage surface and subchondral bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarakkala, Simo; Laasanen, Mikko S; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Toeyraes, Juha

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that quantitative ultrasound imaging could sensitively diagnose degeneration of the articular surface and changes in the subchondral bone during the development of osteoarthrosis (OA). We have recently introduced a new parameter, ultrasound roughness index (URI), for the quantification of cartilage surface roughness, and successfully tested it with normal and experimentally degraded articular surfaces. In this in vitro study, the applicability of URI was tested in bovine cartilage samples with spontaneously developed tissue degeneration. Simultaneously, we studied the sensitivity of quantitative ultrasound imaging to detect degenerative changes in the cartilage-bone interface. For reference, histological degenerative grade of the cartilage samples was determined. Mechanical reference measurements were also conducted. Cartilage surface roughness (URI) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in histologically degenerated samples with inferior mechanical properties. Ultrasound reflection at the cartilage-bone interface was also significantly (p < 0.05) increased in degenerated samples. Furthermore, it was quantitatively confirmed that ultrasound attenuation in the overlying cartilage significantly affects the measured ultrasound reflection values from the cartilage-bone interface. To conclude, the combined ultrasound measurement of the cartilage surface roughness and ultrasound reflection at the cartilage-bone interface complement each other, and may together enable more sensitive and quantitative diagnosis of early OA or follow up after surgical cartilage repair

  9. High throughput proteomic analysis of the secretome in an explant model of articular cartilage inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutterbuck, Abigail L.; Smith, Julia R.; Allaway, David; Harris, Pat; Liddell, Susan; Mobasheri, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This study employed a targeted high-throughput proteomic approach to identify the major proteins present in the secretome of articular cartilage. Explants from equine metacarpophalangeal joints were incubated alone or with interleukin-1beta (IL-1β, 10 ng/ml), with or without carprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, for six days. After tryptic digestion of culture medium supernatants, resulting peptides were separated by HPLC and detected in a Bruker amaZon ion trap instrument. The five most abundant peptides in each MS scan were fragmented and the fragmentation patterns compared to mammalian entries in the Swiss-Prot database, using the Mascot search engine. Tryptic peptides originating from aggrecan core protein, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), fibronectin, fibromodulin, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), clusterin (CLU), cartilage intermediate layer protein-1 (CILP-1), chondroadherin (CHAD) and matrix metalloproteinases MMP-1 and MMP-3 were detected. Quantitative western blotting confirmed the presence of CILP-1, CLU, MMP-1, MMP-3 and TSP-1. Treatment with IL-1β increased MMP-1, MMP-3 and TSP-1 and decreased the CLU precursor but did not affect CILP-1 and CLU levels. Many of the proteins identified have well-established extracellular matrix functions and are involved in early repair/stress responses in cartilage. This high throughput approach may be used to study the changes that occur in the early stages of osteoarthritis. PMID:21354348

  10. Effect of Enrofloxacin on Histochemistry, Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Changes in Lamb Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaeel, Kaveh; Mazaheri, Yazdan; Hashemi Tabar, Mahmood; Najafzadeh, Hossein; Morovvati, Hassan; Ghadrdan, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Enrofloxacin is a synthetic chemotherapeutic agent from the class of the fluoroquinolones that is widely used to treat bacterial infections. It is metabolized to ciprofloxacin in the body as active metabolite. Fluoroquinolones change in the articular cartilage, especially with high doses and more than two weeks use. So, due to relatively excessive use of enrofloxacin in mammals and similarity of lambs to human subjects with respect to skeletal activity cycles, this study was done to investigate the effects of enrofloxacin on some cellular and molecular changes in growing lamb articular cartilage to evaluate some possible mechanisms involved these changes. Twelve, 2-month-old male lambs divided into three groups: control group received only normal saline; therapeutic group received 5mg/kg enrofloxacin subcutaneously, daily, for 15 days and toxic group received 35 mg/kg enrofloxacin in the same manner as therapeutic group. Twenty four hours after the last dose, the animals were sacrificed, and their stifle joints were dissected. Sampling from distal femoral and proximal tibial extremities was done quickly for further histological and molecular studies. Collagen-п content was studied with avidin-biotin immunohistochemistry method in different groups. Expression of Sox9 and caspase-3 was evaluated by Real-time PCR. Immunohistochemical changes were included decreases of matrix proteoglycans, carbohydrates, and Collagen-п in the toxic group. Some of these changes were observed in the therapeutic group with less intensity in comparison to the toxic group. Enrofloxacin were significantly decreased (P≤0.05). Sox9 expression in therapeutic and toxic groups compared to control group. But caspase -3 expressions in the toxic group significantly increased (P≤0.0001) with a comparison to other groups, while, between control and therapeutic groups, there were no significant differences. So, it can be concluded that enrofloxacin increases apoptosis in chondrocytes and

  11. Regional polarization sensitivity of articular cartilage by using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tuqiang; Guo, Shuguang; Chen, Zhongping; Peavy, George M.

    2007-02-01

    In this study, PS-OCT is used to image fresh bovine joints to investigate the orientation of collagen fibrils in relation to optical phase retardation to better understand the distribution of normal matrix orientation and articular cartilage birefringence in different regions of a whole joint. Understanding and mapping variations in matrix organization and orientation within the normal joint is an important issue in potential applications of PS-OCT for evaluation and diagnosis of degenerative joint disease (DJD). The experimental results demonstrate that articular cartilage is not polarization sensitive on the edge of the medial, but polarization sensitive on the lateral edge of the tibial plateau. The collagen orientation on the edge of the joint is different from the central areas of the joint. Normal articular cartilage demonstrates regional polarization sensitivity within joints that is important to understand in order to accurately assess cartilage health by PS-OCT.

  12. FK506 protects against articular cartilage collagenous extra-cellular matrix degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebelt, M; van der Windt, A E; Groen, H C; Sandker, M; Waarsing, J H; Müller, C; de Jong, M; Jahr, H; Weinans, H

    2014-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a non-rheumatologic joint disease characterized by progressive degeneration of the cartilage extra-cellular matrix (ECM), enhanced subchondral bone remodeling, activation of synovial macrophages and osteophyte growth. Inhibition of calcineurin (Cn) activity through tacrolimus (FK506) in in vitro monolayer chondrocytes exerts positive effects on ECM marker expression. This study therefore investigated the effects of FK506 on anabolic and catabolic markers of osteoarthritic chondrocytes in 2D and 3D in vitro cultures, and its therapeutic effects in an in vivo rat model of OA. Effects of high and low doses of FK506 on anabolic (QPCR/histochemistry) and catabolic (QPCR) markers were evaluated in vitro on isolated (2D) and ECM-embedded chondrocytes (explants, 3D pellets). Severe cartilage damage was induced unilaterally in rat knees using papain injections in combination with a moderate running protocol. Twenty rats were treated with FK506 orally and compared to twenty untreated controls. Subchondral cortical and trabecular bone changes (longitudinal microCT) and macrophage activation (SPECT/CT) were measured. Articular cartilage was analyzed ex vivo using contrast enhanced microCT and histology. FK506 treatment of osteoarthritic chondrocytes in vitro induced anabolic (mainly collagens) and reduced catabolic ECM marker expression. In line with this, FK506 treatment clearly protected ECM integrity in vivo by markedly decreasing subchondral sclerosis, less development of subchondral pores, depletion of synovial macrophage activation and lower osteophyte growth. FK506 protected cartilage matrix integrity in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, FK506 treatment in vivo reduced OA-like responses in different articular joint tissues and thereby makes Cn an interesting target for therapeutic intervention of OA. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nasal chondrocyte-based engineered autologous cartilage tissue for repair of articular cartilage defects: an observational first-in-human trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumme, Marcus; Barbero, Andrea; Miot, Sylvie; Wixmerten, Anke; Feliciano, Sandra; Wolf, Francine; Asnaghi, Adelaide M; Baumhoer, Daniel; Bieri, Oliver; Kretzschmar, Martin; Pagenstert, Geert; Haug, Martin; Schaefer, Dirk J; Martin, Ivan; Jakob, Marcel

    2016-10-22

    Articular cartilage injuries have poor repair capacity, leading to progressive joint damage, and cannot be restored predictably by either conventional treatments or advanced therapies based on implantation of articular chondrocytes. Compared with articular chondrocytes, chondrocytes derived from the nasal septum have superior and more reproducible capacity to generate hyaline-like cartilage tissues, with the plasticity to adapt to a joint environment. We aimed to assess whether engineered autologous nasal chondrocyte-based cartilage grafts allow safe and functional restoration of knee cartilage defects. In a first-in-human trial, ten patients with symptomatic, post-traumatic, full-thickness cartilage lesions (2-6 cm 2 ) on the femoral condyle or trochlea were treated at University Hospital Basel in Switzerland. Chondrocytes isolated from a 6 mm nasal septum biopsy specimen were expanded and cultured onto collagen membranes to engineer cartilage grafts (30 × 40 × 2 mm). The engineered tissues were implanted into the femoral defects via mini-arthrotomy and assessed up to 24 months after surgery. Primary outcomes were feasibility and safety of the procedure. Secondary outcomes included self-assessed clinical scores and MRI-based estimation of morphological and compositional quality of the repair tissue. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01605201. The study is ongoing, with an approved extension to 25 patients. For every patient, it was feasible to manufacture cartilaginous grafts with nasal chondrocytes embedded in an extracellular matrix rich in glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen. Engineered tissues were stable through handling with forceps and could be secured in the injured joints. No adverse reactions were recorded and self-assessed clinical scores for pain, knee function, and quality of life were improved significantly from before surgery to 24 months after surgery. Radiological assessments indicated variable degrees of

  14. Characterization of articular cartilage and subchondral bone changes in the rat anterior cruciate ligament transection and meniscectomized models of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, Tadashi; Pickarski, Maureen; Zhuo, Ya; Wesolowski, Gregg A; Rodan, Gideon A; Duong, Le T

    2006-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease characterized by cartilage destruction, subchondral bone sclerosis, and osteophyte formation. Subchondral bone stiffness has been proposed to initiate and/or contribute to cartilage deterioration in OA. The purpose of this study was to characterize subchondral bone remodeling, cartilage damage, and osteophytosis during the disease progression in two models of surgically induced OA. Rat knee joints were subjected either to anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) alone or in combination with resection of medial menisci (ACLT + MMx). Histopathological changes in the surgical joints were compared with sham at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10 weeks post-surgery. Using a modified Mankin scoring system, we demonstrate that articular cartilage damage occurs within 2 weeks post-surgery in both surgical models. Detectable cartilage surface damage and proteoglycan loss were observed as early as 1 week post-surgery. These were followed by the increases in vascular invasion into cartilage, in loss of chondrocyte number and in cell clustering. Histomorphometric analysis revealed subchondral bone loss in both models within 2 weeks post-surgery followed by significant increases in subchondral bone volume relative to sham up to 10 weeks post-surgery. Incidence of osteophyte formation was optimally observed in ACLT joints at 10 weeks and in ACLT + MMx joints at 6 weeks post-surgery. In summary, the two surgically induced rat OA models share many characteristics seen in human and other animal models of OA, including progressive articular cartilage degradation, subchondral bone sclerosis, and osteophyte formation. Moreover, increased subchondral bone resorption is associated with early development of cartilage lesions, which precedes significant cartilage thinning and subchondral bone sclerosis. Together, these findings support a role for bone remodeling in OA pathogenesis and suggest that these rat models are suitable for evaluating bone

  15. [Tribological assessment of articular cartilage. A system for the analysis of the friction coefficient of cartilage, regenerates and tissue engineering constructs; initial results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, M L R; Schneider-Wald, B; Krase, A; Richter, W; Reisig, G; Kreinest, M; Heute, S; Pott, P P; Brade, J; Schütte, A

    2012-10-01

    Values for the friction coefficient of articular cartilage are given in ranges of percentage and lower and are calculated as a quotient of the friction force and the perpendicular loading force acting on it. Thus, a sophisticated system has to be provided for analysing the friction coefficient under different conditions in particular when cartilage should be coupled as friction partner. It is possible to deep-freeze articular cartilage before measuring the friction coefficient as the procedure has no influence on the results. The presented tribological system was able to distinguish between altered and native cartilage. Furthermore, tissue engineered constructs for cartilage repair were differentiated from native cartilage probes by their friction coefficient. In conclusion a tribological equipment is presented to analyze the friction coefficient of articular cartilage, in vivo generated cartilage regenerates and in vitro tissue engineered constructs regarding their biomechanical properties for quality assessment.

  16. Strategic Design and Fabrication of Engineered Scaffolds for Articular Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadifar, Zohreh; Chen, Xiongbiao; Kulyk, William

    2012-01-01

    Damage to articular cartilage can eventually lead to osteoarthritis (OA), a debilitating, degenerative joint disease that affects millions of people around the world. The limited natural healing ability of cartilage and the limitations of currently available therapies make treatment of cartilage defects a challenging clinical issue. Hopes have been raised for the repair of articular cartilage with the help of supportive structures, called scaffolds, created through tissue engineering (TE). Over the past two decades, different designs and fabrication techniques have been investigated for developing TE scaffolds suitable for the construction of transplantable artificial cartilage tissue substitutes. Advances in fabrication technologies now enable the strategic design of scaffolds with complex, biomimetic structures and properties. In particular, scaffolds with hybrid and/or biomimetic zonal designs have recently been developed for cartilage tissue engineering applications. This paper reviews critical aspects of the design of engineered scaffolds for articular cartilage repair as well as the available advanced fabrication techniques. In addition, recent studies on the design of hybrid and zonal scaffolds for use in cartilage tissue repair are highlighted. PMID:24955748

  17. Recapitulation of physiological spatiotemporal signals promotes in vitro formation of phenotypically stable human articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yiyong; Zhou, Bin; Bernhard, Jonathan; Robinson, Samuel; Burapachaisri, Aonnicha; Guo, X. Edward

    2017-01-01

    Standard isotropic culture fails to recapitulate the spatiotemporal gradients present during native development. Cartilage grown from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is poorly organized and unstable in vivo. We report that human cartilage with physiologic organization and in vivo stability can be grown in vitro from self-assembling hMSCs by implementing spatiotemporal regulation during induction. Self-assembling hMSCs formed cartilage discs in Transwell inserts following isotropic chondrogenic induction with transforming growth factor β to set up a dual-compartment culture. Following a switch in the basal compartment to a hypertrophic regimen with thyroxine, the cartilage discs underwent progressive deep-zone hypertrophy and mineralization. Concurrent chondrogenic induction in the apical compartment enabled the maintenance of functional and hyaline cartilage. Cartilage homeostasis, chondrocyte maturation, and terminal differentiation markers were all up-regulated versus isotropic control groups. We assessed the in vivo stability of the cartilage formed under different induction regimens. Cartilage formed under spatiotemporal regulation in vitro resisted endochondral ossification, retained the expression of cartilage markers, and remained organized following s.c. implantation in immunocompromised mice. In contrast, the isotropic control groups underwent endochondral ossification. Cartilage formed from hMSCs remained stable and organized in vivo. Spatiotemporal regulation during induction in vitro recapitulated some aspects of native cartilage development, and potentiated the maturation of self-assembling hMSCs into stable and organized cartilage resembling the native articular cartilage. PMID:28228529

  18. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Articular Cartilage: A Systematic Review on Preclinical and Clinical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Perdisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the current therapeutic approaches for the regeneration of damaged articular cartilage, none has yet proven to offer results comparable to those of native hyaline cartilage. Recently, it has been claimed that the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs provides greater regenerative potential than differentiated cells, such as chondrocytes. Among the different kinds of MSCs available, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs are emerging due to their abundancy and easiness to harvest. However, their mechanism of action and potential for cartilage regeneration are still under investigation, and many other aspects still need to be clarified. The aim of this systematic review is to give an overview of in vivo studies dealing with ADSCs, by summarizing the main evidence for the treatment of cartilage disease of the knee.

  19. The distribution of YKL-40 in osteoarthritic and normal human articular cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volck, B; Ostergaard, K; Johansen, J S

    1999-01-01

    YKL-40, also called human cartilage glycoprotein-39, is a major secretory protein of human chondrocytes in cell culture. YKL-40 mRNA is expressed by cartilage from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but is not detectable in normal human cartilage. The aim was to investigate the distribution of YKL......-40 in osteoarthritic (n=9) and macroscopically normal (n=5) human articular cartilage, collected from 12 pre-selected areas of the femoral head, to discover a potential role for YKL-40 in cartilage remodelling in osteoarthritis. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that YKL-40 staining was found...... in chondrocytes of osteoarthritic cartilage mainly in the superficial and middle zone of the cartilage rather than the deep zone. There was a tendency for high number of YKL-40 positive chondrocytes in areas of the femoral head with a considerable biomechanical load. The number of chondrocytes with a positive...

  20. The bio in the ink : cartilage regeneration with bioprintable hydrogels and articular cartilage-derived progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levato, Riccardo; Webb, William R; Otto, Iris A; Mensinga, Anneloes; Zhang, Yadan; van Rijen, Mattie; van Weeren, P. René; Khan, Ilyas M.; Malda, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Cell-laden hydrogels are the primary building blocks for bioprinting, and, also termed bioinks, are the foundations for creating structures that can potentially recapitulate the architecture of articular cartilage. To be functional, hydrogel constructs need to unlock the regenerative capacity of

  1. MR evaluation of the articular cartilage of the femoral head during traction. Correlation with resected femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, K. [Osaka Seamens Insurance Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Tanaka, H.; Narumi, Y.; Nakamura, H. [Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Nishii, T.; Masuhara, K. [Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The purpose was to evaluate the articular cartilage of the hip joint with MR during traction and compare the findings with the resected specimen or arthroscopic findings. Material and Methods: Eight healthy volunteers, 5 patients with osteonecrosis, 5 with acetabular dysplasia, and 5 with advanced osteoarthrosis underwent MR imaging to evaluate the articular cartilage of the hip joint. Coronal fat-suppressed 3D spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) images were obtained during traction. Identical imaging was performed of all the resected femoral heads of the osteonecrosis and advanced osteoarthrosis patients, and was correlated with the macroscopic pathological findings. Results: The traction was effective and the femoral articular cartilage was clearly identified in all 8 control subjects, and in all cases of osteonecrosis and acetabular dysplasia. In 4 cases of osteonecrosis, chondral fracture was identified in the boundary between the necrosis and the normal area. In all cases of advanced osteoarthrosis, cartilage was identified only at the medial side. The MR images of osteonecrosis and advanced osteoarthrosis corresponded well with the MR images of the resected femoral heads and the macroscopic findings. (orig.)

  2. Return to sports participation after articular cartilage repair in the knee: scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithoefer, Kai; Hambly, Karen; Della Villa, Stefano; Silvers, Holly; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2009-11-01

    Articular cartilage injury in the athlete's knee presents a difficult clinical challenge. Despite the importance of returning injured athletes to sports, information is limited on whether full sports participation can be successfully achieved after articular cartilage repair in the knee. Systematic analysis of athletic participation after articular cartilage repair will demonstrate the efficacy of joint surface restoration in high-demand patients and help to optimize outcomes in athletes with articular cartilage injury of the knee. Systematic review. A comprehensive literature review of original studies was performed to provide information about athletic participation after articular cartilage repair. The athlete's ability to perform sports postoperatively was assessed by activity outcome scores, rate of return to sport, timing of the return, level of postoperative sports participation, and the continuation of athletic activity over time. Twenty studies describing 1363 patients were included in the review, with an average follow-up of 42 months. Return to sports was possible in 73% overall, with highest return rates after osteochondral autograft transplantation. Time to return to sports varied between 7 and 18 months, depending on the cartilage repair technique. Initial return to sports at the preinjury level was possible in 68% and did not significantly vary between surgical techniques. Continued sports participation at the preinjury level was possible in 65%, with the best durability after autologous chondrocyte transplantation. Several factors affected the ability to return to sport: athlete's age, preoperative duration of symptoms, level of play, lesion size, and repair tissue morphology. Articular cartilage repair in the athletic population allows for a high rate of return to sports, often at the preinjury level. Return to sports participation is influenced by several independent factors. The findings provide pertinent information that is helpful for the

  3. Role of platelet-rich plasma in articular cartilage injury and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Randy; Saltzman, Bryan M; Fortier, Lisa A; Cole, Brian J

    2015-02-01

    Clinical and laboratory research aimed at biological approaches to cartilage repair are currently in high demand due to the poor regenerative capacity of articular cartilage in the setting of a diseased articular environment. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) takes advantage of supraphysiological concentrations of platelets and their growth factors harbored in α-granules, which together attempt to return the diseased articular cartilage to a preinjury state. The local use of PRP directly at the site of cartilage injury is thought to stimulate a natural healing cascade and accelerate the formation of cartilage repair tissue. This article provides an overview of the basic science behind the use of PRP in the treatment of cartilage injury and disease. Both initial and current examples of the use of intra-articular PRP in clinical human studies are provided. These include the use of PRP either alone or as an augmentation device with various other procedures, including arthroscopic microfracture and cell-free resorbable polyglycolic acid-hyaluronan implantation. Finally, the authors describe some of the potential future roles of PRP in clinical settings based on recent literature. These include Achilles tendon rupture, chronic tendinosis, chronic rotator cuff tendinopathy or tearing, muscle injury, and meniscal repair. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Medical ozone therapy as a potential treatment modality for regeneration of damaged articular cartilage in osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sello Lebohang Manoto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common degenerative joint disease and a growing health problem affecting more than half of the population over the age of 65. It is characterized by inflammation in the cartilage and synovium, resulting in the loss of joint structure and progressive damage to the cartilage. Many pro-inflammatory mediators are elevated in OA, including reactive oxygen species (ROS such as nitric oxide (NO and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Damaged articular cartilage remains a challenge to treat due to the limited self-healing capacity of the tissue and unsuccessful biological interventions. This highlights the need for better therapeutic strategies to heal damaged articular cartilage. Ozone (O3 therapy has been shown to have positive results in the treatment of OA; however the use of O3 therapy as a therapeutic agent is controversial. There is a perception that O3 is always toxic, whereas evidence indicates that when it is applied following a specified method, O3 can be effective in the treatment of degenerative diseases. The mechanism of action of O3 therapy in OA is not fully understood and this review summarizes the use of O3 therapy in the treatment of damaged articular cartilage in OA. Keywords: Osteoarthritis (OA, Articular cartilage, Ozone (O3 therapy, Reactive oxygen species (ROS

  5. The bio in the ink: cartilage regeneration with bioprintable hydrogels and articular cartilage-derived progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levato, Riccardo; Webb, William R; Otto, Iris A; Mensinga, Anneloes; Zhang, Yadan; van Rijen, Mattie; van Weeren, René; Khan, Ilyas M; Malda, Jos

    2017-10-01

    Cell-laden hydrogels are the primary building blocks for bioprinting, and, also termed bioinks, are the foundations for creating structures that can potentially recapitulate the architecture of articular cartilage. To be functional, hydrogel constructs need to unlock the regenerative capacity of encapsulated cells. The recent identification of multipotent articular cartilage-resident chondroprogenitor cells (ACPCs), which share important traits with adult stem cells, represents a new opportunity for cartilage regeneration. However, little is known about the suitability of ACPCs for tissue engineering, especially in combination with biomaterials. This study aimed to investigate the potential of ACPCs in hydrogels for cartilage regeneration and biofabrication, and to evaluate their ability for zone-specific matrix production. Gelatin methacryloyl (gelMA)-based hydrogels were used to culture ACPCs, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes, and as bioinks for printing. Our data shows ACPCs outperformed chondrocytes in terms of neo-cartilage production and unlike MSCs, ACPCs had the lowest gene expression levels of hypertrophy marker collagen type X, and the highest expression of PRG4, a key factor in joint lubrication. Co-cultures of the cell types in multi-compartment hydrogels allowed generating constructs with a layered distribution of collagens and glycosaminoglycans. By combining ACPC- and MSC-laden bioinks, a bioprinted model of articular cartilage was generated, consisting of defined superficial and deep regions, each with distinct cellular and extracellular matrix composition. Taken together, these results provide important information for the use of ACPC-laden hydrogels in regenerative medicine, and pave the way to the biofabrication of 3D constructs with multiple cell types for cartilage regeneration or in vitro tissue models. Despite its limited ability to repair, articular cartilage harbors an endogenous population of progenitor cells

  6. Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dGEMRIC) of Hip Joint Cartilage: Better Cartilage Delineation after Intra-Articular than Intravenous Gadolinium Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesen, M.; Jensen, K. E.; Qvistgaard, E.; Danneskiold-Samsoe, B.; Thomsen, C.; Oestergaard, M.; Bliddal, H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate and compare delayed gadolinium (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cartilage (dGEMRIC) in the hip joint using intravenous (i.v.) or ultrasound-guided intra-articular (i.a.) Gd-DTPA injection. Material and Methods: In 10 patients (50% males, mean age 58 years) with clinical and radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA; Kellgren score II-III), MRI of the hip was performed twice on a clinical 1.5T MR scanner: On day 1, before and 90-180 min after 0.3 mmol/kg body weight i.v. Gd-DTPA and, on day 8, 90-180 min after ultrasound-guided i.a. injection of a 4 mmol/l Gd-DTPA solution. Coronal STIR, coronal T1 fat-saturated spin-echo, and a cartilage-sensitive gradient-echo sequence (3D T1 SPGR) in the sagittal plane were applied. Results: Both the post-i.v. and post-i.a. Gd-DTPA images showed significantly higher signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) in the joint cartilage compared to the non-enhanced images ( P <0.002). I.a. Gd-DTPA provided significantly higher SNR and CNR compared to i.v. Gd-DTPA ( P <0.01). Furthermore, a better delineation of the cartilage in the synovial/cartilage zone and of the chondral/subchondral border was observed. Conclusion: The dGEMRIC MRI method markedly improved delineation of hip joint cartilage compared to non-enhanced MRI. The i.a. Gd-DTPA provided the best cartilage delineation. dGEMRIC is a clinically applicable MRI method that may improve identification of early subtle cartilage damage and the accuracy of volume measurements of hip joint cartilage

  7. Effects of Chondroitinase ABC-Mediated Proteoglycan Digestion on Decellularization and Recellularization of Articular Cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Bautista

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage has a limited capacity to heal itself and thus focal defects often result in the development of osteoarthritis. Current cartilage tissue engineering strategies seek to regenerate injured tissue by creating scaffolds that aim to mimic the unique structure and composition of native articular cartilage. Decellularization is a novel strategy that aims to preserve the bioactive factors and 3D biophysical environment of the native extracellular matrix while removing potentially immunogenic factors. The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure that can enable decellularization and recellularization of intact articular cartilage matrix. Full-thickness porcine articular cartilage plugs were decellularized with a series of freeze-thaw cycles and 0.1% (w/v sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent cycles. Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC was applied before the detergent cycles to digest glycosaminoglycans in order to enhance donor chondrocyte removal and seeded cell migration. Porcine synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells were seeded onto the decellularized cartilage scaffolds and cultured for up to 28 days. The optimized decellularization protocol removed 94% of native DNA per sample wet weight, while collagen content and alignment were preserved. Glycosaminoglycan depletion prior to the detergent cycles increased removal of nuclear material. Seeded cells infiltrated up to 100 μm into the cartilage deep zone after 28 days in culture. ChABC treatment enhances decellularization of the relatively dense, impermeable articular cartilage by reducing glycosaminoglycan content. ChABC treatment did not appear to affect cell migration during recellularization under static, in vitro culture, highlighting the need for more dynamic seeding methods.

  8. Holmium:YAG laser effects on articular cartilage metabolism: in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Lane; Montgomery, L.; Fanton, G.; Dillingham, M.; Schurman, D. J.

    1994-09-01

    We report effects of applying variable doses of Holmium:YAG laser energy to bovine articular cartilage in vitro. The response of the cartilage to the Holmium:YAG laser energy was determined by quantification of cell proliferation and extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan synthesis. This study demonstrates that articular cartilage cell metabolism was maintained at a normal level following treatment of cartilage at a dose of 0.6 joules/pulse. The laser energy was applied at 10 Hz for 10 seconds at 1 mm distance from the cartilage. Under these conditions and at a dose of 0.6 joules/pulse, the total energy density was calculated to be 240 joules/cm2, assuming minimal loss of energy due to water absorption. Energy levels grater than 0.8 joules/pulse corresponding to calculated energy densities greater than 320 joules/cm2 proved harmful to cartilage. Our data demonstrate that low levels of Holmium:YAG laser energy can be applied to articular cartilage under conditions that maintain and/or stimulate cell metabolism.

  9. MR imaging of articular cartilage; Gelenkknorpel in der MR-Tomographie

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    Schaefer, F.K.W.; Muhle, C.; Heller, M.; Brossmann, J. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    2001-04-01

    MR imaging has evolved to the best non-invasive method for the evaluation of articular cartilage. MR imaging helps to understand the structure and physiology of cartilage, and to diagnose cartilage lesions. Numerous studies have shown high accuracy and reliability concerning detection of cartilage lesions and early changes in both structure and biochemistry. High contrast-to-noise ratio and high spatial resolution are essential for analysis of articular cartilage. Fat-suppressed 3D-T{sub 1} weighted gradient echo and T{sub 2}-weighted fast spin echo sequences with or without fat suppression are recommended for clinical routine. In this article the anatomy and pathology of hyaline articular cartilage and the complex imaging characteristics of hyaline cartilage will be discussed. (orig.) [German] Die MR-Tomographie hat sich zur besten nichtinvasiven bildgebenden Methode fuer die Untersuchung von Gelenkknorpel entwickelt. Die MR-Tomographie liefert einen Beitrag zum Verstaendnis der Knorpelstruktur und der Physiologie sowie zur Diagnostik von Knorpelschaeden. Zahlreiche MR-Studien konnten eine hohe Genauigkeit und Zuverlaessigkeit bei der Detektion chondraler Laesionen sowie frueher Veraenderungen struktureller und biochemischer Natur zeigen. Neben einem hohen Kontrast/Rausch-Verhaeltnis ist fuer die Gelenkknorpelanalyse eine hohe raeumliche Aufloesung erforderlich. Im klinischen Routinebetrieb empfehlen sich fuer die Erkennung von Knorpellaesionen besonders fettunterdrueckte 3D-T{sub 1}-gewichtete Gradientenecho- und T{sub 2}-gewichtete Fastspinecho-Sequenzen mit oder ohne Fettunterdrueckung. Die vorliegende Arbeit geht auf die Anatomie und Pathologie des hyalinen Gelenkknorpels ein und diskutiert das komplexe MR-Signalverhalten. (orig.)

  10. Gene expression profile of the cartilage tissue spontaneously regenerated in vivo by using a novel double-network gel: Comparisons with the normal articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurokawa Takayuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently found a phenomenon that spontaneous regeneration of a hyaline cartilage-like tissue can be induced in a large osteochondral defect by implanting a double-network (DN hydrogel plug, which was composed of poly-(2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid and poly-(N, N'-Dimetyl acrylamide, at the bottom of the defect. The purpose of this study was to clarify gene expression profile of the regenerated tissue in comparison with that of the normal articular cartilage. Methods We created a cylindrical osteochondral defect in the rabbit femoral grooves. Then, we implanted the DN gel plug at the bottom of the defect. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, the regenerated tissue was analyzed using DNA microarray and immunohistochemical examinations. Results The gene expression profiles of the regenerated tissues were macroscopically similar to the normal cartilage, but showed some minor differences. The expression degree of COL2A1, COL1A2, COL10A1, DCN, FMOD, SPARC, FLOD2, CHAD, CTGF, and COMP genes was greater in the regenerated tissue than in the normal cartilage. The top 30 genes that expressed 5 times or more in the regenerated tissue as compared with the normal cartilage included type-2 collagen, type-10 collagen, FN, vimentin, COMP, EF1alpha, TFCP2, and GAPDH genes. Conclusions The tissue regenerated by using the DN gel was genetically similar but not completely identical to articular cartilage. The genetic data shown in this study are useful for future studies to identify specific genes involved in spontaneous cartilage regeneration.

  11. T1ρ is superior to T2 mapping for the evaluation of articular cartilage denaturalization with osteoarthritis: radiological-pathological correlation after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Yukihisa; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu; Tsushima, Hidetoshi; Okazaki, Ken; Yoshiura, Takashi; Yonezawa, Masato; Nishikawa, Kei; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Honda, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    We compared the diagnostic performance of T1ρ and T2 mappings in the evaluation of denatured articular cartilage with osteoarthritis of the knee. 2D-Sagittal T1ρ and T2 mappings of the knee were obtained from 16 patients before total knee arthroplasty. After surgery, specimens of the femur and tibia were regionally segmented according to a 5-point scale of the severity of denaturalization. The T1ρ and T2 values in the full thickness of the articular cartilage in each region were measured by two observers. The two mappings were compared for their ability to differentiate between normal and denatured articular cartilage and also for their usefulness in grading the severity of the denaturalization using the area under receiver operating characteristic curves (Az). A pT2 mapping for the differentiation between normal and denatured articular cartilage (pT2 mapping could not. However, there were no significant differences between the two mappings in the discrimination of mild versus moderate denaturalization or of moderate versus severe denaturalization. The two observers showed good agreement in the results (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.81 for T1ρ and 0.92 for T2). T1ρ mapping is superior to T2 mapping for the evaluation of denatured articular cartilage with osteoarthritis of the knee. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Autoradiographic evidence of sup 125 I-. beta. -endorphin binding sites in the articular cartilage of the rat

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    Castano, M.T.; Freire-Garabal, M.; Giraldez, M.; Nunez, M.J.; Belmonte, A.; Couceiro, J.; Jorge, J. (Univ. of Santiago (Spain))

    1991-01-01

    After {sup 125}I-{beta}-endorphin was intravenously injected to rats, an autoradiographic study of distal femur articular cartilage was performed. Results show a specific binding of {sup 125}I-{beta}-endorphin to chondrocytes, suggesting the possible existence of an opiate modulation of articular cartilage.

  13. Fourier-transform infrared anisotropy in cross and parallel sections of tendon and articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidthanapally Aruna

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging (FTIRI is used to investigate the amide anisotropies at different surfaces of a three-dimensional cartilage or tendon block. With the change in the polarization state of the incident infrared light, the resulting anisotropic behavior of the tissue structure is described here. Methods Thin sections (6 μm thick were obtained from three different surfaces of the canine tissue blocks and imaged at 6.25 μm pixel resolution. For each section, infrared imaging experiments were repeated thirteen times with the identical parameters except a 15° increment of the analyzer's angle in the 0° – 180° angular space. The anisotropies of amide I and amide II components were studied in order to probe the orientation of the collagen fibrils at different tissue surfaces. Results For tendon, the anisotropy of amide I and amide II components in parallel sections is comparable to that of regular sections; and tendon's cross sections show distinct, but weak anisotropic behavior for both the amide components. For articular cartilage, parallel sections in the superficial zone have the expected infrared anisotropy that is consistent with that of regular sections. The parallel sections in the radial zone, however, have a nearly isotropic amide II absorption and a distinct amide I anisotropy. Conclusion From the inconsistency in amide anisotropy between superficial to radial zone in parallel section results, a schematic model is used to explain the origins of these amide anisotropies in cartilage and tendon.

  14. A preclinical evaluation of an autologous living hyaline-like cartilaginous graft for articular cartilage repair: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Yvonne; He, Pengfei; Chilla, Geetha Soujanya V N; Poh, Chueh Loo; Wang, Dong-An

    2015-11-09

    In this pilot study, an autologous synthetic scaffold-free construct with hyaline quality, termed living hyaline cartilaginous graft (LhCG), was applied for treating cartilage lesions. Implantation of autologous LhCG was done at load-bearing regions of the knees in skeletally mature mini-pigs for 6 months. Over the course of this study, significant radiographical improvement in LhCG treated sites was observed via magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, macroscopic repair was effected by LhCG at endpoint. Microscopic inspection revealed that LhCG engraftment restored cartilage thickness, promoted integration with surrounding native cartilage, produced abundant cartilage-specific matrix molecules, and re-established an intact superficial tangential zone. Importantly, the repair efficacy of LhCG was quantitatively shown to be comparable to native, unaffected cartilage in terms of biochemical composition and biomechanical properties. There were no complications related to the donor site of cartilage biopsy. Collectively, these results imply that LhCG engraftment may be a viable approach for articular cartilage repair.

  15. [Basophilic line of the articular cartilage in normal and various pathological states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongadze, L R

    1987-04-01

    Epiphyses of long tubular bones in the man and animals of various age, as well as experimental material of the adjuvant arthritis, with special reference to the basal part of the articular cartilage have been studied by means of histological, histochemical and histometrical methods. The structural-chemical organization of the basophilic line (tidemark) of the articular cartilage ensures its barrier role and participation in regulating selective permeability. Reconstruction of the tidemark in the process of physiological ageing and in cases of the articular pathology is aimed to preserve its integrity and in this way a complete differentiation of the noncalcified and calcified structures is secured. Disturbance of the basophilic line results in changes of the articular selective permeability, in invasion of vessels and structural elements of the bone marrow, and in development of profound distrophic and destructive changes of the cartilage--in deforming artrosis. Deflations in the structural-chemical organization of the tidemark indicate certain disturbances in the state of the system articular cartilage--subchondral bone. These data can be of prognostic importance.

  16. Optical characterization of porcine articular cartilage using a polarimetry technique with differential Mueller matrix formulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Min; Lo, Yu-Lung; Tran, Nghia-Khanh; Chang, Yu-Jen

    2018-03-20

    A method is proposed for characterizing the optical properties of articular cartilage sliced from a pig's thighbone using a Stokes-Mueller polarimetry technique. The principal axis angle, phase retardance, optical rotation angle, circular diattenuation, diattenuation axis angle, linear diattenuation, and depolarization index properties of the cartilage sample are all decoupled in the proposed analytical model. Consequently, the accuracy and robustness of the extracted results are improved. The glucose concentration, collagen distribution, and scattering properties of samples from various depths of the articular cartilage are systematically explored via an inspection of the related parameters. The results show that the glucose concentration and scattering effect are both enhanced in the superficial region of the cartilage. By contrast, the collagen density increases with an increasing sample depth.

  17. Chicken collagen type II reduces articular cartilage destruction in a model of osteoarthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D; Shen, W

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of domestic chicken collagen type II (CCII) on rat osteoarthritis (OA) and analyze concomitant changes in the level of Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, MMP-9, Cathepsin K and their mRNA as well as the tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 mRNA in articular cartilage of osteoarthritic rats. Osteoarthritis models were surgically induced. Morphology of articular cartilage was done by haematoxylin and eosin staining and Mankin score was calculated, immunohistochemistry of MMP-13, MMP-9 and Cathepsin K was done by ABC method while the mRNA level for MMP-13, MMP-9, cathepsin K as well as TIMP-1 was evaluated by RT-PCR method. Oral administration of CCII reduced the morphological changes of osteoarthritic cartilage (shown by Mankin score), decreased levels of MMP-13, MMP-9, cathepsin K as well as their mRNA in articular cartilage from osteoarthritic rats while it exhibited no effect on TIMP-1 mRNA. Oral CCII reduced articular cartilage degradation of osteoarthritic rats and may probably be a potent drug candidate for OA treatment.

  18. Similar properties of chondrocytes from osteoarthritis joints and mesenchymal stem cells from healthy donors for tissue engineering of articular cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton M Fernandes

    Full Text Available Lesions of hyaline cartilage do not heal spontaneously, and represent a therapeutic challenge. In vitro engineering of articular cartilage using cells and biomaterials may prove to be the best solution. Patients with osteoarthritis (OA may require tissue engineered cartilage therapy. Chondrocytes obtained from OA joints are thought to be involved in the disease process, and thus to be of insufficient quality to be used for repair strategies. Bone marrow (BM derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from healthy donors may represent an alternative cell source. We have isolated chondrocytes from OA joints, performed cell culture expansion and tissue engineering of cartilage using a disc-shaped alginate scaffold and chondrogenic differentiation medium. We performed real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR and fluorescence immunohistochemistry to evaluate mRNA and protein expression for a range of molecules involved in chondrogenesis and OA pathogenesis. Results were compared with those obtained by using BM-MSCs in an identical tissue engineering strategy. Finally the two populations were compared using genome-wide mRNA arrays. At three weeks of chondrogenic differentiation we found high and similar levels of hyaline cartilage-specific type II collagen and fibrocartilage-specific type I collagen mRNA and protein in discs containing OA and BM-MSC derived chondrocytes. Aggrecan, the dominant proteoglycan in hyaline cartilage, was more abundantly distributed in the OA chondrocyte extracellular matrix. OA chondrocytes expressed higher mRNA levels also of other hyaline extracellular matrix components. Surprisingly BM-MSC derived chondrocytes expressed higher mRNA levels of OA markers such as COL10A1, SSP1 (osteopontin, ALPL, BMP2, VEGFA, PTGES, IHH, and WNT genes, but lower levels of MMP3 and S100A4. Based on the results presented here, OA chondrocytes may be suitable for tissue engineering of articular cartilage.

  19. Early Changes of Articular Cartilage and Subchondral Bone in The DMM Mouse Model of Osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Hang; Huang, Lisi; Welch, Ian; Norley, Chris; Holdsworth, David W.; Beier, Frank; Cai, Daozhang

    2018-01-01

    To examine the early changes of articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the DMM mouse model of osteoarthritis, mice were subjected to DMM or SHAM surgery and sacrificed at 2-, 5- and 10-week post-surgery. Catwalk gait analyses, Micro-Computed Tomography, Toluidine Blue, Picrosirius Red and Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP) staining were used to investigate gait patterns, joint morphology, subchondral bone, cartilage, collagen organization and osteoclasts activity, respectively. R...

  20. Coordinate and synergistic effects of extensive treadmill exercise and ovariectomy on articular cartilage degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Miyatake, Kazumasa; Muneta, Takeshi; Ojima, Miyoko; Yamada, Jun; Matsukura, Yu; Abula, Kahaer; Sekiya, Ichiro; Tsuji, Kunikazu

    2016-01-01

    Background Although osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease, little has been reported regarding the cooperative interaction among these factors on cartilage metabolism. Here we examined the synergistic effect of ovariectomy (OVX) and excessive mechanical stress (forced running) on articular cartilage homeostasis in a mouse model resembling a human postmenopausal condition. Methods Mice were randomly divided into four groups, I: Sham, II: OVX, III: Sham and forced running (60?km in 6?w...

  1. Evaluation of degenerative changes in articular cartilage of osteoarthritis by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Yusuke; Ishimaru, Yasumitsu; Kiyomatsu, Hiroshi; Hino, Kazunori; Miura, Hiromasa

    2018-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a very common joint disease in the aging population. Main symptom of OA is accompanied by degenerative changes of articular cartilage. Cartilage contains mostly type II collagen and proteoglycans, so it is difficult to access the quality and morphology of cartilage tissue in situ by conventional diagnostic tools (X-ray, MRI and echography) directly or indirectly. Raman spectroscopy is a label-free technique which enables to analyze molecular composition in degenerative cartilage. In this proposal, we aim to develop Raman spectroscopic system for the quality assessment of articular cartilage during arthroscopic surgery. Toward this goal, we are focusing on the proteoglycan content and collagen fiber alignment in cartilage matrix which may be associated with degenerative changes in OA, and we designed an original Raman device for remote sensing during arthroscopic surgery. In this project, we define the grading system for cartilage defect based on Raman spectroscopy, and we complete the evaluation of the Raman probing system which makes it possible to detect early stage of degenerative cartilage as a novel tool for OA diagnosis using human subject.

  2. Pulsed CO2 laser for intra-articular cartilage vaporization and subchondral bone perforation in horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Alan J.; Roth, Jerry E.; Krook, Lennart P.

    1991-05-01

    A pulsed carbon dioxide laser was used to vaporize articular cartilage in four horses, and perforate the cartilage and subchondral bone in four horses. Both intercarpal joints were examined arthroscopically and either a 1 cm cartilage crater or a series of holes was created in the third carpal bone of one joint. The contralateral carpus served as a control. The horses were evaluated clinically for 8 weeks, euthanatized and the joints examined radiographically, grossly, and histologically. Pulsed carbon dioxide laser vaporized cartilage readily but penetrated bone poorly. Cartilage vaporization resulted in no greater swelling, heat, pain on flexion, lameness, or synovial fluid reaction than the sham procedure. Laser drilling resulted in a shallow, charred hole with a tenacious carbon residue, and in combination with the thermal damage to deeper bone, resulted in increased swelling, mild lameness and a low-grade, but persistent synovitis. Cartilage removal by laser vaporization resulted in rapid regrowth with fibrous and fibrovascular tissue and occasional regions of fibrocartilage at week 8. The subchondral bone, synovial membrane, and draining lymph nodes appeared essentially unaffected by the laser cartilage vaporization procedure. Conversely, carbon dioxide laser drilling of subchondral bone resulted in poor penetration, extensive areas of thermal necrosis of bone, and significant secondary damage to the apposing articular surface of the radial carpal bone. The carbon dioxide laser is a useful intraarticular instrument for removal of cartilage and has potential application in inaccessible regions of diarthrodial joints. It does not penetrate bone sufficiently to have application in subchondral drilling.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of the femoral trochlea: evaluation of anatomical landmarks and grading articular cartilage in cadaveric knees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhle, Claus [Marienhospital Vechta, Department of Radiology, Vechta (Germany); Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Mo Ahn, Joong [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-06-15

    The purpose of the study was to define magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings before and after contrast medium opacification of the knee joint in cadaveric specimens to demonstrate anatomical landmarks of the trochlear surface in relation to the neighboring structures, and to evaluate different MRI sequences in the detection of cartilage defects of the trochlear and patellar surface of the knee. The morphology and relationship of the proximal trochlear surface to the prefemoral fat of the distal femur were investigated by use of different MR sequences before and after intra-articular gadolinium administration into the knee joint in ten cadaveric knees. Anatomic sections were subsequently obtained. In addition, evaluation of the articular surface of the trochlea was performed by two independent observers. The cartilage surfaces were graded using a 2-point system, and results were compared with macroscopic findings. Of 40 cartilage surfaces evaluated, histopathologic findings showed 9 normal surfaces, 20 containing partial-thickness defects, and 11 containing full-thickness defects. Compared with macroscopic data, sensitivity of MR sequences for the two reviewers was between 17 and 90%; specificity, 75 and 100%; positive predictive value, 75 and 100%; negative predictive value, 20 and 100%, depending on patellar or trochlea lesions. Interobserver variability for the presence of disease, which was measured using the kappa statistic, was dependent on the MR sequence used between 0.243 and 0.851. Magnetic resonance imaging sequences can be used to evaluate the cartilage of the trochlear surface with less accuracy when compared with the results of grading the articular cartilage of the patella. (orig.)

