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Sample records for article age-dependent increase

  1. Age-dependent increase in green autofluorescence of blood erythrocytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Khandelwal; Rajiv K Saxena

    2007-12-01

    Green auto-fluorescence (GAF) of different age groups of mouse blood erythrocytes was determined by using a double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique that enables delineation of circulating erythrocytes of different age groups. A significant increase in GAF was seen for erythrocytes of old age group (age in circulation > 40 days) as compared to young erythrocytes (age < 15 days). Erythrocytes are removed from blood circulation by macrophages in the reticulo-endothelial system and depletion of macrophages results in an increased proportion of aged erythrocytes in the blood. When mice were depleted of macrophages for 7 days by administration of clodronate loaded liposomes, the overall GAF of erythrocytes increased significantly and this increase could be ascribed to an increase in GAF of the oldest population of erythrocytes. Using the DIB technique, the GAF of a cohort of blood erythrocyte generated during a 5 day window was tracked in vivo. GAF of the defined cohort of erythrocytes remained low till 40 days of age in circulation and then increased steeply till the end of the life span of erythrocytes. Taken together our results provide evidence for an age dependent increase in the GAF of blood erythrocytes that is accentuated by depletion of macrophages. Kinetics of changes in GAF of circulating erythrocytes with age has also been defined.

  2. Age-dependent increase in green autofluorescence of blood erythrocytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Khandelwal; Rajiv K Saxena

    2007-09-01

    Green auto-fluorescence (GAF) of different age groups of mouse blood erythrocytes was determined by using a double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique that enables delineation of circulating erythrocytes of different age groups. A significant increase in GAF was seen for erythrocytes of old age group (age in circulation > 40 days) as compared to young erythrocytes (age < 15 days). Erythrocytes are removed from blood circulation by macrophages in the reticulo-endothelial system and depletion of macrophages results in an increased proportion of aged erythrocytes in the blood. When mice were depleted of macrophages for 7 days by administration of clodronate loaded liposomes, the overall GAF of erythrocytes increased significantly and this increase could be ascribed to an increase in GAF of the oldest population of erythrocytes. Using the DIB technique, the GAF of a cohort of blood erythrocyte generated during a 5 day window was tracked in vivo. GAF of the defined cohort of erythrocytes remained low till 40 days of age in circulation and then increased steeply till the end of the life span of erythrocytes. Taken together our results provide evidence for an age dependent increase in the GAF of blood erythrocytes that is accentuated by depletion of macrophages. Kinetics of changes in GAF of circulating erythrocytes with age has also been defined.

  3. Age-Dependent Increase of Absence Seizures and Intrinsic Frequency Dynamics of Sleep Spindles in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Sitnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of neurological diseases increases with age. In WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy, the incidence of epileptic spike-wave discharges is known to be elevated with age. Considering close relationship between epileptic spike-wave discharges and physiologic sleep spindles, it was assumed that age-dependent increase of epileptic activity may affect time-frequency characteristics of sleep spindles. In order to examine this hypothesis, electroencephalograms (EEG were recorded in WAG/Rij rats successively at the ages 5, 7, and 9 months. Spike-wave discharges and sleep spindles were detected in frontal EEG channel. Sleep spindles were identified automatically using wavelet-based algorithm. Instantaneous (localized in time frequency of sleep spindles was determined using continuous wavelet transform of EEG signal, and intraspindle frequency dynamics were further examined. It was found that in 5-months-old rats epileptic activity has not fully developed (preclinical stage and sleep spindles demonstrated an increase of instantaneous frequency from beginning to the end. At the age of 7 and 9 months, when animals developed matured and longer epileptic discharges (symptomatic stage, their sleep spindles did not display changes of intrinsic frequency. The present data suggest that age-dependent increase of epileptic activity in WAG/Rij rats affects intrinsic dynamics of sleep spindle frequency.

  4. Age dependent association of endometrial polyps with increased risk of cancer involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martel Maritza

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometrial polyps (EMPs are commonly encountered in routine surgical pathology practice, but opinions differ on whether they are intrinsically a marker for concurrent or subsequent malignancy. The objectives of the present study are 1 to investigate the age-group in which EMP are most commonly encountered 2 to document the age-group in which EMP are most commonly associated with malignancies 3 To investigate whether the age of diagnosis of the various carcinoma subtypes in EMPs is congruent with published data on similar malignancies arising in non-polypoid endometrium and 4 To investigate whether the histologic subtype distribution of malignancies associated with EMPs are similar or different from the distribution of malignancies arising from non-polypoid endometrium based on published data. Patients and methods All cases of EMPs were retrieved from the files of Yale-New Haven Hospital for the period 1986–1995. The patients were divided into 5 age groups: Each group was further subclassified based on an association (or lack thereof of EMPs with endometrial carcinoma. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportion of malignancy associated EMPs between the age groups. Results We identified 513 EMPs, of which 209 (41% were from biopsy specimens and 304 (59% from hysterectomy specimens. Sixty six (13% of all EMPs were malignant. The 66 malignant EMPs included 58 endometrioid, 6 serous, 1 carcinosarcoma, and 1 clear cell carcinoma. In age group >35, only 1(2.5% of 40 EMPs was associated with endometrial malignancy. In contrast, 37(32% of 115 EMPs were associated with malignancy in the age group > 65. The frequency of malignant EMPs increased with age and reached statistical significance in the age group >65 (p Conclusions EMPs show statistically significant age dependent association with malignant tumor involvement. Careful search for malignancy, particularly in women with multiple risk factors is advised in daily practice

  5. Field demonstration of age dependent increase in lead phytoextraction by Pelargonium cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Pinelli, Eric; Alric, Alain; Kaemmerer, Michel; Pradere, Philippe; Dumat, Camille

    2013-04-01

    Unnecessary for living organisms, lead (Pb) is one of the major widespread toxic metals found in the environment with potential danger to human health and to ecosystems (Shahid et al. 2012). Lead is known to induce a broad range of toxic effects to living organism, including those that are morphological, physiological and biochemical in origin (Pourrut et al. 2011). A field study was carried out in the vicinity of Pb recycling plant near Toulouse-France, and contaminated by atmospheric fallouts to evaluate lead extraction and uptake efficiency of hyperaccumulater Attar of Roses Pelargonium cultivar. It was found that Attar of Roses has ability to accumulate (8644 mgPb/kg DW plant) and survive on highly contaminated acidic soil (39250 mg kg-1 of total Pb) without any morpho-phytotoxicity symptoms. Moreover Attar showed increased extraction of lead from bulk soil to rhizosphere through Pb mobilization and ultimately increased uptake by roots and translocation to shoots. The studied contaminated soil could be cleaned up in few years by planting hyperaccumulater Attar of Rose for longer time period. Under optimum fertlization, irrigation and use of natural or synthetic chelates (EDTA, LMOWA, humic substances etc.) along with old Attar of rose plants, time requires for complete remediation of contaminated site can be reduced to practically applicable time period. Moreover, the use of Pelargonium for remediation has several additional practical, esthetical and economic advantages. The extraction of value-added essential oils from harvested biomass could offset the cost of deploying phytoremediation and renders it as a viable approach for remediating highly contaminated soils, on large scale. Keywords: metal uptake, Pelargonium, phytoremediation, cultivar, soil-plant transfer and kinetic. References Pourrut, B., Shahid, M., Dumat, C., Winterton, P., Pinelli, E., 2011a. Lead uptake, toxicity and detoxification in plants. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 213, 113-136. Shahid

  6. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene-Ablated Female Mice Exhibit Increased Age-Dependent Obesity123

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Gregory G.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Mackie, John T.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2008-01-01

    Previous work done in our laboratory suggested a role for liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) in obesity that develops in aging female L-FABP gene-ablated (−/−) mice. To examine this possibility in more detail, cohorts of wild-type (+/+) and L-FABP (−/−) female mice were fed a standard low-fat nonpurified rodent diet for up to 18 mo. Various obesity-related parameters were examined including body weight and fat and lean tissue mass. Obesity in (−/−) mice was associated with increased ex...

  7. Age-Associated Increase in Cytokine Production During Systemic Inflammation-II: The Role of IL-1β in Age-Dependent IL-6 Upregulation in Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Marlene E; Saito, Mizuki; Evers, B Mark; Saito, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) upon acute inflammatory stress is significantly augmented by aging in adipose tissue, a major source of this cytokine. In the present study, we examined the mechanism of age-dependent IL-6 overproduction using visceral white adipose tissue from C57BL/6 mice. Upon treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro, IL-6 was produced by adipose tissue explants, and secreted levels were significantly higher in cultures from aged (24 months) mice compared to young (4 months). Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), two inducers of IL-6, were mainly produced by the lungs and spleen rather than adipose tissue in mice after LPS injection. Treatment of adipose explants with physiological levels of IL-1β induced significant age-dependent secretion of IL-6, while treatment with TNFα had little effect, demonstrating an augmented response of adipose tissues to IL-1β in the aged. In vitro experiments utilizing a neutralizing antibody against IL-1β and in vivo experiments utilizing IL-1-receptor-1 deficient mice, confirmed that IL-6 overproduction in the aged is regulated by autocrine/paracrine action of IL-1β which specifically occurs in aged adipose tissues. These findings indicate an elevated inflammatory potential of adipose tissue in the aged and a unique IL-1β-mediated mechanism for IL-6 overproduction, which may impact age-associated vulnerability to acute inflammatory diseases such as sepsis.

  8. Age-Dependent Increase of Brain Copper Levels and Expressions of Copper Regulatory Proteins in the Subventricular Zone and Choroid Plexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherleen eFu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our recent data suggest a high accumulation of Cu in the subventricular zone (SVZ along the wall of brain ventricles. Anatomically, SVZ is in direct contact with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, which is secreted by a neighboring tissue choroid plexus. Changes in Cu regulatory gene expressions in the SVZ and choroid plexus as the function of aging may determine Cu levels in the CSF and SVZ. This study was designed to investigate associations between age, Cu levels, and Cu regulatory genes in SVZ and plexus. The SVZ and choroid plexus were dissected from brains of 3-week, 10-week or 9-month old male rats. Analyses by atomic absorption spectroscopy revealed that the SVZ of adult and old animals contained the highest Cu level compared with other tested brain regions. Significant positive correlations between age and Cu levels in SVZ and plexus were observed; the SVZ Cu level of old animals was 7.5- and 5.8-fold higher than those of young and adult rats (p<0.01, respectively. Quantitation by qPCR of the transcriptional expressions of Cu regulatory proteins showed that the SVZ expressed the highest level of Cu storage protein MTs, while the choroid plexus expressed the high level of Cu transporter protein Ctr1. Noticeably, Cu levels in the SVZ were positively associated with type B slow proliferating cell marker Gfap (p<0.05, but inversely associated with type A proliferating neuroblast marker Dcx (p<0.05 and type C transit amplifying progenitor marker Nestin (p<0.01. Dmt1 had significant positive correlations with age and Cu levels in the plexus (p<0.01. These findings suggest that Cu levels in all tested brain regions are increased as the function of age. The SVZ shows a different expression pattern of Cu-regulatory genes from the choroid plexus. The age-related increase of MTs and decrease of Ctr1 may contribute to the high Cu level in this neurogenesis active brain region.

  9. Age-dependent dosimetry and metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of radionuclides into the environment following the Chernobyl disaster in 1986 created an urgent need for internationally acceptable dose coefficients for calculating the doses delivered to all members of the public, from conception to old age. Organ masses and the kinetics of distribution and retention of elements in humans generally vary with age and often not in simple linear relationship to body weight. Unless variations are considered calculated radiation doses to children may be seriously underestimated. The International Commission on Radiological Protection created in 1987 a Task Group on Age-dependent Doses to Members of the Public from Intake of Radionuclides (AGDOS). The work of AGDOS and the general problems encountered in deriving age-dependent dose coefficients will be discussed in this paper. The first two AGDOS reports, ICRP Publication 56 Parts 1 and 2, provide dose coefficients for the ages 3 months, 1, 5, 10, 15 years and for adults for the 21 elements considered to be of most immediate importance for radiation protection. To develop these dose coefficients, the ICRP Publication 30 dosimetric and biokinetic models were reevaluated and extended. The basic dosimetric model is retained but equivalent dose is now integrated from age at intake to 70 years and the new ICRP Publication 60 tissue weighting factors are incorporated. The development of age-dependent biokinetic models is complicated by the lack of age-related human, or even animal data for the majority of the elements. Thus in formulating the models it has been necessary to use all the available information, biokinetic, physiological chemical and biochemical, and to adopt a number of new approaches including the development of generic biokinetic models for chemically related families of elements such as the actinides and the alkaline earth elements. (author)

  10. The age dependence of galaxy clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, D S; Lake, G; Quinn, T; Stadel, J; Governato, Fabio; Lake, George; Quinn, Thomas; Reed, Darren S.; Stadel, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    We analyse clustering properties of a Lambda cold dark matter (LCDM) universe within a cosmological dark matter simulation of sufficient resolution to resolve structure down to the scale of dwarfs. We show that the age-clustering correlation, recently found among discrete virialized haloes by Gao et al., is strong for objects likely to host luminous galaxies, which includes the satellite halo (subhalo) population. Older mock galaxies are significantly more clustered in our catalog, which consists of satellite haloes as well as the central peaks of discrete haloes, selected by peak circular velocity. This suggests that the clustering age dependence is manifested in real galaxies. At small scales (less than ~5 Mpc/h), the very simple assumption that galaxy colour depends solely on halo age is inconsistent with the strength of the observed clustering colour trends, providing an independent verification that luminosity weighted galaxy ages do not closely trace the assembly epoch of their dark matter hosts. The ag...

  11. Age-dependent complex noise fluctuations in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the parameters of colored noise in EEG data of 17 722 professional drivers aged 18–70. The whole study is based upon experiments showing that biological neural networks may operate in the vicinity of the critical point and that the balance between excitation and inhibition in the human brain is important for the transfer of information. This paper is devoted to the study of EEG power spectrum which can be described best by a power function with 1/fλ distribution and colored noise corresponding to the critical point in the EEG signal has the value of λ = 1 (purple noise). The slow accumulation of energy and its quick release is a universal property of the 1/f distribution. The physiological mechanism causing energy dissipation in the brain seems to depend on the number and strength of the connections between clusters of neurons. With ageing, the number of connections between the neurons decreases. Learning ability and intellectual performance also decrease. Therefore, age-related changes in the λ coefficient can be anticipated. We found that absolute values of λ coefficients decrease significantly with increasing age. Deviations from this rule are related to age-dependent slowing of the dominant frequency in the alpha band. Age-dependent change in the parameter and colored noise may be indicative of age-related changes in the self-organization of brain activity. Results obtained include (i) the age-dependent decrease of the absolute values of the average λ coefficient with the regression coefficient 0.005 1/year, (ii) distribution of λ value changes related to EEG frequency bands and to localization of electrodes on the scalp, and (iii) relation of age-dependent changes of colored noise and EEG energy in separate frequency bands. (paper)

  12. The increasing female participation in authorship of articles published in neurology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagui, Osvaldo M; Livramento, José Antonio

    2009-09-01

    During the past four decades the participation of women in medicine has increased dramatically. This study is focused on the women's participation in authorship of articles published in the Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, the official Journal of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology. The articles were analyzed according to the number of articles and sex of both first and the senior (last) authors. The data were collected from 1945 to 2005. A total of 950 articles were published in this period. The proportion of women serving as first authors increased from 2.8% to 36.6% and the proportion serving as senior authors increased from 2.8% to 23.8% (1945-2005).

  13. Role of Mitochondrial Complex IV in Age-Dependent Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soro-Arnaiz, Ines; Li, Qilong Oscar Yang; Torres-Capelli, Mar; Meléndez-Rodríguez, Florinda; Veiga, Sónia; Veys, Koen; Sebastian, David; Elorza, Ainara; Tello, Daniel; Hernansanz-Agustín, Pablo; Cogliati, Sara; Moreno-Navarrete, Jose Maria; Balsa, Eduardo; Fuertes, Esther; Romanos, Eduardo; Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Fernandez-Real, Jose Manuel; Zorzano, Antonio; De Bock, Katrien; Aragonés, Julián

    2016-09-13

    Aging is associated with progressive white adipose tissue (WAT) enlargement initiated early in life, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. Here we show that mitochondrial complex IV (CIV) activity and assembly are already repressed in white adipocytes of middle-aged mice and involve a HIF1A-dependent decline of essential CIV components such as COX5B. At the molecular level, HIF1A binds to the Cox5b proximal promoter and represses its expression. Silencing of Cox5b decreased fatty acid oxidation and promoted intracellular lipid accumulation. Moreover, local in vivo Cox5b silencing in WAT of young mice increased the size of adipocytes, whereas restoration of COX5B expression in aging mice counteracted adipocyte enlargement. An age-dependent reduction in COX5B gene expression was also found in human visceral adipose tissue. Collectively, our findings establish a pivotal role for CIV dysfunction in progressive white adipocyte enlargement during aging, which can be restored to alleviate age-dependent WAT expansion. PMID:27626667

  14. Intrinsic Age-Dependent Changes and Cell-Cell Contacts Regulate Nephron Progenitor Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Brunskill, Eric W; Potter, S Steven; Dexheimer, Phillip J; Salomonis, Nathan; Aronow, Bruce J; Hong, Christian I; Zhang, Tongli; Kopan, Raphael

    2015-10-12

    During fetal development, nephrons of the metanephric kidney form from a mesenchymal progenitor population that differentiates en masse before or shortly after birth. We explored intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms controlling progenitor lifespan in a transplantation assay that allowed us to compare engraftment of old and young progenitors into the same young niche. The progenitors displayed an age-dependent decrease in proliferation and concomitant increase in niche exit rates. Single-cell transcriptome profiling revealed progressive age-dependent changes, with heterogeneity increasing in older populations. Age-dependent elevation in mTor and reduction in Fgf20 could contribute to increased exit rates. Importantly, 30% of old progenitors remained in the niche for up to 1 week post engraftment, a net gain of 50% to their lifespan, but only if surrounded by young neighbors. We provide evidence in support of a model in which intrinsic age-dependent changes affect inter-progenitor interactions that drive cessation of nephrogenesis. PMID:26460946

  15. Age-dependent forest carbon sink: Estimation via inverse modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Shi, Peijun; Jia, Gensuo; Dai, Yongjiu; Zhao, Xiang; Shangguan, Wei; Du, Ling; Wu, Hao; Luo, Yiqi

    2015-12-01

    Forests have been recognized to sequester a substantial amount of carbon (C) from the atmosphere. However, considerable uncertainty remains regarding the magnitude and time course of the C sink. Revealing the intrinsic relationship between forest age and C sink is crucial for reducing uncertainties in prediction of forest C sink potential. In this study, we developed a stepwise data assimilation approach to combine a process-based Terrestrial ECOsystem Regional model, observations from multiple sources, and stochastic sampling to inversely estimate carbon cycle parameters including carbon sink at different forest ages for evergreen needle-leaved forests in China. The new approach is effective to estimate age-dependent parameter of maximal light-use efficiency (R2 = 0.99) and, accordingly, can quantify a relationship between forest age and the vegetation and soil C sinks. The estimated ecosystem C sink increases rapidly with age, peaks at 0.451 kg C m-2 yr-1 at age 22 years (ranging from 0.421 to 0.465 kg C m-2 yr-1), and gradually decreases thereafter. The dynamic patterns of C sinks in vegetation and soil are significantly different. C sink in vegetation first increases rapidly with age and then decreases. C sink in soil, however, increases continuously with age; it acts as a C source when the age is less than 20 years, after which it acts as a sink. For the evergreen needle-leaved forest, the highest C sink efficiency (i.e., C sink per unit net primary productivity) is approximately 60%, with age between 11 and 43 years. Overall, the inverse estimation of carbon cycle parameters can make reasonable estimates of age-dependent C sequestration in forests.

  16. Peripheral surgical wounding and age-dependent neuroinflammation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Xu

    Full Text Available Post-operative cognitive dysfunction is associated with morbidity and mortality. However, its neuropathogenesis remains largely to be determined. Neuroinflammation and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ have been reported to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in humans and cognitive impairment in animals. Our recent studies have established a pre-clinical model in mice, and have found that the peripheral surgical wounding without the influence of general anesthesia induces an age-dependent Aβ accumulation and cognitive impairment in mice. We therefore set out to assess the effects of peripheral surgical wounding, in the absence of general anesthesia, on neuroinflammation in mice with different ages. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia was established in 9 and 18 month-old mice. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, Iba1 positive cells (the marker of microglia activation, CD33, and cognitive function in mice were determined. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and Iba1 positive cells in the hippocampus of both 9 and 18 month-old mice, and age potentiated these effects. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of CD33 in the hippocampus of 18, but not 9, month-old mice. Finally, anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen ameliorated the peripheral surgical wounding-induced cognitive impairment in 18 month-old mice. These data suggested that the peripheral surgical wounding could induce an age-dependent neuroinflammation and elevation of CD33 levels in the hippocampus of mice, which could lead to cognitive impairment in aged mice. Pending further studies, anti-inflammatory therapies may reduce the risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients.

  17. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenberg, Jacqueline; Cochard, Marie-Madeleine; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; Newman, Christopher J.; Hofer, Michael; Eigenmann, Philippe A.

    2012-01-01

    To cite this article: Wassenberg J, Cochard M-M, DunnGalvin A, Ballabeni P, Flokstra-de Blok BMJ, Newman CJ, Hofer M, Eigenmann PA. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012: 23: 412419. Abstract Background: Food allergy in children

  18. Age-dependent dose coefficients for tritium in Asian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A

    1999-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 56 (1989) and 67 (1993) have prescribed the biokinetic models and age-dependent dose coefficients for tritiated water and organically bound tritium. The dose coefficients are computed from values selected to specify the anatomical, morphological and physiological characteristics of a three-month-old, one-year-old, five-year-old, 10-year-old, 15-year-old and adult (Reference Man) Caucasian living in North America and Western Europe. However, values for Reference Man and other age groups are not directly applicable to Asians, because of differences in race, custom, dietary habits and climatic conditions. An Asian Man model, including five age groups, has been proposed by Tanaka and Kawamura (1996, 1998) for use in internal dosimetry. The basic concept of the ICRP Reference Man and the system describing body composition in ICRP Publication 23 (1975) were used. Reference values for Asians were given for the body weight and height, the mass of soft tissue, the mass of body water and the daily fluid balance, and are used to compute the dose coefficients for tritium. The age-dependent dose coefficients for Asians for tritiated water intakes are smaller by 20 to 30% of the currently prescribed values (Trivedi, 1998). The reduction in the dose coefficient values is caused by the increased daily fluid balance among Asians. The dose coefficient for tritiated water is 1.4 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Asian Man compared to 2.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. The dose coefficients for organically bound tritium are only marginally different from those of the ICRP values. The dose coefficient for organically bound tritium for Asian Man is 4.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -11} compared to 4.6 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. (author)

  19. Age-dependent radiosensitivity of mouse oocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, C.

    1976-06-08

    It has been shown that there are three distinct phases of radiosensitivity in oocytes of prepubertal mice: a period of rapidly increasing sensitivity between 0 and 4 days of age; a period of consistent, high sensitivity between 5 and 18 days of age; and a period of decreasing sensitivity from 19 to at least 21 days of age. Two distinct phases have been demonstrated for the rate of population decline of the oocytes of primary follicles: an initial period of rapid loss from 0 to 4 days of age; and a period of much slower loss from 5 through 23 days of age. Correlations have been drawn between the first two phases of radiosensitivity and morphological changes in the oocyte, and between the third phase of radiosensitivity and endocrinological changes in the maturing animal. The reaction of oocytes to radiation has been separated into two categories: immediate death (within 24 hours); and delayed death (over the entire lifespan of the animal). (auth)

  20. Age-dependent radiosensitivity of mouse oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been shown that there are three distinct phases of radiosensitivity in oocytes of prepubertal mice: a period of rapidly increasing sensitivity between 0 and 4 days of age; a period of consistent, high sensitivity between 5 and 18 days of age; and a period of decreasing sensitivity from 19 to at least 21 days of age. Two distinct phases have been demonstrated for the rate of population decline of the oocytes of primary follicles: an initial period of rapid loss from 0 to 4 days of age; and a period of much slower loss from 5 through 23 days of age. Correlations have been drawn between the first two phases of radiosensitivity and morphological changes in the oocyte, and between the third phase of radiosensitivity and endocrinological changes in the maturing animal. The reaction of oocytes to radiation has been separated into two categories: immediate death (within 24 hours); and delayed death (over the entire lifespan of the animal)

  1. Demographic drivers of age-dependent sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A M; Festa-Bianchet, M; Coltman, D W; Pelletier, F

    2016-07-01

    Sexual selection has a critical role in evolution, and it is fundamental to identify what ecological factors drive its variation. Disentangling the ecological correlates of sexual selection over the long term, however, is challenging and has rarely been done in nature. We sought to assess how demographic changes influenced the intensity, direction and form of sexual selection and whether selective pressures varied with age. We tested whether breeder sex ratio, number of competitors and age structure influenced selection differentials on horn length of wild bighorn rams (Ovis canadensis) of different age classes on Ram Mountain, Alberta. We used 21 years of data including a detailed pedigree, demographic parameters and repeated morphological measurements. Sexual selection on horn length of males of all ages was directional and positive. Selection intensity increased with the number of competitors, reflecting male-male encounter rate during the rut, but was independent of breeder sex ratio or age structure. This result can also be linked to changes in population size because the number of competitors was highly correlated to total number of sheep. This demographic effect likely arises from age-dependent mating tactics. Males aged 2-4 years are weakly competitive and experienced stronger sexual selection as they accounted for a greater proportion of all males. Selection experienced by mature males appeared independent of demography. Our study provides a rare description of the demographic determinants of sexual selection in nature. PMID:27090379

  2. Modelling Anopheles gambiae s.s. Population Dynamics with Temperature- and Age-Dependent Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Christiansen-Jucht

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and global warming are emerging as important threats to human health, particularly through the potential increase in vector- and water-borne diseases. Environmental variables are known to affect substantially the population dynamics and abundance of the poikilothermic vectors of disease, but the exact extent of this sensitivity is not well established. Focusing on malaria and its main vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, we present a set of novel mathematical models of climate-driven mosquito population dynamics motivated by experimental data suggesting that in An. gambiae, mortality is temperature and age dependent. We compared the performance of these models to that of a “standard” model ignoring age dependence. We used a longitudinal dataset of vector abundance over 36 months in sub-Saharan Africa for comparison between models that incorporate age dependence and one that does not, and observe that age-dependent models consistently fitted the data better than the reference model. This highlights that including age dependence in the vector component of mosquito-borne disease models may be important to predict more reliably disease transmission dynamics. Further data and studies are needed to enable improved fitting, leading to more accurate and informative model predictions for the An. gambiae malaria vector as well as for other disease vectors.

  3. Modelling Anopheles gambiae s.s. Population Dynamics with Temperature- and Age-Dependent Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen-Jucht, Céline; Erguler, Kamil; Shek, Chee Yan; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Parham, Paul E

    2015-06-01

    Climate change and global warming are emerging as important threats to human health, particularly through the potential increase in vector- and water-borne diseases. Environmental variables are known to affect substantially the population dynamics and abundance of the poikilothermic vectors of disease, but the exact extent of this sensitivity is not well established. Focusing on malaria and its main vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, we present a set of novel mathematical models of climate-driven mosquito population dynamics motivated by experimental data suggesting that in An. gambiae, mortality is temperature and age dependent. We compared the performance of these models to that of a "standard" model ignoring age dependence. We used a longitudinal dataset of vector abundance over 36 months in sub-Saharan Africa for comparison between models that incorporate age dependence and one that does not, and observe that age-dependent models consistently fitted the data better than the reference model. This highlights that including age dependence in the vector component of mosquito-borne disease models may be important to predict more reliably disease transmission dynamics. Further data and studies are needed to enable improved fitting, leading to more accurate and informative model predictions for the An. gambiae malaria vector as well as for other disease vectors. PMID:26030468

  4. Modelling Anopheles gambiae s.s. Population Dynamics with Temperature- and Age-Dependent Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen-Jucht, Céline; Erguler, Kamil; Shek, Chee Yan; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Parham, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and global warming are emerging as important threats to human health, particularly through the potential increase in vector- and water-borne diseases. Environmental variables are known to affect substantially the population dynamics and abundance of the poikilothermic vectors of disease, but the exact extent of this sensitivity is not well established. Focusing on malaria and its main vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, we present a set of novel mathematical models of climate-driven mosquito population dynamics motivated by experimental data suggesting that in An. gambiae, mortality is temperature and age dependent. We compared the performance of these models to that of a “standard” model ignoring age dependence. We used a longitudinal dataset of vector abundance over 36 months in sub-Saharan Africa for comparison between models that incorporate age dependence and one that does not, and observe that age-dependent models consistently fitted the data better than the reference model. This highlights that including age dependence in the vector component of mosquito-borne disease models may be important to predict more reliably disease transmission dynamics. Further data and studies are needed to enable improved fitting, leading to more accurate and informative model predictions for the An. gambiae malaria vector as well as for other disease vectors. PMID:26030468

  5. Age-dependent male mating investment in Drosophila pseudoobscura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Dhole

    Full Text Available Male mating investment can strongly influence fitness gained from a mating. Yet, male mating investment often changes with age. Life history theory predicts that mating investment should increase with age, and males should become less discriminatory about their mate as they age. Understanding age-dependent changes in male behavior and their effects on fitness is important for understanding how selection acts in age-structured populations. Although the independent effects of male or female age have been studied in many species, how these interact to influence male mating investment and fitness is less well understood. We mated Drosophila pseudoobscura males of five different age classes (4-, 8-, 11-, 15-, 19-day old to either young (4-day or old (11-day females, and measured copulation duration and early post-mating fecundity. Along with their independent effects, we found a strong interaction between the effects of male and female ages on male mating investment and fitness from individual matings. Male mating investment increased with male age, but this increase was more prominent in matings with young females. Male D. pseudoobscura made smaller investments when mating with old females. The level of such discrimination based on female age, however, also changed with male age. Intermediate aged males were most discriminatory, while the youngest and the oldest males did not discriminate between females of different ages. We also found that larger male mating investments resulted in higher fitness payoffs. Our results show that male and female ages interact to form a complex pattern of age-specific male mating investment and fitness.

  6. The acoustical significance of age-dependent ear elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Elderly people, especially some old men, appear to have very large ears. This paper presents an investigation on the acoustic significance of the age dependent ear elongation. HRTFs and ear lengths were measured for two groups of young and old people. The older groups had larger ears on average......, corresponding to what is reported in the literature. For female ears, virtually no acoustical effect was found. For male ears directional dependent effects in the range up to 5 dB on average was found for certain directions and frequencies. Implications on age dependent hearing loss (presbycusis...

  7. Role of acid sphingomyelinase in the age-dependent dysregulation of sphingolipids turnover in the tissues of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babenko, Nataliya A; Garkavenko, Vladimir V; Storozhenko, Galina V; Timofiychuk, Olga A

    2016-04-01

    Old age-associated pathologies usually coincide with altered sphingolipid metabolism. In the present article, the role of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) in the age-dependent changes of sphingomyelin (SM) and ceramide contents in the tissues has been investigated by means of ASMase inhibitors, imipramine and zoledronic acid. It has been determined that ceramide content and ceramide/SM ratio increased, while SM level decreased in the heart, liver, blood serum and skeletal muscles of 24-month old rats in contrast to 3-month old animals. Injections of imipramine or zoledronic acid to 24-month old rats resulted in significant downregulation of ASMase in the liver and skeletal and heart muscles. The both inhibitors decreased the ceramide content and ceramide/SM ratio and increased the SM content in all tissues studied, except the heart, of old rats to the levels close to those observed in the young animals. Long-term treatment of rats by inhibitors, which have different mechanisms of action on ASMase, exerts the similar, but not equal effects on enzyme activity and SM turnover. In summary, the data above strongly suggest that the age-dependent up-regulation of ASMase plays an important role in the modulation of ceramide and SM contents in rat tissues and that imipramine and zoledronic acid are useful tools for SM turnover manipulation at old age. PMID:26830134

  8. Special article: increasing the number of generalist physicians--a new regulatory paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvis, D M

    1995-12-01

    Increasing the number of generalist physicians has become a major component of health system reform proposals. This change in physician manpower may be attempted by educational approaches, market-driven responses, or regulatory requirements. Regulatory approaches may be considered in the broad contexts of public policy models. Two such models considered in this essay include 1) the acceptance of health care as a positive claim right that places the responsibility for providing health care on the state, and 2) a shift in the role of government in general from reacting to public concerns to activity shaping them. Each results in a greater governmental, regulatory intervention on medical manpower planning. As these policy constructs gain or lose force or favor, so too will their impact on medical education. PMID:7503105

  9. A SIRS epidemic model with infection-age dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Peng, Jigen

    2007-07-01

    Based on J. Mena-Lorca and H.W. Hethcote's epidemic model, a SIRS epidemic model with infection-age-dependent infectivity and general nonlinear contact rate is formulated. Under general conditions, the unique existence of its global positive solutions is obtained. Moreover, under more general assumptions than the existing, the existence and asymptotical stability of its equilibria are discussed. In the end, the condition on the stability of endemic equilibrium is verified by a special model.

  10. Differential age-dependent import regulation by signal peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shan Teng

    Full Text Available Gene-specific, age-dependent regulations are common at the transcriptional and translational levels, while protein transport into organelles is generally thought to be constitutive. Here we report a new level of differential age-dependent regulation and show that chloroplast proteins are divided into three age-selective groups: group I proteins have a higher import efficiency into younger chloroplasts, import of group II proteins is nearly independent of chloroplast age, and group III proteins are preferentially imported into older chloroplasts. The age-selective signal is located within the transit peptide of each protein. A group III protein with its transit peptide replaced by a group I transit peptide failed to complement its own mutation. Two consecutive positive charges define the necessary motif in group III signals for older chloroplast preference. We further show that different members of a gene family often belong to different age-selective groups because of sequence differences in their transit peptides. These results indicate that organelle-targeting signal peptides are part of cells' differential age-dependent regulation networks. The sequence diversity of some organelle-targeting peptides is not a result of the lack of selection pressure but has evolved to mediate regulation.

  11. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tuğrul, Murat; Eguíluz, Víctor M; Hernández-García, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age τ as τ(-α). Depending on the exponent α, the scaling of tree depth with tree size n displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition (α=1) tree depth grows as (logn)(2). This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus providing a theoretical support for age-dependent speciation and associating it to the occurrence of a critical point. PMID:25768548

  12. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tuğrul, Murat; Eguíluz, Víctor M; Hernández-García, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age τ as τ(-α). Depending on the exponent α, the scaling of tree depth with tree size n displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition (α=1) tree depth grows as (logn)(2). This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus providing a theoretical support for age-dependent speciation and associating it to the occurrence of a critical point.

  13. Is Growth Differentiation Factor 11 a Realistic Therapeutic for Aging-Dependent Muscle Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shavonn C; Brack, Andrew; MacDonnell, Scott; Franti, Michael; Olwin, Bradley B; Bailey, Beth A; Rudnicki, Michael A; Houser, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    This "Controversies in Cardiovascular Research" article evaluates the evidence for and against the hypothesis that the circulating blood level of growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) decreases in old age and that restoring normal GDF11 levels in old animals rejuvenates their skeletal muscle and reverses pathological cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction. Studies supporting the original GDF11 hypothesis in skeletal and cardiac muscle have not been validated by several independent groups. These new studies have either found no effects of restoring normal GDF11 levels on cardiac structure and function or have shown that increasing GDF11 or its closely related family member growth differentiation factor 8 actually impairs skeletal muscle repair in old animals. One possible explanation for what seems to be mutually exclusive findings is that the original reagent used to measure GDF11 levels also detected many other molecules so that age-dependent changes in GDF11 are still not well known. The more important issue is whether increasing blood [GDF11] repairs old skeletal muscle and reverses age-related cardiac pathologies. There are substantial new and existing data showing that GDF8/11 can exacerbate rather than rejuvenate skeletal muscle injury in old animals. There is also new evidence disputing the idea that there is pathological hypertrophy in old C57bl6 mice and that GDF11 therapy can reverse cardiac pathologies. Finally, high [GDF11] causes reductions in body and heart weight in both young and old animals, suggestive of a cachexia effect. Our conclusion is that elevating blood levels of GDF11 in the aged might cause more harm than good. PMID:27034276

  14. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Andreas; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Kuehn, Sven; Kuster, Niels [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr. 43, 8004 Zuerich (Switzerland); Christopoulou, Maria [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str., 15780 Athens (Greece)], E-mail: christ@itis.ethz.ch

    2010-04-07

    The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.

  15. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.

  16. Age dependencies in the modelling of radiation carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellerer, A.M. (Munich Univ. (Germany). Radiobiological Inst. GSF, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. for Radiation Protection); Barclay, D. (GSF, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. for Radiation Protection)

    1992-01-01

    Models for the dose and age dependence of radiation induced cancer have been based primarily on the follow-up of the atomic bomb survivors. Two different concepts have been deduced for leukaemias and for other cancers. The excess leukaemias appear in a distinct temporal wave with a maximum 5 to 10 years after radiation exposure; the distribution is more narrow for younger ages, but there is little dependence of the total attributable risk on age at exposure. For other cancers the latent periods are longer and, according to the current interpretation, the excess rates are then proportional to the age specific spontaneous rates, so that most excess cases would arise at old age. The factors of proportionality, and thus the attributable risks, are assumed to be markedly higher for young ages at exposure. It is argued here, that there is no firm support for this interpretation. (author).

  17. Calorie Restriction Suppresses Age-Dependent Hippocampal Transcriptional Signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa J Schafer

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR enhances longevity and mitigates aging phenotypes in numerous species. Physiological responses to CR are cell-type specific and variable throughout the lifespan. However, the mosaic of molecular changes responsible for CR benefits remains unclear, particularly in brain regions susceptible to deterioration during aging. We examined the influence of long-term CR on the CA1 hippocampal region, a key learning and memory brain area that is vulnerable to age-related pathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD. Through mRNA sequencing and NanoString nCounter analysis, we demonstrate that one year of CR feeding suppresses age-dependent signatures of 882 genes functionally associated with synaptic transmission-related pathways, including calcium signaling, long-term potentiation (LTP, and Creb signaling in wild-type mice. By comparing the influence of CR on hippocampal CA1 region transcriptional profiles at younger-adult (5 months, 2.5 months of feeding and older-adult (15 months, 12.5 months of feeding timepoints, we identify conserved upregulation of proteome quality control and calcium buffering genes, including heat shock 70 kDa protein 1b (Hspa1b and heat shock 70 kDa protein 5 (Hspa5, protein disulfide isomerase family A member 4 (Pdia4 and protein disulfide isomerase family A member 6 (Pdia6, and calreticulin (Calr. Expression levels of putative neuroprotective factors, klotho (Kl and transthyretin (Ttr, are also elevated by CR in adulthood, although the global CR-specific expression profiles at younger and older timepoints are highly divergent. At a previously unachieved resolution, our results demonstrate conserved activation of neuroprotective gene signatures and broad CR-suppression of age-dependent hippocampal CA1 region expression changes, indicating that CR functionally maintains a more youthful transcriptional state within the hippocampal CA1 sector.

  18. Age-dependent branching processes in random environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We consider an age-dependent branching process in random environments. The environments are represented by a stationary and ergodic sequence ξ = (ξ0,ξ1,...) of random variables. Given an environment ξ, the process is a non-homogenous Galton-Watson process, whose particles in n-th generation have a life length distribution G(ξn) on R+, and reproduce independently new particles according to a probability law p(ξn) on N. Let Z(t) be the number of particles alive at time t. We first find a characterization of the conditional probability generating function of Z(t) (given the environment ξ) via a functional equation, and obtain a criterion for almost certain extinction of the process by comparing it with an embedded Galton-Watson process. We then get expressions of the conditional mean EξZ(t) and the global mean EZ(t), and show their exponential growth rates by studying a renewal equation in random environments.

  19. Age-dependent branching processes in random environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YingQiu; LIU QuanSheng

    2008-01-01

    We consider an age-dependent branching process in random environments.The environments are represented by a stationary and ergodic sequence ξ = (ξ0,ξ1,...) of random variables.Given an environment ξ,the process is a non-homogenous Galton-Watson process,whose particles in n-th generation have a life length distribution G(ξn) on R+,and reproduce independently new particles according to a probability law p(ξn) on N.Let Z(t) be the number of particles alive at time t.We first find a characterization of the conditional probability generating function of Z(t) (given the environment ξ) via a functional equation,and obtain a criterion for almost certain extinction of the process by comparing it with an embedded Galton-Watson process.We then get expressions of the conditional mean EξZ(t) and the global mean EZ(t),and show their exponential growth rates by studying a renewal equation in random environments.

  20. Age dependence of natural uranium and thorium concentrations in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière, Dominic; Packer, Ana Paula; Marro, Leonora; Li, Chunsheng; Chen, Jing; Cornett, R Jack

    2007-02-01

    The age dependence of the natural concentration of uranium and thorium in the skeleton was investigated using human vertebrae bone collected from two Canadian locations (Winnipeg, Manitoba, and Regina, Saskatchewan). The concentration of both radioelements in digested ashed bone samples was determined using sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The geometric means for uranium level in bones showed a significant statistical difference between the two locations studied. Similarly for thorium, a statistical difference was observed, although this difference was considered marginal. The thorium concentration differed only marginally with respect to age group, indicating that its behavior in the body could be age-independent. Conversely, the uranium level in bones was found to change for the age groups tested, an indication of age-specific deposition. The age profile for uranium was comparable to the calcium turn-over rate, indicating that uranium deposition is probably, in part, dictated by this metabolic process, showing the role of present uptake into the uranium concentration in bones for populations exposed to significant uranium intake. PMID:17220713

  1. The role of heat shock protein 70 in mediating age-dependent mortality in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Kevin W; Fox, Amy C; Clark, Andrew T; Chang, Nai-Yuan Nicholas; Dominguez, Jessica A; Farris, Alton B; Buchman, Timothy G; Hunt, Clayton R; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2011-03-15

    Sepsis is primarily a disease of the aged, with increased incidence and mortality occurring in aged hosts. Heat shock protein (HSP) 70 plays an important role in both healthy aging and the stress response to injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of HSP70 in mediating mortality and the host inflammatory response in aged septic hosts. Sepsis was induced in both young (6- to 12-wk-old) and aged (16- to 17-mo-old) HSP70(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice to determine whether HSP70 modulated outcome in an age-dependent fashion. Young HSP70(-/-) and WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture, Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia, or Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia had no differences in mortality, suggesting HSP70 does not mediate survival in young septic hosts. In contrast, mortality was higher in aged HSP70(-/-) mice than aged WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (p = 0.01), suggesting HSP70 mediates mortality in sepsis in an age-dependent fashion. Compared with WT mice, aged septic HSP70(-/-) mice had increased gut epithelial apoptosis and pulmonary inflammation. In addition, HSP70(-/-) mice had increased systemic levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1β compared with WT mice. These data demonstrate that HSP70 is a key determinant of mortality in aged, but not young hosts in sepsis. HSP70 may play a protective role in an age-dependent response to sepsis by preventing excessive gut apoptosis and both pulmonary and systemic inflammation. PMID:21296977

  2. The role of HSP70 in mediating age-dependent mortality in sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Kevin W.; Fox, Amy C.; Clark, Andrew T.; Chang, Nai-Yuan Nicholas; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Farris, Alton B.; Buchman, Timothy G.; Hunt, Clayton R.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis is primarily a disease of the aged, with increased incidence and mortality occurring in aged hosts. Heat shock protein (HSP) 70 plays an important role in both healthy aging and the stress response to injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of HSP70 in mediating mortality and the host inflammatory response in aged septic hosts. Sepsis was induced in both young (6–12week old) and aged (16–17 month old) HSP70−/− and wild type (WT) mice to determine if HSP70 modulated outcome in an age-dependent fashion. Young HSP70−/− and WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia or Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia had no differences in mortality, suggesting HSP70 does not mediate survival in young septic hosts. In contrast, mortality was higher in aged HSP70−/− mice than aged WT mice subjected to CLP (p=0.01), suggesting HSP70 mediates mortality in sepsis in an age-dependent fashion. Compared to WT mice, aged septic HSP70−/− mice had increased gut epithelial apoptosis and pulmonary inflammation. In addition, HSP70−/−mice had increased systemic levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1β compared to WT mice. These data demonstrate that HSP70 is a key determinant of mortality in aged but not young hosts in sepsis. HSP70 may play a protective role in an age-dependent response to sepsis by preventing excessive gut apoptosis and both pulmonary and systemic inflammation. PMID:21296977

  3. The work of the task group of committee 2 of ICRP on age-dependent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the accident at Chernobyl and developing concern in regard to the consequences of discharging radionuclides into the environment has come increasing awareness of the need to assess radiation doses to all age groups in the population. In 1987, ICRP set up a Task Group of Committee 2 on Age-dependent Dosimetry with the responsibility for calculating internationally agreed dose coefficients for members of the public. This covered the calculation and ingestion, as well as doses to the embryo and fetus from intakes of radionuclides by the mother. This paper reviews the programme of work.(authors). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  4. Age-Dependent Differences in Systemic and Cell-Autonomous Immunity to L. monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley M. Sherrid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Host defense against infection can broadly be categorized into systemic immunity and cell-autonomous immunity. Systemic immunity is crucial for all multicellular organisms, increasing in importance with increasing cellular complexity of the host. The systemic immune response to Listeria monocytogenes has been studied extensively in murine models; however, the clinical applicability of these findings to the human newborn remains incompletely understood. Furthermore, the ability to control infection at the level of an individual cell, known as “cell-autonomous immunity,” appears most relevant following infection with L. monocytogenes; as the main target, the monocyte is centrally important to innate as well as adaptive systemic immunity to listeriosis. We thus suggest that the overall increased risk to suffer and die from L. monocytogenes infection in the newborn period is a direct consequence of age-dependent differences in cell-autonomous immunity of the monocyte to L. monocytogenes. We here review what is known about age-dependent differences in systemic innate and adaptive as well as cell-autonomous immunity to infection with Listeria monocytogenes.

  5. Age-Dependent Neuroimmune Modulation of IGF-1R in the Traumatic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Hui

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-dependent neuroimmune modulation following traumatic stress is accompanied by discordant upregulation of Fyn signaling in the frontal cortex, but the mechanistic details of the potential cellular behavior regarding IGF-1R/Fyn have not been established. Methods Trans-synaptic IGF-1R signaling during the traumatic stress was comparably examined in wild type, Fyn (−/− and MOR (−/− mice. Techniques included primary neuron culture, in vitro kinase activity, immunoprecipitation, Western Blot, sucrose discontinuous centrifugation. Besides that, [3 H] incorporation was used to assay lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity. Results We demonstrate robust upregulation of synaptic Fyn activity following traumatic stress, with higher amplitude in 2-month mice than that in 1-year counterpart. We also established that the increased Fyn signaling is accompanied by its molecular connection with IGF-1R within the synaptic zone. Detained analysis using Fyn (−/− and MOR (−/− mice reveal that IGF-1R/Fyn signaling is governed to a large extent by mu opioid receptor (MOR, and with age-dependent manner; these signaling cascades played a central role in the modulation of lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity. Conclusions Our data argued for a pivotal role of synaptic IGF-1R/Fyn signaling controlled by MOR downstream signaling cascades were crucial for the age-dependent neuroimmune modulation following traumatic stress. The result here might present a new quality of synaptic cellular communication governing the stress like events and have significant potential for the development of therapeutic approaches designed to minimize the heightened vulnerability during aging.

  6. Age-dependent morphological and compositional variations on Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Extended smooth plains cover the interior of a number of craters on Ceres. Smooth plains appear on different topographic levels associated with pits and flow-like features that overrun crater rims. The material forming these plains also ponds in depressions and smaller craters and cover the pre-existing surface creating distinct geological boundaries. Ikapati crater shows smooth plains on different topographic levels associated with pits and flow-like features that overrun crater rims. The material forming these plains, ponds in depressions and smaller craters and cover the pre-existing surface creating a distinct geological boundary. The interior of Occator also exhibits extended plains of ponded material, multiple flows originating from the center overwhelming the mass wasting deposits from the rim, dome-like features, vents cracks and fissures. Furthermore, crater densities on Occator's floor are lower than those on the ejecta blanket indicating a post-impact formation age of the flows. The flows to the northeast appear to originate from the central region and move slightly uphill. This indicates either a feeding zone that pushes the flows forward by supplying low-viscosity material or a depression of the crater center, possibly after discharging a subsurface reservoir. The plains and flows as well as some areas surrounding the craters appear spectrally blue. Both plains and flow material are characterized in camera and spectrometer visible spectra by a slightly negative slope with a gradual drop off up to 10% in reflectance from 0.5μm to 1μm. Although the spectral variations in the visible are subtle, they are clearly expressed in the color ratio composite. The crater densities of 20 locations across the surface of Ceres with different spectral behavior were analyzed in order to investigate the age dependence of spectral surface features. The results indicate that bluish material is mainly associated with the youngest impact craters on Ceres ( 1 Ga

  7. Experimental febrile seizures induce age-dependent structural plasticity and improve memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, K; Ichikawa, J; Matsuki, N; Ikegaya, Y; Koyama, R

    2016-03-24

    Population-based studies have demonstrated that children with a history of febrile seizure (FS) perform better than age-matched controls at hippocampus-dependent memory tasks. Here, we report that FSs induce two distinct structural reorganizations in the hippocampus and bidirectionally modify future learning abilities in an age-dependent manner. Compared with age-matched controls, adult mice that had experienced experimental FSs induced by hyperthermia (HT) on postnatal day 14 (P14-HT) performed better in a cognitive task that requires dentate granule cells (DGCs). The enhanced memory performance correlated with an FS-induced persistent increase in the density of large mossy fiber terminals (LMTs) of the DGCs. The memory enhancement was not observed in mice that had experienced HT-induced seizures at P11 which exhibited abnormally located DGCs in addition to the increased LMT density. The ectopic DGCs of the P11-HT mice were abolished by the diuretic bumetanide, and this pharmacological treatment unveiled the masked memory enhancement. Thus, this work provides a novel basis for age-dependent structural plasticity in which FSs influence future brain function. PMID:26794590

  8. Age-dependent changes in β-adrenoceptor function in human detrusors and possible mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 李凯; 李振华; 王平

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study age-dependent changes in β-adrenergic responsiveness and their possible mechanisms.Methods Responsiveness to the β-adrenergic agonists isoprenaline, BRL37344, forskolin, and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP) was examined in samples from 10 older patients by using a cellular function test. A radioligand binding assay was performed using the non-selective β-adrenergic receptor ligand [3H]- dihydroalprenolol ([3H]-DHA). Specimens from 10 young men were used as controls.Results There were no age-dependent changes in contractile response to KCl. The relaxation responses to isoprenaline, BRL37344, and forskolin decreased in the aged group by 15.0%, 17.6%, and 12.6%, respectively (P<0.001). The pD2 values for isoprenaline and BRL37344 also declined significantly. There was no difference in the responsiveness to dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP) between the two groups; the maximum binding site decreased significantly with increasing age, but the equilibrium-dissociation constant did not change. Conclusions There is an age-related decline in β-adrenergic responsiveness which might be one of the causative factors of reduced bladder compliance in the elderly. A decrease in cAMP level caused by reduced receptor density and adenylyl cyclase activity might be the underlying molecular mechanism of the changes in β-adrenergic responsiveness.

  9. Fluoxetine exerts age-dependent effects on behavior and amygdala neuroplasticity in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith R Homberg

    Full Text Available The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI Prozac® (fluoxetine is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and thereby may have harmful effects in adolescents. Here we treated adolescent and adult rats chronically with fluoxetine (12 mg/kg at postnatal day (PND 25 to 46 and from PND 67 to 88, respectively, and tested the animals 7-14 days after the last injection when (norfluoxetine in blood plasma had been washed out, as determined by HPLC. Plasma (norfluoxetine levels were also measured 5 hrs after the last fluoxetine injection, and matched clinical levels. Adolescent rats displayed increased behavioral despair in the forced swim test, which was not seen in adult fluoxetine treated rats. In addition, beneficial effects of fluoxetine on wakefulness as measured by electroencephalography in adults was not seen in adolescent rats, and age-dependent effects on the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition were observed. On the other hand, adolescent rats showed resilience to the anorexic effects of fluoxetine. Exploratory behavior in the open field test was not affected by fluoxetine treatment, but anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze test were increased in both adolescent and adult fluoxetine treated rats. Finally, in the amygdala, but not the dorsal raphe nucleus and medial prefrontal cortex, the number of PSA-NCAM (marker for synaptic remodeling immunoreactive neurons was increased in adolescent rats, and decreased in adult rats, as a consequence of chronic fluoxetine treatment. No fluoxetine-induced changes in 5-HT(1A receptor immunoreactivity were observed. In conclusion, we show that fluoxetine exerts both harmful and beneficial age-dependent effects on depressive behavior, body weight and wakefulness, which may relate, in part, to differential

  10. Increasing Market Penetration of LED Traffic Signals in New York State: Review of Articles and Information on LED Traffic Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Bullough, John D; Suozzo, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    A primary purpose of this review is to identify and summarize recently published information about the use and performance of light-emitting diode (LED) traffic signals. It consists of two sections: a synopsis of experiences of municipalities using LED traffic signals in 1999 and 2000, and a discussion of technical, economic and market issues surrounding the deployment of LED signals. This review includes articles and reports published in 1999 and 2000.

  11. Age-dependent changes in cat masseter nerve: an electrophysiological and morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, M H; Engelhardt, J K; Adinolfi, A M; Chirwa, S S

    1992-07-24

    The present study was undertaken to determine the manner in which aging affects the function and structure of the masseter nerve in old cats. Electrophysiological data demonstrated a significant decrease in the conduction velocity of the action potential in old cats compared with that observed in adult cats. Light microscopic analyses revealed an age-dependent decrease in axon diameter. Electron microscopic observations of the masseter nerve in the aged cats revealed a disruption of the myelin sheaths and a pronounced increase in collagen fibers in the endoneurium and perineurium. These morphological changes are discussed and then related to the decrease in conduction velocity which was observed in the electrophysiological portion of this study. PMID:1521161

  12. Critical Age-Dependent Branching Markov Processes and their Scaling Limits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Krishna B Athreya; Siva R Athreya; Srikanth K Iyer

    2010-06-01

    This paper studies: (i) the long-time behaviour of the empirical distribution of age and normalized position of an age-dependent critical branching Markov process conditioned on non-extinction; and (ii) the super-process limit of a sequence of age-dependent critical branching Brownian motions.

