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Sample records for article pathogen pathway

  1. Innate immunity in Drosophila: Pathogens and pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shubha Govind

    2008-01-01

    Following in the footsteps of traditional developmental genetics, research over the last 15 years has shown that innate immunity against bacteria and fungi is governed largely by two NF-κB signal transduction pathways, Toll and IMD. Antiviral immunity appears to stem from RNA interference, whereas resistance against parasitoids is conferred by Toll signaling. The identification of these post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms and the annotation of most Drosophila immunity genes have derived from functional genomic studies using "model" pathogens, intact animals and cell lines. The D. melanogaster host has thus provided the core information that can be used to study responses to natural microbial and metazoan pathogens as they become identified, as well as to test ideas of selection and evolutionary change. These analyses are of general importance to understanding mechanisms of other insect host-pathogen interactions and determinants of variation in host resistance.

  2. Phytohormone pathways as targets of pathogens to facilitate infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ka-Wai; Ma, Wenbo

    2016-08-01

    Plants are constantly threatened by potential pathogens. In order to optimize the output of defense against pathogens with distinct lifestyles, plants depend on hormonal networks to fine-tune specific responses and regulate growth-defense tradeoffs. To counteract, pathogens have evolved various strategies to disturb hormonal homeostasis and facilitate infection. Many pathogens synthesize plant hormones; more importantly, toxins and effectors are produced to manipulate hormonal crosstalk. Accumulating evidence has shown that pathogens exert extensive effects on plant hormone pathways not only to defeat immunity, but also modify habitat structure, optimize nutrient acquisition, and facilitate pathogen dissemination. In this review, we summarize mechanisms by which a wide array of pathogens gain benefits from manipulating plant hormone pathways. PMID:26879412

  3. Linking multiple pathogenic pathways in Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Khalil, Rami; Khoury, Elie; Koussa, Salam

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder presenting as progressive cognitive decline with dementia that does not, to this day, benefit from any disease-modifying drug. Multiple etiologic pathways have been explored and demonstrate promising solutions. For example, iron ion chelators, such as deferoxamine, are a potential therapeutic solution around which future studies are being directed. Another promising domain is related to thrombin inhibitors. In this minireview, a common pathophysiological pathway is suggested for the pathogenesis of AD to prove that all these mechanisms converge onto the same cascade of neuroinflammatory events. This common pathway is initiated by the presence of vascular risk factors that induce brain tissue hypoxia, which leads to endothelial cell activation. However, the ensuing hypoxia stimulates the production and release of reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory proteins. Furthermore, the endothelial activation may become excessive and dysfunctional in predisposed individuals, leading to thrombin activation and iron ion decompartmentalization. The oxidative stress that results from these modifications in the neurovascular unit will eventually lead to neuronal and glial cell death, ultimately leading to the development of AD. Hence, future research in this field should focus on conducting trials with combinations of potentially efficient treatments, such as the combination of intranasal deferoxamine and direct thrombin inhibitors. PMID:27354962

  4. The danger signal S100B integrates pathogen- and danger-sensing pathways to restrain inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorci, Guglielmo; Giovannini, Gloria; Riuzzi, Francesca; Bonifazi, Pierluigi; Zelante, Teresa; Zagarella, Silvia; Bistoni, Francesco; Donato, Rosario; Romani, Luigina

    2011-03-01

    Humans inhale hundreds of Aspergillus conidia without adverse consequences. Powerful protective mechanisms may ensure prompt control of the pathogen and inflammation. Here we reveal a previously unknown mechanism by which the danger molecule S100B integrates pathogen- and danger-sensing pathways to restrain inflammation. Upon forming complexes with TLR2 ligands, S100B inhibited TLR2 via RAGE, through a paracrine epithelial cells/neutrophil circuit that restrained pathogen-induced inflammation. However, upon binding to nucleic acids, S100B activated intracellular TLRs eventually resolve danger-induced inflammation via transcriptional inhibition of S100B. Thus, the spatiotemporal regulation of TLRs and RAGE by S100B provides evidence for an evolving braking circuit in infection whereby an endogenous danger protects against pathogen-induced inflammation and a pathogen-sensing mechanism resolves danger-induced inflammation.

  5. The cAMP Signaling and MAP Kinase Pathways in Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehrabi, R.; Zhao, X.; Kim, Y.; Xu, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The key components of the well conserved cyclic AMP signaling and MAP kinase pathways have been functionally characterized in the corn smut Ustilago maydis, rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea, and a few other fungal pathogens. In general, the cAMP signaling and the MAP kinase cascade homologous to

  6. Pathogens penetrating the central nervous system: infection pathways and the cellular and molecular mechanisms of invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Samantha J; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Norton, Robert; Currie, Bart J; St John, James A; Ekberg, Jenny A K; Batzloff, Michael; Ulett, Glen C; Beacham, Ifor R

    2014-10-01

    The brain is well protected against microbial invasion by cellular barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). In addition, cells within the central nervous system (CNS) are capable of producing an immune response against invading pathogens. Nonetheless, a range of pathogenic microbes make their way to the CNS, and the resulting infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Bacteria, amoebae, fungi, and viruses are capable of CNS invasion, with the latter using axonal transport as a common route of infection. In this review, we compare the mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens reach the CNS and infect the brain. In particular, we focus on recent data regarding mechanisms of bacterial translocation from the nasal mucosa to the brain, which represents a little explored pathway of bacterial invasion but has been proposed as being particularly important in explaining how infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei can result in melioidosis encephalomyelitis.

  7. The renaissance of bacillosamine and its derivatives: pathway characterization and implications in pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Michael J; Imperiali, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    Prokaryote-specific sugars, including N,N'-diacetylbacillosamine (diNAcBac) and pseudaminic acid, have experienced a renaissance in the past decade because of their discovery in glycans related to microbial pathogenicity. DiNAcBac is found at the reducing end of oligosaccharides of N- and O-linked bacterial protein glycosylation pathways of Gram-negative pathogens, including Campylobacter jejuni and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Further derivatization of diNAcBac results in the nonulosonic acid known as legionaminic acid, which was first characterized in the O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Legionella pneumophila. Pseudaminic acid, an isomer of legionaminic acid, is also important in pathogenic bacteria such as Helicobacter pylori because of its occurrence in O-linked glycosylation of flagellin proteins, which plays an important role in flagellar assembly and motility. Here, we present recent advances in the characterization of the biosynthetic pathways leading to these highly modified sugars and investigation of the roles that each plays in bacterial fitness and pathogenicity.

  8. Hi-Jack: a novel computational framework for pathway-based inference of host–pathogen interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios

    2015-03-09

    Motivation: Pathogens infect their host and hijack the host machinery to produce more progeny pathogens. Obligate intracellular pathogens, in particular, require resources of the host to replicate. Therefore, infections by these pathogens lead to alterations in the metabolism of the host, shifting in favor of pathogen protein production. Some computational identification of mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions have been proposed, but it seems the problem has yet to be approached from the metabolite-hijacking angle. Results: We propose a novel computational framework, Hi-Jack, for inferring pathway-based interactions between a host and a pathogen that relies on the idea of metabolite hijacking. Hi-Jack searches metabolic network data from hosts and pathogens, and identifies candidate reactions where hijacking occurs. A novel scoring function ranks candidate hijacked reactions and identifies pathways in the host that interact with pathways in the pathogen, as well as the associated frequent hijacked metabolites. We also describe host-pathogen interaction principles that can be used in the future for subsequent studies. Our case study on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) revealed pathways in human-e.g. carbohydrate metabolism, lipids metabolism and pathways related to amino acids metabolism-that are likely to be hijacked by the pathogen. In addition, we report interesting potential pathway interconnections between human and Mtb such as linkage of human fatty acid biosynthesis with Mtb biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, or linkage of human pentose phosphate pathway with lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in Mtb. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  9. Transcriptome of Aphanomyces euteiches: new oomycete putative pathogenicity factors and metabolic pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Gaulin

    Full Text Available Aphanomyces euteiches is an oomycete pathogen that causes seedling blight and root rot of legumes, such as alfalfa and pea. The genus Aphanomyces is phylogenically distinct from well-studied oomycetes such as Phytophthora sp., and contains species pathogenic on plants and aquatic animals. To provide the first foray into gene diversity of A. euteiches, two cDNA libraries were constructed using mRNA extracted from mycelium grown in an artificial liquid medium or in contact to plant roots. A unigene set of 7,977 sequences was obtained from 18,864 high-quality expressed sequenced tags (ESTs and characterized for potential functions. Comparisons with oomycete proteomes revealed major differences between the gene content of A. euteiches and those of Phytophthora species, leading to the identification of biosynthetic pathways absent in Phytophthora, of new putative pathogenicity genes and of expansion of gene families encoding extracellular proteins, notably different classes of proteases. Among the genes specific of A. euteiches are members of a new family of extracellular proteins putatively involved in adhesion, containing up to four protein domains similar to fungal cellulose binding domains. Comparison of A. euteiches sequences with proteomes of fully sequenced eukaryotic pathogens, including fungi, apicomplexa and trypanosomatids, allowed the identification of A. euteiches genes with close orthologs in these microorganisms but absent in other oomycetes sequenced so far, notably transporters and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, and suggests the presence of a defense mechanism against oxidative stress which was initially characterized in the pathogenic trypanosomatids.

  10. Population history and pathways of spread of the plant pathogen Phytophthora plurivora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corine N Schoebel

    Full Text Available Human activity has been shown to considerably affect the spread of dangerous pests and pathogens worldwide. Therefore, strict regulations of international trade exist for particularly harmful pathogenic organisms. Phytophthora plurivora, which is not subject to regulations, is a plant pathogen frequently found on a broad range of host species, both in natural and artificial environments. It is supposed to be native to Europe while resident populations are also present in the US. We characterized a hierarchical sample of isolates from Europe and the US and conducted coalescent-, migration, and population genetic analysis of sequence and microsatellite data, to determine the pathways of spread and the demographic history of this pathogen. We found P. plurivora populations to be moderately diverse but not geographically structured. High levels of gene flow were observed within Europe and unidirectional from Europe to the US. Coalescent analyses revealed a signal of a recent expansion of the global P. plurivora population. Our study shows that P. plurivora has most likely been spread around the world by nursery trade of diseased plant material. In particular, P. plurivora was introduced into the US from Europe. International trade has allowed the pathogen to colonize new environments and/or hosts, resulting in population growth.

  11. Cyanidin inhibits quorum signalling pathway of a food borne opportunistic pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopu, Venkadesaperumal; Shetty, Prathapkumar Halady

    2016-02-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is the process of population dependent cell to cell communication used by bacteria to regulate their phenotypic characteristics. Key virulence factors that determine the bacterial pathogenicity and food spoilage were found to be regulated by QS mechanism. Hence, disrupting the QS signaling pathway could be an attractive strategy to manage food borne pathogens. In the current study, QS inhibitory activity of a naturally occurring anthocyanin-cyanidin and its anti-biofilm property were assessed against an opportunistic pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae, using a bio-sensor strain. Further, QS inhibitory property of a naturally occurring anthocyanin cyanidin was further confirmed using in-silico techniques like molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies. Cyanidin at sub-lethal dose significantly inhibited QS-dependent phenotypes like violacein production (73.96 %), biofilm formation (72.43 %), and exopolysaccharide production (68.65) in a concentration-dependent manner. Cyanidin enhanced the sensitivity of test pathogen to conventional antibiotics in a synergistic manner. Molecular docking analysis revealed that cyanidin binds more rigidly with LasR receptor protein than the signaling compound with a docking score of -9.13 Kcal/mol. Molecular dynamics simulation predicted that QS inhibitory activity occurs through the conformational changes between the receptor and cyanidin complex. Our results indicate that cyanidin, can be a potential QS based antibiofilm and antibacterial agent for food borne pathogens. PMID:27162376

  12. Crosstalk between the unfolded protein response and pathways that regulate pathogenic development in Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimel, Kai; Freitag, Johannes; Hampel, Martin; Ast, Julia; Bölker, Michael; Kämper, Jörg

    2013-10-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a conserved eukaryotic signaling pathway regulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis during ER stress, which results, for example, from an increased demand for protein secretion. Here, we characterize the homologs of the central UPR regulatory proteins Hac1 (for Homologous to ATF/CREB1) and Inositol Requiring Enzyme1 in the plant pathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis and demonstrate that the UPR is tightly interlinked with the b mating-type-dependent signaling pathway that regulates pathogenic development. Exact timing of UPR is required for virulence, since premature activation interferes with the b-dependent switch from budding to filamentous growth. In addition, we found crosstalk between UPR and the b target Clampless1 (Clp1), which is essential for cell cycle release and proliferation in planta. The unusual C-terminal extension of the U. maydis Hac1 homolog, Cib1 (for Clp1 interacting bZIP1), mediates direct interaction with Clp1. The interaction between Clp1 and Cib1 promotes stabilization of Clp1, resulting in enhanced ER stress tolerance that prevents deleterious UPR hyperactivation. Thus, the interaction between Cib1 and Clp1 constitutes a checkpoint to time developmental progression and increased secretion of effector proteins at the onset of biotrophic development. Crosstalk between UPR and the b mating-type regulated developmental program adapts ER homeostasis to the changing demands during biotrophy.

  13. Intracellular periodontal pathogen exploits recycling pathway to exit from infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hiroki; Takada, Akihiko; Kuboniwa, Masae; Amano, Atsuo

    2016-07-01

    Although human gingival epithelium prevents intrusions by periodontal bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, the most well-known periodontal pathogen, is able to invade gingival epithelial cells and pass through the epithelial barrier into deeper tissues. We previously reported that intracellular P. gingivalis exits from gingival epithelial cells via a recycling pathway. However, the underlying molecular process remains unknown. In the present study, we found that the pathogen localized in early endosomes recruits VAMP2 and Rab4A. VAMP2 was found to be specifically localized in early endosomes, although its localization remained unclear in mammalian cells. A single transmembrane domain of VAMP2 was found to be necessary and sufficient for localizing in early endosomes containing P. gingivalis in gingival epithelial cells. VAMP2 forms a complex with EXOC2/Sec5 and EXOC3/Sec6, whereas Rab4A mediates dissociation of the EXOC complex followed by recruitment of RUFY1/Rabip4, Rab4A effector, and Rab14. Depletion of VAMP2 or Rab4A resulted in accumulation of bacteria in early endosomes and disturbed bacterial exit from infected cells. It is suggested that these novel dynamics allow P. gingivalis to exploit fast recycling pathways promoting further bacterial penetration of gingival tissues.

  14. Metabolic pathways of Pseudomonas aeruginosa involved in competition with respiratory bacterial pathogens

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    Marie eBeaume

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic airway infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa considerably contributes to lung tissue destruction and impairment of pulmonary function in cystic-fibrosis (CF patients. Complex interplays between P. aeruginosa and other co-colonizing pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia spp and Klebsiella pneumoniae may be crucial for pathogenesis and disease progression.Methods: We generated a library of PA14 transposon insertion mutants to identify P. aeruginosa genes required for exploitative and direct competitions with S. aureus, B. cenocepacia, and K. pneumoniae. Results: Whereas wild type PA14 inhibited S. aureus growth, two transposon insertions located in pqsC and carB, resulted in reduced growth inhibition. PqsC is involved in the synthesis of 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQs, a family of molecules having antibacterial properties, while carB is a key gene in pyrimidine biosynthesis. The carB mutant was also unable to grow in the presence of B. cepacia and K. pneumoniae but not E. coli and S. epidermidis. We further identified a transposon insertion in purF, encoding a key enzyme of purine metabolism. This mutant displayed a severe growth deficiency in the presence of Gram-negative but not of Gram-positive bacteria. We identified a beneficial interaction in a bioA transposon mutant, unable to grow on rich medium. This growth defect could be restored either by addition of biotin or by co-culturing the mutant in the presence of K. pneumoniae or E. coli.Conclusions: Complex interactions take place between the various bacterial species colonizing CF-lungs. This work identified both detrimental and beneficial interactions occurring between P. aeruginosa and three other respiratory pathogens involving several major metabolic pathways. Manipulating these pathways could be used to interfere with bacterial interactions and influence the colonization by respiratory pathogens.

  15. Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy as treatment for lower lacrimal pathway obstructions in adults: Review article

    OpenAIRE

    Penttilä, Elina; Smirnov, Grigori; Tuomilehto, Henri; Kaarniranta, Kai; Seppä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Obstruction of the lacrimal pathway is manifested by epiphora, infection, and blurred vision as well as ocular and facial pain. Conservative treatments only achieve temporary relief of symptoms, thus surgery is the treatment of choice. Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is recognized as the most suitable treatment for patients with obstructions of the lacrimal system at the level of the sac or in the nasolacrimal duct. The aim of this operation is to create a bypass between the lacrimal sac and the ...

  16. DMPD: Pathogen recognition with Toll-like receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15950447 Pathogen recognition with Toll-like receptors. Kawai T, Akira S. Curr Opin... Immunol. 2005 Aug;17(4):338-44. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Pathogen recognition with Toll-like rece...ptors. PubmedID 15950447 Title Pathogen recognition with Toll-like receptors. Authors Kawai T, Akira S. Publ

  17. The Tat pathway exports multiple virulence proteins in the plant pathogen Streptomyces scabies

    OpenAIRE

    JOSHI, MADHUMITA V.; Mann, Stefan G; Antelmann, Haike; Widdick, David; Fyans, Joanna K; Chandra, Govind; Hutchings, Matthew I.; Toth, Ian; Hecker, Michael; Loria, Rosemary; Palmer, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Streptomyces scabies is one of a group of organisms that causes the economically important disease potato scab. Analysis of the S. scabies genome sequence indicates that it is likely to secrete many proteins via the twin arginine protein transport (Tat) pathway, including several proteins whose coding sequences may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer and share a common ancestor with proteins in other plant pathogens. Inactivation of the S. scabies Tat pathw...

  18. Current Understandings of Molecular Biology of Echinococcus multilocularis, a Pathogen for Alveolar Echinococcosis in Humans- a Narrative Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang WANG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Echinococcus multilocularis is a tiny tapeworm, responsible for 0.3~0.5 million alveolar echinococcosis in humans.Methods: We searched relevant papers published between 1981 and 2013 based on the database sources such as PubMed and Google scholar, and collected and integrated the data for analysis.Results: The parasite is able to use host-originated molecules to modulate its develop­ment and has complex signalling pathways than expected previously. E. multilocularis utilizes many types of alternative splicing approaches to generate transcript isoforms. Recently, the genome of E. multilocularis has been deciphered.Conclusion: These data will give us a profound understanding of biology of E. multilocularis, which will promote the use as a model to study helminths. 

  19. Dothistroma pini, a Forest Pathogen, Contains Homologs of Aflatoxin Biosynthetic Pathway Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Rosie E.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Ganley, Rebecca J.; Gillman, Carmel J.; Brendon J. Monahan; Seconi, Janet M.

    2002-01-01

    Homologs of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes have been identified in the pine needle pathogen Dothistroma pini. D. pini produces dothistromin, a difuranoanthraquinone toxin with structural similarity to the aflatoxin precursor versicolorin B. Previous studies with purified dothistromin suggest a possible role for this toxin in pathogenicity. By using an aflatoxin gene as a hybridization probe, a genomic D. pini clone was identified that contained four dot genes with similarity to genes in aflatox...

  20. Comparative genomics reveals multiple pathways to mutualism for tick-borne pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Svetlana; Brayton, Kelly A.; Broschat, Shira L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple important human and livestock pathogens employ ticks as their primary host vectors. It is not currently known whether this means of infecting a host arose once or many times during evolution. Results In order to address this question, we conducted a comparative genomics analysis on a set of bacterial pathogens from seven genera – Borrelia, Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Francisella, Coxiella, and Bartonella, including species from three different host vectors – ticks, l...

  1. Human fecal and pathogen exposure pathways in rural Indian villages and the effect of increased latrine coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odagiri, Mitsunori; Schriewer, Alexander; Daniels, Miles E; Wuertz, Stefan; Smith, Woutrina A; Clasen, Thomas; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Jin, Yujie; Torondel, Belen; Misra, Pravas R; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Jenkins, Marion W

    2016-09-01

    Efforts to eradicate open defecation and improve sanitation access are unlikely to achieve health benefits unless interventions reduce microbial exposures. This study assessed human fecal contamination and pathogen exposures in rural India, and the effect of increased sanitation coverage on contamination and exposure rates. In a cross-sectional study of 60 villages of a cluster-randomized controlled sanitation trial in Odisha, India, human and domestic animal fecal contamination was measured in community tubewells and ponds (n = 301) and via exposure pathways in homes (n = 354), using Bacteroidales microbial source tracking fecal markers validated in India. Community water sources were further tested for diarrheal pathogens (rotavirus, adenovirus and Vibrio cholerae by quantitative PCR; pathogenic Escherichia coli by multiplex PCR; Cryptosporidium and Giardia by immunomagnetic separation and direct fluorescent antibody microscopy). Exposure pathways in intervention and control villages were compared and relationships with child diarrhea examined. Human fecal markers were rarely detected in tubewells (2.4%, 95%CI: 0.3-4.5%) and ponds (5.6%, 95%CI: 0.8-10.3%), compared to homes (35.4%, 95%CI: 30.4-40.4%). In tubewells, V. cholerae was the most frequently detected pathogen (19.8%, 95%CI: 14.4-25.2%), followed by Giardia (14.8%, 95%CI: 10.0-19.7%). In ponds, Giardia was most often detected (74.5%, 95%CI: 65.7-83.3%), followed by pathogenic E. coli (48.1%, 95%CI: 34.8-61.5%) and rotavirus (44.4%, 95%CI: 34.2-54.7%). At village-level, prevalence of fecal pathogen detection in community drinking water sources was associated with elevated prevalence of child diarrhea within 6 weeks of testing (RR 2.13, 95%CI: 1.25-3.63) while within homes, higher levels of human and animal fecal marker detection were associated with increased risks of subsequent child diarrhea (P = 0.044 and 0.013, respectively). There was no evidence that the intervention, which increased

  2. Trafficking and degradation pathways in pathogenic conversion of prions and prion-like proteins in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, Guiliana Soraya; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2015-09-01

    Several neurodegenerative diseases such as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases are caused by the conversion of cellular proteins to a pathogenic conformer. Despite differences in the primary structure and subcellular localization of these proteins, which include the prion protein, α-synuclein and amyloid precursor protein (APP), striking similarity has been observed in their ability to seed and convert naïve protein molecules as well as transfer between cells. This review aims to cover what is known about the intracellular trafficking of these proteins as well as their degradation mechanisms and highlight similarities in their movement through the endocytic pathway that could contribute to the pathogenic conversion and seeding of these proteins which underlies the basis of these diseases.

  3. Detoxification of nitric oxide by flavohemoglobin and the denitrification pathway in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ephemeral nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical, highly reactive, environmentally rare, and a potent signaling molecule in organisms across kingdoms of life. This gaseous small molecule can freely transverse membranes and has been implicated in aspects of pathogenicity both in animal and plant ho...

  4. Metabolic gene clusters encoding the enzymes of two branches of the 3-oxoadipate pathway in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérecová, Gabriela; Neboháčová, Martina; Zeman, Igor; Pryszcz, Leszek P; Tomáška, Ľubomír; Gabaldón, Toni; Nosek, Jozef

    2015-05-01

    The pathogenic yeast Candida albicans utilizes hydroxyderivatives of benzene via the catechol and hydroxyhydroquinone branches of the 3-oxoadipate pathway. The genetic basis and evolutionary origin of this catabolic pathway in yeasts are unknown. In this study, we identified C. albicans genes encoding the enzymes involved in the degradation of hydroxybenzenes. We found that the genes coding for core components of the 3-oxoadipate pathway are arranged into two metabolic gene clusters. Our results demonstrate that C. albicans cells cultivated in media containing hydroxybenzene substrates highly induce the transcription of these genes as well as the corresponding enzymatic activities. We also found that C. albicans cells assimilating hydroxybenzenes cope with the oxidative stress by upregulation of cellular antioxidant systems such as alternative oxidase and catalase. Moreover, we investigated the evolution of the enzymes encoded by these clusters and found that most of them share a particularly sparse phylogenetic distribution among Saccharomycotina, which is likely to have been caused by extensive gene loss. We exploited this fact to find co-evolving proteins that are suitable candidates for the missing enzymes of the pathway. PMID:25743787

  5. Interplay between pathway-specific and global regulation of the fumonisin gene cluster in the rice pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösler, Sarah M; Sieber, Christian M K; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2016-07-01

    The rice pathogenic fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is known to produce a large variety of secondary metabolites. Besides the gibberellins, causing the bakanae effect in infected rice seedlings, the fungus produces several mycotoxins and pigments. Among the 47 putative secondary metabolite gene clusters identified in the genome of F. fujikuroi, the fumonisin gene cluster (FUM) shows very high homology to the FUM cluster of the main fumonisin producer Fusarium verticillioides, a pathogen of maize. Despite the high level of cluster gene conservation, total fumonisin FB1 and FB2 levels (FBx) produced by F. fujikuroi were only 1-10 % compared to F. verticillioides under inducing conditions. Nitrogen repression was found to be relevant for wild-type strains of both species. However, addition of germinated maize kernels activated the FBx production only in F. verticillioides, reflecting the different host specificity of both wild-type strains. Over-expression of the pathway-specific transcription factor Fum21 in F. fujikuroi strongly activated the FUM cluster genes leading to 1000-fold elevated FBx levels. To gain further insights into the nitrogen metabolite repression of FBx biosynthesis, we studied the impact of the global nitrogen regulators AreA and AreB and demonstrated that both GATA-type transcription factors are essential for full activation of the FUM gene cluster. Loss of one of them obstructs the pathway-specific transcription factor Fum21 to fully activate expression of FUM cluster genes. PMID:26966024

  6. The first description of complete invertebrate arginine metabolism pathways implies dose-dependent pathogen regulation in Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yina, Shao; Chenghua, Li; Weiwei, Zhang; Zhenhui, Wang; Zhimeng, Lv

    2016-01-01

    In this study, three typical members representative of different arginine metabolic pathways were firstly identified from Apostichopus japonicus, including nitric oxide synthase (NOS), arginase, and agmatinase. Spatial expression analysis revealed that the AjNOS transcript presented negative expression patterns relative to those of Ajarginase or Ajagmatinase in most detected tissues. Furthermore, Vibrio splendidus-challenged coelomocytes and intestine, and LPS-exposed primary coelomocytes could significantly induce AjNOS expression, followed by obviously inhibited Arginase and AjAgmatinase transcripts at the most detected time points. Silencing the three members with two specific siRNAs in vivo and in vitro collectively indicated that AjNOS not only compete with Ajarginase but also with Ajagmatinase in arginine metabolism. Interestingly, Ajarginase and Ajagmatinase displayed cooperative expression profiles in arginine utilization. More importantly, live pathogens of V. splendidus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus co-incubated with primary cells also induced NO production and suppressed arginase activity in a time-dependent at an appropriate multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10, without non-pathogen Escherichia coli. When increasing the pathogen dose (MOI = 100), arginase activity was significantly elevated, and NO production was depressed, with a larger magnitude in V. splendidus co-incubation. The present study expands our understanding of the connection between arginine's metabolic and immune responses in non-model invertebrates. PMID:27032691

  7. TrpA1 Regulates Defecation of Food-Borne Pathogens under the Control of the Duox Pathway.

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    Eun Jo Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen expulsion from the gut is an important defense strategy against infection, but little is known about how interaction between the intestinal microbiome and host immunity modulates defecation. In Drosophila melanogaster, dual oxidase (Duox kills pathogenic microbes by generating the microbicidal reactive oxygen species (ROS, hypochlorous acid (HOCl in response to bacterially excreted uracil. The physiological function of enzymatically generated HOCl in the gut is, however, unknown aside from its anti-microbial activity. Drosophila TRPA1 is an evolutionarily conserved receptor for reactive chemicals like HOCl, but a role for this molecule in mediating responses to gut microbial content has not been described. Here we identify a molecular mechanism through which bacteria-produced uracil facilitates pathogen-clearing defecation. Ingestion of uracil increases defecation frequency, requiring the Duox pathway and TrpA1. The TrpA1(A transcript spliced with exon10b (TrpA1(A10b that is present in a subset of midgut enteroendocrine cells (EECs is critical for uracil-dependent defecation. TRPA1(A10b heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes is an excellent HOCl receptor characterized with elevated sensitivity and fast activation kinetics of macroscopic HOCl-evoked currents compared to those of the alternative TRPA1(A10a isoform. Consistent with TrpA1's role in defecation, uracil-excreting Erwinia carotovora showed higher persistence in TrpA1-deficient guts. Taken together, our results propose that the uracil/Duox pathway promotes bacteria expulsion from the gut through the HOCl-sensitive receptor, TRPA1(A10b, thereby minimizing the chances that bacteria adapt to survive host defense systems.

  8. Macelignan inhibits bee pathogenic fungi Ascophaera apis growth through HOG1 pathway

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    Y.K. Shin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascosphaera apis is a bee pathogen that causes bee larvae infection disease, to which treatment is not yet well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate antifungal susceptibility in vitro against A. apis and to identify a new antifungal agent for this pathogen through minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC assay and western blot analysis. Macelignan had 1.56 and 3.125 μg/mL MIC against A. apis after 24 and 48 h, respectively, exhibiting the strongest growth inhibition against A. apis among the tested compounds (corosolic acid, dehydrocostus lactone, loganic acid, tracheloside, fangchinoline and emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. Furthermore, macelignan showed a narrow-ranged spectrum against various fungal strains without any mammalian cell cytotoxicity. In spite of miconazole having powerful broad-ranged anti-fungal activity including A. apis, it demonstrated strong cytotoxicity. Therefore, even if macelignan alone was effective as an antifungal agent to treat A. apis, combined treatment with miconazole was more useful to overcome toxicity, drug resistance occurrence and cost effectiveness. Finally, HOG1 was revealed as a target molecule of macelignan in the anti-A. apis activity by inhibiting phosphorylation using S. cerevisiae as a model system. Based on our results, macelignan, a food-grade antimicrobial compound, would be an effective antifungal agent against A. apis infection in bees.

  9. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa activates the DNA double-strand break signaling and repair pathway in infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly hazardous DNA double-strand breaks can be induced in eukaryotic cells by a number of agents including pathogenic bacterial strains. We have investigated the genotoxic potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen causing devastating nosocomial infections in cystic fibrosis or immunocompromised patients. Our data revealed that infection of immune or epithelial cells by P. aeruginosa triggered DNA strand breaks and phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double-strand breaks. Moreover, it induced formation of discrete nuclear repair foci similar to gamma-irradiation-induced foci, and containing γH2AX and 53BP1, an adaptor protein mediating the DNA-damage response pathway. Gene deletion, mutagenesis, and complementation in P. aeruginosa identified ExoS bacterial toxin as the major factor involved in γH2AX induction. Chemical inhibition of several kinases known to phosphorylate H2AX demonstrated that Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) was the principal kinase in P. aeruginosa-induced H2AX phosphorylation. Finally, infection led to ATM kinase activation by an auto-phosphorylation mechanism. Together, these data show for the first time that infection by P. aeruginosa activates the DNA double-strand break repair machinery of the host cells. This novel information sheds new light on the consequences of P. aeruginosa infection in mammalian cells. As pathogenic Escherichia coli or carcinogenic Helicobacter pylori can alter genome integrity through DNA double-strand breaks, leading to chromosomal instability and eventually cancer, our findings highlight possible new routes for further investigations of P. aeruginosa in cancer biology and they identify ATM as a potential target molecule for drug design. (authors)

  10. Novel Pathways Revealed in Bursa of Fabricius Transcriptome in Response to Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Sun

    Full Text Available Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC has major negative impacts on human and animal health. Recent research suggests food-borne links between human and animal ExPEC diseases with particular concern for poultry contaminated with avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC, the avian ExPEC. APEC is also a very important animal pathogen, causing colibacillosis, one of the world's most widespread bacterial diseases of poultry. Previous studies showed marked atrophy and lymphocytes depletion in the bursa during APEC infection. Thus, a more comprehensive understanding of the avian bursa response to APEC infection will facilitate genetic selection for disease resistance. Four-week-old commercial male broiler chickens were infected with APEC O1 or given saline as a control. Bursas were collected at 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi. Based on lesion scores of liver, pericardium and air sacs, infected birds were classified as having mild or severe pathology, representing resistant and susceptible phenotypes, respectively. Twenty-two individual bursa RNA libraries were sequenced, each yielding an average of 27 million single-end, 100-bp reads. There were 2469 novel genes in the total of 16,603 detected. Large numbers of significantly differentially expressed (DE genes were detected when comparing susceptible and resistant birds at 5 dpi, susceptible and non-infected birds at 5 dpi, and susceptible birds at 5 dpi and 1 dpi. The DE genes were associated with signal transduction, the immune response, cell growth and cell death pathways. These data provide considerable insight into potential mechanisms of resistance to ExPEC infection, thus paving the way to develop strategies for ExPEC prevention and treatment, as well as enhancing innate resistance by genetic selection in animals.

  11. The effector AWR5 from the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is an inhibitor of the TOR signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Crina; Li, Liang; Gil, Sergio; Tatjer, Laura; Hashii, Keisuke; Tabuchi, Mitsuaki; Coll, Núria S; Ariño, Joaquín; Valls, Marc

    2016-06-03

    Bacterial pathogens possess complex type III effector (T3E) repertoires that are translocated inside the host cells to cause disease. However, only a minor proportion of these effectors have been assigned a function. Here, we show that the T3E AWR5 from the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is an inhibitor of TOR, a central regulator in eukaryotes that controls the switch between cell growth and stress responses in response to nutrient availability. Heterologous expression of AWR5 in yeast caused growth inhibition and autophagy induction coupled to massive transcriptomic changes, unmistakably reminiscent of TOR inhibition by rapamycin or nitrogen starvation. Detailed genetic analysis of these phenotypes in yeast, including suppression of AWR5-induced toxicity by mutation of CDC55 and TPD3, encoding regulatory subunits of the PP2A phosphatase, indicated that AWR5 might exert its function by directly or indirectly inhibiting the TOR pathway upstream PP2A. We present evidence in planta that this T3E caused a decrease in TOR-regulated plant nitrate reductase activity and also that normal levels of TOR and the Cdc55 homologues in plants are required for R. solanacearum virulence. Our results suggest that the TOR pathway is a bona fide T3E target and further prove that yeast is a useful platform for T3E function characterisation.

  12. Functional definition of BirA suggests a biotin utilization pathway in the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Huiyan; Cai, Mingzhu; Zhang, Huimin; Li, Zhencui; Wen, Ronghui; Feng, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    Biotin protein ligase is universal in three domains of life. The paradigm version of BPL is the Escherichia coli BirA that is also a repressor for the biotin biosynthesis pathway. Streptococcus suis, a leading bacterial agent for swine diseases, seems to be an increasingly-important opportunistic human pathogen. Unlike the scenario in E. coli, S. suis lacks the de novo biotin biosynthesis pathway. In contrast, it retains a bioY, a biotin transporter-encoding gene, indicating an alternative survival strategy for S. suis to scavenge biotin from its inhabiting niche. Here we report functional definition of S. suis birA homologue. The in vivo functions of the birA paralogue with only 23.6% identity to the counterpart of E. coli, was judged by its ability to complement the conditional lethal mutants of E. coli birA. The recombinant BirA protein of S. suis was overexpressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity and verified with MS. Both cellulose TLC and MALDI-TOFF-MS assays demonstrated that the S. suis BirA protein catalyzed the biotinylation reaction of its acceptor biotin carboxyl carrier protein. EMSA assays confirmed binding of the bioY gene to the S. suis BirA. The data defined the first example of the bifunctional BirA ligase/repressor in Streptococcus. PMID:27217336

  13. Urine metabolomic analysis identifies potential biomarkers and pathogenic pathways in kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoungmi; Taylor, Sandra L; Ganti, Sheila; Guo, Lining; Osier, Michael V; Weiss, Robert H

    2011-05-01

    Kidney cancer is the seventh most common cancer in the Western world, its incidence is increasing, and it is frequently metastatic at presentation, at which stage patient survival statistics are grim. In addition, there are no useful biofluid markers for this disease, such that diagnosis is dependent on imaging techniques that are not generally used for screening. In the present study, we use metabolomics techniques to identify metabolites in kidney cancer patients' urine, which appear at different levels (when normalized to account for urine volume and concentration) from the same metabolites in nonkidney cancer patients. We found that quinolinate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, and gentisate are differentially expressed at a false discovery rate of 0.26, and these metabolites are involved in common pathways of specific amino acid and energetic metabolism, consistent with high tumor protein breakdown and utilization, and the Warburg effect. When added to four different (three kidney cancer-derived and one "normal") cell lines, several of the significantly altered metabolites, quinolinate, α-ketoglutarate, and gentisate, showed increased or unchanged cell proliferation that was cell line-dependent. Further evaluation of the global metabolomics analysis, as well as confirmation of the specific potential biomarkers using a larger sample size, will lead to new avenues of kidney cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:21348635

  14. Rutin-Mediated Priming of Plant Resistance to Three Bacterial Pathogens Initiating the Early SA Signal Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and have many diverse functions, including UV protection, auxin transport inhibition, allelopathy, flower coloring and insect resistance. Here we show that rutin, a proud member of the flavonoid family, could be functional as an activator to improve plant disease resistances. Three plant species pretreated with 2 mM rutin were found to enhance resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 in rice, tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana respectively. While they were normally propagated on the cultural medium supplemented with 2 mM rutin for those pathogenic bacteria. The enhanced resistance was associated with primed expression of several pathogenesis-related genes. We also demonstrated that the rutin-mediated priming resistance was attenuated in npr1, eds1, eds5, pad4-1, ndr1 mutants, and NahG transgenic Arabidopsis plant, while not in either snc1-11, ein2-5 or jar1 mutants. We concluded that the rutin-priming defense signal was modulated by the salicylic acid (SA-dependent pathway from an early stage upstream of NDR1 and EDS1.

  15. Rutin-Mediated Priming of Plant Resistance to Three Bacterial Pathogens Initiating the Early SA Signal Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Xu, Xiaonan; Li, Yang; Wang, Yingzi; Li, Ming; Wang, Yong; Ding, Xinhua; Chu, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and have many diverse functions, including UV protection, auxin transport inhibition, allelopathy, flower coloring and insect resistance. Here we show that rutin, a proud member of the flavonoid family, could be functional as an activator to improve plant disease resistances. Three plant species pretreated with 2 mM rutin were found to enhance resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 in rice, tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana respectively. While they were normally propagated on the cultural medium supplemented with 2 mM rutin for those pathogenic bacteria. The enhanced resistance was associated with primed expression of several pathogenesis-related genes. We also demonstrated that the rutin-mediated priming resistance was attenuated in npr1, eds1, eds5, pad4-1, ndr1 mutants, and NahG transgenic Arabidopsis plant, while not in either snc1-11, ein2-5 or jar1 mutants. We concluded that the rutin-priming defense signal was modulated by the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent pathway from an early stage upstream of NDR1 and EDS1.

  16. Rutin-Mediated Priming of Plant Resistance to Three Bacterial Pathogens Initiating the Early SA Signal Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Xu, Xiaonan; Li, Yang; Wang, Yingzi; Li, Ming; Wang, Yong; Ding, Xinhua; Chu, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and have many diverse functions, including UV protection, auxin transport inhibition, allelopathy, flower coloring and insect resistance. Here we show that rutin, a proud member of the flavonoid family, could be functional as an activator to improve plant disease resistances. Three plant species pretreated with 2 mM rutin were found to enhance resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 in rice, tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana respectively. While they were normally propagated on the cultural medium supplemented with 2 mM rutin for those pathogenic bacteria. The enhanced resistance was associated with primed expression of several pathogenesis-related genes. We also demonstrated that the rutin-mediated priming resistance was attenuated in npr1, eds1, eds5, pad4-1, ndr1 mutants, and NahG transgenic Arabidopsis plant, while not in either snc1-11, ein2-5 or jar1 mutants. We concluded that the rutin-priming defense signal was modulated by the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent pathway from an early stage upstream of NDR1 and EDS1. PMID:26751786

  17. DMPD: Pathogen-induced apoptosis of macrophages: a common end for different pathogenicstrategies. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11207583 Pathogen-induced apoptosis of macrophages: a common end for different path...ml) Show Pathogen-induced apoptosis of macrophages: a common end for different pathogenicstrategies. PubmedI...D 11207583 Title Pathogen-induced apoptosis of macrophages: a common end for diff

  18. DMPD: Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll-likereceptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17275324 Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll... Show Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll-likereceptors. PubmedID 172...75324 Title Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface

  19. In Planta Biocontrol of Pectobacterium atrosepticum by Rhodococcus erythropolis Involves Silencing of Pathogen Communication by the Rhodococcal Gamma-Lactone Catabolic Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Barbey

    Full Text Available The virulence of numerous Gram-negative bacteria is under the control of a quorum sensing process based on synthesis and perception of N-acyl homoserine lactones. Rhodococcus erythropolis, a Gram-positive bacterium, has recently been proposed as a biocontrol agent for plant protection against soft-rot bacteria, including Pectobacterium. Here, we show that the γ-lactone catabolic pathway of R. erythropolis disrupts Pectobacterium communication and prevents plant soft-rot. We report the first characterization and demonstration of N-acyl homoserine lactone quenching in planta. In particular, we describe the transcription of the R. erythropolis lactonase gene, encoding the key enzyme of this pathway, and the subsequent lactone breakdown. The role of this catabolic pathway in biocontrol activity was confirmed by deletion of the lactonase gene from R. erythropolis and also its heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. The γ-lactone catabolic pathway is induced by pathogen communication rather than by pathogen invasion. This is thus a novel and unusual biocontrol pathway, differing from those previously described as protecting plants from phytopathogens. These findings also suggest the existence of an additional pathway contributing to plant protection.

  20. Role of the lpxM lipid A biosynthesis pathway gene in pathogenicity of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strain E058 in a chicken infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huiqing; Ling, Jielu; Gao, Qingqing; He, Hongbo; Mu, Xiaohui; Yan, Zhen; Gao, Song; Liu, Xiufan

    2013-10-25

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major surface component of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), and is a possible virulence factor in avian infections caused by this organism. The contribution of the lpxM gene, which encodes a myristoyl transferase that catalyzes the final step in lipid A biosynthesis, to the pathogenicity of APEC has not previously been assessed. In this study, an isogenic lpxM mutant, E058ΔlpxM, was constructed in APEC O2 strain E058 and then characterized. Structural analysis of lipid A from the parental strain and derived mutant showed that E058ΔlpxM lacked one myristoyl (C14:0) on its lipid A molecules. No differences were observed between the mutant and wild-type in a series of tests including growth rate in different broths and ability to survive in specific-pathogen-free chicken serum. However, the mutant showed significantly reduced invasion and intracellular survival in the avian macrophage HD11 cell line (Porgans of birds challenged with the wild-type strain were more severe than in birds infected with the mutant. However, the E058ΔlpxM mutant showed a similar sensitivity pattern to the parental strain following exposure to several hydrophobic reagents. These results indicate that the lpxM gene is important for the pathogenicity and biological activity of APEC strain E058.

  1. Degradation of aromatic compounds through the beta-ketoadipate pathway is required for pathogenicity of the tomato wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B. Michielse; L. Reijnen; C. Olivain; C. Alabouvette; M. Rep

    2012-01-01

    Plant roots react to pathogen attack by the activation of general and systemic resistance, including the lignification of cell walls and increased release of phenolic compounds in root exudate. Some fungi have the capacity to degrade lignin using ligninolytic extracellular peroxidases and laccases.

  2. Activation of osmolyte pathways in inflammatory myopathy and Duchenne muscular dystrophy points to osmoregulation as a contributing pathogenic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paepe, Boel; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Herbelet, Sandrine; Jimenez-Mallebrera, Cecilia; Iglesias, Estibaliz; Jou, Cristina; Weis, Joachim; De Bleecker, Jan L

    2016-08-01

    Alongside well-known nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and its associated cytokine networks, nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5), the master regulator of cellular osmoprotective programs, comes forward as an inflammatory regulator. To gain insight into its yet unexplored role in muscle disease, we studied the expression of NFAT5 target proteins involved in osmolyte accumulation: aldose reductase (AR), taurine transporter (TauT), and sodium myo-inositol co-transporter (SMIT). We analyzed idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and Duchenne muscular dystrophy muscle biopsies and myotubes in culture, using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and western blotting. We report that the level of constitutive AR was upregulated in patients, most strongly so in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. TauT and SMIT expression levels were induced in patients' muscle fibers, mostly representing regenerating and atrophic fibers. In dermatomyositis, strong staining for AR, TauT, and SMIT in atrophic perifascicular fibers was accompanied by staining for other molecular NFAT5 targets, including chaperones, chemokines, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In these fibers, NFAT5 and NFκB p65 staining coincided, linking both transcription factors with this important pathogenic hallmark. In sporadic inclusion body myositis, SMIT localized to inclusions inside muscle fibers. In addition, SMIT was expressed by a substantial subset of muscle-infiltrating macrophages and T cells in patient biopsies. Our results indicate that osmolyte pathways may contribute to normal muscle functioning, and that activation of AR, TauT, and SMIT in muscle inflammation possibly contributes to the tissue's failing program of damage control. PMID:27322952

  3. Two-Component Signaling Regulates Osmotic Stress Adaptation via SskA and the High-Osmolarity Glycerol MAPK Pathway in the Human Pathogen Talaromyces marneffei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Kylie J; Cao, Cunwei; Andrianopoulos, Alex

    2016-01-01

    For successful infection to occur, a pathogen must be able to evade or tolerate the host's defense systems. This requires the pathogen to first recognize the host environment and then signal this response to elicit a complex adaptive program in order to activate its own defense strategies. In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, two-component signaling systems are utilized to sense and respond to changes in the external environment. The hybrid histidine kinases (HHKs) at the start of the two-component signaling pathway have been well characterized in human pathogens. However, how these HHKs regulate processes downstream currently remains unclear. This study describes the role of a response regulator downstream of these HHKs, sskA, in Talaromyces marneffei, a dimorphic human pathogen. sskA is required for asexual reproduction, hyphal morphogenesis, cell wall integrity, osmotic adaptation, and the morphogenesis of yeast cells both in vitro at 37°C and during macrophage infection, but not during dimorphic switching. Comparison of the ΔsskA mutant with a strain in which the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway (SakA) has been deleted suggests that SskA acts upstream of this pathway in T. marneffei to regulate these morphogenetic processes. This was confirmed by assessing the amount of phosphorylated SakA in the ΔsskA mutant, antifungal resistance due to a lack of SakA activation, and the ability of a constitutively active sakA allele (sakA(F316L) ) to suppress the ΔsskA mutant phenotypes. We conclude that SskA regulates morphogenesis and osmotic stress adaptation in T. marneffei via phosphorylation of the SakA MAPK of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway. IMPORTANCE This is the first study in a dimorphic fungal pathogen to investigate the role of a response regulator downstream of two-component signaling systems and its connection to the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway. This study will inspire further research into the

  4. Identification of Metabolic Pathways Expressed by Pichia anomala KH6 in the Presence of the Pathogen Botrytis cinerea on Apple: New Possible Targets for Biocontrol Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Kwasiborski; Mohammed Bajji; Jenny Renaut; Pierre Delaplace; M Haissam Jijakli

    2014-01-01

    Yeast Pichia anomala strain Kh6 Kurtzman (Saccharomycetales: Endomycetaceae) exhibits biological control properties that provide an alternative to the chemical fungicides currently used by fruit or vegetable producers against main post-harvest pathogens, such as Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae). Using an in situ model that takes into account interactions between organisms and a proteomic approach, we aimed to identify P. anomala metabolic pathways influenced by the presence of B...

