WorldWideScience

Sample records for artichoke mottled crinckle

  1. Mottled Enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Candiana Harahap

    2008-01-01

    Mottled enamel (enamel fluorosis, dental fluorosis) adalah salah satu bentuk dari hipoplasia enamel yaitu berupa berkurangnya jumlah matriks pembentuk enamel akibat adanya gangguan pada ameloblas selama tahap formatif perkembangan gigi, yang terjadi baik pada gigi desidui maupun gigi permanen. Penyebab terjadinya mottled enamel adalah fluorosis yaitu masuknya fluor dengan konsentrasi yang tinggi kedalam tubuh baik secara sistemik dan, atau lokal hingga mencapai > Ippm F. Gam...

  2. White mold of Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a Native American food plant closely related to the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Tubers of Jerusalem artichoke are increasingly available in retail grocery outlets. White mold (Sclerotinia stem rot), caused by the fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotioru...

  3. Fructans of Jerusalem artichokes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Bodé, S; Hamberg, O;

    1990-01-01

    Fructans are naturally occurring plant oligosaccharides with sweetening properties. Fructans (FAs) isolated from Jerusalem artichokes (Helianthus tuberosus) were studied with respect to intestinal handling and influence on blood glucose (BG), insulin, and C-peptide responses in eight healthy...... subjects. The responses were compared with those for fructose ingestion. The effect of FAs added to a wheat-starch meal was also studied. Standardized breath-hydrogen excretion indicated that FAs were completely malabsorbed and, after a 20-g dose, traces of FA were detected in 24-h urine collections in one...

  4. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus that causes variegatio

  5. Taking Another Look At Globe Artichokes At Virginia Tech

    OpenAIRE

    Bratsch, Tony; Welbaum, G. E. (Gregory E.)

    2009-01-01

    There has been historical interest in growing artichokes on the east coast, and annual production has been evaluated in Connecticut, New York and here in Virginia. This publication reviews the viability of growing artichokes as a profitable annual option.

  6. Mottled terrain - A continuing Martian enigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D. H.; Underwood, J. R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The mottled plains material found in the northern Martian lowlands is discussed in terms of Mariner and Viking images as well as geologic mapping based on Viking images. The mottling in Mariner 9 images of this area was associated with albedo contrasts between bright crater-ejecta blankets and dark intercrater material, and dark-crested knobs. The interpretation of the plains material based on the Mariner images is compared to an interpretation of the higher-quality Viking images. Based on the newer images, the mottled terrain is theorized to be comprised of the four constituent members of the Vastitas Borealis formation of Late Hesperian age. Fluvial, aeolian, and glaciotectonic processes are responsible for the extensive modifications of the apparently volcanic formations. The northern plains are not completely understood in spite of the Viking images, and the varied geology in those plains requires more sampling to confirm the theories.

  7. Stress -induced biosynthesis of dicaffeoylquinic acids in globe artichoke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moglia, A.; Lanteri, S.; Comino, C.; Acquadro, A.; Vos, de C.H.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Leaf extracts from globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) have been widely used in medicine as hepatoprotectant and choleretic agents. Globe artichoke leaves represent a natural source of phenolic acids with dicaffeoylquinic acids, such as cynarin (1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid), along wi

  8. Structured heterogeneity in a marine terrace chronosequence: Upland mottling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Marjorie S.; Stonestrom, David A.; Lawrence, Corey; Bullen, Thomas D.; Fitzpatrick, John; Kyker-Snowman, Emily; Manning, Jane; Mnich, Meagan

    2016-01-01

    Soil mottles generally are interpreted as a product of reducing conditions during periods of water saturation. The upland soils of the Santa Cruz, CA, marine terrace chronosequence display an evolving sequence of reticulate mottling from the youngest soil (65 ka) without mottles to the oldest soil (225 ka) with well-developed mottles. The mottles consist of an interconnected network of clay and C-enriched regions (gray, 2.5Y 6/1) bordered by leached parent material (white, 2.5Y 8/1) within a diminishing matrix of oxidized parent material (orange, 7.5YR 5/8). The mottles develop in soils that formed from relatively uniform nearshore sediments and occur below the depth of soil bioturbation. To explore how a presumably wetland feature occurs in an unsaturated upland soil, physical and chemical characteristics of mottle separates (orange, gray, and white) were compared through the deep time represented by the soil chronosequence. Mineralogical, isotopic, and surface-area differences among mottle separates indicate that rhizogenic centimeter-scale mass transfer acting across millennia is an integral part of weathering, pedogenesis, and C and nutrient transfer. Elemental analysis, electron microscopy, and Fe-isotope systematics indicate that mottle development is driven by deep roots together with their fungal and microbial symbionts. Taken together, these data suggest that deep soil horizons on old stable landforms can develop reticulate mottling as the long-term imprint of rhizospheric processes. The processes of rhizogenic mottle formation appear to regulate pedogenesis, nutrients, and C sequestration at depth in unsaturated zones.

  9. Hydrolase activity in Jerusalem artichoke and chicory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaushofer, H.; Abraham, B.; Leichtfried, G.

    1988-03-01

    Post-harvest storage of chicory and Jerusalem artichoke and overwintering of Jerusalem artichoke in the soil cause a more or less pronounced shortening of the fructan chain, depending on the variety. The proportion of fructose in the total fructan thus shifts towards glucose. This reduction on the fructose/glucose ratio is undesirable if the intention is to obtain a sweetener of high fructose content. In this work an attempt was made, via the quantity of fructose formed after a 4(3)-hour reaction of a tuber (root) extract with inulin, to assign a characteristic value to the depolymerization tendency of the material in question. However, since the plant extract not only contains enzymes (hydrolase A and B) that shorten the fructan chains but the activity of fructosyltransferase (SST, FFT) and enzymes of microbial origin (inulinase II, invertase) must also be considered, the concept of 'hydrolase activity' used by the authors is essentially an expression of 'total activity'. The activity unit (EU) is defined as the ability to split of 1 ..mu..mol of fructose from (chicory) inulin per minute under experimental conditions. Values of 0.25 to 0.77 EU/g dry solids were found in Jerusalem artichoke. Considerable differences may occur between varieties from the same cultivated area and the same harvest period. With one and the same variety, the activity appears to be subject to marked yearly fluctuations, so that at present, because of hydrolase activity, nothing certain can be said about the depolymerization tendency of a variety.