  4. The study of selective water excitation in the MR imaging of articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Fei; Zhang Xuezhe

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of selective water excitation technique for the assessment of articular cartilage. Methods: MR sagittal scanning of knee joints was performed in the fifteen healthy volunteers. MR scan sequences were 3D-FFE-SPIR and 3D-FFE-WATS. The signal noise ratio (SNR) of the cartilage, the contrast noise ratio (CNR) between cartilage and adjacent tissue and their efficiency were calculated and analyzed statistically. Tweenty-nine patients who were suspected having cartilage injury were performed MR examination and the image characteristics and the detecting ability of each sequence on cartilage lesions were analyzed. Results: In the healthy volunteers, the cartilage SNR was 3D-FFE-SPIR: 197.93±18.58, 3D-FFE-WATS: 187.32±21.50 (P=0.159). CNR (cartilage/bone) was 3D-FFE-SPIR: 185.50±18.34, 3D-FFE-WATS: 169.55±24.57 (P=0.054). CNR ( cartilage/muscle ) was 3D-FFE-SPIR: 61.40±19.04, 3D-FFE-WATS: 47.27±21.05 (P=0.064). The cartilage SNR and CNR between cartilage and bone, muscle of 3D-FFE-SPIR weren't significantly higher than that of 3D-FFE- WATS. CNR(cartilage/liquid) was 3D-FFE-SPIR: 91.53±14.46, 3D-FFE-WATS: 149.28±32.30 (P0.000). CNR (cartilage/marrow) was 3D-FFE-SPIR: 159.26±18.83, 3D-FFE-WATS: 176.87± 22.50 (P=0.028). CNR (cartilage/fat) was 3 D-FFE-SPIR: 134.56±15.80,3 D-FFE-WATS: 154. 01 + 22.42 (P=0.010). The CNR between cartilage and liquid, marrow, fat were higher in 3 D-FFE-WATS and significantly different than that of 3 D-FFE-SPIR. Thirty detected cartilage injuries of patients were 3D-FFE- WATS: 39, 3D-FFE-SPIR: 45 and there was no statistical difference between them (P=0.37). Conclusion: 3D-FFE-WATS can show the articular cartilage clearly. It has high scan speed and suppress the fat signal evenly. Its ability for finding cartilage damage is equal to that of 3D-FFE-SPIR. So WATS can be used in the routine clinical cartilage examination. (authors)

  5. The inhibitory effect of salmon calcitonin on tri-iodothyronine induction of early hypertrophy in articular cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingping Chen-An

    Full Text Available Salmon calcitonin has chondroprotective effect both in vitro and in vivo, and is therefore being tested as a candidate drug for cartilage degenerative diseases. Recent studies have indicated that different chondrocyte phenotypes may express the calcitonin receptor (CTR differentially. We tested for the presence of the CTR in chondrocytes from tri-iodothyronin (T3-induced bovine articular cartilage explants. Moreover, investigated the effects of human and salmon calcitonin on the explants.Early chondrocyte hypertrophy was induced in bovine articular cartilage explants by stimulation over four days with 20 ng/mL T3. The degree of hypertrophy was investigated by molecular markers of hypertrophy (ALP, IHH, COLX and MMP13, by biochemical markers of cartilage turnover (C2M, P2NP and AGNxII and histology. The expression of the CTR was detected by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. T3-induced explants were treated with salmon or human calcitonin. Calcitonin down-stream signaling was measured by levels of cAMP, and by the molecular markers.Compared with untreated control explants, T3 induction increased expression of the hypertrophic markers (p<0.05, of cartilage turnover (p<0.05, and of CTR (p<0.01. Salmon, but not human, calcitonin induced cAMP release (p<0.001. Salmon calcitonin also inhibited expression of markers of hypertrophy and cartilage turnover (p<0.05.T3 induced early hypertrophy of chondrocytes, which showed an elevated expression of the CTR and was thus a target for salmon calcitonin. Molecular marker levels indicated salmon, but not human, calcitonin protected the cartilage from hypertrophy. These results confirm that salmon calcitonin is able to modulate the CTR and thus have chondroprotective effects.

  6. Increasing the Dose of Autologous Chondrocytes Improves Articular Cartilage Repair: Histological and Molecular Study in the Sheep Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-García, Pedro; Rodríguez-Iñigo, Elena; Guillén-Vicente, Isabel; Caballero-Santos, Rosa; Guillén-Vicente, Marta; Abelow, Stephen; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo; López-Alcorocho, Juan Manuel

    2014-04-01

    We hypothesized that implanting cells in a chondral defect at a density more similar to that of the intact cartilage could induce them to synthesize matrix with the features more similar to that of the uninjured one. We compared the implantation of different doses of chondrocytes: 1 million (n = 5), 5 million (n = 5), or 5 million mesenchymal cells (n = 5) in the femoral condyle of 15 sheep. Tissue generated by microfracture at the trochlea, and normal cartilage from a nearby region, processed as the tissues resulting from the implantation, were used as references. Histological and molecular (expression of type I and II collagens and aggrecan) studies were performed. The features of the cartilage generated by implantation of mesenchymal cells and elicited by microfractures were similar and typical of a poor repair of the articular cartilage (presence of fibrocartilage, high expression of type I collagen and a low mRNA levels of type II collagen and aggrecan). Nevertheless, in the samples obtained from tissues generated by implantation of chondrocytes, hyaline-like cartilage, cell organization, low expression rates of type I collagen and high levels of mRNA corresponding to type II collagen and aggrecan were observed. These histological features, show less variability and are more similar to those of the normal cartilage used as control in the case of 5 million cells implantation than when 1 million cells were used. The implantation of autologous chondrocytes in type I/III collagen membranes at high density could be a promising tool to repair articular cartilage.

  7. Integrity of articular cartilage on T2 mapping associated with meniscal signal change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Brian; Mann, Sumeer A.; King, Chris; Forster, Bruce B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between T2 relaxation values (T2 RVs) within the superficial zone of articular cartilage and different types of meniscal degeneration/tear. Materials and methods: A review of 310 consecutive knee MRIs which included an 8 echo T2 relaxation sequence, in patients referred for standard clinical indications, was performed independently and in blinded fashion by 2 observers. The posterior horns of the medial and lateral menisci were each evaluated and divided into 4 subgroups: Normal (control), Grade I/II meniscal signal, Grade III meniscal signal-simple tear (Grade III-S), and Grade III meniscal signal-complex tear (Grade III-C). After exclusion criteria were applied, the medial meniscal group consisted of 65 controls and 133 patients, while the lateral meniscal group consisted of 143 controls and 55 patients. T2 RVs were measured by an observer blinded to the clinical history and MRI grading. Measurements were obtained over the superficial zone of femoral and tibial articular cartilage adjacent to the center of the posterior horn of each meniscus to ensure consistency between measurements. Analysis of covariance adjusting for age and gender was used to compare T2 RVs between patients and controls. Results: T2 RVs were significantly increased in patients with Grade III-C meniscal tears compared to controls over the medial tibial plateau (MTP; p = 0.0001) and lateral tibial plateau (LTP; p = 0.0008). T2 RVs were not increased in patients with Grade III-C meniscal tears over the medial femoral condyle (MFC; p = 0.11) or lateral femoral condyle (LFC; p = 0.99). Grade I/II meniscal signal was not associated with elevated T2 RVs over the MFC (p = 0.15), LFC (p = 0.69), MTP (p = 0.42), or LTP (p = 0.50). Grade III-S meniscal signal was not associated with elevated T2 RVs over the MFC (p = 0.54), LFC (p = 0.43), MTP (p = 0.30), or LTP (p = 0.38). Conclusion: Grade III-C meniscal tears are associated with

  8. Integrity of articular cartilage on T2 mapping associated with meniscal signal change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai, Brian [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, UBC Hospital, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2B5 (Canada); Mann, Sumeer A. [Department of Radiology, University of Alberta, Walter Mackenzie Health Sciences Center, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2B7 (Canada); King, Chris [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, UBC Hospital, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2B5 (Canada); Forster, Bruce B., E-mail: bruce.forster@vch.ca [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, UBC Hospital, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2B5 (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between T2 relaxation values (T2 RVs) within the superficial zone of articular cartilage and different types of meniscal degeneration/tear. Materials and methods: A review of 310 consecutive knee MRIs which included an 8 echo T2 relaxation sequence, in patients referred for standard clinical indications, was performed independently and in blinded fashion by 2 observers. The posterior horns of the medial and lateral menisci were each evaluated and divided into 4 subgroups: Normal (control), Grade I/II meniscal signal, Grade III meniscal signal-simple tear (Grade III-S), and Grade III meniscal signal-complex tear (Grade III-C). After exclusion criteria were applied, the medial meniscal group consisted of 65 controls and 133 patients, while the lateral meniscal group consisted of 143 controls and 55 patients. T2 RVs were measured by an observer blinded to the clinical history and MRI grading. Measurements were obtained over the superficial zone of femoral and tibial articular cartilage adjacent to the center of the posterior horn of each meniscus to ensure consistency between measurements. Analysis of covariance adjusting for age and gender was used to compare T2 RVs between patients and controls. Results: T2 RVs were significantly increased in patients with Grade III-C meniscal tears compared to controls over the medial tibial plateau (MTP; p = 0.0001) and lateral tibial plateau (LTP; p = 0.0008). T2 RVs were not increased in patients with Grade III-C meniscal tears over the medial femoral condyle (MFC; p = 0.11) or lateral femoral condyle (LFC; p = 0.99). Grade I/II meniscal signal was not associated with elevated T2 RVs over the MFC (p = 0.15), LFC (p = 0.69), MTP (p = 0.42), or LTP (p = 0.50). Grade III-S meniscal signal was not associated with elevated T2 RVs over the MFC (p = 0.54), LFC (p = 0.43), MTP (p = 0.30), or LTP (p = 0.38). Conclusion: Grade III-C meniscal tears are associated with

  9. Melanocortin 1 receptor-signaling deficiency results in an articular cartilage phenotype and accelerates pathogenesis of surgically induced murine osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Julia; Seebach, Elisabeth; Hackmayer, Gerit; Greth, Carina; Bauer, Richard J; Kleinschmidt, Kerstin; Bettenworth, Dominik; Böhm, Markus; Grifka, Joachim; Grässel, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides exert pleiotropic effects via binding to melanocortin receptors (MCR). MCR-subtypes have been detected in cartilage and bone and mediate an increasing number of effects in diathrodial joints. This study aims to determine the role of MC1-receptors (MC1) in joint physiology and pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) using MC1-signaling deficient mice (Mc1re/e). OA was surgically induced in Mc1re/e and wild-type (WT) mice by transection of the medial meniscotibial ligament. Histomorphometry of Safranin O stained articular cartilage was performed with non-operated controls (11 weeks and 6 months) and 4/8 weeks past surgery. µCT-analysis for assessing epiphyseal bone architecture was performed as a longitudinal study at 4/8 weeks after OA-induction. Collagen II, ICAM-1 and MC1 expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Mc1re/e mice display less Safranin O and collagen II stained articular cartilage area compared to WT prior to OA-induction without signs of spontaneous cartilage surface erosion. This MC1-signaling deficiency related cartilage phenotype persisted in 6 month animals. At 4/8 weeks after OA-induction cartilage erosions were increased in Mc1re/e knees paralleled by weaker collagen II staining. Prior to OA-induction, Mc1re/e mice do not differ from WT with respect to bone parameters. During OA, Mc1re/e mice developed more osteophytes and had higher epiphyseal bone density and mass. Trabecular thickness was increased while concomitantly trabecular separation was decreased in Mc1re/e mice. Numbers of ICAM-positive chondrocytes were equal in non-operated 11 weeks Mc1re/e and WT whereas number of positive chondrocytes decreased during OA-progression. Unchallenged Mc1re/e mice display smaller articular cartilage covered area without OA-related surface erosions indicating that MC1-signaling is critical for proper cartilage matrix integrity and formation. When challenged with OA, Mc1re/e mice develop a more severe OA

  10. Multiphasic modeling of charged solute transport across articular cartilage: Application of multi-zone finite-bath model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi, Vahid; Pouran, Behdad; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2016-06-14

    Charged and uncharged solutes penetrate through cartilage to maintain the metabolic function of chondrocytes and to possibly restore or further breakdown the cartilage tissue in different stages of osteoarthritis. In this study the transport of charged solutes across the various zones of cartilage was quantified, taken into account the physicochemical interactions between the solute and the cartilage constituents. A multiphasic finite-bath finite element (FE) model was developed to simulate equine cartilage diffusion experiments that used a negatively charged contrast agent (ioxaglate) in combination with serial micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to measure the diffusion. By comparing the FE model with the experimental data both the diffusion coefficient of ioxaglate and the fixed charge density (FCD) were obtained. In the multiphasic model, cartilage was divided into multiple (three) zones to help understand how diffusion coefficient and FCD vary across cartilage thickness. The direct effects of charged solute-FCD interaction on diffusion were investigated by comparing the diffusion coefficients derived from the multiphasic and biphasic-solute models. We found a relationship between the FCD obtained by the multiphasic model and ioxaglate partitioning obtained from micro-CT experiments. Using our multi-zone multiphasic model, diffusion coefficient of the superficial zone was up to ten-fold higher than that of the middle zone, while the FCD of the middle zone was up to almost two-fold higher than that of the superficial zone. In conclusion, the developed finite-bath multiphasic model provides us with a non-destructive method by which we could obtain both diffusion coefficient and FCD of different cartilage zones. The outcomes of the current work will also help understand how charge of the bath affects the diffusion of a charged molecule and also predict the diffusion behavior of a charged solute across articular cartilage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  11. Light Absorptive Properties of Articular Cartilage, ECM Molecules, Synovial Fluid, and Photoinitiators as Potential Barriers to Light-Initiated Polymer Scaffolding Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Anthony J; Benson, Jamie M; Donnelly, Patrick E; Torzilli, Peter A

    2017-06-01

    Objective Many in vivo procedures to repair chondral defects use ultraviolet (UV)-photoinitiated in situ polymerization within the cartilage matrix. Chemical species that absorb UV light might reduce the effectiveness of these procedures by acting as light absorption barriers. This study evaluated whether any of the individual native biochemical components in cartilage and synovial fluid interfered with the absorption of light by common scaffolding photosensitizers. Materials UV-visible spectroscopy was performed on each major component of cartilage in solution, on bovine synovial fluid, and on four photosensitizers, riboflavin, Irgacure 2959, quinine, and riboflavin-5'-phosphate. Molar extinction and absorption coefficients were calculated at wavelengths of maximum absorbance and 365 nm. Intact articular cartilage was also examined. Results The individual major biochemical components of cartilage, Irgacure 2959, and quinine did not exhibit a significant absorption at 365 nm. Riboflavin and riboflavin-5'-phosphate were more effectual light absorbers at 365 nm, compared with the individual native species. Intact cartilage absorbed a significantly greater amount of UV light in comparison with the native species. Conclusion Our results indicate that none of the individual native species in cartilage will interfere with the absorption of UV light at 365 nm by these commonly used photoinitiators. Intact cartilage slices exhibited significant light absorption at 365 nm, while also having distinct absorbance peaks at wavelengths less than 300 nm. Determining the UV absorptive properties of the biomolecules native to articular cartilage and synovial fluid will aid in optimizing scaffolding procedures to ensure sufficient scaffold polymerization at a minimum UV intensity.

  12. Ageing is associated with reduction of mechanically-induced activation of Smad2/3P signaling in articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madej, W.M.; Caam, A.P.M. van; Blaney Davidson, E.N.; Hannink, G.J.; Buma, P.; Kraan, P.M. van der

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mechanical signals control key cellular processes in articular cartilage. Previously we have shown that mechanical compression is an important ALK5/Smad2/3P activator in cartilage explants. However, age-related changes in the cartilage are known to affect tissue mechanosensitivity and

  13. MR imaging of articular cartilage in the knee. Evaluation of cadaver knee by 3D FLASH sequence with fat saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Katsuhiko; Hachiya, Junichi; Matsumura, Joji [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-06-01

    MR imaging of the articular cartilage of the 24 cadever knees was performed using 3D FLASH sequence with fat saturation. Good correlation was noted between MR findings and either macroscopic or microscopic appearances of the hyaline cartilage. Low signal intensity area without significant thinning of the cartilage was considered to represent the degenerative changes due to relatively early process of osteoarthritis. (author)

  14. Perivascular Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Sheep: Characterization and Autologous Transplantation in a Model of Articular Cartilage Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Paul; Baily, James; Khan, Nusrat; Biant, Leela C; Simpson, A Hamish R; Péault, Bruno

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has indicated that purified perivascular stem cells (PSCs) have increased chondrogenic potential compared to conventional mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived in culture. This study aimed to develop an autologous large animal model for PSC transplantation and to specifically determine if implanted cells are retained in articular cartilage defects. Immunohistochemistry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting were used to ascertain the reactivity of anti-human and anti-ovine antibodies, which were combined and used to identify and isolate pericytes (CD34 - CD45 - CD146 + ) and adventitial cells (CD34 + CD45 - CD146 - ). The purified cells demonstrated osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic potential in culture. Autologous ovine PSCs (oPSCs) were isolated, cultured, and efficiently transfected using a green fluorescence protein (GFP) encoding lentivirus. The cells were implanted into articular cartilage defects on the medial femoral condyle using hydrogel and collagen membranes. Four weeks following implantation, the condyle was explanted and confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated the presence of oPSCs in the defect repaired with the hydrogel. These data suggest the testability in a large animal of native MSC autologous grafting, thus avoiding possible biases associated with xenotransplantation. Such a setting will be used in priority for indications in orthopedics, at first to model articular cartilage repair.

  15. Silk fibroin-chondroitin sulfate scaffold with immuno-inhibition property for articular cartilage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feifei; Zhang, Xianzhu; Cai, Dandan; Li, Jun; Mu, Qin; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Shouan; Jiang, Yangzi; Shen, Weiliang; Zhang, Shufang; Ouyang, Hong Wei

    2017-11-01

    The demand of favorable scaffolds has increased for the emerging cartilage tissue engineering. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and silk fibroin have been investigated and reported with safety and excellent biocompatibility as tissue engineering scaffolds. However, the rapid degradation rate of pure CS scaffolds presents a challenge to effectively recreate neo-tissue similar to natural articular cartilage. Meanwhile the silk fibroin is well used as a structural constituent material because its remarkable mechanical properties, long-lasting in vivo stability and hypoimmunity. The application of composite silk fibroin and CS scaffolds for joint cartilage repair has not been well studied. Here we report that the combination of silk fibroin and CS could synergistically promote articular cartilage defect repair. The silk fibroin (silk) and silk fibroin/CS (silk-CS) scaffolds were fabricated with salt-leaching, freeze-drying and crosslinking methodologies. The biocompatibility of the scaffolds was investigated in vitro by cell adhesion, proliferation and migration with human articular chondrocytes. We found that silk-CS scaffold maintained better chondrocyte phenotype than silk scaffold; moreover, the silk-CS scaffolds reduced chondrocyte inflammatory response that was induced by interleukin (IL)-1β, which is in consistent with the well-documented anti-inflammatory activities of CS. The in vivo cartilage repair was evaluated with a rabbit osteochondral defect model. Silk-CS scaffold induced more neo-tissue formation and better structural restoration than silk scaffold after 6 and 12weeks of implantation in ICRS histological evaluations. In conclusion, we have developed a silk fibroin/ chondroitin sulfate scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering that exhibits immuno-inhibition property and can improve the self-repair capacity of cartilage. Severe cartilage defect such as osteoarthritis (OA) is difficult to self-repair because of its avascular, aneural and alymphatic nature

  16. Natural Type II Collagen Hydrogel, Fibrin Sealant, and Adipose-Derived Stem Cells as a Promising Combination for Articular Cartilage Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarini, Mariana; Bordeaux-Rego, Pedro; Giardini-Rosa, Renata; Duarte, Adriana S S; Baratti, Mariana Ozello; Zorzi, Alessandro Rozim; de Miranda, João Batista; Lenz Cesar, Carlos; Luzo, Ângela; Olalla Saad, Sara Teresinha

    2017-10-01

    Objective Articular cartilage is an avascular tissue with limited ability of self-regeneration and the current clinical treatments have restricted capacity to restore damages induced by trauma or diseases. Therefore, new techniques are being tested for cartilage repair, using scaffolds and/or stem cells. Although type II collagen hydrogel, fibrin sealant, and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) represent suitable alternatives for cartilage formation, their combination has not yet been investigated in vivo for focal articular cartilage defects. We performed a simple experimental procedure using the combination of these 3 compounds on cartilage lesions of rabbit knees. Design The hydrogel was developed in house and was first tested in vitro for chondrogenic differentiation. Next, implants were performed in chondral defects with or without ASCs and the degree of regeneration was macroscopically and microscopically evaluated. Results Production of proteoglycans and the increased expression of collagen type II (COL2α1), aggrecan (ACAN), and sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) confirmed the chondrogenic character of ASCs in the hydrogel in vitro. Importantly, the addition of ASC induced a higher overall repair of the chondral lesions and a better cellular organization and collagen fiber alignment compared with the same treatment without ASCs. This regenerating tissue also presented the expression of cartilage glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen. Conclusions Our results indicate that the combination of the 3 compounds is effective for articular cartilage repair and may be of future clinical interest.

  17. Tenascin-C Prevents Articular Cartilage Degeneration in Murine Osteoarthritis Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yuriyo; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Iino, Takahiro; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Sudo, Akihiro

    2018-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether intra-articular injections of tenascin-C (TNC) could prevent cartilage damage in murine models of osteoarthritis (OA). Design Fluorescently labeled TNC was injected into knee joints and its distribution was examined at 1 day, 4 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks postinjection. To investigate the effects of TNC on cartilage degeneration after surgery to knee joints, articular spaces were filled with 100 μg/mL (group I), 10 μg/mL (group II) of TNC solution, or control (group III). TNC solution of 10 μg/mL was additionally injected twice after 3 weeks (group IV) or weekly after 1 week, 2 weeks, and 3 weeks (group V). Joint tissues were histologically assessed using the Mankin score and the modified Chambers system at 2 to 8 weeks after surgery. Results Exogenous TNC was maintained in the cartilage and synovium for 1 week after administration. Histological scores in groups I and II were better than scores in group III at 4 and 6 weeks, but progressive cartilage damage was seen in all groups 8 weeks postoperatively. Sequential TNC injections (groups IV and V) showed significantly better Mankin score than single injection (group II) at 8 weeks. Conclusion TNC administered exogenously remained in the cartilage of knee joints for 1 week, and could decelerate articular cartilage degeneration in murine models of OA. We also showed that sequential administration of TNC was more effective than a single injection. TNC could be an important molecule for prevention of articular cartilage damage.

  18. Tissue engineering of functional articular cartilage : the current status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kock, L.M.; Donkelaar, van C.C.; Ito, K.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by pain and disability. It involves all ages and 70% of people aged >65 have some degree of osteoarthritis. Natural cartilage repair is limited because chondrocyte density and metabolism are low and cartilage has no blood supply. The

  19. T2* measurement of the knee articular cartilage in osteoarthritis at 3T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newbould, Rexford D.; Miller, Sam R.; Toms, Laurence D.; Swann, Peter; Tielbeek, Jeroen A. W.; Gold, Garry E.; Strachan, Robin K.; Taylor, Peter C.; Matthews, Paul M.; Brown, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    To measure reproducibility, longitudinal and cross-sectional differences in T2* maps at 3 Tesla (T) in the articular cartilage of the knee in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy matched controls. MRI data and standing radiographs were acquired from 33 subjects with OA and 21 healthy

  20. Age-related accumulation of Maillard reaction products in human articular cartilage collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, N.; Degroot, J.; Oldehinkel, E.; Bank, R. A.; Thorpe, S. R.; Baynes, J. W.; Bayliss, M. T.; Bijlsma, J. W.; Lafeber, F. P.; TeKoppele, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Non-enzymic modification of tissue proteins by reducing sugars, the so-called Maillard reaction, is a prominent feature of aging. In articular cartilage, relatively high levels of the advanced glycation end product (AGE) pentosidine accumulate with age. Higher pentosidine levels have been associated

  1. Multi-scale physico-chemical phenomena in articular cartilage and subchondral bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouran, Behdad

    2017-01-01

    Articular cartilage and its connecting subchondral bone plate are main compartments that play an important role in proper mechanical functioning of diarthrodial joints. However, in ageing and osteoarthritis structural changes propagate in these tissues, which impairs them for proper functioning. One

  2. Postnatal development of depth-dependent collagen density in ovine articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.; Schipper, H.; Lagen, van B.; Zuilhof, H.; Kranenbarg, S.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage (AC) is the layer of tissue that covers the articulating ends of the bones in diarthrodial joints. Adult AC is characterised by a depth-dependent composition and structure of the extracellular matrix that results in depth-dependent mechanical properties, important for the

  3. Postnatal development of depth-dependent collagen density in ovine articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.; Schipper, H.; Lagen, van B.; Zuilhof, H.; Kranenbarg, S.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Articular cartilage (AC) is the layer of tissue that covers the articulating ends of the bones in diarthrodial joints. Adult AC is characterised by a depth-dependent composition and structure of the extracellular matrix that results in depth-dependent mechanical properties, important for

  4. Cycloolefin-Copolymer/Polyethylene (COC/PE) Blend Assists with the Creation of New Articular Cartilage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrtýl, M.; Bastl, Zdeněk; Kruliš, Zdeněk; Hulejová, H.; Polanská, M.; Lísal, J.; Danešová, J.; Černý, P.

    294-I, - (2010), s. 120-132 ISSN 1022-1360 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/06/0761 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : articular cartilage * biomaterials * cycloolefin-copolymer blend Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  5. Glucosamine:chondroitin or ginger root extract have little effect on articular cartilage in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sows are culled at a high rate from breeding herds due to musclo-skeletal problems and lameness. Research in our laboratory has shown that even first-parity sows have significant amounts of osteochondritic lesions of their articular cartilage. Glusoamine chondroitin and ginger root extract have both...

  6. Mechanical properties of the collagen network in human articular cartilage as measured by osmotic stress technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basser, P.J.; Schneiderman, R.; Bank, R.A.; Wachtel, E.; Maroudas, A.

    1998-01-01

    We have used an isotropic osmotic stress technique to assess the swelling pressures of human articular cartilage over a wide range of hydrations in order to determine from these measurements, for the first time, the tensile stress in the collagen network, P(c), as a function of hydration. Osmotic

  7. Basic science and surgical treatment options for articular cartilage injuries of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Elizabeth S; Bajaj, Sarvottam; Ghodadra, Neil S

    2012-03-01

    The complex structure of articular cartilage allows for diverse knee function throughout range of motion and weight bearing. However, disruption to the structural integrity of the articular surface can cause significant morbidity. Due to an inherently poor regenerative capacity, articular cartilage defects present a treatment challenge for physicians and therapists. For many patients, a trial of nonsurgical treatment options is paramount prior to surgical intervention. In instances of failed conservative treatment, patients can undergo an array of palliative, restorative, or reparative surgical procedures to treat these lesions. Palliative methods include debridement and lavage, while restorative techniques include marrow stimulation. For larger lesions involving subchondral bone, reparative procedures such as osteochondral grafting or autologous chondrocyte implantation are considered. Clinical success not only depends on the surgical techniques but also requires strict adherence to rehabilitation guidelines. The purpose of this article is to review the basic science of articular cartilage and to provide an overview of the procedures currently performed at our institution for patients presenting with symptomatic cartilage lesions.

  8. Porous polymers for repair and replacement of the knee joint meniscus and articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klompmaker, Jan

    1992-01-01

    The studies presented here were initiated to answer a variety of questions concerning firstly the repair and replacement of the knee joint meniscus and, secondly, the repair of full-thickness defects of articular cartilage. AIMS OF THE STUDIES I To assess the effect of implantation of a porous

  9. Accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts reduces chondrocyte-mediated extracellular matrix turnover in human articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degroot, J.; Verzijl, N.; Jacobs, K. M.; Budde, M.; Bank, R. A.; Bijlsma, J. W.; TeKoppele, J. M.; Lafeber, F. P.

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of osteoarthritis (OAs) increases with age and coincides with the accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in articular cartilage, suggesting that accumulation of glycation products may be involved in the development of OA. This study was designed to examine the effects

  10. Reconstruction of Hyaline Cartilage Deep Layer Properties in 3-Dimensional Cultures of Human Articular Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanduri, Vibudha; Tattikota, Surendra Mohan; T, Avinash Raj; Sriramagiri, Vijaya Rama Rao; Kantipudi, Suma; Pande, Gopal

    2014-06-01

    Articular cartilage (AC) injuries and malformations are commonly noticed because of trauma or age-related degeneration. Many methods have been adopted for replacing or repairing the damaged tissue. Currently available AC repair methods, in several cases, fail to yield good-quality long-lasting results, perhaps because the reconstructed tissue lacks the cellular and matrix properties seen in hyaline cartilage (HC). To reconstruct HC tissue from 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) cultures of AC-derived human chondrocytes that would specifically exhibit the cellular and biochemical properties of the deep layer of HC. Descriptive laboratory study. Two-dimensional cultures of human AC-derived chondrocytes were established in classical medium (CM) and newly defined medium (NDM) and maintained for a period of 6 weeks. These cells were suspended in 2 mm-thick collagen I gels, placed in 24-well culture inserts, and further cultured up to 30 days. Properties of chondrocytes, grown in 2D cultures and the reconstructed 3D cartilage tissue, were studied by optical and scanning electron microscopic techniques, immunohistochemistry, and cartilage-specific gene expression profiling by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and were compared with those of the deep layer of native human AC. Two-dimensional chondrocyte cultures grown in NDM, in comparison with those grown in CM, showed more chondrocyte-specific gene activity and matrix properties. The NDM-grown chondrocytes in 3D cultures also showed better reproduction of deep layer properties of HC, as confirmed by microscopic and gene expression analysis. The method used in this study can yield cartilage tissue up to approximately 1.6 cm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness that satisfies the very low cell density and matrix composition properties present in the deep layer of normal HC. This study presents a novel and reproducible method for long-term culture of AC-derived chondrocytes and reconstruction of cartilage

  11. Effects of low molecular weight hyaluronan combined with carprofen on canine osteoarthritis articular chondrocytes and cartilage explants in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euppayo, Thippaporn; Siengdee, Puntita; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Pradit, Waranee; Viriyakhasem, Nawarat; Chomdej, Siriwadee; Ongchai, Siriwan; Harada, Yasuji; Nganvongpanit, Korakot

    2015-09-01

    Intra-articular injection with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is used to treat inflammatory joint disease, but the side effects of NSAIDs include chondrotoxicity. Hyaluronan has shown positive effects on chondrocytes by reducing apoptosis and increasing proteoglycan synthesis. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effects of low molecular weight hyaluronan (low MW HA), carprofen 25 mg/ml, carprofen 12.5 mg/ml, and a combination of HA and carprofen on canine osteoarthritis (OA) articular chondrocytes and a cartilage explant model in terms of cell viability, extracellular matrix remaining, and gene expression after exposure. In chondrocyte culture, MTT assay was used to evaluate the chondrotoxicity of IC50 and IC80 of carprofen with HA. In cartilage explant culture, two kinds of extracellular matrix (uronic acid and collagen) remaining in cartilage were used to evaluate cartilage damage for 14 d after treatment. Expression of COL2A1, AGG, and MMP3 was used to evaluate the synthesis and degradation of the matrix for 7 d after treatment. In chondrocyte culture, low MW HA could preserve OA chondrocyte viability but could not reduce the chondrotoxicity level of carprofen (P carprofen caused less destruction of uronic acid and collagen structure when compared with the control (P carprofen resulted in higher COL2A1 and AGG expression levels than carprofen alone.

  12. Cell compaction influences the regenerative potential of passaged bovine articular chondrocytes in an ex vivo cartilage defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzer, Michael; Aszodi, Attila

    2017-04-01

    The loss and degradation of articular cartilage tissue matrix play central roles in the process of osteoarthritis (OA). New models for evaluating cartilage repair/regeneration are thus of great value for transferring various culture systems into clinically relevant situations. The repair process can be better monitored in ex vivo systems than in in vitro cell cultures. I have therefore established an ex vivo defect model prepared from bovine femoral condyles for evaluating cartilage repair by the implantation of cells cultured in various ways, e.g., monolayer-cultured cells or suspension or pellet cultures of articular bovine chondrocytes representing different cell compactions with variable densities of chondrocytes. I report that the integrin subunit α10 was significantly upregulated in suspension-cultured bovine chondrocytes at passage P2 compared with monolayer-cultured cells at P1 (p = 0.0083) and P2 (p innovation of this system over in vitro differentiation (e.g., micromass, pellet) assays is the possibility of examining and evaluating cartilage regeneration in an environment in which implanted cells are embedded within native surrounding tissue at the defect site. Such ex vivo explants might serve as a better model system to mimic clinical situations. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Low-field one-dimensional and direction-dependent relaxation imaging of bovine articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Erik; Mattea, Carlos; Mollova, Ayret; Stapf, Siegfried

    2011-12-01

    The structure of articular cartilage is separated into three layers of differently oriented collagen fibers, which is accompanied by a gradient of increasing glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and decreasing water concentration from the top layer towards the bone interface. The combined effect of these structural variations results in a change of the longitudinal and transverse relaxation times as a function of the distance from the cartilage surface. In this paper, this dependence is investigated at a magnetic field strength of 0.27 T with a one-dimensional depth resolution of 50 μm on bovine hip and stifle joint articular cartilage. By employing this method, advantage is taken of the increasing contrast of the longitudinal relaxation rate found at lower magnetic field strengths. Furthermore, evidence for an orientational dependence of relaxation times with respect to an axis normal to the surface plane is given, an observation that has recently been reported using high-field MRI and that was explained by preferential orientations of collagen bundles in each of the three cartilage zones. In order to quantify the extent of a further contrast mechanism and to estimate spatially dependent glycosaminoglycan concentrations, the data are supplemented by proton relaxation times that were acquired in bovine articular cartilage that was soaked in a 0.8 mM aqueous Gd ++ solution.

  14. Comparison of MRI T2 Relaxation Changes of Knee Articular Cartilage before and after Running between Young and Old Amateur Athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jang Gyu; Jeon, Chan Hong; Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Jae Chul; Kim, Hyun Joo; Han, Jong Kyu; Kim, Yong Dai

    2012-01-01

    To compare changes in T2 relaxation on magnetic resonance (MR) images of knee articular cartilage in younger and older amateur athletes before and after running. By using a 3.0-T MR imager, quantitative T2 maps of weight-bearing femoral and tibial articular cartilages in 10 younger and 10 older amateur athletes were acquired before, immediately after, and 2 hours after 30 minutes of running. Changes in global cartilage T2 signals of the medial and lateral condyles of the femur and tibia and regional cartilage T2 signals in the medial condyles of femoral and tibia in response to exercise were compared between the two age groups. Changes in global cartilage T2 values after running did not differ significantly between the age groups. In terms of the depth variation, relatively higher T2 values in the older group than in the younger group were observed mainly in the superficial layers of the femoral and tibial cartilage (p < 0.05). Age-related cartilage changes may occur mainly in the superficial layer of cartilage where collagen matrix degeneration is primarily initiated. However, no trend is observed regarding a global T2 changes between the younger and older age groups in response to exercise.

  15. In situ measurements of human articular cartilage stiffness by means of a scanning force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imer, Raphael; Akiyama, Terunobu; Rooij, Nico F de; Stolz, Martin; Aebi, Ueli; Kilger, Robert; Friederich, Niklaus F; Wirz, Dieter; Daniels, A U; Staufer, Urs

    2007-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a painful and disabling progressive joint disease, characterized by degradation of articular cartilage. In order to study this disease at early stages, we have miniaturized and integrated a complete scanning force microscope into a standard arthroscopic device fitting through a standard orthopedic canula. This instrument will allow orthopedic surgeons to measure the mechanical properties of articular cartilage at the nanometer and micrometer scale in-vivo during a standard arthroscopy. An orthopedic surgeon assessed the handling of the instrument. First measurements of the elasticity-modulus of human cartilage were recorded in a cadaver knee non minimal invasive. Second, minimally invasive experiments were performed using arthroscopic instruments. Load-displacement curves were successfully recorded

  16. Quantifying NMR relaxation correlation and exchange in articular cartilage with time domain analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailhiot, Sarah E.; Zong, Fangrong; Maneval, James E.; June, Ronald K.; Galvosas, Petrik; Seymour, Joseph D.

    2018-02-01

    Measured nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation data in articular cartilage has been shown to be multi-exponential and correlated to the health of the tissue. The observed relaxation rates are dependent on experimental parameters such as solvent, data acquisition methods, data analysis methods, and alignment to the magnetic field. In this study, we show that diffusive exchange occurs in porcine articular cartilage and impacts the observed relaxation rates in T1-T2 correlation experiments. By using time domain analysis of T2-T2 exchange spectroscopy, the diffusive exchange time can be quantified by measurements that use a single mixing time. Measured characteristic times for exchange are commensurate with T1 in this material and so impacts the observed T1 behavior. The approach used here allows for reliable quantification of NMR relaxation behavior in cartilage in the presence of diffusive fluid exchange between two environments.

  17. A new pressure chamber to study the biosynthetic response of articular cartilage to mechanical loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmeyer, J; Torzilli, P A; Burton-Wurster, N; Lust, G

    1993-01-01

    A prototype chamber was used to apply a precise cyclic or static load on articular cartilage explants under sterile conditions. A variable pressure, pneumatic controller was constructed to power the chamber's air cylinder, capable of applying, with a porous load platen, loads of up to 10 MPa at cycles ranging from 0 to 10 Hz. Pig articular cartilage explants were maintained successfully in this chamber for 2 days under cyclic mechanical loading of 0.5 Hz, 0.5 MPa. Explants remained sterile, viable and metabolically active. Cartilage responded to this load with a decreased synthesis of fibronectin and a small but statistically significant elevation in proteoglycan content. Similar but less extensive effects on fibronectin synthesis were observed with the small static load (0.016 MPa) inherent in the design of the chamber.

  18. In situ measurements of human articular cartilage stiffness by means of a scanning force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imer, Raphael [Institute of Microtechnology, University of Neuchatel, Jaquet-Droz 1, 2007 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Akiyama, Terunobu [Institute of Microtechnology, University of Neuchatel, Jaquet-Droz 1, 2007 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Rooij, Nico F de [Institute of Microtechnology, University of Neuchatel, Jaquet-Droz 1, 2007 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Stolz, Martin [Maurice E. Mueller Institute, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 70, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Aebi, Ueli [Maurice E. Mueller Institute, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 70, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Kilger, Robert [Clinics for Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology, Kantonsspital, 4101 Bruderholz (Switzerland); Friederich, Niklaus F [Clinics for Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology, Kantonsspital, 4101 Bruderholz (Switzerland); Wirz, Dieter [Lab. for Orthopaedic Biomechanics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 50-70, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Daniels, A U [Lab. for Orthopaedic Biomechanics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 50-70, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Staufer, Urs [Institute of Microtechnology, University of Neuchatel, Jaquet-Droz 1, 2007 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    Osteoarthritis is a painful and disabling progressive joint disease, characterized by degradation of articular cartilage. In order to study this disease at early stages, we have miniaturized and integrated a complete scanning force microscope into a standard arthroscopic device fitting through a standard orthopedic canula. This instrument will allow orthopedic surgeons to measure the mechanical properties of articular cartilage at the nanometer and micrometer scale in-vivo during a standard arthroscopy. An orthopedic surgeon assessed the handling of the instrument. First measurements of the elasticity-modulus of human cartilage were recorded in a cadaver knee non minimal invasive. Second, minimally invasive experiments were performed using arthroscopic instruments. Load-displacement curves were successfully recorded.

  19. Postnatal administration of 2-oxoglutaric acid improves articular and growth plate cartilages and bone tissue morphology in pigs prenatally treated with dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, E; Dobrowolski, P; Wydrych, J

    2012-10-01

    The potential effects of prenatal administration of dexamethasone (DEX) and postnatal treatment with 2-oxoglutaric acid (2-Ox) on postnatal development of connective tissue of farm animals were not examined experimentally. The aim of this study was to establish changes in morphological parameters of bone and articular and growth plate cartilages damaged by the prenatal action of DEX in piglets supplemented with 2-Ox. The 3 mg of DEX was administered by intramuscular route every second day from day 70 of pregnancy to parturition and then piglets were supplemented with 2-Ox during 35 days of postnatal life (0.4 g/kg body weight). The mechanical properties, BMD and BMC of bones, and histomorphometry of articular and growth plate cartilages were determined. Maternal treatment with DEX decreased the weight by 48%, BMD by 50% and BMC by 61% of the tibia in male piglets while such action of DEX in female piglets was not observed. DEX led to thinning of articular and growth plate cartilages and trabeculae thickness and reduced the serum GH concentration in male piglets. The administration of 2-Ox prevented the reduction of trabeculae thickness, the width of articular and growth plate cartilages in male piglets connected with higher growth hormone concentration compared with non-supplemented male piglets. The result showed that the presence of 2-Ox in the diet had a positive effect on the development of connective tissue in pigs during suckling and induced a complete recovery from bone and cartilage damage caused by prenatal DEX action.

  20. Coordinate and synergistic effects of extensive treadmill exercise and ovariectomy on articular cartilage degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Kazumasa; Muneta, Takeshi; Ojima, Miyoko; Yamada, Jun; Matsukura, Yu; Abula, Kahaer; Sekiya, Ichiro; Tsuji, Kunikazu

    2016-05-31

    Although osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease, little has been reported regarding the cooperative interaction among these factors on cartilage metabolism. Here we examined the synergistic effect of ovariectomy (OVX) and excessive mechanical stress (forced running) on articular cartilage homeostasis in a mouse model resembling a human postmenopausal condition. Mice were randomly divided into four groups, I: Sham, II: OVX, III: Sham and forced running (60 km in 6 weeks), and IV: OVX and forced running. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the degeneration of articular cartilage and synovitis in the knee joint. Morphological changes of subchondral bone were analyzed by micro-CT. Micro-CT analyses showed significant loss of metaphyseal trabecular bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV) after OVX as described previously. Forced running increased the trabecular BV/TV in all mice. In the epiphyseal region, no visible alteration in bone morphology or osteophyte formation was observed in any of the four groups. Histological analysis revealed that OVX or forced running respectively had subtle effects on cartilage degeneration. However, the combination of OVX and forced running synergistically enhanced synovitis and articular cartilage degeneration. Although morphological changes in chondrocytes were observed during OA initiation, no signs of bone marrow edema were observed in any of the four experimental groups. We report the coordinate and synergistic effects of extensive treadmill exercise and ovariectomy on articular cartilage degeneration. Since no surgical procedure was performed on the knee joint directly in this model, this model is useful in addressing the molecular pathogenesis of naturally occurring OA.

  1. Up-regulated expression of cartilage intermediate-layer protein and ANK in articular hyaline cartilage from patients with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Jun; Ryan, Lawrence M; Masuda, Ikuko

    2002-12-01

    Excess accumulation of extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (ePPi) in aged human cartilage is crucial in calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal formation in cartilage matrix. Two sources of ePPi are ePPi-generating ectoenzymes (NTPPPH) and extracellular transport of intracellular PPi by ANK. This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of NTPPPH and ANK in ePPi elaboration, by investigating expression of NTPPPH enzymes (cartilage intermediate-layer protein [CILP] and plasma cell membrane glycoprotein 1 [PC-1]) and ANK in human chondrocytes from osteoarthritic (OA) articular cartilage containing CPPD crystals and without crystals. Chondrocytes were harvested from knee cartilage at the time of arthroplasty (OA with CPPD crystals [CPPD], n = 8; OA without crystals [OA], n = 10). Normal adult human chondrocytes (n = 1) were used as a control. Chondrocytes were cultured with transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1), which stimulates ePPi elaboration, and/or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which inhibits ePPi elaboration. NTPPPH and ePPi were measured in the media at 48 hours. Media CILP, PC-1, and ANK were determined by dot-immunoblot analysis. Chondrocyte messenger RNA (mRNA) was extracted for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to study expression of mRNA for CILP, PC-1, and ANK. NTPPPH and ANK mRNA and protein were also studied in fresh frozen cartilage. Basal ePPi elaboration and NTPPPH activity in conditioned media from CPPD chondrocytes were elevated compared with normal chondrocytes, and tended to be higher compared with OA chondrocytes. Basal expression of mRNA for CILP (chondrocytes) and ANK (cartilage) was higher in both CPPD chondrocytes and CPPD cartilage extract than in OA or normal samples. PC-1 mRNA was less abundant in CPPD chondrocytes and cartilage extract than in OA chondrocytes and extract, although the difference was not significant. CILP, PC-1, and ANK protein levels were similar in CPPD, OA, and normal chondrocytes

  2. The Role of Interstitial Fluid Pressurization in Articular Cartilage Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last two decades, considerable progress has been reported in the field of cartilage mechanics that impacts our understanding of the role of interstitial fluid pressurization on cartilage lubrication. Theoretical and experimental studies have demonstrated that the interstitial fluid of cartilage pressurizes considerably under loading, potentially supporting most of the applied load under various transient or steady-state conditions. The fraction of the total load supported by fluid pressurization has been called the fluid load support. Experimental studies have demonstrated that the friction coefficient of cartilage correlates negatively with this variable, achieving remarkably low values when the fluid load support is greatest. A theoretical framework that embodies this relationship has been validated against experiments, predicting and explaining various outcomes, and demonstrating that a low friction coefficient can be maintained for prolonged loading durations under normal physiological function. This paper reviews salient aspects of this topic, as well as its implications for improving our understanding of boundary lubrication by molecular species in synovial fluid and the cartilage superficial zone. Effects of cartilage degeneration on its frictional response are also reviewed. PMID:19464689

  3. Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dGEMRIC) of Hip Joint Cartilage: Better Cartilage Delineation after Intra-Articular than Intravenous Gadolinium Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, M.; Jensen, K.E.; Quistgaard, E.