  5. Gaseous 3-pentanol primes plant immunity against a bacterial speck pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato via salicylic acid and jasmonic acid-dependent signaling pathways in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geun Cheol eSong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available 3-Pentanol is an active organic compound produced by plants and is a component of emitted insect sex pheromones. A previous study reported that drench application of 3-pentanol elicited plant immunity against microbial pathogens and an insect pest in crop plants. Here, we evaluated whether 3-pentanol and the derivatives 1-pentanol and 2-pentanol induced plant systemic resistance using the in vitro I-plate system. Exposure of Arabidopsis seedlings to 10 M and 100 nM 3-pentanol evaporate elicited an immune response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. We performed quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the 3-pentanol-mediated Arabidopsis immune responses by determining Pathogenesis-Related (PR gene expression levels associated with defense signaling through SA, JA, and ethylene signaling pathways. The results show that exposure to 3-pentanol and subsequent pathogen challenge upregulated PDF1.2 and PR1 expression. Selected Arabidopsis mutants confirmed that the 3-pentanol-mediated immune response involved salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA signaling pathways and the NPR1 gene. Taken together, this study indicates that gaseous 3-pentanol triggers induced resistance in Arabidopsis by priming SA and JA signaling pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a volatile compound of an insect sex pheromone triggers plant systemic resistance against a bacterial pathogen.

  6. Comparative genomics of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato reveals novel chemotaxis pathways associated with motility and plant pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The majority of bacterial foliar plant pathogens must invade the apoplast of host plants through points of ingress, such as stomata or wounds, replicate to high population density and cause disease. How pathogens navigate plant surfaces to locate invasion sites remains poorly understood. Many bacter...

  7. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1: pathways of exposure at the animal-human interface, a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D Van Kerkhove

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The threat posed by highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 viruses to humans remains significant, given the continued occurrence of sporadic human cases (499 human cases in 15 countries with a high case fatality rate (approximately 60%, the endemicity in poultry populations in several countries, and the potential for reassortment with the newly emerging 2009 H1N1 pandemic strain. Therefore, we review risk factors for H5N1 infection in humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Several epidemiologic studies have evaluated the risk factors associated with increased risk of H5N1 infection among humans who were exposed to H5N1 viruses. Our review shows that most H5N1 cases are attributed to exposure to sick poultry. Most cases are sporadic, while occasional limited human-to-human transmission occurs. The most commonly identified factors associated with H5N1 virus infection included exposure through contact with infected blood or bodily fluids of infected poultry via food preparation practices; touching and caring for infected poultry; [corrected] exposure to H5N1 via swimming or bathing in potentially virus laden ponds; and exposure to H5N1 at live bird markets. CONCLUSIONS: Research has demonstrated that despite frequent and widespread contact with poultry, transmission of the H5N1 virus from poultry to humans is rare. Available research has identified several risk factors that may be associated with infection including close direct contact with poultry and transmission via the environment. However, several important data gaps remain that limit our understanding of the epidemiology of H5N1 in humans. Although infection in humans with H5N1 remains rare, human cases continue to be reported and H5N1 is now considered endemic among poultry in parts of Asia and in Egypt, providing opportunities for additional human infections and for the acquisition of virus mutations that may lead to more efficient spread among humans and other mammalian species

  8. Always around, never the same: Pathways of amyloid beta induced neurodegeneration throughout the pathogenic cascade of Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M. Hoozemans; S.M. Chafekar; F. Baas; P. Eikelenboom; W. Scheper

    2006-01-01

    There is an increasing amount of evidence showing the importance of intermediate aggregation species of amyloid beta (A beta) in the pathogenic cascade of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Different A beta assembly forms may mediate diverse toxic effects at different stages of the disease. Mouse models for

  9. Identification of metabolic pathways expressed by Pichia anomala Kh6 in the presence of the pathogen Botrytis cinerea on apple: new possible targets for biocontrol improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kwasiborski

    Full Text Available Yeast Pichia anomala strain Kh6 Kurtzman (Saccharomycetales: Endomycetaceae exhibits biological control properties that provide an alternative to the chemical fungicides currently used by fruit or vegetable producers against main post-harvest pathogens, such as Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae. Using an in situ model that takes into account interactions between organisms and a proteomic approach, we aimed to identify P. anomala metabolic pathways influenced by the presence of B. cinerea. A total of 105 and 60 P. anomala proteins were differentially represented in the exponential and stationary growth phases, respectively. In the exponential phase and in the presence of B. cinerea, the pentose phosphate pathway seems to be enhanced and would provide P. anomala with the needed nucleic acids and energy for the wound colonisation. In the stationary phase, P. anomala would use alcoholic fermentation both in the absence and presence of the pathogen. These results would suggest that the competitive colonisation of apple wounds could be implicated in the mode of action of P. anomala against B. cinerea.

  10. The reactive oxygen species network pathways: an essential prerequisite for perception of pathogen attack and the acquired disease resistance in plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Simeon O Kotchoni; Emma W Gachomo

    2006-09-01

    Availability of complete Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa) genome sequences, together with molecular recourses of functional genomics and proteomics have revolutionized our understanding of reactive oxygen species (ROS) signalling network mediating disease resistance in plants. So far, ROS have been associated with aging, cellular and molecular alteration in animal and plant cells. Recently, concluding evidences suggest that ROS network is essential to induce disease resistance and even to mediate resistance to multiple stresses in plants. ROS are obligatory by-products emerging as a result of normal metabolic reactions. They have the potential to be both beneficial and harmful to cellular metabolism. Their dual effects on metabolic reactions are dosage specific. In this review we focus our attention on cellular ROS level to trigger beneficial effects on plant cells responding to pathogen attack. By exploring the research related contributions coupled with data of targeted gene disruption, and RNA interference approaches, we show here that ROS are ubiquitous molecules of redox-pathways that play a crucial role in plant defence mechanism. The molecular prerequisites of ROS network to activate plant defence system in response to pathogen infections are here underlined. Bioinformatic tools are now available to scientists for high throughput analysis of cellular metabolisms. These tools are used to illustrate crucial ROS-related genes that are involved in the defence mechanism of plants. The review describes also the emerging findings of ROS network pathways to modulate multiple stress resistance in plants.

  11. Biosecurity and Vector Behaviour: Evaluating the Potential Threat Posed by Anglers and Canoeists as Pathways for the Spread of Invasive Non-Native Species and Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lucy G.; White, Piran C. L.; Stebbing, Paul D.; Stentiford, Grant D.; Dunn, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive non-native species (INNS) endanger native biodiversity and are a major economic problem. The management of pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment is a key target in the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi biodiversity targets for 2020. Freshwater environments are particularly susceptible to invasions as they are exposed to multiple introduction pathways, including non-native fish stocking and the release of boat ballast water. Since many freshwater INNS and aquatic pathogens can survive for several days in damp environments, there is potential for transport between water catchments on the equipment used by recreational anglers and canoeists. To quantify this biosecurity risk, we conducted an online questionnaire with 960 anglers and 599 canoeists to investigate their locations of activity, equipment used, and how frequently equipment was cleaned and/or dried after use. Anglers were also asked about their use and disposal of live bait. Our results indicate that 64% of anglers and 78.5% of canoeists use their equipment/boat in more than one catchment within a fortnight, the survival time of many of the INNS and pathogens considered in this study and that 12% of anglers and 50% of canoeists do so without either cleaning or drying their kit between uses. Furthermore, 8% of anglers and 28% of canoeists had used their equipment overseas without cleaning or drying it after each use which could facilitate both the introduction and secondary spread of INNS in the UK. Our results provide a baseline against which to evaluate the effectiveness of future biosecurity awareness campaigns, and identify groups to target with biosecurity awareness information. Our results also indicate that the biosecurity practices of these groups must improve to reduce the likelihood of inadvertently spreading INNS and pathogens through these activities. PMID:24717714

  12. Hitting the caspofungin salvage pathway of human-pathogenic fungi with the novel lasso peptide humidimycin (MDN-0010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiante, Vito; Monteiro, Maria Cândida; Martín, Jesús; Altwasser, Robert; El Aouad, Noureddine; González, Ignacio; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Mellado, Emilia; Palomo, Sara; de Pedro, Nuria; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Tormo, José R; Vicente, Francisca; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Brakhage, Axel A

    2015-09-01

    Fungal infections have increased dramatically in the last 2 decades, and fighting infectious diseases requires innovative approaches such as the combination of two drugs acting on different targets or even targeting a salvage pathway of one of the drugs. The fungal cell wall biosynthesis is inhibited by the clinically used antifungal drug caspofungin. This antifungal activity has been found to be potentiated by humidimycin, a new natural product identified from the screening of a collection of 20,000 microbial extracts, which has no major effect when used alone. An analysis of transcriptomes and selected Aspergillus fumigatus mutants indicated that humidimycin affects the high osmolarity glycerol response pathway. By combining humidimycin and caspofungin, a strong increase in caspofungin efficacy was achieved, demonstrating that targeting different signaling pathways provides an excellent basis to develop novel anti-infective strategies.

  13. The first description of complete invertebrate arginine metabolism pathways implies dose-dependent pathogen regulation in Apostichopus japonicus

    OpenAIRE

    Shao Yina; Li Chenghua; Zhang Weiwei; Wang Zhenhui; Lv Zhimeng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, three typical members representative of different arginine metabolic pathways were firstly identified from Apostichopus japonicus, including nitric oxide synthase (NOS), arginase, and agmatinase. Spatial expression analysis revealed that the AjNOS transcript presented negative expression patterns relative to those of Ajarginase or Ajagmatinase in most detected tissues. Furthermore, Vibrio splendidus-challenged coelomocytes and intestine, and LPS-exposed primary coelomocytes cou...

  14. Genes of the de novo and salvage biosynthesis pathways of vitamin B6 are regulated under oxidative stress in the plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil eSamsatly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available B6 is recognized as an important cofactor required for numerous metabolic enzymes, and has been shown to act as an antioxidant and play a role in stress responses. It can be synthesized through two different routes: salvage and de novo pathways. However, little is known about the possible function of the vitamin B6 pathways in the fungal plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Using genome walking, the de novo biosynthetic pathway genes; RsolPDX1 and RsolPDX2 and the salvage biosynthetic pathway gene, RsolPLR were sequenced. The predicted amino acid sequences of the three genes had high degree of similarity to other fungal PDX1, PDX2, and PLR proteins and are closely related to other R. solani anastomosis groups. We also examined their regulation when subjected to ROS stress inducers, the superoxide generator paraquat, or H2O2, and compared it to the well-known antioxidant genes, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST. The genes were differentially regulated with substantial transcript levels as high as 33 fold depending on the gene and type of stress reflecting that differences in the type of damage induced by ROS. Exogenous addition of the vitamers PN or PLP in culture medium significantly induced the transcription of the vitamin B6 de novo encoding genes as early as 0.5 hour post treatment (HPT. On the other hand, transcription of RsolPLR was vitamer-specific; a down regulation upon supplementation of PN and upregualtion with PLP. Our results suggest that accumulation of ROS in R. solani mycelia was linked to transcriptional regulation of the three genes and R. solani vitamin B6 biosynthesis machinery could be implicated similar to catalases and GST as an antioxidant stress protector against oxidative stress.

  15. Artesunate alleviates hepatic fibrosis induced by multiple pathogenic factors and inflammation through the inhibition of LPS/TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lina; Chen, Yunxia; Tian, Xiaoxia; Li, Xujiong; Zhang, Xiaojing; Lei, Jingwen; Bi, Yanghui; Fang, Buwu; Song, Xiaoliang

    2015-10-15

    The current study was performed in order to explore the effect of artesunate (Art) on experimental hepatic fibrosis and the potential mechanism involved. Art, a water-soluble hemisuccinate derivative of artemisinin extracted from the Chinese herb Artemisia Annua, is a safe and effective antimalarial drug. Hepatic fibrosis was induced in SD rats by multiple pathogenic factors. Rats were treated concurrently with Art (28.8 mg/kg) given daily by oral gavage for 6 or 8 weeks to evaluate its protective effects. Our data demonstrated that Art treatment obviously attenuated hepatic fibrosis, characterized by less inflammatory infiltration and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Art remarkably decreased endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels as well. Art significantly downregulated protein and mRNA expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). Art also significantly inhibited the nuclear transcription factor kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65) translocation into the nucleus. In addition, there were no remarkable differences between the N group and the NA group. In conclusion, we found that Art could alleviate hepatic fibrosis induced by multiple pathogenic factors and inflammation through the inhibition of LPS/TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in rats, suggesting that Art may be a potential candidate for the therapy of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:26318197

  16. Pathogen sensing pathways in human embryonic stem cell derived-endothelial cells: role of NOD1 receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Reed

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells (hESC-EC, as well as other stem cell derived endothelial cells, have a range of applications in cardiovascular research and disease treatment. Endothelial cells sense Gram-negative bacteria via the pattern recognition receptors (PRR Toll-like receptor (TLR-4 and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain-containing protein (NOD-1. These pathways are important in terms of sensing infection, but TLR4 is also associated with vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. Here, we have compared TLR4 and NOD1 responses in hESC-EC with those of endothelial cells derived from other stem cells and with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. HUVEC, endothelial cells derived from blood progenitors (blood outgrowth endothelial cells; BOEC, and from induced pluripotent stem cells all displayed both a TLR4 and NOD1 response. However, hESC-EC had no TLR4 function, but did have functional NOD1 receptors. In vivo conditioning in nude rats did not confer TLR4 expression in hESC-EC. Despite having no TLR4 function, hESC-EC sensed Gram-negative bacteria, a response that was found to be mediated by NOD1 and the associated RIP2 signalling pathways. Thus, hESC-EC are TLR4 deficient but respond to bacteria via NOD1. This data suggests that hESC-EC may be protected from unwanted TLR4-mediated vascular inflammation, thus offering a potential therapeutic advantage.

  17. The Extracellular Vesicles of the Helminth Pathogen, Fasciola hepatica: Biogenesis Pathways and Cargo Molecules Involved in Parasite Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiklinski, Krystyna; de la Torre-Escudero, Eduardo; Trelis, Maria; Bernal, Dolores; Dufresne, Philippe J; Brennan, Gerard P; O'Neill, Sandra; Tort, Jose; Paterson, Steve; Marcilla, Antonio; Dalton, John P; Robinson, Mark W

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by parasites have important roles in establishing and maintaining infection. Analysis of the soluble and vesicular secretions of adult Fasciola hepatica has established a definitive characterization of the total secretome of this zoonotic parasite. Fasciola secretes at least two subpopulations of EVs that differ according to size, cargo molecules and site of release from the parasite. The larger EVs are released from the specialized cells that line the parasite gastrodermus and contain the zymogen of the 37 kDa cathepsin L peptidase that performs a digestive function. The smaller exosome-like vesicle population originate from multivesicular bodies within the tegumental syncytium and carry many previously described immunomodulatory molecules that could be delivered into host cells. By integrating our proteomics data with recently available transcriptomic data sets we have detailed the pathways involved with EV biogenesis in F. hepatica and propose that the small exosome biogenesis occurs via ESCRT-dependent MVB formation in the tegumental syncytium before being shed from the apical plasma membrane. Furthermore, we found that the molecular "machinery" required for EV biogenesis is constitutively expressed across the intramammalian development stages of the parasite. By contrast, the cargo molecules packaged within the EVs are developmentally regulated, most likely to facilitate the parasites migration through host tissue and to counteract host immune attack.

  18. Nonstarch polysaccharides modulate bacterial microbiota, pathways for butyrate production, and abundance of pathogenic Escherichia coli in the pig gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Hooda, Seema; Pieper, Robert; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; van Kessel, Andrew G; Mosenthin, Rainer; Gänzle, Michael G

    2010-06-01

    The impact of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) differing in their functional properties on intestinal bacterial community composition, prevalence of butyrate production pathway genes, and occurrence of Escherichia coli virulence factors was studied for eight ileum-cannulated growing pigs by use of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and quantitative PCR. A cornstarch- and casein-based diet was supplemented with low-viscosity, low-fermentability cellulose (CEL), with high-viscosity, low-fermentability carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), with low-viscosity, high-fermentability oat beta-glucan (LG), and with high-viscosity, high-fermentability oat beta-glucan (HG). Only minor effects of NSP fractions on the ileal bacterial community were observed, but NSP clearly changed the digestion in the small intestine. Compared to what was observed for CMC, more fermentable substrate was transferred into the large intestine with CEL, LG, and HG, resulting in higher levels of postileal dry-matter disappearance. Linear discriminant analysis of NSP and TRFLP profiles and 16S rRNA gene copy numbers for major bacterial groups revealed that CMC resulted in a distinctive bacterial community in comparison to the other NSP, which was characterized by higher gene copy numbers for total bacteria, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas, Clostridium cluster XIVa, and Enterobacteriaceae and increased prevalences of E. coli virulence factors in feces. The numbers of butyryl-coenzyme A (CoA) CoA transferase gene copies were higher than those of butyrate kinase gene copies in feces, and these quantities were affected by NSP. The present results suggest that the NSP fractions clearly and distinctly affected the taxonomic composition and metabolic features of the fecal microbiota. However, the effects were more linked to the individual NSP and to their effect on nutrient flow into the large intestine than to their shared functional properties.

  19. DMPD: Toll-like receptors and the host defense against microbial pathogens: bringingspecificity to the innate-immune system. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15075354 Toll-like receptors and the host defense against microbial pathogens: brin... the host defense against microbial pathogens: bringingspecificity to the innate-...immune system. PubmedID 15075354 Title Toll-like receptors and the host defense against microbial pathogens:

  20. DMPD: Regulation of TLR4 signaling and the host interface with pathogens and danger:the role of RP105. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17470533 Regulation of TLR4 signaling and the host interface with pathogens and dan...tion of TLR4 signaling and the host interface with pathogens and danger:the role ...of RP105. PubmedID 17470533 Title Regulation of TLR4 signaling and the host interface with pathogens and dan

  1. Review article

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, M A; Krarup, H; Sand, J.M.B;

    2014-01-01

    and to facilitate improved drug development. The aim of this article was to review the serological biomarkers that may assist in early diagnosis of patients, separate fast from slow- or nonprogressors, and possibly assist in drug development for fibroproliferative diseases, exemplified by liver fibrosis. The lack...... of success of biochemical markers and the possible reasons for this is discussed in the context of other fields with biomarker success. METHOD: This is a personal opinion review article. RESULTS: Biochemical markers, originating from the fibrotic structure, may have increased specificity and sensitivity...

  2. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Lactobacillus casei DG CNCM I-1572 and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 2949, 3061, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to Lactobacillus casei...... DG CNCM I-1572 and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim, Lactobacillus casei DG CNCM I-1572, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro...... and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Lactobacillus casei DG CNCM I-1572 and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro‑intestinal microorganisms....

  3. the proportion of lactobacilli and/or decreasing the proportion of potentially pathogenic bacteria and/or yeasts (ID 945) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (ATCC 55826) in combination with Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (ATCC 55845) and defence against vaginal pathogens by increasing the proportion of lactobacilli and/or decreasing the proportion of potentially pathogenic bacteria and/or yeasts. The scientific...... to be the general female population. From the clarifications provided by Member States, the Panel assumes that the claimed effect refers to defence against vaginal pathogens by increasing the number of lactobacilli and/or decreasing potentially pathogenic bacteria and/or yeasts. The Panel considers that defence...... against vaginal pathogens by increasing the proportion of lactobacilli and/or decreasing the proportion of potentially pathogenic bacteria and/or yeasts is a beneficial physiological effect. No references were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim...

  4. What makes pathogens pathogenic

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrlich, Garth D.; Hiller, N.Luisa; Hu, Fen Ze

    2008-01-01

    Metazoans contain multiple complex microbial ecosystems in which the balance between host and microbe can be tipped from commensalism to pathogenicity. This transition is likely to depend both on the prevailing environmental conditions and on specific gene-gene interactions placed within the context of the entire ecosystem.

  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (ATCC 55826) in combination with Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (ATCC 55845) and defence against vaginal pathogens by increasing the proportion of lactobacilli and/or decreasing the proportion of potentially pathogenic bacteria and/or yeasts (ID 945) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (ATCC 55826) in combination with Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (ATCC 55845) and defence against vaginal pathogens by increasing the proportion of lactobac...

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and maintenance of defence against pathogenic gastrointestinal microorganisms pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Valio Ltd., submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Finland, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related...... to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and maintenance of defence against pathogenic gastrointestinal (GI) microorganisms. LGG is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that the health claim refers to the defence against GI pathogens in the general population without GI infections and does not include...... the treatment of GI infections. Maintenance of defence against pathogenic GI microorganisms is a beneficial physiological effect. Only one out of five human intervention studies showed an effect of LGG consumption on the development of GI infections, two human intervention studies did not show an effect of LGG...

  7. Bacterial Metabolism Shapes the Host-Pathogen Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Karla D; Charbonneau, Marie-Eve; O'Riordan, Mary X D

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial pathogens have evolved to exploit humans as a rich source of nutrients to support survival and replication. The pathways of bacterial metabolism that permit successful colonization are surprisingly varied and highlight remarkable metabolic flexibility. The constraints and immune pressures of distinct niches within the human body set the stage for understanding the mechanisms by which bacteria acquire critical nutrients. In this article we discuss how different bacterial pathogens carry out carbon and energy metabolism in the host and how they obtain or use key nutrients for replication and immune evasion. PMID:27337445

  8. potentially pathogenic gastrointestinal microorganisms (ID 2972), improved lactose digestion (ID 2972) and increasing IL-10 production (ID 2973) (further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    -intestinal discomfort, is a beneficial physiological effect for the general population. The claimed effect, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, might be a beneficial physiological effect for the general population. The claimed effect, improved lactose digestion, is a beneficial...... physiological effect for individuals with lactose maldigestion. No human intervention studies were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the above-mentioned claims. On the basis of the data provided, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has...... of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1688 and Lactobacillus salivarius CNCM I-1794 and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, improved lactose digestion and increasing IL-10 production. The food constituent that is the subject of the health...

  9. Pathogen Phytosensing: Plants to Report Plant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal Stewart

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Real-time systems that provide evidence of pathogen contamination in crops can be an important new line of early defense in agricultural centers. Plants possess defense mechanisms to protect against pathogen attack. Inducible plant defense is controlled by signal transduction pathways, inducible promoters and cis-regulatory elements corresponding to key genes involved in defense, and pathogen-specific responses. Identified inducible promoters and cis-acting elements could be utilized in plant sentinels, or ‘phytosensors’, by fusing these to reporter genes to produce plants with altered phenotypes in response to the presence of pathogens. Here, we have employed cis-acting elements from promoter regions of pathogen inducible genes as well as those responsive to the plant defense signal molecules salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene. Synthetic promoters were constructed by combining various regulatory elements supplemented with the enhancer elements from the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter to increase basal level of the GUS expression. The inducibility of each synthetic promoter was first assessed in transient expression assays using Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts and then examined for efficacy in stably transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. Histochemical and fluorometric GUS expression analyses showed that both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants responded to elicitor and phytohormone treatments with increased GUS expression when compared to untreated plants. Pathogen-inducible phytosensor studies were initiated by analyzing the sensitivity of the synthetic promoters against virus infection. Transgenic tobacco plants infected with Alfalfa mosaic virus showed an increase in GUS expression when compared to mock-inoculated control plants, whereas Tobacco mosaic virus infection caused no changes in GUS expression. Further research, using these transgenic plants against a range of different

  10. MAPK信号通路在新生隐球菌致病机制中的作用%A role of MAPK pathway in the pathogenic mechanism of Cryptcococcus neoformans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皇幼明; 朱红梅; 温海

    2012-01-01

    新生/格特隐球菌是一种双相担子类病原真菌.隐球菌性脑膜炎是最常见的隐球菌病,致残率和死亡率极高.和宿主环境有效交流对隐球菌的生存至关重要.隐球菌利用复杂的信号系统来感应外界环境的变化并调控繁殖、发展和毒力.已知多种信号通路参与新生隐球菌对宿主环境的应答,调控新生隐球菌毒力.MAPK通路(mitogen-activated protein kinase)是其中最重要的信号通路之一,包括高渗透性甘油促分裂原激酶信号转导通路(high osmolarity glycerol mitogen activated protein kinase signaling transduction pathway,HOG-MAPK)、蛋白激酶C信号转导通路(protein kinase C mitogen activated protein kinase signaling transduction pathway,PKC-MAPK)及Ste12转录基因通路(sterile12 transcriptors mitogen activated protein kinase signaling transduction pathway,Ste12-MAPK).对这些传导通路各个环节的了解,不仅有助于阐明MAPK通路的作用机制及其对毒力调控的作用,而且可以为寻找新的药物靶点、治疗新生隐球菌病提供帮助.%Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gatti is a dimorphic basidiomycetous pathogenic fungus. Cryptococcus meningitis is the most common cryptococcosis, causing high mortality and morbidity. Efficient communication with host's environment is crucial to survival of Cryptococcus neoformans. Cryptococcus neoformans has developed complex signaling systems to sense and reply to their environment, to control proliferation and virulence. Including HOG-MAPK (high osmolarity glycerol mitogen activated protein kinase signaling transduction pathway) , PKC-MAPK (protein kinase C mitogen activated protein kinase signaling transduction pathway) , and Stel2-MAPK (sterilel2 transcriptors mitogen activated protein kinase signaling transduction pathway) ,MAPK (mito-gen-activated protein kinase) signaling pathway is one of the most important signaling pathways. Investigation on components of these MAPK signaling

  11. Conservation and divergence of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-protein kinase A (cAMP–PKA) pathway in two plant-pathogenic fungi: Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-PKA pathway is a central signaling cascade that transmits extracellular stimuli and governs cell responses through the second messenger cAMP. The importance of cAMP signaling in fungal biology has been well documented. Two key conserved components, adenylate cyclase (AC) and ca...

  12. Conservation and divergence of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate–protein kinase A (cAMP–PKA) pathway in two plant-pathogenic fungi: Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of cAMP signaling in fungal development and pathogenesis has been well documented in many fungal species including several phytopathogenic Fusarium spp. Two key components of the cAMP-PKA pathway, adenylate cyclase (AC) and catalytic subunit of PKA (CPKA), have been functionally chara...

  13. FvBck1, a component of cell wall integrity MAP kinase pathway, is required for virulence and oxidative stress response in sugarcane Pokkah Boeng pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chengkang; Wang, Jianqiang; Tao, Hong; Dang, Xie; Wang, Yang; Chen, Miaoping; Zhai, Zhenzhen; Yu, Wenying; Xu, Liping; Shim, Won-Bo; Lu, Guodong; Wang, Zonghua

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides (formerly F. moniliforme) is suggested as one of the causal agents of Pokkah Boeng, a serious disease of sugarcane worldwide. Currently, detailed molecular and physiological mechanism of pathogenesis is unknown. In this study, we focused on cell wall integrity MAPK pathway as one of the potential signaling mechanisms associated with Pokkah Boeng pathogenesis. We identified FvBCK1 gene that encodes a MAP kinase kinase kinase homolog and determined that it is not only r...

  14. FvBck1, a Component of Cell Wall Integrity MAP Kinase Pathway, is Required for Virulence and Oxidative Stress Response in Sugarcane Pokkah Boeng Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Chengkang eZhang; Jianqiang eWang; Hong eTao; Xie eDang; Yang eWang; Miaoping eChen; Zhenzhen eZhai; Wenying eYu; Liping eXu; Won-Bo eShim; Guodong eLu; Zonghua eWang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides (formerly F. moniliforme) is suggested as one of the causal agents of Pokkah Boeng, a serious disease of sugarcane worldwide. Currently, detailed molecular and physiological mechanism of pathogenesis is unknown. In this study, we focused on cell wall integrity MAPK pathway as one of the potential signaling mechanisms associated with Pokkah Boeng pathogenesis. We identified FvBCK1 gene that encodes a MAP kinase kinase kinase homolog and determined that it is not only r...

  15. FvBck1, a component of cell wall integrity MAP kinase pathway, is required for virulence and oxidative stress response in sugarcane Pokkah Boeng pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengkang; Wang, Jianqiang; Tao, Hong; Dang, Xie; Wang, Yang; Chen, Miaoping; Zhai, Zhenzhen; Yu, Wenying; Xu, Liping; Shim, Won-Bo; Lu, Guodong; Wang, Zonghua

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides (formerly F. moniliforme) is suggested as one of the causal agents of Pokkah Boeng, a serious disease of sugarcane worldwide. Currently, detailed molecular and physiological mechanism of pathogenesis is unknown. In this study, we focused on cell wall integrity MAPK pathway as one of the potential signaling mechanisms associated with Pokkah Boeng pathogenesis. We identified FvBCK1 gene that encodes a MAP kinase kinase kinase homolog and determined that it is not only required for growth, micro- and macro-conidia production, and cell wall integrity but also for response to osmotic and oxidative stresses. The deletion of FvBCK1 caused a significant reduction in virulence and FB1 production, a possibly carcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the fungus. Moreover, we found the expression levels of three genes, which are known to be involved in superoxide scavenging, were down regulated in the mutant. We hypothesized that the loss of superoxide scavenging capacity was one of the reasons for reduced virulence, but overexpression of catalase or peroxidase gene failed to restore the virulence defect in the deletion mutant. When we introduced Magnaporthe oryzae MCK1 into the FvBck1 deletion mutant, while certain phenotypes were restored, the complemented strain failed to gain full virulence. In summary, FvBck1 plays a diverse role in F. verticillioides, and detailed investigation of downstream signaling pathways will lead to a better understanding of how this MAPK pathway regulates Pokkah Boeng on sugarcane. PMID:26500635

  16. FvBck1, a Component of Cell Wall Integrity MAP Kinase Pathway, is Required for Virulence and Oxidative Stress Response in Sugarcane Pokkah Boeng Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengkang eZhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium verticillioides (formerly F. moniliforme is suggested as one of the causal agents of Pokkah Boeng, a serious disease of sugarcane worldwide. Currently, detailed molecular and physiological mechanism of pathogenesis is unknown. In this study, we focused on cell wall integrity MAPK pathway as one of the potential signaling mechanisms associated with Pokkah Boeng pathogenesis. We identified FvBCK1 gene that encodes a MAP kinase kinase kinase homolog and determined that it is not only required for growth, micro- and macro-conidia production, and cell wall integrity but also for response to osmotic and oxidative stresses. The deletion of FvBCK1 caused a significant reduction in virulence and FB1 production, a carcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the fungus. Moreover, we found the expression levels of three genes, which are known to be involved in superoxide scavenging, were down regulated in the mutant. We hypothesized that the loss of superoxide scavenging capacity was one of the reasons for reduced virulence, but overexpression of catalase or peroxidase gene failed to restore the virulence defect in the deletion mutant. When we introduced Magnaporthe oryzae MCK1 into the FvBck1 deletion mutant, while certain phenotypes were restored, the complemented strain failed to gain full virulence. In summary, FvBck1 plays a diverse role in F. verticillioides, and detailed investigation of downstream signaling pathways will lead to a better understanding of how this MAPK pathway regulates Pokkah Boeng on sugarcane.

  17. Rhamnolipids elicit defense responses and induce disease resistance against biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic pathogens that require different signaling pathways in Arabidopsis and highlight a central role for salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Lisa; Courteaux, Barbara; Hubert, Jane; Kauffmann, Serge; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stéphan

    2012-11-01

    Plant resistance to phytopathogenic microorganisms mainly relies on the activation of an innate immune response usually launched after recognition by the plant cells of microbe-associated molecular patterns. The plant hormones, salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid, and ethylene have emerged as key players in the signaling networks involved in plant immunity. Rhamnolipids (RLs) are glycolipids produced by bacteria and are involved in surface motility and biofilm development. Here we report that RLs trigger an immune response in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) characterized by signaling molecules accumulation and defense gene activation. This immune response participates to resistance against the hemibiotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato, the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, and the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. We show that RL-mediated resistance involves different signaling pathways that depend on the type of pathogen. Ethylene is involved in RL-induced resistance to H. arabidopsidis and to P. syringae pv tomato whereas jasmonic acid is essential for the resistance to B. cinerea. SA participates to the restriction of all pathogens. We also show evidence that SA-dependent plant defenses are potentiated by RLs following challenge by B. cinerea or P. syringae pv tomato. These results highlight a central role for SA in RL-mediated resistance. In addition to the activation of plant defense responses, antimicrobial properties of RLs are thought to participate in the protection against the fungus and the oomycete. Our data highlight the intricate mechanisms involved in plant protection triggered by a new type of molecule that can be perceived by plant cells and that can also act directly onto pathogens. PMID:22968829

  18. . boulardii CNCM I-1079 and defence against pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 3017, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to a combination......, is a beneficial physiological effect. The proposed target population is the general population. No human intervention studies which investigated the effect of a combination of L. rhamnosus CNCM I-1720, L. helveticus CNCM I-1722, B. longum subsp. longum CNCM I-3470 and S. cerevisiae var. boulardii CNCM I-1079 were...

  19. Activation of an EDS1-mediated R-gene pathway in the snc1 mutant leads to constitutive, NPR1-independent pathogen resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Clarke, J D; Zhang, Y; Dong, X

    2001-10-01

    The Arabidopsis NPR1 protein is an essential regulatory component of systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Mutations in the NPR1 gene completely block the induction of SAR by signals such as salicylic acid (SA). An Arabidopsis mutant, snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1), was isolated in a screen for suppressors of npr1-1. In the npr1-1 background, the snc1 mutation resulted in constitutive resistance to Pseudomonas syringae maculicola ES4326 and Peronospora parasitica Noco2. High levels of SA were detected in the mutant and shown to be required for manifestation of the snc1 phenotype. The snc1 mutation was mapped to the RPP5 resistance (R) gene cluster and the eds1 mutation that blocks RPP5-mediated resistance suppressed snc1. These data suggest that a RPP5-related resistance pathway is activated constitutively in snc1. This pathway does not employ NPR1 but requires the signal molecule SA and the function of EDS1. Moreover, in snc1, constitutive resistance is conferred in the absence of cell death, which is often associated with R-gene mediated resistance.

  20. Waterborne Pathogens: The Protozoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joseph Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Waterborne diseases associated with polluted recreational and potable waters have been documented for more than a century. Key microbial protozoan parasites, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are causative agents for gastrointestinal disease worldwide. Although not a first-line diagnostic approach for these diseases, medical imaging, such as radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, and nuclear medicine technologies, can be used to evaluate patients with long-term effects. This article describes protozoan pathogens that affect human health, treatment of common waterborne pathogen-related diseases, and associated medical imaging. PMID:27601690

  1. Comparison of the pathogenicity of different pathways of canine parvovirus infection%犬细小病毒感染方式的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珊; 刘冰; 孙远; 李鹏; 付玉; 田秀丽; 宋宇; 张乃生; 王承宇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare pathways of canine parvovirus infection, experimentally inoculated young puppies with CPV-SY1. Methods Four methods, i.e. oral inoculation, eyedrop inoculation, intramuscular injection, and hypodermic injection, were used to inoculate animals and their clinical symptoms, blood cell counts, viral elimination, and pathological changes were studied. Results After infection, orally inoculated dogs displayed typical clinical symptoms.A fever was observed and the virus was eliminated in feces on day 2; the blood cell count decreased on day 5. Morbidity in the orally inoculated group was higher than in the groups given eyedrop inoculation, intramuscular injection, or hypodermic injection, and the difference in morbidity was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Oral inoculation is the best pathway of canine parvovirus infection.%目的 用CPV-SY1株犬细小病毒细胞培养物通过不同途径感染宠物犬,评估最佳的感染方式.方法 通过口服、滴鼻点眼、肌肉注射、皮下注射4种方式感染犬,观察或检测攻毒后动物的临床症状、血液白细胞数、排毒情况及病理变化.结果 犬感染CPV后,口服组表现出典型犬细小病毒病症状,第2 d出现高热,并检测到排毒,第5 d白细胞数减少.口服组、滴鼻点眼组、肌肉注射组、皮下注射组发病率分别为100%、75%、50%和25%.差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 犬细小病毒感染动物以口服途径较好.

  2. Activation of type I and III interferon signalling pathways occurs in lung epithelial cells infected with low pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sutejo

    Full Text Available The host response to the low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI H5N2, H5N3 and H9N2 viruses were examined in A549, MDCK, and CEF cells using a systems-based approach. The H5N2 and H5N3 viruses replicated efficiently in A549 and MDCK cells, while the H9N2 virus replicated least efficiently in these cell types. However, all LPAI viruses exhibited similar and higher replication efficiencies in CEF cells. A comparison of the host responses of these viruses and the H1N1/WSN virus and low passage pH1N1 clinical isolates was performed in A549 cells. The H9N2 and H5N2 virus subtypes exhibited a robust induction of Type I and Type III interferon (IFN expression, sustained STAT1 activation from between 3 and 6 hpi, which correlated with large increases in IFN-stimulated gene (ISG expression by 10 hpi. In contrast, cells infected with the pH1N1 or H1N1/WSN virus showed only small increases in Type III IFN signalling, low levels of ISG expression, and down-regulated expression of the IFN type I receptor. JNK activation and increased expression of the pro-apoptotic XAF1 protein was observed in A549 cells infected with all viruses except the H1N1/WSN virus, while MAPK p38 activation was only observed in cells infected with the pH1N1 and the H5 virus subtypes. No IFN expression and low ISG expression levels were generally observed in CEF cells infected with either AIV, while increased IFN and ISG expression was observed in response to the H1N1/WSN infection. These data suggest differences in the replication characteristics and antivirus signalling responses both among the different LPAI viruses, and between these viruses and the H1N1 viruses examined. These virus-specific differences in host cell signalling highlight the importance of examining the host response to avian influenza viruses that have not been extensively adapted to mammalian tissue culture.

  3. Leukocyte-subset counts in idiopathic parkinsonism provide clues to a pathogenic pathway involving small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobbs R

    2012-10-01

    -medication, and not masked by including 13 patients receiving levodopa (except natural-killer count on flexor-rigidity. Cellular associations held after allowing for potentially confounding effect of hydrogen-breath-test or Helicobacter status. Moreover, additional reduction in stride and speed (68 (24, 112 mm & 103 (38, 168 mm.s-1, each p=0.002 was seen with Helicobacter-positivity. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity, itself, was associated with higher natural-killer and T-helper counts, lower neutrophils (p=0.005, 0.02 & 0.008. Conclusion We propose a rigidity-associated subordinate pathway, flagged by a higher natural-killer count, tempered by a higher T-helper, against which Helicobacter protects by keeping SIBO at bay.

  4. Pathogen intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behavior, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behavior, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies. PMID:24551600

  5. Heme uptake in bacterial pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, Heidi; Chim, Nicholas; Credali, Alfredo; Goulding, Celia W.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for the survival of organisms. Bacterial pathogens possess specialized pathways to acquire heme from their human hosts. In this review, we present recent structural and biochemical data that provide mechanistic insights into several bacterial heme uptake pathways, encompassing the sequestration of heme from human hemoproteins to secreted or membrane-associated bacterial proteins, the transport of heme across bacterial membranes, and the degradation of heme within...

  6. Publishing International Counseling Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Amundson, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    This article begins with a rationale for including international articles in the "Journal of Counseling & Development." Then, 2 general categories of international articles are described. First are articles that provide a general overview of counseling in a particular country. The 2nd category is more general and might involve international…

  7. Pathogenic agents in freshwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic agents to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination provide a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.

  8. Pathogen Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Irudayaraj

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of sensors for detecting foodborne pathogens has been motivated by the need to produce safe foods and to provide better healthcare. However, in the more recent times, these needs have been expanded to encompass issues relating to biosecurity, detection of plant and soil pathogens, microbial communities, and the environment. The range of technologies that currently flood the sensor market encompass PCR and microarray-based methods, an assortment of optical sensors (including bioluminescence and fluorescence, in addition to biosensor-based approaches that include piezoelectric, potentiometric, amperometric, and conductometric sensors to name a few. More recently, nanosensors have come into limelight, as a more sensitive and portable alternative, with some commercial success. However, key issues affecting the sensor community is the lack of standardization of the testing protocols and portability, among other desirable elements, which include timeliness, cost-effectiveness, user-friendliness, sensitivity and specificity. [...

  9. Call for Articles

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Do you have an article you would like to have considered for publication? Submit it to Global Advances in Health and Medicine! A review of the following standards will be helpful as you prepare your article for submission.

  10. [Salmonella pathogenicity islands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sırıken, Belgin

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella species are facultative intracellular pathogenic bacteria. They can invade macrophages, dendritic and epithelial cells. The responsible virulence genes for invasion, survival, and extraintestinal spread are located in Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs). SPIs are thought to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Some of the SPIs are conserved throughout the Salmonella genus, and some of them are specific for certain serovars. There are differences between Salmonella serotypes in terms of adaptation to host cell, virulence factors and the resulting infection according to SPA presence and characteristics. The most important Salmonella virulence gene clusters are located in 12 pathogenicity islands. Virulence genes that are involved in the intestinal phase of infection are located in SPI-1 and SPI-2 and the remaining SPIs are required for intracellular survival, fimbrial expression, magnesium and iron uptake, multiple antibiotic resistance and the development of systemic infections. In addition SPIs, Sigma ss (RpoS) factors and adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR) are the other two important virulence factors. RpoS and ATR found in virulent Salmonella strains help the bacteria to survive under inappropriate conditions such as gastric acidity, bile salts, inadequate oxygen concentration, lack of nutrients, antimicrobial peptides, mucus and natural microbiota and also to live in phagosomes or phagolysosomes. This review article summarizes the data related to pathogenicity islands in Salmonella serotypes and some factors which play role in the regulation of virulence genes.

  11. Conserved Pro-Glu (PE) and Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) Protein Domains Target LipY Lipases of Pathogenic Mycobacteria to the Cell Surface via the ESX-5 Pathway*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daleke, Maria H.; Cascioferro, Alessandro; de Punder, Karin; Ummels, Roy; Abdallah, Abdallah M.; van der Wel, Nicole; Peters, Peter J.; Luirink, Joen; Manganelli, Riccardo; Bitter, Wilbert

    2011-01-01

    The type VII secretion system ESX-5 is a major pathway for export of PE and PPE proteins in pathogenic mycobacteria. These mycobacteria-specific protein families are characterized by conserved N-terminal domains of 100 and 180 amino acids, which contain the proline-glutamic acid (PE) and proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) motifs after which they are named. Here we investigated secretion of the triacylglycerol lipase LipY, which in fast-growing mycobacteria contains a signal sequence, but in slow-growing species appears to have replaced the signal peptide with a PE or PPE domain. Selected LipY homologues were expressed in wild-type Mycobacterium marinum and its corresponding ESX-5 mutant, and localization of the proteins was investigated by immunoblotting and electron microscopy. Our study shows that Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE-LipY (LipYtub) and M. marinum PPE-LipY (LipYmar) are both secreted to the bacterial surface in an ESX-5-dependent fashion. After transport, the PE/PPE domains are removed by proteolytic cleavage. In contrast, Mycobacterium gilvum LipY, which has a signal sequence, is not transported to the cell surface. Furthermore, we show that LipYtub and LipYmar require their respective PE and PPE domains for ESX-5-dependent secretion. The role of the PE domain in ESX-5 secretion was confirmed in a whole cell lipase assay, in which wild-type bacteria expressing full-length LipYtub, but not LipYtub lacking its PE domain, were shown to hydrolyze extracellular lipids. In conclusion, both PE and PPE domains contain a signal required for secretion of LipY by the ESX-5 system, and these domains are proteolytically removed upon translocation. PMID:21471225

  12. Method of drying articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janney, Mark A.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.

    1999-01-01

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

  13. Trafficking vesicles: pro or contra pathogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei dit Frey, Nicolas; Robatzek, Silke

    2009-08-01

    Membrane compartmentalization and trafficking are pivotal for eukaryotic life and demand a higher order of coordination. Even in their resting state, most plant cells exhibit a polarized localization of membrane compartments, which is redirected when plant cells are attacked by microbes. Repositioning of organelles at pathogen penetration sites has been reported since more than a decade; however, only recently has targeted vesicle trafficking upon biotic stress emerged. It has become evident that vesicle secretion and endocytic pathways are engaged in the plant's immune system to actively defend against potential pathogens. By contrast, invasive pathogens have evolved means to utilize these trafficking pathways for the suppression of plant defenses and to the benefit of microbial proliferation. This review summarizes recent findings of host intracellular endomembrane adaptations in response to pathogens and how pathogens exploit them. PMID:19608452

  14. Repositioning of Memantine as a Potential Novel Therapeutic Agent against Meningitic E. coli-Induced Pathogenicities through Disease-Associated Alpha7 Cholinergic Pathway and RNA Sequencing-Based Transcriptome Analysis of Host Inflammatory Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yi Yu

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis and meningitis (NSM remains a leading cause worldwide of mortality and morbidity in newborn infants despite the availability of antibiotics over the last several decades. E. coli is the most common gram-negative pathogen causing NSM. Our previous studies show that α7 nicotinic receptor (α7 nAChR, an essential regulator of inflammation, plays a detrimental role in the host defense against NSM. Despite notable successes, there still exists an unmet need for new effective therapeutic approaches to treat this disease. Using the in vitro/in vivo models of the blood-brain barrier (BBB and RNA-seq, we undertook a drug repositioning study to identify unknown antimicrobial activities for known drugs. We have demonstrated for the first time that memantine (MEM, a FDA-approved drug for treatment of Alzheimer's disease, could very efficiently block E. coli-caused bacteremia and meningitis in a mouse model of NSM in a manner dependent on α7 nAChR. MEM was able to synergistically enhance the antibacterial activity of ampicillin in HBMEC infected with E. coli K1 (E44 and in neonatal mice with E44-caused bacteremia and meningitis. Differential gene expression analysis of RNA-Seq data from mouse BMEC infected with E. coli K1 showed that several E44-increased inflammatory factors, including IL33, IL18rap, MMP10 and Irs1, were significantly reduced by MEM compared to the infected cells without drug treatment. MEM could also significantly up-regulate anti-inflammatory factors, including Tnfaip3, CISH, Ptgds and Zfp36. Most interestingly, these factors may positively and negatively contribute to regulation of NF-κB, which is a hallmark feature of bacterial meningitis. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that circulating BMEC (cBMEC are the potential novel biomarkers for NSM. MEM could significantly reduce E44-increased blood level of cBMEC in mice. Taken together, our data suggest that memantine can efficiently block host inflammatory responses to

  15. Schumpeter's unknown article Development

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Markus C.; Esslinger, Hans Ulrich; Hedtke, Ulrich; Knudsen, Thorbjørn

    2004-01-01

    The present article introduces Development, a new, unpublished and hitherto unknown article written by Joseph A. Schumpeter. It was originally written in 1932 and titled Entwicklung. Development is remarkable since it helps understand the unity of Schumpeter’s work and significantly adds to Schumpeter’s known works on a number of issues that were central to his theory of economic development. Development shows that Schumpeter considered the explanation of novelty as the most im...

  16. Abstracts of Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    LU Bingfu, The semantic characteristics of event nouns in Chinese and English The article analyzes the eommonalities and differences of event nouns in Chinese and English. It points out that in both languages complex social events are most likely to be coded as social event nouns, which constitute the core of event nouns. However, peripheral event nouns in the two languages are very different. The article also discusses the various motivations for events to be coded as nouns.

  17. Map kinases in fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J R

    2000-12-01

    MAP kinases in eukaryotic cells are well known for transducing a variety of extracellular signals to regulate cell growth and differentiation. Recently, MAP kinases homologous to the yeast Fus3/Kss1 MAP kinases have been identified in several fungal pathogens and found to be important for appressorium formation, invasive hyphal growth, and fungal pathogenesis. This MAP kinase pathway also controls diverse growth or differentiation processes, including conidiation, conidial germination, and female fertility. MAP kinases homologous to yeast Slt2 and Hog1 have also been characterized in Candida albicans and Magnaporthe grisea. Mutants disrupted of the Slt2 homologues have weak cell walls, altered hyphal growth, and reduced virulence. The Hog1 homologues are dispensable for growth but are essential for regulating responses to hyperosmotic stress in C. albicans and M. grisea. Overall, recent studies have indicated that MAP kinase pathways may play important roles in regulating growth, differentiation, survival, and pathogenesis in fungal pathogens. PMID:11273677

  18. Recompressed exfoliated graphite articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2013-08-06

    This invention provides an electrically conductive, less anisotropic, recompressed exfoliated graphite article comprising a mixture of (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite flakes; and (b) particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon, wherein the non-expandable graphite or carbon particles are in the amount of between about 3% and about 70% by weight based on the total weight of the particles and the expanded graphite flakes combined; wherein the mixture is compressed to form the article having an apparent bulk density of from about 0.1 g/cm.sup.3 to about 2.0 g/cm.sup.3. The article exhibits a thickness-direction conductivity typically greater than 50 S/cm, more typically greater than 100 S/cm, and most typically greater than 200 S/cm. The article, when used in a thin foil or sheet form, can be a useful component in a sheet molding compound plate used as a fuel cell separator or flow field plate. The article may also be used as a current collector for a battery, supercapacitor, or any other electrochemical cell.

