Pay (RSLSP), providing $500 for each month/partial month served in stop loss status. Service members served under stop loss must submit a claim for the special pay. Throughout the year, the services have or extension of service, became ineligible to receive retroactive stop loss special pay. There may be
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Superior qualifications and special needs... Appointment Or Position Changes § 531.212 Superior qualifications and special needs pay-setting authority. (a) Agency authority. (1) An agency may use the superior qualifications and special needs pay-setting...
Feb 15, 2017 ... Research Article. Special Issue ... In myriad studies implemented, the quality of life has been defined in different ways among which the .... service and trading users in living area. ... market, bakery, barber shop, restaurant, etc.
Feb 1, 2018 ... the Russian philosophical and sociological thought. The thoughts of the Russian scientist ... Research Article. Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. Libraries Resource Directory. We are ...
Oct 5, 2017 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. ISSN 1112-9867. Available online at http://www.jfas.info. Research Article. Special Issue .... of use. Three critical success factors of e-learning (instructor characteristics, student characteristics .... Total of 95 questionnaires were used for further data analysis.
May 15, 2016 ... Research Article. Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. ... innovation is defined as: accepting ideas or behaviors in the organization that are novel and unfamiliar. Innovation can be in form ...
Jan 15, 2018 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Scienc. ISSN 1112-9867 ... (0.9623, 0.3857) and (0.9975, ity, temperature, CO, UVB and. 10 concentration. In by using ANN or Fit model. Research Article. Special Issue .... The EM algorithm is a simple computational implementation to find the posterior mode. Fig.
Jun 5, 2016 ... because Amir al- Mu'minin's(peace be upon him) name is related to human perfection and. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. ISSN 1112-9867. Available online at http://www.jfas.info. Research Article. Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative ...
Oct 17, 2017 ... Perak, Malaysia was observed under ral waste in powder and xtract generated optimum produce highest length of fectively improved shoot ed faster effect on C. ed positive result for the shed light on how the Z. C. nutans. This study ld application. pagation; Zea mays stem. Research Article. Special Issue ...
Algozzine, Bob; Spooner, Fred; Karvonen, Meagan
This article addresses key considerations in preparing special education research articles for submission to professional journals in which the preferred style guide is the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association." The guidelines are drawn from special education literature, from editors, and from authors experienced in…
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special marking on certain articles. 11.9 Section... OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.9 Special marking on certain articles. (a... of additional U.S. Note 4, Chapter 91. If any article so required to be marked is found not to be...
Feb 15, 2017 ... Keywords: electronic banking, electronic service quality, customer. 1. ... banking system, the leading banks in this direction can provide huge ... It is necessary to pay more attention to factors such as customer training in the.
Marines from 2000 to 2017. The thesis includes a literature review on economic theory related to pay incentives in the Department of Defense, a...The purpose of this thesis to provide the Marine Corps with a comprehensive report on pay incentive programs and special pay that were available to...summarization of pay incentive categories, a data analysis on take-up rates and average annual amounts at the end of each fiscal year, and a program review
Nov 24, 2017 ... is a 40 meter long vehicle, powered by an eco-friendly electric ... minimum wage are willing to pay and patronize the system in spite of, the fare price being .... braking which is an energy recovery mechanism that slows down ...
Aug 8, 2017 ... per capita in 1974, rice yield per capita has since fallen steadily to 86.0 ... break even line which represents the rice yield increase needed to pay for .... farmers only need to click the current paddy price and fertilizer price into ...
The aim of the article is to investigate the actual and explained gender pay gaps in Poland in comparison with selected highly developed countries, and to discuss the factors determining wage disparities between men and women. Data from Eurostat EU-SILC and the International Labour Organization were used. The article concludes that the gender pay gap in Poland is relatively small and decreasing, and that estimates of the explained gender pay gap published by the Internationa...
Wegman, F.C.M. & Hagezieker, M.P.
The articles presented in this Special Issue on Road Safety Management represent an illustration of the growing interest in policy-related research in the area of road safety. The complex nature of this type of research combined with the observation that scientific journals pay limited attention to
... RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Special Payments § 9701.361 Special skills payments... at the same time as basic pay or in periodic lump-sum payments. Special skills payments are not basic... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special skills payments. 9701.361 Section...
Mar 7, 2018 ... characterized by historically developed specialization, a special geographical location ... We are listed under Research Associations category. ... product, service or technology providing economic and/or public benefit, additional in ...... the region's competitiveness // International Business Management.
Mar 7, 2018 ... Eurostat and the Ministry of Economic Development. 4. .... regard to the application of special national schemes for small enterprises. ... 2013) mentions a two-year exemption from the tax on joint stock companies and local taxes. ... specialized support programs are developed, such as the introduction of the ...
Did you know that you can swing from tree to tree like Tarzan (or Jane!) in the brand new forest adventure centre at the Col de la Faucille? And that, in addition to Crozet-Lélex, Mijoux-La Faucille and La Vattay, the Pays de Gex boasts a fourth ski resort at Menthières above Bellegarde-sur-Valserine? All these attractions, and hundreds of others that the Pays de Gex has to offer, were presented at a special exhibition stand in CERN's Restaurant No. 1 last week. For the tenth year running, the Pays de Gex-La Faucille Tourist Office and Geneva's fourteen Coop restaurants had organised a special week devoted to promoting the Pays de Gex-Monts Jura region. Thousands of information leaflets were handed out and visitors had the opportunity to take part in a big raffle with no fewer than 145 prizes to be won: ski passes, Juraventure entrance tickets, meal vouchers courtesy of local hotels and restaurants, and subscriptions to the Val Vital fitness centre in Divonne-les-Bains. The Coop restaur...
Hulleman, Chris S.; Barron, Kenneth E.
This article draws on research from outside of education to evaluate some common myths about performance pay and to consider future directions for designing and evaluating performance pay systems in K-12 education. The five common myths surrounding performance pay include: (1) Performance pay systems improve performance; (2) Performance pay…
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect on salary covering more than 40 hours' pay. 778.325... COMPENSATION Special Problems Reduction in Workweek Schedule with No Change in Pay § 778.325 Effect on salary covering more than 40 hours' pay. The same reasoning applies to salary covering straight time pay for a...
... Section 9701.363 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Special Payments § 9701.363 Special... serving in positions for which DHS is experiencing or anticipates significant recruitment and/or retention...
Oct 17, 2017 ... delivery system which are primary care, secondary care, tertiary care, ..... services are usually delivered by nurse practitioners, medical assistants, ... The quaternary care is a highly specialized care with a target to cure.
Jul 16, 2016 ... In this research, two questionnaires of knowledge management and employees' ... development, human resources are the most important tool and capital of ... foster talent, to improve public and specialized awareness, and to ...
May 1, 2018 ... quantitative method used, data analysis and findings of Telehealth ... The users' acceptance of wireless sensor devise (Motes) for ..... access to specialized health care: the Telehealth Network of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Bulletin ...
Sep 7, 2017 ... special experience of urban environments in the development process. ... Internet and social networking, and eventually poor performance of the police .... was shown that different regions have different levels of fear of crime.
. Special ... is 4000 pps, in 1 ms there are 4 sampling intervals. Fig. .... Although this type of radar is simple, generally it is not very sensitive because of increased ... processing) to determine the true sign of Doppler frequency.
Jul 18, 2016 ... and 1340s, centralization and organizational unity in the early 1350s, ... appropriate productivity in specialized costs of welfare and social ..... and finally the lack of compliance with commitments by the government to the social.
Published online: 1 May 2018. ABSTRACT ... CMOS technology with many special features that can overcome all the limitations in CMOS. QCA is of high speed, small size ... is done depending on position of single electrons. This shows that ...
May 1, 2018 ... such as the athletes. This is done through gene doping, ... reduced risk of injury and drug abuse, talent selection through DNA and special training ..... GJB2 gene among Malays with non-syndromic hearing loss. International ...
May 15, 2016 ... of specific musical terms; attention to the Quran and Ahl al-Bayt and special devotion to ... Another factor that plays a role in making the poetry of Shahriar .... world, they start reading the masterpieces of world literature and ...
Kmec, Julie A; Trimble, Lindsey B
This article investigates how social network use to find work affects pay. Analyses using the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality consider the extent to which a network contact's influence level affects a job applicant's pay, whether this effect differs for white, black, and Latino contacts, and how workplace racial context moderates this relationship. Three main findings emerge. First, having an influential contact--one with hiring authority--compared to having no contact yields higher pay. Second, white and minority contact influence on pay differs: among minority contacts, being an outsider (i.e., someone not employed by the firm to which the applicant applies) is associated with higher pay, but being an employee of the firm--an insider--is not. Third, regardless of workplace racial context, black and Latino contacts' influence is most beneficial when their race/ethnicity is not known to the hiring agent. We offer a new interpretation of the mixed findings with regard to the relationship between social network use and pay.
Aug 8, 2017 ... Special attention is paid to human capital agglomeration, which is regarded as a .... the innovation sector, on the periphery of the ... Agglomeration is an effective form of concentration of human capital, intellectual ... participants of social relations (public, entrepreneurs) or the formation of clusters, emerging.
Paulo Celso Pereira
Full Text Available Journals have the purpose of dissemination and communication of scientific knowledge. As a vehicle to the dissemination of scientific productions, it is necessary the periodical assessment to evaluate the quality of research: accuracy, reliability and seriousness. The objective of this study is to assess the journal Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, considering for the analysis the whole journal and the formal and the contents aspects of all articles. The analysis revealed that the periodical satisfactorily fulfills the normalization criterion, the authors’ instruction criterion and the articles assessment criterion. However, it was identified the need for major accuracy in the bibliographic legend that should appear on all pages of articles. Regarding the analysis of the articles it was observed the lack of keywords and a wide variety of information in the abstracts, which they were sometimes not related to the key aspects of the research. All authors and institutions are from United States of America and the type of study most published it was the research report. The participants’ characterization indicated that the journal broachs different types of special needs, but there is more studies about autism. The study data confirm the journal purpose that is providing relevant and current information on all aspects of early education for children with special needs, including their families. It was pointed the need for more articles from other countries beyond the North American continent, including the participation of researcher from other countries. Additionally, the model used for the journal assessment showed to be effective in providing data quality, reliability and accuracy of the whole periodical and the studies that it was published in the journal.
Apr 18, 2018 ... WORLD THROUGH THE PRISM OF THE INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL ... It has been explored by many a Russian and foreign researcher. ... attempt to focus, instead of going back to the analysis of past experience, on the subject from ... intercultural interaction between various nations, was given special ...
Feb 15, 2017 ... they have no special development plan and their authorities actually do not know about the ... Keywords: Converted villages to city centers, urban network, SWOT analysis, ... rural areas and can decrease regional differences in developing ... Small scale cities are necessary for integration of rural and urban.
Oct 5, 2017 ... We are listed under Research Associations. D THAT USES A ... Clinical Engineering, Toin University of Yokohama, Yokohama, Aoba ... Special Issue ..... advisable to run the prognosis results at least one hundred times with the Euclidean and ... They are some of the topics left for future research. 5.
Jun 15, 2016 ... International License. ... confirmatory factor analysis which is a technique to study the structure of a ... School as a social institution is part of a special community that has ... specifies the amount of support that teacher thinks that students ..... social adjustment and academic performance in third grade female ...
This article describes and discusses Swedish upper-secondary teachers’ perceptions of the effects of individual performance-related pay (PRP) in the context of educational restructuring and governance. The empirical data were generated through semi-structured interviews of 23 teachers. Power’s distinction between programmatic and technological elements of audit is used as a frame of reference for the problematization of the pay system. The findings demonstrate a wide gap between the programma...
the career field and the tax: Student-Transient-Prisoner/Patient ( STP ), Special Duty, and Outside. o STP : The Army equivalent of this Air Force...patterns due to their highly marketable skills which can be transferred to another form of public service (e.g., inter-Service transfer) or are in high... STP , and developmental opportunities (primarily special duties). The inventory identifies categories indicating skill availability (“Not Fully
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paying premium pay. 410.402 Section 410... for Training Expenses § 410.402 Paying premium pay. (a) Prohibitions. Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, an agency may not use its funds, appropriated or otherwise available, to pay...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special conversion rules for certain non... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Determining Rate of Basic Pay Setting Pay When Appointment Or Position Changes § 531.217 Special conversion rules for certain non-GS employees. When an...
Clabaugh, Gary K.
President Obama's education agenda, which unhappily seems to be George W. Bush's program squared, contains two major features that will impact teacher pay and working conditions. The first is that charter schools are to be promoted aggressively. The second is an insistence on teacher merit pay. In this article, the author talks about teacher merit…
Saito, Shinzo; Tsujikura, Yonezo; Kawahara, Akira
Securing human resources is important for the sustainable development of research, development and utilization of nuclear energy. However, concerns have been raised over the maintenance of human resources due to the decline of public and private investment in research and development of nuclear energy in recent years. To that end, it is essential for the workplace in the field of nuclear energy to be engaging. This special feature article introduced the Government's fund program supporting universities and vocational colleges to develop human resources in the area of nuclear energy. Electric utilities, nuclear industries, nuclear safety regulators and related academia presented respective present status and issues of nuclear energy personnel training with some expectations to the program to secure human resources with professional qualifications. (T. Tanaka)
Polavieja, Javier G.
This paper proposes an explanation of sex-differences in job-allocation and pay. Job allocation calculations are considered to be related to 1) the distribution of housework and 2) the skill-specialization requirements of jobs. Both elements combined generate a particular incentive structure for each sex. Welfare policies and services can, however, lower the risks of skill-depreciation for women as well as increase their intra-household bargaining power, hence reducing the economic pay-offs o...
... supervision and instruction, safety and care of equipment, ability to work with others, and overall job..., physical demands, working conditions (exposed to dusts, odors, etc.), and the degree of responsibility held... inmate may receive special bonus pay based on the inmate's exceptional work in a temporary job assignment...
Many researchers have investigated the appropriateness of pay for outperformance, (also called "merit-based pay" and "performance-based pay") for academics, but a review of this body of work shows that the voice of academics themselves is largely absent. This article is a contribution to addressing this gap, summarising the…
of Management. Published online: 1 May 2018. ABSTRACT. The article ... Achieving high financial performance is a priority for the country. .... developing at an advanced rate, and there is a hierarchy of entrepreneurial development types.
Feb 15, 2017 ... The article also discusses the process and results of computer modeling, an error that arises ..... Prediction positioning quality .... topocentric and angular coordinates of the selected navigational satellites can determine if this.
Jul 16, 2016 ... The companies with high level of customer satisfaction always are more powerful ... This article studies the impact of e-customer relationship .... 2- The multiple interactive value-added customer points with the organization.
Jul 16, 2016 ... counterfeiting of currency and monetary instruments, money ... the term economic corruption which is frequently used by researchers in .... mentioned in the provisions and legislator also added fraud to this list under Article.
Nov 24, 2017 ... The article is devoted to the experimental studies of the effect of elastic operating elements of a ... Keywords: multicomponent granular mixture, mixer with elastic ... physico-mechanical properties and design features, without ...
Lastly, this article seeks to ascertain whether the EEA (including the Employment Equity Regulations) provides an adequate legal framework for determining an equal pay for work of equal value claim. Keywords: Equal pay; Employment Equity Act; Equality Act; International Labour Organisation; Equal Pay Guide; Equal ...
Feb 1, 2018 ... The main goal of this article is to analyze methodological issues in .... methodology and theory and historiology (theory of historic process) whose goal is to .... internal branches of sociology and interdisciplinary links of ...
Mar 7, 2018 ... where the operations of all sorts of searches and sorting are the most complex ones. Existing ... The object of this article development and research is an associative ..... ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences.
Nov 24, 2017 ... This article is devoted to the modeling of sound absorption .... two-channel sound level meter, 6 - white noise generator. ... sound pressure was perceived by two microphones 3, 4, connected with the sound level meter. 5.
Feb 15, 2017 ... P. V. Vasiliev, V. M. Mikhelev, V. V. Muromtcev and D. S. Batischev ... Annotation This article describes algorithm for solving ultimate pit limit ... It is simplified version of the production-scheduling problem that details the.
... Section 9701.333 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality and Special Rate Supplements... DHS determines that such supplements are warranted by current or anticipated recruitment and/or...
Nov 24, 2017 ... In this article, to improve the performance of metal cylindrical mesh shells used ... Finite element models are designed taking into account ... IFI type unit is used to increase the bearing capacity and reduce the deformation of.
Oct 17, 2017 ... In simple chronology, it is always true to say that better fluency .... Thus, in this research, GPL is used as the back-end software from the .... However, to present the quantitative measurement would be more .... Article title.
Mar 7, 2018 ... ethical issues behind the retrieval of organs (commitment to ... The article reviews the practices of European countries and attitude of the EU citizens to the .... knowledge that the purchase and sale of donor organs is prohibited ...
Feb 15, 2017 ... he achieves in innocence or guilt of the accused. ... exertion of influence by the prosecutor over the interrogator in a variety of ways ..... for decision-making and Article 75 onwards in French Code of Criminal Procedure gives.
Nov 24, 2017 ... FEDERAL UNIVERSITY (FROM EMOTIONAL EDUCATION TO GLOBAL. THINKING ... ANNOTATION. The article highlights the topical issues of human education of the future humanistic- ... conditions (continuous self-education, updating and integration of educational resources on the basis of the ...
May 1, 2018 ... This article proposed to develop problem-oriented system of decision support based on artifi- ... use hard-to-recover oil reserves and gas. The main .... of a drilling rig when organizing a system for supplying drilling spare parts.
May 15, 2016 ... AND CIVIL ENGINEERING (CASE STUDY: AMIRIYEH REGION OF SHAHRIAR ... Keywords: suburbanization; urban economics; urban development; AHP ... Analytical Network Process method was used to achieve the effect of ... Harstad, 2014 in an article titled, "imitation or innovation and Cooperation.
...) Physicians. DHS uses the latest Special Salary Rate Table Number 0290 for Medical Officers (Clinical... Personnel, in which case the Maximum Pay Rate Table would not apply. (3) Compensation for Sponsoring Agency... organizations, e.g., HMOs or medical or engineering professional associations, under the revised definition of...
Measuring differences between mens' and womens' earnings, presents estimates from ASHE, the LFS and the NES panel data setThe gender pay gap is a measure of the difference between the earnings of men and women. This article presents estimates of the gender pay gap from the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings, the Labour Force Survey and the New Earnings Survey panel data set. It examines how different personal and labour market characteristics influence the earnings of men and women.The resul...
Aug 8, 2017 ... The article considers problem of educational individualization within the .... learning in a higher educational institution, when professional preferences are ... determination of students' personal qualities correspondence to ... A high index by the “Modeling” criterionsuggeststhe ability to correlate models of ...
Jill Rubery; Damian Grimshaw
Progress towards equal pay is elusive. This article reviews debates on and prescribed remedies for gender pay equality over the past 40 years of equal pay policy. It looks at pay from four perspectives—the economic, the sociological, the institutional and the organisational—and explores how and why once an apparent remedy for unequal pay is pursued, the goalposts tend to shift. The argument is made that the difficulties in securing long-term progress may be attributed to a number of factors, ...
Feb 15, 2017 ... various geographical, economic, and social problems with the protection of the environment, and. Fragmentation and chaos rules, are: lack of adopting an integrated ... Keywords: Air Pollution, Legal System, International Law, Legal .... According to Article 12, construction of new factories and workshops ...
Aug 8, 2017 ... Research Article ... drying rate of the fluid materials also have a great influence on the quality of films. ... film's thickness versus spin speeds with speeds, th. 2. 4. 6. 8. 1500 ... where t is thickness and ω is angular velocity .
Heneman, Robert L.; And Others
Assessed relationship between pay-for-performance perceptions and pay satisfaction among 104 hospital employees. Results indicated positive relationship between pay-for-performance perceptions and pay-raise satisfaction, pay-level satisfaction, and overall pay satisfaction even after effects of salary level, salary increases, performance ratings,…
Mar 7, 2018 ... This study is a review article designed to explore and explain the role of social ... Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 ... Iranmedex, Magiran, Irandoc and MedLib, and four international ... as follows: Hard, severe and distorted thinking patterns (thoughts) 2.
Nov 24, 2017 ... information educational space, are considered in the article. ... The analysis of the behavior of such systems "far from equilibrium" found that ... development and qualitative changes of the student's personality. ..... processing and testing the source codes of programs is similar to loading the source codes of.
Aug 8, 2017 ... dak Campus, 21300 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia ... performance of an athlete as opposed to views or self-report by the athlete, ... reliably does out the same score to people or articles with equivalent values, the instrument is ... sepak takraw youth athlete team (Tunku Mahkota Ismail Sport ...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay periods and computation of pay. 534... PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Basic Pay for Employees of Temporary Organizations § 534.305 Pay periods and computation of pay. (a) The requirements of 5 U.S.C. 5504, must be applied to employees of temporary...
24 Ноя 2017 ... article includes the study of main characteristics of the concept "Моң" .... boundaries, is used to determine the media picture of the world of the speakers of Tatar ..... to the movies that often colorful, musical and dramatic televised) were ... aspects of intercultural communication theory, cultural studies, and ...
... under § 9701.333). (b) When an employee receiving a special rate under 5 U.S.C. 5305 before conversion... locality or special rate supplement, the conversion will not be considered as resulting in a reduction in... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion of employees to the DHS pay...
Meral (Ibraim) Kagitci
The purpose of this article is to present the gender pay gap in the Member States of the European Union. The European legislation had a good impact on eliminating the direct discrimination between women and men regarding the pay gap. However, beside all efforts, the statistics show a persisting gender pay gap of 16,4 % on average for the 27 EU Member States in 2010, recording a slight downward trend in recent years, when the figure was around 17% or higher. The causes of the gender pay gap ar...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biweekly pay periods and computation of pay. 550.604 Section 550.604 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Computation of Pay for Biweekly Pay Periods § 550.604 Biweekly pay...
Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius
The Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) project we describe in this article is based on Pay as You Drive principles. These principles assume that the ISA equipment informs a driver of the speed limit, warns the driver when speeding and calculates penalty points. Each penalty point entails the redu......The Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) project we describe in this article is based on Pay as You Drive principles. These principles assume that the ISA equipment informs a driver of the speed limit, warns the driver when speeding and calculates penalty points. Each penalty point entails...... the reduction of a 30% discount on the driver's car insurance premium, which therefore produced the name, Pay as You Speed. The ISA equipment consists of a GPS-based On Board Unit with a mobile phone connection to a web server. The project was planned for a three-year test period with 300 young car drivers...
Sternberg, Robert J
This introduction to the special symposium on the top 30 most-cited articles in APS journals considers some of the factors that lead some articles to have huge impact. What is it that scientists can do to achieve the greatest impact for their work?
Sara Charlesworth; Fiona Macdonald
Australia’s equal pay laws have recently been renovated through the Workplace Gender Equality Act 2012 and the Fair Work Act 2009. In light of these changes, it is timely to ask how effective Australia’s legislative approach is likely to be for progressing pay equity. This article presents an analysis of Australia’s current equal pay provisions, assessing their potential on the basis of their operation to date and through recent experience in Canada and the UK. Although focused on outcomes, w...
... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Administratively... once a week. (3) There must be a definite basis for anticipating that the irregular or occasional... circumstances must be a definite, official, and special requirement of his position. (2) The employee must...
Nadler, Carl; Wiswall, Matthew
Recent research attributes the lack of merit pay in teaching to the resistance of teachers. This article examines whether the structure of merit pay affects the types of teachers who support it. We develop a model of the relative utility teachers receive from merit pay versus the current fixed schedule of raises. We show that if teachers are risk…
Hybrid journals contains articles behind a pay-wall to be subscribed, as well as papers made open access when author pays article processing charge (APC). In such cases, an Institution will end up paying twice and Publishers tend to double-dip. Discussions and pilot models are emerging on pricing options, such as “offset pricing,” [where APCs are adjusted or discounted with subscription costs as vouchers or reductions in next year subscriptions, APCs beyond the subscription costs are modestly capped etc] and thus reduce Institutions’ cost. This presentation will explain different models available and how can we attain a transparent costing structure, where the scholarly community can feel the fairness in Publishers’ pricing mechanisms. Though most of the offset systems are developed through national level or consortium level negotiations, experience of individual institutions, like KAUST that subscribe to large e-journals collections, is important in making right decisions on saving Institutes costs and support openness in scholarly communications.
Vijayakumar, J.K.; Tamarkin, Molly
Hybrid journals contains articles behind a pay-wall to be subscribed, as well as papers made open access when author pays article processing charge (APC). In such cases, an Institution will end up paying twice and Publishers tend to double-dip. Discussions and pilot models are emerging on pricing options, such as “offset pricing,” [where APCs are adjusted or discounted with subscription costs as vouchers or reductions in next year subscriptions, APCs beyond the subscription costs are modestly capped etc] and thus reduce Institutions’ cost. This presentation will explain different models available and how can we attain a transparent costing structure, where the scholarly community can feel the fairness in Publishers’ pricing mechanisms. Though most of the offset systems are developed through national level or consortium level negotiations, experience of individual institutions, like KAUST that subscribe to large e-journals collections, is important in making right decisions on saving Institutes costs and support openness in scholarly communications.
This article addresses the conduct of employers who are associated with retirement funds, who have failed to pay their employees' contributions into such retirement funds. In particular, the article responds to the critique levelled at the approach adopted by both our courts and the office of the Pension Funds Adjudicator ...
Full Text Available Orientation: Return on the investment in variable pay programmes remains controversial because their cost versus contribution cannot be empirically justified. Research purpose: This study validates the findings of the model developed by De Swardt on the factors related to successful variable pay programmes. Motivation for the study: Many organisations blindly implement variable pay programmes without any means to assess the impact these programmes have on the company’s performance. This study was necessary to validate the findings of an existing instrument that validates the contribution of variable pay schemes. Research design, approach and method: The study was conducted using quantitative research. A total of 300 completed questionnaires from a non-purposive sample of 3000 participants in schemes across all South African industries were returned and analysed. Main findings: Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, it was found that the validation instrument developed by De Swardt is still largely valid in evaluating variable pay schemes. The differences between the study and the model were reported. Practical/managerial implications: The study confirmed the robustness of an existing model that enables practitioners to empirically validate the use of variable pay plans. This model assists in the design and implementation of variable pay programmes that meet critical success factors. Contribution/value-add: The study contributed to the development of a measurement instrument that will assess whether a variable pay plan contributes to an organisation’s success.
Mulder, Machiel; Zomer, Sigourney
This article analyzes Dutch consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for the welfare of broiler chickens and the consequences for nonhuman animal welfare policies. Using data from a discrete-choice experiment and a random parameter logit model, this study showed that consumers particularly value
Pay for delay settlements are currently high on the competition law enforcement agenda. The focus in these investigations is on the collusive nature of the agreements between a brand company and generic companies. However, this article moves the discussion away from the commonly recognized collusive anticompetitive potential, advocating for the expansion of antitrust scrutiny of pay for delay settlements to unilateral conduct. Pay for delay settlements could be used as a “facilitator” for a b...