  13. Age dependency of serum insulin - like growth factor (IGF-1 in healthy Turkish adolescents and adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiryakioaylu O

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 reflect endogenous growth hormone (GH secretion in healthy subjects. Measurements of IGF-1 are useful for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with acromegaly and the diagnosis of GH deficiency in children. AIMS: To assess age dependency and normal ranges of serum IGF-1 levels in healthy Turkish population. SETTING AND DESIGN: We therefore studied 272 healthy adolescents and adults between 15-75 years of age. None had diabetes or other endocrine disease or had received estrogen therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Height, weight, body mass index (BMI and waist-hip ratio were measured in all subjects. Serum samples were obtained during morning hours and IGF-1 was measured by radioimmunoassay. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The age-dependent reference range for serum IGF-1 concentrations was calculated by simple least linear regression analysis: the regression line represents the means with 95 percent confidence intervals. Correlation analysis was also done. RESULTS: Ageing was negatively related to serum levels of IGF-1 (P= 0.0001, r=-0.931 with a mean decrease (youngest vs. oldest. IGF-1 levels increased during adolescence, with the highest mean values during puberty. After puberty, a subsequent decline in serum levels of IGF-1 was apparent. There were also a significant difference according to gender; females had significantly higher levels (357.909+/-219.167 mg/L than males (307.962+/-198.41 mg/L (P=0.012. IGF-1 levels were correlated with body height (P=0.001, r=0.223, body weight (P=0.002,r=-0.188 and BMI (P=0.039, r=0.128. CONCLUSION: IGF-1 serum levels increase in adolescents with a peak in puberty, whereafter IGF-1 levels return to prepubertal levels.

  14. Age-dependent improvement in passive avoidance learning of the young chick: cholinergic mediation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolman, J F; Mattingly, B A

    1982-06-01

    Cholinergic mediation of the age-dependent improvement in response suppression of the young chick was studied by determining the performance of 4-day-old chicks, pretreated with scopolamine, during passive avoidance (PA) and extinction testing. In Experiment 1, chicks were trained briefly to key peck for heat reward (prepunishment training), and then tested for PA learning under immediate, 2-sec-delayed, or no shock condition. Half of the chicks in each wing-shock (5 mA, 5 sec) condition received saline injections before prepunishment training and .5 mg/kg scopolamine injections after prepunishment training. The rest of the chicks received .5 mg/kg scopolamine injections both before and after prepunishment training. For chicks in both scopolamine groups, delaying shock onset resulted in significantly less response suppression than immediate response-contingent shock. In Experiment 2, 4-day-old chicks injected with either saline or scopolamine were trained to key peck for heat reward and then tested for resistance to extinction under either response-contingent shock or nonshock conditions. Punishment decreased the number of extinction responses for both saline and scopolamine groups of chicks. Previous studies have shown that normal 1-day-old chicks do not show a significant delay of punishment effect during PA testing and that response-contingent punishment increases the number of their responses during extinction. Hence, the results of the present experiments indicate that the age-dependent improvement in response suppression of the young chick cannot be explained solely by a significant increase in central cholinergic functioning. PMID:7096681

  15. Age-Dependent Changes in Pb Concentration in Human Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Agnieszka; Wiechuła, Danuta

    2016-09-01

    The result of exposure to Pb is its accumulation in mineralized tissues. In human body, they constitute a reservoir of approx. 90 % of the Pb reserve. The conducted research aimed at determining the accumulation of Pb in calcified tissues of permanent teeth. The concentration of Pb in 390 samples of teeth taken from a selected group of Polish people was determined using the AAS method. Average concentration of Pb in teeth amounted to 14.3 ± 8.18 μg/g, range of changes: 2.21-54.8 μgPb/g. Accumulation of Pb in human body was determined based on changes in Pb concentration in teeth of subjects aged 13-84 years. It was found that in calcified tissues of teeth, the increase in concentration of Pb that occurs with age is a statistically significant process (p = 0.02, the ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis test). It was determined that the annual increase in concentration of Pb in tissues of teeth is approx. 0.1 μg/g. Moreover, a different course of changes in Pb concentration in tissues of teeth in people born in different years was observed. The level of Pb concentration in teeth of the oldest subjects (>60 years) decreased for those born in the 1930s compared to those in the 1950s. Teeth from younger persons (<60 years) were characterized by an increasing level of Pb concentration. The analysis of changes of Pb indicates that for low exposure, a relatively greater accumulation of Pb concentration in calcified tissues of teeth can occur. PMID:26888348

  16. Lucid dreaming: an age-dependent brain dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ursula; Frenzel, Clemens; Koppehele-Gossel, Judith; Hobson, Allan

    2012-12-01

    The current study focused on the distribution of lucid dreams in school children and young adults. The survey was conducted on a large sample of students aged 6-19 years. Questions distinguished between past and current experience with lucid dreams. Results suggest that lucid dreaming is quite pronounced in young children, its incidence rate drops at about age 16 years. Increased lucidity was found in those attending higher level compared with lower level schools. Taking methodological issues into account, we feel confident to propose a link between the natural occurrence of lucid dreaming and brain maturation.

  17. Lucid dreaming: an age-dependent brain dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ursula; Frenzel, Clemens; Koppehele-Gossel, Judith; Hobson, Allan

    2012-12-01

    The current study focused on the distribution of lucid dreams in school children and young adults. The survey was conducted on a large sample of students aged 6-19 years. Questions distinguished between past and current experience with lucid dreams. Results suggest that lucid dreaming is quite pronounced in young children, its incidence rate drops at about age 16 years. Increased lucidity was found in those attending higher level compared with lower level schools. Taking methodological issues into account, we feel confident to propose a link between the natural occurrence of lucid dreaming and brain maturation. PMID:22639960

  18. Review article

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, M A; Krarup, H; Sand, J.M.B;

    2014-01-01

    and to facilitate improved drug development. The aim of this article was to review the serological biomarkers that may assist in early diagnosis of patients, separate fast from slow- or nonprogressors, and possibly assist in drug development for fibroproliferative diseases, exemplified by liver fibrosis. The lack...... of success of biochemical markers and the possible reasons for this is discussed in the context of other fields with biomarker success. METHOD: This is a personal opinion review article. RESULTS: Biochemical markers, originating from the fibrotic structure, may have increased specificity and sensitivity...

  19. Age-dependent difference in the computed tomography numbers of the normal parotid gland of Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine normal CT number range of parotid gland by analyzing the change by age increase and the difference among individuals and between both sexes in CT number of normal parotid gland. 134 subjects who took the CT scan between the period of Jan. 1996 and Dec. 1997 at Yonsei University, Dental Hospital were selected. Criteria for selection were that the patients must be within the normal range clinically and radiologically, and the entire parotid gland on the axial view must be shown. Among the axial views, the one showing the greatest parotid gland size was selected and its CT number was recorded. Also, CT numbers from both masseter muscle were recorded as its control. There was statistically significant correlation between CT number of right and left of parotid glands and masseter muscles. With the increase of age, there is a significant decrease in the CT number of parotid gland (p0.05). As age increases, CT number of parotid gland has a tendency to decrease, and there is no significant difference in the CT numbers between left and right parotid gland. Therefore in the CT scan of patients suspected of having an salivary gland disease of the parotid gland, to consider normal range of the age-dependent CT numbers of parotid gland and compare the CT numbers of the right and left parotid gland might be useful in diagnosing the disease.

  20. Dysthymia increases the risk of temporomandibular disorder: A population-based cohort study (A STROBE-Compliant Article).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shang-Lun; Wu, Shang-Liang; Ko, Shun-Yao; Lu, Ching-Hsiang; Wang, Diew-Wei; Ben, Ren-Jy; Horng, Chi-Ting; Yang, Jung-Wu

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the relationship between depression and temporomandibular disorders (TMD), but the conclusions remain vague. The aim of this study was to examine the causal effect between depression and TMD.The reporting of this study conforms to the STROBE statement. In this retrospective cohort study, all samples were recruited from a representative subdataset of 1 million insured persons for the year 2005 Longitudinal Health Insurance Database, who were randomly selected from all beneficiaries enrolled in the National Health Insurance program of Taiwan. We used a propensity score and stratified 926,560 patients into 2 groups (propensity1 = 588,429 and propensity2 = 338,131) and 4 cohorts (propensity1 with depression = 18,038, propensity1 without depression = 570,391, propensity2 with depression = 38,656, propensity2 without depression = 299,475) to detect the development of TMD among the depressive and nondepressive patients between 2004 and 2013.The positive correlative factors of TMD included female, total number of times seeking medical advice (TTSMA) for anxiety state, TTSMA for generalized anxiety disorder, TTSMA for mandible fracture, and TTSMA for unspecified anomaly of jaw size. The propensity2 group was represented by elder and female-predominant patients who used more psychiatric health resources. Among 3 types of depression, only dysthymia (so-called chronic depression) had a causal impact on TMD in the propensity 2 group. In the propensity 2 group, the hazard ratio of dysthymia for TMD measured by Cox's regression was 1.64 (95% confidence interval 1.28-2.09), after adjusting for demographic factors, psychiatric comorbidities, and maxillofacial confounders. The first-onset mean time of TMD as the consequence of dysthymia was 3.56 years (sd = 2.74, min = 0.08, median = 2.99, max = 9.73).This study demonstrates that dysthymia increases the risk of TMD in elderly and female-predominant patients

  1. Prevalence and age-dependent occurrence of intestinal protozoan infections in suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damriyasa, I Made; Bauer, Christian

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was performed on 20 pig breeding farms in southern Hesse, central Germany, to evaluate the prevalence and age-dependent occurrence of intestinal protozoan parasites in unweaned piglets. Faecal samples of 514 clinically unaffected piglets of different age (Balantidium coli (16 of 20 farms), Entamoeba sp. (15), Jodamoeba sp. (14), Isospora (I.) suis (9), Chilomastix sp. (6) and Eimeria spp. (6). The protozoan species differed in the start and course of (oo)cyst excretion. I. suis oocysts and Jodamoeba cysts were detected already in the first week of life whereas shedding of the other parasites started later on. The prevalence of Isospora oocyst excretion increased to a maximum (18%) in 2-3 weeks old animals followed by a sharp decline. The proportion of Balantidium, Entamoeba or Jodamoeba positive suckling piglets continously increased until the age of 5-7 weeks to 60%, 52% and 22%, respectively, whereas that of Chilomastix positive animals remained on a low level of 8-12% independent of the age. Eimeria oocysts were found transiently in the faeces of 1-4 weeks old piglets. PMID:17009710

  2. Age-Dependent Changes of Monocarboxylate Transporter 8 Availability in the Postnatal Murine Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Yoshiyuki; Szafranski, Karol

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid hormones (TH) triiodothyronine (T3) and its prohormone thyroxine (T4) are crucial for retinal development and function, and increasing evidence points at TH dysregulation as a cause for retinal degenerative diseases. Thus, precise regulation of retinal TH supply is required for proper retinal function, but knowledge on these mechanisms is still fragmentary. Several transmembrane transporters have been described as key regulators of TH availability in target tissues of which the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), a high affinity transporter for T4 and T3, plays an essential role in the central nervous system. Moreover, in the embryonic chicken retina, MCT8 is highly expressed, but the postnatal availability of MCT8 in the mammalian retina was not reported to date. In the present study, spatiotemporal retinal MCT8 availability was examined in mice of different age. For this purpose, we quantified expression levels of Mct8 via Real-Time Reverse-Transcriptase PCR in mouse eyecups (C57BL/6) of juvenile and adult age groups. Additionally, age-dependent MCT8 protein levels were quantified via Western blotting and localized via immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. While no difference in Mct8 expression levels could be detected between age groups, MCT8 protein levels in juvenile animals were about two times higher than in adult animals based on Western blot analyses. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that MCT8 immunoreactivity in the eyecup was restricted to the retina and the retinal pigment epithelium. In juvenile mice, MCT8 was broadly observed along the apical membrane of the retinal pigment epithelium, tightly surrounding photoreceptor outer segments. Distinct immunopositive staining was also detected in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. However, in adult specimens, immunoreactivity visibly declined in all layers, which was in line with Western blot analyses. Since MCT8 was abundantly present in juvenile and about twofold lower in

  3. LINC00507 Is Specifically Expressed in the Primate Cortex and Has Age-Dependent Expression Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, James D; Ward, Melanie; Chen, Bei Jun; Iyer, Anand M; Aronica, Eleonora; Janitz, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increase in the appreciation of the role of non-coding RNA in the development of organism phenotype. It is possible to divide the non-coding elements of the transcriptome into three categories: short non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs and long non-coding RNAs. Long non-coding RNAs are those transcripts that are greater than 200 nts in length and lack any significant open reading frames that produce proteins greater then 100 amino acids. Long intervening non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are a subclass of long non-coding RNAs. In contrast to protein coding RNAs, lincRNAs are expressed in a more tissue- and species-specific manner. In particular, many lincRNAs are only conserved amongst higher primates. This coupled with the propensity of many lincRNAs to be expressed in the brain, suggests that they are in fact one of the major drivers of organism complexity. We analysed 39 lincRNAs that are expressed in the frontal cortex and identified LINC00507 as being expressed in a cortex-specific manner in non-human primates and humans. The expression patterns of LINC00507 appear to be age-dependent, suggesting it may be involved in brain development of higher primates. Moreover, the analysis of LINC00507 potential to bind ribosomes revealed that this previously identified non-coding transcript may harbour a micropeptide. PMID:27059230

  4. Steroidogenic Factor 1 in the Ventromedial Nucleus of the Hypothalamus Regulates Age-Dependent Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyua, Ann W; Yang, Dong Joo; Chang, Inik; Kim, Ki Woo

    2016-01-01

    The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) is important for the regulation of whole body energy homeostasis and lesions in the VMH are reported to result in massive weight gain. The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a known VMH marker as it is exclusively expressed in the VMH region of the brain. SF-1 plays a critical role not only in the development of VMH but also in its physiological functions. In this study, we generated prenatal VMH-specific SF-1 KO mice and investigated age-dependent energy homeostasis regulation by SF-1. Deletion of SF-1 in the VMH resulted in dysregulated insulin and leptin homeostasis and late onset obesity due to increased food intake under normal chow and high fat diet conditions. In addition, SF-1 ablation was accompanied by a marked reduction in energy expenditure and physical activity and this effect was significantly pronounced in the aged mice. Taken together, our data indicates that SF-1 is a key component in the VMH-mediated regulation of energy homeostasis and implies that SF-1 plays a protective role against metabolic stressors including aging and high fat diet. PMID:27598259

  5. Large-scale age-dependent skewed sex ratio in a sexually dimorphic avian scavenger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Lambertucci

    Full Text Available Age-dependent skewed sex ratios have been observed in bird populations, with adult males generally outnumbering females. This trend is mainly driven by higher female mortality, sometimes associated with anthropogenic factors. Despite the large amount of work on bird sex ratios, research examining the spatial stability of adult sex ratios is extremely scarce. The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus is the only bird of prey with strong sexual dimorphism favouring males (males are 30% heavier than females. By examining data from most of its South-American range, we show that while the juvenile sex ratio is balanced, or even female-skewed, the sex ratio becomes increasing male-skewed with age, with adult males outnumbering females by >20%, and, in some cases by four times more. This result is consistent across regions and independent of the nature of field data. Reasons for this are unknown but it can be hypothesized that the progressive disappearance of females may be associated with mortality caused by anthropogenic factors. This idea is supported by the asymmetric habitat use by the two sexes, with females scavenging in more humanized areas. Whatever the cause, male-skewed adult sex ratios imply that populations of this endangered scavenger face higher risks of extinction than previously believed.

  6. Steroidogenic Factor 1 in the Ventromedial Nucleus of the Hypothalamus Regulates Age-Dependent Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyua, Ann W.; Yang, Dong Joo; Chang, Inik; Kim, Ki Woo

    2016-01-01

    The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) is important for the regulation of whole body energy homeostasis and lesions in the VMH are reported to result in massive weight gain. The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a known VMH marker as it is exclusively expressed in the VMH region of the brain. SF-1 plays a critical role not only in the development of VMH but also in its physiological functions. In this study, we generated prenatal VMH-specific SF-1 KO mice and investigated age-dependent energy homeostasis regulation by SF-1. Deletion of SF-1 in the VMH resulted in dysregulated insulin and leptin homeostasis and late onset obesity due to increased food intake under normal chow and high fat diet conditions. In addition, SF-1 ablation was accompanied by a marked reduction in energy expenditure and physical activity and this effect was significantly pronounced in the aged mice. Taken together, our data indicates that SF-1 is a key component in the VMH-mediated regulation of energy homeostasis and implies that SF-1 plays a protective role against metabolic stressors including aging and high fat diet. PMID:27598259

  7. Proteomic identification of age-dependent protein nitration in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, Jaroslaw; Alterman, Michail A; Schöneich, Christian

    2003-11-15

    Age-related protein nitration was studied in skeletal muscle of Fisher 344 and Fisher 344/Brown Norway (BN) F1 rats by a proteomic approach. Proteins from young (4 months) and old (24 months) Fisher 344 rats and young (6 months) and old (34 months) Fisher 344/BN F1 animals were separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis. Western blot showed an age-related increase in the nitration of a few specific proteins, which were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and ESI-MS/MS. We identified age-dependent apparent nitration of beta-enolase, alpha-fructose aldolase, and creatine kinase, which perform important functions in muscle energy metabolism, suggesting that the nitration of such key proteins can be, in part, responsible for the decline of muscle motor function of the muscle. Furthermore, we have identified the apparent nitration of succinate dehydrogenase, rab GDP dissociation inhibitor beta (GdI-2), triosephosphate isomerase, troponin I, alpha-crystallin, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH).

  8. Evidence for novel age-dependent network structures as a putative primo vascular network in the dura mater of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Sung; Kang, Dai-In; Yoon, Seung Zhoo; Ryu, Yeon Hee; Lee, Inhyung; Kim, Hoon-Gi; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Lee, Ki Bog

    2015-07-01

    With chromium-hematoxylin staining, we found evidence for the existence of novel age-dependent network structures in the dura mater of rat brains. Under stereomicroscopy, we noticed that chromium-hematoxylin-stained threadlike structures, which were barely observable in 1-week-old rats, were networked in specific areas of the brain, for example, the lateral lobes and the cerebella, in 4-week-old rats. In 7-week-old rats, those structures were found to have become larger and better networked. With phase contrast microscopy, we found that in 1-week-old rats, chromium-hematoxylin-stained granules were scattered in the same areas of the brain in which the network structures would later be observed in the 4- and 7-week-old rats. Such age-dependent network structures were examined by using optical and transmission electron microscopy, and the following results were obtained. The scattered granules fused into networks with increasing age. Cross-sections of the age-dependent network structures demonstrated heavily-stained basophilic substructures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the basophilic substructures to be clusters with high electron densities consisting of nanosized particles. We report these data as evidence for the existence of age-dependent network structures in the dura mater, we discuss their putative functions of age-dependent network structures beyond the general concept of the dura mater as a supporting matrix. PMID:26330833

  9. Evidence for novel age-dependent network structures as a putative primo vascular network in the dura mater of the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Sung Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With chromium-hematoxylin staining, we found evidence for the existence of novel age-dependent network structures in the dura mater of rat brains. Under stereomicroscopy, we noticed that chromium-hematoxylin-stained threadlike structures, which were barely observable in 1-week-old rats, were networked in specific areas of the brain, for example, the lateral lobes and the cerebella, in 4-week-old rats. In 7-week-old rats, those structures were found to have become larger and better networked. With phase contrast microscopy, we found that in 1-week-old rats, chromium-hematoxylin-stained granules were scattered in the same areas of the brain in which the network structures would later be observed in the 4- and 7-week-old rats. Such age-dependent network structures were examined by using optical and transmission electron microscopy, and the following results were obtained. The scattered granules fused into networks with increasing age. Cross-sections of the age-dependent network structures demonstrated heavily-stained basophilic substructures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the basophilic substructures to be clusters with high electron densities consisting of nanosized particles. We report these data as evidence for the existence of age-dependent network structures in the dura mater, we discuss their putative functions of age-dependent network structures beyond the general concept of the dura mater as a supporting matrix.

  10. Age-dependent changes in innate immune phenotype and function in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Asquith

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aged individuals are more susceptible to infections due to a general decline in immune function broadly referred to as immune senescence. While age-related changes in the adaptive immune system are well documented, aging of the innate immune system remains less well understood, particularly in nonhuman primates. A more robust understanding of age-related changes in innate immune function would provide mechanistic insight into the increased susceptibility of the elderly to infection. Rhesus macaques have proved a critical translational model for aging research, and present a unique opportunity to dissect age-dependent modulation of the innate immune system. We examined age-related changes in: (i innate immune cell frequencies; (ii expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs and innate signaling molecules; (iii cytokine responses of monocytes and dendritic cells (DC following stimulation with PRR agonists; and (iv plasma cytokine levels in this model. We found marked changes in both the phenotype and function of innate immune cells. This included an age-associated increased frequency of myeloid DC (mDC. Moreover, we found toll-like receptor (TLR agonists lipopolysaccharide (TLR4, fibroblast stimulating ligand-1 (TLR2/6, and ODN2006 (TLR7/9 induced reduced cytokine responses in aged mDC. Interestingly, with the exception of the monocyte-derived TNFα response to LPS, which increased with age, TNFα, IL-6, and IFNα responses declined with age. We also found that TLR4, TLR5, and innate negative regulator, sterile alpha and TIR motif containing protein (SARM, were all expressed at lower levels in young animals. By contrast, absent in melanoma 2 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I expression was lowest in aged animals. Together, these observations indicate that several parameters of innate immunity are significantly modulated by age and contribute to differential immune function in aged macaques.

  11. Aging-dependent changes in rat heart mitochondrial glutaredoxins—Implications for redox regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Huang Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and animal studies have documented that hearts of the elderly are more susceptible to ischemia/reperfusion damage compared to young adults. Recently we found that aging-dependent increase in susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to apoptosis was attributable to decrease in cytosolic glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1 and concomitant decrease in NF-κB-mediated expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. Besides primary localization in the cytosol, Grx1 also exists in the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS. In contrast, Grx2 is confined to the mitochondrial matrix. Here we report that Grx1 is decreased by 50–60% in the IMS, but Grx2 is increased by 1.4–2.6 fold in the matrix of heart mitochondria from elderly rats. Determination of in situ activities of the Grx isozymes from both subsarcolemmal (SSM and interfibrillar (IFM mitochondria revealed that Grx1 was fully active in the IMS. However, Grx2 was mostly in an inactive form in the matrix, consistent with reversible sequestration of the active-site cysteines of two Grx2 molecules in complex with an iron–sulfur cluster. Our quantitative evaluations of the active/inactive ratio for Grx2 suggest that levels of dimeric Grx2 complex with iron–sulfur clusters are increased in SSM and IFM in the hearts of elderly rats. We found that the inactive Grx2 can be fully reactivated by sodium dithionite or exogenous superoxide production mediated by xanthine oxidase. However, treatment with rotenone, which generates intramitochondrial superoxide through inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain Complex I, did not lead to Grx2 activation. These findings suggest that insufficient ROS accumulates in the vicinity of dimeric Grx2 to activate it in situ.

  12. Happy Birthday, you're Fired! : The Effects of an Age-Dependent Minimum Wage on Youth Employment Flows in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabátek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of the age-dependent minimum wage on youth employment flow in the Netherlands. The Dutch minimum wage for workers aged 15-23 is defined as a step-wise increasing function of a worker's calendar age. At the aged of 23, workers become eligible for the "adult" minimu

  13. Optimal harvesting for an age-dependent n-dimensional food chain model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhi-xue; DU Ming-yin

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with optimal harvesting policy for an age-dependent n-dimensional food chain model. The existence and uniqueness of non-negative solution of the system are proved using the fixed point theorem. By Mazur's theorem, the existence of optimal control strategy is demonstrated and optimality conditions derived by means of normal cone.

  14. An age-dependent population equation with diffusion and delayed birth process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fragnelli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new age-dependent population equation which takes into account not only a delay in the birth process, but also other events that may take place during the time between conception and birth. Using semigroup theory, we discuss the well posedness and the asymptotic behavior of the solution.

  15. Age-dependent seizures of absence epilepsy and sleep spindles dynamics in WAG/Rij rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubov, Vadim V.; Sitnikova, Evgenia Y.; Pavlov, Alexey N.; Khramova, Marina V.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Hramov, Alexander E.

    2015-03-01

    In the given paper, a relation between time-frequency characteristics of sleep spindles and the age-dependent epileptic activity in WAG/Rij rats is discussed. Analysis of sleep spindles based on the continuous wavelet transform is performed for rats of different ages. It is shown that the epileptic activity affects the time-frequency intrinsic dynamics of sleep spindles.

  16. OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEM FOR A PERIODIC PREDATOR-PREY MODEL WITH AGE-DEPENDENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we investigate optimal policy for periodic predator-prey system with age-dependence.Namely,we consider the model with periodic vital rates and initial distribution.The existence of optimal control strategy is discussed by Mazur's theorem and optimality condition is derived by means of normal cone.

  17. Age-dependent changes in intrinsic neuronal excitability in subiculum after status epilepticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungkwon Chung

    Full Text Available Kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (KA-SE in mature rats results in the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures and a pattern of cell death resembling hippocampal sclerosis in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. In contrast, KA-SE in young animals before postnatal day (P 18 is less likely to cause cell death or epilepsy. To investigate whether changes in neuronal excitability occur in the subiculum after KA-SE, we examined the age-dependent effects of SE on the bursting neurons of subiculum, the major output region of the hippocampus. Patch-clamp recordings were used to monitor bursting in pyramidal neurons in the subiculum of rat hippocampal slices. Neurons were studied either one or 2-3 weeks following injection of KA or saline (control in immature (P15 or more mature (P30 rats, which differ in their sensitivity to KA as well as the long-term sequelae of the KA-SE. A significantly greater proportion of subicular pyramidal neurons from P15 rats were strong-bursting neurons and showed increased frequency-dependent bursting compared to P30 animals. Frequency-dependent burst firing was enhanced in P30, but not in P15 rats following KA-SE. The enhancement of bursting induced by KA-SE in more mature rats suggests that the frequency-dependent limitation of repetitive burst firing, which normally occurs in the subiculum, is compromised following SE. These changes could facilitate the initiation of spontaneous recurrent seizures or their spread from the hippocampus to other parts of the brain.

  18. Age-dependent variation of the Gradient Index profile in human crystalline lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, A; Siedlecki, D; Borja, David; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Parel, Jean-Marie; Manns, Fabrice; Marcos, S

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To reconstruct the gradient index (GRIN) profile of human crystalline lenses ex-vivo using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging with an optimization technique and to study the dependence of the GRIN profile with age. METHODS: Cross-sectional images of nine isolated human crystalline lenses with ages ranging from 6 to 72 (post mortem time 1 to 4 days) were obtained using a custom-made OCT system. Lenses were extracted from whole cadaver globes and placed in a measurement chamber filled with preservation medium (DMEM). Lenses were imaged with the anterior surface up and then flipped over and imaged again, to obtain posterior lens surface profiles both undistorted and distorted by the refraction through the anterior crystalline lens and GRIN. The GRIN distribution of the lens was described with three variables by means of power function, with variables being the nucleus and surface index, and a power coefficient that describes the decay of the refractive index from the nucleus to the surface. An optimization method was used to search for the parameters that produced the best match of the distorted posterior surface. RESULTS: The distorted surface was simulated with accuracy around the resolution of the OCT system (under 15 µm). The reconstructed refractive index values ranged from 1.356 to 1.388 for the surface, and from 1.396 to 1.434 for the nucleus. The power coefficient ranged between 3 and 18. The power coefficient increased significantly with age, at a rate of 0.24 per year. CONCLUSION: Optical Coherence Tomography allowed optical, non-invasive measurement of the 2-D gradient index profile of the isolated human crystalline lens ex vivo. The age-dependent variation of the changes is consistent with previous data using magnetic resonance imaging, and the progressive formation of a refractive index plateau. PMID:22865954

  19. Obesity-induced chronic inflammation in high fat diet challenged C57BL/6J mice is associated with acceleration of age-dependent renal amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Roel A; Bijzet, Johan; Meijers, Wouter C; Yakala, Gopala K; Kleemann, Robert; Nguyen, Tri Q; de Boer, Rudolf A; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Hazenberg, Bouke P C; Tietge, Uwe J F; Heeringa, Peter

    2015-11-13

    Obesity-induced inflammation presumably accelerates the development of chronic kidney diseases. However, little is known about the sequence of these inflammatory events and their contribution to renal pathology. We investigated the effects of obesity on the evolution of age-dependent renal complications in mice in conjunction with the development of renal and systemic low-grade inflammation (LGI). C57BL/6J mice susceptible to develop age-dependent sclerotic pathologies with amyloid features in the kidney, were fed low (10% lard) or high-fat diets (45% lard) for 24, 40 and 52 weeks. HFD-feeding induced overt adiposity, altered lipid and insulin homeostasis, increased systemic LGI and adipokine release. HFD-feeding also caused renal upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes, infiltrating macrophages, collagen I protein, increased urinary albumin and NGAL levels. HFD-feeding severely aggravated age-dependent structural changes in the kidney. Remarkably, enhanced amyloid deposition rather than sclerosis was observed. The degree of amyloidosis correlated significantly with body weight. Amyloid deposits stained positive for serum amyloid A (SAA) whose plasma levels were chronically elevated in HFD mice. Our data indicate obesity-induced chronic inflammation as a risk factor for the acceleration of age-dependent renal amyloidosis and functional impairment in mice, and suggest that obesity-enhanced chronic secretion of SAA may be the driving factor behind this process.

  20. Age-Dependent Cell Trafficking Defects in Draining Lymph Nodes Impair Adaptive Immunity and Control of West Nile Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin M Richner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Impaired immune responses in the elderly lead to reduced vaccine efficacy and increased susceptibility to viral infections. Although several groups have documented age-dependent defects in adaptive immune priming, the deficits that occur prior to antigen encounter remain largely unexplored. Herein, we identify novel mechanisms for compromised adaptive immunity that occurs with aging in the context of infection with West Nile virus (WNV, an encephalitic flavivirus that preferentially causes disease in the elderly. An impaired IgM and IgG response and enhanced vulnerability to WNV infection during aging was linked to delayed germinal center formation in the draining lymph node (DLN. Adoptive transfer studies and two-photon intravital microscopy revealed a decreased trafficking capacity of donor naïve CD4+ T cells from old mice, which manifested as impaired T cell diapedesis at high endothelial venules and reduced cell motility within DLN prior to antigen encounter. Furthermore, leukocyte accumulation in the DLN within the first few days of WNV infection or antigen-adjuvant administration was diminished more generally in old mice and associated with a second aging-related defect in local cytokine and chemokine production. Thus, age-dependent cell-intrinsic and environmental defects in the DLN result in delayed immune cell recruitment and antigen recognition. These deficits compromise priming of early adaptive immune responses and likely contribute to the susceptibility of old animals to acute WNV infection.

  1. Inverse U-shaped curve for age dependency of torsional eye movement responses to galvanic vestibular stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Klaus; Naessl, Andrea; Schneider, Erich; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas; Dieterich, Marianne

    2003-07-01

    To investigate age dependent changes we analysed torsional eye movement responses to binaural and monaural galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) in 57 healthy subjects (20-69 years old). GVS (1-3 mA) induced torsional eye movements consisting of static torsion toward the anode (amplitude 1-6 degrees ) and superimposed torsional nystagmus (slow phase velocity 0.5-3 degrees /s, quick phase amplitude 0.5-2 degrees, nystagmus frequency 0.75-1.5 s-1). Static ocular torsion and torsional nystagmus increased from the third to the sixth decade and decreased in older subjects, e.g. slow phase velocity increased from 1.5 degrees /s (20-29 years) to 2.9 degrees /s (50-59 years) and decreased to 2.5 degrees /s for the seventh decade (60-69 years). Thus, an inverse U-shaped curve was found for the dependence of torsional eye movement responses on age. All structures relevant for vestibular function degenerate with age, but at varying times. Since hair cell loss precedes those seen in the vestibular nerve and Scarpa's ganglion, the decrease in hair cell counts could be compensated for by increased sensitivity of afferent nerve fibres or central mechanisms. Increased sensitivity could thus maintain normal function despite reduced peripheral input. As GVS acts at the vestibular nerve (thereby bypassing the hair cells), electrical stimulation should be more efficient in subjects with the beginning of hair cell degeneration, as seen in our data up to the sixth decade. The degeneration of nerve fibres, ganglion cells and central neurons becomes evident at older ages. Thus, the compensatory increase in sensitivity breaks down and GVS-induced eye movements decline-a finding that is reflected by the inverse U-shaped curve for age dependency presented in this study.

  2. The age-dependent influence of self-reported health and job characteristics on retirement

    OpenAIRE

    Mortelmans, Dimitri; Vannieuwenhuyze, Jorre T.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Social scientists and economists doubt the usefulness of self-reported health status as an indicator of overall health status. Self-reported health acts as a justification for retirement when this decision is in reality driven by other reasons. In this study, we looked at income, job satisfaction, and job status. Methods We introduce a survival model (Cox model) that simultaneously includes both health and job characteristics as independent variables. We also take the age-dependent...

  3. Age-Dependent Modulation of Cortical Transcriptomes in Spinal Cord Injury and Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Jaerve, Anne; Kruse, Fabian; Malik, Katharina; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Müller, Hans Werner

    2012-01-01

    Both injury and aging of the central nervous system reportedly produce profound changes in gene expression. Therefore, aging may interfere with the success of therapeutic interventions which were tailored for young patients. Using genome-scale transcriptional profiling, we identified distinct age-dependent expression profiles in rat sensorimotor cortex during acute, subacute and chronic phases of spinal cord injury (SCI). Aging affects the cortical transcriptomes triggered by transection of t...

  4. OPTIMAL HARVESTING CONTROL PROBLEM FOR LINEAR AGE-DEPENDENT POPULATION DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoZhixue; WangMiansen

    2003-01-01

    An optimal harvesting problem for linear age-dependent population dynamics is investigated.By Mazur''s Theorem,the existence of solutions of the optimal control problem(OH) is demonstrated.The first order necessary conditions of optimality for problem (OH) is obtained by the conception of normal cone.Finally,under suitable assumptions,the uniqueness of solutions of the optimal control problem (OH) is given.The results extend some knowncriteria.

  5. Comparison between Numerical and Simulation Methods for Age-dependent Branching Models with Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, R.; Slavtchova-Bojkova, M.

    2005-01-01

    2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: primary: 60J80, 60J85, secondary: 62M09, 92D40 This work aims to provide and to compare numerical computation and simulation method to estimate the distribution of some relevant variables related to an age-dependent model allowing immigration at state zero. Specifically, we analyze the behaviour of the following variables: the extinction time and the waiting time for the beginning of the survival of population forever. They are strongly related to t...

  6. Age-dependent effects of conditioning on cholinergic and vasopressin systems in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Biemans, BAM; Van der Zee, EA; Daan, S.

    2003-01-01

    Active shock avoidance was used to explore the impact of behavioural stimulation on the neurochemistry of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. We have found previously that the expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of young rats was significantly enhanced 24 hours after fear conditioning. Here, we investigated whether this observation is age-dependent. We used 26 month-old Wistar rats with a deteriorated circadian system, and compared them with young rats (4 ...

  7. Age-dependent changes in lipid peroxide levels in peripheral organs, but not in brain, in senescence-accelerated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsugo, S; Kitagawa, T; Minami, S; Esashi, Y; Oomura, Y; Tokumaru, S; Kojo, S; Matsushima, K; Sasaki, K

    2000-01-01

    The tissue concentration of lipid peroxides was determined in the brain, heart, liver, lung and kidney of accelerated senescence-prone (SAMP-8) and -resistant (SAMR-1) mice at 3, 6 and 9 months of age by a method involving chemical derivatization and high performance liquid chromatography. The level of lipid peroxides in the brain did not show an age-dependent change, but at each age the brain level of lipid peroxides was significantly higher in SAMP-8 than in SAMR-1. In contrast, the lipid peroxide levels in the peripheral organs showed increases with aging in both strains, and they were significantly higher in SAMP-8 than in SAMR-1 at both 3 and 6 months of age (except at 3 months of age in the kidney). These results suggest that increased oxidative stress in the brain and peripheral organs is a cause of the senescence-related degeneration and impairments seen in SAMP-8. PMID:10643812

  8. Maternal care, mother-offspring aggregation and age-dependent coadaptation in the European earwig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Y; Kölliker, M

    2013-09-01

    Benefits and costs of parental care are expected to change with offspring development and lead to age-dependent coadaptation expressed as phenotypic (behavioural) matches between offspring age and parental reproductive stage. Parents and offspring interact repeatedly over time for the provision of parental care. Their behaviours should be accordingly adjusted to each other dynamically and adaptively, and the phenotypic match between offspring age and parental stage should stabilize the repeated behavioural interactions. In the European earwig (Forficula auricularia), maternal care is beneficial for offspring survival, but not vital, allowing us to investigate the extent to which the stability of mother-offspring aggregation is shaped by age-dependent coadaptation. In this study, we experimentally cross-fostered nymphs of different age classes (younger or older) between females in early or late reproductive stage to disrupt age-dependent coadaptation, thereby generating female-nymph dyads that were phenotypically matched or mismatched. The results revealed a higher stability in aggregation during the first larval instar when care is most intense, a steeper decline in aggregation tendency over developmental time and a reduced developmental rate in matched compared with mismatched families. Furthermore, nymph survival was positively correlated with female-nymph aggregation stability during the early stages when maternal care is most prevalent. These results support the hypothesis that age-related phenotypically plastic coadaptation affects family dynamics and offspring developmental rate.

  9. Defects of Lipid Synthesis Are Linked to the Age-Dependent Demyelination Caused by Lamin B1 Overexpression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolyan, Harshvardhan; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Hernandez, Marylens; Amoscato, Andrew A.; Sparvero, Louis J.; Nmezi, Bruce C.; Lu, Yue; Estécio, Marcos R. H.; Lin, Kevin; Chen, Junda; He, Rong-Rong; Gong, Pin; Rigatti, Lora H.; Dupree, Jeffrey; Bayır, Hülya; Kagan, Valerian E.; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Lamin B1 is a component of the nuclear lamina and plays a critical role in maintaining nuclear architecture, regulating gene expression and modulating chromatin positioning. We have previously shown that LMNB1 gene duplications cause autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD), a fatal adult onset demyelinating disease. The mechanisms by which increased LMNB1 levels cause ADLD are unclear. To address this, we used a transgenic mouse model where Lamin B1 overexpression is targeted to oligodendrocytes. These mice showed severe vacuolar degeneration of the spinal cord white matter together with marked astrogliosis, microglial infiltration, and secondary axonal damage. Oligodendrocytes in the transgenic mice revealed alterations in histone modifications favoring a transcriptionally repressed state. Chromatin changes were accompanied by reduced expression of genes involved in lipid synthesis pathways, many of which are known to play important roles in myelin regulation and are preferentially expressed in oligodendrocytes. Decreased lipogenic gene expression resulted in a significant reduction in multiple classes of lipids involved in myelin formation. Many of these gene expression changes and lipid alterations were observed even before the onset of the phenotype, suggesting a causal role. Our findings establish, for the first time, a link between LMNB1 and lipid synthesis in oligodendrocytes, and provide a mechanistic framework to explain the age dependence and white matter involvement of the disease phenotype. These results have implications for disease pathogenesis and may also shed light on the regulation of lipid synthesis pathways in myelin maintenance and turnover. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD) is fatal neurological disorder caused by increased levels of the nuclear protein, Lamin B1. The disease is characterized by an age-dependent loss of myelin, the fatty sheath that covers nerve fibers. We have studied a mouse model where Lamin B

  10. Age-dependent change in biological characteristics of stem cells in radiation-induced mammary carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Yoshiya; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Imaoka, Tatsuhiko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa, Chiba (Japan); Yasukawa-Barnes, Jane; Gould, Michael N.; Clifton, Kelly H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Department of Human Oncology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2003-07-01

    underlie the age-dependent susceptibility to radiation-induced breast cancer. (author)

  11. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to caffeine and increased alertness pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from SmithKline Beecham Limited, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of United Kingdom, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to caffeine and increased alertness. The food constituent, caffeine, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. Increased alertness might be a beneficial physiological effect. A claim on caffeine and increased alertness, in the general adult population, for products containing at least 75 mg of caffeine per serving, has already been assessed by the Panel with a favourable outcome. In the present application, the applicant proposed that, in order to bear the claim, a product should contain at least 40 mg of caffeine per serving. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that most studies which measured reaction time in various cognitive tasks found no effect of caffeine at doses < 75 mg. In the particular dose range between 40 and < 75 mg, no effect of caffeine was found on the majority of outcome measures of reaction time. The Panel notes that the majority of studies with caffeine doses of 75 mg or higher showed a significant reduction in measures of reaction time. On the basis of the evidence provided, the Panel reiterates its previous conclusion that, in order to bear the claim, a product should contain at least 75 mg caffeine per serving. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of caffeine and increased alertness under the conditions of use proposed by the applicant.

  12. An Age-Dependent Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model for the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos in the Preweanling Rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Chuck; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Poet, Torka S.

    2007-08-01

    Juvenile rats are more susceptible than adults to the acute toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides like chlorpyrifos (CPF). Age- and dose-dependent differences in metabolism may be responsible. Of importance is CYP450 activation and detoxification of CPF to chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-oxon) and trichloropyridinol (TCP), as well as B-esterase (cholinesterase; ChE) and A-esterase (PON-1) detoxification of CPF-oxon to TCP. In the current study, a modified physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model incorporating age-dependent changes in CYP450, PON-1, and tissue ChE levels for rats was developed. In this model, age was used as a dependent function to estimate body weight which was then used to allometrically scale both metabolism and tissue ChE levels. Model simulations suggest that preweanling rats are particularly sensitive to CPF toxicity, with levels of CPF-oxon in blood and brain disproportionately increasing, relative to the response in adult rats. This age-dependent non-linear increase in CPF-oxon concentration may potentially result from the depletion of non-target B-esterases, and a lower PON-1 metabolic capacity in younger animals. These results indicate that the PBPK/PD model behaves consistently with the general understanding of CPF toxicity, pharmacokinetics and tissue ChE inhibition in neonatal and adult rats. Hence, this model represents an important starting point for developing a computational model to assess the neurotoxic potential of environmentally relevant organophosphate exposures in infants and children.

  13. Simulated Microgravity Exerts an Age-Dependent Effect on the Differentiation of Cardiovascular Progenitors Isolated from the Human Heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania I Fuentes

    Full Text Available Microgravity has a profound effect on cardiovascular function, however, little is known about the impact of microgravity on progenitors that reside within the heart. We investigated the effect of simulated microgravity exposure on progenitors isolated from the neonatal and adult human heart by quantifying changes in functional parameters, gene expression and protein levels after 6-7 days of 2D clinorotation. Utilization of neonatal and adult cardiovascular progenitors in ground-based studies has provided novel insight into how microgravity may affect cells differently depending on age. Simulated microgravity exposure did not impact AKT or ERK phosphorylation levels and did not influence cell migration, but elevated transcripts for paracrine factors were identified in neonatal and adult cardiovascular progenitors. Age-dependent responses surfaced when comparing the impact of microgravity on differentiation. Endothelial cell tube formation was unchanged or increased in progenitors from adults whereas neonatal cardiovascular progenitors showed a decline in tube formation (p<0.05. Von Willebrand Factor, an endothelial differentiation marker, and MLC2v and Troponin T, markers for cardiomyogenic differentiation, were elevated in expression in adult progenitors after simulated microgravity. DNA repair genes and telomerase reverse transcriptase which are highly expressed in early stem cells were increased in expression in neonatal but not adult cardiac progenitors after growth under simulated microgravity conditions. Neonatal cardiac progenitors demonstrated higher levels of MESP1, OCT4, and brachyury, markers for early stem cells. MicroRNA profiling was used to further investigate the impact of simulated microgravity on cardiovascular progenitors. Fifteen microRNAs were significantly altered in expression, including microRNAs-99a and 100 (which play a critical role in cell dedifferentiation. These microRNAs were unchanged in adult cardiac progenitors

  14. Young science journalism: writing popular scientific articles may contribute to an increase of high-school students' interest in the natural sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Uwe K.; Steindl, Hanna; Larcher, Nicole; Kulac, Helga; Hotter, Annelies

    2016-03-01

    Far too few high-school students choose subjects from the natural sciences (NaSc) for their majors in many countries. Even fewer study biology, chemistry or physics at university. Those, that do, often lack training to present and discuss scientific results and ideas in texts. To meet these challenges the center for didactics of biology of Graz University has set up the program Young Science Journalism. This new workshop-based interdisciplinary concept was tested in an exploratory study with grade 10 students of one Austrian high school, engaging both the biology and the German teacher of the class. It was our aim to raise students' interest in the NaSc by encouraging them to write popular scientific articles about self-chosen topics, and to help them improve their writing competence. In this paper we focus on interest development through writing. Results from this pilot study were promising. Using a mixed-method approach (comparing pre- and post-test questionnaires and semi-structured interviews from different time points analyzed qualitatively), we found that almost all students valued the project-related work highly. Most of them showed higher interest in the NaSc at project end with girls, in average, seeming to profit more from project participation. We thus recommend integrating such writing tasks into school curricula to increase students' interest in NaSc or to even create new interest. Additionally, we introduce a network presentation of questionnaire data as a powerful tool to visualize the effect of an intervention on individual students and student profile groups. This paper is part of a series accompanying the Austrian Young Science Journalism program. Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article at the publisher's web-site.

  15. B16 melanoma tumor growth is delayed in mice in an age-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Pettan-Brewer

    2012-08-01

    tumor volumes of 417.62 and 216.34 mm3 in the 16- and 24-month age groups, respectively (p≤0.005. Histologically, implanted tumors in young mice exhibited characteristics of aggressive, rapidly growing tumor cells including high vascularity, mitosis, and invasiveness compared to tumors in old mice. We contend that the decrease in B16 melanoma tumor growth seen with increasing age in B6 and CB6 F1 mice represents a biological process, which we are calling age-dependent cancer resistance (ADCR. Our data provide a detailed description of conditions necessary to use the model to investigate the mechanisms of ADCR and determine its biological and clinical relevance.

  16. Melatonin membrane receptor (MT1R) expression and nitro-oxidative stress in testis of golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus: An age-dependent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2015-09-01

    Age-dependent decline in melatonin level induces nitro-oxidative stress that compromises physiological homeostasis including reproduction. However, less information exist regarding the age-dependent variation in local melatonin (lMel) concentration and MT1R expression in testis and its interaction with testicular steroidogenesis and nitro-oxidative stress in golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Therefore, we evaluated lMel level along with MT1R expression and its possible interaction with steroidogenesis and nitro-oxidative stress in testes of young (6weeks), adult (15weeks) and old (2years) aged hamsters. Further, we injected the old hamsters with melatonin to address whether age-related decline in lMel and MT1R is responsible for the reduction in testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status. Increased expression of steroidogenic markers suggests increased testicular steroidogenesis in adult hamsters that declined in old hamsters. An age-dependent elevation in the level of NOX, TBARS, corticosterone and the expression of iNOS and GR with a concomitant decrease in enzyme activities for SOD, CAT, GSH-PX indicate increased nitro-oxidative stress in testes. Data suggest that reproductive senescence in male hamsters might be a consequence of declined lMel concentration with MT1R expression inducing nitro-oxidative stress resulting in diminished testicular steroidogenesis. However, administration of Mel in old-aged hamsters significantly increased steroidogenesis and antioxidant status without a significant variation in lMel concentration and MT1R expression in testes. Therefore, decreased lMel and MT1R might not be the causative factor underlying the age-associated decrease in antioxidant defence and steroidogenesis in testes. In conclusion, Mel induced amelioration of testicular oxidative insult and elevation of steroidogenic activity suggests a potential role of increased nitro-oxidative stress underlying the age-dependent decrease in steroidogenesis. PMID

  17. A preliminary approach to age-dependent deposition modeling for human respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the respiratory tract model, presented by the ICRP Task Group on Lung Dynamics, is limited to adult workers for determining internal radiation exposure from inhaled radionuclides, the development of the model for estimating radiation doses in the general public, including all age groups, from environmental radioactive materials is required. This paper provides background information in developing the age-dependent respiratory tract model. A way of obtaining deposition probability through major mechanisms, such as impaction, sedimentation, and diffusion, in the respiratory airways is given. A computer program for estimating the percent deposition of inhaled monodisperse particles is described. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Fitting model of ABR age dependency in a clinical population of normal hearing children

    OpenAIRE

    Coenraad, Saskia; Immerzeel, Tabitha; Hoeve, Hans; Goedegebure, Andre

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to present a simple and powerful fitting model that describes age-dependent changes of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) in a clinical population of normal hearing children. A total of 175 children (younger than 200 weeks postconceptional age) were referred for audiologic assessment with normal ABR results. ABR parameters of normal hearing children between 2003 and 2008 were included. The results of the right ears recorded at 90 dB nHL were analyzed....

  19. Fluctuation limit theorems for age-dependent critical binary branching systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo-Salas Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider an age-dependent branching particle system in ℝd, where the particles are subject to α-stable migration (0 < α ≤ 2, critical binary branching, and general (non-arithmetic lifetimes distribution. The population starts off from a Poisson random field in ℝd with Lebesgue intensity. We prove functional central limit theorems and strong laws of large numbers under two rescalings: high particle density, and a space-time rescaling that preserves the migration distribution. Properties of the limit processes such as Markov property, almost sure continuity of paths and generalized Langevin equation, are also investigated.

  20. Age dependence of myosin heavy chain transitions induced by creatine depletion in rat skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that myosin heavy chain (MHC) plasticity resulting from creatine depletion is an age-dependent process. At weaning (age 28 days), rat pups were placed on either standard rat chow (normal diet juvenile group) or the same chow supplemented with 1% wt/wt of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid (creatine depletion juvenile (CDJ) group). Two groups of adult rats (age approximately 8 wk) were placed on the same diet regimens (normal diet adult and creatine depletion adult (CDA) groups). After 40 days (CDJ and normal diet juvenile groups) and 60 days (CDA and normal diet adult groups), animals were killed and several skeletal muscles were removed for analysis of creatine content or MHC ditribution. In the CDJ group, creatine depletion (78%) was accompanied by significant shifts toward expression of slower MHC isoforms in two slow and three fast skeletal muscles. In contrast, creatine depletion in adult animals did not result in similar shifts toward slow MHC isoform expression in either muscle type. The results of this study indicate that there is a differential effect of creatine depletion on MHC tranitions that appears to be age dependent. These results strongly suggest that investigators contemplating experimental designs involving the use of the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid should consider the age of the animals to be used.

  1. Pregnane X receptor knockout mice display aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Azuma

    Full Text Available Steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR and its murine ortholog, pregnane X receptor (PXR, are nuclear receptors that are expressed at high levels in the liver and the intestine where they function as xenobiotic sensors that induce expression of genes involved in detoxification and drug excretion. Recent evidence showed that SXR and PXR are also expressed in bone tissue where they mediate bone metabolism. Here we report that systemic deletion of PXR results in aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage of knee joints. Histomorphometrical analysis showed remarkable reduction of width and an enlarged gap between femoral and tibial articular cartilage in PXR knockout mice. We hypothesized that genes induced by SXR in chondrocytes have a protective effect on articular cartilage and identified Fam20a (family with sequence similarity 20a as an SXR-dependent gene induced by the known SXR ligands, rifampicin and vitamin K2. Lastly, we demonstrated the biological significance of Fam20a expression in chondrocytes by evaluating osteoarthritis-related gene expression of primary articular chondrocytes. Consistent with epidemiological findings, our results indicate that SXR/PXR protects against aging-dependent wearing of articular cartilage and that ligands for SXR/PXR have potential role in preventing osteoarthritis caused by aging.

  2. Age-dependent accumulation of (137)Cs by pike Esox lucius in the Yenisei River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotina, T A; Trofimova, E A; Dementyev, D V; Bolsunovsky, A Ya

    2016-05-01

    Age-dependent accumulation of (137)Cs in the muscles and bodies of the pike Esox lucius (aged two to seven years) inhabiting a section of the Yenisei River polluted with artificial radionuclides has been studied. The content of (137)Cs in muscles varied from 0.5 to 7.0 Bq/kg of fresh weight. The maximum content of the radionuclide has been found in juveniles. The content of (137)Cs in pike muscles and body decreased considerably with age. The high content of (137)Cs in the muscles of juveniles is probably a consequence of their higher intensity of feeding as compared to older individuals, which is due to the intense growth of juveniles. PMID:27411826

  3. Assessment of 226Ra age-dependent dose from water intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity in canal and ground waters collected in a 2-year long observation from the vicinity of the Rare Earth Research and Development Center (RRDC), Phathumthani Province, Thailand, was measured in order to determine the concentration of 226Ra and to estimate the age-dependent effective dose to humans due to consumption. 226Ra activities in both canal and ground waters were well below the WHO guidance level for drinking water quality of 1 Bq L-1. The highest 226Ra effective doses per year were found for infants and teens. However, the observed levels of calculated 226Ra effective doses for all age groups in both canal and ground waters show satisfactory low values (less than 15 μSv yr-1). These values are acceptable in accordance with the WHO recommended reference dose level of 100 μSv yr-1 from water intake of 2 L day-1

  4. Evidence for novel age-dependent network structures as a putative primo vascular network in the dura mater of the rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ho-Sung Lee; Dai-In Kang; Seung Zhoo Yoon; Yeon Hee Ryu; Inhyung Lee; Hoon-Gi Kim; Byung-Cheon Lee; Ki Bog Lee

    2015-01-01

    With chromium-hematoxylin staining, we found evidence for the existence of novel age-depen-dent network structures in the dura mater of rat brains. Under stereomicroscopy, we noticed that chromium-hematoxylin-stained threadlike structures, which were barely observable in 1-week-old rats, were networked in specific areas of the brain, for example, the lateral lobes and the cerebella, in 4-week-old rats. In 7-week-old rats, those structures were found to have become larger and better networked. With phase contrast microscopy, we found that in 1-week-old rats, chromium-hematoxylin-stained granules were scattered in the same areas of the brain in which the network structures would later be observed in the 4- and 7-week-old rats. Such age-depen-dent network structures were examined by using optical and transmission electron microscopy, and the following results were obtained. The scattered granules fused into networks with increas-ing age. Cross-sections of the age-dependent network structures demonstrated heavily-stained basophilic substructures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the basophilic substructures to be clusters with high electron densities consisting of nanosized particles. We report these data as evidence for the existence of age-dependent network structures in the dura mater, we discuss their putative functions of age-dependent network structures beyond the general concept of the dura mater as a supporting matrix.