  19. Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...

  20. Tweeting News Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Toledo Bastos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we investigate the impact of social media readership to the editorial profile of newspapers. We analyze tweets containing links to news articles from eight of the largest national newspapers in the United States, United Kingdom, Spain, Brazil, and Germany. The data collection follows the first two weeks of October 2012 and includes 2,842,699 tweets with links to news articles. Twitter-shortened links were resolved using a three-pass routine and assigned to 1 of the 21 newspaper sections. We found the concentration of links to news articles posted by top users to be lower than reported in the literature and the strategy of relaying headlines on Twitter via automatic news aggregators (feeds to be inefficient. The results of this investigation show which sections of a newspaper are the most and least read by readers in different parts of the world, with German readers placing greater emphasis on Politics and Economy; Brazilians on Sports and Arts; Spaniards on Local and National news; Britons and Americans on Opinion and World news. We also found that German and Spanish readers are more likely to read multiple national newspapers, while British readers more often resort to foreign sources of news. The results confirm that feedback to news items from a large user base is pivotal for the replication of content and that newspapers and news items can be clustered according to the editorial profile and principles of newsworthiness inherited from legacy media. The results of this investigation shed light onto the networked architecture of journalism that increasingly depends on readership agency.

  1. Immunity to plant pathogens and iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Aude; Chen, Nicolas W G; Thomine, Sebastien; Dellagi, Alia

    2015-11-01

    Iron is essential for metabolic processes in most living organisms. Pathogens and their hosts often compete for the acquisition of this nutrient. However, iron can catalyze the formation of deleterious reactive oxygen species. Hosts may use iron to increase local oxidative stress in defense responses against pathogens. Due to this duality, iron plays a complex role in plant-pathogen interactions. Plant defenses against pathogens and plant response to iron deficiency share several features, such as secretion of phenolic compounds, and use common hormone signaling pathways. Moreover, fine tuning of iron localization during infection involves genes coding iron transport and iron storage proteins, which have been shown to contribute to immunity. The influence of the plant iron status on the outcome of a given pathogen attack is strongly dependent on the nature of the pathogen infection strategy and on the host species. Microbial siderophores emerged as important factors as they have the ability to trigger plant defense responses. Depending on the plant species, siderophore perception can be mediated by their strong iron scavenging capacity or possibly via specific recognition as pathogen associated molecular patterns. This review highlights that iron has a key role in several plant-pathogen interactions by modulating immunity. PMID:26475190

  2. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies ), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Yestimun ® and defence against pathogens in the upper respiratory tract pursuant to Article 13(5) of R egulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    substantiation of a health claim related to Yestimun® and defence against pathogens in the upper respiratory tract. The food that is the subject of the health claim, Yestimun®, which consists of (1,3)-(1,6)-β-D-glucans from brewer’s yeast cell wall, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, defence...... established between the consumption of Yestimun® ((1,3)-(1,6)-β-D-glucans from brewer’s yeast cell wall) and defence against pathogens in the upper respiratory tract. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...

  3. Host–pathogen dynamics: it's complicated!

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret J Duncan

    2012-01-01

    This set of three review articles on host-pathogen interactions begins with a discussion of emerging concepts on homeostasis of a specific microbiome, that of the gut, and how disruption of the microbial status quo can result in several syndromes (1). The following papers highlight research on host-pathogen interactions with two oral bacteria: the dynamics between Treponema denticola virulence factors and host proteins (2); and Porphyromonas gingivalis infection of a novel animal model that w...

  4. List of Article Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Section

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES Premixed combustion of coconut oil in a hele-shaw cell DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.155-160 155-160 Hadi Saroso, I.N.G. Wardana, Rudy Soenoko, Nurkholis Hamidi   Analysing the potential of retrofitting ultra-low heat loss triple vacuum glazed windows to an existing UK solid wall dwelling DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.161-174 161-174 Saim Memon   Study of Gasohol as Alternative Fuel for Gasoline Substitution: Characteristics and Performances DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.175-183 175-183 Bardi Murachman, Dicky Pranantyo, Eddie Sandjaya Putra   Thermal effects investigation on electrical properties of silicon solar cells treated by laser irradiation DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.184-187 184-187 Ali Pourakbar Saffar, Bahman Deldadeh Barani   Synthesis of Trimethylolpropane Esters of Calophyllum Methyl Esters : Effect of Temperatur and Molar Ratio DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.188-192 188-192 Yeti Widyawati, Ani Suryani, Muhammad Romli, Sukardi Sukardi   Incorporating Root Crops under Agro-Forestry as the Newly Potential Source of Food, Feed and Renewable Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.193-206 193-206 Yudi Widodo, St. A. Rahayuningsih, Nasir Saleh, Sri Wahyuningsih   Solmap: Project In India's Solar Resource Assessment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.207-216 207-216 Indradip Mitra, Kaushal Chhatbar, Ashvini Kumar, Godugunur Giridhar, Ramdhan Vashistha, Richard Meyer, Marko Schwandt   Thermo-economic Optimization of Solar Assisted Heating and Cooling (SAHC System DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.217-227 217-227 A. Ghafoor, A. Munir   Combustion characteristics of diesel engine using producer gas and blends of Jatropha methyl ester with diesel in mixed fuel mode DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.228-235 228-235 Hifjur Raheman, Debasish Padhee    

  5. Biochemical research elucidating metabolic pathways in Pneumocystis*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneshiro E.S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in sequencing the Pneumocystis carinii genome have helped identify potential metabolic pathways operative in the organism. Also, data from characterizing the biochemical and physiological nature of these organisms now allow elucidation of metabolic pathways as well as pose new challenges and questions that require additional experiments. These experiments are being performed despite the difficulty in doing experiments directly on this pathogen that has yet to be subcultured indefinitely and produce mass numbers of cells in vitro. This article reviews biochemical approaches that have provided insights into several Pneumocystis metabolic pathways. It focuses on 1 S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet; SAM, which is a ubiquitous participant in numerous cellular reactions; 2 sterols: focusing on oxidosqualene cyclase that forms lanosterol in P. carinii; SAM:sterol C-24 methyltransferase that adds methyl groups at the C-24 position of the sterol side chain; and sterol 14α-demethylase that removes a methyl group at the C-14 position of the sterol nucleus; and 3 synthesis of ubiquinone homologs, which play a pivotal role in mitochondrial inner membrane and other cellular membrane electron transport.

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 781), pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    microflora, gut integrity, digestion‖. The target population is assumed to be the general population. The Panel considers that the claimed effect, in the context of decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, might be a beneficial physiological effect. No human studies from which...

  7. Silicon induces changes in antifungal phenolic acids, flavonoids, and key phenylpropanoid pathway genes during the interaction between miniature roses and the biotrophic pathogen Podosphaera pannosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Radhakrishna; Fretté, Xavier; Jensen, Birgit;

    2011-01-01

    . Among the quantified flavonoids, rutin and quercitrin were detected in the highest concentrations, and the rutin concentration increased more than 20-fold in Si+ inoculated compared with Si- uninoculated plants. Both rutin and chlorogenic acid had antimicrobial effects on P. pannosa, evidenced...... by reduced conidial germination and appressorium formation of the pathogen, both after spray application and infiltration into leaves. The application of rutin and chlorogenic acid reduced powdery mildew severity by 40% to 50%, and observation of an effect after leaf infiltration indicated that these two...

  8. Modulation of pathogen recognition by autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun eOh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an ancient biological process for maintaining cellular homeostasis by degradation of long-lived cytosolic proteins and organelles. Recent studies demonstrated that autophagy is availed by immune cells to regulate innate immunity. On the one hand, cells exert direct effector function by degrading intracellular pathogens; on the other hand, autophagy modulates pathogen recognition and downstream signaling for innate immune responses. Pathogen recognition via pattern recognition receptors induces autophagy. The function of phagocytic cells is enhanced by recruitment of autophagy-related proteins. Moreover, autophagy acts as a delivery system for viral replication complexes to migrate to the endosomal compartments where virus sensing occurs. In another case, key molecules of the autophagic pathway have been found to negatively regulate immune signaling, thus preventing aberrant activation of cytokine production and consequent immune responses. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the role of autophagy in pathogen recognition and modulation of innate immune responses.

  9. Manipulation of costimulatory molecules by intracellular pathogens: veni, vidi, vici!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargis Khan

    Full Text Available Some of the most successful pathogens of human, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, HIV, and Leishmania donovani not only establish chronic infections but also remain a grave global threat. These pathogens have developed innovative strategies to evade immune responses such as antigenic shift and drift, interference with antigen processing/presentation, subversion of phagocytosis, induction of immune regulatory pathways, and manipulation of the costimulatory molecules. Costimulatory molecules expressed on the surface of various cells play a decisive role in the initiation and sustenance of immunity. Exploitation of the "code of conduct" of costimulation pathways provides evolutionary incentive to the pathogens and thereby abates the functioning of the immune system. Here we review how Mtb, HIV, Leishmania sp., and other pathogens manipulate costimulatory molecules to establish chronic infection. Impairment by pathogens in the signaling events delivered by costimulatory molecules may be responsible for defective T-cell responses; consequently organisms grow unhindered in the host cells. This review summarizes the convergent devices that pathogens employ to tune and tame the immune system using costimulatory molecules. Studying host-pathogen interaction in context with costimulatory signals may unveil the molecular mechanism that will help in understanding the survival/death of the pathogens. We emphasize that the very same pathways can potentially be exploited to develop immunotherapeutic strategies to eliminate intracellular pathogens.

  10. Bacteriophage biocontrol of foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Mustafa; Annapure, Uday S

    2016-03-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that only infect bacterial cells. Phages are categorized based on the type of their life cycle, the lytic cycle cause lysis of the bacterium with the release of multiple phage particles where as in lysogenic phase the phage DNA is incorporated into the bacterial genome. Lysogeny does not result in lysis of the host. Lytic phages have several potential applications in the food industry as biocontrol agents, biopreservatives and as tools for detecting pathogens. They have also been proposed as alternatives to antibiotics in animal health. Two unique features of phage relevant for food safety are that they are harmless to mammalian cells and high host specificity, keeping the natural microbiota undisturbed. However, the recent approval of bacteriophages as food additives has opened the discussion about 'edible viruses'. This article reviews in detail the application of phages for the control of foodborne pathogens in a process known as "biocontrol". PMID:27570260

  11. Jasmonate Signal Pathway in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yi Shan; Zhi-Long Wang; Daoxin Xie

    2007-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs), which include jasmonic acid and its cyclopentane derivatives are synthesized from the octadecanoid pathway and widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. JAs modulate the expression of numerous genes and mediate responses to stress, wounding, insect attack, pathogen infection, and UV damage. They also affect a variety of processes in many plant developmental processes. The JA signal pathway involves two important events: the biosynthesis of JA and the transduction of JA signal. Several important Arabidopsis mutants in jasmonate signal pathway were described in this review.

  12. Neutron absorbing article and method for manufacture of such article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron absorbing article is described which comprises boron carbide particles and an irreversibly-cured phenol aldehyde condensation polymer cured to a continuous matrix about the boron carbide particles. Such an article may be used in spent fuel storage racks. It can be manufactured by mixing together a curable phenolic resin with boron carbide particles, compacting the mixture to an article of desired shape, curing the resin at an elevated temperature, impregnating the cured article with curable phenolic resin in liquid state, and curing the article again

  13. RNA-mediated pathogenic mechanisms in polyglutamine diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Yin Edwin Chan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gene transcription produces a wide variety of ribonucleic acid (RNA species in eukaryotes. Individual types of RNA, such as messenger, structural and regulatory RNA, are known to play distinct roles in the cell. Recently, researchers have identified a large number of RNA-mediated toxicity pathways that play significant pathogenic roles in numerous human disorders. In this article, we describe various common RNA toxicity pathways, namely epigenetic gene silencing, nucleolar stress, nucleocytoplasmic transport, repeat-associated non-ATG translation, RNA foci formation and cellular protein sequestration. We emphasize RNA toxicity mechanisms that involve nucleotide repeat expansion, such as those related to polyglutamine disorders and frontotemporal lobar degeneration-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  14. Article

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The Economic and Political Studies(EPS)is a peer-reviewed academic journal.The EPS seeks to promote the studies of economics and politics by addressing issues concerning China and its interaction with the world,encouraging an interdisciplinary approach,while exploring critiques from various perspectives.The journal also provides an international forum for innovative theoretical and empirical work where the fields of economics and politics intersect.Both

  15. ARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A Study on the European Nation State in the Context of State Transforma- tion;An Analysis of the French Nation State and Its Idea of Nation;The Evolution of the German Nation State. from a Cultural Community to a Post-classical Nation State;From a Catholic Community to a Frustrated Nation-state--A historical Review on Spain's State Building.

  16. What makes articles highly cited?

    OpenAIRE

    Antonakis J.; Bastardoz N.; Liu Y; Schriesheim C. A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined drivers of article citations using 776 articles that were published from 1990-2012 in a broad-based and high-impact social sciences journal, The Leadership Quarterly. These articles had 1,191 unique authors having published and received in total (at the time of their most recent article published in our dataset) 16,817 articles and 284,777 citations, respectively. Our models explained 66.6% of the variance in citations and showed that quantitative, review, method, and theory artic...

  17. Host-pathogen interactions during apoptosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seyed E Hasnain; Rasheeda Begum; K V A Ramaiah; Sudhir Sahdev; E M Shajil; Tarvinder K Taneja; Manjari Mohan; M Athar; Nand K Sah; M Krishnaveni

    2003-04-01

    Host pathogen interaction results in a variety of responses, which include phagocytosis of the pathogen, release of cytokines, secretion of toxins, as well as production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent studies have shown that many pathogens exert control on the processes that regulate apoptosis in the host. The induction of apoptosis upon infection results from a complex interaction of parasite proteins with cellular host proteins. Abrogation of host cell apoptosis is often beneficial for the pathogen and results in a successful host invasion. However, in some cases, it has been shown that induction of apoptosis in the infected cells significantly imparts protection to the host from the pathogen. There is a strong correlation between apoptosis and the host protein translation machinery: the pathogen makes all possible efforts to modify this process so as to inhibit cell suicide and ensure that it can survive and, in some cases, establish latent infection. This review discusses the significance of various pathways/steps during virus-mediated modulation of host cell apoptosis.

  18. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to various microorganisms and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970, improved lactose digestion (ID 1030, 2956, 2958, 2961, 2963, 2966, 2970, “intestinal flora/digestive health” (ID 4231, defence against vaginal pathogens (ID 2950, 2957, 2967 and increasing IL-10 production and/or enhancing the activity of natural killer cells (ID 2960, 2962, 2971 (further assessment pursuant to Article 13(1 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to provide a scientific opinion on health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to various microorganisms and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, improved lactose digestion, “intestinal flora/digestive health”, defence against vaginal pathogens and increasing IL-10 production and/or enhancing the activity of natural killer cells. The food constituents Lactobacillus crispatus BCCM/LMG P-17631, Lactobacillus gasseri BCCM/LMG P-17632, Lactobacillus gasseri BCCM/LMG P-18137, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1687, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1688, Lactobacillus plantarum BCCM/LMG P-17630, Lactobacillus salivarius CNCM I-1794 and a combination of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 and Lactobacillus johnsonii La-1 (ACD-1(CLbA22 are sufficiently characterised. The evidence provided did not establish that the proposed claimed effect, increasing IL-10 production and/or enhancing the activity of natural killer cells, is a beneficial physiological effect. The claimed effect “intestinal flora/digestive health” is general and non-specific, and does not refer to any specific health claim as required by Regulation (EC No 1924/2006. The references provided in relation to the claims evaluated in this opinion included studies which assessed the effects of food constituents other than the food constituents which are the subject of the claims and/or investigated health outcomes unrelated to the claimed effects. No human studies which investigated the effects of the food constituents on appropriate measures of the claimed effects were provided. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel

  19. Plant pathogen resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Jean T.; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2015-10-20

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  20. Plant pathogen resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jean T; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2012-11-27

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  1. Societal Controversies in Wikipedia Articles

    OpenAIRE

    BORRA, E; Weltevrede, E.; Ciuccarelli, P.; Kaltenbrunner, A.; Laniado, D.; Magni, G.; Mauri, M.; Rogers, R; Venturini, T.

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative content creation inevitably reaches situations where different points of view lead to conflict. We focus on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia anyone may edit, where disputes about content in controversial articles often reflect larger societal debates. While Wikipedia has a public edit history and discussion section for every article, the substance of these sections is difficult to phantom for Wikipedia users interested in the development of an article and in locating which topic...

  2. Pathogen mimicry of host protein-protein interfaces modulates immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven-Maiorov, Emine; Tsai, Chung-Jung; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-10-01

    Signaling pathways shape and transmit the cell's reaction to its changing environment; however, pathogens can circumvent this response by manipulating host signaling. To subvert host defense, they beat it at its own game: they hijack host pathways by mimicking the binding surfaces of host-encoded proteins. For this, it is not necessary to achieve global protein homology; imitating merely the interaction surface is sufficient. Different protein folds often interact via similar protein-protein interface architectures. This similarity in binding surfaces permits the pathogenic protein to compete with a host target protein. Thus, rather than binding a host-encoded partner, the host protein hub binds the pathogenic surrogate. The outcome can be dire: rewiring or repurposing the host pathways, shifting the cell signaling landscape and consequently the immune response. They can also cause persistent infections as well as cancer by modulating key signaling pathways, such as those involving Ras. Mapping the rewired host-pathogen 'superorganism' interaction network - along with its structural details - is critical for in-depth understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and developing efficient therapeutics. Here, we overview the role of molecular mimicry in pathogen host evasion as well as types of molecular mimicry mechanisms that emerged during evolution.

  3. New pathogenic mechanisms in diabetic wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    Sunkari, Vivekananda

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) represent one of the most feared and invalidating complication of diabetes with high financial pressure for the healthcare system. For the moment there is no specific therapy available and it has become a priority to develop novel rational therapeutic strategies based on new pathophysiological mechanisms. Our focus was therefore to delineate relevant pathogenic pathways specifically deregulated in diabetes that could contribute to the defective wound ...

  4. The role of conditionally pathogenic microflora in the immune pathologic reactions development at Epstein-Barr virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article is concerned with studying of appoptogenic activity of microbes associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection on model of peritoneal mice macrophages in vitro. The estimation of apoptosis induced by bacterias extracted from patients with Epstein-Barr virus infection was carried out oncharacteristic morphologic changes of macrophages. It was established that apoptogenic activity had all microbes associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection, but the highiest pathogenic potential Streptococcus pyogenes. Presence of apoptogenic activity of bacterial microflora associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection towards immune system cells can serve as pathway of their survival and can be the pathogenic base of their long persistence in the body. The expressed ability of Streptococcus pyogenes to induce the apoptosis can give us the possibility to consider such microbe as the most dangerous microbe associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

  5. Extracts against Various Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Chauhan

    2013-07-01

    The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens.

  6. Inflammasome/IL-1β Responses to Streptococcal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N. LaRock

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation mediated by the inflammasome and the cytokine IL-1β are some of the earliest and most important alarms to infection. These pathways are responsive to the virulence factors that pathogens use to subvert immune processes, and thus are typically activated only by microbes with potential to cause severe disease. Among the most serious human infections are those caused by the pathogenic streptococci, in part because these species numerous strategies for immune evasion. Since the virulence factor armament of each pathogen is unique, the role of IL-1β and the pathways leading to its activation varies for each infection. This review summarizes the role of IL-1β during infections caused by streptococcal pathogens, with emphasis on emergent mechanisms and concepts countering paradigms determined for other organisms.

  7. Articles comprising ferritic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, James M.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture comprises a ferritic stainless steel that includes a near-surface region depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the ferritic stainless steel. The article has a reduced tendency to form an electrically resistive silica layer including silicon derived from the steel when the article is subjected to high temperature oxidizing conditions. The ferritic stainless steel is selected from the group comprising AISI Type 430 stainless steel, AISI Type 439 stainless steel, AISI Type 441 stainless steel, AISI Type 444 stainless steel, and E-BRITE.RTM. alloy, also known as UNS 44627 stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the article of manufacture is a fuel cell interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell.

  8. Global Expression Studies of Yersinia Pestis Pathogenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E; Motin, V; Brubaker, R; Fitch, P

    2002-10-15

    The aim of these studies continues to be the investigation into the molecular mechanisms that underlie the virulence process in Yersinia pestis. In particular, the focus of this work centers on the identification of novel genes and pathways responsible for the pathogenic properties of this organism. In spite of more than four decades of intense investigation in this field, the dilemma as to what makes Y. pestis such a virulent and lethal pathogen remains unanswered. The method being employed makes use microarray technology (DNA chip) that enables the examination of the global activities of the whole complement of genes in this pathogen. Two primary resources available to the investigators (one directly obtained from a separate CBNP-funded project) make these studies possible: (1) Whole genome comparisons of the genes in Y. pestis and its near neighbors with attenuated or non pathogenic characteristics, and (2) the ability to duplicate in vitro, conditions that mimic the infection process of this pathogen. This year we have extended our studies from the original work of characterizing the global transcriptional regulation in Y. pestis triggered during temperature transition from 26 C to 37 C (roughly conditions found in the flea vector and the mammalian host, respectively) to studies of regulation encountered during shift between growth from conditions of neutral pH to acidic pH (the latter conditions, those mimic the environment found inside macrophages, a likely environment found by these cells during infection.). For this work, DNA arrays containing some 5,000 genes (the entire genome of Y. pestis plus those genes found uniquely in the enteropathogen, and near neighbor, Y. pseudotuberculosis) are used to monitor the simultaneous expression levels of each gene of known and unknown function in Y. pestis. Those genes that are up-regulate under the experimental conditions represent genes potentially involved in the pathogenic process. The ultimate role in

  9. Pathogenic microbes manipulate cofilin activity to subvert actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kai; Kitazato, Kaio; Wang, Yifei; He, Zhendan

    2016-09-01

    Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin proteins are key players in controlling the temporal and spatial extent of actin dynamics, which is crucial for mediating host-pathogen interactions. Pathogenic microbes have evolved molecular mechanisms to manipulate cofilin activity to subvert the actin cytoskeletal system in host cells, promoting their internalization into the target cells, modifying the replication niche and facilitating their intracellular and intercellular dissemination. The study of how these pathogens exploit cofilin pathways is crucial for understanding infectious disease and providing potential targets for drug therapies. PMID:25853495

  10. Pathogenic Network Analysis Predicts Candidate Genes for Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Xia Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The objective of our study was to predicate candidate genes in cervical cancer (CC using a network-based strategy and to understand the pathogenic process of CC. Methods. A pathogenic network of CC was extracted based on known pathogenic genes (seed genes and differentially expressed genes (DEGs between CC and normal controls. Subsequently, cluster analysis was performed to identify the subnetworks in the pathogenic network using ClusterONE. Each gene in the pathogenic network was assigned a weight value, and then candidate genes were obtained based on the weight distribution. Eventually, pathway enrichment analysis for candidate genes was performed. Results. In this work, a total of 330 DEGs were identified between CC and normal controls. From the pathogenic network, 2 intensely connected clusters were extracted, and a total of 52 candidate genes were detected under the weight values greater than 0.10. Among these candidate genes, VIM had the highest weight value. Moreover, candidate genes MMP1, CDC45, and CAT were, respectively, enriched in pathway in cancer, cell cycle, and methane metabolism. Conclusion. Candidate pathogenic genes including MMP1, CDC45, CAT, and VIM might be involved in the pathogenesis of CC. We believe that our results can provide theoretical guidelines for future clinical application.

  11. Ophthalmic Parasitosis: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal R. Nimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular parasitosis in human is more prevalent in geographical areas where environmental factors and poor sanitary conditions favor the parasitism between man and animals. Lesions in the eye can be due to damage directly caused by the infectious pathogen, indirect pathology caused by toxic products, or the immune response incited by infections or ectopic parasitism. The epidemiology of parasitic ocular diseases reflects the habitat of the causative parasites as well as the habits and health status of the patient. An ocular examination may provide clues to the underlying disease/infection, and an awareness of the possibilities of travel-related pathology may shed light on an ocular presentation. This paper is a comprehensive review of the parasitic diseases of the eye. The majority of the clinically important species of parasites involved in eye infection are reviewed in this paper. Parasites are discussed by the disease or infection they cause.

  12. Bioterrorism: pathogens as weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D; Bokor, Gyula

    2012-10-01

    Biowarfare has been used for centuries. The use of biological weapons in terrorism remains a threat. Biological weapons include infectious agents (pathogens) and toxins. The most devastating bioterrorism scenario would be the airborne dispersal of pathogens over a concentrated population area. Characteristics that make a specific pathogen a high-risk for bioterrorism include a low infective dose, ability to be aerosolized, high contagiousness, and survival in a variety of environmental conditions. The most dangerous potential bioterrorism agents include the microorganisms that produce anthrax, plague, tularemia, and smallpox. Other diseases of interest to bioterrorism include brucellosis, glanders, melioidosis, Q fever, and viral encephalitis. Food safety and water safety threats are another area of concern.

  13. <Article> Machin's Formula and Pi

    OpenAIRE

    西山, 豊

    2011-01-01

    This article explains the calculation of Pi historically, focusing on Machin's formula. Archimedes' formula is shown first, followed by Machin's formula using Gregory's formula. Machin's formula makes particularly ingenious use of the tan double and quadruple angle trigonometric addition formulae. The chapter closes with an explanation of Takano's formula.

  14. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Rezende, Fernando Cury; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Debieux, Pedro; Cohen, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques.

  15. Article choice in plural generics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, D.F.; Swart, Henriëtte de

    2007-01-01

    We discuss two groups of languages where article use contrasts in generic plural sentences but is otherwise essentially similar. The languages in the first group (English and Dutch) use bare plurals in the expression of kind reference (‘Dinosaurs are extinct’) and in generic generalizations (‘Dogs a

  16. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Rezende, Fernando Cury; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Debieux, Pedro; Cohen, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques. PMID:27517015

  17. Enteric pathogens and soil: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Johanna; Toranzos, Gary A

    2003-03-01

    It is known that soil is a recipient of solid wastes able to contain enteric pathogens in high concentrations. Although the role of soil as a reservoir of certain bacterial pathogens is not in question, recent findings show that soil may have a larger role in the transmission of enteric diseases than previously thought. Many of the diseases caused by agents from soil have been well characterized, although enteric diseases and their link to soil have not been so well studied. Gastrointestinal infections are the most common diseases caused by enteric bacteria. Some examples are salmonellosis ( Salmonella sp.), cholera ( Vibrio cholerae), dysentery ( Shigella sp.) and other infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia sp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and many other strains. Viruses are the most hazardous and have some of the lowest infectious doses of any of the enteric pathogens. Hepatitis A, hepatitis E, enteric adenoviruses, poliovirus types 1 and 2, multiple strains of echoviruses and coxsackievirus are enteric viruses associated with human wastewater. Among the most commonly detected protozoa in sewage are Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium parvum. This article reviews the existing literature of more than two decades on waste disposal practices that favor the entry of enteric pathogens to soil and the possible consequent role of the soil as a vector and reservoir of enteric pathogens.

  18. Molecular pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Thomas R; Erler, Janine Terra

    2014-01-01

    45% of deaths in the developed world are linked to fibrotic disease. Fibrosis and cancer are known to be inextricably linked; however, we are only just beginning to understand the common and overlapping molecular pathways between the two. Here, we discuss what is known about the intersection of...... fibrosis and cancer, with a focus on cancer metastasis, and highlight some of the exciting new potential clinical targets that are emerging from analysis of the molecular pathways associated with these two devastating diseases. Clin Cancer Res; 20(14); 3637-43. ©2014 AACR....

  19. Pathogens spectrum of deep human mycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Kulko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes characteristics of two different etiology groups of deep human mycosis — extremely dangerous endemic deep mycoses (histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, penicilliosis due to Penicillium marneffei and opportunistic deep mycosis (candidiasis, cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, mucormycosis. Information on fungal pathogens and antifungal agents is presented. The own results of cultural studies obtained during pneumomycosis diagnosis in patients with tuberculosis are shown.

  20. Rapid methods: the detection of foodborne pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Beumer, R. R.; Hazeleger, W. C.

    2009-01-01

    Although bacteria are the first type of microorganisms that come to mind when discussing microbial food safety, they are by no means the only pathogenic foodborne microorganisms. Mycotoxin producing moulds, human enteric viruses, protozoan parasites and marine biotoxins are also of importance. However, since foods are only screened for bacteria routinely, in this article we will focus on the techniques used to detect bacterial contamination.

  1. Hepcidin Induction by Pathogens and Pathogen-Derived Molecules Is Strongly Dependent on Interleukin-6

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Richard; Jung, Chun-Ling; Gabayan, Victoria; Deng, Jane C.; Ganz, Tomas; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Bulut, Yonca

    2014-01-01

    Hepcidin, the iron-regulatory hormone, is increased during infection or inflammation, causing hypoferremia. This response is thought to be a host defense mechanism that restricts iron availability to invading pathogens. It is not known if hepcidin is differentially induced by bacterial versus viral infections, whether the stimulation of pattern recognition receptors directly regulates hepcidin transcription, or which of the proposed signaling pathways are essential for hepcidin increase durin...

  2. Emerging Pathogens - How Safe is Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael; Geilenkeuser, Wolf-Jochen; Sireis, Walid; Seifried, Erhard; Hourfar, Kai

    2014-02-01

    During the last few decades, blood safety efforts were mainly focused on preventing viral infections. However, humanity's increased mobility and improved migration pathways necessitate a global perspective regarding other transfusion-transmitted pathogens. This review focuses on the general infection risk of blood components for malaria, dengue virus, Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease) and Babesia spp. Approximately 250 million people become infected by Plasmodium spp. per year. Dengue virus affects more than 50 million people annually in more than 100 countries; clinically, it can cause serious diseases, such as dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Chagas disease, which is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, mainly occurs in South America and infects approximately 10 million people annually. Babesia spp. is a parasitic infection that infects red blood cells; although many infections are asymptomatic, severe clinical disease has been reported, especially in the elderly. Screening assays are available for all considered pathogens but make screening strategies more complex and more expensive. A general pathogen inactivation for all blood components (whole blood) promises to be a long-term, sustainable solution for both known and unknown pathogens. Transfusion medicine therefore eagerly awaits such a system. PMID:24659943

  3. The Role of Pathogenic Autoantibodies in Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merrill J. Rowley

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The serological presence of autoantibodies is diagnostic of autoimmunity, and these autoantibodies may be present for many years before the presentation of autoimmune disease (AID. Although a pathogenic role has been demonstrated for various autoantibodies reactive with cell surface and extracellular autoantigens, studies using monoclonal antibodies (mAb show not all antibodies in the polyclonal response are pathogenic. Differences depend on Fab-mediated diversity in epitope specificity, Fc-mediated effects based on immunoglobulin (Ig class and subclass, activation of complement, and the milieu in which the reaction occurs. These autoantibodies often occur in organ-specific AID and this review illustrates their pathogenic and highly specific effects. The role of autoantibodies associated with intracellular antigens is less clear. In vitro they may inhibit or adversely affect well-defined intracellular biochemical pathways, yet, in vivo they are separated from their autoantigens by multiple cellular barriers. Recent evidence that Ig can traverse cell membranes, interact with intracellular proteins, and induce apoptosis has provided new evidence for a pathogenic role for such autoantibodies. An understanding of how autoantibodies behave in the polyclonal response and their role in pathogenesis of AID may help identify populations of culprit B-cells and selection of treatments that suppress or eliminate them.

  4. A More Flexible Lipoprotein Sorting Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Chahales, Peter; Thanassi, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Lipoprotein biogenesis in Gram-negative bacteria occurs by a conserved pathway, each step of which is considered essential. In contrast to this model, LoVullo and colleagues demonstrate that the N-acyl transferase Lnt is not required in Francisella tularensis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This suggests the existence of a more flexible lipoprotein pathway, likely due to a modified Lol transporter complex, and raises the possibility that pathogens may regulate lipoprotein processing to modulate int...

  5. A more flexible lipoprotein sorting pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahales, Peter; Thanassi, David G

    2015-05-01

    Lipoprotein biogenesis in Gram-negative bacteria occurs by a conserved pathway, each step of which is considered essential. In contrast to this model, LoVullo and colleagues demonstrate that the N-acyl transferase Lnt is not required in Francisella tularensis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This suggests the existence of a more flexible lipoprotein pathway, likely due to a modified Lol transporter complex, and raises the possibility that pathogens may regulate lipoprotein processing to modulate interactions with the host. PMID:25755190

  6. The emerging role of toll-like receptor pathways in surgical diseases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Romics, Laszlo Jr

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To outline the emerging significance of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways in surgical diseases. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken by searching the MEDLINE database for the period 1966 to 2005 without language restriction. STUDY SELECTION: Original or review articles that described experimental data on the activation of TLR signaling pathways in surgically relevant diseases were selected for inclusion in this review. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were obtained from peer-reviewed articles and references. DATA SYNTHESIS: The role of TLRs in the recognition of pathogens renders them a key figure in the activation of both innate and adaptive immune responses during sepsis. However, emerging evidence points to fundamentally important roles in ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and Helicobacter pylori infection in the gastrointestinal tract and in the development of atherosclerotic plaques in the cardiovascular system. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that the regulation of the TLR pathway fulfills a central role in anticancer immunotherapy and in organ rejection after transplantation. CONCLUSION: Given the clinical significance of TLR pathways, the targeting of individual molecular components is likely to offer a broad range of future therapeutic modalities.

  7. Article choice in plural generics

    OpenAIRE

    Farkas, D. F.; Swart, Henriëtte de

    2007-01-01

    We discuss two groups of languages where article use contrasts in generic plural sentences but is otherwise essentially similar. The languages in the first group (English and Dutch) use bare plurals in the expression of kind reference (‘Dinosaurs are extinct’) and in generic generalizations (‘Dogs are intelligent’). The languages in the second group (French, Italian, Hungarian) use definite plurals in both cases (‘Les dinosaures ont disparu’, ‘Les chiens sont intelligents’ in French). We acco...

  8. 颅脑损伤合并脑心综合征患者术后感染病原菌分布及对Smad通路蛋白的影响研究%Pathogen distribution and its effects on serum Smad signaling pathway related proteins in infected cerebrocardiac syndrome patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈俊; 罗超; 王旭辉; 彭形; 王广; 吴海波

    2016-01-01

    including Smad signaling pathway related proteins ,Smac and S100B were assayed by ELISA .Another 170 cases of healthy subjects and 170 cases of non‐infected cerebrocardiac syndrome patients were taken as control in our hospital at the same period .RESULTS Totally 170 stains of patho‐gens were identified from the 170 infected patients .The pathogens contained 82 (48 .2% ) strains of gram‐positive bacteria and 88 (51 .8% ) strains of gram‐negative bacteria .The gram‐positive bacteria mainly were 20 strains of type F hemolytic Streptococcus and 15 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes ,accounting for 11 .8% and 8 .8% .The gram‐negative bacteria mainly were 22 strains of Enterobacter cloacae and 14 strains of K lebsiella pneumonia ,ac‐counting for 13 .0% and 8 .2% .The results also revealed that the serum TGFβ,Smad1 ,Smad2 ,Smad3 and Smad5 were increased greatly in infected patients while the Smac ,S100B andβ‐amyloid were decreased dramatical‐ly in infected patients(P<0 .05) .CONCLUSION Cerebrocardiac syndrome patients are suffered from pathogen in‐fection ,and the abnormal expressions of Smad signaling transduction pathway ,S100B and Smac proteins are in‐volved in this pathological process .

  9. AlzPathway, an Updated Map of Curated Signaling Pathways: Towards Deciphering Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogishima, Soichi; Mizuno, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Masataka; Miyashita, Akinori; Kuwano, Ryozo; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakaya, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder in which loss of neurons and synaptic function causes dementia in the elderly. To clarify AD pathogenesis and develop drugs for AD, thousands of studies have elucidated signaling pathways involved. However, knowledge of AD signaling pathways has not been compiled as a pathway map. In this chapter, we introduce the manual construction of a pathway map in AD which we call "AlzPathway", that comprehensively catalogs signaling pathways in the field of AD. We have collected and manually curated over 100 review articles related to AD, and have built the AD pathway map. AlzPathway is currently composed of thousands of molecules and reactions in neurons, brain blood barrier, presynaptic, postsynaptic, astrocyte, and microglial cells, with their cellular localizations. AlzPathway provides a systems-biology platform of comprehensive AD signaling and related pathways which is expected to contribute to clarification of AD pathogenesis and AD drug development.

  10. Turkey; 2012 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund.

    2012-01-01

    This report for the 2012 Article IV Consultation with Turkey discusses the macroeconomic conditions after the 2008 global financial crisis. After two years of rapid growth, the economy has slowed and imbalances are unwinding. However, owing to slower domestic demand, the Turkish financial system continues to remain sound. IMF staff supports the authorities’ fiscal objective for 2013 and also the medium-term fiscal plan for 2013–15. But, they recommend a tighter monetary policy stance give...

  11. Italy; 2013 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights Italy’s assesses measures undertaken to revive economic growth. Italy is vulnerable to a renewal of euro area tension and risks from domestic policy slippages, stalling of structural reforms, and banking distress that could undermine confidence. The government has taken steps to liberalize services, open the energy sector, and improve the labor market, but more is needed to boost productivity and raise Italy’s low employment rate. The IMF repor...

  12. Mathematical Articles for the general public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2003-01-01

    Report on an article competition for mathematical articles addressing the general public arranged by the European Mathematical Society.......Report on an article competition for mathematical articles addressing the general public arranged by the European Mathematical Society....

  13. The homeodomain transcription factor Ste12: Connecting fungal MAPK signalling to plant pathogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Rispail, Nicolas; Pietro, A. D.

    2010-01-01

    A conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade orthologous to the mating/filamentation MAPK pathway in yeast is required for fungal pathogenicity on plants. One of the key targets of this signaling pathway is the homeodomain transcription factor Ste12. Mutational analysis of ste12 orthologues in a variety of plant pathogenic fungi suggests that Ste12 functions as a master regulator of invasive growth. In this mini-review we highlight recent progress in understanding the role of S...

  14. Structural Basis for the Function of Complement Component C4 within the Classical and Lectin Pathways of Complement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Sofia; Kidmose, Rune Thomas; Petersen, Steen Vang;

    2015-01-01

    Complement component C4 is a central protein in the classical and lectin pathways within the complement system. During activation of complement, its major fragment C4b becomes covalently attached to the surface of pathogens and altered self-tissue, where it acts as an opsonin marking the surface...... for removal. Moreover, C4b provides a platform for assembly of the proteolytically active convertases that mediate downstream complement activation by cleavage of C3 and C5. In this article, we present the crystal and solution structures of the 195-kDa C4b. Our results provide the molecular details...

  15. Chitosan against cutaneous pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Champer, Jackson; Patel, Julie; Fernando, Nathalie; Salehi, Elaheh; Wong, Victoria; Kim, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus are cutaneous pathogens that have become increasingly resistant to antibiotics. We sought to determine if chitosan, a polymer of deacetylated chitin, could be used as a potential treatment against these bacteria. We found that higher molecular weight chitosan had superior antimicrobial properties compared to lower molecular weights, and that this activity occurred in a pH dependent manner. Electron and fluorescence microscopy revealed that chi...

  16. The Keystone Pathogen Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hajishengallis, George; Darveau, Richard P; Curtis, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of the human microbiome in host health and disease. However, for the most part the mechanisms by which the microbiome mediates disease, or protection from it, remain poorly understood. The “keystone pathogen” hypothesis holds that certain low-abundance microbial pathogens can orchestrate inflammatory disease by remodelling a normally benign microbiota into a dysbiotic one. In this Opinion, we critically assess the available literature in support ...

  17. Multiplex detection of agricultural pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Mary Teresa (Brentwood, CA); Slezak, Thomas Richard (Livermore, CA); Messenger, Sharon Lee (Kensington, CA)

    2010-09-14

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of seven agricultural pathogens (BPSV; BHV; BVD; FMDV; BTV; SVD; and VESV) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from 7 agricultural pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  18. Opportunistic Pathogenic Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Uma

    Advances in medical research, made during the last few decades, have improved the prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities for variety of infections/diseases. However, many of the prophylactic and therapeutic procedures have been seen in many instances to exact a price of host-vulnerability to an expanding group of opportunistic pathogens and yeasts are one of the important members in it. Fortunately amongst the vast majority of yeasts present in nature only few are considered to have the capability to cause infections when certain opportunities predisposes and these are termed as ‘opportunistic pathogenic yeasts.’ However, the term ‘pathogenic’ is quite tricky, as it depends of various factors of the host, the ‘bug’ and the environment to manifest the clinical infection. The borderline is expanding. In the present century with unprecedented increase in number of immune-compromised host in various disciplines of health care settings, where any yeast, which has the capability to grow at 37 ° C (normal body temperature of human), can be pathogenic and cause infection in particular situation

  19. Comptes rendus d’articles

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Maurizio Ambrosini : Séparées et réunies : familles migrantes et liens transnationaux, Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, 2008, vol. 24, n° 3, pp. 79-106. Cet article s’intéresse à la demande de main-d’œuvre féminine, en Italie et plus généralement en Europe méridionale, qui produit ce que l’on peut définir comme la « stratification internationale des opportunités de soins et d’assistance ». Il aborde la façon dont les mères séparées de leurs enfants à cause de l’émigration s’e...

  20. Plant Pathogenic Fungi and Oomycetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi and Oomycetes are notorious plant pathogens and use similar strategies to infect plants. The majority of plants, however, is not infected by pathogens as they recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors that mediate PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) ,

  1. The pathogenic mechanism of C3 glomerulopathy and its countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-quan WANG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available C3 glomerulopathy is a series of diseases of glomeruli mediated by abnormal activation of alternative complement pathway. A series of researches have revealed in recent years that there are diversity and multiplicity of pathogenic mechanism in the pathogenesis of C3 glomerulopathy. The pathogenic mechanism of C3 glomerulopathy may be different in different individuals and types of disease. Congenital genetic defects and/or acquired autoantibodies may be found in the same individual. Individualized therapy should be given to individual patient in order to target different pathogenic mechanisms. Chinese herbal medicine, Tripterygium wilfordii, shows promise as a potential therapeutic agent for C3 glomerulopathy. The pathogenic mechanism and countermeasures for C3 glomerulopathy have been reviewed in present paper. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.11.15

  2. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to polydextrose and changes in bowel function (ID 784), changes in short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and/or pH in the gastro-intestinal tract (ID 784), decreasing, potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 785) and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort (ID 784) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to polydextrose and changes in bowel function, changes in short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and/or pH in the gastro-intestinal tract, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort. The scientific substantiation...

  3. Aptamer-Based Technologies in Foodborne Pathogen Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jun; Yuan, Fang; Ye, Yingwang; Zheng, Lei; Yao, Li; Xue, Feng; Chen, Wei; Li, Baoguang

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers are single stranded DNA or RNA ligands, which can be selected by a method called systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX); and they can specifically recognize and bind to their targets. These unique characteristics of aptamers offer great potentials in applications such as pathogen detection and biomolecular screening. Pathogen detection is the critical means in detecting and identifying the problems related to public health and food safety; and only the rapid, sensitive and efficient detection technologies can enable the users to make the accurate assessments on the risks of infections (humans and animals) or contaminations (foods and other commodities) caused by various pathogens. This article reviews the development in the field of the aptamer-based approaches for pathogen detection, including whole-cell SELEX and Genomic SELEX. Nowadays, a variety of aptamer-based biosensors have been developed for pathogen detection. Thus, in this review, we also cover the development in aptamer-based biosensors including optical biosensors for multiple pathogen detection by multiple-labeling or label-free models such as fluorescence detection and surface plasmon resonance, electrochemical biosensors and lateral chromatography test strips, and their applications in pathogen detection and biomolecular screening. While notable progress has been made in the field in the last decade, challenges or drawbacks in their applications such as pathogen detection and biomolecular screening remain to be overcome. PMID:27672383

  4. Purification and proteomics of pathogen-modified vacuoles and membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo-Ana eHerweg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain pathogenic bacteria adopt an intracellular lifestyle and proliferate in eukaryotic host cells. The intracellular niche protects the bacteria from cellular and humoral components of the mammalian immune system, and at the same time, allows the bacteria to gain access to otherwise restricted nutrient sources. Yet, intracellular protection and access to nutrients comes with a price, i.e. the bacteria need to overcome cell-autonomous defense mechanisms, such as the bactericidal endocytic pathway. While a few bacteria rupture the early phagosome and escape into the host cytoplasm, most intracellular pathogens form a distinct, degradation-resistant and replication-permissive membranous compartment. Intracellular bacteria that form unique pathogen vacuoles include Legionella, Mycobacterium, Chlamydia, Simkania and Salmonella species. In order to understand the formation of these pathogen niches on a global scale and in a comprehensive and quantitative manner, an inventory of compartment-associated host factors is required. To this end, the intact pathogen compartments need to be isolated, purified and biochemically characterized. Here, we review recent progress on the isolation and purification of pathogen-modified vacuoles and membranes, as well as their proteomic characterization by mass spectrometry and different validation approaches. These studies provide the basis for further investigations on the specific mechanisms of pathogen-driven compartment formation.

  5. Revised article: Business Ideas Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    THIS ARTICLE REPLACES THAT PUBLISHED IN BULLETIN 27/2003, PAGE 8. "The Rainbow Seed Fund is a UK fund, which provides finance to support the commercialization of good ideas founded on scientific research; it is for the benefit of the UK industry in particular. To encourage ideas from CERN the Rainbow Seed Fund is running a business ideas competition. The winner of this competition will receive an immediate cash prize of GBP £1,000. In addition the Rainbow Seed Fund may well provide finance for market research, for protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and for prototyping to take the idea forward. Further awards of GBP £750 will be made for ideas which gain investment from the Fund. Candidates will only be required to prepare a 2-4-page summary of their business idea, and not a full business plan. Full details and an entry form are available at http://www.rainbowseedfund.com." ALL Members of the Personnel seeking participation in the business ideas competition are asked to submit their ideas via ...

  6. Physical aging in article page views

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Yeseul; Weon, Byung Mook

    2016-01-01

    Statistics of article page views is useful for measuring the impact of individual articles. Analyzing the temporal evolution of article page views, we find that article page views usually decay over time after reaching a peak, especially exhibiting relaxation with nonexponentiality. This finding suggests that relaxation in article page views resembles physical aging as frequently found in complex systems.

  7. Finding and Recommending Scholarly Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.

    2014-05-01

    The rate at which scholarly literature is being produced has been increasing at approximately 3.5 percent per year for decades. This means that during a typical 40 year career the amount of new literature produced each year increases by a factor of four. The methods scholars use to discover relevant literature must change. Just like everybody else involved in information discovery, scholars are confronted with information overload. Two decades ago, this discovery process essentially consisted of paging through abstract books, talking to colleagues and librarians, and browsing journals. A time-consuming process, which could even be longer if material had to be shipped from elsewhere. Now much of this discovery process is mediated by online scholarly information systems. All these systems are relatively new, and all are still changing. They all share a common goal: to provide their users with access to the literature relevant to their specific needs. To achieve this each system responds to actions by the user by displaying articles which the system judges relevant to the user's current needs. Recently search systems which use particularly sophisticated methodologies to recommend a few specific papers to the user have been called "recommender systems". These methods are in line with the current use of the term "recommender system" in computer science. We do not adopt this definition, rather we view systems like these as components in a larger whole, which is presented by the scholarly information systems themselves. In what follows we view the recommender system as an aspect of the entire information system; one which combines the massive memory capacities of the machine with the cognitive abilities of the human user to achieve a human-machine synergy.