Currie, Jan; Hill, Beverley
Studies worldwide have found that women's pay lags behind men's in academia. This article describes pay equity policies in Australia and overseas and the use of a pay equity audit as a strategic tool to reduce gender inequities at The University of Western Australia (UWA). As a research-intensive university, UWA resembles similar universities…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. 550.1409 Section 550.1409 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... Inapplicability of premium pay and aggregate pay caps. Accrued compensatory time off under this subpart is not...
Figueiredo, Hugo; Rocha, Vera; Biscaia, Ricardo
In this article we investigate whether education-job mismatches and growing occupational diversity are important explanatory factors of gender pay gaps amongst university graduates in Southern Europe (namely in Portugal, Spain, and Italy). We use standard decomposition techniques and test...... that occupational assignment and selection into employment shape gender pay gaps amongst the highly skilled provides a more pessimistic view on the ability of educational expansion or equal pay legislation to significantly reduce gender pay inequality. Southern European economies are also particularly interesting...... to look at since there may be a greater degree of mismatch between the pace of higher education expansion and the changes in the job structure, making women particularly vulnerable to over-education....
Meulmeester, P.; Haffner, R.C.G.
The liberalization of the energy market for small-scale consumers in the Netherlands coincides with a period in which consumers have to pay high energy bills. However, the cause of this is not the liberalization, but the high oil prices and raised taxes. In this article an overview is given of the total energy bill n the Netherlands, its components and the first effects of the liberalization process [nl
Holliman, Sherry Diane.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited For many years, businesses in private industry have been utilizing and experimenting with various forms of performance-based pay. These innovations have been part of a continuing search by organizations for better approaches to administering pay. With the passing of the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, the Federal Government began its form of this concept entitled, 'Merit Pay'. Although many studies have examined uses in the areas of ...
A Charlwood; K Hansen; David Metcalf
Dispersion in pay is lower among union members than among non-unionists. This reflects two factors. First, union members and jobs are more homogeneous than their non-union counterparts. Second, union wage policies within and across firms lower pay dispersion. Unions'' minimum wage targets also truncate the lower tail of the union distribution. There are two major consequences of these egalitarian union wage policies. First, the return to human capital is lower in firms which recognise unions ...
... recognition payments? 408.1220 Section 408.1220 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Federal Administration of State Recognition Payments § 408.1220 How do we pay Federally administered State recognition payments? (a) Payment procedures. We make...
Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of board affiliation on the corporate pay gap. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2005 to 2011, we find that boards with a greater presence of directors appointed by block shareholders have lower pay gaps. Furthermore, the governance effects of board affiliation with and without pay are distinguished. The empirical results show that board affiliation without pay is negatively related to the pay gap, while board affiliation with pay is positively related to the pay gap. Overall, the results shed light on how block shareholders affect their companies’ pay gaps through board affiliation.
Frader, Laura Levine
Despite having been overlooked in the standard histories of the UK and the European Community, gender politics and gender policies played a significant role in Britain's applications for membership in the EEC in the 1960s. Joining the European Community required that Britain comply with Article 119 on equal pay for equal work. A combination of domestic feminist and labour movement activism, the commitment of unions and parties, and the internationalization of formal commitments to women's rights constituted internal and external pressures for the passage of an Equal Pay Act in 1970. The article argues that the formal legislative commitment to gender pay equality, changing public attitudes towards women's employment, and European membership impacted further domestic social policy reform and slowly began to shift government attitudes towards gender equality.
In many contests in economic and political life, both all-pay and winner-pay expenditures matter for winning. This paper studies such hybrid contests under symmetry and asymmetry. The symmetric model is very general but still yields a simple closed-form solution. More contestants tend to lead to ...... expenditures. An endogenous bias that maximizes total expenditures disfavors the high-valuation contestant but still makes her the more likely one to win....
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees exempt from both minimum wage and overtime pay... Exemptions Under the Act; Other Special Requirements § 516.11 Employees exempt from both minimum wage and.... With respect to each and every employee exempt from both the minimum wage and overtime pay requirements...
Dey, Judy Goldberg; Hill, Catherine
Women have made remarkable gains in education during the past three decades, yet these achievements have resulted in only modest improvements in pay equity. The gender pay gap has become a fixture of the U.S. workplace and is so ubiquitous that many simply view it as normal. "Behind the Pay Gap" examines the gender pay gap for college graduates.…
... Section 9901.212 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NATIONAL... Secretary may establish one or more pay schedules within each career group. (b) Each pay schedule may...
Valeriy I. Salygin
Full Text Available This article reveals the practice of "ship or pay" principle in the US, Canada and Europe. The authors analyze the practice of concluding contracts for oil and petroleum products transportation, procedures, terms and conditions stipulated in the contract. The "take or pay" principle is a common practice in developed countries like the US, Canada and the UK. The specific feature of the United States is that the pipelines are not built only for one shipper, but rather for all market, which is caused the "open season" tradition. In Canada, "take or pay" principle applies to cover the capital costs of the carrier. The main reasons for usage of terms "take or pay" are to minimize risks of the carrier, building or expanding his own pipeline network, by guaranteeing shipper's financial benefits after the putting pipeline into operation. "Take or pay" contracts cover the carrier's obligation to provide agreed minimum amount of petroleum to the consignor within a certain period. In turn, the shipper is obliged to accept the minimum amount of petroleum and pay, regardless of the fact of acceptance of oil. "Take or pay" principle is a kind of risk-sharing mechanism, which allows to shift the risks of non-fulfillment of the contract to the shipper. Besides, the "take or pay" principle can be indirect guarantee in the context of project financing, and therefore, financing. The article emphasizes the main advantages of the application of this principle and opportunities for its use in Russia.
How widespread are workplace rules against discussing wages and salaries in the U.S.? And what are the core correlates of whether or not an employer prohibits or discourages this type of speech? Using a unique dataset that includes a measure of whether workers are prohibited or discouraged from discussing pay, this article investigates the prevalence of pay secrecy policies, and what worker- and workplace-level characteristics are associated with these rules. Key findings reveal that these policies are commonplace, despite being illegal, and that they are concentrated in more "coercive" rather than "enabling" organizations. These more coercive workplaces are disproportionately in the private sector, lack union representation, and have managers that are generally punitive in their approach and unaccommodating of employees. Findings also indicate that the greater discretion pay secrecy provides managers does not result in discriminatory application of these rules to women, racial/ethnic minorities, or immigrants. The article concludes with a call for data collection efforts that would allow researchers to analyze the consequences of this widespread managerial practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Murray Christopher JL
Full Text Available Abstract Population Health Metrics is an open-access online electronic journal published by BioMed Central – it is universally and freely available online to everyone, its authors retain copyright, and it is archived in at least one internationally recognised free repository. To fund this, from November 1 2003, authors of articles accepted for publication will be asked to pay an article-processing charge of US$500. This editorial outlines the reasons for the introduction of article-processing charges and the way in which this policy will work. Waiver requests will be considered on a case-by-case basis, by the Editor-in-Chief. Article-processing charges will not apply to authors whose institutions are 'members' of BioMed Central. Current members include NHS England, the World Health Organization, the US National Institutes of Health, Harvard, Princeton and Yale universities, and all UK universities. No charge is made for articles that are rejected after peer review. Many funding agencies have also realized the importance of open access publishing and have specified that their grants may be used directly to pay APCs.
Mizan R. Khan
Full Text Available This article traces the evolution of polluter-pays-principle (PPP as an economic, ethical and legal instrument and argues that it has the potential of effecting global responsibility for adaptation and mitigation and for generating reliable funding for the purpose. However, the contradiction is that while it rests on neoliberal market principles, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change did not include the PPP as its provision though the principle of “common but differentiated responsibility based on respective capabilities” (Article 3.1 implicitly recognizes this. The article raises the basic question that under a free-market global system: why should the polluters not take responsibility of their actions so that the global society does not suffer? The Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD countries apply this PPP in many of its forms. Some developing countries are also applying it albeit still more as a governmental rather than polluter responsibility. Currently there is an emerging consensus that a carbon tax should be applied globally to address the intractable problem of climate change. Since the problem relates to a global commons, the issue is how to apply the PPP globally yet equitably. This article brings in Caney’s proposal that as complementary to the PPP. The “ability to pay principle” (APP can take care of emissions of the past agreed by the Parties and current and future legitimate emissions of the disadvantaged countries and groups of people. He calls the latter poverty-sensitive PPP. While PPP is primarily a market principle, APP is a principle of justice and equity. That polluters should pay the social and environmental costs of their pollution reflects the most fundamental principles of justice and responsibility.
... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay. 5.1 Section 5.1 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.1 Pay. (a) Pay principles. Pay of the employees of GAO shall be fixed by the Comptroller General consistent with the principles that— (1) There be equal pay for work of...
.... Special care should be taken to work with family members of eligible Service members who are deceased. These family members may not be knowledgeable of the process and will require additional assistance... this information to the Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) for payment. Except as noted in...
Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn
We consider the gender pay gap in the United States. Both gender-specific factors, including gender differences in qualifications and discrimination, and overall wage structure, the rewards for skills and employment in particular sectors, importantly influence the gender pay gap. Declining gender differentials in the U.S., and the more rapid closing of the gender pay gap in the U.S. than elsewhere, appear to be primarily due to gender-specific factors. However, the relatively large gender pay...
Chen, M.; Zhang, J.; Nijkamp, P.
This article tests whether the willingness-to-pay (WTP) of cruise tourists is affected by multivariables, namely regional level variables, socio-demographic variables, cruise perception variables, cruise motivations and cruise preferences. Our research aims to measure the influence of the
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate pay. 345.51 Section 345.51... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.51 Inmate pay. (a) Grade levels. Inmate workers in FPI locations receive pay at five levels ranging from 5th grade pay (lowest) to 1st grade pay...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Back pay. 404.1242 Section 404.1242 Employees... Prior to 1987 § 404.1242 Back pay. (a) Back pay defined. Back pay is pay received in one period of time... an employer. It includes pay made under Federal or State laws intended to create an employment...
... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay Freeze Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 21, 2009 Pay Freeze Memorandum for the Assistant to the President and Chief... the White House staff forgo pay increases until further notice. Accordingly, as a signal of our shared...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay. 359.705 Section 359.705... EXECUTIVE SERVICE; GUARANTEED PLACEMENT IN OTHER PERSONNEL SYSTEMS Guaranteed Placement § 359.705 Pay. (a...) is entitled to receive basic pay at the highest of— (1) The rate of basic pay in effect for the...
Soh, Nerissa; Walter, Garry; Touyz, Stephen; Russell, Janice; Malhi, Gin S; Hunt, Glenn E
To conduct a bibliometric analysis of eating disorder journals to guide journal readers and researchers when submitting their manuscripts. Several indices were used to compare journal impact and citations of articles appearing between 1996 and 2010 in six eating disorders journals and six leading general psychiatry journals. The International Journal of Eating Disorders (IJED) had the highest journal impact factor (JIF, 2.278) of the six eating disorders' journals. The general psychiatry journals had higher JIFs and received more citations per eating disorder article than the specialized journals. However, IJED published the highest number of eating disorder articles between 1996 and 2010, and 35 of these articles received at least 100 citations. Using the JIF alone to decide where to submit a manuscript is a poor strategy, as this does not take into consideration the impact an article can have within the eating disorder's field over time. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Twomey, Daniel F.
The purpose of merit pay is to reward employees for their accomplishments and motivate them to continue improving. Critics of merit pay say the increased extrinsic motivation that it prompts is more than offset by the decrease in intrinsic motivation. Supporters of performance-based pay claim several benefits of the practice. This study addressed…
Y F Lesnyak
Full Text Available Objective. To study willingness of pts to pay for osteoporosis (OP treatment by themselves and analysis of factors influencing this decision. Material and methods. 342 pts (317 female, 25 male, mean age 61,4±8,9 years required a special consultation for osteoporosis were asked to fill a questionnaire. All answered questions concerning social, demographic, medical data, assessment of pt knowledge about OP, quality of life assessment with QALY score. To assess pts willingness to pay for OP treatment they were asked to determine sum of money they were ready to pay for an appropriate drug decreasing fracture risk in two times. The pt was to consider 4 scenarios: low, small, moderate and high fracture risk during subsequent life. Results. 86% of pts were ready to pay for OP treatment. The main factors associated with absence of such willingness were older age (OR=1,06, 95% confidence interval 1,о2-1,1, invalidity (OR=3,18, 95% confidence interval 1,54-6,60, loneliness (OR=2,4(, 95% confidence interval 1,27-4,50. These pts were also worse informed about the disease. But family income did not influence the decision to pay. Number of pts ready to pay for the treatment and sum which they were ready to pay directly depended on the probability of fracture (rank test r=0,99 and r=0,28 respectively. The most powerful factor determining the sum pt was ready to pay for the treatment was family income. Next on importance were presence of the work and families consisted of 3 or more members. Personal experience of the pt in treatment with such drugs also had some significance. So pts treated with miacalcic were ready to pay significantly larger sums than other pts with equivalent incomes. Conclusion. Pts willingness to pay for OP treatment depends firstly on social factors and his knowledge about OP. The main factor determining the sum the pt is ready to pay is family income. On the whole sums the pts are ready to pay are significantly less than market price
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay range. 534.502 Section 534.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.502 Pay range. A pay rate fixed under this...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Premium pay. 345.52 Section 345.52... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.52 Premium pay. Payment of premium pay to... inmates at a location. (a) Eligibility. Inmates in first grade pay status may be considered for premium...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vacation pay. 345.56 Section 345.56... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.56 Vacation pay. Inmate workers are granted FPI vacation pay by the SOI when their continued good work performance justifies such pay, based on...
Pursuant to a judgement passed by the Lower Court of Hamburg, the author discusses probable legal arguments justifying the refusal to pay one's electricity bill, the so-called electricity bill boycott. Following an analysis of the power supply contract and of the content and the limits of the fundamental right of freedom of conscience, as well as of the concept of free enterprise and of the legal effect of licenses under the nuclear law, his point of view stated in the article is to agree with the decision of the court saying that the operation of a nuclear power plant licensed under the nuclear law does not mean an infringement of the right of freedom of conscience. It can further not be accepted to let people refuse to pay their electricity bill by referring to the right of freedom of speech, by alleging conduct against public policy on the part of the public utilities, or by referring to the right of opposition. (HSCH) [de
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overtime pay. 532.503 Section 532.503... Pay and Differentials § 532.503 Overtime pay. (a)(1) Employees who are exempt from the overtime pay provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended, shall be paid overtime pay in accordance with...
This article focuses on writing for journal publication. The purpose of writing is explored, paying particular attention to the message to be conveyed and the readership to which that message is addressed.The process of drafting and revising an article for publication is outlined, after which attention is turned to the peer-review process, what peer reviewers are looking for in an article, and what might then be required of the author in redrafting the article to meet the expectations of the journal. Prospective authors are encouraged to research the journal to which they plan to submit their work, and to then target their writing to the readership of that publication.
Young, I. Phillip; Young, Karen Holsey; Okhremtchouk, Irina; Castaneda, Jose Moreno
Pay satisfaction was assessed according to different facets (pay level, benefits, pay structure, and pay raises) and potential referent groups (teachers and elementary school principals) for a random sample of male elementary school principals. A structural model approach was used that considers facets of the pay process, potential others as…
market. In fiscal year 2015, DOD obligated more than $3.4 billion for S&I pays, representing about 3.3 percent of its budget for active duty cash ...reliable. DOD’s Financial Management Regulation, which provides a uniform budget and accounting classification that is to be used for preparing budget ...their annual budget materials in a manner consistent with the active component. This was because DOD’s Financial Management Regulation,23 which
This Special Issue of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing presents extended versions of selected papers from the 14th NORCHIP Conference which was held November 4-5, in Helsinki, Finland...
... or pay for that service. (b) Special conditions for services furnished to individuals in custody of... furlough, required to reside in mental health facilities, required to reside in halfway houses, required to...
This Special Issue of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing presents extended versions of selected papers from the 12th NORCHIP Seminar which was held November 8-9, 1994, in Gothenburg, Sweden....
The struggle for equal pay for women in one large office union, the Office and Technical Employees' Union (OTEU), at British Columbia Electric/Hydro is analyzed. The analysis concentrates on the second phase of the equal pay movement that preoccupied the union for over 30 years starting in 1949. Equal pay for equal job-evaluation was finally achieved in 1981, yet this struggle did not produce a subsequent questioning of gender bias within the job evaluation process or the structure of the existing hierarchy of jobs. The study illustrates some of the ways that gender hierarchies and inequities are defined and reinforced by employers seeking to maintain profits by keeping labor costs down, as BC Electric/Hydro resisted eliminating the differential in male and female pay, systematically restructured unequal pay, and continually resorted to lower community standards even when the company's own job evaluation system suggested equal comparators with male jobs. Gendered jobs are also shaped by union practices, as evidenced by the OTEU's role in restructuring the postwar gender division of labor in the late 1940s, as well as their early and persistent challenges to the female differential but, at the same time, the continued marginalization of equal pay as a women's issue rather than a general union issue. 66 refs
Joaquín F Mould Quevedo
considerable number of researchers in the literature have pointed out multiple methodological issues involving willingness-to-pay estimates. On the other hand, the theoretical discussion about the aggregation of individual preferences within an aggregate demand remains open. However, over the last 20 years, willingness-to-pay estimates alongside health economics research significantly increased and in many cases they are one of the key factors for decision making on issues of health policies. The article describes some limitations of this approach as well as the potential distorting effect that it might have on health economics evaluations.
Aksal, Fahriye Altinay; Gazi, Zehra Altinay
Information, communication and technology (ICT) is a bridge in fostering learning who have special needs in education. It becomes a medium of connecting their way of lives and their socialization within education life. Integration of ICT plays a great role in special education. Most of the developing countries pay attention to ICT practices in…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overtime pay. 551.501 Section 551.501 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Overtime Pay Provisions Basic Provisions § 551.501 Overtime pay. (a) An agency...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative pay. 345.57 Section 345.57... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.57 Administrative pay. An inmate excused from a job assignment may receive administrative pay for such circumstances as a general recall for an...
... position in a lower pay band offered by an activity to accommodate a disabling medical condition similar to... within the employee's new pay band or by establishing a retained rate that exceeds the maximum rate of the new pay band. Local market supplements are not considered part of base salary in applying pay...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holiday pay. 345.58 Section 345.58... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.58 Holiday pay. An inmate worker in FPI work status shall receive pay at the standard hourly rate, plus longevity where applicable, for all Federal...
Ferguson, Alesia; Solo-Gabriele, Helena
Children are at increased vulnerability to many environmental contaminants compared to adults due to their unique behavior patterns, increased contaminant intake per body weight, and developing biological systems. Depending upon their age, young children may crawl on the floor and may practice increased hand to mouth activity that may increase their dose-intake of specific contaminants that accumulate in dust and other matrices. Children are also smaller in size than adults, resulting in a greater body burden for a given contaminant dose. Because children undergo rapid transitions through particular developmental stages they are also especially vulnerable during certain growth-related time windows. A Special Issue was organized focused on the latest findings in the field of children's environmental exposure for these reasons. This editorial introduces articles in this Special Issue and emphasizes their main findings in advancing the field. From the many articles submitted to this Special Issue from around the world, 23 were accepted and published. They focus on a variety of research areas such as children's activity patterns, improved risk assessment methods to estimate exposures, and exposures in various contexts and to various contaminants. The future health of a nation relies on protecting the children from adverse exposures and understanding the etiology of childhood diseases. The field of children's environmental exposures must consider improved and comprehensive research methods aimed at introducing mitigation strategies locally, nationally, and globally. We are happy to introduce a Special Issue focused on children's environmental exposure and children's health and hope that it contributes towards improved health of children.
To, Matthew J; Jones, Jennifer; Emara, Mohamed; Jadad, Alejandro R
Inadequate reporting undermines findings of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). This study assessed and compared articles published in high-impact general medical and specialized journals. Reports of RCTs published in high-impact general and specialized medical journals were identified through a search of MEDLINE from January to March of 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. Articles that provided original data on adult patients diagnosed with chronic conditions were included in the study. Data on trial characteristics, reporting of allocation concealment, quality score, and the presence of a trial flow diagram were extracted independently by two reviewers, and discrepancies were resolved by consensus or independent adjudication. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative variables. Comparisons between general medical and specialized journals, and trends over time were performed using Chi-square tests. Reports of 284 trials were analyzed. There was a significantly higher proportion of RCTs published with adequate reporting of allocation concealment (p = 0.003), presentation of a trial flow diagram (pgeneral medical journals had higher quality scores than those in specialized journals (p = 0.001), reported adequate allocation concealment more often (p = 0.013), and presented a trial flow diagram more often (pjournals over the last fifteen years. These improvements are likely attributed to concerted international efforts to improve reporting quality such as CONSORT. There is still much room for improvement, especially among specialized journals.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Longevity pay. 345.55 Section 345.55... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.55 Longevity pay. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an inmate earns longevity pay raises after 18 months spent in FPI work status...
The struggle for equal pay for women in one large office union, the Office and Technical Employees' Union (OTEU), at British Columbia Electric/Hydro is analyzed. The analysis concentrates on the second phase of the equal pay movement that preoccupied the union for over 30 years starting in 1949. Equal pay for equal job-evaluation was finally achieved in 1981, yet this struggle did not produce a subsequent questioning of gender bias within the job evaluation process or the structure of the existing hierarchy of jobs. The study illustrates some of the ways that gender hierarchies and inequities are defined and reinforced by employers seeking to maintain profits by keeping labor costs down, as BC Electric/Hydro resisted eliminating the differential in male and female pay, systematically restructured unequal pay, and continually resorted to lower community standards even when the company's own job evaluation system suggested equal comparators with male jobs. Gendered jobs are also shaped by union practices, as evidenced by the OTEU's role in restructuring the postwar gender division of labor in the late 1940s, as well as their early and persistent challenges to the female differential but, at the same time, the continued marginalization of equal pay as a women's issue rather than a general union issue. 66 refs.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training pay. 345.60 Section 345.60... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.60 Training pay. Inmates directed by the SOI to take a particular type of training in connection with a FPI job are to receive FPI pay if the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacation pay. 218.27 Section 218.27 Employees... Beginning Date § 218.27 Vacation pay. (a) From railroad employer. Vacation pay may be credited to the... vacation pay is credited to the vacation period, the annuity can begin no earlier than the day after the...
Gardner, Philip D.; Jackson, Linda A.
This study was conducted to investigate the pay expectations of graduating seniors, and specifically, the relationship between gender and pay expectations for one's self and others. The main purpose of the study was to determine if women and men differed in their initial pay expectations. Surveys were received from 447 college seniors, including…
Full Text Available Agri-food systems in the Czech Republic are currently undergoing a profound transformation toward high-value products. Appropriate policies are needed to guide this transformation, presupposing good understanding of consumer preferences. Having established a general framework for the analysis of food choice and quality perception, second part of the paper gives overview of results of stated preference evaluation studies conducted in the Czech Republic. The objective of secondary data analysis is to evaluate consumer preferences and willingness to pay for the food quality with the special attention to an evaluation of consumer preferences for health aspects of the food. The consumers’ relative preferences toward the different dimensions of a product’s quality are measured from the consumers’ perspective via their preference scores on various dimensions of quality derived from Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Price premium consumers are willing to pay for the high quality product is investigated using Contingent valuation method (CV. In general, the empirical evidence supports the hypothesis that health ensuring and enhancing characteristics together with sensorial characteristics significantly affect consumers’ preferences for food and most consumers are willing to pay a price premium in order to ensure required quality of food.
Carlson Wagonlit Travel
Special offer 4th – 28th April Reduced CWT service fee for any new reservation of a holiday package (flight + hotel/apartment). Reserve for 1, 2, 3 or more travelers – pay the service fee for one person only. Valid at your CWT CERN agency.
van der Elst, Christoph; Lafarre, Anne
The Netherlands adopted shareholders’ say on pay over a decade ago. The general meeting of shareholders must approve the remuneration policy and any amendments to it. This Dutch approach offers fruitful insights into how say on pay works in practice. In the light of the recent European proposal to
Der Gender-Pay-Gap ist eine statistische Kennzahl zur Messung der Ungleichheit zwischen Männern* und Frauen* beim Verdienst. Es gibt zwei Versionen: einen "unbereinigten" und einen "bereinigten". Der "unbereinigte" Gender-Pay-Gap berechnet den geschlechtsspezifischen Verdienstunterschied auf Basis der Bruttostundenlöhne aller Männer* und Frauen* der Grundgesamtheit. Beim "bereinigten" Wert hingegen werden je nach Studie verschiedene Faktoren wie Branche, Position und Berufserfahrung herausger...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rate of pay. 9901.305 Section 9901.305... (NSPS) Pay and Pay Administration General § 9901.305 Rate of pay. (a) The term “rate of pay” in 5 U.S.C... overtime and other premium pay rates (including compensatory time off); and (2) The rates comprising the...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to pay. 52.71 Section... § 52.71 Authority to pay. (a) The Coast Guard is authorized to pay the claims of any person as the... authorized to pay any claim heretofore compensated by Congress through enactment of private law, or to pay...
Kwak, Min-Son; Sung, Na-Young; Yang, Jeong Hee; Park, Eun-Cheol; Choi, KuiSon
The goal of this study is to measure women's willingness to pay for cancer screening and to identify those factors associated with this willingness to pay A population-based telephone survey was performed on 1,562 women (aged 30 years or over) for 2 weeks (9-23th, July, 2004). Data about sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, the intention of the cancer screenings and willingness to pay for cancer screening were collected. 1,400 respondents were included in the analysis. The women's willingness to pay for cancer screening and the factors associated with this willingness to pay were evaluated. The results show that 76% of all respondents have a willingness to pay for cancer screening. Among those who are willing to pay, the average and median amount of money for which the respondents are willing to pay are 126,636 (s.d.: 58,414) and 120,000 won, respectively. As the status of education & the income are higher, the average amount that women are willing to pay becomes much more. The amount of money women are willing to pay is the highest during the 'contemplation' stage. Being willing to pay or not is associated with a change of behavior (transtheoretical model), the income, the concern about the cancer risk, the family cancer history, the marital status, the general health exam, age and the place of residence. Income is associated with a greater willingness to pay. Old age was associated with a lower willingness to pay. According to the two-part model, income and TTM are the most important variables associated with the willingness to pay for cancer screening. The cancer screening participation rate is low compared with the willingness to pay for cancer screening. It is thought that we have to consider the participants' behavior that's associated with cancer screening and their willingness to pay in order to organize and manage cancer screening program.
Autrement dit, au Gabon l'attention doit porter sur l'utilisation des articles synopsis dans la compilation des dictionnaires, en vue de refléter dans ses ouvrages la diversité linguistique et culturelle de ce pays. Ceci est d'autant plus vrai que l'utilisation des articles synopsis ne dépend aucunement de la typologie du ...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computing overtime pay under the Act for employees compensated on task basis. 778.313 Section 778.313 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Special Problems âtaskâ Basis of Payment § 778.313 Computing...