    2006-01-01

    years) with clinical and radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA; Kellgren score II-III), MRI of the hip was performed twice on a clinical 1.5T MR scanner: On day 1, before and 90-180 min after 0.3 mmol/kg body weight i.v. Gd-DTPA and, on day 8, 90-180 min after ultrasound-guided i.a. injection of a 4 mmol......PURPOSE: To investigate and compare delayed gadolinium (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cartilage (dGEMRIC) in the hip joint using intravenous (i.v.) or ultrasound-guided intra-articular (i.a.) Gd-DTPA injection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 10 patients (50% males, mean age 58......) in the joint cartilage compared to the non-enhanced images (P I.a. Gd-DTPA provided significantly higher SNR and CNR compared to i.v. Gd-DTPA (P

  4. Application of multiphysics models to efficient design of experiments of solute transport across articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouran, Behdad; Arbabi, Vahid; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2016-11-01

    Transport of solutes helps to regulate normal physiology and proper function of cartilage in diarthrodial joints. Multiple studies have shown the effects of characteristic parameters such as concentration of proteoglycans and collagens and the orientation of collagen fibrils on the diffusion process. However, not much quantitative information and accurate models are available to help understand how the characteristics of the fluid surrounding articular cartilage influence the diffusion process. In this study, we used a combination of micro-computed tomography experiments and biphasic-solute finite element models to study the effects of three parameters of the overlying bath on the diffusion of neutral solutes across cartilage zones. Those parameters include bath size, degree of stirring of the bath, and the size and concentration of the stagnant layer that forms at the interface of cartilage and bath. Parametric studies determined the minimum of the finite bath size for which the diffusion behavior reduces to that of an infinite bath. Stirring of the bath proved to remarkably influence neutral solute transport across cartilage zones. The well-stirred condition was achieved only when the ratio of the diffusivity of bath to that of cartilage was greater than ≈1000. While the thickness of the stagnant layer at the cartilage-bath interface did not significantly influence the diffusion behavior, increase in its concentration substantially elevated solute concentration in cartilage. Sufficient stirring attenuated the effects of the stagnant layer. Our findings could be used for efficient design of experimental protocols aimed at understanding the transport of molecules across articular cartilage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Guidelines for the Design and Conduct of Clinical Studies in Knee Articular Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithoefer, Kai; Saris, Daniel B.F.; Farr, Jack; Kon, Elizaveta; Zaslav, Kenneth; Cole, Brian J.; Ranstam, Jonas; Yao, Jian; Shive, Matthew; Levine, David; Dalemans, Wilfried; Brittberg, Mats

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To summarize current clinical research practice and develop methodological standards for objective scientific evaluation of knee cartilage repair procedures and products. Design: A comprehensive literature review was performed of high-level original studies providing information relevant for the design of clinical studies on articular cartilage repair in the knee. Analysis of cartilage repair publications and synopses of ongoing trials were used to identify important criteria for the design, reporting, and interpretation of studies in this field. Results: Current literature reflects the methodological limitations of the scientific evidence available for articular cartilage repair. However, clinical trial databases of ongoing trials document a trend suggesting improved study designs and clinical evaluation methodology. Based on the current scientific information and standards of clinical care, detailed methodological recommendations were developed for the statistical study design, patient recruitment, control group considerations, study endpoint definition, documentation of results, use of validated patient-reported outcome instruments, and inclusion and exclusion criteria for the design and conduct of scientifically sound cartilage repair study protocols. A consensus statement among the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) and contributing authors experienced in clinical trial design and implementation was achieved. Conclusions: High-quality clinical research methodology is critical for the optimal evaluation of current and new cartilage repair technologies. In addition to generally applicable principles for orthopedic study design, specific criteria and considerations apply to cartilage repair studies. Systematic application of these criteria and considerations can facilitate study designs that are scientifically rigorous, ethical, practical, and appropriate for the question(s) being addressed in any given cartilage repair research project

  6. Early Changes of Articular Cartilage and Subchondral Bone in The DMM Mouse Model of Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hang; Huang, Lisi; Welch, Ian; Norley, Chris; Holdsworth, David W; Beier, Frank; Cai, Daozhang

    2018-02-12

    To examine the early changes of articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the DMM mouse model of osteoarthritis, mice were subjected to DMM or SHAM surgery and sacrificed at 2-, 5- and 10-week post-surgery. Catwalk gait analyses, Micro-Computed Tomography, Toluidine Blue, Picrosirius Red and Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP) staining were used to investigate gait patterns, joint morphology, subchondral bone, cartilage, collagen organization and osteoclasts activity, respectively. Results showed OA progressed over 10-week time-course. Gait disparity occurred only at 10-week post-surgery. Osteophyte formed at 2-week post-surgery. BMDs of DMM showed no statistical differences comparing to SHAM at 2 weeks, but BV/TV is much higher in DMM mice. Increased BMD was clearly found at 5- and 10-week post-surgery in DMM mice. TRAP staining showed increased osteoclast activity at the site of osteophyte formation of DMM joints at 5- and 10-week time points. These results showed that subchondral bone turnover might occurred earlier than 2 weeks in this mouse DMM model. Gait disparity only occurred at later stage of OA in DMM mice. Notably, patella dislocation could occur in some of the DMM mice and cause a different pattern of OA in affected knee.

  7. A novel surface modification on calcium polyphosphate scaffold for articular cartilage tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, S.-M.; Liu, C.-K.; Huang, T.-J.

    2007-01-01

    The surface of porous three-dimensional (3D) calcium polyphosphate (CPP) scaffold was modified by treatment of quenching-after-sintering in the fabrication process. Scanning electron microscopic examination and degradation tests confirmed a new type of surface modification. A rotary-shaking culture was compared to that of a stationary culture and the results showed that rotary shaking led to enhanced extracellular matrices (ECM) secretion of both proteoglycans and collagen. Rotary-shaking cultured results showed that the quenching-treated CPP scaffold produced a better cartilage tissue, with both proteoglycans and collagen secretions enhanced, than the air-cooled-after-sintering scaffolds. Moreover, β-CPP scaffolds were better for the ECM secretion of both proteoglycans and collagen than the β-CPP + γ-CPP multiphase scaffold. However, the multiphase scaffold led to higher growth rate than that of β-CPP scaffold; the quenching-after-sintering treatment reversed this. In addition, the ECM secretions of both proteoglycans and collagen in the quenching-treated β-CPP scaffold were higher than those in the air-cooled one. Thus, the novel treatment of quenching-after-sintering has shown merits to the porous 3D CPP scaffolds for articular cartilage tissue engineering

  8. Shortwave-infrared Raman spectroscopic classification of water fractions in articular cartilage ex vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Mustafa; Akkus, Ozan

    2018-01-01

    Water loss is an early onset indicator of osteoarthritis. Although Raman spectroscopy (RS) holds the potential for measurement of cartilage hydration, the knowledge of Raman OH-stretch bands of biological tissue is very limited. We assesed here the sensitivity of RS to identify and classify water types in the cartilage. Raman spectrum measurements over the high wavenumber range were employed to identify different water fractions in articular cartilage. Raman spectra were collected from wet and sequentially dehydrated cartilage along with pure collagen type II and chondroitin sulfate standards. OH-stretch band of cartilage is dominated by mobile water, up to 95% of total intensities. We identified six peaks in cartilage spectrum using second-derivative analysis: peaks at 3200 and 3650 cm-1 are associated with organic matrix (both collagen and proteglycan) and matrix-bound water molecules. Peaks at 3250, 3453, and 3630 cm-1 are associated with collagen and collagen-related water molecules, whereas the peak at 3520 cm-1 is associated with proteoglycan (PG) and PG-related water molecules. The current work is the first thorough analysis of the Raman OH-stretch band of the cartilage and with the knowledge generated by this study, it may now be possible to study on cartilage hydration by RS.

  9. Acute and chronic response of articular cartilage to Ho:YAG laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauner, Kenneth B.; Nishioka, Norman S.; Flotte, Thomas J.; Patel, Dinesh K.

    1992-06-01

    A Ho:YAG laser system operating at a wavelength of 2.1 microns has recently been introduced for use in arthroscopic surgery. The acceptability of this new tool will be determined not only by its ability to resect tissue, but also by its long term effects on articular surfaces. In order to investigate these issues further, we performed two studies to evaluate the acute and chronic effects of the laser on cartilaginous tissue. We evaluated the acute, in vitro effects of 2.1 micron laser irradiation on articular and fibrocartilage. This included the measurement of ablation efficiency, ablation threshold and thermal damage in both meniscus and articular cartilage. To document the chronic effects on articular cartilage in vivo, we next performed a ten week healing study. Eight sheep weighing 30 - 40 kg underwent bilateral arthrotomy procedures. Multiple full thickness and partial thickness defects were created. Animals were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, and 10 weeks. The healing study demonstrated: (1) no healing of full or partial thickness defects at 10 weeks with hyaline cartilage; (2) fibrocartilaginous granulation tissue filling full thickness defects at two and four weeks, but no longer evident at ten weeks; (3) chondrocyte necrosis extending to greater than 900 microns distal to ablation craters at four weeks with no evidence of repair at later dates; and (4) chondrocyte hyperplasia at the borders of the damage zone at two weeks but no longer evident at later sacrifice dates.

  10. Intra-articular injection of dexketoprofen in rat knee joint: histopathologic assessment of cartilage & synovium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Aycan Guner; Akyol, Onat; Ekici, Murat; Sitilci, Tolga; Topacoglu, Hakan; Ozyuvaci, Emine

    2014-08-01

    Effective pain control following outpatient surgical procedures is an important aspect of patient discharge. This study was carried out with an aim to investigate the histopathological effects of intra-articular dexketoprofen trometamol injection in knee joint on synovium and cartilage in an experimental rat model. In each of 40 rats, the right knee was designated as the study group and the left knee as the control group (NS group). Under aseptic conditions, 35 rats received an injection of 0.25 ml (6.25 mg) dexketoprofen trometamol into the right knee joint and an injection of 0.25 ml 0.9 per cent normal saline solution into the left knee joint. On the 1st, 2nd, 7th, 14th, and 21st days after intra-articular injection, rats in specified groups were sacrificed by intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg sodium thiopental. Knee joints were separated and sectioned for histopathological examination. Inflammatory changes in the joints were recorded according to a grade scale. No significant difference in terms of pathological changes both in synovium and cartilage was observed between the NS group and the study group on days 1, 2, 7, 14 and 21 after intra-articular injection of dexketoprofen or saline in the knee joint. The findings showed no evidence of significant histopathological damage to the cartilage and synovia for a period up to 21 days following intra-articular administration of dexketoprofen trometamol in the knee joints of rats.

  11. Increasing lateral tibial slope: is there an association with articular cartilage changes in the knee?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Nasir; Shepel, Michael; Leswick, David A.; Obaid, Haron

    2014-01-01

    The geometry of the lateral tibial slope (LTS) plays an important role in the overall biomechanics of the knee. Through this study, we aim to assess the impact of LTS on cartilage degeneration in the knee. A retrospective analysis of 93 knee MRI scans (1.5 T or 3 T) for patients aged 20-45 years with no history of trauma or knee surgery, and absence of internal derangement. The LTS was calculated using the circle method. Chondropathy was graded from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe). Linear regression analysis was used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05). In our cohort of patients, a statistically significant association was seen between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patellar articular surface and the lateral tibial articular surface (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening chondropathy of the lateral patellar, medial trochlea, lateral trochlea, medial femoral, lateral femoral, and medial tibial articular surfaces. Our results show a statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patella and the lateral tibial plateau. We speculate that increased LTS may result in increased femoral glide over the lateral tibial plateau with subsequent increased external rotation of the femur predisposing to patellofemoral articular changes. Future arthroscopic studies are needed to further confirm our findings. (orig.)

  12. Increasing lateral tibial slope: is there an association with articular cartilage changes in the knee?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Nasir; Shepel, Michael; Leswick, David A.; Obaid, Haron [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Medical Imaging, Royal University Hospital, and College of Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2014-04-15

    The geometry of the lateral tibial slope (LTS) plays an important role in the overall biomechanics of the knee. Through this study, we aim to assess the impact of LTS on cartilage degeneration in the knee. A retrospective analysis of 93 knee MRI scans (1.5 T or 3 T) for patients aged 20-45 years with no history of trauma or knee surgery, and absence of internal derangement. The LTS was calculated using the circle method. Chondropathy was graded from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe). Linear regression analysis was used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05). In our cohort of patients, a statistically significant association was seen between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patellar articular surface and the lateral tibial articular surface (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening chondropathy of the lateral patellar, medial trochlea, lateral trochlea, medial femoral, lateral femoral, and medial tibial articular surfaces. Our results show a statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patella and the lateral tibial plateau. We speculate that increased LTS may result in increased femoral glide over the lateral tibial plateau with subsequent increased external rotation of the femur predisposing to patellofemoral articular changes. Future arthroscopic studies are needed to further confirm our findings. (orig.)

  13. Characterization of cells from pannus-like tissue over articular cartilage of advanced osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, G-H; Tanaka, M; Masuko-Hongo, K; Shibakawa, A; Kato, T; Nishioka, K; Nakamura, H

    2004-01-01

    To identify the characteristics of cells isolated from pannus-like soft tissue on osteoarthritic cartilage (OA pannus cells), and to evaluate the role of this tissue in osteoarthritis (OA). OA pannus cells were isolated from pannus-like tissues in five joints obtained during arthroplasty. The phenotypic features of the isolated cells were characterized by safranin-O staining and immunohistochemical studies. Expression of MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13 was also assessed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunocytochemistry. Foci and plaque formation of pannus-like tissue over cartilage surface were found in 15 of 21 (71.4%) OA joints macroscopically, and among them, only five samples had enough tissue to be isolated. OA pannus cells were positive for type I collagen and vimentin, besides they also expressed type II collagen and aggrecan mRNA. Spontaneous expression of MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13 was detected in OA pannus cells. Similar or higher levels of MMPs were detected in the supernatant of cultured OA pannus cells compared to OA chondrocytes, and among these MMP-3 levels were relatively higher in OA pannus cells. Immunohistochemically, MMP-3 positive cells located preferentially in pannus-like tissue on the border of original hyaline cartilage. Our results showed that OA pannus cells shared the property of mesenchymal cells and chondrocytes; however, their origin seemed different from chondrocytes or synoviocytes. The spontaneous expression of MMPs suggests that they are involved in the articular degradation in OA.

  14. The structure and function of the pericellular matrix of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilusz, Rebecca E; Sanchez-Adams, Johannah; Guilak, Farshid

    2014-10-01

    Chondrocytes in articular cartilage are surrounded by a narrow pericellular matrix (PCM) that is both biochemically and biomechanically distinct from the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the tissue. While the PCM was first observed nearly a century ago, its role is still under investigation. In support of early hypotheses regarding its function, increasing evidence indicates that the PCM serves as a transducer of biochemical and biomechanical signals to the chondrocyte. Work over the past two decades has established that the PCM in adult tissue is defined biochemically by several molecular components, including type VI collagen and perlecan. On the other hand, the biomechanical properties of this structure have only recently been measured. Techniques such as micropipette aspiration, in situ imaging, computational modeling, and atomic force microscopy have determined that the PCM exhibits distinct mechanical properties as compared to the ECM, and that these properties are influenced by specific PCM components as well as disease state. Importantly, the unique relationships among the mechanical properties of the chondrocyte, PCM, and ECM in different zones of cartilage suggest that this region significantly influences the stress-strain environment of the chondrocyte. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the measurement of PCM mechanical properties and structure that further increase our understanding of PCM function. Taken together, these studies suggest that the PCM plays a critical role in controlling the mechanical environment and mechanobiology of cells in cartilage and other cartilaginous tissues, such as the meniscus or intervertebral disc. Copyright © 2014 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Uptake studies with chondrotropic 99mTc-chondroitin sulfate in articular cartilage. Implications for imaging osteoarthritis in the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobal, Grazyna; Dorotka, Ronald; Menzel, Johannes; Sinzinger, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is an endogenous component of extracellular matrix in the cartilage and can be valuable for imaging of cartilage degeneration after radiolabeling. Data monitoring the uptake of 99m TcCS by human cartilage are rare. Radiolabeling was performed by 99m TcO 4 − /tin method at pH 5.0 in 0.5 M sodium acetate. For uptake studies human articular cartilage (n = 4, 65–79a) derived from individuals undergoing knee replacement (pieces of 3–5 mg wet weight), or frozen tissue sections (5 μ) for autoradiography (10 μCi) were used. The uptake was monitored from 10 min up to 96 h to achieve saturation. As the commercially available drug Condrosulf (IBSA, Lugano) contains Mg-stearate (0.25%) as additive (to improve its gastrointestinal resorption), we investigated the uptake ± additive. The washout of the tracer was examined by tissue incubation after uptake experiments (3 h and 24 h) with PBS-buffer for 10 min to 3 h. Using human articular cartilage the maximal uptake of 99m TcCS (specific activity of 4.1–6.1 Ci/mmol) was continuously increasing with time amounting to a maximum of 53.2% ± 3.2% with additive, versus 39.4% ± 2.3%, without additive, at saturation. Additive increased the resorption of the drug and consecutively its uptake. The washout of the tracer from cartilage after 3 h uptake amounted to 1.5% ± 0.2% with additive, versus 2.6% ± 0.5%, without. After 24 h washout was lower amounting to 1.1% ± 0.1% versus 1.75% ± 0.15%, respectively. Autoradiography revealed also a continuous increase in uptake of 99m TcCS with time. After 10 min of incubation the uptake increase was proportional to the incubation time, reaching the maximum at 48–72 h. Enhanced uptake at the surface (superficial zone) as compared to the subchondral part (deep zone) of slices, was observed. The non-specific uptake in the presence of 50-fold excess of cold CS was time-dependent up to a maximum of 15% (tissue) and 10% (autoradiography), at saturation. The

  16. Orientation-dependent changes in MR signal intensity of articular cartilage: a manifestation of the ``magic angle`` effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacker, F.K.; Bolze, X.; Felsenberg, D.; Wolf, K.J. [Department of Radiology, Benjamin Franklin University Hospital, Free University Berlin, D-12200 Berlin (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Objective: To study magnetic resonance (MR) imaging pattern of normal hyaline articular cartilage in the knee joint with regard to the contribution of the ``magic angle`` effect to the MR signal. Design. Thirty-two healthy volunteers were imaged in a standard supine position in a 1.5-T unit using spin echo and gradient echo sequences. Nine volunteers were reimaged with the knee flexed. The signal behavior of the hyaline cartilage of the femoral condyles was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. The extended and flexed positions of the nine volunteers were compared. Results. A superficial and a deep hyperintense layer and a hypointense middle cartilage layer were observed. Segments of increased signal intensity were visible along the condyles; a magic angle effect on signal intensity was evident in the hypointense middle layer with both gradient echo and spin echo images. Conclusion. The MR signal behavior of hyaline cartilage is influenced by the alignment of the collagen fibers within the cartilage in relation to the magnetic field. Failure to recognize this effect may lead to inaccurate diagnosis. (orig.) With 4 figs., 17 refs.

  17. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of articular cartilage in painful knee joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digish Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the role of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in patients with atraumatic knee pain. Background and Objectives: Knee pain is one of the most common problems faced by people from time immemorial. There is a wide range of disease ranging from traumatic to degenerative causing knee pain in which articular cartilage is involved. Over the past 15 years, MRI has become the premier, first-line imaging study that should be performed in the evaluation of the painful knee in particular in tears of menisci, cruciate and collateral ligaments, osteochondral abnormalities (chondromalacia, osteoarthritis and osteochondral defects, synovial cysts and bone bruises. MRI, by virtue of its superior soft-tissue contrast, lack of ionizing radiation and multiplanar capabilities, is superior to more conventional techniques for the evaluation of articular cartilage. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out on 150 patients in the Department of Radio-diagnosis, Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Pimpri, Pune over a period of 2 years from June 2011 to May 2013. Patients having fracture or dislocations of the knee joint were also excluded from the study. Detailed clinical history, physical and systemic examination findings of all patients were noted in addition to the laboratory investigations. All patients were subjected to radiograph of knee anterior-posterior and lateral view. MRI was performed with Siemens 1.5 Tesla MAGNETOM Avanto machine. Results: In our study of 150 patients with knee pain, articular cartilage defect was found in 90 patients (60%. Out of 90 patients with articular cartilage defect, 30 patients (20% had full thickness cartilage defects. Subchondral marrow edema was seen beneath 30 patients (20% with articular cartilage defects. 32 patients (21.1% had a complex or macerated meniscal tear. Complete anterior cruciate ligament tear was found in seven

  18. Quantification of the optical surface reflection and surface roughness of articular cartilage using optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarakkala, Simo; Wang Shuzhe; Huang Yanping; Zheng Yongping [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: simo.saarakkala@uku.fi, E-mail: ypzheng@ieee.org

    2009-11-21

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising new technique for characterizing the structural changes of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA). The calculation of quantitative parameters from the OCT signal is an important step to develop OCT as an effective diagnostic technique. In this study, two novel parameters for the quantification of optical surface reflection and surface roughness from OCT measurements are introduced: optical surface reflection coefficient (ORC), describing the amount of a ratio of the optical reflection from cartilage surface with respect to that from a reference material, and OCT roughness index (ORI) indicating the smoothness of the cartilage surface. The sensitivity of ORC and ORI to detect changes in bovine articular cartilage samples after enzymatic degradations of collagen and proteoglycans using collagenase and trypsin enzymes, respectively, was tested in vitro. A significant decrease (p < 0.001) in ORC as well as a significant increase (p < 0.001) in ORI was observed after collagenase digestion. After trypsin digestion, no significant changes in ORC or ORI were observed. To conclude, the new parameters introduced were demonstrated to be feasible and sensitive to detect typical OA-like degenerative changes in the collagen network. From the clinical point of view, the quantification of OCT measurements is of great interest since OCT probes have been already miniaturized and applied in patient studies during arthroscopy or open knee surgery in vivo. Further studies are still necessary to demonstrate the clinical capability of the introduced parameters for naturally occurring early OA changes in the cartilage.

  19. Boundary mode lubrication of articular cartilage by recombinant human lubricin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleghorn, Jason P; Jones, Aled R C; Flannery, Carl R; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2009-06-01

    Lubrication of cartilage involves a variety of physical and chemical factors, including lubricin, a synovial glycoprotein that has been shown to be a boundary lubricant. It is unclear how lubricin boundary lubricates a wide range of bearings from tissue to artificial surfaces, and if the mechanism is the same for both soluble and bound lubricin. In the current study, experiments were conducted to investigate the hypothesis that recombinant human lubricin (rh-lubricin) lubricates cartilage in a dose-dependent manner and that soluble and bound fractions of rh-lubricin both contribute to the lubrication process. An rh-lubricin dose response was observed with maximal lubrication achieved at concentrations of rh-lubricin greater than 50 microg/mL. A concentration-response variable-slope model was fit to the data, and indicated that rh-lubricin binding to cartilage was not first order. The pattern of decrease in equilibrium friction coefficient indicated that aggregation of rh-lubricin or steric arrangement may regulate boundary lubrication. rh-lubricin localized at the cartilage surface was found to lubricate a cartilage-glass interface in boundary mode, as did soluble rh-lubricin at high concentrations (150 microg/mL); however, the most effective lubrication occurred when both soluble and bound rh-lubricin were present at the interface. These findings point to two distinct mechanisms by which rh-lubricin lubricates, one mechanism involving lubricin bound to the tissue surface and the other involving lubricin in solution. Copyright 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society

  20. Repair of articular cartilage defects by tissue-engineered cartilage constructed with adipose-derived stem cells and acellular cartilaginous matrix in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z J; An, R Z; Zhao, J Y; Zhang, Q; Yang, J; Wang, J B; Wen, G Y; Yuan, X H; Qi, X W; Li, S J; Ye, X C

    2014-06-18

    After injury, inflammation, or degeneration, articular cartilage has limited self-repair ability. We aimed to explore the feasibility of repair of articular cartilage defects with tissue-engineered cartilage constructed by acellular cartilage matrices (ACMs) seeded with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). The ADSCs were isolated from 3-month-old New Zealand albino rabbit by using collagenase and cultured and amplified in vitro. Fresh cartilage isolated from adult New Zealand albino rabbit were freeze-dried for 12 h and treated with Triton X-100, DNase, and RNase to obtain ACMs. ADSCs were seeded in the acellular cartilaginous matrix at 2x10(7)/mL, and cultured in chondrogenic differentiation medium for 2 weeks to construct tissue-engineered cartilage. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into A, B, and C groups. Engineered cartilage was transplanted into cartilage defect position of rabbits in group A, group B obtained ACMs, and group C did not receive any transplants. The rabbits were sacrificed in week 12. The restored tissue was evaluated using macroscopy, histology, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the tissue-engineered cartilage group (group A), articular cartilage defects of the rabbits were filled with chondrocyte-like tissue with smooth surface. Immunohistochemistry showed type II-collagen expression and Alcian blue staining was positive. TEM showed chondrocytes in the recesses, with plenty of secretary matrix particles. In the scaffold group (group B), the defect was filled with fibrous tissue. No repaired tissue was found in the blank group (group C). Tissue-engineered cartilage using ACM seeded with ADSCs can help repair articular cartilage defects in rabbits.

  1. Combined nanoindentation testing and scanning electron microscopy of bone and articular calcified cartilage in an equine fracture predilection site

    OpenAIRE

    M Doube; EC Firth; A Boyde; AJ Bushby

    2010-01-01

    Condylar fracture of the third metacarpal bone (Mc3) is the commonest cause of racetrack fatality in Thoroughbred horses. Linear defects involving hyaline articular cartilage, articular calcified cartilage (ACC) and subchondral bone (SCB) have been associated with the fracture initiation site, which lies in the sagittal grooves of the Mc3 condyle. We discovered areas of thickened and abnormally-mineralised ACC in the sagittal grooves of several normal 18-month-old horses, at the same site tha...

  2. Effect of homologous synovial membrane on adult human articular cartilage in organ culture, and failure to influence it with D-penicillamine.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacoby, R K

    1980-01-01

    Adult human articular cartilage has been maintained in organ culture for 8 days, and the culture medium, which was changed on alternate days, was pooled. Normal and rheumatoid cartilage was obtained from patients and 4 types of culture were prepared: (1) cartilage alone; (2) cartilage + D-penicillamine; (3) cartilage + homologous synovium; (4) cartilage, synovium, and D-penicillamine. The hexosamines and hexuronic acid were measured in the cartilage explants and in the medium. The quantity re...

  3. Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells: A New Path in Articular Cartilage Defect Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Philipp Stromps

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to data published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, over 6 million people undergo a variety of medical procedures for the repair of articular cartilage defects in the U.S. each year. Trauma, tumor, and age-related degeneration can cause major defects in articular cartilage, which has a poor intrinsic capacity for healing. Therefore, there is substantial interest in the development of novel cartilage tissue engineering strategies to restore articular cartilage defects to a normal or prediseased state. Special attention has been paid to the expansion of chondrocytes, which produce and maintain the cartilaginous matrix in healthy cartilage. This review summarizes the current efforts to generate chondrocytes from adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs and provides an outlook on promising future strategies.

  4. The collagen structure of equine articular cartilage, characterized using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Attenburrow, Don P; Winlove, C Peter; Matcher, Stephen J

    2005-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography images of equine articular cartilage are presented. Measurements were made on intact joint surfaces. Significant (e.g. x 2) variations in the intrinsic birefringence were found over spatial scales of a few millimetres, even on samples taken from young (18 month) animals that appeared visually homogeneous. A comparison of data obtained on a control tissue (equine flexor tendon) further suggests that significant variations in the orientation of the collagen fibres relative to the plane of the joint surface exist. Images of visually damaged cartilage tissue show characteristic features both in terms of the distribution of optical scatterers and of the birefringent components

  5. The collagen structure of equine articular cartilage, characterized using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Attenburrow, Don P; Winlove, C Peter; Matcher, Stephen J [Biomedical Physics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-07

    Optical coherence tomography and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography images of equine articular cartilage are presented. Measurements were made on intact joint surfaces. Significant (e.g. x 2) variations in the intrinsic birefringence were found over spatial scales of a few millimetres, even on samples taken from young (18 month) animals that appeared visually homogeneous. A comparison of data obtained on a control tissue (equine flexor tendon) further suggests that significant variations in the orientation of the collagen fibres relative to the plane of the joint surface exist. Images of visually damaged cartilage tissue show characteristic features both in terms of the distribution of optical scatterers and of the birefringent components.

  6. A biomechanical triphasic approach to the transport of nondilute solutions in articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazari, Alireza; Elliott, Janet A W; Law, Garson K; McGann, Locksley E; Jomha, Nadr M

    2009-12-16

    Biomechanical models for biological tissues such as articular cartilage generally contain an ideal, dilute solution assumption. In this article, a biomechanical triphasic model of cartilage is described that includes nondilute treatment of concentrated solutions such as those applied in vitrification of biological tissues. The chemical potential equations of the triphasic model are modified and the transport equations are adjusted for the volume fraction and frictional coefficients of the solutes that are not negligible in such solutions. Four transport parameters, i.e., water permeability, solute permeability, diffusion coefficient of solute in solvent within the cartilage, and the cartilage stiffness modulus, are defined as four degrees of freedom for the model. Water and solute transport in cartilage were simulated using the model and predictions of average concentration increase and cartilage weight were fit to experimental data to obtain the values of the four transport parameters. As far as we know, this is the first study to formulate the solvent and solute transport equations of nondilute solutions in the cartilage matrix. It is shown that the values obtained for the transport parameters are within the ranges reported in the available literature, which confirms the proposed model approach.

  7. T2* mapping for articular cartilage assessment: principles, current applications, and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesper, Tobias; Bittersohl, Daniela; Krauspe, Ruediger; Zilkens, Christoph [University Duesseldorf, Department of Orthopaedics Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Hosalkar, Harish S. [Center of Hip Preservation and Children' s Orthopaedics, San Diego, CA (United States); Welsch, Goetz H. [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Bittersohl, Bernd [University Duesseldorf, Department of Orthopaedics Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf (Germany); Heinrich-Heine University, Medical School, Department of Orthopaedics, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    With advances in joint preservation surgery that are intended to alter the course of osteoarthritis by early intervention, accurate and reliable assessment of the cartilage status is critical. Biochemically sensitive MRI techniques can add robust biomarkers for disease onset and progression, and therefore, could be meaningful assessment tools for the diagnosis and follow-up of cartilage abnormalities. T2* mapping could be a good alternative because it would combine the benefits of biochemical cartilage evaluation with remarkable features including short imaging time and the ability of high-resolution three-dimensional cartilage evaluation - without the need for contrast media administration or special hardware. Several in vitro and in vivo studies, which have elaborated on the potential of cartilage T2* assessment in various cartilage disease patterns and grades of degeneration, have been reported. However, much remains to be understood and certain unresolved questions have become apparent with these studies that are crucial to the further application of this technique. This review summarizes the principles of the technique and current applications of T2* mapping for articular cartilage assessment. Limitations of recent studies are discussed and the potential implications for patient care are presented. (orig.)

  8. Bipolar and monopolar radiofrequency treatment of osteoarthritic knee articular cartilage: acute and temporal effects on cartilage compressive stiffness, permeability, cell synthesis, and extracellular matrix composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, James L; Kuroki, Keiichi; Kenter, Keith; Marberry, Kevin; Brawner, Travis; Geiger, Timothy; Jayabalan, Prakash; Bal, B Sonny

    2004-04-01

    The cellular, biochemical, biomechanical, and histologic effects of radiofrequency-generated heat on osteoarthritic cartilage were assessed. Articular cartilage explants (n=240) from 26 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty were divided based on Outerbridge grade (I or II/III) and randomly assigned to receive no treatment (controls) or monopolar or bipolar radiofrequency at 15 or 30 W. Both potentially beneficial and harmful effects of radiofrequency treatment of articular cartilage were noted. It will be vital to correlate data from in vitro and in vivo study of radiofrequency thermal chondroplasty to determine the clinical usefulness of this technique.

  9. Time-dependent changes in gene expression induced in vitro by interleukin-1β in equine articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Maria; Svala, Emilia; Lindahl, Anders; Skiöldebrand, Eva; Ekman, Stina

    2018-05-01

    Osteoarthritis is an inflammatory and degenerative joint disease commonly affecting horses. To identify genes of relevance for cartilage pathology in osteoarthritis we studied the time-course effects of interleukin (IL)-1β on equine articular cartilage. Articular cartilage explants from the distal third metacarpal bone were collected postmortem from three horses without evidence of joint disease. The explants were stimulated with IL-1β for 27 days and global gene expression was measured by microarray. Gene expression was compared to that of unstimulated explants at days 3, 9, 15, 21 and 27. Release of inflammatory proteins was measured using Proximity Extension Assay. Stimulation with IL-1β led to time-dependent changes in gene expression related to inflammation, the extracellular matrix (ECM), and phenotypic alterations. Gene expression and protein release of cytokines, chemokines, and matrix-degrading enzymes increased in the stimulated explants. Collagen type II was downregulated from day 15, whereas other ECM molecules were downregulated earlier. In contrast molecules involved in ECM signaling (perlecan, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4, and syndecan 4) were upregulated. At the late time points, genes related to a chondrogenic phenotype were downregulated, and genes related to a hypertrophic phenotype were upregulated, suggesting a transition towards hypertrophy later in the culturing period. The data suggest that this in vitro model mimics time course events of in vivo inflammation in OA and it may be valuable as an in vitro tool to test treatments and to study disease mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Human articular cartilage: in vitro correlation of MRI and histologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhl, M.; Allmann, K.H.; Laubenberger, J.; Langer, M.; Ihling, C.; Tauer, U.; Adler, C.P.

    1998-01-01

    zone correlated weakly to the accumulation of proteoglycans in the radial zone. The trilaminar MRI appearance of the cartilage was only visible when the cartilage was thicker than 2 mm. In cartilage degeneration, we found either a diffuse thinning of all layers or circumscribed lesions (''cartilage ulcer'') of these cartilage layers in the MR images. Early cartilage degeneration was indicated by a signal loss in the superficial zone, correlating to the histologically proven damage of proteoglycans in the transitional and radial zone along with destruction of the superficial zone. We found a strong effect of cartilage rotation in the main magnetic field, too. A rotation of the cartilage structures caused considerable variation in the signal intensity of the second lamina. Cartilage segments in a 55 angle to the magnetic main field had a homogeneous appearance, not a trilaminar appearance. The signal behavior of hyaline articular cartilage does not reflect the laminar histologic structure. Osteoarthrosis and cartilage degeneration are visible on MR images as intracartilaginous signal changes, superficial erosions, diffuse cartilage thinning, and cartilage ulceration. (orig.)

  11. Human articular cartilage: in vitro correlation of MRI and histologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhl, M.; Allmann, K.H.; Laubenberger, J.; Langer, M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital of Freiburg (Germany); Ihling, C.; Tauer, U.; Adler, C.P. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital of Freiburg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    zone correlated weakly to the accumulation of proteoglycans in the radial zone. The trilaminar MRI appearance of the cartilage was only visible when the cartilage was thicker than 2 mm. In cartilage degeneration, we found either a diffuse thinning of all layers or circumscribed lesions (``cartilage ulcer``) of these cartilage layers in the MR images. Early cartilage degeneration was indicated by a signal loss in the superficial zone, correlating to the histologically proven damage of proteoglycans in the transitional and radial zone along with destruction of the superficial zone. We found a strong effect of cartilage rotation in the main magnetic field, too. A rotation of the cartilage structures caused considerable variation in the signal intensity of the second lamina. Cartilage segments in a 55 angle to the magnetic main field had a homogeneous appearance, not a trilaminar appearance. The signal behavior of hyaline articular cartilage does not reflect the laminar histologic structure. Osteoarthrosis and cartilage degeneration are visible on MR images as intracartilaginous signal changes, superficial erosions, diffuse cartilage thinning, and cartilage ulceration. (orig.) With 6 figs., 19 refs.

  12. Deletion of IFT80 Impairs Epiphyseal and Articular Cartilage Formation Due to Disruption of Chondrocyte Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xue; Yang, Shuying

    2015-01-01

    Intraflagellar transport proteins (IFT) play important roles in cilia formation and organ development. Partial loss of IFT80 function leads Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (JATD) or short-rib polydactyly (SRP) syndrome type III, displaying narrow thoracic cavity and multiple cartilage anomalies. However, it is unknown how IFT80 regulates cartilage formation. To define the role and mechanism of IFT80 in chondrocyte function and cartilage formation, we generated a Col2α1; IFT80f/f mouse model by crossing IFT80f/f mice with inducible Col2α1-CreER mice, and deleted IFT80 in chondrocyte lineage by injection of tamoxifen into the mice in embryonic or postnatal stage. Loss of IFT80 in the embryonic stage resulted in short limbs at birth. Histological studies showed that IFT80-deficient mice have shortened cartilage with marked changes in cellular morphology and organization in the resting, proliferative, pre-hypertrophic, and hypertrophic zones. Moreover, deletion of IFT80 in the postnatal stage led to mouse stunted growth with shortened growth plate but thickened articular cartilage. Defects of ciliogenesis were found in the cartilage of IFT80-deficient mice and primary IFT80-deficient chondrocytes. Further study showed that chondrogenic differentiation was significantly inhibited in IFT80-deficient mice due to reduced hedgehog (Hh) signaling and increased Wnt signaling activities. These findings demonstrate that loss of IFT80 blocks chondrocyte differentiation by disruption of ciliogenesis and alteration of Hh and Wnt signaling transduction, which in turn alters epiphyseal and articular cartilage formation. PMID:26098911

  13. Three-Dimensional Printing Articular Cartilage: Recapitulating the Complexity of Native Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Lembong, Josephine; Zhang, Lijie Grace; Fisher, John P

    2017-06-01

    In the past few decades, the field of tissue engineering combined with rapid prototyping (RP) techniques has been successful in creating biological substitutes that mimic tissues. Its applications in regenerative medicine have drawn efforts in research from various scientific fields, diagnostics, and clinical translation to therapies. While some areas of therapeutics are well developed, such as skin replacement, many others such as cartilage repair can still greatly benefit from tissue engineering and RP due to the low success and/or inefficiency of current existing, often surgical treatments. Through fabrication of complex scaffolds and development of advanced materials, RP provides a new avenue for cartilage repair. Computer-aided design and three-dimensional (3D) printing allow the fabrication of modeled cartilage scaffolds for repair and regeneration of damaged cartilage tissues. Specifically, the various processes of 3D printing will be discussed in details, both cellular and acellular techniques, covering the different materials, geometries, and operational printing conditions for the development of tissue-engineered articular cartilage. Finally, we conclude with some insights on future applications and challenges related to this technology, especially using 3D printing techniques to recapitulate the complexity of native structure for advanced cartilage regeneration.

  14. Multiscale Mechanics of Articular Cartilage: Potentials and Challenges of Coupling Musculoskeletal, Joint, and Microscale Computational Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, J. P.; Sibole, S.; van Donkelaar, C. C.; van Turnhout, M. C.; Oomens, C. W. J.; Weiss, J. A.; Guilak, F.; Erdemir, A.

    2012-01-01

    Articular cartilage experiences significant mechanical loads during daily activities. Healthy cartilage provides the capacity for load bearing and regulates the mechanobiological processes for tissue development, maintenance, and repair. Experimental studies at multiple scales have provided a fundamental understanding of macroscopic mechanical function, evaluation of the micromechanical environment of chondrocytes, and the foundations for mechanobiological response. In addition, computational models of cartilage have offered a concise description of experimental data at many spatial levels under healthy and diseased conditions, and have served to generate hypotheses for the mechanical and biological function. Further, modeling and simulation provides a platform for predictive risk assessment, management of dysfunction, as well as a means to relate multiple spatial scales. Simulation-based investigation of cartilage comes with many challenges including both the computational burden and often insufficient availability of data for model development and validation. This review outlines recent modeling and simulation approaches to understand cartilage function from a mechanical systems perspective, and illustrates pathways to associate mechanics with biological function. Computational representations at single scales are provided from the body down to the microstructure, along with attempts to explore multiscale mechanisms of load sharing that dictate the mechanical environment of the cartilage and chondrocytes. PMID:22648577

  15. Galectin-3 Binds to Lubricin and Reinforces the Lubricating Boundary Layer of Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesink, Heidi L; Bonnevie, Edward D; Liu, Sherry; Shurer, Carolyn R; Hollander, Michael J; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Nixon, Alan J

    2016-05-09

    Lubricin is a mucinous, synovial fluid glycoprotein that enables near frictionless joint motion via adsorption to the surface of articular cartilage and its lubricating properties in solution. Extensive O-linked glycosylation within lubricin's mucin-rich domain is critical for its boundary lubricating function; however, it is unknown exactly how glycosylation facilitates cartilage lubrication. Here, we find that the lubricin glycome is enriched with terminal β-galactosides, known binding partners for a family of multivalent lectins called galectins. Of the galectin family members present in synovial fluid, we find that galectin-3 is a specific, high-affinity binding partner for lubricin. Considering the known ability of galectin-3 to crosslink glycoproteins, we hypothesized that galectins could augment lubrication via biomechanical stabilization of the lubricin boundary layer. We find that competitive inhibition of galectin binding results in lubricin loss from the cartilage surface, and addition of multimeric galectin-3 enhances cartilage lubrication. We also find that galectin-3 has low affinity for the surface layer of osteoarthritic cartilage and has reduced affinity for sialylated O-glycans, a glycophenotype associated with inflammatory conditions. Together, our results suggest that galectin-3 reinforces the lubricin boundary layer; which, in turn, enhances cartilage lubrication and may delay the onset and progression of arthritis.

  16. The effect og aging and mechanical loading on the metabolism og articular cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Adam El Mongy; Kjær, Michael; Heinemeier, Katja Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The morphology of articular cartilage (AC) enables painless movement. Aging and mechanical loading are believed to influence development of osteoarthritis (OA), yet the connection remains unclear. Methods. This narrative review describes the current knowledge regarding this area......, with the literature search made on PubMed using appropriate keywords regarding AC, age, and mechanical loading. Results. Following skeletal maturation, chondrocyte numbers decline while increasing senescence occurs. Lower cartilage turnover causes diminished maintenance capacity, which produces accumulation...... collagen network damage and proteoglycan loss, leading to irreversible cartilage destruction because of lack of regenerative capacity. Catabolic pathways involve inflammation and the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB. Thus, age seems to be a predisposing factor for OA, with mechanical overload being...

  17. The Effect of Aging and Mechanical Loading on the Metabolism of Articular Cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Adam El Mongy; Kjaer, Michael; Heinemeier, Katja Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The morphology of articular cartilage (AC) enables painless movement. Aging and mechanical loading are believed to influence development of osteoarthritis (OA), yet the connection remains unclear. Methods. This narrative review describes the current knowledge regarding this area......, with the literature search made on PubMed using appropriate keywords regarding AC, age, and mechanical loading. Results. Following skeletal maturation, chondrocyte numbers decline while increasing senescence occurs. Lower cartilage turnover causes diminished maintenance capacity, which produces accumulation...... collagen network damage and proteoglycan loss, leading to irreversible cartilage destruction because of lack of regenerative capacity. Catabolic pathways involve inflammation and the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB. Thus, age seems to be a predisposing factor for OA, with mechanical overload being...

  18. Correlation between radiographic findings of osteoarthritis and arthroscopic findings of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijowski, Richard; Blankenbaker, Donna; Stanton, Paul; De Smet, Arthur; Fine, Jason

    2006-01-01

    To correlate radiographic findings of osteoarthritis on axial knee radiographs with arthroscopic findings of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint in patients with chronic knee pain. The study group consisted of 104 patients with osteoarthritis of the patellofemoral joint and 30 patients of similar age with no osteoarthritis of the patellofemoral joint. All patients in the study group had an axial radiograph of the knee performed prior to arthroscopic knee surgery. At the time of arthroscopy, each articular surface of the patellofemoral joint was graded using the Noyes classification system. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the knee radiographs to determine the presence of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts. The sensitivity and specificity of the various radiographic features of osteoarthritis for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint were determined. The sensitivity of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint was 73%, 37%, 4%, and 0% respectively. The specificity of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint was 67%, 90%, 100%, and 100% respectively. Marginal osteophytes were the most sensitive radiographic feature for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint. Joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts were insensitive radiographic features of osteoarthritis, and rarely occurred in the absence of associated osteophyte formation. (orig.)

  19. Correlation between radiographic findings of osteoarthritis and arthroscopic findings of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Blankenbaker, Donna; Stanton, Paul; De Smet, Arthur [University of Wisconsin Hospital Clinical Science Center-E3/311, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Fine, Jason [University of Wisconsin Clinical Science Center-K6/4675, Department of Statistics, Madison, WI (United States)

    2006-12-15

    To correlate radiographic findings of osteoarthritis on axial knee radiographs with arthroscopic findings of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint in patients with chronic knee pain. The study group consisted of 104 patients with osteoarthritis of the patellofemoral joint and 30 patients of similar age with no osteoarthritis of the patellofemoral joint. All patients in the study group had an axial radiograph of the knee performed prior to arthroscopic knee surgery. At the time of arthroscopy, each articular surface of the patellofemoral joint was graded using the Noyes classification system. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the knee radiographs to determine the presence of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts. The sensitivity and specificity of the various radiographic features of osteoarthritis for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint were determined. The sensitivity of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint was 73%, 37%, 4%, and 0% respectively. The specificity of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint was 67%, 90%, 100%, and 100% respectively. Marginal osteophytes were the most sensitive radiographic feature for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint. Joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts were insensitive radiographic features of osteoarthritis, and rarely occurred in the absence of associated osteophyte formation. (orig.)