  10. Potential Biogas Production from Artichoke Byproducts in Sardinia, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Menna; Remo Alessio Malagnino; Matteo Vittuari; Giovanni Molari; Giovanna Seddaiu; Paola A. Deligios; Stefania Solinas; Luigi Ledda

    2016-01-01

    The paper aims at evaluating the potential biogas production, both in terms of CH4 and theoretical energy potential, from globe artichoke agricultural byproducts in Sardinia. Field data about the productivity of byproducts were collected on five artichoke varieties cultivated in Sardinia, to assess the biomethane production of their aboveground non-food parts (excluding the head). Moreover, secondary data from previous studies and surveys at regional scale were collected to evaluate the poten...

  11. Valorization of artichoke wastewaters by integrated membrane process

    OpenAIRE

    Conidi, Carmela; Cassanno, A.; García Castelló, Esperanza María

    2014-01-01

    In this work an integrated membrane system was developed on laboratory scale to fractionate artichoke wastewaters. In particular, a preliminary ultrafiltration (UF) step, based on the use of hollow fibre membranes, was investigated to remove suspended solids from an artichoke extract. The clarified solution was then submitted to a nanofiltration (NF) step. Two different 2.5 × 21 in. spiral-wound membranes (Desal DL and NP030) with different properties were investigated. Both membranes showed ...

  12. Artichoke and Cynar liqueur: two (not quite) entangled proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez, Vicente; Fasoli, Elisa; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) have been adopted to investigate the proteome of artichoke extracts, of a home-made alcoholic infusion and of the Italian Cynar liqueur. The aim of study was not only to perform the deepest investigation so far of the artichoke proteome but also to assess the genuineness of the commercial aperitif via a three-pronged attack. First, different extraction techniques have been used for the characterization of the artichoke's proteome, secondly a home-made infusion has been analyzed and finally the proteome of the commercial drink was checked. The artichoke proteome has been evaluated via prior capture with CPLLs at four different pH (2.2, 4.0, 7.2 and 9.3) values. Via mass spectrometry analysis of the recovered fractions, after elution of the captured populations in 4% boiling SDS, we could identify a total of 876 unique gene products in the artichoke extracts, 18 in the home-made infusion and no proteins at all in the Italian Cynar liqueur, casting severe doubts on the procedure stated by the manufacturer (that should be made by an infusion of artichoke leaves plus thirteen different herbs). This could be the starting point for investigating the genuineness and natural origin of commercial drinks in order to protect consumers from adulterated products. PMID:22968169

  13. Characteristics of transverse waves in chromospheric mottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuridze, D.; Mathioudakis, M.; Jess, D. B.; Keenan, F. P. [Astrophysics Research Center, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Verth, G.; Erdélyi, R. [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Center (SP2RC), University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Morton, R. J. [Mathematics and Information Science, Northumbria University, Camden Street, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Christian, D. J., E-mail: dkuridze01@qub.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    Using data obtained by the high temporal and spatial resolution Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instrument on the Dunn Solar Telescope, we investigate at an unprecedented level of detail transverse oscillations in chromospheric fine structures near the solar disk center. The oscillations are interpreted in terms of propagating and standing magnetohydrodynamic kink waves. Wave characteristics including the maximum transverse velocity amplitude and the phase speed are measured as a function of distance along the structure's length. Solar magnetoseismology is applied to these measured parameters to obtain diagnostic information on key plasma parameters (e.g., magnetic field, density, temperature, flow speed) of these localized waveguides. The magnetic field strength of the mottle along the ∼2 Mm length is found to decrease by a factor of 12, while the local plasma density scale height is ∼280 ± 80 km.

  14. Optimization of pectin extraction and antioxidant activities from Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengyi; Shi, Xuejie; Xu, Lanlan; Yi, Yuetao

    2016-03-01

    Jerusalem artichoke is an economic crop widely planted in saline-alkaline soil. The use of Jerusalem artichoke is of great significance. In this study, the response surface method was employed to optimize the effects of processing variables (extraction temperature, pH, extraction time, and liquid-to-solid ratio) on the yield of Jerusalem artichoke pectin. Under the optimal extraction conditions: pH 1.52, 63.62 min, 100°C and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 44.4 mL/g, the maximum pectin yield was predicted to be 18.76%. Experiments were conducted under these optimal conditions and a pectin yield of 18.52±0.90% was obtained, which validated the model prediction. The effects of diff erent drying methods (freeze drying, spray drying and vacuum drying) on the properties of Jerusalem artichoke pectin were evaluated and they were compared with apple pectin. FTIR spectral analysis showed no major structural diff erences in Jerusalem artichoke pectin samples produced by various drying treatments. The antioxidant activities of pectin dried by diff erent methods were investigated using in vitro hydroxyl and DPPH radical scavenging systems. The results revealed that the activities of spray dried pectin (SDP) and apple pectin (AP) were stronger than those of vacuum oven dried pectin (ODP) and vacuum freeze dried pectin (FDP). Therefore compared with the other two drying methods, the spray drying method was the best.