Ellers, Jacintha; Crowther, Thomas W.; Harvey, Jeffrey A.
Open access publishing (OAP) makes research output freely available, and several national governments have now made OAP mandatory for all publicly funded research. Gold OAP is a common form of OAP where the author pays an article processing charge (APC) to make the article freely available to
... back pay claims permitted by the Barring Act of 1940, and noted that agencies could use the memorandum... of the Barring Act or the Back Pay Act of 1966 (as amended) and apply specifically to one Government...) An employee is entitled to pay at his or her rate of basic pay plus premium pay at a rate equal to 25...
Full Text Available This article investigates theoretical and practical aspects of tax morale in euro area countries. The attitude of households on tax payment – whether to pay taxes or not – is assessed quantitatively by employing dichotomous logit-probit regression analysis. Research is based on household level data received from World Values Survey and European Values Study. The results suggest that the main issues behind weak tax morale are corruption, disrespect to the country. Additionally tax morale is significantly affected by factors like age, gender, religiousness, gender, income and education. Article concludes on possible policy options in order to increase tax morale.
The topic of executive pay-performance sensitivity has resulted in mixed research findings. Literature related to executive remuneration constructs, company performance measures and the underlying theories is critically reviewed in this article. The literature is compared to research findings within the South African context pre, during and post the Global Financial Crisis of 2008. The researcher found similar results in the South African context compared to research in other countries and in...
Full Text Available This article proposes to present a modern approach in the analysis of updated cash flows. The approach is based on the Fuzzy Pay-Off-Method (FPOM for Real Option Valuation (ROV. This article describes a few types of models for the valuation of real options currently in use. In support for the chosen FPOM method, we included the mathematical model that stands at the basis of this method and a case study.
Grünebaum, Thomas; Schweder, Heinrich; Weyand, Michael
There is no doubt about the fact that the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the pursuit of its goal of good ecological status will give rise to measures in different fields of water management. However, a conclusive and transparent method of financing these measures is still missing up to now. Measures in the water management sector are no mere end in themselves; instead, they serve specific ends directed at human activities or they serve general environment objectives. Following the integrative approach of the WFD on looking upon river basins as a whole and its requirement to observe the polluter pays principle, all different groups within a river basin should contribute to the costs according to their cost-bearer roles as polluters, stakeholders with vested interests or beneficiaries via relevant yardsticks. In order to quantify the financial expenditure of each cost bearer, a special algorithm was developed and tested in the river basin of a small tributary of the Ruhr River. It was proved to be generally practicable with regard to its handling and the comprehension of the results. Therefore, the application of a cost bearer system based on the polluter-pays principle and thus in correspondence with the WFD's requirements should appear possible in order to finance future measures.
Eriksson, Tor; Villeval, Marie Claire
International audience; Variable pay links pay and performance but may also help firms in attracting more productive employees. Our experiment investigates the impact of performance pay on both incentives and sorting and analyzes the influence of repeated interactions between firms and employees on these effects. We show that (i) the opportunity to switch from a fixed wage to variable pay scheme increases the average effort level and its variance; (ii) high skill employees concentrate under t...
4 janv. 2017 ... Les articles les plus populaires de notre site Web en 2016 ont présenté de nombreux exemples de l'utilisation des résultats des travaux de recherche appliquée en vue de changer réellement les conditions de vie des populations des pays en développement. La popularité de ces articles, annonces, ...
refléter dans ses ouvrages la diversité linguistique et culturelle de ce pays. Ceci est d'autant plus vrai que l'utilisation des articles synopsis ne dépend aucunement de la typologie du dictionnaire. Cet article à pour but de suggérer les différentes approches méthodologiques à partir des- quelles les lexicographes et ...
Figuet, Jean-Marc; Humblot, Thomas; Lahet, Delphine
La persistance de crises bancaires démontre l'incapacité des établissements de crédit à s'autoréguler. De ce fait, le Comité de Bâle étend largement le périmètre de la nouvelle règlementation prudentielle. Sur la base de la littérature sur les déterminants des flux de capitaux transfrontières et d'un GMM système, cet article analyse l'impact potentiel de l'accord Bâle 3 sur les flux de capitaux bancaires provenant des banques de 16 pays industrialisés à destination d'un panel de 30 pays émerg...
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing interest in using pay-for-performance mechanisms in low and middle-income countries in order to improve the performance of health care providers. However, at present there is a dearth of independent evaluations of such approaches which can guide understanding of their potential and risks in differing contexts. This article presents the results of an evaluation of a project managed by an international non-governmental organisation in one district of Pakistan. It aims to contribute to learning about the design and implementation of pay-for-performance systems and their impact on health worker motivation. Methods Quantitative analysis was conducted of health management information system (HMIS data, financial records, and project documents covering the period 2007-2010. Key informant interviews were carried out with stakeholders at all levels. At facility level, in-depth interviews were held, as were focus group discussions with staff and community members. Results The wider project in Battagram had contributed to rebuilding district health services at a cost of less than US$4.5 per capita and achieved growth in outputs. Staff, managers and clients were appreciative of the gains in availability and quality of services. However, the role that the performance-based incentive (PBI component played was less clear--PBI formed a relatively small component of pay, and did not increase in line with outputs. There was little evidence from interviews and data that the conditional element of the PBIs influenced behaviour. They were appreciated as a top-up to pay, but remained low in relative terms, and only slightly and indirectly related to individual performance. Moreover, they were implemented independently of the wider health system and presented a clear challenge for longer term integration and sustainability. Conclusions Challenges for performance-based pay approaches include the balance of rewarding individual
... 13-TRAVEL OF AN EMPLOYEE WITH SPECIAL NEEDS § 301-13.3 What additional travel expenses may my agency... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional travel expenses may my agency pay under this part? 301-13.3 Section 301-13.3 Public Contracts and Property...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of this...
Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)......Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)...
Finke, Michael S.; Huston, Sandra J.; Winchester, Danielle D.
Using a cost-benefit framework for financial planning services and proprietary data collected in the summer of 2008, the client characteristics that are associated with the likelihood of paying for professional financial advice, as well as the type of financial services purchased, are identified. Results indicate that respondents who pay for…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance pay. 551.108 Section 551.108 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Pretrial Inmates § 551.108 Performance pay. The Warden may approve a pretrial inmate for performance pay...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate performance pay. 345.59 Section... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.59 Inmate performance pay. Inmate workers for FPI may also receive Inmate Performance Pay for participation in programs where this award is made...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overtime pay. 0.145 Section 0.145... Respect to Personnel and Certain Administrative Matters § 0.145 Overtime pay. The Director of the Federal... Attorney General may prescribe, authorize overtime pay (including additional compensation in lieu of...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign language proficiency pay. 9901... NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Pay and Pay Administration Premium Pay § 9901.364 Foreign language proficiency pay. (a) General provisions. (1) This section applies to employees who may be paid...
... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Merit pay. 5.3 Section 5.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.3 Merit pay. The Comptroller General may promulgate regulations establishing a merit pay system for such employees of the Government Accountability Office as the...
Hooghiemstra, Reggy; Kuang, Yu Flora; Qin, Bo
This paper assesses whether reducing ‘readability’ is an effective obfuscation strategy for influencing the level of shareholder say-on-pay voting dissent in firms with excessive CEO pay. Based on a sample of UK-listed firms, our results indicate that in cases of excessive CEO pay, a less readable
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual rates of pay. 870.204 Section 870... rates of pay. (a) (1) An insured employee's annual pay is his/her annual rate of basic pay as fixed by law or regulation. (2) Annual pay for this purpose includes the following: (i) Interim geographic...
... equals or exceeds the rate of basic pay the employee received immediately prior to such appointment, not... that equals or exceeds the employee's highest previous rate of basic pay in a Federal civil service.... Advancement to a higher rate takes effect on the first day of the first pay period beginning on or after...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sick pay. 218.28 Section 218.28 Employees... Beginning Date § 218.28 Sick pay. (a) From railroad employer. If the employee is carried on the payroll while sick, the annuity can begin no earlier than the day after the last day of sick pay. However, sick...
George H. Moeller; John Engelken; John Engelken
Personal interviews with licensed fishermen in Central New York State were used to determine characteristics of fishermen who are willing to pay to fish. Willingness to pay was related to aspects of the fishing experience that most strongly influenced fishing enjoyment. Sixty-two percent of the respondents expressed a willingness to pay for a quality fishing experience...
Michel Gehlen Bassani
Full Text Available Objetives: analyze the country of origin effect on the perceived product quality, the price-willingness to pay and the consumer’s purchase intention.Method: experimental (experiment, with a factorial design 4 (Country of Origin: Germany, China, Brazil, and a control’s group x 1 (Product: special Pilsen beer. For data analysis, a quantitative statistical approach was performed with data processed by means a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA, applying post-hoc tests. The sample consisted of 159 respondents who were distributed in the four experimental groups.Originality/Relevance: the study approached the country of origin effect on consumer perception and its relationship with perceived quality, willingness to pay and purchase intention of special beer.Results: the results show that the country of origin effect, as an extrinsic attribute, has a significant role in the perceived quality, willingness to pay and consumers’ purchase intentions.Theoretical/Methodological Contrbutions: the development of the research allowed us to analyze, in the evaluation of a product, in this case, special beer (Pilsen type, the strength of an extrinsic factor, that is, the country of origin effect, and its influence on the perceived quality, the price-willingness to pay and the consumer’s purchase intention.
Sjödin, Anders Mikael
Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to provide scientific and technical guidance on foods for special medical purposes in the context of Article 3 of Regulation (EU) No 609/2013. The guidance presented...... from the evaluation of dossiers for specific food products notified as FSMP, and in the light of future Community guidelines and legislation. The scope of this guidance is limited to FSMPs in the context of Article 3 of Regulation (EU) No 609/2013. Out of the scope of this guidance are: a) other...
... pay less than the minimum wage? 520.403 Section 520.403 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF... than the minimum wage? (a) A separate application must be made for each plant or establishment...
Chung, Kevin C; Shauver, Melissa J
The quality of health care is important to American consumers, and discussion on quality will be a driving force toward improving the delivery of health care in America. Funding agencies are proposing a variety of quality measures, such as centers of excellence, pay-for-participation, and pay-for-performance initiatives, to overhaul the health care delivery system in this country. It is quite uncertain, however, whether these quality initiatives will succeed in curbing the unchecked growth in health care spending in this country, and physicians understandably are concerned about more intrusion into the practice of medicine. This article outlines the genesis of the quality movement and discusses its effect on the surgical community.
The most-cited articles. (MCAs) are likely those that impressed other researchers and had profound influence on clinical practice or future developments in the related scientific field. This study was conducted to explore a bibliometric approach to assess in where the cutaneous malignant melanoma. (CMM) related MCAs have been published. We identified journals for publications with the word "melanoma" in the title by using the ISI Web of Knowledge Database between 2000 and 2010. The term MCAs arbitrarily defined as equal or more than 100 citations. A total of 425 MCAs were published in 93 journals, led by the Cancer Research. (n = 58) and Journal of Clinical Oncology. (n = 53). Journal categories with the MCAs were the Oncology with 232 articles, followed by the Medicine with 138. articles. The median number of citations was 147. The total numbers of citations were most prominent for the journal Nature and the New England Journal of Medicine. (NEJM) (median 385 and 354, respectively). Total number of citations was the highest for the Science.categorized journals. (median 211). Articles categorized as Dermatology and Melanoma was the least (median 132.5). The median number of citations per year was 14.91. The most valuable cited articles of per year were also published in the journal Nature. (median 59.67) and the NEJM. (median 48.67). The number of citation was the highest for the Science-categorized journals. (median 25.92). Majority of the MCAs on CMM were published in non-dermatology/melanoma specialized journals.
Bucciol, Alessandro; Foss, Nicolai J.; Piovesan, Marco
Extant research offers conflicting predictions about the effect of pay dispersion on team performance. We collected a unique dataset from the Italian soccer league to study the effect of intra-firm pay dispersion on team performance, under different definitions of what constitutes a “team”. This peculiarity of our dataset can explain the conflicting evidence. Indeed, we also find positive, null, and negative effects of pay dispersion on team performance, using the same data but different definitions of team. Our results show that when the team is considered to consist of only the members who directly contribute to the outcome, high pay dispersion has a detrimental impact on team performance. Enlarging the definition of the team causes this effect to disappear or even change direction. Finally, we find that the detrimental effect of pay dispersion is due to worse individual performance, rather than a reduction of team cooperation. PMID:25397615
Japan has tried to increase the import of liquefied natural gas (LNG) because of the nation's fragile energy supply structure. In Japan, almost all LNG is imported under long-term contracts with a Take-or-Pay clause, although buyers assume considerable risk under such a clause. This paper tries to determine why the Take-or-Pay clause has been retained in LNG import contracts in Japan, focusing on the relation between Take-or-Pay and energy security policy. It is found that the government has not pursued a consistent, consecutive policy on Take-or-Pay under the changing energy situation after oil crises. On the one hand, the government has accepted Take-or-Pay because it secures a stable supply of LNG, but on the other hand, it has tried to scrap Take-or-Pay in order to reduce buyers' risk. Furthermore, it was not until the middle/late 1990s that the government implemented deregulation. It is concluded that the government's energy security policy has played an important role in keeping Take-or-Pay in Japan
Full Text Available Equal pay is an area of employment law that is complex and not easily understood. This complexity is recognised by the International Labour Organisation (ILO, which notes that equal pay for work of equal value has proved to be difficult to understand, both with regard to what it entails and in its application. Amendments have been made to the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998 (EEA to include a specific provision to regulate equal pay claims in the form of section 6(4-(5 of the EEA. The amendments were made in terms of the Employment Equity Amendment Act 47 of 2013, which came into effect on 1 August 2014 by presidential proclamation. Prior to section 6(4, the EEA did not contain a specific provision regulating equal pay claims. Claims could be brought in terms of section 6(1 of the EEA, which prohibits unfair discrimination on a number of grounds. The recent amendments to the EEA in the form of section 6(4-(5 (including the Employment Equity Regulations and the Code of Good Practice on Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value in respect of equal pay claims is a response to the ILO's criticism of South Africa's failure to include specific equal pay provisions in the EEA. Section 6(4 of the EEA provides for three causes of action in respect of equal pay. They are as follows: (a equal pay for the same work; (b equal pay for substantially the same work; and (c equal pay for work of equal value. The first two causes of action are not difficult to understand as opposed to the third cause of action, which is complex. The ILO has recognised the complexity of the third cause of action, "equal pay for work of equal value". In Mangena v Fila South Africa 2009 12 BLLR 1224 (LC, the Labour Court remarked in the context of an equal pay for work of equal value claim that it does not have expertise in job grading and in the allocation of value to particular occupations. This article will deal with the third cause of action only, "equal pay for work of equal value". The
Jul 15, 2016 ... Interests" among Actors, with taking advantage of the "Generative Rules", and optimal use of. "Language". Keywords: Diplomacy, Embassy, Medium, Smart Interaction. .... global cities, the diversity, and complexity, the pattern ...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creating initial pay ranges. 9701.372... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional Provisions § 9701.372 Creating initial pay ranges. (a) DHS must, after coordination with OPM, set the initial band rate ranges for the...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rates of basic pay. 534.603 Section 534.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.603 Rates of basic pay. (a) The...
... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles for institutions. 145.36 Section 145.36... TREASURY (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Special Classes of Merchandise § 145.36 Articles for institutions. Books and other articles classifiable under subheading 4903.00.00, 4904.00.00, 4905.91.00, 4905.99.00...
Thierry, Hk.; Smelser, N.J.; Baltes, P.B.
In most industrialized countries the compensation, of managers and employees is structured along quite comparable patterns. One part consists of base pay, a second part of results-oriented pay, and a third part of secondary labor conditions. In many instances part four is composed of perquisites:
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligibility for performance pay. 545.25... WORK AND COMPENSATION Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program § 545.25 Eligibility for performance pay. (a) An inmate may receive performance pay for accomplishments in one or more of the following areas...
Chen, Cher Weixia
Today in the world women are earning around 78% of what men are earning. Gender pay gap ironically is still one major feature of the modern labor market, despite the fact that the right to equal pay is one of the founding principles recognized by the 1945 ILO constitution amendment. Since 1919 the right to equal pay was discussed during the preparation for the ILO constitution, scholars have been constantly making efforts to explore the potential solutions to gender pay differentials...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Active service pay. 3.654..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Adjustments and Resumptions § 3.654 Active service pay. (a) General. Pension, compensation, or retirement pay will be discontinued under the circumstances...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Locality pay areas. 531.603 Section 531.603 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Locality-Based Comparability Payments § 531.603 Locality pay areas. (a) Locality rates of...
Reviews the underlying causes of pay discrimination embedded within the organization of the labour market and structures of pay and reward. Discusses the need to focus on pay equity as part of a general strategy of promoting equity and decent work and examines the case for using minimum wage policies in comparison to more targeted equal pay policies to reduce gender pay equity. Identifies potential obstacles to or support for such policies and describes experiences of the use of minimum wages...
Benefits > Net Pay Estimator Online Counselor Scheduler Empower Retirement Account Info Online myRnB Accessibility Net Pay Estimator Click here for the Retiree Net Pay Estimator? The net pay estimator is a useful tool to estimate your net pay under different salaries, federal withholding tax exemptions, and
Wisniewski, S C
Traditional "women's jobs" often pay relatively low wages because of the effects of institutionalized stereotypes concerning women and their role in the work place. One way of dealing with sex discrimination that results in job segregation is to narrow the existing wage differential between "men's jobs" and "women's jobs." Where the jobs are dissimilar on their face, this narrowing of pay differences involves implementing the concept of "equal pay for jobs of comparable worth." Some time in the future, far-reaching, perhaps even industrywide, reductions in male-female pay differentials may be achieved by pursuing legal remedies based on equal pay for comparable worth. However, as the author demonstrates, immediate, albeit more limited, relief for sex-based pay inequities found in specific work places can be obtained by implementing equal pay for jobs of comparable worth through the collective bargaining and arbitration processes.
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining rate of pay. 304.104 Section... CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.104 Determining rate of pay. (a) The rate of basic pay for experts and... appropriate rate of basic pay on an hourly or daily basis, subject to the limitations described in section 304...
Full Text Available Children are at increased vulnerability to many environmental contaminants compared to adults due to their unique behavior patterns, increased contaminant intake per body weight, and developing biological systems. Depending upon their age, young children may crawl on the floor and may practice increased hand to mouth activity that may increase their dose-intake of specific contaminants that accumulate in dust and other matrices. Children are also smaller in size than adults, resulting in a greater body burden for a given contaminant dose. Because children undergo rapid transitions through particular developmental stages they are also especially vulnerable during certain growth-related time windows. A Special Issue was organized focused on the latest findings in the field of children’s environmental exposure for these reasons. This editorial introduces articles in this Special Issue and emphasizes their main findings in advancing the field. From the many articles submitted to this Special Issue from around the world, 23 were accepted and published. They focus on a variety of research areas such as children’s activity patterns, improved risk assessment methods to estimate exposures, and exposures in various contexts and to various contaminants. The future health of a nation relies on protecting the children from adverse exposures and understanding the etiology of childhood diseases. The field of children’s environmental exposures must consider improved and comprehensive research methods aimed at introducing mitigation strategies locally, nationally, and globally. We are happy to introduce a Special Issue focused on children’s environmental exposure and children’s health and hope that it contributes towards improved health of children.
... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal Pay Act. 268.202 Section 268.202 Banks... REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Provisions Applicable to Particular Complaints § 268.202 Equal Pay Act. Complaints alleging violations of the Equal Pay Act shall be processed under this part. ...
Empirical research on gender pay gaps has traditionally focused on the role of gender-specific factors, particularly gender differences in qualifications and differences in the treatment of otherwise equally qualified male and female workers (i.e., labor market discrimination). This paper explores the determinants of the gender pay gap and argues for the importance of an additional factor, wage structure, the array of prices set for labor market skills and the rewards received for employment ...
Helmut Dietl; Markus Lang; Panlang Lin
This paper develops a theoretical model of asymmetric competition between a pay TV and a free TV broadcaster. Our model shows that the pay TV broadcaster has incentives to place advertising on its channel if the marginal return on advertising exceeds the viewers' disutility from advertising. In this case, however, the pay TV advertising level is always below the corresponding level on free TV. The pay TV advertising level can increase with a higher viewer disutility from advertising but the p...
van der Vijver, Kees; Zoomer, Olga
Cet article se propose de rendre compte des recherches effectuées en matière de police de proximité aux Pays-Bas. Avant d’aborder le problème de l’impact d’une stratégie de police de proximité, il décrit l’organisation du système policier hollandais sans la compréhension duquel il est difficile de
Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Reforming healthcare system in Ukraine would imply changing financial mechanisms and involving patients into copayment for physician services. Therefore, it is important to understand patients’ willingness to pay (WTP and its main drivers. This study aims to investigate patients’ willingness to pay for physician services at a primary contact, its levels and determinants.METHODS. Contingent valuation method was applied to a nationally representative sample of 303 adult respondents surveyed in 2009. Respondents stated their willingness to pay for a visit to four hypothetical physicians, whose profiles were designed in a way to estimate separate effects of physician’s specialization and joint improvement in three quality-related attributes of a service: the state of medical equipment, maintenance of the physician’s office, and reduction in waiting time. A random effect tobit regression was applied to model effect of these service characteristics and socio-demographic characteristics on WTP.RESULTS. The strongest predictors (insensitive to model specifications associated with higher WTP for physician services were quality improvements in the three characteristics of the physician’s profile, higher income, and presence of private insurance policy, while the one associated with reduced WTP was age over 70. Consultation with a medical specialist instead of a general practitioner was also associated with higher WTP, though the magnitude of effect was much lower than for the abovementioned factors.CONCLUSIONS. Ukrainians are willing to pay for physician services at a primary contact, but the highest WTP would be expected for services of improved clinical and social quality and access. There might be an intention in the society or some of its groups to avoid the gatekeeper general practitioner at a primary level and to refer directly to the medical specialist. Finally, if patient payments are introduced, special caution should be
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay for holiday work. 532.507 Section 532... SYSTEMS Premium Pay and Differentials § 532.507 Pay for holiday work. (a) An employee who is entitled to holiday premium pay and who performs work on a holiday which is not overtime work shall be paid the...
Johnson, Richard W.; Uccello, Cori E.; Goldwyn, Joshua H.
Purpose: Retirees in traditional pension plans must generally choose between single life annuities, which provide regular payments until death, and joint and survivor annuities, which pay less each month but continue to make payments to the spouse after the death of the retired worker. This article examines the payout decision and measures the…
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deduction from pay. 1450.23 Section 1450.23 Labor... OWED THE UNITED STATES Salary Offset § 1450.23 Deduction from pay. (a) Deduction by salary offset, from an employee's current disposable pay, shall be subject to the following conditions: (1) Ordinarily...
... increases, the Secretary or designee must take into account the average value of within-grade and quality... pay pool controls to allocate pay increases based on performance points that are directly linked to... function of the amount of money in the performance pay pool, the relative point value placed on ratings...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is disposable pay... BILLED TRAVEL CHARGE CARD General Rules § 301-54.2 What is disposable pay? Disposable pay is your..., etc. Deductions may be made from any type of pay you receive from your agency, e.g., basic pay...
Jeremy E. Vittek
Full Text Available This article is a critical review of the literature on special education teacher attrition and retention. The research focused on journal articles from 2004 to present. The results of the study helped define special educator attrition and retention. The major themes present in the findings were job satisfaction, administrative support, induction programs, and mentoring. The literature shows a clear need for comprehensive administrative support to improve job satisfaction and the likelihood a special educator will remain in their job.
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal Pay Act. 1614.202 Section 1614.202 Labor Regulations... OPPORTUNITY Provisions Applicable to Particular Complaints § 1614.202 Equal Pay Act. (a) In its enforcement of the Equal Pay Act, the Commission has the authority to investigate an agency's employment practices on...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Deduction from pay. 512.22 Section 512.22... 1982 Salary Offset § 512.22 Deduction from pay. (a) Deduction by salary offset, from an employee's disposable current pay, shall be subject to the following circumstances: (1) When funds are available, the...
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Failure to pay. 354.7 Section 354.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... PROGRAM § 354.7 Failure to pay. Where a licensee fails to pay a prescribed fee required under this part...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to pay tax. 70.103... § 70.103 Failure to pay tax. Whoever fails to pay any tax imposed by Part I of Subchapter A of Chapter... penalty of 5 percent of the tax due but unpaid. For additional penalties for failure to pay tax, see 27...
Cribb, Jonathan; Emmerson, Carl; Sibieta, Luke
This report looks at trends in public sector pay and compares these with what has been happening in the private sector. We start by analysing the overall levels of public and private sector pay, including how they have evolved over recent years and the differences after accounting for the different composition of the public and private sector workforces. We then examine how the difference between pay in the public and private sector varies across different groups of workers and areas of the c...
Velasquez Bermudez, Jesus Maria
The present article has as objective to study the effect that has the contract of supply and of transport of gas that subscribe generators agents of the electric sector with the agents of the market of the gas. The article concentrates on the study of the denominated contracts take or pay. Initially the modeling is analyzed to include the effect of the contracts of gas in the mathematical models that are used to support the works of planning. Later on is studied of optimal form to determining the prices in spot markets of the industries associated to the contracts. Finally is presented the methodology and controlled experiments that allow to identify and to quantify the macro economic effect of the contracts
Can changes in teacher pay encourage more able individuals to enter the teaching profession? So far, studies of the impact of pay on the aptitude distribution of teachers have provided mixed evidence on the extent to which altering teacher salaries represents a feasible solution to the teacher quality problem. One possible reason is that these…
Kuijken, B.; Gemser, G.; Wijnberg, N.M.
This study focuses on textual category cues and their influence on consumers' willingness to pay for new products. It examines whether an anchoring effect occurs when consumers are provided with textual category cues that refer consumers toward a particular product category. This article argues that
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Failure to pay. 353.7 Section... LICENSEE RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY PLANS AND PREPAREDNESS § 353.7 Failure to pay. In any case where there is a dispute over the FEMA bill or where FEMA finds that a licensee has failed to pay a prescribed fee required...
... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty to pay. 66.61 Section 66.61... COLLECTION OF NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTIES BY EPA Payment § 66.61 Duty to pay. (a) Except where the owner or... who submits a petition pursuant to § 66.52 shall pay the penalty amount calculated by the owner or...
Inequity theory differs from social exchange theory in its analysis of a worker's reaction to pay by asserting that effects on work performance caused by high or low pay are due to social comparison of fairness rather than principles of direct exchange, such as reciprocity and power. The present experiment held piece-rate pay constant at two…
Jackson, Vanessa; Langheinrich, Cornelia; Loth, Dan
The purpose of the study is to show the various perceptions teachers have on merit pay. This research was designed to examine the perceptions and attitudes of teachers towards the idea of performance based pay. This topic has been an ongoing battle within school systems since the 1800s. The participants in this study were teachers from the state…
Nguyen, Anh; Taylor, Jim; Bradley, Steve
This paper investigates the determinants of job satisfaction using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study. The determinants of interest include actual pay, relative pay, hours of work, job autonomy and several personal characteristics. We also investigate the determinants of satisfaction with pay conditional on a worker's satisfaction with other domains of job satisfaction, such as satisfaction with job security. We find that relative pay is statistically significant but that i...