  5. Age dependence of the accumulation of organochlorine pollutants in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a remote high mountain lake (Redo, Pyrenees)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDT were examined in the muscle of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a high mountain lake located in the Pyrenees (Catalonia, Spain) that was used as a model of these lacustrine environments. Results indicate that fish age is the main factor of variability among specimens in this population that is subjected to atmospheric inputs of the organochlorine compounds (OC). Increases of 2- and 20-fold between fish aged 1 year and 15 years old are found. The observed pattern cannot be explained in terms of fish size, condition factor, or muscle lipid content. Higher molecular weight compounds (higher lipophilicity) are better correlated with fish age than low molecular weight compounds. A transformation from 4,4'-DDT to 4,4'-DDE occurs in fish after ingestion; this results in amplified age-dependent signals, especially in male specimens. In contrast, PCB congener no. 180 has lower age dependence than the general OC group, which could be due to its high hydrophobicity (log Kow > 7). In any case, selective accumulation of hydrophobic compounds is already observed among younger fish (age, 1 year). Due to this effect, the relative OC composition does not reflect the main OC pollutants in the lake waters. - Trout in high mountain lakes display age-dependent accumulation of certain organochlorine pollutants

  6. Age-dependent susceptibility to phenobarbital-resistant neonatal seizures: role of chloride co-transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Kyu eKang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia in the immature brain is an important cause of neonatal seizures. Temporal evolution of acquired neonatal seizures and their response to anticonvulsants are of great interest, given the unreliability of the clinical correlates and poor efficacy of first-line anti-seizure drugs. The expression and function of the electroneutral chloride co-transporters KCC2 and NKCC1 influence the anti-seizure efficacy of GABAA-agonists. To investigate ischemia-induced seizure susceptibility and efficacy of the GABAA-agonist phenobarbital (PB, with NKCC1 antagonist bumetanide (BTN as an adjunct treatment, we utilized permanent unilateral carotid-ligation to produce acute ischemic-seizures in postnatal day 7, 10 and 12 CD1 mice. Immediate post-ligation video-electroencephalograms (EEGs quantitatively evaluated baseline and post-treatment seizure burdens. Brains were examined for stroke-injury and western blot analyses to evaluate the expression of KCC2 and NKCC1. Severity of acute ischemic seizures post-ligation was highest at P7. PB was an efficacious anti-seizure agent at P10 and P12, but not at P7. BTN failed as an adjunct, at all ages tested and significantly blunted PB-efficacy at P10. Significant acute post-ischemic downregulation of KCC2 was detected at all ages. At P7, males displayed higher age-dependent seizure susceptibility, associated with a significant developmental lag in their KCC2 expression. This study established a novel neonatal mouse model of PB-resistant seizures that demonstrates age/sex-dependent susceptibility. The age-dependent profile of KCC2 expression and its post-insult downregulation may underlie the PB-resistance reported in this model. Blocking NKCC1 with low-dose BTN following PB treatment failed to improve PB-efficacy.

  7. Age-Dependent Effects of Haptoglobin Deletion in Neurobehavioral and Anatomical Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakov, Alexander V.; Arias, Rodrigo A.; Tolosano, Emanuela; Doré, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral hemorrhages are common features of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their presence is associated with chronic disabilities. Recent clinical and experimental evidence suggests that haptoglobin (Hp), an endogenous hemoglobin-binding protein most abundant in blood plasma, is involved in the intrinsic molecular defensive mechanism, though its role in TBI is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Hp deletion on the anatomical and behavioral outcomes in the controlled cortical impact model using wildtype (WT) C57BL/6 mice and genetically modified mice lacking the Hp gene (Hp−∕−) in two age cohorts [2–4 mo-old (young adult) and 7–8 mo-old (older adult)]. The data obtained suggest age-dependent significant effects on behavioral and anatomical TBI outcomes and recovery from injury. Moreover, in the adult cohort, neurological deficits in Hp−∕− mice at 24 h were significantly improved compared to WT, whereas there were no significant differences in brain pathology between these genotypes. In contrast, in the older adult cohort, Hp−∕− mice had significantly larger lesion volumes compared to WT, but neurological deficits were not significantly different. Immunohistochemistry for ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) revealed significant differences in microglial and astrocytic reactivity between Hp−∕− and WT in selected brain regions of the adult but not the older adult-aged cohort. In conclusion, the data obtained in the study provide clarification on the age-dependent aspects of the intrinsic defensive mechanisms involving Hp that might be involved in complex pathways differentially affecting acute brain trauma outcomes. PMID:27486583

  8. Age-dependent expression of forkhead box O proteins in the duodenum of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan HUANG; Zhen-qi ZHOU; Rui-hua HUANG; Bo ZHOU; Quan-wei WEI; Fang-xiong SHI

    2011-01-01

    The O subfamily of forkhead box (FoxO) proteins is the downstream effector of the insulin-like growth factor-1/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (IGF-1/PI3K/PKB) signal pathway.The objective of the present study was to examine the expressions of three members of FoxO proteins,FoxO1,FoxO3a,and FoxO4 in the duodenum of Sprague-Dawley rats at different ages.The result demonstrated that the expression of FoxO4 in rat duodenum showed an age-dependent manner.At Day 21,there were no detectable localization and expression of FoxO4 in the duodenum,while,at Months 2 and 6,localization and expression of FoxO4 were distinct.In addition,FoxO4 staining was primarily concentrated in the cell nuclei of the lamina propria around the intestinal gland of the duodenum in 2-month-old rats,but was not detectable in the same area in 6-month-old rats.Our results showed also that although FoxO3a existed in the cytoplasm of the lamina propria at a low level at the 2- and 6-month marks,it was still not detectable at Day 21.Besides,FoxO1 was not detectable in all parts and stages.Taken together,our findings suggested that the cell-specific and age-dependent expressional patterns of FoxO4 and FoxO3a proteins in the duodenum play some roles in the development and growth performance of the rat duodenum.

  9. Age-dependent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response in preweanling rats following oral exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Chuck; Poet, Torka S.; Kousba, Ahmed A.

    2006-03-01

    Juvenile rats are more susceptible than adults to the acute toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides like chlorpyrifos (CPF). Age- and dose-dependent differences in metabolism may be responsible. Of importance is CYP450 activation and detoxification of CPF to CPF-oxon and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), as well as B-esterase (cholinesterase; ChE) and A-esterase (PON-1) detoxification of CPF-oxon to TCP. The pharmacokinetics of CPF, TCP, and the extent of blood (plasma/RBC), and brain ChE inhibition in rats were determined on postnatal days (PND) -5, -12, and -17 following oral gavage administration of 1 and 10 mg CPF/kg of body weight. For all neonatal ages the blood TCP exceeded the CPF concentration, and within each age group there was no evidence of non-linear kinetics over the dose range evaluated. Younger animals demonstrated a greater sensitivity to ChE inhibition as evident by the dose- and age-dependent inhibition of plasma, RBC, and brain ChE. Of particular importance was the observation that even in rats as young as PND-5, the CYP450 metabolic capacity was adequate to metabolize CPF to both TCP and CPF-oxon based on the detection of TCP in blood and extensive ChE inhibition (biomarker of CPF-oxon) at all ages. In addition, the increase in the blood TCP concentration ({approx}3-fold) in PND-17 rats relative to the response in the younger animals, and the higher blood concentrations of CPF in neonatal rats (1.7 to 7.5-fold) relative to adults was consistent with an increase in CYP450 metabolic capacity with age. This is the first reported study that evaluated both the pharmacokinetics of the parent pesticide, the major metabolite and the extent of ChE inhibition dynamics in the same animals as a function of neonatal age. The results suggest that in the neonatal rat, CPF was rapidly absorbed and metabolized, and the extent of metabolism was age-dependent.

  10. Application of dynamic system reliability methods for incorporation of age-dependant reliability parameters and data into the PSA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simplest way to quantify reliability models consists in using the hypothesis that SSC failure and repair rates are constant. However, failures and repairs are implemented in time and consequently they are age-dependent. That is why the dynamic aspects of aging and decision-making in NPP lifetime management become increasingly notable and more advanced tools are needed for their analysis. The paper presents the dynamic system reliability approaches - GO-FLOW and ATRD - to extend the FT methodology for NPP aging systems. Alternative methodologies to investigate the feasibility of increasing of failure, restore and repair rates of all component categories or reducing the surveillance intervals of repairable components to take into account aging processes in plant availability. Both approaches are used for preparation of comparable aging process component and system models of the three-train residual heat removal and low pressure injection system of a Russian-design pressurized water reactor WWER-1000/V320. The possible extensions of these methodologies are compared with the equivalent FT models of this system. (author)

  11. Age-dependent decrease in the hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of ouabain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, M; Kanai, S; Sato, Y; Kitani, K

    1988-03-01

    The biliary excretion of i.v. injected ouabain was examined in male and female Wistar-derived rats in relation to age. The hepatic uptake velocity for ouabain was also determined in isolated hepatocyte preparations obtained from male rats of various ages. Biliary recovery values of ouabain (percent of the dose) were fairly comparable for young male and female rats (3-4 month old). Recovery progressively decreased with age, the first 10-min recoveries at 24 months being about one-third those of respective young values in both sexes. A significant linear relation was demonstrated between the first 10-min recovery (Y, percent of the dose) and rat age (X, month), yielding the relations of Y = 17.75-0.43X for males and Y = 18.99-0.43X for females respectively. Similarly, the initial uptake velocity (Y, nmol/mg/min) for ouabain decreased in a linear fashion with age (X, month), yielding a significant negative correlation (Y = 0.704-0.0021X, r = -0.839, P less than 0.005, N = 21) at an ouabain concentration of 8 microM. Kinetic studies using non-linear regression analysis revealed a significantly lower Vmax value (0.533 +/- 0.041 nmol/mg/min) in old (24-29 months) rats compared to the young (4-4.5 months) value (1.193 +/- 0.105 nmol per mg/min, P less than 0.05), while the affinity constant (Km, microM) did not differ significantly between young and old animals (203.12 +/- 25.42 microM in young rats vs 283.68 +/- 28.90 microM in old rats, mean +/- SE, 0.05 less than P less than 0.1). The results of the present study suggest that the age-dependent decrease in the biliary recovery of i.v. injected ouabain in rats can be largely explained by the decrease with age in the hepatic uptake of ouabain. Furthermore, the results provide further support for our previous thesis that the decrease in the lateral mobility of hepatocyte plasma membrane proteins, as revealed by the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique, may play a significant role in the age-dependent

  12. FDA-approved drugs that protect mammalian neurons from glucose toxicity slow aging dependent on cbp and protect against proteotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Lublin

    Full Text Available Screening a library of drugs with known safety profiles in humans yielded 30 drugs that reliably protected mammalian neurons against glucose toxicity. Subsequent screening demonstrated that 6 of these 30 drugs increase lifespan in C. elegans: caffeine, ciclopirox olamine, tannic acid, acetaminophen, bacitracin, and baicalein. Every drug significantly reduced the age-dependent acceleration of mortality rate. These protective effects were blocked by RNAi inhibition of cbp-1 in adults only, which also blocks protective effects of dietary restriction. Only 2 drugs, caffeine and tannic acid, exhibited a similar dependency on DAF-16. Caffeine, tannic acid, and bacitracin also reduced pathology in a transgenic model of proteotoxicity associated with Alzheimer's disease. These results further support a key role for glucose toxicity in driving age-related pathologies and for CBP-1 in protection against age-related pathologies. These results also provide novel lead compounds with known safety profiles in human for treatment of age-related diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and diabetic complications.

  13. Review article

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Rask-Madsen, J

    1999-01-01

    The aetiology of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases-ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease-as well as 'microscopic colitis'-both collagenous (COC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC)-remains unknown. Autoimmune mechanisms, cytokine polymorphism, commensal bacteria, infectious agents and vascular...... by the generation of superoxide with reduced L-arginine availability. In active ulcerative colitis, and to a lesser extent in Crohn's disease, a greatly increased production of NO has been demonstrated by indirect and direct measurements. Surprisingly, even higher rates of production have been observed in COC...

  14. Practical applications of age-dependent reliability models and analysis of operational data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the workshop was to present the experience of practical application of time-dependent reliability models. The program of the workshop comprises the following sessions: -) aging management and aging PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), -) modeling, -) operation experience, and -) accelerating aging tests. In order to introduce time aging effect of particular component to the PSA model, it has been proposed to use the constant unavailability values on the short period of time (one year for example) calculated on the basis of age-dependent reliability models. As for modeling, it appears that the problem of too detailed statistical models for application is the lack of data for required parameters. As for operating experience, several methods of operating experience analysis have been presented (algorithms for reliability data elaboration and statistical identification of aging trend). As for accelerated aging tests, it is demonstrated that a combination of operating experience analysis with the results of accelerated aging tests of naturally aged equipment could provide a good basis for continuous operation of instrumentation and control systems

  15. Age-Dependent Defects of Regulatory B Cells in Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Gene Knockout Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadafumi Yokoyama

    Full Text Available The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS is a rare X-linked primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections, thrombocytopenia, eczema, and high incidence of malignancy and autoimmunity. The cellular mechanisms underlying autoimmune complications in WAS have been extensively studied; however, they remain incompletely defined. We investigated the characteristics of IL-10-producing CD19+CD1dhighCD5+ B cells (CD1dhighCD5+ Breg obtained from Was gene knockout (WKO mice and found that their numbers were significantly lower in these mice compared to wild type (WT controls. Moreover, we found a significant age-dependent reduction of the percentage of IL-10-expressing cells in WKO CD1dhighCD5+ Breg cells as compared to age-matched WT control mice. CD1dhighCD5+ Breg cells from older WKO mice did not suppress the in vitro production of inflammatory cytokines from activated CD4+ T cells. Interestingly, CD1dhighCD5+ Breg cells from older WKO mice displayed a basal activated phenotype which may prevent normal cellular responses, among which is the expression of IL-10. These defects may contribute to the susceptibility to autoimmunity with age in patients with WAS.

  16. [Age-dependent changes in mRNA transport (nucleus-cytoplasm)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W E; Agutter, P S; Prochnow, D J; Fasold, H; Sève, A P; Tsiapalis, C M; Schröder, H C

    1993-01-01

    Transport of mRNA from nucleus to cytoplasm is an ATP-dependent process which occurs strictly vectorially. Because the mRNA is structurally bound during transport, mRNA transport is a "solid-state" process consisting of i) mRNA release from the nuclear matrix, ii) mRNA translocation through the nuclear pore, and iii) cytoskeletal binding. We identified and purified the following components involved in the translocation step: i) the nuclear envelope (NE) nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) which is stimulated by the 3'poly(A) tail of mRNA, ii) the poly(A)-recognizing mRNA carrier, iii) the NE protein kinase, and iv) the NE phosphatase. In addition, we found that an RNA helicase activity is present in NE, which also may be involved in RNA transport. Our results show that, besides poly(A), also double-stranded RNA structures may modulate RNA export. The amount of mRNA released from nuclei markedly decreases with age. Evidence is presented that this age-dependent change is caused by an impairment of polyadenylation of mRNA, hnRNA processing, release of mRNA from nuclear matrix, and translocations of mRNA from nuclear to cytoplasmic compartment (decrease in activities of NE NTPase, protein kinase, and phosphatase; decrease in poly(A)-binding affinity of mRNA carrier).

  17. Assessment of {sup 226}Ra age-dependent dose from water intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porntepkasemsan, Boonsom [Research and Development Group, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)], E-mail: boonsom@oaep.go.th; Srisuksawad, Kanitha [Research and Development Group, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2008-11-15

    The radioactivity in canal and ground waters collected in a 2-year long observation from the vicinity of the Rare Earth Research and Development Center (RRDC), Phathumthani Province, Thailand, was measured in order to determine the concentration of {sup 226}Ra and to estimate the age-dependent effective dose to humans due to consumption. {sup 226}Ra activities in both canal and ground waters were well below the WHO guidance level for drinking water quality of 1 Bq L{sup -1}. The highest {sup 226}Ra effective doses per year were found for infants and teens. However, the observed levels of calculated {sup 226}Ra effective doses for all age groups in both canal and ground waters show satisfactory low values (less than 15 {mu}Sv yr{sup -1}). These values are acceptable in accordance with the WHO recommended reference dose level of 100 {mu}Sv yr{sup -1} from water intake of 2 L day{sup -1}.

  18. Chronic BDNF deficiency leads to an age-dependent impairment in spatial learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Anne; Psotta, Laura; Brigadski, Tanja; Endres, Thomas; Lessmann, Volkmar

    2015-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a crucial mediator of neural plasticity and, consequently, of memory formation. In hippocampus-dependent learning tasks BDNF also seems to play an essential role. However, there are conflicting results concerning the spatial learning ability of aging BDNF(+/-) mice in the Morris water maze paradigm. To evaluate the effect of chronic BDNF deficiency in the hippocampus on spatial learning throughout life, we conducted a comprehensive study to test differently aged BDNF(+/-) mice and their wild type littermates in the Morris water maze and to subsequently quantify their hippocampal BDNF protein levels as well as expression levels of TrkB receptors. We observed an age-dependent learning deficit in BDNF(+/-) animals, starting at seven months of age, despite stable hippocampal BDNF protein expression and continual decline of TrkB receptor expression throughout aging. Furthermore, we detected a positive correlation between hippocampal BDNF protein levels and learning performance during the probe trial in animals that showed a good learning performance during the long-term memory test.

  19. Age-Dependent Susceptibility to Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC Infection in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Dupont

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC represents a major causative agent of infant diarrhea associated with significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although studied extensively in vitro, the investigation of the host-pathogen interaction in vivo has been hampered by the lack of a suitable small animal model. Using RT-PCR and global transcriptome analysis, high throughput 16S rDNA sequencing as well as immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, we characterize the EPEC-host interaction following oral challenge of newborn mice. Spontaneous colonization of the small intestine and colon of neonate mice that lasted until weaning was observed. Intimate attachment to the epithelial plasma membrane and microcolony formation were visualized only in the presence of a functional bundle forming pili (BFP and type III secretion system (T3SS. Similarly, a T3SS-dependent EPEC-induced innate immune response, mediated via MyD88, TLR5 and TLR9 led to the induction of a distinct set of genes in infected intestinal epithelial cells. Infection-induced alterations of the microbiota composition remained restricted to the postnatal period. Although EPEC colonized the adult intestine in the absence of a competing microbiota, no microcolonies were observed at the small intestinal epithelium. Here, we introduce the first suitable mouse infection model and describe an age-dependent, virulence factor-dependent attachment of EPEC to enterocytes in vivo.

  20. Age-dependent radiation dose due to uranium in public drinking water in Hyderabad, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was done to evaluate the ingestion dose due to uranium in drinking water. The area of study is the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad, India. The uranium concentration in water samples was analysed by laser-induced fluorimetry. The associated age-dependent radiation dose was estimated by taking the prescribed water intake values and dose conversion factors for different age groups. The concentration of uranium varies from below the detection limit (detection limit 0.20 μg.L-1) to 2.50 ± 0.18 μg.L-1, with a geometric mean of 0.67 μg.L-1 in tap water, whereas in groundwater the range is 0.60 ± 0.05 to 82 ± 7.1 μg.L-1 with a geometric mean of 10.07 μg.L-1. The annual ingestion dose by the drinking water pathway due to uranium in tap water for various age groups was found to vary from 0.23 to 6.35 μSv.y-1 with an average of 1.08 μSv.y-1. The ingestion dose due to uranium in tap water is 15 times lower than that of groundwater consumption. (authors)

  1. Microscale Mechanism of Age Dependent Wetting Properties of Prickly Pear Cacti (Opuntia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykaczewski, Konrad; Jordan, Jacob S; Linder, Rubin; Woods, Erik T; Sun, Xiaoda; Kemme, Nicholas; Manning, Kenneth C; Cherry, Brian R; Yarger, Jeffery L; Majure, Lucas C

    2016-09-13

    Cacti thrive in xeric environments through specialized water storage and collection tactics such as a shallow, widespread root system that maximizes rainwater absorption and spines adapted for fog droplet collection. However, in many cacti, the epidermis, not the spines, dominates the exterior surface area. Yet, little attention has been dedicated to studying interactions of the cactus epidermis with water drops. Surprisingly, the epidermis of plants in the genus Opuntia, also known as prickly pear cacti, has water-repelling characteristics. In this work, we report that surface properties of cladodes of 25 taxa of Opuntia grown in an arid Sonoran climate switch from water-repelling to superwetting under water impact over the span of a single season. We show that the old cladode surfaces are not superhydrophilic, but have nearly vanishing receding contact angle. We study water drop interactions with, as well as nano/microscale topology and chemistry of, the new and old cladodes of two Opuntia species and use this information to uncover the microscopic mechanism underlying this phenomenon. We demonstrate that composition of extracted wax and its contact angle do not change significantly with time. Instead, we show that the reported age dependent wetting behavior primarily stems from pinning of the receding contact line along multilayer surface microcracks in the epicuticular wax that expose the underlying highly hydrophilic layers. PMID:27537082

  2. Age-dependent modulation of cortical transcriptomes in spinal cord injury and repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jaerve

    Full Text Available Both injury and aging of the central nervous system reportedly produce profound changes in gene expression. Therefore, aging may interfere with the success of therapeutic interventions which were tailored for young patients. Using genome-scale transcriptional profiling, we identified distinct age-dependent expression profiles in rat sensorimotor cortex during acute, subacute and chronic phases of spinal cord injury (SCI. Aging affects the cortical transcriptomes triggered by transection of the corticospinal tract as there was only a small overlap between the significantly lesion-regulated genes in both age groups. Over-representation analysis of the lesion-regulated genes revealed that, in addition to biological processes in common, such as lipid metabolism, others, such as activation of complement cascade, were specific for aged animals. When a recently developed treatment to suppress fibrotic scarring (anti-scarring treatment AST was applied to the injured spinal cord of aged (22 months and young (2 months rats, we found that the cortical gene expression in old rats was modulated to resemble regeneration-associated profiles of young animals including the up-regulation of known repair promoting growth and transcription factors at 35 dpo. In combination with recent immunohistochemical findings demonstrating regenerative axon growth upon AST in aged animals, the present investigation on the level of gene expression strongly supports the feasibility of a successful AST therapy in elderly patients.

  3. Age dependence of spleen- and muscle-corrected hepatic signal enhancement on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoori, Simon [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zurich (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Breitenstein, Stefan [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Surgery, Clinic for Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, Winterthur (Switzerland); Doert, Aleksis [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Pozdniakova, Viktoria [Stavanger University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stavanger (Norway); Koh, Dow-Mu [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Surrey, England (United Kingdom); Gutzeit, Andreas [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Clinic St. Anna, Clinical Research Group, Lucerne (Switzerland); Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2016-06-15

    To identify correlations of signal enhancements (SE) and SE normalized to reference tissues of the spleen, kidney, liver, musculus erector spinae (MES) and ductus hepatocholedochus (DHC) on hepatobiliary phase gadoxetate-enhanced MRI with patient age in non-cirrhotic patients. A heterogeneous cohort of 131 patients with different clinical backgrounds underwent a standardized 3.0-T gadoxetate-enhanced liver MRI between November 2008 and June 2013. After exclusion of cirrhotic patients, a cohort of 75 patients with no diagnosed diffuse liver disease was selected. The ratio of signal intensity 20 min post- to pre-contrast administration (SE) in the spleen, kidney, liver, MES and DHC, and the SE of the kidney, liver and DHC normalized to the reference tissues spleen or MES were compared to patient age. Patient age was inversely correlated with the liver SE normalized to the spleen and MES SE (both p < 0.001) and proportionally with the SE of the spleen (p = 0.043), the MES (p = 0.030) and the kidney (p = 0.022). No significant correlations were observed for the DHC (p = 0.347) and liver SE (p = 0.606). The age dependence of hepatic SE normalized to the enhancement in the spleen and MES calls for a cautious interpretation of these quantification methods. (orig.)

  4. Practical applications of age-dependent reliability models and analysis of operational data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lannoy, A.; Nitoi, M.; Backstrom, O.; Burgazzi, L.; Couallier, V.; Nikulin, M.; Derode, A.; Rodionov, A.; Atwood, C.; Fradet, F.; Antonov, A.; Berezhnoy, A.; Choi, S.Y.; Starr, F.; Dawson, J.; Palmen, H.; Clerjaud, L

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to present the experience of practical application of time-dependent reliability models. The program of the workshop comprises the following sessions: -) aging management and aging PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), -) modeling, -) operation experience, and -) accelerating aging tests. In order to introduce time aging effect of particular component to the PSA model, it has been proposed to use the constant unavailability values on the short period of time (one year for example) calculated on the basis of age-dependent reliability models. As for modeling, it appears that the problem of too detailed statistical models for application is the lack of data for required parameters. As for operating experience, several methods of operating experience analysis have been presented (algorithms for reliability data elaboration and statistical identification of aging trend). As for accelerated aging tests, it is demonstrated that a combination of operating experience analysis with the results of accelerated aging tests of naturally aged equipment could provide a good basis for continuous operation of instrumentation and control systems.

  5. Accommodating volume-constant age-dependent optical (AVOCADO) model of the crystalline GRIN lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheil, Conor J; Goncharov, Alexander V

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce a new age-dependent model of the human lens with two GRIN power distributions (axial and radial) that allow decoupling of its refractive power and axial optical path length. The aspect ratio of the lens core can be held constant under accommodation, as well as the lens volume by varying the asphericity of the lens external surfaces. The spherical aberration calculated by exact raytracing is shown to be in line with experimental data. The proposed model is compared to previous GRIN models from the literature, and it is concluded that the features of the new model will be useful for GRIN reconstruction in future experimental studies; in particular, studies of the accommodation-dependent properties of the ageing human eye. A proposed logarithmic model of the lens core enables decoupling of three fundamental optical characteristics of the lens, namely axial optical path length, optical power and third-order spherical aberration, without changing the external shape of the lens. Conversely, the near-surface GRIN structure conforms to the external shape of the lens, which is necessary for accommodation modelling. PMID:27231637

  6. Age- dependent effect of Alzheimer’s risk variant of CLU on EEG alpha rhythm in non-demented adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya ePonomareva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphism in the genomic region harboring the CLU gene (rs11136000 has been associated with the risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD. CLU C allele is assumed to confer risk for AD and the allele T may have a protective effect.We investigated the influence of the AD-associated CLU genotype on a common neurophysiological trait of brain activity (resting-state alpha-rhythm activity in non-demented adults and elucidated whether this influence is modified over the course of aging. We examined quantitative EEG (qEEG in cohort of non-demented individuals (age range 20-80 divided into young (age range 20-50 and old (age range 51-80 cohorts and stratified by CLU polymorphism. To rule out the effect of the ApoE genotype on EEG characteristics, only subjects without the ApoE epsilon4 allele were included in the study.The homozygous presence of the AD risk variant CLU CC in non-demented subjects was associated with an increase of alpha3 absolute power. Moreover, the influence of CLU genotype on alpha3 was found to be higher in the subjects older than 50 years of age. The study also showed age-dependent alterations of alpha topographic distribution that occur independently of the CLU genotype.The increase of upper alpha power has been associated with hippocampal atrophy in patients with mild cognitive impairment (Moretti et al., 2012a. In our study, the CLU CC- dependent increase in upper alpha rhythm, particularly enhanced in elderly non-demented individuals, may imply that the genotype is related to preclinical dysregulation of hippocampal neurophysiology in aging and that this factor may contribute to pathogenesis of AD.

  7. Age-dependent changes in diastolic Ca2+ and Na+ concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyopathy: Role of Ca2+ entry and IP3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Age-dependent increase in [Ca2+]d and [Na+]d in mdx cardiomyocytes. • Gadolinium significantly reduced both [Ca2+]d and [Na+]d at all ages. • IP3-pathway inhibition reduced cations concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. - Abstract: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal X-inherited disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. Besides the relatively well characterized skeletal muscle degenerative processes, DMD is also associated with a dilated cardiomyopathy that leads to progressive heart failure at the end of the second decade. The aim of the present study was to characterize the diastolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]d) and diastolic Na+ concentration ([Na+]d) abnormalities in cardiomyocytes isolated from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month old mdx mice using ion-selective microelectrodes. In addition, the contributions of gadolinium (Gd3+)-sensitive Ca2+ entry and inositol triphosphate (IP3) signaling pathways in abnormal [Ca2+]d and [Na+]d were investigated. Our results showed an age-dependent increase in both [Ca2+]d and [Na+]d in dystrophic cardiomyocytes compared to those isolated from age-matched wt mice. Gd3+ treatment significantly reduced both [Ca2+]d and [Na+]d at all ages. In addition, blockade of the IP3-pathway with either U-73122 or xestospongin C significantly reduced ion concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. Co-treatment with U-73122 and Gd3+ normalized both [Ca2+]d and [Na+]d at all ages in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. These data showed that loss of dystrophin in mdx cardiomyocytes produced an age-dependent intracellular Ca2+ and Na+ overload mediated at least in part by enhanced Ca2+ entry through Gd3+ sensitive transient receptor potential channels (TRPC), and by IP3 receptors

  8. Cardioprotective effects of quercetin against ischemia-reperfusion injury are age-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartekova, M; Radosinska, J; Pancza, D; Barancik, M; Ravingerova, T

    2016-09-19

    Quercetin, a polyphenolic compound present in various types of food, has been shown to exert beneficial effects in different cardiac as well as non-cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) models in adult animals. However, there is no evidence about the effects of quercetin on I/R injury in non-mature animals, despite the fact that efficiency of some interventions against I/R is age-dependent. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of chronic quercetin treatment on I/R injury in juvenile and adult rat hearts. Juvenile (4-week-old) as well as adult (12-week-old) rats were treated with quercetin (20 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks, hearts were excised and exposed to 25-min global ischemia followed by 40-min reperfusion. Functional parameters of hearts and occurrence of reperfusion arrhythmias were registered to assess the cardiac function. Our results have shown that quercetin improved post-ischemic recovery of LVDP, as well as recovery of markers of contraction and relaxation, +(dP/dt)max and -(dP/dt)max, respectively, in juvenile hearts, but not in adult hearts. Quercetin had no impact on incidence as well as duration of reperfusion arrhythmias in animals of both ages. We conclude that the age of rats plays an important role in heart response to quercetin treatment in the particular dose and duration of the treatment. Therefore, the age of the treated subjects should be taken into consideration when choosing the dose of quercetin and duration of its application in prevention and/or treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27643931

  9. Suppressing an anti-inflammatory cytokine reveals a strong age-dependent survival cost in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Belloni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The central paradigm of ecological immunology postulates that selection acts on immunity as to minimize its cost/benefit ratio. Costs of immunity may arise because the energetic requirements of the immune response divert resources that are no longer available for other vital functions. In addition to these resource-based costs, mis-directed or over-reacting immune responses can be particularly harmful for the host. In spite of the potential importance of immunopathology, most studies dealing with the evolution of the immune response have neglected such non resource-based costs. To keep the immune response under control, hosts have evolved regulatory pathways that should be considered when studying the target of the selection pressures acting on immunity. Indeed, variation in regulation may strongly modulate the negative outcome of immune activation, with potentially important fitness consequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we experimentally assessed the survival costs of reduced immune regulation by inhibiting an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 with anti-IL-10 receptor antibodies (anti-IL-10R in mice that were either exposed to a mild inflammation or kept as control. The experiment was performed on young (3 months and old (15 months individuals, as to further assess the age-dependent cost of suppressing immune regulation. IL-10 inhibition induced high mortality in old mice exposed to the mild inflammatory insult, whereas no mortality was observed in young mice. However, young mice experienced a transitory lost in body mass when injected with the anti-IL-10R antibodies, showing that the treatment was to a lesser extent also costly for young individuals. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a major role of immune regulation that deserves attention when investigating the evolution of immunity, and indicate that the capacity to down-regulate the inflammatory response is crucial for late survival and longevity.

  10. Age dependent T2 changes of bone marrow in pediatric wrist MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabshin, Nogah [Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Tel-HaShomer (Israel); Schweitzer, Mark E. [The Ottawa Hospital, The University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    Hyperintensity of the bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences can be seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during childhood, even in the absence of bone pathology. They can be related to hematopoietic marrow, normal and abnormal bone remodeling. We sought to investigate whether hyper intensity of the bone marrow on MRI of the wrist is age-dependent and to evaluate if this signal follows a consistent age-related pattern. Thirty-one wrist 1.5 T MR images of children (7-18 years) without suspected bone pathology were evaluated for foci of hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive coronal sequences using a scale of 1-3. Correlation of frequency, location and intensity of these foci with age was obtained. Results were analyzed for distribution in single bones and in the following regions: distal forearm, first/second carpal rows, and metacarpal bases. A total of 448 bones were evaluated. Eighty-eight out of 448 (21 out of 31 wrists) showed hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive sequences. The distribution was: radius in 19, ulna in 19, first metacarpal base in 11, scaphoid in 9, lunate in 6, pisiform in 6, and fifth metacarpal base in 1. The involvement of the first and second carpal rows and the metacarpal bases was almost similar (13, 12, and 12 respectively). In the distal forearm, the intensity was similar to or higher than that in the wrist (2.2 vs. 2.0). Frequency decreased with age (100% at 7-9 and 25% at 16-18 years). Foci of hyperintense bone marrow seen on fluid-sensitive sequences can be seen on MRI of the wrist during childhood even without apparent symptoms. It shows a consistent pattern with maturation: frequency and intensity decrease and there is distal-to-proximal resolution. This may be a normal finding that may represent normal bone remodeling or decreasing hematopoietic marrow and should not be confused with pathological bone marrow edema. (orig.)

  11. Deletion of insulin-degrading enzyme elicits antipodal, age-dependent effects on glucose and insulin tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer O Abdul-Hay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE is widely recognized as the principal protease responsible for the clearance and inactivation of insulin, but its role in glycemic control in vivo is poorly understood. We present here the first longitudinal characterization, to our knowledge, of glucose regulation in mice with pancellular deletion of the IDE gene (IDE-KO mice. METHODOLOGY: IDE-KO mice and wild-type (WT littermates were characterized at 2, 4, and 6 months of age in terms of body weight, basal glucose and insulin levels, and insulin and glucose tolerance. Consistent with a functional role for IDE in insulin clearance, fasting serum insulin levels in IDE-KO mice were found to be ∼3-fold higher than those in wild-type (WT controls at all ages examined. In agreement with previous observations, 6-mo-old IDE-KO mice exhibited a severe diabetic phenotype characterized by increased body weight and pronounced glucose and insulin intolerance. In marked contrast, 2-mo-old IDE-KO mice exhibited multiple signs of improved glycemic control, including lower fasting glucose levels, lower body mass, and modestly enhanced insulin and glucose tolerance relative to WT controls. Biochemically, the emergence of the diabetic phenotype in IDE-KO mice correlated with age-dependent reductions in insulin receptor (IR levels in muscle, adipose, and liver tissue. Primary adipocytes harvested from 6-mo-old IDE-KO mice also showed functional impairments in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the diabetic phenotype in IDE-KO mice is not a primary consequence of IDE deficiency, but is instead an emergent compensatory response to chronic hyperinsulinemia resulting from complete deletion of IDE in all tissues throughout life. Significantly, our findings provide new evidence to support the idea that partial and/or transient inhibition of IDE may constitute a valid approach to the treatment of diabetes.

  12. Age dependency of myocardial triglyceride content. A 3T high-field {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petritsch, B.; Gassenmaier, T.; Kunz, A.S.; Donhauser, J.; Bley, T.A.; Horn, M. [University Hospital of Wuerzburg (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Goltz, J.P. [University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany). Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2015-11-15

    The role of myocardial triglyceride (mTG) content in the aging human heart is not entirely understood. The aim of this study was to measure concentrations of mTG content from healthy volunteers and to determine the association between age, mTG content and systolic heart function. Furthermore, the technical stability of the {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) and the reliability of peak evaluation at 3 T were evaluated. The total study population of 47 healthy volunteers was divided into 4 age classes, according to the age of the subjects (1{sup st} cohort 20-29 years (yrs.), n=20; 2{sup nd} cohort 30-39 yrs., n=10; 3{sup rd} cohort 40-49 yrs., n=9; 4{sup th} cohort 50-60 yrs., n=8). Cardiac MRI and double triggered {sup 1}H-MRS of the myocardium were consecutively performed using a 3 T scanner. Each participant underwent spectroscopic measurements twice in the same investigation. mTG content increases with age. The correlation of age and mTG is minimal (r=0.48; p<0.001). The following age-averaged mTG content values expressed as % of mTG signal compared to the water signal were determined for each cohort: 1{sup st} cohort 0.25 % (± 0.17); 2{sup nd} cohort 0.48 % (± 0.30); 3{sup rd} cohort 0.48 % (± 0.18); 4{sup th} cohort 0.77 % (± 0.70). There was no significant correlation (r=0.04; p=n.s.) between LV mass and mTG content in healthy volunteers. Within our cohorts, no effects of age or mTG content on systolic heart function were seen (r=-0.01; p=n.s.). The intraclass correlation coefficient of spectroscopic measurements was high (r=0.965; p<0.001). Myocardial TG content increases with age. The normal age-dependent concentration ranges of myocardial lipid metabolites reported in this study may be helpful for the correction of acquired {sup 1}H-MRS data in patients when evaluating metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in future magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies.

  13. The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM): a higher oxidative stress and age-dependent degenerative diseases model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Yoichi; Shimada, Atsuyoshi; Kumagai, Naoko; Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Ishii, Sanae; Furukawa, Ayako; Takei, Shiro; Sakura, Masaaki; Kawamura, Noriko; Hosokawa, Masanori

    2009-04-01

    The SAM strain of mice is actually a group of related inbred strains consisting of a series of SAMP (accelerated senescence-prone) and SAMR (accelerated senescence-resistant) strains. Compared with the SAMR strains, the SAMP strains show a more accelerated senescence process, a shorter lifespan, and an earlier onset and more rapid progress of age-associated pathological phenotypes similar to human geriatric disorders. The higher oxidative stress status observed in SAMP mice is partly caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, and may be a cause of this senescence acceleration and age-dependent alterations in cell structure and function. Based on our recent observations, we discuss a possible mechanism for mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in the excessive production of reactive oxygen species, and a role for the hyperoxidative stress status in neurodegeneration in SAMP mice. These SAM strains can serve as a useful tool to understand the cellular mechanisms of age-dependent degeneration, and to develop clinical interventions. PMID:18688709

  14. The age-dependent epigenetic and physiological changes in an Arabidopsis T87 cell suspension culture during long-term cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra, E-mail: A.Kwiatkows@gmail.com [Department of Botany, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Zebrowski, Jacek [Department of Plant Physiology, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Oklejewicz, Bernadetta [Department of Genetics, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Czarnik, Justyna [Department of Botany, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Halibart-Puzio, Joanna [Department of Plant Physiology, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland); Wnuk, Maciej [Department of Genetics, University of Rzeszow, Kolbuszowa (Poland)

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • A decrease in proliferation rate during long-term cultivation of Arabidopsis cells. • Age-dependent increase in senescence-associated gene expression in Arabidopsis cells. • Age-related increase in DNA methylation, H3K9me2, and H3K27me3 in Arabidopsis cells. • High potential of photosynthetic efficiency of long-term cultured Arabidopsis cells. - Abstract: Plant cell suspension cultures represent good model systems applicable for both basic research and biotechnological purposes. Nevertheless, it is widely known that a prolonged in vitro cultivation of plant cells is associated with genetic and epigenetic instabilities, which may limit the usefulness of plant lines. In this study, the age-dependent epigenetic and physiological changes in an asynchronous Arabidopsis T87 cell culture were examined. A prolonged cultivation period was found to be correlated with a decrease in the proliferation rate and a simultaneous increase in the expression of senescence-associated genes, indicating that the aging process started at the late growth phase of the culture. In addition, increases in the heterochromatin-specific epigenetic markers, i.e., global DNA methylation, H3K9 dimethylation, and H3K27 trimethylation, were observed, suggesting the onset of chromatin condensation, a hallmark of the early stages of plant senescence. Although the number of live cells decreased with an increase in the age of the culture, the remaining viable cells retained a high potential to efficiently perform photosynthesis and did not exhibit any symptoms of photosystem II damage.

  15. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Muscle Type-Dependent and Age-Dependent Protein Carbonylation in Rat Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Juan; Xie, Hongwei; Meany, Danni L.; Thompson, LaDora V.; Arriaga, Edgar A.; Griffin, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Carbonylation is a highly prevalent protein modification in skeletal muscle mitochondria, possibly contributing to its functional decline with age. Using quantitative proteomics, we identified mitochondrial proteins susceptible to carbonylation in a muscle type (slow- vs fast-twitch)-dependent and age-dependent manner from Fischer 344 rat skeletal muscle. Fast-twitch muscle contained twice as many carbonylated mitochondrial proteins than did slow-twitch muscle, with 22 proteins showing signif...

  16. Microsurgeons do better--tactile training might prevent the age-dependent decline of the sensibility of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmauss, Daniel; Megerle, Kai; Weinzierl, Andrea; Agua, Kariem; Cerny, Michael; Schmauss, Verena; Lohmeyer, Joern A; Machens, Hans-Guenther; Erne, Holger

    2015-12-01

    Recent data demonstrate that the normal sensibility of the hand seems to be age-dependent with the best values in the third decade and a consecutive deterioration afterwards. However, it is not clear if long-term tactile training might prevent this age-dependent decline. We evaluated sensibility of the hand in 125 surgeons aged between 26 and 75 years who perform microsurgical operations, thereby undergoing regular tactile training. We examined sensibility of the radial digital nerve of the index finger (N3) and the ulnar digital nerve of the small finger (N10) using static and moving two-point discrimination (2PD) tests and compared the results to 154 age-matched individuals without specific long-term tactile training. We found significantly lower static and moving 2PD values for the sixth, seventh, and eighth decade of life in the microsurgery group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that long-term tactile training might prevent the known age-dependent decline of the sensibility of the hand.

  17. Microsurgeons do better--tactile training might prevent the age-dependent decline of the sensibility of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmauss, Daniel; Megerle, Kai; Weinzierl, Andrea; Agua, Kariem; Cerny, Michael; Schmauss, Verena; Lohmeyer, Joern A; Machens, Hans-Guenther; Erne, Holger

    2015-12-01

    Recent data demonstrate that the normal sensibility of the hand seems to be age-dependent with the best values in the third decade and a consecutive deterioration afterwards. However, it is not clear if long-term tactile training might prevent this age-dependent decline. We evaluated sensibility of the hand in 125 surgeons aged between 26 and 75 years who perform microsurgical operations, thereby undergoing regular tactile training. We examined sensibility of the radial digital nerve of the index finger (N3) and the ulnar digital nerve of the small finger (N10) using static and moving two-point discrimination (2PD) tests and compared the results to 154 age-matched individuals without specific long-term tactile training. We found significantly lower static and moving 2PD values for the sixth, seventh, and eighth decade of life in the microsurgery group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that long-term tactile training might prevent the known age-dependent decline of the sensibility of the hand. PMID:26306813

  18. Multidendritic sensory neurons in the adult Drosophila abdomen: origins, dendritic morphology, and segment- and age-dependent programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugimura Kaoru

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the establishment of functional neural circuits that support a wide range of animal behaviors, initial circuits formed in early development have to be reorganized. One way to achieve this is local remodeling of the circuitry hardwiring. To genetically investigate the underlying mechanisms of this remodeling, one model system employs a major group of Drosophila multidendritic sensory neurons - the dendritic arborization (da neurons - which exhibit dramatic dendritic pruning and subsequent growth during metamorphosis. The 15 da neurons are identified in each larval abdominal hemisegment and are classified into four categories - classes I to IV - in order of increasing size of their receptive fields and/or arbor complexity at the mature larval stage. Our knowledge regarding the anatomy and developmental basis of adult da neurons is still fragmentary. Results We identified multidendritic neurons in the adult Drosophila abdomen, visualized the dendritic arbors of the individual neurons, and traced the origins of those cells back to the larval stage. There were six da neurons in abdominal hemisegment 3 or 4 (A3/4 of the pharate adult and the adult just after eclosion, five of which were persistent larval da neurons. We quantitatively analyzed dendritic arbors of three of the six adult neurons and examined expression in the pharate adult of key transcription factors that result in the larval class-selective dendritic morphologies. The 'baseline design' of A3/4 in the adult was further modified in a segment-dependent and age-dependent manner. One of our notable findings is that a larval class I neuron, ddaE, completed dendritic remodeling in A2 to A4 and then underwent caspase-dependent cell death within 1 week after eclosion, while homologous neurons in A5 and in more posterior segments degenerated at pupal stages. Another finding is that the dendritic arbor of a class IV neuron, v'ada, was immediately reshaped during post

  19. Modeling of age-dependent amyloid accumulation and γ-secretase inhibition of soluble and insoluble Aβ in a transgenic mouse model of amyloid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Joanna; Ploeger, Bart; Appelkvist, Paulina; Bogstedt, Anna; Dillner Bergstedt, Karin; Eketjäll, Susanna; Visser, Sandra A G

    2013-12-01

    According to the "amyloid hypothesis," accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides in the brain is linked to the development of Alzheimer's disease. The aims of this investigation were to develop a model for the age-dependent amyloid accumulation and to quantify the age- and treatment-duration-dependent efficacy of the γ-secretase inhibitor MRK-560 in the Tg2576 transgenic mouse model of amyloid deposition. Soluble and insoluble Aβ40 and Aβ42 brain concentrations were compiled from multiple naïve, vehicle, and MRK-560-treated animals. The age of Tg2576 mice in the studies ranged between 3.5 and 26 months. Single doses of MRK-560 inhibited soluble Aβ40 levels in animals up to 9 months old. In contrast, MRK-560 did not cause significant acute effects on soluble Aβ40 levels in animals older than 13 months. Absolute levels of Aβ variants increased exponentially over age and reached a plateau at ∼20 months. In the final model, it was assumed that MRK-560 inhibited the Aβ production rate with an Aβ level-dependent IC50.The age-dependent increase in Aβ levels was best described by a logistic model that stimulated the production rate of soluble Aβ. The increase in insoluble Aβ was defined as a function of soluble Aβ by using a scaling factor and a different turnover rate. The turnover half-life for insoluble Aβ was estimated at 30 days, explaining that at least a 4-week treatment in young animals was required to demonstrate a reduction in insoluble Aβ. Taken together, the derived knowledge could be exploited for an improved design of new experiments in Tg2576 mice. PMID:25505567

  20. The Pituitary Gland and Age-Dependent Regulation of Body Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Andre P.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Runge, Evelien; Trainer, Peter J.; Jonsson, Peter J.; Koltowska-Haggstrom, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of obesity is increased in hypopituitarism. In the general population, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference increase with advancing age. It remains uncertain whether age-related changes in pituitary function contribute to the changes in body composition associated wi

  1. Age-Dependent Reductions in Mitochondrial Respiration are Exacerbated by Calcium in the Female Rat Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, J. Craig; Machikas, Alexandra M.; Korzick, Donna H.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease mortality increases rapidly following menopause by poorly defined mechanisms. Since mitochondrial function and Ca2+ sensitivity are important regulators of cell death following myocardial ischemia, we sought to determine if aging and/or estrogen deficiency (ovx) increased mitochondrial Ca2+ sensitivity. Mitochondrial respiration was measured in ventricular mitochondria isolated from adult (6mo; n=26) and aged (24mo; n=25), intact or ovariectomized female rats using the ...

  2. Age-Dependent Glutamate Induction of Synaptic Plasticity in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivenshitz, Miriam; Segal, Menahem; Sapoznik, Stav

    2006-01-01

    A common denominator for the induction of morphological and functional plasticity in cultured hippocampal neurons involves the activation of excitatory synapses. We now demonstrate massive morphological plasticity in mature cultured hippocampal neurons caused by a brief exposure to glutamate. This plasticity involves a slow, 70%-80% increase in…

  3. Age-dependent decline in learning and memory performances of WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Karson Ayşe; Utkan Tijen; Balcı Fuat; Arıcıoğlu Feyza; Ateş Nurbay

    2012-01-01

    RESEARCH Open Access Age-dependent decline in learning and memory performances of WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy Ayşe Karson1*, Tijen Utkan2, Fuat Balcı3, Feyza Arıcıoğlu4 and Nurbay Ateş1 Abstract Recent clinical studies revealed emotional and cognitive impairments associated with absence epilepsy. Preclinical research with genetic models of absence epilepsy however have primarily focused on dysfunctional emotional processes and paid relatively less attention t...

  4. Age-dependent effects of A53T alpha-synuclein on behavior and dopaminergic function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W Oaks

    Full Text Available Expression of A53T mutant human alpha-synuclein under the mouse prion promoter is among the most successful transgenic models of Parkinson's disease. Accumulation of A53T alpha-synuclein causes adult mice to develop severe motor impairment resulting in early death at 8-12 months of age. In younger, pre-symptomatic animals, altered motor activity and anxiety-like behaviors have also been reported. These behavioral changes, which precede severe neuropathology, may stem from non-pathological functions of alpha-synuclein, including modulation of monoamine neurotransmission. Our analysis over the adult life-span of motor activity, anxiety-like, and depressive-like behaviors identifies perturbations both before and after the onset of disease. Young A53T mice had increased distribution of the dopamine transporter (DAT to the membrane that was associated with increased striatal re-uptake function. DAT function decreased with aging, and was associated with neurochemical alterations that included increased expression of beta-synuclein and gamma synuclein. Prior to normalization of dopamine uptake, transient activation of Tau kinases and hyperphosphorylation of Tau in the striatum were also observed. Aged A53T mice had reduced neuron counts in the substantia nigra pars compacta, yet striatal medium spiny neuron dendritic spine density was largely maintained. These findings highlight the involvement of the synuclein family of proteins and phosphorylation of Tau in the response to dopaminergic dysfunction of the nigrostriatal pathway.

  5. Age-dependent effects of UCP2 deficiency on experimental acute pancreatitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Müller

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP for many years but experimental evidence is still limited. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2-deficient mice are an accepted model of age-related oxidative stress. Here, we have analysed how UCP2 deficiency affects the severity of experimental AP in young and older mice (3 and 12 months old, respectively triggered by up to 7 injections of the secretagogue cerulein (50 μg/kg body weight at hourly intervals. Disease severity was assessed at time points from 3 hours to 7 days based on pancreatic histopathology, serum levels of alpha-amylase, intrapancreatic trypsin activation and levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO in lung and pancreatic tissue. Furthermore, in vitro studies with pancreatic acini were performed. At an age of 3 months, UCP2-/- mice and wild-type (WT C57BL/6 mice were virtually indistinguishable with respect to disease severity. In contrast, 12 months old UCP2-/- mice developed a more severe pancreatic damage than WT mice at late time points after the induction of AP (24 h and 7 days, respectively, suggesting retarded regeneration. Furthermore, a higher peak level of alpha-amylase activity and gradually increased MPO levels in pancreatic and lung tissue were observed in UCP2-/- mice. Interestingly, intrapancreatic trypsin activities (in vivo studies and intraacinar trypsin and elastase activation in response to cerulein treatment (in vitro studies were not enhanced but even diminished in the knockout strain. Finally, UCP2-/- mice displayed a diminished ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione in serum but no increased ROS levels in pancreatic acini. Together, our data indicate an aggravating effect of UCP2 deficiency on the severity of experimental AP in older but not in young mice. We suggest that increased severity of AP in 12 months old UCP2-/- is caused by an imbalanced inflammatory response but is unrelated to acinar cell functions.

  6. Age-dependent alterations in the inflammatory response to pulmonary challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linge, Helena M; Ochani, Kanta; Lin, Ke; Lee, Ji Young; Miller, Edmund J

    2015-12-01

    The aging lung is increasingly susceptible to infectious disease. Changes in pulmonary physiology and function are common in older populations, and in those older than 60 years, pneumonia is the major cause of infectious death. Understanding age-related changes in the innate and adaptive immune systems, and how they affect both pulmonary and systemic responses to pulmonary challenge are critical to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of the elderly patient. In this observational study, we examined age-associated differences in inflammatory responses to pulmonary challenge with cell wall components from Gram-positive bacteria. Thus, male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 6 months or greater than 18 months (approximating humans of 20 and 55-65 years), were challenged, intratracheally, with lipoteichoic acid and peptidoglycan. Cellular and cytokine evaluations were performed on both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and plasma, 24 h post-challenge. The plasma concentration of free thyroxine, a marker of severity in non-thyroidal illness, was also evaluated. The older animals had an increased chemotactic gradient in favor of the airspaces, which was associated with a greater accumulation of neutrophils and protein. Furthermore, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory mediator and putative biomarker in acute lung injury, was increased in both the plasma and BAL of the older, but not young animals. Conversely, plasma free thyroxine, a natural inhibitor of MIF, was decreased in the older animals. These findings identify age-associated inflammatory/metabolic changes following pulmonary challenge that it may be possible to manipulate to improve outcome in the older, critically ill patient. PMID:26318747

  7. Aging-Dependent Regulation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Redox Status in Chronically Loaded Rat Dorsiflexor Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Michael J.; Dudash, Holly J.; Docherty, Megan; Geronilla, Kenneth B.; Baker, Brent A.; Haff, G. Gregory; Cutlip, Robert G; Alway, Stephen E.