  20. Correlation between radiographic findings of osteoarthritis and arthroscopic findings of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijowski, Richard; Blankenbaker, Donna; Stanton, Paul; Fine, Jason; De Smet, Arthur

    2006-12-01

    To correlate radiographic findings of osteoarthritis on axial knee radiographs with arthroscopic findings of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint in patients with chronic knee pain. The study group consisted of 104 patients with osteoarthritis of the patellofemoral joint and 30 patients of similar age with no osteoarthritis of the patellofemoral joint. All patients in the study group had an axial radiograph of the knee performed prior to arthroscopic knee surgery. At the time of arthroscopy, each articular surface of the patellofemoral joint was graded using the Noyes classification system. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the knee radiographs to determine the presence of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts. The sensitivity and specificity of the various radiographic features of osteoarthritis for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint were determined. The sensitivity of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint was 73%, 37%, 4%, and 0% respectively. The specificity of marginal osteophytes, joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint was 67%, 90%, 100%, and 100% respectively. Marginal osteophytes were the most sensitive radiographic feature for the detection of articular cartilage degeneration within the patellofemoral joint. Joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and subchondral cysts were insensitive radiographic features of osteoarthritis, and rarely occurred in the absence of associated osteophyte formation.

  1. Contribution of proteoglycan osmotic swelling pressure to the compressive properties of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, EunHee; Chen, Silvia S; Klisch, Stephen M; Sah, Robert L

    2011-08-17

    The negatively charged proteoglycans (PG) provide compressive resistance to articular cartilage by means of their fixed charge density (FCD) and high osmotic pressure (π(PG)), and the collagen network (CN) provides the restraining forces to counterbalance π(PG). Our objectives in this work were to: 1), account for collagen intrafibrillar water when transforming biochemical measurements into a FCD-π(PG) relationship; 2), compute π(PG) and CN contributions to the compressive behavior of full-thickness cartilage during bovine growth (fetal, calf, and adult) and human adult aging (young and old); and 3), predict the effect of depth from the articular surface on π(PG) in human aging. Extrafibrillar FCD (FCD(EF)) and π(PG) increased with bovine growth due to an increase in CN concentration, whereas PG concentration was steady. This maturation-related increase was amplified by compression. With normal human aging, FCD(EF) and π(PG) decreased. The π(PG)-values were close to equilibrium stress (σ(EQ)) in all bovine and young human cartilage, but were only approximately half of σ(EQ) in old human cartilage. Depth-related variations in the strain, FCD(EF), π(PG), and CN stress profiles in human cartilage suggested a functional deterioration of the superficial layer with aging. These results suggest the utility of the FCD-π(PG) relationship for elucidating the contribution of matrix macromolecules to the biomechanical properties of cartilage. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a Spring-Loaded Impact Device to Deliver Injurious Mechanical Impacts to the Articular Cartilage Surface

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    Alexander, Peter G.; Song, Yingjie; Taboas, Juan M.; Chen, Faye H.; Melvin, Gary M.; Manner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Traumatic impacts on the articular joint surface in vitro are known to lead to degeneration of the cartilage. The main objective of this study was to develop a spring-loaded impact device that can be used to deliver traumatic impacts of consistent magnitude and rate and to find whether impacts cause catabolic activities in articular cartilage consistent with other previously reported impact models and correlated with the development of osteoarthritic lesions. In developing the spring-loaded impactor, the operating hypothesis is that a single supraphysiologic impact to articular cartilage in vitro can affect cartilage integrity, cell viability, sulfated glycosaminoglycan and inflammatory mediator release in a dose-dependent manner. Design: Impacts of increasing force are delivered to adult bovine articular cartilage explants in confined compression. Impact parameters are correlated with tissue damage, cell viability, matrix and inflammatory mediator release, and gene expression 24 hours postimpact. Results: Nitric oxide release is first detected after 7.7 MPa impacts, whereas cell death, glycosaminoglycan release, and prostaglandin E2 release are first detected at 17 MPa. Catabolic markers increase linearly to maximal levels after ≥36 MPa impacts. Conclusions: A single supraphysiologic impact negatively affects cartilage integrity, cell viability, and GAG release in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings showed that 7 to 17 MPa impacts can induce cell death and catabolism without compromising the articular surface, whereas a 17 MPa impact is sufficient to induce increases in most common catabolic markers of osteoarthritic degeneration. PMID:26069650

  3. A study on MR images of the articular cartilage in medial-type osteoarthritis of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Mitsutoshi; Kotani, Akihiro

    2001-01-01

    Changes in the articular cartilage of 88 knees of 73 cases (age range 40-78) diagnosed clinically and radiologically as OA (osteoarthritis) were studied by obtaining fat-suppressed MR images of the knee. On 27 knees out of the 88, moreover, macroscopic observation was performed to make a comparative study between the directly-observed findings and MR findings. Fat-suppressed MR images were obtained sagittally by 3D-FLASH (fast low angle shot) sequence. The examined regions consisted of the following 4 sites; the medial condyle of the femur, its lateral condyle, the medial condyle of the tibia, and its lateral condyle. The revealed conditions of the cartilage were morphologically classified into 4 Stages. The evidence of cartilage defect on MR images was most frequently found at the medial condyle of the femur, with the medial condyle of the tibia, the lateral condyle of the femur, and the lateral condyle of the tibia following in a less frequent order. Fat-suppressed MRI's sensitivity to cartilage defect against macroscopy was 94.5%, specificity 95.4%, and accuracy 95.2%. MR imaging using fat-suppression can reveal cartilaginous degeneration and defect so well that this technique provides an important indication for selecting a proper method of treatment. (author)

  4. Wrist Traction During MR Arthrography Improves Detection of Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex and Intrinsic Ligament Tears and Visibility of Articular Cartilage.

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    Lee, Ryan K L; Griffith, James F; Ng, Alex W H; Nung, Ryan C H; Yeung, David K W

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of traction during MR arthrography of the wrist on joint space widening, cartilage visibility, and detection of tears of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) and intrinsic ligaments. A prospective study included 40 wrists in 39 patients (25 men, 14 women; mean age, 35 years). MR arthrography was performed with a 3-T MRI system with and without axial traction. Two radiologists independently measured wrist and carpal joint space widths and semiquantitatively graded articular cartilage visibility. Using conventional arthrography as the reference standard and working in consensus, they assessed for the presence of tears of the TFCC, lunotriquetral ligament (LTL), and scapholunate ligament (SLL). Visibility of a tear before traction was compared with visibility after traction. With traction, all joint spaces in the wrist and carpus were significantly widened (change, 0.15-1.01 mm; all p < 0.006). Subjective cartilage visibility of all joint spaces improved after traction (all p ≤ 0.048) except for that of the radioscaphoid space, which was well visualized even before traction. Conventional arthrography depicted 24 TFCC tears, seven LTL tears, and three SLL tears. The accuracy of tear detection improved after traction for the TFCC (98% after traction vs 83% before traction), the LTL (100% vs 88%), and the SLL (100% vs 95%). Tear visibility improved after traction for 54% of TFCC tears, 71% of LTL tears, and 66% of SLL tears. Wrist MR arthrography with axial traction significantly improved the visibility of articular cartilage and the detection and visibility of tears of the TFCC and intrinsic ligaments. The results favor more widespread use of traction during MR arthrography of the wrist.

  5. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging and multivariate regression for prediction of proteoglycan content of articular cartilage.

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    Lassi Rieppo

    Full Text Available Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopic imaging has been earlier applied for the spatial estimation of the collagen and the proteoglycan (PG contents of articular cartilage (AC. However, earlier studies have been limited to the use of univariate analysis techniques. Current analysis methods lack the needed specificity for collagen and PGs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of partial least squares regression (PLSR and principal component regression (PCR methods for the analysis of the PG content of AC. Multivariate regression models were compared with earlier used univariate methods and tested with a sample material consisting of healthy and enzymatically degraded steer AC. Chondroitinase ABC enzyme was used to increase the variation in PG content levels as compared to intact AC. Digital densitometric measurements of Safranin O-stained sections provided the reference for PG content. The results showed that multivariate regression models predict PG content of AC significantly better than earlier used absorbance spectrum (i.e. the area of carbohydrate region with or without amide I normalization or second derivative spectrum univariate parameters. Increased molecular specificity favours the use of multivariate regression models, but they require more knowledge of chemometric analysis and extended laboratory resources for gathering reference data for establishing the models. When true molecular specificity is required, the multivariate models should be used.

  6. Intra-articular injection of dexketoprofen in rat knee joint : Histopathologic assessment of cartilage & synovium

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    Aycan Guner Ekici

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Effective pain control following outpatient surgical procedures is an important aspect of patient discharge. This study was carried out with an aim to investigate the histopathological effects of intra-articular dexketoprofen trometamol injection in knee joint on synovium and cartilage in an experimental rat model. Methods: In each of 40 rats, the right knee was designated as the study group and the left knee as the control group (NS group. Under aseptic conditions, 35 rats received an injection of 0.25 ml (6.25 mg dexketoprofen trometamol into the right knee joint and an injection of 0.25 ml 0.9 per cent normal saline solution into the left knee joint. On the 1 st , 2 nd , 7 th , 14 th , and 21 st days after intra-articular injection, rats in specified groups were sacrificed by intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg sodium thiopental. Knee joints were separated and sectioned for histopathological examination. Inflammatory changes in the joints were recorded according to a grade scale. Results: No significant difference in terms of pathological changes both in synovium and cartilage was observed between the NS group and the study group on days 1, 2, 7, 14 and 21 after intra-articular injection of dexketoprofen or saline in the knee joint. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings showed no evidence of significant histopathological damage to the cartilage and synovia for a period up to 21 days following intra-articular administration of dexketoprofen trometamol in the knee joints of rats.

  7. Induction of spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration using a double-network gel: efficacy of a novel therapeutic strategy for an articular cartilage defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Nobuto; Yasuda, Kazunori; Ogawa, Munehiro; Arakaki, Kazunobu; Kai, Shuken; Onodera, Shin; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Gong, Jian Ping

    2011-06-01

    A double-network (DN) gel, which was composed of poly-(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) and poly-(N,N'-dimetyl acrylamide) (PAMPS/PDMAAm), has the potential to induce chondrogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. To establish the efficacy of a therapeutic strategy for an articular cartilage defect using a DN gel. Controlled laboratory study. A 4.3-mm-diameter osteochondral defect was created in rabbit trochlea. A DN gel plug was implanted into the defect of the right knee so that a defect 2 mm in depth remained after surgery. An untreated defect of the left knee provided control data. The osteochondral defects created were examined by histological and immunohistochemical evaluations, surface assessment using confocal laser scanning microscopy, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis at 4 and 12 weeks. Samples were quantitatively evaluated with 2 scoring systems reported by Wayne et al and O'Driscoll et al. The DN gel-implanted defect was filled with a sufficient volume of the hyaline cartilage tissue rich in proteoglycan and type 2 collagen. Quantitative evaluation using the grading scales revealed a significantly higher score in the DN gel-implanted defects compared with the untreated control at each period (P cartilage at 12 weeks (P = .0106), while there was no statistical difference between the DN gel-implanted and normal knees. This study using the mature rabbit femoral trochlea osteochondral defect model demonstrated that DN gel implantation is an effective treatment to induce cartilage regeneration in vivo without any cultured cells or mammalian-derived scaffolds. This study has prompted us to develop a potential innovative strategy to repair cartilage lesions in the field of joint surgery.

  8. Decellularized Bovine Articular Cartilage Matrix Reinforced by Carboxylated-SWCNT for Tissue Engineering Application

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    Zari Majidi Mohammadie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nanotubes with their unique properties have diversified mechanical and biological applications. Due to similarity of dimensions with extracellular matrix (ECM elements, these materials are used in designing scaffolds. In this research, Carboxylated Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes in optimization of decellularized scaffold of bovine articular cartilage was used. At first, the articular cartilage was decellularized. Then the scaffolds were analyzed in: (i decellularized scaffolds, and (ii scaffolds plunged into homogenous suspension of nanotubes in distilled water, were smeared with Carboxylated-SWCNT. The tissue rings derived from the rabbit's ear were assembled with reinforced scaffolds and they were placed in a culture media for 15 days. The scaffolds in two groups and the assembled scaffolds underwent histologic and electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the structure of ECM of articular cartilage has been maintained well after decellularization. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed that the contents of ECM have not been changed under treatment process. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed the difference in surface topography and roughness of group (ii scaffolds in comparison with group (i. Transmission electron microscopy studies showed the Carboxylated-SWCNT bond with the surface of decellularized scaffold and no penetration of these compounds into the scaffold. The porosity percentage with median rate of 91.04 in group (i scaffolds did not have significant difference with group (ii scaffolds. The electron microscopy observations confirmed migration and penetration of the blastema cells into the group (ii assembled scaffolds. This research presents a technique for provision of nanocomposite scaffolds for cartilage engineering applications.

  9. Co-culture systems-based strategies for articular cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Guo, Weimin; Wang, Mingjie; Hao, Chunxiang; Lu, Liang; Gao, Shuang; Zhang, Xueliang; Li, Xu; Chen, Mingxue; Li, Penghao; Jiang, Peng; Lu, Shibi; Liu, Shuyun; Guo, Quanyi

    2018-03-01

    Cartilage engineering facilitates repair and regeneration of damaged cartilage using engineered tissue that restores the functional properties of the impaired joint. The seed cells used most frequently in tissue engineering, are chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells. Seed cells activity plays a key role in the regeneration of functional cartilage tissue. However, seed cells undergo undesirable changes after in vitro processing procedures, such as degeneration of cartilage cells and induced hypertrophy of mesenchymal stem cells, which hinder cartilage tissue engineering. Compared to monoculture, which does not mimic the in vivo cellular environment, co-culture technology provides a more realistic microenvironment in terms of various physical, chemical, and biological factors. Co-culture technology is used in cartilage tissue engineering to overcome obstacles related to the degeneration of seed cells, and shows promise for cartilage regeneration and repair. In this review, we focus first on existing co-culture systems for cartilage tissue engineering and related fields, and discuss the conditions and mechanisms thereof. This is followed by methods for optimizing seed cell co-culture conditions to generate functional neo-cartilage tissue, which will lead to a new era in cartilage tissue engineering. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Of mice, men and elephants: the relation between articular cartilage thickness and body mass.

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    Jos Malda

    Full Text Available Mammalian articular cartilage serves diverse functions, including shock absorption, force transmission and enabling low-friction joint motion. These challenging requirements are met by the tissue's thickness combined with its highly specific extracellular matrix, consisting of a glycosaminoglycan-interspersed collagen fiber network that provides a unique combination of resilience and high compressive and shear resistance. It is unknown how this critical tissue deals with the challenges posed by increases in body mass. For this study, osteochondral cores were harvested post-mortem from the central sites of both medial and lateral femoral condyles of 58 different mammalian species ranging from 25 g (mouse to 4000 kg (African elephant. Joint size and cartilage thickness were measured and biochemical composition (glycosaminoclycan, collagen and DNA content and collagen cross-links densities were analyzed. Here, we show that cartilage thickness at the femoral condyle in the mammalian species investigated varies between 90 µm and 3000 µm and bears a negative allometric relationship to body mass, unlike the isometric scaling of the skeleton. Cellular density (as determined by DNA content decreases with increasing body mass, but gross biochemical composition is remarkably constant. This however need not affect life-long performance of the tissue in heavier mammals, due to relatively constant static compressive stresses, the zonal organization of the tissue and additional compensation by joint congruence, posture and activity pattern of larger mammals. These findings provide insight in the scaling of articular cartilage thickness with body weight, as well as in cartilage biochemical composition and cellularity across mammalian species. They underscore the need for the use of appropriate in vivo models in translational research aiming at human applications.

  11. Of Mice, Men and Elephants: The Relation between Articular Cartilage Thickness and Body Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malda, Jos; de Grauw, Janny C.; Benders, Kim E. M.; Kik, Marja J. L.; van de Lest, Chris H. A.; Creemers, Laura B.; Dhert, Wouter J. A.; van Weeren, P. René

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian articular cartilage serves diverse functions, including shock absorption, force transmission and enabling low-friction joint motion. These challenging requirements are met by the tissue’s thickness combined with its highly specific extracellular matrix, consisting of a glycosaminoglycan-interspersed collagen fiber network that provides a unique combination of resilience and high compressive and shear resistance. It is unknown how this critical tissue deals with the challenges posed by increases in body mass. For this study, osteochondral cores were harvested post-mortem from the central sites of both medial and lateral femoral condyles of 58 different mammalian species ranging from 25 g (mouse) to 4000 kg (African elephant). Joint size and cartilage thickness were measured and biochemical composition (glycosaminoclycan, collagen and DNA content) and collagen cross-links densities were analyzed. Here, we show that cartilage thickness at the femoral condyle in the mammalian species investigated varies between 90 µm and 3000 µm and bears a negative allometric relationship to body mass, unlike the isometric scaling of the skeleton. Cellular density (as determined by DNA content) decreases with increasing body mass, but gross biochemical composition is remarkably constant. This however need not affect life-long performance of the tissue in heavier mammals, due to relatively constant static compressive stresses, the zonal organization of the tissue and additional compensation by joint congruence, posture and activity pattern of larger mammals. These findings provide insight in the scaling of articular cartilage thickness with body weight, as well as in cartilage biochemical composition and cellularity across mammalian species. They underscore the need for the use of appropriate in vivo models in translational research aiming at human applications. PMID:23437402

  12. Topographical variation of the elastic properties of articular cartilage in the canine knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurvelin, J S; Arokoski, J P; Hunziker, E B; Helminen, H J

    2000-06-01

    Equilibrium response of articular cartilage to indentation loading is controlled by the thickness (h) and elastic properties (shear modulus, mu, and Poisson's ratio, nu) of the tissue. In this study, we characterized topographical variation of Poisson's ratio of the articular cartilage in the canine knee joint (N=6). Poisson's ratio was measured using a microscopic technique. In this technique, the shape change of the cartilage disk was visualized while the cartilage was immersed in physiological solution and compressed in unconfined geometry. After a constant 5% axial strain, the lateral strain was measured during stress relaxation. At equilibrium, the lateral-to-axial strain ratio indicates the Poisson's ratio of the tissue. Indentation (equilibrium) data from our prior study (Arokoski et al., 1994. International Journal of Sports Medicine 15, 254-260) was re-analyzed using the Poisson's ratio results at the test site to derive values for shear and aggregate moduli. The lowest Poisson's ratio (0.070+/-0.016) located at the patellar surface of femur (FPI) and the highest (0.236+/-0.026) at the medial tibial plateau (TMI). The stiffest cartilage was found at the patellar groove of femur (micro=0.964+/-0.189MPa, H(a)=2.084+/-0. 409MPa) and the softest at the tibial plateaus (micro=0.385+/-0. 062MPa, H(a)=1.113+/-0.141MPa). Comparison of the mechanical results and the biochemical composition of the tissue (Jurvelin et al., 1988. Engineering in Medicine 17, 157-162) at the matched sites of the canine knee joint indicated a negative correlation between the Poisson's ratio and collagen-to-PG content ratio. This is in harmony with our previous findings which suggested that, in unconfined compression, the degree of lateral expansion in different tissue zones is related to collagen-to-PG ratio of the zone.

  13. Postnatal development of depth-dependent collagen density in ovine articular cartilage

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    Kranenbarg Sander

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Articular cartilage (AC is the layer of tissue that covers the articulating ends of the bones in diarthrodial joints. Adult AC is characterised by a depth-dependent composition and structure of the extracellular matrix that results in depth-dependent mechanical properties, important for the functions of adult AC. Collagen is the most abundant solid component and it affects the mechanical behaviour of AC. The current objective is to quantify the postnatal development of depth-dependent collagen density in sheep (Ovis aries AC between birth and maturity. We use Fourier transform infra-red micro-spectroscopy to investigate collagen density in 48 sheep divided over ten sample points between birth (stillborn and maturity (72 weeks. In each animal, we investigate six anatomical sites (caudal, distal and rostral locations at the medial and lateral side of the joint in the distal metacarpus of a fore leg and a hind leg. Results Collagen density increases from birth to maturity up to our last sample point (72 weeks. Collagen density increases at the articular surface from 0.23 g/ml ± 0.06 g/ml (mean ± s.d., n = 48 at 0 weeks to 0.51 g/ml ± 0.10 g/ml (n = 46 at 72 weeks. Maximum collagen density in the deeper cartilage increases from 0.39 g/ml ± 0.08 g/ml (n = 48 at 0 weeks to 0.91 g/ml ± 0.13 g/ml (n = 46 at 72 weeks. Most collagen density profiles at 0 weeks (85% show a valley, indicating a minimum, in collagen density near the articular surface. At 72 weeks, only 17% of the collagen density profiles show a valley in collagen density near the articular surface. The fraction of profiles with this valley stabilises at 36 weeks. Conclusions Collagen density in articular cartilage increases in postnatal life with depth-dependent variation, and does not stabilize up to 72 weeks, the last sample point in our study. We find strong evidence for a valley in collagen densities near the articular surface that is present in the youngest

  14. Chondrocyte secreted CRTAC1: a glycosylated extracellular matrix molecule of human articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Eric; Bräun, Jessica; Pelttari, Karoliina; Kadel, Stephanie; Kalbacher, Hubert; Richter, Wiltrud

    2007-01-01

    Cartilage acidic protein 1 (CRTAC1), a novel human marker which allowed discrimination of human chondrocytes from osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells in culture was so far studied only on the RNA-level. We here describe its genomic organisation and detect a new brain expressed (CRTAC1-B) isoform resulting from alternate last exon usage which is highly conserved in vertebrates. In humans, we identify an exon sharing process with the neighbouring tail-to-tail orientated gene leading to CRTAC1-A. This isoform is produced by cultured human chondrocytes, localized in the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage and its secretion can be stimulated by BMP4. Of five putative O-glycosylation motifs in the last exon of CRTAC1-A, the most C-terminal one is modified according to exposure of serial C-terminal deletion mutants to the O-glycosylation inhibitor Benzyl-alpha-GalNAc. Both isoforms contain four FG-GAP repeat domains and an RGD integrin binding motif, suggesting cell-cell or cell-matrix interaction potential. In summary, CRTAC1 acquired an alternate last exon from the tail-to-tail oriented neighbouring gene in humans resulting in the glycosylated isoform CRTAC1-A which represents a new extracellular matrix molecule of articular cartilage.

  15. Spatial and temporal changes of subchondral bone proceed to articular cartilage degeneration in rats subjected to knee immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Li, Zhe; Lei, Lei; Zhou, Yue-Zhu; Deng, Song-Yun; He, Yong-Bin; Ni, Guo-Xin

    2016-03-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal changes of subchondral bone and its overlying articular cartilage in rats following knee immobilization. A total of 36 male Wistar rats (11-13 months old) were assigned randomly and evenly into 3 groups. For each group, knee joints in 6 rats were immobilized unilaterally for 1, 4, or 8 weeks, respectively, while the remaining rats were allowed free activity and served as external control groups. For each animal, femurs at both sides were dissected after sacrificed. The distal part of femur was examined by micro-CT. Subsequently, femoral condyles were collected for further histological observation and analysis. For articular cartilage, significant changes were observed only at 4 and 8 weeks of immobilization. The thickness of articular cartilage and chondrocytes numbers decreased with time. However, significant changes in subchondral bone were defined by micro-CT following immobilization in a time-dependent manner. Immobilization led to a thinner and more porous subchondral bone plate, as well as a reduction in trabecular thickness and separation with a more rod-like architecture. Changes in subchondral bone occurred earlier than in articular cartilage. More importantly, immobilization-induced changes in subchondral bone may contribute, at least partially, to changes in its overlying articular cartilage. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Attenuation of the progression of articular cartilage degeneration by inhibition of TGF-β1 signaling in a mouse model of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rebecca; Mian, Michelle; Fu, Martin; Zhao, Jing Ying; Yang, Liang; Li, Yefu; Xu, Lin

    2015-11-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) is implicated in osteoarthritis. We therefore studied the role of TGF-β1 signaling in the development of osteoarthritis in a developmental stage-dependent manner. Three different mouse models were investigated. First, the Tgf-β receptor II (Tgfbr2) was specifically removed from the mature cartilage of joints. Tgfbr2-deficient mice were grown to 12 months of age and were then euthanized for collection of knee and temporomandibular joints. Second, Tgfbr2-deficient mice were subjected to destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery. Knee joints were then collected from the mice at 8 and 16 weeks after the surgery. Third, wild-type mice were subjected to DMM at the age of 8 weeks. Immediately after the surgery, these mice were treated with the Tgfbr2 inhibitor losartan for 8 weeks and then euthanized for collection of knee joints. All joints were characterized for evidences of articular cartilage degeneration. Initiation or acceleration of articular cartilage degeneration was not observed by the genetic inactivation of Tgfbr2 in the joints at the age of 12 months. In fact, the removal of Tgfbr2 and treatment with losartan both delayed the progression of articular cartilage degeneration induced by DMM compared with control littermates. Therefore, we conclude that inhibition of Tgf-β1 signaling protects adult knee joints in mice against the development of osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Routine clinical knee MR reports: comparison of diagnostic performance at 1.5 T and 3.0 T for assessment of the articular cartilage

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    Mandell, Jacob C.; Rhodes, Jeffrey A.; Shah, Nehal; Gaviola, Glenn C.; Smith, Stacy E. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Gomoll, Andreas H. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Cartilage Repair Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Accurate assessment of knee articular cartilage is clinically important. Although 3.0 Tesla (T) MRI is reported to offer improved diagnostic performance, literature regarding the clinical impact of MRI field strength is lacking. The purpose of this study is to compare the diagnostic performance of clinical MRI reports for assessment of cartilage at 1.5 and 3.0 T in comparison to arthroscopy. This IRB-approved retrospective study consisted of 300 consecutive knees in 297 patients who had routine clinical MRI and arthroscopy. Descriptions of cartilage from MRI reports of 165 knees at 1.5 T and 135 at 3.0 T were compared with arthroscopy. The sensitivity, specificity, percent of articular surfaces graded concordantly, and percent of articular surfaces graded within one grade of the arthroscopic grading were calculated for each articular surface at 1.5 and 3.0 T. Agreement between MRI and arthroscopy was calculated with the weighted-kappa statistic. Significance testing was performed utilizing the z-test after bootstrapping to obtain the standard error. The sensitivity, specificity, percent of articular surfaces graded concordantly, and percent of articular surfaces graded within one grade were 61.4%, 82.7%, 62.2%, and 77.5% at 1.5 T and 61.8%, 80.6%, 59.5%, and 75.6% at 3.0 T, respectively. The weighted kappa statistic was 0.56 at 1.5 T and 0.55 at 3.0 T. There was no statistically significant difference in any of these parameters between 1.5 and 3.0 T. Factors potentially contributing to the lack of diagnostic advantage of 3.0 T MRI are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Comparison of T2* relaxation times of articular cartilage of the knee in elite professional football players and age-and BMI-matched amateur athletes

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    Behzadi, C., E-mail: c.behzadi@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclearmedicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 20246 (Germany); Welsch, G.H. [Department of Sports Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 20246 (Germany); Laqmani, A.; Henes, F.O.; Kaul, M.G. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclearmedicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 20246 (Germany); Schoen, G. [Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, University Medical Center, Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 20246 (Germany); Adam, G.; Regier, M. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclearmedicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 20246 (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Objective: Recent investigation has underlined the potential of quantitative MR imaging to be used as a complementary tool for the diagnosis of cartilage degeneration at an early state. The presented study analyses T2* relaxation times of articular cartilage of the knee in professional athletes and compares the results to age- and BMI (Body Mass Index)-matched healthy amateur athletes. Materials and methods: 22 professional football players and 22 age- and BMI-matched individuals were underwent knee Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at 3T including qualitative and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis included e.g. meniscal tears, joint effusion and bone edema. For quantitative analysis T2* (22 ET: 4.6-53.6 ms) measurements in 3D data acquisition were performed. Deep and superficial layers of 22 predefined cartilage segments were analysed. All data sets were postprocessed using a dedicated software tool. Statistical analysis included Student t-test, confidence intervals and a random effects model. Results: In both groups, T2* relaxation times were significantly higher in the superficial compared to the deep layers (p < 0.001). Professional athletes had significantly higher relaxation times in eight superficial and three deep cartilage layers in the predefined cartilage segments (p < 0.05). Highly significant differences were found in the weight-bearing segments of the lateral superficial femoral condyle (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Elevated T2* values in cartilage layers of professional football players compared to amateur athletes were noted. The effects seem to predominate in superficial cartilage layers.

  19. Comparison of T2* relaxation times of articular cartilage of the knee in elite professional football players and age-and BMI-matched amateur athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behzadi, C.; Welsch, G.H.; Laqmani, A.; Henes, F.O.; Kaul, M.G.; Schoen, G.; Adam, G.; Regier, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Recent investigation has underlined the potential of quantitative MR imaging to be used as a complementary tool for the diagnosis of cartilage degeneration at an early state. The presented study analyses T2* relaxation times of articular cartilage of the knee in professional athletes and compares the results to age- and BMI (Body Mass Index)-matched healthy amateur athletes. Materials and methods: 22 professional football players and 22 age- and BMI-matched individuals were underwent knee Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at 3T including qualitative and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis included e.g. meniscal tears, joint effusion and bone edema. For quantitative analysis T2* (22 ET: 4.6-53.6 ms) measurements in 3D data acquisition were performed. Deep and superficial layers of 22 predefined cartilage segments were analysed. All data sets were postprocessed using a dedicated software tool. Statistical analysis included Student t-test, confidence intervals and a random effects model. Results: In both groups, T2* relaxation times were significantly higher in the superficial compared to the deep layers (p < 0.001). Professional athletes had significantly higher relaxation times in eight superficial and three deep cartilage layers in the predefined cartilage segments (p < 0.05). Highly significant differences were found in the weight-bearing segments of the lateral superficial femoral condyle (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Elevated T2* values in cartilage layers of professional football players compared to amateur athletes were noted. The effects seem to predominate in superficial cartilage layers.

  20. THE FUNCTIONAL EFFECTIVENESS OF A CELL-ENGINEERED CONSTRUCT FOR THE REGENERATION OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Sevastianov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is an analysis of the functional effectiveness of a biomedical cell product consisting of a biopolymer microheterogeneous collagen-containing hydrogel (BMCH, human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hADMSCs, and chondrogenic induction medium in the regeneration of articular cartilage. Materials and methods. The test model of the adjuvant arthritis was used (female Soviet Chinchilla rabbits with the further development into osteoarthrosis (OA combined with the clinical, biochemical, radiological, and histochemical trials. Results. On Day 92 of the OA model it has been found that the intra-articular introduction of a BMCH with hADMSCs into the left knee joint (n = 3 30 days after the OA modeling, as opposed to the right joint (negative control, n = 3, stimulates the regenerative processes of the cartilaginous tissue structure characterized by the formation of chondrocyte «columns», the emergence of isogenic groups in the intracellular matrix and the regeneration of its structure. Upon the intra-articular introduction of a BMCH (n = 3 such effects are markedly less pronounced. Conclusions. A significant regenerative potential of a cell-engineered construct of human articular tissue (CEC ATh has been proven. It is possible to presume that biostimulating properties of CEC ATh are due to the activating effect of a biomedical cell product on the stem cell migration processes from the surrounding tissue into the injured area with their subsequent differentiation. 

  1. Study of the collagen structure in the superficial zone and physiological state of articular cartilage using a 3D confocal imaging technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ming H

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The collagen structure in the superficial zone of articular cartilage is critical to the tissue's durability. Early osteoarthritis is often characterized with fissures on the articular surface. This is closely related to the disruption of the collagen network. However, the traditional histology can not offer visualization of the collagen structure in articular cartilage because it uses conventional optical microscopy that does not have insufficient imaging resolution to resolve collagen from proteoglycans in hyaline articular cartilage. This study examines the 3D collagen network of articular cartilage scored from 0 to 2 in the scoring system of International Cartilage Repair Society, and aims to develop a 3D histology for assessing early osteoarthritis. Methods Articular cartilage was visually classified into five physiological groups: normal cartilage, aged cartilage, cartilage with artificial and natural surface disruption, and fibrillated. The 3D collagen matrix of the cartilage was acquired using a 3D imaging technique developed previously. Traditional histology was followed to grade the physiological status of the cartilage in the scoring system of International Cartilage Repair Society. Results Normal articular cartilage contains interwoven collagen bundles near the articular surface, approximately within the lamina splendens. However, its collagen fibres in the superficial zone orient predominantly in a direction spatially oblique to the articular surface. With age and disruption of the articular surface, the interwoven collagen bundles are gradually disappeared, and obliquely oriented collagen fibres change to align predominantly in a direction spatially perpendicular to the articular surface. Disruption of the articular surface is well related to the disappearance of the interwoven collagen bundles. Conclusion A 3D histology has been developed to supplement the traditional histology and study the subtle changes in

  2. Is the repair of articular cartilage lesion by costal chondrocyte transplantation donor age-dependent? An experimental study in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Popko

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The repair of chondral injuries is a very important problem and a subject of many experimental and clinical studies. Different techniques to induce articular cartilage repair are under investigation. In the present study, we have investigated whether the repair of articular cartilage folowing costal chondrocyte transplantation is donor age-dependent. Transplantation of costal chondrocytes from 4- and 24-week old donors, with artificially induced femoral cartilage lesion, was performed on fourteen 20-week-old New Zealand White male rabbits. In the control group, the lesion was left without chondrocyte transplantation. The evaluation of the cartilage repair was performed after 12 weeks of transplantation. We analyzed the macroscopic and histological appearance of the newly formed tissue. Immunohistochemistry was also performed using monoclonal antibodies against rabbit collagen type II. The newly formed tissue had a hyaline-like appearance in most of the lesions after chondrocyte transplantation. Positive immunohistochemical reaction for collagen II was also observed in both groups with transplanted chondrocytes. Cartilage from adult donors required longer isolation time and induced slightly poorer repair. However, hyaline-like cartilage was observed in most specimens from this group, in contrast to the control group, where fibrous connective tissue filled the lesions. Rabbit costal chondrocytes seem to be a potentially useful material for inducing articular cartilage repair and, even more important, they can also be derived from adult, sexually mature animals.

  3. Study on nano-structured hydroxyapatite/zirconia stabilized yttria on healing of articular cartilage defect in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Sotoudeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Articular Cartilage has limited potential for self-repair and tissue engineering approaches attempt to repair articular cartilage by scaffolds. We hypothesized that the combined hydroxyapatite and zirconia stabilized yttria would enhance the quality of cartilage healing. METHODS: In ten New Zealand white rabbits bilateral full-thickness osteochondral defect, 4 mm in diameter and 3 mm depth, was created on the articular cartilage of the patellar groove of the distal femur. In group I the scaffold was implanted into the right stifle and the same defect was created in the left stifle without any transplant (group II. Specimens were harvested at 12 weeks after implantation, examined histologically for morphologic features, and stained immunohistochemically for type-II collagen. RESULTS: In group I the defect was filled with a white translucent cartilage tissue In contrast, the defects in the group II remained almost empty. In the group I, the defects were mostly filled with hyaline-like cartilage evidenced but defects in group II were filled with fibrous tissue with surface irregularities. Positive immunohistochemical staining of type-II collagen was observed in group I and it was absent in the control group. CONCLUSION: The hydroxyapatite/yttria stabilized zirconia scaffold would be an effective scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

  4. Platelet lysate activates quiescent cell proliferation and reprogramming in human articular cartilage: Involvement of hypoxia inducible factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thi; Cancedda, Ranieri; Descalzi, Fiorella

    2018-03-01

    The idea of rescuing the body self-repair capability lost during evolution is progressively gaining ground in regenerative medicine. In particular, growth factors and bioactive molecules derived from activated platelets emerged as promising therapeutic agents acting as trigger for repair of tissue lesions and restoration of tissue functions. Aim of this study was to assess the potential of a platelet lysate (PL) for human articular cartilage repair considering its activity on progenitor cells and differentiated chondrocytes. PL induced the re-entry in the cell cycle of confluent, growth-arrested dedifferentiated/progenitor cartilage cells. In a cartilage permissive culture environment, differentiated cells also resumed proliferation after exposure to PL. These findings correlated with an up-regulation of the proliferation/survival pathways ERKs and Akt and with an induction of cyclin D1. In short- and long-term cultures of articular cartilage explants, we observed a release of proliferating chondroprogenitors able to differentiate and form an "in vitro" tissue with properties of healthy articular cartilage. Moreover, in cultured cartilage cells, PL induced a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) alpha increase, its nuclear relocation and the binding to HIF-1 responsive elements. These events were possibly related to the cell proliferation because the HIF-1 inhibitor acriflavine inhibited HIF-1 binding to HIF-1 responsive elements and cell proliferation. Our study demonstrates that PL induces quiescent cartilage cell activation and proliferation leading to new cartilage formation, identifies PL activated pathways playing a role in these processes, and provides a rationale to the application of PL for therapeutic treatment of damaged articular cartilage. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Elastoviscous Transitions of Articular Cartilage Reveal a Mechanism of Synergy between Lubricin and Hyaluronic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward D Bonnevie

    Full Text Available When lubricated by synovial fluid, articular cartilage provides some of the lowest friction coefficients found in nature. While it is known that macromolecular constituents of synovial fluid provide it with its lubricating ability, it is not fully understood how two of the main molecules, lubricin and hyaluronic acid, lubricate and interact with one another. Here, we develop a novel framework for cartilage lubrication based on the elastoviscous transition to show that lubricin and hyaluronic acid lubricate by distinct mechanisms. Such analysis revealed nonspecific interactions between these molecules in which lubricin acts to concentrate hyaluronic acid near the tissue surface and promotes a transition to a low friction regime consistent with the theory of viscous boundary lubrication. Understanding the mechanics of synovial fluid not only provides insight into the progression of diseases such as arthritis, but also may be applicable to the development of new biomimetic lubricants.

  6. Benefits of Ilizarov automated bone distraction for nerves and articular cartilage in experimental leg lengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Shchudlo, Nathalia; Varsegova, Tatyana; Stupina, Tatyana; Shchudlo, Michael; Saifutdinov, Marat; Yemanov, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine peculiarities of tissue responses to manual and automated Ilizarov bone distraction in nerves and articular cartilage. METHODS Twenty-nine dogs were divided in two experimental groups: Group M - leg lengthening with manual distraction (1 mm/d in 4 steps), Group A - automated distraction (1 mm/d in 60 steps) and intact group. Animals were euthanized at the end of distraction, at 30th day of fixation in apparatus and 30 d after the fixator removal. M-responses in gastrocnemius ...

  7. HISTOMORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE KNEE ARTICULAR CARTILAGE AND SYNOVIUM FOR METADIAPHYSEAL LEG LENGTHENING (EXPERIMENTAL-AND-MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Stupina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The knee articular cartilage and synovial membrane have been studied for metadiaphyseal leg lengthening using the methods of light miscroscopy, computer morpho- and stereometry. The manner of bone integrity breaking, the rate and rhythm of distraction conformed to the lengthening technique most often used in the clinic. The results of the histomorphometric analysis have demonstrated that when osteotomy at the level of metadiaphysis and manual distraction by 1 mm a day for 4 times is performed, synovitis of mild and moderate degree develops through subsynovial layer hypervascularization, as well as reactive-destructive changes in nerve fibers with the tendency to regeneration. The structural-functional changes of reactive and/or destructive-reparative character have been revealed in the articular cartilage, and the manifestation degree of these changes correlates with synovial membrane changes. The intensity of the destructive-reparative processes in the articular cartilage and synovial membrane depends on fixation stability.

  8. Zonal Articular Cartilage Possesses Complex Mechanical Behavior Spanning Multiple Length Scales: Dependence on Chemical Heterogeneity, Anisotropy, and Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlquist, Joseph A.

    This work focused on characterizing the mechanical behavior of biological material in physiologically relevant conditions and at sub millimeter length scales. Elucidating the time, length scale, and directionally dependent mechanical behavior of cartilage and other biological materials is critical to adequately recapitulate native mechanosensory cues for cells, create computational models that mimic native tissue behavior, and assess disease progression. This work focused on three broad aspects of characterizing the mechanical behavior of articular cartilage. First, we sought to reveal the causes of time-dependent deformation and variation of mechanical properties with distance from the articular surface. Second, we investigated size dependence of mechanical properties. Finally, we examined material anisotropy of both the calcified and uncalcified tissues of the osteochondral interface. This research provides insight into how articular cartilage serves to support physiologic loads and simultaneously sustain chondrocyte viability.

  9. Articular cartilage tissue engineering with plasma-rich in growth factors and stem cells with nano scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaser, Laila M.; Abbassy, Hadeer A.; Fawzy, Sherin M.

    2016-09-01

    The ability to heal soft tissue injuries and regenerate cartilage is the Holy Grail of musculoskeletal medicine. Articular cartilage repair and regeneration is considered to be largely intractable due to the poor regenerative properties of this tissue. Due to their low self-repair ability, cartilage defects that result from joint injury, aging, or osteoarthritis, are the most often irreversible and are a major cause of joint pain and chronic disability. However, current methods do not perfectly restore hyaline cartilage and may lead to the apparition of fibro- or continue hypertrophic cartilage. The lack of efficient modalities of treatment has prompted research into tissue engineering combining stem cells, scaffold materials and environmental factors. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering, which aims to repair, regenerate, and/or improve injured or diseased cartilage functionality, has evoked intense interest and holds great potential for improving cartilage therapy. Plasma-rich in growth factors (PRGF) and/or stem cells may be effective for tissue repair as well as cartilage regenerative processes. There is a great promise to advance current cartilage therapies toward achieving a consistently successful approach for addressing cartilage afflictions. Tissue engineering may be the best way to reach this objective via the use of stem cells, novel biologically inspired scaffolds and, emerging nanotechnology. In this paper, current and emergent approach in the field of cartilage tissue engineering is presented for specific application. In the next years, the development of new strategies using stem cells, in scaffolds, with supplementation of culture medium could improve the quality of new formed cartilage.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of articular cartilage of the knee using ultrashort echo time (uTE) sequences with spiral acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hajimu; Fujii, Masahiko; Iwama, Yuki; Aoyama, Nobukazu; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of ultrashort echo time (uTE) sequence for visualisation of calcified deep layers of articular cartilage. MRI with a uTE sequence was performed on five healthy volunteers. Signals from the calcified deep layers of the articular knee cartilage were evaluated on uTE subtraction images and computed tomography images. The calcified deep layers of the articular cartilage changed from having a low to a high signal when imaged with a uTE sequence. The reported uTE sequence was effective in imaging the deep layers of the knee cartilage.

  11. Metal deposition at the bone-cartilage interface in articular cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaabar, W. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.kaabar@surrey.ac.uk; Daar, E.; Gundogdu, O.; Jenneson, P.M. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Farquharson, M.J. [Department of Radiography, School of Allied Health Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Webb, M.; Jeynes, C. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    There is a growing interest being shown in the changes occurring in elemental distribution at the bone-cartilage interface, the changes either being a result of mechanical damage or disease. In particular, such investigations have tended to concern the elemental alterations associated with the osteoarthritic wear and tear damage occurring to the cartilage and subchondral bone of synovial joints or that associated with disease processes such as rheumatic arthritis. Present studies examine sections of femoral head obtained from total hip replacement surgery, use being made of micro-proton-induced X-ray emission ({mu}-PIXE) and the Rutherford back scattering (RBS) techniques. Enhancements of Zn, Ca and P have been observed at the bone-cartilage interface. Further, the concentration of Zn in spongy bone underlying the subchondral surface of a section of the femoral head has been measured, obtaining 136 {mu}g g{sup -1} bone, the presence of Ca and P at the same position being 0.235 and 0.0451 g g{sup -1} bone, respectively. These values are slightly different to figures recently published by other authors using similar techniques.

  12. Role of electrostatic interactions on the transport of druglike molecules in hydrogel-based articular cartilage mimics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Fengbin; Baldursdottir, Stefania G.; Hvidt, Søren

    2016-01-01

    In the field of drug delivery to the articular cartilage, it is advantageous to apply artificial tissue models as surrogates of cartilage for investigating drug transport and release properties. In this study, artificial cartilage models consisting of 0.5% (w/v) agarose gel containing 0.5% (w...... to the pure agarose gel. The decrease in apparent diffusivity of the cationic compounds was not caused by a change in the gel structure since a similar reduction in apparent diffusivity was not observed for the net negatively charged protein α-lactalbumin. The apparent diffusivity of the cationic compounds...... the electrostatic nature of their interactions. The results obtained from the UV imaging diffusion studies are important for understanding the effect of drug physicochemical properties on the transport in articular cartilage. The extracted information may be useful in the development of hydrogels for in vitro...

  13. An observational study on MR images of the effect of the discoid meniscus on articular cartilage thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oni, David Babajide; Jeyapalan, K; Oni, Olusola O A

    2011-06-01

    The discoid meniscus is known to affect the morphology and mechanics of the knee compartment in which it is housed. To determine whether it also is determinative of the articular cartilage thickness, measurements were made on MR images. There was no statistically significant difference in femoral or tibial articular cartilage thickness between compartments with normal meniscus and compartments with discoid meniscus. These findings suggest that mechanical disturbances wrought by the discoid shape do not have a 'Wolff law' effect. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. [On the preparation and mechanical properties of PVA hydrogel bionic cartilage/bone composite artificial articular implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Haoye; Zheng, Yudong; Huang, Xiaoshan; Yue, Bingqing; Xu, Hong; Wang, Yingjun; Chen, Xiaofeng

    2010-10-01

    In view of the problems that conventional artificial cartilages have no bioactivity and are prone to peel off in repeated uses as a result of insufficient strength to bond with subchondral bone, we have designed and prepared a novel kind of PVA-BG composite hydrogel as bionic artificial articular cartilage/bone composite implants. The effects of processes and conditions of preparation on the mechanical properties of implant were explored. In addition, the relationships between compression strain rate, BG content, PVA hydrogels thickness and compressive tangent modulus were also explicated. We also analyzed the effects of cancellous bone aperture, BG and PVA content on the shear strength of bonding interface of artificial articular cartilage with cancellous bone. Meanwhile, the bonding interface of artificial articular cartilage and cancellous bone was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. It was revealed that the compressive modulus of composite implants was correspondingly increased with the adding of BG content and the augments of PVA hydrogel thickness. The compressive modulus and bonding interface were both related to the apertures of cancellous bone. The compressive modulus of composite implants was 1.6-2.23 MPa and the shear strength of bonding interface was 0.63-1.21 MPa. These results demonstrated that the connection between artificial articular cartilage and cancellous bone was adequately firm.