Dolgopolova, Irina; Teuber, Ramona
. Hypothetical methods significantly positively affect MWTP. The most popular product category “dairy” negatively influences MWTP. The popular health claim of “lowering cholesterol” has a significantly positive influence on MWTP. In addition, our review highlights that existing studies significantly differ......This article analyzes the existing literature on consumers’ marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for health benefits in food products. Results indicate that the presence of a health claim does not only increase MWTP for health benefits in foods but also reduces heterogeneity among MWTP estimates...
Full Text Available The topic of executive pay-performance sensitivity has resulted in mixed research findings. Literature related to executive remuneration constructs, company performance measures and the underlying theories is critically reviewed in this article. The literature is compared to research findings within the South African context pre, during and post the Global Financial Crisis of 2008. The researcher found similar results in the South African context compared to research in other countries and industries. The research challenges the notion that there is one dominant theory driving CEO compensation. The principal-agent theory, supported by the optimal contract theory, are foremost during periods of strong economic performance, while the influence of managerial power and other behavioural theories appear to prevail during periods of weak economic performance. This article proposes some critical considerations in order to manage this tension.
Jeremy E. Vittek
This article is a critical review of the literature on special education teacher attrition and retention. The research focused on journal articles from 2004 to present. The results of the study helped define special educator attrition and retention. The major themes present in the findings were job satisfaction, administrative support, induction programs, and mentoring. The literature shows a clear need for comprehensi...
Mäensivu, Kati-Tuulia; Uusiautti, Satu; Määttä, Kaarina
The contribution of special needs assistants (SNA) is becoming increasingly important in inclusive and special classrooms. However, the profession itself has remained unexplored. The purpose of this article is to describe special needs assistants' perceptions on their education, professional competence, the content and significance of their work…
Abang, Theresa B.
This article discusses the special education system in Nigeria, focusing on integration; training of special educators; medical, health, and welfare services for children with disabilities; recreational facilities; employment opportunities; national planning; and problems and successes. (JDD)
... articles. 20.95 Section 20.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Statements of Process § 20.95 Developmental samples of articles. (a) A user may use limited quantities of specially denatured spirits in the manufacture of samples of articles for submission in accordance with § 20...
intensive care unit (ICU). Both units were organized as autonomous units with a separate head nurse for each. the ICU was developed and equipped with semiY ... installed, thanNs to the good will of the director of the hospital, by creating a space in the hospital car parN. In. March 1981, HD service was available to patients.
... Order 13561 of December 22, 2010 Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay By the authority vested in me as..., it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Statutory Pay Systems. Pursuant to the Continuing... ``Continuing Appropriations Act''), the rates of basic pay or salaries of the statutory pay systems (as defined...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is disposable pay... What is disposable pay? Disposable pay is the part of the employee's compensation remaining after the... deductions such as savings bonds, charitable contributions, etc. Deductions may be made from any type of pay...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorization of pay for holiday work... REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Pay for Holiday Work § 550.131 Authorization of pay for holiday work. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, an employee who performs holiday work is...
Bucciol, Alessandro; Foss, Nicolai J; Piovesan, Marco
Extant research offers conflicting predictions about the effect of pay dispersion on team performance. We collected a unique dataset from the Italian soccer league to study the effect of intra-firm pay dispersion on team performance, under different definitions of what constitutes a "team". This ...
This document contains major provisions of the 1988 Pay Equity Act of Prince Edward Island, Canada. (Nova Scotia enacted similar legislation in 1988.) This act defines "female-dominated class" or "male-dominated class" as a class with 60% or more female or male incumbents, respectively. The objective of this act is to achieve pay equity among public sector employers and employees by identifying systemic gender discrimination through a comparison of the relative wages and value of the work performed by female- and male-dominated classes. The value of work is to be determined by considering the skill, effort, and responsibility required by the work as well as the conditions under which it is performed. A difference in wages between a female- and male-dominated class performing work of equal or comparable value can be justified by a formal performance appraisal system or formal seniority system that does not discriminate on the basis of gender or by a skills shortage which requires a temporary inflation in wages to attract workers for a certain position. No wages shall be reduced to implement pay equity. Implementation of pay equity will include the work of bargaining agents to achieve agreement on salient points. Pay equity may be implemented in four stages over a period of 24 months.
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual adjustment in pay. 534.504 Section 534.504 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.504 Annual adjustment...
..., helps women achieve wage fairness. This law brings us closer to ending pay disparities based on gender... Enforcement Task Force to bolster enforcement of pay discrimination laws, making sure women get equal pay for... America A Proclamation Throughout our Nation's history, extraordinary women have broken barriers to...
... paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Such adjustments take effect on the 1st day of the first pay period... basic pay that equals or exceeds the applicant's highest previous Federal rate of basic pay, not to... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative law judge pay system. 930...
Sports law can be regarded as one of the latest developments in law. As applied to the school setting, and with special reference to sport coaching, this article deals with the five fundamental elements of the law of delict that influence and inform the execution of the duty of care of the educator-coach. This article pays special ...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacation pay. 404.1044 Section 404.1044 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1044 Vacation pay. We consider...
... 3206-AM51 General Schedule Locality Pay Areas AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Proposed rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: On behalf of the President's Pay Agent, the Office of Personnel Management is issuing proposed regulations to tie the metropolitan area portion of locality pay...
Kazak, A.E.; Bosch, J.; Klonoff, E.A.
With the initiation of this new ongoing special series in Health Psychology on health disparities, we will publish articles that highlight ways in which health psychology can contribute to understanding and ameliorating these disparities. We welcome articles for this new special series and
... to the SES pay system. (a) On the first day of the first applicable pay period beginning on or after... rate of basic pay that is equal to the employee's rate of basic pay, plus any applicable locality-based... first day of the first applicable pay period beginning on or after January 1, 2004. If an SES member's...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Miscellaneous pay. 211.11 Section 211.11 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.11 Miscellaneous pay. Any payment made to an employee by an employer which is...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paying benefits. 404.1805 Section 404.1805 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Payment Procedures § 404.1805 Paying benefits. (a) As soon as possible after we have made a determination...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relation to overtime, night, and holiday..., and holiday pay. Premium pay for Sunday work is in addition to premium pay for holiday work, overtime... used to compute the pay for holiday work, overtime pay, or night pay differential. Law Enforcement...
... of Pay By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Statutory Pay Systems. The rates of basic pay or salaries of the statutory pay systems (as defined in 5 U.S.C. 5302(1)), as adjusted under 5 U.S...
LHCb looks at LHC proton collisions from a special angle. The experiment studies rare decays of the B particle to look into the physical processes that might hide new physics. Designed to operate at moderate luminosity, LHCb has been more daring for the last year and is running at conditions tougher than the nominal. The new strategy is paying off, as important physics results have just started to emerge… Event display presented at the EPS-HEP 2011 conference showing a B0s meson decaying into a μ+ and μ- pair. The LHCb detector was originally designed to run at moderate luminosity and low interaction pile-up. In other words, unlike the CMS and ATLAS experiments, the whole LHCb experimental set-up and data-taking infrastructure was designed to process just one proton interaction for each bunch crossing. For the last year, however, this has all been old news. A change in LHCb strategy was made possible when it became clear that the LHC was going to first i...
Full Text Available This study explains the appearance of a new ethical branch and practice called Bioethics, which task is life defense and development of human appearances and functions. In compliance with Bioethics, the concept of Special needs Education and Rehabilitation as a science and activity is investigated.Special needs Education and Rehabilitation is considered as a top of contemporary human ethics. The paper exposes the basic meanings professional ethics in Special Education and Rehabilitation. Many new phenomena determine the essence of the contemporary world. The most significant among them are the development of ethical awareness about doing people good and paying attention to all aspects of life in the world. The social sensitivity for young and weak people has developed. The philanthropic spirit for necessary charity among people has appeared. Especially significant appearances of this kind are the development of special education and rehabilitation as a special science and practice to help people with developmental disabilities and the occurrence of ecology as a specific awareness about protection of life natural conditions. These special moral knowledge and activities are fundamental elements for the new type of philosophy of living called “bioethics”.
...' retirement pay. 3.754 Section 3.754 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... officers' retirement pay. A retired emergency officer of World War I has basic eligibility to retirement pay by the Department of Veterans Affairs under Pub. L. 87-875 (sec. 11(b), Pub. L. 85-857) from date...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Provision for overtime pay. 778.409 Section 778.409 Labor... Regular Rate Principles Guaranteed Compensation Which Includes Overtime Pay § 778.409 Provision for overtime pay. The section 7(f) contract must provide for compensation at not less than one and one-half...
Full Text Available This article reports on tourists’ willingness to pay to view Cape clawless otters Aonyx capensis along the Eastern Cape Wild Coast, South Africa. We collected data from a survey carried out using a structured, selfadministered questionnaire. We analyzed 67 completed questionnaires, of which 60 respondents (89.5% indicated that they would be interested in viewing otters and would be prepared to pay an extra fee, over and above the normal entrance fees, for a trained guide to show them otters. The remaining 7 (10.4% respondents indicated that they would reconsider and pay if this would create jobs for members of the local community. Most (98.4% and 91.8% of the respondents also indicated that they would still pay even if there was only a 50% or 25% chance of seeing otters. Most of the respondents were willing to pay either less than R50.00 (ca US$8.00 or R50.00-R100.00 to view otters regardless of the chances of seeing them. We conclude from our results that otters do have the potential to increase ecotourism in the area, and also to contribute financially to the poverty stricken local Dwesa community.
Centrica, the gas sales, trading and services company previously part of British Gas plc, has renegotiated a number of its take-or-pay contracts with North Sea gas producers since the end of 1996. The contracts - a legacy of the British Gas monopoly era - had placed an increasing financial burden on the company as it was effectively forced to pay above-market prices for gas which it did not always want to take, while trying to remain competitive in a market where an ever growing number of independent gas suppliers were offering low-cost supplies. The author looks at how Centrica has tackled its take-or-pay problem. (author)
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacation pay. 211.4 Section 211.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.4 Vacation pay. Payments made to an employee with respect to vacation or holidays shall be...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting pay upon promotion. 531.214... Changes § 531.214 Setting pay upon promotion. (a) General. An agency must set an employee's payable rate of basic pay upon promotion following the rules in this section, consistent with 5 U.S.C. 5334(b...
..., 2013 National Equal Pay Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Over... of the United States, do hereby proclaim April 9, 2013, as National Equal Pay Day. I call upon all... Vol. 78 Thursday, No. 70 April 11, 2013 Part V The President Proclamation 8955--National Equal Pay...
Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise
Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...... of more empirical studies and in terms of a greater application of the results would give language specialists in trade and industry a solid and updated basis for communication and language use....
Current proponents of education reform are at present seeking to fundamentally change the system of teacher compensation by eliminating the traditional single salary schedule and instituting a merit pay system that directly links teacher pay to student achievement. To date, the scholarly literature in music education has been silent on the subject…
Martin A. Hubbe
Full Text Available Articles published in scholarly journals, such as this one, tend to be mainly addressed to researchers at universities. Industrial follow-up and implementation of results from a scholarly article appears to be the exception, rather than the rule. Research grant specifications, as well as university policies, favor the generation of new knowledge, rather than the implementation of good ideas. But without patent protection, corporations have low motivation to expend the considerable effort to reduce ideas to practice after they have been openly published. The author speculates that the situation could be much more dynamic if there were a system of priority of implementation. According to such a system, the first company to successfully implement an idea that first appears in a peer-reviewed journal article, as validated by its debut in the marketplace, would have a grace period during which competitors would have to pay them a fee to sell a generic version of the same thing.
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I pay? 1202.52 Section... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Individual Access to Records § 1202.52 How do I pay? You must pay by check or money order. Make your check or money order payable to the National Archives and...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to pay tax. 70.97... § 70.97 Failure to pay tax. (a) Negligence—(1) General. If any part of any underpayment (as defined in... section 6651 of the Internal Revenue Code (relating to failure to file such return or pay tax) shall be...
... salary offset may be made, the chief of the accounting or finance office of the paying DOT operating... accounting or finance office of the paying DOT operating element before collection of the indebtedness by...
... care of Hansen's disease patients and who continues to be assigned to such duty, shall receive special... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duty at a station of the Service devoted to the care of Hansen's disease patients; additional pay. 22.1 Section 22.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...
Erne, Roland; Imboden, Natalie
What explains the adoption of two different policies on equal pay by gender (EPG) and by nationality (EPN) in Switzerland? And why is the liberal, litigation-based, equal pay policy regime set up by the Gender Equality Act of 1996 much less effective than the neocorporatist ‘accompanying measures’ to the Bilateral European Union–Switzerland Agreement on Free Movement of Persons adopted in 1999 to ensure equal pay for workers of different national origins? The formation of two different policy...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Institution work and performance pay... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT WORK AND COMPENSATION Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program § 545.22 Institution work... Institution Inmate Work and Performance Pay Committee to administer the institution's work and performance pay...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCall-backâ pay. 778.221 Section 778.221 Labor Regulations...Regular Rateâ Payments Not for Hours Worked § 778.221 “Call-back” pay. (a) General. In the interest of... payments consist of a specified number of hours' pay at the applicable straight time or overtime rates...
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consent to Pay Fees. 70.42 Section 70.42 Labor Office of the....42 Consent to Pay Fees. (a) The filing of a request under this subpart will be deemed to constitute an agreement by the requester to pay all applicable fees charged under this part up to and including...
Polachek, Solomon W.
Despite equal pay legislation dating back 50 years, American women still earn 22% less than their male counterparts. In the UK, with its Equal Pay Act of 1970, and France, which legislated in 1972, the gap is 21% and 17% respectively, and in Australia it remains around 17%. Thus, the gender pay gap continues to be an important policy issue.
This paper explores the effect of incentive pay on gender pay gaps in Finland, Norway and Sweden among professionals and managers within MNCs. Mercer 2009 Total Remuneration Survey data is utilised. Uniform job ladder, occupation, industry and wage definitions enable consistent cross-country comparisons. In addition to the between-country variation, the within-country variation of gender gap with respect to incentive pay is analysed. The results indicate that gender pay gaps differ among the ...
Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia
Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397
Johnson, Susan Moore; Papay, John P.
Pay for performance is not a new idea, and reformers should not ignore the dismal record of merit pay over the past century. Initially adopted with a flourish of expectations during several waves of popularity in the past, every plan eventually fell into disuse. These plans proved to be unexpectedly costly and cumbersome to run. They often…
The operation of sewage works is controlled in Finland by the water and health authorities. These authorities set special quality demands for the effluent from sewage treatment plants into the recipient. Also other wastes from treatment plants, mainly sludges, have special regulations and operational target values. Sewage works have to achieve the aim goals and limit values set. In order to fulfill the regulations, sewage works impose such limit values on factory wastewaters that there will be no problems at the treatment plants. Sewage works can act in two ways: - require the factory to operate in such a way that the limit values are not exceeded, - the factory pays a certain sum of money to the sewage works, which takes care of the whole problem. It can be said in general, that it is not possible to get rid of harmful substances by payment to the sewage works if the substances cause treatment problems or problems in sludge disposal. If the factory produces wastewater that contains a higher organic load, more suspended solids or a higher nutrient load than normal sanitary wastewater, the problem is most often solved by paying an extra fee to the sewage works
This study aims to estimate the gender pay gap, cleansed at least partially of the effect of intra-household specialization on productivity. The estimate is based on EU-SILC data for 19 member countries of the European Union. We use an estimate of the average treatment effect on the treated, supplemented by a matching procedure to estimate the unexplained part of the gender pay gap and use a subsample of employees earning more than their partners, thus minimizing the impact of child- and fami...
The use of various types of individualized pay setting has increased dramatically in Sweden. In order for individualized pay to work as an incentive, the pay system has to be perceived as fair. This thesis focuses on the various subjective perceptions that arise in relation to individualized pay setting, since such perceptions may have consequences for employee attitudes and behavior. Using survey data from Swedish human service workers (Study I and II) as well as other public employees (Stud...
W.H. van Boom (Willem)
textabstractAbstract: This article presents a comparative legal analysis of wrongful claims handling by insurance companies in indemnity and liability insurance. From the outset, it is clear that it may be difficult to draw the line between legitimate claims denial and refusal to pay, on the one
Hill, Catherine; Silva, Elena
Women have made gains toward closing the gender pay gap during the past two decades. Much of the progress occurred during the 1980s, with smaller gains in the 1990s (Institute for Women's Policy Research 2004). Women's achievements in higher education are partly responsible for narrowing the pay gap in the 1980s and 1990s. As more women earned…
The price of electricity in the Netherlands rose with 6 percent in the first quarter of 2012, whereas large business consumers are paying less. The natural gas price has risen with about 10 percent in the last year, both for households and for large business consumers. Meanwhile, households are paying twice as much for electricity and gas as large business consumers. [nl
Full Text Available Combining information from the Firm Survey of Labor Costs with the information about claims filed with the Guarantee Fund by workers whose employers defaulted on their severance pay obligations, the paper analyzes the so-called non-performance problem of severance pay – the fact that coverage, and thus legal entitlement, does not guarantee the actual receipt of the benefit – as experienced in Slovenia in 2000. The findings are threefold: (i one-third of total obligations incurred by firms failed to be honored and only a small portion of defaulted severance pay claims was reimbursed by the Guarantee Fund; (ii while both men and women seem to be equally affected, workers older than 40 were disproportionally represented among those whose severance pay claims failed to be honored; and, (iii among firms that incurred severance pay liabilities, larger and more productive firms were more likely to observe their fiduciary obligations and pay them out. These findings corroborate the weaknesses of severance pay as an income protection program, pointing to the large scale of the non-performance problem and the inequities created by it.
Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan
The purpose of this article is to provide a brief background about special education system in Jordan and particularly describes the present types of programmes and legislation provided within the country to students with special needs, as well as integration movement. Jordan has historically provided a limited number of educational opportunities…
... Order 13641 of April 5, 2013 Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay By the authority vested in me as... Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013 (Public Law 113-6), which requires certain pay... follows: Section 1. Statutory Pay Systems. Pursuant to the Consolidated and Further Continuing...
... inmate may receive performance pay only for that portion of the month that the inmate was working... Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Proposed rule... work and performance pay by removing redundant language and provisions that relate solely to staff...
Saulo, Eleonor C; Forsberg, Birger C; Premji, Zul; Montgomery, Scott M; Björkman, Anders
The aim of this study was to analyse willingness to pay (WTP) and ability to pay (ATP) for ACT for children below five years of age in a rural setting in Tanzania before the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Socio-economic factors associated with WTP and expectations on anti-malaria drugs, including ACT, were also explored. Structured interviews and focus group discussions were held with mothers, household heads, health-care workers and village leaders in Ishozi, Gera and Ishunju wards in north-west Tanzania in 2004. Contingent valuation method (CVM) was used with "take-it-or-leave-it" as the eliciting method, expressed as WTP for a full course of ACT for a child and households' opportunity cost of ACT was used to assess ATP. The study included descriptive analyses with multivariate adjustment for potential confounding factors. Among 265 mothers and household heads, 244 (92%, CI = 88%-95%) were willing to pay Tanzanian Shillings (TSh) 500 (US$ 0.46) for a child's dose of ACT, but only 55% (49%-61%) were willing to pay more than TSh 500. Mothers were more often willing to pay than male household heads (adjusted odds ratio = 2.1, CI = 1.2-3.6). Socio-economic status had no significant effect on WTP. The median annual non-subsidized ACT cost for clinical malaria episodes in an average household was calculated as US$ 6.0, which would represent 0.9% of the average total consumption expenditures as estimated from official data in 2001. The cost of non-subsidized ACT represented 7.0% of reported total annual expenditure on food and 33.0% of total annual expenditure on health care."Rapid effect," "no adverse effect" and "inexpensive" were the most desired features of an anti-malarial drug. WTP for ACT in this study was less than its real cost and a subsidy is, therefore, needed to enable its equitable affordability. The decision taken in Tanzania to subsidize Coartem fully at governmental health
Hall, Michael P; Chiang-Colvin, Alexis S; Bosco, Joseph A
The outcomes of ACL reconstructions in terms of patient satisfaction and function are well known. Most orthopaedic surgeons feel that Medicare and other payors do not reimburse enough for this surgery. The purpose of this study is to determine how much patients are willing to pay for this surgery and compare it to reimbursement rates. We constructed a survey which described the function and limitations of an ACL deficient knee and the expected function of that knee after an ACL reconstruction. We then asked the volunteers how much they would be willing to pay for an ACL reconstruction if it were their knee. We also gathered data on the yearly earnings and Tegner activity level of the volunteers. In all, 143 volunteers completed the survey. We computed correlation coefficients between willingness to pay and both yearly earnings and Tegner activity level. The average amount that the volunteers were willing to pay for an ACL reconstruction was $4,867.00. There was no correlation between yearly earnings and willingness to pay. The correlation coefficient was 0.34. There was a weak correlation between Tegner activity level and willingness to pay. This correlation coefficient was 0.81. The Medicare allowable rate for ACL reconstruction (CPT 29888) in the geographic area of the study was $1,132.00. The data demonstrates that patients are willing to pay much more than traditional payors for ACL reconstruction. These payors undervalue the benefit of this surgery to the patient. There is increasing pressure on orthopaedic surgeons to not participate in insurance plans that reimburse poorly. This places an increasing financial burden on the patient. This study suggests that patients may be willing to pay more for their surgery than their insurance plan and accept more of this burden.
... PAY ACT § 1620.28 Relationship to other equal pay laws. The provisions of various State or local laws may differ from the equal pay provisions set forth in the FLSA. No provisions of the EPA will excuse... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship to other equal pay laws. 1620.28 Section 1620...
Full Text Available The Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 was passed as a response to the late-2000s recession. A shareholder opt-in executive pay vote was introduced as a solution to the managerial power problem. We examine the results of this recommended solution and prove its viability. We find that there is a stronger association between high CEO pay and low say-on-pay vote support for firms with negative financial performance. We also find the market-to-book ratio is significantly lower for companies that failed say-on-pay votes. Furthermore, regulated industries such as financial services are more likely receive unfavourable say-on-pay votes. We document an increase in the sensitivity of CEO pay to poor performance. Overall, these finds are consistent with calls for less “rewards for failure” that led to the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.
Messersmith, Jake G; Guthrie, James P; Ji, Yong-Yeon; Lee, Jeong-Yeon
Using tournament theory as a guiding theoretical framework, in this study, we assess the organizational implications of pay dispersion and other pay system characteristics on the likelihood of turnover among individual executives in organizational teams. Specifically, we estimate the effect of these pay system characteristics on executive turnover decisions. We use a multi-industry, multilevel data set composed of executives in publicly held firms to assess the effects of pay dispersion at the individual level. Consistent with previous findings, we find that pay dispersion is associated with an increased likelihood of executive turnover. In addition, we find that other pay characteristics also affect turnover, both directly and through a moderating effect on pay dispersion. Turnover is more likely when executives receive lower portions of overall top management team compensation and when they have more pay at risk. These conditions also moderate the relationship between pay dispersion and individual turnover decisions, as does receiving lower compensation relative to the market.
Rosemary E. Ommer
Full Text Available In this introductory essay to the Special Feature on rebuilding fisheries and threatened communities, we review the contributions of the researchers whose work is contained in this Special Feature. The essays are reviewed using the lens of the three questions that were posed by the Special Feature editors: Why is rebuilding so challenging? What is the relationship between fishery collapse/degradation and short- and long-term issues for food security, livelihoods, employment, and industrial and community resilience? How can we avoid situations in which the communities and people who may have contributed least to collapses/degradation end up paying the most for rebuilding and, indeed, may no longer be in a position where they can benefit from the results of their necessary sacrifices?
van Ommeren, J.; van der Vlist, A.J.
In the presence of price controls, nonmarket housing allocation mechanisms such as queueing prevent households from revealing their marginal willingness to pay for housing through market prices. We derive the households' marginal willingness to pay using the intuitive idea that the length of the
... Order 13594 of December 19, 2011 Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay By the authority vested in me as... Appropriations and Surface Transportation Extensions Act, 2011 (Public Law 111-322), which freezes certain pay... full applicable locality pay rates in non-foreign areas pursuant to the Non-Foreign Area Retirement...
Thomas, Kali S; Silver, Benjamin; Gozalo, Pedro L; Dosa, David; Grabowski, David C; Makineni, Rajesh; Mor, Vincent
Nursing home (NH) care is financed through multiple sources. Although Medicaid is the predominant payer for NH care, over 20% of residents pay out-of-pocket for their care. Despite this large percentage, an accepted measure of private-pay NH occupancy has not been established and little is known about the types of facilities and the long-term care markets that cater to this population. To describe 2 novel measures of private-pay utilization in the NH setting, including the proportion of privately financed residents and resident days, and examine their construct validity. Retrospective descriptive analysis of US NHs in 2007-2009. We used Medicare claims, Medicare Enrollment records, and the Minimum Data Set to create measures of private-pay resident prevalence and proportion of privately financed NH days. We compared our estimates of private-pay utilization to payer data collected in the NH annual certification survey and evaluated the relationships of our measures with facility characteristics. Our measures of private-pay resident prevalence and private-pay days are highly correlated (r=0.83, Ppay residents and days in higher quality facilities. This new methodology provides estimates of private-pay resident prevalence and resident days. These measures were correlated with estimates using other data sources and validated against measures of facility quality. These data set the stage for additional work to examine questions related to NH payment, quality of care, and responses to changes in the long-term care market.
In the era of high-tech, the mode of payment is no longer just use cash or credit card. There are various payments come to our daily life. Online payment and other kinds of electronic payments are wildly in use by people. Apple Pay is a tool that provides easier and safer payment service for consumer. The main objective of this thesis is to understand deeply and analyze how easy and convenient Apple Pay is to use and why it is known as most secure form of payment. Besides that, there is a ...
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to identify the preferences of the pre-pay mobile telecommunications services young users from Romania. Approach/ methodology: The analysis of the pre-pay mobile telecommunications services was made using statistical functions: descriptive statistics, t test, correlation and factor analysis. Results: According to the analysis made, we could underline the habits of usage from the part of pre-pay mobile telecommunications services consumers. Originality: The paper drew an objective analysis on the pre-pay mobile telecommunications services from the perspective of young consumers.
... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of pay. 57.109 Section 57.109 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PRIMARY NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS General § 57.109 Maintenance of pay. The Administrator will not approve...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deductions from pay. 831.1003 Section 831.1003 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1003 Deductions from pay. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this...
The general-equilibrium effects of performance-related teacher pay include long-term incentive and teacher-sorting mechanisms that usually elude experimental studies but are captured in cross-country comparisons. Combining country-level performance-pay measures with rich PISA-2003 international achievement micro data, this paper estimates…
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Uniform pay guidelines. 12.18 Section 12.18 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 12.18 Uniform pay guidelines. (a) Members. Subject to the...