    2008-01-01

    This study compares changes in the pro-oxidant production and buffering capacity in young and aged skeletal muscle after exposure to chronic repetitive loading (RL). The dorsiflexors from one limb of young and aged rats were loaded 3 times/week for 4.5 weeks using 80 maximal stretch-shortening contractions per session. RL increased H2O2 in tibialis anterior muscles of young and aged rats and decreased the ratio of reduced/oxidized glutathione and lipid peroxidation in aged but not young adult...

  8. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene Ablation Enhances Age-Dependent Weight Gain in Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Gregory G.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Payne, H. Ross; Mackie, John T.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2008-01-01

    Although studies performed in vitro and with transfected cells in culture suggest a role for liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) in regulating fatty acid oxidation and fat deposition, the physiological significance of this possibility is not completely clear. To begin to address this question, the effect of L-FABP gene ablation on phenotype of standard rodent chow-fed male mice was examined with increasing age up to 18 mo. While young (2-3 mo) L-FABP null mice displayed no visually obvi...

  9. Age-dependent change in executive function and gamma 40 Hz phase synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Robert H; Clark, C Richard; Lawrence, Jeffrey; Goldberg, Elkhonon; Williams, Leanne M; Cooper, Nicholas; Cohen, Ronald A; Brickman, Adam M; Gordon, Evian

    2005-03-01

    Decline in cognitive function is well recognized, yet few neurophysiological correlates of age-related cognitive decline have been identified. In this study we examined the impact of age on neurocognitive function and Gamma phase synchrony among 550 normal subjects (aged 11-70). Gamma phase synchrony was acquired to targets in the auditory oddball paradigm. The two tasks of executive function were switching of attention and an electronic maze. Subjects were divided into four age groups, which were balanced for sex. We hypothesized that reduced cognitive performance among older healthy individuals would be associated with age-related changes in gamma phase synchrony. Results showed a significant decrease in executive function in the oldest (51-70 years) age group. ANOVAs of age-by-frontal Gamma synchrony also showed a significant effect of age on Gamma phase synchrony in the left frontal region that corresponded modestly to the age effect found on executive task performance, with reduced performance associated with increased gamma synchrony. The results indicate that age-related changes in cognitive function evident among elderly individuals may in part be related to decreased ability to integrate information and this may be reflected as a compensatory increase in gamma synchrony in frontal regions of the brain. PMID:16035141

  10. Age-dependent astroglial vulnerability to hypoxia and glutamate: the role for erythropoietin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Lourhmati

    Full Text Available Extracellular accumulation of toxic concentrations of glutamate (Glu is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases, often accompanied by hypoxia and impaired metabolism of this neuromediator. To address the question whether the multifunctional neuroprotective action of erythropoietin (EPO extends to the regulation of extracellular Glu-level and is age-related, young and culture-aged rat astroglial primary cells (APC were simultaneously treated with 1mM Glu and/or human recombinant EPO under normoxic and hypoxic conditions (NC and HC. EPO increased the Glu uptake by astrocytes under both NC and especially upon HC in culture-aged APC (by 60%. Moreover, treatment with EPO up-regulated the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS, the expression of glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST and the level of EPO mRNA. EPO alleviated the Glu- and hypoxia-induced LDH release from astrocytes. These protective EPO effects were concentration-dependent and they were strongly intensified with age in culture. More than a 4-fold increase in apoptosis and a 2-fold decrease in GS enzyme activity was observed in APC transfected with EPO receptor (EPOR-siRNA. Our in vivo data show decreased expression of EPO and a strong increase of EPOR in brain homogenates of APP/PS1 mice and their wild type controls during aging. Comparison of APP/PS1 and age-matched WT control mice revealed a stronger expression of EPOR but a weaker one of EPO in the Alzheimer's disease (AD model mice. Here we show for the first time the direct correlation between the extent of differentiation (age of astrocytes and the efficacy of EPO in balancing extracellular glutamate clearance and metabolism in an in-vitro model of hypoxia and Glu-induced astroglial injury. The clinical relevance of EPO and EPOR as markers of brain cells vulnerability during aging and neurodegeneration is evidenced by remarkable changes in their expression levels in a transgenic model of AD and their WT controls.

  11. Age dependent dynamics of intima-media complex thickness in elderly patients with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadjaya L.A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To estimate the dynamics of intima-media complex in elderly patients with arterial hypertension. Materials: 179 elderly patients with arterial hypertension were involved in the study. Mean intima-media wall thickness (IMT of common carotid arteries in plaque-free sites and prevalence of plaques were evaluated by B-mode ultrasound investigation (Philips Envisor HD, USA. Results: IMT changing was of nonlinear character, remained stable up to 74 years. Mean rate of the following IMT augmentation was 0.157 mm per year. Frequency of atherosclerotic plaque revealing was significantly increased since the 7th decade. Significant correlation between IMT and systolic, diastolic, mean blood pressure levels or medication spectrum was not revealed. Conclusion: Received data proved significant influence of aging upon IMT enlargement

  12. Age-dependent vitreous separation from the macula in a clinic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Z

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zahid Syed,1 Michael W Stewart2 1Georgetown University, Washington, DC, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo School of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USA Background: Vitreous degeneration begins soon after birth and accelerates throughout life. Vitreous liquefaction with a slowly progressive separation of the posterior hyaloid from the peripheral macula usually leads to complete posterior vitreous detachment. The purpose of this study is to measure the age-related prevalence of partial vitreous separation and the length of residual vitreous adhesion in an ophthalmology clinic population. Methods: Patients examined by the senior author (MWS during a 6-month period were included in a retrospective chart review. Demographic data and spectral domain optical coherence tomography scan results were gathered. Data analysis with descriptive statistics focused on the prevalence and extent of partial vitreous separation. Results: The mean age of the study patients was 69.9 years, and 62% were phakic. The highest prevalence of partial posterior hyaloid separation from the internal limiting membrane (71.2% was seen in the 50- to 54-year age group. This prevalence rate steadily decreased to 5.6% in the 95- to 99-year age group. The prevalence of complete vitreous detachment as determined by slit-lamp biomicroscopy increased from 1.7% in the <50-year age group to a maximum of 29.2% in the 75- to 79-year group. The length of vitreomacular adhesion averaged 4.6 mm in the 50- to 54-year age group and steadily decreased to 2.1 mm in the 90- to 95-year group. Conclusion: Vitreomacular separation affects the majority of eyes in the sixth decade of life. The prevalence of partial vitreous separation decreases with advancing age, probably because an increasing number of these patients progress to complete posterior vitreous detachment. Keywords: optical coherence tomography, posterior hyaloid, posterior vitreous detachment, syneresis, vitreomacular adhesion, vitreous

  13. Age-dependent resistance to Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in swine

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    Bautista Elida M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV causes a prolonged, economically devastating infection in pigs, and immune resistance to infection appears variable. Since the porcine adaptive immune system is not fully competent at birth, we hypothesized that age influences the dynamics of PRRSV infection. Thus, young piglets, growing 16-20-week-old finisher pigs, and mature third parity sows were infected with virulent or attenuated PRRSV, and the dynamics of viral infection, disease, and immune response were monitored over time. Results Virulent PRRSV infection and disease were markedly more severe and prolonged in young piglets than in finishers or sows. Attenuated PRRSV in piglets also produced a prolonged viremia that was delayed and reduced in magnitude, and in finishers and sows, about half the animals showed no viremia. Despite marked differences in infection, antibody responses were observed in all animals irrespective of age, with older pigs tending to seroconvert sooner and achieve higher antibody levels than 3-week-old animals. Interferon γ (IFN γ secreting peripheral blood mononuclear cells were more abundant in sows but not specifically increased by PRRSV infection in any age group, and interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels in blood were not correlated with PRRSV infection status. Conclusion These findings show that animal age, perhaps due to increased innate immune resistance, strongly influences the outcome of acute PRRSV infection, whereas an antibody response is triggered at a low threshold of infection that is independent of age. Prolonged infection was not due to IL-10-mediated immunosuppression, and PRRSV did not elicit a specific IFN γ response, especially in non-adult animals. Equivalent antibody responses were elicited in response to virulent and attenuated viruses, indicating that the antigenic mass necessary for an immune response is produced at a low level of infection, and is not predicted by

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to sugar beet fibre and increasing faecal bulk pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    based on newly developed scientific evidence related to sugar beet fibre and “increasing faecal bulk”. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is sugar beet fibre. The Panel considers that sugar beet fibre is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed......Following an application from Nordic Sugar A/S, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Denmark, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim...... that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of sugar beet fibre and increasing faecal bulk. The following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “Sugar beet fibre increases faecal bulk”. In order to bear the claim a food should be at least “high in fibre” as per...

  15. A higher oxidative status accelerates senescence and aggravates age-dependent disorders in SAMP strains of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Masanori

    2002-11-01

    The SAM strain of mice is actually a group of related inbred strains consisting of series of SAMP (accelerated senescence-prone, short-lived) and SAMR (accelerated senescence-resistant, longer-lived) strains. Comparing with the SAMR strains, the SAMP strains of mice show a more accelerated senescence process, shorter lifespan, and an earlier onset and more rapid progress of age-associated pathological phenotypes similar to several geriatric disorders observed in humans, including senile osteoporosis, degenerative joint disease, age-related deficits in learning and memory, olfactory bulb and forebrain atrophy, presbycusis and retinal atrophy, senile amyloidosis, immunosenescence, senile lungs, and diffuse medial thickening of the aorta. The higher oxidative stress observed in the SAMP strains of mice are partly caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, and may be one cause of the senescence acceleration and age-dependent alterations in cell structure and function, including neuronal cell degeneration. This senescence acceleration is also observed during senescence/crisis in cultures of isolated fibroblast-like cells from SAMP strains of mice, and was associated with a hyperoxidative status. These observations suggest that the SAM strains are useful tools in the attempt to understand the mechanisms of age-dependent degeneration of cells and tissues, and their aggravation, and to develop clinical interventions. PMID:12470893

  16. Surveillance test and monitoring strategy for the availability improvement of standby equipment using age-dependent model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many cases, the safety of a nuclear power plant greatly depends on the successful operation of specific standby equipment at the time of demand arrival. For the effective management of safety-critical standby equipment, unavailability measures are introduced and widely applied. In this study, we propose an age-dependent unavailability model for standby equipment that considers aging-relevant information, such as the number of actual operations, the elapsed time from installation, and maintenance activities, in an integrated manner. Based on the proposed model, we present two availability enhancement strategies: the Online Monitoring based Inspection Method (OMIM) and the Shortening Surveillance Test Interval Method (SSTIM). In the OMIM, ‘elapsed-time sensitive' elements are monitored, without actual operation, at the differentiated monitoring interval with the help of sensing devices. For the remaining parts of the elements, actual testing is performed with an adaptive interval for each standby turn by the SSTIM. The effectiveness of the proposed enhancement schemes is demonstrated through a case study for the motor-operated valve (MOV). It is our belief that the proposed schemes can be widely applied in areas such as equipment testing, maintenance strategies, dynamic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), and risk-informed regulations. - Highlights: • An age-dependent unavailability model for standby equipment was investigated. • An Online Monitoring-based Inspection Method was suggested. • Changing the test interval for each standby turn was suggested. • The effectiveness of the suggested methods was analyzed quantitatively

  17. Age-dependent kinetics of dentate gyrus neurogenesis in the absence of cyclin D2

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    Ansorg Anne

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult neurogenesis continuously adds new neurons to the dentate gyrus and the olfactory bulb. It involves the proliferation and subsequent differentiation of neuronal progenitors, and is thus closely linked to the cell cycle machinery. Cell cycle progression is governed by the successive expression, activation and degradation of regulatory proteins. Among them, D-type cyclins control the exit from the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Cyclin D2 (cD2 has been shown to be required for the generation of new neurons in the neurogenic niches of the adult brain. It is differentially expressed during hippocampal development, and adult cD2 knock out (cD2KO mice virtually lack neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and olfactory bulb. In the present study we examined the dynamics of postnatal and adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG of cD2KO mice. Animals were injected with bromodeoxyuridine at seven time points during the first 10 months of life and brains were immunohistochemically analyzed for their potential to generate new neurons. Results Compared to their WT litters, cD2KO mice had considerably reduced numbers of newly born granule cells during the postnatal period, with neurogenesis becoming virtually absent around postnatal day 28. This was paralleled by a reduction in granule cell numbers, in the volume of the granule cell layer as well as in apoptotic cell death. CD2KO mice did not show any of the age-related changes in neurogenesis and granule cell numbers that were seen in WT litters. Conclusions The present study suggests that hippocampal neurogenesis becomes increasingly dependent on cD2 during early postnatal development. In cD2KO mice, hippocampal neurogenesis ceases at a time point at which the tertiary germinative matrix stops proliferating, indicating that cD2 becomes an essential requirement for ongoing neurogenesis with the transition from developmental to adult neurogenesis. Our data further support the notion that

  18. Age-Dependent Neurogenesis and Neuron Numbers within the Olfactory Bulb and Hippocampus of Homing Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskenaite, Virginia; Krackow, Sven; Lipp, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Many birds are supreme long-distance navigators that develop their navigational ability in the first months after fledgling but update the memorized environmental information needed for navigation also later in life. We studied the extent of juvenile and adult neurogenesis that could provide such age-related plasticity in brain regions known to mediate different mechanisms of pigeon homing: the olfactory bulb (OB), and the triangular area of the hippocampal formation (HP tr). Newly generated neurons (visualized by doublecortin, DCX) and mature neurons were counted stereologically in 35 pigeon brains ranging from 1 to 168 months of age. At the age of 1 month, both areas showed maximal proportions of DCX positive neurons, which rapidly declined during the first year of life. In the OB, the number of DCX-positive periglomerular neurons declined further over time, but the number of mature periglomerular cells appeared unchanged. In the hippocampus, the proportion of DCX-positive neurons showed a similar decline yet to a lesser extent. Remarkably, in the triangular area of the hippocampus, the oldest birds showed nearly twice the number of neurons as compared to young adult pigeons, suggesting that adult born neurons in these regions expanded the local circuitry even in aged birds. This increase might reflect navigational experience and, possibly, expanded spatial memory. On the other hand, the decrease of juvenile neurons in the aging OB without adding new circuitry might be related to the improved attachment to the loft characterizing adult and old pigeons. PMID:27445724

  19. Derivation of Pluripotent Cells from Mouse SSCs Seems to Be Age Dependent

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    Hossein Azizi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we aimed to answer important and fundamental questions in germ cell biology with special focus on the age of the male donor cells and the possibility to generate embryonic stem cell- (ESC- like cells. While it is believed that spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs and truly pluripotent ESC-like cells can be isolated from adult mice, it remained unknown if the spontaneous conversion of SSCs to ESC-like cells fails at some age. Similarly, there have been differences in the literature about the duration of cultures during which ESC-like cells may appear. We demonstrate the possibility to derive ESC-like cells from SSC cultures until they reach adolescence or up to 7 weeks of age, but we point out the impossibility to derive these cells from older, mature adult mice. The inability of real adult SSCs to shift to a pluripotent state coincides with a decline in expression of the core pluripotency genes Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2 in SSCs with age. At the same time genes of the spermatogonial differentiation pathway increase. The generated ESC-like cells were similar to ESCs and express pluripotency markers. In vitro they differentiate into all three germ lineages; they form complex teratomas after transplantation in SCID mice and produce chimeric mice.

  20. Age-dependent postoperative cognitive impairment and Alzheimer-related neuropathology in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhipeng; Dong, Yuanlin; Wang, Hui; Culley, Deborah J.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Crosby, Gregory; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhang, Yiying; Xie, Zhongcong

    2014-01-01

    Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is associated with increased cost of care, morbidity, and mortality. However, its pathogenesis remains largely to be determined. Specifically, it is unknown why elderly patients are more likely to develop POCD and whether POCD is dependent on general anesthesia. We therefore set out to investigate the effects of peripheral surgery on the cognition and Alzheimer-related neuropathology in mice with different ages. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia was established in the mice. The surgery induced post-operative elevation in brain β-amyloid (Aβ) levels and cognitive impairment in the 18 month-old wild-type and 9 month-old Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice, but not the 9 month-old wild-type mice. The Aβ accumulation likely resulted from elevation of beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme and phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α. γ-Secretase inhibitor compound E ameliorated the surgery-induced brain Aβ accumulation and cognitive impairment in the 18 month-old mice. These data suggested that the peripheral surgery was able to induce cognitive impairment independent of general anesthesia, and that the combination of peripheral surgery with aging- or Alzheimer gene mutation-associated Aβ accumulation was needed for the POCD to occur. These findings would likely promote more research to investigate the pathogenesis of POCD.

  1. Age Dependent Differences in Collagen Alignment of Glutaraldehyde Fixed Bovine Pericardium

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    Katie H. Sizeland

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine pericardium is used for heart valve leaflet replacement where the strength and thinness are critical properties. Pericardium from neonatal animals (4–7 days old is advantageously thinner and is considered as an alternative to that from adult animals. Here, the structures of adult and neonatal bovine pericardium tissues fixed with glutaraldehyde are characterized by synchrotron-based small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and compared with the mechanical properties of these materials. Significant differences are observed between adult and neonatal tissue. The glutaraldehyde fixed neonatal tissue has a higher modulus of elasticity (83.7 MPa than adult pericardium (33.5 MPa and a higher normalised ultimate tensile strength (32.9 MPa than adult pericardium (19.1 MPa. Measured edge on to the tissue, the collagen in neonatal pericardium is significantly more aligned (orientation index (OI 0.78 than that in adult pericardium (OI 0.62. There is no difference in the fibril diameter between neonatal and adult pericardium. It is shown that high alignment in the plane of the tissue provides the mechanism for the increased strength of the neonatal material. The superior strength of neonatal compared with adult tissue supports the use of neonatal bovine pericardium in heterografts.

  2. Age-dependent oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in Down's lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the oxidative status of lymphocytes from children (n = 7) and adults (n = 18) with Down's syndrome (DS). The basal oxidative condition, the vulnerability to in vitro hydrogen peroxide exposure, and the repair capacity were measured by means of the damage-specific alkaline comet assay. Significantly and age-independently elevated numbers of single strand breaks and oxidized bases (pyrimidines and purines) were found in the nuclear DNA of the lymphocytes in the DS group in the basal condition. These results may support the role of an increased level of endogenous oxidative stress in DS and are similar to those previously demonstrated in Alzheimer's disease. In the in vitro oxidative stress-induced state, a markedly higher extent of DNA damage was observed in DS children as compared with age- and gender-matched healthy controls, suggesting that young trisomic lymphocytes are more sensitive to oxidative stress than normal ones. However, the repair ability itself was not found to be deteriorated in either DS children or DS adults

  3. Age-dependent changes in the proteolytic-antiproteolytic balance after alcohol and black tea consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, A; Bylińska, A; Skrzydlewska, E

    2011-03-01

    Aging is accompanied by changes in the redox balance that is additionally modified by alcohol. Ethanol metabolism is connected with generation of free radicals which can damage cell components especially when antioxidant mechanisms are not able to neutralize them. In connection with the necessity of prevention against oxidative consequences, natural antioxidants are looked for. A natural and commonly used component of the diets with antioxidant properties are teas, especially the black tea. This study provides evidence of the role of black tea in the protection of rat plasma proteins and lipids against oxidative stress caused by aging and ethanol intoxication. For 5 weeks, the rats (2-, 12-, and 24-months old) used for the experiment received a black tea beverage (3 g/l) without or with alcohol (given for 4 weeks). The decrease in antioxidant abilities determined as total antioxidant status during aging and ethanol intoxication resulted in enhanced lipid and protein oxidation (determined as malondialdehyde, carbonyl groups, dityrosine, tryptophan and sulfhydryl groups level). In consequence the decrease in anti-proteases (alpha-1-antitrypsin, alpha-2-macroglobulin) activity and the increase in proteases (elastase and cathepsin G) activity were observed. Black tea protected the plasma antioxidants and prevented oxidative modifications of lipid and protein observed during aging as well as ethanol intoxication. The results indicate that a shift into plasma proteolytic activity results from a decrease in antioxidant abilities, so the use of black tea appears to be beneficial in reducing oxidative stress caused by ethanol and/or aging.

  4. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Rosbacher drive® and increased attention pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA)

    2014-01-01

    Following an application from Hassia Mineralquellen GmbH & Co KG, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Rosbacher drive® and increased attention. The Panel considers that Rosbacher drive®, which contains natural mineral water plus...

  5. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to “native chicory inulin” and maintenance of normal defecation by increasing stool frequency pursuant to Article 13.5 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA)

    2015-01-01

    Following an application from BENEO-Orafti S.A., submitted pursuant to Article 13.5 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to “native chicory inulin” and maintenance of normal defecation by increasing stool frequency. The food constituent that is a subject of a claim is “native chicory inulin”. The Panel consi...

  6. Is prosthodontic treatment age-dependent in patients 60 years and older in Public Dental Services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, K; Vehkalahti, M M; Mäntylä, P

    2015-06-01

    Prosthodontic treatment is a common procedure for the elderly as tooth loss is a reality in old age. Dentists take care of increasingly older patients with physiological age manifesting as cognitive impairment, frailty or multiple chronic diseases or who have side effects of medicines. We evaluated how patients' age affects prosthodontic treatment choice and whether we could identify the age when a change in practice occurs. In addition, we determined how common the treatment method of fixed prostheses is among patients aged 60 years or over in Public Dental Services (PDS) and how common rehabilitation of dentition with new dentures is compared with repair of existing dentures. Our data cover all patients aged 60 years and older (n = 130,060) treated in Helsinki PDS in 2007-2012. Data were aggregated into seven groups: 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, 85-89, and 90 years and over. During the 6-year period, the mean annual number of the population was about 114,000 and the mean annual number of patients treated with prosthodontics 1700. Prosthodontic treatment choices (repair, removable prosthodontics, fixed prostheses, fibre-reinforced composite fixed prostheses) vary by age; the older the patient, the rarer fixed or fibre-reinforced composite fixed prostheses and removable prostheses and the more frequent repairs (P < 0.001). Denture repair was virtually the only treatment that patients over 90 years received. Based on our results, the age at which prosthodontic treatment practices in PDS change is around 70 years. Beyond this age, fixed prosthodontic treatment modalities are very rare and repairs are more common.

  7. Gender and Age-Dependent Etiology of Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Magliano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the most frequent community-acquired infections worldwide. Escherichia coli is the most common UTI pathogen although underlying host factors such as patients’ age and gender may influence prevalence of causative agents. In this study, 61 273 consecutive urine samples received over a 22-month period from outpatients clinics of an urban area of north Italy underwent microbiological culture with subsequent bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive samples. A total of 13 820 uropathogens were isolated and their prevalence analyzed according to patient’s gender and age group. Overall Escherichia coli accounted for 67.6% of all isolates, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.8%, Enterococcus faecalis (6.3%, Proteus mirabilis (5.2%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.5%. Data stratification according to both age and gender showed E. coli isolation rates to be lower in both males aged ≥60 years (52.2%, E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa being more prevalent in this group (11.6% and 7.8%, resp., as well as in those aged ≤14 years (51.3% in whom P. mirabilis prevalence was found to be as high as 21.2%. Streptococcus agalactiae overall prevalence was found to be 2.3% although it was shown to occur most frequently in women aged between 15 and 59 years (4.1%. Susceptibility of E. coli to oral antimicrobial agents was demonstrated to be as follows: fosfomycin (72.9%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (72.9%, ciprofloxacin (76.8%, ampicillin (48.0%, and amoxicillin/clavulanate (77.5%. In conclusion, both patients’ age and gender are significant factors in determining UTIs etiology; they can increase accuracy in defining the causative uropathogen as well as providing useful guidance to empiric treatment.

  8. The age dependency of gene expression for plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snieder, H.; Doornen, L.J.P. van; Boomsma, D.I. [Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and disentangle the genetic and nongenetic causes of stability and change in lipids and (apo)lipoproteins that occur during the lifespan. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) were measured in a group of 160 middle-aged parents and their twin offspring (first project) and in a group of 203 middle-aged twin pairs (second project). Combining the data of both projects enabled the estimation of the extent to which measured lipid parameters are influenced by different genes in adolescence and adulthood. To that end, an extended quantitative genetic model was specified, which allowed the estimation of heritabilities for each sex and generation separately. Heritabilities were similar for both sexes and both generations. Larger variances in the parental generation could be ascribed to proportional increases in both unique environmental and additive genetic variance from childhood to adulthood, which led to similar heritability estimates in adolescent and middle-aged twins. Although the magnitudes of heritabilities were similar across generations, results showed that, for total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL, partly different genes are expressed in adolescence compared to adulthood. For triglycerides, only 46% of the genetic variance was common to both age groups; for total cholesterol this was 80%. Intermediate values were found for HDL (66%) and LDL (76%). For ApoA1, ApoB, and Lp(a), the same genes seem to act in both generations. 56 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Weight/age-dependent glucose turnover (GTO) in fed and 24 hour fasted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In small animals such as the rat, cardiac output and oxygen consumption are constant with age when normalized to the body surface area but not to body weight (BW). The authors explored this relationship for GTO in pentobarbital-anesthetized fed and 24 hours fasted Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 200 and 55 g. A bolus of 10 μCi/kg BW of [6-3H]-glucose was injected into the carotid artery followed by a constant infusion equal to 1.5 μCi/minute *kg BW and samples taken from the right atrium every 15 minutes for glucose specific activity (SA) measurements over a 2 period. Steady state measurements of GTO (μmol/minute) plotted as a function of BW (g) revealed GTO to be inversely related in fed rats but independent of BW in fasted rats. Although plasma [glucose] was significantly lower in fasted rats, there were no weight related differences within each group. Fasting decreased GTO across the whole range of body weights; however, the magnitude of the fasting effect was much larger in the smaller animals (50% lower) compared to the larger animals (25% lower). Although the lean body mass is increasing in this range of BW, the decrease in GTO indicates an age/weight-related decrease in glucose utilization which diminishes the effect of fasting as the animal grows. This data explains the inconsistency in the literature regarding the fasting effect on GTO in the rat and emphasizes the importance of weight/age matching of experimental groups to minimize the variability in the data when GTO is of interest

  10. Impacts of age-dependent tree sensitivity and dating approaches on dendrogeomorphic time series of landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šilhán, Karel; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Different approaches and thresholds have been utilized in the past to date landslides with growth ring series of disturbed trees. Past work was mostly based on conifer species because of their well-defined ring boundaries and the easy identification of compression wood after stem tilting. More recently, work has been expanded to include broad-leaved trees, which are thought to produce less and less evident reactions after landsliding. This contribution reviews recent progress made in dendrogeomorphic landslide analysis and introduces a new approach in which landslides are dated via ring eccentricity formed after tilting. We compare results of this new and the more conventional approaches. In addition, the paper also addresses tree sensitivity to landslide disturbance as a function of tree age and trunk diameter using 119 common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and 39 Crimean pine (Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana) trees growing on two landslide bodies. The landslide events reconstructed with the classical approach (reaction wood) also appear as events in the eccentricity analysis, but the inclusion of eccentricity clearly allowed for more (162%) landslides to be detected in the tree-ring series. With respect to tree sensitivity, conifers and broad-leaved trees show the strongest reactions to landslides at ages comprised between 40 and 60 years, with a second phase of increased sensitivity in P. nigra at ages of ca. 120-130 years. These phases of highest sensitivities correspond with trunk diameters at breast height of 6-8 and 18-22 cm, respectively (P. nigra). This study thus calls for the inclusion of eccentricity analyses in future landslide reconstructions as well as for the selection of trees belonging to different age and diameter classes to allow for a well-balanced and more complete reconstruction of past events.

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-palmitate and increased calcium absorption pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    -palmitate and increased calcium absorption. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim referring to children’s development and health. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is beta-palmitate, a structured triglyceride with a high content of palmitic acid at the sn-2......Following an application from IDACE, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to beta......, including healthy infants consuming follow-on formula, preterm infants and infants needing foods for particular nutritional uses including foods for special medical purposes. The Panel considers that an increase in calcium absorption might be a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence...

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to lactose and increase in calcium absorption leading to an increase in calcium retention (ID 668) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to lactose and increase in calcium absorption leading to an increase in calcium retention. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member...... that the claimed effect (improved nutrient absorption) is only considered beneficial where absorption is a limiting factor for the maintenance of adequate status of the nutrient and where increased absorption leads to increased retention. The Panel considers that an increase in calcium absorption leading...

  13. Age-dependent susceptibilities of Bulinus truncatus snails to an aqueous extract of Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv. (Asteraceae) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Elnour A; Bushara, Hamid O; Ali, Faisal S; Hussein, Mansour F

    2009-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the potential use of the herb Pulicaria crispa in the biological control of different developmental stages of Bulinus truncatus, a major snail intermediate host of urinary schistosomiasis. Age-dependent susceptibilities of mature adult snails, immature snails, juveniles, and one-day old egg masses to aqueous extracts of Pulicaria crispa leaves collected from Khartoum (Sudan) and Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) was determined and compared. The results show the juvenile snails are the most susceptible, followed in descending order by one-day old egg masses, immature snails, and mature adult snails. The P. crispa sample collected from Riyadh was significantly more potent against B. truncatus than that collected from Khartoum, as indicated by the least (LC50) and (LC90) values for all B. truncatus ages.

  14. The structure of optimal time- and age-dependent harvesting in the Lotka-McKendrik population model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hritonenko, Natali; Yatsenko, Yuri

    2007-07-01

    The paper analyzes optimal harvesting of age-structured populations described by the Lotka-McKendrik model. It is shown that the optimal time- and age-dependent harvesting control involves only one age at natural conditions. This result leads to a new optimization problem with the time-dependent harvesting age as an unknown control. The integral Lotka model is employed to explicitly describe the time-varying age of harvesting. It is proven that in the case of the exponential discounting and infinite horizon the optimal strategy is a stationary solution with a constant harvesting age. A numeric example on optimal forest management illustrates the theoretical findings. Discussion and interpretation of the results are provided.

  15. Estimating true age-dependence in survival when only adults can be observed: an example with Black-legged Kittiwakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederiksen, M.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In long-lived birds, pre-breeders are often difficult or impossible to observe, and even though a proportion of marked adults may be of known age, the estimation of age-specific survival is complicated by the absence of observations during the first years of life. New developments in MARK now allow use of an updated individual covariate. We used this powerful approach to model age-dependence in survival of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla at a North Sea colony. Although only 69 marked breeders were of known age, there was strong evidence for a quadratic relationship between true age and survival. We believe that this simple but powerful approach could be implemented for many species and could provide improved estimates of how survival changes with age, a central theme in life history theory.

  16. An approach to calculating childhood body burdens of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans which accounts for age-dependent biological half lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paustenbach, D. [ChemRisk, San Francisco, CA (United States); Leung, H.W. [Leung, H.W. Private Consultant, Danbury, CT (United States); Scott, P. [ChemRisk, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kerger, B. [HSRI, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to apply an age-dependent half life model to examine the range of child (ages 0-7) body burdens that correspond to selected exposure scenarios involving background dietary and environmental doses of dioxins. The scenarios examined include breast-fed and nonbreast- fed infants feeding for 6 months, other dioxin uptake from foods through age 7, and exposures to urban residential soils at 1 ppb TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ). These body burden estimates in children are then compared to the adult body burden estimates corresponding to the range of tolerable daily intakes (1 to 4 pg TEQ/kg-day) proposed by some U.S. and international regulatory/advisory groups.

  17. Tweeting News Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Toledo Bastos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we investigate the impact of social media readership to the editorial profile of newspapers. We analyze tweets containing links to news articles from eight of the largest national newspapers in the United States, United Kingdom, Spain, Brazil, and Germany. The data collection follows the first two weeks of October 2012 and includes 2,842,699 tweets with links to news articles. Twitter-shortened links were resolved using a three-pass routine and assigned to 1 of the 21 newspaper sections. We found the concentration of links to news articles posted by top users to be lower than reported in the literature and the strategy of relaying headlines on Twitter via automatic news aggregators (feeds to be inefficient. The results of this investigation show which sections of a newspaper are the most and least read by readers in different parts of the world, with German readers placing greater emphasis on Politics and Economy; Brazilians on Sports and Arts; Spaniards on Local and National news; Britons and Americans on Opinion and World news. We also found that German and Spanish readers are more likely to read multiple national newspapers, while British readers more often resort to foreign sources of news. The results confirm that feedback to news items from a large user base is pivotal for the replication of content and that newspapers and news items can be clustered according to the editorial profile and principles of newsworthiness inherited from legacy media. The results of this investigation shed light onto the networked architecture of journalism that increasingly depends on readership agency.

  18. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Rosbacher drive® and increased attention pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Hassia Mineralquellen GmbH & Co KG, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Rosbacher drive® and increased attention. The Panel considers that Rosbacher drive®, which contains natural mineral water plus grape juice, lemon juice, pomegranate juice, elderberry juice, isomaltulose, sucrose, fructose syrup, caffeine, ascorbic acid and natural flavourings, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, increased attention, is a beneficial physiological effect. The single study which was carried out with Rosbacher drive® was an open-label, non-randomised sequential study and the study did not report on any outcomes of attention. No conclusions can be drawn from this study for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Rosbacher drive® and increased attention.

  19. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-alanine and increase in physical performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Natural Alternative International, Inc. (NAI, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to beta-alanine and increase in physical performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise. The food constituent that is the subject of the claim is beta-alanine, which is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that an increase in physical performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence the Panel took into account that only one out of 11 pertinent human intervention studies (including 14 pertinent outcomes from which conclusions could be drawn showed an effect of beta-alanine on physical performance during short-duration, high intensity exercise. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of beta-alanine and an increase in physical performance during short-duration, high intensity exercise.

  20. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to ?native chicory inulin? and maintenance of normal defecation by increasing stool frequency pursuant to Article 13.5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from BENEO-Orafti S.A., submitted pursuant to Article 13.5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to “native chicory inulin” and maintenance of normal defecation by increasing stool frequency. The food constituent that is a subject of a claim is “native chicory inulin”. The Panel considers that “native chicory inulin”, a non-fractionated mixture of monosaccharides (< 10%, disaccharides, inulin-type fructans and inulin extracted from chicory, with a mean DP ≥ 9, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The Panel considers that maintenance of normal defecation by increasing stool frequency (provided that it does not result in diarrhoea is a beneficial physiological effect. Six studies involving 86 subjects consistently showed that consumption of “native chicory inulin” at an amount of at least 12 g/day increases stool frequency. The Panel also notes the plausible mechanisms by which inulin and inulin-type fructans in “native chicory inulin” could exert the claimed effect. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of “native chicory inulin” and maintenance of normal defecation by increasing stool frequency. The following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “Chicory inulin contributes to maintenance of normal defecation by increasing stool frequency”. In order to obtain the claimed effect, 12 g of “native chicory inulin” should be consumed daily.

  1. Publishing International Counseling Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Amundson, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    This article begins with a rationale for including international articles in the "Journal of Counseling & Development." Then, 2 general categories of international articles are described. First are articles that provide a general overview of counseling in a particular country. The 2nd category is more general and might involve international…

  2. [Can age-dependent cognitive functions be measured? P300 potentials--concept of brain aging--early diagnosis of dementia processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kügler, C

    1996-10-10

    Event related P300 potentials as the electrophysiological substrate of cognitive functions, such as the stimulus processing time (P300 latencies) and visual attention capacity (P300 amplitudes) are suitable for the analysis of age-related changes in cognitive human brain functions. P300 investigations carried out in a total of 330 test subjects aged between 18 and 98 years, showed an overall slight prolongation of the P300 latencies by 10 ms for each decade, as well as a discrete reduction in the P300 amplitudes of 1 microV. To describe the relationship between the P300 parameters and chronological age, polynomial regression models are more suitable than linear functions. This means that in middle-age, P300 potentials change only slightly while, from about the age of 60 upwards, a noticeable acceleration in the P300 changes takes place. An interesting observation was the fact that the acceleration in the P300 latency increase occurred some 10 years earlier in women than in men, beginning in the early postmenopausal period. The polynomial course of the regression function for the age-dependence of P300 potentials might reflect the positive influence of socio-cultural factors on the aging of cognitive functions. The true extent of the age-related changes in cognitive functions, however, can be determined only with the aid of intra-individual longitudinal studies. This is of considerable importance for the early diagnosis of both metabolic and primarily degenerative encephalopathies.

  3. Age-Dependent Long-Term Potentiation Deficits in the Prefrontal Cortex of the Fmr1 Knockout Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Henry G S; Lassalle, Olivier; Brown, Jonathan T; Manzoni, Olivier J

    2016-05-01

    The most common inherited monogenetic cause of intellectual disability is Fragile X syndrome (FXS). The clinical symptoms of FXS evolve with age during adulthood; however, neurophysiological data exploring this phenomenon are limited. TheFmr1knockout (Fmr1KO) mouse models FXS, but studies in these mice of prefrontal cortex (PFC) function are underrepresented, and aging linked data are absent. We studied synaptic physiology and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the medial PFC ofFmr1KO mice from 2 to 12 months. In young adultFmr1KO mice, NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated long-term potentiation (LTP) is intact; however, in 12-month-old mice this LTP is impaired. In parallel, there was an increase in the AMPAR/NMDAR ratio and a concomitant decrease of synaptic NMDAR currents in 12-month-oldFmr1KO mice. We found that acute pharmacological blockade of mGlu5receptor in 12-month-oldFmr1KO mice restored a normal AMPAR/NMDAR ratio and LTP. Taken together, the data reveal an age-dependent deficit in LTP inFmr1KO mice, which may correlate to some of the complex age-related deficits in FXS. PMID:25750254

  4. Contribution to the penetration of radionuclides across the skin. Age dependence of promethium through rat skin in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper: - the time dependence of permeation of 147Pm3+ from aqueous solution through animal skin model was studied; - the age dependence of promethium through the skin was proved; - the optimum biological model of human skin was selected, and - the relative importance of the main diffusion pathways for 147Pm3+ the diffusion across the intact skin and the diffusion through the hair channels was assessed. Concluding it can be said, that: -it was proved, that the 5-day-old rats (5DR) represents the optimum animal model to the human skin; - in the case of 8DR to 11DR the dominant route of 147Pm3+ penetration is along the follicles; - the permeation resistance of the skin depends on the thickness and mechanical properties of the skin. Comparing amounts of penetrated ions of promethium through the skin without hairs (3DR to 6DR) and through the skin with hairs, it was showed that the additional diffusion along hair's follicles pronounced with animal skin can be important also in case of human skin where hair density is many times lower than in used animal models. (authors)

  5. Age-Dependent Morphologic Alterations in the Outer Retinal and Choroidal Thicknesses Using Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the age-dependent morphologic alterations in the outer retina and choroid at the macula using swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Thirty eyes (30 normal subjects; average age, 49 years) were examined; five (age range, third-eighth decades of life) had refractive errors of ±2 diopters or less and no fundus abnormalities. An Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) map of the outer retinal and choroidal thickness was constructed using swept-source OCT. The outer retinal and choroidal segmentation lines were drawn automatically, partially manually, within 6 millimeters of the macula. Results The mean outer retinal and choroidal thicknesses in the 6-millimeter-diameter circle were 145±13 and 236±68 microns, respectively. The choroidal thickness and age were negatively (r = -0.66, P<0.01) correlated; the outer retinal thickness and age were not correlated (r = -0.16, P = 0.39). The outer retinal and choroidal thicknesses in the ETDRS map were not correlated (r = -0.13, P = 0.49) within 1 millimeter but correlated (r = 0.32, P<0.01) within 6 millimeters. Conclusions The choroid thins with aging. The outer retina remains stable. Outer retina and choroid are correlated in the entire macula except for the center. ETDRS map can be useful for evaluation of the morphologic relationship between the outer retina and choroid. PMID:27467879

  6. AfAP2-1, An Age-Dependent Gene of Aechmea fasciata, Responds to Exogenous Ethylene Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bromeliaceae family is one of the most morphologically diverse families with a pantropical distribution. To schedule an appropriate flowering time for bromeliads, ethylene is commonly used to initiate flower development in adult plants. However, the mechanism by which ethylene induces flowering in adult bromeliads remains unknown. Here, we identified an APETALA2 (AP2-like gene, AfAP2-1, in Aechmea fasciata. AfAP2-1 contains two AP2 domains and is a nuclear-localized protein. It functions as a transcriptional activator, and the activation domain is located in the C-terminal region. The expression level of AfAP2-1 is higher in juvenile plants than in adult plants, and the AfAP2-1 transcript level was rapidly and transiently reduced in plants treated with exogenous ethylene. Overexpression of AfAP2-1 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in an extremely delayed flowering phenotype. These results suggested that AfAP2-1 responds to ethylene and is a putative age-dependent flowering regulator in A. fasciata.

  7. Apolipoprotein E4 Causes Age-Dependent Disruption of Slow Gamma Oscillations during Hippocampal Sharp-Wave Ripples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Anna K; Jones, Emily A; Lin, Yuan-Hung; Karlsson, Mattias P; Kay, Kenneth; Yoon, Seo Yeon; Tong, Leslie M; Nova, Philip; Carr, Jessie S; Frank, Loren M; Huang, Yadong

    2016-05-18

    Apolipoprotein (apo) E4 is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the mechanism by which it causes cognitive decline is unclear. In knockin (KI) mice, human apoE4 causes age-dependent learning and memory impairments and degeneration of GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Here we report two functional apoE4-KI phenotypes involving sharp-wave ripples (SWRs), hippocampal network events critical for memory processes. Aged apoE4-KI mice had fewer SWRs than apoE3-KI mice and significantly reduced slow gamma activity during SWRs. Elimination of apoE4 in GABAergic interneurons, which prevents learning and memory impairments, rescued SWR-associated slow gamma activity but not SWR abundance in aged mice. SWR abundance was reduced similarly in young and aged apoE4-KI mice; however, the full SWR-associated slow gamma deficit emerged only in aged apoE4-KI mice. These results suggest that progressive decline of interneuron-enabled slow gamma activity during SWRs critically contributes to apoE4-mediated learning and memory impairments. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  8. Is the repair of articular cartilage lesion by costal chondrocyte transplantation donor age-dependent? An experimental study in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Popko

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The repair of chondral injuries is a very important problem and a subject of many experimental and clinical studies. Different techniques to induce articular cartilage repair are under investigation. In the present study, we have investigated whether the repair of articular cartilage folowing costal chondrocyte transplantation is donor age-dependent. Transplantation of costal chondrocytes from 4- and 24-week old donors, with artificially induced femoral cartilage lesion, was performed on fourteen 20-week-old New Zealand White male rabbits. In the control group, the lesion was left without chondrocyte transplantation. The evaluation of the cartilage repair was performed after 12 weeks of transplantation. We analyzed the macroscopic and histological appearance of the newly formed tissue. Immunohistochemistry was also performed using monoclonal antibodies against rabbit collagen type II. The newly formed tissue had a hyaline-like appearance in most of the lesions after chondrocyte transplantation. Positive immunohistochemical reaction for collagen II was also observed in both groups with transplanted chondrocytes. Cartilage from adult donors required longer isolation time and induced slightly poorer repair. However, hyaline-like cartilage was observed in most specimens from this group, in contrast to the control group, where fibrous connective tissue filled the lesions. Rabbit costal chondrocytes seem to be a potentially useful material for inducing articular cartilage repair and, even more important, they can also be derived from adult, sexually mature animals.

  9. Contents of chemical elements in stomach during prenatal development: different age-dependent dynamical changes and their significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Fan Hou; Hai-Rong Li; Li-Zhen Wang; De-Zhu Li; Lin-Sheng Yang; Chong-Zheng Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To observe dynamic of different chemical elements in stomach tissue during fetal development.METHODS: To determine contents of the 21 chemical elements in each stomach samples from fetus aging four to ten months. The content values were compared to those from adult tissue samples, and the values for each month group were also analyzed for dynamic changes.RESULTS: Three representations were found regarding the relationship between contents of the elements and ages of the fetus, including the positive correlative (K), reversely correlative (Na, Ca, P, Al, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr, Sr, Li, Cd, Ba,Se ) and irrelevant groups (Mg, Co, Ni, V, Pb, Ti).CONCLUSION: The chemical elements' contents in stomach tissues were found to change dynamically with the stomach weights. The age-dependent representations for different chemical elements during the prenatal development may be of some significance for assessing development of fetal stomach and some chemical elements. The data may be helpful for the nutritional balance of fetus and mothers during prenatal development and even the perinatal stages.

  10. Age-dependent occurrence of an ascending axon on the omega neuron of the cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, G; Pollack, G S

    1986-01-22

    The omega neurons (ON1s) are a mirror-symmetrical pair of identified prothoracic auditory interneurons of crickets which have been previously described as intraganglionic. Using intracellular techniques we stained ON1s of female Teleogryllus oceanicus and found that many ON1s have axons which project anteriorly out of the prothoracic ganglion. The ascending axon arises contralateral to the soma at the most anteriolateral bend of the bow-shaped process of an otherwise "archetypical" ON1 and travels up the neck connective in a ventral position just inside the connective tissue sheath. The occurrence of the ascending axon is age-dependent. Seventy-five percent of ON1s stained in late nymphal stages and in young adults had an ascending axon while only 30% of ON1s in older adults had an ascending axon. Evidence is presented to show that ON1s having ascending axons are developmental variants of the "archetypical" ON1 and do not represent a separate neuron type. The two morphological types of ON1s are not distinguishable on the basis of their responses to sound stimuli having carrier frequencies of 3.5-60 kHz. Although we know that the ascending axon conducts action potentials, its target and terminal morphology are not yet known.

  11. Call for Articles

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Do you have an article you would like to have considered for publication? Submit it to Global Advances in Health and Medicine! A review of the following standards will be helpful as you prepare your article for submission.

  12. , 1584), increase in lean body mass (ID 1579, 1582, 1583), increase in muscle strength (ID 1578, 1583, 1587), increase in endurance performance (ID 1580, 1581), skeletal muscle tissue repair (ID 1586) and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise (ID 1576, 1585) pursuant to Article 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent...

  13. NbCSPR underlies age-dependent immune responses to bacterial cold shock protein in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saur, Isabel M L; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Sklenar, Jan; Holton, Nicholas J; Smakowska, Elwira; Belkhadir, Youssef; Zipfel, Cyril; Rathjen, John P

    2016-03-22

    Plants use receptor kinases (RKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs) as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are typical of whole classes of microbes. After ligand perception, many leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing PRRs interact with the LRR-RK BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1). BAK1 is thus expected to interact with unknown PRRs. Here, we used BAK1 as molecular bait to identify a previously unknown LRR-RLP required for the recognition of the csp22 peptide derived from bacterial cold shock protein. We established a method to identify proteins that interact with BAK1 only after csp22 treatment. BAK1 was expressed transiently in Nicotiana benthamiana and immunopurified after treatment with csp22. BAK1-associated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified several proteins including known BAK1 interactors and a previously uncharacterized LRR-RLP that we termed RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN REQUIRED FOR CSP22 RESPONSIVENESS (NbCSPR). This RLP associates with BAK1 upon csp22 treatment, and NbCSPR-silenced plants are impaired in csp22-induced defense responses. NbCSPR confers resistance to bacteria in an age-dependent and flagellin-induced manner. As such, it limits bacterial growth and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of flowering N. benthamiana plants. Transgenic expression of NbCSPR into Arabidopsis thaliana conferred responsiveness to csp22 and antibacterial resistance. Our method may be used to identify LRR-type RKs and RLPs required for PAMP perception/responsiveness, even when the active purified PAMP has not been defined.

  14. Supplementation of selenium-enriched yeast attenuates age-dependent transcriptional changes of heart in mitochondrial DNA mutator mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijin Xiao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age is a major risk factor in developing heart diseases and has been associated with profound transcriptional changes in mammalian tissues. Low tissue selenium has recently been linked to several age-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the global effects of age and dietary supplementation of selenium on heart transcriptional profiles in POLG mutator mice. Methods: Heart transcription profiles from young (2-month-old and old (13-month-old animals fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 1.0 mg selenium from seleniumenriched yeast (SP/kg diet were obtained and validated using microarray and real-time RTPCR techniques. Results: Aging led to significant transcriptional changes, where the expression of 1942 genes in old animals was changed by a fold change larger than 2.0, when compared to young animals. Age-regulated genes are associated with cardiovascular system development, immune and inflammatory response, and cellular oxidative stress response. Multiple genes linked with cardiomyocyte apoptosis, hypertrophy, and cardiac fibrosis, such as Myh7, Lcn2, Spp1, and Serpine1, were significantly up-regulated in old animals. SP supplementation also caused significant transcriptional changes in the heart, especially in old mice where many age-dependent transcriptional changes were totally or partially reversed by SP. Upstream regulator analysis further indicated that genes for Foxo1 and Foxo3, two transcriptional regulators involved in the regulation of cardiac muscle remodeling, were significantly activated by SP, suggesting that Foxo-mediated transcriptional activities play important roles in the anti-aging properties of SP. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2014; 4(3:98- 119 Page 99 of 119 Conclusions: Results of this study indicate that SP supplementation attenuated age-related transcriptional changes in the heart of old POLG mice, which implies a potential clinical application of

  15. Method of drying articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janney, Mark A.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.

    1999-01-01

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

  16. Age-dependent D-dimer cut-off to avoid unnecessary CT-exams for ruling-out pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of an age-dependent D-Dimer cut-off in patients who underwent a computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Retrospective application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off (age/100 in patients aged over 50) in 530 consecutive patients, both in- and outpatients, aged over 18, who underwent CTPA for suspected PE according to the guidelines. The application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off showed a now negative test-result in 17 of 530 patients (3.2 %). The proportion was 4.1 % (17 of 418) in patients aged over 50. None of these 17 cases was diagnosed with PE in CTPA, the false-negative rate was 0 %. The effect could be seen in outpatients (14 of 377 [3.7 %]) as well as in inpatients(3 of 153 [2.0 %]) with no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). The application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off as part of the guideline-based algorithm for suspected PE reduced the number of necessary CTPA in outpatients as well as in inpatients.

  17. Convergence Analysis of Semi-Implicit Euler Methods for Solving Stochastic Age-Dependent Capital System with Variable Delays and Random Jump Magnitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghui Du

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider semi-implicit Euler methods for stochastic age-dependent capital system with variable delays and random jump magnitudes, and investigate the convergence of the numerical approximation. It is proved that the numerical approximate solutions converge to the analytical solutions in the mean-square sense under given conditions.

  18. Analysis of a Multivariate Counting Process Generated from an Age-dependent Non-homogeneous Poisson Process Defined on a Finite Semi-Markov Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sumita, Ushio; HUANG, Jia-Ping

    2008-01-01

    We consider a multivariate counting process generated from an age-dependent non-homogeneous Poisson process defined on a finite semi-Markov pro-cess, generalizing many existing counting processes of importance. The dynamicbehavior of the multivariate counting process is captured through analysis of theunderlying Laplace transform generating functions. Some asymptotic results arealso obtained.

  19. Obesity-induced chronic inflammation in high fat diet challenged C57BL/6J mice is associated with acceleration of age-dependent renal amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Roel A.; Bijzet, Johan; Meijers, Wouter C.; Yakala, Gopala K.; Kleemann, Robert; Nguyen, Tri Q.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Hazenberg, Bouke P. C.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Heeringa, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Obesity-induced inflammation presumably accelerates the development of chronic kidney diseases. However, little is known about the sequence of these inflammatory events and their contribution to renal pathology. We investigated the effects of obesity on the evolution of age-dependent renal complicat

  20. A Limit Theorem for Multi-Type Subcritical Age-Dependent Branching Processes with two Types of Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Slavtchova-Bojkova, Maroussia

    2011-01-01

    Марусия Н. Славчова-Божкова - В настоящата работа се обобщава една гранична теорема за докритичен многомерен разклоняващ се процес, зависещ от възрастта на частиците с два типа имиграция. Целта е да се обобщи аналогичен резултат в едномерния случай като се прилагат “coupling” метода, теория на възстановяването и регенериращи процеси. This work continues the study of the classical subcritical age-dependent branching process and the effect of the following two-type immigration pattern in...

  1. Natural radioactivity in tap water and associated age-dependent dose and lifetime risk assessment in Amman, Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Amir, Sajedah M. [Jordan Atomic Energy Commission, Amman 11934 (Jordan); Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim F., E-mail: hamarnehibrahim@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Balqa Applied University, Salt 19117 (Jordan); Al-Abed, Tahseen [Jordan Atomic Energy Commission, Amman 11934 (Jordan); Awadallah, Mohammad [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Balqa Applied University, Salt 19117 (Jordan)

    2012-04-15

    With the aim of assessing potential public impact, preliminary investigations on tap waters collected from highly populated areas in Amman and Aqaba, Jordan were conducted by measuring gross alpha and beta activities as well as uranium and radium radionuclides. Gross activities deduced by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) were ranged in <50-250{+-}23 mBq l{sup -1} for alpha and <188-327{+-}29 mBq l{sup -1} for beta in Amman whereas higher concentrations were found in Aqaba. The results show that gross {beta} activities are generally higher than the corresponding gross {alpha} activities and direct correlations between gross activities and total dissolved solids (TDS) exist. Moreover, the effect of TDS on gross analyses was studied and devoted to the optimization of LSC parameters. {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U concentrations were determined by alpha spectrometry after separation from the matrix by extraction chromatography and electroplating. {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra concentrations were measured, respectively, using de-gassing and gas proportional counter techniques. Uranium and radium concentrations do not reach the WHO recommended levels and the radioisotopic activity ratios were discussed. The associated age-dependent dose from water ingestion in Amman was estimated. The total dose for adults had an average value of 0.15 mSv y{sup -1}, which exceeds the WHO recommended limit of 0.1 mSv y{sup -1} but still below the Jordanian limit of 0.5 mSv y{sup -1}. Although the Jordanian limit was exceeded for babies and infants, the lifetime risk assessment showed values as low as 10{sup -4}. Thereby it is concluded that tap waters of Amman is radiologically safe and pose no significant hazard to the public. Finally, a comparison of the investigated waters with worldwide data was made. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Current levels of natural radioactivity in tap water in Amman, Jordan are discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water radioactivity

  2. Age dependent differences in the regulation of hippocampal steroid hormones and receptor genes: relations to motivation and cognition in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K; Korz, V

    2013-02-01

    Estrogen and estrogenic functions are age-dependently involved in the modulation of learning, memory and mood in female humans and animals. However, the investigation of estrogenic effects in males has been largely neglected. Therefore, we investigated the hippocampal gene expression of estrogen receptors α and β (ERα, β) in 8-week-old, 12-week-old and 24-week-old male rats. To control for possible interactions between the expression of the estrogen receptor genes and other learning-related steroid receptors, androgen receptors (AR), corticosterone-binding glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) were also measured. Furthermore, the concentrations of the ligands 17β-estradiol, testosterone and corticosterone were measured. The spatial training was conducted in a hole-board. The 8-week-old rats exhibited higher levels of general activity and exploration during the training and performed best with respect to spatial learning and memory, whereas no difference was found between the 12-week-old and 24-week-old rats. The trained 8-week-old rats exhibited increased gene expression of ERα compared with the untrained rats in this age group as well as the trained 12-week-old and 24-week-old rats. The concentrations of estradiol and testosterone, however, were generally higher in the 24-week-old rats than in the 8-week-old and 12-week-old rats. The ERα mRNA concentrations correlated positively with behavior that indicate general learning motivation. These results suggest a specific role of ERα in the age-related differences in motivation and subsequent success in the task. Thus, estrogen and estrogenic functions may play a more prominent role in young male behavior and development than has been previously assumed.