  15. Articular cartilage damage with intramedullary lesion (bone bruise) in anterior cruciate ligament rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Shuya; Ohdera, Toshihiro; Tokunaga, Masami; Hiroshima, Shiro; Yoshimoto, Eiji

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between the intramedullary lesion on MRI and cartilage damage in patients associated with acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Thirty-two cases documented by MRI and arthroscopy within one month from injury underwent ACL reconstruction using ST-G, and arthroscopy was performed again after surgery. The mean term between reconstruction and postoperative arthroscopy was twelve months. The cartilage damage on arthroscopy was compared with the intramedullary lesion on MRI. Cartilage damage was observed in 9 cases (28.1%) during the initial arthroscopy and in 16 cases (50.0%) during the second arthroscopy. Intramedullary lesion was detected in all 32 cases (total: 73 lesions) on MRI. Intramedullary lesion leading to cartilage damage was common in the geographic-type lateral femoral condyle. There was significant difference between the lateral meniscus tear and the cartilage damage of the lateral compartment. (author)

  16. Bovine lactoferricin is anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic in human articular cartilage and synovium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dongyao; Chen, Di; Shen, Jie; Xiao, Guozhi; van Wijnen, Andre J; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2013-02-01

    Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a multi-functional peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of bovine lactoferrin. LfcinB was found to antagonize the biological effects mediated by angiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) in endothelial cells. However, the effect of LfcinB on human articular cartilage remained unknown. Here, our findings demonstrate that LfcinB restored the proteoglycan loss promoted by catabolic factors (interleukin-1β) IL-1β and FGF-2 in vitro and ex vivo. Mechanistically, LfcinB attenuated the effects of IL-1β and FGF-2 on the expression of cartilage-degrading enzymes (MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13), destructive cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6), and inflammatory mediators (iNOS and TLR2). LfcinB induced protective cytokine expression (IL-4 and IL-10), and downregulated aggrecanase basal expression. LfcinB specifically activated ERK MAPK and Akt signaling pathways, which may account for its anti-inflammatory activity. We also revealed that LfcinB exerted similar protective effects on human synovial fibroblasts challenged by IL-1β, with minimal cytotoxicity. Collectively, our results suggest that LfcinB possesses potent anti-catabolic and anti-inflammatory bioactivities in human articular tissues, and may be utilized for the prevention and/or treatment of OA in the future. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Mechanics and crack formation in the extracellular matrix with articular cartilage as a model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Sarah; Silverberg, Jesse; Bonassar, Lawrence; Cohen, Itai; Das, Moumita

    We investigate the mechanical structure-function relations in the extracellular matrix (ECM) with focus on crack formation and failure. As a model system, our study focuses on the ECM in articular cartilage (AC), the tissue that covers the ends of bones, and distributes load in joints including in the knees, shoulders, and hips. The strength, toughness, and crack resistance of native articular cartilage is unparalleled in materials made by humankind. This mechanical response is mainly due to its ECM. The ECM in AC has two major mechanobiological components: a network of the biopolymer collagen and a flexible aggrecan gel. We model this system as a biopolymer network embedded in a swelling gel, and investigate the conditions for the formation and propagation of cracks using a combination of rigidity percolation theory and energy minimization approaches. Our results may provide useful insights into the design principles of the ECM as well as of biomimetic hydrogels that are mechanically robust and can, at the same time, easily adapt to cues in their surroundings. This work was partially supported by a Cottrell College Science Award.

  18. Three-Dimensional Bioprinting and Its Potential in the Field of Articular Cartilage Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, Vivian H. M.; Levato, Riccardo; Bonassar, Lawrence J.; D’Lima, Darryl D.; Grande, Daniel A.; Klein, Travis J.; Saris, Daniel B. F.; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy; Gawlitta, Debby; Malda, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting techniques can be used for the fabrication of personalized, regenerative constructs for tissue repair. The current article provides insight into the potential and opportunities of 3D bioprinting for the fabrication of cartilage regenerative constructs. Although 3D printing is already used in the orthopedic clinic, the shift toward 3D bioprinting has not yet occurred. We believe that this shift will provide an important step forward in the field of cartilage regeneration. Three-dimensional bioprinting techniques allow incorporation of cells and biological cues during the manufacturing process, to generate biologically active implants. The outer shape of the construct can be personalized based on clinical images of the patient’s defect. Additionally, by printing with multiple bio-inks, osteochondral or zonally organized constructs can be generated. Relevant mechanical properties can be obtained by hybrid printing with thermoplastic polymers and hydrogels, as well as by the incorporation of electrospun meshes in hydrogels. Finally, bioprinting techniques contribute to the automation of the implant production process, reducing the infection risk. To prompt the shift from nonliving implants toward living 3D bioprinted cartilage constructs in the clinic, some challenges need to be addressed. The bio-inks and required cartilage construct architecture need to be further optimized. The bio-ink and printing process need to meet the sterility requirements for implantation. Finally, standards are essential to ensure a reproducible quality of the 3D printed constructs. Once these challenges are addressed, 3D bioprinted living articular cartilage implants may find their way into daily clinical practice. PMID:28934880

  19. Bonding of human meniscal and articular cartilage with photoactive 1,8-naphthalimide dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Millard M.; Nosir, Hany R.; Jackson, Robert W.; Matthews, James Lester; Lewis, David E.; Utecht, Ronald E.; Yuan, Dongwu

    1996-05-01

    This study focused on meniscal cartilage repair by using the laser-activated photoactive 1,8- naphthalimide dye N,N'-bis-{6-[2-(2-(2- aminoethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxyethyl]amino-1H-benz (de)isoquinolin-1,3(2H)-dion-2- yl}-1,11-diamino-3,6,9-trioxaundecane. Harvested cadaveric human menisci were debrided and carved into strips 1 mm thick, 10 mm long, and 3 mm wide. Each strip was divided into two flaps, the surface painted with photoactive dye, the painted surfaces overlapped, the sample wrapped in Saran film, and the composite sandwiched between two glass slides at a pressure of approximately 3 kg/cm2. The sample then was transilluminated by argon ion laser light of 457.9-nm wavelength at a power density of 200 mW/cm2 with exposure times up to 5 h (3902 J/cm2 energy density). Essentially, the same procedures were performed for human femoral articular cartilage samples. Control experiments were conducted with laser irradiation alone and with dye alone. All the specimens were stored in isotonic saline solution for 2 h after irradiation to ensure hydration. The bond shear-strength was then tested and samples prepared for optical and electron transmission microscopy. Shear strength values of up to 1.8 kg/cm2 for meniscal tissues and 1.2 kg/cm2 for articular cartilaginous tissues were obtained for exposures of 3902 J/cm2. Shear strength values of approximately 0.9 kg/cm2 and 0.4 kg/cm2, respectively, for meniscus and cartilage were obtained with 459 J/cm2 exposure. Dye- and light-only controls exhibited 0 kg/cm2 shear strength values. Microscopy revealed close contact at the bonded surface in the laser-activated, dye-treated-specimens. This study shows that the laser-activated photoactive dyes have the capability of athermally bonding the meniscal and articular cartilage surfaces.

  20. Effect of retinoic acid on proteoglycan turnover in bovine articular cartilage cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.A.; Handley, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes proteoglycan catabolism by adult bovine articular cartilage treated with retinoic acid as a means of stimulating the loss of this macromolecule from the extracellular matrix of cartilage. Addition of retinoic acid (10(-12)-10(-6) M) to adult bovine articular cartilage which had been labeled with [ 35 S]sulfate for 6 h after 5 days in culture, resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the rate of loss of 35 S-labeled proteoglycans from the matrix of the tissue. Concomitant with this loss was a decrease in the proteoglycan content of the tissue. Incubation of cultures treated with 1 microM retinoic acid, at 4 degrees C, or with 0.5 mM cycloheximide, resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of retinoic acid-induced loss of proteoglycans and demonstrated cellular involvement in this process. Analysis of the 35 S-labeled proteoglycans remaining in the matrix showed that the percentage of radioactivity associated with the small proteoglycan species extracted from the matrix of articular cartilage explants labeled with [ 35 S]sulfate after 5 days in culture was 15% and this increased to 22% in tissue maintained in medium alone. In tissue treated with 1 microM retinoic acid for 6 days, the percentage of radioactivity associated with the small proteoglycan was 58%. Approximately 93% of the 35 S-labeled proteoglycans released into the medium of control and retinoic acid-treated cultures was recovered in high density fractions after CsCl gradient centrifugation and eluted on Sepharose CL-2B as a broad peak with a Kav of 0.30-0.37. Less than 17% of these proteoglycans was capable of aggregating with hyaluronate. These results indicate that in both control and retinoic acid-treated cultures the larger proteoglycan species is lost to the medium at a greater rate than the small proteoglycan species. The effect of retinoic acid on proteoglycan turnover was shown to be reversible

  1. μ-XRF and μ-XANES at calcification fronts of human articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streli, C.; Zoeger, N.; Wobrauschek, P.; Jokubonis, C.; Pepponi, G.; Falkenberg, G.; Simon, P.; Roschger, P.; Tampieri, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: One of the main threats to human health from heavy metals is associated with exposure to lead (Pb), which is associated with chronic diseases in the nervous, hematopoietic, skeletal, renal and endocrine system. Although much progress has been made to limit Pb exposure in industrialized countries, primarily through the elimination of leaded gasoline, workplace exposures and leaded pipes, most adults have already accumulated a substantial body burden of Pb. Most of the affiliated Pb is deposited in human bones, where it is stored up to 20 years and accounts for 90.95 of the total lead body burden. Pb is able to displace Ca 2+ by cation exchange processes in the hydroxyapatite crystal (the main constituent of bone) and is liberated from it in cases of increased bone turnover such as osteoporosis, pregnancy, hyperthyroidism and hyperparathyroidism. Besides these phenomenological studies on the release of Pb from human calcified tissue analytical studies are essential to gain insight on storage sites and storage mechanisms on a microscopic scale. Therefore detailed synchrotron radiation induced micro x-ray fluorescence analyses (SR μ - XRF) have been carried out to study the distribution of Pb in bones from human joints (femoral heads and patellas). As a very recent result we found a highly specific accumulation of Pb in the tidemark, which is a metabolically active mineralization front (thickness about 5 - 10 μm) between calcified and non-calcified articular cartilage and plays an important role in developing osteoarthritis. From the results obtained for single tidemark bones one would expect an accumulation of Pb in both tidemarks of bones showing tidemark duplication. However, Pb shows a strong accumulation at the older of the two tidemarks, while it is not present at the younger one. A comparison of the Pb distribution with the one of other tidemark-seekers (e.g. Zn) exhibits a time difference in the accumulation of different metals at the calcification

  2. Optimization of Methods for Articular Cartilage Surface Tissue Engineering: Cell Density and Transforming Growth Factor Beta Are Critical for Self-Assembly and Lubricin Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Kenjiro; Reddi, A Hari

    2017-07-01

    Lubricin/superficial zone protein (SZP)/proteoglycan4 (PRG4) plays an important role in boundary lubrication in articular cartilage. Lubricin is secreted by superficial zone chondrocytes and synoviocytes of the synovium. The specific objective of this investigation is to optimize the methods for tissue engineering of articular cartilage surface. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of cell density on the self-assembly of superficial zone chondrocytes and lubricin secretion as a functional assessment. Superficial zone chondrocytes were cultivated as a monolayer at low, medium, and high densities. Chondrocytes at the three different densities were treated with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)1 twice a week or daily, and the accumulated lubricin in the culture medium was analyzed by immunoblots and quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cell numbers in low and medium densities were increased by TGF-β1; whereas cell numbers in high-density cell cultures were decreased by twice-a-week treatment of TGF-β1. On the other hand, the cell numbers were maintained by daily TGF-β treatment. Immunoblots and quantitation of lubricin by ELISA analysis indicated that TGF-β1 stimulated lubricin secretion by superficial zone chondrocytes at all densities with twice-a-week TGF-β treatment. It is noteworthy that the daily treatment of TGF-β1 increased lubricin much higher compared with twice-a-week treatment. These data demonstrate that daily treatment is optimal for the TGF-β1 response in a higher density of monolayer cultures. These findings have implications for self-assembly of surface zone chondrocytes of articular cartilage for application in tissue engineering of articular cartilage surface.

  3. Regulation of the friction coefficient of articular cartilage by TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRaine, Grayson; Neu, Corey P; Chan, Stephanie M T; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos; June, Ronald K; Reddi, A Hari

    2009-02-01

    Articular cartilage functions to provide a low-friction surface for joint movement for many decades of life. Superficial zone protein (SZP) is a glycoprotein secreted by chondrocytes in the superficial layer of articular cartilage that contributes to effective boundary lubrication. In both cell and explant cultures, TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta have been demonstrated to, respectively, upregulate and downregulate SZP protein levels. It was hypothesized that the friction coefficient of articular cartilage could also be modulated by these cytokines through SZP regulation. The friction coefficient between cartilage explants (both untreated and treated with TGF-beta1 or IL-1beta) and a smooth glass surface due to sliding in the boundary lubrication regime was measured with a pin-on-disk tribometer. SZP was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and localized by immunohistochemistry. Both TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta treatments resulted in the decrease of the friction coefficient of articular cartilage in a location- and time-dependent manner. Changes in the friction coefficient due to the TGF-beta1 treatment corresponded to increased depth of SZP staining within the superficial zone, while friction coefficient changes due to the IL-1beta treatment were independent of SZP depth of staining. However, the changes induced by the IL-1beta treatment corresponded to changes in surface roughness, determined from the analysis of surface images obtained with an atomic force microscope. These findings demonstrate that the low friction of articular cartilage can be modified by TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta treatment and that the friction coefficient depends on multiple factors, including SZP localization and surface roughness.

  4. Evaluation of the internal structure of articular cartilage in terms of 1H-NMR relaxation behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Takeshi

    2000-01-01

    The structural characteristics of articular cartilage were analyzed using 1 H-longitudinal (T 1 ) and transverse (T 2 ) relaxation times as measured by fast-inversion-recovery and multi-spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pairs of cartilage-bone plugs from weight bearing and non-weight bearing regions were dissected from 15 medial femoral condyles and were subjected to NMR measurements with and without static loads (0.15-1.0 MPa). The T 1 of the cartilage with no load showed a maximum value just beneath the articular surface and this value decreased gradually towards the deeper zones. The T 2 of the same cartilage showed a maximum value at, or just beneath, the articular surface, decreased rapidly towards the intermediate zone yet increased again in the deepest zone. The increase of T 2 in the deepest zone was more greatly pronounced in the weight bearing region than in the non-weight bearing region. These layer-dependent differences in the T 1 and T 2 could account for the laminar appearance of the articular cartilage in the MR images. Under static loads, the decrease of T 1 in the transitional zone (from just beneath the articular surface to the intermediate zone) was significant. Because T 1 has a positive correlation with the water content, this decrease in T 1 may signify that the largest water loss occurs in the transitional zone. These findings suggest that the transitional zone might attenuate mechanical stress in the joint, and the expressed water from the cartilage could substantially contribute to the lubrication of the joint. (author)

  5. Advances in the Surgical Management of Articular Cartilage Defects: Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation Techniques in the Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Spencer; Strauss, Eric; Bosco, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to gain insight into the latest methods of articular cartilage implantation (ACI) and to detail where they are in the Food and Drug Administration approval and regulatory process. A PubMed search was performed using the phrase "Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation" alone and with the words second generation and third generation. Additionally, clinicaltrials.gov was searched for the names of the seven specific procedures and the parent company websites were referenced. Two-Stage Techniques: BioCart II uses a FGF2v1 culture and a fibrinogen, thrombin matrix, whereas Hyalograft-C uses a Hyaff 11 matrix. MACI uses a collagen I/III matrix. Cartipatch consists of an agarose-alginate hydrogel. Neocart uses a high-pressure bioreactor for culturing with a type I collagen matrix. ChondroCelect makes use of a gene expression analysis to predict chondrocyte proliferation and has demonstrated significant clinical improvement, but failed to show superiority to microfracture in a phase III trial. One Step Technique: CAIS is an ACI procedure where harvested cartilage is minced and implanted into a matrix for defect filling. As full thickness defects in articular cartilage continue to pose a challenge to treat, new methods of repair are being researched. Later generation ACI has been developed to address the prevalence of fibrocartilage with microfracture and the complications associated with the periosteal flap of first generation ACI such as periosteal hypertrophy. The procedures and products reviewed here represent advances in tissue engineering, scaffolds and autologous chondrocyte culturing that may hold promise in our quest to alter the natural history of symptomatic chondral disease.

  6. Micromechanical properties of canine femoral articular cartilage following multiple freeze-thaw cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Abby E; Comerford, Eithne J; Macaulay, Sophie; Bates, Karl T; Akhtar, Riaz

    2017-07-01

    Tissue material properties are crucial to understanding their mechanical function, both in healthy and diseased states. However, in certain circumstances logistical limitations can prevent testing on fresh samples necessitating one or more freeze-thaw cycles. To date, the nature and extent to which the material properties of articular cartilage are altered by repetitive freezing have not been explored. Therefore, the aim of this study is to quantify how articular cartilage mechanical properties, measured by nanoindentation, are affected by multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Canine cartilage plugs (n = 11) from medial and lateral femoral condyles were submerged in phosphate buffered saline, stored at 3-5°C and tested using nanoindentation within 12h. Samples were then frozen at -20°C and later thawed at 3-5°C for 3h before material properties were re-tested and samples re-frozen under the same conditions. This process was repeated for all 11 samples over three freeze-thaw cycles. Overall mean and standard deviation of shear storage modulus decreased from 1.76 ± 0.78 to 1.21 ± 0.77MPa (p = 0.91), shear loss modulus from 0.42 ± 0.19 to 0.39 ± 0.17MPa (p=0.70) and elastic modulus from 5.13 ± 2.28 to 3.52 ± 2.24MPa (p = 0.20) between fresh and three freeze-thaw cycles respectively. The loss factor increased from 0.31 ± 0.38 to 0.71 ± 1.40 (p = 0.18) between fresh and three freeze-thaw cycles. Inter-sample variability spanned as much as 10.47MPa across freezing cycles and this high-level of biological variability across samples likely explains why overall mean "whole-joint" trends do not reach statistical significance across the storage conditions tested. As a result multiple freeze-thaw cycles cannot be explicitly or statistically linked to mechanical changes within the cartilage. However, the changes in material properties observed herein may be sufficient in magnitude to impact on a variety of clinical and scientific studies of cartilage, and should be considered

  7. Quantitative evaluation of hyaline articular cartilage T2 maps of knee and determine the relationship of cartilage T2 values with age, gender, articular changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cağlar, E; Şahin, G; Oğur, T; Aktaş, E

    2014-11-01

    To identify changes in knee joint cartilage transverse relaxation values depending on the patient's age and gender and to investigate the relationship between knee joint pathologies and the transverse relaxation time. Knee MRI images of 107 symptomatic patients with various pathologic knee conditions were analyzed retrospectively. T2 values were measured at patellar cartilage, posteromedial and posterolateral femoral cartilage adjacent to the central horn of posterior meniscus. 963 measurements were done for 107 knees MRI. Relationship of T2 values with seven features including subarticular bone marrow edema, subarticular cysts, marginal osteophytes, anterior-posterior cruciate and collateral ligament tears, posterior medial and posterior lateral meniscal tears, synovial thickening and effusion were analyzed. T2 values in all three compartments were evaluated according to age and gender. A T2 value increase correlated with age was present in all three compartments measured in the subgroup with no knee joint pathology and in all patient groups. According to the ROC curve, an increase showing a statistically significant difference was present in the patient group aged over 40 compared to the patient group aged 40 and below in all patient groups. There is a statistically difference at T2 values with and without subarticular cysts, marginal osteophytes, synovial thickening and effusion. T2 relaxation time showed a statistically significant increase in the patients with a medial meniscus tear compared to those without a tear and no statistically significant difference was found in T2 relaxation times of patients with and without a posterior lateral meniscus tear. T2 cartilage mapping on MRI provides opportunity to exhibit biochemical and structural changes related with cartilage extracellular matrix without using invasive diagnostic methods.

  8. Chondrogenic potential of canine articular cartilage derived cells (cACCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the potential of canine articular cartilage-derived cells (cACCs for chondrogenic differentiation was evaluated. The effectiveness of cACCs’ lineage commitment was analyzed after 14 days of culture in chondorgenic and non-chondrogenic conditions. Formation of proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix was assessed using histochemical staining – Alcian Blue and Safranin-O, while elemental composition was determined by means of SEM-EDX. Additionally, ultrastructure of cACCs was evaluated using TEM. The expression of genes involved in chondrogenesis was monitored with quantitative Real Time PCR. Results obtained indicate that the potential of cACCs for cartilagous extracellular matrix formation may be maintained only in chondrogenic cultures. The formation of specific chondro-nodules was not observed in a non-chondrogenic culture environment. The analysis of cACCs’ ultrastructure, both in non-chondrogenic and chondrogenic cultures, revealed well-developed rough endoplasmatic reticulum and presence of mitochondria. The cACCs in chondrogenic medium shed an increased number of microvesicles. Furthermore, it was shown that the extracellular matrix of cACCs in chondrogenic cultures is rich in potassium and molybdenum. Additionally, it was determined that gene expression of collagen type II, aggrecan and SOX-9 was significantly increased during chondrogenic differentiation of cACCs. Results obtained indicate that the culture environment may significantly influence the cartilage phenotype of cACCs during long term culture.

  9. Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dGEMRIC) of Hip Joint Cartilage: Better Cartilage Delineation after Intra-Articular than Intravenous Gadolinium Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, M.; Jensen, K.E.; Quistgaard, E.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate and compare delayed gadolinium (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cartilage (dGEMRIC) in the hip joint using intravenous (i.v.) or ultrasound-guided intra-articular (i.a.) Gd-DTPA injection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 10 patients (50% males, mean age 58...... years) with clinical and radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA; Kellgren score II-III), MRI of the hip was performed twice on a clinical 1.5T MR scanner: On day 1, before and 90-180 min after 0.3 mmol/kg body weight i.v. Gd-DTPA and, on day 8, 90-180 min after ultrasound-guided i.a. injection of a 4 mmol....../l Gd-DTPA solution. Coronal STIR, coronal T1 fat-saturated spin-echo, and a cartilage-sensitive gradient-echo sequence (3D T1 SPGR) in the sagittal plane were applied. RESULTS Both the post-i.v. and post-i.a. Gd-DTPA images showed significantly higher signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR...

  10. The relationship between ultra-short telomeres, aging of articular cartilage and the development of human hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, M; Delaisse, J M; Kjaersgaard-Andersen, P

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-short telomeres caused by stress-induced telomere shortening are suggested to induce chondrocyte senescence in human osteoarthritic knees. Here we have further investigated the role of ultra-short telomeres in the development of osteoarthritis (OA) and in aging of articular cartilage in human...

  11. Efficacy of diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging for articular cartilage lesions of the glenohumeral joint in patients with instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Meredith L.; Collins, Mark S.; Wenger, Doris E.; Morgan, Joseph A.; Dahm, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was primarily to assess the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting articular cartilage injuries in patients with glenohumeral instability. A secondary purpose was to assess the diagnostic performance of MRI for detection of Hill-Sachs and Bankart lesions. A cohort of 87 consecutive patients who underwent diagnostic MRI and shoulder arthroscopy for instability from 1997 to 2006 were identified. Fifty-five patients (63.2%) underwent MRI with intra-articular contrast medium and 32 patients (36.8%) underwent MRI without contrast medium. MR images were reviewed by two radiologists and interpreted by consensus for the presence of articular cartilage lesions (including Hill-Sachs and Bankart lesions), which were then confirmed by reviewing the operative report and images recorded at arthroscopy. Mean patient age was 27.0 ± 10.2 years with a mean clinical and radiographic follow-up of 29 (range 3-72) months. Cartilage injuries were detected arthroscopically in 55 patients (63%). Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions were identified arthroscopically in 66 patients (75.9%) and 55 patients (63.2%) respectively. The overall sensitivity and specificity for detection of glenohumeral articular cartilage lesions by MRI were 87.2% and 80.6% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI in detecting Bankart lesions was 98.4% (95% CI 91.9, 99.7) and 95.2% (95% CI 77.3, 99.2) respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI in detecting Hill-Sachs lesions was 96.3% (95% CI 87.6, 98.9%) and 90.6% (95% CI 75.7, 96.9) respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between MRI examinations with and without intra-articular gadolinium (p = 0.89). Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of articular cartilage injuries in patients with glenohumeral instability. MRI with or without intra-articular contrast medium in this study were equally reliable as a non

  12. Efficacy of diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging for articular cartilage lesions of the glenohumeral joint in patients with instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Meredith L.; Collins, Mark S.; Wenger, Doris E. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Morgan, Joseph A.; Dahm, Diane L. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was primarily to assess the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting articular cartilage injuries in patients with glenohumeral instability. A secondary purpose was to assess the diagnostic performance of MRI for detection of Hill-Sachs and Bankart lesions. A cohort of 87 consecutive patients who underwent diagnostic MRI and shoulder arthroscopy for instability from 1997 to 2006 were identified. Fifty-five patients (63.2%) underwent MRI with intra-articular contrast medium and 32 patients (36.8%) underwent MRI without contrast medium. MR images were reviewed by two radiologists and interpreted by consensus for the presence of articular cartilage lesions (including Hill-Sachs and Bankart lesions), which were then confirmed by reviewing the operative report and images recorded at arthroscopy. Mean patient age was 27.0 {+-} 10.2 years with a mean clinical and radiographic follow-up of 29 (range 3-72) months. Cartilage injuries were detected arthroscopically in 55 patients (63%). Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions were identified arthroscopically in 66 patients (75.9%) and 55 patients (63.2%) respectively. The overall sensitivity and specificity for detection of glenohumeral articular cartilage lesions by MRI were 87.2% and 80.6% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI in detecting Bankart lesions was 98.4% (95% CI 91.9, 99.7) and 95.2% (95% CI 77.3, 99.2) respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI in detecting Hill-Sachs lesions was 96.3% (95% CI 87.6, 98.9%) and 90.6% (95% CI 75.7, 96.9) respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between MRI examinations with and without intra-articular gadolinium (p = 0.89). Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of articular cartilage injuries in patients with glenohumeral instability. MRI with or without intra-articular contrast medium in this study were equally reliable as a non

  13. Characterization of Articular Cartilage Recovery and Its Correlation with Optical Response in the Near-Infrared Spectral Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afara, Isaac Oluwaseun; Singh, Sanjleena; Moody, Hayley; Zhang, Lihai; Oloyede, Adekunle

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we examine the capacity of a new parameter, based on the recovery response of articular cartilage, to distinguish between healthy and damaged tissues. We also investigate whether or not this new parameter correlates with the near-infrared (NIR) optical response of articular cartilage. Normal and artificially degenerated (proteoglycan-depleted) bovine cartilage samples were nondestructively probed using NIR spectroscopy. Subsequently they were subjected to a load and unloading protocol, and the recovery response was logged during unloading. The recovery parameter, elastic rebound ( E R ), is based on the strain energy released as the samples underwent instantaneous elastic recovery. Our results reveal positive relationship between the rebound parameter and cartilage proteoglycan content (normal samples: 2.20 ± 0.10 N mm; proteoglycan-depleted samples: 0.50 ± 0.04 N mm for 1 hour of enzymatic treatment and 0.13 ± 0.02 N mm for 4 hours of enzymatic treatment). In addition, multivariate analysis using partial least squares regression was employed to investigate the relationship between E R and NIR spectral data. The results reveal significantly high correlation ( R 2 cal = 98.35% and R 2 val = 79.87%; P cartilage in the combined NIR regions 5,450 to 6,100 cm -1 and 7,500 to 12,500 cm -1 . We conclude that E R can indicate the mechanical condition and state of health of articular cartilage. The correlation of E R with cartilage optical response in the NIR range could facilitate real-time evaluation of the tissue's integrity during arthroscopic surgery and could also provide an important tool for cartilage assessment in tissue engineering and regeneration research.

  14. In Vivo Articular Cartilage Regeneration Using Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Cultured in an Alginate Scaffold: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is an inflammatory disease in which all joint-related elements, articular cartilage in particular, are affected. The poor regeneration capacity of this tissue together with the lack of pharmacological treatment has led to the development of regenerative medicine methodologies including microfracture and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI. The effectiveness of ACI has been shown in vitro and in vivo, but the use of other cell types, including bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, is necessary because of the poor proliferation rate of isolated articular chondrocytes. In this investigation, we assessed the chondrogenic ability of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs to regenerate cartilage in vitro and in vivo. hDPSCs and primary isolated rabbit chondrocytes were cultured in chondrogenic culture medium and found to express collagen II and aggrecan. Both cell types were cultured in 3% alginate hydrogels and implanted in a rabbit model of cartilage damage. Three months after surgery, significant cartilage regeneration was observed, particularly in the animals implanted with hDPSCs. Although the results presented here are preliminary, they suggest that hDPSCs may be useful for regeneration of articular cartilage.

  15. In Vivo Articular Cartilage Regeneration Using Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Cultured in an Alginate Scaffold: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Manuel; Milian, Lara; Oliver, Maria; Zurriaga, Javier; Sancho-Tello, Maria; de Llano, Jose Javier Martin; Carda, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is an inflammatory disease in which all joint-related elements, articular cartilage in particular, are affected. The poor regeneration capacity of this tissue together with the lack of pharmacological treatment has led to the development of regenerative medicine methodologies including microfracture and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). The effectiveness of ACI has been shown in vitro and in vivo , but the use of other cell types, including bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, is necessary because of the poor proliferation rate of isolated articular chondrocytes. In this investigation, we assessed the chondrogenic ability of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to regenerate cartilage in vitro and in vivo . hDPSCs and primary isolated rabbit chondrocytes were cultured in chondrogenic culture medium and found to express collagen II and aggrecan. Both cell types were cultured in 3% alginate hydrogels and implanted in a rabbit model of cartilage damage. Three months after surgery, significant cartilage regeneration was observed, particularly in the animals implanted with hDPSCs. Although the results presented here are preliminary, they suggest that hDPSCs may be useful for regeneration of articular cartilage.

  16. Suppression of glycosaminoglycan synthesis by articular cartilage, but not of hyaluronic acid synthesis by synovium, after exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugenberg, S.T.; Myers, S.L.; Brandt, K.D.

    1989-01-01

    We recently found that injection of 2 mCi of yttrium 90 (90Y; approximately 23,000 rads) into normal canine knees stimulated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis by femoral condylar cartilage. The present investigation was conducted to determine whether radiation affects cartilage metabolism directly. Rates of GAG synthesis and degradation in normal canine articular cartilage were studied following irradiation. Cultured synovium from the same knees was treated similarly, to determine the effects of irradiation on hyaluronic acid synthesis. Twenty-four hours after exposure to 1,000 rads, 10,000 rads, or 50,000 rads, 35S-GAG synthesis by the cartilage was 93%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, of that in control, nonirradiated cartilage. The effect was not rapidly reversible: 120 hours after exposure to 50,000 rads, GAG synthesis remained at only 28% of the control level. Autoradiography showed marked suppression of 35S uptake by chondrocytes after irradiation. Cartilage GAG degradation was also increased following irradiation: 4 hours and 8 hours after exposure to 50,000 rads, the cartilage GAG concentration was only 66% and 54%, respectively, of that at time 0, while corresponding values for control, nonirradiated cartilage were 90% and 87%. In contrast to its effects on cartilage GAG metabolism, radiation at these levels had no effect on synovial hyaluronic acid synthesis

  17. Suppression of glycosaminoglycan synthesis by articular cartilage, but not of hyaluronic acid synthesis by synovium, after exposure to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugenberg, S.T.; Myers, S.L.; Brandt, K.D.

    1989-04-01

    We recently found that injection of 2 mCi of yttrium 90 (90Y; approximately 23,000 rads) into normal canine knees stimulated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis by femoral condylar cartilage. The present investigation was conducted to determine whether radiation affects cartilage metabolism directly. Rates of GAG synthesis and degradation in normal canine articular cartilage were studied following irradiation. Cultured synovium from the same knees was treated similarly, to determine the effects of irradiation on hyaluronic acid synthesis. Twenty-four hours after exposure to 1,000 rads, 10,000 rads, or 50,000 rads, 35S-GAG synthesis by the cartilage was 93%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, of that in control, nonirradiated cartilage. The effect was not rapidly reversible: 120 hours after exposure to 50,000 rads, GAG synthesis remained at only 28% of the control level. Autoradiography showed marked suppression of 35S uptake by chondrocytes after irradiation. Cartilage GAG degradation was also increased following irradiation: 4 hours and 8 hours after exposure to 50,000 rads, the cartilage GAG concentration was only 66% and 54%, respectively, of that at time 0, while corresponding values for control, nonirradiated cartilage were 90% and 87%. In contrast to its effects on cartilage GAG metabolism, radiation at these levels had no effect on synovial hyaluronic acid synthesis.

  18. Electromechanical Assessment of Human Knee Articular Cartilage with Compression-Induced Streaming Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Christoph; Ricklefs, Marcel; Willbold, Elmar; Hurschler, Christof; Abedian, Reza

    2016-01-01

    To assess the electromechanical properties of human knee articular cartilage with compression-induced streaming potentials for reliability among users and correlation with macroscopic and histological evaluation tools and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content. Streaming potentials are induced in cartilage in response to loading when mobile positive ions in the interstitial fluid temporarily move away from negatively charged proteoglycans. Streaming potential integrals (SPIs) were measured with an indentation probe on femoral condyles of 10 human knee specimens according to a standardized location scheme. Interobserver reliability was measured using an interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The learning curves of 3 observers were evaluated by regression analysis. At each SPI measurement location the degradation level of the tissue was determined by means of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) score, Mankin score, and sGAG content. The computed ICC was 0.77 (0.70-0.83) indicating good to excellent linear agreement of SPI values among the 3 users. A significant positive linear correlation of the learning index values was observed for 2 of the 3 users. Statistically significant negative correlations between SPI and both ICRS and Mankin scores were observed (r = 0.502, P < 0.001, and r = 0.255, P = 0.02, respectively). No correlation was observed between SPI and sGAG content (r = 0.004, P = 0.973). SPI values may be used as a quantitative means of cartilage evaluation with sufficient reliability among users. Due to the significant learning curve, adequate training should be absolved before routine use of the technique.

  19. Repair of experimentally produced defects in rabbit articular cartilage by autologous chondrocyte transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, D.A.; Pitman, M.I.; Peterson, L.; Menche, D.; Klein, M.

    1989-01-01

    Using the knee joints of New Zealand White rabbits, a baseline study was made to determine the intrinsic capability of cartilage for healing defects that do not fracture the subchondral plate. A second experiment examined the effect of autologous chondrocytes grown in vitro on the healing rate of these defects. To determine whether any of the reconstituted cartilage resulted from the chondrocyte graft, a third experiment was conducted involving grafts with chondrocytes that had been labeled prior to grafting with a nuclear tracer. Results were evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative light microscopy. Macroscopic results from grafted specimens displayed a marked decrease in synovitis and other degenerative changes. In defects that had received transplants, a significant amount of cartilage was reconstituted (82%) compared to ungrafted controls (18%). Autoradiography on reconstituted cartilage showed that there were labeled cells incorporated into the repair matrix

  20. Extension of knee immobilization delays recovery of histological damages in the anterior cruciate ligament insertion and articular cartilage in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Nakajima, Hiromi; Sakane, Masataka

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the influence of knee immobilization period on recovery of histological damages in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insertion and articular cartilage in rabbits. This knowledge is important for determining the appropriate rehabilitation approach for patients with ligament injuries, fracture, disuse atrophy, and degenerative joint disease. [Materials and Methods] Forty-eight male Japanese white rabbits were divided equally into the remobilization and control groups. The remobilization group had the right knee surgically immobilized, and was divided equally into four subgroups according to the duration of immobilization (1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks). After the immobilization was removed, the rabbits moved freely for 8 weeks. The control group underwent sham operation and followed the same time course as the remobilization group. The chondrocyte apoptosis rate and chondrocyte proliferation rate in the ACL insertion and articular cartilage were analyzed after remobilization. [Results] In the ACL insertion, the remobilization group had a higher chondrocyte apoptosis rate than the control group after 8 weeks of immobilization, and a lower chondrocyte proliferation rate than the control group after 4 and 8 weeks of immobilization. In the articular cartilage, the remobilization group had a lower chondrocyte proliferation rate than the control group after 8 weeks of immobilization. After 8 weeks of remobilization, the ACL insertion and articular cartilage are not completely recovered after 4 and 8 weeks of immobilization, respectively. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that 8 weeks of remobilization will result in recovery of the ACL insertion after 2 weeks of knee immobilization, and recovery of the articular cartilage after 4 weeks of knee immobilization. If 8 weeks of immobilization occurs, a remobilization duration of more than 8 weeks may be necessary.

  1. Tribological properties of PVA/PVP blend hydrogels against articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanca, Yusuf; Milner, Piers; Dini, Daniele; Amis, Andrew A

    2018-02-01

    This research investigated in-vitro tribological performance of the articulation of cartilage-on- polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) blend hydrogels using a custom-designed multi-directional wear rig. The hydrogels were prepared by repeated freezing-thawing cycles at different concentrations and PVA to PVP fractions at a given concentration. PVA/PVP blend hydrogels showed low coefficient of friction (COF) values (between 0.12 ± 0.01 and 0.14 ± 0.02) which were closer to the cartilage-on-cartilage articulation (0.03 ± 0.01) compared to the cartilage-on-stainless steel articulation (0.46 ± 0.06). The COF increased with increasing hydrogel concentration (p = 0.03) and decreasing PVP content at a given concentration (p < 0.05). The cartilage-on-hydrogel tests showed only the surface layers of the cartilage being removed (average volume loss of the condyles was 12.5 ± 4.2mm 3 ). However, the hydrogels were found to be worn/deformed. The hydrogels prepared at a higher concentration showed lower apparent volume loss. A strong correlation (R 2 = 0.94) was found between the COF and compressive moduli of the hydrogel groups, resulting from decreasing contact congruency. It was concluded that the hydrogels were promising as hemiarthroplasty materials, but that improved mechanical behaviour was required for clinical use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Short-TE projection reconstruction MR microscopy in the evaluation of articular cartilage thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cova, M.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.; Dalla-Palma, L.; Toffanin, R.; Szomolanyi, P.; Vittur, F.; Jellus, V.; Silvestri, F.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of projection-reconstruction (PR) MR microscopy in the accurate measurement of cartilage thickness. Short-TE PR microimages were acquired at 7.05 T on bone-cartilage cylindrical plugs excised from four regions of two disarticulated femoral heads (i. e. superior, inferior, posterior and anterior), using an NMR instrument equipped with a microimaging accessory. The PR microimages were then correlated with conventional spin-echo (SE) microimages and with histology. On PR microimages, acquired with an echo time of 3.2 ms, the cartilage signal was increased, allowing an accurate delineation of the cartilage from the tidemark/cortical bone region. As a consequence, by the PR method a more precise measurement of cartilage thickness compared with that performed by the conventional SE approach was feasible. An excellent correlation between PR microimages and histology was also obtained (r=0.90). By the proposed method it is possible to accurately determine the cartilage thickness better than with the conventional SE sequences. (orig.)

  3. Nonlinear mechanical response of the extracellular matrix: learning from articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Sarah; Das, Moumita

    2015-03-01

    We study the mechanical structure-function relations in the extracellular matrix (ECM) with focus on nonlinear shear and compression response. As a model system, our study focuses on the ECM in articular cartilage tissue which has two major mechanobiological components: a network of the biopolymer collagen that acts as a stiff, reinforcing matrix, and a flexible aggrecan network that facilitates deformability. We model this system as a double network hydrogel made of interpenetrating networks of stiff and flexible biopolymers respectively. We study the linear and nonlinear mechanical response of the model ECM to shear and compression forces using a combination of rigidity percolation theory and energy minimization approaches. Our results may provide useful insights into the design principles of the ECM as well as biomimetic hydrogels that are mechanically robust and can, at the same time, easily adapt to cues in their surroundings.

  4. Protocols for the in vitro design of animal articular cartilage based on tissue engineering methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Correa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The articular cartilage is the structure that covers the joint ends. It has some specific tasks crucial to the correct joint physiology. It may experience a large amount of injuries that could generate considerable disabilities. Unfortunately its selfrepair capacity is too limited; therefore, many treatments have been developed with partial success, given the suboptimal biomechanical behavior of the resultant tissue. Given that, Tissue Engineering offers an alternative, based on the design of a new tissue with biological and biomechanical features which resembles the native tissue. In this work, the authors describe the methodologies followed to accomplish that goal, studying the chondrocytes harvesting, the cellular cultures, the scaffold seeding processes, the mechanical stimulation and the structural and biomechanical evaluation. Finally, exposed some of the preliminary results, as a experimental validation of the methods proposed are.

  5. Effectiveness of photobiomodulation therapy and aerobic exercise training on articular cartilage in an experimental model of osteoarthritis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Lívia; Tim, Carla; Martignago, Cintia; Gonçalves, Silma Rodrigues; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2018-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common disease of the knee joints in adults throughout the world. Photobiomodulation (PBM) and physical exercise have been studied for clinical treatment of OA, even though the effects and action mechanisms have not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PBM and aerobic exercise (associated or not) on degenerative modifications and inflammatory mediators in articular cartilage using an experimental model of knee OA. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: OA animals without treatment (OAC); OA plus aerobic exercise training (OAT); OA animals plus PBM treatment (OAP); OA plus aerobic exercise training and PBM treatment (OATP). The exercise training (treadmill; 16m/min; 50 min/day) and the PBM treatment started 4 weeks after the surgery, 3 days/week for 8 weeks. The results showed that all treated groups showed a lower degenerative process measured by OARSI system and higher thickness values. Moreover, aerobic exercise and PBM (associated or not) decreased iNOS expression and increased IL-10 expression in OAT and OATL compared to OAC. Furthermore, a lower TGF-β expression was observed in associated therapies. These results suggest that PBM and aerobic exercise training were effective in modulating inflammatory process and preventing cartilage degeneration in knees in OA rats.

  6. A study on role of triiodothyronine (T3) hormone on the improvement of articular cartilage surface architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Pei-Tong; Zhang, Xing-Lin; Zuo, Hai-Ning; Lu, Xing; Gai, Peng-Zhou

    2017-10-02

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of triiodothyronine (T3) on the improvement of articular cartilage surface architecture at in vitro level. The T3 hormone was applied to neo-tissues in the range of 50, 100, 150 and 200ng/ml for 5 weeks. At the end of the treatment, biochemical and histological evaluation was carried out in the neo-tissues. T3 hormone application significantly increased the collagen production in neo-cartilage tissues. The properties of tensile and compressive were significantly increased compared to the controls. However, T3 hormone application also induced hypertrophy. At the higher dose concentration of T3 hormone application, tensile and compressive properties were tremendously increased 4.3 and 4.6 fold respectively. Taking all these data together, it suggested that the T3 hormone application could be a potential agent to increase the functional properties such tensile and compressive in neo-tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of osmotic swelling influences on meniscal fibrocartilage and articular cartilage tissue mechanics in compression and shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, An M; Levenston, Marc E

    2012-01-01

    Although the contribution of the circumferential collagen bundles to the anisotropic tensile stiffness of meniscal tissue has been well described, the implications of interactions between tissue components for other mechanical properties have not been as widely examined. This study compared the effects of the proteoglycan-associated osmotic swelling stress on meniscal fibrocartilage and articular cartilage (AC) mechanics by manipulating the osmotic environment and tissue compressive offset. Cylindrical samples were obtained from the menisci and AC of bovine stifles, equilibrated in phosphate-buffered saline solutions ranging from 0.1× to 10×, and tested in oscillatory torsional shear and unconfined compression. Biochemical analysis indicated that treatments and testing did not substantially alter tissue composition. Mechanical testing revealed tissue-specific responses to both increasing compressive offset and decreasing bath salinity. Most notably, reduced salinity dramatically increased the shear modulus of both axially and circumferentially oriented meniscal tissue explants to a much greater extent than for cartilage samples. Combined with previous studies, these findings suggest that meniscal proteoglycans have a distinct structural role, stabilizing, and stiffening the matrix surrounding the primary circumferential collagen bundles. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  8. In Vivo Evaluation of a Novel Oriented Scaffold-BMSC Construct for Enhancing Full-Thickness Articular Cartilage Repair in a Rabbit Model.

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    Shuaijun Jia

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering (TE has been proven usefulness in cartilage defect repair. For effective cartilage repair, the structural orientation of the cartilage scaffold should mimic that of native articular cartilage, as this orientation is closely linked to cartilage mechanical functions. Using thermal-induced phase separation (TIPS technology, we have fabricated an oriented cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM-derived scaffold with a Young's modulus value 3 times higher than that of a random scaffold. In this study, we test the effectiveness of bone mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC-scaffold constructs (cell-oriented and random in repairing full-thickness articular cartilage defects in rabbits. While histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed efficient cartilage regeneration and cartilaginous matrix secretion at 6 and 12 weeks after transplantation in both groups, the biochemical properties (levels of DNA, GAG, and collagen and biomechanical values in the oriented scaffold group were higher than that in random group at early time points after implantation. While these differences were not evident at 24 weeks, the biochemical and biomechanical properties of the regenerated cartilage in the oriented scaffold-BMSC construct group were similar to that of native cartilage. These results demonstrate that an oriented scaffold, in combination with differentiated BMSCs can successfully repair full-thickness articular cartilage defects in rabbits, and produce cartilage enhanced biomechanical properties.