Hunger, Theresa; Schnell-Inderst, Petra; Hintringer, Katharina; Schwarzer, Ruth; Seifert-Klauss, Vanadin; Gothe, Holger; Wasem, Jürgen; Siebert, Uwe
The provision of self-pay medical services is common across health care systems, but understudied. According to the German Medical Association, such services should be medically necessary, recommended or at least justifiable, and requested by the patient. We investigated the empirical evidence regarding frequency and practice of self-pay services as well as related ethical, social, and legal issues (ELSI). A systematic literature search in electronic databases and a structured internet search on stakeholder websites with qualitative and quantitative information synthesis. Of 1,345 references, we included 64 articles. Between 19 and 53 % of insured persons received self-pay service offers from their physician; 16-19 % actively requested such services. Intraocular pressure measurement was the most common service, followed by ultrasound investigations. There is a major discussion about ELSI in the context of individual health services. Self-pay services are common medical procedures in Germany. However, the empirical evidence is limited in quality and extent, even for the most frequently provided services. Transparency of their provision should be increased and independent evidence-based patient information should be supplied.
Pablo de Frutos
Full Text Available Public demand for harvesting wild edible mushrooms has risen in recent decades and currently affects many forested areas around the world. The idea of introducing permits for users has been conceived as a tool for ecosystem management. The problem is that policy-makers lack the necessary means to help guide them when establishing prices for such harvesting permits. Valuing the recreational benefits which mushroom harvesters derive from harvesting wild edible mushrooms may provide certain guidelines as to how much people would be willing to pay and may also justify future payments levied on harvesters. The aim of the present article is to estimate a model for determining citizens’ willingness to pay for a harvesting permit in a forest in Andalusia (Spain using contingent valuation methods. Results show that mean willingness to pay is 22.61 Euros (USD28.18 per harvester and season. This amount depends on several socioeconomic factors and preferences related to harvesters’ experiences.
... wages become effective and what is the special minimum wage rate? 520.409 Section 520.409 Labor... apprentices special minimum wages become effective and what is the special minimum wage rate? (a) An... Division. (b) The wage rate specified by the apprenticeship program becomes the special minimum wage rate...
The UK gender pay gap has fallen by around 7 % during the 2000s. This is partly due to occupational desegregation, but largely due to a closing of the within-occupational gender pay gap. The paper finds that men are more likely than women to be employed in jobs that require working to tight deadlines. These jobs are associated with higher pay and the gender difference arises entirely as a consequence of such occupations being over-represented in male dominated industrial sectors. However, the...
... Adjustments of Certain Rates of Pay By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the... certain pay schedules for civilian Federal employees may take effect on the first day of the first applicable pay period beginning after the date specified in section 106(3) of Public Law 112-175, it is...
Horita, Yutaka; Takezawa, Masanori; Kinjo, Takuji; Nakawake, Yo; Masuda, Naoki
Humans often forward kindness received from others to strangers, a phenomenon called the upstream or pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity. Some field observations and laboratory experiments found evidence of pay-it-forward reciprocity in which chains of cooperative acts persist in social dilemma situations. Theoretically, however, cooperation based on pay-it-forward reciprocity is not sustainable. We carried out laboratory experiments of a pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity game (i.e., chained gift-giving game) on a large scale in terms of group size and time. We found that cooperation consistent with pay-it-forward reciprocity occurred only in a first few decisions per participant and that cooperation originated from inherent pro-sociality of individuals. In contrast, the same groups of participants showed persisting chains of cooperation in a different indirect reciprocity game in which participants earned reputation by cooperating. Our experimental results suggest that pay-it-forward reciprocity is transient and disappears when a person makes decisions repeatedly, whereas the reputation-based reciprocity is stable in the same situation.
Wilson, Barbara L; Butler, Matthew J; Butler, Richard J; Johnson, William G
The gender pay gap in the United States is an ongoing issue, affecting women in nearly all occupations. Jobs traditionally associated with men tend to pay better than traditionally female-dominated jobs, and there is evidence to suggest within-occupation gender pay differences as well. We compared and contrasted gender wage disparities for registered nurses (RNs), relative to gender wage disparities for another female-dominated occupation, teachers, while controlling for sociodemographic factors. Using data in the American Community Survey, we analyzed the largest U.S. random representative sample of self-identified RNs and primary or secondary school teachers from 2000 to 2013 using fixed-effects regression analysis. There is greater disparity between nurse pay by gender than in teacher pay by gender. In addition, the net return in wages for additional education is higher for school teachers (21.7%) than for RNs (4.7%). Findings support preferential wages for men in nursing, more so than for men in teaching. The substantial gender disparities are an indirect measure of the misallocation of resources in effective patient care. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âClock patternâ premium pay. 778.204 Section 778.204 Labor... Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Extra Compensation Paid for Overtime § 778.204 “Clock pattern” premium pay... pursuance of an applicable employment contract or collective bargaining agreement,” and the rates of pay and...
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action: Equal Pay Act. 1614.408 Section 1614.408... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Appeals and Civil Actions § 1614.408 Civil action: Equal Pay Act. A..., three years of the date of the alleged violation of the Equal Pay Act regardless of whether he or she...
... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil action: Equal Pay Act. 268.407 Section... Civil action: Equal Pay Act. A complainant is authorized under section 16(b) of the Fair Labor Standards..., if the violation is willful, three years of the date of the alleged violation of the Equal Pay Act...
Belfield, Clive R.; Heywood, John S.
Theory and evidence on performance-related pay for teaching remain inconclusive. Teachers will respond to rewards, but an appropriate reward structure may not be devised because education is a collaborative endeavor. Here we test three hypotheses: performance-related pay among teachers is more likely to be observed when there are evident…
Rigter, L.; Dekker, P.; Knipscheer, R.; Veenema, R.; Vlietstra, E. [Siemens Building Technologies, Zuerich (Switzerland); Symanczik, H.; Van Houwelingen, P. [Kieback en Peter Nederland, Nunspeet (Netherlands); Van Grieken, K. [Priva Building Intelligence, Delft (Netherlands); De Koning, G. [Regel Partners, Hoevelaken (Netherlands); Hitzert, L.A. [Honeywell, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Uythof, B.H. [Domotica Platform Nederland, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wortel, W. [Kropman, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Zeiler, W. [Faculteit Bouwkunde - FAGO, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kamphuis, I.G. [Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Akkermans, J.M. [Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
In 12 articles an overview is given of developments in the use of automation and domotics in different types of buildings. Previous specials on the same subject in this magazine were published in november 1989, november 1995 and december 1999. [Dutch] In 12 artikelen wordt uitgebreid aandacht besteed aan ontwikkelingen in gebouwautomatisering en domotica. Eerdere specials over dit onderwerp werden uitgebracht in november 1989, november 1995 en december 1999.
The central issue of this article is the coordination between special and general education in curriculum planning for pupils with special educational needs. The focus is on individual education plans (IEPs) in special education and work plans in general education. This is also viewed in relation to how special and general education teachers…
Schuster, Mark A; Chung, Paul J; Elliott, Marc N; Garfield, Craig F; Vestal, Katherine D; Klein, David J
We examined the perceived effects of leave from work among employed parents of children with special health care needs. Telephone interviews were conducted from November 2003 to January 2004 with 585 parents who had missed 1 or more workdays for their child's illness in the previous year. Most parents reported positive effects of leave on their child's physical (81%) and emotional (85%) health; 57% reported a positive effect on their own emotional health, although 24% reported a negative effect. Most parents reported no effect (44%) or a negative effect (42%) on job performance; 73% reported leave-related financial problems. In multivariate analyses, parents receiving full pay during leave were more likely than were parents receiving no pay to report positive effects on child physical (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85) and emotional (OR = 1.68) health and parent emotional health (OR = 1.70), and were less likely to report financial problems (OR = 0.20). Employed parents believed that leave-taking benefited the health of their children with special health care needs and their own emotional health, but compromised their job performance and finances. Parents who received full pay reported better consequences across the board. Access to paid leave, particularly with full pay, may improve parent and child outcomes.
Full Text Available Chivalry dictates that on a “date,” the man pays, whereas egalitarian ideals suggest that gender should not determine who pays. We examined the extent to which people embrace or reject these competing notions. Unmarried heterosexual participants (N = 17,607 reported their behaviors and attitudes regarding who does and who should pay for dates on a survey posted on NBCNews.com. Although most men (74% and women (83% report that both members of the couple contribute to dating expenses after dating for 6 months, most men (84% and women (58% reported that men still pay more expenses. Many women (39% wished men would reject their offers to pay and 44% of women were bothered when men expected women to help pay. Many women, however, were bothered when men won’t accept their money (40%. Nearly two thirds of men (64% believed that women should contribute and nearly half of men (44% said they would stop dating a woman who never pays. Nevertheless, the majority of men said they feel guilty when accepting women’s money (76%. These data illustrate how many people are resisting or conforming to traditional gender norms in one telling aspect of dating that historically was related to the male’s displaying benevolent sexism, dominance, and ability to fulfill breadwinner role during courtship.
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Uniform pay guidelines. 510.9 Section 510... ACT § 510.9 Uniform pay guidelines. (a) Compensation of members and staff of, and consultants to the... accordance with guidelines established by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget pursuant to...
... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to pay tax. 301.6653-1 Section 301.6653... Additions to the Tax and Additional Amounts § 301.6653-1 Failure to pay tax. (a) Negligence or intentional... paragraph (b)(2) of this section. (e) Failure to pay stamp tax. Any person (as defined in section 6671(b...
Using for the most part Kleinian analysis, this article presents Abdellah Taïa’s latest novel Un pays pour mourir as a work of reparative mourning. It is divided in three parts: “Mourning the father,” “Melancholy gender and mourning,” and “Reparative work through characterization.” The approach encompasses the sociology of the author and a blend of online interviews, social media, and fictional accounts of “family”. The article\\ud finds that it is not in (psycho)analysis but within the realm ...
While many charter school leaders across the country grapple with how to best provide and pay for special education, New Orleans recently became the first city in the nation to tackle special education on the fiscal, human capital, and program fronts in the context of a full-choice public education landscape. Over time, it may offer scalable…
Colin P. Green; John S. Heywood; Nikolaos Theodoropoulos
In the first study using British data, we show that the average wage advantage of holding a performance pay job is greater for minorities than that for Whites. This generates a smaller ethnic wage gap among performance pay jobs than among time rate jobs. Yet, this pattern is driven by those receiving bonuses not those receiving performance related pay and it is evident only for Asians and for those in managerial jobs. Moreover, it is partially driven by sorting in which the more able take bon...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Uniform pay guidelines. 214.42 Section 214.42... Advisory Committees § 214.42 Uniform pay guidelines. (a) A.I.D. follows OMB/CSC guidelines in section 11 of... experts, their compensation shall be fixed in accordance with CSC guidelines and regulations, and the...
Raschke, Donna; And Others
The article describes approaches special education teachers can take to reduce stress including diet and exercise, relaxation techniques, use of social support systems, goal setting, time management, and networking. A survey of special education teachers found the use of humor the most common strategy for coping with stress. (DB)
Rutkowski, Hollace Ann; And Others
This theme issue includes 11 articles on public relations (PR) in special libraries. Highlights include PR at the Special Libraries Association (SLA); sources for marketing research for libraries; developing a library image; sample PR releases; brand strategies for libraries; case studies; publicizing a consortium; and a bibliography of pertinent…
Inclusive education and special education are based on different philosophies and provide alternative views of education for children with special educational needs and disabilities. They are increasingly regarded as diametrically opposed in their approaches. This article presents a theory of "inclusive special education" that comprises…
... for COP purposes is equal to the employee's regular “weekly” pay (the average of the weekly pay over... occurred during the 45-day period are to be reflected in the weekly pay determination. (b) The weekly pay... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the pay rate for COP calculated? 10...
Bruggeman, Peter; Degrez, Gérard; Delplancke, Marie-Paule; Gleizes, Alain
The 11th High-Tech Plasma Processes Conference (HTPP) was held in Brussels, Belgium, 27 June-2 July, 2010. HTPP started as a thermal plasma conference and gradually expanded to include low-temperature plasmas. The conference was founded by Jacques Amouroux and Pierre Fauchais, and aims to bring together different scientific communities to facilitate contacts between science, technology and industry, providing a platform for the exploration of elementary processes and applications in and by plasmas. The first HTPP was held in Odeillo, France, in 1990. Since then it has been held every other year in different European cities: Paris, Aachen, Athens, Strasbourg, Saint-Petersburg, Patras and Brussels. The 11th HTPP conference was attended by 125 participants from 19 countries. The program involved 14 invited talks, 34 contributed talks, 72 posters and a software demonstration and hands-on session for plasma modelling. The 12th HTPP conference will be held 24-28 June 2012, in Bologna, Italy. A larger part of the contributions to the 11th HTPP has been published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) volume 275, 2011. All invited speakers and other contributors, as selected by the Steering, Scientific and Organizing Committee, were invited to submit a paper based on their contributions for this special issue which is peer reviewed by the journal. Both this special issue and the JPCS volume aim to bring the 11th HTPP to a wider audience. The publications are a nice example of the broad topic range of the conference. The JPCS volume contains papers covering fundamental aspects on radiative processes of thermal plasmas, modelling of thermal arcs and non-thermal RF plasma jets, plasma diagnostics including flow and heat flux measurements of thermal plasmas, radical density measurements and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. The applications-oriented contributions of the JPCS volume include plasma spraying, synthesis of (nano-sized) materials, surface
The publication landscape is about to change. While being largely operated by subscription based journals in the past, recent political decisions force the publishing industry towards OpenAccess. Especially, the publication of the Finch report in 2012 put APC based Gold OpenAccess models almost everywhere on the agenda. These models also require quite some adoptions for library work flows to handle payments, bills and centralized funds for publication fees. Sometimes handled in specialized systems (e.g. first setups in Jülich) pretty early on discussions started to handle APCs in local repositories which would also hold the OpenAccess content resulting from these fees, e.g. the University of Regenburg uses ePrints for this purpose. Backed up by the OpenData movmement, libraries also saw opportunity to exchange data about fees payed. Thus, OpenAPC.de was born in 2014 on github to facilitate this exchange and aggregate large amounts of data for evaluation and comparison. Using the repository to hold payment d...
Critics argue that the uniform salary schedule is unfair because it promotes mediocrity by rewarding poor performers while failing to recognize outstanding achievement on the job. Advocates for merit pay systems for preK-12 education also contend that the uniform salary schedule ignores the basic purpose of education--student learning. Although…
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic applicability of the Equal Pay Act. 1620.1 Section 1620.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.1 Basic applicability of the Equal Pay Act. (a) Since the Equal Pay Act, 29 U.S.C...
As the gender gap in pay between women and men has been narrowing, the 'family gap' in pay between mothers and nonmothers has been widening. One reason may be the institutional structure in the United States, which has emphasized equal pay and opportunity policies but not family policies, in contrast to other countries that have implemented both. The authors now have evidence on the links between one such family policy and women's pay. Recent research suggests that maternity leave coverage, b...
Demirgüneş, Banu Külter
The consumer perceived value construct is a very important component in the consumer value literature and it has been identified as one of the most important measures for gaining a competitive advantage. All its consequences can be combined in a construct, defined as consumer behavior. The present article sustains the idea that consumer’s perceived value can been associated with satisfaction, which leads a behavioral intention such as willingness to pay a higher price. In the case of potentia...
Kahn, Peggy; Figart, Deborah M.
Pay equity remains a problem linked to the problem of low pay. Pay equity must be understood as one solution to the problem of securing a living wage for women and men in the restructuring economy as well as a means for challenging gender equity. (JOW)
Gudbjartsson, Tómas; Sigurdsson, Engilbert
In the past 5 years the Icelandic Medical Journal has undergone many changes during a period of flourishing research in Iceland. The process of reviewing and editing scientific articles has been revised since the Journal joined the Medline database in 2005 and the proportion of rejected articles has risen. New columns have been launched covering medical history, professionalism, ethics and hobbies of the medical profession. We categorized all scientific articles from the period 2004-2008, that is research articles, review articles, case reports and clinical guidelines, according to types of articles and to which medical speciality or subspeciality the publication should belong. The number of scientific articles rose during the period but the number of research articles remained around 20 most years during the period. The relative proportion of research articles therefore fell whereas the number and proportion of review articles and case reports increased. Clinical guidelines ceased to appear in the Journal. The contribution of individual specialities to the Journal varied widely. Researchers amongst doctors and related professions need be encouraged to submit scientific articles to the Journal. The publication of scientific articles in English in the web-based form of the Journal may prove to be stimulating in this regard for Icelandic doctors abroad as well as for some researchers in Iceland.
C Green; J S Heywood
This paper investigates the influence of performance related pay on several dimensions of job satisfaction. In cross-sectional estimates, performance related pay is associated with increased overall satisfaction, satisfaction with pay, satisfaction with job security and satisfaction with hours. It appears to be negatively associated with satisfaction with the work itself. Yet, after accounting for worker fixed-effects, the positive associations remain and the negative association vanishes. Th...
Full Text Available Gender issues and concerns about its incorporation into all Community and national policies enjoy attention, both on the agenda of decision makers from the European Union and the Member States. Moreover, equality between women and men is one of the fundamental principles contained in the Charter of fundamental rights and at the same time, is also one of the founding principles of the EU, because it is based on the principle of “equal pay for equal work” stipulated in the Economics Community Treaty from Rome. The results presented in this article are based on questionnaire-based survey, conducted in ProFeminAntrep project financed on ESF, at national level, which included a sample of 3,200 respondents.
Chi, Wei; Li, Bo
In contrast to the United States and European countries, China has witnessed a widening gender pay gap in the past two decades. Nevertheless, the size of the gender pay gap could still be underestimated as a result of not accounting for the low-wage women who have dropped out of the labor force. As shown by a large and representative set of household survey data in China, since the 1980s the female employment rate has been falling and the gap between male and female employment rates has been ...
Explaining cooperation in groups remains a key problem because reciprocity breaks down between more than two. Punishing individuals who contribute little provides a potential answer but changes the dilemma to why pay the costs of punishing which, like cooperation itself, provides a public good. Nevertheless, people are observed to punish others in behavioural economic games, posing a problem for existing theory which highlights the difficulty in explaining the spread and persistence of punishment. Here, I consider the apparent mismatch between theory and evidence and show by means of instructive analysis and simulation how much of the experimental evidence for punishment comes from scenarios in which punishers may expect to obtain a net benefit from punishing free-riders. In repeated games within groups, punishment works by imposing costs on defectors so that it pays them to switch to cooperating. Both punishers and non-punishers then benefit from the resulting increase in cooperation, hence investing in punishment can constitute a social dilemma. However, I show the conditions in which the benefits of increased cooperation are so great that they more than offset the costs of punishing, thereby removing the temptation to free-ride on others' investments and making punishment explicable in terms of direct self-interest. Crucially, this is because of the leveraging effect imposed in typical studies whereby people can pay a small cost to inflict a heavy loss on a punished individual. In contrast to previous models suggesting punishment is disadvantaged when rare, I show it can invade until it comes into a producer-scrounger equilibrium with non-punishers. I conclude that adding punishment to an iterated public goods game can solve the problem of achieving cooperation by removing the social dilemma. PMID:23483907
Sile Padraigin O'Dorchai
This paper analyses disparity in women’s pay across 25 European countries using EU-SILC 2005. First, the gender pay gap is examined. Next, the impact of parenthood is analysed. We show that women suffer a wage disadvantage compared with men all over Europe, except for Poland. Motherhood usually reinforces the gender gap but most discrimination is sex-related so that it concerns all women as potential mothers. There is no uniform relationship between the parenthood and the gender wage gap.
Montgomery Scott M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to analyse willingness to pay (WTP and ability to pay (ATP for ACT for children below five years of age in a rural setting in Tanzania before the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Socio-economic factors associated with WTP and expectations on anti-malaria drugs, including ACT, were also explored. Methods Structured interviews and focus group discussions were held with mothers, household heads, health-care workers and village leaders in Ishozi, Gera and Ishunju wards in north-west Tanzania in 2004. Contingent valuation method (CVM was used with "take-it-or-leave-it" as the eliciting method, expressed as WTP for a full course of ACT for a child and households' opportunity cost of ACT was used to assess ATP. The study included descriptive analyses with multivariate adjustment for potential confounding factors. Results Among 265 mothers and household heads, 244 (92%, CI = 88%–95% were willing to pay Tanzanian Shillings (TSh 500 (US$ 0.46 for a child's dose of ACT, but only 55% (49%–61% were willing to pay more than TSh 500. Mothers were more often willing to pay than male household heads (adjusted odds ratio = 2.1, CI = 1.2–3.6. Socio-economic status had no significant effect on WTP. The median annual non-subsidized ACT cost for clinical malaria episodes in an average household was calculated as US$ 6.0, which would represent 0.9% of the average total consumption expenditures as estimated from official data in 2001. The cost of non-subsidized ACT represented 7.0% of reported total annual expenditure on food and 33.0% of total annual expenditure on health care. "Rapid effect," "no adverse effect" and "inexpensive" were the most desired features of an anti-malarial drug. Conclusion WTP for ACT in this study was less than its real cost and a subsidy is, therefore, needed to enable its equitable affordability. The decision
Mayland, Karina; Haugegaard, Rikke; Shapiro, Allan
This article is a contribution to the discussions about the unique capacity of Special Operation Forces (SOF). Based on data from interviews and observation in a field study among the Danish Frogman Corps, the Royal Danish Navy Special Operations unit, and the Danish Jaeger Corps, the Danish Army...... Special Operations unit, the article investigates the work environment of the two Special Operations units supporting an innovative capacity. What kind of leadership, processes and work climate support employee-driven innovation in SOF?......This article is a contribution to the discussions about the unique capacity of Special Operation Forces (SOF). Based on data from interviews and observation in a field study among the Danish Frogman Corps, the Royal Danish Navy Special Operations unit, and the Danish Jaeger Corps, the Danish Army...
Feldman, Edwin B.
Institutions who justify a wage differential between male and female custodians on the basis that women typically do the lighter work, and men the heavier, can find themselves in trouble. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 requires that men and women get the same pay for equal work -- and all custodial work is substantially equal to the Labor Department.…
Castro, Ida L.
Issued on the 35th anniversary of the signing of the Equal Pay Act (1963), this report is a historical analysis of the economic trends affecting women workers from the years leading up to passage of the act through the present. It is divided into three time periods to highlight important developments: Part I--The Early Impact of the Equal Pay Act,…
Full Text Available C’est avec un regard neuf et une approche originale que Vatthana Pholsena a relevé le défi d’écrire l’ouvrage Laos. Un pays en mutation, le dernier-né de la collection « Asie Plurielle » (Belin qui a déjà proposé une longue série d’ouvrages de présentation générale des pays d’Asie. Cet ouvrage vient combler un grand manque dans la littérature sur le Laos. Aucun ouvrage généraliste en langue française n’existant jusque-là sur ce petit pays d’Asie du Sud-Est, le lecteur curieux devait se référ...
Solino, Mario; Vazquez, Maria X.; Prada, Albino
In this article, we analyze social preferences for a partial substitution programme of electricity generated by conventional energy sources, for energy generated from a local renewable energy source, such as forest biomass. This analysis sets arguments in favour of accelerating the introduction of this renewable technology in the Spanish Electricity System. Simultaneously, two methodological goals concerning the contingent valuation method are discussed. In the first one, we analyze if there are statistical differences in the willingness to pay (WTP) when a single- or a double-bounded format is employed to ask the valuation question. Results show that WTP estimates from single- and double-bounded significantly differ. In the second one, we analyze the effect of the periodicity of the payment vehicle on the estimates of welfare change. The timeframe specification of the payment vehicle has been scarcely studied, and this fact constitutes the main contribution of this paper to the specialized literature. Results show that periodicity influences upon the probability to favour the proposed change. The periodicity does not affect to the mean WTP obtained in the single-bounded format, but there are statistical differences in the double-bounded format. These results might be explained by the presence of yea saying and payment scale bias
Full Text Available With roots in behaviorist philosophy, performance pay for teachers is often linked to accountability regimes in school reform. The theory girding such programs suggests that pay as an economic incentive can help cause teachers to increase student outcomes as measured by standardized test scores. What is little noticed by many educationists, but particularly by policy makers, is how programmatic effects affect the ontology of educational environment. There are several ways to approach the viability of such programs. In this study of three pay-for-performance programs, two in the U.S. and one in the UK, we provide theoretic insights in light of three variables: (i their psychological framework, (ii teacher efficacy and the teacher-student relationship, and (iii how the psychological impact of such programs coincides with larger institutional forces. Using theory to examine pay-for-performance is necessary in order to get beneath mere data and secure more thorough understandings of the phenomenological impacts of performance pay. And better understanding of these foundational features is necessary, even critical, in order to fully appreciate the economic and informational trade-offs in implementation. Our study suggests that as a small-scale reform measure and when it specifically accounts for complexities of educational production, performance pay may be a viable reform option.
Goncalves, Bruno A.; Travassos, Cristiano H. [Tess Advogados, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
The international energy industry, where the sale of their commodities (oil, natural gas, biofuels and its derivatives), typically uses in its long-term contracts clauses take-or-pay. However, questioning about the Brazilian judicial effectiveness of such clauses appears each day. This paper aims to establish a rationale clause of take-or-pay; have terms and typical conditions of one clause of take-or-pay; discuss the existing national law on the subject; list the main questions arising from the applicability of the terms of take-or-pay, and the potential solutions to the current scenario.
Full Text Available This Special Issue, entitled “Molecules against Alzheimer”, gathers a number of original articles, short communications, and review articles on recent research efforts toward the development of novel drug candidates, diagnostic agents and therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder and a leading cause of death worldwide. This Special Issue contains many interesting examples describing the design, synthesis, and pharmacological profiling of novel compounds that hit one or several key biological targets, such as cholinesterases, β-amyloid formation or aggregation, monoamine oxidase B, oxidative stress, biometal dyshomeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, serotonin and/or melatonin systems, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, sigma receptors, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, or nuclear erythroid 2-related factor. The development of novel AD diagnostic agents based on tau protein imaging and the use of lithium or intranasal insulin for the prevention or the symptomatic treatment of AD is also covered in some articles of the Special Issue.
Nov 11, 2010 ... to pay a premium, to buy an organic vegetable instead of a conventional one. The amount is a percentage ... the attitude, motives and willingness to pay for a range of organic products. The author laid ... organic products, buying preferences and willingness to pay premiums for selected organic vegetables.
Oct 18, 2007 ... introduced a bill, the SECURE Water Act, that would expand the survey's groundwater and stream-flow monitoring programmes. Equal pay for women in science is achievable. Aggressive academic management can correct pay disparities between male and female scientists, say researchers. Their study.