  3. A correlation of reactive oxygen species accumulation by depletion of superoxide dismutases with age-dependent impairment in the nervous system and muscles of Drosophila adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Saori; Hirai, Jun; Yasukawa, Takashi; Nakahara, Yasuyuki; Inoue, Yoshihiro H

    2015-08-01

    The theory that accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in internal organs is a major promoter of aging has been considered negatively. However, it is still controversial whether overexpression of superoxide dismutases (SODs), which remove ROS, extends the lifespan in Drosophila adults. We examined whether ROS accumulation by depletion of Cu/Zn-SOD (SOD1) or Mn-SOD (SOD2) influenced age-related impairment of the nervous system and muscles in Drosophila. We confirmed the efficient depletion of Sod1 and Sod2 through RNAi and ROS accumulation by monitoring of ROS-inducible gene expression. Both RNAi flies displayed accelerated impairment of locomotor activity with age and shortened lifespan. Similarly, adults with nervous system-specific depletion of Sod1 or Sod2 also showed reduced lifespan. We then found an accelerated loss of dopaminergic neurons in the flies with suppressed SOD expression. A half-dose reduction of three pro-apoptotic genes resulted in a significant suppression of the neuronal loss, suggesting that apoptosis was involved in the neuronal loss caused by SOD silencing. In addition, depletion of Sod1 or Sod2 in musculature is also associated with enhancement of age-related locomotion impairment. In indirect flight muscles from SOD-depleted adults, abnormal protein aggregates containing poly-ubiquitin accumulated at an early adult stage and continued to increase as the flies aged. Most of these protein aggregates were observed between myofibril layers. Moreover, immuno-electron microscopy indicated that the aggregates were predominantly localized in damaged mitochondria. These findings suggest that muscular and neuronal ROS accumulation may have a significant effect on age-dependent impairment of the Drosophila adults.

  4. Age-dependent decrease and alternative splicing of methionine synthase mRNA in human cerebral cortex and an accelerated decrease in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina R Muratore

    Full Text Available The folate and vitamin B12-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS is highly sensitive to cellular oxidative status, and lower MS activity increases production of the antioxidant glutathione, while simultaneously decreasing more than 200 methylation reactions, broadly affecting metabolic activity. MS mRNA levels in postmortem human cortex from subjects across the lifespan were measured and a dramatic progressive biphasic decrease of more than 400-fold from 28 weeks of gestation to 84 years was observed. Further analysis revealed alternative splicing of MS mRNA, including deletion of folate-binding domain exons and age-dependent deletion of exons from the cap domain, which protects vitamin B12 (cobalamin from oxidation. Although three species of MS were evident at the protein level, corresponding to full-length and alternatively spliced mRNA transcripts, decreasing mRNA levels across the lifespan were not associated with significant changes in MS protein or methionine levels. MS mRNA levels were significantly lower in autistic subjects, especially at younger ages, and this decrease was replicated in cultured human neuronal cells by treatment with TNF-α, whose CSF levels are elevated in autism. These novel findings suggest that rather than serving as a housekeeping enzyme, MS has a broad and dynamic role in coordinating metabolism in the brain during development and aging. Factors adversely affecting MS activity, such as oxidative stress, can be a source of risk for neurological disorders across the lifespan via their impact on methylation reactions, including epigenetic regulation of gene expression.

  5. Schumpeter's unknown article Development

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Markus C.; Esslinger, Hans Ulrich; Hedtke, Ulrich; Knudsen, Thorbjørn

    2004-01-01

    The present article introduces Development, a new, unpublished and hitherto unknown article written by Joseph A. Schumpeter. It was originally written in 1932 and titled Entwicklung. Development is remarkable since it helps understand the unity of Schumpeter’s work and significantly adds to Schumpeter’s known works on a number of issues that were central to his theory of economic development. Development shows that Schumpeter considered the explanation of novelty as the most im...

  6. Abstracts of Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    LU Bingfu, The semantic characteristics of event nouns in Chinese and English The article analyzes the eommonalities and differences of event nouns in Chinese and English. It points out that in both languages complex social events are most likely to be coded as social event nouns, which constitute the core of event nouns. However, peripheral event nouns in the two languages are very different. The article also discusses the various motivations for events to be coded as nouns.

  7. Recompressed exfoliated graphite articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2013-08-06

    This invention provides an electrically conductive, less anisotropic, recompressed exfoliated graphite article comprising a mixture of (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite flakes; and (b) particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon, wherein the non-expandable graphite or carbon particles are in the amount of between about 3% and about 70% by weight based on the total weight of the particles and the expanded graphite flakes combined; wherein the mixture is compressed to form the article having an apparent bulk density of from about 0.1 g/cm.sup.3 to about 2.0 g/cm.sup.3. The article exhibits a thickness-direction conductivity typically greater than 50 S/cm, more typically greater than 100 S/cm, and most typically greater than 200 S/cm. The article, when used in a thin foil or sheet form, can be a useful component in a sheet molding compound plate used as a fuel cell separator or flow field plate. The article may also be used as a current collector for a battery, supercapacitor, or any other electrochemical cell.

  8. Age-dependent modifications of AMPA receptor subunit expression levels and related cognitive effects in 3xTg-AD mice

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    Pamela eCantanelli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available GluA1, GluA2, GluA3, and GluA4 are the constitutive subunits of AMPA receptors (AMPARs, the major mediators of fast excitatory transmission in the mammalian central nervous system. Most AMPARs are Ca2+-impermeable because of the presence of the GluA2 subunit. GluA2 mRNA undergoes an editing process that results in a Q to R substitution, a key factor in the regulation of AMPAR Ca2+-permeability. AMPARs lacking GluA2 or containing the unedited subunit are permeable to Ca2+ and Zn2+. The phenomenon physiologically modulates synaptic plasticity while, in pathologic conditions, leads to increased vulnerability to excitotoxic neuronal death. Given the importance of these subunits, we have therefore evaluated possible associations between changes in expression levels of AMPAR subunits and development of cognitive deficits in 3xTg-AD mice, a widely investigated transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. With qRT-PCR, we assayed hippocampal mRNA expression levels of GluA1-4 subunits occurring in young [3 months of age (m.o.a.] and old (12 m.o.a Tg-AD mice and made comparisons with levels found in age-matched wild type (WT mice. Efficiency of GluA2 RNA editing was also analyzed. All animals were cognitively tested for short- and long-term spatial memory with the Morris Water Maze (MWM navigation task. 3xTg-AD mice showed age-dependent decreases of mRNA levels for all the AMPAR subunits, with the exception of GluA2. Editing remained fully efficient with aging in 3xTg-AD and WT mice. A one-to-one correlation analysis between MWM performances and GluA1-4 mRNA expression profiles showed negative correlations between GluA2 levels and MWM performances in young 3xTg-AD mice. On the contrary, positive correlations between GluA2 mRNA and MWM performances were found in young WT mice. Our data suggest that increases of AMPARs that contain GluA1, GluA3, and GluA4 subunits may help in maintaining cognition in pre-symptomatic 3xTg-AD mice.

  9. Temporal profiles of age-dependent changes in cytokine mRNA expression and glial cell activation after status epilepticus in postnatal rat hippocampus

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    Ruohonen Saku

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Status epilepticus (SE is proposed to lead to an age-dependent acute activation of a repertoire of inflammatory processes, which may contribute to neuronal damage in the hippocampus. The extent and temporal profiles of activation of these processes are well known in the adult brain, but less so in the developing brain. We have now further elucidated to what extent inflammation is activated by SE by investigating the acute expression of several cytokines and subacute glial reactivity in the postnatal rat hippocampus. Methods SE was induced by an intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of kainic acid (KA in 9- and 21-day-old (P9 and P21 rats. The mRNA expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-10 (IL-10, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, interferon gamma (IFN-γ, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1 were measured from 4 h up to 3 days after KA injection with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR. IL-1β protein expression was studied with ELISA, GFAP expression with western blotting, and microglial and astrocyte morphology with immunohistochemistry 3 days after SE. Results SE increased mRNA expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10 mRNA in hippocampus of both P9 and P21 rats, their induction being more rapid and pronounced in P21 than in P9 rats. MMP-9 expression was augmented similarly in both age groups and GDNF expression augmented only in P21 rats, whereas neither IFN-γ nor TGF-β1 expression was induced in either age group. Microglia and astrocytes exhibited activated morphology in the hippocampus of P21 rats, but not in P9 rats 3 d after SE. Microglial activation was most pronounced in the CA1 region and also detected in the basomedial amygdala. Conclusion Our results suggest that SE provokes an age-specific cytokine expression in the acute phase, and age-specific glial cell activation in the subacute phase as verified now in the

  10. Proteomic analysis of age dependent nitration of rat cardiac proteins by solution isoelectric focusing coupled to nano-HPLC tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Sung Jung; Gokulrangan, Giridharan; Schöneich, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Protein nitration occurs as a result of oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Therefore, protein nitration serves as a hallmark for protein oxidation in vivo. We have previously reported on age dependent protein nitration in cardiac tissue of Fisher 344 BN-F1 rats analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis; however, only one specific nitration site was identified (Kanski et al., 2005a). In the present report, we used solution phase isoelec...

  11. Resistance to age-dependent thymic atrophy in long-lived mice that are deficient in pregnancy-associated plasma protein A

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo, Abbe N.; Joshua J Michel; Bale, Laurie K.; Lemster, Bonnie H.; Borghesi, Lisa; Conover, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA) is a metalloproteinase that controls the tissue availability of insulin-like growth factor (IGF). Homozygous deletion of PAPPA in mice leads to lifespan extension. Since immune function is an important determinant of individual fitness, we examined the natural immune ecology of PAPPA−/− mice and their wild-type littermates reared under specific pathogen-free condition with aging. Whereas wild-type mice exhibit classic age-dependent thymic atrophy,...

  12. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE: Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Geisler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE and fat free mass (FFM in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18–83 years with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D2O and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry. High metabolic rate organs (HMR summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i decreases in fat free mass; (ii a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the

  13. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE): Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Corinna; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Schweitzer, Lisa; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat free mass (FFM) in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18-83 years) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)) and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D₂O)) and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry). High metabolic rate organs (HMR) summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM) in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc) using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels) explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i) decreases in fat free mass; (ii) a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii) decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the REE

  14. Oral treatment with the herbal formula B401 protects against aging-dependent neurodegeneration by attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis in the brain of R6/2 mice

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    Wang SE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sheue-Er Wang,1,2 Ching-Lung Lin,1 Chih-Hsiang Hsu,1 Shuenn-Jyi Sheu,3 Chung-Hsin Wu1 1Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, 2Department of Pathological Inspection, Saint Paul’s Hospital, Taoyuan, 3Brion Research Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan Background: Neurodegeneration is characterized by progressive neurological deficits due to selective neuronal loss in the nervous system. Huntington’s disease (HD is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder. Neurodegeneration in HD patients shows aging-dependent pattern. Our previous study has suggested that a herbal formula B401 may have neuroprotective effects in the brains of R6/2 mice. Objective: To clarify possible mechanisms for neurodegeneration, which improves the understanding the aging process. This study focuses on clarifying neurodegenerative mechanisms and searching potential therapeutic targets in HD patients. Methods: The oxidative stress and apoptosis were compared in the brain tissue between R6/2 HD mice with and without oral B401 treatment. Expressions of proteins for oxidative stress and apoptosis in the brain tissue of R6/2 HD mice were examined by using immunostaining and Western blotting techniques. Results: R6/2 HD mice with oral B401 treatment significantly reduced reactive oxygen species levels in the blood, but markedly increased expressions of superoxide dismutase 2 in the brain tissue. Furthermore, R6/2 HD mice with oral B401 treatment significantly increased expressions of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2, but significantly reduced expressions of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax, calpain, and caspase-3 in the brain tissue. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence that the herbal formula B401 can remedy for aging-dependent neurodegeneration of R6/2 mice via suppressing oxidative stress and apoptosis in the brain. We suggest that the herbal formula B401 can be developed as a potential health supplement for ameliorating aging-dependent

  15. Age-dependent changes in diastolic Ca{sup 2+} and Na{sup +} concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyopathy: Role of Ca{sup 2+} entry and IP{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijares, Alfredo [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Centro de Biofísica y Bioquímica, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Altamirano, Francisco [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Kolster, Juan [Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas, México D.F. (Mexico); Adams, José A. [Division of Neonatology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Miami, FL 33140 (United States); López, José R., E-mail: jrlopez@ucdavis.edu [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Centro de Biofísica y Bioquímica, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Age-dependent increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub d} and [Na{sup +}]{sub d} in mdx cardiomyocytes. • Gadolinium significantly reduced both [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub d} and [Na{sup +}]{sub d} at all ages. • IP{sub 3}-pathway inhibition reduced cations concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. - Abstract: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal X-inherited disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. Besides the relatively well characterized skeletal muscle degenerative processes, DMD is also associated with a dilated cardiomyopathy that leads to progressive heart failure at the end of the second decade. The aim of the present study was to characterize the diastolic Ca{sup 2+} concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub d}) and diastolic Na{sup +} concentration ([Na{sup +}]{sub d}) abnormalities in cardiomyocytes isolated from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month old mdx mice using ion-selective microelectrodes. In addition, the contributions of gadolinium (Gd{sup 3+})-sensitive Ca{sup 2+} entry and inositol triphosphate (IP{sub 3}) signaling pathways in abnormal [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub d} and [Na{sup +}]{sub d} were investigated. Our results showed an age-dependent increase in both [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub d} and [Na{sup +}]{sub d} in dystrophic cardiomyocytes compared to those isolated from age-matched wt mice. Gd{sup 3+} treatment significantly reduced both [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub d} and [Na{sup +}]{sub d} at all ages. In addition, blockade of the IP{sub 3}-pathway with either U-73122 or xestospongin C significantly reduced ion concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. Co-treatment with U-73122 and Gd{sup 3+} normalized both [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub d} and [Na{sup +}]{sub d} at all ages in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. These data showed that loss of dystrophin in mdx cardiomyocytes produced an age-dependent intracellular Ca{sup 2+} and Na{sup +} overload mediated at least in part by enhanced Ca{sup 2+} entry through Gd{sup 3+} sensitive transient receptor potential channels (TRPC), and by IP{sub 3} receptors.

  16. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to “native chicory inulin” and maintenance of normal defecation by increasing stool frequency pursuant to Article 13.5 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to “native chicory inulin” and maintenance of normal defecation by increasing stool frequency. The food constituent that is a subject of a claim is “native chicory inulin”. The Panel considers that “native chicory inulin”, a non-fractionated mixture of monosaccharides (...%), disaccharides, inulin-type fructans and inulin extracted from chicory, with a mean DP ≥ 9, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The Panel considers that maintenance of normal defecation by increasing stool frequency (provided that it does not result in diarrhoea) is a beneficial...... physiological effect. Six studies involving 86 subjects consistently showed that consumption of “native chicory inulin” at an amount of at least 12 g/day increases stool frequency. The Panel also notes the plausible mechanisms by which inulin and inulin-type fructans in “native chicory inulin” could exert...

  17. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to caffeine and increased alertness pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to caffeine and increased alertness. The food constituent, caffeine, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. Increased alertness might be a beneficial physiological effect. A claim on caffeine and increased...... alertness, in the general adult population, for products containing at least 75 mg of caffeine per serving, has already been assessed by the Panel with a favourable outcome. In the present application, the applicant proposed that, in order to bear the claim, a product should contain at least 40 mg...... of caffeine per serving. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that most studies which measured reaction time in various cognitive tasks found no effect of caffeine at doses caffeine was found on the majority of outcome...

  18. Climate change-associated trends in net biomass change are age dependent in western boreal forests of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han Y H; Luo, Yong; Reich, Peter B; Searle, Eric B; Biswas, Shekhar R

    2016-09-01

    The impacts of climate change on forest net biomass change are poorly understood but critical for predicting forest's contribution to the global carbon cycle. Recent studies show climate change-associated net biomass declines in mature forest plots. The representativeness of these plots for regional forests, however, remains uncertain because we lack an assessment of whether climate change impacts differ with forest age. Using data from plots of varying ages from 17 to 210 years, monitored from 1958 to 2011 in western Canada, we found that climate change has little effect on net biomass change in forests ≤ 40 years of age due to increased growth offsetting increased mortality, but has led to large decreases in older forests due to increased mortality accompanying little growth gain. Our analysis highlights the need to incorporate forest age profiles in examining past and projecting future forest responses to climate change.

  19. Climate change-associated trends in net biomass change are age dependent in western boreal forests of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han Y H; Luo, Yong; Reich, Peter B; Searle, Eric B; Biswas, Shekhar R

    2016-09-01

    The impacts of climate change on forest net biomass change are poorly understood but critical for predicting forest's contribution to the global carbon cycle. Recent studies show climate change-associated net biomass declines in mature forest plots. The representativeness of these plots for regional forests, however, remains uncertain because we lack an assessment of whether climate change impacts differ with forest age. Using data from plots of varying ages from 17 to 210 years, monitored from 1958 to 2011 in western Canada, we found that climate change has little effect on net biomass change in forests ≤ 40 years of age due to increased growth offsetting increased mortality, but has led to large decreases in older forests due to increased mortality accompanying little growth gain. Our analysis highlights the need to incorporate forest age profiles in examining past and projecting future forest responses to climate change. PMID:27465040

  20. ONTOGENY OF HEPATIC AND PLASMA METABOLISM OF DELTAMETHRIN IN VITRO: ROLE IN AGE-DEPENDENT ACUTE NEUROTOXICITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deltamethrin is a reltively potent and widely used pyrethroid pesticide that is known to be markedly more toxic to young animals. The data presented in this paper shed light on the mechanisms for this increased sensitivity in the young. Young animals lack the ability to efficient...

  1. Dose-response model of murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi: time post inoculation and host age dependency analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamrakar Sushil B

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rickettsia typhi (R. mooseri is the causative agent of murine typhus. It is one of the most widely distributed flea-borne diseases with a relatively mild febrile initial illness with six to 14 days of incubation period. The bacterium is gram negative and an obligate intracellular pathogen. The disease is transmitted to humans and vertebrate host through fleabites or via contact with infected feces. This paper develops dose-response models of different routes of exposure for typhus in rodents. Methods Data from published articles were analyzed using parametric dose-response relationship models. Dose-response relationships were fit to data using the method of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE. Results Dose-response models quantifying the effects of different ages of rats and time post inoculation in BALB/c mice were analyzed in the study. Both the adult rats (inoculated intradermally and newborn rats (inoculated subcutaneously were best fit by exponential models and both distributions could be described by a single dose-response relationship. The BALB/C mice inoculated subcutaneously were best fit by Beta-Poisson models. The time post inoculation analysis showed that there was a definite time and response relationship existed in this case. Conclusions Intradermally or subcutaneously inoculated rats (adult and newborn models suggest that less than 1 plaque-forming unit (PFU (1.33 to 0.38 in 95% confidence limits of the pathogen is enough to seroconvert 50% of the exposed population on average. For the BALB/c mouse time post inoculation model, an average dose of 0.28 plaque-forming units (PFU (0.75 to 0.11 in 95% confidence limits will seroconvert 50% of the exposed mice.

  2. Age-dependent neuroplasticity mechanisms in Alzheimer Tg2576 mice following modulation of brain amyloid-β levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Lilja

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of modulating brain amyloid-β (Aβ levels at different stages of amyloid pathology on synaptic function, inflammatory cell changes and hippocampal neurogenesis, i.e. processes perturbed in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Young (4- to 6-month-old and older (15- to 18-month-old APP(SWE transgenic (Tg2576 mice were treated with the AD candidate drug (+-phenserine for 16 consecutive days. We found significant reductions in insoluble Aβ1-42 levels in the cortices of both young and older transgenic mice, while significant reductions in soluble Aβ1-42 levels and insoluble Aβ1-40 levels were only found in animals aged 15-18 months. Autoradiography binding with the amyloid ligand Pittsburgh Compound B ((3H-PIB revealed a trend for reduced fibrillar Aβ deposition in the brains of older phenserine-treated Tg2576 mice. Phenserine treatment increased cortical synaptophysin levels in younger mice, while decreased interleukin-1β and increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were detected in the cortices of older mice. The reduction in Aβ1-42 levels was associated with an increased number of bromodeoxyuridine-positive proliferating cells in the hippocampi of both young and older Tg2576 mice. To determine whether the increased cell proliferation was accompanied by increased neuronal production, the endogenous early neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX was examined in the dentate gyrus (DG using immunohistochemical detection. Although no changes in the total number of DCX(+-expressing neurons were detected in the DG in Tg2576 mice at either age following (+-phenserine treatment, dendritic arborization was increased in differentiating neurons in young Tg2576 mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that reducing Aβ1-42 levels in Tg2576 mice at an early pathological stage affects synaptic function by modulating the maturation and plasticity of newborn neurons in

  3. Mammary tumorigenesis in APC{sup min/+} mice is enhanced by X-irradiation with a characteristic age dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuhiko, Imaoka; Mayumi, Nishimura; Shizuko, Kakinuma; Yoshiya, Shimada [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Experimental Radiobiology for Children' s Health Research Group, Research, Center for Radiation Protection (Japan); Mieko, Okamoto [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    The ApcM{sup min/+} (Min) mouse is a genetically predisposed model of both intestinal and mammary tumorigenesis. We investigated age-related changes in the susceptibility of mice (before, during and after puberty) to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis using this model. Female Min and wild-type mice having the C57BL/6J background were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays at 2, 5, 7 and 10 weeks and sacrificed at 18 weeks of age. Min mice irradiated at 7 to 10 weeks of age (after puberty) developed mammary tumors with squamous metaplasia, whereas their wild-type litter-mates did not. Interestingly, irradiation of Min mice at 2 to 5 weeks (before and during puberty, respectively) did not induce mammary tumors but rather cystic nodules with metaplasia. The mammary tumors exhibited increased nuclear beta-catenin protein and loss of the wild-type Apc allele. Our results show that susceptibility to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis increases after puberty in Min mice, suggesting that the tumorigenic effect of ionizing radiation targets the lobular-alveolar progenitor cells, which increase in number with age and are controlled by beta-catenin signaling. (author)

  4. [Age-dependent characteristics of oxidative stress formation in the liver of rats with hypothyroidism during intensive physical exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhazaérli, Mokhamad Salem; Davydov, V V

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to study free radical protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 1.5-month-old and 12-month-old rats with drug-induced hypothyroidism caused by exercises. The results of the present study suggest that intensive exercises are accompanied by an increase of intensity of free radical processes in the liver. Hypothyroidism and exercises do not greatly affect free radical processes in the liver of 12-month-old rats but result in additional stimulation of free radical oxidation in subcellular liver fractions of 1.5-month-old rats. An increase of free radical processes in the liver of 1.5-month-old rats with hypothyroidism caused by exercises is associated neither with changes in the first level antioxidant defense system enzymes function, nor with modulation of hepatocytes subcellular sensitivity to prooxidants. Such change is due largely to an increase of free radical production in the liver cells. PMID:17290792

  5. potentially pathogenic gastrointestinal microorganisms (ID 2972), improved lactose digestion (ID 2972) and increasing IL-10 production (ID 2973) (further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    -intestinal discomfort, is a beneficial physiological effect for the general population. The claimed effect, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, might be a beneficial physiological effect for the general population. The claimed effect, improved lactose digestion, is a beneficial...... physiological effect for individuals with lactose maldigestion. No human intervention studies were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the above-mentioned claims. On the basis of the data provided, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has...... of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1688 and Lactobacillus salivarius CNCM I-1794 and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort, decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, improved lactose digestion and increasing IL-10 production. The food constituent that is the subject of the health...

  6. Orally administrated Lactobacillus pentosus var. plantarum C29 ameliorates age-dependent colitis by inhibiting the nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway via the regulation of lipopolysaccharide production by gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ju Jeong

    Full Text Available To evaluate the anti-inflammaging effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB on age-dependent inflammation, we first screened and selected a tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and reactive oxygen species (ROS-inhibitory LAB, Lactobacillus pentosus var. plantarum C29, among the LABs isolated from fermented vegetables using LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. Oral administration of C29 (2 × 109 CFU/rat for 8 weeks in aged Fischer 344 rats (age, 16 months inhibited the expression of the inflammatory markers myeloperoxidase, inducible nitric oxide (NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and IL-6 and the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB, activator protein 1 (AP1, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs. Treatment with C29 induced the expression of tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1, and reduced intestinal microbial LPS and plasmatic LPS levels and ROS, as well as the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, which is significantly higher in aged rats than in young rats. C29 treatment also reduced plasmatic reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, C-reactive protein, and TNF-α, and suppressed expression of senescence markers p16 and p53 in the colon of the aged rats, but increased SIRT 1 expression. Based on these findings, we concluded that C29 treatment may suppress aging-dependent colitis by inhibiting NF-κB, AP1, and MAPK activation via the inhibition of gut microbiota LPS production and the induction of tight junction protein expression.

  7. Age-Dependent Changes in Geometry, Tissue Composition and Mechanical Properties of Fetal to Adult Cryopreserved Human Heart Valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geemen, Daphne; Soares, Ana L F; Oomen, Pim J A; Driessen-Mol, Anita; Janssen-van den Broek, Marloes W J T; van den Bogaerdt, Antoon J; Bogers, Ad J J C; Goumans, Marie-José T H; Baaijens, Frank P T; Bouten, Carlijn V C

    2016-01-01

    There is limited information about age-specific structural and functional properties of human heart valves, while this information is key to the development and evaluation of living valve replacements for pediatric and adolescent patients. Here, we present an extended data set of structure-function properties of cryopreserved human pulmonary and aortic heart valves, providing age-specific information for living valve replacements. Tissue composition, morphology, mechanical properties, and maturation of leaflets from 16 pairs of structurally unaffected aortic and pulmonary valves of human donors (fetal-53 years) were analyzed. Interestingly, no major differences were observed between the aortic and pulmonary valves. Valve annulus and leaflet dimensions increase throughout life. The typical three-layered leaflet structure is present before birth, but becomes more distinct with age. After birth, cell numbers decrease rapidly, while remaining cells obtain a quiescent phenotype and reside in the ventricularis and spongiosa. With age and maturation-but more pronounced in aortic valves-the matrix shows an increasing amount of collagen and collagen cross-links and a reduction in glycosaminoglycans. These matrix changes correlate with increasing leaflet stiffness with age. Our data provide a new and comprehensive overview of the changes of structure-function properties of fetal to adult human semilunar heart valves that can be used to evaluate and optimize future therapies, such as tissue engineering of heart valves. Changing hemodynamic conditions with age can explain initial changes in matrix composition and consequent mechanical properties, but cannot explain the ongoing changes in valve dimensions and matrix composition at older age.

  8. Age-Dependent Variation in Hormonal Concentration and Biochemical Constituents in Blood Plasma of Indian Native Fowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avishek Biswas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was to investigate the age-related changes in hormonal concentration and biochemical constituents of blood plasma in Indian native desi fowl. One hundred and sixty two (54 from each breed, i.e., Kadaknath (KN, Aseel peela (AP, and White leghorn (WLH day-old female chicks were randomly divided into nine groups each of 18 chicks (3 groups × 3 replicates. WLH was taken in this study to compare the characteristics of Indian native desi fowl. The highest level of estrogen hormone in WLH and desi fowl in blood plasma was occurred at 18 and 24 wks of age, respectively. Whereas, the peak of progesterone hormone in WLH hens noticed around 24 wks, in case of desi fowls, it was at 30 wks of age. Irrespective of the breed, the hormonal profile of Triiodothyronine (T3 and Thyroxine (T4 in blood plasma was found highest around 6 to 12 wks of age. Activities of acid phosphatase (ACP increased with the reduction of alkaline phosphate (ALP activities at different time intervals. Irrespective of the breed, transaminases (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT activities of blood plasma increased linearly with the advancement of the age. From this study, it may be concluded that sexual maturity of the Indian native desi fowl occurred nearly 6 wk later (24 wk than WLH.

  9. Age-dependent occurrence of the intestinal ciliate Balantidium coli in pigs at a Danish research farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindsbo, O; Nielsen, C V; Andreassen, J; Willingham, A L; Bendixen, M; Nielsen, M A; Nielsen, N O

    2000-01-01

    A cross sectional study of the prevalence and intensity of Balantidium coli in pigs was carried out on a Danish research farm. The prevalence of B. coli infection increased from 57% in suckling piglets to 100% in most pig groups > or = 4 weeks old. The mean number of cysts per gram faeces (CPG) of pigs aged 12 weeks and younger were 52 weeks had significantly higher counts of > or = 865 CPG. Although some lactating sows had very high CPG's, no significant differences in CPG could be detected between the intensities of pregnant sows, lactating sows and empty and dry sows. No human cases of B. coli infection have been published in Denmark though it is zoonotic. PMID:10920478

  10. Age-dependent plasticity of sex pheromone response in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon: combined effects of octopamine and juvenile hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarriault, David; Barrozo, Romina B; de Carvalho Pinto, Carlos J;

    2009-01-01

    Male moths use sex pheromones to find their mating partners. In the moth, Agrotis ipsilon, the behavioral response and the neuron sensitivity within the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL), to sex pheromone increase with age and juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis. By manipulating...... the effects of OA and an OA receptor antagonist, mianserin, on behavioral and AL neuron responses of mature and immature males during stimulation with sex pheromone. Our results indicate that, although OA injections enhanced the behavioral pheromone response in mature males, OA had no significant effect...... not reveal any difference. To study the possible interactive effects of JH and OA, the behavioral pheromone response was analyzed in JH-deprived mature males injected with OA, and in immature males injected with fenoxycarb, a JH agonist, and mianserin. Results show that both JH and OA are necessary to elicit...

  11. A longitudinal study of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in children: Parental self reports versus age dependent biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunyer Jordi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness of the negative effects of smoking on children's health prompted a decrease in the self-reporting of parental tobacco use in periodic surveys from most industrialized countries. Our aim is to assess changes between ETS exposure at the end of pregnancy and at 4 years of age determined by the parents' self-report and measurement of cotinine in age related biological matrices. Methods The prospective birth cohort included 487 infants from Barcelona city (Spain. Mothers were asked about maternal and household smoking habit. Cord serum and children's urinary cotinine were analyzed in duplicate using a double antibody radioimmunoassay. Results At 4 years of age, the median urinary cotinine level in children increased 1.4 or 3.5 times when father or mother smoked, respectively. Cotinine levels in children's urine statistically differentiated children from smoking mothers (Geometric Mean (GM 19.7 ng/ml; 95% CI 16.83–23.01 and exposed homes (GM 7.1 ng/ml; 95% CI 5.61–8.99 compared with non-exposed homes (GM 4.5 ng/ml; 95% CI 3.71–5.48. Maternal self-reported ETS exposure in homes declined in the four year span between the two time periods from 42.2% to 31.0% (p Conclusion We concluded that cotinine levels determined in cord blood and urine, respectively, were useful for categorizing the children exposed to smoking and showed that a certain increase in ETS exposure during the 4-year follow-up period occurred.

  12. AGE-DEPENDENT ASPECTS OF ACUTE CORONARY HEART DISEASE INCIDENCE RATE AND MORTALITY IN MEN AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Boytsov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study gender and age characteristics of incidence rate, mortality and lethality in acute coronary heart disease (ACHD.Material and Methods. Analysis of the ACHD (ICD-10 codes: I21.0-I22.9, I20.0, I24 morbidity, mortality and lethality, depending on sex and age was performed in the population (n=285 736; 46% men of several city administrative districts of Voronezh, Ryazan and Khanty-Mansiysk. Morbidity, mortality and lethality were calculated on the basis of medical documentation as well as cases identified by the study protocol.Results. The ACHD morbidity and mortality in men were 1.99 and 1.79 times higher (p<0,001, respectively, than these in women. The studied parameters increase with age, reaching a maximum in 50-59 y.o., have a plateau in 60-79 y.o. and then they decrease. Morbidity and mortality in women increase with age, but reach a maximum in 70-79 y.o., being comparable with the male level, and then exceed it in ≥80 y.o. Age curve of lethality in men has J-alike shape with minimum in patients of 50-79 y.o. Women have a line age curve with minimum in patients of <50 y.o.Conclusion. The population of ACHD patients should be considered according to both the sex and age: <50, 50-79 and ≥80 y.o. Every of these population group has special epidemiological characteristics.

  13. Naturally occurring mitochondrial-derived peptides are age-dependent regulators of apoptosis, insulin sensitivity, and inflammatory markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Laura J.; Lee, Changhan; Xiao, Jialin; Yen, Kelvin; Wong, Richard G.; Nakamura, Hiromi K.; Mehta, Hemal H.; Gao, Qinglei; Ashur, Carmel; Huffman, Derek M.; Wan, Junxiang; Muzumdar, Radhika; Barzilai, Nir; Cohen, Pinchas

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are key players in aging and in the pathogenesis of age-related diseases. Recent mitochondrial transcriptome analyses revealed the existence of multiple small mRNAs transcribed from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Humanin (HN), a peptide encoded in the mtDNA 16S ribosomal RNA region, is a neuroprotective factor. An in silico search revealed six additional peptides in the same region of mtDNA as humanin; we named these peptides small humanin-like peptides (SHLPs). We identified the functional roles for these peptides and the potential mechanisms of action. The SHLPs differed in their ability to regulate cell viability in vitro. We focused on SHLP2 and SHLP3 because they shared similar protective effects with HN. Specifically, they significantly reduced apoptosis and the generation of reactive oxygen species, and improved mitochondrial metabolism in vitro. SHLP2 and SHLP3 also enhanced 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation. Systemic hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies showed that intracerebrally infused SHLP2 increased glucose uptake and suppressed hepatic glucose production, suggesting that it functions as an insulin sensitizer both peripherally and centrally. Similar to HN, the levels of circulating SHLP2 were found to decrease with age. These results suggest that mitochondria play critical roles in metabolism and survival through the synthesis of mitochondrial peptides, and provide new insights into mitochondrial biology with relevance to aging and human biology. PMID:27070352

  14. Time Course of Age-dependent Changes in Intraocular Pressure and Retinal Ganglion Cell Death in DBA/2J Mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiulan Zhang; Mei Zhang; Marcel Y. Avila; Jian Ge; Alan M. Laties

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To characterizes the progression of glaucoma in DBA/2J mice by measuring intraocular pressure (IOP) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) numbers in mice of various ages.Methods: A quantitative assessment of the pathophysiology of the DBA/2J mice was performed and the C57/BL6 mice was used as control. The IOP was measured by the servo-null micropipette system; the regional patterns of the loss of RGCs were determined by cell count of retrogradely-labeled RGCs.Results: The baseline IOP for DBA/2J mice at 7 weeks was (16.6 ± 1.2)mm Hg.Then IOP increased extend to 12 months, with the peak of (25.2 ± 1.2)mm Hg at 6 months of age. Retinal ganglion cell numbers did not decrease relative to control until 12 months of age (P=0.006), when the loss was proportionally higher in peripheral regions (P<0.05).Conclusion: The elevation in IOP precedes the loss of RGCs by several months.RGCs cell loss occurs particularly in peripheral regions of the retina. These findings expand our understanding of the changes in DBA/2J mice and provide information for experiments design when they are used as a glaucoma model for future studies of RGCs degeneration in glaucoma.

  15. ABSTRACTS OF SELECTED ARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Huang Yingyong(State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resource and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum, Beijing), Li Gensheng, Fu Jiasheng. Effects of directional nozzle layout on the cleaning ability of PDC bit tooth. CPM, 2012, 40(1): 1-3, 12 The cleaning ability of the PDC bit tooth has remarkable effect on its rock breaking and cuttings cleaning. The directional nozzle is favorable to the cuttings cleaning of the bit tooth. Therefore, research on the directional nozzle layout is of great significance. The numerical simulation method was adopted to study the effects of the number of the nozzles, aperture and jet velocity on the cleaning effect of the tooth. The findings show that the cleaning ability of the five-nozzle PDC bit tooth is relatively strong. The cleaning ability increases with the increase of the nozzle aperture.

  16. The time- and age-dependent effects of the juvenile hormone analog pesticide, pyriproxyfen on Daphnia magna reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginjupalli, Gautam K; Baldwin, William S

    2013-08-01

    Pyriproxyfen is an insecticidal juvenile hormone analog that perturbs insect and tick development. Pyriproxyfen also alters parthenogenic reproduction in non-target cladoceran species as it induces male production that can lead to a decrease in fecundity, a reduction in population density, and subsequent ecological effects. In this study, we investigate the impacts of pyriproxyfen on Daphnia magna reproduction using a series of male production screening assays. These assays demonstrate that pyriproxyfen increases male production in a concentration-dependent fashion with an EC50 of 156pM (50.24ngL(-1)); a concentration considered environmentally relevant. Furthermore, pyriproxyfen decreases overall fecundity at all ages tested (7, 14, 21-d old female parthenogenic daphnids). Juvenile (3-d old) and reproductively mature (10-d old) female daphnids were also exposed to 155pM pyriproxyfen for 2-12d and reproduction measured for 16d to compare the effects of short-term and prolonged exposures, and determine the potential for recovery. Results indicate that longer pyriproxyfen exposures (8-12d) extend male production and decrease reproduction; however, daphnids exposed for only 2-4d recover and produce a relatively normal abundance of neonates. In addition, juvenile daphnids are also very sensitive to pyriproxyfen, but the primary effect on juvenile daphnids is reduced reproduction and protracted development not male production. Taken together, continued use of pyriproxyfen around water bodies needs due caution because of its potential adverse effects with significant developmental delays and male production compounded by prolonged exposure. PMID:23714148

  17. Influence of caffeine on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neuron degeneration and neuroinflammation is age-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frau, Lucia; Costa, Giulia; Porceddu, Pier Francesca; Khairnar, Amit; Castelli, Maria Paola; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Madeddu, Camilla; Wardas, Jadwiga; Morelli, Micaela

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that caffeine administration to adult mice potentiates glial activation induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). As neuroinflammatory response seems to correlate with neurodegeneration, and the young brain is particularly vulnerable to neurotoxicity, we evaluated dopamine neuron degeneration and glial activation in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of adolescent and adult mice. Mice were treated with MDMA (4 × 20 mg/kg), alone or with caffeine (10 mg/kg). Interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were evaluated in CPu, whereas tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), glial fibrillary acidic protein, and CD11b were evaluated in CPu and SNc by immunohistochemistry. MDMA decreased TH in SNc of both adolescent and adult mice, whereas TH-positive fibers in CPu were only decreased in adults. In CPu of adolescent mice, caffeine potentiated MDMA-induced glial fibrillary acidic protein without altering CD11b, whereas in SNc caffeine did not influence MDMA-induced glial activation. nNOS, IL-1β, and TNF-α were increased by MDMA in CPu of adults, whereas in adolescents, levels were only elevated after combined MDMA plus caffeine. Caffeine alone modified only nNOS. Results suggest that the use of MDMA in association with caffeine during adolescence may exacerbate the neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation elicited by MDMA. Previous studies have demonstrated that caffeine potentiated glial activation induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in adult mice. In this study, caffeine was shown to potentiate MDMA-induced dopamine neuron degeneration in substantia nigra pars compacta, astrogliosis, and TNF-α levels in caudate-putamen of adolescent mice. Results suggest that combined use of MDMA plus caffeine during adolescence may worsen the neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation elicited by MDMA. PMID:26442661

  18. Effects of Repeated Stress on Age-Dependent GABAergic Regulation of the Lateral Nucleus of the Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rosenkranz, J Amiel

    2016-08-01

    The adolescent age is associated with lability of mood and emotion. The onset of depression and anxiety disorders peaks during adolescence and there are differences in symptomology during adolescence. This points to differences in the adolescent neural circuitry that underlies mood and emotion, such as the amygdala. The human adolescent amygdala is more responsive to evocative stimuli, hinting to less local inhibitory regulation of the amygdala, but this has not been explored in adolescents. The amygdala, including the lateral nucleus (LAT) of the basolateral amygdala complex, is sensitive to stress. The amygdala undergoes maturational processes during adolescence, and therefore may be more vulnerable to harmful effects of stress during this time period. However, little is known about the effects of stress on the LAT during adolescence. GABAergic inhibition is a key regulator of LAT activity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test whether there are differences in the local GABAergic regulation of the rat adolescent LAT, and differences in its sensitivity to repeated stress. We found that LAT projection neurons are subjected to weaker GABAergic inhibition during adolescence. Repeated stress reduced in vivo endogenous and exogenous GABAergic inhibition of LAT projection neurons in adolescent rats. Furthermore, repeated stress decreased measures of presynaptic GABA function and interneuron activity in adolescent rats. In contrast, repeated stress enhanced glutamatergic drive of LAT projection neurons in adult rats. These results demonstrate age differences in GABAergic regulation of the LAT, and age differences in the mechanism for the effects of repeated stress on LAT neuron activity. These findings provide a substrate for increased mood lability in adolescents, and provide a substrate by which adolescent repeated stress can induce distinct behavioral outcomes and psychiatric symptoms. PMID:26924679

  19. Influence of caffeine on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neuron degeneration and neuroinflammation is age-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frau, Lucia; Costa, Giulia; Porceddu, Pier Francesca; Khairnar, Amit; Castelli, Maria Paola; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Madeddu, Camilla; Wardas, Jadwiga; Morelli, Micaela

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that caffeine administration to adult mice potentiates glial activation induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). As neuroinflammatory response seems to correlate with neurodegeneration, and the young brain is particularly vulnerable to neurotoxicity, we evaluated dopamine neuron degeneration and glial activation in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of adolescent and adult mice. Mice were treated with MDMA (4 × 20 mg/kg), alone or with caffeine (10 mg/kg). Interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were evaluated in CPu, whereas tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), glial fibrillary acidic protein, and CD11b were evaluated in CPu and SNc by immunohistochemistry. MDMA decreased TH in SNc of both adolescent and adult mice, whereas TH-positive fibers in CPu were only decreased in adults. In CPu of adolescent mice, caffeine potentiated MDMA-induced glial fibrillary acidic protein without altering CD11b, whereas in SNc caffeine did not influence MDMA-induced glial activation. nNOS, IL-1β, and TNF-α were increased by MDMA in CPu of adults, whereas in adolescents, levels were only elevated after combined MDMA plus caffeine. Caffeine alone modified only nNOS. Results suggest that the use of MDMA in association with caffeine during adolescence may exacerbate the neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation elicited by MDMA. Previous studies have demonstrated that caffeine potentiated glial activation induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in adult mice. In this study, caffeine was shown to potentiate MDMA-induced dopamine neuron degeneration in substantia nigra pars compacta, astrogliosis, and TNF-α levels in caudate-putamen of adolescent mice. Results suggest that combined use of MDMA plus caffeine during adolescence may worsen the neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation elicited by MDMA.

  20. List of Article Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Section

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES Premixed combustion of coconut oil in a hele-shaw cell DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.155-160 155-160 Hadi Saroso, I.N.G. Wardana, Rudy Soenoko, Nurkholis Hamidi   Analysing the potential of retrofitting ultra-low heat loss triple vacuum glazed windows to an existing UK solid wall dwelling DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.161-174 161-174 Saim Memon   Study of Gasohol as Alternative Fuel for Gasoline Substitution: Characteristics and Performances DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.175-183 175-183 Bardi Murachman, Dicky Pranantyo, Eddie Sandjaya Putra   Thermal effects investigation on electrical properties of silicon solar cells treated by laser irradiation DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.184-187 184-187 Ali Pourakbar Saffar, Bahman Deldadeh Barani   Synthesis of Trimethylolpropane Esters of Calophyllum Methyl Esters : Effect of Temperatur and Molar Ratio DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.188-192 188-192 Yeti Widyawati, Ani Suryani, Muhammad Romli, Sukardi Sukardi   Incorporating Root Crops under Agro-Forestry as the Newly Potential Source of Food, Feed and Renewable Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.193-206 193-206 Yudi Widodo, St. A. Rahayuningsih, Nasir Saleh, Sri Wahyuningsih   Solmap: Project In India's Solar Resource Assessment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.207-216 207-216 Indradip Mitra, Kaushal Chhatbar, Ashvini Kumar, Godugunur Giridhar, Ramdhan Vashistha, Richard Meyer, Marko Schwandt   Thermo-economic Optimization of Solar Assisted Heating and Cooling (SAHC System DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.217-227 217-227 A. Ghafoor, A. Munir   Combustion characteristics of diesel engine using producer gas and blends of Jatropha methyl ester with diesel in mixed fuel mode DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.228-235 228-235 Hifjur Raheman, Debasish Padhee    

  1. Age-dependent changes in the proteome following complete spinal cord transection in a postnatal South American opossum (Monodelphis domestica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natassya M Noor

    Full Text Available Recovery from severe spinal injury in adults is limited, compared to immature animals who demonstrate some capacity for repair. Using laboratory opossums (Monodelphis domestica, the aim was to compare proteomic responses to injury at two ages: one when there is axonal growth across the lesion and substantial behavioural recovery and one when no axonal growth occurs. Anaesthetized pups at postnatal day (P 7 or P28 were subjected to complete transection of the spinal cord at thoracic level T10. Cords were collected 1 or 7 days after injury and from age-matched controls. Proteins were separated based on isoelectric point and subunit molecular weight; those whose expression levels changed following injury were identified by densitometry and analysed by mass spectrometry. Fifty-six unique proteins were identified as differentially regulated in response to spinal transection at both ages combined. More than 50% were cytoplasmic and 70% belonged to families of proteins with characteristic binding properties. Proteins were assigned to groups by biological function including regulation (40%, metabolism (26%, inflammation (19% and structure (15%. More changes were detected at one than seven days after injury at both ages. Seven identified proteins: 14-3-3 epsilon, 14-3-3 gamma, cofilin, alpha enolase, heart fatty acid binding protein (FABP3, brain fatty acid binding protein (FABP7 and ubiquitin demonstrated age-related differential expression and were analysed by qRT-PCR. Changes in mRNA levels for FABP3 at P7+1day and ubiquitin at P28+1day were statistically significant. Immunocytochemical staining showed differences in ubiquitin localization in younger compared to older cords and an increase in oligodendrocyte and neuroglia immunostaining following injury at P28. Western blot analysis supported proteomic results for ubiquitin and 14-3-3 proteins. Data obtained at the two ages demonstrated changes in response to injury, compared to controls, that were

  2. Abstracts of Major Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On Problems in Fujian's Present Health Insurance Professionals and Related Suggestions LIN Deng-hui,WU Xiao-nan (School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350108, China) Abstract:Based on a statistical analysis of questionnaire survey data collected from practitioners in Fu- jian's medical insurance management system, the paper discusses the problems relevant to the staff's qua lity structure in this industry as well as mechanisms for continuing education and motivation. Finally, the authors advance such suggestions as increasing the levels of practitioner's expertise and working capacity by developing disciplinary education and continuing motivated with a well-established motivation system. education, and encouraging employees to get highly

  3. ABSTRACTS OF SELECTED ARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Protection of the Intellectual Property Rights, the Ratio of the Independent R&D and the Technological Progress of Developing Countries The ratio, in the process of the technical advancement, of the independent R&D (IRD) to technology import reflects the basic model of the technical improvement of a country. By the introduction of the IRD and the technical intro- duction-the two ways of the basic technical advancement, we have, in this paper, expanded the model of the endoge- nous growth of the intermediate products, and thereby, discussed the decisive mechanism of the model of the technical improvement of developing countries, the effect of the ratio of IRD on the technical advancement and the economic growth, and the role of the protection of the intellectual property right (IPOTIPR) in it. The results of our study indi- cate that, on the way to the balanced growth, the increase in the radio of IRD in developing countries has the effect of positive drive on the technical advancement, that the increase in the IPOTIPR will, at the same time, reinforce the pro- tection for the achievement of the domestic R&D and shore up the protection for foreign patent,

  4. ABSTRACTS OF MAJOR ARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    With the market economy's all - round infiltration in rural society, the household farms have gradually integrated into the highly expansive society and market- oriented system. The ousehold farms'socialization provides new explanation for the evolution of households'production behaviors. Production pattern, production space and production purposes of household farmers have changed. These changes are not only the result of socialized household farmers" rational choice, but also the fundamental reason for rural areas "unsustainable development. To avoid the negative effects during households'production behaviors'evolution, it is suggested to establish and improve rural social security system firstly; secondly, to weaken the social security function of land and to improve the rural land transfer mechanism to increase land use efficiency ; at last, to strengthen public financial transfer payments and ecological environmental clean - up.

  5. ABSTRACTS OF MAJOR ARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The parent- child relationship is not only harmonious rural social ethics construction, but-also the foundation of rural endowment and even rural culture relationship construction important issues. The rural north -China in parental relationship to exist generally "relay" to, while "feedback" severity shortage, this is in some extent promote social development and at the same time caused heavy country ethics crisis, even affecting the whole village culture, the construction of the new socialist countryside propulsion. Therefore, the new era, we must strengthen the guidance and society, on the one hand, increase the intervention traditional filial piety culture propaganda, leading the harmony, fair parenthood building; on the other hand, speed up the construction of social security system, to fill in parent - child relationship caused by the rapid transition of endowment blank, so as to promote the healthy development of the whole society.

  6. ABSTRACTS OF MAJOR ARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Consideration of Constructing Theoretical Framework of Regional Soft Power System ZHU Kong-lai ,QI Qing-liang ,GUO Chun-yan University of Jinan, a. Soft Power Study Center of UJN, Jinan 250022, China; b. School of Administration of UJN, Jinan 2.50022, China) Regional economic development has seen the increasingly important influence of regional soft power these years. However,China' s academic community put more emphasis on regional hard power while neglecting re- gional soft power. This paper briefly introduces the significance of constructing theoretical framework of the re- gional soft power, and then analyzes two theoretical foundation of regional soft power:theory of soft power and theory of regional competence. The paper defines the concept and connotation of soft power, explores the path of regional soft power improving and presumes constructing a three-level assessing system which forms the foundational framework of soft power theory. All of this is done on the basis of researching into global soft power theory and analyzing five constructing elements including regional culture, public service, personnel quality, regional communication and regional figure.

  7. TGF-β1 induces an age-dependent inflammation of nerve ganglia and fibroplasia in the prostate gland stroma of a novel transgenic mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Barron

    Full Text Available TGF-β1 is overexpressed in wound repair and in most proliferative disorders including benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. The stromal microenvironment at these sites is reactive and typified by altered phenotype, matrix deposition, inflammatory responses, and alterations in nerve density and biology. TGF-β1 is known to modulate several stromal responses; however there are few transgenic models to study its integrated biology. To address the actions of TGF-β1 in prostate disorders, we targeted expression of an epitope tagged and constitutively active TGF-β1 via the enhanced probasin promoter to the murine prostate gland epithelium. Transgenic mice developed age-dependent lesions leading to severe, yet focal attenuation of epithelium, and a discontinuous basal lamina. These changes were associated with elevated fibroplasia and frequency of collagenous micronodules in collapsed acini, along with an induced inflammation in nerve ganglia and small vessels. Elevated recruitment of CD115+ myeloid cells but not mature macrophages was observed in nerve ganglia, also in an age-dependent manner. Similar phenotypic changes were observed using a human prostate epithelium tissue recombination xenograft model, where epithelial cells engineered to overexpress TGF-β1 induced fibrosis and altered matrix deposition concurrent with inflammation in the stromal compartment. Together, these data suggest that elevated TGF-β1 expression induces a fibroplasia stromal response associated with breach of epithelial wall structure and inflammatory involvement of nerve ganglia and vessels. The novel findings of ganglia and vessel inflammation associated with formation of collagenous micronodules in collapsed acini is important as each of these are observed in human prostate carcinoma and may play a role in disease progression.

  8. Neutron absorbing article and method for manufacture of such article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron absorbing article is described which comprises boron carbide particles and an irreversibly-cured phenol aldehyde condensation polymer cured to a continuous matrix about the boron carbide particles. Such an article may be used in spent fuel storage racks. It can be manufactured by mixing together a curable phenolic resin with boron carbide particles, compacting the mixture to an article of desired shape, curing the resin at an elevated temperature, impregnating the cured article with curable phenolic resin in liquid state, and curing the article again

  9. Article

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The Economic and Political Studies(EPS)is a peer-reviewed academic journal.The EPS seeks to promote the studies of economics and politics by addressing issues concerning China and its interaction with the world,encouraging an interdisciplinary approach,while exploring critiques from various perspectives.The journal also provides an international forum for innovative theoretical and empirical work where the fields of economics and politics intersect.Both

  10. ARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A Study on the European Nation State in the Context of State Transforma- tion;An Analysis of the French Nation State and Its Idea of Nation;The Evolution of the German Nation State. from a Cultural Community to a Post-classical Nation State;From a Catholic Community to a Frustrated Nation-state--A historical Review on Spain's State Building.