  9. Vitamin D prevents articular cartilage erosion by regulating collagen II turnover through TGF-β1 in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Niu, G; Wu, Y; Du, G; Huang, C; Yin, X; Liu, Z; Song, C; Leng, H

    2016-02-01

    To explore the effect of vitamin D on turnover of articular cartilage with ovariectomy (OVX) induced OA, and to investigate transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) as a possible underlying mechanism mediated by 1α,25(OH)2D3. Sixty-six rats were randomly allocated into seven groups: sham plus control diet (SHAM+CTL), OVX+CTL diet, sham plus vitamin D-deficient (VDD) diet, OVX+VDD diet, and three groups of ovariectomized rats treated with different doses of 1α,25(OH)2D3. The cartilage erosion and the levels of serum 17β-estradiol, 1α,25(OH)2D3 and C-telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) were measured. TGF-β1, type II Collagen (CII), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9,-13 in articular cartilage were assessed by immunohistochemistry. TGF-β1 and CTX-II expression were measured in articular cartilage chondrocytes treated with/without tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), 1α,25(OH)2D3, and TGF-β receptor inhibitor (SB505124) in vitro. Cartilage erosion due to OVX was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by 1α,25(OH)2D3 supplementation, and exacerbated by VDD. The expressions of TGF-β1 and CII in articular cartilage were suppressed by OVX and VDD, and rescued by 1α,25(OH)2D3 supplementation. The expression of MMP-9,-13 in articular cartilage increased with OVX and VDD, and decreased with 1α,25(OH)2D3 supplementation. In vitro experiments showed that 1α,25(OH)2D3 increased the TGF-β1 expression of TNF-α stimulated chondrocytes in a dose-dependent manner. 1α,25(OH)2D3 significantly counteracted the increased CTX-II release due to TNF-α stimulation, and this effect was significantly suppressed by SB505124. VDD aggravated cartilage erosion, and 1α,25(OH)2D3 supplementation showed protective effects in OVX-induced OA partly through the TGF-β1 pathway. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypoxia Potentiates Anabolic Effects of Exogenous Hyaluronic Acid in Rat Articular Cartilage

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    Shohei Ichimaru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid (HA is used clinically to treat osteoarthritis (OA, but its pharmacological effects under hypoxic conditions remain unclear. Articular chondrocytes in patients with OA are exposed to a hypoxic environment. This study investigated whether hypoxia could potentiate the anabolic effects of exogenous HA in rat articular cartilage and whether these mechanisms involved HA receptors. HA under hypoxic conditions significantly enhanced the expression of extracellular matrix genes and proteins in explant culture, as shown by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, Western blotting, and dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB assays. Staining with Safranin-O and immunohistochemical staining with antibody to type II collagen were also enhanced in pellet culture. The expression of CD44 was increased by hypoxia and significantly suppressed by transfection with siRNAs targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (siHIF-1α. These findings indicate that hypoxia potentiates the anabolic effects of exogenous HA by a mechanism in which HIF-1α positively regulates the expression of CD44, enhancing the binding affinity for exogenous HA. The anabolic effects of exogenous HA may increase as OA progresses.

  11. Hypoxia Potentiates Anabolic Effects of Exogenous Hyaluronic Acid in Rat Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimaru, Shohei; Nakagawa, Shuji; Arai, Yuji; Kishida, Tsunao; Shin-Ya, Masaharu; Honjo, Kuniaki; Tsuchida, Shinji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Shimomura, Seiji; Mazda, Osam; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-06-25

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is used clinically to treat osteoarthritis (OA), but its pharmacological effects under hypoxic conditions remain unclear. Articular chondrocytes in patients with OA are exposed to a hypoxic environment. This study investigated whether hypoxia could potentiate the anabolic effects of exogenous HA in rat articular cartilage and whether these mechanisms involved HA receptors. HA under hypoxic conditions significantly enhanced the expression of extracellular matrix genes and proteins in explant culture, as shown by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assays. Staining with Safranin-O and immunohistochemical staining with antibody to type II collagen were also enhanced in pellet culture. The expression of CD44 was increased by hypoxia and significantly suppressed by transfection with siRNAs targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (siHIF-1α). These findings indicate that hypoxia potentiates the anabolic effects of exogenous HA by a mechanism in which HIF-1α positively regulates the expression of CD44, enhancing the binding affinity for exogenous HA. The anabolic effects of exogenous HA may increase as OA progresses.

  12. Transcription factor ERG and joint and articular cartilage formation during mouse limb and spine skeletogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Masahiro; Tamamura, Yoshihiro; Koyama, Eiki; Komori, Toshihisa; Takeshita, Nobuo; Williams, Julie A; Nakamura, Takashi; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2007-05-01

    Articular cartilage and synovial joints are critical for skeletal function, but the mechanisms regulating their development are largely unknown. In previous studies we found that the ets transcription factor ERG and its alternatively-spliced variant C-1-1 have roles in joint formation in chick. Here, we extended our studies to mouse. We found that ERG is also expressed in developing mouse limb joints. To test regulation of ERG expression, beads coated with the joint master regulator protein GDF-5 were implanted close to incipient joints in mouse limb explants; this led to rapid and strong ectopic ERG expression. We cloned and characterized several mammalian ERG variants and expressed a human C-1-1 counterpart (hERG3Delta81) throughout the cartilaginous skeleton of transgenic mice, using Col2a1 gene promoter/enhancer sequences. The skeletal phenotype was severe and neonatal lethal, and the transgenic mice were smaller than wild type littermates and their skeletons were largely cartilaginous. Limb long bone anlagen were entirely composed of chondrocytes actively expressing collagen IX and aggrecan as well as articular markers such as tenascin-C. Typical growth plates were absent and there was very low expression of maturation and hypertrophy markers, including Indian hedgehog, collagen X and MMP-13. The results suggest that ERG is part of molecular mechanisms leading chondrocytes into a permanent developmental path and become joint forming cells, and may do so by acting downstream of GDF-5.

  13. Comparative digital cartilage histology for human and common osteoarthritis models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen DR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Douglas R Pedersen, Jessica E Goetz, Gail L Kurriger, James A MartinDepartment of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USAPurpose: This study addresses the species-specific and site-specific details of weight-bearing articular cartilage zone depths and chondrocyte distributions among humans and common osteoarthritis (OA animal models using contemporary digital imaging tools. Histological analysis is the gold-standard research tool for evaluating cartilage health, OA severity, and treatment efficacy. Historically, evaluations were made by expert analysts. However, state-of-the-art tools have been developed that allow for digitization of entire histological sections for computer-aided analysis. Large volumes of common digital cartilage metrics directly complement elucidation of trends in OA inducement and concomitant potential treatments.Materials and methods: Sixteen fresh human knees, 26 adult New Zealand rabbit stifles, and 104 bovine lateral plateaus were measured for four cartilage zones and the cell densities within each zone. Each knee was divided into four weight-bearing sites: the medial and lateral plateaus and femoral condyles.Results: One-way analysis of variance followed by pairwise multiple comparisons (Holm–Sidak method at a significance of 0.05 clearly confirmed the variability between cartilage depths at each site, between sites in the same species, and between weight-bearing articular cartilage definitions in different species.Conclusion: The present study clearly demonstrates multisite, multispecies differences in normal weight-bearing articular cartilage, which can be objectively quantified by a common digital histology imaging technique. The clear site-specific differences in normal cartilage must be taken into consideration when characterizing the pathoetiology of OA models. Together, these provide a path to consistently analyze the volume and variety of histologic slides necessarily generated

  14. Articular cartilage repair with recombinant human type II collagen/polylactide scaffold in a preliminary porcine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhonen, Virpi; Salonius, Eve; Haaparanta, Anne-Marie; Järvinen, Elina; Paatela, Teemu; Meller, Anna; Hannula, Markus; Björkman, Mimmi; Pyhältö, Tuomo; Ellä, Ville; Vasara, Anna; Töyräs, Juha; Kellomäki, Minna; Kiviranta, Ilkka

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of a novel recombinant human type II collagen/polylactide scaffold (rhCo-PLA) in the repair of full-thickness cartilage lesions with autologous chondrocyte implantation technique (ACI). The forming repair tissue was compared to spontaneous healing (spontaneous) and repair with a commercial porcine type I/III collagen membrane (pCo). Domestic pigs (4-month-old, n = 20) were randomized into three study groups and a circular full-thickness chondral lesion with a diameter of 8 mm was created in the right medial femoral condyle. After 3 weeks, the chondral lesions were repaired with either rhCo-PLA or pCo together with autologous chondrocytes, or the lesion was only debrided and left untreated for spontaneous repair. The repair tissue was evaluated 4 months after the second operation. Hyaline cartilage formed most frequently in the rhCo-PLA treatment group. Biomechanically, there was a trend that both treatment groups resulted in better repair tissue than spontaneous healing. Adverse subchondral bone reactions developed less frequently in the spontaneous group (40%) and the rhCo-PLA treated group (50%) than in the pCo control group (100%). However, no statistically significant differences were found between the groups. The novel rhCo-PLA biomaterial showed promising results in this proof-of-concept study, but further studies will be needed in order to determine its effectiveness in articular cartilage repair. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:745-753, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of open wedge high tibial osteotomy on the lateral tibiofemoral compartment in sheep. Part III: analysis of the microstructure of the subchondral bone and correlations with the articular cartilage and meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Raphaela; Goebel, Lars; Seidel, Roland; Cucchiarini, Magali; Pape, Dietrich; Madry, Henning

    2015-09-01

    First, to evaluate whether medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) induces alterations of the microstructure of the lateral tibial subchondral bone plate of sheep. Second, to test the hypothesis that specific correlations exist between topographical structural alterations of the subchondral bone, the cartilage and the lateral meniscus. Three experimental groups received biplanar osteotomies of the right proximal tibiae: (a) closing wedge HTO (4.5° of tibial varus), (b) opening wedge HTO (4.5° tibial valgus; standard correction) and (c) opening wedge HTO (9.5° of valgus; overcorrection), each of which was compared to the non-osteotomised contralateral proximal tibiae. After 6 months, subchondral bone structure indices were measured by computed tomography. Correlations between the subchondral bone, the articular cartilage and the lateral meniscus were determined. Increased loading by valgus overcorrection led to an enlarged specific bone surface (BS/BV) in the subarticular spongiosa compared with unloading by varisation. The subchondral bone plate was 3.9-fold thicker in the central region of the lateral tibial plateau than in the submeniscal periphery. Its thickness in the central region significantly correlated with the thickness of the articular cartilage. In the submeniscal region, such correlation did not exist. In general, a higher degree of osteoarthritis (OA) correlated with alterations of the subchondral bone plate microstructure. OA of the submeniscal articular cartilage also correlated with worse matrix staining of the lateral meniscus. Osteoarthritis changes are associated with alterations of the subchondral bone plate microstructure. Specific topographical relationships exist in the central region between the articular cartilage and subchondral bone plate thickness, and in the submeniscal periphery between and the articular cartilage and lateral meniscus. From a clinical perspective, the combined follow-up data from this and the previous two

  16. Postnatal changes to the mechanical properties of articular cartilage are driven by the evolution of its collagen network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Gannon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While it is well established that the composition and organisation of articular cartilage dramatically change during skeletal maturation, relatively little is known about how this impacts the mechanical properties of the tissue. In this study, digital image correlation was first used to quantify spatial deformation within mechanically compressed skeletally immature (4 and 8 week old and mature (1 and 3 year old porcine articular cartilage. The compressive modulus of the immature tissue was relatively homogeneous, while the stiffness of mature articular cartilage dramatically increased with depth from the articular surface. Other, well documented, biomechanical characteristics of the tissue also emerged with skeletal maturity, such as strain-softening and a depth-dependent Poisson’s ratio. The most significant changes that occurred with age were in the deep zone of the tissue, where an order of magnitude increase in compressive modulus (from 0.97 MPa to 9.4 MPa for low applied strains was observed from 4 weeks postnatal to skeletal maturity. These temporal increases in compressive stiffness occurred despite a decrease in tissue sulphated glycosaminoglycan content, but were accompanied by increases in tissue collagen content. Furthermore, helium ion microscopy revealed dramatic changes in collagen fibril alignment through the depth of the tissue with skeletal maturity, as well as a fivefold increase in fibril diameter with age. Finally, computational modelling was used to demonstrate how both collagen network reorganisation and collagen stiffening play a key role in determining the final compressive mechanical properties of the tissue. Together these findings provide a unique insight into evolving structure-function relations in articular cartilage.

  17. 24R,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Protects against Articular Cartilage Damage following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection in Male Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara D Boyan

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA in humans is associated with low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OHD3]. In vitamin D replete rats, radiolabeled 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH2D3] accumulates in articular cartilage following injection of [3H]-25(OHD3. Previously, we showed that 24R,25(OH2D3 blocks chondrocyte apoptosis via phospholipase D and p53, suggesting a role for 24R,25(OH2D3 in maintaining cartilage health. We examined the ability of 24R,25(OH2D3 to prevent degenerative changes in articular cartilage in an OA-like environment and the potential mechanisms involved. In vitro, rat articular chondrocytes were treated with IL-1β with and without 24R,25(OH2D3 or 1α,25(OH2D3. 24R,25(OH2D3 but not 1α,25(OH2D3 blocked the effects of IL-1β in a dose-dependent manner, and its effect was partially mediated through the TGF-β1 signaling pathway. In vivo, unilateral anterior cruciate ligament transections were performed in immunocompetent rats followed by intra-articular injections of 24R,25(OH2D3 or vehicle (t = 0, 7, 14, 21 days. Tissues were harvested on day 28. Joints treated with vehicle had changes typical of OA whereas joints treated with 24R,25(OH2D3 had less articular cartilage damage and levels of inflammatory mediators. These results indicate that 24R,25(OH2D3 protects against OA, and suggest that it may be a therapeutic approach for preventing trauma-induced osteoarthritis.

  18. Protective effect of exogenous chondroitin 4,6-sulfate in the acute degradation of articular cartilage in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhart, D; Thonar, E J; Zhang, J; Williams, J M

    1998-05-01

    The injection of 2.0 mg chymopapain into the adolescent rabbit knee causes severe loss of articular cartilage proteoglycans (PG). Although chondrocytes attempt to restore lost PG, failure to repair ensues. Pure chondroitin 4,6-sulfate (Condrosulf, IBSA Lugano, Switzerland) has been used in clinical studies of human osteoarthritis (OA) as a slow-acting drug for OA (SYSADOA). Using our model of articular cartilage injury, we examined the effects of oral and intramuscular administration of Condrosulf after chymopapain-induced cartilage injury. In this study, animals received an injection of 2.0 mg chymopapain (Chymodiactin, Boots Pharmaceuticals) into the left knee and were sacrificed after 84 days. The contralateral right knee served as a noninjected control. Some animals received oral Condrosulf while others received intramuscular injections of Condrosulf. Serum keratan sulfate (KS) levels were monitored to ensure degradation of the cartilage PG. Those animals not exhibiting at least a 100% increase of serum KS following chymopapain injection were excluded from the study. At sacrifice, cartilage PG contents were markedly reduced in animals receiving an injection of 2.0 mg chymopapain with no further treatment. In contrast, oral administration of Condrosulf beginning 11 days prior to chymopapain injury resulted in significantly higher (P = 0.0036) cartilage PG contents. Intramuscular administration of Condrosulf resulted in higher, but less significantly so (P = 0.0457), cartilage PG contents. These results suggest that daily Condrosulf treatment prior to and continuing after chymopapain injury may have a protective effect on the damaged cartilage, allowing it to continue to re-synthesize matrix PG after the treatment is discontinued.

  19. The effects of different doses of IGF-1 on cartilage and subchondral bone during the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Li, L; Yang, W; Cao, Y; Shi, Y; Li, X; Zhang, Q

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effects of different doses of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on the cartilage layer and subchondral bone (SB) during repair of full-thickness articular cartilage (AC) defects. IGF-1-loaded collagen membrane was implanted into full-thickness AC defects in rabbits. The effects of two different doses of IGF-1 on cartilage layer and SB adjacent to the defect, the cartilage structure, formation and integration, and the new SB formation were evaluated at the 1st, 4th and 8th week postoperation. Meanwhile, after 1 week treatment, the relative mRNA expressions in tissues adjacent to the defect, including cartilage and SB were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), respectively. Different doses of IGF-1 induced different gene expression profiles in tissues adjacent to the defect and resulted in different repair outcomes. Particularly, at high dose IGF-1 aided cell survival, regulated the gene expressions in cartilage layer adjacent defect and altered ECM composition more effectively, improved the formation and integrity of neo-cartilage. While, at low dose IGF-1 regulated the gene expressions in SB more efficaciously and subsequently promoted the SB remodeling and reconstruction. Different doses of IGF-1 induced different responses of cartilage or SB during the repair of full-thickness AC defects. Particularly, high dose of IGF-1 was more beneficial to the neo-cartilage formation and integration, while low dose of it was more effective for the SB formation. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Joint distraction and movement for repair of articular cartilage in a rabbit model with subsequent weight-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, T; Chang, F; Ishii, T; Yanai, T; Mishima, H; Ochiai, N

    2010-07-01

    We have previously shown that joint distraction and movement with a hinged external fixation device for 12 weeks was useful for repairing a large articular cartilage defect in a rabbit model. We have now investigated the results after six months and one year. The device was applied to 16 rabbits who underwent resection of the articular cartilage and subchondral bone from the entire tibial plateau. In group A (nine rabbits) the device was applied for six months. In group B (seven rabbits) it was in place for six months, after which it was removed and the animals were allowed to move freely for an additional six months. The cartilage remained sound in all rabbits. The areas of type II collagen-positive staining and repaired soft tissue were larger in group B than in group A. These findings provide evidence of long-term persistence of repaired cartilage with this technique and that weight-bearing has a positive effect on the quality of the cartilage.

  1. Definition of pertinent parameters for the evaluation of articular cartilage repair tissue with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlovits, Stefan; Striessnig, Gabriele; Resinger, Christoph T.; Aldrian, Silke M.; Vecsei, Vilmos; Imhof, Herwig; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate articular cartilage repair tissue after biological cartilage repair, we propose a new technique of non-invasive, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and define a new classification system. For the definition of pertinent variables the repair tissue of 45 patients treated with three different techniques for cartilage repair (microfracture, autologous osteochondral transplantation, and autologous chondrocyte transplantation) was analyzed 6 and 12 months after the procedure. High-resolution imaging was obtained with a surface phased array coil placed over the knee compartment of interest and adapted sequences were used on a 1 T MRI scanner. The analysis of the repair tissue included the definition and rating of nine pertinent variables: the degree of filling of the defect, the integration to the border zone, the description of the surface and structure, the signal intensity, the status of the subchondral lamina and subchondral bone, the appearance of adhesions and the presence of synovitis. High-resolution MRI, using a surface phased array coil and specific sequences, can be used on every standard 1 or 1.5 T MRI scanner according to the in-house standard protocols for knee imaging in patients who have had cartilage repair procedures without substantially prolonging the total imaging time. The new classification and grading system allows a subtle description and suitable assessment of the articular cartilage repair tissue

  2. STRUCTURAL ADAPTABILITY AND THE REPARATIVE POSSIBILITIES OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE DEPENDING ON THE ADJACENT EXTREMITY SEGMENT LENGTHENING CONDITIONS (AN EXPERIMENTAL-AND-MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY)

    OpenAIRE

    T. A. Stupina; M. M. Schoudlo

    2011-01-01

    The changes of reactive and/or destructive-and-reparative character, the degree of which depends on distraction parameters, have been revealed in articular cartilage during leg lengthening by the methods of scanning electron microscopy and histomorphometry analysis. The analysis of quantitative data has demonstrated, that autodistraction by 3 mm per day for 180 times (increment и 17 μm) appears to be less traumatic for the articular cartilage than manual distraction by 1 mm per day for 4 time...

  3. Evaluation of Labral Pathology and Hip Articular Cartilage in Patients with Femoroacetabular Impingement (FAI): Comparison of Multidetector CT Arthrography and MR Arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Murat; Calisir, Cuneyt; Omeroglu, Hakan; Inan, Ulukan; Mutlu, Fezan; Kaya, Tamer

    2014-01-01

    To compare the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) arthrography (CTa) and magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography (MRa) findings with surgical findings in patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and to evaluate the diagnostic performance of these methods. Labral pathology and articular cartilage were prospectively evaluated with MRa and CTa in 14 hips of 14 patients. The findings were evaluated by two musculoskeletal radiologists with 10 and 20 years of experience, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive value were determined using surgical findings as the standard of reference. While the disagreement between observers was recorded in two cases of labral tearing with MRa, there was a complete consensus with CTa. Disagreement between observers was found in four cases of femoral cartilage loss with both MRa and CTa. Disagreement was also recorded in only one case of acetabular cartilage loss with both methods. The percent sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for correctly assessing the labral tearing were as follows for MRa/CTa, respectively: 100/100, 50/100, 86/100 (p<0.05). The same values for acetabular cartilage assessment were 89/56, 40/60, 71/71 (p>0.05) and for femoral cartilage assessment were 100/75, 90/70, 86/71 (p>0.05). Inter-observer reliability value showed excellent agreement for labral tearing with CTa (κ=1.0). Inter-observer agreement was substantial to excellent with regard to acetabular cartilage assessment with MRa and CTa (κ=0.76 for MRa and κ=0.86 for CTa) Inter-observer reliability with CTa is excellent for labral tearing assessment. CTa seems to have an equal sensitivity and a higher specificity than MRa for the detection of labral pathology. MRa is better, but not statistically significantly, in demonstrating acetabular and femoral cartilage pathology

  4. T2 mapping of articular cartilage of the glenohumeral joint at 3.0 T in healthy volunteers: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yusuhn [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jung-Ah [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hwaseong, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the T2 values of the glenohumeral joint cartilage in healthy asymptomatic individuals at 3.0 T and to analyze the T2 profile of the humeral cartilage. This prospective study was approved by our institutional review board and written informed consent was obtained. Thirteen subjects (mean age, 28.6 years; age range, 24-33 years) were included and underwent multiecho spin-echo T2-weighted MR imaging and T2 mapping was acquired. Regions of interest were placed on the humeral cartilage and glenoid cartilage on oblique coronal images. T2 profiles of humeral cartilage were measured from the bone-cartilage interface to the articular surface. Intra-observer agreement was analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). All 13 joints showed normal appearance on conventional T2-weighted images. The mean T2 values of humeral and glenoid cartilage were 50.5 ± 12.1 and 49.0 ± 9.9 ms, respectively. Intra-observer agreement was good, as determined by ICC (0.736). Longer T2 values were observed at the articular surface with a tendency to decrease toward the bone-cartilage interface. The mean cartilage T2 value was 69.03 ± 21.2 ms at the articular surface and 46.99 ± 19.6 ms at the bone-cartilage interface. T2 values of the glenohumeral joint cartilage were similar to reported values of cartilage in the knee. The T2 profile of normal humeral cartilage showed a spatial variation with an increase in T2 values from the subchondral bone to the articular surface. (orig.)

  5. Articular cartilage lesions increase early cartilage degeneration in knees treated by anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: T1ρ mapping evaluation and 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Jun; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Okamoto, Nobukazu; Oniki, Yasunari; Nakamura, Eiichi; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Usuku, Koichiro; Mizuta, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Articular cartilage degeneration can develop after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Although radiological studies have identified risk factors for the progression of degenerative cartilage changes in the long term, risk factors in the early postoperative period remain to be documented. Cartilage lesions that are present at surgery progress to cartilage degeneration in the early phase after ACLR. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. T1ρ is the spin-lattice relaxation in the rotating frame magnetic resonance imaging. Sagittal T1ρ maps of the femorotibial joint were obtained before and 1 year after ACLR in 23 patients with ACL injuries. Four regions of interest (ROIs) were placed on images of the cartilage in the medial and lateral femoral condyle (MFC, LFC) and the medial and lateral tibia plateau (MTP, LTP). Changes in the T1ρ value (milliseconds) of each ROI were recorded, and differences between patients with and without cartilage lesions were evaluated. The relationship between changes in the T1ρ value and meniscal tears was also studied. Arthroscopy at ACLR detected cartilage lesions in 15 MFCs, 7 LFCs, and 2 LTPs. The baseline T1ρ value of the MFC and LFC was significantly higher in patients with cartilage lesions (MFC, 40.7 ms; LFC, 42.2 ms) than in patients without cartilage lesions (MFC, 38.0 ms, P = .025; LFC, 39.4 ms, P = .010). At 1-year follow-up, the T1ρ value of the MFC and LFC was also significantly higher in patients with lesions (MFC, 43.1 ms; LFC, 42.7 ms) than in patients without such lesions (MFC, 39.1 ms, P = .002; LFC, 40.4 ms, P = .023, respectively). In patients with cartilage injury, the T1ρ value of the MFC increased during the year after treatment (P = .002). There was no significant difference in the baseline and follow-up T1ρ value in patients with or without meniscal tears on each side although the T1ρ value of the MFC, MTP, and LFC increased during the first year after surgery regardless of the presence or

  6. Extension of knee immobilization delays recovery of histological damages in the anterior cruciate ligament insertion and articular cartilage in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Mutsuzaki,, Hirotaka; Nakajima,, Hiromi; Sakane,, Masataka

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the influence of knee immobilization period on recovery of histological damages in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insertion and articular cartilage in rabbits. This knowledge is important for determining the appropriate rehabilitation approach for patients with ligament injuries, fracture, disuse atrophy, and degenerative joint disease. [Materials and Methods] Forty-eight male Japanese white rabbits were divided equally into the remobilization and control groups...

  7. HISTOMORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE KNEE ARTICULAR CARTILAGE AND SYNOVIUM FOR METADIAPHYSEAL LEG LENGTHENING (EXPERIMENTAL-AND-MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY)

    OpenAIRE

    T. A. Stupina; N. A. Schoudlo; N. V. Petrovskaya; M. A. Stepanov

    2013-01-01

    The knee articular cartilage and synovial membrane have been studied for metadiaphyseal leg lengthening using the methods of light miscroscopy, computer morpho- and stereometry. The manner of bone integrity breaking, the rate and rhythm of distraction conformed to the lengthening technique most often used in the clinic. The results of the histomorphometric analysis have demonstrated that when osteotomy at the level of metadiaphysis and manual distraction by 1 mm a day for 4 times is performed...

  8. Molecular changes in articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the rat anterior cruciate ligament transection and meniscectomized models of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickarski, Maureen; Hayami, Tadashi; Zhuo, Ya; Duong, Le T

    2011-08-24

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating, progressive joint disease. Similar to the disease progression in humans, sequential events of early cartilage degradation, subchondral osteopenia followed by sclerosis, and late osteophyte formation were demonstrated in the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) or ACLT with partial medial meniscectomy (ACLT + MMx) rat OA models. We describe a reliable and consistent method to examine the time dependent changes in the gene expression profiles in articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Local regulation of matrix degradation markers was demonstrated by a significant increase in mRNA levels of aggrecanase-1 and MMP-13 as early as the first week post-surgery, and expression remained elevated throughout the 10 week study. Immunohistochemistry confirmed MMP-13 expression in differentiated chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts at week-2 and cells within osteophytes at week-10 in the surgically-modified-joints. Concomitant increases in chondrocyte differentiation markers, Col IIA and Sox 9, and vascular invasion markers, VEGF and CD31, peaked around week-2 to -4, and returned to Sham levels at later time points in both models. Indeed, VEGF-positive cells were found in the deep articular chondrocytes adjacent to subchondral bone. Osteoclastic bone resorption markers, cathepsin K and TRAP, were also elevated at week-2. Confirming bone resorption is an early local event in OA progression, cathepsin K positive osteoclasts were found invading the articular cartilage from the subchondral region at week 2. This was followed by late disease events, including subchondral sclerosis and osteophyte formation, as demonstrated by the upregulation of the osteoanabolic markers runx2 and osterix, toward week-4 to 6 post-surgery. In summary, this study demonstrated the temporal and cohesive gene expression changes in articular cartilage and subchondral bone using known markers of OA progression. The findings here support genome-wide profiling

  9. Molecular changes in articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the rat anterior cruciate ligament transection and meniscectomized models of osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Ya

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA is a debilitating, progressive joint disease. Methods Similar to the disease progression in humans, sequential events of early cartilage degradation, subchondral osteopenia followed by sclerosis, and late osteophyte formation were demonstrated in the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT or ACLT with partial medial meniscectomy (ACLT + MMx rat OA models. We describe a reliable and consistent method to examine the time dependent changes in the gene expression profiles in articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Results Local regulation of matrix degradation markers was demonstrated by a significant increase in mRNA levels of aggrecanase-1 and MMP-13 as early as the first week post-surgery, and expression remained elevated throughout the 10 week study. Immunohistochemistry confirmed MMP-13 expression in differentiated chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts at week-2 and cells within osteophytes at week-10 in the surgically-modified-joints. Concomitant increases in chondrocyte differentiation markers, Col IIA and Sox 9, and vascular invasion markers, VEGF and CD31, peaked around week-2 to -4, and returned to Sham levels at later time points in both models. Indeed, VEGF-positive cells were found in the deep articular chondrocytes adjacent to subchondral bone. Osteoclastic bone resorption markers, cathepsin K and TRAP, were also elevated at week-2. Confirming bone resorption is an early local event in OA progression, cathepsin K positive osteoclasts were found invading the articular cartilage from the subchondral region at week 2. This was followed by late disease events, including subchondral sclerosis and osteophyte formation, as demonstrated by the upregulation of the osteoanabolic markers runx2 and osterix, toward week-4 to 6 post-surgery. Conclusions In summary, this study demonstrated the temporal and cohesive gene expression changes in articular cartilage and subchondral bone using known markers of

  10. Type II collagen peptide is able to accelerate embryonic chondrocyte differentiation: an association with articular cartilage matrix resorption in osteoarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vasil'evna Chetina

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion. The effect of CP on gene expression and collagen decomposition activity depends on the morphotype of embryonic chondrocytes. Lack of effect of CP on collagen decomposition activity in both the embryonic hypertrophic chondrocytes and the cartilage explants from OA patients supports the hypothesis that the hypertrophic morphotype is a dominant morphotype of articular chondrocytes in OA. Moreover, collagen decomposition products can be involved in the resorption of matrix in OA and in the maintenance of chronic nature of the pathology.

  11. Biocompatible nanocomposite of TiO2 incorporated bi-polymer for articular cartilage tissue regeneration: A facile material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Wu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Qiugen; Wang, Jiandong

    2018-01-01

    The development and design of polymeric hydrogels for articular cartilage tissue engineering have been a vital biomedical research for recent days. Organic/inorganic combined hydrogels with improved surface activity have shown potential for the repair and regeneration of hard tissues, but have not been broadly studied for articular cartilage tissue engineering applications. In this work, bi-polymeric hydrogel composite was designed with the incorporation some quantities of stick-like TiO 2 nanostructures for favorable surface behavior and enhancement of osteoblast adhesions. The microscopic investigations clearly exhibited that the stick-like TiO 2 nanostructured materials are highly inserted into the PVA/PVP bi-polymeric matrix, due to the long-chain PVA molecules are promoted to physical crosslinking density in hydrogel network. The results of improved surface topography of hydrogel matrixes show that more flatted cell morphologies and enhanced osteoblast attachment on the synthesized nanocomposites. The crystalline bone and stick-like TiO 2 nanocomposites significantly improved the bioactivity via lamellipodia and filopodia extension of osteoblast cells, due to its excellent intercellular connection and regulated cell responses. Consequently, these hydrogel has been enhanced the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacterial pathogens. Hence it is concluded that these hydrogel nanocomposite with improved morphology, osteoblast behavior and bactericidal activity have highly potential candidates for articular cartilage tissue regeneration applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of a lubricin mimic (mLub) to reduce friction and adhesion on the articular cartilage surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Alexandra; Xu, Xin; Bible, Melissa D; Calve, Sarah; Neu, Corey P; Panitch, Alyssa

    2015-12-01

    The lubricating proteoglycan, lubricin, facilitates the remarkable low friction and wear properties of articular cartilage in the synovial joints of the body. Lubricin lines the joint surfaces and plays a protective role as a boundary lubricant in sliding contact; decreased expression of lubricin is associated with cartilage degradation and the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. An unmet need for early osteoarthritis treatment is the development of therapeutic molecules that mimic lubricin function and yet are also resistant to enzymatic degradation common in the damaged joint. Here, we engineered a lubricin mimic (mLub) that is less susceptible to enzymatic degradation and binds to the articular surface to reduce friction. mLub was synthesized using a chondroitin sulfate backbone with type II collagen and hyaluronic acid (HA) binding peptides to promote interaction with the articular surface and synovial fluid constituents. In vitro and in vivo characterization confirmed the binding ability of mLub to isolated type II collagen and HA, and to the cartilage surface. Following trypsin treatment to the cartilage surface, application of mLub, in combination with purified or commercially available hyaluronan, reduced the coefficient of friction, and adhesion, to control levels as assessed over macro-to micro-scales by rheometry and atomic force microscopy. In vivo studies demonstrate an mLub residency time of less than 1 week. Enhanced lubrication by mLub reduces surface friction and adhesion, which may suppress the progression of degradation and cartilage loss in the joint. mLub therefore shows potential for treatment in early osteoarthritis following injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Deficiency of Thrombospondin-4 in Mice Does Not Affect Skeletal Growth or Bone Mass Acquisition, but Causes a Transient Reduction of Articular Cartilage Thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Jeschke

    Full Text Available Although articular cartilage degeneration represents a major public health problem, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly characterized. We have previously utilized genome-wide expression analysis to identify specific markers of porcine articular cartilage, one of them being Thrombospondin-4 (Thbs4. In the present study we analyzed Thbs4 expression in mice, thereby confirming its predominant expression in articular cartilage, but also identifying expression in other tissues, including bone. To study the role of Thbs4 in skeletal development and integrity we took advantage of a Thbs4-deficient mouse model that was analyzed by undecalcified bone histology. We found that Thbs4-deficient mice do not display phenotypic differences towards wildtype littermates in terms of skeletal growth or bone mass acquisition. Since Thbs4 has previously been found over-expressed in bones of Phex-deficient Hyp mice, we additionally generated Thbs4-deficient Hyp mice, but failed to detect phenotypic differences towards Hyp littermates. With respect to articular cartilage we found that Thbs4-deficient mice display transient thinning of articular cartilage, suggesting a protective role of Thbs4 for joint integrity. Gene expression analysis using porcine primary cells revealed that Thbs4 is not expressed by synovial fibroblasts and that it represents the only member of the Thbs gene family with specific expression in articular, but not in growth plate chondrocytes. In an attempt to identify specific molecular effects of Thbs4 we treated porcine articular chondrocytes with human THBS4 in the absence or presence of conditioned medium from porcine synovial fibroblasts. Here we did not observe a significant influence of THBS4 on proliferation, metabolic activity, apoptosis or gene expression, suggesting that it does not act as a signaling molecule. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Thbs4 is highly expressed in articular chondrocytes, where its

  14. Pathology of articular cartilage and synovial membrane from elbow joints with and without degenerative joint disease in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, M; Meuten, D; Lascelles, D

    2014-09-01

    The elbow joint is one of the feline appendicular joints most commonly and severely affected by degenerative joint disease. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions of the elbow joints of 30 adult cats were evaluated immediately after euthanasia. Macroscopic evidence of degenerative joint disease was found in 22 of 30 cats (39 elbow joints) (73.33% cats; 65% elbow joints), and macroscopic cartilage erosion ranged from mild fibrillation to complete ulceration of the hyaline cartilage with exposure of the subchondral bone. Distribution of the lesions in the cartilage indicated the presence of medial compartment joint disease (most severe lesions located in the medial coronoid process of the ulna and medial humeral epicondyle). Synovitis scores were mild overall and correlated only weakly with macroscopic cartilage damage. Intra-articular osteochondral fragments either free or attached to the synovium were found in 10 joints. Macroscopic or histologic evidence of a fragmented coronoid process was not found even in those cases with intra-articular osteochondral fragments. Lesions observed in these animals are most consistent with synovial osteochondromatosis secondary to degenerative joint disease. The pathogenesis for the medial compartmentalization of these lesions has not been established, but a fragmented medial coronoid process or osteochondritis dissecans does not appear to play a role. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Hyaline articular cartilage: relaxation times, pulse-sequence parameters and MR appearance at 1.5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalkias, S.M. [Dept. of Radiology, A.H.E.P.A. General Hospital of the Aristotelian Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece); Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Trieste (Italy); Pozzi-Mucelli, M. [Orthopaedic Clinic, Univ. of Trieste (Italy); Frezza, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Trieste (Italy); Longo, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Trieste (Italy)

    1994-08-01

    In order to optimize the parameters for the best visualization of the internal architecture of the hyaline articular cartilage a study both ex vivo and in vivo was performed. Accurate T1 and T2 relaxation times of articular cartilage were obtained with a particular mixed sequence and then used for the creation of isocontrast intensity graphs. These graphs subsequently allowed in all pulse sequences (spin echo, SE and gradient echo, GRE) the best combination of repetition time (TR), echo time (TE) and flip angle (FA) for optimization of signal differences between MR cartilage zones. For SE sequences maximum contrast between cartilage zones can be obtained by using a long TR (> 1,500 ms) with a short TE (< 30 ms), whereas for GRE sequences maximum contrast is obtained with the shortest TE (< 15 ms) combined with a relatively long TR (> 400 ms) and an FA greater than 40 . A trilaminar appearance was demonstrated with a superficial and deep hypointense zone in all sequences and an intermediate zone that was moderately hyperintense on SE T1-weighted images, slightly more hyperintense on proton density Rho and SE T2-weighted images and even more hyperintense on GRE images. (orig.)

  16. Partial reversal by beta-D-xyloside of salicylate-induced inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis in articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmoski, M.J.; Brandt, K.D.

    1982-01-01

    While net 35 S-glycosaminoglycan synthesis in normal canine articular cartilage was suppressed by 10(-3)M sodium salicylate to about 70% of the control value, addition of xyloside (10(-6)M-10(-3)M) to the salicylate-treated cultures led to a concentration-dependent increase in glycosaminoglycan synthesis, which rose to 120-237% of controls. Similar results were obtained when 3 H-glucosamine was used to measure glycosaminoglycan synthesis, confirming that salicylate suppresses and xyloside stimulates net glycosaminoglycan synthesis, and not merely sulfation. Salicylate (10-3)M) did not affect the activity of xylosyl or galactosyl transferase prepared from canine knee cartilage, and net protein synthesis was unaltered by either salicylate or xyloside. The proportion of newly synthesized proteoglycans existing as aggregates when cartilage was cultured with xyloside was similar to that in controls, although the average hydrodynamic size of disaggregated proteoglycans and of sulfated glycosaminoglycans was diminished

  17. MR imaging of post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries confined to the femoral trochlea Arthroscopic correlation and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huegli, Rolf W.; Moelleken, Sonja M.C.; Stork, Alexander; Bonel, Harald M.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Meckel, Stephan; Genant, Harry K.; Tirman, Phillip F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess and describe post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries isolated to the trochlear groove and provide insight into potential mechanism of injury. Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated MR imaging findings of all knee MRIs performed at our institution over the last 2 years (2450). Thirty patients met the criteria of a cartilage injury confined to the trochlear groove. In 15 cases, which were included in our study, arthroscopic correlation was available. Each plane was evaluated and graded for the presence and appearance of articular cartilage defects using a standard arthroscopic grading scheme adapted to MR imaging. Any additional pathological derangement was documented and information about the mechanism of injury was retrieved by chart review. Results: In all cases the cartilaginous injury was well demonstrated on MRI. In 13 patients additional pathological findings could be observed. The most frequently associated injury was a meniscal tear in nine patients. In eight cases, the arthroscopic grading of the trochlear injury matched exactly with the MRI findings. In the remaining seven cases, the discrepancy between MRI and arthroscopy was never higher than one grade. In 13 out of 15 of patients trauma mechanism could be evaluated. Twelve patients suffered an indirect twisting injury and one suffered a direct trauma to their knee. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate that MR imaging allows reliable grading of isolated injury to the trochlear groove cartilage and assists in directing surgical diagnosis and treatment. These injuries may be the only hyaline cartilage injury in the knee and meniscal tears are a frequently associated finding. Therefore, it is important to search specifically for cartilage injuries of the trochlear groove in patients with anterior knee pain, even if other coexistent pathology could potentially explain the patient's symptoms

  18. MR imaging of post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries confined to the femoral trochlea Arthroscopic correlation and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huegli, Rolf W. E-mail: rhuegli@uhbs.ch; Moelleken, Sonja M.C.; Stork, Alexander; Bonel, Harald M.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Meckel, Stephan; Genant, Harry K.; Tirman, Phillip F.J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess and describe post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries isolated to the trochlear groove and provide insight into potential mechanism of injury. Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated MR imaging findings of all knee MRIs performed at our institution over the last 2 years (2450). Thirty patients met the criteria of a cartilage injury confined to the trochlear groove. In 15 cases, which were included in our study, arthroscopic correlation was available. Each plane was evaluated and graded for the presence and appearance of articular cartilage defects using a standard arthroscopic grading scheme adapted to MR imaging. Any additional pathological derangement was documented and information about the mechanism of injury was retrieved by chart review. Results: In all cases the cartilaginous injury was well demonstrated on MRI. In 13 patients additional pathological findings could be observed. The most frequently associated injury was a meniscal tear in nine patients. In eight cases, the arthroscopic grading of the trochlear injury matched exactly with the MRI findings. In the remaining seven cases, the discrepancy between MRI and arthroscopy was never higher than one grade. In 13 out of 15 of patients trauma mechanism could be evaluated. Twelve patients suffered an indirect twisting injury and one suffered a direct trauma to their knee. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate that MR imaging allows reliable grading of isolated injury to the trochlear groove cartilage and assists in directing surgical diagnosis and treatment. These injuries may be the only hyaline cartilage injury in the knee and meniscal tears are a frequently associated finding. Therefore, it is important to search specifically for cartilage injuries of the trochlear groove in patients with anterior knee pain, even if other coexistent pathology could potentially explain the patient's symptoms.

  19. Evaluation of the articular cartilage of the knee joint: value of adding a T2 mapping sequence to a routine MR imaging protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijowski, Richard; Blankenbaker, Donna G; Munoz Del Rio, Alejandro; Baer, Geoffrey S; Graf, Ben K

    2013-05-01

    To determine whether the addition of a T2 mapping sequence to a routine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol could improve diagnostic performance in the detection of surgically confirmed cartilage lesions within the knee joint at 3.0 T. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. The study group consisted of 150 patients (76 male and 74 female patients with an average age of 41.2 and 41.5 years, respectively) who underwent MR imaging and arthroscopy of the knee joint. MR imaging was performed at 3.0 T by using a routine protocol with the addition of a sagittal T2 mapping sequence. Images from all MR examinations were reviewed in consensus by two radiologists before surgery to determine the presence or absence of cartilage lesions on each articular surface, first by using the routine MR protocol alone and then by using the routine MR protocol with T2 maps. Each articular surface was then evaluated at arthroscopy. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the routine MR imaging protocol with and without T2 maps in the detection of surgically confirmed cartilage lesions. The sensitivity and specificity in the detection of 351 cartilage lesions were 74.6% and 97.8%, respectively, for the routine MR protocol alone and 88.9% and 93.1% for the routine MR protocol with T2 maps. Differences in sensitivity and specificity were statistically significant (P T2 maps to the routine MR imaging protocol significantly improved the sensitivity in the detection of 24 areas of cartilage softening (from 4.2% to 62%, P T2 mapping sequence to a routine MR protocol at 3.0 T improved sensitivity in the detection of cartilage lesions within the knee joint from 74.6% to 88.9%, with only a small reduction in specificity. The greatest improvement in sensitivity with use of the T2 maps was in the identification of early cartilage degeneration. © RSNA

  20. Full-thickness knee articular cartilage defects in national football league combine athletes undergoing magnetic resonance imaging: prevalence, location, and association with previous surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepple, Jeffrey J; Wright, Rick W; Matava, Matthew J; Brophy, Robert H

    2012-06-01

    To better define the prevalence and location of full-thickness articular cartilage lesions in elite football players undergoing knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the National Football League (NFL) Invitational Combine and assess the association of these lesions with previous knee surgery. We performed a retrospective review of all participants in the NFL Combine undergoing a knee MRI scan from 2005 to 2009. Each MRI scan was reviewed for evidence of articular cartilage disease. History of previous knee surgery including anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, meniscal procedures, and articular cartilage surgery was recorded for each athlete. Knees with a history of previous articular cartilage restoration surgery were excluded from the analysis. A total of 704 knee MRI scans were included in the analysis. Full-thickness articular cartilage lesions were associated with a history of any previous knee surgery (P football players at the NFL Combine undergoing MRI. The lateral compartment appears to be at greater risk for full-thickness cartilage loss. Previous knee surgery, particularly meniscectomy, is associated with these lesions. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Stability of Collagen Scaffold Implants for Animals with Iatrogenic Articular Cartilage Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Jančář

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable hydrogels based on collagen modified by addition of synthetic biodegradable copolymer intended for preparation of porous scaffolds for mesenchymal stem cells used for possible implantation to animals with articular surface defects was investigated. The synthetic biodegradable tri-block copolymer used was the block copolymer of polyethylene glycol (PEG, polylactic acid (PLA, polyglycolic acid (PGA (PEG-PLGA endcapped with itaconic acid (ITA. The water-soluble carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccimide system (EDC-NHS was chosen as the cross-linking agent used to control the rate of hydrogel resorption. Dependence of the physical properties of the prepared hydrogels on the concentration of the EDC-NHS cross-linker, reaction time and concentration of PEG-PLGA-ITA copolymer was examined. Swelling behaviour, thermal stability, surface morphology and degradation rate were also characterized. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that increase in concentration of the cross-linking agent, as well as prolonged cross-linking time and increased amount of synthetic copolymer lead to enhanced thermal stability of the gels together with a reduced swelling ratio and degradation rate in saline. The resorption rate of these gels used in preparation of cartilage scaffolds can be controlled over a wide time interval by varying the collagen/(PEG-PLGA-ITA blend composition or the conditions of the cross-linking reaction.

  2. Gel-type autologous chondrocyte (Chondron™ implantation for treatment of articular cartilage defects of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Chung-Woo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gel-type autologous chondrocyte (Chondron™ implantations have been used for several years without using periosteum or membrane. This study involves evaluations of the clinical results of Chondron™ at many clinical centers at various time points during the postoperative patient follow-up. Methods Data from 98 patients with articular cartilage injury of the knee joint and who underwent Chondron™ implantation at ten Korean hospitals between January 2005 and November 2008, were included and were divided into two groups based on the patient follow-up period, i.e. 13~24-month follow-up and greater than 25-month follow-up. The telephone Knee Society Score obtained during telephone interviews with patients, was used as the evaluation tool. Results On the tKSS-A (telephone Knee Society Score-A, the score improved from 43.52 ± 20.20 to 89.71 ± 13.69 (P Conclusion Gel-type autologous chondrocyte implantation for chondral knee defects appears to be a safe and effective method for both decreasing pain and improving knee function.