  8. The ABSTRACTS OF SELECTED ARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Appreciation of RMB, the Behavior of Firms and the Export Trade: A Case Study Based on the Enterprise Data of a Large Specimen between 2005 and 2009 In this article, we have constructed a simplified dynamic discrete choice model to analyze, within the framework of the maximization of profit, the two-stage decision of firm' s export behavior and the effect of the exchange rate. We have, by the means of the specimen data on China' s industrial enterprises between 2005 and 2009 and by the use of Heckman selection model, evaluated the general impact of the appreciation of RMB (AORMB) on the export trade and the structural impact. The results of our study indicate that the AORMB has generated significant negative shock to firm ' s export through extensive margins and intensive margins. Meanwhile, the difference in operation strategy of heteroge- neous firms has resulted in the fact that the AORMB can hardly achieve the expected purpose of the survival of the fit- test; instead it has interrupted the optimization of the adjustment in the optimization of the structure of the main body of the export trade. The AORMB has, in a certain degree, driven the industry structure of export to develop to a higher phase. However, such positive effects have mainly rooted in the contribution of foreign-funded enterprises, but this pos- itive role has restricted the growth space of the local enterprises in the advanced manufacturing industry. Under the cir- cumstance of high uncertainty in foreign and domestic economy, in order to guarantee the steady transition of the eco- nomic transition, the AORMB should be slowed for the time being, and other more pertinent measures should be adopt- ed to drive the upgrade of the export trade and the adjustment of economic structure.

  9. Signaling pathways in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanami, Daiji; Matoba, Keiichiro; Utsunomiya, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), however, specific treatment for DN has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, it is critically important to understand the molecular mechanism underlying DN to develop cause-related therapeutic strategy. To date, various factors such as hemodynamic changes and metabolic pathways have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of DN. Excessive glucose influx activates cellular signaling pathways, including the diacylglycerol (DAG)-protein kinase C (PKC) pathway, advanced glycation end-products (AGE), polyol pathway, hexosamine pathway and oxidative stress. These factors interact with one another, thereby facilitating inflammatory processes, leading to the development of glomerulosclerosis under diabetic conditions. In addition to metabolic pathways, Rho-kinase, an effector of small-GTPase binding protein Rho, has been implicated as an important factor in the pathogenesis of DN. A number of studies have demonstrated that Rho-kinase plays key roles in the development of DN by inducing endothelial dysfunction, mesangial excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) production, podocyte abnormality, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In this review article, we describe our current understanding of the signaling pathways in DN. PMID:27094540

  10. Lessons learned from mice deficient in lectin complement pathway molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genster, Ninette; Takahashi, Minoru; Sekine, Hideharu;

    2014-01-01

    The lectin pathway of the complement system is initiated when the pattern-recognition molecules, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), ficolins or collectin-11, bind to invading pathogens or damaged host cells. This leads to activation of MBL/ficolin/collectin-11 associated serine proteases (MASPs), which...... in turn activate downstream complement components, ultimately leading to elimination of the pathogen. Mice deficient in the key molecules of lectin pathway of complement have been generated in order to build knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of the lectin pathway in health and disease. Despite...... in complement activation, pathogen infection, coagulation, host tissue injury and developmental biology have been revealed by in vivo investigations. This review provides an overview of the mice deficient in lectin pathway molecules and highlights some of the most important findings that have resulted from...

  11. Stress Response and Pathogenicity of the Necrotrophic Fungal Pathogen Alternaria alternata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Ren Chung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of host-selective toxins by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata is essential for the pathogenesis. A. alternata infection in citrus leaves induces rapid lipid peroxidation, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and cell death. The mechanisms by which A. alternata avoids killing by reactive oxygen species (ROS after invasion have begun to be elucidated. The ability to coordinate of signaling pathways is essential for the detoxification of cellular stresses induced by ROS and for pathogenicity in A. alternata. A low level of H2O2, produced by the NADPH oxidase (NOX complex, modulates ROS resistance and triggers conidiation partially via regulating the redox-responsive regulators (YAP1 and SKN7 and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase (HOG1 mediated pathways, which subsequently regulate the genes required for the biosynthesis of siderophore, an iron-chelating compound. Siderophore-mediated iron acquisition plays a key role in ROS detoxification because of the requirement of iron for the activities of antioxidants (e.g., catalase and SOD. Fungal strains impaired for the ROS-detoxifying system severely reduce the virulence on susceptible citrus cultivars. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge of signaling pathways associated with cellular responses to multidrugs, oxidative and osmotic stress, and fungicides, as well as the pathogenicity/virulence in the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata.

  12. Tropism and pathogenicity of rickettsiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Tsuneo

    2012-01-01

    Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria that cause febrile exanthematous illnesses such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Mediterranean spotted fever, epidemic, and murine typhus, etc. Although the vector ranges of each Rickettsia species are rather restricted; i.e., ticks belonging to Arachnida and lice and fleas belonging to Insecta usually act as vectors for spotted fever group (SFG) and typhus group (TG) rickettsiae, respectively, it would be interesting to elucidate the mechanisms controlling the vector tropism of rickettsiae. This review discusses the factors determining the vector tropism of rickettsiae. In brief, the vector tropism of rickettsiae species is basically consistent with their tropism toward cultured tick and insect cells. The mechanisms responsible for rickettsiae pathogenicity are also described. Recently, genomic analyses of rickettsiae have revealed that they possess several genes that are homologous to those affecting the pathogenicity of other bacteria. Analyses comparing the genomes of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of rickettsiae have detected many factors that are related to rickettsial pathogenicity. It is also known that a reduction in the rickettsial genome has occurred during the course of its evolution. Interestingly, Rickettsia species with small genomes, such as Rickettsia prowazekii, are more pathogenic to humans than those with larger genomes. This review also examines the growth kinetics of pathogenic and non-pathogenic species of SFG rickettsiae (SFGR) in mammalian cells. The growth of non-pathogenic species is restricted in these cells, which is mediated, at least in part, by autophagy. The superinfection of non-pathogenic rickettsiae-infected cells with pathogenic rickettsiae results in an elevated yield of the non-pathogenic rickettsiae and the growth of the pathogenic rickettsiae. Autophagy is restricted in these cells. These results are discussed in this review. PMID:22737150

  13. Infantile Spasm: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi TAGHDIRI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Taghdiri MM, Nemati H. Infantile Spasm: A Review Article. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Summer;8(3: 1-5.AbstractObjectiveInfantile spasm (IS is a convulsive disease characterized by brief, symmetric axial muscle contraction (neck, trunk, and/or extremities. IS is a type of seizure that was first described by West in 1841, who witnessed the seizure in his own son. West’s syndrome refers to the classic triad of spasms, characteristic EEG, and neurodevelopmental regression. Most cases involve flexors and extensors,but either of the types may be involved independently.IS, as its name implies, most often occurs during the first year of life with an incidence of approximately 1 per 2000-4000 live births. Most, but not all, patients with this disorder have severe EEG abnormalities; this pattern was originallyreferred to as hypsarrhythmia by Gibbs and Gibbs. Cases with known etiology or signs of brain damage are considered as symptomatic. The Overall prognosis of the disease is poor. Peak onset age of the epileptic syndrome is 3 to 7 months, which mainly occurs before 2 years of age in 93% of patients. Hypsarrhythmia is the EEG hallmark of IS, which comprised a chaotic, bilaterally asynchronous high-voltage polyspike, and slow wave discharges interspersed with multifocal spikes and slow waves.Etiological classification is as follows: 1 Symptomatic: with identifiable prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal causes with developmental delay at the presentation time; 2 Cryptogenic: unknown underlying cause, normal development at the onset of spasms, normal neurological exam and neuroimaging, and no abnormality in the metabolic evaluation; 3 Idiopathic: pure functional cerebral dysfunction with complete recovery, no residual dysfunction, normal neuroimaging and normal etiologic evaluation, and normal neurodevelopment.ReferencesInfantile Spasms. In: Jean Aicardi: Disease of Nervous system in childhood. 3th ed. Mac Keith

  14. Ecological niche of plant pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2011-01-01

    Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in ni...

  15. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-01-01

    Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  16. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  17. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  18. Multiplex detection of respiratory pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Mary (Brentwood, CA); Slezak, Thomas (Livermore, CA); Birch, James M. (Albany, CA)

    2012-07-31

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of respiratory pathogens (influenza A (including subtyping capability for H1, H3, H5 and H7 subtypes) influenza B, parainfluenza (type 2), respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from the respiratory pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  19. 27 CFR 46.208 - Unmerchantable articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unmerchantable articles... Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Inventories § 46.208 Unmerchantable articles. Articles that the.... However, the dealer must segregate any such unmerchantable articles and include them in a separate...

  20. 42 CFR 35.35 - Unsalable articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unsalable articles. 35.35 Section 35.35 Public... HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposition of Articles Produced by Patients § 35.35 Unsalable articles. Articles having no commercial value shall be stored, destroyed, or otherwise disposed of as the officer...

  1. On Reviewing and Writing a Scholarly Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettis, Jerry L., Sr.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides guidelines for reviewing and writing scholarly articles for the professional who reads and writes them for his/her own work and/or for publication in scientific journals. It outlines the purpose and contents of each section of a research article and provides a checklist for reviewing and writing a research article. This…

  2. Tick vaccines and the control of tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Octavio; Alberdi, Pilar; Pérez de la Lastra, José M; de la Fuente, José

    2013-01-01

    Ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that transmit a wide variety of pathogens to humans and animals. The incidence of tick-borne diseases has increased worldwide in both humans and domestic animals over the past years resulting in greater interest in the study of tick-host-pathogen interactions. Advances in vector and pathogen genomics and proteomics have moved forward our knowledge of the vector-pathogen interactions that take place during the colonization and transmission of arthropod-borne microbes. Tick-borne pathogens adapt from the vector to the mammalian host by differential gene expression thus modulating host processes. In recent years, studies have shown that targeting tick proteins by vaccination can not only reduce tick feeding and reproduction, but also the infection and transmission of pathogens from the tick to the vertebrate host. In this article, we review the tick-protective antigens that have been identified for the formulation of tick vaccines and the effect of these vaccines on the control of tick-borne pathogens.

  3. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to various microorganisms and changes in bowel function, and digestion and absorption of nutrients (ID 960, 961, 967, 969, 971, 975, 983, 985, 994, 996, 998, 1006, 1014, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 960, 967, 969, 971, 975, 983, 985, 994, 996, 998, 1006, 1014, and stimulation of immunological responses (ID 962, 968, 970, 972, 976, 984, 986, 995, 997, 999, 1007, 1015 (further assessment pursuant to Article 13(1 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to provide a scientific opinion on health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to various microorganisms and changes in bowel function, and digestion and absorption of nutrients, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, and stimulation of immunological responses. The food constituents, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis THT 010801, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis THT 010201, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum THT 010301, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. pseudolongum THT 010501, Lactobacillus casei THT 030401, Lactobacillus gasseri THT 031301, Lactobacillus helveticus THT 031102, Lactobacillus plantarum THT 030701, Lactobacillus plantarum THT 030707, Lactobacillus reuteri THT 030802, Lactobacillus salivarius THT 031001 and Streptococcus thermophilus THT 070102, are sufficiently characterised. The evidence provided did not establish that the proposed claimed effect, stimulation of immunological responses, is a beneficial physiological effect. The references provided for the health claims related to changes in bowel function and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms included studies which assessed the effects of food constituents other than the food constituents which are the subject of the claims and/or investigated health outcomes unrelated to the claimed effects. No human studies which investigated the effects of the food constituents on appropriate measures of the claimed effects were provided. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of

  4. Developing cryotherapy to eliminate graft-transmissible pathogens in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article summarizes research being conducted as part of a project funded by the California Citrus Research Board to develop cryotherapy (freezing buds in liquid nitrogen, and then recovering them) as a viable method for elimination of graft transmissible pathogens from Citrus. There are current...

  5. HealthPathways: creating a pathway for health systems reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Suzanne; Varhol, Richard; Bell, Colin; Quirk, Frances; Durrington, Learne

    2015-02-01

    Inefficiencies in the co-ordination and integration of primary and secondary care services in Australia, have led to increases in waiting times, unnecessary presentations to emergency departments and issues around poor discharge of patients. HealthPathways is a program developed in Canterbury, New Zealand, that builds relationships between General Practitioners and Specialists and uses information technology so that efficiency is maximised and the right patient is given the right care at the right time. Healthpathways is being implemented by a number of Medicare Locals across Australia however, little is known about the impact HealthPathways may have in Australia. This article provides a short description of HealthPathways and considers what it may offer in the Australian context and some of the barriers and facilitators to implementation.

  6. HealthPathways: creating a pathway for health systems reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Suzanne; Varhol, Richard; Bell, Colin; Quirk, Frances; Durrington, Learne

    2015-02-01

    Inefficiencies in the co-ordination and integration of primary and secondary care services in Australia, have led to increases in waiting times, unnecessary presentations to emergency departments and issues around poor discharge of patients. HealthPathways is a program developed in Canterbury, New Zealand, that builds relationships between General Practitioners and Specialists and uses information technology so that efficiency is maximised and the right patient is given the right care at the right time. Healthpathways is being implemented by a number of Medicare Locals across Australia however, little is known about the impact HealthPathways may have in Australia. This article provides a short description of HealthPathways and considers what it may offer in the Australian context and some of the barriers and facilitators to implementation. PMID:25433515

  7. Cell wall integrity signalling in human pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichtl, Karl; Samantaray, Sweta; Wagener, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Fungi are surrounded by a rigid structure, the fungal cell wall. Its plasticity and composition depend on active regulation of the underlying biosynthesis and restructuring processes. This involves specialised signalling pathways that control gene expression and activities of biosynthetic enzymes. The cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway is the central signalling cascade required for the adaptation to a wide spectrum of cell wall perturbing conditions, including heat, oxidative stress and antifungals. In the recent years, great efforts were made to analyse the CWI pathway of diverse fungi. It turned out that the CWI signalling cascade is mostly conserved in the fungal kingdom. In this review, we summarise as well as compare the current knowledge on the canonical CWI pathway in the human pathogenic fungi Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans. Understanding the differences and similarities in the stress responses of these organisms could become a key to improving existing or developing new antifungal therapies. PMID:27155139

  8. Analysis of the Isoprenoid Biosynthesis Pathways in Listeria monocytogenes Reveals a Role for the Alternative 2-C-Methyl-d-Erythritol 4-Phosphate Pathway in Murine Infection▿

    OpenAIRE

    Begley, Máire; Bron, Peter A; Heuston, Sinead; Casey, Pat G.; Englert, Nadine; Wiesner, Jochen; Jomaa, Hassan; Gahan, Cormac G. M.; Hill, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Most bacteria synthesize isoprenoids through one of two essential pathways which provide the basic building block, isopentyl diphosphate (IPP): either the classical mevalonate pathway or the alternative non-mevalonate 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. However, postgenomic analyses of the Listeria monocytogenes genome revealed that this pathogen possesses the genetic capacity to produce the complete set of enzymes involved in both pathways. The nonpathogenic species Listeria i...

  9. Finding all BRCA pathogenic mutation carriers: best practice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Jongmans, Marjolijn Cj

    2016-09-01

    Identifying germline BRCA pathogenic mutations in patients with ovarian or breast cancer is a crucial component in the medical management of affected patients. Furthermore, the relatives of affected patients can be offered genetic testing. Relatives who test positive for a germline BRCA pathogenic mutation can take appropriate action to prevent cancer or have cancer diagnosed as early as possible for better treatment options. The recent discovery that BRCA pathogenic mutation status can inform treatment decisions in patients with ovarian cancer has led to an increased demand for BRCA testing, with testing taking place earlier in the patient care pathway. New approaches to genetic counselling may be required to meet this greater demand for BRCA testing. This review discusses the need for best practices for genetic counselling and BRCA testing; it examines the challenges facing current practice and looks at adapted models of genetic counselling. PMID:27514840

  10. Bacterial respiratory pathogens in children with inherited immune and airway disorders: nasopharyngeal carriage and disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Luesink, M.; Warris, A.; Groot, R. de; Hermans, P.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Children with primary immunodeficiencies, sickle cell disease and cystic fibrosis are at risk to develop invasive bacterial infections caused by respiratory tract pathogens, in particular Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus. This review article evaluates the ro

  11. Tips and tricks in writing review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, Ari Fahrial

    2007-01-01

    Review article or literature review actually is the simplest form of writing compared to a case report or study report. The writing process begins at pointing out topics to be written and informed to readers. The next step after the topic has been selected is to find literatures related to the article review writing. Principally, article writing plays an essential part in a doctor's life, whether as a specialist or consultant. And the most important is the desire to publish the article review.

  12. Hypergeometric language models for republished article finding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Tsagkias; M. de Rijke; W. Weerkamp

    2011-01-01

    Republished article finding is the task of identifying instances of articles that have been published in one source and republished more or less verbatim in another source, which is often a social media source. We address this task as an ad hoc retrieval problem, using the source article as a query.

  13. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of...

  14. 48 CFR 225.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 225.104 Section 225.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Nonavailable articles. (a) DoD has determined that the following articles also are nonavailable in...

  15. 48 CFR 825.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 825... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Supplies 825.104 Nonavailable articles. The following items are added to the list of nonavailable articles contained in FAR 25.104: Glass, lead...

  16. 48 CFR 25.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 25... PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Supplies 25.104 Nonavailable articles. (a) The following articles have been determined to be nonavailable in accordance with 25.103(b)(1)(i): Acetylene, black....

  17. 19 CFR 148.4 - Accompanying articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accompanying articles. 148.4 Section 148.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS General Provisions § 148.4 Accompanying articles. (a) Generally. Articles shall be considered as accompanying a passenger or brought in by him if the...

  18. MEASURING SEMANTIC RELATEDNESS BETWEEN TWO WIKIPEDIA ARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Raghu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly focuses on estimating the relatedness and similarities between any two Wikipedia [1] articles. This paper describes various ways of determining the similarities. We hypothesize that by using some kind of properties of the Wikipedia articles, which can be internal or external, we can estimate the relatedness between Wikipedia articles. Each article is believed to have some kinds of internal properties and some external properties. Internal properties are those which are embedded inside the articles. It can be, for instance, have something to do with the content and text of the articles. External properties are those which are deduced or inferred from the articles. It can be, for example, the topic of the articles or even the closest distance between the two articles when plotted in a graph or in a category hierarchy.External properties include the properties associated with individual articles like topics (as mentioned,categories of the articles. Other techniques which are relevant when comparing the Wikipedia articles are cosine similarity, Jaccard similarity measure etc

  19. Evaluating and understanding articles about treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Allen F

    2009-04-15

    Each year physicians must decide which of the thousands of newly published articles they will take time to read. To determine which articles are the most clinically useful, physicians should assess their relevance, validity, and clinical importance. Using these criteria can drastically decrease the number of articles physicians need to read. PMID:19405410

  20. Authoring Newspaper Science Articles: A Rewarding Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author summarizes the rationale for using science articles in K-16 education and addresses some of its limitations. The author also encourages scientists and college science faculty to contribute contextually relevant articles that might include selected literary techniques to their local or state newspapers.

  1. Measuring the Interestingness of News Articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J

    2007-09-24

    An explosive growth of online news has taken place. Users are inundated with thousands of news articles, only some of which are interesting. A system to filter out uninteresting articles would aid users that need to read and analyze many articles daily, such as financial analysts and government officials. The most obvious approach for reducing the amount of information overload is to learn keywords of interest for a user (Carreira et al., 2004). Although filtering articles based on keywords removes many irrelevant articles, there are still many uninteresting articles that are highly relevant to keyword searches. A relevant article may not be interesting for various reasons, such as the article's age or if it discusses an event that the user has already read about in other articles. Although it has been shown that collaborative filtering can aid in personalized recommendation systems (Wang et al., 2006), a large number of users is needed. In a limited user environment, such as a small group of analysts monitoring news events, collaborative filtering would be ineffective. The definition of what makes an article interesting--or its 'interestingness'--varies from user to user and is continually evolving, calling for adaptable user personalization. Furthermore, due to the nature of news, most articles are uninteresting since many are similar or report events outside the scope of an individual's concerns. There has been much work in news recommendation systems, but none have yet addressed the question of what makes an article interesting.

  2. Transient virulence of emerging pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolker, Benjamin M; Nanda, Arjun; Shah, Dharmini

    2010-05-01

    Should emerging pathogens be unusually virulent? If so, why? Existing theories of virulence evolution based on a tradeoff between high transmission rates and long infectious periods imply that epidemic growth conditions will select for higher virulence, possibly leading to a transient peak in virulence near the beginning of an epidemic. This transient selection could lead to high virulence in emerging pathogens. Using a simple model of the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of emerging pathogens, along with rough estimates of parameters for pathogens such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, West Nile virus and myxomatosis, we estimated the potential magnitude and timing of such transient virulence peaks. Pathogens that are moderately evolvable, highly transmissible, and highly virulent at equilibrium could briefly double their virulence during an epidemic; thus, epidemic-phase selection could contribute significantly to the virulence of emerging pathogens. In order to further assess the potential significance of this mechanism, we bring together data from the literature for the shapes of tradeoff curves for several pathogens (myxomatosis, HIV, and a parasite of Daphnia) and the level of genetic variation for virulence for one (myxomatosis). We discuss the need for better data on tradeoff curves and genetic variance in order to evaluate the plausibility of various scenarios of virulence evolution. PMID:19864267

  3. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Increasingly Important Pathogens in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O. Falkinham

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens are responsible for a significant number of infections whose origin has been traced to drinking water. These opportunistic pathogens represent an emerging water borne disease problem with a major economic cost of at least $1 billion annually. The common features of this group of waterborne pathogens include: disinfectant-resistance, pipe surface adherence and biofilm formation, growth in amoebae, growth on low organic concentrations, and growth at low oxygen levels. Their emergence is due to the fact that conditions resulting from drinking water treatment select for them. As such, there is a need for novel approaches to reduce exposure to these pathogens. In addition to much-needed research, controls to reduce numbers and human exposure can be instituted independently by utilities and homeowners and hospital- and building-operators.

  4. Ecological niche of plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in niche modeling of disease spread, but few attempts were made to construct a theoretical frame for the ecological niche of pathogens. The paper is a review of the knowledge accumulated during last decades in the niche theory of pathogens and proposes an ecological approach in research. It quest for new control methods in what concerns forest plant pathogens, with a special emphasis on fungi like organisms of the genus Phytophthora. Species of Phytophthora are the most successful plant pathogens of the moment, affecting forest and agricultural systems worldwide, many of them being invasive alien organisms in many ecosystems. The hyperspace of their ecological niche is defined by hosts, environment and human interference, as main axes. To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important for the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs. Biotic relationships within ecosystem of host-pathogen couple are depicted by ecological network and specific metrics attached to this. The star shaped network is characterized by few high degree nodes, by short path lengths and relatively low connectivity, premises for a rapid disturbance spread.

  5. Ecological niche of plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in niche modeling of disease spread, but few attempts were made to construct a theoretical frame for the ecological niche of pathogens. The paper is a review of the knowledge accumulated during last decades in the niche theory of pathogens and proposes an ecological approach in research. It quest for new control methods in what concerns forest plant pathogens, with a special emphasis on fungi like organisms of the genus Phytophthora. Species of Phytophthora are the most successful plant pathogens of the moment, affecting forest and agricultural systems worldwide, many of them being invasive alien organisms in many ecosystems. The hyperspace of their ecological niche is defined by hosts, environment and human interference, as main axes. To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs. Biotic relationships within ecosystem of host-pathogen couple are depicted by ecological network and specific metrics attached to this. The star shaped network is characterized by few high degree nodes, by short path lengths and relatively low connectivity, premises for a rapid disturbance spread. 

  6. Filamentous pathogen effector functions: of pathogens, hosts and microbiomes

    OpenAIRE

    Rövenich, H.; Boshoven, J.C.; Thomma, B.

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms play essential roles in almost every environment on earth. For instance, microbes decompose organic material, or establish symbiotic relationships that range from pathogenic to mutualistic. Symbiotic relationships have been particularly well studied for microbial plant pathogens and have emphasized the role of effectors; secreted molecules that support host colonization. Most effectors characterized thus far play roles in deregulation of host immunity. Arguably, however, pathog...

  7. PathogenMip Assay: A Multiplex Pathogen Detection Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Akhras, Michael S.; Sreedevi Thiyagarajan; Villablanca, Andrea C.; Davis, Ronald W; Pål Nyrén; Nader Pourmand

    2007-01-01

    The Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP) assay has been previously applied to a large-scale human SNP detection. Here we describe the PathogenMip Assay, a complete protocol for probe production and applied approaches to pathogen detection. We have demonstrated the utility of this assay with an initial set of 24 probes targeting the most clinically relevant HPV genotypes associated with cervical cancer progression. Probe construction was based on a novel, cost-effective, ligase-based protocol. The ...

  8. Pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    de Wit, Emmie; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; de Jong, Menno; Fouchier, Ron

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, there has been an increase in outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry. Occasionally, these outbreaks have resulted in transmission of influenza viruses to humans and other mammals, with symptoms ranging from conjunctivitis to pneumonia and death. Here, the current knowledge of the determinants of pathogenicity of HPAI viruses in mammals is summarized. It is becoming apparent that common mechanisms exist across influenza A virus strains and...

  9. THE CONSTRUCTION OF NOMOGRAMS FOR DETERMINING GEOMETRICAL DIMENSIONS OF ELECTROISOLATOR THE NUMBER OF PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS ON THE SURFACE OF PLANT SUBSTRATES COREPRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Shevchenko A. A.; Denisenko E. A.; Khristichienko V. V.

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the construction of nomograms for determining geometrical dimensions of electroisolator the amount of residual pathogenic microflora on the surface of plant substrates coreproducts

  10. A critical role of autophagy in plant resistance to necrotrophic fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhibing; Wang, Fei; Zheng, Zuyu; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2011-06-01

    Autophagy is a pathway for degradation of cytoplasmic components. In plants, autophagy plays an important role in nutrient recycling during nitrogen or carbon starvation, and in responses to abiotic stress. Autophagy also regulates age- and immunity-related programmed cell death, which is important in plant defense against biotrophic pathogens. Here we show that autophagy plays a critical role in plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. ATG18a, a critical autophagy protein in Arabidopsis, interacts with WRKY33, a transcription factor that is required for resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. Expression of autophagy genes and formation of autophagosomes are induced in Arabidopsis by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Induction of ATG18a and autophagy by B. cinerea was compromised in the wrky33 mutant, which is highly susceptible to necrotrophic pathogens. Arabidopsis mutants defective in autophagy exhibit enhanced susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungal pathogens B. cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola based on increased pathogen growth in the mutants. The hypersusceptibility of the autophagy mutants was associated with reduced expression of the jasmonate-regulated PFD1.2 gene, accelerated development of senescence-like chlorotic symptoms, and increased protein degradation in infected plant tissues. These results strongly suggest that autophagy cooperates with jasmonate- and WRKY33-mediated signaling pathways in the regulation of plant defense responses to necrotrophic pathogens.

  11. 7 CFR 319.37-12 - Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles... Stock, Plants, Roots, Bulbs, Seeds, and Other Plant Products 1,2 § 319.37-12 Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles. A restricted article for importation into the United States shall not...

  12. Pathogenic Mineralization of Calcium Phosphate on Human Heart Valves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    When calcium phosphate forms in soft tissues such as blood vessels and heart valves, it causes disease. The abnormal formation of calcium phosphate is called pathogenic mineralization or pathogenic calcification. Cases of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) always occur with fibrotic and calcified tissue of heart valve. In this article, samples taken from calcified human heart valves were studied. The characterization was performed by scanning electronic micrascope, X-ray Diffraction and transmission electron microscopy with selective diffraction patterns. It is found for the first time that calcium phosphate grains existing in the calcified human heart valves contain octacalcium phosphate (OCP).

  13. How the fly balances its ability to combat different pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moria C Chambers

    Full Text Available Health is a multidimensional landscape. If we just consider the host, there are many outputs that interest us: evolutionary fitness determining parameters like fecundity, survival and pathogen clearance as well as medically important health parameters like sleep, energy stores and appetite. Hosts use a variety of effector pathways to fight infections and these effectors are brought to bear differentially. Each pathogen causes a different disease as they have distinct virulence factors and niches; they each warp the health landscape in unique ways. Therefore, mutations affecting immunity can have complex phenotypes and distinct effects on each pathogen. Here we describe how two components of the fly's immune response, melanization and phagocytosis, contribute to the health landscape generated by the transcription factor ets21c (CG2914 and its putative effector, the signaling molecule wntD (CG8458. To probe the landscape, we infect with two pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes, which primarily lives intracellularly, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is an extracellular pathogen. Using the diversity of phenotypes generated by these mutants, we propose that survival during a L. monocytogenes infection is mediated by a combination of two host mechanisms: phagocytic activity and melanization; while survival during a S. pneumoniae infection is determined by phagocytic activity. In addition, increased phagocytic activity is beneficial during S. pneumoniae infection but detrimental during L. monocytogenes infection, demonstrating an inherent trade-off in the immune response.

  14. Pathogen detection using engineered bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smartt, Abby E; Xu, Tingting; Jegier, Patricia; Carswell, Jessica J; Blount, Samuel A; Sayler, Gary S; Ripp, Steven

    2012-04-01

    Bacteriophages, or phages, are bacterial viruses that can infect a broad or narrow range of host organisms. Knowing the host range of a phage allows it to be exploited in targeting various pathogens. Applying phages for the identification of microorganisms related to food and waterborne pathogens and pathogens of clinical significance to humans and animals has a long history, and there has to some extent been a recent revival in these applications as phages have become more extensively integrated into novel detection, identification, and monitoring technologies. Biotechnological and genetic engineering strategies applied to phages are responsible for some of these new methods, but even natural unmodified phages are widely applicable when paired with appropriate innovative detector platforms. This review highlights the use of phages as pathogen detector interfaces to provide the reader with an up-to-date inventory of phage-based biodetection strategies.

  15. Bloodborne Pathogens and Needlestick Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pathogens Standard FDA, NIOSH and OSHA Joint Safety Communication on Blunt-Tip Surgical Suture Needles . (May 30, 2012). Related ... Occupational Safety & Health Administration 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC ...

  16. Molecular diagnostics of foodborne pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine

    or accidental contamination of food, feed and water supplies pose a threat to human health worldwide and the need for generic detection methods that can screen for many pathogens at the time are highly desirable. A metagenomics based direct 16S rDNA sequencing approach was evaluated as a diagnostic tool......Illness caused by foodborne pathogens represents an important economic and public health burden worldwide. In order to minimize the occurrence of foodborne pathogens in the food production chain and thereby increase the food safety, better detection methods and knowledge about the behavior...... to investigate the use of different nucleic acid based methods for molecular diagnostics of foodborne pathogens focusing on Salmonellaand Bacillus cereuswith respect to improve food safety. The work represents two parts of molecular diagnostics; the characterization Salmonellafor better understanding of its...

  17. Transient virulence of emerging pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Bolker, Benjamin M.; Nanda, Arjun; Shah, Dharmini

    2009-01-01

    Should emerging pathogens be unusually virulent? If so, why? Existing theories of virulence evolution based on a tradeoff between high transmission rates and long infectious periods imply that epidemic growth conditions will select for higher virulence, possibly leading to a transient peak in virulence near the beginning of an epidemic. This transient selection could lead to high virulence in emerging pathogens. Using a simple model of the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of emerging...

  18. Tropism and pathogenicity of rickettsiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuneo eUchiyama

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria that cause febrile exanthematous illnesses such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Mediterranean spotted fever, epidemic and murine typhus, etc. Although the vector ranges of each Rickettsia species are rather restricted; i.e., ticks belonging to Arachnida and lice and fleas belonging to Insecta usually act as vectors for spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsiae, respectively, it would be interesting to elucidate the mechanisms controlling the vector tropism of rickettsiae. This review discusses the factors determining the vector tropism of rickettsiae. In brief, the vector tropism of rickettsiae species is basically consistent with their tropism towards cultured tick and insect cells. The mechanisms responsible for rickettsiae pathogenicity are also described. Recently, genomic analyses of rickettsiae have revealed that they possess several genes that are homologous to those affecting the pathogenicity of other bacteria. Analyses comparing the genomes of pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of rickettsiae have detected many factors that are related to rickettsial pathogenicity. It is also known that a reduction in the rickettsial genome has occurred during the course of its evolution. Interestingly, Rickettsia species with small genomes, such as Rickettsia prowazekii, are more pathogenic to humans than those with larger genomes. This review also examines the growth kinetics of pathogenic and nonpathogenic species of spotted fever group rickettsiae in mammalian cells. The growth of nonpathogenic species is restricted in these cells, which is mediated, at least in part, by autophagy. The superinfection of nonpathogenic rickettsiae-infected cells with pathogenic rickettsiae results in an elevated yield of the nonpathogenic rickettsiae and the growth of the pathogenic rickettsiae. Autophagy is restricted in these cells. These results are discussed in this review.

  19. Pathogens in Dairy Farming: Source Characterization and Groundwater Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwill, E. R.; Watanabe, N.; Li, X.; Hou, L.; Harter, T.; Bergamaschi, B.

    2007-12-01

    Intense animal husbandry is of growing concern as a potential contamination source of enteric pathogens as well as antibiotics. To assess the public health risk from pathogens and their hydrologic pathways, we hypothesize that the animal farm is not a homogeneous diffuse source, but that pathogen loading to the soil and, therefore, to groundwater varies significantly between the various management units of a farm. A dairy farm, for example, may include an area with calf hutches, corrals for heifers of various ages, freestalls and exercise yards for milking cows, separate freestalls for dry cows, a hospital barn, a yard for collection of solid manure, a liquid manure storage lagoon, and fields receiving various amounts of liquid and solid manure. Pathogen shedding and, hence, therapeutic and preventive pharmaceutical treatments vary between these management units. We are implementing a field reconnaissance program to determine the occurrence of three different pathogens ( E. coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter) and one indicator organism ( Enterococcus) at the ground-surface and in shallow groundwater of seven different management units on each of two farms, and in each of four seasons (spring/dry season, summer/irrigation season, fall/dry season, winter/rainy season). Initial results indicate that significant differences exist in the occurrence of these pathogens between management units and between organisms. These differences are weakly reflected in their occurrence in groundwater, despite the similarity of the shallow geologic environment across these sites. Our results indicate the importance of differentiating sources within a dairy farm and the importance of understanding subsurface transport processes for these pathogens.

  20. Rhamnolipids in perspective: gene regulatory pathways, metabolic engineering, production and technological forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, Leticia; Vilela, Leonardo F; Almeida, Rodrigo V; Neves, Bianca C

    2016-01-25

    Rhamnolipids have emerged as a very promising class of biosurfactants in the last decades, exhibiting properties of great interest in several industrial applications, and have represented a suitable alternative to chemically-synthesized surfactants. This class of biosurfactants has been extensively studied in recent years, aiming at their large-scale production based on renewable resources, which still require high financial costs. Development of non-pathogenic, high-producing strains has been the focus of a number of studies involving heterologous microbial hosts as platforms. However, the intricate gene regulation network controlling rhamnolipid biosynthesis represents a challenge to metabolic engineering and remains to be further understood and explored. This article provides an overview of the biosynthetic pathways and the main gene regulatory factors involved in rhamnolipid production within Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the prototypal producing species. In addition, we provide a perspective view into the main strategies applied to metabolic engineering and biotechnological production. PMID:26409933

  1. Shared Responsibility under Article 80 CISG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    to articles 77, 79 and 80. Five areas are investigated in this regard; the placement in CISG, the focus of the Articles, the cause of the detriment or loss, the affected remedies and the duty to overcome the detriment or loss. Further more, the paper outlines the issues related to the particular situation......Article 80 exempts from liability in the situation where the promisor's failure to perform has been caused by the promisee. The Article has been insufficiently dealt with in the literature and has been overlooked in case law. The paper demonstrates that article 80 has an independent scope compared...... of shared responsibility in which both the promisor and the promisee seem to have caused the promisor's failure to perform. Article 80 applies to three different case types. Firstly, cases of sole causation by the promisee. Secondly, cases of joint causation by both parties where the consequences of each...

  2. Evaluating quality control of Wikipedia's feature articles

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Wikipedia’s internal quality control mechanism, the “featured article” process, which assesses articles against a stringent set of criteria. To this end, scholars were asked to evaluate the quality and accuracy of Wikipedia featured articles within their area of expertise. A total of 22 usable responses were collected from a variety of disciplines. Out of the Wikipedia articles assessed, only 12 of 22 were found to pass Wikiped...

  3. Tips for writing and publishing an article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Milap C

    2008-02-01

    Peer reviewed publications are the primary source of important new information. This editorial provides tips for writing various sections of research papers, review articles, and case reports. Additional topics discussed include making decisions about authorship, selecting a journal for submission of an article, understanding the peer review process and expectations of editors and reviewers, and revising the article. Successful authors combine appropriate knowledge and experience, personal attributes, and effective collaborations to produce insightful and important contributions to the literature.

  4. Simultaneous analysis of large-scale RNAi screens for pathogen entry

    OpenAIRE

    Rämö, Pauli; Drewek, Anna; Arrieumerlou, Cécile; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Ben-Tekaya, Houchaima; Cardel, Bettina; Casanova, Alain; Conde-Alvarez, Raquel; Cossart, Pascale; Csúcs, Gábor; Eicher, Simone; Emmenlauer, Mario; Greber, Urs; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich; Helenius, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Background Large-scale RNAi screening has become an important technology for identifying genes involved in biological processes of interest. However, the quality of large-scale RNAi screening is often deteriorated by off-targets effects. In order to find statistically significant effector genes for pathogen entry, we systematically analyzed entry pathways in human host cells for eight pathogens using image-based kinome-wide siRNA screens with siRNAs from three vendors. We propose a Parallel M...

  5. Melanin as a virulence factor of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and other dimorphic pathogenic fungi: a minireview

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos P Taborda; da Silva, Marcelo B.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Travassos, Luiz R.

    2008-01-01

    Melanin pigments are substances produced by a broad variety of pathogenic microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and helminths. Microbes predominantly produce melanin pigment via tyrosinases, laccases, catecholases, and the polyketide synthase pathway. In fungi, melanin is deposited in the cell wall and cytoplasm, and melanin particles (“ghosts”) can be isolated from these fungi that have the same size and shape of the original cells. Melanin has been reported in several human pathogenic ...

  6. Co-transcriptomic Analysis by RNA Sequencing to Simultaneously Measure Regulated Gene Expression in Host and Bacterial Pathogen

    KAUST Repository

    Ravasi, Timothy

    2016-01-24

    Intramacrophage pathogens subvert antimicrobial defence pathways using various mechanisms, including the targeting of host TLR-mediated transcriptional responses. Conversely, TLR-inducible host defence mechanisms subject intramacrophage pathogens to stress, thus altering pathogen gene expression programs. Important biological insights can thus be gained through the analysis of gene expression changes in both the host and the pathogen during an infection. Traditionally, research methods have involved the use of qPCR, microarrays and/or RNA sequencing to identify transcriptional changes in either the host or the pathogen. Here we describe the application of RNA sequencing using samples obtained from in vitro infection assays to simultaneously quantify both host and bacterial pathogen gene expression changes, as well as general approaches that can be undertaken to interpret the RNA sequencing data that is generated. These methods can be used to provide insights into host TLR-regulated transcriptional responses to microbial challenge, as well as pathogen subversion mechanisms against such responses.

  7. Citation pattern of newsworthy research articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjari Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Popular science magazines cover research articles published in scholarly journals that the magazines perceive as having news value. Despite thousands of research articles being published in research journals, a very few get identified for coverage in popular science magazines, general magazines, and newspapers. Do research articles published in journals that are covered in popular science magazines receive higher citations? We hypothesize that newsworthy articles should receive higher citations as the newsworthiness can be a reflection of higher research value of the articles and also because of the visibility received by the articles owing to its coverage in popular science magazine. To empirically study the citedness, we identified 193 research articles and that were reported in New Scientist magazine in 2001. The characteristics of these articles including the citations received following coverage in New Scientist in 2001 were looked at. It was found that average citations per paper of articles covered in New Scientist was higher than the journal average for the year 2001 for 19 out of the 24 journals identified here.

  8. Biaxially textured articles formed by power metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-26

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  9. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  10. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-09-14

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  11. Role of care pathways in interprofessional teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaria, Minimol Kulakkottu

    2016-08-24

    Cohesive interprofessional teamwork is essential to successful healthcare services. Interprofessional teamwork is the means by which different healthcare professionals - with diverse knowledge, skills and talents - collaborate to achieve a common goal. Several interventions are available to improve teamwork in the healthcare setting. This article explores the role of care pathways in improving interprofessional teamwork. Care pathways enhance teamwork by promoting coordination, collaboration, communication and decision making to achieve optimal healthcare outcomes. They result in improved staff knowledge, communication, documentation and interprofessional relations. Care pathways also contribute to patient-centred care and increase patient satisfaction. PMID:27641591

  12. Role of care pathways in interprofessional teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaria, Minimol Kulakkottu

    2016-08-24

    Cohesive interprofessional teamwork is essential to successful healthcare services. Interprofessional teamwork is the means by which different healthcare professionals - with diverse knowledge, skills and talents - collaborate to achieve a common goal. Several interventions are available to improve teamwork in the healthcare setting. This article explores the role of care pathways in improving interprofessional teamwork. Care pathways enhance teamwork by promoting coordination, collaboration, communication and decision making to achieve optimal healthcare outcomes. They result in improved staff knowledge, communication, documentation and interprofessional relations. Care pathways also contribute to patient-centred care and increase patient satisfaction.

  13. 48 CFR 425.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 425.104 Section 425.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Supplies 425.104 Nonavailable articles. Information...

  14. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....S.C. chapter 103, in the form provided for in 46 CFR 14.05-1. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the...

  15. Textual Article Clustering in Newspaper Pages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Pegoretti, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    In the analysis of a newspaper page an important step is the clustering of various text blocks into logical units, i.e., into articles. We propose three algorithms based on text processing techniques to cluster articles in newspaper pages. Based on the complexity of the three algorithms and experime

  16. Textual Article Clustering in Newspaper Pages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Pegoretti, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    In the analysis of a newspaper page an important step is the clustering of various text blocks into logical units, i.e., into articles. We propose three algorithms based on text processing techniques to cluster articles in newspaper pages. Based on the complexity of the three algorithms and experime

  17. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  18. Shellfish as reservoirs of bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Hariharan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present an overview on bacterial pathogens associated with shellfish in Grenada and other countries including the authors’ experience. Although there have been considerable published work on vibrios, there is a lack of information on Salmonella serovars associated with various shellfish. In Grenada, for instance the blue land crabs collected from their habitats were found to harbor several Salmonella serovars. Also, it is notable that only minimal research has been done on shellfish such as conchs and whelks, which are common in the Caribbean and West Indies. Information on anaerobic bacteria, particularly, non-spore forming bacteria associated with shellfish, in general, is also scanty. This review re-examines this globally important topic based on the recent findings as well as past observations. Strategies for reduction of bacteria in oysters are briefly mentioned because of the fact that oysters are consumed commonly without complete cooking.

  19. Compositions and methods for pathogen transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Etr, Sahar; Farquar, George R.

    2016-01-26

    This disclosure provides a method for transporting a pathogen under ambient conditions, by culturing the pathogen with an amoeba under conditions that favor the incorporation of the pathogen into a trophozoite, starving the amoeba until it encysts, then culturing under conditions that favor conversion of the amoeba back to a trophozoite. In one aspect, the conditions that favor incorporation of the pathogen into the cyst of the amoeba comprises contacting the pathogen with the amoeba in an iron rich environment. Virus and/or bacteria are pathogens that can be transported by the disclosed method. Amoeba that are useful in the disclosed methods include, without limitation Acanthamoeba castellanii, Hartmannella vermiformis and Naegleria gruberi. The disclosed methods have utility in: transporting pathogens from military field hospitals and clinics to the laboratory; transporting pathogens from global satellite laboratories to clinical laboratories; long term storage of pathogens; enriching contaminated patient samples for pathogens of interest; biosurveillance and detection efforts.

  20. Citation advantage of open access articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Eysenbach

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Open access (OA to the research literature has the potential to accelerate recognition and dissemination of research findings, but its actual effects are controversial. This was a longitudinal bibliometric analysis of a cohort of OA and non-OA articles published between June 8, 2004, and December 20, 2004, in the same journal (PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Article characteristics were extracted, and citation data were compared between the two groups at three different points in time: at "quasi-baseline" (December 2004, 0-6 mo after publication, in April 2005 (4-10 mo after publication, and in October 2005 (10-16 mo after publication. Potentially confounding variables, including number of authors, authors' lifetime publication count and impact, submission track, country of corresponding author, funding organization, and discipline, were adjusted for in logistic and linear multiple regression models. A total of 1,492 original research articles were analyzed: 212 (14.2% of all articles were OA articles paid by the author, and 1,280 (85.8% were non-OA articles. In April 2005 (mean 206 d after publication, 627 (49.0% of the non-OA articles versus 78 (36.8% of the OA articles were not cited (relative risk = 1.3 [95% Confidence Interval: 1.1-1.6]; p = 0.001. 6 mo later (mean 288 d after publication, non-OA articles were still more likely to be uncited (non-OA: 172 [13.6%], OA: 11 [5.2%]; relative risk = 2.6 [1.4-4.7]; p < 0.001. The average number of citations of OA articles was higher compared to non-OA articles (April 2005: 1.5 [SD = 2.5] versus 1.2 [SD = 2.0]; Z = 3.123; p = 0.002; October 2005: 6.4 [SD = 10.4] versus 4.5 [SD = 4.9]; Z = 4.058; p < 0.001. In a logistic regression model, controlling for potential confounders, OA articles compared to non-OA articles remained twice as likely to be cited (odds ratio = 2.1 [1.5-2.9] in the first 4-10 mo after publication (April 2005, with the odds ratio increasing to 2.9 (1

  1. Citing Journal Articles in Social Sciences Blogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Jamali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze motivations behind social sciences blog posts citing journal articles in order to find out whether blog citations of scholarly journal articles are good indicators for the societal impact of research. A random sample of 300 social sciences blog posts (out of 1,233 blog posts from ResearchBlogging published between 01/01/2012 to 18/06/2014 were subjected to content analysis. An existing categorization scheme was used and modified inductively. The 300 blog posts had 472 references including 424 journal articles from 269 different journals. Sixty-one (22.68% of all journals cited were from the category of social sciences and most of the journals with high frequency were highly cited general science journals such as PNAS and Science. Seventy-five percent of all journals were referenced only once. The average age of articles cited was 5.8 years. The most frequent (38, 12.67% motivation was to ‘neutrally presenting details of a study’. Overall, social science blogs were rather subject-oriented than article oriented. This means a considerable number of blog posts were not driven simply by writing about an article, instead bloggers tend to write about their subject of interest and use references to support their argument. The study shows the potential of blog citations as an altmetric measure and as a proxy for assessing the research impact.

  2. Infectious pathogens and bronchiolitis outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Mansbach, Jonathan M; Camargo, Carlos A

    2014-07-01

    Bronchiolitis is a common early childhood illness and an important cause of morbidity, it is the number one cause of hospitalization among US infants. Bronchiolitis is also an active area of research, and recent studies have advanced our understanding of this illness. Although it has long been the conventional wisdom that the infectious etiology of bronchiolitis does not affect outcomes, a growing number of studies have linked specific pathogens of bronchiolitis (e.g., rhinovirus) to short- and long-term outcomes, such as future risk of developing asthma. The authors review the advent of molecular diagnostic techniques that have demonstrated diverse pathogens in bronchiolitis, and they review recent studies on the complex link between infectious pathogens of bronchiolitis and the development of childhood asthma.

  3. Xylella Genomics and Bacterial Pathogenicity to Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Dow, J. M.; Daniels, M J

    2000-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, a pathogen of citrus, is the first plant pathogenic bacterium for which the complete genome sequence has been published. Inspection of the sequence reveals high relatedness to many genes of other pathogens, notably Xanthomonas campestris. Based on this, we suggest that Xylella possesses certain easily testable properties that contribute to pathogenicity. We also present some general considerations for deriving information on pathogenicity from bacterial genomics.

  4. PIG—the pathogen interaction gateway

    OpenAIRE

    Driscoll, Tim; Dyer, Matthew D.; T. M. Murali; Sobral, Bruno W.

    2008-01-01

    Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) play a vital role in initiating infection in a number of pathogens. Identifying which interactions allow a pathogen to infect its host can help us to understand methods of pathogenesis and provide potential targets for therapeutics. Public resources for studying host–pathogen systems, in particular PPIs, are scarce. To facilitate the study of host–pathogen PPIs, we have collected and integrated host–pathogen PPI (HP–PPI) data from a number of public resourc...