Full Text Available This study aims to estimate the gender pay gap, cleansed at least partially of the effect of intra-household specialization on productivity. The estimate is based on EU-SILC data for 19 member countries of the European Union. We use an estimate of the average treatment effect on the treated, supplemented by a matching procedure to estimate the unexplained part of the gender pay gap and use a subsample of employees earning more than their partners, thus minimizing the impact of child- and family-care on the gender pay gap. We conclude that the unexplained gender pay gap amounts approximately 10 percent working to the disadvantage of women. If we assume that the dominant role in family- and child-care is taken up by the partner earnings a lower wage, then this difference could neither be explained by differences in the observed personal and company characteristics nor by the dominant role of women in care for the household and children and could actually be due to wage discrimination against women.
Full Text Available This article analyses different aspects of the EU-Russia academic mobility. The authors pay special attention to visa and migration registration issues faced by foreign citizens in Russia.
JOHN K. M. Kuwornu
Full Text Available This study examined farmers’ willingness to pay for excreta pellet fertilizer in Ghana. Primary data was obtained from 461 farmers in 10 districts in the Western and Greater Accra regions of Ghana through randomized questionnaire administration. The contingent valuation method was used in eliciting the farmers’ willingness to pay decisions (WTP and maximum amount they are willing to pay. The Tobit regression model results revealed that being a household head, unit cost of current fertilizer used, and farm size positively influenced the willingness to pay amount whereas previous use of organic fertilizer influenced the willingness to pay amount negatively.
Les articles qui ont été les plus populaires l'année dernière traitent de travaux de recherche que le CRDI a subventionnés pour aider les pays en développement à s'attaquer à certains des plus grands défis qu'ils doivent relever, de la promotion de la démocratie à l'amélioration de la santé en passant par la recherche ...
McDonald, Ruth; Harrison, Stephen; Checkland, Kath
The authors' aim was to investigate mechanisms and perceptions of control following the implementation of a new "pay-for-performance" contract (the new General Medical Services, or GMS, contract) in general practice. This article was based on an in-depth qualitative case study approach in two general practices in England. A distinction is emerging amongst ostensibly equal partners between those general practitioners conducting and those subject to surveillance. Attitudes towards the contract were largely positive, although discontent was higher in the practice which employed a more intensive surveillance regime and greater amongst nurses than doctors. The sample was small and opportunistic. Further research is required to examine the longer-term effects as new contractual arrangements evolve. Increased surveillance and feedback mechanisms associated with new pay-for-performance schemes have the potential to constrain and shape clinical practice. The paper highlights the emergence of new tensions within and between existing professional groupings.
Balkham, Adam; Alderson, Sarah
The introduction of the Health and Social Care Bill (2011) changed the role of GPs to include commissioning of health services. Aim This study aimed to identify any differences in the media portrayal of GPs before and after the introduction of the Bill. We retrospectively searched four British newspapers over the period 2009-2013 using the media database Nexis. In order to directly compare the findings of the study with the work of Tanner et al., articles relating to GP pay were analysed using thematic analysis. Themes were identified and each article was scored to determine whether it portrayed GPs positively or negatively. GPs were portrayed slightly less negatively after the introduction of the Bill. The theme of 'high salaries' persisted despite reference to 'pay freezes'. References to decreased trust in the patient-doctor relationship appeared after the introduction of the Bill. Negative portrayal of GP pay has continued and a lack of trust in GPs has started to be portrayed. This trend may exacerbate the low morale amongst the profession and difficulties in recruiting and retaining GPs.
Siti Salwa Salim
Full Text Available Pay structure consists of two salient elements: monetary and non-monetary rewards. The ability of administrators to adequately provide these rewards may have a significant impact on personal outcomes. Although this relationship is vital, the role of adequacy of pay structures as an important antecedent was given less emphasis in the organizational pay structure research literature. Thus, this study was undertaken to examine the association between the adequacy of pay structure and personal outcomes. A survey method was conducted to collect data from employees who worked in private institutions of higher learning in Malaysia. The SmartPLS path model analysis demonstrated that job satisfaction and organizational commitment were important outcomes of the adequacy of pay structure in the studied organizations. Furthermore, this study also provided the relevant discussions, implications and conclusion.
Russo, G.; van Ommeren, J.N.; Rietveld, P.
Using a dynamic approach, employing data on job mobility, we demonstrate that university workers' marginal willingness to pay for reducing commuting distance is about €0. 25 per kilometre travelled. This corresponds to a marginal willingness to pay for reducing commuting time of about 75 % of the
Shepherd, Terry L.; Contreras, Diana; Brown, Randel
This article looks at the history of special education in Mexico, discusses the emergence of special education programs, and examines a school for special education in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas. The school provides vocational training for students with a variety of disabilities and has a partnership with the local maquiladora industry. (Contains 5…
This paper discusses the Equal Pay Act, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as it applies to women athletic coaches and physical education teachers. The following points are considered: (1) application of the Equal Pay Act; (2) advantage of voluntary compliance with the Equal Pay Act; (3) factors used to measure "equal work"; (4)…
José Martínez Rubio
Full Text Available This article analyses the representation of homosexuality and its conflicts (social, family, racial or class conflicts in Rafael Chirbes’ narrative, paying special attention to his posthumous novel Paris-Austerlitz.
... President, empowers women to recover wages lost to discrimination by extending the time period in which an...--regardless of the innovator's gender. On National Equal Pay Day, let us resolve to become a Nation that... injustice of wage discrimination, and join efforts to achieve equal pay. [[Page 23596
Bisset, George S.
Compensation models in radiology take a variety of forms, but regardless of practice type, successful models must reward productivity, be simple, and epitomize fairness. The ideal model should also be flexible enough to transition, based upon the changing strategic goals of a department. The plan should be constructed around rewarding the behaviors that the organization values. In this minisymposium article the author presents the value of different types of compensation plans and discusses advantages and disadvantages. Finally, the author presents a pay-for-performance model that has had long-term success at a private-turned-academic practice in pediatric radiology. (orig.)
Smart cards are widely used along with PayTV receivers to store secret user keys and to perform security functions to prevent any unauthorized viewing of PayTV channels. Java Card technology enables programs written in the Java programming language to run on smart cards. Smart cards represent one of the smallest computing platforms in use today. The memory configuration of a smart card are of the order of 4K of RAM, 72K of EEPROM, and 24K of ROM. Using Java card provides advantages to the ind...
Anthony, David; Jerpbak, Christine M; Margo, Katherine L; Power, David V; Slatt, Lisa M; Tarn, Derjung M
Family medicine clerkships depend heavily on community-based family physician preceptors to teach medical students. These preceptors have traditionally been unpaid, but in recent years some clerkships have started to pay preceptors. This study determines trends in the number and geographic region of programs that pay their community preceptors, identifies reasons programs pay or do not pay, and investigates perceived advantages and disadvantages of payment. We conducted a cross-sectional, electronic survey of 134 family medicine clerkship directors at allopathic US medical schools. The response rate was 62% (83/132 clerkship directors). Nineteen of these (23%) currently pay community preceptors, 11 of whom are located in either New England or the South Atlantic region. Sixty-three percent of programs who pay report that their community preceptors are also paid for teaching other learners, compared to 32% of those programs who do not pay. Paying respondents displayed more positive attitudes toward paying community preceptors, though a majority of non-paying respondents indicated they would pay if they had the financial resources. The majority of clerkships do not pay their community preceptors to teach medical students, but competition from other learners may drive more medical schools to consider payment to help with preceptor recruitment and retention. Medical schools located in regions where there is competition for community preceptors from other medical and non-medical schools may need to consider paying preceptors as part of recruitment and retention efforts.
Full Text Available Although Slovenia is a small European country with only 2 million inhabitants, Slovenian librarianship can be compared with any other bigger country. The staffing and information technology in special libraries have been accelerating for the last four decades.Seventeen years have passed since the first meeting of special libraries. When Slovenia attained independence, numerous changes occured in the field of special librarianship.Due to the economic crisis, several special libraries of enterprises were abolished, while on the other hand, the number of special libraries in public institutions has increased. The article deals with the changes which have influenced the development of special librarianship in Slovenia.
This article is anether attempt to give a survey of special metals, their production, processing and application, as has been made in four previous articles. The article confines itself essentially to publications made in 12 German and 12 English journals, focussed on metallurgy, metallography, electrochemistry, and sections of electrical engineering. For the first time, some articles written in Russian have been included. (orig./IHOE) [de
Nayga, Rodolfo M. Jr.; Woodward, Richard; Aiew, Wipon
This paper focuses on estimating willingness to pay for irradiated food using a non-hypothetical experiment utilizing real food products (i.e., ground beef), real cash, and actual exchange in a market setting. Single-bounded and one and one-half bounded models are developed using dichotomous choice experiments. Our results indicate that individuals are willing to pay for a reduction in the risk of food-borne illness once informed about the nature of food irradiation. Our respondents are willing to pay a premium of about $0.77 for a pound of irradiated ground beef, which is higher than the cost to irradiate the product
works (Barr, 2007d). Employees are rated on performance measures such as “fair and equitable treatment of taxpayers” and “customer satisfaction ... Performance Act of 2007, Senate bill 1046, Washington, D.C., 2007b. 38 Modernizing the Federal Government: Paying for Performance Vroom , Victor H...AND SUBTITLE Modernizing the federal government paying for performance 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR
This article provides information on special education topics on the international front. Information is presented on projects that evaluated early intervention programs, a life-centered career education program in the Philippines, a Peruvian vocational program for individuals with severe disabilities, and special classes for children with…
Shaw, Jason D; Duffy, Michelle K; Mitra, Atul; Lockhart, Daniel E; Bowler, Matthew
The relationships among merit pay raises, trait positive affectivity (PA), and reactions to merit pay increases (pay attitudes and behavioral intentions) were explored in a longitudinal study of hospital employees. Drawing on signal sensitivity theory, the authors expected that PA would moderate the relationship between merit pay raise size and reactions to the increase such that pay raise size would be more strongly related to pay attitudes and behavioral intentions among those low in PA. Results strongly supported the predictions in the case of reactions to the raise amount (happiness and effort intentions) but not for pay level satisfaction. Implications of the results and directions for future research are identified.
There is a paucity of information about the dental specialties related articles published in the Medical Journal Armed Forces India (MJAFI). This study aimed to audit the dental specialities related articles published in MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period. Bibliometric analysis of sixty issues of MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 were performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and topic of individual dental specialities. The articles published were also evaluated to identify whether the study was an Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project or funded research project or not. Out of the total 118 published articles related to dental specialities, original articles (55) and case reports (49) contribute the major share. The highest number of dental specialities related articles was published in 2009 with 16, followed by 2010 with 13 and 2011 with 11 and the least published year was 2013 with 3 articles. Regarding the relationship with dental specialities, the maximum number of published articles were related to oral medicine and radiology (56) followed by oral and maxillofacial surgery (49), orthodontics (23) and prosthodontics (17). Among the articles published in MJAFI, maxillofacial injuries (11) followed by orthodontic treatment (8) and craniofacial deformities (8) form the major attraction of the contributors. Among the 118 dental speciality articles, there were only 4 Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project articles and 19 funded research project articles. An equal distribution of articles related to clinical dentistry and nonclinical dentistry is maintained for the MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period.
Alshamsan, Riyadh; Majeed, Azeem; Ashworth, Mark; Car, Josip; Millett, Christopher
To assess the impact of pay for performance programmes on inequalities in the quality of health care in relation to age, sex, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Systematic search and appraisal of experimental or observational studies that assessed quantitatively the impact of a monetary incentive on health care inequalities. We searched published articles in English identified in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases. Twenty-two studies were identified, 20 of which were conducted in the United Kingdom and examined the impact of the Quality and Outcomes Framework. Sixteen studies used practice level data rather than patient level data. Socioeconomic status was the most frequently examined inequality; age, sex and ethnic inequalities were less frequently assessed. There was some weak evidence that the use of financial incentives reduced inequalities in chronic disease management between socioeconomic groups. Inequalities in chronic disease management between age, sex and ethnic groups persisted after the use of such incentives. Inequalities in chronic disease management have largely persisted after the introduction of the Quality and Outcome Framework. Pay for performance programmes should be designed to reduce inequalities as well as improve the overall quality of care.
Recently, state and federal legislators have emphasized teacher quality in their efforts to improve public education. Many reformers believe that merit pay may prove invaluable in attracting highly qualified educators to the workforce and retaining them, as well as in improving students' test scores. While merit pay's ability to recruit and retain…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting pay upon promotion. 9701.353... upon promotion. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, upon an employee's promotion, DHS... basic pay after promotion may not be less than the minimum rate of the higher band. (b) DHS will issue...
Uddin, Ektear MD.; Gao, Qijie; Mamun-Ur-Rashid, MD.
Purpose: Globally, many extension professionals and policy-makers are advocating fee based services, in addressing the fund shortage and sustainable provision of agricultural advisory services. Hence, the article attempts to expose the farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) as agricultural extension in Bangladesh is experiencing chronic fund crisis.…
Mattson, Jeffrey M.; Richards, Jim
This article examines, from a biomechanical perspective, three issues related to early specialization: overuse injuries, the developmental aspects, and the performance aspects. It concludes that "there is no evidence that early specialization causes overuse injuries or hinders growth and maturation." At the same time, early specialization has…
Manning, Alan; Petrongolo, Barbara
Women in Britain who work part-time have, on average, hourly earnings about 25% less than that of women working full-time. This gap has widened greatly over the past 30 years. This paper tries to explain this part-time pay penalty. It shows that a sizeable part of the penalty can be explained by the differing characteristics pf FT and PT women. Inclusion of standard demographics halves the estimate of the pay penalty. But inclusion of occupation makes the pay penalty very small, suggesting th...
Rokicka, Magdalena; Ruzik, Anna
This paper addresses the issue of the gender pay gap in the formal and informal labour markets in Poland. The authors verify the hypothesis of the existence of a gender pay gap in informal work and compare this gap with the one observed in the formal (registered) labour market. Various analyses of available data show that size and characteristics of gender pay gap differ depending on the level of earnings. The inequality of earnings among unregistered women and men is more pronounced at the b...
Grosch, Kerstin; Rau, Holger A.
In this paper, we analyze how pay-regime procedures affect antisocial behavior at the workplace. In a real-effort experiment we vary two determinants of pay regimes: discrimination and justification of payments by performance. In our Discrimination treatment half of the workforce is randomly selected and promoted and participate in a tournament (high-income workers) whereas the other half receives no payment (lowincome workers). Afterwards, antisocial behavior is measured by a Joy-of-Destruct...
Dammann, James E.; Vaughn, Sharon
This article describes the usefulness of a scientific approach to improving knowledge and practice in special education. Of four approaches to knowledge (superstition, folklore, craft, and science), craft and science are supported and implications for special education drawn including the need to bridge the gulf between research knowledge and…
Les périodes de transformation risquent de provoquer le chaos, mais elles sont également porteuses de rapides progrès sur le plan social et économique. Le CRDI est intervenu dans quelque 25 pays ayant amorcé une transition de la guerre à la paix, de la dictature à la démocratie ou d'une économie fermée à une.
Verbic, Miroslav; Slabe-Erker, Renata
When the market for a certain good is competitive enough, economic activities can be studied by the market pricing mechanism. Because this is usually not feasible in case of environmental goods with embodied natural and cultural heritage, particular methods for economic valuation of such goods have to be applied. The present article represents the economic valuation of the Landscape Development and Protection Area of Volcji Potok, which is an important Slovenian cultural landscape area with internationally recognized qualities. For this purpose we combined classical contingent valuation with a closed-version of discrete choice method, where the protest responses have been removed. By using econometric analysis we obtained the value of willingness-to-pay and established its determinants. We also made an attempt to control for different biases that arise in such analyses. At last, we used the adjusted average individual value of willingness-to-pay to calculate the aggregate willingness-to-pay. The present analysis represents one of the very few applications of the method to Central and Eastern European countries. (author)
Farhar, B.C.; Houston, A.H.
National polls reveal widespread public preference and willingness to pay more for renewables. ``Green pricing`` programs attempt to capitalize on these preferences and on an expressed willingness to pay more for environmental protection. This report explores the utility option of green pricing as a method of aggregating public preferences for renewables. It summarizes national data on public preferences for renewables and willingness to pay (WTP) for electricity from renewable energy sources; examines utility market studies on WTP for renewables and green-pricing program features; critiques utility market research on green pricing; and discusses experiences with selected green-pricing programs. The report draws inferences for program design and future research. Given the limited experiences with the programs so far, the evidence suggests that programs in which customers pay a monthly premium for a specific renewable electricity product elicit a higher monthly financial commitment per customer than programs asking for contributions to unspecified future actions involving renewables. The experience with green-pricing programs is summarized and factors likely to affect customer participation are identified.
McAtee, L F
Do you want a strategy that guarantees the success of kaizen in your organization? This article will provide insights as to why one organization may succeed and another fails. Learn why the "Special K" is the difference. Idea will be presented on how to develop the "Special K" in others and ourselves. You will be challenged to become a "kaizener".
Nobody goes into teaching to get rich, but that's no excuse not to pay teachers as professionals. Compensation is one of the most important factors in determining who enters the teaching profession and how long they stay--yet 90 percent of all U.S. school districts pay teachers without any regard for their actual performance with students,…
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to evaluate the association between participation in performance pay systems and employees’ satisfaction with job conditions. A survey method was utilized to collect data from subordinates who serve at disaster management agencies in West Malaysia. The findings of SmartPLS path model analysis display four important outcomes: first, the relationship between participation in pay plans and satisfaction with intrinsic job conditions was not significant. Second, relationship between participation in pay operations and satisfaction with intrinsic job conditions was not significant. Third, the relationship between participation in pay plans and satisfaction with extrinsic job conditions was significance. Finally, the relationship between participation in pay operations and satisfaction with extrinsic job conditions was significance. This finding demonstrates that participation in pay plans and participation in pay operations do not act as important predictors of employees’ satisfaction with intrinsic job conditions. Conversely, participation in pay plans and participation in pay operations do act as important predictors of employees’ satisfaction with extrinsic job conditions. Further, this research delivers discussion, implications and conclusion.
Crawford, Anthony J; Ezzell, John R; Miles, James A
The authors test the deregulation hypothesis that posits that bank CEO compensation became more sensitive to performance as bank management became less regulated. They observe a significant increase in pay-performance sensitivities from their 1976-81 regulation subsample to their 1982-88 deregulation subsample. These increases in pay sensitivities after deregulation are observed for salary and bonus, stock options, and common stock holdings. The authors observe increases in the pay-performanc...
This article describes every aspects needed to manage special library and complete with its example and explanation. The author uses the American corner UGM and PSKP UGM (Pusat Studi Keamanan dan Perdamaian = Security and Peace Studies Center) Library as a case study of the implementation special library management in UGM university.
This article makes a case for special classes for gifted students and answers objections to special classes raised by the middle school movement and the cooperative learning movement. A sample "Celebration of Me" unit taught to gifted seventh graders which involved poetry, literature, personal development, art, music, and physical fitness is…
The German labor market is characterized by marked occupational segregation between women and men. The median earnings in female dominated occupations are lower than those in male dominated professions. This is one of the reasons for the gender pay gap. However, there are also large differences in earnings between men and women within occupations. These profession-specific gender pay gaps are smaller in professions with a high proportion of employees in the public sector. This finding indicat...
Kangasniemi, Mari; Kauhanen, Antti
We study the impact of performance-related pay (PRP) on gender wage differences using Finnish linked employer-employee panel data. Controlling for unobserved person and firm effects, we find that bonuses increase women's earnings slightly less than men's, but the economic significance of the difference is negligible. Piece rates and reward rates, however, tend to increase gender wage differentials. Thus, the nature of a performance related pay plan is important for gauging the impact of PRP o...
Lawrence M. Kahn
There are large international differences in the gender pay gap. In some developed countries in 2010–2012, women were close to earnings parity with men, while in others large gaps remained. Since women and men have different average levels of education and experience and commonly work in different industries and occupations, multiple factors can influence the gender pay gap. Among them are skill supply and demand, unions, and minimum wages, which influence the economywide wage returns to educ...
Buckman, David G.; Tran, Henry; Young, I. Phillip
The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of collective bargaining on teacher pay satisfaction and offer knowledge of the factors contributing to the pay satisfaction of public elementary school teachers. The study focuses on how human capital, occupational characteristics, and job related characteristics impact the pay satisfaction of…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of locality rate as basic pay... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Locality-Based Comparability Payments § 531.610 Treatment of... part 550, subpart L, for accumulated and accrued annual leave; (m) Grade and pay retention under 5 U.S...
... expectations and is entitled to any pay increase associated with a supplement adjustment, as provided in... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for pay increase associated...) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality and...
Christine Frison & Thomas Joie
Full Text Available Cet article analyse l'élaboration de législations nationales adaptées et conformes au Protocole de Cartagena en matière de biotechnologie et de biosécurité par certains pays d'Afrique de l'Ouest participant au 'Projet de Développement de Cadre Nationaux de Biosécurité' du PNUE-FEM. Les auteurs tentent de dégager les perspectives de réglementation et les difficultés potentielles auxquelles ces pays pourront être confrontés. Ainsi, sont analysés les différents moyens et outils choisis par les pays ouest-africains pour répondre aux droits et obligations découlant du Protocole ainsi qu'à leurs besoins et contraintes internes. Dans la mesure où ces pays n'ont pas encore adopté de réglementation nationale, cet article s'appuie prudemment sur les cadres nationaux de biosécurité développés pour traiter des questions clés de biosécurité: les questions institutionnelles et réglementaires, les procédures de décision, la participation du public ainsi que d'autres considérations pertinentes pour ces pays.
Bachelor thesis "Don't Pay Taxes, Save Your Money!" focuses on the impact of the existence of tax havens on private and public sector. On the theoretical level, it shows the attractivity of tax havens for sufficiently large firms that can afford to pay costs of tax planning and profit manipulations. On the empirical level, it shows that tax havens are really the most successful jurisdictions in attracting foreign investors. In the end, two models of tax competition are introduced in order to ...
I investigate the public-private pay gap using Italian microdata covering the period 1980-2006. Even after controlling for observable characteristics of the labour force, I find a positive wage premium for the public sector, almost negligible during the eighties and averaging at about 12 percent in the period 1993-2006. While the pay gap for women and workers in southern regions turns out to be higher than the average in the whole sample period, the greater advantage from working in the publi...
Anyam, Osemeke E.; Fashogbon, Ayodele E.; Oni, Omobowale A.
This study examined consumer’s willingness to pay for food safety attributes in bread in Lagos metropolis. It empirically analyzed the factors driving willingness to pay for improved bread and the effect of attributes on willingness to pay and mean willingness to pay for improved bread. The data for the study using a well-structured questionnaire containing Choice Experiment (CE) questions for eliciting willingness to pay was collected from 150 respondents using a two-stage random sampling te...
Fransen , Eva; Plantenga , Janneke; Vlasblom , Jan Dirk
Abstract Despite major improvements in women?s labour market attachment, women still earn considerably less than men. International research shows that the persistence of the gender pay gap may be due to the fact that although the gap in characteristics between men and women is diminishing, changes in the wage structure counteract this change. This article will study whether this `swimming upstream? phenomenon is also playing a role in the rather slow convergence between male and f...
Full Text Available As an increasing number of people purchase goods and services online, micropayment systems are becoming particularly important for mobile and electronic commerce. We have designed and developed such a system called M&E-NetPay (Mobile and Electronic NetPay. With open interoperability and mobility, M&E-NetPay uses web services to connect brokers and vendors, providing secure, flexible and reliable credit services over the Internet. In particular, M&E-NetPay makes use of a secure, inexpensive and debit-based off-line protocol that allows vendors to interact only with customers, after validating coins. The design of the architecture and protocol of M&E-NetPay are presented, together with the implementation of its prototype in ringtone and wallpaper sites. To validate our system, we have conducted its evaluations on performance, usability and heuristics. Furthermore, we compare our system to the CORBA-based (Common Object Request Broker Architecture off-line micro-payment systems. The results have demonstrated that M&E-NetPay outperforms the .NET-based M&E-NetPay system in terms of performance and user satisfaction.
Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius
To simulate a market introduction of Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and to study the effect of a Pay as You Speed (PAYS) concept, a field trial with 153 drivers was conducted during 2007–2009. The participants drove under PAYS conditions for a shorter or a longer period. The PAYS concept......, with and without incentive crossed with informative ISA present or absent. The results showed that ISA is an efficient tool for reducing speeding particularly on rural roads. The analysis of speed data demonstrated that the proportion of distance driven above the speed where the ISA equipment responded (PDA...... level. Both informative ISA and incentive ISA reduced the PDA, but there was no statistically significant interaction. Informative reduced it more than the incentive....
Within the framework of measures to simplify and rationalise administrative procedures, the FI and IT Departments proposed a project to introduce electronic pay and leave statements. The project was launched at the beginning of 2004 after it had been approved by the Director of the Finance and Human Resources Departments. The project was presented to the GTPA (Groupe de Travail sur les Procédures Administratives) and discussed at the meeting of the SCC (Standing Concertation Committee) on 8 July 2004. The system designed and developed by the IT Department is now operational. What will change? Members of the personnel who currently receive a paper copy of their pay and/or leave statement will, in future, receive monthly e-mail notification of their electronic pay and leave statement, instead of the paper document. The current project does not affect retired members of the personnel. Each person receiving the e-mail notification will be invited to consult these electronic statements by clicking on a link p...
Daly, Brian P; Giovannetti, Tania; Zabel, T Andrew; Chute, Douglas L
This special issue of The Clinical Neuropsychologist focuses on advances in the emerging subspecialty of pediatric neuropsychology. The national and international contributions in this issue cover a range of key clinical, research, training, and professional issues specific to pediatric neuropsychology. The genesis for this project developed out of a series of talks at the Philadelphia Pediatric Neuropsychology Symposium in 2010, hosted by the Stein Family Fellow, the Department of Psychology of the College of Arts and Sciences at Drexel University, and the Philadelphia Neuropsychology Society. Articles that explore clinical practice issue focus on the assessment of special medical populations with congenital and/or acquired central nervous system insults. Research articles investigate the core features of developmental conditions, the use of technology in neuropsychological research studies, and large sample size genomic, neuropsychological, and imaging studies of under-represented populations. The final series of articles examine new considerations in training, advocacy, and subspecialty board certification that have emerged in pediatric neuropsychology. This introductory article provides an overview of the articles in this special issue and concluding thoughts about the future of pediatric neuropsychology.
Pay equity, the concept of equal pay for equal or comparable work, will continue to be of paramount importance to women as the 20th century draws to a close. While it might have been anticipated that women in academic settings would enjoy pay equity, clinical teaching in nursing education provides a model for gender discrimination as related to women's work. Elements of proposal development and a case study for contesting pay inequity are presented.
Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; Labella, Cynthia
Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout.