  3. Determining equilibrium osmolarity in poly(ethylene glycol)/chondrotin sulfate gels mimicking articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, S; Aisenbrey, E; Bryant, S J; Bortz, D M

    2015-01-07

    We present an experimentally guided, multi-phase, multi-species polyelectrolyte gel model to make qualitative predictions on the equilibrium electro-chemical properties of articular cartilage. The mixture theory consists of two different types of polymers: poly(ethylene gylcol) (PEG), chondrotin sulfate (ChS), water (acting as solvent) and several different ions: H(+), Na(+), Cl(-). The polymer chains have covalent cross-links whose effect on the swelling kinetics is modeled via Doi rubber elasticity theory. Numerical studies on equilibrium polymer volume fraction and net osmolarity (difference in the solute concentration across the gel) show a complex interplay between ionic bath concentrations, pH, cross-link fraction and the average charge per monomer. Generally speaking, swelling is aided due to a higher average charge per monomer (or a higher particle fraction of ChS, the charged component of the polymer), low solute concentration in the bath, a high pH or a low cross-link fraction. A peculiar case arises at higher values of cross-link fraction, where it is observed that increasing the average charge per monomer leads to gel deswelling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tissue Engineering Based Therapy for Articular Cartilage Defects - A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Articular cartilage, the load-bearing tissue in diarthrodial joints, when damaged due to trauma could lead to osteoarthritis. At present Autologous Cartilage Implantation is an established method in which patients own chondrocytes are isolated and then implanted after in vitro expansion over the affected area with bovine or porcine collagen matrix. This procedure results in more of Collagen Type I during in vitro expansion, which eventually becomes fibrocartilage. Also it requires growth factors. We have in this study tried growing human Chondrocytes without growth factors using synthetic scaffolds to grow more Collagen Type II Materials and Methods: Human cartilage specimens were harvested through arthroscopy from the non-weight bearing area of the knee joint from 13 patients who underwent surgical procedures of the knee joint after getting their informed consent. The tissues were transported in saline taking 1 hour to laboratory and subjected to digestion with Collagenase type II for 16~18 Hrs. The chondrocyte cells obtained after dissociation were divided into two groups for culture. Gr. I were embedded in a Thermogelation polymer (TGP and Gr. II in basal culture media (DMEM + Ascorbic Acid without using any growth factors. The Group II cells were viable only for 4 weeks and then started degenerating. The TGP-Chondrocytes scaffolds were grown for 16 weeks and the specimens were harvested at 4, 8, 12 and 16-week intervals and their morphology and molecular characteristics were studied by H&E staining, S-100 protein analysis and RT-PCR.Results: Human chondrocytes could be cultured in both TGP (group I and Basal culture media (group II. The Gr. I cells were viable upto the 16th week while the Group II chondrocytes started degenerating after the 4 week. Both the groups were proven positive for S-100 protein, a Chondrocyte specific marker protein; Gr. II specimens after 4 weeks, and Gr. I specimens after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. RT

  5. Prenatal nicotine exposure induces poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and the intrauterine programming mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Kai; Tan, Yang; Deng, Yu; Li, Jing; Ni, Qubo; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) induces skeletal growth retardation and dyslipidemia in offspring displaying intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Cholesterol accumulation resulting from cholesterol efflux dysfunction may reduce the quality of articular cartilage through fetal programming. This study evaluated the quality of articular cartilage of female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and explored the mechanisms using a rat IUGR model established by the administration of 2.0mg/kg/d of subcutaneous nicotine from gestational days 11-20. The results demonstrated an increased OARSI (Osteoarthritis Research Society International) score and total cholesterol content, decreased serum corticosterone, and increased IGF1 and dyslipidemia with catch-up growth in PNE adult offspring. Cartilage matrix, IGF1 and cholesterol efflux pathway expression were reduced in PNE fetuses and adult offspring. Therefore, PNE induced poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet via a dual programming mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of 3D vs. 2D fast spin echo imaging for evaluation of articular cartilage in the knee on a 3 T system scientific research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milewski, Matthew D.; Smitaman, Edward; Moukaddam, Hicham; Katz, Lee D.; Essig, David A.; Medvecky, Michael J.; Haims, Andrew H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Compared 3D to 2D MR sequences for articular cartilage in the knee. ► 3D imaging acquired in a single plane, 2D acquired in 3 separate planes. ► No significant difference in accuracy between 3D and 2D sequences. - Abstract: Purpose: We sought to retrospectively compare the accuracy of a three-dimensional fat-suppressed, fast spin-echo sequences acquired in the sagittal plane, with multiplanar reconstructions to that of two-dimensional fat-suppressed, fast spin echo sequences acquired in three planes on a 3 T MR system for the evaluation of articular cartilage in the knee. Materials and methods: Our study group consisted of all patients (N = 34) that underwent 3 T MR imaging of the knee at our institution with subsequent arthroscopy over an 18-month period. There were 21 males and 13 females with an average age of 36 years. MR images were reviewed by 3 musculoskeletal radiologists, blinded to operative results. 3D and 2D sequences were reviewed at different sittings separated by 4 weeks to prevent bias. Six cartilage surfaces were evaluated both with MR imaging and arthroscopically with a modified Noyes scoring system and arthroscopic results were used as the gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for each reader along with Fleiss Kappa assessment agreement between the readers. Accuracies for each articular surface were compared using a difference in proportions test with a 95% confidence interval and statistical significance was calculated using a Fisher's Exact Test. Results: Two hundred and four articular surfaces were evaluated and 49 articular cartilage lesions were present at arthroscopy. For the patellofemoral surfaces, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 76.5%, 83%, and 78.2% for the 3D sequences and were 82.3%, 76%, and 82% respectively for the 2D sequences. For the medial compartment surfaces, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 81.1%, 65.1%, and 78.5% for the 3D sequences and were

  7. A comparison of multi-echo spin-echo and triple-echo steady-state T2 mapping for in vivo evaluation of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juras, Vladimir; Bohndorf, Klaus; Heule, Rahel; Kronnerwetter, Claudia; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Hager, Benedikt; Bieri, Oliver; Zbyn, Stefan; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2016-06-01

    To assess the clinical relevance of T2 relaxation times, measured by 3D triple-echo steady-state (3D-TESS), in knee articular cartilage compared to conventional multi-echo spin-echo T2-mapping. Thirteen volunteers and ten patients with focal cartilage lesions were included in this prospective study. All subjects underwent 3-Tesla MRI consisting of a multi-echo multi-slice spin-echo sequence (CPMG) as a reference method for T2 mapping, and 3D TESS with the same geometry settings, but variable acquisition times: standard (TESSs 4:35min) and quick (TESSq 2:05min). T2 values were compared in six different regions in the femoral and tibial cartilage using a Wilcoxon signed ranks test and the Pearson correlation coefficient (r). The local ethics committee approved this study, and all participants gave written informed consent. The mean quantitative T2 values measured by CPMG (mean: 46±9ms) in volunteers were significantly higher compared to those measured with TESS (mean: 31±5ms) in all regions. Both methods performed similarly in patients, but CPMG provided a slightly higher difference between lesions and native cartilage (CPMG: 90ms→61ms [31%],p=0.0125;TESS 32ms→24ms [24%],p=0.0839). 3D-TESS provides results similar to those of a conventional multi-echo spin-echo sequence with many benefits, such as shortening of total acquisition time and insensitivity to B1 and B0 changes. • 3D-TESS T 2 mapping provides clinically comparable results to CPMG in shorter scan-time. • Clinical and investigational studies may benefit from high temporal resolution of 3D-TESS. • 3D-TESS T 2 values are able to differentiate between healthy and damaged cartilage.

  8. MR imaging of articular cartilage disorders: Specificity of fast imaging and CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konig, H.; Sauter, R.; Kueper, K.; Deimling, M.; Vogt, M.

    1986-01-01

    MR imaging is the first imaging method that allows visualization of cartilage tissues. The authors compared standard spin-echo sequences and selective water images obtained using the CHESS method as well as fast sequences in patients with inflammatory, degenerative, and traumatic alterations of the hip, knee, and radiocarpal joint. Measurements were carried out using Magnetom imaging systems operating at 1.0 and 1.5 T. With the use of different types of surface coils high spatial resolution (pixel size, 0.5-1.0 mm; section thickness, 3-8 mm) could be obtained. Pure water images are superior for showing changes of the hyaline cartilage, whereas spin-echo sequences remain the basic procedure, especially for imaging fibrocartilage disorders

  9. Effect of gender and sports on the risk of full-thickness articular cartilage lesions in anterior cruciate ligament-injured knees: a nationwide cohort study from Sweden and Norway of 15 783 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røtterud, Jan Harald; Sivertsen, Einar A; Forssblad, Magnus; Engebretsen, Lars; Årøen, Asbjørn

    2011-07-01

    The presence of an articular cartilage lesion in anterior cruciate ligament-injured knees is considered a predictor of osteoarthritis. This study was undertaken to evaluate risk factors for full-thickness articular cartilage lesions in anterior cruciate ligament-injured knees, in particular the role of gender and the sport causing the initial injury. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Primary unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions prospectively registered in the Swedish and the Norwegian National Knee Ligament Registry during 2005 through 2008 were included (N = 15 783). Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate risk factors for cartilage lesions. A total of 1012 patients (6.4%) had full-thickness cartilage lesions. The median time from injury to surgery was 9 months (range, 0 days-521 months). Male patients had an increased odds of full-thickness cartilage lesions compared with females (odds ratio = 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.42). In males, team handball had an increase in the odds of full-thickness cartilage lesions compared with soccer (odds ratio = 2.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-4.19). Among female patients, no sport investigated showed a significant decrease or increase in the odds of full-thickness cartilage lesions. The odds of a full-thickness cartilage lesion increased by 1.006 (95% confidence interval, 1.005-1.008) for each month elapsed from time of injury until anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction when all patients were considered, while time from injury to surgery did not affect the odds significantly in those patients reconstructed within 1 year of injury (odds ratio = 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.95-1.02). Previous surgery increased the odds of having a full-thickness cartilage lesion (odds ratio = 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.63). One year of increasing patient age also increased the odds (odds ratio = 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.06). Male gender is associated with an

  10. Development of a Novel Large Animal Model to Evaluate Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells for Articular Cartilage Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Shimomura, Kazunori; Asperti, Andre; Pinheiro, Carla Cristina Gomes; Caetano, Heloísa Vasconcellos Amaral; Oliveira, Claudia Regina G C M; Nakamura, Norimasa; Hernandez, Arnaldo José; Bueno, Daniela Franco

    2018-05-04

    Chondral lesion is a pathology with high prevalence, reaching as much as 63% of general population and 36% among athletes. The ability of human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) to differentiate into chondroblasts in vitro suggests that this stem cell type may be useful for tissue bioengineering. However, we have yet to identify a study of large animal models in which DPSCs were used to repair articular cartilage. Therefore, this study aimed to describe a novel treatment for cartilage lesion with DPSCs on a large animal model. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were obtained from deciduous teeth and characterized by flow cytometry. DPSCs were cultured and added to a collagen type I/III biomaterial composite scaffold. Brazilian miniature pig (BR-1) was used. A 6-mm diameter, full-thickness chondral defect was created in each posterior medial condyle. The defects were covered with scaffold alone or scaffold + DPSCs on the contralateral side. Animals were euthanized 6 weeks post-surgery. Cartilage defects were analyzed macroscopically and histology according to modified O'Driscoll scoring system. Flow cytometry confirmed characterization of DPSCs as MSCs. Macroscopic and histological findings suggested that this time period was reasonable for evaluating cartilage repair. To our knowledge, this study provides the first description of an animal model using DPSCs to study the differentiation of hyaline articular cartilage in vivo. The animals tolerated the procedure well and did not show clinical or histological rejection of the DPSCs, reinforcing the feasibility of this descriptive miniature pig model for pre-clinical studies.

  11. Effects of NSAIDs on the metabolism of sulphated glycosaminoglycans in healthy and (post) arthritic murine articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, B J; van den Berg, W B; Vitters, E; van de Putte, L B

    1988-01-01

    Several non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were studied for their effects on normal and damaged murine articular cartilage, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, in the absence of serum, sodium salicylate caused significant suppression of 35S-glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis, whereas tiaprofenic acid, piroxicam, prednisolone sodium phosphate and several other NSAIDs were without effect. Trypsin-mediated proteoglycan depletion did not change the susceptibility of the articular chondrocyte to these drugs. Similarly, no enhancement of drug effect was seen when arthritic cartilage was taken from an acutely inflamed joint, and prenisolone sodium phosphate even seemed to diminish inflammation-mediated suppression of 35S-GAG synthesis. The short term in vivo effects of some of the drugs were tested in mice with unilateral zymosan-induced arthritis. At day 1 after arthritis induction, in vivo 35S-GAG synthesis by the cartilage of the arthritic joint was decreased to 63%. Only sodium salicylate suppressed in vivo 35S-GAG synthesis in the healthy and arthritic joint to the same extent in both. At day 28, GAG synthesis in the postarthritic joint was enhanced to 160%. This type of cartilage appeared to be more susceptible to drug effects, since all drugs tested showed clear suppression of the augmented GAG production in vivo. Finally, in vivo drug effects were tested on normal and enhanced 35S-GAG degradation, the latter in the zymosan-induced arthritic joint. Both tiaprofenic acid and prednisolone sodium phosphate appeared to suppress degradation in healthy and, to some extent, in arthritic cartilage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Assessing the effect of football play on knee articular cartilage using delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenbo; Lambach, Becky; Jia, Guang; Flanigan, David; Chaudhari, Ajit M W; Wei, Lai; Rogers, Alan; Payne, Jason; Siston, Robert A; Knopp, Michael V

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of cartilage lesions is much higher in football athletes than in the general population. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) has been shown to quantify regional variations of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentrations which is an indicator of early cartilage degeneration. The goal of this study is to determine whether dGEMRIC can be used to assess the influence in cartilage GAG concentration due to college level football play. Thirteen collegiate football players with one to four years of collegiate football play experience were recruited and both knee joints were scanned using a dedicated 8-channel phased array knee coil on a 3T MRI system. The contrast concentrations within cartilage were calculated based on the T 1 values from dGEMRIC scans. No substantial differences were found in the contrast concentrations between the pre- and post-season across all the cartilage compartments. One year collegiate football players presented an average contrast concentration at the pre-season of 0.116±0.011mM and post-season of 0.116±0.011mM. In players with multiple years of football play, contrast uptake was elevated to 0.141±0.012mM at the pre-season and 0.139±0.012mM at the post-season. The pre-season 0.023±0.016mM and post-season 0.025±0.016mM increase in contrast concentration within the group with multiple years of experience presented with a >20% increase in contrast uptake. This may indicate the gradual, cumulative damage of football play to the articular cartilage over years, even though the effect may not be noticeable after a season of play. Playing collegiate football for a longer period of time may lead to cartilage microstructural alterations, which may be linked to early knee cartilage degeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cell-based tissue engineering strategies used in the clinical repair of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Brian J; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2016-08-01

    One of the most important issues facing cartilage tissue engineering is the inability to move technologies into the clinic. Despite the multitude of current research in the field, it is known that 90% of new drugs that advance past animal studies fail clinical trials. The objective of this review is to provide readers with an understanding of the scientific details of tissue engineered cartilage products that have demonstrated a certain level of efficacy in humans, so that newer technologies may be developed upon this foundation. Compared to existing treatments, such as microfracture or autologous chondrocyte implantation, a tissue engineered product can potentially provide more consistent clinical results in forming hyaline repair tissue and in filling the entirety of the defect. The various tissue engineering strategies (e.g., cell expansion, scaffold material, media formulations, biomimetic stimuli, etc.) used in forming these products, as collected from published literature, company websites, and relevant patents, are critically discussed. The authors note that many details about these products remain proprietary, not all information is made public, and that advancements to the products are continuously made. Nevertheless, by understanding the design and production processes of these emerging technologies, one can gain tremendous insight into how to best use them and also how to design the next generation of tissue engineered cartilage products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cell-based tissue engineering strategies used in the clinical repair of articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Brian J.; Hu, Jerry C.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important issues facing cartilage tissue engineering is the inability to move technologies into the clinic. Despite the multitude of review articles on the paradigm of biomaterials, signals, and cells, it is reported that 90% of new drugs that advance past animal studies fail clinical trials (1). The intent of this review is to provide readers with an understanding of the scientific details of tissue engineered cartilage products that have demonstrated a certain level of efficacy in humans, so that newer technologies may be developed upon this foundation. Compared to existing treatments, such as microfracture or autologous chondrocyte implantation, a tissue engineered product can potentially provide more consistent clinical results in forming hyaline repair tissue and in filling the entirety of the defect. The various tissue engineering strategies (e.g., cell expansion, scaffold material, media formulations, biomimetic stimuli, etc.) used in forming these products, as collected from published literature, company websites, and relevant patents, are critically discussed. The authors note that many details about these products remain proprietary, not all information is made public, and that advancements to the products are continuously made. Nevertheless, by fully understanding the design and production processes of these emerging technologies, one can gain tremendous insight into how to best use them and also how to design the next generation of tissue engineered cartilage products. PMID:27177218

  15. Experimental study on the role of intra-articular injection of MSCs on cartilage regeneration in haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanbod, R; Torkaman, G; Mophid, M; Mohammadali, F

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) therapy is a field in progress in cartilage repair strategies. We tried to investigate the functional properties of the joint and cartilage in experimental haemarthrosis (EH) after MSCs intra-articular (IA) injection. One millilitre of fresh autologous blood was injected twice a week for three consecutive weeks in three groups including control haemophilia 10 days (n = 8), control haemophilia 38 days (n = 8) and MSCs (n = 8) group. In later, 10 days after the end of IA blood injections, MSCs IA injection was performed. Eight animals received no treatment as the normal control group. Thirty-eight days after the end of IA blood injections, animals were sacrificed. Joint friction and stress-relaxation tests were done, inflammatory cytokines of synovial membrane and scanning electron microscopy of the cartilage assessed. Joint friction decreased in MSCs in comparison to other groups and was significant with normal control group, (P = 0.011). The mechanical properties of cartilage showed no significant differences between groups. Tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta decreased and IL-4 very slightly increased in MSCs in comparison to the time-matched control group. Scanning electron microscopy enabled acquisition of good structural properties of the surface and layers of the cartilage after MSCs injection. The hole induced in the medial plateau of the tibia bones, after inducing haemarthrosis, were covered with cartilage-like structure. The results showed that MSCs IA injection has some beneficial effects on cartilage structure and function in haemarthrosis model and is promising in patients with haemophilia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A Guide for Using Mechanical Stimulation to Enhance Tissue-Engineered Articular Cartilage Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Evelia Y; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos

    2018-04-26

    The use of tissue-engineered articular cartilage (TEAC) constructs has the potential to become a powerful treatment option for cartilage lesions resulting from trauma or early stages of pathology. Although fundamental tissue-engineering strategies based on the use of scaffolds, cells, and signals have been developed, techniques that lead to biomimetic AC constructs that can be translated to in vivo use are yet to be fully confirmed. Mechanical stimulation during tissue culture can be an effective strategy to enhance the mechanical, structural, and cellular properties of tissue-engineered constructs toward mimicking those of native AC. This review focuses on the use of mechanical stimulation to attain and enhance the properties of AC constructs needed to translate these implants to the clinic. In vivo, mechanical loading at maximal and supramaximal physiological levels has been shown to be detrimental to AC through the development of degenerative changes. In contrast, multiple studies have revealed that during culture, mechanical stimulation within narrow ranges of magnitude and duration can produce anisotropic, mechanically robust AC constructs with high cellular viability. Significant progress has been made in evaluating a variety of mechanical stimulation techniques on TEAC, either alone or in combination with other stimuli. These advancements include determining and optimizing efficacious loading parameters (e.g., duration and frequency) to yield improvements in construct design criteria, such as collagen II content, compressive stiffness, cell viability, and fiber organization. With the advancement of mechanical stimulation as a potent strategy in AC tissue engineering, a compendium detailing the results achievable by various stimulus regimens would be of great use for researchers in academia and industry. The objective is to list the qualitative and quantitative effects that can be attained when direct compression, hydrostatic pressure, shear, and tensile

  17. Contour interpolated radial basis functions with spline boundary correction for fast 3D reconstruction of the human articular cartilage from MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaid, Zarrar; Unsworth, Charles P.; Boocock, Mark G.; McNair, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to demonstrate a new image processing technique that can provide a “near real-time” 3D reconstruction of the articular cartilage of the human knee from MR images which is user friendly. This would serve as a point-of-care 3D visualization tool which would benefit a consultant radiologist in the visualization of the human articular cartilage. Methods: The authors introduce a novel fusion of an adaptation of the contour method known as “contour interpolation (CI)” with radial basis functions (RBFs) which they describe as “CI-RBFs.” The authors also present a spline boundary correction which further enhances volume estimation of the method. A subject cohort consisting of 17 right nonpathological knees (ten female and seven male) is assessed to validate the quality of the proposed method. The authors demonstrate how the CI-RBF method dramatically reduces the number of data points required for fitting an implicit surface to the entire cartilage, thus, significantly improving the speed of reconstruction over the comparable RBF reconstruction method of Carr. The authors compare the CI-RBF method volume estimation to a typical commercial package (3D DOCTOR), Carr’s RBF method, and a benchmark manual method for the reconstruction of the femoral, tibial, and patellar cartilages. Results: The authors demonstrate how the CI-RBF method significantly reduces the number of data points (p-value < 0.0001) required for fitting an implicit surface to the cartilage, by 48%, 31%, and 44% for the patellar, tibial, and femoral cartilages, respectively. Thus, significantly improving the speed of reconstruction (p-value < 0.0001) by 39%, 40%, and 44% for the patellar, tibial, and femoral cartilages over the comparable RBF model of Carr providing a near real-time reconstruction of 6.49, 8.88, and 9.43 min for the patellar, tibial, and femoral cartilages, respectively. In addition, it is demonstrated how the CI-RBF method matches the volume

  18. Contour interpolated radial basis functions with spline boundary correction for fast 3D reconstruction of the human articular cartilage from MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javaid, Zarrar; Unsworth, Charles P., E-mail: c.unsworth@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Engineering Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Boocock, Mark G.; McNair, Peter J. [Health and Rehabilitation Research Center, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to demonstrate a new image processing technique that can provide a “near real-time” 3D reconstruction of the articular cartilage of the human knee from MR images which is user friendly. This would serve as a point-of-care 3D visualization tool which would benefit a consultant radiologist in the visualization of the human articular cartilage. Methods: The authors introduce a novel fusion of an adaptation of the contour method known as “contour interpolation (CI)” with radial basis functions (RBFs) which they describe as “CI-RBFs.” The authors also present a spline boundary correction which further enhances volume estimation of the method. A subject cohort consisting of 17 right nonpathological knees (ten female and seven male) is assessed to validate the quality of the proposed method. The authors demonstrate how the CI-RBF method dramatically reduces the number of data points required for fitting an implicit surface to the entire cartilage, thus, significantly improving the speed of reconstruction over the comparable RBF reconstruction method of Carr. The authors compare the CI-RBF method volume estimation to a typical commercial package (3D DOCTOR), Carr’s RBF method, and a benchmark manual method for the reconstruction of the femoral, tibial, and patellar cartilages. Results: The authors demonstrate how the CI-RBF method significantly reduces the number of data points (p-value < 0.0001) required for fitting an implicit surface to the cartilage, by 48%, 31%, and 44% for the patellar, tibial, and femoral cartilages, respectively. Thus, significantly improving the speed of reconstruction (p-value < 0.0001) by 39%, 40%, and 44% for the patellar, tibial, and femoral cartilages over the comparable RBF model of Carr providing a near real-time reconstruction of 6.49, 8.88, and 9.43 min for the patellar, tibial, and femoral cartilages, respectively. In addition, it is demonstrated how the CI-RBF method matches the volume

  19. Biochemical evaluation of articular cartilage in patients with osteochondrosis dissecans by means of quantitative T2- and T2-mapping at 3T MRI: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marik, W; Apprich, S; Welsch, G H; Mamisch, T C; Trattnig, S

    2012-05-01

    To perform an in vivo evaluation comparing overlying articular cartilage in patients suffering from osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) in the talocrural joint and healthy volunteers using quantitative T2 mapping at 3.0 T. Ten patients with OCD of Grade II or lower and 9 healthy age matched volunteers were examined at a 3.0 T whole body MR scanner using a flexible multi-element coil. In all investigated persons MRI included proton-density (PD)-FSE and 3D GRE (TrueFisp) sequences for morphological diagnosis and location of anatomical site and quantitative T2 and T2 maps. Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed for the cartilage layer above the OCD and for a morphologically healthy graded cartilage layer. Mean T2 and T2 values were then statistically analysed. The cartilage layer of healthy volunteers showed mean T2 and T2 values of 29.4 ms (SD 4.9) and 11.8 ms (SD 2.7), respectively. In patients with OCD of grade I and II lesions mean T2 values were 40.9 ms (SD 6.6), 48.7 ms (SD 11.2) and mean T2 values were 16.1 ms (SD 3.2), 16.2 ms (SD 4.8). Therefore statistically significantly higher mean T2 and T2 values were found in patients suffering from OCD compared to healthy volunteers. T2 and T2 mapping can help assess the microstructural composition of cartilage overlying osteochondral lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biochemical evaluation of articular cartilage in patients with osteochondrosis dissecans by means of quantitative T2- and T2*-mapping at 3 T MRI: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marik, W.; Apprich, S.; Welsch, G.H.; Mamisch, T.C.; Trattnig, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To perform an in vivo evaluation comparing overlying articular cartilage in patients suffering from osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) in the talocrural joint and healthy volunteers using quantitative T2 mapping at 3.0 T. Method and materials: Ten patients with OCD of Grade II or lower and 9 healthy age matched volunteers were examined at a 3.0 T whole body MR scanner using a flexible multi-element coil. In all investigated persons MRI included proton-density (PD)-FSE and 3D GRE (TrueFisp) sequences for morphological diagnosis and location of anatomical site and quantitative T2 and T2* maps. Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed for the cartilage layer above the OCD and for a morphologically healthy graded cartilage layer. Mean T2 and T2* values were then statistically analysed. Results: The cartilage layer of healthy volunteers showed mean T2 and T2* values of 29.4 ms (SD 4.9) and 11.8 ms (SD 2.7), respectively. In patients with OCD of grade I and II lesions mean T2 values were 40.9 ms (SD 6.6), 48.7 ms (SD 11.2) and mean T2* values were 16.1 ms (SD 3.2), 16.2 ms (SD 4.8). Therefore statistically significantly higher mean T2 and T2* values were found in patients suffering from OCD compared to healthy volunteers. Conclusion: T2 and T2* mapping can help assess the microstructural composition of cartilage overlying osteochondral lesions.

  1. Routine clinical knee MR reports: comparison of diagnostic performance at 1.5 T and 3.0 T for assessment of the articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Jacob C; Rhodes, Jeffrey A; Shah, Nehal; Gaviola, Glenn C; Gomoll, Andreas H; Smith, Stacy E

    2017-11-01

    Accurate assessment of knee articular cartilage is clinically important. Although 3.0 Tesla (T) MRI is reported to offer improved diagnostic performance, literature regarding the clinical impact of MRI field strength is lacking. The purpose of this study is to compare the diagnostic performance of clinical MRI reports for assessment of cartilage at 1.5 and 3.0 T in comparison to arthroscopy. This IRB-approved retrospective study consisted of 300 consecutive knees in 297 patients who had routine clinical MRI and arthroscopy. Descriptions of cartilage from MRI reports of 165 knees at 1.5 T and 135 at 3.0 T were compared with arthroscopy. The sensitivity, specificity, percent of articular surfaces graded concordantly, and percent of articular surfaces graded within one grade of the arthroscopic grading were calculated for each articular surface at 1.5 and 3.0 T. Agreement between MRI and arthroscopy was calculated with the weighted-kappa statistic. Significance testing was performed utilizing the z-test after bootstrapping to obtain the standard error. The sensitivity, specificity, percent of articular surfaces graded concordantly, and percent of articular surfaces graded within one grade were 61.4%, 82.7%, 62.2%, and 77.5% at 1.5 T and 61.8%, 80.6%, 59.5%, and 75.6% at 3.0 T, respectively. The weighted kappa statistic was 0.56 at 1.5 T and 0.55 at 3.0 T. There was no statistically significant difference in any of these parameters between 1.5 and 3.0 T. Factors potentially contributing to the lack of diagnostic advantage of 3.0 T MRI are discussed.

  2. Oral administration of undenatured native chicken type II collagen (UC-II) diminished deterioration of articular cartilage in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagi, C M; Berryman, E R; Teo, S; Lane, N E

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ability of undenatured native chicken type II collagen (UC-II) to prevent excessive articular cartilage deterioration in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA). Twenty male rats were subjected to partial medial meniscectomy tear (PMMT) surgery to induce OA. Immediately after the surgery 10 rats received vehicle and another 10 rats oral daily dose of UC-II at 0.66 mg/kg for a period of 8 weeks. In addition 10 naïve rats were used as an intact control and another 10 rats received sham surgery. Study endpoints included a weight-bearing capacity of front and hind legs, serum biomarkers of bone and cartilage metabolism, analyses of subchondral and cancellous bone at the tibial epiphysis and metaphysis, and cartilage pathology at the medial tibial plateau using histological methods. PMMT surgery produced moderate OA at the medial tibial plateau. Specifically, the deterioration of articular cartilage negatively impacted the weight bearing capacity of the operated limb. Immediate treatment with the UC-II preserved the weight-bearing capacity of the injured leg, preserved integrity of the cancellous bone at tibial metaphysis and limited the excessive osteophyte formation and deterioration of articular cartilage. Study results demonstrate that a clinically relevant daily dose of UC-II when applied immediately after injury can improve the mechanical function of the injured knee and prevent excessive deterioration of articular cartilage. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Biodegradable and injectable cure-on-demand polyurethane scaffolds for regeneration of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkmeister, J A; Adhikari, R; White, J F; Tebb, T A; Le, T P T; Taing, H C; Mayadunne, R; Gunatillake, P A; Danon, S J; Ramshaw, J A M

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of an injectable methacrylate functionalized urethane-based photopolymerizable prepolymer to form biodegradable hydrogels. The tetramethacrylate prepolymer was based on the reaction between two synthesized compounds, diisocyanato poly(ethylene glycol) and monohydroxy dimethacrylate poly(epsilon-caprolactone) triol. The final prepolymer was hydrated with phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4) to yield a biocompatible hydrogel containing up to 86% water. The methacrylate functionalized prepolymer was polymerized using blue light (450 nm) with an initiator, camphorquinone and a photosensitizer, N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate. The polymer was stable in vitro in culture media over the 28 days tested (1.9% mass loss); in the presence of lipase, around 56% mass loss occurred over the 28 days in vitro. Very little degradation occurred in vivo in rats over the same time period. The polymer was well tolerated with very little capsule formation and a moderate host tissue response. Human chondrocytes, seeded onto Cultispher-S beads, were viable in the tetramethacrylate prepolymer and remained viable during and after polymerization. Chondrocyte-bead-polymer constructs were maintained in static and spinner culture for 8 weeks. During this time, cells remained viable, proliferated and migrated from the beads through the polymer towards the edge of the polymer. New extracellular matrix (ECM) was visualized with Masson's trichrome (collagen) and Alcian blue (glycosaminoglycan) staining. Further, the composition of the ECM was typical for articular cartilage with prominent collagen type II and type VI and moderate keratin sulphate, particularly for tissue constructs cultured under dynamic conditions. 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiographical survey of carpal joints with ulcerous lesions of articular cartilage in Japanese black cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taura, Y.; Nishimura, R.; Sasaki, N.; Takeuchi, A.; Usui, K.

    1989-01-01

    For the purpose of investigating a different feeding factor in the outbreak of ulcerous lesions of articular cartilage, a radiographical survey of carpal joints was carried out, using Japanese Black cattle at Yamanashi prefecture, and the following results were obtained. 1) The samples for this study were obtained from farms in which using different feeding systems were adopted, such as fattening in drylot (A) : 12 steers (7-32 months old, 221-643 kg body weight), rearing in pasture (B) : 10 steers (7-12 months old, 124-210 kg body weight) and fattening in drylot after rearing in pasture (C) : 5 steers (11-14 months old, 238-271 kg body weight). 2) The radiographic lesions of the carpometacarpal joint were classified into the following five grades, normal (0), slight (I, II), moderate (III) and severe (IV), using a high contrast radiogram. 3) In group A, the lesions were observed in all the metacarpal bone III and carpal bone II@@@III. In the former case, incidence of radiographic lesions was 100%, in which 67% were severe and the remaining 33% consisted of moderate (25%) and slight changes (8%), which was higher than the others. 4) In group B, the incidence of the radiographic lesions of metacarpal bone III was 90%, but in which all of those were of slight changes (I and II). 5) In group C, the incidence of radiographic lesions of the metacarpal bone III was 80%, in which 20% were severe and the remaining 60% were slight ones. 6) No lesions were observed in any lateral half of the joint (carpal bone IV and metacarpal bone IV). 7) Although only the 7 months old steers of group A had very severe radiographic changes, the 10-12 months old steers of the group B showed no clear changes

  5. Articular cartilage and labral lesions of the glenohumeral joint: diagnostic performance of 3D water-excitation true FISP MR arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Tobias Johannes [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Kantonsspital Muensterlingen, Department of Radiology, PO Box 8596, Muensterlingen (Switzerland); Zanetti, Marco; Saupe, Nadja; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Hodler, Juerg [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Fucentese, Sandro F. [Hospital Balgrist, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedic University, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of MR arthrography in the detection of articular cartilage and labral lesions of the glenohumeral joint using a transverse 3D water-excitation true fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP) sequence. Seventy-five shoulders were included retrospectively. Shoulder arthroscopy was performed within 6 months of MR arthrography. MR images were evaluated separately by two radiologists. They were blinded to clinical and arthroscopic information. Arthroscopy served as the reference standard. For the detection of humeral cartilage lesions, sensitivities and specificities were 86% (12/14)/89% (50/56) for observer 1 and 93%/86% for observer 2) for the transverse true FISP sequence and 64%/86% (50%/82% for observer 2) for the coronal intermediate-weighted spin-echo images. The corresponding values for the glenoidal cartilage were 60% (6/10)/88% (51/58) (80%/76% for observer 2) and 70%/86% (60%/74% for observer 2) respectively. For the detection of abnormalities of the anterior labrum (only assessed on true FISP images) the values were 94% (15/16)/84% (36/43) (88%/79% for observer 2). The corresponding values for the posterior labrum were 67% (8/12)/77% (36/47) (observer 2: 25%/74%). The kappa values for the grading of the humeral and glenoidal cartilage lesions were 0.81 and 0.55 for true FISP images compared with 0.49 and 0.43 for intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo images. Kappa values for true FISP evaluation of the anterior and posterior part of the labrum were 0.81 and 0.70. Transverse 3D true FISP MR arthrography images are useful for the difficult diagnosis of glenohumeral cartilage lesions and suitable for detecting labral abnormalities. (orig.)

  6. Intra-articular injection of synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells and hyaluronic acid promote regeneration of massive cartilage defects in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Ogay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether intra-articular injection of synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SD MSCs with low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA could promote regeneration of massive cartilage in rabbits. Material and methods: The SD MSCs were harvested from the knees of 10 Flemish giant rabbits, expanded in culture, and characterized. A reproducible 4-mm cylindrical defect was created in the intercondylar groove area using a kit for the mosaic chondroplasty of femoral condyle COR (De Puy, Mitek. The defect was made within the cartilage layer without destruction of subchondral bone. Two weeks after the cartilage defect, SD MSCs (2 × 106 cell/0.15 ml were suspended in 0.5% low molecular weight HA (0.15 ml and injected into the left knee, and HA solution (0.30 ml alone was placed into the right knee. Cartilage regeneration in the experimental and control groups were evaluated by macroscopically and histologically at 10, 30, and 60 days. Results: On day 10, after intra-articular injection of SD MSCs, we observed an early process of cartilage regeneration in the defect area. Histological studies revealed that cartilage defect was covered by a thin layer of spindle-shaped undifferentiated cells and proliferated chodroblasts. In contrast, an injection of HA did not induce reparation of cartilage in the defect area. At 30 days, macroscopic observation showed that the size of cartilage defect after SD MSC injection was significantly smaller than after HA injection. Histological score was also better in the MSC- treated intercondylar defect. At 60 days after MSC treatment, cartilage defect was nearly nonexistent and looked similar to an intact cartilage. Conclusion: Thus, intra-articular injection of SD MSCs can adhere to the defect in the intercondylar area, and promote cartilage regeneration in rabbits.

  7. Prediction of collagen orientation in articular cartilage by a collagen remodeling algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, W.; Driessen, N.J.B.; Donkelaar, van C.C.; Ito, K.

    2006-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a promising method to treat damaged cartilage. So far it has not been possible to create tissue-engineered cartilage with an appropriate structural organization. It is envisaged that cartilage tissue engineering will significantly benefit from knowledge of how the collagen

  8. Evaluation of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee using T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B J

    2001-06-01

    To determine the accuracy of T2*-weighted three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging in the identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee. A retrospective evaluation of 80 patients who underwent both arthroscopic and MRI evaluation was performed. The 3D images were interpreted by one observer without knowledge of the surgical results. The medial and lateral femoral condyles, the medial and lateral tibial plateau, the patellar cartilage and trochlear groove were evaluated. MR cartilage images were considered positive if focal reduction of cartilage thickness was present (grade 3 chondromalacia) or if complete loss of cartilage was present (grade 4 chondromalacia). Comparison of the 3D MR results with the arthroscopic findings was performed. Eighty patients were included in the study group. A total of 480 articular cartilage sites were evaluated with MRI and arthroscopy. Results of MR identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia, all sites combined, were: sensitivity 83%, specificity 97%, false negative rate 17%, false positive rate 3%, positive predictive value 87%, negative predictive value 95%, overall accuracy 93%. The results demonstrate that T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging can identify grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee.

  9. Evaluation of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee using T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To determine the accuracy of T2*-weighted three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging in the identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee.Design and patients. A retrospective evaluation of 80 patients who underwent both arthroscopic and MRI evaluation was performed. The 3D images were interpreted by one observer without knowledge of the surgical results. The medial and lateral femoral condyles, the medial and lateral tibial plateau, the patellar cartilage and trochlear groove were evaluated. MR cartilage images were considered positive if focal reduction of cartilage thickness was present (grade 3 chondromalacia) or if complete loss of cartilage was present (grade 4 chondromalacia). Comparison of the 3D MR results with the arthroscopic findings was performed.Results. Eighty patients were included in the study group. A total of 480 articular cartilage sites were evaluated with MRI and arthroscopy. Results of MR identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia, all sites combined, were: sensitivity 83%, specificity 97%, false negative rate 17%, false positive rate 3%, positive predictive value 87%, negative predictive value 95%, overall accuracy 93%.Conclusion. The results demonstrate that T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging can identify grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee using T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, B.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, FL (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Objective. To determine the accuracy of T2*-weighted three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging in the identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee.Design and patients. A retrospective evaluation of 80 patients who underwent both arthroscopic and MRI evaluation was performed. The 3D images were interpreted by one observer without knowledge of the surgical results. The medial and lateral femoral condyles, the medial and lateral tibial plateau, the patellar cartilage and trochlear groove were evaluated. MR cartilage images were considered positive if focal reduction of cartilage thickness was present (grade 3 chondromalacia) or if complete loss of cartilage was present (grade 4 chondromalacia). Comparison of the 3D MR results with the arthroscopic findings was performed.Results. Eighty patients were included in the study group. A total of 480 articular cartilage sites were evaluated with MRI and arthroscopy. Results of MR identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia, all sites combined, were: sensitivity 83%, specificity 97%, false negative rate 17%, false positive rate 3%, positive predictive value 87%, negative predictive value 95%, overall accuracy 93%.Conclusion. The results demonstrate that T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging can identify grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee. (orig.)

  11. Articular cartilage defect detectability in human knees with MR-arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, A.; Kramer, J.; Stiglbauer, R.; Hajek, P.C.; Imhof, H.

    1993-01-01

    One hundred and thirteen knee joints were examined, of which 48 showed damage of the hyaline cartilage in one or more locations. For the evaluation of the magnetic resonance (MR) arthrographic images we used the macroscopic staging according to Outerbridge, the defect staging according to Bauer, as well as a new MR-arthrographic staging. The results of the evaluation were compared with the surgical findings in 61 knee joints. This revealed a sensitivity of 86 %, a specificity of 100 % and accuracy of 90 %. All lesions that could not be classified on MR-arthrography were of stage-I chondromalacia. (orig.)

  12. Articular cartilage defect detectability in human knees with MR-arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, A. [Orthopaedic Clinic, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Kramer, J. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Stiglbauer, R. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Hajek, P.C. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Imhof, H. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    1993-04-01

    One hundred and thirteen knee joints were examined, of which 48 showed damage of the hyaline cartilage in one or more locations. For the evaluation of the magnetic resonance (MR) arthrographic images we used the macroscopic staging according to Outerbridge, the defect staging according to Bauer, as well as a new MR-arthrographic staging. The results of the evaluation were compared with the surgical findings in 61 knee joints. This revealed a sensitivity of 86 %, a specificity of 100 % and accuracy of 90 %. All lesions that could not be classified on MR-arthrography were of stage-I chondromalacia. (orig.)

  13. STRUCTURAL ADAPTABILITY AND THE REPARATIVE POSSIBILITIES OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE DEPENDING ON THE ADJACENT EXTREMITY SEGMENT LENGTHENING CONDITIONS (AN EXPERIMENTAL-AND-MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Stupina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes of reactive and/or destructive-and-reparative character, the degree of which depends on distraction parameters, have been revealed in articular cartilage during leg lengthening by the methods of scanning electron microscopy and histomorphometry analysis. The analysis of quantitative data has demonstrated, that autodistraction by 3 mm per day for 180 times (increment и 17 μm appears to be less traumatic for the articular cartilage than manual distraction by 1 mm per day for 4 times, and, at the time, the period of experiment decreases significantly. The articular cartilage recovery occurs in the most intense manner in case of autodistraction with the same increment, but with the daily rate of 1 mm.

  14. Quantitative T2 mapping evaluation for articular cartilage lesions in a rabbit model of anterior cruciate ligament transection osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng-mao; Du, Xiang-ke; Huo, Tian-long; Li, Xu-bin; Quan, Guang-nan; Li, Tian-ran; Cheng, Jin; Zhang, Wei-tao

    2012-03-01

    Quantitative T2 mapping has been a widely used method for the evaluation of pathological cartilage properties, and the histological assessment system of osteoarthritis in the rabbit has been published recently. The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of quantitative T2 mapping evaluation for articular cartilage lesions of a rabbit model of anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) osteoarthritis. Twenty New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits were divided into ACLT surgical group and sham operated group equally. The anterior cruciate ligaments of the rabbits in ACLT group were transected, while the joints were closed intactly in sham operated group. Magnetic resonance (MR) examinations were performed on 3.0T MR unit at week 0, week 6, and week 12. T2 values were computed on GE ADW4.3 workstation. All rabbits were killed at week 13, and left knees were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin. Semiquantitative histological grading was obtained according to the osteoarthritis cartilage histopathology assessment system. Computerized image analysis was performed to quantitate the immunostained collagen type II. The average MR T2 value of whole left knee cartilage in ACLT surgical group ((29.05±12.01) ms) was significantly higher than that in sham operated group ((24.52±7.97) ms) (P=0.024) at week 6. The average T2 value increased to (32.18±12.79) ms in ACLT group at week 12, but remained near the baseline level ((27.66±8.08) ms) in the sham operated group (P=0.03). The cartilage lesion level of left knee in ACLT group was significantly increased at week 6 (P=0.005) and week 12 (PT2 values had positive correlation with histological grading scores, but inverse correlation with optical densities (OD) of type II collagen. This study demonstrated the reliability and practicability of quantitative T2 mapping for the cartilage injury of rabbit ACLT osteoarthritis model.

  15. Early Articular Cartilage MRI T2 Changes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Correlate With Later Changes in T2 and Cartilage Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ashley; Winalski, Carl S.; Chu, Constance R.

    2018-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a known risk factor for future development of osteoarthritis (OA). This human clinical study seeks to determine if early changes to cartilage MRI T2 maps between baseline and 6 months following ACL reconstruction (ACLR) are associated with changes to cartilage T2 and cartilage thickness between baseline and 2 years after ACLR. Changes to T2 texture metrics and T2 mean values in medial knee cartilage of 17 human subjects 6 months after ACLR were compared to 2-year changes in T2 and in cartilage thickness of the same areas. T2 texture and mean assessments were also compared to that of 11 uninjured controls. In ACLR subjects, six-month changes in mean T2 correlated to 2-year changes in mean T2 (R = 0.80, p = 0.0001), and 6-month changes to T2 texture metrics, but not T2 mean, correlated with 2-year changes in medial femoral cartilage thickness in 9 of the 20 texture features assessed (R = 0.48–0.72, p ≤ 0.05). Both mean T2 and texture differed (p evaluation of T2 map and textural changes may provide early warning of cartilage at risk for progressive degeneration after ACL injury and reconstruction. PMID:27381512

  16. Clinically Relevant Subregions of Articular Cartilage of the Hip for Analysis and Reporting Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surowiec, Rachel K; Lucas, Erin P; Wilson, Katharine J; Saroki, Adriana J; Ho, Charles P

    2014-01-01

    Before quantitative imaging techniques can become clinically valuable, the method, and more specifically, the regions of locating and reporting these values should be standardized toward reproducibility comparisons across centers and longitudinal follow-up of individual patients. The purpose of this technical note is to describe a rigorous and reproducible method of locating, analyzing, and reporting quantitative MRI values in hip articular cartilage with an approach that is consistent with current orthopedic literature. To demonstrate this localization and documentation, 3 patients (age, 23 ± 5.1 years; 2 males, 1 female) who presented with symptomatic mixed-type femoroacetabular impingement (α angle, 63.3° ± 2.1°; center edge angle, 39° ± 4.2°) were evaluated with T2-mapping at 3 T MRI prior to hip arthroscopy. Manual segmentation was performed and cartilage of the acetabulum and femur was divided into 12 subregions adapted from the geographic zone method. Bone landmarks in the acetabulum and femur, identifiable both in arthroscopy and MR images, were manually selected and the coordinates exported for division of cartilage. Mean T2 values in each zone are presented. The current work outlines a standardized system to locate and describe quantitative mapping values that could aid in surgical decision making, planning, and the noninvasive longitudinal follow-up of implemented cartilage preservation and restoration techniques.