  15. Biodiesel production from yeast Cryptococcus sp. using Jerusalem artichoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Mina; Seo, Yeong Hwan; Han, Shin; Han, Jong-In

    2014-03-01

    Jerusalem artichoke was investigated as a cheap substrate for the heterotrophic production using a lab yeast strain Cryptococcus sp. Using Response Surface Method, 54.0% of fructose yield was achieved at 12% of dried Jerusalem artichoke powder, 0.57% of nitric acid concentration, 117°C of reaction temperature, and 49min of reaction time. At this optimal condition, nitric acid showed the best catalytic activity toward inulin hydrolysis and also the resulting fructose hydrolyte supported the highest microbial growth compared with other acids. In addition, lipid productivity of 1.73g/L/d was achieved, which is higher than a defined medium using pure fructose as a substrate. Lipid quality was also found to be generally satisfactory as a feedstock for fuel, demonstrating Jerusalem artichoke could indeed be a good and cheap option for the purpose of biodiesel production. PMID:24434697

  16. Temporal evolution of mottles observed in H_alpha

    CERN Document Server

    Bostanci, Z F; Erdogan, Nurol Al

    2007-01-01

    In April 2002, H_alpha observations of the solar chromosphere with high spatial and spectral resolution were obtained with the Gottingen Fabry-Perot Spectrometer mounted in the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) at the Observatorio del Teide/Tenerife. In this work, we analyze a short time sequence of a quiet region with chains of mottles. Some physical parameters of dark mottles are determined by using Beckers' cloud model which takes the source function, the Doppler width, and the velocity to be constant within the cloud along the line of sight. Here, we present the results of our study.

  17. Potential Biogas Production from Artichoke Byproducts in Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio De Menna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at evaluating the potential biogas production, both in terms of CH4 and theoretical energy potential, from globe artichoke agricultural byproducts in Sardinia. Field data about the productivity of byproducts were collected on five artichoke varieties cultivated in Sardinia, to assess the biomethane production of their aboveground non-food parts (excluding the head. Moreover, secondary data from previous studies and surveys at regional scale were collected to evaluate the potential biogas production of the different districts. Fresh globe artichoke residues yielded, on average, 292.2 Nm3·tDOM−1, with dissimilarities among cultivars. Fresh samples were analyzed in two series: (a wet basis; and (b wet basis with catalytic enzymes application. Enzymes proved to have some beneficial effects in terms of anticipated biomethane availability. At the regional level, ab. 20 × 106 Nm3 CH4 could be produced, corresponding to the 60% of current installed capacity. However, districts potentials show some differences, depending on the specific biomass partitioning and on the productivity of cultivated varieties. Regional assessments should encompass the sensitiveness of results to agro-economic variables and the economic impacts of globe artichoke residue use in the current regional biogas sector.

  18. New Polylactic Acid Composites Reinforced with Artichoke Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Botta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, artichoke fibers were used for the first time to prepare poly(lactic acid (PLA-based biocomposites. In particular, two PLA/artichoke composites with the same fiber loading (10% w/w were prepared by the film-stacking method: the first one (UNID reinforced with unidirectional long artichoke fibers, the second one (RANDOM reinforced by randomly-oriented long artichoke fibers. Both composites were mechanically characterized in tensile mode by quasi-static and dynamic mechanical tests. The morphology of the fracture surfaces was analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Moreover, a theoretical model, i.e., Hill’s method, was used to fit the experimental Young’s modulus of the biocomposites. The quasi-static tensile tests revealed that the modulus of UNID composites is significantly higher than that of the neat PLA (i.e., ~40%. Moreover, the tensile strength is slightly higher than that of the neat matrix. The other way around, the stiffness of RANDOM composites is not significantly improved, and the tensile strength decreases in comparison to the neat PLA.

  19. Characterization of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and its assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verduin, B.J.M.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis decribes the conditions for isolation of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), its ribonucleic acid (RNA) and the coat protein, the characterization of the virus and its constituents (chapter 3, 4 and 5) and the dissociation and assembly behaviour of the virus (chapter 6 and 7).The aim o

  20. Characterization and purification of virus associated with strawberry mottle symptoms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fránová, Jana; Rakouská, Jana; Erbenová, M.; Nebesářová, Jana; Mráz, Ivan; Špak, Josef; Šíp, Miroslav

    Bethesda : The International society for horticultural science, 1997, s. 108. [International symposium on virus and virus-like diseases of temperate fruit crops /17./. Bethesda (US), 23.06.1997-27.06.1997] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2052601 Keywords : strawberry mottle * plant diseases

  1. Dynamics of flowering of artichoke globe (Cynara scolymus L.) plants in depending on cultivation method

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Sałata

    2012-01-01

    The study was carried out in the years 2001-2002 in the Felin Research Center in Lublin. The differences in growth dynamics and morphology of flowering shoots were investigated with regards to a method of cultivation of artichoke. In the year 2001 flowering shoots and flowers occurred the earliest in the year 2001 on artichoke plants cultivated from crowns. In the year 2002 plants cultivated from crowns and transplants produced flowering shoots in the same time. Artichoke plants cultivated fr...

  2. The Possible Efficacy of Artichoke in Fluconazole Related Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although fluconazole related hepatotoxicity (FRH is rare, mortal acute hepatic necrosis and jaundice were reported in immunocompromised states such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and bone marrow transplant (BMT. We present a case of a patient with multiple sclerosis who developed hepatotoxicity with the use of a single 150 mg fluconazole tablet for fungal vaginitis, 10 days after methylprednisolone pulse treatment. Our patient’s alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels were decreased, 1200 U/L and 800 U/L, respectively, and bilirubin levels were consistent at 37 mg/dL. Artichoke which has anticholestatic and antioxidant properties was used by our patient. She consumed a 30 mg artichoke leaf extract tea 3 times a day. The bilirubin levels significantly declined at the end of the first week and all liver function tests were normalized within 2 months.

  3. Accumulation of cynaropicrin in globe artichoke and localization ofenzymes involved in its biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eljounaidi, K.; Comino, C.; Moglia, A.; Cankar, K.; Genre, A.; Hehn, A.; Bourgaud, F.; Beekwilder, J.; Lanteri, S.