Desmarais, Serge; Curtis, James
Examines whether gender differences in recent pay experience influence entitlement views by providing different standards for female and male students' judgments of their entitlements. Responses from 309 undergraduate students reveal that income gaps in the full-time working world extended to their own recent work experiences and that these past…
Korsgaard, M Audrey; Meglino, Bruce M; Lester, Scott W; Jeong, Sophia S
The definition of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has evolved from one in which the behavior is unrewarded to one in which rewards play a significant role. As a result, little is known about mechanisms that sustain unrewarded OCB. We used the theory of other orientation to examine 2 mechanisms based on the norm of reciprocity: the obligation to reciprocate the benefits already received from another ("paying you back") and the expected reciprocity that one's actions will stimulate future benefits from another ("paying me forward"). We propose that these mechanisms are more or less influential depending on one's motivational orientation. In 3 experiments using both trait and state indicators of other orientation, we found that the prosocial behavior of individuals higher in other orientation was more strongly influenced by the obligation to reciprocate and less affected by the expectation of reciprocity. 2010 APA, all rights reserved
Damgaard, Ciara Therése
The focus of this article is the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the extent to which it can be said that the Special Court has already challenged, or will, in the future, challenge the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. In this regard, an analysis is undertaken of the Special Court......'s Statute, Rules of Procedure and Evidence and practice to date, in order to determine its treatment of gender-based crimes and whether it can be said that the Special Court for Sierra Leone challenges the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. Udgivelsesdato: december 2004...
Judge, Timothy A.; Piccolo, Ronald F.; Podsakoff, Nathan P.; Shaw, John C.; Rich, Bruce L.
Whereas the motivational aspects of pay are well-documented, the notion that high pay leads to high levels of satisfaction is not without debate. The current study used meta-analysis to estimate the population correlation between pay level and measures of pay and job satisfaction. Cumulating across 115 correlations from 92 independent samples,…
Elliott, William; Friedline, Terri
Changes in financial aid policies raise questions about students being asked to pay too much for college and whether parents' college savings for their children helps reduce the burden on students to pay for college. Using trivariate probit analysis with predicted probabilities, in this exploratory study we find recent changes in the financial aid…
Runnemark, Emma; Hedman, Jonas; Xiao, Xiao
We conduct an incentivized experiment to study the effect of the payment method on spending. We find that the willingness to pay is higher when subjects pay with debit cards compared to cash. The result is robust to controlling for cash-on-hand constraints, spending type, price familiarity...
Porter, Michael E; Kaplan, Robert S
The United States stands at a crossroads in how to pay for health care. Fee for service, the dominant payment model in the U.S. and many other countries, is now widely recognized as perhaps the single biggest obstacle to improving health care delivery. A battle is currently raging, outside of the public eye, between the advocates of two radically different payment approaches: capitation and bundled payments. The stakes are high, and the outcome will define the shape of the health care system for many years to come, for better or for worse. In this article, the authors argue that although capitation may deliver modest savings in the short run, it brings significant risks and will fail to fundamentally change the trajectory of a broken system. The bundled payment model, in contrast, triggers competition between providers to create value where it matters--at the individual patient level--and puts health care on the right path. The authors provide robust proof-of-concept examples of bundled payment initiatives in the U.S. and abroad, address the challenges of transitioning to bundled payments, and respond to critics' concerns about obstacles to implementation.
... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special meetings. 6.2 Section 6.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.2 Special meetings. Consistent with the provisions of §§ 6.6 and 7.5 of these bylaws, the Chairman...
Hadidi, Muna S.; Al Khateeb, Jamal M.
Arab countries have undertaken various measures to develop special education programmes and services over the last three decades; nevertheless, major challenges remain regarding the expansion of these programmes and services and improving their quality. "This article provides an update on disability and special education in Arab…
The Dilemmas of Adopting Performance Related Pay as a Reward Strategy for ... over automatic pay increase (formal and transparent reward systems linked to ... of reward and compensation, and low level of motivation and performance.
Malonek, H. R.; Falcão, M. I.
Considering the foundation of Quaternionic Analysis by R. Fueter and his collaborators in the beginning of the 1930s as starting point of Clifford Analysis, we can look back to 80 years of work in this field. However the interest in multivariate analysis using Clifford algebras only started to grow significantly in the 70s. Since then a great amount of papers on Clifford Analysis referring different classes of Special Functions have appeared. This situation may have been triggered by a more systematic treatment of monogenic functions by their multiple series development derived from Gegenbauer or associated Legendre polynomials (and not only by their integral representation). Also approaches to Special Functions by means of algebraic methods, either Lie algebras or through Lie groups and symmetric spaces gained by that time importance and influenced their treatment in Clifford Analysis. In our talk we will rely on the generalization of the classical approach to Special Functions through differential equations with respect to the hypercomplex derivative, which is a more recently developed tool in Clifford Analysis. In this context special attention will be payed to the role of Special Functions as intermediator between continuous and discrete mathematics. This corresponds to a more recent trend in combinatorics, since it has been revealed that many algebraic structures have hidden combinatorial underpinnings.
Reynolds, Travis; Kolodinsky, Jane; Murray, Byron
This article examines consumer willingness to pay for energy-saving compact fluorescent light bulbs using the results of a stated preferences study conducted in the Caribbean island nation of Saint Lucia. Geographic location, low income status, and age are found to affect willingness-to-pay for compact fluorescent lighting, while higher income status and other demographic variables appear to have minimal or no significant impacts. Energy efficiency knowledge is associated with increased willingness-to-pay for energy-efficient bulbs and with increased use of compact fluorescent lighting. Contrary to theoretical expectations, past purchase of compact fluorescent bulbs is found to have no impact on self-reported willingness to pay. We hypothesize that this null result is due to the recent emergence of low-cost, low-quality compact fluorescent bulbs in the Saint Lucian lighting market, which may be negatively influencing consumers' preferences and expectations regarding energy-efficient lighting. Findings support the argument that government-sponsored education and subsidy programs will likely result in increased use of energy-saving technologies in Saint Lucia. But such behavioral changes may not be sustained in the long run unless low quality bulbs – the “lemons” of the compact fluorescent lighting market – can be clearly identified by consumers. - Highlights: ▶ We model how knowledge, attitudes, and past purchase affect CFL adoption. ▶ Saint Lucian consumers have some knowledge of and favorable attitudes toward CFLs. ▶ Energy efficiency knowledge increases stated willingness-to-pay (WTP) for CFLs. ▶ Past purchase does not increase WTP; low-quality ‘lemons’ may influence consumers. ▶ Policy can lower consumer risks in lighting markets where low quality bulbs exist.
Ehrenfeld, T; Coil, M; Berwick, D; Nyberg, T; Beer, M
Three years after launching the team-based Quality For All program, Top Chemical Company CEO Sam Verde was searching for a team-based compensation system that would reflect his company's new philosophy. With a committee gathered to discuss the issue, Verde confronts the fact that changing pay plans is an issue few people can agree on. "Very simply," explains vice president for compensation Gilbert Porterfield, "the plan is designed to give employees working on teams real incentives for constant improvement and overall excellence. The variable aspect of the system pays employees for the performance of their group." This doesn't sit well with the others. "It's going to punish teams like mine for the failings of others instead of rewarding us for the work we do and have already done," says packaging team representative Ruth Gibson. Another committee member feels that team-based anything is a "motivational happy land that doesn't square with how people really work." While Verde likes the proposed pay plan, he has doubts over whether his employees will accept the risk. Upper management has no problem basing 60% of its pay on TopChem's performance. But getting line employees to risk part of their salaries--even as little as 4%--on the ups and downs of the chemical industry may be more trouble than it's worth. Four experts on compensation reveal where Top Chemical went wrong in its plan and how Sam Verde might bring about change successfully.
When chancellor George Osborne accepted what might have been a couple of luncheon vouchers from Google in payment of ten years' unpaid UK tax, the Department of Health submitted its evidence to the Pay Review Body in favour of extending 'plain time working' and introducing performance-related incremental pay progression.
Li, Xuemei; Wan, Xia; Pang, Yajuan; Zhou, Lanshu
This study aims to investigate the willingness to pay (WTP) for a home-based rehabilitation service and explore the influencing factors of WTP among older adults in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional design was used. A questionnaire survey based on the contingent valuation method was conducted by face-to-face survey over 3 months. Only 242 (44%) participants were willing to pay for a home-based rehabilitation service. The median amount they were willing to pay was RMB 8 (US$1.15) per visit. Older adults who had higher monthly income, had at least one partner who worked, and had medical insurance were willing to pay more for the service. Older adults showed low WTP for a home-based rehabilitation service. Economic status and health condition are the significant influencing factors of WTP. Studies on recipients' precise needs and ability to pay are required before home-based services are implemented.
Barbezat, Debra A.
Traces the evolution of salary-equity studies over time, and how the findings have changed with regard to pay differences by gender and race/ethnicity. Reviews the literature on salary equity for both faculty and nonfaculty academic employees. (EV)
Hansen, Jan V.; Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Lau, Morten
Danish population, and information on household income and wealth from registers at Statistics Denmark. The results show that the willingness to pay is marginally higher than the actuarially fair value under expected utility theory, but significantly higher under rank-dependent utility theory, and up......We estimate how much Danish households are willing to pay for auto, home, and house insurance. We use a unique combination of claims data from a large Danish insurance company, measures of individual risk attitudes and discount rates from a field experiment with a representative sample of the adult...
11 mars 2014 ... La contribution totale que fait un pays aux pays en développement donne donc une meilleure mesure de sa générosité que le seul montant de l'aide, a conclu Mme Adelman. La compassion est l'affaire de tous dans un pays, et pas uniquement du gouvernement. Kelly Haggart est rédactrice principale au ...
McGinnis, J. Randy
A fundamental social justice issue worldwide is how to meet the needs of all learners, especially those with special needs who historically have faced discrimination, exclusion, and oppression due to special needs (physical, cognitive, or behavioral dimensions). This article focuses on the key questions that researchers interested in improving…
Concrete is the most convenient material when large-scale radiation protection is needed. Thus, special concretes for nuclear purposes are used in various facilities like reactors, reprocessing centers, storage sites, accelerators, hospitals with nuclear medicine equipment, food ionization centers etc.. The recent advances made in civil engineering for the improvement of concrete durability and compactness are for a large part transposable to protection concretes. This article presents the basic knowledge about protection concretes with the associated typological and technological aspects. A large part is devoted to the intrinsic properties of concretes and to their behaviour in irradiation and temperature conditions: 1 - definition and field of application of special protective concretes; 2 - evolution of concepts and technologies (durability of structures, techniques of formulation, new additives, market evolution); 3 - design of protective structures (preliminary study, radiation characteristics, thermal constraints, damping and dimensioning, mechanical criteria); 4 - formulation of special concretes (general principles, granulates, hydraulic binders, pulverulent additives, water/cement ratio, reference composition of some special concretes); 5 - properties of special concretes (damping and thermo-mechanical properties); 6 - induced-irradiation and temperature phenomena (activation, radiolysis, mineralogical transformations, drying, shrinking, creep, corrosion of reinforcement). (J.S.)
Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the citation performance of open access (OA and toll access (TA papers published in author-pays open access journals. Design – Longitudinal citation analysis. Setting – Publications in Springer and Elsevier’s author-pays open access journals. Subjects – 633 journals published using the author-pays model. This model encompasses both journals where the article processing charge (APC is required and journals in which authors can request open access and voluntarily pay APCs for accepted manuscripts. Methods – The authors identified APC funded journals (journals funded by mandatory author processing charges as well as those where authors voluntarily paid a fee in order to have their articles openly accessible from both Springer and Elsevier, and analyzed papers published in these journals from 2007 to 2011. The authors excluded journals that adopted the APC model later than 2007. To identify Springer titles, the authors created a search strategy to identify open access articles in SpringerLink. A total of 576 journals were identified and double checked in the Sherpa-Romeo database (a database of copyright and open access self-archiving policies of academic journals to verify their open access policies. The authors then downloaded the journal content using SpringerLink, and using Springer Author-Mapper, separated out the open access articles from the toll access articles. In order to identify the Elsevier APC funded journals, the authors referred to “Open Access Journal Directory: A-Z,” which contained 35 OA journals (p. 584. Once the authors consulted “Sponsored articles” issued by Elsevier and verified titles in Sherpa-Romeo, they identified 57 journals that fit the “author-pays” model. The bibliographic information was downloaded and OA articles were separated from TA articles. The authors confirmed that all journals were indeed OA publications by downloading the full-text from off-campus locations
Dolton, Peter J.; Makepeace, Gerald; Marcenaro-Gutierrez, Oscar
This paper examines the impact of the Pay Review Bodies (PRBs) on the public sector pay of their remit groups. We compare the real weekly earnings of groups of workers in occupations covered by PRBs, in the remainder of the public sector and in the private sector using LFS data from 1993 to 2006 for 10 occupational sub-groups. We describe how the pattern of relative occupational pay varies over time and by gender and can be interpreted as compensating pay differentials. In several public sect...
Dolton, Peter; Makepeace, Gerry
This paper examines the impact of the Pay Review Bodies (PRBs) on the public sector pay of their remit groups. We compare the real weekly earnings of groups of workers in occupations covered by PRBs, in the remainder of the public sector and in the private sector using LFS data from 1993 to 2006 for 10 occupational sub-groups. We describe how the pattern of relative occupational pay varies over time and by gender and can be interpreted as compensating pay differentials. In several public sect...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What special definitions does OWCP use in connection with Part E wage-loss determinations? 30.801 Section 30.801 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS... paying compensation based on wage-loss under Part E of the Act, OWCP will apply the following definitions...
Systems of universal health coverage may aspire to provide care based on need and not ability to pay; the complexities of this aspiration (conceptual, practical, and ethical) call for normative analysis. This special issue arises in the wake of a judicial inquiry into preferential access in the Canadian province of Alberta, the Vertes Commission. I describe this inquiry and set out a taxonomy of forms of differential and preferential access. Papers in this special issue focus on the conceptual specification of health system boundaries (the concept of medical need) and on the normative questions raised by complex models of funding and delivery of care, where patients, providers, and services cross system boundaries.
Durieux-Paillard, S; Dao, M Dominicé; Perron, N Junod
When consulting with migrant patients, general practitioners should pay special attention to the quality of their communication, because language barriers and cultural differences may arise. They must also be aware that life events experienced in the home country, during transit and in the host country can impact negatively on their patients' health, and thus a detailed history must be carefully obtained. Finally, they must be conscious that the migratory policies of the host country can influence the delivery of health care to migrant patients as well as their health status.
This thesis investigates the behaviour of electricity markets under marginal and pay-as-bid pricing. Marginal pricing is believed to yield the maximum social welfare and is currently implemented by most electricity markets. However, in view of recent electricity market failures, pay-as-bid has been extensively discussed as a possible alternative to marginal pricing. In this research, marginal and pay-as-bid pricing have been analyzed in electricity markets with both perfect and imperfect competition. The perfect competition case is studied under both exact and uncertain system marginal cost prediction. The comparison of the two pricing methods is conducted through two steps: (i) identify the best offer strategy of the generating companies (gencos); (ii) analyze the market performance under these optimum genco strategies. The analysis results together with numerical simulations show that pay-as-bid and marginal pricing are equivalent in a perfect market with exact system marginal cost prediction. In perfect markets with uncertain demand prediction, the two pricing methods are also equivalent but in an expected value sense. If we compare from the perspective of second order statistics, all market performance measures exhibit much lower values under pay-as-bid than under marginal pricing. The risk of deviating from the mean is therefore much higher under marginal pricing than under pay-as-bid. In an imperfect competition market with exact demand prediction, the research shows that pay-as-bid pricing yields lower consumer payments and lower genco profits. This research provides quantitative evidence that challenges some common claims about pay-as-bid pricing. One is that under pay-as-bid, participants would soon learn how to offer so as to obtain the same or higher profits than what they would have obtained under marginal pricing. This research however shows that, under pay-as-bid, participants can at best earn the same profit or expected profit as under marginal
... Payment Accuracy Through a ``Do Not Pay List'' Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and... Management and Budget (OMB) in consultation with agencies, shall be collectively known as the ``Do Not Pay... process for determining whether the information provided on the ``Do Not Pay List'' is sufficient to stop...
... 3206-AL88 Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific or Professional Positions AGENCY: U.S. Office of... to amend rules for setting and adjusting pay of senior-level (SL) and scientific or professional (ST) employees. The Senior Professional Performance Act of 2008 changes pay for these employees by providing for...
Full Text Available Selection principles are an important stage in the creation of a national bibliography.The article outlines the selection of the national output to be included in Slovenian bibliography. It also presents theoretical basis for selection in general, with the emphasis on international guidelines and on the development of national principles and professional outlines. Statistical data and examples give more detailed analysis of selection criteria of articles regarding different types of serial publications. Results of the study show that selection criteria for Slovenian bibliography are to be constantly verified due to the dynamics of the national publishing industry. Nevertheless, the main features of selection criteria remain unchanged: lasting value of subject matter with the emphasis on scientific research and expert knowledge.
Samuelson, Todd; Coker, Cait
Instruction is a vital part of the academic librarian's public services mission, but the teaching efforts of special collections librarians can be overlooked due to the culture and particularities of teaching in an archival setting. This article documents the challenges special collections librarians face in integrating their teaching program into…
... individual pay increase. An employee who meets or exceeds performance expectations (i.e., has a rating of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for pay increase associated...) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Setting and...
Full Text Available The article focuses on the presence and the absence of windows, and specifically windows with shutters, car windows and rear-view mirrors in the novels by Haitian writer Louis-Philippe Dalembert. In his work, we can identify three tendencies. First of all, windows with shutters allow the passage from childhood to adulthood. Secondly, the absence of openings projects the character in heterotopias, which cause a language breakdown. Thirdly, the use of literary windows is linked with vagabondage and pays-temps. An image of the landscape is selected through a frame and we have the perception of a fragmentary vision. According to Dalembert, this world vision becomes a narrative element and a creative technique. This partial image which emerges from the symbolic space of the window allows us to talk about the childhood of the narrator from different perspectives: we can identify a geographical and temporal landscape (pays-temps thanks to a reflection on the surface of the window and the possibility of remembering and imaging the past. Fiction is able to complete omissions, gaps, lapses.
Pham, Hung T; Reilly, Barry
This paper uses mean and quantile regression analysis to investigate the gender pay gap for the wage employed in Vietnam over the period 1993 to 2002. It finds that the Doi moi reforms appear to have been associated with a sharp reduction in gender pay gap disparities for the wage employed. The average gender pay gap in this sector halved between 1993 and 2002 with most of the contraction evident by 1998. There has also been a narrowing in the gender pay gap at most selected points of the con...
... each such service; and (4) A statement of the pay-per-call service provider's name, business address... name and mailing address of any provider of pay-per-call services offered by that carrier; and (2... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure and dissemination of pay-per-call...
This study is concerned with decomposing the gender pay gap in the Czech Republic. It aims not only to compare male and female wage-equations but also to uncover the gender pay gap structure. The decision of many women not to participate in the labor market can be influenced by potentially low wages. Their entry into the labor market could increase the gender pay gap in large measure. The advantage of this study is that it uses a selection method to estimate the male and female wage equations...
van der Vijver, Kees; Zoomer, Olga
Cet article se propose de rendre compte des recherches effectuées en matière de police de proximité aux Pays-Bas. Avant d’aborder le problème de l’impact d’une stratégie de police de proximité, il décrit l’organisation du système policier hollandais sans la compréhension duquel il est difficile de suivre les évolutions qui se sont déroulées durant les dernières décennies jusqu’aux réformes en cours aujourd’hui. À partir des recherches déjà effectuées, il examine les résultats des différentes ...
Combes, Jean-Baptiste; Delattre, Eric; Elliott, Bob; Skåtun, Diane
Spatial wage theory suggests that employers in different regions may offer different pay rates to reflect local amenities and cost of living. Higher wages may be required to compensate for a less pleasant environment or a higher cost of living. If wages in a competing sector within an area are less flexible and therefore less competitive this may lead to an inability to employ staff. This paper considers the market for nursing staff in France where there is general regulation of wages and public hospitals compete for staff with the private hospital and non-hospital sectors. We consider two types of nursing staff, registered and assistant nurses and first establish the degree of spatial variation in the competitiveness of pay of nurses in public hospitals. We then consider whether these spatial variations are associated with variation in the employment of nursing staff. We find that despite regulation of pay in the public and private sector, there are substantial local variations in the competitiveness of nurses' pay. We find evidence that the spatial variations in the competitiveness of pay are associated with relative numbers of assistant nurses but not registered nurses. While we find the influence of the competitiveness of pay is small, it suggests that nonpay conditions may be an important factor in adjusting the labour market as might be expected in such a regulated market.
Bisset, George S. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)
Compensation models in radiology take a variety of forms, but regardless of practice type, successful models must reward productivity, be simple, and epitomize fairness. The ideal model should also be flexible enough to transition, based upon the changing strategic goals of a department. The plan should be constructed around rewarding the behaviors that the organization values. In this minisymposium article the author presents the value of different types of compensation plans and discusses advantages and disadvantages. Finally, the author presents a pay-for-performance model that has had long-term success at a private-turned-academic practice in pediatric radiology. (orig.)
... worksite, and pay as of the day immediately before the date of conversion or movement out of NSPS. An... employee's pay band. If the employee's adjusted salary equals or exceeds the step 4 rate of the second... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion or movement out of NSPS pay...
Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and severe air quality deterioration in Pakistan have increased citizens’s concern towards air pollution. This study, conducted in November, 2016, aimed to develop relationship between degraded air quality and resident’s willingness to pay for improved air quality in city of Lahore, Pakistan through contingent valuation method to quantify an individual’s willingness to pay for improved air quality. Hypothetical market was created and 250 respondents, selected through random sampling, were asked to respond to pre tested questionnaire. Results revealed that 92.5% of respondents showed positive willingness to pay and average predicted willingness to pay by each person was $9.86 per month. Respondents were willing to pay $118 per year which was 1.27% of their mean monthly income. Stepwise regression model was used to develop relationship between independent variables and willingness to pay. Most parameters accompanied by econometric analysis elaborated expected results. Results disclosed that annual household income, symptoms of respiratory diseases and self observed air pollution pointedly impact willingness to pay. It is concluded that despite of the fact that Pakistan is among the lower income countries with no rigid budget allocation for improvement in air quality, people of Pakistan are willing to pay to reduce air pollution load. One of the factor which effected the positivity of willingness to pay is that, a quite large number of people were suffering from pollution related respiratory disorders like asthma, chronic bronchitis, wheezing, cough, and chest congestion. Only 7.5% of respondents were not interested to pay for improved air quality which reported unconcerned attitude and lack of environmental awareness.
@@ The increasing demand for renewable energy has made the solar cell technology as one of the most significantresearch and development areas of today.Silicon based solar cells are the dominant photovoltaic products at the present time, but the relatively high costs are barriers for their broad applications.Research has been active worldwide in developing other photovoltaic technologies that use cheap materials and can be easily manufactured.Organic solar cells have attracted a lot of interests recently due to their potential to be low cost photovoltaic technologies.This special issue of the Frontiers of Optoelectronics in China has collected research articles by a number of Chinese and international experts.It is aimed to broaden the readers' view about some of the recent developments and challenges in this important R&D field.Thirteen excellent papers are in this special issue including 4 review articles and 9 research articles.
Hansen, Jan V.; Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Lau, Morten I.
We estimate the maximum amount that Danish households are willing to pay for three different types of insurance: auto, home and house insurance. We use a unique combination of claims data from the largest private insurance company in Denmark, measures of individual risk attitudes and discount rates...... possible states of nature, where all uncertainty is realized in the initial period and any loss incurred by an accident is subtracted from initial wealth. The estimated willingness to pay is based on annual claims and should thus be considered as an annual premium. Since there is some uncertainty about...... of the insurance claims....
Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn
This paper tests the hypotheses that overall wage compression and low female supply relative to demand reduce a country's gender pay gap. Using micro-data for 22 countries over the 1985-94 period, we find that more compressed male wage structures and lower female net supply are both associated with a lower gender pay gap. Since it is likely that labor market institutions are responsible for an important portion of international differences in wage inequality, the inverse relationship between ...
Melissa A. Hubbard
Full Text Available Literature suggests that teaching Information Literacy (IL as an intellectual framework, rather than a set of computer-based tools, can be challenging for numerous reasons. At the same time, other articles describe the unique value of using hands-on investigations of special collections materials to facilitate the development of critical thinking skills and IL in discipline-specific contexts for upper-level students. This article reports on a collaboration between an IL instructor and a special collections librarian to create a hands-on special collections experience for entry-level IL students. We found that exposing these students to these materials can improve their IL and research skills. We explain our methods for designing and assessing such class sessions, and report on our results with students.
... currency to be deposited shall be that amount which, when converted at the rate of exchange used on the... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of paying tax by foreign currency. 301....6316-5 Manner of paying tax by foreign currency. (a) Time and place to pay. The unpaid tax required to...
Mauro Allan P. Amparado
Full Text Available This case study explores the experiences of an Eco Scholar as he pays his school fees from the sales of recyclables under the Eco Scholarship of a university. This special non-academic scholarship of a university in Central Visayas, Philippines covers the tuition fees and allowance of the scholar and gives hope to an aspiring Marine Engineering student to finish the program. As the scholar segregates bio-degradable and non-biodegradable wastes in the Materials Recovery Facility, the student reminisces his experiences as a child from a poor broken family, his financial constraints in college, and the challenges and joys of his present work. The narratives of this case also revealed the personality of the scholar, the qualities that an Echo scholar should possess, and the difficulties he encountered while at work. The scholar shares the values he learned from solid waste management, his day-to-day struggle to make ends meet, and his dreams and aspirations for the family.
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Using valid and reliable instruments is an important way for collecting data in qualitative researches. This paper is a report of a study conducted to examine the extent of psychometric properties of the scales in research papers published in Journal of Advanced Nursing.Methods: In this study, the Journal of Advanced Nursing was chosen for systematic review. All articles which were published during 2007-2009 in this journal were collected and articles related to instrument development were selected. Each article was completely reviewed to identify the methods of instrument validation and reliability.Results: From 980 articles published in Journal of Advanced Nursing during 2007-2009, 41 (4.18% articles were about research methodology. In these, 12 articles (29.27% were related to developing an instrument. In this study, review of 12 articles that published in Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2007-2009, showed that some of the articles did not measure psychometric properties properly, thus some of the developed scales need to measure other types of necessary validity. In addition, reliability testing needs to be performed on each instrument used in a study before other statistical analysis are performed. From 12 articles, all of the articles measured and reported Cronbach’s alpha, but four of them did not measure test-retest.Conclusions: Although researchers put a great emphasis on methodology and statistical analysis, they pay less attention to the psychometric properties of their new instruments. The authors of this article hope to draw the attention of researcher to the importance of measuring psychometric properties of new instruments.Keywords: PSYCHOMETRIC, SCALES, CRITICAL REVIEW
Full Text Available to achieve sustainable and green catalytic processes. The special issue contains 40 peer reviewed scientific papers that include four comprehensive review articles contributions from the invited experts in the respective catalysis fields....
Survey of pay satisfaction, job satisfaction and employee turnover in selected business organisations in Lagos, Nigeria. ... Global Journal of Social Sciences ... The study was an attempt at investigating the relatedness of pay satisfaction, job satisfaction and employee turnover in business organizations in Lagos Nigeria.