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to oat and barley grain fibre and increase in faecal bulk (ID 819, 822) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to oat and barley grain fibre and increase in faecal bulk. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders...... the evidence, the Panel took into account that the role of cereal grain fibre in increasing faecal bulk in humans is well established, that the mechanisms by which cereal grain fibre exerts the claimed effect are known, that oat fibre has a significant bulking effect in humans, and that a similar effect can...

  12. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies) , 2014 . Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Rosbacher drive® and increased attention pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Following an application from Hassia Mineralquellen GmbH & Co KG, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Rosbacher drive® and increased attention. The Panel considers that Rosbacher drive®, which contains natural mineral water ...

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies; Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to creatine and increased attention (ID 1524) and improvement of memory (ID 1528) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to creatine and increased attention and improvement of memory. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from...... stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims is creatine. The Panel considers that creatine is sufficiently characterised....

  14. What makes articles highly cited?

    OpenAIRE

    Antonakis J.; Bastardoz N.; Liu Y; Schriesheim C. A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined drivers of article citations using 776 articles that were published from 1990-2012 in a broad-based and high-impact social sciences journal, The Leadership Quarterly. These articles had 1,191 unique authors having published and received in total (at the time of their most recent article published in our dataset) 16,817 articles and 284,777 citations, respectively. Our models explained 66.6% of the variance in citations and showed that quantitative, review, method, and theory artic...

  15. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to increasing maternal folate status by supplemental folate intake and reduced risk of neural tube defects pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Rank Nutrition Ltd, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver...... characterised. Increasing maternal folate status by supplemental folate intake is a beneficial physiological effect in the context of reducing the risk of neural tube defects. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that the association between low maternal folate intakes and an increased risk...

  16. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Hung, Pi-Lien; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF) diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14-21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF). The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming. PMID:27669212

  17. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Hung, Pi-Lien; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF) diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF). The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming. PMID:27669212

  18. Societal Controversies in Wikipedia Articles

    OpenAIRE

    BORRA, E; Weltevrede, E.; Ciuccarelli, P.; Kaltenbrunner, A.; Laniado, D.; Magni, G.; Mauri, M.; Rogers, R; Venturini, T.

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative content creation inevitably reaches situations where different points of view lead to conflict. We focus on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia anyone may edit, where disputes about content in controversial articles often reflect larger societal debates. While Wikipedia has a public edit history and discussion section for every article, the substance of these sections is difficult to phantom for Wikipedia users interested in the development of an article and in locating which topic...

  19. The effects of phencyclidine (PCP) on anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze and the light-dark exploration test are age dependent, sexually dimorphic, and task dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, Sarah M; Kim, Daniel; Pritchard, Melissa; Salgado, Sanjay; Thaler, Alison

    2011-11-01

    Previous research in our laboratory revealed sexually dimorphic effects of prior exposure to phencyclidine (PCP) on elevated plus maze behavior. In an attempt to examine the developmental time course of this effect and determine the extent to which it generalizes to other anxiety paradigms, young adult (61-64 days old) and adult (96-107 days old) male and female rats were treated with PCP (15 mg/kg) or saline. Following a two week withdrawal period, animals were tested in either the elevated plus maze (EPM) or a light-dark exploration (LD) test. In adults, both tests revealed a sexually dimorphic effect driven by PCP-induced decreases in anxiety in females as indicated by increased time spent in the open arms of the EPM and in the lit compartment of the LD test and increased anxiety in males as indicated by decreased time spent in the lit compartment of the LD. In young animals, PCP pretreatment decreased open arm exploration in the elevated plus maze, indicating increased anxiety. However, PCP increased time spent in the light compartment in the light-dark exploration test, indicating decreased anxiety. Corticosterone levels measured 15 min after the onset of the EPM failed to reveal an association between the behavioral effects of PCP and corticosterone levels. The results in adults substantiate the previously observed sexually dimorphic effect of PCP on elevated plus maze behavior in adults and indicate that the effect generalizes to another anxiety paradigm. The results in the younger animals suggest an age dependent effect of PCP on anxiety in general and indicate that behaviors in the elevated plus maze and the light-dark exploration test reflect dissociable psychobiological states.

  20. An Auction Market for Journal Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Prüfer, J.; Zetland, D.

    2007-01-01

    Economic articles are published very slowly. We believe this results from the poor incentives referees face. We recommend that an auction market replace the current, push system for submitting papers and demonstrate that our proposed market has a stable, Pareto-improving equilibrium. Besides the benefits of speed, this pull mechanism increases the quality of articles and journals and rewards referees for their effort. Although the auction price gives a prior on a paper's future value, its act...

  1. Finding and Recommending Scholarly Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.

    2014-05-01

    The rate at which scholarly literature is being produced has been increasing at approximately 3.5 percent per year for decades. This means that during a typical 40 year career the amount of new literature produced each year increases by a factor of four. The methods scholars use to discover relevant literature must change. Just like everybody else involved in information discovery, scholars are confronted with information overload. Two decades ago, this discovery process essentially consisted of paging through abstract books, talking to colleagues and librarians, and browsing journals. A time-consuming process, which could even be longer if material had to be shipped from elsewhere. Now much of this discovery process is mediated by online scholarly information systems. All these systems are relatively new, and all are still changing. They all share a common goal: to provide their users with access to the literature relevant to their specific needs. To achieve this each system responds to actions by the user by displaying articles which the system judges relevant to the user's current needs. Recently search systems which use particularly sophisticated methodologies to recommend a few specific papers to the user have been called "recommender systems". These methods are in line with the current use of the term "recommender system" in computer science. We do not adopt this definition, rather we view systems like these as components in a larger whole, which is presented by the scholarly information systems themselves. In what follows we view the recommender system as an aspect of the entire information system; one which combines the massive memory capacities of the machine with the cognitive abilities of the human user to achieve a human-machine synergy.

  2. [A practical guide for writing an original scientific article].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Jacob; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2014-06-30

    Writing scientific articles is an integrated part of being a medical doctor at academic institutions, and the demand for publishing scientific work has increased during recent years. The discipline of writing scientific articles can be troublesome and complicated, especially for young inexperienced researchers. This article is a guide to structuring and writing an original scientific article.

  3. Extrastriatal binding of [123I]FP-CIT in the thalamus and pons: gender and age dependencies assessed in a European multicentre database of healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT), [123I]FP-CIT shows moderate affinity for the serotonin transporter (SERT), allowing imaging of both monoamine transporters in a single imaging session in different brain areas. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate extrastriatal binding (predominantly due to SERT) and its age and gender dependencies in a large cohort of healthy controls. SPECT data from 103 healthy controls with well-defined criteria of normality acquired at 13 different imaging centres were analysed for extrastriatal binding using volumes of interest analysis for the thalamus and the pons. Data were examined for gender and age effects as well as for potential influence of striatal DAT radiotracer binding. Thalamic binding was significantly higher than pons binding. Partial correlations showed an influence of putaminal DAT binding on measured binding in the thalamus but not on the pons. Data showed high interindividual variation in extrastriatal binding. Significant gender effects with 31 % higher binding in women than in men were observed in the thalamus, but not in the pons. An age dependency with a decline per decade (±standard error) of 8.2 ± 1.3 % for the thalamus and 6.8 ± 2.9 % for the pons was shown. The potential to evaluate extrastriatal predominant SERT binding in addition to the striatal DAT in a single imaging session was shown using a large database of [123I]FP-CIT scans in healthy controls. For both the thalamus and the pons, an age-related decline in radiotracer binding was observed. Gender effects were demonstrated for binding in the thalamus only. As a potential clinical application, the data could be used as a reference to estimate SERT occupancy in addition to nigrostriatal integrity when using [123I]FP-CIT for DAT imaging in patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. (orig.)

  4. Age-dependent brain gene expression and copy number anomalies in autism suggest distinct pathological processes at young versus mature ages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie L Chow

    Full Text Available Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the genetic underpinnings of the disorder are largely unknown. Aberrant brain overgrowth is a well-replicated observation in the autism literature; but association, linkage, and expression studies have not identified genetic factors that explain this trajectory. Few studies have had sufficient statistical power to investigate whole-genome gene expression and genotypic variation in the autistic brain, especially in regions that display the greatest growth abnormality. Previous functional genomic studies have identified possible alterations in transcript levels of genes related to neurodevelopment and immune function. Thus, there is a need for genetic studies involving key brain regions to replicate these findings and solidify the role of particular functional pathways in autism pathogenesis. We therefore sought to identify abnormal brain gene expression patterns via whole-genome analysis of mRNA levels and copy number variations (CNVs in autistic and control postmortem brain samples. We focused on prefrontal cortex tissue where excess neuron numbers and cortical overgrowth are pronounced in the majority of autism cases. We found evidence for dysregulation in pathways governing cell number, cortical patterning, and differentiation in young autistic prefrontal cortex. In contrast, adult autistic prefrontal cortex showed dysregulation of signaling and repair pathways. Genes regulating cell cycle also exhibited autism-specific CNVs in DNA derived from prefrontal cortex, and these genes were significantly associated with autism in genome-wide association study datasets. Our results suggest that CNVs and age-dependent gene expression changes in autism may reflect distinct pathological processes in the developing versus the mature autistic prefrontal cortex. Our results raise the hypothesis that genetic dysregulation in the developing brain leads to abnormal regional patterning, excess

  5. NRFL-1, the C. elegans NHERF orthologue, interacts with amino acid transporter 6 (AAT-6 for age-dependent maintenance of AAT-6 on the membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Hagiwara

    Full Text Available The NHERF (Na(+/H(+ exchanger regulatory factor family has been proposed to play a key role in regulating transmembrane protein localization and retention at the plasma membrane. Due to the high homology between the family members, potential functional compensations have been a concern in sorting out the function of individual NHERF numbers. Here, we studied C. elegans NRFL-1 (C01F6.6 (nherf-like protein 1, the sole C. elegans orthologue of the NHERF family, which makes worm a model with low genetic redundancy of NHERF homologues. Integrating bioinformatic knowledge of C. elegans proteins into yeast two-hybrid scheme, we identified NRFL-1 as an interactor of AAT-6, a member of the C. elegans AAT (amino acid transporter family. A combination of GST pull-down assay, localization study, and co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the binding and characterized the PDZ interaction. AAT-6 localizes to the luminal membrane even in the absence of NRFL-1 when the worm is up to four-day old. A fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP analysis suggested that NRFL-1 immobilizes AAT-6 at the luminal membrane. When the nrfl-1 deficient worm is six-day or older, in contrast, the membranous localization of AAT-6 is not observed, whereas AAT-6 tightly localizes to the membrane in worms with NRFL-1. Sorting out the in vivo functions of the C. elegans NHERF protein, we found that NRFL-1, a PDZ-interactor of AAT-6, is responsible for the immobilization and the age-dependent maintenance of AAT-6 on the intestinal luminal membrane.

  6. Extrastriatal binding of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT in the thalamus and pons: gender and age dependencies assessed in a European multicentre database of healthy controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Walter; Unterrainer, Marcus; Xiong, Guoming; Bartenstein, Peter [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Diemling, Markus [Hermes Medical Solutions, Stockholm (Sweden); Varrone, Andrea [Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Dickson, John C. [UCLH NHS Foundation Trust and University College, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Tossici-Bolt, Livia [University Hospitals Southampton NHS Trust, Department of Medical Physics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sera, Terez [University of Szeged, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Asenbaum, Susanne [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kapucu, Ozlem L. [Gazi University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Kluge, Andreas [ABX-CRO, Dresden (Germany); Ziebell, Morten [Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Darcourt, Jacques [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurology Unit, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Hesse, Swen [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Leipzig University Medical Centre, Molecular Neuroimaging IFB Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany); Borght, Thierry Vander [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Nuclear Medicine Division, CHU Dinant Godinne, Yvoir (Belgium); Laere, Koen van [University Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Tatsch, Klaus [Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany); La Fougere, Christian [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); University of Tuebingen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Apart from binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT), [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT shows moderate affinity for the serotonin transporter (SERT), allowing imaging of both monoamine transporters in a single imaging session in different brain areas. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate extrastriatal binding (predominantly due to SERT) and its age and gender dependencies in a large cohort of healthy controls. SPECT data from 103 healthy controls with well-defined criteria of normality acquired at 13 different imaging centres were analysed for extrastriatal binding using volumes of interest analysis for the thalamus and the pons. Data were examined for gender and age effects as well as for potential influence of striatal DAT radiotracer binding. Thalamic binding was significantly higher than pons binding. Partial correlations showed an influence of putaminal DAT binding on measured binding in the thalamus but not on the pons. Data showed high interindividual variation in extrastriatal binding. Significant gender effects with 31 % higher binding in women than in men were observed in the thalamus, but not in the pons. An age dependency with a decline per decade (±standard error) of 8.2 ± 1.3 % for the thalamus and 6.8 ± 2.9 % for the pons was shown. The potential to evaluate extrastriatal predominant SERT binding in addition to the striatal DAT in a single imaging session was shown using a large database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT scans in healthy controls. For both the thalamus and the pons, an age-related decline in radiotracer binding was observed. Gender effects were demonstrated for binding in the thalamus only. As a potential clinical application, the data could be used as a reference to estimate SERT occupancy in addition to nigrostriatal integrity when using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT for DAT imaging in patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. (orig.)

  7. A candidate gene approach identifies the CHRNA5-A3-B4 region as a risk factor for age-dependent nicotine addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B Weiss

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available People who begin daily smoking at an early age are at greater risk of long-term nicotine addiction. We tested the hypothesis that associations between nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR genetic variants and nicotine dependence assessed in adulthood will be stronger among smokers who began daily nicotine exposure during adolescence. We compared nicotine addiction-measured by the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence-in three cohorts of long-term smokers recruited in Utah, Wisconsin, and by the NHLBI Lung Health Study, using a candidate-gene approach with the neuronal nAChR subunit genes. This SNP panel included common coding variants and haplotypes detected in eight alpha and three beta nAChR subunit genes found in European American populations. In the 2,827 long-term smokers examined, common susceptibility and protective haplotypes at the CHRNA5-A3-B4 locus were associated with nicotine dependence severity (p = 2.0x10(-5; odds ratio = 1.82; 95% confidence interval 1.39-2.39 in subjects who began daily smoking at or before the age of 16, an exposure period that results in a more severe form of adult nicotine dependence. A substantial shift in susceptibility versus protective diplotype frequency (AA versus BC = 17%, AA versus CC = 27% was observed in the group that began smoking by age 16. This genetic effect was not observed in subjects who began daily nicotine use after the age of 16. These results establish a strong mechanistic link among early nicotine exposure, common CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotypes, and adult nicotine addiction in three independent populations of European origins. The identification of an age-dependent susceptibility haplotype reinforces the importance of preventing early exposure to tobacco through public health policies.

  8. How does education change the relationship between fertility and age-dependency under environmental constraints? A long-term simulation exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Striessnig

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: When asked what a desirable fertility level for populations might be, most politicians, journalists, and even social scientists would say it is around two children per woman, a level that has been labelled by demographers "replacement-level fertility." The reasons given for considering this level of fertility as something to aim at usually include maintaining the size of the labour force and stabilizing the old-age-dependency ratio. Objective: In this paper, we scrutinize this wide-spread view by introducing education in addition to age and sex as a further relevant source of observable population heterogeneity. We consider several criteria for assessing the long-term implications of alternative fertility levels and present numerical simulations with a view on minimizing the education-weighted total dependency ratio and complement this with the goal of reducing the amount of greenhouse gas emission in the context of climate change. Methods: We perform thousands of alternative simulations for different fertility levels (assumed to be constant over time starting from empirically given population structures and derive the rate of fertility which yields the lowest level of our education-weighted dependency ratio. We study the sensitivity of our results to different parameter values and choose to focus on the actual populations of Europe and China over the course of the 21st century. Results: The results show that when education is assumed to present a cost at young age and results in higher productivity during adult age, then the fertility rate that on the long run keeps dependency at a minimum turns out to lie well below replacement fertility both in Europe and in China under a set of plausible assumptions. The optimal fertility level falls even lower when climate change is factored in as well. Conclusions: We conclude that there is nothing magical or particularly desirable about replacement level fertility.

  9. Age-dependence of the optomechanical responses of ex vivo human lenses from India and the USA, and the force required to produce these in a lens stretcher: the similarity to in vivo disaccommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusteyn, Robert C; Mohamed, Ashik; Nankivil, Derek; Veerendranath, Pesala; Arrieta, Esdras; Taneja, Mukesh; Manns, Fabrice; Ho, Arthur; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2011-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to study the age-dependence of the optomechanical properties of human lenses during simulated disaccommodation in a mechanical lens stretcher, designed to determine accommodative forces as a function of stretch distance, to compare the results with in vivo disaccommodation and to examine whether differences exist between eyes harvested in the USA and India. Postmortem human eyes obtained in the USA (n=46, age=6-83 years) and India (n=91, age=1 day-85 years) were mounted in an optomechanical lens stretching system and dissected to expose the lens complete with its accommodating framework, including zonules, ciliary body, anterior vitreous and a segmented rim of sclera. Disaccommodation was simulated through radial stretching of the sectioned globe by 2mm in increments of 0.25 mm. The load, inner ciliary ring diameter, lens equatorial diameter, central thickness and power were measured at each step. Changes in these parameters were examined as a function of age, as were the dimension/load and power/load responses. Unstretched lens diameter and thickness increased over the whole age range examined and were indistinguishable from those of in vivo lenses as well as those of in vitro lenses freed from zonular attachments. Stretching increased the diameter and decreased the thickness in all lenses examined but the amount of change decreased with age. Unstretched lens power decreased with age and the accommodative amplitude decreased to zero by age 45-50. The load required to produce maximum stretch was independent of age (median 80 mN) whereas the change in lens diameter and power per unit load decreased significantly with age. The age related changes in the properties of human lenses, as observed in the lens stretching device, are similar to those observed in vivo and are consistent with the classical Helmholtz theory of accommodation. The response of lens diameter and power to disaccommodative (stretching) forces decreases with age

  10. Articles comprising ferritic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, James M.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture comprises a ferritic stainless steel that includes a near-surface region depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the ferritic stainless steel. The article has a reduced tendency to form an electrically resistive silica layer including silicon derived from the steel when the article is subjected to high temperature oxidizing conditions. The ferritic stainless steel is selected from the group comprising AISI Type 430 stainless steel, AISI Type 439 stainless steel, AISI Type 441 stainless steel, AISI Type 444 stainless steel, and E-BRITE.RTM. alloy, also known as UNS 44627 stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the article of manufacture is a fuel cell interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell.

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and increase in satiety leading to a reduction in energy intake (ID 4223) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to 5-hydroxytryptophan and increase in satiety leading to a reduction in energy intake. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States...... or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the claim is 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). The Panel considers that 5-hydroxytryptophan is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “satiety”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. The Panel considers...... that an increase in satiety leading to a reduction in energy intake, if sustained, might be a beneficial physiological effect. No references were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause...

  12. Citation advantage of open access articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Eysenbach

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Open access (OA to the research literature has the potential to accelerate recognition and dissemination of research findings, but its actual effects are controversial. This was a longitudinal bibliometric analysis of a cohort of OA and non-OA articles published between June 8, 2004, and December 20, 2004, in the same journal (PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Article characteristics were extracted, and citation data were compared between the two groups at three different points in time: at "quasi-baseline" (December 2004, 0-6 mo after publication, in April 2005 (4-10 mo after publication, and in October 2005 (10-16 mo after publication. Potentially confounding variables, including number of authors, authors' lifetime publication count and impact, submission track, country of corresponding author, funding organization, and discipline, were adjusted for in logistic and linear multiple regression models. A total of 1,492 original research articles were analyzed: 212 (14.2% of all articles were OA articles paid by the author, and 1,280 (85.8% were non-OA articles. In April 2005 (mean 206 d after publication, 627 (49.0% of the non-OA articles versus 78 (36.8% of the OA articles were not cited (relative risk = 1.3 [95% Confidence Interval: 1.1-1.6]; p = 0.001. 6 mo later (mean 288 d after publication, non-OA articles were still more likely to be uncited (non-OA: 172 [13.6%], OA: 11 [5.2%]; relative risk = 2.6 [1.4-4.7]; p < 0.001. The average number of citations of OA articles was higher compared to non-OA articles (April 2005: 1.5 [SD = 2.5] versus 1.2 [SD = 2.0]; Z = 3.123; p = 0.002; October 2005: 6.4 [SD = 10.4] versus 4.5 [SD = 4.9]; Z = 4.058; p < 0.001. In a logistic regression model, controlling for potential confounders, OA articles compared to non-OA articles remained twice as likely to be cited (odds ratio = 2.1 [1.5-2.9] in the first 4-10 mo after publication (April 2005, with the odds ratio increasing to 2.9 (1

  13. Age-dependent D-dimer cut-off to avoid unnecessary CT-exams for ruling-out pulmonary embolism; Altersangepasste Anhebung des D-Dimer-Grenzwertes zur Vermeidung unnoetiger CT-Untersuchungen bei Verdacht auf Lungenarterienembolie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, M.M.; Hoehne, M.; Herold, T. [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany). Radiology; Wrede, C.E. [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany). Emergency Department; Peetz, D. [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany). Laboratory Medicine; Stroszczynski, C. [University Medical Center, Radiology, Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate the effect of an age-dependent D-Dimer cut-off in patients who underwent a computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Retrospective application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off (age/100 in patients aged over 50) in 530 consecutive patients, both in- and outpatients, aged over 18, who underwent CTPA for suspected PE according to the guidelines. The application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off showed a now negative test-result in 17 of 530 patients (3.2 %). The proportion was 4.1 % (17 of 418) in patients aged over 50. None of these 17 cases was diagnosed with PE in CTPA, the false-negative rate was 0 %. The effect could be seen in outpatients (14 of 377 [3.7 %]) as well as in inpatients(3 of 153 [2.0 %]) with no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). The application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off as part of the guideline-based algorithm for suspected PE reduced the number of necessary CTPA in outpatients as well as in inpatients.

  14. Age-dependent association between IgG2 and IgG3 subclasses to Pf332-C231 antigen and protection from malaria, and induction of protective antibodies by sub-patent malaria infections, in Daraweesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giha, Hayder A; Nasr, Amre; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C;

    2010-01-01

    , three variable markers for protection were emerged, two age-dependent, the antibody response to Pf332-C231 and an unidentified marker (likely immune response to other antigens), and the third was an age-independent unidentified marker (possibly gene polymorphisms). In conclusion, this report suggests.......211, p=0.014, respectively), and also with age (CC - 0.311, p

  15. United Arab Emirates; 2013 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This staff report on United Arab Emirates 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights economic policies and development. Against a backdrop of political stability, confidence has further increased, tourism has been firm, demand from expatriates from the broader region has increased, and capital inflows have strengthened amid high global liquidity. The real estate sector, which had been impaired since the 2009 crisis, has stabilized in Abu Dhabi and has started to recover in Dubai. Dubai aims to b...

  16. <Article> Machin's Formula and Pi

    OpenAIRE

    西山, 豊

    2011-01-01

    This article explains the calculation of Pi historically, focusing on Machin's formula. Archimedes' formula is shown first, followed by Machin's formula using Gregory's formula. Machin's formula makes particularly ingenious use of the tan double and quadruple angle trigonometric addition formulae. The chapter closes with an explanation of Takano's formula.

  17. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Rezende, Fernando Cury; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Debieux, Pedro; Cohen, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques.

  18. Article choice in plural generics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farkas, D.F.; Swart, Henriëtte de

    2007-01-01

    We discuss two groups of languages where article use contrasts in generic plural sentences but is otherwise essentially similar. The languages in the first group (English and Dutch) use bare plurals in the expression of kind reference (‘Dinosaurs are extinct’) and in generic generalizations (‘Dogs a

  19. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Rezende, Fernando Cury; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Debieux, Pedro; Cohen, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques. PMID:27517015

  20. Article choice in plural generics

    OpenAIRE

    Farkas, D. F.; Swart, Henriëtte de

    2007-01-01

    We discuss two groups of languages where article use contrasts in generic plural sentences but is otherwise essentially similar. The languages in the first group (English and Dutch) use bare plurals in the expression of kind reference (‘Dinosaurs are extinct’) and in generic generalizations (‘Dogs are intelligent’). The languages in the second group (French, Italian, Hungarian) use definite plurals in both cases (‘Les dinosaures ont disparu’, ‘Les chiens sont intelligents’ in French). We acco...

  1. Turkey; 2012 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund.

    2012-01-01

    This report for the 2012 Article IV Consultation with Turkey discusses the macroeconomic conditions after the 2008 global financial crisis. After two years of rapid growth, the economy has slowed and imbalances are unwinding. However, owing to slower domestic demand, the Turkish financial system continues to remain sound. IMF staff supports the authorities’ fiscal objective for 2013 and also the medium-term fiscal plan for 2013–15. But, they recommend a tighter monetary policy stance give...

  2. Italy; 2013 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights Italy’s assesses measures undertaken to revive economic growth. Italy is vulnerable to a renewal of euro area tension and risks from domestic policy slippages, stalling of structural reforms, and banking distress that could undermine confidence. The government has taken steps to liberalize services, open the energy sector, and improve the labor market, but more is needed to boost productivity and raise Italy’s low employment rate. The IMF repor...

  3. Mathematical Articles for the general public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2003-01-01

    Report on an article competition for mathematical articles addressing the general public arranged by the European Mathematical Society.......Report on an article competition for mathematical articles addressing the general public arranged by the European Mathematical Society....

  4. OPTIMAL HARVESTING CONTROL PROBLEM FOR LINEAR AGE-DEPENDENT POPULATION DYNAMICS%具有年龄结构的种群线性动力系统的最优收获控制问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒志学; 王绵森

    2003-01-01

    An optimal harvesting problem for linear age-dependent population dynamics is investigated.By Mazur's Theorem,the existence of solutions of the optimal control problem (OH) is demonstrated.The first order necessary conditions of optimality for problem (OH) is obtained by the conception of normal cone. Finally,under suitable assumptions,the uniqueness of solutions of the optimal control problem (OH) is given.The results extend some known criteria.

  5. Comptes rendus d’articles

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Maurizio Ambrosini : Séparées et réunies : familles migrantes et liens transnationaux, Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationales, 2008, vol. 24, n° 3, pp. 79-106. Cet article s’intéresse à la demande de main-d’œuvre féminine, en Italie et plus généralement en Europe méridionale, qui produit ce que l’on peut définir comme la « stratification internationale des opportunités de soins et d’assistance ». Il aborde la façon dont les mères séparées de leurs enfants à cause de l’émigration s’e...

  6. Revised article: Business Ideas Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    THIS ARTICLE REPLACES THAT PUBLISHED IN BULLETIN 27/2003, PAGE 8. "The Rainbow Seed Fund is a UK fund, which provides finance to support the commercialization of good ideas founded on scientific research; it is for the benefit of the UK industry in particular. To encourage ideas from CERN the Rainbow Seed Fund is running a business ideas competition. The winner of this competition will receive an immediate cash prize of GBP £1,000. In addition the Rainbow Seed Fund may well provide finance for market research, for protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and for prototyping to take the idea forward. Further awards of GBP £750 will be made for ideas which gain investment from the Fund. Candidates will only be required to prepare a 2-4-page summary of their business idea, and not a full business plan. Full details and an entry form are available at http://www.rainbowseedfund.com." ALL Members of the Personnel seeking participation in the business ideas competition are asked to submit their ideas via ...

  7. Physical aging in article page views

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Yeseul; Weon, Byung Mook

    2016-01-01

    Statistics of article page views is useful for measuring the impact of individual articles. Analyzing the temporal evolution of article page views, we find that article page views usually decay over time after reaching a peak, especially exhibiting relaxation with nonexponentiality. This finding suggests that relaxation in article page views resembles physical aging as frequently found in complex systems.

  8. The ABSTRACTS OF SELECTED ARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Appreciation of RMB, the Behavior of Firms and the Export Trade: A Case Study Based on the Enterprise Data of a Large Specimen between 2005 and 2009 In this article, we have constructed a simplified dynamic discrete choice model to analyze, within the framework of the maximization of profit, the two-stage decision of firm' s export behavior and the effect of the exchange rate. We have, by the means of the specimen data on China' s industrial enterprises between 2005 and 2009 and by the use of Heckman selection model, evaluated the general impact of the appreciation of RMB (AORMB) on the export trade and the structural impact. The results of our study indicate that the AORMB has generated significant negative shock to firm ' s export through extensive margins and intensive margins. Meanwhile, the difference in operation strategy of heteroge- neous firms has resulted in the fact that the AORMB can hardly achieve the expected purpose of the survival of the fit- test; instead it has interrupted the optimization of the adjustment in the optimization of the structure of the main body of the export trade. The AORMB has, in a certain degree, driven the industry structure of export to develop to a higher phase. However, such positive effects have mainly rooted in the contribution of foreign-funded enterprises, but this pos- itive role has restricted the growth space of the local enterprises in the advanced manufacturing industry. Under the cir- cumstance of high uncertainty in foreign and domestic economy, in order to guarantee the steady transition of the eco- nomic transition, the AORMB should be slowed for the time being, and other more pertinent measures should be adopt- ed to drive the upgrade of the export trade and the adjustment of economic structure.

  9. Infantile Spasm: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi TAGHDIRI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Taghdiri MM, Nemati H. Infantile Spasm: A Review Article. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Summer;8(3: 1-5.AbstractObjectiveInfantile spasm (IS is a convulsive disease characterized by brief, symmetric axial muscle contraction (neck, trunk, and/or extremities. IS is a type of seizure that was first described by West in 1841, who witnessed the seizure in his own son. West’s syndrome refers to the classic triad of spasms, characteristic EEG, and neurodevelopmental regression. Most cases involve flexors and extensors,but either of the types may be involved independently.IS, as its name implies, most often occurs during the first year of life with an incidence of approximately 1 per 2000-4000 live births. Most, but not all, patients with this disorder have severe EEG abnormalities; this pattern was originallyreferred to as hypsarrhythmia by Gibbs and Gibbs. Cases with known etiology or signs of brain damage are considered as symptomatic. The Overall prognosis of the disease is poor. Peak onset age of the epileptic syndrome is 3 to 7 months, which mainly occurs before 2 years of age in 93% of patients. Hypsarrhythmia is the EEG hallmark of IS, which comprised a chaotic, bilaterally asynchronous high-voltage polyspike, and slow wave discharges interspersed with multifocal spikes and slow waves.Etiological classification is as follows: 1 Symptomatic: with identifiable prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal causes with developmental delay at the presentation time; 2 Cryptogenic: unknown underlying cause, normal development at the onset of spasms, normal neurological exam and neuroimaging, and no abnormality in the metabolic evaluation; 3 Idiopathic: pure functional cerebral dysfunction with complete recovery, no residual dysfunction, normal neuroimaging and normal etiologic evaluation, and normal neurodevelopment.ReferencesInfantile Spasms. In: Jean Aicardi: Disease of Nervous system in childhood. 3th ed. Mac Keith

  10. Deletion of Rac in Mature Osteoclasts Causes Osteopetrosis, an Age-Dependent Change in Osteoclast Number, and a Reduced Number of Osteoblasts In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meiling; Sun, Ben-hua; Saar, Katarzyna; Simpson, Christine; Troiano, Nancy; Dallas, Sarah L; Tiede-Lewis, LeAnn M; Nevius, Erin; Pereira, João P; Weinstein, Robert S; Tommasini, Steven M; Insogna, Karl L

    2016-01-01

    Rac1 and Rac2 are thought to have important roles in osteoclasts. Therefore, mice with deletion of both Rac1 and Rac2 in mature osteoclasts (DKO) were generated by crossing Rac1flox/flox mice with mice expressing Cre in the cathepsin K locus and then mating these animals with Rac2−/− mice. DKO mice had markedly impaired tooth eruption. Bone mineral density (BMD) was increased 21% to 33% in 4- to 6-week-old DKO mice at all sites when measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and serum cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTx) was reduced by 52%. The amount of metaphyseal trabecular bone was markedly increased in DKO mice, but the cortices were very thin. Spinal trabecular bone mass was increased. Histomorphometry revealed significant reductions in both osteoclast and osteoblast number and function in 4- to 6-week-old DKO animals. In 14- to 16-week-old animals, osteoclast number was increased, although bone density was further increased. DKO osteoclasts had severely impaired actin ring formation, an impaired ability to generate acid, and reduced resorptive activity in vitro. In addition, their life span ex vivo was reduced. DKO osteoblasts expressed normal differentiation markers except for the expression of osterix, which was reduced. The DKO osteoblasts mineralized normally in vitro, indicating that the in vivo defect in osteoblast function was not cell autonomous. Confocal imaging demonstrated focal disruption of the osteocytic dendritic network in DKO cortical bone. Despite these changes, DKO animals had a normal response to treatment with once-daily parathyroid hormone (PTH). We conclude that Rac1 and Rac2 have critical roles in skeletal metabolism. PMID:26496249

  11. Mechanically worked single crystal article

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, M. L.; Giamei, A. F.

    1985-07-09

    A single crystal nickel base superalloy component, such as a gas turbine blade is mechanically deformed at elevated temperature to improve the yield strength of a portion which is used at temperatures below 800/sup 0/ C., compared to a portion which is used at a higher temperature. A blade has a root which is deformed by 2-14% at 700/sup 0/-1100/sup 0/ C. and an airfoil which is not deformed. The root yield strength is increased 15-50% while the airfoil creep strength is maintained.

  12. Review Article of Cardiac Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jittiporn PURATTANAMAL

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac amyloidosis is a term that means the deposit of abnormal proteins in the myocardium leading to global thickening of the heart walls. The clinical character is that of infiltrative cardiomyopathy. AL amyloidosis is the most common type that involves cardiac failure. Cardiac amyloid precedes clinical congestive heart failure, especially right-sided heart failure. Laboratory investigations have identified the amyloid fibril proteins deposited in the organ tissues. Immunofixation tests are the most sensitive that recognize the paraprotein mean light chain protein or immunoglobulin subtype deposit. Prognosis is poor if AL amyloidosis is untreated. Treatment of systemic involvement in AL amyloidosis is via chemotherapy such as melphalan and prednisolone. UK experts have reported the results of treatment in AL amyloidosis. Regardless of the use of adjunctive chemotherapy, the five-year survival after heart transplantation was generally poorer for AL (20 % at five years, but similar for non-AL amyloidosis (64 % at five years, than heart transplants in other cases. Progression of the systemic disease contributed to increased mortality. A specific treatment that increases the chances of survival is unknown.

  13. Finding and Recommending Scholarly Articles

    CERN Document Server

    Kurtz, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    The rate at which scholarly literature is being produced has been increasing at approximately 3.5 percent per year for decades. This means that during a typical 40 year career the amount of new literature produced each year increases by a factor of four. The methods scholars use to discover relevant literature must change. Just like everybody else involved in information discovery, scholars are confronted with information overload. Two decades ago, this discovery process essentially consisted of paging through abstract books, talking to colleagues and librarians, and browsing journals. A time-consuming process, which could even be longer if material had to be shipped from elsewhere. Now much of this discovery process is mediated by online scholarly information systems. All these systems are relatively new, and all are still changing. They all share a common goal: to provide their users with access to the literature relevant to their specific needs. To achieve this each system responds to actions by the user b...

  14. Age-dependent baseline values of faecal cortisol metabolites in the American mink (Neovison vison) under semi-natural housing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, E; Bergmann, S; Hagn, A; Meixensperger, J; Reese, S; Palme, R; Erhard, M H

    2014-06-01

    The welfare of an animal is ensured if it is able to fully satisfy its essential species-typical needs in all functional aspects of behaviour. In mink, stereotypies and apathy, internal and/or external injuries as well as increased susceptibility to disease have been known to occur as a result of chronic stress. The non-invasive method of analysing faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) allows conclusions to be drawn about the stress level in the respective housing system. The objective of this study is to find out how the cortisol metabolites content in the faecal changes with increasing age of the mink under semi-natural housing conditions. Thus, 40 American mink (Neovison vison) were housed in two outdoor enclosures imitating natural conditions. Throughout the entire study (13th to 32nd week of life), faecal samples were collected to measure cortisol metabolites. No differences in FCM concentrations between the two outdoor enclosures were found. In the young mink lower, less fluctuating FCM levels were found than in older animals. After the first faecal collection in the 13th/14th week of life, the level of metabolites decreased slightly (p = 0.032; 17th/18th week). From the 22nd/23rd week onwards until the 30th/31st week, shortly before the animals were pelted, continuously increasing concentrations were then measured. Increasing FCM levels with advancing age of the animals are probably attributable to the onset of sexual maturity and/or the respective season. This has to be taken into account in future studies using this method for assessing welfare and when comparing different mink housing systems.

  15. Age-dependent baseline values of faecal cortisol metabolites in the American mink (Neovison vison) under semi-natural housing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, E; Bergmann, S; Hagn, A; Meixensperger, J; Reese, S; Palme, R; Erhard, M H

    2014-06-01

    The welfare of an animal is ensured if it is able to fully satisfy its essential species-typical needs in all functional aspects of behaviour. In mink, stereotypies and apathy, internal and/or external injuries as well as increased susceptibility to disease have been known to occur as a result of chronic stress. The non-invasive method of analysing faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) allows conclusions to be drawn about the stress level in the respective housing system. The objective of this study is to find out how the cortisol metabolites content in the faecal changes with increasing age of the mink under semi-natural housing conditions. Thus, 40 American mink (Neovison vison) were housed in two outdoor enclosures imitating natural conditions. Throughout the entire study (13th to 32nd week of life), faecal samples were collected to measure cortisol metabolites. No differences in FCM concentrations between the two outdoor enclosures were found. In the young mink lower, less fluctuating FCM levels were found than in older animals. After the first faecal collection in the 13th/14th week of life, the level of metabolites decreased slightly (p = 0.032; 17th/18th week). From the 22nd/23rd week onwards until the 30th/31st week, shortly before the animals were pelted, continuously increasing concentrations were then measured. Increasing FCM levels with advancing age of the animals are probably attributable to the onset of sexual maturity and/or the respective season. This has to be taken into account in future studies using this method for assessing welfare and when comparing different mink housing systems. PMID:24033508

  16. Age-dependent modulation of synaptic plasticity and insulin mimetic effect of lipoic acid on a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Sancheti

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that entails impairments of memory, thinking and behavior and culminates into brain atrophy. Impaired glucose uptake (accumulating into energy deficits and synaptic plasticity have been shown to be affected in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. This study examines the ability of lipoic acid to increase brain glucose uptake and lead to improvements in synaptic plasticity on a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (3xTg-AD that shows progression of pathology as a function of age; two age groups: 6 months (young and 12 months (old were used in this study. 3xTg-AD mice fed 0.23% w/v lipoic acid in drinking water for 4 weeks showed an insulin mimetic effect that consisted of increased brain glucose uptake, activation of the insulin receptor substrate and of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Lipoic acid supplementation led to important changes in synaptic function as shown by increased input/output (I/O and long term potentiation (LTP (measured by electrophysiology. Lipoic acid was more effective in stimulating an insulin-like effect and reversing the impaired synaptic plasticity in the old mice, wherein the impairment of insulin signaling and synaptic plasticity was more pronounced than those in young mice.

  17. The article of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Eliana Pereira Salles de; Cabrera, Eliana Márcia Sotello; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2010-01-01

    Technological advances and the Internet have contributed to the increased disclosure and updating of knowledge and science. Scientific papers are considered the best form of disclosure of information and have been undergoing many changes, not on their way of development, but on the structure of publication. The Future paper, a name for this new structure, uses hypermediatic resources, allowing a quick, easy and organized access to these items online. The exchange of information, comments and criticisms can be performed in real time, providing agility in science disclosure. The trend for the future of documents, both from professionals or enterprises, is the "cloud computing", in which all documents will be developed and updated with the use of various equipments: computer, palm, netbook, ipad, without need to have the software installed on your computer, requiring only an Internet connection. PMID:20802903

  18. Biosensors in Endocrinology- Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnoush FARIDBOD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors are classes of sensors in which at least a biological process is used in sensing procedure. They are generally composed of three parts: a sensing element, a transducer, and a signal processor (or detector. They can be categorized by type of sensing materials or by detection techniques. From their invention time up to now, various biological species have been analyzed using variety of biosensors. They have been widely used for environmental, industrial, pharmaceutical and clinical applications in many research papers. Perhaps the number of biosensors which had a chance to commercialize and enter to the market is limited, but by recent developments in science and technology, day-by-day, the number of commercial biosensors are growing. Their importance in clinical medicine can be found in determination of biomarkers for early diagnosis of disease or for control and manage of them in point-of-care devices. Diagnosis and control of many endocrine diseases and metabolic disorders depend strongly on determination of chemicals, hormones and antibodies. A large number of biosensors research studies have focused on determination of these biomolecules. One of the famous commercial biosensor is widely used in management of diabetes is glucometer. They are portable commercial biosensors which measure the amount of glucose in a blood drop. The main challenges in designing biosensors are decrease the limit of detection, increasing the sensitivity and accuracy in an analysis, increasing lifetime and miniaturization. Even scientists are now trying to develop biosensors for non-invasive measurements of biomarkers in saliva or tears. Keywords: Biosensor, Endocrinology, Point-of-care device, Diabetes, Glucometer 

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (ATCC 55826) in combination with Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (ATCC 55845) and defence against vaginal pathogens by increasing the proportion of lactobacilli and/or decreasing the proportion of potentially pathogenic bacteria and/or yeasts (ID 945) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (ATCC 55826) in combination with Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (ATCC 55845) and defence against vaginal pathogens by increasing the proportion of lactobac...

  20. Age-dependent changes in 8-oxoguanine-DNA-glycosylase activity is modulated by adaptive responses to physical exercise in human skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Radak, Zsolt; Bori, Zoltan; Koltai, Erika; Fatouros, Ioannis G.; JAMURTAS, ATHANASIOS Z.; Douroudos, Ioannis I.; Terzis, Gerasimos; Michalis G. Nikolaidis; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Sovatzidis, Apostolos; Kumagai, Shuzo; Naito, Hisahi; Boldogh, Istvan

    2011-01-01

    8-Oxo-7,8 dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) accumulates in the genome over time and is believed to contribute to the development of aging characteristics of skeletal muscle and various aging-related diseases. Here, we show a significantly increased level of intrahelical 8-oxoG and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) expression in aged human skeletal muscle compared to that of young individuals. In response to exercise, the 8-oxoG level was found to be lastingly elevated in sedentary young and old subje...

  1. 27 CFR 46.208 - Unmerchantable articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unmerchantable articles... Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Inventories § 46.208 Unmerchantable articles. Articles that the.... However, the dealer must segregate any such unmerchantable articles and include them in a separate...

  2. 42 CFR 35.35 - Unsalable articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unsalable articles. 35.35 Section 35.35 Public... HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposition of Articles Produced by Patients § 35.35 Unsalable articles. Articles having no commercial value shall be stored, destroyed, or otherwise disposed of as the officer...

  3. On Reviewing and Writing a Scholarly Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettis, Jerry L., Sr.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides guidelines for reviewing and writing scholarly articles for the professional who reads and writes them for his/her own work and/or for publication in scientific journals. It outlines the purpose and contents of each section of a research article and provides a checklist for reviewing and writing a research article. This…

  4. Age-dependent effects of esculetin on mood-related behavior and cognition from stressed mice are associated with restoring brain antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Aragón, Sagrario; Villar, Ángel; Benedí, Juana

    2016-02-01

    Dietary antioxidants might exert an important role in the aging process by relieving oxidative damage, a likely cause of age-associated brain dysfunctions. This study aims to investigate the influence of esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin), a naturally occurring antioxidant in the diet, on mood-related behaviors and cognitive function and its relation with age and brain oxidative damage. Behavioral tests were employed in 11-, 17- and 22-month-old male C57BL/6J mice upon an oral 35day-esculetin treatment (25mg/kg). Activity of antioxidant enzymes, GSH and GSSG levels, GSH/GSSG ratio, and mitochondrial function were analyzed in brain cortex at the end of treatment in order to assess the oxidative status related to mouse behavior. Esculetin treatment attenuated the increased immobility time and enhanced the diminished climbing time in the forced swim task elicited by acute restraint stress (ARS) in the 11- and 17-month-old mice versus their counterpart controls. Furthermore, ARS caused an impairment of contextual memory in the step-through passive avoidance both in mature adult and aged mice which was partially reversed by esculetin only in the 11-month-old mice. Esculetin was effective to prevent the ARS-induced oxidative stress mostly in mature adult mice by restoring antioxidant enzyme activities, augmenting the GSH/GSSG ratio and increasing cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity in cortex. Modulation of the mood-related behavior and cognitive function upon esculetin treatment in a mouse model of ARS depends on age and is partly due to the enhancement of redox status and levels of COX activity in cortex. PMID:26290950

  5. Non-neuronal, but atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses to short-chain fatty acids: age-dependent desensitization and restoration under inflammatory conditions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Masako; Kimura, Shunsuke; Karaki, Shinichiro; Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Atsukazu; Yajima, Takaji; Iwanaga, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells sense short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) to secrete non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh). However, the roles of luminalSCFAs and epithelialACh under normal and pathological conditions remain unknown. We examined ileal contractile responses toSCFAs at different ages and their mucosal cholinergic alterations under inflammatory conditions. Ileal contractile responses toSCFAs in 1-day-old pups to 7-week-old mice were compared using an isotonic transducer, and responses to an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were analyzed in 7-week-old mice. ThemRNAexpression levels of aSCFAactivate free fatty acid receptor, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (Chat), and choline transporter-like protein 4 (CTL4) were measured using real-time quantitativeRT-PCRAChE was analyzed by histochemical and optical enzymatic assays. Atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses toSCFAs occurred in all 1-day-old pups, but were frequently desensitized after the weaning period. These contractile responses were not inhibited by tetrodotoxin and did not appear when the mucosal layer had been scraped off. Contractile desensitization in 7-week-old mice was abolished in the presence of theAChE inhibitor, eserine, which was consistent with increasedAChE activity after weaning. Ileal contractions toSCFAs in adult mice were restored byLPS, which significantly increased the epithelialmRNAexpression of Chat andCTL4. Atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses toSCFAs constitutively occur in the newborn period, and are desensitized during developmental stages following the up-regulated expression ofAChE in the villous mucosa, but are restored under inflammatory conditions possibly via the release of epithelialACh. PMID:27053293

  6. Age-dependent effects of esculetin on mood-related behavior and cognition from stressed mice are associated with restoring brain antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Aragón, Sagrario; Villar, Ángel; Benedí, Juana

    2016-02-01

    Dietary antioxidants might exert an important role in the aging process by relieving oxidative damage, a likely cause of age-associated brain dysfunctions. This study aims to investigate the influence of esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin), a naturally occurring antioxidant in the diet, on mood-related behaviors and cognitive function and its relation with age and brain oxidative damage. Behavioral tests were employed in 11-, 17- and 22-month-old male C57BL/6J mice upon an oral 35day-esculetin treatment (25mg/kg). Activity of antioxidant enzymes, GSH and GSSG levels, GSH/GSSG ratio, and mitochondrial function were analyzed in brain cortex at the end of treatment in order to assess the oxidative status related to mouse behavior. Esculetin treatment attenuated the increased immobility time and enhanced the diminished climbing time in the forced swim task elicited by acute restraint stress (ARS) in the 11- and 17-month-old mice versus their counterpart controls. Furthermore, ARS caused an impairment of contextual memory in the step-through passive avoidance both in mature adult and aged mice which was partially reversed by esculetin only in the 11-month-old mice. Esculetin was effective to prevent the ARS-induced oxidative stress mostly in mature adult mice by restoring antioxidant enzyme activities, augmenting the GSH/GSSG ratio and increasing cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity in cortex. Modulation of the mood-related behavior and cognitive function upon esculetin treatment in a mouse model of ARS depends on age and is partly due to the enhancement of redox status and levels of COX activity in cortex.

  7. The impact of BCG vaccination on tuberculin skin test responses in children is age dependent: evidence to be considered when screening children for tuberculosis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, James A; Paton, James; Nademi, Zohreh; Keane, Denis; Williams, Bhanu; Williams, Amanda; Welch, Steven B; Liebeschutz, Sue; Riddell, Anna; Bernatoniene, Jolanta; Patel, Sanjay; Martinez-Alier, Nuria; McMaster, Paddy; Kampmann, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Background Following exposure to TB, contacts are screened to target preventive treatment at those at high risk of developing TB. The UK has recently revised its recommendations for screening and now advises a 5 mm tuberculin skin test (TST) cut-off irrespective of age or BCG status. We sought to evaluate the impact of BCG on TST responses in UK children exposed to TB and the performance of different TST cut-offs to predict interferon γ release assay (IGRA) positivity. Methods Children vaccination on TST positivity was evaluated in IGRA-negative children, as was the performance of different TST cut-offs to predict IGRA positivity. Results Of 422 children recruited (median age 69 months; IQR: 32–113 months), 300 (71%) had been vaccinated with BCG. BCG vaccination affected the TST response in IGRA-negative children less than 5 years old but not in older children. A 5 mm TST cut-off demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity in BCG-unvaccinated children, and an excellent negative predictive value but was associated with low specificity (62.7%; 95% CI 56.1% to 69.0%) in BCG-vaccinated children. For BCG-vaccinated children, a 10 mm cut-off provided a high negative predictive value (97.7%; 95% CI 94.2% to 99.4%) with the positive predictive value increasing with increasing age of the child. Discussion BCG vaccination had little impact on TST size in children over 5 years of age. The revised TST cut-off recommended in the recent revision to the UK TB guidelines demonstrates good sensitivity but is associated with impaired specificity in BCG-vaccinated children. PMID:27335104

  8. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to olive leaf (Olea europaea L.) water extract and increase in glucose tolerance pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Comvita New Zealand Limited, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific...

  9. Tree age-dependent changes in photosynthetic and respiratory CO2 exchange in leaves of micropropagated diploid, triploid and hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärnik, Tiit; Ivanova, Hiie; Keerberg, Olav; Vardja, Rael; Niinemets, Ulo

    2014-06-01

    The growth rate of triploid European aspen (Populus tremula L.) and hybrid aspen (P. tremula × Populus tremuloides Michx.) significantly exceeds that of diploid aspen, but the underlying physiological controls of the superior growth rates of these genotypes are not known. We tested the hypothesis that the superior growth rate of triploid and hybrid aspen reflects their greater net photosynthesis rate. Micropropagated clonal plants varying in age from 2.5 to 19 months were used to investigate the ploidy and plant age interaction. The quantum yield of net CO2 fixation (Φ) in leaves of young 2.5-month-old hybrid aspen was lower than that of diploid and triploid trees. However, Φ in 19-month-old hybrid aspen was equal to that in triploid aspen and higher than that in diploid aspen. Φ and the rate of light-saturated net photosynthesis (ANS) increased with plant age, largely due to higher leaf dry mass per unit area in older plants. ANS in leaves of 19-month-old trees was highest in hybrid, medium in triploid and lowest in diploid aspen. Light-saturated photosynthesis had a broad temperature optimum between 20 and 35 °C. Rate of respiration in the dark (RDS) did not vary among the genotypes in 2.5-month-old plants, and the shape of the temperature response was also similar. RDS increased with plant age, but RDS was still not significantly different among the leaves of 19-month-old diploid and triploid aspen, but it was significantly lower in leaves of 19-month-old hybrid plants. The initial differences in the growth of plants with different ploidy were minor up to the age of 19 months, but during the next 2 years, the growth rate of hybrid aspen exceeded that of triploid plants by 2.7 times and of diploid plants by five times, in line with differences in ANS of 19-month-old plants of these species. It is suggested that differences in photosynthesis and growth became more pronounced with tree aging, indicating that ontogeny plays a key role in the expression of

  10. Age-dependent changes in the midsized neurofilament subunit in sensory-motor systems of the cat brainstem: an immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J H; Sampogna, S; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    2000-05-01

    This study documents age-related changes in the immunoreactivity of the medium-molecular weight subunit of neurofilaments in sensory and motor neurons in the brainstem of the cat. In old age, there was a clear decrease in immunoreactivity in the following brainstem sensory and motor nuclei: sensory trigeminal, gracile, cuneate, and facial motor. Only a few neuronal perikarya and dendrites were labeled in these nuclei in old cats; moreover, when present, the labeling was weak. In contrast, in adult cats, these nuclei contained intensely stained neuronal perikarya and dendrites. In other sensory and motor nuclei of the brainstem, there was an obvious age-related increase in the immunoreactivity of the medium-molecular weight subunit of neurofilaments in the perikarya. Despite different patterns of age-related alterations in immunoreactivity within perikarya and dendrites in distinct brainstem regions, most sensory and motor axons in old cats were smaller than those in adult cats. A decrease in the medium-molecular weight neurofilament subunit in the dendrites may be the basis for the dendritic atrophy that has been shown to occur in sensory nuclei in old animals. The decrease in axonal size is likely to be one of the causes of the decrease in axonal conduction velocity, in these neurons, that was reported in our previous studies. PMID:10819310

  11. Hyperactive mTOR signals in the proopiomelanocortin-expressing hippocampal neurons cause age-dependent epilepsy and premature death in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Yuki; Sakai, Yasunari; Shimmura, Mitsunori; Shigeto, Hiroshi; Nishio, Miki; Akamine, Satoshi; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Suzuki, Akira; Takada, Hidetoshi; Hara, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a frequent comorbidity in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Recent studies utilizing massive sequencing data identified subsets of genes that are associated with epilepsy and FCD. AKT and mTOR-related signals have been recently implicated in the pathogenic processes of epilepsy and FCD. To clarify the functional roles of the AKT-mTOR pathway in the hippocampal neurons, we generated conditional knockout mice harboring the deletion of Pten (Pten-cKO) in Proopiomelanocortin-expressing neurons. The Pten-cKO mice developed normally until 8 weeks of age, then presented generalized seizures at 8–10 weeks of age. Video-monitored electroencephalograms detected paroxysmal discharges emerging from the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. These mice showed progressive hypertrophy of the dentate gyrus (DG) with increased expressions of excitatory synaptic markers (Psd95, Shank3 and Homer). In contrast, the expression of inhibitory neurons (Gad67) was decreased at 6–8 weeks of age. Immunofluorescence studies revealed the abnormal sprouting of mossy fibers in the DG of the Pten-cKO mice prior to the onset of seizures. The treatment of these mice with an mTOR inhibitor rapamycin successfully prevented the development of seizures and reversed these molecular phenotypes. These data indicate that the mTOR pathway regulates hippocampal excitability in the postnatal brain. PMID:26961412

  12. Age-dependent impact of CaV 3.2 T-type calcium channel deletion on myogenic tone and flow-mediated vasodilatation in small arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Miriam F; Björling, Karl; Jensen, Lars Jørn

    2016-01-01

    , structural remodeling, and mRNA + protein expression in small mesenteric arteries from CaV 3.2 knock-out vs. wild-type mice at young vs. mature adult age. In young mice, only, deletion of CaV 3.2 led to enhanced myogenic response and ∼50 % reduction of flow-mediated vasodilatation. Ni(2+) had both CaV 3.......2-dependent and -independent effects. No changes in mRNA expression of several important K(+) and Ca(2+) channel genes were induced by CaV 3.2 knock-out. However, the expression of the other T-type channel isoform (CaV 3.1) was reduced at the mRNA and protein level in mature adult compared to young WT...... arteries. Our study shows important roles of the CaV 3.2 T-type calcium channels in myogenic tone and flow-mediated vasodilation that disappear with aging. Since increased arterial tone is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease we conclude that CaV 3.2 channels, by modulating pressure- and flow...