    2015-01-01

    Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) belongs to the Asteraceae family, in which one ofthe most biologically significant class of secondary metabolites are sesquiterpene lactones (STLs). Inglobe artichoke the principal STL is the cynaropicrin, which contributes to approximately 80% of i

  4. Influence of planting date and temperature on inulin content in Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower temperatures during the dry season in tropical regions might affect inulin content and inulin yield of Jerusalem artichoke. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of planting dates during low temperature on inulin yield and content of Jerusalem artichoke. Two pot experiments...

  5. Nucleotide sequence and genome organization of carnation mottle virus RNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Guilley, H; Carrington, J C; Balàzs, E; Jonard, G; Richards, K; Morris, T J

    1985-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of carnation mottle genomic RNA (4003 nucleotides) is presented. The sequence was determined for cloned cDNA copies of viral RNA containing over 99% of the sequence and was completed by direct sequence analysis of RNA and cDNA transcripts. The sequence contains two long open reading frames which together can account for observed translation products. One translation product would arise by suppression of an amber termination codon and the sequence raises the po...

  6. Complete nucleotide sequence of a virus associated with rusty mottle disease of sweet cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, D V; Druffel, K L; Eastwell, K C

    2013-08-01

    Cherry rusty mottle is a disease of sweet cherries first described in 1940 in western North America. Because of the graft-transmissible nature of the disease, a viral nature of the disease was assumed. Here, the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of virus isolates from two trees expressing cherry rusty mottle disease symptoms are characterized; the virus is designated cherry rusty mottle associated virus (CRMaV). The biological and molecular characteristics of this virus in comparison to those of cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) are described. CRMaV was subsequently detected in additional sweet cherry trees expressing symptoms of cherry rusty mottle disease. PMID:23525699

  7. Isolation of a polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cDNA from artichoke and expression analysis in wounded artichoke heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarta, Angela; Mita, Giovanni; Durante, Miriana; Arlorio, Marco; De Paolis, Angelo

    2013-07-01

    The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme, which can catalyze the oxidation of phenolics to quinones, has been reported to be involved in undesirable browning in many plant foods. This phenomenon is particularly severe in artichoke heads wounded during the manufacturing process. A full-length cDNA encoding for a putative polyphenol oxidase (designated as CsPPO) along with a 1432 bp sequence upstream of the starting ATG codon was characterized for the first time from [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori]. The 1764 bp CsPPO sequence encodes a putative protein of 587 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 65,327 Da and an isoelectric point of 5.50. Analysis of the promoter region revealed the presence of cis-acting elements, some of which are putatively involved in the response to light and wounds. Expression analysis of the gene in wounded capitula indicated that CsPPO was significantly induced after 48 h, even though the browning process had started earlier. This suggests that the early browning event observed in artichoke heads was not directly related to de novo mRNA synthesis. Finally, we provide the complete gene sequence encoding for polyphenol oxidase and the upstream regulative region in artichoke. PMID:23628925

  8. A Rare Case of Non-Small Cell Carcinoma of Lung Presenting as Miliary Mottling

    OpenAIRE

    Ballaekere Jayaram Subhashchandra; Mohammed Ismailkhan; Kuppegala Chikkaveeraiah Shashidhar; Moda Gopalakrishna Narahari

    2013-01-01

    Miliary mottling on chest radiography is seen in miliary tuberculosis, certain fungal infections, sarcoidosis, coal miner’s pneumoconiosis, silicosis, hemosiderosis, fibrosing alveolitis, acute extrinsic allergic alveolitis, pulmonary eosinophilic syndrome, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and rarely in hematogenous metastases from the primary cancers of the thyroid, kidney, trophoblasts, and some sarcomas. Although very infrequent, miliary mottling can be seen in primary lung cancers. Herein,...

  9. Analysis of gene functions in Maize chlorotic mottle virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheets, Kay

    2016-08-15

    Gene functions of strains of Maize chlorotic mottle virus, which comprises the monotypic genus Machlomovirus, have not been previously identified. In this study mutagenesis of the seven genes encoded in maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) showed that the genes with positional and sequence similarity to their homologs in viruses of related tombusvirid genera had similar functions. p50 and its readthrough protein p111 are the only proteins required for replication in maize protoplasts, and they function at a low level in trans. Two movement proteins, p7a and p7b, and coat protein, encoded on subgenomic RNA1, are required for cell-to-cell movement in maize, and p7a and p7b function in trans. A unique protein, p31, expressed as a readthrough extension of p7a, is required for efficient systemic infection. The 5' proximal MCMV gene encodes a unique 32kDa protein that is not required for replication or movement. Transcripts lacking p32 expression accumulate to about 1/3 the level of wild type transcripts in protoplasts and produce delayed, mild infections in maize plants. Additional studies on p32, p31 and the unique amino-terminal region of p50 are needed to further characterize the life cycle of this unique tombusvirid. PMID:27242072

  10. Influence of sugars on the dry-weight increase of gamma irradiated Jerusalem artichoke tuber's tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerusalem artichoke tuber's explants after a γ irradiation of 6000 rads couldn't proliferate in a growth medium containing glucose and indolyl acetic acid; their dry weight is increased by an accumulation of sugars

  11. Sensory quality and appropriateness of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Vibe; Kidmose, Ulla; Thybo, Anette;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensory attributes, dry matter and sugar content of five varieties of Jerusalem artichoke tubers and their relation to the appropriateness of the tubers for raw and boiled preparation. RESULTS: Sensory evaluation of raw and boiled...... Jerusalem artichoke tubers was performed by a trained sensory panel and a semi-trained consumer panel of 49 participants, who also evaluated the appropriateness of the tubers for raw and boiled preparation. The appropriateness of raw Jerusalem artichoke tubers was related to Jerusalem artichoke flavour......, green nut flavour, sweetness and colour intensity, whereas the appropriateness of boiled tubers was related to celeriac aroma, sweet aroma, sweetness and colour intensity. In both preparations the variety Dwarf stood out from the others by being the least appropriate tuber. CONCLUSION: A few sensory...