  5. Bithionol blocks pathogenicity of bacterial toxins, ricin, and Zika virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, William; Zilbermintz, Leeor; Cheng, Luisa W.; Zozaya, Josue; Tran, Sharon H.; Elliott, Jeffrey H.; Polukhina, Kseniya; Manasherob, Robert; Li, Amy; Chi, Xiaoli; Gharaibeh, Dima; Kenny, Tara; Zamani, Rouzbeh; Soloveva, Veronica; Haddow, Andrew D.; Nasar, Farooq; Bavari, Sina; Bassik, Michael C.; Cohen, Stanley N.; Levitin, Anastasia; Martchenko, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Diverse pathogenic agents often utilize overlapping host networks, and hub proteins within these networks represent attractive targets for broad-spectrum drugs. Using bacterial toxins, we describe a new approach for discovering broad-spectrum therapies capable of inhibiting host proteins that mediate multiple pathogenic pathways. This approach can be widely used, as it combines genetic-based target identification with cell survival-based and protein function-based multiplex drug screens, and concurrently discovers therapeutic compounds and their protein targets. Using B-lymphoblastoid cells derived from the HapMap Project cohort of persons of African, European, and Asian ancestry we identified host caspases as hub proteins that mediate the lethality of multiple pathogenic agents. We discovered that an approved drug, Bithionol, inhibits host caspases and also reduces the detrimental effects of anthrax lethal toxin, diphtheria toxin, cholera toxin, Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A, Botulinum neurotoxin, ricin, and Zika virus. Our study reveals the practicality of identifying host proteins that mediate multiple disease pathways and discovering broad-spectrum therapies that target these hub proteins. PMID:27686742

  6. Production of super-smooth articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchane, D.V.

    1981-05-29

    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  7. Demand for scientific articles and citations

    OpenAIRE

    Salaün, Jean-Michel; Lafouge, Thierry; Boukacem, Chérifa

    2000-01-01

    Les échanges entre chercheurs, la publication de revues scientifiques et la demande d'articles scientifiques suivent des cheminements qui se croisent, mais qui ne répondent pas toujours aux mêmes logiques. La demande d'articles aux fournisseurs de documents peut donner des éléments pour interpréter les mouvements en cours dans l'édition électronique L'observation de la demande d'articles faite à l'Institut de l'information scientifique et technique (l'Inist) montre que, en France, celle-ci co...

  8. New trends in emerging pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Niels

    2007-12-15

    The emergence of pathogens is the result of a number of impact in all parts of the food chain. The emerging technologies in food production explain how new pathogens can establish themselves in the food chain and compromise food safety. The impact of the food technology is analysed for several bacteria, such as Yersinia, Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter pullorum, Enterobacter sakazakii, Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis, prions related to vCJD and others. The importance of the ability of many microbes to form VBNC forms is elaborated on. Research on culture independent methods may address this outstanding issue to the better understanding of emerging pathogens. The "demerging" of pathogens also occur, and examples of this are explained. The reaction of bacteria to stresses and sublethal treatments, and how exposure to one stress factor can confer resistance to other stresses, literally speaking causing contagious resistance, are explained. The implication of this e.g. in modern approaches of food preservation, such as Minimally processed Foods, is considerable. Intestinal colonization of EHEC may be regulated by Quorum sensing, and this ability of microbes plays an important role in the colonization of microbes in food and on food processing equipment, an important factor in the emergence of pathogens. The emergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as an opportunistic human pathogen, used for centuries for food and production of alcoholic beverages, calls for research in molecular tools to distinguish between probiotic and clinical strains. Cyclospora cayetanensis and Norovirus outbreaks can no longer be designated as emerging pathogens, they share however one characteristic in the epidemiology of emerging nature, the importance of the hygiene in the primary production stage, including supply of potable water, and the application of GMP and the HACCP principles in the beginning of the food chain. Hepatitis E virus is a potential emerging food borne

  9. Planning for Secondary Expansion in Sub-Saharan Africa--Pathways towards Sustainable Financing. Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Investment in secondary schooling in sub-Saharan Africa has been neglected over the last two decades. Emphasis on universalising primary schooling has shaped national policy and flows of international assistance to favour rapid expansion at the first level of schooling. Though there are many good reasons for this emphasis, this has resulted in…

  10. Shapers of Published NNS Research Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrough-Boenisch, Joy

    2003-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive picture of the shapers of a published nonnative speaker research article by including the language professionals and indicating how they fit into the pre-publication processing of a text. (Author/VWL)

  11. ARTICLES FOR THE BULLETIN: USER'S GUIDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    If you wish to publish information in the Weekly Bulletin or if you have an idea for an article, please follow this procedure: An idea for an article on the first pages? You can send your suggestion by electronic mail at the following address : Corinne.Menard@cern.ch Or by telephone : 79971 A seminar announcement or general information? The official news, general information or seminar announcements must be sent before Tuesday 12.00 to : Weekly.Bulletin@cern.ch By internal mail : Christiane LEFEVRE, tel. 73830 Division ETT, number J02410 Building 510/1-002 News from clubs? Articles about CERN clubs in the Staff Association part of the Bulletin must be sent before Tuesday 12.00 to : Staff.Bulletin@cern.ch >Tel. 74224 Building 64/R-002 Division PE Texts (Word format) and pictures (pict, tiff, jpeg et eps) must be in a separate file. Photos furnished by the Clubs to illustrate their articles are welcome.

  12. ARTICLES FOR THE BULLETIN: USERS' GUIDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    If you wish to publish information in the Weekly Bulletin or if you have an idea for an article, please follow this procedure:     An idea for an article in the front pages? You can send your suggestion by electronic mail to the following address Corinne.Menard@cern.ch Or by telephone : 79971 A seminar announcement or general information? Official news, general information, and seminar announcements must be sent before Tuesday 12.00 to : Weekly.Bulletin@cern.ch Tel. 73830 Building 510/1-002 ETT Division News from clubs? Articles about CERN clubs in the Staff Association part of the Bulletin must be sent before Tuesday 12.00 to: Staff.Bulletin@cern.ch Tel. 74224 Buildin 64/R-002 PE Division Texts (Word format) and pictures (pict, tiff, jpeg et eps) must be in a separate file. Photos furnished by the Clubs to illustrate their articles are welcome.

  13. Newspaper Clippings and Articles (Weather-related)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather-related newspaper articles and photos, almost exclusively from Baltimore, MD and nearby areas. Includes storm damage, rainfall reports, and weather's affect...

  14. Comparative genomics of MAP kinase and calcium-calcineurin signalling components in plant and human pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispail, Nicolas; Soanes, Darren M; Ant, Cemile; Czajkowski, Robert; Grünler, Anke; Huguet, Romain; Perez-Nadales, Elena; Poli, Anna; Sartorel, Elodie; Valiante, Vito; Yang, Meng; Beffa, Roland; Brakhage, Axel A; Gow, Neil A R; Kahmann, Regine; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Lenasi, Helena; Perez-Martin, José; Talbot, Nicholas J; Wendland, Jürgen; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2009-04-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades and the calcium-calcineurin pathway control fundamental aspects of fungal growth, development and reproduction. Core elements of these signalling pathways are required for virulence in a wide array of fungal pathogens of plants and mammals. In this review, we have used the available genome databases to explore the structural conservation of three MAPK cascades and the calcium-calcineurin pathway in ten different fungal species, including model organisms, plant pathogens and human pathogens. While most known pathway components from the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae appear to be widely conserved among taxonomically and biologically diverse fungi, some of them were found to be restricted to the Saccharomycotina. The presence of multiple paralogues in certain species such as the zygomycete Rhizopus oryzae and the incorporation of new functional domains that are lacking in S. cerevisiae signalling proteins, most likely reflect functional diversification or adaptation as filamentous fungi have evolved to occupy distinct ecological niches. PMID:19570501

  15. An Auction Market for Journal Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Prüfer, J.; Zetland, D.

    2007-01-01

    Economic articles are published very slowly. We believe this results from the poor incentives referees face. We recommend that an auction market replace the current, push system for submitting papers and demonstrate that our proposed market has a stable, Pareto-improving equilibrium. Besides the benefits of speed, this pull mechanism increases the quality of articles and journals and rewards referees for their effort. Although the auction price gives a prior on a paper's future value, its act...

  16. Anniversary Article: Decision Analysis in Management Science

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, James E; Detlof von Winterfeldt

    2004-01-01

    As part of the 50th anniversary of Management Science, the journal is publishing articles that reflect on the past, present, and future of the various subfields the journal represents. In this article, we consider decision analysis research as it has appeared in Management Science. After reviewing the foundations of decision analysis and the history of the journal's decision analysis department, we review a number of key developments in decision analysis research that have appeared in Managem...

  17. Fungi Encountered on Footwear and Defence Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, O. P.; Sharma, K. D.

    1980-01-01

    A study of mycoflora on footwears and defence articles from Agra city was made. In all 38 fungi belonging to different genera were recorded. Out of these, 17 fungal species were isolated for the first on these articles. A new variety i.e., Aspergillus sydowii var. agraii Sharma and Sharma was also created. Species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Drechslera, Alternaria, Fusarium and Trichoderma were found to be dominant in all the cases. Maximum species were recorded from gents foot...

  18. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2007-02-15

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. Also by relating a topic's interestingness to an article's interestingness, iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 9% to 14% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  19. Distance learning course for scientific articles writting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Gutiérrez Escobar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific publications within Medical Sciences are an important factor for professionals to achieve services of excellence. However, the training to write this kind of articles is not enough. Objective: To design a theoretical and practical course of composition and style for scientific articles publications. Methods: Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study including 50 professionals of the Medical School Branch. The main difficulties that they face to publish an article were determined and a distance learning course was designed on this basis, using the Moodle platform. Results: All the surveyed individuals referred that among the main causes limiting their ability to publish scientific articles are: little practical knowledge about the requirements to write scientific articles, not receiving any subject enhancing textual composition during their academic formation, and not attending to any post-graduate course aimed at improving academic writing for publication. A curse of 10 hours (theoretical part and 30 hours (practical part divide into five chapters including stylistic, methodological and compositional elements. Conclusions: This course helps improving the composition of scientific articles written by professional and their further publication in scientific journals.

  20. Arabidopsis WRKY33 transcription factor is required for resistance to necrotrophic fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zuyu; Qamar, Synan Abu; Chen, Zhixiang; Mengiste, Tesfaye

    2006-11-01

    Plant WRKY transcription factors are key regulatory components of plant responses to microbial infection. In addition to regulating the expression of defense-related genes, WRKY transcription factors have also been shown to regulate cross-talk between jasmonate- and salicylate-regulated disease response pathways. The two pathways mediate resistance against different types of microbial pathogens, and there are numerous reports of antagonistic interactions between them. Here we show that mutations of the Arabidopsis WRKY33 gene encoding a WRKY transcription factor cause enhanced susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola concomitant with reduced expression of the jasmonate-regulated plant defensin PDF1.2 gene. Ectopic over-expression of WRKY33, on the other hand, increases resistance to the two necrotrophic fungal pathogens. The wrky33 mutants do not show altered responses to a virulent strain of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, although the ectopic expression of WRKY33 results in enhanced susceptibility to this pathogen. The susceptibility of WRKY33-over-expressing plants to P. syringae is associated with reduced expression of the salicylate-regulated PR-1 gene. The WRKY33 transcript is induced in response to pathogen infection, or treatment with salicylate or the paraquat herbicide that generates activated oxygen species in exposed cells. WRKY33 is localized to the nucleus of plant cells and recognizes DNA molecules containing the TTGACC W-box sequence. Together, these results indicate that pathogen-induced WRKY33 is an important transcription factor that regulates the antagonistic relationship between defense pathways mediating responses to P. syringae and necrotrophic pathogens.

  1. Host response to respiratory bacterial pathogens as identified by integrated analysis of human gene expression data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B Smith

    Full Text Available Respiratory bacterial pathogens are one of the leading causes of infectious death in the world and a major health concern complicated by the rise of multi-antibiotic resistant strains. Therapeutics that modulate host genes essential for pathogen infectivity could potentially avoid multi-drug resistance and provide a wider scope of treatment options. Here, we perform an integrative analysis of published human gene expression data generated under challenges from the gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae, respectively. We applied a previously described differential gene and pathway enrichment analysis pipeline to publicly available host mRNA GEO datasets resulting from exposure to bacterial infection. We found 72 canonical human pathways common between four GEO datasets, representing P. aeruginosa and S. pneumoniae. Although the majority of these pathways are known to be involved with immune response, we found several interesting new interactions such as the SUMO1 pathway that might have a role in bacterial infections. Furthermore, 36 host-bacterial pathways were also shared with our previous results for respiratory virus host gene expression. Based on our pathway analysis we propose several drug-repurposing opportunities supported by the literature.

  2. Pathogenicity of aseptic Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-hua Zhu

    Full Text Available Pine wilt is a disease of pine (Pinus spp. caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. However, the pathogenic mechanism of pine wilt disease (PWD remains unclear. Although the PWN was thought to be the only pathogenic agent associated with this disease, a potential role for bacterial symbionts in the disease process was recently proposed. Studies have indicated that aseptic PWNs do not cause PWD in aseptic pine trees, while PWNs associated with bacteria cause wilting symptoms. To investigate the pathogenicity of the PWN and its associated bacteria, 3-month-old microcuttings derived from certain clones of Pinus densiflora Siebold & Zucc. produced in vitro were inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs, non-aseptic PWNs and bacteria isolated from the nematodes. Six-month-old aseptic P. densiflora microcuttings and 7-month-old P. massoniana seedlings were also inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs. The results showed that the aseptic microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs or non-aseptic PWNs wilted, while those inoculated with bacterial isolates did not wilt. Nematodes were recovered from wilted microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs, and the asepsis of nematodes recovered from aseptic PWN-inoculated microcuttings and seedlings was reconfirmed by culturing them in NB liquid medium at 30°C for more than 7 days. Taken together, the results indicate that the asepsis of PWN did not cause the loss of pathogenicity.

  3. Microbial Forensics and Plant Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    New awareness of the vulnerability of a nation's agricultural infrastructure to the intentional introduction of pathogens or pests has led to the enhancement of programs for prevention and preparedness. A necessary component of a balanced bio-security plan is the capability to determine whether an ...

  4. Biosignatures of Pathogen and Host

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, J P; Chromy, B A; Forde, C E; Garcia, E; Gardner, S N; Gu, P P; Kuczmarksi, T A; Melius, C F; McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Milanovich, F P; Motin, V L; Ott, L L; Quong, A A; Quong, J N; Rocco, J M; Slezak, T R; Sokhansanj, B A; Vitalis, E A; Zemla, A T; McCready, P M

    2002-08-27

    In information theory, a signature is characterized by the information content as well as noise statistics of the communication channel. Biosignatures have analogous properties. A biosignature can be associated with a particular attribute of a pathogen or a host. However, the signature may be lost in backgrounds of similar or even identical signals from other sources. In this paper, we highlight statistical and signal processing challenges associated with identifying good biosignatures for pathogens in host and other environments. In some cases it may be possible to identify useful signatures of pathogens through indirect but amplified signals from the host. Discovery of these signatures requires new approaches to modeling and data interpretation. For environmental biosignal collections, it is possible to use signal processing techniques from other applications (e.g., synthetic aperture radar) to track the natural progression of microbes over large areas. We also present a computer-assisted approach to identify unique nucleic-acid based microbial signatures. Finally, an understanding of host-pathogen interactions will result in better detectors as well as opportunities in vaccines and therapeutics.

  5. Molecular detection of foodborne pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are recognised as some of the most important foodborne pathogens worldwide. Human infections have wide health and socioeconomic consequences. Lots of effort has been devoted to increase the knowledge on the prevalence, transmission routes and persistence of these...

  6. Pathogenic role of antiphospholipid antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, J. E.; de Groot, P. G.

    2008-01-01

    The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is characterized by recurrent arterial and venous thrombosis and/or pregnancy in association with antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies. The pathogenic mechanisms in APS that lead to in vivo injury are incompletely understood. Recent evidence suggests that AP

  7. Developmental pathways to antisocial behavior: the delayed-onset pathway in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, P; Frick, P J

    1999-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that there are two distinct trajectories for the development of antisocial behavior in boys: a childhood-onset pathway and an adolescent-onset pathway. After reviewing the limited available research on antisocial girls, we propose that this influential method of conceptualizing the development of severe antisocial behavior may not apply to girls without some important modifications. Antisocial girls appear to show many of the correlates that have been associated with the childhood-onset pathway in boys, and they tend to show impaired adult adjustment, which is also similar to boys in the childhood-onset pathway. However, antisocial girls typically show an adolescent-onset to their antisocial behavior. We have proposed that these girls show a third developmental pathway which we have labeled the "delayed-onset" pathway. This model rests on the assumption that many of the putative pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to the development of antisocial behavior in girls, such as cognitive and neuropsychological deficits, a dysfunctional family environment, and/or the presence of a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, may be present in childhood, but they do not lead to severe and overt antisocial behavior until adolescence. Therefore, we propose that the delayed-onset pathway for girls is analogous to the childhood-onset pathway in boys and that there is no analogous pathway in girls to the adolescent-onset pathway in boys. Although this model clearly needs to be tested in future research, it highlights the need to test the applicability of current theoretical models for explaining the development of antisocial behavior in girls.

  8. Infection strategies of intestinal parasite pathogens and host cell responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Martorell Di Genova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba histolytica are important pathogenic intestinal parasites and are amongst the leading cause worldwide of diarrheal illness in humans. Diseases caused by these organisms, Giardiasis, Cryptosporidiosis and Amoebiasis, respectively, are characterized by self-limited diarrhea but can evolve to long-term complications. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diarrhea associated with these tree pathogens are being unraveled, with knowledge of both the strategies explored by the parasites to establish infection and the methods evolved by hosts to avoid it. Special attention is being given to molecules participating in parasite-host interaction and in the mechanisms implicated in the diseases pathophysiologic processes. This review focuses on cell mechanisms that are modulated during infection, including gene transcription, cytoskeleton rearrangements, signal transduction pathways and cell death.

  9. Perspective: Adhesion Mediated Signal Transduction in Bacterial Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Sudha; Keklak, Julia; Klein, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    During the infection process, pathogenic bacteria undergo large-scale transcriptional changes to promote virulence and increase intrahost survival. While much of this reprogramming occurs in response to changes in chemical environment, such as nutrient availability and pH, there is increasing evidence that adhesion to host-tissue can also trigger signal transduction pathways resulting in differential gene expression. Determining the molecular mechanisms of adhesion-mediated signaling requires disentangling the contributions of chemical and mechanical stimuli. Here we highlight recent work demonstrating that surface attachment drives a transcriptional response in bacterial pathogens, including uropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli), and discuss the complexity of experimental design when dissecting the specific role of adhesion-mediated signaling during infection. PMID:26901228

  10. Infection Strategies of Intestinal Parasite Pathogens and Host Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Genova, Bruno M; Tonelli, Renata R

    2016-01-01

    Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium sp., and Entamoeba histolytica are important pathogenic intestinal parasites and are amongst the leading causes worldwide of diarrheal illness in humans. Diseases caused by these organisms, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and amoebiasis, respectively, are characterized by self-limited diarrhea but can evolve to long-term complications. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diarrhea associated with these three pathogens are being unraveled, with knowledge of both the strategies explored by the parasites to establish infection and the methods evolved by hosts to avoid it. Special attention is being given to molecules participating in parasite-host interaction and in the mechanisms implicated in the diseases' pathophysiologic processes. This review focuses on cell mechanisms that are modulated during infection, including gene transcription, cytoskeleton rearrangements, signal transduction pathways, and cell death. PMID:26973630

  11. 7 CFR 301.45-7 - Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles. 301.45-7 Section 301.45-7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-7 Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor...

  12. A SNARE-protein has opposing functions in penetration resistance and defence signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ziguo; Feechan, Angela; Pedersen, Carsten;

    2007-01-01

    Penetration resistance is often the first line of defence against fungal pathogens. Subsequently induced defences are mediated by the programmed cell death (PCD) reaction pathway and the salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signalling pathways. We previously demonstrated...

  13. Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ethylene plant defense pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mur, Luis A J; Prats, Elena; Pierre, Sandra;

    2013-01-01

    Plant defence against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defence responses...

  14. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2008-01-03

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 25% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  15. [How to write an article: formal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral de la Calle, M A; Encinas de la Iglesia, J

    2013-06-01

    Scientific research and the publication of the results of the studies go hand in hand. Exquisite research methods can only be adequately reflected in formal publication with the optimum structure. To ensure the success of this process, it is necessary to follow orderly steps, including selecting the journal in which to publish and following the instructions to authors strictly as well as the guidelines elaborated by diverse societies of editors and other institutions. It is also necessary to structure the contents of the article in a logical and attractive way and to use an accurate, clear, and concise style of language. Although not all the authors are directly involved in the actual writing, elaborating a scientific article is a collective undertaking that does not finish until the article is published. This article provides practical advice about formal and not-so-formal details to take into account when writing a scientific article as well as references that will help readers find more information in greater detail. PMID:23489765

  16. New insights into the regulation of plant immunity by amino acid metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeier, Jürgen

    2013-12-01

    Besides defence pathways regulated by classical stress hormones, distinct amino acid metabolic pathways constitute integral parts of the plant immune system. Mutations in several genes involved in Asp-derived amino acid biosynthetic pathways can have profound impact on plant resistance to specific pathogen types. For instance, amino acid imbalances associated with homoserine or threonine accumulation elevate plant immunity to oomycete pathogens but not to pathogenic fungi or bacteria. The catabolism of Lys produces the immune signal pipecolic acid (Pip), a cyclic, non-protein amino acid. Pip amplifies plant defence responses and acts as a critical regulator of plant systemic acquired resistance, defence priming and local resistance to bacterial pathogens. Asp-derived pyridine nucleotides influence both pre- and post-invasion immunity, and the catabolism of branched chain amino acids appears to affect plant resistance to distinct pathogen classes by modulating crosstalk of salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-regulated defence pathways. It also emerges that, besides polyamine oxidation and NADPH oxidase, Pro metabolism is involved in the oxidative burst and the hypersensitive response associated with avirulent pathogen recognition. Moreover, the acylation of amino acids can control plant resistance to pathogens and pests by the formation of protective plant metabolites or by the modulation of plant hormone activity.

  17. Understanding shared services (Article 1 of 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Van der Linde

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Shared services is a viable business model that can be used by organisations to reduce costs and enhance efficiency and effectiveness in the organisation. The purpose of this trilogy of articles is to introduce shared services as a business model, and how to efficiently and effectively manage a shared services business unit. The purpose of the first article in the trilogy, introduces shared services as a business model, defines what shared services is, the transformation required to successfully implement a shared services business model, as well as the benefits that can be derived from implementing a shared services business model. Methodology: A comprehensive literature study was conducted in order to: - Define and describe shared services as a business model, - Compare shared services with centralisation and de-centralisation, - Determine and describe the transformation required to successfully implement shared services. Findings: In the article, a framework is generated to help organisations understand the business concept of shared services. This work has further potential: when applied correctly, there are both tangible and intangible benefits that can be accrued above cost savings. Implications: The findings of this article are important for organisations that are in the process of implementing or have implemented shared services, as it will assist the organisation in determining if shared services is the correct business model for them to implement. Value: This article provides an understanding of shared services and the business environment required to successfully implement a shared services business model. Value created by a shared services business model is further enhanced once the organisation has embarked on the successful implementation of a shared services business model, which is the primary objective of the second article, Implementation and continuous evolution in shared services.

  18. Altmetric: Top 50 dental articles in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, J; Khazaei, S

    2016-06-10

    Introduction Altmetrics is a new and emerging scholarly tool that measures online attention surrounding journal articles. Altmetric data resources include: policy documents, news outlets, blogs, online reference managers (eg Mendeley and CiteULike), post-publication peer-review forums (eg PubPeer and Publons), social media (eg Twitter, Facebook, Weibo, Google(+), Pinterest, Reddit), Wikipedia, sites running Stack Exchange (Q&A), and reviews on F1000 and YouTube.Methods To identify the top 50 dental articles in 2014, PubMed was searched using the following query "("2014/1/1"[PDAT]:"2014/12/31"[PDAT]) and jsubsetd[text]" in December, 2015. Consequently, all PubMed records were extracted and sent to Altmetric LLP (London, UK) as a CSV file for examination. Data were analysed by Microsoft Office Excel 2010 using descriptive statistics and charts.Results Using PubMed searches,15,132 dental articles were found in 2014. The mean Altmetric score of 50 top dental articles in 2014 was 69.5 ± 73.3 (95% CI: -74.14 to 213.14). The British Dental Journal (48%) and Journal of Dental Research (16%) had the maximum number of top articles. Twitter (67.13%), Mendeley (15.89%) and news outlets (10.92%) were the most popular altmetric data resources.Discussion Altmetrics are intended to supplement bibliometrics, not replace them. Altmetrics is a fresh and emerging arena for the dental research community. We believe that dental clinical practitioners, research scientists, research directors and journal editors must pay more attention to altmetrics as a new and rapid tool to measure the social impact of scholarly articles.

  19. Altmetric: Top 50 dental articles in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, J; Khazaei, S

    2016-06-10

    Introduction Altmetrics is a new and emerging scholarly tool that measures online attention surrounding journal articles. Altmetric data resources include: policy documents, news outlets, blogs, online reference managers (eg Mendeley and CiteULike), post-publication peer-review forums (eg PubPeer and Publons), social media (eg Twitter, Facebook, Weibo, Google(+), Pinterest, Reddit), Wikipedia, sites running Stack Exchange (Q&A), and reviews on F1000 and YouTube.Methods To identify the top 50 dental articles in 2014, PubMed was searched using the following query "("2014/1/1"[PDAT]:"2014/12/31"[PDAT]) and jsubsetd[text]" in December, 2015. Consequently, all PubMed records were extracted and sent to Altmetric LLP (London, UK) as a CSV file for examination. Data were analysed by Microsoft Office Excel 2010 using descriptive statistics and charts.Results Using PubMed searches,15,132 dental articles were found in 2014. The mean Altmetric score of 50 top dental articles in 2014 was 69.5 ± 73.3 (95% CI: -74.14 to 213.14). The British Dental Journal (48%) and Journal of Dental Research (16%) had the maximum number of top articles. Twitter (67.13%), Mendeley (15.89%) and news outlets (10.92%) were the most popular altmetric data resources.Discussion Altmetrics are intended to supplement bibliometrics, not replace them. Altmetrics is a fresh and emerging arena for the dental research community. We believe that dental clinical practitioners, research scientists, research directors and journal editors must pay more attention to altmetrics as a new and rapid tool to measure the social impact of scholarly articles. PMID:27283563

  20. Author Keywords in Biomedical Journal Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Névéol, Aurélie; Doğan, Rezarta Islamaj; Lu, Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    As an information retrieval system, PubMed® aims at providing efficient access to documents cited in MEDLINE®. For this purpose, it relies on matching representations of documents, as provided by authors and indexers to user queries. In this paper, we describe the growth of author keywords in biomedical journal articles and present a comparative study of author keywords and MeSH® indexing terms assigned by MEDLINE indexers to PubMed Central Open Access articles. A similarity metric is used to...

  1. Recommendations to write better scientific articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Threlfall (Author

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Disseminate results is one of the functions of the scientists, and we all must have approach to the knowledge to carry it a greater number of people. This is done by writing and publishing scientific articles. But though we all have good intentions and ours goals are the best, not always we get our papers are accepted and published in scientific journals. With the aim of providing assistance to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in our work, in this article the translation of some interesting recommendations for best writing scientific papers is presented.

  2. Laser production of articles from powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G.K.; Milewski, J.O.; Cremers, D.A.; Nemec, R.B.; Barbe, M.R.

    1998-11-17

    Method and apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. Preferably the tool path and other parameters of the deposition process are established using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of a deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which a deposition head which delivers the laser beam and powder to the deposition zone moves along the tool path. 20 figs.

  3. Laser production of articles from powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Milewski, John O. (Santa Fe, NM); Cremers, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Nemec, Ronald B. (White Rock, NM); Barbe, Michael R. (White Rock, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Method and apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. Preferably the tool path and other parameters of the deposition process are established using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of a deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which a deposition head which delivers the laser beam and powder to the deposition zone moves along the tool path.

  4. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    CERN Document Server

    Zhirov, A O; Shepelyansky, D L

    2010-01-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists {\\it ab aeterno}. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. We analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  5. Passage-Based Bibliographic Coupling: An Inter-Article Similarity Measure for Biomedical Articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey-Long Liu

    Full Text Available Biomedical literature is an essential source of biomedical evidence. To translate the evidence for biomedicine study, researchers often need to carefully read multiple articles about specific biomedical issues. These articles thus need to be highly related to each other. They should share similar core contents, including research goals, methods, and findings. However, given an article r, it is challenging for search engines to retrieve highly related articles for r. In this paper, we present a technique PBC (Passage-based Bibliographic Coupling that estimates inter-article similarity by seamlessly integrating bibliographic coupling with the information collected from context passages around important out-link citations (references in each article. Empirical evaluation shows that PBC can significantly improve the retrieval of those articles that biomedical experts believe to be highly related to specific articles about gene-disease associations. PBC can thus be used to improve search engines in retrieving the highly related articles for any given article r, even when r is cited by very few (or even no articles. The contribution is essential for those researchers and text mining systems that aim at cross-validating the evidence about specific gene-disease associations.

  6. Regulation of secondary metabolite production in the fungal tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, S.A.; Saccomanno, B.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Collemare, J.

    2015-01-01

    Cladosporium fulvum is a non-obligate biotrophic fungal tomato pathogen for which fifteen secondary metabolite (SM) gene clusters were previously identified in its genome. However, most of these SM biosynthetic pathways remain cryptic during growth in planta and in different in vitro conditions. The

  7. Rhamnose synthase activity is required for pathogenicity of the vascular wilt fungus Verticillium dahliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santhanam, Partha; Boshoven, Jordi C.; Salas, Omar; Bowler, Kyle; Islam, M.T.; Saber, Mojtaba Keykha; Berg-Velthuis, van den Grardy; Bar-Peled, Maor; Thomma, Bart P.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    The initial interaction of a pathogenic fungus with its host is complex and involves numerous metabolic pathways and regulatory proteins. Considerable attention has been devoted to proteins that play a crucial role in these interactions, with an emphasis on so-called effector molecules that are s

  8. Lab-on-a-Chip Pathogen Sensors for Food Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumsang Kim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of cases of foodborne illness among humans that are caused by pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, etc. The current practices to detect such pathogenic agents are cell culturing, immunoassays, or polymerase chain reactions (PCRs. These methods are essentially laboratory-based methods that are not at all real-time and thus unavailable for early-monitoring of such pathogens. They are also very difficult to implement in the field. Lab-on-a-chip biosensors, however, have a strong potential to be used in the field since they can be miniaturized and automated; they are also potentially fast and very sensitive. These lab-on-a-chip biosensors can detect pathogens in farms, packaging/processing facilities, delivery/distribution systems, and at the consumer level. There are still several issues to be resolved before applying these lab-on-a-chip sensors to field applications, including the pre-treatment of a sample, proper storage of reagents, full integration into a battery-powered system, and demonstration of very high sensitivity, which are addressed in this review article. Several different types of lab-on-a-chip biosensors, including immunoassay- and PCR-based, have been developed and tested for detecting foodborne pathogens. Their assay performance, including detection limit and assay time, are also summarized. Finally, the use of optical fibers or optical waveguide is discussed as a means to improve the portability and sensitivity of lab-on-a-chip pathogen sensors.

  9. Editor's Perspective Article: Alternative Certification Teachers--Strategies for the Transition to a New Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    New teachers who are prepared to teach through alternative certification pathways may find the transition to a new career stressful and tumultuous. There are techniques that can be used to help make the transition easier on new teachers as they begin their new careers. This article explores several strategies for new teachers, which include…

  10. The Care Pathway Concept: concepts and theories: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijvers, Guus J.P.; Hoorn, Arjan van; Huiskes, Nicolette

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses first the definition of a (care) pathway, and then follows a description of theories since the fifties of the last century.  It ends with a discussion of theoretical advantages and disadvantages of care pathways for patients and professionals. The objective of this paper is to

  11. Fragmentation pathways of polymer ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Solak, Nilüfer; Polce, Michael J; Dabney, David E; Chaicharoen, Kittisak; Katzenmeyer, Bryan C

    2011-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is increasingly applied to synthetic polymers to characterize chain-end or in-chain substituents, distinguish isobaric and isomeric species, and determine macromolecular connectivities and architectures. For confident structural assignments, the fragmentation mechanisms of polymer ions must be understood, as they provide guidelines on how to deduce the desired information from the fragments observed in MS/MS spectra. This article reviews the fragmentation pathways of synthetic polymer ions that have been energized to decompose via collisionally activated dissociation (CAD), the most widely used activation method in polymer analysis. The compounds discussed encompass polystyrenes, poly(2-vinyl pyridine), polyacrylates, poly(vinyl acetate), aliphatic polyester copolymers, polyethers, and poly(dimethylsiloxane). For a number of these polymers, several substitution patterns and architectures are considered, and questions regarding the ionization agent and internal energy of the dissociating precursor ions are also addressed. Competing and consecutive dissociations are evaluated in terms of the structural insight they provide about the macromolecular structure. The fragmentation pathways of the diverse array of polymer ions examined fall into three categories, viz. (1) charge-directed fragmentations, (2) charge-remote rearrangements, and (3) charge-remote fragmentations via radical intermediates. Charge-remote processes predominate. Depending on the ionizing agent and the functional groups in the polymer, the incipient fragments arising by pathways (1)-(3) may form ion-molecule complexes that survive long enough to permit inter-fragment hydrogen atom, proton, or hydride transfers. PMID:20623599

  12. Dual pathways to prospective remembering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Umanath, Sharda; Einstein, Gilles O.; Waldum, Emily R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the multiprocess framework (McDaniel and Einstein, 2000), the cognitive system can support prospective memory (PM) retrieval through two general pathways. One pathway depends on top–down attentional control processes that maintain activation of the intention and/or monitor the environment for the triggering or target cues that indicate that the intention should be executed. A second pathway depends on (bottom–up) spontaneous retrieval processes, processes that are often triggered by a PM target cue; critically, spontaneous retrieval is assumed not to require monitoring or active maintenance of the intention. Given demand characteristics associated with experimental settings, however, participants are often inclined to monitor, thereby potentially masking discovery of bottom–up spontaneous retrieval processes. In this article, we discuss parameters of laboratory PM paradigms to discourage monitoring and review recent behavioral evidence from such paradigms that implicate spontaneous retrieval in PM. We then re-examine the neuro-imaging evidence from the lens of the multiprocess framework and suggest some critical modifications to existing neuro-cognitive interpretations of the neuro-imaging results. These modifications illuminate possible directions and refinements for further neuro-imaging investigations of PM. PMID:26236213

  13. Dual Pathways to Prospective Remembering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Mcdaniel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the multiprocess framework (McDaniel & Einstein, 2000, the cognitive system can support prospective memory (PM retrieval through two general pathways. One pathway depends on top-down attentional control processes that maintain activation of the intention and/or monitor the environment for the triggering or target cues that indicate that the intention should be executed. A second pathway depends on (bottom-up spontaneous retrieval processes, processes that are often triggered by a PM target cue; critically spontaneous retrieval is assumed to not require monitoring or active maintenance of the intention. Given demand characteristics associated with experimental settings, however, participants are often inclined to monitor, thereby potentially masking discovery of bottom-up spontaneous retrieval processes. In this article, we discuss parameters of laboratory PM paradigms to discourage monitoring and review recent behavioral evidence from such paradigms that implicate spontaneous retrieval in PM. We then re-examine the neuro-imaging evidence from the lens of the multiprocess framework and suggest some critical modifications to existing neuro-cognitive interpretations of the neuro-imaging results. These modifications illuminate possible directions and refinements for further neuro-imaging investigations of PM.

  14. Conditionally pathogenic fungi in recreational waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matavulj Milan N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of health and life conditions depends on various environmental factors. The exposition to organic and inorganic pollutants, as well as to the broad spectar of microorganisms is one of these factors. Medically important fungi have been increasing their number recently especially in urban and in recreational zones. Some of them, first of all molds and yeasts, are involved by different means in causing more or less serious diseases of man and animals. Frequency of alergic symptoms and human mycotic lesions increased significantly during last decades. Such phenomena have provoked more scientific attention recently. According to the available literature data, micro-fungi, causing mycoses and "environmental" fungi too could be considered as an important factor of health risk, being neglected and underestimated so far, especially in analyses of safe use of recreational waters and surrounding areas, among them swimming pools, river and sea beaches. On the basis of such statement there arises conclusion that water and ground of recreational zones could serve as vectors in transmission pathways of potentially or conditionally pathogenic fungi, being dangerous especially for immunocompromised individuals, which suggests inclusion of qualitative and quantitative composition of fungal community into a continual monitoring of hygienic status of recreational zones.

  15. Writing Feature Articles with Intermediate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Denise N.

    2010-01-01

    Students need regular opportunities to write expository text. However, focusing on report writing often leaves students without strong examples to study or analyze to guide and grow their own writing. Writing and studying feature articles, meant to inform and explain, can become an alternative to report writing, as they can easily be located in…

  16. The Gifted Enigma: A Collection of Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialle, Wilma, Ed.; Geake, John, Ed.

    Twenty-one research articles originally published in the "Australasian Journal of Gifted Education" over the past decade are collected in this book and address aspects of gifted education including pedagogy and curriculum, policy and practice, social and emotional needs, school and family, neuropsychology and cognition, and special populations.…

  17. Broadsheet English: Teaching English through Newspaper Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Ahmet Selcuk; Barin, Muzaffer; Demiroz, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    In this study it is aimed to debate whether newspaper articles can be used as speaking materials in foreign language courses as they include most actual and living language patterns by all means. A quasi-experimental study has been carried out at Vocational School of Tourism and Hotel Services of Erzincan University. Thirty-eight preparatory…

  18. Manned remote work station development article

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Flight article and associated design concepts are evaluated to meet fundamental requirements of a universal crew cabin to be used as a construction cherrypicker, a space crane turret, a railed work station, or a free flyer. Key technology developments are embodied into a simulation program. A schedule and simulation test plan matrix is given for the open cabin cherry picker.

  19. An Auction Market for Journal Articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.; Zetland, D.

    2007-01-01

    Economic articles are published very slowly. We believe this results mainly from the poor incentives referees face. We recommend that an auction market replace the current system for submitting papers and demonstrate a strict Pareto-improvement of equilibrium. Besides the benefits of speed, this mec

  20. An Auction Market for Journal Articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.; Zetland, D.

    2007-01-01

    Economic articles are published very slowly. We believe this results from the poor incentives referees face. We recommend that an auction market replace the current, push system for submitting papers and demonstrate that our proposed market has a stable, Pareto-improving equilibrium. Besides the ben

  1. Rhetorical Structure of Biochemistry Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoksilapatham, Budsaba

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a move analysis [Swales, J. (1990). "Genre analysis." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press] of 60 biochemistry research articles. First, a corpus was systematically compiled to ensure that it represents core journals in the focused discipline. Then, coding reliability analysis was conducted to demonstrate…

  2. Interactional Metadiscourse in Research Article Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…

  3. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  4. Topical Articles: Teaching Psychological Science through Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of psychological science occurs face-to-face in classrooms and also through writing via op-ed essays, magazine articles, trade books, Web sites, and textbooks. I discuss the teaching of psychological science through such outlets, offer some practical suggestions for writing, and reflect on what I have found motivating, helpful, and…

  5. Innate Defense against Fungal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Rebecca A; Gaffen, Sarah L; Hise, Amy G; Brown, Gordon D

    2014-11-10

    Human fungal infections have been on the rise in recent years and proved increasingly difficult to treat as a result of the lack of diagnostics, effective antifungal therapies, and vaccines. Most pathogenic fungi do not cause disease unless there is a disturbance in immune homeostasis, which can be caused by modern medical interventions, disease-induced immunosuppression, and naturally occurring human mutations. The innate immune system is well equipped to recognize and destroy pathogenic fungi through specialized cells expressing a broad range of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). This review will outline the cells and PRRs required for effective antifungal immunity, with a special focus on the major antifungal cytokine IL-17 and recently characterized antifungal inflammasomes.

  6. APDS: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, R G; Brown, S; Burris, L; Colston, B; Jones, L; Makarewicz, T; Mariella, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Milanovich, F; Masarabadi, S; Venkateswaran, K; Marshall, G; Olson, D; Wolcott, D

    2002-02-14

    An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detector warns of a fire. Long before September 11, 2001, this system was being developed to protect domestic venues and events including performing arts centers, mass transit systems, major sporting and entertainment events, and other high profile situations in which the public is at risk of becoming a target of bioterrorist attacks. Customizing off-the-shelf components and developing new components, a multidisciplinary team developed APDS, a stand-alone system for rapid, continuous monitoring of multiple airborne biological threat agents in the environment. The completely automated APDS samples the air, prepares fluid samples in-line, and performs two orthogonal tests: immunoassay and nucleic acid detection. When compared to competing technologies, APDS is unprecedented in terms of flexibility and system performance.

  7. Pathogens and the Placental Fortress

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Jennifer R.; Anna I Bakardjiev

    2011-01-01

    Placental infections are major causes of maternal and fetal disease. This review introduces a new paradigm for placental infections based on current knowledge of placental defenses and how this barrier can be breached. Transmission of pathogens from mother to fetus can occur at two sites of direct contact between maternal cells and specialized fetal cells (trophoblasts) in the human placenta: (i) maternal immune and endothelial cells juxtaposed to extravillous trophoblasts in the uterine impl...

  8. Comparative Phylogenomics of Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Species

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Whiston; Taylor, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The Ascomycete Onygenales order embraces a diverse group of mammalian pathogens, including the yeast-forming dimorphic fungal pathogens Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides spp. and Blastomyces dermatitidis, the dermatophytes Microsporum spp. and Trichopyton spp., the spherule-forming dimorphic fungal pathogens in the genus Coccidioides, and many nonpathogens. Although genomes for all of the aforementioned pathogenic species are available, only one nonpathogen had been sequenced. Here, we...

  9. Effectiveness of irradiation in killing pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United States Environmental Protection Agency regulations include gamma ray irradiation of sludge as an approved Process to Further Reduce Pathogens (PFRP) prior to land application. Research at Sandia National Laboratories on pathogen inactivation in sludge by gamma irradiation has demonstrated that the 1 Mrad PFRP dose is capable, by itself, of eliminating bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens from sludge. Gamma irradiation of sludge in conjunction with the required Processes to Significantly Reduce Pathogens (PSRP) should also eliminate the viral hazard from wastewater sludges

  10. Minisequencing mitochondrial DNA pathogenic mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carracedo Ángel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are a number of well-known mutations responsible of common mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA diseases. In order to overcome technical problems related to the analysis of complete mtDNA genomes, a variety of different techniques have been proposed that allow the screening of coding region pathogenic mutations. Methods We here propose a minisequencing assay for the analysis of mtDNA mutations. In a single reaction, we interrogate a total of 25 pathogenic mutations distributed all around the whole mtDNA genome in a sample of patients suspected for mtDNA disease. Results We have detected 11 causal homoplasmic mutations in patients suspected for Leber disease, which were further confirmed by standard automatic sequencing. Mutations m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C occur at higher frequency than expected by change in the Galician (northwest Spain patients carrying haplogroup J lineages (Fisher's Exact test, P-value Conclusion We here developed a minisequencing genotyping method for the screening of the most common pathogenic mtDNA mutations which is simple, fast, and low-cost. The technique is robust and reproducible and can easily be implemented in standard clinical laboratories.

  11. Emerging Food-borne Pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The epidemiology of foodborne diseases is changing. While in manydeveloping nations the efficient treatment of diarrhoeal diseases through oral rehydration has probably led to the prevention of many food related deaths, the underlying problems have not been solved. In these countries, the disease incidence of food-and waterborne disease is still increasing, and now data from other parts of the world indicate that new foodborne pathogens have emerged as important public health problems. Over the last two decades, bacterial infections caused by Campylobacter and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli have emerged, well-recognized pathogens, such as Salmonella enteritidis, have increased dramatically in disease incidence and important foodborne pathogens have become increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents. The future strategy for prevention of foodborne disease should be founded in scientifically based evaluations of the whole food production chain ‘from farm to table’, including a description of the most important (risk) factors. Epidemiological studies of outbreaks as well as sporadic cases should be aimed at a better understanding of these factors. In terms of public health importance of the problem, the focus should be on the size of the problem, and the potential for improvement. The indications are that both in developed and developing countries there is significant potential for an improvement of the situation. With this aim in mind, international effort should focus on scientific assessments of the potential for risk reduction under different regional conditions.

  12. Emerging Food—borne pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JORGENSCHLUNDT

    2001-01-01

    The epidemiology of foodborne diseases is changing,While in many developing nations the efficient treatment of diarrhoeal diseases through oral rehydration has probably led to the prevention of many food related deaths,the underlying problems have not been solved.In these countries,the disease incidence of food-and waterborne disease is still increasing,and now data from other parts of the world indicate that new foodborne pathogens have emerged as important public health problems,Over the last two decades,bacterial infections caused by Campylobacter and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli have emerged,well-recognized pathogens.such as Salmonella enteritidis,have increased dramatically in disease incidence and important foodborne pathogens have become increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents.The future strategy for prevention of foodborne disease should be founded in scienfifically based evaluations of the whole foor prodcution chain"from farm to table",including a description of the most important(risk) factors.Epidemiological studies of outbreaks as well as sporadic cases should be aimed at a better understanding of these factors.In terms of public health importance of the problem,the focus should be on the size of the problem,and the potential for improvement,The indications are that both in developed and developing countries there is significant potential for an improvement of the situation.With this aim in mind,international effort should focus on scientific assessments of the potential for risk reduction under different regional conditions.

  13. Molecular Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Thilo Martin

    Cautious optimism has arisen over recent decades with respect to the long struggle against bacteria, viruses, and parasites. This has been offset, however, by a fatal complacency stemming from previous successes such as the development of antimicrobial drugs, the eradication of smallpox, and global immunization programs. Infectious diseases nevertheless remain the world's leading cause of death, killing at least 17 million persons annually [61]. Diarrheal diseases caused by Vibrio cholerae or Shigella dysenteriae kill about 3 million persons every year, most of them young children: Another 4 million die of tuberculosis or tetanus. Outbreaks of diphtheria in Eastern Europe threatens the population with a disease that had previously seemed to be overcome. Efforts to control infectious diseases more comprehensively are undermined not only by socioeconomic conditions but also by the nature of the pathogenic organisms itself; some isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter have become so resistant to drugs by horizontal gene transfer that they are almost untreatable. In addition, the mechanism of genetic variability helps pathogens to evade the human immune system, thus compromising the development of powerful vaccines. Therefore detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of microbial pathogenicity is absolutely necessary to develop new strategies against infectious diseases and thus to lower their impact on human health and social development.

  14. Mapping population and pathogen movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    For most of human history, populations have been relatively isolated from each other, and only recently has there been extensive contact between peoples, flora and fauna from both old and new worlds. The reach, volume and speed of modern travel are unprecedented, with human mobility increasing in high income countries by over 1000-fold since 1800. This growth is putting people at risk from the emergence of new strains of familiar diseases, and from completely new diseases, while ever more cases of the movement of both disease vectors and the diseases they carry are being seen. Pathogens and their vectors can now move further, faster and in greater numbers than ever before. Equally however, we now have access to the most detailed and comprehensive datasets on human mobility and pathogen distributions ever assembled, in order to combat these threats. This short review paper provides an overview of these datasets, with a particular focus on low income regions, and covers briefly approaches used to combine them to help us understand and control some of the negative effects of population and pathogen movements. PMID:24480992

  15. [Cultivation of pathogenic free-living amoebae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Heng; Zhu, Huai-Min

    2009-08-01

    The isolation and culture of pathogenic free-living amoebae are useful in the diagnosis and research. This review focuses on the methods of isolation and cultivation of pathogenic free-living amoebae, including sample treatment, culture conditions, passage culture, pathogen detection, and maintenance.

  16. The making of a new pathogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stukenbrock, Eva; Bataillon, Thomas; Dutheil, Julien;

    2011-01-01

    affected M. graminicola to the highest extent, consistent with recent host specialization. Positive selection has prominently altered genes encoding secreted proteins and putative pathogen effectors supporting the premise that molecular host-pathogen interaction is a strong driver of pathogen evolution...

  17. Foodborne pathogen detection using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne pathogens can cause various diseases and even death when humans consume foods contaminated with microbial pathogens. Traditional culture-based direct plating methods are still the “gold standard” for presumptive-positive pathogen screening. Although considerable research has been devoted t...