  13. Age-dependent prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of streptococcus pneumoniae before conjugate vaccine introduction: a prediction model based on a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Le Polain de Waroux

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Data on the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of S.pneumoniae in all age groups are important to help predict the impact of introducing pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV into routine infant immunization, given the important indirect effect of the vaccine. Yet most carriage studies are limited to children under five years of age. We here explore the association between carriage prevalence and serotype distribution in children aged ≥5 years and in adults compared to children. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies providing carriage estimates across age groups in healthy populations not previously exposed to PCV, using MEDLINE and Embase. We used Bayesian linear meta-regression models to predict the overall carriage prevalence as well as the prevalence and distribution of vaccine and nonvaccine type (VT and NVT serotypes in older age groups as a function of that in <5 y olds. RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies compromising of 20,391 individuals were included in the analysis. In all studies nasopharyngeal carriage decreased with increasing age. We found a strong positive linear association between the carriage prevalence in pre-school childen (<5 y and both that in school aged children (5-17 y olds and in adults. The proportion of VT serotypes isolated from carriers was consistently lower in older age groups and on average about 73% that of children <5 y among 5-17 y olds and adults respectively. We provide a prediction model to infer the carriage prevalence and serotype distribution in 5-17 y olds and adults as a function of that in children <5 years of age. CONCLUSION: Such predictions are helpful for assessing the potential population-wide effects of vaccination programmes, e.g. via transmission models, and thus assist in the design of future pneumococcal conjugate vaccination strategies.

  14. Age-dependent changes in the ratio of (R)- and (S)-2-butanol released by virgin females of Dasylepida ishigakiensis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara-Tsujii, N; Yasui, H; Wakamura, S; Mochizuki, F; Arakaki, N

    2012-12-01

    The females of the white grub beetle, Dasylepida ishigakiensis, release two enantiomers of 2-butanol, (R)-2-butanol and (S)-2-butanol. The ratio describing the relative proportions of these two enantiomers (R/S ratio) has not yet been investigated. (R)-2-Butanol has been shown to attract males in laboratory and field experiments, whereas (S)-2-butanol tends to inhibit them. To determine the R/S ratio of the 2-butanol emitted by virgin females, we collected 2-butanol from young (53 days old), mature (63 days old) and old females (73 days old) using water, extracted with an SPME fibre and subsequently injected into GC-MS. The major component of the 2-butanol emitted by the young females was (R)-2-butanol, but as the females aged, the component ratio favoured (S)-2-butanol. Young females released an 80:20 mixture of (R)- and (S)-2-butanol, whereas old females released a 45:55 mixture. The EAG response of male antennae to a 50:50 ratio (racemic mixture) showed a similar dose-response curve to that of (R)-2-butanol. The male orientation responses to (R)-2-butanol decreased when the relative proportion of (S)-2-butanol increased. An inhibitory and/or masking effect of (S)-2-butanol on male orientation behaviour was also observed in the flight tunnel assay. These results suggest that males are more strongly attracted to young females than to old females. We also discuss the possibility of using 2-butanol isomers as a control or monitoring agent for this insect.

  15. Age-dependent alterations in the cortical entrainment of subthalamic nucleus neurons in the YAC128 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Joshua W; Abercrombie, Elizabeth D

    2015-06-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that results in motor, cognitive and psychiatric abnormalities. Dysfunction in neuronal processing between the cortex and the basal ganglia is fundamental to the onset and progression of the HD phenotype. The corticosubthalamic hyperdirect pathway plays a crucial role in motor selection and blockade of neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) results in hyperkinetic movement abnormalities, similar to the motor symptoms associated with HD. The aim of the present study was to examine whether changes in the fidelity of information transmission between the cortex and the STN emerge as a function of phenotypic severity in the YAC128 mouse model of HD. We obtained in vivo extracellular recordings in the STN and concomitant electrocorticogram (ECoG) recordings during discrete brain states that reflected global cortical network synchronization or desynchronization. At early ages in YAC128 mice, both the cortex and the STN exhibited patterns of hyperexcitability. As symptom severity progressed, cortical entrainment of STN activity was disrupted and there was an increase in the proportion of non-oscillating, tonically firing STN neurons that were less phase-locked to cortical activity. Concomitant to the dissipation of STN entrainment, there was a reduction in the evoked response of STN neurons to focal cortical stimulation. The spontaneous discharge of STN neurons in YAC128 mice also decreased with age and symptom severity. These results indicate dysfunction in the flow of information within the corticosubthalamic circuit and demonstrate progressive age-related disconnection of the hyperdirect pathway in a transgenic mouse model of HD.

  16. Levels and Age Dependency of Neurofilament Light and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein in Healthy Individuals and Their Relation to the Brain Parenchymal Fraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Vågberg

    Full Text Available Neurofilament light (NFL and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP are integral parts of the axonal and astrocytal cytoskeletons respectively and are released into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in cases of cellular damage. In order to interpret the levels of these biomarkers in disease states, knowledge on normal levels in the healthy is required. Another biomarker for neurodegeneration is brain atrophy, commonly measured as brain parenchymal fraction (BPF using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Potential correlations between levels of NFL, GFAP and BPF in healthy individuals have not been investigated.To present levels of NFL and GFAP in healthy individuals stratified for age, and investigate the correlation between them as well as their correlation with BPF.The CSF was analysed in 53 healthy volunteers aged 21 to 70 (1 sample missing for GFAP analysis and 48 of the volunteers underwent determination of BPF using MRI.Mean (±SD NFL was 355 ng/L (±214, mean GFAP was 421 ng/L (±129 and mean BPF was 0.867 (±0.035. All three biomarkers correlated with age. NFL also correlated with both GFAP and BPF. When controlled for age, only the correlation between NFL and GFAP retained statistical significance.This study presents data on age-stratified levels of NFL and GFAP in the CSF of healthy individuals. There is a correlation between levels of NFL and GFAP and both increase with age. A correlation between NFL and BPF was also found, but did not retain statistical significance if controlled for age.

  17. Age-dependent expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3B in PBMCs from a large European population enrolled in the MARK-AGE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarone, Fabio; Malavolta, Marco; Calabrese, Roberta; Guastafierro, Tiziana; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Reale, Anna; Franceschi, Claudio; Capri, Miriam; Hervonen, Antti; Hurme, Mikko; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Koller, Bernhard; Bernhardt, Jürgen; Schӧn, Christiane; Slagboom, P Eline; Toussaint, Olivier; Sikora, Ewa; Gonos, Efstathios S; Breusing, Nicolle; Grune, Tilman; Jansen, Eugène; Dollé, Martijn; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Sindlinger, Thilo; Bürkle, Alexander; Zampieri, Michele; Caiafa, Paola

    2016-08-01

    Aging is associated with alterations in the content and patterns of DNA methylation virtually throughout the entire human lifespan. Reasons for these variations are not well understood. However, several lines of evidence suggest that the epigenetic instability in aging may be traced back to the alteration of the expression of DNA methyltransferases. Here, the association of the expression of DNA methyltransferases DNMT1 and DNMT3B with age has been analysed in the context of the MARK-AGE study, a large-scale cross-sectional study of the European general population. Using peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we assessed the variation of DNMT1 and DNMT3B gene expression in more than two thousand age-stratified women and men (35-75 years) recruited across eight European countries. Significant age-related changes were detected for both transcripts. The level of DNMT1 gradually dropped with aging but this was only observed up to the age of 64 years. By contrast, the expression of DNMT3B decreased linearly with increasing age and this association was particularly evident in females. We next attempted to trace the age-related changes of both transcripts to the influence of different variables that have an impact on changes of their expression in the population, including demographics, dietary and health habits, and clinical parameters. Our results indicate that age affects the expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3B as an almost independent variable in respect of all other variables evaluated. PMID:27169697

  18. The effects of methylmercury on motor activity are sex- and age-dependent, and modulated by genetic deletion of adenosine receptors and caffeine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Olga; Kahlström, Johan; Salmi, Peter; Ogren, Sven Ove; Vahter, Marie; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Fredholm, Bertil B; Daré, Elisabetta

    2007-11-30

    Adenosine and its receptors are, as part of the brain stress response, potential targets for neuroprotective drugs. We have investigated if the adenosine receptor system affects the developmental neurotoxicity caused by the fish pollutant methylmercury (MeHg). Behavioral outcomes of low dose perinatal MeHg exposure were studied in mice where the A(1) and A(2A) adenosine receptors were either partially blocked by caffeine treatment or eliminated by genetic modification (A(1)R and A(2A)R knock-out mice). From gestational day 7 to day 7 of lactation dams were administered doses that mimic human intake via normal diet, i.e. 1microM MeHg and/or 0.3g/l caffeine in the drinking water. This exposure to MeHg resulted in a doubling of brain Hg levels in wild type females and males at postnatal day 21 (PND21). Open field analysis was performed at PND21 and 2 months of age. MeHg caused time-dependent behavioral alterations preferentially in male mice. A decreased response to amphetamine in 2-month-old males pointed to disturbances in dopaminergic functions. Maternal caffeine intake induced long-lasting changes in the offspring evidenced by an increased motor activity and a modified response to psychostimulants in adult age, irrespectively of sex. Similar alterations were observed in A(1)R knock-out mice, suggesting that adenosine A(1) receptors are involved in the alterations triggered by caffeine exposure during development. Perinatal caffeine treatment and, to some extent, genetic elimination of adenosine A(1) receptors, attenuated the behavioral consequences of MeHg in males. Importantly, also deletion of the A(2A) adenosine receptor reduced the vulnerability to MeHg, consistent with the neuroprotective effects of adenosine A(2A) receptor inactivation observed in hypoxia and Parkinson's disease. Thus, the consequences of MeHg toxicity during gestation and lactation can be reduced by adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptor inactivation, either via their genetic deletion or by

  19. Age-Dependent Association among Helicobacter pylori Infection, Serum Pepsinogen Levels and Immune Response of Children to Live Oral Cholera Vaccine CVD 103-HgR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Khitam; Lagos, Rosanna; Reymann, Mardi K.; Graham, David Y.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Levine, Myron M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Through its effects on gastric secretion, we hypothesized that Helicobacter pylori infection may influence oral immunization. Accordingly, we examined the association between H. pylori infection, serum pepsinogen (PG) (measures for H. pylori gastritis) and vibriocidal antibody (a correlate of protection) seroconversion following oral immunization with CVD 103-HgR live cholera vaccine among children of different ages. Methods Sera from 422 Chilean children who were vaccinated with a single dose of CVD 103-HgR were tested by ELISA for serum IgG antibodies to H. pylori, PG I and PG II levels and antibodies to Shigella flexneri 2a lipopolysaccharide and hepatitis A virus (as markers of low socioeconomic status and exposure to enteric pathogens). Results The likelihood of vibriocidal antibody seroconversion following vaccination with CVD 103-HgR was significantly decreased in H. pylori-seropositive children age 6 months to 4 years with PG II>8 µg/L (adjusted OR 0.14 (95% CI 0.03–0.61; P = 0.009), and also in H. pylori seropositives with lower PG II level (adjusted OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.14–0.83; P = 0.017), compared to H. pylori-seronegatives. H. pylori-seropositive children aged 5–9 years with serum PG I>30 µg/L (indicating more severe gastritis) had higher odds of vibriocidal seroconversion than those with lower PG I levels (adjusted OR 4.41, 95%CI 1.26–15.38; P = 0.02). There was no significant association between exposures to S. flexneri 2a or hepatitis A virus and vibriocidal seroconversion. Conclusions As H. pylori gastritis progresses with increasing pediatric age in developing country venues, changes in gastric secretion ensue that we believe explain the observed differences in age-related immune responses to immunization with live oral cholera vaccine. The effect of H. pylori and changes of gastric acid secretion on the immunogenicity of various oral vaccines should be studied in different developing, transitional and industrialized

  20. Rupture of pectoralis major muscle: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guity MR

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Rupture of pectoralis major muscle is a very rare and often athletic injury. These days in our country this injury occurs more frequently. This could be due to increase in professional participation of amateur people in different types of sport, like body building and weight-lifting (especially bench-pressing without adequate preparation, training and taking necessary precautions. In this article, we have tried to review several aspects of complex anatomy of pectoralis major muscle, epidemiology, mechanism, clinical presentations, imaging modalities, surgical indications and techniques of its rupture. Complex and especial anatomy of pectoralis major muscle, in its humeral insertion particularly, have a major role of its vulnerability to sudden and eccentric contraction as the main mechanism of rupture. Also, restoration of this complex anatomy seems to be important during surgical repair to have normal function of the muscle again.

  1. The 100 most cited articles in metastatic spine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan; Alan, Nima; Zhou, James; Kojo Hamilton, D

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite the growing neurosurgical literature, a subset of pioneering studies have significantly impacted the field of metastatic spine disease. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the 100 most frequently cited articles in the field. METHODS A keyword search using the Thomson Reuters Web of Science was conducted to identify articles relevant to the field of metastatic spine disease. The results were filtered based on title and abstract analysis to identify the 100 most cited articles. Statistical analysis was used to characterize journal frequency, past and current citations, citation distribution over time, and author frequency. RESULTS The total number of citations for the final 100 articles ranged from 74 to 1169. Articles selected for the final list were published between 1940 and 2009. The years in which the greatest numbers of top-100 studies were published were 1990 and 2005, and the greatest number of citations occurred in 2012. The majority of articles were published in the journals Spine (15), Cancer (11), and the Journal of Neurosurgery (9). Forty-four individuals were listed as authors on 2 articles, 9 were listed as authors on 3 articles, and 2 were listed as authors on 4 articles in the top 100 list. The most cited article was the work by Batson (1169 citations) that was published in 1940 and described the role of the vertebral veins in the spread of metastases. The second most cited article was Patchell's 2005 study (594 citations) discussing decompressive resection of spinal cord metastases. The third most cited article was the 1978 study by Gilbert that evaluated treatment of epidural spinal cord compression due to metastatic tumor (560 citations). CONCLUSIONS The field of metastatic spine disease has witnessed numerous milestones and so it is increasingly important to recognize studies that have influenced the field. In this bibliographic study the authors identified and analyzed the most influential articles in the

  2. The 100 most cited articles in metastatic spine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan; Alan, Nima; Zhou, James; Kojo Hamilton, D

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite the growing neurosurgical literature, a subset of pioneering studies have significantly impacted the field of metastatic spine disease. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the 100 most frequently cited articles in the field. METHODS A keyword search using the Thomson Reuters Web of Science was conducted to identify articles relevant to the field of metastatic spine disease. The results were filtered based on title and abstract analysis to identify the 100 most cited articles. Statistical analysis was used to characterize journal frequency, past and current citations, citation distribution over time, and author frequency. RESULTS The total number of citations for the final 100 articles ranged from 74 to 1169. Articles selected for the final list were published between 1940 and 2009. The years in which the greatest numbers of top-100 studies were published were 1990 and 2005, and the greatest number of citations occurred in 2012. The majority of articles were published in the journals Spine (15), Cancer (11), and the Journal of Neurosurgery (9). Forty-four individuals were listed as authors on 2 articles, 9 were listed as authors on 3 articles, and 2 were listed as authors on 4 articles in the top 100 list. The most cited article was the work by Batson (1169 citations) that was published in 1940 and described the role of the vertebral veins in the spread of metastases. The second most cited article was Patchell's 2005 study (594 citations) discussing decompressive resection of spinal cord metastases. The third most cited article was the 1978 study by Gilbert that evaluated treatment of epidural spinal cord compression due to metastatic tumor (560 citations). CONCLUSIONS The field of metastatic spine disease has witnessed numerous milestones and so it is increasingly important to recognize studies that have influenced the field. In this bibliographic study the authors identified and analyzed the most influential articles in the

  3. Tips and tricks in writing review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, Ari Fahrial

    2007-01-01

    Review article or literature review actually is the simplest form of writing compared to a case report or study report. The writing process begins at pointing out topics to be written and informed to readers. The next step after the topic has been selected is to find literatures related to the article review writing. Principally, article writing plays an essential part in a doctor's life, whether as a specialist or consultant. And the most important is the desire to publish the article review.

  4. Hypergeometric language models for republished article finding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Tsagkias; M. de Rijke; W. Weerkamp

    2011-01-01

    Republished article finding is the task of identifying instances of articles that have been published in one source and republished more or less verbatim in another source, which is often a social media source. We address this task as an ad hoc retrieval problem, using the source article as a query.

  5. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of...

  6. 48 CFR 225.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 225.104 Section 225.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Nonavailable articles. (a) DoD has determined that the following articles also are nonavailable in...

  7. 48 CFR 825.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 825... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Supplies 825.104 Nonavailable articles. The following items are added to the list of nonavailable articles contained in FAR 25.104: Glass, lead...

  8. 48 CFR 25.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 25... PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Supplies 25.104 Nonavailable articles. (a) The following articles have been determined to be nonavailable in accordance with 25.103(b)(1)(i): Acetylene, black....

  9. 19 CFR 148.4 - Accompanying articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accompanying articles. 148.4 Section 148.4 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS General Provisions § 148.4 Accompanying articles. (a) Generally. Articles shall be considered as accompanying a passenger or brought in by him if the...

  10. MEASURING SEMANTIC RELATEDNESS BETWEEN TWO WIKIPEDIA ARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Raghu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly focuses on estimating the relatedness and similarities between any two Wikipedia [1] articles. This paper describes various ways of determining the similarities. We hypothesize that by using some kind of properties of the Wikipedia articles, which can be internal or external, we can estimate the relatedness between Wikipedia articles. Each article is believed to have some kinds of internal properties and some external properties. Internal properties are those which are embedded inside the articles. It can be, for instance, have something to do with the content and text of the articles. External properties are those which are deduced or inferred from the articles. It can be, for example, the topic of the articles or even the closest distance between the two articles when plotted in a graph or in a category hierarchy.External properties include the properties associated with individual articles like topics (as mentioned,categories of the articles. Other techniques which are relevant when comparing the Wikipedia articles are cosine similarity, Jaccard similarity measure etc

  11. Evaluating and understanding articles about treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Allen F

    2009-04-15

    Each year physicians must decide which of the thousands of newly published articles they will take time to read. To determine which articles are the most clinically useful, physicians should assess their relevance, validity, and clinical importance. Using these criteria can drastically decrease the number of articles physicians need to read. PMID:19405410

  12. Authoring Newspaper Science Articles: A Rewarding Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author summarizes the rationale for using science articles in K-16 education and addresses some of its limitations. The author also encourages scientists and college science faculty to contribute contextually relevant articles that might include selected literary techniques to their local or state newspapers.

  13. Measuring the Interestingness of News Articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J

    2007-09-24

    An explosive growth of online news has taken place. Users are inundated with thousands of news articles, only some of which are interesting. A system to filter out uninteresting articles would aid users that need to read and analyze many articles daily, such as financial analysts and government officials. The most obvious approach for reducing the amount of information overload is to learn keywords of interest for a user (Carreira et al., 2004). Although filtering articles based on keywords removes many irrelevant articles, there are still many uninteresting articles that are highly relevant to keyword searches. A relevant article may not be interesting for various reasons, such as the article's age or if it discusses an event that the user has already read about in other articles. Although it has been shown that collaborative filtering can aid in personalized recommendation systems (Wang et al., 2006), a large number of users is needed. In a limited user environment, such as a small group of analysts monitoring news events, collaborative filtering would be ineffective. The definition of what makes an article interesting--or its 'interestingness'--varies from user to user and is continually evolving, calling for adaptable user personalization. Furthermore, due to the nature of news, most articles are uninteresting since many are similar or report events outside the scope of an individual's concerns. There has been much work in news recommendation systems, but none have yet addressed the question of what makes an article interesting.

  14. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-alanine and increase in physical performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Natural Alternative International, Inc. (NAI), submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion...... performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence the Panel took into account that only one out of 11 pertinent human intervention studies (including 14 pertinent outcomes) from which conclusions could be drawn showed an effect of beta...

  15. Age Dependent Face Recognition using Eigenface

    OpenAIRE

    Hlaing Htake Khaung Tin

    2013-01-01

    Face recognition is the most successful form of human surveillance. Face recognition technology, is being used to improve human efficiency when recognition faces, is one of the fastest growing fields in the biometric industry. In the first stage, the age is classified into eleven categories which distinguish the person oldness in terms of age. In the second stage of the process is face recognition based on the predicted age. Age prediction has considerable potential applications in human comp...

  16. Age Dependent Face Recognition using Eigenface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaing Htake Khaung Tin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition is the most successful form of human surveillance. Face recognition technology, is being used to improve human efficiency when recognition faces, is one of the fastest growing fields in the biometric industry. In the first stage, the age is classified into eleven categories which distinguish the person oldness in terms of age. In the second stage of the process is face recognition based on the predicted age. Age prediction has considerable potential applications in human computer interaction and multimedia communication. In this paper proposes an Eigen based age estimation algorithm for estimate an image from the database. Eigenface has proven to be a useful and robust cue for age prediction, age simulation, face recognition, localization and tracking. The scheme is based on an information theory approach that decomposes face images into a small set of characteristic feature images called eigenfaces, which may be thought of as the principal components of the initial training set of face images. The eigenface approach used in this scheme has advantages over other face recognition methods in its speed, simplicity, learning capability and robustness to small changes in the face image.

  17. The evolution of age-dependent plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Barbara; van Doorn, G. Sander; Dieckmann, Ulf; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    When organisms encounter environments that are heterogeneous in time, phenotypic plasticity is often favored by selection. The degree of such plasticity can vary during an organism''s lifetime, but the factors promoting differential plastic responses at different ages or life stages remain poorly un

  18. Guanosine 5'-triphosphate binding protein (G/sub i/) and two additional pertussis toxin substrates associated with muscarinic receptors in rat heart myocytes: characterization and age dependency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moscona-Amir, E.; Henis, Y.I.; Sokolovsky, M.

    1988-07-12

    The coupling of muscarinic receptors with G-proteins was investigated in cultured myocytes prepared from the hearts of newborn rats. The coupling was investigated in both young (5 days after plating) and aged (14 days after plating) cultures, in view of the completely different effects of 5'-guanylyl imidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) on muscarinic agonist binding to homogenates from young vs aged cultures. Pretreatment of cultures from both ages by Bordetella pertussis toxin (IAP) was found to eliminate any Gpp(NH)p effect on carbamylcholine binding. IAP by itself induced a rightward shift in the carbamylcholine competition curve in homogenates from aged cultures, but no such effect was observed in homogenates from young cultures. IAP-catalyzed (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribosylation of membrane preparations from young and aged cultures revealed major differences between them. Young cultures exhibited a major IAP substrate at 40 kDa, which was also recognized by anti-..cap alpha../sub i/ antibodies, and two novel IAP substrates at 28 and 42 kDa, which were weakly ADP-ribosylated by the toxin and were not recognized with either anti-..cap alpha../sub i/ or anti-..cap alpha../sub 0/ antibodies. In aged cultures, only the 40-kDa band (ribosylated to a lower degree) was detected. The parallel age-dependent changes in the three IAP substrates (28, 40, and 42 kDa) and in the interactions of the G-protein(s) with the muscarinic receptors strongly suggest close association between the two phenomena. All of these age-dependent changes in the G-protein related parameters were prevented by phosphatidylcholine-liposome treatment of the aged cultures. The role of the membrane lipid composition in these phenomena is discussed.

  19. 7 CFR 319.37-12 - Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles... Stock, Plants, Roots, Bulbs, Seeds, and Other Plant Products 1,2 § 319.37-12 Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles. A restricted article for importation into the United States shall not...

  20. Shared Responsibility under Article 80 CISG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    to articles 77, 79 and 80. Five areas are investigated in this regard; the placement in CISG, the focus of the Articles, the cause of the detriment or loss, the affected remedies and the duty to overcome the detriment or loss. Further more, the paper outlines the issues related to the particular situation......Article 80 exempts from liability in the situation where the promisor's failure to perform has been caused by the promisee. The Article has been insufficiently dealt with in the literature and has been overlooked in case law. The paper demonstrates that article 80 has an independent scope compared...... of shared responsibility in which both the promisor and the promisee seem to have caused the promisor's failure to perform. Article 80 applies to three different case types. Firstly, cases of sole causation by the promisee. Secondly, cases of joint causation by both parties where the consequences of each...

  1. THE ROLE OF ARTICLE LEVEL METRICS IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Emerging metrics based on article-level does not exclude traditional metrics based on citations to the journal, but complements them. Article-level metrics (ALMs provide a wide range of metrics about the uptake of an individual journal article by the scientific community after publication. They include citations, statistics of usage, discussions in online comments and social media, social bookmarking, and recommendations. In this editorial, the role of article level metrics in publishing scientific papers has been described. Article-Level Metrics (ALMs are rapidly emerging as important tools to quantify how individual articles are being discussed, shared, and used. Data sources depend on the tool, but they include classic metrics indicators depending on citations, academic social networks (Mendeley, CiteULike, Delicious and social media (Facebook, Twitter, blogs, and Youtube. The most popular tools used to apply this new metrics are: Public Library of Science - Article-Level Metrics, Altmetric, Impactstory and Plum Analytics. Journal Impact Factor (JIF does not consider impact or influence beyond citations count as this count reflected only through Thomson Reuters’ Web of Science® database. JIF provides indicator related to the journal, but not related to a published paper. Thus, altmetrics now becomes an alternative metrics for performance assessment of individual scientists and their contributed scholarly publications. Macedonian scholarly publishers have to work on implementing of article level metrics in their e-journals. It is the way to increase their visibility and impact in the world of science.

  2. Evaluating quality control of Wikipedia's feature articles

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Wikipedia’s internal quality control mechanism, the “featured article” process, which assesses articles against a stringent set of criteria. To this end, scholars were asked to evaluate the quality and accuracy of Wikipedia featured articles within their area of expertise. A total of 22 usable responses were collected from a variety of disciplines. Out of the Wikipedia articles assessed, only 12 of 22 were found to pass Wikiped...

  3. Tips for writing and publishing an article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Milap C

    2008-02-01

    Peer reviewed publications are the primary source of important new information. This editorial provides tips for writing various sections of research papers, review articles, and case reports. Additional topics discussed include making decisions about authorship, selecting a journal for submission of an article, understanding the peer review process and expectations of editors and reviewers, and revising the article. Successful authors combine appropriate knowledge and experience, personal attributes, and effective collaborations to produce insightful and important contributions to the literature.

  4. Writing a Wikipedia Article on Cultural Competence in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingting; Lin, Yu-Hung

    2016-01-01

    This article describes how librarians created a Wikipedia article on cultural competence in health care to support the medical school's curriculum. Wikipedia, often considered not as reliable as scholarly articles, continues to be popular. Rutgers librarians conducted a Wikipedia project to improve its content to benefit students. The importance of cultural competency in health care is widely recognized due to increasingly diverse patient populations. Medical schools integrate cultural competency in curricula to train students to be culturally competent. Therefore, this topic was chosen for the Wikipedia Project. It is hoped that health sciences librarians and educators will benefit from their experience. PMID:27054534

  5. Citation pattern of newsworthy research articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjari Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Popular science magazines cover research articles published in scholarly journals that the magazines perceive as having news value. Despite thousands of research articles being published in research journals, a very few get identified for coverage in popular science magazines, general magazines, and newspapers. Do research articles published in journals that are covered in popular science magazines receive higher citations? We hypothesize that newsworthy articles should receive higher citations as the newsworthiness can be a reflection of higher research value of the articles and also because of the visibility received by the articles owing to its coverage in popular science magazine. To empirically study the citedness, we identified 193 research articles and that were reported in New Scientist magazine in 2001. The characteristics of these articles including the citations received following coverage in New Scientist in 2001 were looked at. It was found that average citations per paper of articles covered in New Scientist was higher than the journal average for the year 2001 for 19 out of the 24 journals identified here.

  6. Biaxially textured articles formed by power metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-26

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  7. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  8. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-09-14

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100} orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  9. Patient rights in Iran: a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joolaee, Soodabeh; Hajibabaee, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    A significant development for conducting research on patient rights has been made in Iran over the past decade. This study is conducted in order to review and analyze the previous studies that have been made, so far, concerning patient rights in Iran. This is a comprehensive review study conducted by searching the Iranian databases, Scientific Information Database, Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology, Iran Medex and Google using the Persian equivalent of keywords for 'awareness', 'attitude', and 'patient rights'. For pertinent Iranian papers published in English, scientific databases PubMed, and Google Scholar were searched using the keyword 'patient rights' and 'Iran'. A total of 41 Persian and five English articles were found for these keywords, only 26 of which fulfilled the objective of our study. The increasing number of papers published indicates that from 1999 onwards, this subject has begun to draw the attention of Iranian researchers in a progressive fashion and Iranian papers in English have also been compiled and published in international sources.

  10. 48 CFR 425.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonavailable articles. 425.104 Section 425.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Supplies 425.104 Nonavailable articles. Information...

  11. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....S.C. chapter 103, in the form provided for in 46 CFR 14.05-1. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the...

  12. Textual Article Clustering in Newspaper Pages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Pegoretti, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    In the analysis of a newspaper page an important step is the clustering of various text blocks into logical units, i.e., into articles. We propose three algorithms based on text processing techniques to cluster articles in newspaper pages. Based on the complexity of the three algorithms and experime

  13. Textual Article Clustering in Newspaper Pages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Pegoretti, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    In the analysis of a newspaper page an important step is the clustering of various text blocks into logical units, i.e., into articles. We propose three algorithms based on text processing techniques to cluster articles in newspaper pages. Based on the complexity of the three algorithms and experime

  14. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  15. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies) , 2014 . Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Rosbacher drive® and increased attention pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Rosbacher drive® and increased attention. The Panel considers that Rosbacher drive®, which contains natural mineral water plus grape juice, lemon juice, pomegranate juice, elderberry juice, isomaltulose, sucrose, fructose syrup...

  16. Citing Journal Articles in Social Sciences Blogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Jamali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze motivations behind social sciences blog posts citing journal articles in order to find out whether blog citations of scholarly journal articles are good indicators for the societal impact of research. A random sample of 300 social sciences blog posts (out of 1,233 blog posts from ResearchBlogging published between 01/01/2012 to 18/06/2014 were subjected to content analysis. An existing categorization scheme was used and modified inductively. The 300 blog posts had 472 references including 424 journal articles from 269 different journals. Sixty-one (22.68% of all journals cited were from the category of social sciences and most of the journals with high frequency were highly cited general science journals such as PNAS and Science. Seventy-five percent of all journals were referenced only once. The average age of articles cited was 5.8 years. The most frequent (38, 12.67% motivation was to ‘neutrally presenting details of a study’. Overall, social science blogs were rather subject-oriented than article oriented. This means a considerable number of blog posts were not driven simply by writing about an article, instead bloggers tend to write about their subject of interest and use references to support their argument. The study shows the potential of blog citations as an altmetric measure and as a proxy for assessing the research impact.

  17. Why and where Wikipedia is cited in journal articles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Tohidinasab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to identify the motivations for citation to Wikipedia in scientific papers. Also, the number of citation to Wikipedia, location of citation, type of citing papers, subject of citing and cited articles were determined and compared in different subject fields. From all English articles indexed in Scopus in 2007 and 2012 that have cited Wikipedia, 602 articles were selected using stratified random sampling. Content analysis and bibliometric methods were used to carry out the research. Results showed that there are 20 motivations for citing Wikipedia and the most frequent of them are providing general information and definition, facts and figures. Citations to Wikipedia often were in the introduction and introductory sections of papers. Computer sciences, internet and chemistry were the most cited subjects. The use of Wikipedia in articles is increasing both in terms of quantity and diversity. However, there are disciplinary differences both in the amount and the nature of use of Wikipedia.

  18. Production of super-smooth articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchane, D.V.

    1981-05-29

    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  19. Demand for scientific articles and citations

    OpenAIRE

    Salaün, Jean-Michel; Lafouge, Thierry; Boukacem, Chérifa

    2000-01-01

    Les échanges entre chercheurs, la publication de revues scientifiques et la demande d'articles scientifiques suivent des cheminements qui se croisent, mais qui ne répondent pas toujours aux mêmes logiques. La demande d'articles aux fournisseurs de documents peut donner des éléments pour interpréter les mouvements en cours dans l'édition électronique L'observation de la demande d'articles faite à l'Institut de l'information scientifique et technique (l'Inist) montre que, en France, celle-ci co...

  20. Shapers of Published NNS Research Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrough-Boenisch, Joy

    2003-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive picture of the shapers of a published nonnative speaker research article by including the language professionals and indicating how they fit into the pre-publication processing of a text. (Author/VWL)

  1. ARTICLES FOR THE BULLETIN: USER'S GUIDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    If you wish to publish information in the Weekly Bulletin or if you have an idea for an article, please follow this procedure: An idea for an article on the first pages? You can send your suggestion by electronic mail at the following address : Corinne.Menard@cern.ch Or by telephone : 79971 A seminar announcement or general information? The official news, general information or seminar announcements must be sent before Tuesday 12.00 to : Weekly.Bulletin@cern.ch By internal mail : Christiane LEFEVRE, tel. 73830 Division ETT, number J02410 Building 510/1-002 News from clubs? Articles about CERN clubs in the Staff Association part of the Bulletin must be sent before Tuesday 12.00 to : Staff.Bulletin@cern.ch >Tel. 74224 Building 64/R-002 Division PE Texts (Word format) and pictures (pict, tiff, jpeg et eps) must be in a separate file. Photos furnished by the Clubs to illustrate their articles are welcome.

  2. ARTICLES FOR THE BULLETIN: USERS' GUIDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    If you wish to publish information in the Weekly Bulletin or if you have an idea for an article, please follow this procedure:     An idea for an article in the front pages? You can send your suggestion by electronic mail to the following address Corinne.Menard@cern.ch Or by telephone : 79971 A seminar announcement or general information? Official news, general information, and seminar announcements must be sent before Tuesday 12.00 to : Weekly.Bulletin@cern.ch Tel. 73830 Building 510/1-002 ETT Division News from clubs? Articles about CERN clubs in the Staff Association part of the Bulletin must be sent before Tuesday 12.00 to: Staff.Bulletin@cern.ch Tel. 74224 Buildin 64/R-002 PE Division Texts (Word format) and pictures (pict, tiff, jpeg et eps) must be in a separate file. Photos furnished by the Clubs to illustrate their articles are welcome.

  3. Newspaper Clippings and Articles (Weather-related)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather-related newspaper articles and photos, almost exclusively from Baltimore, MD and nearby areas. Includes storm damage, rainfall reports, and weather's affect...

  4. Anniversary Article: Decision Analysis in Management Science

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, James E; Detlof von Winterfeldt

    2004-01-01

    As part of the 50th anniversary of Management Science, the journal is publishing articles that reflect on the past, present, and future of the various subfields the journal represents. In this article, we consider decision analysis research as it has appeared in Management Science. After reviewing the foundations of decision analysis and the history of the journal's decision analysis department, we review a number of key developments in decision analysis research that have appeared in Managem...

  5. Fungi Encountered on Footwear and Defence Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, O. P.; Sharma, K. D.

    1980-01-01

    A study of mycoflora on footwears and defence articles from Agra city was made. In all 38 fungi belonging to different genera were recorded. Out of these, 17 fungal species were isolated for the first on these articles. A new variety i.e., Aspergillus sydowii var. agraii Sharma and Sharma was also created. Species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Drechslera, Alternaria, Fusarium and Trichoderma were found to be dominant in all the cases. Maximum species were recorded from gents foot...

  6. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2007-02-15

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. Also by relating a topic's interestingness to an article's interestingness, iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 9% to 14% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  7. Distance learning course for scientific articles writting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Gutiérrez Escobar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific publications within Medical Sciences are an important factor for professionals to achieve services of excellence. However, the training to write this kind of articles is not enough. Objective: To design a theoretical and practical course of composition and style for scientific articles publications. Methods: Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study including 50 professionals of the Medical School Branch. The main difficulties that they face to publish an article were determined and a distance learning course was designed on this basis, using the Moodle platform. Results: All the surveyed individuals referred that among the main causes limiting their ability to publish scientific articles are: little practical knowledge about the requirements to write scientific articles, not receiving any subject enhancing textual composition during their academic formation, and not attending to any post-graduate course aimed at improving academic writing for publication. A curse of 10 hours (theoretical part and 30 hours (practical part divide into five chapters including stylistic, methodological and compositional elements. Conclusions: This course helps improving the composition of scientific articles written by professional and their further publication in scientific journals.

  8. Collaboration range: Effects of geographical proximity on article impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolloni, Andrea; Rouquier, Jean-Baptiste; Jensen, Pablo

    2013-09-01

    Spatial scientometrics studies how geography influences knowledge creation. In the recent years there has been a surge in this kind of studies, due to the increase of international collaborations. Most of the work in this field has been focused on the geographical distribution of researchers, whilst few have considered how proximity between coauthors influences research quality. In this work we leverage a dataset of geolocalized articles to assess the effect of geographical distance on article impact. More precisely, the dataset, provided by the Observatory of Science and Technology (O.S.T.), consists of roughly 106 scientific articles, gathering all European articles written in 2000 and 2007, spanning 9 disciplines. We evaluate under which geographical extent coauthorships have higher probability of resulting in high impact articles ("high impact" is here approximated by "being in the top 10% most cited articles of its discipline"). We also describe spatial distribution of coauthorship, delineating geographical areas where the production is proportionally higher. The distribution is evaluated both in term of km (as the crow flies), and in terms of administrative partitions (authors' cities, regions, countries).

  9. 7 CFR 301.45-7 - Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles. 301.45-7 Section 301.45-7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-7 Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor...

  10. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2008-01-03

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 25% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  11. [How to write an article: formal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral de la Calle, M A; Encinas de la Iglesia, J

    2013-06-01

    Scientific research and the publication of the results of the studies go hand in hand. Exquisite research methods can only be adequately reflected in formal publication with the optimum structure. To ensure the success of this process, it is necessary to follow orderly steps, including selecting the journal in which to publish and following the instructions to authors strictly as well as the guidelines elaborated by diverse societies of editors and other institutions. It is also necessary to structure the contents of the article in a logical and attractive way and to use an accurate, clear, and concise style of language. Although not all the authors are directly involved in the actual writing, elaborating a scientific article is a collective undertaking that does not finish until the article is published. This article provides practical advice about formal and not-so-formal details to take into account when writing a scientific article as well as references that will help readers find more information in greater detail. PMID:23489765

  12. Understanding shared services (Article 1 of 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Van der Linde

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Shared services is a viable business model that can be used by organisations to reduce costs and enhance efficiency and effectiveness in the organisation. The purpose of this trilogy of articles is to introduce shared services as a business model, and how to efficiently and effectively manage a shared services business unit. The purpose of the first article in the trilogy, introduces shared services as a business model, defines what shared services is, the transformation required to successfully implement a shared services business model, as well as the benefits that can be derived from implementing a shared services business model. Methodology: A comprehensive literature study was conducted in order to: - Define and describe shared services as a business model, - Compare shared services with centralisation and de-centralisation, - Determine and describe the transformation required to successfully implement shared services. Findings: In the article, a framework is generated to help organisations understand the business concept of shared services. This work has further potential: when applied correctly, there are both tangible and intangible benefits that can be accrued above cost savings. Implications: The findings of this article are important for organisations that are in the process of implementing or have implemented shared services, as it will assist the organisation in determining if shared services is the correct business model for them to implement. Value: This article provides an understanding of shared services and the business environment required to successfully implement a shared services business model. Value created by a shared services business model is further enhanced once the organisation has embarked on the successful implementation of a shared services business model, which is the primary objective of the second article, Implementation and continuous evolution in shared services.

  13. Altmetric: Top 50 dental articles in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, J; Khazaei, S

    2016-06-10

    Introduction Altmetrics is a new and emerging scholarly tool that measures online attention surrounding journal articles. Altmetric data resources include: policy documents, news outlets, blogs, online reference managers (eg Mendeley and CiteULike), post-publication peer-review forums (eg PubPeer and Publons), social media (eg Twitter, Facebook, Weibo, Google(+), Pinterest, Reddit), Wikipedia, sites running Stack Exchange (Q&A), and reviews on F1000 and YouTube.Methods To identify the top 50 dental articles in 2014, PubMed was searched using the following query "("2014/1/1"[PDAT]:"2014/12/31"[PDAT]) and jsubsetd[text]" in December, 2015. Consequently, all PubMed records were extracted and sent to Altmetric LLP (London, UK) as a CSV file for examination. Data were analysed by Microsoft Office Excel 2010 using descriptive statistics and charts.Results Using PubMed searches,15,132 dental articles were found in 2014. The mean Altmetric score of 50 top dental articles in 2014 was 69.5 ± 73.3 (95% CI: -74.14 to 213.14). The British Dental Journal (48%) and Journal of Dental Research (16%) had the maximum number of top articles. Twitter (67.13%), Mendeley (15.89%) and news outlets (10.92%) were the most popular altmetric data resources.Discussion Altmetrics are intended to supplement bibliometrics, not replace them. Altmetrics is a fresh and emerging arena for the dental research community. We believe that dental clinical practitioners, research scientists, research directors and journal editors must pay more attention to altmetrics as a new and rapid tool to measure the social impact of scholarly articles.

  14. Altmetric: Top 50 dental articles in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, J; Khazaei, S

    2016-06-10

    Introduction Altmetrics is a new and emerging scholarly tool that measures online attention surrounding journal articles. Altmetric data resources include: policy documents, news outlets, blogs, online reference managers (eg Mendeley and CiteULike), post-publication peer-review forums (eg PubPeer and Publons), social media (eg Twitter, Facebook, Weibo, Google(+), Pinterest, Reddit), Wikipedia, sites running Stack Exchange (Q&A), and reviews on F1000 and YouTube.Methods To identify the top 50 dental articles in 2014, PubMed was searched using the following query "("2014/1/1"[PDAT]:"2014/12/31"[PDAT]) and jsubsetd[text]" in December, 2015. Consequently, all PubMed records were extracted and sent to Altmetric LLP (London, UK) as a CSV file for examination. Data were analysed by Microsoft Office Excel 2010 using descriptive statistics and charts.Results Using PubMed searches,15,132 dental articles were found in 2014. The mean Altmetric score of 50 top dental articles in 2014 was 69.5 ± 73.3 (95% CI: -74.14 to 213.14). The British Dental Journal (48%) and Journal of Dental Research (16%) had the maximum number of top articles. Twitter (67.13%), Mendeley (15.89%) and news outlets (10.92%) were the most popular altmetric data resources.Discussion Altmetrics are intended to supplement bibliometrics, not replace them. Altmetrics is a fresh and emerging arena for the dental research community. We believe that dental clinical practitioners, research scientists, research directors and journal editors must pay more attention to altmetrics as a new and rapid tool to measure the social impact of scholarly articles. PMID:27283563

  15. Author Keywords in Biomedical Journal Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Névéol, Aurélie; Doğan, Rezarta Islamaj; Lu, Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    As an information retrieval system, PubMed® aims at providing efficient access to documents cited in MEDLINE®. For this purpose, it relies on matching representations of documents, as provided by authors and indexers to user queries. In this paper, we describe the growth of author keywords in biomedical journal articles and present a comparative study of author keywords and MeSH® indexing terms assigned by MEDLINE indexers to PubMed Central Open Access articles. A similarity metric is used to...

  16. Recommendations to write better scientific articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Threlfall (Author

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Disseminate results is one of the functions of the scientists, and we all must have approach to the knowledge to carry it a greater number of people. This is done by writing and publishing scientific articles. But though we all have good intentions and ours goals are the best, not always we get our papers are accepted and published in scientific journals. With the aim of providing assistance to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in our work, in this article the translation of some interesting recommendations for best writing scientific papers is presented.

  17. Laser production of articles from powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G.K.; Milewski, J.O.; Cremers, D.A.; Nemec, R.B.; Barbe, M.R.

    1998-11-17

    Method and apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. Preferably the tool path and other parameters of the deposition process are established using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of a deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which a deposition head which delivers the laser beam and powder to the deposition zone moves along the tool path. 20 figs.

  18. Laser production of articles from powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Milewski, John O. (Santa Fe, NM); Cremers, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Nemec, Ronald B. (White Rock, NM); Barbe, Michael R. (White Rock, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Method and apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. Preferably the tool path and other parameters of the deposition process are established using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of a deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which a deposition head which delivers the laser beam and powder to the deposition zone moves along the tool path.

  19. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    CERN Document Server

    Zhirov, A O; Shepelyansky, D L

    2010-01-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists {\\it ab aeterno}. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. We analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  20. Passage-Based Bibliographic Coupling: An Inter-Article Similarity Measure for Biomedical Articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey-Long Liu

    Full Text Available Biomedical literature is an essential source of biomedical evidence. To translate the evidence for biomedicine study, researchers often need to carefully read multiple articles about specific biomedical issues. These articles thus need to be highly related to each other. They should share similar core contents, including research goals, methods, and findings. However, given an article r, it is challenging for search engines to retrieve highly related articles for r. In this paper, we present a technique PBC (Passage-based Bibliographic Coupling that estimates inter-article similarity by seamlessly integrating bibliographic coupling with the information collected from context passages around important out-link citations (references in each article. Empirical evaluation shows that PBC can significantly improve the retrieval of those articles that biomedical experts believe to be highly related to specific articles about gene-disease associations. PBC can thus be used to improve search engines in retrieving the highly related articles for any given article r, even when r is cited by very few (or even no articles. The contribution is essential for those researchers and text mining systems that aim at cross-validating the evidence about specific gene-disease associations.

  1. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  2. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  3. Writing Feature Articles with Intermediate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Denise N.

    2010-01-01

    Students need regular opportunities to write expository text. However, focusing on report writing often leaves students without strong examples to study or analyze to guide and grow their own writing. Writing and studying feature articles, meant to inform and explain, can become an alternative to report writing, as they can easily be located in…

  4. The Gifted Enigma: A Collection of Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialle, Wilma, Ed.; Geake, John, Ed.

    Twenty-one research articles originally published in the "Australasian Journal of Gifted Education" over the past decade are collected in this book and address aspects of gifted education including pedagogy and curriculum, policy and practice, social and emotional needs, school and family, neuropsychology and cognition, and special populations.…

  5. Broadsheet English: Teaching English through Newspaper Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Ahmet Selcuk; Barin, Muzaffer; Demiroz, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    In this study it is aimed to debate whether newspaper articles can be used as speaking materials in foreign language courses as they include most actual and living language patterns by all means. A quasi-experimental study has been carried out at Vocational School of Tourism and Hotel Services of Erzincan University. Thirty-eight preparatory…

  6. Manned remote work station development article

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Flight article and associated design concepts are evaluated to meet fundamental requirements of a universal crew cabin to be used as a construction cherrypicker, a space crane turret, a railed work station, or a free flyer. Key technology developments are embodied into a simulation program. A schedule and simulation test plan matrix is given for the open cabin cherry picker.

  7. An Auction Market for Journal Articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.; Zetland, D.

    2007-01-01

    Economic articles are published very slowly. We believe this results mainly from the poor incentives referees face. We recommend that an auction market replace the current system for submitting papers and demonstrate a strict Pareto-improvement of equilibrium. Besides the benefits of speed, this mec

  8. An Auction Market for Journal Articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.; Zetland, D.

    2007-01-01

    Economic articles are published very slowly. We believe this results from the poor incentives referees face. We recommend that an auction market replace the current, push system for submitting papers and demonstrate that our proposed market has a stable, Pareto-improving equilibrium. Besides the ben

  9. Rhetorical Structure of Biochemistry Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoksilapatham, Budsaba

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a move analysis [Swales, J. (1990). "Genre analysis." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press] of 60 biochemistry research articles. First, a corpus was systematically compiled to ensure that it represents core journals in the focused discipline. Then, coding reliability analysis was conducted to demonstrate…

  10. Interactional Metadiscourse in Research Article Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…

  11. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  12. Topical Articles: Teaching Psychological Science through Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of psychological science occurs face-to-face in classrooms and also through writing via op-ed essays, magazine articles, trade books, Web sites, and textbooks. I discuss the teaching of psychological science through such outlets, offer some practical suggestions for writing, and reflect on what I have found motivating, helpful, and…

  13. Social Media Release Increases Dissemination of Original Articles in the Clinical Pain Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Heidi G.; Tasha R Stanton; Flavia Di Pietro; G Lorimer Moseley

    2013-01-01

    A barrier to dissemination of research is that it depends on the end-user searching for or 'pulling' relevant knowledge from the literature base. Social media instead 'pushes' relevant knowledge straight to the end-user, via blogs and sites such as Facebook and Twitter. That social media is very effective at improving dissemination seems well accepted, but, remarkably, there is no evidence to support this claim. We aimed to quantify the impact of social media release on views and downloads of...

  14. Fungi Encountered on Footwear and Defence Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Sharma

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of mycoflora on footwears and defence articles from Agra city was made. In all 38 fungi belonging to different genera were recorded. Out of these, 17 fungal species were isolated for the first on these articles. A new variety i.e., Aspergillus sydowii var. agraii Sharma and Sharma was also created. Species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Drechslera, Alternaria, Fusarium and Trichoderma were found to be dominant in all the cases. Maximum species were recorded from gents footwear and books ankle in comparison to ladies footwear. All these fungi were grouped as (i active (15 isolates, (iimoderate (15 isolates and (iii slow leather deteriogens (8 isolates on the basis of screening.

  15. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  16. Siemens SOFC Test Article and Module Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-03-31

    Preliminary design studies of the 95 kWe-class SOFC test article continue resulting in a stack architecture of that is 1/3 of 250 kWe-class SOFC advanced module. The 95 kWeclass test article is envisioned to house 20 bundles (eight cells per bundle) of Delta8 cells with an active length of 100 cm. Significant progress was made in the conceptual design of the internal recirculation loop. Flow analyses were initiated in order to optimize the bundle row length for the 250 kWeclass advanced module. A preferred stack configuration based on acceptable flow and thermal distributions was identified. Potential module design and analysis issues associated with pressurized operation were identified.

  17. Republic of Lithuania; 2011 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Article IV Consultation reports that the economy in the Republic of Lithuania has staged an impressive recovery based on a supportive global environment and determined policy adjustment. The main driver of the recovery was export growth. Executive Directors commended the authorities for Lithuania’s impressive economic recovery, noting in particular the sizable fiscal consolidation and the maintenance of confidence in the banking system. Directors also supported the authorities’ g...

  18. Hotel to Phase out Disposable Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Several hotels in Changsha, Shanghai and Kunming have recently staged a Green Hotel campaign: hotels will not offer disposable toothbrushes, toothpaste, slippers, combs or bottled shampoo and body lotion to their guests unless requested. Meanwhile a Green Hotel Standard has been issued, proscribing "disposable articles, such as toothbrushes, soap, combs and slippers," and stipulating that "textiles, such as bathrobes, towels and pillowslips, in hotel rooms are to be changed strictly at the request of guests,

  19. On Writing Scientific Articles in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JamesHartley

    2003-01-01

    If we examine the text of scientific articles it is clear that there is a generally accepted way of writing them. Scientific prose in English stereotypically uses the third person, the passive tense, complex terminology, and various footnoting and referencing systems. Scientific prose is not known for discursive anecdotes, humour, pictures, colour, bizarre typography or exclamation marks! Often the written text appears quite impersonal-the human element is removed.

  20. Republic of Congo; 2013 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the Republic of Congo’s discussions in 2013 Article IV Consultation. Though having abundance of natural resources, notably oil and iron ore, Congo has achieved limited progress in poverty alleviation, and remains vulnerable to external shocks. Weak governance and business conditions are significant constraints to private sector development and growth inclusiveness. The IMF report shows that Congo’s main challenge is to ensure long-term macroeconomic stability in the fa...

  1. On Academic Conflict in Medical Research Articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-mei; CHEN Ning; NIE Wen-xin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the distribution of academic conflicts, if any, in medical research articles. Methods: Twenty-seven and 25 medical research articles in the field of internal medicine were selected from English and Chinese respectable jour⁃nals, respectively. Then, the speech acts that reflected a conflict between a scientist’s knowledge claim and another scientist’s knowledge claim were manually searched and recorded in each paper. Data were analyzed using non-parametric Chi-test. Results:There were 123 academic conflicts recorded in the English corpus and 49 Academic Conflicts in the Chinese corpus. Significant difference was observed in the overall frequency of academic conflicts between the English and Chinese medical discourse (p=0.001). Besides, as for the distribution within research articles, introduction and discussion sections were the sections where Aca⁃demic Conflict speech acts were most likely to occur in both corpra. Conclusion: The Chinese scholars are less likely to criticize peers. Introduction and discussion sections were the sections where Academic Conflict speech acts were most likely to occur. Our results are in agreement with previous results and confirmed the claim that highly different cultures vary in their discourse prefer⁃ences. Our findings are of pedagogical significance.