  12. Effects of Prickly Pear Dried Leaves, Artichoke Leaves, Turmeric and Garlic Extracts, and Their Combinations on Preventing Dyslipidemia in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Qinna, Nidal A.; Basma S. Kamona; Alhussainy, Tawfiq M.; Hashem Taha; Badwan, Adnan A.; Matalka, Khalid Z.

    2012-01-01

    The successful use of herbal combinations in managing diseases or conditions over a single herb has lead us to evaluate the anti-dyslipidemic properties of the combination of the artichoke leaves extract, turmeric extract, prickly pear dried leaves (PPL) and garlic extract versus each one alone in two different hyperlipidemic animal models. A two-week treatment of each of the natural extracts, combination 1 (artichoke, turmeric and PPL) or combination 2 (artichoke, turmeric, PPL and garlic) p...

  13. The prospects of Jerusalem artichoke in functional food ingredients and bioenergy production

    OpenAIRE

    Linxi Yang; Quan Sophia He; Kenneth Corscadden; Udenigwe, Chibuike C.

    2015-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke, a native plant to North America has recently been recognized as a promising biomass for bioeconomy development, with a number of advantages over conventional crops such as low input cultivation, high crop yield, wide adaptation to climatic and soil conditions and strong resistance to pests and plant diseases. A variety of bioproducts can be derived from Jerusalem artichoke, including inulin, fructose, natural fungicides, antioxidant and bioethanol. This paper provides an ...

  14. A Shortcut to the Production of High Ethanol Concentration from Jerusalem Artichoke Tubers

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2005-01-01

    Aspergillus niger SL-09, a newly isolated exoinulinase-hyperproducing strain, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Z-06, with high ethanol tolerance, were used in a fed-batch process for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber mash and flour. S. cerevisiae Z-06 utilized 98 % of the total sugar and produced 19.6 % of ethanol in 48 h. In this process the conversion efficiency of the fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke and the production of ethanol were 90 % of the th...

  15. In vitro antioxidant activities of edible artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and effect on biomarkers of antioxidants in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez-Escrig, A.; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Daneshvar, Bahram;

    2003-01-01

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.), an edible vegetable from the Mediterranean area, is a good source of natural antioxidants such as vitamin C, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavones. The antioxidant activity of aqueous-organic extracts of artichoke were determined using three methods: (a) free radical 2......,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.) scavenging, (b) ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and...

  16. Kombucha fermentation on raw extracts of different cultivars of Jerusalem artichoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Eva S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a symbiosis between yeasts and acetic bacteria. It usually grows on sweetened black tea, but cultivation is possible on many other substrates. Jerusalem artichoke tubers extract is one of them. Tubers are suitable for the dietetic nutrition because of the low monosaccharide content and presence of some polyfructan ingredients which act as prebiotic. Five different cultivars of Jerusalem artichoke were used for the preparation of substrates for kombucha fermentation. The aim of this paper was the investigation of the influence of different Jerusalem artichoke cultivars on metabolic activity of kombucha. Composition of carbohydrates was followed using thin-layer chromatography and pH, reducing sugars content and yield of biomass were measured. Most of the samples with Jerusalem artichoke tubers extract contained fructose, probably small amount of glucose, fructo-oligosaccharides with different degree of polymerization and, inulin. Considering TLC chromatograms, Jerusalem artichoke cultivar did not affect significantly the composition of oligosaccharides in the fermentative liquid, as only minor differences were observed.

  17. Characterization and differential expression analysis of artichoke phenylalanine ammonia-lyase-coding sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paolis, Angelo; Pignone, Domenico; Morgese, Anita; Sonnante, Gabriella

    2008-01-01

    Sequences encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were isolated from artichoke, by using a sequence homology strategy, by screening a genomic library and by 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) technology. These analyses and Southern blots suggested that, in artichoke, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is encoded by a small gene family. The sequences isolated from genomic DNA possess two exons and one intron at the conserved position as in most plant pal characterized to date. The 3'-RACE analysis also indicated that each member of the artichoke pal gene family was present as a pool of transcripts, different in the length of 3'-untranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequences were highly similar to those of PAL from lettuce and sunflower. One of the artichoke pal genes was completely sequenced, and its 5' upstream region contained TATA, CAAT box and cis regulatory elements identified in other phenylpropanoid pathway genes as playing a role in UV and elicitor induction. The expression of three of the identified artichoke pal sequences was evaluated in different plant parts, in developmental stages and after wounding, using gene-specific primers/probe combinations in real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. The three putative genes were differentially expressed in the plant parts analysed and were developmentally regulated. Moreover, after leaf mechanical injury, all of them were differentially regulated. The possible involvement of the single pal genes in different physiological processes is discussed. PMID:18251868

  18. Study on exploitation of Jerusalem artichoke bulbs in relation to chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Ropciuc

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. known in USA also as sunchoke, is a perennial plant, well-adapted to humid and cold climats, nonpretencious to soil and with good yield increase. The bulbs are the eatable part that grows in the ground that have certain similitudes with the potato. The value of Jerusalem artichoke as a technical and medical vegetable is based on the chemical composition of the plant. The bulbs of the Jerusalem artichoke harvested in autumn have been sensorially and chemically analyzed along the deposition during the cold season. Measurements were made on the light brown variety with a slightly elongated shape. The low mass loss during depostion, the high content of reducing sugar (4.7- 6.12% and total carbohydrates (94.27-96.18% enable their successful use in the functional food and for the production of alcohol.