  18. Nuclear jasmonate and salicylate signaling and crosstalk in defense against pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto eSolano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An extraordinary progress has been made over the last two decades on understanding the components and mechanisms governing plant innate immunity. After detection of a pathogen, effective plant resistance depends on the activation of a complex signaling network integrated by small signaling molecules and hormonal pathways, and the balance of these hormone systems determines resistance to particular pathogens. The discovery of new components of hormonal signaling pathways, including plant nuclear hormone receptors, is providing a picture of complex crosstalk and induced hormonal changes that modulate disease and resistance through several protein families that perceive hormones within the nucleus and lead to massive gene induction responses often achieved by de-repression. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of positive and negative regulators of these hormones signaling pathways that are crucial regulatory targets of hormonal crosstalk in disease and defense. We focus on the most recent discoveries on the jasmonate and salicylate pathway components that explain their crosstalk with other hormonal pathways in the nucleus. We discuss how these components fine-tune defense responses to build a robust plant immune system against a great number of different microbes and, finally, we summarize recent discoveries on specific nuclear hormonal manipulation by microbes which exemplify the ingenious ways by which pathogens can take control over the plant’s hormone signaling network to promote disease.

  19. Pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is expressed by regulating metabolic thresholds of the host macrophage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Mehrotra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a pathogen derives from its facile adaptation to the intracellular milieu of human macrophages. To explore this process, we asked whether adaptation also required interference with the metabolic machinery of the host cell. Temporal profiling of the metabolic flux, in cells infected with differently virulent mycobacterial strains, confirmed that this was indeed the case. Subsequent analysis identified the core subset of host reactions that were targeted. It also elucidated that the goal of regulation was to integrate pathways facilitating macrophage survival, with those promoting mycobacterial sustenance. Intriguingly, this synthesis then provided an axis where both host- and pathogen-derived factors converged to define determinants of pathogenicity. Consequently, whereas the requirement for macrophage survival sensitized TB susceptibility to the glycemic status of the individual, mediation by pathogen ensured that the virulence properties of the infecting strain also contributed towards the resulting pathology.

  20. Fungi Encountered on Footwear and Defence Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Sharma

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of mycoflora on footwears and defence articles from Agra city was made. In all 38 fungi belonging to different genera were recorded. Out of these, 17 fungal species were isolated for the first on these articles. A new variety i.e., Aspergillus sydowii var. agraii Sharma and Sharma was also created. Species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Drechslera, Alternaria, Fusarium and Trichoderma were found to be dominant in all the cases. Maximum species were recorded from gents footwear and books ankle in comparison to ladies footwear. All these fungi were grouped as (i active (15 isolates, (iimoderate (15 isolates and (iii slow leather deteriogens (8 isolates on the basis of screening.

  1. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  2. Siemens SOFC Test Article and Module Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-03-31

    Preliminary design studies of the 95 kWe-class SOFC test article continue resulting in a stack architecture of that is 1/3 of 250 kWe-class SOFC advanced module. The 95 kWeclass test article is envisioned to house 20 bundles (eight cells per bundle) of Delta8 cells with an active length of 100 cm. Significant progress was made in the conceptual design of the internal recirculation loop. Flow analyses were initiated in order to optimize the bundle row length for the 250 kWeclass advanced module. A preferred stack configuration based on acceptable flow and thermal distributions was identified. Potential module design and analysis issues associated with pressurized operation were identified.

  3. Higher plant diversity promotes higher diversity of fungal pathogens, while it decreases pathogen infection per plant

    OpenAIRE

    Rottstock, Tanja; Joshi, Jasmin; Kummer, Volker; Fischer, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Fungal plant pathogens are common in natural communities where they affect plant physiology, plant survival, and biomass production. Conversely, pathogen transmission and infection may be regulated by plant community characteristics such as plant species diversity and functional composition that favor pathogen diversity through increases in host diversity while simultaneously reducing pathogen infection via increased variability in host density and spatial heterogeneity. Therefore, a comprehe...

  4. Effects of anxiety and depression on periodontal diseases: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahvash Mousavi jazi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Periodontitis does not affect on all patients by the same way. There are some risk factors in some people that make them more sensitive to progress of periodontitis. Smoking, uncontrolled diabetes, and special pathogens increase the risk of periodontitis. Other factors such as stress, depression and anxiety, are not crucial risk factors for periodontitis yet. Biologic explanation of this relation is that mental conditions and exposure to stressful situations can alter immune response. The aim of this study was to review the psychological factors of anxiety and depression associated with periodontitis.   Materials and Methods: For this review article, we have searched through internet by the following keywords; periodontal disease, anxiety, depression. We have tried to cover almost all dental– related sites and journals as well as Pubmed from 1990-2010.   Conclusion: Most published studies support a positive relationship between periodontitis and several psycho-social factors. Life style, stressful conditions, hormonal changes, nonchalance in oral hygiene, habits such as smoking are predisposing factors in periodontal diseases.

  5. Republic of Lithuania; 2011 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Article IV Consultation reports that the economy in the Republic of Lithuania has staged an impressive recovery based on a supportive global environment and determined policy adjustment. The main driver of the recovery was export growth. Executive Directors commended the authorities for Lithuania’s impressive economic recovery, noting in particular the sizable fiscal consolidation and the maintenance of confidence in the banking system. Directors also supported the authorities’ g...

  6. United Arab Emirates; 2013 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This staff report on United Arab Emirates 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights economic policies and development. Against a backdrop of political stability, confidence has further increased, tourism has been firm, demand from expatriates from the broader region has increased, and capital inflows have strengthened amid high global liquidity. The real estate sector, which had been impaired since the 2009 crisis, has stabilized in Abu Dhabi and has started to recover in Dubai. Dubai aims to b...

  7. Hotel to Phase out Disposable Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Several hotels in Changsha, Shanghai and Kunming have recently staged a Green Hotel campaign: hotels will not offer disposable toothbrushes, toothpaste, slippers, combs or bottled shampoo and body lotion to their guests unless requested. Meanwhile a Green Hotel Standard has been issued, proscribing "disposable articles, such as toothbrushes, soap, combs and slippers," and stipulating that "textiles, such as bathrobes, towels and pillowslips, in hotel rooms are to be changed strictly at the request of guests,

  8. On Writing Scientific Articles in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JamesHartley

    2003-01-01

    If we examine the text of scientific articles it is clear that there is a generally accepted way of writing them. Scientific prose in English stereotypically uses the third person, the passive tense, complex terminology, and various footnoting and referencing systems. Scientific prose is not known for discursive anecdotes, humour, pictures, colour, bizarre typography or exclamation marks! Often the written text appears quite impersonal-the human element is removed.

  9. Republic of Congo; 2013 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the Republic of Congo’s discussions in 2013 Article IV Consultation. Though having abundance of natural resources, notably oil and iron ore, Congo has achieved limited progress in poverty alleviation, and remains vulnerable to external shocks. Weak governance and business conditions are significant constraints to private sector development and growth inclusiveness. The IMF report shows that Congo’s main challenge is to ensure long-term macroeconomic stability in the fa...

  10. On Academic Conflict in Medical Research Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-mei; CHEN Ning; NIE Wen-xin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the distribution of academic conflicts, if any, in medical research articles. Methods: Twenty-seven and 25 medical research articles in the field of internal medicine were selected from English and Chinese respectable jour⁃nals, respectively. Then, the speech acts that reflected a conflict between a scientist’s knowledge claim and another scientist’s knowledge claim were manually searched and recorded in each paper. Data were analyzed using non-parametric Chi-test. Results:There were 123 academic conflicts recorded in the English corpus and 49 Academic Conflicts in the Chinese corpus. Significant difference was observed in the overall frequency of academic conflicts between the English and Chinese medical discourse (p=0.001). Besides, as for the distribution within research articles, introduction and discussion sections were the sections where Aca⁃demic Conflict speech acts were most likely to occur in both corpra. Conclusion: The Chinese scholars are less likely to criticize peers. Introduction and discussion sections were the sections where Academic Conflict speech acts were most likely to occur. Our results are in agreement with previous results and confirmed the claim that highly different cultures vary in their discourse prefer⁃ences. Our findings are of pedagogical significance.

  11. Quantitative Modeling of the Alternative Pathway of the Complement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewde, Nehemiah; Gorham, Ronald D; Dorado, Angel; Morikis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The complement system is an integral part of innate immunity that detects and eliminates invading pathogens through a cascade of reactions. The destructive effects of the complement activation on host cells are inhibited through versatile regulators that are present in plasma and bound to membranes. Impairment in the capacity of these regulators to function in the proper manner results in autoimmune diseases. To better understand the delicate balance between complement activation and regulation, we have developed a comprehensive quantitative model of the alternative pathway. Our model incorporates a system of ordinary differential equations that describes the dynamics of the four steps of the alternative pathway under physiological conditions: (i) initiation (fluid phase), (ii) amplification (surfaces), (iii) termination (pathogen), and (iv) regulation (host cell and fluid phase). We have examined complement activation and regulation on different surfaces, using the cellular dimensions of a characteristic bacterium (E. coli) and host cell (human erythrocyte). In addition, we have incorporated neutrophil-secreted properdin into the model highlighting the cross talk of neutrophils with the alternative pathway in coordinating innate immunity. Our study yields a series of time-dependent response data for all alternative pathway proteins, fragments, and complexes. We demonstrate the robustness of alternative pathway on the surface of pathogens in which complement components were able to saturate the entire region in about 54 minutes, while occupying less than one percent on host cells at the same time period. Our model reveals that tight regulation of complement starts in fluid phase in which propagation of the alternative pathway was inhibited through the dismantlement of fluid phase convertases. Our model also depicts the intricate role that properdin released from neutrophils plays in initiating and propagating the alternative pathway during bacterial infection.

  12. Benfang Lei’s research on heme acquisition in Gram-positive pathogens and bacterial pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Benfang Lei’s laboratory conducts research on pathogenesis of human pathogen Group A Streptococcus (GAS)and horse pathogen Streptococcus equi(S.equi). His current research focuses on heme acquisition in Gram-positive pathogens and molecular mechanism of GAS and S.equi pathogenesis.Heme is an important source of essential iron for bacterial pathogens.Benfang Lei and colleagues identified the first cell surface heme-binding protein in Gram-positive pathogens and the heme acquisition system in GAS,demonstrated direct heme transfer from one protein to another,demonstrated an experimental pathway of heme acquisition by the Staphylococcus aureus Isd system,elucidated the activated heme transfer mechanism,and obtained evidence for a chemical mechanism of direct axial ligand displacement during the Shp-to-HtsA heme transfer reaction.These findings have considerably contributed to the progress that has been made over recent years in understanding the heme acquisition process in Grampositive pathogens.Pathogenesis of GAS is mediated by an abundance of extracellular proteins,and pathogenic role and functional mechanism are not known for many of these virulence factors.Lei laboratory identified a secreted protein of GAS as a CovRS-regulated virulence factor that is a protective antigen and is critical for GAS spreading in the skin and systemic dissemination.These studies may lead to development of novel strategies to prevent and treat GAS infections.

  13. A REVIEW ARTICLE ON HERPES SIMPLEX ENCEPHALITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karimi MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Herpes Simplex encephalitis (HSE is a life threatening outcome of Herpes simplex virus (HSV infection of the central nervous system (CNS. HSVaccounts for 2-5 percent of all cases of encephalitis. One third of cases occur in those younger than 20 years old and one half in those older than 50 years old.Clinical diagnosis is recommended in the encephalopathic, febrile patients with focal neurological signs. However, the clinical findings are not pathogonomic because numerous other diseases of CNS can mimic HSE. Diagnosis should be confirmed based on medical history, analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF for protein and glucose contents, the cellular analysis and identifying the pathogens by serology and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR amplification .The diagnostic gold standard is the detection of HSV DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid by PCR. But negative results need to be interpreted regarding thepatients clinical signs and symptoms and the time of CSF sampling. Spike and slow wave patterns is observed in Electroencephalogram (EEG.Neuroimaging, especially Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is essential for evaluating the patients, which shows temporal lobe edema or hemorrhage.All patients with HSE should be treated by intravenous Acyclovir (10mg/kg q8hr for 14-21 days. After completing therapy, PCR of the CSF can confirmthe elimination of replicating virus, assisting further management of the patient.Keywords:Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV, Encephalitis, Children

  14. A REVIEW ARTICLE ON HERPES SIMPLEX ENCEPHALITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karimi MD,

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Herpes Simplex encephalitis (HSE is a life threatening outcome of Herpes simplex virus (HSV infection of the central nervous system (CNS. HSVaccounts for 2-5 percent of all cases of encephalitis. One third of cases occur in those younger than 20 years old and one half in those older than 50 years old.Clinical diagnosis is recommended in the encephalopathic, febrile patients with focal neurological signs. However, the clinical findings are not pathogonomic because numerous other diseases of CNS can mimic HSE. Diagnosis should be confirmed based on medical history, analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF for protein and glucose contents, the cellular analysis and identifying the pathogens by serology and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR amplification .The diagnostic gold standard is the detection of HSV DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid by PCR. But negative results need to be interpreted regarding thepatients clinical signs and symptoms and the time of CSF sampling. Spike and slow wave patterns is observed in Electroencephalogram (EEG.Neuroimaging, especially Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is essential for evaluating the patients, which shows temporal lobe edema or hemorrhage.All patients with HSE should be treated by intravenous Acyclovir (10mg/kg q8hr for 14-21 days. After completing therapy, PCR of the CSF can confirmthe elimination of replicating virus, assisting further management of the patient.

  15. Pathogen evolution under host avoidance plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, David V; Day, Troy

    2015-09-01

    Host resistance consists of defences that limit pathogen burden, and can be classified as either adaptations targeting recovery from infection or those focused upon infection avoidance. Conventional theory treats avoidance as a fixed strategy which does not vary from one interaction to the next. However, there is increasing empirical evidence that many avoidance strategies are triggered by external stimuli, and thus should be treated as phenotypically plastic responses. Here, we consider the implications of avoidance plasticity for host-pathogen coevolution. We uncover a number of predictions challenging current theory. First, in the absence of pathogen trade-offs, plasticity can restrain pathogen evolution; moreover, the pathogen exploits conditions in which the host would otherwise invest less in resistance, causing resistance escalation. Second, when transmission trades off with pathogen-induced mortality, plasticity encourages avirulence, resulting in a superior fitness outcome for both host and pathogen. Third, plasticity ensures the sterilizing effect of pathogens has consequences for pathogen evolution. When pathogens castrate hosts, selection forces them to minimize mortality virulence; moreover, when transmission trades off with sterility alone, resistance plasticity is sufficient to prevent pathogens from evolving to fully castrate. PMID:26336170

  16. Macropinocytosis: a pathway to protozoan infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tecia Maria Ulisses Carvalho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the various endocytic mechanisms in mammalian cells, macropinocytosis involves internalization of large amounts of plasma membrane together with extracellular medium, leading to macropinosome formation. These structures are formed when plasma membrane ruffles are assembled after actin filament rearrangement. In dendritic cells, macropinocytosis has been reported to play a role in antigen presentation. Several intracellular pathogens are internalized by host cells via multiple endocytic pathways and macropinocytosis has been described as an important entry site for various organisms. Some bacteria, such as Legionella pneumophila, as well as various viruses, use this pathway to penetrate and subvert host cells. Some protozoa, which are larger than bacteria and virus, can also use this pathway to invade host cells. As macropinocytosis is characterized by the formation of large uncoated vacuoles and is triggered by various signaling pathways, which is similar to what occurs during the formation of the majority of parasitophorous vacuoles, it is believed that this phenomenon may be more widely used by parasites than is currently appreciated. Here we review protozoa host cell invasion via macropinocytosis.

  17. Selected Tennis and Badminton Articles. Sports Articles Reprint Series. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Jo Ann, Ed.

    Presented is a collection of articles from "The Division for Girls and Women's Sports (DGWS) Guides 1964-1970,""Research Quarterly 1962-1969," and "Journal of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, 1962-1969." It is the latest in the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation "AAHPER's Sports Articles Reprint Series,"…

  18. Selected Field Hockey and Lacrosse Articles. Sports Articles Reprint Series. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Harriet, Ed.

    This collection of articles from 1964-1970 "Field Hockey-Lacrosse Guides" by the Division for Girls and Women's Sports is the latest in the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation's "Sports Articles Reprint Series." A special project of the Publications Committee for Girl's and Women's Sports, it is the third edition of…

  19. Deconstructing English Articles A Construction Grammar Approach To Teaching Articles In English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujic Jelena

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The semantics of the articles is crucial for their proper usage in L2 speakers. However, we believe that for their proper acquisition a pairing of concrete form and concrete meaning must take place. In other words, a schema must be created for various meanings of articles. Therefore, in this paper English articles will be viewed from the aspect of Construction grammar. Working within the framework of CxG we will perceive the noun phrases of the type a/the+ N as lexico-syntactic meaningful constructions where the articles attribute a particular meaning to the noun(s they determine. Together they constitute Determination (article Construction. Each particular meaning of the articles can be conceptualized and adequate abstract constructional schemas and subschemas as a schematic pairing of form and meaning can be created. In addition, we will use the Serbo-Croatian semantic equivalents of English articles such as indefinite pronouns neki, poneki, koji, kakav, numerals jedan, ijedan, adverbs nekako and makar, demonstrative determiners onaj, adjectives, negative forms ni, nikakav, possessive pronominals and many more. They will serve as a starting point for offering possible constructional schema models for meaningful constructions a/the +N. Other meanings and usages of the articles will be treated in the same way.

  20. Detection of pathogenic gram negative bacteria using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Divya, M. P.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Thomas, Sabu; Philip, John

    2012-11-01

    Detection of viable bacteria is of prime importance in all fields of microbiology and biotechnology. Conventional methods of enumerating bacteria are often time consuming and labor-intensive. All living organisms generate heat due to metabolic activities and hence, measurement of heat energy is a viable tool for detection and quantification of bacteria. In this article, we employ a non-contact and real time method - infrared thermography (IRT) for measurement of temperature variations in four clinically significant gram negative pathogenic bacteria, viz. Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We observe that, the energy content, defined as the ratio of heat generated by bacterial metabolic activities to the heat lost from the liquid medium to the surrounding, vary linearly with the bacterial concentration in all the four pathogenic bacteria. The amount of energy content observed in different species is attributed to their metabolisms and morphologies that affect the convection velocity and hence heat transport in the medium.

  1. Nyctanthes arbortristis Against Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita G. Aggarwal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nature has provided a complete storehouse of knowledge of drug. Herbal drugs constitute a major part in all traditional systems of medicines. Since ancient times mankind has exploited nature for all kind of useful production and enjoyed the colors, flavors and fragrances of flowers, food etc. Rigveda, the book supplies curious information on this subject. Despite the importance of western medicines, towards the end of the 20th century there again began a revival of interest in traditional medicines not only in developing countries, but also in the developed countries. The resurgence of plant based medicine is mainly due to the increasing evidences of the health hazards associated with the indiscriminate use of the modern medicine such as antibiotic, steroids and other synthetic drug. The plants used in the traditional system of medicine of India and china are now receiving much scientific attention. With the continuous use of antibiotics, microorganisms have become resistant. So, it is necessary to evaluate, in a scientific base, the potential use of folk medicine for the treatment of infectious disease produced by common pathogens. Thus it was thought worthwhile to carry out the systematic chemical examination of Nyctanthes arbortristis. Studies had been conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of leaves of Nyctanthes arbortristis. It belongs to the family verbenaceae. The plant material was collected from herbal local nursery, and was stored for further studies. The different solvent extracts were prepared on the basis of polarity. Phytochemical analytical tests were carried out for preliminary investigation. Antimicrobial activities were evaluated using pathogenic microbes. The different solvent extracts of test material showed marked antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganism. The results showed that the test plant material was susceptible to different microorganism.

  2. Fructooligosacharides reduce Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 pathogenicity through distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-González, Mercedes; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; López-Posadas, Rocío; Pacheco, Daniel; Krell, Tino; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Abdelali, Daddaoua

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is ubiquitously present in the environment and acts as an opportunistic pathogen on humans, animals and plants. We report here the effects of the prebiotic polysaccharide inulin and its hydrolysed form FOS on this bacterium. FOS was found to inhibit bacterial growth of strain PAO1, while inulin did not affect growth rate or yield in a significant manner. Inulin stimulated biofilm formation, whereas a dramatic reduction of the biofilm formation was observed in the presence of FOS. Similar opposing effects were observed for bacterial motility, where FOS inhibited the swarming and twitching behaviour whereas inulin caused its stimulation. In co-cultures with eukaryotic cells (macrophages) FOS and, to a lesser extent, inulin reduced the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α. Western blot experiments indicated that the effects mediated by FOS in macrophages are associated with a decreased activation of the NF-κB pathway. Since FOS and inulin stimulate pathway activation in the absence of bacteria, the FOS mediated effect is likely to be of indirect nature, such as via a reduction of bacterial virulence. Further, this modulatory effect is observed also with the highly virulent ptxS mutated strain. Co-culture experiments of P. aeruginosa with IEC18 eukaryotic cells showed that FOS reduces the concentration of the major virulence factor, exotoxin A, suggesting that this is a possible mechanism for the reduction of pathogenicity. The potential of these compounds as components of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory cocktails is discussed.

  3. Reared fish, farmed escapees and wild fish stocks— a triangle of pathogen transmission of concern to Mediterranean aquaculture management

    OpenAIRE

    Arechavala-Lopez, Pablo; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Bayle-Sempere, Just T.; Uglem, Ingebrigt; Mladineo, Ivona

    2013-01-01

    Although aquaculture in the Mediterranean is a relatively young industry, finfish diseases have been reported to cause considerable problems and mortalities among the farmed stocks. In general, the farming activity and the open design of Mediterranean aquaculture systems allow the transmission of infectious pathogens within and among farm facilities. Fish health and biosecurity programmes at farms have focused on the most obvious pathways for transmission of pathogens, i.e. through transport ...

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Foodborne Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Brown, Eric; Knabel, Stephen J.

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the basic principles and advancements in the molecular epidemiology of foodborne pathogens. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of infectious diseases and/or the dynamics of disease transmission. The goals of epidemiology include the identification of physical sources, routes of transmission of infectious agents, and distribution and relationships of different subgroups. Molecular epidemiology is the study of epidemiology at the molecular level. It has been defined as "a science that focuses on the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors, identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and prevention of diseases within families and across populations".

  5. [Pathogenicity and pneumococcal capsular genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E; García, P; López, R

    1994-01-01

    Pneumococci remain to be one of the most prominent human pathogens. Increasing efforts are being dedicated to the development of improved vaccines with wider specificity. Since a clear understanding of the genetics of capsular types in Streptococcus pneumoniae is missing, our efforts are oriented to characterize, at the molecular level, the genes involved in capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis. We have cloned and sequenced a chromosomal DNA fragment of a clinical isolate of type 3 pneumococcus and showed that it contains a type 3 specific gene as well as genes common to other serotypes.

  6. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

    2009-01-13

    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  7. Bacterial Pathogen Indicator Transport from Livestock Mortality Biopiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michitsch, Robert; Jamieson, Rob; Gordon, Robert; Stratton, Glenn; Lake, Craig

    2015-09-01

    Biopiles can be used to dispose of slaughterhouse residuals (SLRs); however, the fate of pathogenic bacteria (e.g., pathogenic strains of , ) in these systems is not well understood. The transport of these bacteria in water leaching from the biopile could represent a significant contamination source. This research examined the transport of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcaceae indicator bacteria from SLR biopiles. Three biopiles (2.6 m wide by 4.6 m long by 1.8 m high) were formed on soil layers in concrete cells that allowed for real-time monitoring of environmental parameters, hydrologic flux, and indicator bacteria levels in effluent leaching from the piles. In biopile effluent, indicator bacteria populations decreased exponentially following biopile formation. Indicator bacteria loads in effluent constituted 15 mm d). Movement of the indicator bacteria through the biopiles and underlying soil appeared to be consistent with preferential flow phenomena. The populations of the Enterobacteriaceae indicators remained low in conditions of higher soil water content and lower biopile temperatures, whereas the Enterococcaceae indicator appeared to regrow in these conditions. This indicated that bacterial pathogen transport from a biopile could be a concern after the disappearance of conventional bacterial indicators, such as . Management considerations should attempt to divert excess water from entering a biopile, such as locating a biopile under a roof. Unsaturated biopile and soil conditions should be maintained to impede water flow through preferential pathways in the soil underneath a biopile. PMID:26436253

  8. Electronic spin working mechanically (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhter, R. I.; Gorelik, L. Y.; Krive, I. V.; Kiselev, M. N.; Kulinich, S. I.; Parafilo, A. V.; Kikoin, K.; Jonson, M.

    2014-07-01

    A single-electron tunneling (SET) device with a nanoscale central island that can move with respect to the bulk source- and drain electrodes allows for a nanoelectromechanical (NEM) coupling between the electrical current through the device and mechanical vibrations of the island. Although an electromechanical "shuttle" instability and the associated phenomenon of single-electron shuttling were predicted more than 15 years ago, both theoretical and experimental studies of NEM-SET structures are still carried out. New functionalities based on quantum coherence, Coulomb correlations and coherent electron-spin dynamics are of particular current interest. In this article we present a short review of recent activities in this area.

  9. Hedging in Popular Scientific Articles on Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor Alexandra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is to investigate the process of rewriting medical research papers for the lay public. The latest findings of medical research often appear in the popular media. It is interesting to see what happens to a scientific text when it is transmitted to a new audience. Hedging is usually interpreted as a characteristic feature of scientific discourse. This study focuses on hedging, which also tends to be applied in popularized articles in the field of medicine.

  10. Econometric Errors in an _Applied Economics_ Article

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitris Hatzinikolaou

    2010-01-01

    This comment points out some econometric errors contained in an Applied Economics article by Mavrommati and Papadopoulos (2005), to wit, the authors make an incorrect statement about the standard F-test; they claim erroneously that the Durbin-Watson test is irrelevant in panel data; they fail to test for serial correlation and random-walk errors; and they misuse the Durbin-Wu-Hausman test for the consistency of the fixed-effects estimator. Thus, their results are questionable. This comment ai...

  11. How to write a review article?

    OpenAIRE

    Gülpınar, Ömer; Güçlü, Adil Güçal

    2013-01-01

    In the medical sciences, the importance of review articles is rising. When clinicians want to update their knowledge and generate guidelines about a topic, they frequently use reviews as a starting point. The value of a review is associated with what has been done, what has been found and how these findings are presented. Before asking ‘how,’ the question of ‘why’ is more important when starting to write a review. The main and fundamental purpose of writing a review is to create a readable sy...

  12. Writing smart: Writing quality research articles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    or hypotheses. Going beyond the few sentences that the college student is comfortable writing makes it essential to pay attention to structure (of the document and its units), to the organisation of ideas and material, and to writing style. A research paper... laboratory report to make a point. This article is organised as follows. Section 3.2 presents key structural principles, Section 3.3 deals with order and organisation, Section 3.4 deals with style, Section 3.5 gives a brief overview of the peer...

  13. Computer assisted translation tool for Wikipedia articles

    OpenAIRE

    Laxström, Niklas; Giner, Pau; Thottingal, Santhosh

    2015-01-01

    Wikipedia exists in over 280 languages. The quality and quantity of articles in each language varies greatly. Translating from another Wikipedia is a natural way to add more content, but the translation process is not properly supported in the software used by Wikipedia. Past computer assisted translation tools built for Wikipedia (e.g. WikiBasha) are not commonly used. We created a new tool that adapts to the specific needs of an open community and the specifics of the kind of content in Wik...

  14. Silicon carbide fibers and articles including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, John E; Griffith, George W

    2015-01-27

    Methods of producing silicon carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a silicon-containing gas in a reaction chamber at a temperature ranging from approximately 1500.degree. C. to approximately 2000.degree. C. A partial pressure of oxygen in the reaction chamber is maintained at less than approximately 1.01.times.10.sup.2 Pascal to produce continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers. Continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers and articles formed from the continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers are also disclosed.

  15. The intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Andrés Olivares Pacheco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically resistant bacteria have emerged as a relevant health problem in the last years. Those bacterial species, several of them with an environmental origin, present naturally a low-level susceptibility to several drugs. It has been proposed that intrinsic resistance is mainly the consequence of the impermeability of cellular envelopes, the activity of multidrug efflux pumps or the lack of appropriate targets for a given family of drugs. However, recently published articles indicate that the characteristic phenotype of susceptibility to antibiotics of a given bacterial species depends on the concerted activity of several elements, what has been named as intrinsic resistome. These determinants comprise not just classical resistance genes. Other elements, several of them involved in basic bacterial metabolic processes, are of relevance for the intrinsic resistance of bacterial pathogens. In the present review we analyse recent publications on the intrinsic resistomes of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present as well information on the role that global regulators of bacterial metabolism, as Crc from P. aeruginosa, may have on modulating bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, we discuss the possibility of searching inhibitors of the intrinsic resistome in the aim of improving the activity of drugs currently in use for clinical practice.

  16. APDS: The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindson, B; Makarewicz, A; Setlur, U; Henderer, B; McBride, M; Dzenitis, J

    2004-10-04

    We have developed and tested a fully autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS) capable of continuously monitoring the environment for airborne biological threat agents. The system was developed to provide early warning to civilians in the event of a bioterrorism incident and can be used at high profile events for short-term, intensive monitoring or in major public buildings or transportation nodes for long-term monitoring. The APDS is completely automated, offering continuous aerosol sampling, in-line sample preparation fluidics, multiplexed detection and identification immunoassays, and nucleic-acid based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and detection. Highly multiplexed antibody-based and duplex nucleic acid-based assays are combined to reduce false positives to a very low level, lower reagent costs, and significantly expand the detection capabilities of this biosensor. This article provides an overview of the current design and operation of the APDS. Certain sub-components of the ADPS are described in detail, including the aerosol collector, the automated sample preparation module that performs multiplexed immunoassays with confirmatory PCR, and the data monitoring and communications system. Data obtained from an APDS that operated continuously for seven days in a major U.S. transportation hub is reported.

  17. Complement and fungal pathogens: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Cornelia; Rambach, Günter; Würzner, Reinhard; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2008-11-01

    Fungal infections are a serious complication in immunocompromised patients such as human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, patients with organ transplantations or with haematological neoplasia. The lethality of opportunistic fungal infection is high despite a growing arsenal of antimycotic drugs, implying the urgent need for supportive immunological therapies to strengthen the current inefficient antimicrobial defences of the immunocompromised host. Therefore, increasing effort has been directed to investigating the interplay between fungi and the host immunity and thus to find starting points for additional therapeutic approaches. In this article, we review the actual state of the art concerning the role of complement in the pathogenesis of fungal infections. Important aspects include the activation of the complement system by the fungal pathogen, the efficiency of the complement-associated antimicrobial functions and the arsenal of immune evasion strategies applied by the fungi. The twin functions of complement as an interactive player of the innate immunity and at the same time as a modulator of the adaptive immunity make this defence weapon a particularly interesting therapeutic candidate to mobilise a more effective immune response and to strengthen in one fell swoop a broad spectrum of different immune reactions. However, we also mention the 'Yin-Yang' nature of the complement system in fungal infections, as growing evidence assigns to complement a contributory part in the pathogenesis of fungus-induced allergic manifestations. PMID:18705662

  18. The neglected intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Fajardo

    Full Text Available Bacteria with intrinsic resistance to antibiotics are a worrisome health problem. It is widely believed that intrinsic antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens is mainly the consequence of cellular impermeability and activity of efflux pumps. However, the analysis of transposon-tagged Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants presented in this article shows that this phenotype emerges from the action of numerous proteins from all functional categories. Mutations in some genes make P. aeruginosa more susceptible to antibiotics and thereby represent new targets. Mutations in other genes make P. aeruginosa more resistant and therefore define novel mechanisms for mutation-driven acquisition of antibiotic resistance, opening a new research field based in the prediction of resistance before it emerges in clinical environments. Antibiotics are not just weapons against bacterial competitors, but also natural signalling molecules. Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes are not merely protective shields and offer a more comprehensive view of the role of antibiotic resistance genes in the clinic and in nature.

  19. Bacteriophage-Based Pathogen Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripp, Steven

    Considered the most abundant organism on Earth, at a population approaching 1031, bacteriophage, or phage for short, mediate interactions with myriad bacterial hosts that has for decades been exploited in phage typing schemes for signature identification of clinical, food-borne, and water-borne pathogens. With over 5,000 phage being morphologically characterized and grouped as to susceptible host, there exists an enormous cache of bacterial-specific sensors that has more recently been incorporated into novel bio-recognition assays with heightened sensitivity, specificity, and speed. These assays take many forms, ranging from straightforward visualization of labeled phage as they attach to their specific bacterial hosts to reporter phage that genetically deposit trackable signals within their bacterial hosts to the detection of progeny phage or other uniquely identifiable elements released from infected host cells. A comprehensive review of these and other phage-based detection assays, as directed towards the detection and monitoring of bacterial pathogens, will be provided in this chapter.

  20. Switch region for pathogenic structural change in conformational disease and its prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    Full Text Available Many diseases are believed to be related to abnormal protein folding. In the first step of such pathogenic structural changes, misfolding occurs in regions important for the stability of the native structure. This destabilizes the normal protein conformation, while exposing the previously hidden aggregation-prone regions, leading to subsequent errors in the folding pathway. Sites involved in this first stage can be deemed switch regions of the protein, and can represent perfect binding targets for drugs to block the abnormal folding pathway and prevent pathogenic conformational changes. In this study, a prediction algorithm for the switch regions responsible for the start of pathogenic structural changes is introduced. With an accuracy of 94%, this algorithm can successfully find short segments covering sites significant in triggering conformational diseases (CDs and is the first that can predict switch regions for various CDs. To illustrate its effectiveness in dealing with urgent public health problems, the reason of the increased pathogenicity of H5N1 influenza virus is analyzed; the mechanisms of the pandemic swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1 influenza virus in overcoming species barriers and in infecting large number of potential patients are also suggested. It is shown that the algorithm is a potential tool useful in the study of the pathology of CDs because: (1 it can identify the origin of pathogenic structural conversion with high sensitivity and specificity, and (2 it provides an ideal target for clinical treatment.

  1. No hormone to rule them all: Interactions of plant hormones during the responses of plants to pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigenaga, Alexandra M; Argueso, Cristiana T

    2016-08-01

    Plant hormones are essential regulators of plant growth and immunity. In the last few decades, a vast amount of information has been obtained detailing the role of different plant hormones in immunity, and how they work together to ultimately shape the outcomes of plant pathogen interactions. Here we provide an overview on the roles of the main classes of plant hormones in the regulation of plant immunity, highlighting their metabolic and signaling pathways and how plants and pathogens utilize these pathways to activate or suppress defence. PMID:27312082

  2. The Drosophila Toll pathway controls but does not clear Candida glabrata infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintin, Jessica; Asmar, Joelle; Matskevich, Alexey A; Lafarge, Marie-Céline; Ferrandon, Dominique

    2013-03-15

    The pathogenicity of Candida glabrata to patients remains poorly understood for lack of convenient animal models to screen large numbers of mutants for altered virulence. In this study, we explore the minihost model Drosophila melanogaster from the dual perspective of host and pathogen. As in vertebrates, wild-type flies contain C. glabrata systemic infections yet are unable to kill the injected yeasts. As for other fungal infections in Drosophila, the Toll pathway restrains C. glabrata proliferation. Persistent C. glabrata yeasts in wild-type flies do not appear to be able to take shelter in hemocytes from the action of the Toll pathway, the effectors of which remain to be identified. Toll pathway mutant flies succumb to injected C. glabrata. In this immunosuppressed background, cellular defenses provide a residual level of protection. Although both the Gram-negative binding protein 3 pattern recognition receptor and the Persephone protease-dependent detection pathway are required for Toll pathway activation by C. glabrata, only GNBP3, and not psh mutants, are susceptible to the infection. Both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are restrained by the Toll pathway, yet the comparative study of phenoloxidase activation reveals a differential activity of the Toll pathway against these two fungal pathogens. Finally, we establish that the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway and yapsins are required for virulence of C. glabrata in this model. Unexpectedly, yapsins do not appear to be required to counteract the cellular immune response but are needed for the colonization of the wild-type host.

  3. DMPD: Regulatory pathways in inflammation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17967718 Regulatory pathways in inflammation. Mantovani A, Garlanda C, Locati M, Ro....html) (.csml) Show Regulatory pathways in inflammation. PubmedID 17967718 Title Regulatory pathways in infl

  4. Including pathogen risk in life cycle assessment of wastewater management. 2. Quantitative comparison of pathogen risk to other impacts on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimersson, Sara; Harder, Robin; Peters, Gregory M; Svanström, Magdalena

    2014-08-19

    Resource recovery from sewage sludge has the potential to save natural resources, but the potential risks connected to human exposure to heavy metals, organic micropollutants, and pathogenic microorganisms attract stakeholder concern. The purpose of the presented study was to include pathogen risks to human health in life cycle assessment (LCA) of wastewater and sludge management systems, as this is commonly omitted from LCAs due to methodological limitations. Part 1 of this article series estimated the overall pathogen risk for such a system with agricultural use of the sludge, in a way that enables the results to be integrated in LCA. This article (part 2) presents a full LCA for two model systems (with agricultural utilization or incineration of sludge) to reveal the relative importance of pathogen risk in relation to other potential impacts on human health. The study showed that, for both model systems, pathogen risk can constitute an important part (in this study up to 20%) of the total life cycle impacts on human health (expressed in disability adjusted life years) which include other important impacts such as human toxicity potential, global warming potential, and photochemical oxidant formation potential. PMID:25058416

  5. The Bibliometric Properties of Article Readership Information

    CERN Document Server

    Kurtz, Michael J; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S; Demleitner, Markus; Murray, Stephen S; Martimbeau, Nathalie; Elwell, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), along with astronomy's journals and data centers (a collaboration dubbed URANIA), has developed a distributed on-line digital library which has become the dominant means by which astronomers search, access and read their technical literature. Digital libraries such as the NASA Astrophysics Data System permit the easy accumulation of a new type of bibliometric measure, the number of electronic accesses (``reads'') of individual articles. We explore various aspects of this new measure. We examine the obsolescence function as measured by actual reads, and show that it can be well fit by the sum of four exponentials with very different time constants. We compare the obsolescence function as measured by readership with the obsolescence function as measured by citations. We find that the citation function is proportional to the sum of two of the components of the readership function. This proves that the normative theory of citation is true in the mean. We further examine in...

  6. The Language of Islamophobia in Internet Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haja Mohideen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Islamophobia, the hatred for and fear of Islam and Muslims, manifests itself in physical, political, cultural, linguistic and other forms. From the linguistic perspective, many words have been coined to perpetuate prejudices against Muslims and their religion. Expressions are freely used to associate Islam, which means “peace” in Arabic, with concepts and actions which the religion and practising Muslims do not approve of, much less condone. Expressions such as Islamic terrorism, Islamic fanaticism, Muslim extremists, Islamist and political Islam have been used pejoratively. To strike fear and misgivings in the minds of many Europeans, the British capital has even been mischievously called “Londonistan” by anti-Muslim elements. Known Islamophobic items taken from Internet articles need to be analysed to respond objectively to linguistic Islamophobia.

  7. Rupture of pectoralis major muscle: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guity MR

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Rupture of pectoralis major muscle is a very rare and often athletic injury. These days in our country this injury occurs more frequently. This could be due to increase in professional participation of amateur people in different types of sport, like body building and weight-lifting (especially bench-pressing without adequate preparation, training and taking necessary precautions. In this article, we have tried to review several aspects of complex anatomy of pectoralis major muscle, epidemiology, mechanism, clinical presentations, imaging modalities, surgical indications and techniques of its rupture. Complex and especial anatomy of pectoralis major muscle, in its humeral insertion particularly, have a major role of its vulnerability to sudden and eccentric contraction as the main mechanism of rupture. Also, restoration of this complex anatomy seems to be important during surgical repair to have normal function of the muscle again.

  8. Pathogen and autoantigen homologous regions within the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein suggest an autoimmune treatable component of cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Chris J

    2011-07-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel provides the glutathione and hypochlorous acid necessary for bactericidal/viricidal actions. CFTR mutations block these effects, diminishing pathogen defence and allowing extracellular pathogen accumulation, where antibody encounter is likely. KEGG pathway analysis of the CFTR interactome shows that CFTR is involved in pathogen entry pathways and immune defence as well as in pathways relevant to comorbid conditions (diabetes, cardiomyopathies and sexual organ development). Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus infections decrease the lifespan of cystic fibrosis patients and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia colonization is increased. Autoantibodies, targeting myeloperoxidase, the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein and calgranulin may further compromise pathogen defence. Short consensus sequences, within immunogenic extracellular regions of the CFTR protein, are homologous to proteins expressed by P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and S. maltophilia, and to several autoantigens, with a universal overlap between autoantigen/pathogen/CFTR consensi. Antibodies to pathogens are thus likely responsible for the creation of these autoantibodies, which, with pathogen antibodies, may target the CFTR protein acting as antagonists, further compromising its function. This creates a feedforward cycle, diminishing the function of the CFTR protein and increasing the probability of pathogen accumulation and antibody production at every turn. Interruption of this cycle by antibody adsorption or immunosuppressant therapy may be beneficial in cystic fibrosis.

  9. Delftia Acidovorans: A Rare Pathogen in Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Bilgin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Delftia acidovorans is an aerobic, nonfermenting Gram-negative bacillus. It is usually a nonpathogenic environmental organism and is rarely clinically significant. Although D acidovorans infection most commonly occurs in hospitalized or immunocompromised patients, there are also several reports documenting the infection in immunocompetent patients. The present article describes a B cell lymphoblastic leukemia patient with D acidovorans pneumonia who was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy. The present report indicates that unusual pathogens may be clinically significant in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. D acidovorans is often resistant to aminoglycosides; therefore, rapid detection of this microorganism is important.

  10. Delftia acidovorans: A rare pathogen in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Huseyin; Sarmis, Abdurrahman; Tigen, Elif; Soyletir, Guner; Mulazimoglu, Lutfiye

    2015-01-01

    Delftia acidovorans is an aerobic, nonfermenting Gram-negative bacillus. It is usually a nonpathogenic environmental organism and is rarely clinically significant. Although D acidovorans infection most commonly occurs in hospitalized or immunocompromised patients, there are also several reports documenting the infection in immunocompetent patients. The present article describes a B cell lymphoblastic leukemia patient with D acidovorans pneumonia who was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy. The present report indicates that unusual pathogens may be clinically significant in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. D acidovorans is often resistant to aminoglycosides; therefore, rapid detection of this microorganism is important. PMID:26600818

  11. Featured Article: Genotation: Actionable knowledge for the scientific reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahawatte, Panduka; Willis, Ethan; Sakauye, Mark; Jose, Rony; Chen, Hao; Davis, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    We present an article viewer application that allows a scientific reader to easily discover and share knowledge by linking genomics-related concepts to knowledge of disparate biomedical databases. High-throughput data streams generated by technical advancements have contributed to scientific knowledge discovery at an unprecedented rate. Biomedical Informaticists have created a diverse set of databases to store and retrieve the discovered knowledge. The diversity and abundance of such resources present biomedical researchers a challenge with knowledge discovery. These challenges highlight a need for a better informatics solution. We use a text mining algorithm, Genomine, to identify gene symbols from the text of a journal article. The identified symbols are supplemented with information from the GenoDB knowledgebase. Self-updating GenoDB contains information from NCBI Gene, Clinvar, Medgen, dbSNP, KEGG, PharmGKB, Uniprot, and Hugo Gene databases. The journal viewer is a web application accessible via a web browser. The features described herein are accessible on www.genotation.org The Genomine algorithm identifies gene symbols with an accuracy shown by .65 F-Score. GenoDB currently contains information regarding 59,905 gene symbols, 5633 drug-gene relationships, 5981 gene-disease relationships, and 713 pathways. This application provides scientific readers with actionable knowledge related to concepts of a manuscript. The reader will be able to save and share supplements to be visualized in a graphical manner. This provides convenient access to details of complex biological phenomena, enabling biomedical researchers to generate novel hypothesis to further our knowledge in human health. This manuscript presents a novel application that integrates genomic, proteomic, and pharmacogenomic information to supplement content of a biomedical manuscript and enable readers to automatically discover actionable knowledge. PMID:26900164

  12. Pathway Tools version 19.0 update: software for pathway/genome informatics and systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Peter D; Latendresse, Mario; Paley, Suzanne M; Krummenacker, Markus; Ong, Quang D; Billington, Richard; Kothari, Anamika; Weaver, Daniel; Lee, Thomas; Subhraveti, Pallavi; Spaulding, Aaron; Fulcher, Carol; Keseler, Ingrid M; Caspi, Ron

    2016-09-01

    Pathway Tools is a bioinformatics software environment with a broad set of capabilities. The software provides genome-informatics tools such as a genome browser, sequence alignments, a genome-variant analyzer and comparative-genomics operations. It offers metabolic-informatics tools, such as metabolic reconstruction, quantitative metabolic modeling, prediction of reaction atom mappings and metabolic route search. Pathway Tools also provides regulatory-informatics tools, such as the ability to represent and visualize a wide range of regulatory interactions. This article outlines the advances in Pathway Tools in the past 5 years. Major additions include components for metabolic modeling, metabolic route search, computation of atom mappings and estimation of compound Gibbs free energies of formation; addition of editors for signaling pathways, for genome sequences and for cellular architecture; storage of gene essentiality data and phenotype data; display of multiple alignments, and of signaling and electron-transport pathways; and development of Python and web-services application programming interfaces. Scientists around the world have created more than 9800 Pathway/Genome Databases by using Pathway Tools, many of which are curated databases for important model organisms.

  13. Aeromonas spp.: An Emerging Nosocomial Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Priyam Batra; Purva Mathur; Misra, Mahesh C

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonads are hallophillic, nonacid fast, nonspore forming, Gram-negative rods which are widely distributed in the soil, foodstuffs, and aquatic environment. Since times immemorial, they are important zoonotic pathogens of poikilotherms but are now emerging as important human pathogens. These emerging enteric pathogens flourish in the water distribution system by forming biofilms. They possess large number of virulence factors including inherent resistance to various antibiotics and ability ...

  14. Escherichia coli as Host and Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are highly infectious food-borne pathogens that cause severe diarrhoea in both, industrialised and developing countries all over the world. Their pathogenicity factors involve shiga-like toxins and a type III secretion system along with so called effector proteins, which are translocated directly into the cytoplasm of their host cells, usually enterocytes. Most of these proteins are encoded in pathogenicity islands within the bacterial genome that are framed b...

  15. Looking in ticks for human bacterial pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Fenollar, F.

    2014-01-01

    Ticks are considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases and the most important vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic- and wild animals. A number of emerging tick-borne pathogens are already discovered; however, the proportion of undiagnosed infectious diseases, especially in tropical regions, may suggest that there are still more pathogens associated with ticks. Moreover, the identification of bacteria associated with ticks may provide new tool for th...

  16. Using Informal Articles in Extensive Reading (ER Program: A Personal Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chothibul Umam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this digital age, informal articles which contain some valuable informations and extensive input to develop the learners’ language proficiency are easily found on internet or other reading sources. Unfortunately most literature shows that informal articles are not widely used in extensive reading (henceforth ER program. For this reason, the paper introduces steps procedure in using informal articles as authentic material in one semester ER program for Indonesian EFL college learners. The procedure is developed on the basis of my great interest in creating innovative way in teaching ER at one of the State Institute for Islamic Studies in Indonesia. The proposed steps are expected to be an alternative pathway in teaching ER for English teachers particularly at a college-university level. Keywords: Extensive Reading, informal article.Copyright © 2015 by Al-Ta'lim All right reserved

  17. Molecular detection of foodborne pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann

    for detection and enumeration of Salmonella and Campylobacter are time-consuming and laborious. They lack specificity and do not enable detection of viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria. The focus of the present thesis has been development and validation of PCR-based detection methods for Salmonella......Salmonella and Campylobacter are recognised as some of the most important foodborne pathogens worldwide. Human infections have wide health and socioeconomic consequences. Lots of effort has been devoted to increase the knowledge on the prevalence, transmission routes and persistence...... and Campylobacter. A conventional PCR-based method for detection of Campylobacter in chicken carcass rinse following 20 h of enrichment in Bolton broth was successfully compared to the ISO standard culture-based method (10272) on 68 naturally infected chickens. The method was subsequently validated on artificially...