  2. Selected Tennis and Badminton Articles. Sports Articles Reprint Series. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Jo Ann, Ed.

    Presented is a collection of articles from "The Division for Girls and Women's Sports (DGWS) Guides 1964-1970,""Research Quarterly 1962-1969," and "Journal of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, 1962-1969." It is the latest in the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation "AAHPER's Sports Articles Reprint Series,"…

  3. Selected Field Hockey and Lacrosse Articles. Sports Articles Reprint Series. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Harriet, Ed.

    This collection of articles from 1964-1970 "Field Hockey-Lacrosse Guides" by the Division for Girls and Women's Sports is the latest in the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation's "Sports Articles Reprint Series." A special project of the Publications Committee for Girl's and Women's Sports, it is the third edition of…

  4. Deconstructing English Articles A Construction Grammar Approach To Teaching Articles In English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujic Jelena

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The semantics of the articles is crucial for their proper usage in L2 speakers. However, we believe that for their proper acquisition a pairing of concrete form and concrete meaning must take place. In other words, a schema must be created for various meanings of articles. Therefore, in this paper English articles will be viewed from the aspect of Construction grammar. Working within the framework of CxG we will perceive the noun phrases of the type a/the+ N as lexico-syntactic meaningful constructions where the articles attribute a particular meaning to the noun(s they determine. Together they constitute Determination (article Construction. Each particular meaning of the articles can be conceptualized and adequate abstract constructional schemas and subschemas as a schematic pairing of form and meaning can be created. In addition, we will use the Serbo-Croatian semantic equivalents of English articles such as indefinite pronouns neki, poneki, koji, kakav, numerals jedan, ijedan, adverbs nekako and makar, demonstrative determiners onaj, adjectives, negative forms ni, nikakav, possessive pronominals and many more. They will serve as a starting point for offering possible constructional schema models for meaningful constructions a/the +N. Other meanings and usages of the articles will be treated in the same way.

  5. Age-dependant expression of alpha-macula adherens protein in rat heart%α-黏着斑蛋白在大鼠心脏表达分布随增龄变化的特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光谋; 吴俊琢; 张艳芬; 郭志坤

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Macula adherens protein is found closely associated with congenital cardiac malformation and myocardial differentiation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression characteristics of α-macula adherens protein in rat heart, as well as the property of age-dependant expression during myocardial growth. DESIGN: Randomized controlled, observational comparative study. SETTING: Department of Cell Biology of Xinxiang Medical College; Department of Bioengineering and Agricultural Economics of Puyang Vocational Technical School. MATERIALS: This study was conducted at the Morphological Laboratory of Xinxiang Medical College between January and June 2003. Totally 28 Wistar rats of clean grade were divided into infant group, youth group,middle-age group, and old-age group with 7 rats in each group. METHODS: All rats were anaesthetized and then cardiac tissues were cut into consecutive coronal slices of 5 μm thick. The expression of α-macula adherens protein in rat myocardium of infant, youth, middle-age and oldage groups was detected using IHC method. The positive cells displayed brownish yellow granules on the surface, cytoplasm and intercalated disc. Routine HE staining was performed on all specimens for structural comparison. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The expression of α-macula adherens protein in rat myocardium of different groups. RESULTS: All the 28 rats entered the final results analysis. ① α-macula adherens protein was found to be expressed in myocardium in atrium, ventricle, papilla muscles and interventricular septum. ② In infant rats, the expression of α-macula adherens protein was mainly observed in intercalated disc at the end of myocardium, with less expression on cell surface and in cytoplasm; in contrast, α-macula adherens protein in young, middleaged and old rats was found to be typically expressed in intercalated disc at the end of myocardium. CONCLUSION: The expression of α-macula adherens protein displays age-dependant manner during rat

  6. Cyprus; Staff Report for the 2002 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This 2002 Article IV Consultation highlights that after four years of strong growth, economic activity in Cyprus has tailed off since late 2001, affected by the global economic slowdown. The authorities estimate growth for 2002 to have declined to 2.3 percent, with falling tourist arrivals and weakening consumer and business confidence. Inflation has risen to 2.9 percent year-over-year in December on account of indirect tax increases, but core inflation remains low. The current account defici...

  7. If You Like Radiohead, You Might Like This Article

    OpenAIRE

    Celma, Oscar; Barcelona Music and Audio Technologies (BMAT; Lamere, Paul; The Echo Nest

    2011-01-01

    With the recent dramatic transformations in the world of digital music, a music listener is now just a couple of clicks away from being able to listen to nearly any song that has ever been recorded. With so much music readily available, tools that help a user find new, interesting music that matches her taste become increasingly important. In this article we explore one such tool: music recommendation. We describe common music recommendation use cases such as finding new artists, finding othe...

  8. South Africa; Staff Report for the 2014 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This 2014 Article IV Consultation highlights that South Africa’s growth has slowed in recent years, specifically relative to other emerging markets. Although weak trading partners’ growth contributed to the slowdown, increasingly binding structural constraints, such as protracted strikes and electricity constraints, have been important factors. Unemployment remains high at 25.5 percent. Notwithstanding expenditure discipline, the general government budget deficit was 4.5 percent of GDP in...

  9. Electronic spin working mechanically (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhter, R. I.; Gorelik, L. Y.; Krive, I. V.; Kiselev, M. N.; Kulinich, S. I.; Parafilo, A. V.; Kikoin, K.; Jonson, M.

    2014-07-01

    A single-electron tunneling (SET) device with a nanoscale central island that can move with respect to the bulk source- and drain electrodes allows for a nanoelectromechanical (NEM) coupling between the electrical current through the device and mechanical vibrations of the island. Although an electromechanical "shuttle" instability and the associated phenomenon of single-electron shuttling were predicted more than 15 years ago, both theoretical and experimental studies of NEM-SET structures are still carried out. New functionalities based on quantum coherence, Coulomb correlations and coherent electron-spin dynamics are of particular current interest. In this article we present a short review of recent activities in this area.

  10. Hedging in Popular Scientific Articles on Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor Alexandra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is to investigate the process of rewriting medical research papers for the lay public. The latest findings of medical research often appear in the popular media. It is interesting to see what happens to a scientific text when it is transmitted to a new audience. Hedging is usually interpreted as a characteristic feature of scientific discourse. This study focuses on hedging, which also tends to be applied in popularized articles in the field of medicine.

  11. Econometric Errors in an _Applied Economics_ Article

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitris Hatzinikolaou

    2010-01-01

    This comment points out some econometric errors contained in an Applied Economics article by Mavrommati and Papadopoulos (2005), to wit, the authors make an incorrect statement about the standard F-test; they claim erroneously that the Durbin-Watson test is irrelevant in panel data; they fail to test for serial correlation and random-walk errors; and they misuse the Durbin-Wu-Hausman test for the consistency of the fixed-effects estimator. Thus, their results are questionable. This comment ai...

  12. How to write a review article?

    OpenAIRE

    Gülpınar, Ömer; Güçlü, Adil Güçal

    2013-01-01

    In the medical sciences, the importance of review articles is rising. When clinicians want to update their knowledge and generate guidelines about a topic, they frequently use reviews as a starting point. The value of a review is associated with what has been done, what has been found and how these findings are presented. Before asking ‘how,’ the question of ‘why’ is more important when starting to write a review. The main and fundamental purpose of writing a review is to create a readable sy...

  13. Writing smart: Writing quality research articles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    or hypotheses. Going beyond the few sentences that the college student is comfortable writing makes it essential to pay attention to structure (of the document and its units), to the organisation of ideas and material, and to writing style. A research paper... laboratory report to make a point. This article is organised as follows. Section 3.2 presents key structural principles, Section 3.3 deals with order and organisation, Section 3.4 deals with style, Section 3.5 gives a brief overview of the peer...

  14. Computer assisted translation tool for Wikipedia articles

    OpenAIRE

    Laxström, Niklas; Giner, Pau; Thottingal, Santhosh

    2015-01-01

    Wikipedia exists in over 280 languages. The quality and quantity of articles in each language varies greatly. Translating from another Wikipedia is a natural way to add more content, but the translation process is not properly supported in the software used by Wikipedia. Past computer assisted translation tools built for Wikipedia (e.g. WikiBasha) are not commonly used. We created a new tool that adapts to the specific needs of an open community and the specifics of the kind of content in Wik...

  15. Silicon carbide fibers and articles including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, John E; Griffith, George W

    2015-01-27

    Methods of producing silicon carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a silicon-containing gas in a reaction chamber at a temperature ranging from approximately 1500.degree. C. to approximately 2000.degree. C. A partial pressure of oxygen in the reaction chamber is maintained at less than approximately 1.01.times.10.sup.2 Pascal to produce continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers. Continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers and articles formed from the continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers are also disclosed.

  16. Biomedical ethical evaluation of Turkish newspaper articles on face transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Göçmen Baykara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of face transplants has become possible in Turkey and the world in recent years. Face transplants are not just an exchange of tissue between the donor and the recipient and are social and ethical issues concerning the health care institutions, health care team and the public. The interest and criticism of the health care professionals, institutions, public and media regarding the transplants have led to various ethical problems.This study aimed to perform an biomedical ethical evaluation of the newspaper articles on face transplant cases. The study used retrospective, descriptive, qualitative and quantitative data. The study scope included news from the three highest-selling newspapers published in Turkey with Internet archives that were accessible online. An evaluation form developed by the investigators after a literature review was used for evaluation of the articles.According to the study data, we found that the articles focused mostly on benefits such as the positive changes in the individual patient and the relatives, the decreased or eliminated psychological pain of the patient, the importance of organ transplants, and increased trust in the health care team. The most common violations in the articles were regarding protection of privacy and confidentiality by announcing the names of the donor and recipient, and sharing the treatment process.In conclusion, the necessary training must be provided to ensure health care staff, health care institutions and journalists possess the necessary ethical sensitivity and act according to professional ethical principles.

  17. Trends in biomedical informatics: automated topic analysis of JAMIA articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong; Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Chao; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Kim, Hyeon-Eui; Sun, Jimeng; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2015-11-01

    Biomedical Informatics is a growing interdisciplinary field in which research topics and citation trends have been evolving rapidly in recent years. To analyze these data in a fast, reproducible manner, automation of certain processes is needed. JAMIA is a "generalist" journal for biomedical informatics. Its articles reflect the wide range of topics in informatics. In this study, we retrieved Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms and citations of JAMIA articles published between 2009 and 2014. We use tensors (i.e., multidimensional arrays) to represent the interaction among topics, time and citations, and applied tensor decomposition to automate the analysis. The trends represented by tensors were then carefully interpreted and the results were compared with previous findings based on manual topic analysis. A list of most cited JAMIA articles, their topics, and publication trends over recent years is presented. The analyses confirmed previous studies and showed that, from 2012 to 2014, the number of articles related to MeSH terms Methods, Organization & Administration, and Algorithms increased significantly both in number of publications and citations. Citation trends varied widely by topic, with Natural Language Processing having a large number of citations in particular years, and Medical Record Systems, Computerized remaining a very popular topic in all years.

  18. The Bibliometric Properties of Article Readership Information

    CERN Document Server

    Kurtz, Michael J; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S; Demleitner, Markus; Murray, Stephen S; Martimbeau, Nathalie; Elwell, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), along with astronomy's journals and data centers (a collaboration dubbed URANIA), has developed a distributed on-line digital library which has become the dominant means by which astronomers search, access and read their technical literature. Digital libraries such as the NASA Astrophysics Data System permit the easy accumulation of a new type of bibliometric measure, the number of electronic accesses (``reads'') of individual articles. We explore various aspects of this new measure. We examine the obsolescence function as measured by actual reads, and show that it can be well fit by the sum of four exponentials with very different time constants. We compare the obsolescence function as measured by readership with the obsolescence function as measured by citations. We find that the citation function is proportional to the sum of two of the components of the readership function. This proves that the normative theory of citation is true in the mean. We further examine in...

  19. The Language of Islamophobia in Internet Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haja Mohideen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Islamophobia, the hatred for and fear of Islam and Muslims, manifests itself in physical, political, cultural, linguistic and other forms. From the linguistic perspective, many words have been coined to perpetuate prejudices against Muslims and their religion. Expressions are freely used to associate Islam, which means “peace” in Arabic, with concepts and actions which the religion and practising Muslims do not approve of, much less condone. Expressions such as Islamic terrorism, Islamic fanaticism, Muslim extremists, Islamist and political Islam have been used pejoratively. To strike fear and misgivings in the minds of many Europeans, the British capital has even been mischievously called “Londonistan” by anti-Muslim elements. Known Islamophobic items taken from Internet articles need to be analysed to respond objectively to linguistic Islamophobia.

  20. Writing for publication: adapting academic work into articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Bob; Cronin, Patricia

    This article discusses how to transform material worthy of dissemination into a form that leads to successful publication. It focuses on publication of systematic and literature reviews, empirical studies and conceptual analyses undertaken as part of a course of academic study. An increasing number of nurses and midwives are undertaking healthcare-related courses at BSc, MSc, MPhil and PhD level. Many of their theses are ultimately left to gather dust on library shelves, and are only read by examiners. The authors have worked with many novice writers whose attempts to write up their theses have been unsuccessful for a number of reasons. These are explored in this article. Suggestions for avoiding the many pitfalls that can prevent publication are offered.

  1. Increased self-diffusion of brain water in normal aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Thomsen, C; Henriksen, O

    1994-01-01

    With magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, brain water self-diffusion was measured in 17 healthy volunteers 22-76 (mean, 44.6) years old. The calculated values for the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) ranged from 0.58 x 10(-9) to 1.23 x 10(-9) m2/sec in cerebral white matter. A significant...... by an increase in the extracellular volume due to age-dependent neuronal degeneration or to changes in myelination. These findings have implications for future clinical investigations with diffusion MR imaging techniques in patients with neurologic diseases, and stress the importance of having an age...

  2. Learning to rank figures within a biomedical article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifan Liu

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. This ever-increasing sheer volume has made it difficult for scientists to effectively and accurately access figures of their interest, the process of which is crucial for validating research facts and for formulating or testing novel research hypotheses. Current figure search applications can't fully meet this challenge as the "bag of figures" assumption doesn't take into account the relationship among figures. In our previous study, hundreds of biomedical researchers have annotated articles in which they serve as corresponding authors. They ranked each figure in their paper based on a figure's importance at their discretion, referred to as "figure ranking". Using this collection of annotated data, we investigated computational approaches to automatically rank figures. We exploited and extended the state-of-the-art listwise learning-to-rank algorithms and developed a new supervised-learning model BioFigRank. The cross-validation results show that BioFigRank yielded the best performance compared with other state-of-the-art computational models, and the greedy feature selection can further boost the ranking performance significantly. Furthermore, we carry out the evaluation by comparing BioFigRank with three-level competitive domain-specific human experts: (1 First Author, (2 Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article but who works in the same field of the corresponding author of the article, and (3 Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article and who may or may not work in the same field of the corresponding author of an article. Our results show that BioFigRank outperforms Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert and performs as well as Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert. Although BioFigRank underperforms First Author, since most biomedical researchers are either in- or

  3. Text Mining of Journal Articles for Sleep Disorder Terminologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin Lam

    Full Text Available Research on publication trends in journal articles on sleep disorders (SDs and the associated methodologies by using text mining has been limited. The present study involved text mining for terms to determine the publication trends in sleep-related journal articles published during 2000-2013 and to identify associations between SD and methodology terms as well as conducting statistical analyses of the text mining findings.SD and methodology terms were extracted from 3,720 sleep-related journal articles in the PubMed database by using MetaMap. The extracted data set was analyzed using hierarchical cluster analyses and adjusted logistic regression models to investigate publication trends and associations between SD and methodology terms.MetaMap had a text mining precision, recall, and false positive rate of 0.70, 0.77, and 11.51%, respectively. The most common SD term was breathing-related sleep disorder, whereas narcolepsy was the least common. Cluster analyses showed similar methodology clusters for each SD term, except narcolepsy. The logistic regression models showed an increasing prevalence of insomnia, parasomnia, and other sleep disorders but a decreasing prevalence of breathing-related sleep disorder during 2000-2013. Different SD terms were positively associated with different methodology terms regarding research design terms, measure terms, and analysis terms.Insomnia-, parasomnia-, and other sleep disorder-related articles showed an increasing publication trend, whereas those related to breathing-related sleep disorder showed a decreasing trend. Furthermore, experimental studies more commonly focused on hypersomnia and other SDs and less commonly on insomnia, breathing-related sleep disorder, narcolepsy, and parasomnia. Thus, text mining may facilitate the exploration of the publication trends in SDs and the associated methodologies.

  4. The Bibliometric Properties of Article Readership Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Michael J.; Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Demleitner, Markus; Murray, Stephen S.; Martimbeau, Nathalie; Elwell, Barbara

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), along with astronomy's journals and data centers (a collaboration dubbed URANIA), has developed a distributed on-line digital library which has become the dominant means by which astronomers search, access and read their technical literature. Digital libraries such as the NASA Astrophysics Data System \\citep{2005JASIS.tmp....2K} permit the easy accumulation of a new type of bibliometric measure, the number of electronic accesses (``reads'') of individual articles. We explore various aspects of this new measure. We examine the obsolescence function as measured by actual reads, and show that it can be well fit by the sum of four exponentials with very different time constants. We compare the obsolescence function as measured by readership with the obsolescence function as measured by citations. We find that the citation function is proportional to the sum of two of the components of the readership function. This proves that the normative theory of citation is true in the mean. We further examine in detail the similarities and differences between the citation rate, the readership rate and the total citations for individual articles, and discuss some of the causes. Using the number of reads as a bibliometric measure for individuals, we introduce the read-cite diagram to provide a two-dimensional view of an individual's scientific productivity. We develop a simple model to account for an individual's reads and cites and use it to show that the position of a person in the read-cite diagram is a function of age, innate productivity, and work history. We show the age biases of both reads and cites, and develop two new bibliometric measures which have substantially less age bias than citations: SumProd, a weighted sum of total citations and the readership rate, intended to show the total productivity of an individual; and Read10, the readership rate for papers published in the last ten years, intended to show an individual's current

  5. Actinomycosis in Iran: Short Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Khodavaisy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis is an indolent, slowly progressive infection caused by anaerobic or microaerophilic bacteria, primarily of genus Actinomyces, which colonize the mouth, colon and vagina. Mucosal disruption may lead to infection virtually at any sites in the body. The aim of this study was to underline different features of actinomycosis and to represent total data about etiologic agents, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches these infections. From a total of 38 case reports or series, ninety one cases were obtained by using of relevant articles reported as recorded cases in Iran (1972 to 2012. Analyzed data represented 21 cases of oral-servicofacial (23.1%, 7 cases of thoracic (7.7%, 17 cases of abdominal (18.7%, 21 cases of disseminated forms (23.1% and 25 cases of others (27.5%. Findings indicated more common of these infections in men (61.5%. Actinomyces naeslundii (21 cases was found as the most common causative agents in comparison with A. Israeli (15 cases, A. viscosus (3 cases and A. bovis (1 case. The most patients had been successfully treated with penicillin although some cases needed surgery along with antibiotic therapy. Since some clinical features of actinomycosis are similar to malignancies, so the differential diagnosis of invasive forms must be considered. This report emphasizes on the importance of differential diagnosis of actinomycosis from similar diseases by clinicians.

  6. Actinomycosis in Iran: Short Narrative Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodavaisy, Sadegh; Zibafar, Ensieh; Hashemi, Seyed Jamal; Narenji, Hanar; Daie Ghazvini, Roshanak

    2014-05-01

    Actinomycosis is an indolent, slowly progressive infection caused by anaerobic or microaerophilic bacteria, primarily of genus Actinomyces, which colonize the mouth, colon and vagina. Mucosal disruption may lead to infection virtually at any sites in the body. The aim of this study was to underline different features of actinomycosis and to represent total data about etiologic agents, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches these infections. From a total of 38 case reports or series, ninety one cases were obtained by using of relevant articles reported as recorded cases in Iran (1972 to 2012). Analyzed data represented 21 cases of oral-servicofacial (23.1%), 7 cases of thoracic (7.7%), 17 cases of abdominal (18.7%), 21 cases of disseminated forms (23.1%) and 25 cases of others (27.5%). Findings indicated more common of these infections in men (61.5%). Actinomyces naeslundii (21 cases) was found as the most common causative agents in comparison with A. Israeli (15 cases), A. viscosus (3 cases) and A. bovis (1 case). The most patients had been successfully treated with penicillin although some cases needed surgery along with antibiotic therapy. Since some clinical features of actinomycosis are similar to malignancies, so the differential diagnosis of invasive forms must be considered. This report emphasizes on the importance of differential diagnosis of actinomycosis from similar diseases by clinicians. PMID:26060757

  7. Review article: burnout in emergency medicine physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manit; Asha, Stephen; Chinnappa, Jason; Diwan, Ashish D

    2013-12-01

    Training and the practice of emergency medicine are stressful endeavours, placing emergency medicine physicians at risk of burnout. Burnout syndrome is associated with negative outcomes for patients, institutions and the physician. The aim of this review is to summarise the available literature on burnout among emergency medicine physicians and provide recommendations for future work in this field. A search of MEDLINE (1946-present) (search terms: 'Burnout, Professional' AND 'Emergency Medicine' AND 'Physicians'; 'Stress, Psychological' AND 'Emergency Medicine' AND 'Physicians') and EMBASE (1988-present) (search terms: 'Burnout' AND 'Emergency Medicine' AND 'Physicians'; 'Mental Stress' AND 'Emergency Medicine' AND 'Physicians') was performed. The authors focused on articles that assessed burnout among emergency medicine physicians. Most studies used the Maslach Burnout Inventory to quantify burnout, allowing for cross-study (and cross-country) comparisons. Emergency medicine has burnout levels in excess of 60% compared with physicians in general (38%). Despite this, most emergency medicine physicians (>60%) are satisfied with their jobs. Both work-related (hours of work, years of practice, professional development activities, non-clinical duties etc.) and non-work-related factors (age, sex, lifestyle factors etc.) are associated with burnout. Despite the heavy burnout rates among emergency medicine physicians, little work has been performed in this field. Factors responsible for burnout among various emergency medicine populations should be determined, and appropriate interventions designed to reduce burnout.

  8. FANTM, the First Article NIF Test Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Designing and developing the 1.7 to 2.1-MJ Power Conditioning System (PCS), that will power the flashlamps of the main and power amplifiers for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) lasers, is one of several responsibilities assumed by Sandia National Labs (SNL) in support of the NIF Project. Maxwell Physics International has been a partner in this process. The NIF is currently being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Labs (LLNL). The test facility that has evolved over the last three years to satisfy the project requirements is called FANTM, for the First Article NIF Test Module. It was built at SNL and operated for about 17,000 shots to demonstrate component performance expectations over the lifetime of NIF. A few modules similar to the one shown in Fig. 1 will be used initially in the amplifier test phase of the project. The final full NIF system will require at least 192 of them in four capacitor bays. This paper briefly summarizes the final design of the FANTM facility and compares its performance with the predictions of circuit simulations for both normal operation and fault-mode response. Applying both the measured and modeled power pulse waveforms as input to a physics-based, semi-empirical amplifier gain code indicates that the 20-capacitor PCS can satisfy the NIF requirement for an average gain coefficient of 5.00 %/cm and can exceed 5.20 %/cm with 24 capacitors

  9. 7 CFR 322.28 - General requirements; restricted articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements; restricted articles. 322.28... EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.28 General requirements; restricted articles. (a) The following articles from any region are restricted articles: (1) Dead bees of any genus;...

  10. 19 CFR 134.14 - Articles usually combined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles usually combined. 134.14 Section 134.14... TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Subject to Marking § 134.14 Articles usually combined. (a) Articles combined before delivery to purchaser. When an imported article is of a kind which is...

  11. Ceramic matrix composite article and process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Ronald Robert; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Parolini, Jason Robert

    2016-01-12

    A ceramic matrix composite article and a process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite are disclosed. The ceramic matrix composite article includes a matrix distribution pattern formed by a manifold and ceramic matrix composite plies laid up on the matrix distribution pattern, includes the manifold, or a combination thereof. The manifold includes one or more matrix distribution channels operably connected to a delivery interface, the delivery interface configured for providing matrix material to one or more of the ceramic matrix composite plies. The process includes providing the manifold, forming the matrix distribution pattern by transporting the matrix material through the manifold, and contacting the ceramic matrix composite plies with the matrix material.

  12. Intriguing Trends in Nuclear Physics Articles Authorship

    CERN Document Server

    Pritychenko, B

    2014-01-01

    The increase in authorship of nuclear physics publications has been investigated using the large statistical samples. This has been accomplished with nuclear data mining of nuclear science references (NSR) and experimental nuclear reaction (EXFOR) databases. The results of this study will be discussed and conclusions will be given.

  13. How to write a review article?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülpınar, Ömer; Güçlü, Adil Güçal

    2013-09-01

    In the medical sciences, the importance of review articles is rising. When clinicians want to update their knowledge and generate guidelines about a topic, they frequently use reviews as a starting point. The value of a review is associated with what has been done, what has been found and how these findings are presented. Before asking 'how,' the question of 'why' is more important when starting to write a review. The main and fundamental purpose of writing a review is to create a readable synthesis of the best resources available in the literature for an important research question or a current area of research. Although the idea of writing a review is attractive, it is important to spend time identifying the important questions. Good review methods are critical because they provide an unbiased point of view for the reader regarding the current literature. There is a consensus that a review should be written in a systematic fashion, a notion that is usually followed. In a systematic review with a focused question, the research methods must be clearly described. A 'methodological filter' is the best method for identifying the best working style for a research question, and this method reduces the workload when surveying the literature. An essential part of the review process is differentiating good research from bad and leaning on the results of the better studies. The ideal way to synthesize studies is to perform a meta-analysis. In conclusion, when writing a review, it is best to clearly focus on fixed ideas, to use a procedural and critical approach to the literature and to express your findings in an attractive way. PMID:26328136

  14. Augmented Articles: The Future of Peer-Reviewed Publications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, Thomas Ignatius; Clementel, Nicola; Gull, Theodore R.

    2015-08-01

    The predominance of 2D figures and animations in the literature is clearly driven by the need to display data in a classic paper-journal format. However, there is no real reason that researchers should be limited to 2D graphics when presenting their results in peer-reviewed publications. This is especially true since all major astrophysical journals are now published online. So-called ‘augmented articles’ are possible, in which 3D interactive models, images, sound, and video can be included directly within an Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) article. The inclusion of 3D interactive models in the astrophysics literature is slowly becoming popular, and several journals now fully support the inclusion of 3D interactive figures and movies. I present examples of recently published augmented articles in astronomy (e.g. Madura et al. 2015, arXiv:1503.00716) and discuss their perceived benefits and limitations. Such articles may become the norm in astronomy as data and numerical simulations increasingly become multidimensional (see http://www.technologyreview.com/view/535796/astronomers-create-3-d-printed-model-of-colliding-stellar-winds/).

  15. CSF Ascites: Review of articles and a case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pourkhalili

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF ascites is a rare complication after ventriculopritoneal (VP shunts. Most patients have gradual abdominal protrusion without any neurological sign or symptom of shunt malfunction. We presented a girl with posterior third ventricle glioblastoma and acute hydrocephalus who developed increasingly abdominal protrusion one month after VP shunt operation. Ascites fluid examination showed characteristic findings similar to CSF with no evidence of infection or malignant cells. Ventriculo-atrial shunt revision cured patient's ascites. Review articles of patients with CSF ascites after VP shunt were presented in details. Key words: Cerebrospinal fluid, Ascites, Ventriculopritoneal Shunt

  16. Review article: colitis-associated cancer -- time for new strategies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a feared and potentially life-threatening complication of both ulcerative colitis and Crohn\\'s colitis. Currently, the main preventive strategy is a secondary one, i.e. surveillance colonoscopy usually after 8 years of disease duration, when the risk for neoplasia begins to increase. Despite its widespread acceptance, dysplasia and cancer surveillance is unproven in terms of reducing mortality or morbidity and there is a remarkable lack of uniformity in the manner in which it is practised. In this review article, the pitfalls of dysplasia surveillance are summarized and the need for novel chemopreventive and perhaps pharmabiotic approaches for prevention are highlighted.

  17. An Overview of Research on Wikipedia's Featured Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Manca Noč; Maja Žumer

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe article represents an overview of relevant Wikipedia studies, especially those concerning featured articles. Featured articles are those that rank among the best articles according to Wikipedia’s editors and should adhere both to Wikipedia’s guidelines and rules and all specific criteria for featured articles. Studies of Wikipedia’s featured articles are significant because they show their characteristics. The use of Wikipedia is growing among high school and university students w...

  18. Article 6 ECHR, Civil Rights and the Enduring Role of the Common Law

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the role that the common law has played in Human Rights Act 1998 case law on the protection of 'civil rights' within the meaning of Article 6 ECHR. Focusing on Article 6 ECHR's 'disclosure' and 'full jurisdiction' requirements, it highlights an increasingly nuanced relationship between the ECHR and common law in cases under and outside the Human Rights Act 1998. Although the general pattern within the case law has been one of domestic court fidelity to the ECHR - somethi...

  19. Review Article: Quantum Nanophotonics in Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Tim; Zheng, Jiabao; Trusheim, Matthew E; Walsh, Michael; Chen, Edward H; Li, Luozhou; Bayn, Igal; Englund, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen great advances in developing color centers in diamond for sensing, quantum information processing, and tests of quantum foundations. Increasingly, the success of these applications as well as fundamental investigations of light-matter interaction depend on improved control of optical interactions with color centers -- from better fluorescence collection to efficient and precise coupling with confined single optical modes. Wide ranging research efforts have been undertaken to address these demands through advanced nanofabrication of diamond. This review will cover recent advances in diamond nano- and microphotonic structures for efficient light collection, color center to nanocavity coupling, hybrid integration of diamond devices with other material systems, and the wide range of fabrication methods that have enabled these complex photonic diamond systems.

  20. Toward an interactive article: integrating journals and biological databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marygold Steven J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Journal articles and databases are two major modes of communication in the biological sciences, and thus integrating these critical resources is of urgent importance to increase the pace of discovery. Projects focused on bridging the gap between journals and databases have been on the rise over the last five years and have resulted in the development of automated tools that can recognize entities within a document and link those entities to a relevant database. Unfortunately, automated tools cannot resolve ambiguities that arise from one term being used to signify entities that are quite distinct from one another. Instead, resolving these ambiguities requires some manual oversight. Finding the right balance between the speed and portability of automation and the accuracy and flexibility of manual effort is a crucial goal to making text markup a successful venture. Results We have established a journal article mark-up pipeline that links GENETICS journal articles and the model organism database (MOD WormBase. This pipeline uses a lexicon built with entities from the database as a first step. The entity markup pipeline results in links from over nine classes of objects including genes, proteins, alleles, phenotypes and anatomical terms. New entities and ambiguities are discovered and resolved by a database curator through a manual quality control (QC step, along with help from authors via a web form that is provided to them by the journal. New entities discovered through this pipeline are immediately sent to an appropriate curator at the database. Ambiguous entities that do not automatically resolve to one link are resolved by hand ensuring an accurate link. This pipeline has been extended to other databases, namely Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD and FlyBase, and has been implemented in marking up a paper with links to multiple databases. Conclusions Our semi-automated pipeline hyperlinks articles published in GENETICS to

  1. 19 CFR 147.31 - Articles to be kept separate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles to be kept separate. 147.31 Section 147... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Customs Supervision § 147.31 Articles to be kept separate. Articles for exhibit at a fair shall be segregated from domestic articles and from imported...

  2. 7 CFR 301.50-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.50-2 Section 301.50-2... articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Pine products (Pinus spp.), as follows: Bark products... pine wreaths and garlands; and stumps. (b) Any article, product, or means of conveyance not covered...

  3. 7 CFR 301.53-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.53-2 Section 301.53-2... articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) The emerald ash borer; firewood of all hardwood (non... article, product, or means of conveyance not listed in paragraph (a) of this section may be designated...

  4. 7 CFR 301.85-2b - Exempted articles. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exempted articles. 1 301.85-2b Section 301.85-2b... § 301.85-2b Exempted articles. 1 1 The articles hereby exempted remain subject to applicable restrictions under other quarantines and other provisions of this subpart. (a) The following articles...

  5. 7 CFR 301.91-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.91-2 Section 301.91-2... Regulations § 301.91-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Logs, pulpwood, branches...) Any other product, article, or means of conveyance, of any character whatsoever, not covered...

  6. 36 CFR 327.16 - Lost and found articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lost and found articles. 327... CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.16 Lost and found articles. All articles found shall be deposited by the finder at the Manager's office or with a ranger. All such articles shall be disposed of in accordance...

  7. 7 CFR 319.77-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 319.77-2 Section 319.77-2....77-2 Regulated articles. In order to prevent the spread of gypsy moth from Canada into noninfested... section are designated as regulated articles. Regulated articles may be imported into the United...

  8. 7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.55-2 Section 301.55-2... Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living..., Nopalea, and Opuntia. (c) Any other product, article, or means of conveyance not listed in paragraphs...

  9. 7 CFR 301.81-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.81-2 Section 301.81-2... Regulations § 301.81-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Imported fire ant queens... other articles, except potting soil that is shipped in original containers in which the soil was...

  10. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the...

  11. 7 CFR 301.80-2b - Exempted articles. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exempted articles. 1 301.80-2b Section 301.80-2b....80-2b Exempted articles. 1 1 The articles hereby exempted remain subject to applicable restrictions under other quarantines. (a) The following articles are exempt from the certification and permit...

  12. 19 CFR 148.46 - Sale of exempted articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sale of exempted articles. 148.46 Section 148.46... exempted articles. (a) Sale resulting in forfeiture. The following articles or their value (to be recovered... paragraph (b) of this section is followed: (1) Any jewelry or similar articles of personal adornment...

  13. 7 CFR 301.38-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.38-2 Section 301.38-2... articles. (a) The following are regulated articles: 3 3 Permit and other requirements for the insterstate..., except Mahonia cuttings for decorative purposes. (4) Any other product or article not listed...

  14. 19 CFR 10.9 - Articles exported for processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles exported for processing. 10.9 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Exported and Returned § 10.9 Articles exported for processing. (a) Except as otherwise provided for in...

  15. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.35 Articles substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in...

  16. Commentary on the article by Pizzanelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Jamoulle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Peu après l’accouchement de son cinquième enfant ma soeur a consulté son gynécologue. Elle sentait une masse dans son sein et était inquiète. Il l’a rassuré. Elle l’a cru. On était en Espagne, dans les années 80. Ma soeur était avocate et mère de famille. Une femme très occupée. Elle a fait confiance à son docteur. C’était un mauvais docteur. 15 ans plus tard elle mourrait de cachexie cancéreuse après d’innombrables radiothérapies, chimiothérapies, examens diagnostiques et complications en tout genre, entourée de ses enfants et dans la souffrance.Quand on est médecin praticien soi-même et qu’on travaille avec ce souvenir on est très sensibilisé et on cherche par tous les moyens d’éviter à ses propres patients de vivre un calvaire aussi affreux. J’étais très organisé dans ma pratique professionnelle. Nous apprenions aux femmes l’autopalpation, nous avions un échéancier pour les prévenir de faire leur mammographie de dépistage et nous étions satisfaits de trouver de temps en temps un cancer peu évolué, gardant l’impression d’avoir sauvé un patiente qui nous le rendait bien.La Belgique n’a pas de système de santé organisé et le dépistage se faisait et se fait encore de façon pittoresque et épisodique. L’état ou les hôpitaux ou quelques médecins de famille organisés lancent des campagnes qui sensibilisent toujours les mêmes femmes et en « sauvent » quelques-unes, fiers d’avoir mis en place un système de médecine dit préventive.Ce système ne prévient rien du tout et le taux de mortalité par cancer du sein n’a pas changé pendant toutes ses années. On recrute plus tôt, allongeant la période de conscience de la présence du mal. Les cancers fulgurants tuent toujours aussi vite et nous laissent démunis.Dans son article “Principios Éticos y Prevención Cuaternaria: ¿es posible no proteger el ejercicio del principio de autonomía?” le confrère Pizzanelli fait

  17. Changes to English as an Additional Language Writers' Research Articles: From Spoken to Written Register

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyalan, Aylin; Mumford, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The process of writing journal articles is increasingly being seen as a collaborative process, especially where the authors are English as an Additional Language (EAL) academics. This study examines the changes made in terms of register to EAL writers' journal articles by a native-speaker writing centre advisor at a private university in Turkey.…

  18. Review Article: Influenza Transmission on Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlhoch, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Air travel is associated with the spread of influenza through infected passengers and potentially through in-flight transmission. Contact tracing after exposure to influenza is not performed systematically. We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate the evidence for influenza transmission aboard aircraft. Methods: Using PubMed and EMBASE databases, we identified and critically appraised identified records to assess the evidence of such transmission to passengers seated in close proximity to the index cases. We also developed a bias assessment tool to evaluate the quality of evidence provided in the retrieved studies. Results: We identified 14 peer-reviewed publications describing contact tracing of passengers after possible exposure to influenza virus aboard an aircraft. Contact tracing during the initial phase of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic was described in 11 publications. The studies describe the follow-up of 2,165 (51%) of 4,252 traceable passengers. Altogether, 163 secondary cases were identified resulting in an overall secondary attack rate among traced passengers of 7.5%. Of these secondary cases, 68 (42%) were seated within two rows of the index case. Conclusion: We found an overall moderate quality of evidence for transmission of influenza virus aboard an aircraft. The major limiting factor was the comparability of the studies. A majority of secondary cases was identified at a greater distance than two rows from the index case. A standardized approach for initiating, conducting, and reporting contact tracing could help to increase the evidence base for better assessing influenza transmission aboard aircraft. PMID:27253070

  19. Functions of the Indefinite Article a/an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵元华

    2013-01-01

    There are two articles in English,the definite article the and the indefinite article a/an. This paper deals with the indefinite article a/an as it is especially complicated and multi-functional in use. Focus will be put on the major functions of the indefinite article from different angles:its lexical meaning,its grammatical function,its rhetoric meaning and its interpretation in communication with the purpose of providing a relatively full account of its usage.

  20. The availability of research data declines rapidly with article age

    CERN Document Server

    Vines, Timothy; Andrew, Rose; Debarré, Florence; Bock, Dan; Franklin, Michelle; Gilbert, Kimberley; Moore, Jean-Sébastien; Renaut, Sébastien; Rennison, Diana J

    2013-01-01

    Policies ensuring that research data are available on public archives are increasingly being implemented at the government [1], funding agency [2-4], and journal [5,6] level. These policies are predicated on the idea that authors are poor stewards of their data, particularly over the long term [7], and indeed many studies have found that authors are often unable or unwilling to share their data [8-11]. However, there are no systematic estimates of how the availability of research data changes with time since publication. We therefore requested datasets from a relatively homogenous set of 516 articles published between 2 and 22 years ago, and found that availability of the data was strongly affected by article age. For papers where the authors gave the status of their data, the odds of a dataset being extant fell by 17% per year. In addition, the odds that we could find a working email address for the first, last or corresponding author fell by 7% per year. Our results reinforce the notion that, in the long te...

  1. AN IMPLEMENTATION OF EIS-SVM CLASSIFIER USING RESEARCH ARTICLES FOR TEXT CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ramesh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Automatic text classification is a prominent research topic in text mining. The text pre-processing is a major role in text classifier. The efficiency of pre-processing techniques is increasing the performance of text classifier. In this paper, we are implementing ECAS stemmer, Efficient Instance Selection and Pre-computed Kernel Support Vector Machine for text classification using recent research articles. We are using better pre-processing techniques such as ECAS stemmer to find root word, Efficient Instance Selection for dimensionality reduction of text data and Pre-computed Kernel Support Vector Machine for classification of selected instances. In this experiments were performed on 750 research articles with three classes such as engineering article, medical articles and educational articles. The EIS-SVM classifier provides better performance in real-time research articles classification.

  2. An analysis of computer-related articles in occupational therapy periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, J; Smith, R O

    1993-01-01

    The introduction of personal computers in the late 1970s and early 1980s has affected occupational therapy. Nine journals, three trade newspapers, and one series book published over an 11-year period by four English-speaking countries were catalogued for articles pertaining to computer use in occupational therapy. This investigation yielded 174 articles that were categorized by information type, application of computers covered, sophistication of technology, computer brand, and country of publication. Most articles provided general information, described clinical training applications, used an Apple computer, and were from an American publication. Few articles were reports of research. The percentage of computer-related articles has substantially increased in the observed 11-year period. These findings indicate increased computer use in occupational therapy. PMID:8418673

  3. Publication of Research Article: An Art or Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, S; Sikka, P; Saxena, KK

    2013-01-01

    The publication process is a shared responsibility. Besides the writing, reviewing, publishing, and editorial teams, readers are one of the most important pillars of this process. Readers and authors cannot be dealt with separately, because most of the readers are authors. The varieties of articles and improvement in presentations reflect the rising interest and enthusiasm of writers and readers. Increasing number in critical comments and author's reply can be considered as a post-publication peer review process. Impact Factor, which was used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal, is now being considered a misleading tool in assessing the quality of a paper or the researcher. Here, we are trying to discuss in brief the points which should be kept in mind before manuscript preparation and submission, so that our research should reach to maximum readers in an unbiased form. PMID:23634338

  4. 27 CFR 26.265 - Determination of tax on articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.265 Determination of tax on articles. Where...

  5. MedlinePlus: Articles about MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/bibliography.html Articles about MedlinePlus To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. This is a list of selected articles that have been written about the creation, maintenance, ...

  6. 19 CFR 134.54 - Articles released from Customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Found Not Legally Marked § 134.54 Articles... compliance with the marking requirements, and has attempted by all reasonable means to effect redelivery...

  7. The 100 Most Influential Articles in Cervical Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Skovrlj, Branko; Steinberger, Jeremy; Guzman, Javier Z.; Overley, Samuel C.; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.; Caridi, John M.; Cho, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To identify and analyze the top 100 cited articles in cervical spine surgery. Methods The Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge was searched for citations of all articles relevant to cervical spine surgery. The number of citations, authorship, year of publication, journal of publication, country of publication, and institution were recorded for each article. Results The most cited article was the classic from 1991 by Vernon and Mior that described the Neck...

  8. THE ROLE OF ARTICLE LEVEL METRICS IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI

    2016-01-01

    Emerging metrics based on article-level does not exclude traditional metrics based on citations to the journal, but complements them. Article-level metrics (ALMs) provide a wide range of metrics about the uptake of an individual journal article by the scientific community after publication. They include citations, statistics of usage, discussions in online comments and social media, social bookmarking, and recommendations. In this editorial, the role of article level metrics in publishing ...

  9. A new approach for finding semantic similar scientific articles

    OpenAIRE

    Masumeh Islami Nasab; Reza Javidan

    2015-01-01

    Calculating article similarities enables users to find similar articles and documents in a collection of articles. Two similar documents are extremely helpful for text applications such as document-to-document similarity search, plagiarism checker, text mining for repetition, and text filtering. This paper proposes a new method for calculating the semantic similarities of articles. WordNet is used to find word semantic associations. The proposed technique first compares the similarity of each...

  10. Scientific Quality of Original Research Articles on Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Deborah; Bero, Lisa A. Ph.D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the scientific quality of original research articles on the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke; to determine whether poor article quality is associated with publication in non-peer-reviewed symposium proceedings or with other article characteristics. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of original research articles on the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke published in peer reviewed journals and non-peer-reviewed symposium proceedings from 1980 to ...

  11. Affective priming during the processing of news articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Baumgartner; W. Wirth

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the role of affective priming during the processing of news articles. It is assumed that the valence of the affective response to a news article will influence the processing of subsequent news articles. More specifically, it is hypothesized that participants who read

  12. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other...

  13. 27 CFR 20.95 - Developmental samples of articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... articles. 20.95 Section 20.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Statements of Process § 20.95 Developmental samples of articles. (a) A user may use limited quantities of specially denatured spirits in the manufacture of samples of articles for submission in accordance with §...

  14. 50 CFR 25.22 - Lost and found articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lost and found articles. 25.22 Section 25.22 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Lost and found articles. Lost articles or money found on a national wildlife refuge are to...

  15. 19 CFR 134.34 - Certain repacked articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain repacked articles. 134.34 Section 134.34... TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.34 Certain repacked articles. (a) Exception for repacked articles. An exception under § 134.32(d) may be authorized in...

  16. Writing for Publication: A Guide for Counseling Practice Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Lia D.; McCarthy, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Practice articles are critical to scholarship in the counseling field. This article provides readers with practical guidelines for the content and organization of practice articles, with the broad objective of developing a framework for presenting such contributions that may be consistently utilized within the counseling literature. A consistent…

  17. 50 CFR 14.22 - Certain antique articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....22 Certain antique articles. Any person may import at any Customs Service port designated for such purpose, any article (other than scrimshaw, defined in 16 U.S.C 1539(f)(1)(B) and 50 CFR 217.12 as any art... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certain antique articles. 14.22 Section...

  18. 14 CFR 21.8 - Approval of articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of articles. 21.8 Section 21.8 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.8 Approval of articles. If an article is required to...

  19. 19 CFR 11.9 - Special marking on certain articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special marking on certain articles. 11.9 Section... OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.9 Special marking on certain articles. (a... of additional U.S. Note 4, Chapter 91. If any article so required to be marked is found not to...

  20. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.32-2 Section 301.32-2... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies § 301.32-2 Regulated articles... is a regulated article for each of the fruit fly species listed in that row in the right...

  1. 7 CFR 301.86-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.86-2 Section 301.86-2... articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Pale cyst nematodes.2 2 Permit and other requirements... infested or associated field that can carry soil if moved out of the field. (i) Any other product,...

  2. Learning to Read Empirical Articles in General Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sego, Sandra A.; Stuart, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Many students, particularly underprepared students, struggle to identify the essential information in empirical articles. We describe a set of assignments for instructing general psychology students to dissect the structure of such articles. Students in General Psychology I read empirical articles and answered a set of general, factual questions…

  3. 7 CFR 301.75-3 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.75-3 Section 301.75-3... Regulations § 301.75-3 Regulated articles. (a) Plants or plant parts, including fruit and seeds, or any of the..., article, or means of conveyance, of any character whatsoever, not covered by paragraph (a) of this...

  4. 7 CFR 301.87-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.87-2 Section 301.87-2... Regulations § 301.87-2 Regulated articles. (a) Sugarcane plants, whole or in part, including true seed and...) Any other product, article, or means of conveyance, of any character whatsoever, not covered...

  5. 19 CFR 12.104h - Exempt materials and articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt materials and articles. 12.104h Section 12... THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104h Exempt materials and articles... material or any article of cultural property which is imported into the U.S. for temporary exhibition...

  6. 7 CFR 301.89-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.89-2 Section 301.89-2... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Conveyances, including trucks, railroad cars, and...

  7. 27 CFR 26.194 - Detention of articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Detention of articles. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Shipment of... Detention of articles. (a) Upon receiving a notification in accordance with § 26.193(b), the appropriate...

  8. 19 CFR 134.43 - Methods of marking specific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of marking specific articles. 134.43...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported Articles § 134.43 Methods of marking specific articles. (a) Marking previously required by certain provisions of...

  9. 27 CFR 53.186 - Accounting procedures for like articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... like articles. 53.186 Section 53.186 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Accounting procedures for like articles. (a) Identification of manufacturer. In applying section 6416 of the Code and the regulations thereunder, a person who has purchased like articles from...

  10. 7 CFR 301.74-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.74-2 Section 301.74-2... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Plum Pox § 301.74-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) All plant material and plant parts of Prunus (stone fruit)...

  11. 7 CFR 301.51-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.51-2 Section 301.51-2... Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Firewood (all hardwood species), and green... (sycamore), Populus (poplar), Salix (willow), Sorbus (mountain ash), and Ulmus (elm). (b) Any other...

  12. 14 CFR 21.9 - Replacement and modification articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement and modification articles. 21.9... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.9 Replacement and modification articles. (a) If a person knows, or should know, that a replacement or modification article is reasonably likely to...

  13. 22 CFR 121.3 - Aircraft and related articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft and related articles. 121.3 Section 121.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS THE UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.3 Aircraft and related articles. In Category...

  14. 27 CFR 41.194 - Articles of partnership or association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles of partnership or... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Tobacco Products Importers § 41.194 Articles of partnership or..., must furnish with its application for permit required by § 41.191 a true copy of the articles...

  15. 27 CFR 40.495 - Articles of partnership or association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles of partnership or... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.495 Articles of partnership or association. Every partnership or... its application for the permit required by § 40.492 a true copy of the articles of partnership...

  16. 27 CFR 40.64 - Articles of partnership or association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles of partnership or....64 Articles of partnership or association. Every partnership or association, before commencing... § 40.62, a true copy of the articles of partnership or association, if any, or certificate...

  17. Titles of LIS textbooks and research articles : a bibliometric study

    OpenAIRE

    Tiew, Wai Sin; Sen, B. K.; Kaur, Kiran; Lee, Lily

    1997-01-01

    Studies the number of keywords in the titles of library and information science textbooks and research articles. Results indicate that on an average the number of keywords in the titles of research articles and textbooks are 7.7 and 5 respectively and prove the hypothesis that the number of keywords in textbook titles is less than that of the research article titles

  18. Increasing pulse wave velocity in a realistic cardiovascular model does not increase pulse pressure with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiuddin, Mohammad W; Rihani, Ryan J; Laine, Glen A; Quick, Christopher M

    2012-07-01

    The mechanism of the well-documented increase in aortic pulse pressure (PP) with age is disputed. Investigators assuming a classical windkessel model believe that increases in PP arise from decreases in total arterial compliance (C(tot)) and increases in total peripheral resistance (R(tot)) with age. Investigators assuming a more sophisticated pulse transmission model believe PP rises because increases in pulse wave velocity (c(ph)) make the reflected pressure wave arrive earlier, augmenting systolic pressure. It has recently been shown, however, that increases in c(ph) do not have a commensurate effect on the timing of the reflected wave. We therefore used a validated, large-scale, human arterial system model that includes realistic pulse wave transmission to determine whether increases in c(ph) cause increased PP with age. First, we made the realistic arterial system model age dependent by altering cardiac output (CO), R(tot), C(tot), and c(ph) to mimic the reported changes in these parameters from age 30 to 70. Then, c(ph) was theoretically maintained constant, while C(tot), R(tot), and CO were altered. The predicted increase in PP with age was similar to the observed increase in PP. In a complementary approach, C(tot), R(tot), and CO were theoretically maintained constant, and c(ph) was increased. The predicted increase in PP was negligible. We found that increases in c(ph) have a limited effect on the timing of the reflected wave but cause the system to degenerate into a windkessel. Changes in PP can therefore be attributed to a decrease in C(tot). PMID:22561301

  19. Elemental analysis of human amniotic fluid and placenta by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence: child weight and maternal age dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M. L.; Custódio, P. J.; Reus, U.; Prange, A.

    2001-11-01

    This work is an attempt to evaluate the possible influence of the mother's age in trace element concentrations in human amniotic fluid and placenta and whether these concentrations are correlated to the weight of the newborn infants. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to analyze 16 amniotic fluid samples, and the placenta samples were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The whole samples were collected during delivery from healthy mothers and healthy infants and full-term pregnancies. According to the age of the mother, three different groups were considered: 20-25, 25-30 and 30-40 years old. Only two mothers were aged more than 35 years. The weight of the infants ranged from 2.56 to 4.05 kg and three groups were also considered: 2.5-3, 3-3.5 and 3.5-4 kg. The organic matrix of the amniotic fluid samples was removed by treatment with HNO 3 followed by oxygen plasma ashing. Yttrium was used as the internal standard for TXRF analysis. Placenta samples were lyophilized and analyzed by EDXRF without any chemical treatment. Very low levels of Ni and Sr were found in the amniotic fluid samples, and were independent of the age of the mother and weight of the child. Cr, Mn, Se and Pb were at the level of the detection limit. Zn, considered one of the key elements in neonatal health, was not significantly different in the samples analyzed; however, it was weakly related to birth weigh. The concentrations obtained ranged from 0.11 to 0.92 mg/l and 30 to 65 μg/g in amniotic fluid and placenta, respectively. The only two elements which seemed to be significantly correlated with mother's age and newborn weight were Ca and Fe for both types of sample: Ca levels were increased in heavier children and older mothers; however, Fe increased with increasing maternal age, but decreased for heavier babies. The same conclusions were obtained for placenta and amniotic fluid samples. Cu is closely associated with Fe in its function in the organism

  20. The 100 Most Influential Articles in Cervical Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovrlj, Branko; Steinberger, Jeremy; Guzman, Javier Z; Overley, Samuel C; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Caridi, John M; Cho, Samuel K

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To identify and analyze the top 100 cited articles in cervical spine surgery. Methods The Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge was searched for citations of all articles relevant to cervical spine surgery. The number of citations, authorship, year of publication, journal of publication, country of publication, and institution were recorded for each article. Results The most cited article was the classic from 1991 by Vernon and Mior that described the Neck Disability Index. The second most cited was Smith's 1958 article describing the anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion procedure. The third most cited article was Hilibrand's 1999 publication evaluating the incidence, prevalence, and radiographic progression of symptomatic adjacent segment disease following anterior cervical arthrodesis. The majority of the articles originated in the United States (65), and most were published in Spine (39). Most articles were published in the 1990s (34), and the three most common topics were cervical fusion (17), surgical complications (9), and biomechanics (9), respectively. Author Abumi had four articles in the top 100 list, and authors Goffin, Panjabi, and Hadley had three each. The Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan, had five articles in the top 100 list. Conclusion This report identifies the top 100 articles in cervical spine surgery and acknowledges those individuals who have contributed the most to the advancement of the study of the cervical spine and the body of knowledge used to guide evidence-based clinical decision making in cervical spine surgery today.