  19. A rare case of non-small cell carcinoma of lung presenting as miliary mottling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram Subhashchandra, Ballaekere; Ismailkhan, Mohammed; Chikkaveeraiah Shashidhar, Kuppegala; Gopalakrishna Narahari, Moda

    2013-03-01

    Miliary mottling on chest radiography is seen in miliary tuberculosis, certain fungal infections, sarcoidosis, coal miner's pneumoconiosis, silicosis, hemosiderosis, fibrosing alveolitis, acute extrinsic allergic alveolitis, pulmonary eosinophilic syndrome, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and rarely in hematogenous metastases from the primary cancers of the thyroid, kidney, trophoblasts, and some sarcomas. Although very infrequent, miliary mottling can be seen in primary lung cancers. Herein, we report the case of a 28-year-old female with chest X-ray showing miliary mottling. Thoracic computed tomography (CT) features were suggestive of tuberculoma with miliary tuberculosis. CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed the diagnosis as lower-lobe, left lung non-small cell carcinoma (adenocarcinoma). It is rare for the non-small cell carcinoma of the lung to present as miliary mottling. The rarity of our case lies in the fact that a young, non-smoking female with miliary mottling was diagnosed with non-small cell carcinoma of the lung. PMID:23645961

  20. A Rare Case of Non-Small Cell Carcinoma of Lung Presenting as Miliary Mottling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballaekere Jayaram Subhashchandra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Miliary mottling on chest radiography is seen in miliary tuberculosis, certain fungal infections, sarcoidosis, coal miner’s pneumoconiosis, silicosis, hemosiderosis, fibrosing alveolitis, acute extrinsic allergic alveolitis, pulmonary eosinophilic syndrome, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and rarely in hematogenous metastases from the primary cancers of the thyroid, kidney, trophoblasts, and some sarcomas. Although very infrequent, miliary mottling can be seen in primary lung cancers. Herein, we report the case of a 28-year-old female with chest X-ray showing miliary mottling. Thoracic computed tomography (CT features were suggestive of tuberculoma with miliary tuberculosis. CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed the diagnosis as lower-lobe, left lung non-small cell carcinoma (adenocarcinoma. It is rare for the non-small cell carcinoma of the lung to present as miliary mottling. The rarity of our case lies in the fact that a young, non-smoking female with miliary mottling was diagnosed with non-small cell carcinoma of the lung.

  1. A study of back-trap mottle in coated papers using electron probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper methodology is been developed for analyzing both the surface and cross-sectional distributions for coating components using electron probe microanalysis and image analysis technology. Actual light and dark areas of print mottle are physically separated and analyzed to provide an unequivocal relationship between the distribution of coating components and the physical structure of the coating in areas of print mottle. Areas of low ink density were found to have higher surface latex concentration, greater mean coating thickness, and greater mean rawstock roughness. Furthermore, the difference in surface concentration of CaCO3 within areas of, low and high ink density was established as a new and additional probable cause of back-trap mottle

  2. Cadmium Accumulation and Translocation in Two Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; LONG Xiao-Hua; ZHANG Zhen-Hua; ZHENG Xiao-Tao; Z. RENGEL; LIU Zhao-Pu

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) not just can be used for bioethanol production but may be potentially used in phytoremediation for the removal of heavy metal pollutants.Two Jerusalem artichoke cultivars,N2 and N5,were subjected to six cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0,5,25,50,100 and 200 mg L-1) to investigate Cd tolerance and accumulation.After 21 days of growth,the effects of Cd on growth,chlorophyll content,net photosynthetic rate,intercellular CO2 concentration and malondialdehyde content were evaluated.Most growth parameters were reduced under Cd stress.The two Jerusalem artichoke cultivars had relatively high Cd tolerance and accumulation capacity (> 100 mg kg-1),with N5 being more tolerant and having higher Cd accumulation than N2.Roots accumulated more Cd than stems and leaves.The bioconcentration factors (far higher than 1) and translocation factors (lower than 1) decreased with an increase in Cd applied.The results suggested that Jerusalem artichoke could be grown at relatively high Cd loads,and N5 could be an excellent candidate for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  3. Growth and yield performance of Jerusalem artichoke clones in a semiarid region of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Z.X.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Sha, J.; Xue, S.; Xie, G.H.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated biomass yield and growth characteristics of 26 Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) clones and assessed it as a bioenergy crop for a semiarid region of the Loess Plateau in China. Genotype, year, and genotype ´ year interaction contributed to differences in crop deve

  4. CHANGE OF INULIN IN THE TUBERS OF JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE AT STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarenko M. N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the change of the mass fraction of inulin in Jerusalem artichoke tubers during storage under different conditions. The influence of temperature, storage time and variety features on the content of inulin have been shown. The terms and conditions of storage of raw materials before processing have been set.

  5. Design and Simulation of Two Robotic Systems for Automatic Artichoke Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Longo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The target of this research project was a feasibility study for the development of a robot for automatic or semi-automatic artichoke harvesting. During this project, different solutions for the mechanical parts of the machine, its control system and the harvesting tools were investigated. Moreover, in cooperation with the department DISPA of University of Catania, different field structures with different kinds of artichoke cultivars were studied and tested. The results of this research could improve artichoke production for preserves industries. As a first step, an investigation on existing machines has been done. From this research, it has been shown that very few machines exist for this purpose. Based also on previous experiences, some proposals for different robotic systems have been done, while the mobile platform itself was developed within another research project. At the current stage, several different configurations of machines and harvesting end-effectors have been designed and simulated using a 3D CAD environment interfaced with Matlab®. Moreover, as support for one of the proposed machines, an artificial vision algorithm has been developed in order to locate the artichokes on the plant, with respect to the robot, using images taken with a standard webcam.