Nayga, R.M. Jr.; Woodward, R.; Aiew, W.
This paper focuses on estimating willingness to pay for reducing the risk of contracting foodborne illness using a non-hypothetical experiment utilizing real food products (i.e. prepared ground beef), real cash and actual exchange in a market setting. Respondents were given positive information about the nature of food irradiation. Single bounded and one and one-half bounded models are developed using dichotomous choice experiments. The results indicate that individuals are willing to pay for a reduction in the risk of foodborne illness once informed about the nature of food irradiation. Respondents are willing to pay a premium of about US $0.77 for 450 g (1 pound) of irradiated ground beef, which is higher than the cost of irradiating the product. (author)
Chambers, David W; Lyon, Lucinda J
To conduct an empirical investigation using qualitative techniques of the way dentists engage in the process of reading a technique-oriented journal article and what they pay attention to in the process. Grounded theory was used to identify how dentists read an article describing the fabrication of an interim prosthesis in the esthetic zone. Twenty-one experienced practitioners were videotaped, and their verbatim reflections were coded. The sequence of attending to various features of the paper was noted. Ninety-five percent of readers voiced specific, multiple attempts to identify or refine the main purpose of the article as they processed the material. All readers engaged in various activities to navigate through the article, including skipping and backtracking, and none "read" the article straight through. All readers also made repeated observations about the relevance of the technique to their personal practice situation. Eighty percent used some form of "distancing," whereby the content and value of the article were accepted, but the reader reserved the privilege of not being bound by the results because of technical, sponsorship, or methodological issues that "might be present." The quality of photographs was accepted as a proxy for the quality of technical work performed. Dentists actively customized the reading of a journal article that described a technical procedure. They imposed a non-linear structure for absorbing information and a standard of personal relevance, and, while accepting the results, created reasons for not necessarily having to accept them as applicable. The approach clinicians use in reading a procedural article may be different from the structure writers use in preparing a paper. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Webers, Casper; Essers, Ivette; van Tubergen, Astrid; Braun, Jürgen; Heldmann, Frank; Baraliakos, Xenofon; Boonen, Annelies
To investigate willingness to pay (WTP) for treatment with infliximab by patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and explore factors associated with WTP. Data from 85 patients participating in the European AS Infliximab Cohort (EASIC) open-label extension of the AS Study for the Evaluation of Recombinant Infliximab Therapy (ASSERT) were used. WTP was included at baseline in EASIC and comprised a hypothetical scenario exploring whether the patient would be willing to pay for beneficial effects of infliximab and, if so, what amount they would be willing to pay per administration. Factors associated with WTP were explored using zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regressions. Of the 85 patients, 63 (74.1%) were willing to pay, and among these, the mean amount they were willing to pay per administration was €275 (median €100 [interquartile range €50-200]). Multivariable ZINB analysis showed that Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society criteria for 20% improvement (ASAS20) response was associated with a 7-fold lower likelihood to pay 0 euros (odds ratio [OR] 0.14 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.03-0.71]) and a 3-fold increase in the amount willing to pay (exp(β) = 3.32 [95% CI 1.44-7.69]). In addition, the country of residence was associated with a lower likelihood to pay 0 euros (OR 0.07 [95% CI 0.02-0.36]), while increased age was associated with the amount willing to pay (exp(β) = 1.05 [95% CI 1.01-1.09]). In a hypothetical scenario, three-quarters of patients with AS receiving long-term infliximab stated that they were willing to pay an out-of-pocket contribution for this treatment. Treatment response contributed to the willingness as well as to the amount patients were willing to pay. © 2017, The Authors. Arthritis Care & Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Rheumatology.
Beth J. Asch, James Hosek, Jennifer Kavanagh, Michael G. Mattock Retention, Incentives, and DoD Experience Under the 40-Year Military Pay Table C O...Authorization Act (NDAA) directed the Secretary of Defense to review the military’s pay tables, focusing on whether the 40-year pay table is still justified as...a retention tool. Congress extended the pay tables to 40 years as part of the fiscal year 2007 NDAA to pro- vide an incentive for the most
Demographic trends escalate the demands for formal long-term care (LTC) in the majority of the developed world. The LTC workforce is characterised by its very low wages, the actual scale of which is less well known. This article investigates the scale of poverty-pay in the feminised LTC sector and attempts to understand the perceived reasons behind persisting low wages in the sector. The analysis makes use of large national workforce pay data and a longitudinal survey of care workers, as well as interviews with key stakeholders in the sector. The analysis suggests that there are at least between 10 and 13% of care workers who are effectively being paid under the National Minimum Wage in England. Thematic qualitative analysis of 300 interviews with employers, care workers and service users highlight three key explanatory factors of low pay: the intrinsic nature of LTC work, the value of caring for older people, and marketisation and outsourcing of services. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cromwell, Jerry; Drozd, Edward M; Smith, Kevin; Trisolini, Michael
Considerable attention has been given to evidence-based process indicators associated with quality of care, while much less attention has been given to the structure and key parameters of the various pay-for-performance (P4P) bonus and penalty arrangements using such measures. In this article we develop a general model of quality payment arrangements and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the key parameters. We then conduct simulation analyses of four general P4P payment algorithms by varying seven parameters, including indicator weights, indicator intercorrelation, degree of uncertainty regarding intervention effectiveness, and initial baseline rates. Bonuses averaged over several indicators appear insensitive to weighting, correlation, and the number of indicators. The bonuses are sensitive to disease manager perceptions of intervention effectiveness, facing challenging targets, and the use of actual-to-target quality levels versus rates of improvement over baseline.
En 2002, une certaine paix sociale avait été rétablie, bien qu'elle fut instable et souvent entachée de violence. Le pays amorçait le ... mieux comprendre comment il recueille et diffuse l'information destinée ... transition) et les technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC). Les étapes suivantes ont consisté à ...
Zorić, Jelena; Hrovatin, Nevenka
This paper analyses the willingness to pay for electricity generated from renewable energy sources in Slovenia. The results confirm that age, household income, education and environmental awareness play the most important role in explaining household attitudes to green electricity programmes. While the willingness to participate in green electricity programmes is influenced by education and environmental awareness, the willingness to pay for green electricity predominantly depends on household income. The results imply that green marketing should be accompanied by awareness-raising campaigns and should target younger, well-educated and high-income households. The expressed median willingness to pay is found to exceed the current level of mandatory charges for green electricity. Nevertheless, recent increases in final electricity prices might have already exhausted the capacity for additional voluntary contributions. - Highlights: ► Paper analyses attitudes to green electricity in one of the new EU member states. ► Willingness to participate is primarily influenced by education and environmental awareness. ► In contrast, willingness to pay for green electricity depends on household income. ► Both decisions are negatively influenced by age. ► Due to the recent price increases there may be no room left for additional voluntary contributions.
Lofgren, Curt; Thanh, Nguyen X; Chuc, Nguyen Tk; Emmelin, Anders; Lindholm, Lars
The inequity caused by health financing in Vietnam, which mainly relies on out-of-pocket payments, has put pre-payment reform high on the political agenda. This paper reports on a study of the willingness to pay for health insurance among a rural population in northern Vietnam, exploring whether the Vietnamese are willing to pay enough to sufficiently finance a health insurance system. Using the Epidemiological Field Laboratory for Health Systems Research in the Bavi district (FilaBavi), 2070 households were randomly selected for the study. Existing FilaBavi interviewers were trained especially for this study. The interview questionnaire was developed through a pilot study followed by focus group discussions among interviewers. Determinants of households' willingness to pay were studied through interval regression by which problems such as zero answers, skewness, outliers and the heaping effect may be solved. Households' average willingness to pay (WTP) is higher than their costs for public health care and self-treatment. For 70-80% of the respondents, average WTP is also sufficient to pay the lower range of premiums in existing health insurance programmes. However, the average WTP would only be sufficient to finance about half of total household public, as well as private, health care costs. Variables that reflect income, health care need, age and educational level were significant determinants of households' willingness to pay. Contrary to expectations, age was negatively related to willingness to pay. Since WTP is sufficient to cover household costs for public health care, it depends to what extent households would substitute private for public care and increase utilization as to whether WTP would also be sufficient enough to finance health insurance. This study highlights potential for public information schemes that may change the negative attitude towards health insurance, which this study has uncovered. A key task for policy makers is to win the trust of the
Gron, O.; Nicola, M.
In a recent article in this journal, Kingsley has tried to show that the postulates of special relativity contradict each other. It is shown that the arguments of Kingsley are invalid because of an erroneous appeal to symmetry in a nonsymmetric situation. The consistency of the postulates of special relativity and the relativistic kinematics deduced from them is restated
Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Minhat, Marizah
The study examines the practice of employing multiple compensation consultants. Examining data of a sample of UK companies over the period 2003–2006 we find that CEOs receive higher equity-based pay when firms employ more than one compensation consultant. An increase in the number of compensation
This paper reassesses the public-sector pay gap using AFQT score and college major as measures of skill. Among the college educated, there is strong evidence that those with lower skills enter the public sector. In contrast to the private sector, for college-educated public-sector workers, AFQT score is not correlated with pay, and college major is only weakly predictive of pay. Furthermore, simple controls for college major explain most of the public-private-sector pay gap. I conclude that t...
Nosratnejad, Shirin; Rashidian, Arash; Mehrara, Mohsen; Sari, Ali Akbari; Mahdavi, Ghadir; Moeini, Maryam
Objective: The substantial level of out-of-pocket expenditure for health care by the population causes policy makers to draw particular attention to the proposal of a social health insurance for uninsured members of the community. Hence, it is essential to gather reliable information about the amount of Willingness To Pay (WTP) for health insurance. We assessed the WTP for health insurance in Iran in order to suggest an affordable social health insurance. Method: The study sample included 300 household heads in all Iranian provinces. The double bounded dichotomous choice approach was used to elicit the WTP. Result: The average WTP for social health insurance per person per month was 137 000 Rial (5.5 $US). Household heads with higher levels of education, income and those who worked had more WTP for the health insurance. Besides, the WTP increased in direct proportion to the number of insured members of each household and in inverse proportion to the family size. Conclusions: From a policy point of view, the WTP value can be used as a premium in a society. An important finding of this study is that although households’ Willingness To Pay is not more than the total insurance premium, households are willing to pay more than the premium they ought to pay for health insurance coverage. That is, total insurance premium is 150 000 Rials and households ought to pay approximately half of this sum. This can afford policy makers the ideal opportunity to provide good insurance coverage for medical services according to the need of society. PMID:25168979
Galarraga, Ibon, E-mail: email@example.com; Gonzalez-Eguino, Mikel, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Markandya, Anil, E-mail: email@example.com
This article proposes a combined approach for estimating willingness to pay for the attributes represented by energy efficiency labels and providing reliable price elasticities of demand (own and cross) for close substitutes (e.g. those with low energy efficiency and those with higher energy efficiency). This is done by using the results of the hedonic approach together with the Quantity Based Demand System (QBDS) model. The elasticity results obtained with the latter are then compared with those simulated using the Linear Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS). The methodology is applied to the dishwasher market in Spain: it is found that 15.6% of the final price is actually paid for the energy efficiency attribute. This accounts for about Euro 80 of the average market price. The elasticity results confirm that energy efficient appliances are more price elastic than regular ones. - Highlights: > The article shows a combined approach for estimating willingness to pay for energy efficiency labels and price elasticities. > The results of the hedonic approach is used together with the Quantity Based Demand System (QBDS) model. > The elasticity results are compared with those simulated using the Linear Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS). > The methodology is applied to the dishwasher market in Spain.
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diligence in correspondence and paying monies. 111...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.29 Diligence in correspondence and paying monies. (a) Due diligence by broker. Each broker must exercise due...
Van Renterghem , Vanessa
Cet article, rédigé à l'occasion de la question d'agrégation d'histoire portant sur " Les relations entre les pays d'Islam et le monde latin du milieu du Xe au milieu du XIIIe siècle " (2000-2002), examine différents aspects des relations entre Croisés et musulmans, vues des pays d'Islam. Il s'intéresse tout d'abord à l'évolution de l'image des Croisés dans les sources arabes de l'époque ainsi qu'au sort des musulmans sous domination franque. Il retrace ensuite les différentes étapes de la ré...
Azman ISMAIL; Nurhana M RAFIUDDIN; Mohd Hamran MOHAMAD; Norashikin Sahol HAMID; Aniza WAMIN; Nurzawani ZAKARIA
Compensation management literature highlights that performance based pay has two major characteristics: participation in pay systems and adequacy of pay. The ability of management to properly implement such pay systems may lead to increased job satisfaction in organizations. Though, the nature of this relationship is interesting, little is known about the influence of performance based pay on job satisfaction in compensation management literature. Therefore, this study was conducted to examin...
Gladfelter, Andrew S; Lantz, Brendan; Ruback, R Barry
Restitution to victims is rarely paid in full. One reason for low rates of payments is that offenders lack financial resources. Beyond ability to pay, however, we argue that fair treatment has implications for offender behavior. This study, a survey of probationers who owed restitution, investigated the links between (a) ability to pay, (b) beliefs about restitution and the criminal justice system, and (c) restitution payment, both the amount paid and number of payments. Results indicate that perceived fair treatment by probation staff-those most directly involved with the collection of restitution payments-was significantly associated with greater payment, net of past payment behavior, intention to pay, and ability to pay. Because restitution has potentially rehabilitative aspects if offenders pay more of the court-ordered amount and if they make regular monthly payments, how fairly probation staff treat probationers has implications for both victims and for the criminal justice system.
Full Text Available According to the recent literature pertaining on Islamic based organizational compensation, performance based pay consists of two essential features: communication and performance appraisal. Recent studies in this field highlights that the ability of managers to appropriately communicate pay information and appraise employee performance may have a significant impact on employee outcomes, especially job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess the relationship between manager’s role in performance based pay and employee outcomes using self-administered questionnaires collected from employees at a district council in Peninsular Malaysia. The outcomes of the SmartPLS path model analysis showed that pay communication does not act as an important determinant of job satisfaction, but performance appraisal does act as an important determinant of job satisfaction. Conversely, pay communication and performance appraisal act as important determinants of organizational commitment. In addition, this study provides discussion, implications and conclusion
Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the mediating effect of distributive justice in the relationship between pay design issues (i.e., pay structure and pay level and job satisfaction. A survey method was used to gather 190 usable questionnaires from academic employees who have worked in Malaysian public community colleges (PUBLICOLLEGE. Outcomes of stepwise regression analysis showed that relationship between pay design features (i.e., pay structure and pay level significantly correlated with job satisfaction. This result confirms that distributive justice plays an important role as a mediating variable in the pay design models of the organizational sector sample. In addition, implications of this study to compensation theory and practice, conceptual and methodological limitations, as well as directions for future research are discussed.
Courchamp, Franck; Bradshaw, Corey J A
Reading scientific articles is a valuable and major part of the activity of scientists. Yet, with the upsurge of currently available articles and the increasing specialization of scientists, it becomes difficult to identify, let alone read, important papers covering topics not directly related to one's own specific field of research, or that are older than a few years. Our objective was to propose a list of seminal papers deemed to be of major importance in ecology, thus providing a general 'must-read' list for any new ecologist, regardless of particular topic or expertise. We generated a list of 544 papers proposed by 147 ecology experts (journal editorial members) and subsequently ranked via random-sample voting by 368 of 665 contacted ecology experts, covering 6 article types, 6 approaches and 17 fields. Most of the recommended papers were not published in the highest-ranking journals, nor did they have the highest number of mean annual citations. The articles proposed through the collective recommendation of several hundred experienced researchers probably do not represent an 'ultimate', invariant list, but they certainly contain many high-quality articles that are undoubtedly worth reading-regardless of the specific field of interest in ecology-to foster the understanding, knowledge and inspiration of early-career scientists.
Kiatpongsan, Sorapop; Norton, Michael I
Do people from different countries and different backgrounds have similar preferences for how much more the rich should earn than the poor? Using survey data from 40 countries (N = 55,238), we compare respondents' estimates of the wages of people in different occupations-chief executive officers, cabinet ministers, and unskilled workers-to their ideals for what those wages should be. We show that ideal pay gaps between skilled and unskilled workers are significantly smaller than estimated pay gaps and that there is consensus across countries, socioeconomic status, and political beliefs. Moreover, data from 16 countries reveals that people dramatically underestimate actual pay inequality. In the United States-where underestimation was particularly pronounced-the actual pay ratio of CEOs to unskilled workers (354:1) far exceeded the estimated ratio (30:1), which in turn far exceeded the ideal ratio (7:1). In sum, respondents underestimate actual pay gaps, and their ideal pay gaps are even further from reality than those underestimates. © The Author(s) 2014.
textabstractAbstract: This article presents a comparative legal analysis of wrongful claims handling by insurance companies in indemnity and liability insurance. From the outset, it is clear that it may be difficult to draw the line between legitimate claims denial and refusal to pay, on the one hand, and malicious protraction, procrastination and rejection of valid claims, on the other hand. Therefore, it is interesting to find that European legal systems diverge considerably in their stance...
Sierp, Aline; Karner, Christian
In this article we position the contributions to our special issue in relation to existing scholarship on racism and stereotypes. We pay close attention to conceptual strands in the literature that emphasize two cognitive-discursive characteristics of stereotypes: their essentialist reductions and
solicited from papers presented at ASIAPEPM 02, the 2002 SIGPLAN Symposium on Partial Evaluation and Semantics-Based Program Manipulation . The four articles were subjected to the usual process of journal reviewing. "Cost-Augmented Partial Evaluation of Functional Logic Programs" extends previous......The present issue is dedicated to Partial Evaluation and Semantics-Based Program Manipulation. Its first two articles were solicited from papers presented at PEPM 02, the 2002 ACMSIGPLANWorkshop on Partial Evaluation and Semantics-Based Program Manipulation , and its last two articles were...... narrowing-driven techniques of partial evaluation for functional-logic programs by the inclusion of abstract computation costs into the partial-evaluation process. A preliminary version of this work was presented at PEPM 02. "Specialization Scenarios: A Pragmatic Approach to Declaring Program Specialization...
Performance-related pay has been a key ingredient in New Public Management reforms. Nevertheless, the research presented here indicates some adverse effects of such incentives. These incentives may impair an initial motivation to work and change the norms that guide behavior. An issue which...... in particular has been given insufficient attention is fairness. Findings drawn from experimental economics supported by field studies demonstrate that perceived unfairness may have important negative effects on performance. The implication of a broader perspective in the analysis of performance-related pay...... in the public sector is that such a pay system, contrary to its aim, may have detrimental effects on performance....
Anderson, Betsy; Beckett, Julie; Wells, Nora; Comeau, Meg
There is broad agreement that increasing the cost-effectiveness and quality of health care services, thereby achieving greater value, is imperative given this country's current spiraling costs and poor health outcomes. However, how individuals or stakeholder groups define value may differ significantly. Discussion of value in the context of health care, in particular value-based purchasing and value-based insurance design, must acknowledge that there is no universal consensus definition as to what constitutes value. To date, the consumer perspective has been underrepresented in discussions of value-based strategies such as pay for performance, capitated and bundled payments, and high-deductible health plans, which have been driven primarily by payers and providers. This article will discuss 3 elements of value from the perspective of families of children and youth with special health care needs: the role of families in the delivery of care, consumer perspectives on what constitutes quality for children and youth with special health care needs, and health care and health care financing literacy, decision-making, and costs. The undervalued contributions made by family members in the delivery and oversight of pediatric care and the importance of partnering with them to achieve the goals of the Triple Aim are stressed. The article closes with a discussion of recommendations for a future policy and research agenda related to advancing the integration of the consumer perspective into value-based purchasing and value-based insurance design. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Kaleth, Anthony S.; Mikesky, Alan E.
This article addresses the question of whether early sport specialization provides a "physiological" advantage for future athletic success. It examines the limited literature related to the effects of early specialization on the body's organ systems: the endocrine system, the muscular system, the nervous system, and the cardiovascular system. The…
Gielen, A. C.; Kerkhofs, M.J.M.; van Ours, J.C.
This paper uses information from a panel of Dutch firms to investigate the labor productivity effects of performance related pay (PRP).We find that PRP increases labor productivity at the firm level with about 9%.
Gielen, Anne; Kerkhofs, Marcel J M; van Ours, Jan C
This paper uses information from a panel of Dutch firms to investigate the labour productivity effects of performance related pay (PRP). We find that PRP increases labour productivity at the firm level with about 9%.
This article offers a brief introduction to this special issue on Global Lesbian Cinema. This issue particularly highlights the importance of recognizing lesbian discourse as a separate, related piece of the discourse of queer transnational and global cinema. Subsequently, brief summaries of the eight articles of this collection are provided.
Consumer patronage and willingness-to-pay at different levels of restaurant attributes: A study from Kenya. ... Research in Hospitality Management ... Findings indicate that food quality is the only attribute to have a positive relationship with both consumer patronage and willingness-to-pay, in high-end as well as limited ...
Green, Debra H.
The applicability of legal principles governing equal pay and sex discrimination in university settings is discussed. The most objective mechanism that a university can utilize to achieve compliance with the Equal Pay Act would be implementation of a salary system that relies on experience, formal education, and time in grade. (MLW)
Kampfer, Kristina; Leischnig, Alexander; Ivens, Björn Sven; Spence, Charles
Product packaging serves a number of distinct functions and influences the way in which consumers respond to various product offerings. The research reported here examines whether the haptic characteristics of a non-diagnostic product packaging cue, namely its weight, affects the response of consumers. This article reviews existing research on haptic transference and proposes a conceptual framework to explore how the weight of product packaging affects the flavor of the food or beverages, and, in turn, consumers' desire for consumption and willingness to pay. Two studies demonstrate that an increase in packaging weight affects both desire and willingness to pay for the product. These effects are serially mediated by perceived flavor intensity and overall flavor evaluation. Based on these insights, implications for the design of food and beverages packaging are discussed.
Kampfer, Kristina; Leischnig, Alexander; Spence, Charles
Product packaging serves a number of distinct functions and influences the way in which consumers respond to various product offerings. The research reported here examines whether the haptic characteristics of a non-diagnostic product packaging cue, namely its weight, affects the response of consumers. This article reviews existing research on haptic transference and proposes a conceptual framework to explore how the weight of product packaging affects the flavor of the food or beverages, and, in turn, consumers’ desire for consumption and willingness to pay. Two studies demonstrate that an increase in packaging weight affects both desire and willingness to pay for the product. These effects are serially mediated by perceived flavor intensity and overall flavor evaluation. Based on these insights, implications for the design of food and beverages packaging are discussed. PMID:29020078
Tudoran, Ana Alina; Olsen, Svein Ottar
The present study sheds light on the kind of relationships that link first transaction consumer satisfaction (CS), purchase intention, and willingness to pay for new food products. The article presents a comparative evaluation of linear and nonlinear quadratic and cubic specifications used...... relationship is characterized by a nonlinear functional form with increasing marginal returns, while the CS–willingness to pay relationship is defined by a linear functional form with constant marginal returns. The study contributes to the existing body of knowledge that so far has mainly described...... the relationship between cumulative CS and profit chain outcomes in the context of established products (brands). We discuss the implications for managers responsible for launching new food products and give hints on allocating resources to the most probable customers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
Full Text Available Product packaging serves a number of distinct functions and influences the way in which consumers respond to various product offerings. The research reported here examines whether the haptic characteristics of a non-diagnostic product packaging cue, namely its weight, affects the response of consumers. This article reviews existing research on haptic transference and proposes a conceptual framework to explore how the weight of product packaging affects the flavor of the food or beverages, and, in turn, consumers' desire for consumption and willingness to pay. Two studies demonstrate that an increase in packaging weight affects both desire and willingness to pay for the product. These effects are serially mediated by perceived flavor intensity and overall flavor evaluation. Based on these insights, implications for the design of food and beverages packaging are discussed.
The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the situation where two companies appear as originators or sponsors behind a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) can be described as a merger, although on micro scale. Are the underlying grounds behind the creation of an SPV much different than those...
Shaw, David; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo; Townend, David; Bos, Gerard; van Gelder, Michel
In this article we explore the ethical issues raised by permitting patients to pay for participation (P4) in clinical trials, and discuss whether there are any categorical objections to this practice. We address key considerations concerning payment for participation in trials, including patient autonomy, risk/benefit and justice, taking account of two previous critiques of the ethics of P4. We conclude that such trials could be ethical under certain strict conditions, but only if other potential sources of funding have first been explored or are unavailable.
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pay differentials claimed to be based on extra duties. 1620.20 Section 1620.20 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.20 Pay differentials claimed to be based on extra duties. Additional...
The dissertation aims to tackle one of the most pressing questions facing the merit pay system researchers and practitioners: Why do merit pay raises have such a small effect on employees' satisfaction, commitment and job performance? My approach to the study of this question is to develop explanatory frameworks from two perspectives: cognitive…
Lakić, Dragana; Stević, Ivana; Odalović, Marina; Vezmar-Kovačević, Sandra; Tadić, Ivana
To determine the general population willingness to pay for cognitive pharmacist service in community pharmacy, describe the behavior of participants regarding health care issues, and evaluate correlation between participants' sociodemographic characteristics or attitudes and their willingness to pay. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among general population visiting community pharmacies. The participants were asked about receiving cognitive pharmacist services to identify and resolve potential medication therapy problems after the initiation of a new medicine to optimize health outcomes of the patients. A univariate and multivariate analysis were used to analyze associations between different variables and willingness to pay for pharmacy service. Of 444 respondents, 167 (38%) reported that they were willing to pay for a medication management service provided in the community pharmacy. Univariate analysis showed significant association between the willingness to pay for pharmacist-provided service and respondents' socio-demographic factors, health-related characteristics, and behavior, dilemmas, or need for certain pharmacist-provided service. The logistic regression model was statistically significant (χ2=4.599, Ppay for cognitive pharmacist services, which has not been fully recognized within the health care system. In future, pharmacists should focus on practical implementation of the service and models of funding.
system maintenance, and minimizing pay discrepancies . IPPS-A Inc 2 will account for status changes between Active, Reserve, and National Guard components...2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Integrated Personnel and Pay System-Army Increment 2 (IPPS-A Inc 2) Defense Acquisition...703-325-3747 DSN Phone: 865-2915 DSN Fax: 221-3747 Date Assigned: May 2, 2014 Program Information Program Name Integrated Personnel and Pay System
Collins, Belva C.; Leahy, Maria Marsella; Ault, Melinda Jones
Special education teachers have a unique set of skills and opportunities to become leaders in the field of education. Some rural special education teachers, however, may not see themselves as potential leaders or believe they have opportunities to be leaders. This article provides guidelines for rural special education teachers to consider in…
Kopstein, Felix F., Ed.
This is a special issue examining the potential of cybernetics in educational technology. Articles discuss: cybernetic methods, algorithms, feedback learning theory, a structural approach to behavioral objectives and criterion-referenced testing, task specifications and diagnosis, teacher-child interaction, educational development, teaching…