  17. The distribution of YKL-40 in osteoarthritic and normal human articular cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volck, B; Ostergaard, K; Johansen, J S

    1999-01-01

    YKL-40, also called human cartilage glycoprotein-39, is a major secretory protein of human chondrocytes in cell culture. YKL-40 mRNA is expressed by cartilage from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but is not detectable in normal human cartilage. The aim was to investigate the distribution of YKL...... in chondrocytes of osteoarthritic cartilage mainly in the superficial and middle zone of the cartilage rather than the deep zone. There was a tendency for high number of YKL-40 positive chondrocytes in areas of the femoral head with a considerable biomechanical load. The number of chondrocytes with a positive...

  18. Widespread epigenomic, transcriptomic and proteomic differences between hip osteophytic and articular chondrocytes in osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Julia; Brooks, Roger A; Southam, Lorraine; Bhatnagar, Sahir; Roumeliotis, Theodoros I; Hatzikotoulas, Konstantinos; Zengini, Eleni; Wilkinson, J Mark; Choudhary, Jyoti S; McCaskie, Andrew W; Zeggini, Eleftheria

    2018-05-08

    To identify molecular differences between chondrocytes from osteophytic and articular cartilage tissue from OA patients. We investigated genes and pathways by combining genome-wide DNA methylation, RNA sequencing and quantitative proteomics in isolated primary chondrocytes from the cartilaginous layer of osteophytes and matched areas of low- and high-grade articular cartilage across nine patients with OA undergoing hip replacement surgery. Chondrocytes from osteophytic cartilage showed widespread differences to low-grade articular cartilage chondrocytes. These differences were similar to, but more pronounced than, differences between chondrocytes from osteophytic and high-grade articular cartilage, and more pronounced than differences between high- and low-grade articular cartilage. We identified 56 genes with significant differences between osteophytic chondrocytes and low-grade articular cartilage chondrocytes on all three omics levels. Several of these genes have known roles in OA, including ALDH1A2 and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, which have functional genetic variants associated with OA from genome-wide association studies. An integrative gene ontology enrichment analysis showed that differences between osteophytic and low-grade articular cartilage chondrocytes are associated with extracellular matrix organization, skeletal system development, platelet aggregation and regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade. We present a first comprehensive view of the molecular landscape of chondrocytes from osteophytic cartilage as compared with articular cartilage chondrocytes from the same joints in OA. We found robust changes at genes relevant to chondrocyte function, providing insight into biological processes involved in osteophyte development and thus OA progression.

  19. A comparison of multi-echo spin-echo and triple-echo steady-state T2 mapping for in vivo evaluation of articular cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juras, Vladimir; Szomolanyi, Pavol [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Institute of Measurement Science, Department of Imaging Methods, Bratislava (Slovakia); Bohndorf, Klaus; Kronnerwetter, Claudia; Hager, Benedikt; Zbyn, Stefan [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Heule, Rahel; Bieri, Oliver [University of Basel Hospital, Division of Radiological Physics, Department of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Clinical Molecular MR Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration, Vienna (Austria)

    2016-06-15

    To assess the clinical relevance of T{sub 2} relaxation times, measured by 3D triple-echo steady-state (3D-TESS), in knee articular cartilage compared to conventional multi-echo spin-echo T{sub 2}-mapping. Thirteen volunteers and ten patients with focal cartilage lesions were included in this prospective study. All subjects underwent 3-Tesla MRI consisting of a multi-echo multi-slice spin-echo sequence (CPMG) as a reference method for T{sub 2} mapping, and 3D TESS with the same geometry settings, but variable acquisition times: standard (TESSs 4:35min) and quick (TESSq 2:05min). T{sub 2} values were compared in six different regions in the femoral and tibial cartilage using a Wilcoxon signed ranks test and the Pearson correlation coefficient (r). The local ethics committee approved this study, and all participants gave written informed consent. The mean quantitative T{sub 2} values measured by CPMG (mean: 46±9ms) in volunteers were significantly higher compared to those measured with TESS (mean: 31±5ms) in all regions. Both methods performed similarly in patients, but CPMG provided a slightly higher difference between lesions and native cartilage (CPMG: 90ms→61ms [31%],p=0.0125;TESS 32ms→24ms [24%],p=0.0839). 3D-TESS provides results similar to those of a conventional multi-echo spin-echo sequence with many benefits, such as shortening of total acquisition time and insensitivity to B{sub 1} and B{sub 0} changes. (orig.)

  20. A comparison of multi-echo spin-echo and triple-echo steady-state T2 mapping for in vivo evaluation of articular cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juras, Vladimir; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Bohndorf, Klaus; Kronnerwetter, Claudia; Hager, Benedikt; Zbyn, Stefan; Heule, Rahel; Bieri, Oliver; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    To assess the clinical relevance of T 2 relaxation times, measured by 3D triple-echo steady-state (3D-TESS), in knee articular cartilage compared to conventional multi-echo spin-echo T 2 -mapping. Thirteen volunteers and ten patients with focal cartilage lesions were included in this prospective study. All subjects underwent 3-Tesla MRI consisting of a multi-echo multi-slice spin-echo sequence (CPMG) as a reference method for T 2 mapping, and 3D TESS with the same geometry settings, but variable acquisition times: standard (TESSs 4:35min) and quick (TESSq 2:05min). T 2 values were compared in six different regions in the femoral and tibial cartilage using a Wilcoxon signed ranks test and the Pearson correlation coefficient (r). The local ethics committee approved this study, and all participants gave written informed consent. The mean quantitative T 2 values measured by CPMG (mean: 46±9ms) in volunteers were significantly higher compared to those measured with TESS (mean: 31±5ms) in all regions. Both methods performed similarly in patients, but CPMG provided a slightly higher difference between lesions and native cartilage (CPMG: 90ms→61ms [31%],p=0.0125;TESS 32ms→24ms [24%],p=0.0839). 3D-TESS provides results similar to those of a conventional multi-echo spin-echo sequence with many benefits, such as shortening of total acquisition time and insensitivity to B 1 and B 0 changes. (orig.)

  1. Mechanical characterization of articular cartilage by combining magnetic resonance imaging and finite-element analysis-a potential functional imaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julkunen, P; Korhonen, R K; Nissi, M J; Jurvelin, J S

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a method for non-invasive characterization of cartilage composition and structure. We aimed to see whether T 1 and T 2 relaxation times are related to proteoglycan (PG) and collagen-specific mechanical properties of articular cartilage. Specifically, we analyzed whether variations in the depthwise collagen orientation, as assessed by the laminae obtained from T 2 profiles, affect the mechanical characteristics of cartilage. After MRI and unconfined compression tests of human and bovine patellar cartilage samples, fibril-reinforced poroviscoelastic finite-element models (FEM), with depthwise collagen orientations implemented from quantitative T 2 maps (3 laminae for human, 3-7 laminae for bovine), were constructed to analyze the non-fibrillar matrix modulus (PG specific), fibril modulus (collagen specific) and permeability of the samples. In bovine cartilage, the non-fibrillar matrix modulus (R = -0.64, p 1 . In bovine cartilage, T 2 correlated positively with the initial fibril modulus (R = 0.62, p = 0.05). In human cartilage, the initial fibril modulus correlated negatively (R = -0.61, p 2 . Based on the simulations, cartilage with a complex collagen architecture (5 or 7 laminae), leading to high bulk T 2 due to magic angle effects, provided higher compressive stiffness than tissue with a simple collagen architecture (3 laminae). Our results suggest that T 1 reflects PG-specific mechanical properties of cartilage. High T 2 is characteristic to soft cartilage with a classical collagen architecture. Contradictorily, high bulk T 2 can also be found in stiff cartilage with a multilaminar collagen fibril network. By emerging MRI and FEM, the present study establishes a step toward functional imaging of articular cartilage

  2. Bovine lactoferricin, an antimicrobial peptide, is anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic in human articular cartilage and synovium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dongyao; Chen, Di; Shen, Jie; Xiao, Guozhi; van Wijnen, Andre J; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a multi-functional peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of bovine lactoferrin. LfcinB was found to antagonize the biological effects mediated by angiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) in endothelial cells. However, the effect of LfcinB on human articular cartilage remained unknown. Here, our findings demonstrate that LfcinB restored the proteoglycan loss promoted by catabolic factors (interleukin-1 β) IL-1β and FGF-2 in vitro and ex vivo. Mechanistically, LfcinB attenuated the effects of IL-1β and FGF-2 on the expression of cartilage-degrading enzymes (MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13), destructive cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6), and inflammatory mediators (iNOS and TLR2). LfcinB induced protective cytokine expression (IL-4 and IL-10), and downregulated aggrecanase basal expression. LfcinB specifically activated ERK MAPK and Akt signaling pathways, which may account for its anti-inflammatory activity. We also revealed that LfcinB exerted similar protective effects on human synovial fibroblasts challenged by IL-1β, with minimal cytotoxicity. Collectively, our results suggest that LfcinB possesses potent anti-catabolic and anti-inflammatory bioactivities in human articular tissues, and may be utilized for the prevention and/or treatment of OA in the future. PMID:22740381

  3. Intra-articular TSG-6 delivery from heparin-based microparticles reduces cartilage damage in a rat model of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Liane E; Treviño, Elda A; Brimeyer, Alexandra L; Reece, David S; Willett, Nick J; Guldberg, Robert E; Temenoff, Johnna S

    2018-05-01

    As a potential treatment for osteoarthritis (OA), we have developed injectable and hydrolytically degradable heparin-based biomaterials with tunable sulfation for the intra-articular delivery of tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6), a protein known to inhibit plasmin which may degrade extracellular matrix within OA joints. We first assessed the effect of heparin sulfation on TSG-6 anti-plasmin activity and found that while fully sulfated (Hep) and heparin desulfated at only the N position (Hep-N) significantly enhanced TSG-6 bioactivity in vitro, fully desulfated heparin (Hep-) had no effect, indicating that heparin sulfation plays a significant role in modulating TSG-6 bioactivity. Next, TSG-6 loaded, degradable 10 wt% Hep-N microparticles (MPs) were delivered via intra-articular injection into the knee at 1, 7, and 15 days following medial meniscal transection (MMT) injury in a rat model. After 21 days, cartilage thickness, volume, and attenuation were significantly increased with soluble TSG-6, indicating degenerative changes. In contrast, no significant differences were observed with TSG-6 loaded MP treatment, demonstrating that TSG-6 loaded MPs reduced cartilage damage following MMT injury. Ultimately, our results indicate that Hep-N can enhance TSG-6 anti-plasmin activity and that Hep-N-based biomaterials may be an effective method for TSG-6 delivery to treat OA.

  4. A fast quadrature-based numerical method for the continuous spectrum biphasic poroviscoelastic model of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuebner, Michael; Haider, Mansoor A

    2010-06-18

    A new and efficient method for numerical solution of the continuous spectrum biphasic poroviscoelastic (BPVE) model of articular cartilage is presented. Development of the method is based on a composite Gauss-Legendre quadrature approximation of the continuous spectrum relaxation function that leads to an exponential series representation. The separability property of the exponential terms in the series is exploited to develop a numerical scheme that can be reduced to an update rule requiring retention of the strain history at only the previous time step. The cost of the resulting temporal discretization scheme is O(N) for N time steps. Application and calibration of the method is illustrated in the context of a finite difference solution of the one-dimensional confined compression BPVE stress-relaxation problem. Accuracy of the numerical method is demonstrated by comparison to a theoretical Laplace transform solution for a range of viscoelastic relaxation times that are representative of articular cartilage. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The balancing act of transcription factors C-1-1 and Runx2 in articular cartilage development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Masahiro; Koyama, Eiki; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    In previous studies we found that the ets transcription factor C-1-1 is involved in articular chondrocyte development, and we and others found that the transcription factor Runx2 is required for growth plate chondrocyte maturation and ossification. We determined here whether the two factors exert reciprocal influences on their expression and function and in so doing, steer chondrocyte developmental paths. Virally driven Runx2 over-expression in cultured chick chondrocytes did indeed lead to decreased C-1-1 expression, accompanied by decreased expression of articular cartilage marker tenascin-C, decreased proliferation, and increased expression of maturation marker collagen X. In good agreement, over-expression of a dominant-negative Runx2 form had opposite phenotypic consequences. When C-1-1 itself was over-expressed in chondrocytes already undergoing maturation, maturation was halted and the cells became small, rich in tenascin-C, and mitotically quite active. To extend these observations, we misexpressed C-1-1 in mouse cartilage and found that it caused a severe inhibition of chondrocyte maturation and widespread tenascin-C expression. In sum, C-1-1 and Runx2 do influence their respective expression patterns. The factors are powerful chondrocyte regulators and their functional interrelationships may be important for steering the cells toward alternative developmental paths

  6. High Density Infill in Cracks and Protrusions from the Articular Calcified Cartilage in Osteoarthritis in Standardbred Horse Carpal Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Laverty

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied changes in articular calcified cartilage (ACC and subchondral bone (SCB in the third carpal bones (C3 of Standardbred racehorses with naturally-occurring repetitive loading-induced osteoarthritis (OA. Two osteochondral cores were harvested from dorsal sites from each of 15 post-mortem C3 and classified as control or as showing early or advanced OA changes from visual inspection. We re-examined X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT image sets for the presence of high-density mineral infill (HDMI in ACC cracks and possible high-density mineralized protrusions (HDMP from the ACC mineralizing (tidemark front (MF into hyaline articular cartilage (HAC. We hypothesized and we show that 20-µm µCT resolution in 10-mm diameter samples is sufficient to detect HDMI and HDMP: these are lost upon tissue decalcification for routine paraffin wax histology owing to their predominant mineral content. The findings show that µCT is sufficient to discover HDMI and HDMP, which were seen in 2/10 controls, 6/9 early OA and 8/10 advanced OA cases. This is the first report of HDMI and HDMP in the equine carpus and in the Standardbred breed and the first to rely solely on µCT. HDMP are a candidate cause for mechanical tissue destruction in OA.

  7. Tissue engineering of cartilage using a mechanobioreactor exerting simultaneous mechanical shear and compression to simulate the rolling action of articular joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, Kifah; Doran, Pauline M

    2012-04-01

    The effect of dynamic mechanical shear and compression on the synthesis of human tissue-engineered cartilage was investigated using a mechanobioreactor capable of simulating the rolling action of articular joints in a mixed fluid environment. Human chondrocytes seeded into polyglycolic acid (PGA) mesh or PGA-alginate scaffolds were precultured in shaking T-flasks or recirculation perfusion bioreactors for 2.5 or 4 weeks prior to mechanical stimulation in the mechanobioreactor. Constructs were subjected to intermittent unconfined shear and compressive loading at a frequency of 0.05 Hz using a peak-to-peak compressive strain amplitude of 2.2% superimposed on a static axial compressive strain of 6.5%. The mechanical treatment was carried out for up to 2.5 weeks using a loading regime of 10 min duration each day with the direction of the shear forces reversed after 5 min and release of all loading at the end of the daily treatment period. Compared with shaking T-flasks and mechanobioreactor control cultures without loading, mechanical treatment improved the amount and quality of cartilage produced. On a per cell basis, synthesis of both major structural components of cartilage, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen type II, was enhanced substantially by up to 5.3- and 10-fold, respectively, depending on the scaffold type and seeding cell density. Levels of collagen type II as a percentage of total collagen were also increased after mechanical treatment by up to 3.4-fold in PGA constructs. Mechanical treatment had a less pronounced effect on the composition of constructs precultured in perfusion bioreactors compared with perfusion culture controls. This work demonstrates that the quality of tissue-engineered cartilage can be enhanced significantly by application of simultaneous dynamic mechanical shear and compression, with the greatest benefits evident for synthesis of collagen type II. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Hyaline articular cartilage dissected by papain: light and scanning electron microscopy and micromechanical studies.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, P; Brereton, J D; Gardner, D L

    1984-01-01

    Papain was used to digest the hyaline femoral condylar cartilages of 30 adult Wistar rats. Matrix proteoglycan degradation was assessed by the light microscopy of paraffin sections stained with toluidine blue. The extent of surface structural change was estimated by scanning electron microscopy, and the structural integrity of the hyaline cartilage tested by the controlled impact of a sharp pin. The results demonstrated an early loss of cartilage metachromasia, increasing with time of papain ...

  9. The effect of polymer size and charge of molecules on permeation through synovial membrane and accumulation in hyaline articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, B; Harms, M; Wöll, S; Weigandt, M; Windbergs, M; Lehr, C M

    2016-04-01

    The treatment of joint related diseases often involves direct intra-articular injections. For rational development of novel delivery systems with extended residence time in the joint, detailed understanding of transport and retention phenomena within the joint is mandatory. This work presents a systematic study on the in vitro permeation, penetration and accumulation of model polymers with differing charges and molecular weights in bovine joint tissue. Permeation experiments with bovine synovial membrane were performed with PEG polymers (6-200 kDa) and methylene blue in customized diffusion chambers. For polyethylene glycol, 2-fold (PEG 6 kDa), 3-fold (PEG 10 kDa) and 13-fold (PEG 35 kDa) retention by the synovial membrane in reference to the small molecule methylene blue was demonstrated. No PEG 200 kDa was found in the acceptor in detectable amounts after 48 h. This showed the potential for a distinct extension of joint residence times by increasing molecular weights. In addition, experiments with bovine cartilage tissue were conducted. The ability for positively charged, high molecular weight chitosans and HEMA-Co-TMAP (HCT) polymers (up to 233 kDa) to distribute throughout the entire cartilage matrix was demonstrated. In contrast, a distribution into cartilage was not observed for neutral PEG polymers (6-200 kDa). Furthermore, the positive charge density of different compounds (chitosan, HEMA-Co-TMAP, methylene blue, MSC C1 (neutral NCE) and MSC D1 (positively charged NCE) was found to correlate with their accumulation in bovine cartilage tissue. In summary, the results offer pre-clinical in vitro data, indicating that the modification of molecular size and charge of a substance has the potential to decelerate its clearance through the synovial membrane and to promote accumulation inside the cartilage matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Menopause is associated with articular cartilage degeneration: a clinical study of knee joint in 860 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Chao; Xiang, Guangheng; Weng, Qiaoyou; Chen, Zhaojie; Chen, Deheng; Wang, Qingqing; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Bin; He, Dengwei; Chen, Hongliang

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between menopause and severity of knee joint cartilage degeneration using a magnetic resonance imaging-based six-level grading system, with six cartilage surfaces, the medial and lateral femoral condyle, the femoral trochlea, the medial and lateral tibia plateau, and the patella. The study cohort comprised 860 healthy women (age 36-83 y), and 5,160 cartilage surfaces were analyzed. Age, weight, height, age at natural menopause, and years since menopause (YSM) were obtained. Cartilage degeneration was assessed using a magnetic resonance imaging-based six-level grading system. After removing the age, height, and weight effects, postmenopausal women had more severe cartilage degeneration than pre- and perimenopausal women (P  0.05). No significant difference was observed in lateral tibia plateau and lateral femoral condyle in postmenopausal women. Menopause is associated with cartilage degeneration of knee joint. After menopause, cartilage showed progressive severe degeneration that occurred in the first 25 YSM, suggesting estrogen deficiency might be a risk factor of cartilage degeneration of the knee joint. Further studies are needed to investigate whether age or menopause plays a more important role in the progression of cartilage degeneration in the knee joint.

  11. Biostable scaffolds of polyacrylate polymers implanted in the articular cartilage induce hyaline-like cartilage regeneration in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-Tello, María; Forriol, Francisco; Martín de Llano, José J; Antolinos-Turpin, Carmen; Gómez-Tejedor, José A; Gómez Ribelles, José L; Carda, Carmen

    2017-07-05

    To study the influence of scaffold properties on the organization of in vivo cartilage regeneration. Our hypothesis was that stress transmission to the cells seeded inside the pores of the scaffold or surrounding it, which is highly dependent on the scaffold properties, determines the differentiation of both mesenchymal cells and dedifferentiated autologous chondrocytes. 4 series of porous scaffolds made of different polyacrylate polymers, previously seeded with cultured rabbit chondrocytes or without cells, were implanted in cartilage defects in rabbits. Subchondral bone was injured during the surgery to allow blood to reach the implantation site and fill the scaffold pores. At 3 months after implantation, excellent tissue regeneration was obtained, with a well-organized layer of hyaline-like cartilage at the condylar surface in most cases of the hydrophobic or slightly hydrophilic series. The most hydrophilic material induced the poorest regeneration. However, no statistically significant difference was observed between preseeded and non-preseeded scaffolds. All of the materials used were biocompatible, biostable polymers, so, in contrast to some other studies, our results were not perturbed by possible effects attributable to material degradation products or to the loss of scaffold mechanical properties over time due to degradation. Cartilage regeneration depends mainly on the properties of the scaffold, such as stiffness and hydrophilicity, whereas little difference was observed between preseeded and non-preseeded scaffolds.

  12. Cartilage Regeneration in Full-Thickness Patellar Chondral Defects Treated with Particulated Juvenile Articular Allograft Cartilage: An MRI Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, Brian; Burge, Alissa; Nguyen, Joseph; Strickland, Sabrina; Warren, Russell; Rodeo, Scott; Shubin Stein, Beth

    2017-10-01

    Background Full-thickness cartilage lesions of the patella represent a common source of pain and dysfunction. Previously reported surgical treatment options include marrow stimulation, cell-based treatments, and osteochondral transfer. Minced juvenile allograft cartilage is a novel treatment option that allows for a single stage approach for these lesions. Hypothesis Particulated juvenile allograft cartilage (PJAC) for the treatment of chondral defects of the patella would offer acceptable lesion fill rates, mature over time, and not be associated with any negative biologic effects on the surrounding tissue. Methods A retrospective chart review of prospectively collected data was conducted to identify consecutive patients who were treated with PJAC for a full thickness symptomatic cartilage lesion. Qualitative (fast spin echo) and quantitative (T2 mapping) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was undertaken at the 6-, 12-, and 24-month postoperative mark. Numerous patient, lesion, and graft specific factors were assessed against MRI scores and percent defect fill of the graft. Graft maturation over time was also assessed. Results Forty-five patients total were included in the study. Average age at the time of surgery was 26.5 years (range 13-45 years), average lesion size was 208 mm 2 (range 4-500 mm 2 ), and average donor age was 49.5 months (range 3-120 months). Sixty percent of the patients were female, while 93% of all patients underwent a concomitant procedure at the time of the index operation. Six-month MRI findings revealed that no patient-, graft-, or donor-specific factors correlated with MR scores, and 82% of the knees demonstrated good to excellent fill. Twelve-month MRI findings revealed that T2 relaxation times of deep graft demonstrated negative correlation with patient age ( P = 0.049) and donor age ( P = 0.006), the integration zone showed a negative correlation with donor age ( P = 0.026). In all, 85% of patients at 12 months displayed good to

  13. Combined nanoindentation testing and scanning electron microscopy of bone and articular calcified cartilage in an equine fracture predilection site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doube, M; Firth, E C; Boyde, A; Bushby, A J

    2010-06-03

    Condylar fracture of the third metacarpal bone (Mc3) is the commonest cause of racetrack fatality in Thoroughbred horses. Linear defects involving hyaline articular cartilage, articular calcified cartilage (ACC) and subchondral bone (SCB) have been associated with the fracture initiation site, which lies in the sagittal grooves of the Mc3 condyle. We discovered areas of thickened and abnormally-mineralised ACC in the sagittal grooves of several normal 18-month-old horses, at the same site that linear defects and condylar fracture occur in older Thoroughbreds and questioned whether this tissue had altered mechanical properties. We embedded bone slices in PMMA, prepared flat surfaces normal to the articular surface and studied ACC and SCB using combined quantitative backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (qBSE) and nanoindentation testing: this allowed correlation of mineralisation density and tissue stiffness (E) at the micron scale. We studied both normal and affected grooves, and also normal condylar regions. Large arrays of indentations could be visualised as 2-dimensional maps of E with a limit to resolution of indentation spacing, which is much larger than qBSE pixel spacing. ACC was more highly mineralised but less stiff in early linear defects than in control regions, while subchondral bone was more highly mineralised and stiffer in specimens with early linear defects than those without. Thus both ACC and SCB mineralisation may be abnormal in a class of early linear defect in 18-month-old Thoroughbred horses, and this may possibly contribute to later fracture of the Mc3 condyle.

  14. Combined nanoindentation testing and scanning electron microscopy of bone and articular calcified cartilage in an equine fracture predilection site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Doube

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Condylar fracture of the third metacarpal bone (Mc3 is the commonest cause of racetrack fatality in Thoroughbred horses. Linear defects involving hyaline articular cartilage, articular calcified cartilage (ACC and subchondral bone (SCB have been associated with the fracture initiation site, which lies in the sagittal grooves of the Mc3 condyle. We discovered areas of thickened and abnormally-mineralised ACC in the sagittal grooves of several normal 18-month-old horses, at the same site that linear defects and condylar fracture occur in older Thoroughbreds and questioned whether this tissue had altered mechanical properties. We embedded bone slices in PMMA, prepared flat surfaces normal to the articular surface and studied ACC and SCB using combined quantitative backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (qBSE and nanoindentation testing: this allowed correlation of mineralisation density and tissue stiffness (E at the micron scale. We studied both normal and affected grooves, and also normal condylar regions. Large arrays of indentations could be visualised as 2-dimensional maps of E with a limit to resolution of indentation spacing, which is much larger than qBSE pixel spacing. ACC was more highly mineralised but less stiff in early linear defects than in control regions, while subchondral bone was more highly mineralised and stiffer in specimens with early linear defects than those without. Thus both ACC and SCB mineralisation may be abnormal in a class of early linear defect in 18-month-old Thoroughbred horses, and this may possibly contribute to later fracture of the Mc3 condyle.

  15. Recent Progress of Fabrication of Cell Scaffold by Electrospinning Technique for Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingge Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a versatile nanofiber manufacturing technique, electrospinning has been widely employed for the fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds. Since the structure of natural extracellular matrices varies substantially in different tissues, there has been growing awareness of the fact that the hierarchical 3D structure of scaffolds may affect intercellular interactions, material transportation, fluid flow, environmental stimulation, and so forth. Physical blending of the synthetic and natural polymers to form composite materials better mimics the composition and mechanical properties of natural tissues. Scaffolds with element gradient, such as growth factor gradient, have demonstrated good potentials to promote heterogeneous cell growth and differentiation. Compared to 2D scaffolds with limited thicknesses, 3D scaffolds have superior cell differentiation and development rate. The objective of this review paper is to review and discuss the recent trends of electrospinning strategies for cartilage tissue engineering, particularly the biomimetic, gradient, and 3D scaffolds, along with future prospects of potential clinical applications.

  16. Isotropic morphometry and multicomponent T1 ρ mapping of human knee articular cartilage in vivo at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baboli, Rahman; Sharafi, Azadeh; Chang, Gregory; Regatte, Ravinder R

    2018-05-02

    The progressive loss of hyaline articular cartilage due to osteoarthritis (OA) changes the functional and biochemical properties of cartilage. Measuring the T 1 ρ along with the morphological assessment can potentially be used as noninvasive biomarkers in detecting early-stage OA. To correlate the biochemical and morphological data, submillimeter isotropic resolution for both studies is required. To implement a high spatial resolution 3D-isotropic-MRI sequence for simultaneous assessment of morphological and biexponential T 1 ρ relaxometry of human knee cartilage in vivo. Prospective. Ten healthy volunteers with no known inflammation, trauma, or pain in the knee. Standard FLASH sequence and customized Turbo-FLASH sequence to acquire 3D-isotropic-T 1 ρ-weighted images on a 3T MRI scanner. The mean volume and thickness along with mono- and biexponential T 1 ρ relaxations were assessed in the articular cartilage of 10 healthy volunteers. Nonparametric rank-sum tests. Bland-Altman analysis and coefficient of variation. The mean monoexponential T 1 ρ relaxation was 40.7 ± 4.8 msec, while the long and short components were 58.2 ± 3.9 msec and 6.5 ± 0.6 msec, respectively. The mean fractions of long and short T 1 ρ relaxation components were 63.7 ± 5.9% and 36.3 ± 5.9%, respectively. Statistically significant (P ≤ 0.03) differences were observed in the monoexponential and long components between some of the regions of interest (ROIs). No gender differences between biexponential components were observed (P > 0.05). Mean cartilage volume and thickness were 25.9 ± 6.4 cm 3 and 2.2 ± 0.7 mm, respectively. Cartilage volume (P = 0.01) and thickness (P = 0.03) were significantly higher in male than female participants across all ROIs. Bland-Altman analysis showed agreement between two morphological methods with limits of agreement between -1000 mm 3 and +1100 mm 3 for volume, and -0.78 mm and +0.46 mm for

  17. Effect of gradual weight-bearing on regenerated articular cartilage after joint distraction and motion in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Tomofumi; Ishii, Tomoo; Chang, Fei; Yanai, Takaji; Watanabe, Arata; Ogawa, Takeshi; Mishima, Hajime; Nakai, Kenjiro; Ochiai, Naoyuki

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of gradual weight bearing (GWB) on regenerating cartilage. We developed a novel external fixation device (EFD) with a controllable weight-bearing system and continuous passive motion (CPM). A full-thickness defect was created by resection of the entire articular surface of the tibial plateau after the EFD was fixed in the rabbit's left knee. In the GWB group (n=6), GWB was started 6 weeks after surgery. In the CPM group (n=6), CPM with EFD was applied in the same manner without GWB. The control group (n=5) received only joint distraction. All rabbits were sacrificed 9 weeks after surgery. The central one-third of the regenerated tissue was assessed and scored blindly using a grading scale modified from the International Cartilage Repair Society visual histological assessment scale. The areas stained by Safranin-O and type II collagen antibody were measured, and the percentage of each area was calculated. There was no significant difference in the histological assessment scale among the groups. The percentage of the type II collagen-positive area was significantly larger in the GWB group than in the CPM group. The present study suggests that optimal mechanical stress, such as GWB, may affect regeneration of cartilage, in vivo. Copyright (c) 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  18. In Vitro Expression of the Extracellular Matrix Components Aggrecan, Collagen Types I and II by Articular Cartilage-Derived Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneevoigt, J; Fabian, C; Leovsky, C; Seeger, J; Bahramsoltani, M

    2017-02-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of hyaline cartilage is perfectly suited to transmit articular pressure load to the subchondral bone. Pressure is transferred by a high amount of aggrecan-based proteoglycans and collagen type II fibres in particular. After any injury, the hyaline cartilage is replaced by fibrocartilage, which is low in proteoglycans and contains collagen type I predominantly. Until now, long-term results of therapeutic procedures including cell-based therapies like autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) lead to a replacement tissue meeting the composition of fibrocartilage. Therefore, it is of particular interest to discover how and to what extent isolation and in vitro cultivation of chondrocytes affect the cells and their expression of ECM components. Hyaline cartilage-derived chondrocytes were cultivated in vitro and observed microscopically over a time period of 35 days. The expression of collagen type I, collagen type II and aggrecan was analysed using RT-qPCR and Western blot at several days of cultivation. Chondrocytes presented a longitudinal shape for the entire cultivation period. While expression of collagen type I prevailed within the first days, only prolonged cultivation led to an increase in collagen type II and aggrecan expression. The results indicate that chondrocyte isolation and in vitro cultivation lead to a dedifferentiation at least to the stage of chondroprogenitor cells. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Functional articular cartilage repair: here, near, or is the best approach not yet clear?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastbergen, S.C.; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    In this Review we describe three approaches for cartilage tissue repair at the rheumatology–orthopaedics interface: disease-modifying osteoarthritis (OA) drug (DMOAD) treatment; cell-based therapies, and intrinsic cartilage repair by joint distraction. DMOADs can slow the progression of joint

  20. Synovial Fluid Filtration by Articular Cartilage with a Worn-out Surface Zone in the Human Ankle Joint during Walking- II. Numerical Results for Steady Pure Sliding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Miroslav

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2000), s. 375-396 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/00/0008 Keywords : biphasic articular cartilage * biphasic synovial fluid * boundary lubrication * human ankle joint Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  1. Synovial Fluid Filtration by Articular Cartilage with a Worn-out Surface Zone in the Human Ankle Joint during Walking- I.A Mathematical Mixture Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Miroslav

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2000), s. 295-321 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/00/0008 Keywords : asymptotic solution * biphasic articular cartilage * biphasic synovial fluid * human ankle joint Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  2. POROUS POLYMER IMPLANTS FOR REPAIR OF FULL-THICKNESS DEFECTS OF ARTICULAR-CARTILAGE - AN EXPERIMENTAL-STUDY IN RABBIT AND DOG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSEN, HWB; VETH, RPH; NIELSEN, HKL; DEGROOT, JH; PENNINGS, AJ

    1992-01-01

    Full-thickness defects of articular cartilage were repaired by implantation of porous polymer implants in rabbits and dogs. The quality of the repair tissue was determined by collagen typing with antibodies. Implants with varying pore sizes and chemical composition were used. The effect of loading

  3. Nanopolymers Delivery of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4 Plasmid to Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes Articular Cartilage Repair In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical application of viral vectors for gene therapy is limited for biosafety consideration. In this study, to promote articular cartilage repair, poly (lactic-co glycolic acid (PLGA nanopolymers were used as non-viral vectors to transfect rabbit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs with the pDC316-BMP4-EGFP plasmid. The cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency in vitro were acceptable measuring by CCK-8 and flow cytometry. After transfection, Chondrogenic markers (mRNA of Col2a1, Sox9, Bmp4, and Agg of experimental cells (MSCs being transfected with BMP-4 plasmid by PLGA nanopolymers were increased more than those of control cells (MSCs being transfected with naked BMP-4 plasmid alone. In vivo study, twelve rabbits (24 knees with large full thickness articular cartilage defects were randomly divided into the experimental group (MSCs being transfected with BMP-4 plasmid by PLGA nanopolymers and the control group (MSCs being transfected with naked BMP-4 plasmid. The experimental group showed better regeneration than the control group 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively. Hyaline-like cartilage formed at week 12 in the experimental group, indicating the local delivery of BMP-4 plasmid to MSCs by PLGA nanopolymers improved articular cartilage repair significantly. PLGA nanopolymers could be a promising and effective non-viral vector for gene therapy in cartilage repair.

  4. Transport of neutral solute across articular cartilage: the role of zonal diffusivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi, V; Pouran, B; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2015-07-01

    Transport of solutes through diffusion is an important metabolic mechanism for the avascular cartilage tissue. Three types of interconnected physical phenomena, namely mechanical, electrical, and chemical, are all involved in the physics of transport in cartilage. In this study, we use a carefully designed experimental-computational setup to separate the effects of mechanical and chemical factors from those of electrical charges. Axial diffusion of a neutral solute Iodixanol into cartilage was monitored using calibrated microcomputed tomography micro-CT images for up to 48 hr. A biphasic-solute computational model was fitted to the experimental data to determine the diffusion coefficients of cartilage. Cartilage was modeled either using one single diffusion coefficient (single-zone model) or using three diffusion coefficients corresponding to superficial, middle, and deep cartilage zones (multizone model). It was observed that the single-zone model cannot capture the entire concentration-time curve and under-predicts the near-equilibrium concentration values, whereas the multizone model could very well match the experimental data. The diffusion coefficient of the superficial zone was found to be at least one order of magnitude larger than that of the middle zone. Since neutral solutes were used, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content cannot be the primary reason behind such large differences between the diffusion coefficients of the different cartilage zones. It is therefore concluded that other features of the different cartilage zones such as water content and the organization (orientation) of collagen fibers may be enough to cause large differences in diffusion coefficients through the cartilage thickness.

  5. Mapping the spatiotemporal evolution of solute transport in articular cartilage explants reveals how cartilage recovers fluid within the contact area during sliding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Brian T; Moore, Axel C; Burris, David L; Price, Christopher

    2018-04-11

    The interstitial fluid within articular cartilage shields the matrix from mechanical stresses, reduces friction and wear, enables biochemical processes, and transports solutes into and out of the avascular extracellular matrix. The balanced competition between fluid exudation and recovery under load is thus critical to the mechanical and biological functions of the tissue. We recently discovered that sliding alone can induce rapid solute transport into buried cartilage contact areas via a phenomenon termed tribological rehydration. In this study, we use in situ confocal microscopy measurements to track the spatiotemporal propagation of a small neutral solute into the buried contact area to clarify the fluid mechanics underlying the tribological rehydration phenomenon. Sliding experiments were interrupted by periodic static loading to enable scanning of the entire contact area. Spatiotemporal patterns of solute transport combined with tribological data suggested pressure driven flow through the extracellular matrix from the contact periphery rather than into the surface via a fluid film. Interestingly, these testing interruptions also revealed dynamic, repeatable and history-independent fluid loss and recovery processes consistent with those observed in vivo. Unlike the migrating contact area, which preserves hydration by moving faster than interstitial fluid can flow, our results demonstrate that the stationary contact area can maintain and actively recover hydration through a dynamic competition between load-induced exudation and sliding-induced recovery. The results demonstrate that sliding contributes to the recovery of fluid and solutes by cartilage within the contact area while clarifying the means by which it occurs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. FK506 protects against articular cartilage collagenous extra-cellular matrix degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Siebelt (Michiel); A.E. van der Windt (Anna); H.C. Groen (Harald); M. Sandker (Marjan); J.H. Waarsing (Jan); C. Müller (Cristina); M. de Jong (Marcel); H. Jahr (Holger); H.H. Weinans (Harrie)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a non-rheumatologic joint disease characterized by progressive degeneration of the cartilage extra-cellular matrix (ECM), enhanced subchondral bone remodeling, activation of synovial macrophages and osteophyte growth. Inhibition of calcineurin (Cn)

  7. Stem cells catalyze cartilage formation by neonatal articular chondrocytes in 3D biomimetic hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Janice H; Kajiyama, Glen; Smith, Robert Lane; Maloney, William; Yang, Fan

    2013-12-19

    Cartilage loss is a leading cause of disability among adults and effective therapy remains elusive. Neonatal chondrocytes (NChons) are an attractive allogeneic cell source for cartilage repair, but their clinical translation has been hindered by scarce donor availability. Here we examine the potential for catalyzing cartilage tissue formation using a minimal number of NChons by co-culturing them with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in 3D hydrogels. Using three different co-culture models, we demonstrated that the effects of co-culture on cartilage tissue formation are dependent on the intercellular distance and cell distribution in 3D. Unexpectedly, increasing ADSC ratio in mixed co-culture led to increased synergy between NChons and ADSCs, and resulted in the formation of large neocartilage nodules. This work raises the potential of utilizing stem cells to catalyze tissue formation by neonatal chondrocytes via paracrine signaling, and highlights the importance of controlling cell distribution in 3D matrices to achieve optimal synergy.

  8. Magnetically targeted delivery through cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Sahar; Mair, Lamar O.; Chowdhury, Sagar; Nacev, Alek; Hilaman, Ryan; Stepanov, Pavel; Baker-McKee, James; Ijanaten, Said; Koudelka, Christian; English, Bradley; Malik, Pulkit; Weinberg, Irving N.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we have invented a method of delivering drugs deep into articular cartilage with shaped dynamic magnetic fields acting on small metallic magnetic nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol coating and average diameter of 30 nm. It was shown that transport of magnetic nanoparticles through the entire thickness of bovine articular cartilage can be controlled by a combined alternating magnetic field at 100 Hz frequency and static magnetic field of 0.8 tesla (T) generated by 1" dia. x 2" thick permanent magnet. Magnetic nanoparticles transport through bovine articular cartilage samples was investigated at various settings of magnetic field and time durations. Combined application of an alternating magnetic field and the static field gradient resulted in a nearly 50 times increase in magnetic nanoparticles transport in bovine articular cartilage tissue as compared with static field conditions. This method can be applied to locally deliver therapeutic-loaded magnetic nanoparticles deep into articular cartilage to prevent cartilage degeneration and promote cartilage repair in osteoarthritis.

  9. Magnetically targeted delivery through cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Jafari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have invented a method of delivering drugs deep into articular cartilage with shaped dynamic magnetic fields acting on small metallic magnetic nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol coating and average diameter of 30 nm. It was shown that transport of magnetic nanoparticles through the entire thickness of bovine articular cartilage can be controlled by a combined alternating magnetic field at 100 Hz frequency and static magnetic field of 0.8 tesla (T generated by 1" dia. x 2" thick permanent magnet. Magnetic nanoparticles transport through bovine articular cartilage samples was investigated at various settings of magnetic field and time durations. Combined application of an alternating magnetic field and the static field gradient resulted in a nearly 50 times increase in magnetic nanoparticles transport in bovine articular cartilage tissue as compared with static field conditions. This method can be applied to locally deliver therapeutic-loaded magnetic nanoparticles deep into articular cartilage to prevent cartilage degeneration and promote cartilage repair in osteoarthritis.

  10. Small subchondral drill holes improve marrow stimulation of articular cartilage defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldracher, Mona; Orth, Patrick; Cucchiarini, Magali; Pape, Dietrich; Madry, Henning

    2014-11-01

    Subchondral drilling is an established marrow stimulation technique. Osteochondral repair is improved when the subchondral bone is perforated with small drill holes, reflecting the physiological subchondral trabecular distance. Controlled laboratory study. A rectangular full-thickness chondral defect was created in the trochlea of adult sheep (n = 13) and treated with 6 subchondral drillings of either 1.0 mm (reflective of the trabecular distance) or 1.8 mm in diameter. Osteochondral repair was assessed after 6 months in vivo by macroscopic, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses and by micro-computed tomography. The application of 1.0-mm subchondral drill holes led to significantly improved histological matrix staining, cellular morphological characteristics, subchondral bone reconstitution, and average total histological score as well as significantly higher immunoreactivity to type II collagen and reduced immunoreactivity to type I collagen in the repair tissue compared with 1.8-mm drill holes. Analysis of osteoarthritic changes in the cartilage adjacent to the defects revealed no significant differences between treatment groups. Restoration of the microstructure of the subchondral bone plate below the chondral defects was significantly improved after 1.0-mm compared to 1.8-mm drilling, as shown by higher bone volume and reduced thickening of the subchondral bone plate. Likewise, the microarchitecture of the drilled subarticular spongiosa was better restored after 1.0-mm drilling, indicated by significantly higher bone volume and more and thinner trabeculae. Moreover, the bone mineral density of the subchondral bone in 1.0-mm drill holes was similar to the adjacent subchondral bone, whereas it was significantly reduced in 1.8-mm drill holes. No significant correlations existed between cartilage and subchondral bone repair. Small subchondral drill holes that reflect the physiological trabecular distance improve osteochondral repair in a translational

  11. A comparison of various "housekeeping" probes for northern analysis of normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyas, J R; Huang, D; Adams, M E

    1999-01-01

    Several approaches are commonly used to normalize variations in RNA loading on Northern blots, including: ethidium bromide (EthBr) fluorescence of 18S or 28S rRNA or autoradiograms of radioactive probes hybridized with constitutively expressed RNAs such as elongation factor-1alpha (ELF), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), actin, 18S or 28S rRNA, or others. However, in osteoarthritis (OA) the amount of total RNA changes significantly and none of these RNAs has been clearly demonstrated to be expressed at a constant level, so it is unclear if any of these approaches can be used reliably for normalizing RNA extracted from osteoarthritic cartilage. Total RNA was extracted from normal and osteoarthritic cartilage and assessed by EthBr fluorescence. RNA was then transferred to a nylon membrane hybridized with radioactive probes for ELF, G3PDH, Max, actin, and an oligo-dT probe. The autoradiographic signal across the six lanes of a gel was quantified by scanning densitometry. When compared on the basis of total RNA, the coefficient of variation was lowest for 28S ethidium bromide fluorescence and oligo-dT (approximately 7%), followed by 18S ethidium bromide fluorescence and G3PDH (approximately 13%). When these values were normalized to DNA concentration, the coefficient of variation exceeded 50% for all signals. Total RNA and the signals for 18S, 28S rRNA, and oligo-dT all correlated highly. These data indicate that osteoarthritic chondrocytes express similar ratios of mRNA to rRNA and mRNA to total RNA as do normal chondrocytes. Of all the "housekeeping" probes, G3PDH correlated best with the measurements of RNA. All of these "housekeeping" probes are expressed at greater levels by osteoarthritic chondrocytes when compared with normal chondrocytes. Thus, while G3PDH is satisfactory for evaluating the amount of RNA loaded, its level of expression is not the same in normal and osteoarthritic chondrocytes.

  12. Isolated effects of external bath osmolality, solute concentration, and electrical charge on solute transport across articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouran, Behdad; Arbabi, Vahid; Zadpoor, Amir A; Weinans, Harrie

    2016-12-01

    The metabolic function of cartilage primarily depends on transport of solutes through diffusion mechanism. In the current study, we use contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography to determine equilibrium concentration of solutes through different cartilage zones and solute flux in the cartilage, using osteochondral plugs from equine femoral condyles. Diffusion experiments were performed with two solutes of different charge and approximately equal molecular weight, namely iodixanol (neutral) and ioxaglate (charge=-1) in order to isolate the effects of solute's charge on diffusion. Furthermore, solute concentrations as well as bath osmolality were changed to isolate the effects of steric hindrance on diffusion. Bath concentration and bath osmolality only had minor effects on the diffusion of the neutral solute through cartilage at the surface, middle and deep zones, indicating that the diffusion of the neutral solute was mainly Fickian. The negatively charged solute diffused considerably slower through cartilage than the neutral solute, indicating a large non-Fickian contribution in the diffusion of charged molecules. The numerical models determined maximum solute flux in the superficial zone up to a factor of 2.5 lower for the negatively charged solutes (charge=-1) as