  6. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  7. Variation of Phenolic Content in Globe Artichoke in Relation to Biological, Technical and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Mauromicale

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, globe artichoke production is prevailingly concentrated in the South and islands, where it provides an important contribution to the agricultural economy. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in this crop as a promising source of polyphenols, a heterogeneous class of secondary metabolites characterized by various healthy properties well-documented in literature. The phenolic fraction, present in the different artichoke plant parts, varies widely in relation to biotic and abiotic factors. Therefore, the present study aimed at evaluating the variation of phenolic content in globe artichoke in relation to biological, technical and environmental factors. Two field-experiments were carried out in Sicily (South Italy in two representative cultivation areas, in order to examine the effects of genotype, head fraction, season conditions, planting density and arrangement on the globe artichoke phenolic concentration. Both the total polyphenols and the individual phenolic compounds detected were notably genotype- dependent. Particularly, the high level of caffeoylquinic acids (chlorogenic acid, among others and apigenin 7- O-glucuronide, reported respectively by “Violetto di Sicilia” and “Romanesco clone C3”, could be used to encourage globe artichoke fresh consumption. Total polyphenols content also resulted more abundant in specific accumulation sites within the inflorescence, such as the floral stem and receptacle, and for most of genotypes it decreased during the second year in response to the different meteorological conditions. Additionally, total polyphenols content significantly and linearly increased as plant density increased from 1.0 to 1.8 plant m-2 and it significantly increased by 13% passing from single to twin rows plant arrangement.

  8. Synbiotic functional drink from Jerusalem artichoke juice fermented by probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum PCS26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Velickova, Elena; Dimitrovska, Maja; Langerholc, Tomaz; Winkelhausen, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    A probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum PCS26 was used to ferment Jerusalem artichoke juice. Growth kinetics of the bacterial strain was followed during juice fermentation both in flask and in laboratory fermentor. Jerusalem artichoke showed to be an excellent source of nutrients for L. plantarum PCS26 growth. The culture grew very well reaching more than 10(10) cfu/ml in just 12 h. The pH changed from the initial 6.5 to 4.6 at the end of fermentation. The culture hydrolyzed fructooligosaccharides present in the Jerusalem artichoke juice, yielding fructose which was presumably consumed along with the malic acid as energy and carbon source. Lactic acid was the main metabolite produced in concentration of 4.6 g/L. Acetic and succinic acid were also identified. Sensory evaluation of the fermented Jerusalem artichoke juice and its mixtures with blueberry juice showed that the 50/50 % v/v mixture would be very well accepted by the consumers. Above 80 % of the panelists would buy this drink, and over 60 % were willing to pay more for it. Culture survivability in the fermented juices during storage at 4-7 °C was assayed by the Weibullian model. The product shelf-life was extended from 19.70 ± 0.50 days of pure Jerusalem artichoke juice to 35.7 ± 6.4 days of the mixture containing 30 % blueberry juice. PMID:26787997

  9. Genetic relatedness of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) hybrids using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf-Eldin, M A; Al-Tamimi, A; Alam, P; Elkholy, S F; Jordan, J R

    2015-01-01

    The artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is an important food and medicinal crop that is cultivated in Mediterranean countries. Morphological characteristics, such as head shape and diameter, leaf shape, and bract shape, are mainly affected by environmental conditions. A molecular marker approach was used to analyze the degree of polymorphism between artichoke hybrid lines. The degree of genetic difference among three artichoke hybrids was evaluated using random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR). In this study, the DNA fingerprints of three artichoke lines (A13-010, A11-018, and A12-179) were generated, and a total of 10 decamer primers were applied for RAPD-PCR analyses. Polymorphism  (16.66 to 62.50%) was identified using eight arbitrary decamers and total genomic DNA extracted from the hybrids. Of the 59 loci detected, there were 25 polymorphic and 34 monomorphic loci. Jaccard's similarity index (JSI) ranged between 1.0 and 0.84. Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) similarity matrix and dendrogram, the results indicated that two hybrids (A13-010 and A11-018) were closely related to each other, and the A12-179 line showed more divergence. When identifying correct accessions, consideration of the genetic variation and genetic relationships among the genotypes are required. The RAPD-PCR fingerprinting of artichoke lines clearly showed that it is possible to analyze the RAPD patterns for correlation between genetic means and differences or resemblance between close accessions (A13-010 and A11- 018) at the genomic level. PMID:26782491

  10. New method for determining sensory shelf life using fuzzy logic: canned marinated artichoke hearts (Cynara scolymus L.) case

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Vásquez-Villalobos; Julia Vásquez Angulo; Eduardo Méndez Reyna

    2015-01-01

    The sensory preference (sp) and shelf life of sensory acceptability (SLSA) of canned artichoke hearts were modeled using fuzzy logic (FL) and accelerated testing. The artichoke hearts were marinated in oil of sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis), soybean (Glycine max) and olive (Olea europea); and evaluated using a Ranking test with a semi-trained panel, to identify the best preference both for flavor (f) and limpidity (l). We evaluated a global sp through intersection (AND) and union (OR) fuzz...

  11. In vitro antioxidant activities of edible artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and effect on biomarkers of antioxidants in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Escrig, Antonio; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Daneshvar, Bahram; Pulido, Raquel; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2003-08-27

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.), an edible vegetable from the Mediterranean area, is a good source of natural antioxidants such as vitamin C, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavones. The antioxidant activity of aqueous-organic extracts of artichoke were determined using three methods: (a) free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(*)) scavenging, (b) ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and (c) inhibition of copper(II)-catalyzed in vitro human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. In addition, the present study was performed to investigate the ability of the edible portion of artichoke to alter in vivo antioxidative defense in male rats using selected biomarkers of antioxidant status. One gram (dry matter) had a DPPH(*) activity and a FRAP value in vitro equivalent to those of 29.2 and 62.6 mg of vitamin C and to those of 77.9 and 159 mg of vitamin E, respectively. Artichoke extracts showed good efficiency in the inhibition in vitro of LDL oxidation. Neither ferric-reducing ability nor 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonate) radical scavenging activity was modified in the plasma of the artichoke group with respect to the control group. Among different antioxidant enzymes measured (superoxide dismutase, gluthatione peroxidase, gluthatione reductase, and catalase) in erythrocytes, only gluthatione peroxidase activity was elevated in the artichoke group compared to the control group. 2-Aminoadipic semialdehyde, a protein oxidation biomarker, was decreased in plasma proteins and hemoglobin in the artichoke-fed group versus the control group. In conclusion, the in vitro protective activity of artichoke was confirmed in a rat model. PMID:12926911