  18. Dietary cholesterol modulates pathogen blocking by Wolbachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P Caragata

    Full Text Available The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis protects its hosts from a range of pathogens by limiting their ability to form infections inside the insect. This "pathogen blocking" could be explained by innate immune priming by the symbiont, competition for host-derived resources between pathogens and Wolbachia, or the direct modification of the cell or cellular environment by Wolbachia. Recent comparative work in Drosophila and the mosquito Aedes aegypti has shown that an immune response is not required for pathogen blocking, implying that there must be an additional component to the mechanism. Here we have examined the involvement of cholesterol in pathogen blocking using a system of dietary manipulation in Drosophila melanogaster in combination with challenge by Drosophila C virus (DCV, a common fly pathogen. We observed that flies reared on cholesterol-enriched diets infected with the Wolbachia strains wMelPop and wMelCS exhibited reduced pathogen blocking, with viral-induced mortality occurring 2-5 days earlier than flies reared on Standard diet. This shift toward greater virulence in the presence of cholesterol also corresponded to higher viral copy numbers in the host. Interestingly, an increase in dietary cholesterol did not have an effect on Wolbachia density except in one case, but this did not directly affect the strength of pathogen blocking. Our results indicate that host cholesterol levels are involved with the ability of Wolbachia-infected flies to resist DCV infections, suggesting that cholesterol contributes to the underlying mechanism of pathogen blocking.

  19. Land application of sewage sludge: Pathogen issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diseases transmitted via the faecal-oral exposure route cause severe gastroenteric disorders, and large numbers of causative organisms are discharged with the faecal matter of infected individuals. For this reason, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths, are always found in sewage sludge. If not properly treated for use in agriculture, sludge can be a source of pathogenic contamination. Radiation is an attractive method to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in sewage sludge. Routine examination for pathogens is not practised nor recommended because complicated and costly procedures are involved. Instead, an indicator organism is usually assayed and enumerated. In this paper, methods are discussed for the investigation of pathogens in sewage sludge. (author)

  20. The Bibliometric Properties of Article Readership Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Michael J.; Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Demleitner, Markus; Murray, Stephen S.; Martimbeau, Nathalie; Elwell, Barbara

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), along with astronomy's journals and data centers (a collaboration dubbed URANIA), has developed a distributed on-line digital library which has become the dominant means by which astronomers search, access and read their technical literature. Digital libraries such as the NASA Astrophysics Data System \\citep{2005JASIS.tmp....2K} permit the easy accumulation of a new type of bibliometric measure, the number of electronic accesses (``reads'') of individual articles. We explore various aspects of this new measure. We examine the obsolescence function as measured by actual reads, and show that it can be well fit by the sum of four exponentials with very different time constants. We compare the obsolescence function as measured by readership with the obsolescence function as measured by citations. We find that the citation function is proportional to the sum of two of the components of the readership function. This proves that the normative theory of citation is true in the mean. We further examine in detail the similarities and differences between the citation rate, the readership rate and the total citations for individual articles, and discuss some of the causes. Using the number of reads as a bibliometric measure for individuals, we introduce the read-cite diagram to provide a two-dimensional view of an individual's scientific productivity. We develop a simple model to account for an individual's reads and cites and use it to show that the position of a person in the read-cite diagram is a function of age, innate productivity, and work history. We show the age biases of both reads and cites, and develop two new bibliometric measures which have substantially less age bias than citations: SumProd, a weighted sum of total citations and the readership rate, intended to show the total productivity of an individual; and Read10, the readership rate for papers published in the last ten years, intended to show an individual's current

  1. A Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strain Evades a Major Caenorhabditis elegans Defense Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Corin V; Darby, Brian J; Breeden, Robert J; Herman, Michael A

    2015-12-07

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a ubiquitous bacterium and an emerging nosocomial pathogen. This bacterium is resistant to many antibiotics, associated with a number of infections, and a significant health risk, especially for immunocompromised patients. Given that Caenorhabditis elegans shares many conserved genetic pathways and pathway components with higher organisms, the study of its interaction with bacterial pathogens has biomedical implications. S. maltophilia has been isolated in association with nematodes from grassland soils, and it is likely that C. elegans encounters this bacterium in nature. We found that a local S. maltophilia isolate, JCMS, is more virulent than the other S. maltophilia isolates (R551-3 and K279a) tested. JCMS virulence correlates with intestinal distension and bacterial accumulation and requires the bacteria to be alive. Many of the conserved innate immune pathways that serve to protect C. elegans from various pathogenic bacteria also play a role in combating S. maltophilia JCMS. However, S. maltophilia JCMS is virulent to normally pathogen-resistant DAF-2/16 insulin-like signaling pathway mutants. Furthermore, several insulin-like signaling effector genes were not significantly differentially expressed between S. maltophilia JCMS and avirulent bacteria (Escherichia coli OP50). Taken together, these findings suggest that S. maltophilia JCMS evades the pathogen resistance conferred by the loss of DAF-2/16 pathway components. In summary, we have discovered a novel host-pathogen interaction between C. elegans and S. maltophilia and established a new animal model with which to study the mode of action of this emerging nosocomial pathogen.

  2. Actinomycosis in Iran: Short Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Khodavaisy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis is an indolent, slowly progressive infection caused by anaerobic or microaerophilic bacteria, primarily of genus Actinomyces, which colonize the mouth, colon and vagina. Mucosal disruption may lead to infection virtually at any sites in the body. The aim of this study was to underline different features of actinomycosis and to represent total data about etiologic agents, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches these infections. From a total of 38 case reports or series, ninety one cases were obtained by using of relevant articles reported as recorded cases in Iran (1972 to 2012. Analyzed data represented 21 cases of oral-servicofacial (23.1%, 7 cases of thoracic (7.7%, 17 cases of abdominal (18.7%, 21 cases of disseminated forms (23.1% and 25 cases of others (27.5%. Findings indicated more common of these infections in men (61.5%. Actinomyces naeslundii (21 cases was found as the most common causative agents in comparison with A. Israeli (15 cases, A. viscosus (3 cases and A. bovis (1 case. The most patients had been successfully treated with penicillin although some cases needed surgery along with antibiotic therapy. Since some clinical features of actinomycosis are similar to malignancies, so the differential diagnosis of invasive forms must be considered. This report emphasizes on the importance of differential diagnosis of actinomycosis from similar diseases by clinicians.

  3. Actinomycosis in Iran: Short Narrative Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodavaisy, Sadegh; Zibafar, Ensieh; Hashemi, Seyed Jamal; Narenji, Hanar; Daie Ghazvini, Roshanak

    2014-05-01

    Actinomycosis is an indolent, slowly progressive infection caused by anaerobic or microaerophilic bacteria, primarily of genus Actinomyces, which colonize the mouth, colon and vagina. Mucosal disruption may lead to infection virtually at any sites in the body. The aim of this study was to underline different features of actinomycosis and to represent total data about etiologic agents, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches these infections. From a total of 38 case reports or series, ninety one cases were obtained by using of relevant articles reported as recorded cases in Iran (1972 to 2012). Analyzed data represented 21 cases of oral-servicofacial (23.1%), 7 cases of thoracic (7.7%), 17 cases of abdominal (18.7%), 21 cases of disseminated forms (23.1%) and 25 cases of others (27.5%). Findings indicated more common of these infections in men (61.5%). Actinomyces naeslundii (21 cases) was found as the most common causative agents in comparison with A. Israeli (15 cases), A. viscosus (3 cases) and A. bovis (1 case). The most patients had been successfully treated with penicillin although some cases needed surgery along with antibiotic therapy. Since some clinical features of actinomycosis are similar to malignancies, so the differential diagnosis of invasive forms must be considered. This report emphasizes on the importance of differential diagnosis of actinomycosis from similar diseases by clinicians. PMID:26060757

  4. Patient rights in Iran: a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joolaee, Soodabeh; Hajibabaee, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    A significant development for conducting research on patient rights has been made in Iran over the past decade. This study is conducted in order to review and analyze the previous studies that have been made, so far, concerning patient rights in Iran. This is a comprehensive review study conducted by searching the Iranian databases, Scientific Information Database, Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology, Iran Medex and Google using the Persian equivalent of keywords for 'awareness', 'attitude', and 'patient rights'. For pertinent Iranian papers published in English, scientific databases PubMed, and Google Scholar were searched using the keyword 'patient rights' and 'Iran'. A total of 41 Persian and five English articles were found for these keywords, only 26 of which fulfilled the objective of our study. The increasing number of papers published indicates that from 1999 onwards, this subject has begun to draw the attention of Iranian researchers in a progressive fashion and Iranian papers in English have also been compiled and published in international sources.

  5. Review article: burnout in emergency medicine physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manit; Asha, Stephen; Chinnappa, Jason; Diwan, Ashish D

    2013-12-01

    Training and the practice of emergency medicine are stressful endeavours, placing emergency medicine physicians at risk of burnout. Burnout syndrome is associated with negative outcomes for patients, institutions and the physician. The aim of this review is to summarise the available literature on burnout among emergency medicine physicians and provide recommendations for future work in this field. A search of MEDLINE (1946-present) (search terms: 'Burnout, Professional' AND 'Emergency Medicine' AND 'Physicians'; 'Stress, Psychological' AND 'Emergency Medicine' AND 'Physicians') and EMBASE (1988-present) (search terms: 'Burnout' AND 'Emergency Medicine' AND 'Physicians'; 'Mental Stress' AND 'Emergency Medicine' AND 'Physicians') was performed. The authors focused on articles that assessed burnout among emergency medicine physicians. Most studies used the Maslach Burnout Inventory to quantify burnout, allowing for cross-study (and cross-country) comparisons. Emergency medicine has burnout levels in excess of 60% compared with physicians in general (38%). Despite this, most emergency medicine physicians (>60%) are satisfied with their jobs. Both work-related (hours of work, years of practice, professional development activities, non-clinical duties etc.) and non-work-related factors (age, sex, lifestyle factors etc.) are associated with burnout. Despite the heavy burnout rates among emergency medicine physicians, little work has been performed in this field. Factors responsible for burnout among various emergency medicine populations should be determined, and appropriate interventions designed to reduce burnout.

  6. FANTM, the First Article NIF Test Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Designing and developing the 1.7 to 2.1-MJ Power Conditioning System (PCS), that will power the flashlamps of the main and power amplifiers for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) lasers, is one of several responsibilities assumed by Sandia National Labs (SNL) in support of the NIF Project. Maxwell Physics International has been a partner in this process. The NIF is currently being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Labs (LLNL). The test facility that has evolved over the last three years to satisfy the project requirements is called FANTM, for the First Article NIF Test Module. It was built at SNL and operated for about 17,000 shots to demonstrate component performance expectations over the lifetime of NIF. A few modules similar to the one shown in Fig. 1 will be used initially in the amplifier test phase of the project. The final full NIF system will require at least 192 of them in four capacitor bays. This paper briefly summarizes the final design of the FANTM facility and compares its performance with the predictions of circuit simulations for both normal operation and fault-mode response. Applying both the measured and modeled power pulse waveforms as input to a physics-based, semi-empirical amplifier gain code indicates that the 20-capacitor PCS can satisfy the NIF requirement for an average gain coefficient of 5.00 %/cm and can exceed 5.20 %/cm with 24 capacitors

  7. Antimicrobial Impacts of Essential Oils on Food Borne-Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozogul, Yesim; Kuley, Esmeray; Ucar, Yilmaz; Ozogul, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of twelve essential oil (pine oil, eucalyptus, thyme, sage tea, lavender, orange, laurel, lemon, myrtle, lemon, rosemary and juniper) was tested by a disc diffusion method against food borne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus). The major components in essential oils were monoterpenes hydrocarbons, α-pinene, limonene; monoterpene phenol, carvacrol and oxygenated monoterpenes, camphor, 1,8-cineole, eucalyptol, linalool and linalyl acetate. Although the antimicrobial effect of essential oils varied depending on the chemical composition of the essential oils and specific microorganism tested, majority of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity against one or more strains. The essential oil with the lowest inhibition zones was juniper with the values varied from 1.5 to 6 mm. However, the components of essential oil of thyme and pine oil are highly active against food borne pathogen, generating the largest inhibition zones for both gram negative and positive bacteria (5.25-28.25 mm vs. 12.5-30 mm inhibition zones). These results indicate the possible use of the essential oils on food system as antimicrobial agents against food-borne pathogen. The article also offers some promising patents on applications of essential oils on food industry as antimicrobial agent. PMID:26072990

  8. Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-24

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the article, Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014.  Created: 3/24/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/13/2015.

  9. Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-21

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013.  Created: 10/21/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/23/2014.

  10. Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H7N1) Transmission Between Wild Ducks and Domestic Ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, O. R.; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Handberg, Kurt;

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virological investigation in a mixed flock of ducks and geese following detection of avian influenza virus antibodies in domestic geese. Low pathogenic H7N1 was found in both domestic and wild birds, indicating that transmission of virus was likely to have taken place...

  11. Construction of a large scale integrated map of macrophage pathogen recognition and effector systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Sullivan Maire

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an effort to better understand the molecular networks that underpin macrophage activation we have been assembling a map of relevant pathways. Manual curation of the published literature was carried out in order to define the components of these pathways and the interactions between them. This information has been assembled into a large integrated directional network and represented graphically using the modified Edinburgh Pathway Notation (mEPN scheme. Results The diagram includes detailed views of the toll-like receptor (TLR pathways, other pathogen recognition systems, NF-kappa-B, apoptosis, interferon signalling, MAP-kinase cascades, MHC antigen presentation and proteasome assembly, as well as selected views of the transcriptional networks they regulate. The integrated pathway includes a total of 496 unique proteins, the complexes formed between them and the processes in which they are involved. This produces a network of 2,170 nodes connected by 2,553 edges. Conclusions The pathway diagram is a navigable visual aid for displaying a consensus view of the pathway information available for these systems. It is also a valuable resource for computational modelling and aid in the interpretation of functional genomics data. We envisage that this work will be of value to those interested in macrophage biology and also contribute to the ongoing Systems Biology community effort to develop a standard notation scheme for the graphical representation of biological pathways.

  12. 7 CFR 322.28 - General requirements; restricted articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements; restricted articles. 322.28... EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.28 General requirements; restricted articles. (a) The following articles from any region are restricted articles: (1) Dead bees of any genus;...

  13. 19 CFR 134.14 - Articles usually combined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles usually combined. 134.14 Section 134.14... TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Subject to Marking § 134.14 Articles usually combined. (a) Articles combined before delivery to purchaser. When an imported article is of a kind which is...

  14. An Innate Immunity Pathway in the Moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressendorff, Simon; Azevedo, Raquel; Kenchappa, Chandra Shekar; Ponce de León, Inés; Olsen, Jakob V; Rasmussen, Magnus Wohlfahrt; Erbs, Gitte; Newman, Mari-Anne; Petersen, Morten; Mundy, John

    2016-06-01

    MAP kinase (MPK) cascades in Arabidopsis thaliana and other vascular plants are activated by developmental cues, abiotic stress, and pathogen infection. Much less is known of MPK functions in nonvascular land plants such as the moss Physcomitrella patens Here, we provide evidence for a signaling pathway in P. patens required for immunity triggered by pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). This pathway induces rapid growth inhibition, a novel fluorescence burst, cell wall depositions, and accumulation of defense-related transcripts. Two P. patens MPKs (MPK4a and MPK4b) are phosphorylated and activated in response to PAMPs. This activation in response to the fungal PAMP chitin requires a chitin receptor and one or more MAP kinase kinase kinases and MAP kinase kinases. Knockout lines of MPK4a appear wild type but have increased susceptibility to the pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassisicola Both PAMPs and osmotic stress activate some of the same MPKs in Arabidopsis. In contrast, abscisic acid treatment or osmotic stress of P. patens does not activate MPK4a or any other MPK, but activates at least one SnRK2 kinase. Signaling via MPK4a may therefore be specific to immunity, and the moss relies on other pathways to respond to osmotic stress.

  15. Ceramic matrix composite article and process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Ronald Robert; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Parolini, Jason Robert

    2016-01-12

    A ceramic matrix composite article and a process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite are disclosed. The ceramic matrix composite article includes a matrix distribution pattern formed by a manifold and ceramic matrix composite plies laid up on the matrix distribution pattern, includes the manifold, or a combination thereof. The manifold includes one or more matrix distribution channels operably connected to a delivery interface, the delivery interface configured for providing matrix material to one or more of the ceramic matrix composite plies. The process includes providing the manifold, forming the matrix distribution pattern by transporting the matrix material through the manifold, and contacting the ceramic matrix composite plies with the matrix material.

  16. INOH: ontology-based highly structured database of signal transduction pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Satoko; Sakai, Noriko; Nakamura, Hiromi; Fukagawa, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Ken; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2011-01-01

    The Integrating Network Objects with Hierarchies (INOH) database is a highly structured, manually curated database of signal transduction pathways including Mammalia, Xenopus laevis, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans and canonical. Since most pathway knowledge resides in scientific articles, the database focuses on curating and encoding textual knowledge into a machine-processable form. We use a hierarchical pathway representation model with a compound graph, and every pathway c...

  17. How to write a review article?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülpınar, Ömer; Güçlü, Adil Güçal

    2013-09-01

    In the medical sciences, the importance of review articles is rising. When clinicians want to update their knowledge and generate guidelines about a topic, they frequently use reviews as a starting point. The value of a review is associated with what has been done, what has been found and how these findings are presented. Before asking 'how,' the question of 'why' is more important when starting to write a review. The main and fundamental purpose of writing a review is to create a readable synthesis of the best resources available in the literature for an important research question or a current area of research. Although the idea of writing a review is attractive, it is important to spend time identifying the important questions. Good review methods are critical because they provide an unbiased point of view for the reader regarding the current literature. There is a consensus that a review should be written in a systematic fashion, a notion that is usually followed. In a systematic review with a focused question, the research methods must be clearly described. A 'methodological filter' is the best method for identifying the best working style for a research question, and this method reduces the workload when surveying the literature. An essential part of the review process is differentiating good research from bad and leaning on the results of the better studies. The ideal way to synthesize studies is to perform a meta-analysis. In conclusion, when writing a review, it is best to clearly focus on fixed ideas, to use a procedural and critical approach to the literature and to express your findings in an attractive way. PMID:26328136

  18. Hunting for insect pathogens: A genomics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging methods within the field of genomics have increased the number of insect pathogens being discovered and characterized each year. These pathogens provide a rich resource for biological control agents, gene expression systems, and other molecular tools. Using Metagenomics, and gene expression...

  19. Targeting of the hydrophobic metabolome by pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, J Bernd; Kaloyanova, Dora V; Strating, Jeroen R P; van Hellemond, Jaap J; van der Schaar, Hilde M; Tielens, Aloysius G M; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Brouwers, Jos F

    2015-05-01

    The hydrophobic molecules of the metabolome - also named the lipidome - constitute a major part of the entire metabolome. Novel technologies show the existence of a staggering number of individual lipid species, the biological functions of which are, with the exception of only a few lipid species, unknown. Much can be learned from pathogens that have evolved to take advantage of the complexity of the lipidome to escape the immune system of the host organism and to allow their survival and replication. Different types of pathogens target different lipids as shown in interaction maps, allowing visualization of differences between different types of pathogens. Bacterial and viral pathogens target predominantly structural and signaling lipids to alter the cellular phenotype of the host cell. Fungal and parasitic pathogens have complex lipidomes themselves and target predominantly the release of polyunsaturated fatty acids from the host cell lipidome, resulting in the generation of eicosanoids by either the host cell or the pathogen. Thus, whereas viruses and bacteria induce predominantly alterations in lipid metabolites at the host cell level, eukaryotic pathogens focus on interference with lipid metabolites affecting systemic inflammatory reactions that are part of the immune system. A better understanding of the interplay between host-pathogen interactions will not only help elucidate the fundamental role of lipid species in cellular physiology, but will also aid in the generation of novel therapeutic drugs. PMID:25754025

  20. Digital PCR for detection of citrus pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus trees are often infected with multiple pathogens of economic importance, especially those with insect or mite vectors. Real-time/quantitative PCR (qPCR) has been used for high-throughput detection and relative quantification of pathogens; however, target reference or standards are required. I...

  1. Occurrence of root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies on root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds were conducted during 1981-1988 and in 1993. Filter paper method with prefreezing and keeping under light was used. Each test sample comprised 500 seeds. Pathogenicity of collected fungal isolates was tested following two laboratory methods. 238 seed samples were studied. 18 fungal species were found but only 7 proved to be important pathogens of root parsley. The most common inhabitants of root parsley seeds were Alternaria spp. A.allernata occurred on 74,8% of seeds but only a few isolates showed to be slightly pathogenic while A.petroselini and A.radicina were higly pathogenic and inhabited 11,4 and 4,2% of seeds, respectively. The second group of important pathogens were species of Fusarium found on 3,9% of seeds. F.avenaceum dominated as it comprised 48% of Fusarium isolates, the next were as follow: F.culmorum - 20%, F.equiseti - 15%, F.solani - 8%, F.oxysporum - 7% and F.dimerum -2%. Some fungi like Botrytis cinerea, Septoria petroselini and Phoma spp. inhabited low number of seeds, respectively O,4; 0,5 and 0,8%, but they were highly pathogenic to root parsley. The fungi: Bipolaris sorokiniana, Drechslera biseptata, Stemphylium botryosum and Ulocludium consortiale showed slight pathogenicity. They were isolated from 3,8% of seeds.

  2. Arthropods vector grapevine trunk disease pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, P; Allsopp, E; Roets, F; Mostert, L; Halleen, F

    2014-10-01

    Arthropod-mediated dispersal of pathogens is known in many cropping systems but has never been demonstrated for grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Arthropods from vineyards were screened for the presence of pathogens associated with Petri disease and esca using cultural and molecular techniques. The ability of the most abundant pathogen-carrying species to inoculate healthy grapevine vascular tissues was also determined. Millipedes and ants were allowed to associate with a DsRed- Express-transformed Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, after which they were exposed to freshly pruned healthy grapevines under controlled conditions and wounds were monitored for subsequent infection. In addition, the possibility of millipede excreta, commonly found on pruning wounds in the field, to act as inoculum source was determined. A diverse arthropod fauna was associated with declining grapevines and many of these carried trunk disease pathogens. However, spiders, the ant Crematogaster peringueyi, and the millipede Ommattoiulus moreleti were the most abundant pathogen carriers. The ant and millipede species fed on pruning wound sap and effectively transmitted trunk disease pathogens. Millipede excreta contained viable spores of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and may serve as an inoculum source. Numerous arthropods, including beneficial predators, are potential vectors of grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Our results highlight the need for an integrated approach, including targeted management of ants and millipedes at the time of pruning, to limit the spread of grapevine trunk diseases. PMID:24624953

  3. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... (76 FR 4046-4056, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074) an interim rule that amended the regulations governing... Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 95 RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal... products from regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist....

  4. Clinical Pathway for Thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar del Moral, Jesús María; Soria Aledo, Víctor; Colina Alonso, Alberto; Flores Pastor, Benito; Gutiérrez Rodríguez, María Teresa; Ortega Serrano, Joaquín; Parra Hidalgo, Pedro; Ros López, Susana

    2015-05-01

    Clinical pathways are care plans applicable to patient care procedures that present variations in practice and a predictable clinical course. They are designed not as a substitute for clinical judgment, but rather as a means to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the procedures. This clinical pathway is the result of a collaborative work of the Sections of Endocrine Surgery and Quality Management of the Spanish Association of Surgeons. It attempts to provide a framework for standardizing the performance of thyroidectomy, the most frequently performed operation in endocrine surgery. Along with the usual documents of clinical pathways (temporary matrix, variance tracking and information sheets, assessment indicators and a satisfaction questionnaire) it includes a review of the scientific evidence around different aspects of pre, intra and postoperative management. Among others, antibiotic and antithrombotic prophylaxis, preoperative preparation in hyperthyroidism, intraoperative neuromonitoring and systems for obtaining hemostasis are included, along with management of postoperative hypocalcemia.

  5. An Overview of Research on Wikipedia's Featured Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Manca Noč; Maja Žumer

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe article represents an overview of relevant Wikipedia studies, especially those concerning featured articles. Featured articles are those that rank among the best articles according to Wikipedia’s editors and should adhere both to Wikipedia’s guidelines and rules and all specific criteria for featured articles. Studies of Wikipedia’s featured articles are significant because they show their characteristics. The use of Wikipedia is growing among high school and university students w...

  6. Global transcriptional analysis reveals unique and shared responses in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to combined drought and pathogen stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti eGupta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With frequent fluctuations in global climate, plants are exposed to co-occurring drought and pathogen infection and this combination adversely affects plant survival. In the past, some studies indicated that morpho-physiological responses of plants to the combined stress are different from the individual stressed plants. However, interaction of drought stressed plants with pathogen has not been widely studied at molecular level. Such studies are important to understand the defense pathways that operate as part of combined stress tolerance mechanism. In this study, Arabidopsis thaliana was exposed to individual drought stress, Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000 infection and their combination. Using Affymetrix WT gene 1.0 ST array, global transcriptome profiling of leaves under individual drought stress and pathogen infection was compared with their combination. The results obtained from pathway mapping (KAAS and MAPMAN demonstrated the modulation in defense pathways in A. thaliana under drought and host pathogen Pst DC3000 infection. Further, our study revealed ‘tailored’ responses under combined stress and the time of occurrence of each stress during their concurrence has showed differences in transcriptome profile. Our results from microarray and RT-qPCR revealed unique regulation of 20 novel genes exclusively during the stress interaction. This study indicates that plants exposed to concurrent drought and pathogen stress experience a new state of stress. Thus, under frequently changing climatic conditions each combination of stressor and their timing defines the plant responses and should thus be studied explicitly.

  7. Algae as reservoirs for coral pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Sweet

    Full Text Available Benthic algae are associated with coral death in the form of stress and disease. It's been proposed that they release exudates, which facilitate invasion of potentially pathogenic microbes at the coral-algal interface, resulting in coral disease. However, the original source of these pathogens remains unknown. This study examined the ability of benthic algae to act as reservoirs of coral pathogens by characterizing surface associated microbes associated with major Caribbean and Indo-Pacific algal species/types and by comparing them to potential pathogens of two dominant coral diseases: White Syndrome (WS in the Indo-Pacific and Yellow Band Disease (YBD in the Caribbean. Coral and algal sampling was conducted simultaneously at the same sites to avoid spatial effects. Potential pathogens were defined as those absent or rare in healthy corals, increasing in abundance in healthy tissues adjacent to a disease lesion, and dominant in disease lesions. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected in both WS and YBD and were also present within the majority of algal species/types (54 and 100% for WS and YBD respectively. Pathogenic ciliates were associated only with WS and not YBD lesions and these were also present in 36% of the Indo-Pacific algal species. Although potential pathogens were associated with many algal species, their presence was inconsistent among replicate algal samples and detection rates were relatively low, suggestive of low density and occurrence. At the community level, coral-associated microbes irrespective of the health of their host differed from algal-associated microbes, supporting that algae and corals have distinctive microbial communities associated with their tissue. We conclude that benthic algae are common reservoirs for a variety of different potential coral pathogens. However, algal-associated microbes alone are unlikely to cause coral death. Initial damage or stress to the coral via other competitive mechanisms is

  8. Epidemiology of emerging foodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria De Giusti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne diseases still represent an important global public health issue, including Europe and Italy, which endangers the health of the population and leads to socio-economic costs and a threat to the market trend. In developed countries it is estimated that up to one third of the population are affected by microbiological foodborne diseases each year. In these countries, it has been observed that traditional infectious foodborne diseases have decreased while re-emerging and emerging pathogens like Escherichia coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Norovirus and Hepatitis A virus have increased. In 2004, in Italy the incidence for Listeriosis was 0.06 per 100,000 population and is included among the statutory notifiable diseases. E. coli O157:H7 is not subject to statutory notification in Italy; however, a voluntary national surveillance system for HUS in paediatric patients and for VTEC, has lead to the notification of 429 paediatric HUS cases and 344 clinical cases of VTEC from 1988 to 2004. Data on campylobacteriosis are available thanks to the voluntary notifications received from the Enternet Laboratories: 582 cases were isolated from human clinical specimens in 2004. Furthermore, data from a specific surveillance system for acute viral hepatitis (SEIEVA shows that the incidence of reported cases in Italy is declining. The necessity to alert the authorities responsible for epidemiological surveillance nationally remains paramount. Communication as well as educational campaigns aimed at different target groups, for example consumers, will play an important role in the prevention of foodborne diseases.

  9. Lethal exposure: An integrated approach to pathogen transmission via environmental reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Wendy C; Kausrud, Kyrre L; Beyer, Wolfgang; Easterday, W Ryan; Barandongo, Zoë R; Blaschke, Elisabeth; Cloete, Claudine C; Lazak, Judith; Van Ert, Matthew N; Ganz, Holly H; Turnbull, Peter C B; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Getz, Wayne M

    2016-01-01

    To mitigate the effects of zoonotic diseases on human and animal populations, it is critical to understand what factors alter transmission dynamics. Here we assess the risk of exposure to lethal concentrations of the anthrax bacterium, Bacillus anthracis, for grazing animals in a natural system over time through different transmission mechanisms. We follow pathogen concentrations at anthrax carcass sites and waterholes for five years and estimate infection risk as a function of grass, soil or water intake, age of carcass sites, and the exposure required for a lethal infection. Grazing, not drinking, seems the dominant transmission route, and transmission is more probable from grazing at carcass sites 1-2 years of age. Unlike most studies of virulent pathogens that are conducted under controlled conditions for extrapolation to real situations, we evaluate exposure risk under field conditions to estimate the probability of a lethal dose, showing that not all reservoirs with detectable pathogens are significant transmission pathways. PMID:27265371

  10. Ustilago maydis phosphodiesterases play a role in the dimorphic switch and in pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Charu; Aulakh, Kavita B; Edelen, Kaly; Cooper, Michael; Wallen, R Margaret; Adams, Seth; Schultz, David J; Perlin, Michael H

    2013-05-01

    Components of the cAMP (cyclic AMP) signalling cascades are conserved from fungi to humans, and are particularly important for fungal dimorphism and pathogenicity. Previous work has described two phosphodiesterases, UmPde1 and UmPde2, in Ustilago maydis which show strong phosphodiesterase activity. We further characterized the biological function(s) of these phosphodiesterases in U. maydis. Specifically, we examined their possible role(s) in regulation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway and their roles in filamentous growth and pathogenicity. We found that UmPde1, which shares 35 % similarity with Cryptococcus neoformans Pde1, also displays functional homology with this enzyme. UmPde1 complements the capsule-formation defect of C. neoformans strains deleted for Pde1. In U. maydis, the cell morphology of the umpde1 deletion mutant resembled the multiple budding phenotypes seen with the ubc1 mutant, which lacks the regulatory subunit of PKA. Interestingly, on low-ammonium medium, umpde2 deletion strains showed a reduction in filamentation that was comparable to that of ubc1 deletion strains; however, umpde1 deletion strains showed normal filamentation on low-ammonium medium. Furthermore, both the ubc1 deletion strain in which the PKA pathway was constitutively active and the umpde1 deletion strains were significantly reduced in pathogenicity, while the umpde2 deletion strains showed a trend for reduced pathogenicity compared with wild-type strains. These data support a role for the phosphodiesterases UmPde1 and UmPde2 in regulating the U. maydis cAMP-dependent PKA pathway through modulation of cAMP levels, thus affecting dimorphic growth and pathogenicity.

  11. THE CONSTRUCTION OF NOMOGRAMS FOR DETERMINING GEOMETRICAL DIMENSIONS OF ELECTROISOLATOR THE NUMBER OF PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS ON THE SURFACE OF PLANT SUBSTRATES COREPRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko A. A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the construction of nomograms for determining geometrical dimensions of electroisolator the amount of residual pathogenic microflora on the surface of plant substrates coreproducts

  12. Oxidative Stress: A Pathogenic Mechanism for Niemann-Pick Type C Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Carmen Vázquez; Elisa Balboa; Alvarez, Alejandra R.; Silvana Zanlungo

    2012-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a neurovisceral atypical lipid storage disorder involving the accumulation of cholesterol and other lipids in the late endocytic pathway. The pathogenic mechanism that links the accumulation of intracellular cholesterol with cell death in NPC disease in both the CNS and the liver is currently unknown. Oxidative stress has been observed in the livers and brains of NPC mice and in different NPC cellular models. Moreover, there is evidence of an elevation of ...

  13. The Fungal Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus Regulates Growth, Metabolism, and Stress Resistance in Response to Light

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Kevin K.; Ringelberg, Carol S.; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Light is a pervasive environmental factor that regulates development, stress resistance, and even virulence in numerous fungal species. Though much research has focused on signaling pathways in Aspergillus fumigatus, an understanding of how this pathogen responds to light is lacking. In this report, we demonstrate that the fungus does indeed respond to both blue and red portions of the visible spectrum. Included in the A. fumigatus light response is a reduction in conidial germinatio...

  14. Perturbation of host ubiquitin systems by plant pathogen/pest effector proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Banfield, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial pathogens and pests of animals and plants secrete effector proteins into host cells, altering cellular physiology to the benefit of the invading parasite. Research in the past decade has delivered significant new insights into the molecular mechanisms of how these effector proteins function, with a particular focus on modulation of host immunity-related pathways. One host system that has emerged as a common target of effectors is the ubiquitination system in which substrate proteins...

  15. Interferon Induction by RNA Viruses and Antagonism by Viral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen Nan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interferons are a group of small proteins that play key roles in host antiviral innate immunity. Their induction mainly relies on host pattern recognition receptors (PRR. Host PRR for RNA viruses include Toll-like receptors (TLR and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I like receptors (RLR. Activation of both TLR and RLR pathways can eventually lead to the secretion of type I IFNs, which can modulate both innate and adaptive immune responses against viral pathogens. Because of the important roles of interferons, viruses have evolved multiple strategies to evade host TLR and RLR mediated signaling. This review focuses on the mechanisms of interferon induction and antagonism of the antiviral strategy by RNA viruses.

  16. Seaweed Polysaccharides and Derived Oligosaccharides Stimulate Defense Responses and Protection Against Pathogens in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Moenne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants interact with the environment by sensing “non-self” molecules called elicitors derived from pathogens or other sources. These molecules bind to specific receptors located in the plasma membrane and trigger defense responses leading to protection against pathogens. In particular, it has been shown that cell wall and storage polysaccharides from green, brown and red seaweeds (marine macroalgae corresponding to ulvans, alginates, fucans, laminarin and carrageenans can trigger defense responses in plants enhancing protection against pathogens. In addition, oligosaccharides obtained by depolymerization of seaweed polysaccharides also induce protection against viral, fungal and bacterial infections in plants. In particular, most seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides trigger an initial oxidative burst at local level and the activation of salicylic (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and/or ethylene signaling pathways at systemic level. The activation of these signaling pathways leads to an increased expression of genes encoding: (i Pathogenesis-Related (PR proteins with antifungal and antibacterial activities; (ii defense enzymes such as pheylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and lipoxygenase (LOX which determine accumulation of phenylpropanoid compounds (PPCs and oxylipins with antiviral, antifugal and antibacterial activities and iii enzymes involved in synthesis of terpenes, terpenoids and/or alkaloids having antimicrobial activities. Thus, seaweed polysaccharides and their derived oligosaccharides induced the accumulation of proteins and compounds with antimicrobial activities that determine, at least in part, the enhanced protection against pathogens in plants.

  17. DNA mutations mediate microevolution between host-adapted forms of the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise A Magditch

    Full Text Available The disease cryptococcosis, caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, is acquired directly from environmental exposure rather than transmitted person-to-person. One explanation for the pathogenicity of this species is that interactions with environmental predators select for virulence. However, co-incubation of C. neoformans with amoeba can cause a "switch" from the normal yeast morphology to a pseudohyphal form, enabling fungi to survive exposure to amoeba, yet conversely reducing virulence in mammalian models of cryptococcosis. Like other human pathogenic fungi, C. neoformans is capable of microevolutionary changes that influence the biology of the organism and outcome of the host-pathogen interaction. A yeast-pseudohyphal phenotypic switch also happens under in vitro conditions. Here, we demonstrate that this morphological switch, rather than being under epigenetic control, is controlled by DNA mutation since all pseudohyphal strains bear mutations within genes encoding components of the RAM pathway. High rates of isolation of pseudohyphal strains can be explained by the physical size of RAM pathway genes and a hypermutator phenotype of the strain used in phenotypic switching studies. Reversion to wild type yeast morphology in vitro or within a mammalian host can occur through different mechanisms, with one being counter-acting mutations. Infection of mice with RAM mutants reveals several outcomes: clearance of the infection, asymptomatic maintenance of the strains, or reversion to wild type forms and progression of disease. These findings demonstrate a key role of mutation events in microevolution to modulate the ability of a fungal pathogen to cause disease.

  18. Policies built upon pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Musterd; Z. Kovács

    2013-01-01

    After the general introductions, the first substantive part of this volume (Part II) provides concise research-based discussions of policies developed in recognition of the important role played by the pathways along which city-regions have travelled. Our research has shown that it is highly importa

  19. Dexter energy transfer pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourtis, Spiros S; Liu, Chaoren; Antoniou, Panayiotis; Virshup, Aaron M; Beratan, David N

    2016-07-19

    Energy transfer with an associated spin change of the donor and acceptor, Dexter energy transfer, is critically important in solar energy harvesting assemblies, damage protection schemes of photobiology, and organometallic opto-electronic materials. Dexter transfer between chemically linked donors and acceptors is bridge mediated, presenting an enticing analogy with bridge-mediated electron and hole transfer. However, Dexter coupling pathways must convey both an electron and a hole from donor to acceptor, and this adds considerable richness to the mediation process. We dissect the bridge-mediated Dexter coupling mechanisms and formulate a theory for triplet energy transfer coupling pathways. Virtual donor-acceptor charge-transfer exciton intermediates dominate at shorter distances or higher tunneling energy gaps, whereas virtual intermediates with an electron and a hole both on the bridge (virtual bridge excitons) dominate for longer distances or lower energy gaps. The effects of virtual bridge excitons were neglected in earlier treatments. The two-particle pathway framework developed here shows how Dexter energy-transfer rates depend on donor, bridge, and acceptor energetics, as well as on orbital symmetry and quantum interference among pathways.

  20. Dexter energy transfer pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourtis, Spiros S; Liu, Chaoren; Antoniou, Panayiotis; Virshup, Aaron M; Beratan, David N

    2016-07-19

    Energy transfer with an associated spin change of the donor and acceptor, Dexter energy transfer, is critically important in solar energy harvesting assemblies, damage protection schemes of photobiology, and organometallic opto-electronic materials. Dexter transfer between chemically linked donors and acceptors is bridge mediated, presenting an enticing analogy with bridge-mediated electron and hole transfer. However, Dexter coupling pathways must convey both an electron and a hole from donor to acceptor, and this adds considerable richness to the mediation process. We dissect the bridge-mediated Dexter coupling mechanisms and formulate a theory for triplet energy transfer coupling pathways. Virtual donor-acceptor charge-transfer exciton intermediates dominate at shorter distances or higher tunneling energy gaps, whereas virtual intermediates with an electron and a hole both on the bridge (virtual bridge excitons) dominate for longer distances or lower energy gaps. The effects of virtual bridge excitons were neglected in earlier treatments. The two-particle pathway framework developed here shows how Dexter energy-transfer rates depend on donor, bridge, and acceptor energetics, as well as on orbital symmetry and quantum interference among pathways. PMID:27382185

  1. Fructooligosacharides reduce Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 pathogenicity through distinct mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Ortega-González

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is ubiquitously present in the environment and acts as an opportunistic pathogen on humans, animals and plants. We report here the effects of the prebiotic polysaccharide inulin and its hydrolysed form FOS on this bacterium. FOS was found to inhibit bacterial growth of strain PAO1, while inulin did not affect growth rate or yield in a significant manner. Inulin stimulated biofilm formation, whereas a dramatic reduction of the biofilm formation was observed in the presence of FOS. Similar opposing effects were observed for bacterial motility, where FOS inhibited the swarming and twitching behaviour whereas inulin caused its stimulation. In co-cultures with eukaryotic cells (macrophages FOS and, to a lesser extent, inulin reduced the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α. Western blot experiments indicated that the effects mediated by FOS in macrophages are associated with a decreased activation of the NF-κB pathway. Since FOS and inulin stimulate pathway activation in the absence of bacteria, the FOS mediated effect is likely to be of indirect nature, such as via a reduction of bacterial virulence. Further, this modulatory effect is observed also with the highly virulent ptxS mutated strain. Co-culture experiments of P. aeruginosa with IEC18 eukaryotic cells showed that FOS reduces the concentration of the major virulence factor, exotoxin A, suggesting that this is a possible mechanism for the reduction of pathogenicity. The potential of these compounds as components of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory cocktails is discussed.

  2. Fructooligosacharides reduce Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 pathogenicity through distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-González, Mercedes; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; López-Posadas, Rocío; Pacheco, Daniel; Krell, Tino; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Abdelali, Daddaoua

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is ubiquitously present in the environment and acts as an opportunistic pathogen on humans, animals and plants. We report here the effects of the prebiotic polysaccharide inulin and its hydrolysed form FOS on this bacterium. FOS was found to inhibit bacterial growth of strain PAO1, while inulin did not affect growth rate or yield in a significant manner. Inulin stimulated biofilm formation, whereas a dramatic reduction of the biofilm formation was observed in the presence of FOS. Similar opposing effects were observed for bacterial motility, where FOS inhibited the swarming and twitching behaviour whereas inulin caused its stimulation. In co-cultures with eukaryotic cells (macrophages) FOS and, to a lesser extent, inulin reduced the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α. Western blot experiments indicated that the effects mediated by FOS in macrophages are associated with a decreased activation of the NF-κB pathway. Since FOS and inulin stimulate pathway activation in the absence of bacteria, the FOS mediated effect is likely to be of indirect nature, such as via a reduction of bacterial virulence. Further, this modulatory effect is observed also with the highly virulent ptxS mutated strain. Co-culture experiments of P. aeruginosa with IEC18 eukaryotic cells showed that FOS reduces the concentration of the major virulence factor, exotoxin A, suggesting that this is a possible mechanism for the reduction of pathogenicity. The potential of these compounds as components of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory cocktails is discussed. PMID:24465697

  3. Host-pathogen interactions in bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kelly S; Fulde, Marcus; Gratz, Nina; Kim, Brandon J; Nau, Roland; Prasadarao, Nemani; Schubert-Unkmeir, Alexandra; Tuomanen, Elaine I; Valentin-Weigand, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a devastating disease occurring worldwide with up to half of the survivors left with permanent neurological sequelae. Due to intrinsic properties of the meningeal pathogens and the host responses they induce, infection can cause relatively specific lesions and clinical syndromes that result from interference with the function of the affected nervous system tissue. Pathogenesis is based on complex host-pathogen interactions, some of which are specific for certain bacteria, whereas others are shared among different pathogens. In this review, we summarize the recent progress made in understanding the molecular and cellular events involved in these interactions. We focus on selected major pathogens, Streptococcus pneumonia, S. agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus), Neisseria meningitidis, and Escherichia coli K1, and also include a neglected zoonotic pathogen, Streptococcus suis. These neuroinvasive pathogens represent common themes of host-pathogen interactions, such as colonization and invasion of mucosal barriers, survival in the blood stream, entry into the central nervous system by translocation of the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and induction of meningeal inflammation, affecting pia mater, the arachnoid and subarachnoid spaces. PMID:26744349

  4. Effective but costly, evolved mechanisms of defense against a virulent opportunistic pathogen in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin H Ye

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila harbor substantial genetic variation for antibacterial defense, and investment in immunity is thought to involve a costly trade-off with life history traits, including development, life span, and reproduction. To understand the way in which insects invest in fighting bacterial infection, we selected for survival following systemic infection with the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in wild-caught Drosophila melanogaster over 10 generations. We then examined genome-wide changes in expression in the selected flies relative to unselected controls, both of which had been infected with the pathogen. This powerful combination of techniques allowed us to specifically identify the genetic basis of the evolved immune response. In response to selection, population-level survivorship to infection increased from 15% to 70%. The evolved capacity for defense was costly, however, as evidenced by reduced longevity and larval viability and a rapid loss of the trait once selection pressure was removed. Counter to expectation, we observed more rapid developmental rates in the selected flies. Selection-associated changes in expression of genes with dual involvement in developmental and immune pathways suggest pleiotropy as a possible mechanism for the positive correlation. We also found that both the Toll and the Imd pathways work synergistically to limit infectivity and that cellular immunity plays a more critical role in overcoming P. aeruginosa infection than previously reported. This work reveals novel pathways by which Drosophila can survive infection with a virulent pathogen that may be rare in wild populations, however, due to their cost.

  5. Muramyl dipeptide responsive pathways in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, Mohammad; Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Rogler, Gerhard;

    2012-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is one of main disease entities under the umbrella term chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The etiology of CD involves alterations in genetic, microbiological, and immunological factors. This review is devoted to the role of the bacterial wall compound muramyl dipeptide (MDP......) for the activation of inflammatory pathways involved in the pathogenesis of CD. The importance of this molecule is underscored by the fact that (1) MDP, which is found in most Gram-negative and -positive bacteria, is able to trigger several immunological responses in the intestinal system, and (2) that alterations...... in several mediators of the MDP response including-but not restricted to-nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) are associated with CD. The normalization of MDP signaling is one of several important factors that influence the intestinal inflammatory response, a fact which emphasizes the pathogenic...

  6. The Care Pathway Concept: concepts and theories: an introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus Schrijvers

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses first the definition of a (care pathway, and then follows a description of theories since the fifties of the last century.  It ends with a discussion of theoretical advantages and disadvantages of care pathways for patients and professionals. The objective of this paper is to provide a theoretical base for empirical studies on care pathways. The knowledge for this chapter is based on several books on pathways, which we found by searching in the digital encyclopedia Wikipedia. Although this is not usual in scientific publications, this method was used because books are not searchable by databases as Pubmed. . From 2005, we performed a literature search on Pubmed and other literature databases, and with the keywords integrated care pathway, clinical pathway, critical pathway, theory, research, and evaluation. One of the inspirational sources was the website of the European Pathway Association (EPA and its journal International Journal of Care Pathways. The authors visited several sites for this paper. These are mentioned as illustration of a concept or theory. Most of them have English websites with more information. The URL's of these websites are not mentioned in this paper as a reference, because the content of them changes fast, sometimes every day.

  7. The Care Pathway Concept: concepts and theories: an introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus Schrijvers

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses first the definition of a (care pathway, and then follows a description of theories since the fifties of the last century.  It ends with a discussion of theoretical advantages and disadvantages of care pathways for patients and professionals. The objective of this paper is to provide a theoretical base for empirical studies on care pathways.  The knowledge for this chapter is based on several books on pathways, which we found by searching in the digital encyclopedia Wikipedia. Although this is not usual in scientific publications, this method was used because books are not searchable by databases as Pubmed. '. 'From 2005, we performed a literature search on 'Pubmed' and other literature databases, and with the keywords integrated care pathway, clinical pathway, critical pathway, theory, research, and evaluation. One of the inspirational sources was the website of the European Pathway Association (EPA and its journal 'International Journal of Care Pathways.' The authors visited several sites for this paper. These are mentioned as illustration of a concept or theory. Most of them have English websites with more information. The URL's of these websites are not mentioned in this paper as a reference, because the content of them changes fast, sometimes every day.

  8. Utility of the Biosynthetic Folate Pathway for Targets in Antimicrobial Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Bourne, Christina R

    2014-01-01

    The need for new antimicrobials is great in face of a growing pool of resistant pathogenic organisms. This review will address the potential for antimicrobial therapy based on polypharmacological activities within the currently utilized bacterial biosynthetic folate pathway. The folate metabolic pathway leads to synthesis of required precursors for cellular function and contains a critical node, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), which is shared between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The DHFR enz...

  9. Surface-expressed enolases of Plasmodium and other pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Ghosh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Enolase is the eighth enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, a reaction that generates ATP from phosphoenol pyruvate in cytosolic compartments. Enolase is essential, especially for organisms devoid of the Krebs cycle that depend solely on glycolysis for energy. Interestingly, enolase appears to serve a separate function in some organisms, in that it is also exported to the cell surface via a poorly understood mechanism. In these organisms, surface enolase assists in the invasion of their host cells by binding plasminogen, an abundant plasma protease precursor. Binding is mediated by the interaction between a lysine motif of enolase with Kringle domains of plasminogen. The bound plasminogen is then cleaved by specific proteases to generate active plasmin. Plasmin is a potent serine protease that is thought to function in the degradation of the extracellular matrix surrounding the targeted host cell, thereby facilitating pathogen invasion. Recent work revealed that the malaria parasite Plasmodium also expresses surface enolase, and that this feature may be essential for completion of its life cycle. The therapeutic potential of targeting surface enolases of pathogens is discussed.

  10. Experimental evolution of a plant pathogen into a legume symbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Marchetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobia are phylogenetically disparate alpha- and beta-proteobacteria that have achieved the environmentally essential function of fixing atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with legumes. Ample evidence indicates that horizontal transfer of symbiotic plasmids/islands has played a crucial role in rhizobia evolution. However, adaptive mechanisms that allow the recipient genomes to express symbiotic traits are unknown. Here, we report on the experimental evolution of a pathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum chimera carrying the symbiotic plasmid of the rhizobium Cupriavidus taiwanensis into Mimosa nodulating and infecting symbionts. Two types of adaptive mutations in the hrpG-controlled virulence pathway of R. solanacearum were identified that are crucial for the transition from pathogenicity towards mutualism. Inactivation of the hrcV structural gene of the type III secretion system allowed nodulation and early infection to take place, whereas inactivation of the master virulence regulator hrpG allowed intracellular infection of nodule cells. Our findings predict that natural selection of adaptive changes in the legume environment following horizontal transfer has been a major driving force in rhizobia evolution and diversification and show the potential of experimental evolution to decipher the mechanisms leading to symbiosis.

  11. Oxidative Stress Responses in the Human Fungal Pathogen, Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra da Silva Dantas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans, causing approximately 400,000 life-threatening systemic infections world-wide each year in severely immunocompromised patients. An important fungicidal mechanism employed by innate immune cells involves the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Consequently, there is much interest in the strategies employed by C. albicans to evade the oxidative killing by macrophages and neutrophils. Our understanding of how C. albicans senses and responds to ROS has significantly increased in recent years. Key findings include the observations that hydrogen peroxide triggers the filamentation of this polymorphic fungus and that a superoxide dismutase enzyme with a novel mode of action is expressed at the cell surface of C. albicans. Furthermore, recent studies have indicated that combinations of the chemical stresses generated by phagocytes can actively prevent C. albicans oxidative stress responses through a mechanism termed the stress pathway interference. In this review, we present an up-date of our current understanding of the role and regulation of oxidative stress responses in this important human fungal pathogen.

  12. Evolution and applications of plant pathway resources and databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sucaet, Yves; Deva, Taru

    2011-01-01

    . We lay out trends and challenges in the ongoing efforts to integrate plant pathway databases and the applications of database integration. We also discuss how progress in non-plant communities can serve as an example for the improvement of the plant pathway database landscape and thereby allow......Plants are important sources of food and plant products are essential for modern human life. Plants are increasingly gaining importance as drug and fuel resources, bioremediation tools and as tools for recombinant technology. Considering these applications, database infrastructure for plant model...... systems deserves much more attention. Study of plant biological pathways, the interconnection between these pathways and plant systems biology on the whole has in general lagged behind human systems biology. In this article we review plant pathway databases and the resources that are currently available...

  13. [A practical guide for writing an original scientific article].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Jacob; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2014-06-30

    Writing scientific articles is an integrated part of being a medical doctor at academic institutions, and the demand for publishing scientific work has increased during recent years. The discipline of writing scientific articles can be troublesome and complicated, especially for young inexperienced researchers. This article is a guide to structuring and writing an original scientific article.

  14. 19 CFR 147.31 - Articles to be kept separate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles to be kept separate. 147.31 Section 147... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Customs Supervision § 147.31 Articles to be kept separate. Articles for exhibit at a fair shall be segregated from domestic articles and from imported...

  15. 7 CFR 301.50-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.50-2 Section 301.50-2... articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Pine products (Pinus spp.), as follows: Bark products... pine wreaths and garlands; and stumps. (b) Any article, product, or means of conveyance not covered...

  16. 7 CFR 301.53-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.53-2 Section 301.53-2... articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) The emerald ash borer; firewood of all hardwood (non... article, product, or means of conveyance not listed in paragraph (a) of this section may be designated...

  17. 7 CFR 301.85-2b - Exempted articles. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exempted articles. 1 301.85-2b Section 301.85-2b... § 301.85-2b Exempted articles. 1 1 The articles hereby exempted remain subject to applicable restrictions under other quarantines and other provisions of this subpart. (a) The following articles...

  18. 7 CFR 301.91-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.91-2 Section 301.91-2... Regulations § 301.91-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Logs, pulpwood, branches...) Any other product, article, or means of conveyance, of any character whatsoever, not covered...

  19. 36 CFR 327.16 - Lost and found articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lost and found articles. 327... CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.16 Lost and found articles. All articles found shall be deposited by the finder at the Manager's office or with a ranger. All such articles shall be disposed of in accordance...

  20. 7 CFR 319.77-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 319.77-2 Section 319.77-2....77-2 Regulated articles. In order to prevent the spread of gypsy moth from Canada into noninfested... section are designated as regulated articles. Regulated articles may be imported into the United...

  1. 7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.55-2 Section 301.55-2... Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living..., Nopalea, and Opuntia. (c) Any other product, article, or means of conveyance not listed in paragraphs...

  2. 7 CFR 301.81-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.81-2 Section 301.81-2... Regulations § 301.81-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Imported fire ant queens... other articles, except potting soil that is shipped in original containers in which the soil was...

  3. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the...

  4. 7 CFR 301.80-2b - Exempted articles. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exempted articles. 1 301.80-2b Section 301.80-2b....80-2b Exempted articles. 1 1 The articles hereby exempted remain subject to applicable restrictions under other quarantines. (a) The following articles are exempt from the certification and permit...

  5. 19 CFR 148.46 - Sale of exempted articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sale of exempted articles. 148.46 Section 148.46... exempted articles. (a) Sale resulting in forfeiture. The following articles or their value (to be recovered... paragraph (b) of this section is followed: (1) Any jewelry or similar articles of personal adornment...

  6. 7 CFR 301.38-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.38-2 Section 301.38-2... articles. (a) The following are regulated articles: 3 3 Permit and other requirements for the insterstate..., except Mahonia cuttings for decorative purposes. (4) Any other product or article not listed...

  7. 19 CFR 10.9 - Articles exported for processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles exported for processing. 10.9 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Exported and Returned § 10.9 Articles exported for processing. (a) Except as otherwise provided for in...

  8. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.35 Articles substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in...

  9. Novel Evasion Mechanisms of the Classical Complement Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Brandon L; Zwarthoff, Seline A; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M; Geisbrecht, Brian V

    2016-09-15

    Complement is a network of soluble and cell surface-associated proteins that gives rise to a self-amplifying, yet tightly regulated system with fundamental roles in immune surveillance and clearance. Complement becomes activated on the surface of nonself cells by one of three initiating mechanisms known as the classical, lectin, and alternative pathways. Evasion of complement function is a hallmark of invasive pathogens and hematophagous organisms. Although many complement-inhibition strategies hinge on hijacking activities of endogenous complement regulatory proteins, an increasing number of uniquely evolved evasion molecules have been discovered over the past decade. In this review, we focus on several recent investigations that revealed mechanistically distinct inhibitors of the classical pathway. Because the classical pathway is an important and specific mediator of various autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, in-depth knowledge of novel evasion mechanisms could direct future development of therapeutic anti-inflammatory molecules.

  10. Novel Evasion Mechanisms of the Classical Complement Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Brandon L; Zwarthoff, Seline A; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M; Geisbrecht, Brian V

    2016-09-15

    Complement is a network of soluble and cell surface-associated proteins that gives rise to a self-amplifying, yet tightly regulated system with fundamental roles in immune surveillance and clearance. Complement becomes activated on the surface of nonself cells by one of three initiating mechanisms known as the classical, lectin, and alternative pathways. Evasion of complement function is a hallmark of invasive pathogens and hematophagous organisms. Although many complement-inhibition strategies hinge on hijacking activities of endogenous complement regulatory proteins, an increasing number of uniquely evolved evasion molecules have been discovered over the past decade. In this review, we focus on several recent investigations that revealed mechanistically distinct inhibitors of the classical pathway. Because the classical pathway is an important and specific mediator of various autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, in-depth knowledge of novel evasion mechanisms could direct future development of therapeutic anti-inflammatory molecules. PMID:27591336

  11. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de Los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  12. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T.; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  13. Microfluidic Systems for Pathogen Sensing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ertl

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid pathogen sensing remains a pressing issue today since conventional identification methodsare tedious, cost intensive and time consuming, typically requiring from 48 to 72 h. In turn, chip based technologies, such as microarrays and microfluidic biochips, offer real alternatives capable of filling this technological gap. In particular microfluidic biochips make the development of fast, sensitive and portable diagnostic tools possible, thus promising rapid and accurate detection of a variety of pathogens. This paper will provide a broad overview of the novel achievements in the field of pathogen sensing by focusing on methods and devices that compliment microfluidics.

  14. Pathogenic seed-borne fungi of triticale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of pathogenic fungi on 86 triticale seed samples was studied during the years 1992-1994. From each samples 400 seeds were tested using the blotter method with prefreezing and keeping under lights. In the greenhouse experiment pathogenicity of isolated fungi was evaluated. It was found that 20% of tested kernels were transmitting pathogenic fungi. Species of the genus Fusarium (including Microdochium nivale were isolated from 9,7 % of tested kernels, Drechslera tritici-repentis from 4,6 %, Stagonospora nodorum from 4,2 %, Bipolaris sorokiniana from 1,2%, Botryris cinerea from 0,9% and Drechslera dematioidea was noted sporadically.

  15. Advances on Plant Pathogenic Mycotoxin Binding Proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao-hua; DONG Jin-gao

    2002-01-01

    Toxin-binding protein is one of the key subjects in plant pathogenic mycotoxin research. In this paper, new advances in toxin-binding proteins of 10 kinds of plant pathogenic mycotoxins belonging to Helminthosporium ,Alternaria ,Fusicoccum ,Verticillium were reviewed, especially the techniques and methods of toxin-binding proteins of HS-toxin, HV-toxin, HMT-toxin, HC-toxin. It was proposed that the isotope-labeling technique and immunological chemistry technique should be combined together in research of toxin-binding protein, which will be significant to study the molecular recognition mechanism between host and pathogenic fungus.

  16. Commentary on the article by Pizzanelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Jamoulle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Peu après l’accouchement de son cinquième enfant ma soeur a consulté son gynécologue. Elle sentait une masse dans son sein et était inquiète. Il l’a rassuré. Elle l’a cru. On était en Espagne, dans les années 80. Ma soeur était avocate et mère de famille. Une femme très occupée. Elle a fait confiance à son docteur. C’était un mauvais docteur. 15 ans plus tard elle mourrait de cachexie cancéreuse après d’innombrables radiothérapies, chimiothérapies, examens diagnostiques et complications en tout genre, entourée de ses enfants et dans la souffrance.Quand on est médecin praticien soi-même et qu’on travaille avec ce souvenir on est très sensibilisé et on cherche par tous les moyens d’éviter à ses propres patients de vivre un calvaire aussi affreux. J’étais très organisé dans ma pratique professionnelle. Nous apprenions aux femmes l’autopalpation, nous avions un échéancier pour les prévenir de faire leur mammographie de dépistage et nous étions satisfaits de trouver de temps en temps un cancer peu évolué, gardant l’impression d’avoir sauvé un patiente qui nous le rendait bien.La Belgique n’a pas de système de santé organisé et le dépistage se faisait et se fait encore de façon pittoresque et épisodique. L’état ou les hôpitaux ou quelques médecins de famille organisés lancent des campagnes qui sensibilisent toujours les mêmes femmes et en « sauvent » quelques-unes, fiers d’avoir mis en place un système de médecine dit préventive.Ce système ne prévient rien du tout et le taux de mortalité par cancer du sein n’a pas changé pendant toutes ses années. On recrute plus tôt, allongeant la période de conscience de la présence du mal. Les cancers fulgurants tuent toujours aussi vite et nous laissent démunis.Dans son article “Principios Éticos y Prevención Cuaternaria: ¿es posible no proteger el ejercicio del principio de autonomía?” le confrère Pizzanelli fait

  17. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate signal pathway in targeted therapy of lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU Ai-xia; WANG Xin

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signal pathway in the pathogenesis oflymphoma and explore a potential lymphoma therapy targeted on this signaling pathway.Data sources The data cited in this review were mainly obtained from the articles listed in Medline and PubMed,published from January 1995 to June 2009. The search terms were "cAMP" and "lymphoma".Study selection Articles regarding the role of the cAMP pathway in apoptosis of lymphoma and associated cells and itspotential role in targeted therapy of lymphoma.Results In the transformation of lymphocytic malignancies, several signal pathways are involved. Among of them, thecAMP pathway has attracted increasing attention because of its apoptosis-inducing role in several lymphoma cells. cAMPpathway impairment is found to influence the prognosis of lymphoma. Targeted therapy to the cAMP pathway seems tobe a new direction for lymphoma treatment, aiming at restoring the cAMP function.Conclusions cAMP signal pathway has different effects on various lymphoma cells. cAMP analogues andphosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) inhibitors have potential clinical significance. However, many challenges remain inunderstanding the various roles of such agents.

  18. Gene Network Polymorphism Illuminates Loss and Retention of Novel RNAi Silencing Components in the Cryptococcus Pathogenic Species Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Feretzaki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RNAi is a ubiquitous pathway that serves central functions throughout eukaryotes, including maintenance of genome stability and repression of transposon expression and movement. However, a number of organisms have lost their RNAi pathways, including the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis, the human pathogen Cryptococcus deuterogattii, and some human parasite pathogens, suggesting there may be adaptive benefits associated with both retention and loss of RNAi. By comparing the RNAi-deficient genome of the Pacific Northwest Outbreak C. deuterogattii strain R265 with the RNAi-proficient genomes of the Cryptococcus pathogenic species complex, we identified a set of conserved genes that were lost in R265 and all other C. deuterogattii isolates examined. Genetic and molecular analyses reveal several of these lost genes play roles in RNAi pathways. Four novel components were examined further. Znf3 (a zinc finger protein and Qip1 (a homolog of N. crassa Qip were found to be essential for RNAi, while Cpr2 (a constitutive pheromone receptor and Fzc28 (a transcription factor are involved in sex-induced but not mitosis-induced silencing. Our results demonstrate that the mitotic and sex-induced RNAi pathways rely on the same core components, but sex-induced silencing may be a more specific, highly induced variant that involves additional specialized or regulatory components. Our studies further illustrate how gene network polymorphisms involving known components of key cellular pathways can inform identification of novel elements and suggest that RNAi loss may have been a core event in the speciation of C. deuterogattii and possibly contributed to its pathogenic trajectory.

  19. Functions of the Indefinite Article a/an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵元华

    2013-01-01

    There are two articles in English,the definite article the and the indefinite article a/an. This paper deals with the indefinite article a/an as it is especially complicated and multi-functional in use. Focus will be put on the major functions of the indefinite article from different angles:its lexical meaning,its grammatical function,its rhetoric meaning and its interpretation in communication with the purpose of providing a relatively full account of its usage.

  20. Zika virus and the never-ending story of emerging pathogens and transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Giuseppe; Pupella, Simonetta; Vaglio, Stefania; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2016-03-01

    In the last few years, the transfusion medicine community has been paying special attention to emerging vector-borne diseases transmitted by arboviruses. Zika virus is the latest of these pathogens and is responsible for major outbreaks in Africa, Asia and, more recently, in previously infection-naïve territories of the Pacific area. Many issues regarding this emerging pathogen remain unclear and require further investigation. National health authorities have adopted different prevention strategies. The aim of this review article is to discuss the currently available, though limited, information and the potential impact of this virus on transfusion medicine.

  1. Zika virus and the never-ending story of emerging pathogens and transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Giuseppe; Pupella, Simonetta; Vaglio, Stefania; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2016-03-01

    In the last few years, the transfusion medicine community has been paying special attention to emerging vector-borne diseases transmitted by arboviruses. Zika virus is the latest of these pathogens and is responsible for major outbreaks in Africa, Asia and, more recently, in previously infection-naïve territories of the Pacific area. Many issues regarding this emerging pathogen remain unclear and require further investigation. National health authorities have adopted different prevention strategies. The aim of this review article is to discuss the currently available, though limited, information and the potential impact of this virus on transfusion medicine. PMID:26674815

  2. Role of Phospholipases in Fungal Fitness, Pathogenicity and Drug Development- Lessons from Cryptococcus neoformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne eDjordjevic

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Many pathogenic microbes, including many fungi, produce phospholipases which facilitate survival of the pathogen in vivo, invasion and dissemination throughout the host, expression of virulence traits and evasion of host immune defense mechanisms. These phospholipases are either secreted or produced intracellularly and act by physically disrupting host membranes, and/or by affecting fungal cell signaling and production of immunomodulatory effectors. Many of the secreted phospholipases acquire a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI sorting motif to facilitate membrane and/or cell wall association and secretion. This review focuses primarily on the role of two members of the phospholipase enzyme family, phospholipase B (Plb and phosphatidylinositol (PI-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC/Plc, in fungal pathogenesis and in particular, what has been learnt about their function from studies performed in the model pathogenic yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans. These studies have revealed how Plb has adapted to become an important part of the virulence repertoire of pathogenic fungi and how its secretion is regulated. They have also provided valuable insight into how the intracellular enzyme, Plc1, contributes to fungal fitness and pathogenicity - via a putative role in signal transduction pathways that regulate the production of stress-protecting pigments, polysaccharide capsule, cell wall integrity and adaptation to growth at host temperature. Finally, this review will address the role fungal phospholipases have played in the development of a new class of antifungal drugs, which mimic their phospholipid substrates.

  3. Differential gene expression in Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants after challenges with two fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yek, Sze H; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Schiøtt, Morten

    2013-04-01

    Social insects in general and leaf-cutting ants in particular have increased selection pressures on their innate immune system due to their social lifestyle and monoclonality of the symbiotic fungal cultivar. As this symbiosis is obligate for both parties, prophylactic behavioural defences against infections are expected to increase either ant survival or fungus-garden survival, but also to possibly trade off when specific infections differ in potential danger. We examined the effectiveness of prophylactic behaviours and modulations of innate immune defences by a combination of inoculation bioassays and genome-wide transcriptomic studies (RNA-Seq), using an ant pathogen (Metarhizium brunneum) and a fungus-garden pathogen (Escovopsis weberi) and administering inoculations both directly and indirectly (via the symbiotic partner). Upon detection of pathogen conidia, ant workers responded by increasing both general activity and the frequency of specific defence behaviours (self-grooming, allo-grooming, garden-grooming) independent of the pathogen encountered. This trend was also evident in the patterns of gene expression change. Both direct and indirect (via fungus garden) inoculations with Metarhizium induced a general up-regulation of gene expression, including a number of well-known immune-related genes. In contrast, direct inoculation of the fungus garden by Escovopsis induced an overall down-regulation of ant gene expression, whereas indirect inoculation (via the ants) did not, suggesting that increased activity of ants to remove this fungus-garden pathogen is costly and involves trade-offs with the activation of other physiological pathways. PMID:23480581

  4. Pathogen reduction in sludges by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results of pathogen inactivation programs being conducted in Belgium, Czechoslovakia, France, East Germany, West Germany, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States

  5. Moraxella catarrhalis: from emerging to established pathogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Verduin (Cees); C. Hol; A. Fleer; H. van Dijk (Hans); A.F. van Belkum (Alex)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMoraxella catarrhalis (formerly known as Branhamella catarrhalis) has emerged as a significant bacterial pathogen of humans over the past two decades. During this period, microbiological and molecular diagnostic techniques have been developed and improved for M. catarrh

  6. Promotion and inhibition of mutation in pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Samuel Devaraj

    2014-03-01

    Findings from this research may be used to prevent development of drug resistance, whether epigenetic or arising due to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA modification, in several pathogens, especially Mycobacterium tuberculosis through the co-administration of adenosine along with antibiotic treatment.

  7. Molecular Pathways: Estrogen Pathway in Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzi, Afsaneh; Lenz, Annika Medea; Labonte, Melissa J.; Lenz, Heinz-Josef

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide colorectal cancer (CRC) has a higher incidence rate in men than in women, suggesting a protective role for sex hormones in the development of the disease. Preclinical data supports a role for estrogen and its receptors in the initiation and progression of CRC and establishes that protective effects of estrogen are exerted through ERβ. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women as well as consumption of soy reduces the incidence of CRC. In the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) trial use of HRT in postmenopausal women reduced the risk of colon cancer by 56% (95% CI, 0.38 to 0.81; P=0.003). A recent meta-analysis showed that in females, consumption of soy reduced the risk of colon cancer by 21% (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.35; P=0.026). In this review, utilizing the preclinical data, we translate the findings in the clinical trials and observational studies to define the role of estrogen in the prevention of CRC. We hypothesize that sometime during the tumorigenesis process ERβ expression in colonocytes is lost and the estrogen ligand, HRT or soy products, exerts its effects through preventing this loss. Thus in the adenoma to carcinoma continuum, timing of HRT is a significant determinant of the observed benefit from this intervention. We further argue that the protective effects of estrogen are limited to certain molecular subtypes. Successful development of estrogen modulators for prevention of CRC depends on identification of susceptible CRC population(s). Thus research to better understand the estrogen pathway is fundamental for clinical delivery of these agents. PMID:23965904

  8. Pathway analysis of IMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrypnyuk, Nataliya; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    We present the ongoing work on the pathway analysis of a stochastic calculus. Firstly we present a particular stochastic calculus that we have chosen for our modeling - the Interactive Markov Chains calculus, IMC for short. After that we specify a few restrictions that we have introduced into the......We present the ongoing work on the pathway analysis of a stochastic calculus. Firstly we present a particular stochastic calculus that we have chosen for our modeling - the Interactive Markov Chains calculus, IMC for short. After that we specify a few restrictions that we have introduced...... into the syntax of IMC in order to make our analysis feasible. Finally we describe the analysis itself together with several theoretical results that we have proved for it....

  9. Comparative Pathogenicity of United Kingdom Isolates of the Emerging Pathogen Candida auris and Other Key Pathogenic Candida Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Andrew M; Szekely, Adrien; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Candida auris, first described in 2009, has since emerged as an important, multidrug-resistant, nosocomial agent of candidemia, with large outbreaks reported worldwide and high mortality rates associated with therapeutic failure. The current study employed C. auris isolates from a variety of centers in the United Kingdom to evaluate the pathogenicity of this emerging pathogen compared to that of other common pathogenic yeast species in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella infection model. We showed that C. auris isolates differ in their growth characteristics in vitro, with a proportion of isolates failing to release daughter cells after budding, resulting in the formation of large aggregates of cells that cannot be physically disrupted. Our results also demonstrate strain-specific differences in the behavior of C. auris in G. mellonella, with the aggregate-forming isolates exhibiting significantly less pathogenicity than their nonaggregating counterparts. Importantly, the nonaggregating isolates exhibited pathogenicity comparable to that of C. albicans, which is currently accepted as the most pathogenic member of the genus, despite the fact that C. auris isolates do not produce hyphae and produce only rudimentary pseudohyphae either in vitro or in G. mellonella. IMPORTANCE The incidence of invasive candidiasis, which includes candidemia and deep tissue infections, continues to rise and is associated with considerable mortality rates. Candida albicans remains the most common cause of invasive candidiasis, although the prevalence of non-albicans species has increased over recent years. Since its first description in 2009, Candida auris has emerged as a serious nosocomial health risk, with widespread outbreaks in numerous hospitals worldwide. However, despite receiving considerable attention, little is known concerning the pathogenicity of this emerging fungal pathogen. Here, using the Galleria mellonella insect systemic infection model, we show strain

  10. Comparative Pathogenicity of United Kingdom Isolates of the Emerging Pathogen Candida auris and Other Key Pathogenic Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Adrien; Johnson, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida auris, first described in 2009, has since emerged as an important, multidrug-resistant, nosocomial agent of candidemia, with large outbreaks reported worldwide and high mortality rates associated with therapeutic failure. The current study employed C. auris isolates from a variety of centers in the United Kingdom to evaluate the pathogenicity of this emerging pathogen compared to that of other common pathogenic yeast species in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella infection model. We showed that C. auris isolates differ in their growth characteristics in vitro, with a proportion of isolates failing to release daughter cells after budding, resulting in the formation of large aggregates of cells that cannot be physically disrupted. Our results also demonstrate strain-specific differences in the behavior of C. auris in G. mellonella, with the aggregate-forming isolates exhibiting significantly less pathogenicity than their nonaggregating counterparts. Importantly, the nonaggregating isolates exhibited pathogenicity comparable to that of C. albicans, which is currently accepted as the most pathogenic member of the genus, despite the fact that C. auris isolates do not produce hyphae and produce only rudimentary pseudohyphae either in vitro or in G. mellonella. IMPORTANCE The incidence of invasive candidiasis, which includes candidemia and deep tissue infections, continues to rise and is associated with considerable mortality rates. Candida albicans remains the most common cause of invasive candidiasis, although the prevalence of non-albicans species has increased over recent years. Since its first description in 2009, Candida auris has emerged as a serious nosocomial health risk, with widespread outbreaks in numerous hospitals worldwide. However, despite receiving considerable attention, little is known concerning the pathogenicity of this emerging fungal pathogen. Here, using the Galleria mellonella insect systemic infection model, we show

  11. Creative work careers: pathways and portfolios for the creative economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ashton, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the career opportunities, challenges and trajectories of creative work. As part of the Creative Trident approach to creative workforce measurements, the embedded mode draws attention to creative work as it is undertaken outside of the creative industries. This article further considers and conceptualises the complex careers pathways of creative workers. Firstly, creative workers in non-creative occupations in other industries are discussed to highlight the challenges and...

  12. Pathways of tau fibrillization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuret, Jeff; Chirita, Carmen N; Congdon, Erin E; Kannanayakal, Theresa; Li, Guibin; Necula, Mihaela; Yin, Haishan; Zhong, Qi

    2005-01-01

    New methods for analyzing tau fibrillization have yielded insights into the biochemical transitions involved in the process. Here we review the parallels between the sequential progression of tau fibrillization observed macroscopically in Alzheimer's disease (AD) lesions and the pathway of tau aggregation observed in vitro with purified tau preparations. In addition, pharmacological agents for further dissection of fibrillization mechanism and lesion formation are discussed. PMID:15615636

  13. Pathogens in free-ranging African carnivores

    OpenAIRE

    Goller, Katja Verena

    2011-01-01

    Die ökologische Rolle der meisten Wildtier-Pathogene in Bezug zur langfristigen Populationsdynamik ihrer Wirte ist nur ansatzweise erforscht und wird deshalb nur unzureichend verstanden. Stattdessen ist die Erforschung von Infektionen mit Pathogenen oft beschränkt auf einzelne Fallstudien oder auf Perioden mit deutlich erhöhten Mortalitätsraten innerhalb der Wirtspopulation. Pathogene mit geringer Virulenz können jedoch durch synergistisches Auftreten verheerende Auswirkungen auf die Fitness ...

  14. Suppression of soil-borne plant pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Agtmaal, van, E.L.

    2015-01-01

    Soil borne plant pathogens considerably reduce crop yields worldwide and are difficult to control due to their ”masked” occurrence  in the heterogeneous soil environment. This hampers the efficacy of chemical - and microbiological control agents.   Outbreaks of crop diseases are not only dependent on the presence of pathogen propagules in the soil, but are also influenced by soil-related properties like physico-chemical characteristics, microbial activity and commun...

  15. Metagenomics for pathogen detection in public health

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Ruth R.; Montoya, Vincent; Gardy, Jennifer L; Patrick, David M.; Tang, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Traditional pathogen detection methods in public health infectious disease surveillance rely upon the identification of agents that are already known to be associated with a particular clinical syndrome. The emerging field of metagenomics has the potential to revolutionize pathogen detection in public health laboratories by allowing the simultaneous detection of all microorganisms in a clinical sample, without a priori knowledge of their identities, through the use of next-generation DNA sequ...

  16. How did Listeria monocytogenes become pathogenic?

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Eva Yee Wah

    2002-01-01

    Listeriae are Gram positive, facultative, saprophytic bacteria capable of causing opportunistic infections in humans and animals. This thesis presents three separate lines of inquiries that can lead to the eventual convergence of a global view of Listeria as pathogen in the light of evolution, genomics, and function. First, we undertook to resolve the phylogeny of the genus Listeria with the goal of ascertaining insights into the evolution of pathogenic capability of its members. The phylogen...

  17. Identification of periodontal pathogens in atherosclerotic vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Larsen, Tove; Christiansen, Natalia;

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that periodontitis may be associated with presence of atherosclerosis. DNA from periodontal pathogens has been detected in atherosclerotic lesions, but viable oral bacteria have not yet been isolated from atherosclerotic plaques. The purpose of the present study...... was to determine if viable oral bacteria could be isolated from atherosclerotic lesions and if DNA from periodontal pathogens could be detected by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques....

  18. Stochastic Processes via the Pathway Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arak M. Mathai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available After collecting data from observations or experiments, the next step is to analyze the data to build an appropriate mathematical or stochastic model to describe the data so that further studies can be done with the help of the model. In this article, the input-output type mechanism is considered first, where reaction, diffusion, reaction-diffusion, and production-destruction type physical situations can fit in. Then techniques are described to produce thicker or thinner tails (power law behavior in stochastic models. Then the pathway idea is described where one can switch to different functional forms of the probability density function through a parameter called the pathway parameter. The paper is a continuation of related solar neutrino research published previously in this journal.

  19. UV-induced DNA damage promotes resistance to the biotrophic pathogen Hyaloperonospora parasitica in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Bernard A; Dando, Paige K; Grice, Desma M; Mohr, Peter G; Schenk, Peer M; Cahill, David M

    2008-10-01

    Plant innate immunity to pathogenic microorganisms is activated in response to recognition of extracellular or intracellular pathogen molecules by transmembrane receptors or resistance proteins, respectively. The defense signaling pathways share components with those involved in plant responses to UV radiation, which can induce expression of plant genes important for pathogen resistance. Such intriguing links suggest that UV treatment might activate resistance to pathogens in normally susceptible host plants. Here, we demonstrate that pre-inoculative UV (254 nm) irradiation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) susceptible to infection by the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora parasitica, the causative agent of downy mildew, induces dose- and time-dependent resistance to the pathogen detectable up to 7 d after UV exposure. Limiting repair of UV photoproducts by postirradiation incubation in the dark, or mutational inactivation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase, (6-4) photoproduct photolyase, or nucleotide excision repair increased the magnitude of UV-induced pathogen resistance. In the absence of treatment with 254-nm UV, plant nucleotide excision repair mutants also defective for cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer or (6-4) photoproduct photolyase displayed resistance to H. parasitica, partially attributable to short wavelength UV-B (280-320 nm) radiation emitted by incubator lights. These results indicate UV irradiation can initiate the development of resistance to H. parasitica in plants normally susceptible to the pathogen and point to a key role for UV-induced DNA damage. They also suggest UV treatment can circumvent the requirement for recognition of H. parasitica molecules by Arabidopsis proteins to activate an immune response.

  20. Worldwide distribution and diversity of seabird ticks: implications for the ecology and epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Muriel; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; McCoy, Karen D

    2011-05-01

    The ubiquity of ticks and their importance in the transmission of pathogens involved in human and livestock diseases are reflected by the growing number of studies focusing on tick ecology and the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens. Likewise, the involvement of wild birds in dispersing pathogens and their role as reservoir hosts are now well established. However, studies on tick-bird systems have mainly focused on land birds, and the role of seabirds in the ecology and epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens is rarely considered. Seabirds typically have large population sizes, wide geographic distributions, and high mobility, which make them significant potential players in the maintenance and dispersal of disease agents at large spatial scales. They are parasitized by at least 29 tick species found across all biogeographical regions of the world. We know that these seabird-tick systems can harbor a large diversity of pathogens, although detailed studies of this diversity remain scarce. In this article, we review current knowledge on the diversity and global distribution of ticks and tick-borne pathogens associated with seabirds. We discuss the relationship between seabirds, ticks, and their pathogens and examine the interesting characteristics of these relationships from ecological and epidemiological points of view. We also highlight some future research directions required to better understand the evolution of these systems and to assess the potential role of seabirds in the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens. PMID:20874222

  1. DMPD: Antiviral innate immunity pathways. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16474426 Antiviral innate immunity pathways. Seth RB, Sun L, Chen ZJ. Cell Res. 200...6 Feb;16(2):141-7. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Antiviral innate immunity pathways. PubmedID 16474426 ...Title Antiviral innate immunity pathways. Authors Seth RB, Sun L, Chen ZJ. Publication Cell Res. 2006 Feb;16

  2. Environmental Variation Generates Environmental Opportunist Pathogen Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Jani; Kaitala, Veijo; Laakso, Jouni; Ruokolainen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    Many socio-economically important pathogens persist and grow in the outside host environment and opportunistically invade host individuals. The environmental growth and opportunistic nature of these pathogens has received only little attention in epidemiology. Environmental reservoirs are, however, an important source of novel diseases. Thus, attempts to control these diseases require different approaches than in traditional epidemiology focusing on obligatory parasites. Conditions in the outside-host environment are prone to fluctuate over time. This variation is a potentially important driver of epidemiological dynamics and affect the evolution of novel diseases. Using a modelling approach combining the traditional SIRS models to environmental opportunist pathogens and environmental variability, we show that epidemiological dynamics of opportunist diseases are profoundly driven by the quality of environmental variability, such as the long-term predictability and magnitude of fluctuations. When comparing periodic and stochastic environmental factors, for a given variance, stochastic variation is more likely to cause outbreaks than periodic variation. This is due to the extreme values being further away from the mean. Moreover, the effects of variability depend on the underlying biology of the epidemiological system, and which part of the system is being affected. Variation in host susceptibility leads to more severe pathogen outbreaks than variation in pathogen growth rate in the environment. Positive correlation in variation on both targets can cancel the effect of variation altogether. Moreover, the severity of outbreaks is significantly reduced by increase in the duration of immunity. Uncovering these issues helps in understanding and controlling diseases caused by environmental pathogens.

  3. Regulation of filamentation in the human fungal pathogen Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuyu; Tao, Li; Guan, Guobo; Yue, Huizhen; Liang, Weihong; Cao, Chengjun; Dai, Yu; Huang, Guanghua

    2016-02-01

    The yeast-filament transition is essential for the virulence of a variety of fungi that are pathogenic to humans. N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is a potent inducer of filamentation in Candida albicans and thermally dimorphic fungi such as Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis. However, GlcNAc suppresses rather than promotes filamentation in Candida tropicalis, a fungal species that is closely related to C. albicans. Despite the intensive study in C. albicans, the regulatory mechanism of filamentation is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that the cAMP signaling pathway plays a central role in the regulation of filamentation in C. tropicalis. By screening an overexpression library of 156 transcription factors, we have identified approximately 40 regulators of filamentous growth. Although most of the regulators (e.g., Tec1, Gat2, Nrg1, Sfl1, Sfl2 and Ash1) demonstrate a conserved role in the regulation of filamentation, similar to their homologues in C. albicans or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a number of transcription factors (e.g., Wor1, Bcr1, Stp4, Efh1, Csr1 and Zcf17) play a specific role in C. tropicalis. Our findings indicate that multiple interconnected signaling pathways are involved in the regulation of filamentation in C. tropicalis. These mechanisms have conserved and divergent features among different Candida species. PMID:26466925

  4. Inactivation of virus in solution by cold atmospheric pressure plasma: identification of chemical inactivation pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboubakr, Hamada A.; Gangal, Urvashi; Youssef, Mohammed M.; Goyal, Sagar M.; Bruggeman, Peter J.

    2016-05-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) inactivates bacteria and virus through in situ production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). While the bactericidal and virucidal efficiency of plasmas is well established, there is limited knowledge about the chemistry leading to the pathogen inactivation. This article describes a chemical analysis of the CAP reactive chemistry involved in the inactivation of feline calicivirus. We used a remote radio frequency CAP produced in varying gas mixtures leading to different plasma-induced chemistries. A study of the effects of selected scavengers complemented with positive control measurements of relevant RONS reveal two distinctive pathways based on singlet oxygen and peroxynitrous acid. The first mechanism is favored in the presence of oxygen and the second in the presence of air when a significant pH reduction is induced in the solution by the plasma. Additionally, smaller effects of the H2O2, O3 and \\text{NO}2- produced were also found. Identification of singlet oxygen-mediated 2-imidazolone/2-oxo-His (His  +14 Da)—an oxidative modification of His 262 comprising the capsid protein of feline calicivirus links the plasma induced singlet oxygen chemistry to viral inactivation.

  5. Pathway-based classification of cancer subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Shinuk

    2012-07-01

    , classification and analysis is important as it has implications for both pre-clinical as well as clinical studies. The paradigm of diagnosis and prediction using pathway-based biomarkers as features can be an important part of the process of biomarker-based cancer analysis, and the resulting canonical (clinically reproducible biomarkers can be important in standardizing genomic data. We expect that identification of such canonical biomarkers will improve clinical utility of high-throughput datasets for diagnostic and prognostic applications. Reviewers This article was reviewed by John McDonald (nominated by I. King Jordon, Eugene Koonin, Nathan Bowen (nominated by I. King Jordon, and Ekaterina Kotelnikova (nominated by Mikhail Gelfand.

  6. Hypoxia and the hypoxic response pathway protect against pore-forming toxins in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Bellier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pore-forming toxins (PFTs are by far the most abundant bacterial protein toxins and are important for the virulence of many important pathogens. As such, cellular responses to PFTs critically modulate host-pathogen interactions. Although many cellular responses to PFTs have been recorded, little is understood about their relevance to pathological or defensive outcomes. To shed light on this important question, we have turned to the only genetic system for studying PFT-host interactions-Caenorhabditis elegans intoxication by Crystal (Cry protein PFTs. We mutagenized and screened for C. elegans mutants resistant to a Cry PFT and recovered one mutant. Complementation, sequencing, transgenic rescue, and RNA interference data demonstrate that this mutant eliminates a gene normally involved in repression of the hypoxia (low oxygen response pathway. We find that up-regulation of the C. elegans hypoxia pathway via the inactivation of three different genes that normally repress the pathway results in animals resistant to Cry PFTs. Conversely, mutation in the central activator of the hypoxia response, HIF-1, suppresses this resistance and can result in animals defective in PFT defenses. These results extend to a PFT that attacks mammals since up-regulation of the hypoxia pathway confers resistance to Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC, whereas down-regulation confers hypersusceptibility. The hypoxia PFT defense pathway acts cell autonomously to protect the cells directly under attack and is different from other hypoxia pathway stress responses. Two of the downstream effectors of this pathway include the nuclear receptor nhr-57 and the unfolded protein response. In addition, the hypoxia pathway itself is induced by PFT, and low oxygen is protective against PFT intoxication. These results demonstrate that hypoxia and induction of the hypoxia response protect cells against PFTs, and that the cellular environment can be modulated via the hypoxia pathway to

  7. The chromatin remodeler SPLAYED regulates specific stress signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W Walley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Organisms are continuously exposed to a myriad of environmental stresses. Central to an organism's survival is the ability to mount a robust transcriptional response to the imposed stress. An emerging mechanism of transcriptional control involves dynamic changes in chromatin structure. Alterations in chromatin structure are brought about by a number of different mechanisms, including chromatin modifications, which covalently modify histone proteins; incorporation of histone variants; and chromatin remodeling, which utilizes ATP hydrolysis to alter histone-DNA contacts. While considerable insight into the mechanisms of chromatin remodeling has been gained, the biological role of chromatin remodeling complexes beyond their function as regulators of cellular differentiation and development has remained poorly understood. Here, we provide genetic, biochemical, and biological evidence for the critical role of chromatin remodeling in mediating plant defense against specific biotic stresses. We found that the Arabidopsis SWI/SNF class chromatin remodeling ATPase SPLAYED (SYD is required for the expression of selected genes downstream of the jasmonate (JA and ethylene (ET signaling pathways. SYD is also directly recruited to the promoters of several of these genes. Furthermore, we show that SYD is required for resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea but not the biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. These findings demonstrate not only that chromatin remodeling is required for selective pathogen resistance, but also that chromatin remodelers such as SYD can regulate specific pathways within biotic stress signaling networks.

  8. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mehta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile. Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

  9. Signaling network of dendritic cells in response to pathogens: a community-input supported knowledgebase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nudelman Irina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cells are antigen-presenting cells that play an essential role in linking the innate and adaptive immune systems. Much research has focused on the signaling pathways triggered upon infection of dendritic cells by various pathogens. The high level of activity in the field makes it desirable to have a pathway-based resource to access the information in the literature. Current pathway diagrams lack either comprehensiveness, or an open-access editorial interface. Hence, there is a need for a dependable, expertly curated knowledgebase that integrates this information into a map of signaling networks. Description We have built a detailed diagram of the dendritic cell signaling network, with the goal of providing researchers with a valuable resource and a facile method for community input. Network construction has relied on comprehensive review of the literature and regular updates. The diagram includes detailed depictions of pathways activated downstream of different pathogen recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors. Initially assembled using CellDesigner software, it provides an annotated graphical representation of interactions stored in Systems Biology Mark-up Language. The network, which comprises 249 nodes and 213 edges, has been web-published through the Biological Pathway Publisher software suite. Nodes are annotated with PubMed references and gene-related information, and linked to a public wiki, providing a discussion forum for updates and corrections. To gain more insight into regulatory patterns of dendritic cell signaling, we analyzed the network using graph-theory methods: bifan, feedforward and multi-input convergence motifs were enriched. This emphasis on activating control mechanisms is consonant with a network that subserves persistent and coordinated responses to

  10. Toward a structure-based comprehension of the lectin pathway of complement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Troels R; Thiel, Steffen; Andersen, Gregers R

    2013-01-01

    To initiate the lectin pathway of complement pattern recognition molecules bind to surface-linked carbohydrates or acetyl groups on pathogens or damaged self-tissue. This leads to activation of the serine proteases MASP-1 and MASP-2 resulting in deposition of C4 on the activator and assembly...

  11. 27 CFR 26.265 - Determination of tax on articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.265 Determination of tax on articles. Where...

  12. MedlinePlus: Articles about MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/bibliography.html Articles about MedlinePlus To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. This is a list of selected articles that have been written about the creation, maintenance, ...

  13. 19 CFR 134.54 - Articles released from Customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Found Not Legally Marked § 134.54 Articles... compliance with the marking requirements, and has attempted by all reasonable means to effect redelivery...

  14. Recent Advancements in Nanobioassays and Nanobiosensors for Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Park, Bosoon

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial pathogens are one of the leading causes of food safety incidents and product recalls worldwide. Timely detection and identification of microbial contamination in agricultural and food products is crucial for disease prevention and outbreak investigation. In efforts to improve and/or replace time-consuming and laborious "gold standards" for pathogen detection, numerous alternative rapid methods have been proposed in the past 15 years, with a trend toward incorporating nanotechnology and nanomaterials in food pathogen detection. This article is a review of the use of nanotechnology in various detection and sample preparation techniques and advancements in nanotechnology applications in food matrices. Some practical considerations in nanobioassay design are discussed, and the gaps between research status quo and market demands are identified.

  15. Chemical ecology of animal and human pathogen vectors in a changing global climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Dewhirst, Sarah Y; Logan, James G; Omolo, Maurice O; Torto, Baldwyn; Pelletier, Julien; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Leal, Walter S

    2010-01-01

    Infectious diseases affecting livestock and human health that involve vector-borne pathogens are a global problem, unrestricted by borders or boundaries, which may be exacerbated by changing global climate. Thus, the availability of effective tools for control of pathogen vectors is of the utmost importance. The aim of this article is to review, selectively, current knowledge of the chemical ecology of pathogen vectors that affect livestock and human health in the developed and developing world, based on key note lectures presented in a symposium on "The Chemical Ecology of Disease Vectors" at the 25th Annual ISCE meeting in Neuchatel, Switzerland. The focus is on the deployment of semiochemicals for monitoring and control strategies, and discusses briefly future directions that such research should proceed along, bearing in mind the environmental challenges associated with climate change that we will face during the 21st century. PMID:20119869

  16. Assessing microbial decontamination of indoor air with particular focus on human pathogenic viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchaine, Caroline

    2016-09-01

    Transmission of bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens is of primary importance in public and occupational health and infection control. Although several standardized protocols have been proposed to target microbes on fomites through surface decontamination, use of microbicidal agents, and cleaning processes, only limited guidance is available on microbial decontamination of indoor air to reduce the risk of pathogen transmission between individuals. This article reviews the salient aspects of airborne transmission of infectious agents, exposure assessment, in vitro assessment of microbicidal agents, and processes for air decontamination for infection prevention and control. Laboratory-scale testing (eg, rotating chambers, wind tunnels) and promising field-scale methodologies to decontaminate indoor air are also presented. The potential of bacteriophages as potential surrogates for the study of airborne human pathogenic viruses is also discussed. PMID:27590696

  17. Assessing microbial decontamination of indoor air with particular focus on human pathogenic viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchaine, Caroline

    2016-09-01

    Transmission of bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens is of primary importance in public and occupational health and infection control. Although several standardized protocols have been proposed to target microbes on fomites through surface decontamination, use of microbicidal agents, and cleaning processes, only limited guidance is available on microbial decontamination of indoor air to reduce the risk of pathogen transmission between individuals. This article reviews the salient aspects of airborne transmission of infectious agents, exposure assessment, in vitro assessment of microbicidal agents, and processes for air decontamination for infection prevention and control. Laboratory-scale testing (eg, rotating chambers, wind tunnels) and promising field-scale methodologies to decontaminate indoor air are also presented. The potential of bacteriophages as potential surrogates for the study of airborne human pathogenic viruses is also discussed.

  18. Comparative genomics of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex: biosynthetic pathways metabolite production and plant pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium is a huge genus of filamentous fungi causing plant diseases in a wide range of host plants that result in high economic losses to world agriculture every year. Phylogenetic studies have shown that the genus Fusarium consists of different species complexes. One of them is the “Fusarium fujik...

  19. The status of pathogen-reduced plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, S Gerald

    2010-12-01

    Efforts to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases began more than 4 decades ago with testing donated blood for syphilis. During the subsequent 4 decades, the number of recognized blood-borne transmissible agents and new laboratory tests has proliferated to a logistical breaking point. Further, the number of "emerging agents" which might enter the donor population is increasing continuously. In the search for an alternative to the laboratory testing strategy, pathogen-reduction technologies have emerged as the most promising. The model for this paradigm is pasteurization of a bottle of cow's milk. No matter what infective agent may be present in freshly collected cow's milk, pasteurization, i.e., a generic purification process can eliminate all potential infectivity, while preserving its essential biological properties--and an affordable cost. Several manufacturers have undertaken the challenge of developing a pathogen-reduction technology for blood components. Some novel technologies have proven successful for pooled plasma derivatives such as immune globulins, coagulation factor concentrate concentrates and albumin. The greatest challenge is finding a technology that is suitable for red blood cell and platelet components, whereas significant progress has been made already for pathogen-reduced plasma products. The present review addresses the status of implementation of pathogen-reduced plasma products in the global market. Some blood centers and hospital blood banks in Europe and the Middle East have begun to distribute pathogen-reduced plasma, but no pathogen-reduced plasma product is presently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. While many observers in the United States focus on the regulatory process as the impediment to widespread implementation, the real challenge will be paying the surcharge for the pathogen-reduction process - an as yet unspecified figure - but likely to add a very substantial amount to the annual

  20. The 100 Most Influential Articles in Cervical Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Skovrlj, Branko; Steinberger, Jeremy; Guzman, Javier Z.; Overley, Samuel C.; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.; Caridi, John M.; Cho, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To identify and analyze the top 100 cited articles in cervical spine surgery. Methods The Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge was searched for citations of all articles relevant to cervical spine surgery. The number of citations, authorship, year of publication, journal of publication, country of publication, and institution were recorded for each article. Results The most cited article was the classic from 1991 by Vernon and Mior that described the Neck...