  12. Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers synthesize the full spectrum of inulin molecules naturally occurring in globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) roots

    OpenAIRE

    Hellwege, Elke M.; Czapla, Sylvia; Jahnke, Anuschka; Willmitzer, Lothar; HEYER, ARND G

    2000-01-01

    The ability to synthesize high molecular weight inulin was transferred to potato plants via constitutive expression of the 1-SST (sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase) and the 1-FFT (fructan: fructan 1-fructosyltransferase) genes of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus). The fructan pattern of tubers from transgenic potato plants represents the full spectrum of inulin molecules present in artichoke roots as shown by high-performance anion exchange chromatography, as well as size exclusion chrom...

  13. Genome sequencing, genetic diversity and field detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus using LAMP technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent outbreaks of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus on cucumber, melon and watermelon in Australia, Canada, and the U.S. highlight the importance in implementing a cleaned seed program to manage this seed-borne virus from introduction. Both Canadian and Australian isolates were closely relate...

  14. Diagnostics of Dark Chromospheric Mottles Based on High Resolution Spectra. I - Observational Data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotrč, Pavel; Schwartz, Pavol; Heinzel, Petr; Tsiropoula, G.; Tziotziou, K.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2005), s. 289-298. ISSN 0351-2657. [Hvar astrophysical colloquium /7./: Solar activity cycle and global phenomena. Hvar, 20.09.2004-24.09.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Sun * chromosphere * dark mottles Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  15. Clematis Chlorotic Mottle Virus, a novel virus occurring in Clematis in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clematis is a genus of temperate climbing vines that are popular as ornamentals. Samples from domestic and international sources showing symptoms of yellow mottling and veining, chlorotic ring spots, line pattern mosaics, and in some cases flower distortion and discoloration were received at several...

  16. First report of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus infecting greenhouse cucumber in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), in the genus Tobamovirus and family Virgaviridae, is a seed-borne pathogen on cucurbits. In early 2013, serious viral disease outbreaks on greenhouse cucumber crops were experienced by greenhouse vegetable growers in Alberta, Canada. CGMMV was detected i...

  17. First Complete Genome Sequence of an Emerging Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Isolate in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Rugang; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Ling, Kai-Shu

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence (6,423 nucleotides [nt]) of an emerging cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) isolate on cucumber in North America was determined through deep sequencing of small (sRNA) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The virus shares 99% nucleotide sequence identity with the Asian genotype but only 90% with the European genotype.

  18. Unstable infectivity and abundant viral RNAs associated with strawberry mottle virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Schoen, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    A not yet identified virus (SMoV) associated with the strawberry mottle syndrome was mechanically transmitted from infected Fragaria vesca UC-5 to Chenopodium quinoa and from C. quinoa to Nicotiana benthamiana, N. occidentalis 37B and N. hesperis 67A. C. quinoa, N. benthamiana, and N. occidentalis 3

  19. Effect of water regime and salinity on artichoke yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Boari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the effects of different salinity and water inputs on the yield of artichoke Violetto di Provenza. Two years of experimental works had been carried out in a site in Southern Italy characterized by semi-arid climate and deep loam soil. Three salinity levels of irrigation water (S0, S1 and S2 with electrical conductivity (ECw of 0.5, 5 and 10 dS m-1, respectively, were combined with three water regimes (W1, W2 and W3 corresponding in that order to 20 40 and 60% of available water depletion. The overall results of the salinity tolerance are in agreement with those from the literature. However, an higher tolerance to salinity was demonstrated when crop was watered more frequently (at 20% of available water depletion and a lower one when crop watering was performed less frequently (at 60% of available water depletion. The increase of salinity level reduced marketable yield (from 12.9 to 8.8 Mg ha-1, total heads (from 125,100 to 94,700 n ha-1 and heads mean weight (from 99.9 to 94.6 g, while increased heads dry matter (from 161.8 to 193.6 g kg-1 f.w. and reduced edible parte percentage of heads (from 35.2 to 33.2 %. Watering regimes, as average of the salinity levels, affected total heads marketable yield (115,350 n ha-1 and 11.4 Mg ha-1 for W1 and W2, 105,900 n ha-1 and 10 Mg ha-1 for W3. In addition, different watering regimes affected the secondary heads yield for which it was reduced by 3% of mean weight. The effect of different watering regimes changed with various salinity levels. In condition of moderate salinity (S1, maximum water depletion fraction to preserve heads number and weight yield was 40 and 20% of total soil available water, respectively. However, with high salinity (S2, maximum water depletion fraction to keep unchanged heads number and weight yield was 20% for both. The level of soil salinity at beginning of the crop cycle favoured the incidence of head atrophy in the main heads produced in the second year.

  20. More than multiple introductions: Multiple taxa contribute to the genesis of the invasive California's wild artichoke thistle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janet LEAK-GARCIA; Jodie S.HOLT; Seung-Chul KIM; Lisa MU; José A.MEJ(I)AS; Norman C.ELLSTRAND

    2013-01-01

    The history of some invasive species is so complex that their origins can be difficult to determine.One example of such invasive species is the California invasive known as "wild artichoke thistle" (Cynara cardunculus var.sylvestris),found in natural and disturbed ecosystems.Wild artichoke thistle is a Mediterranean native and the progenitor of two domesticated horticultural taxa,artichoke and cardoon.Different hypotheses regarding the origins of California plants have included introductions by 19th century Italian immigrants and the de-domestication (evolutionary reversion to wild-type morphology) of feral (escaped,free-living) cultivars.Using microsatellite markers,we compared the genetic constitutions of 12 artichoke thistle populations in California with possible progenitor populations:17 Spanish and Italian wild populations and eight different artichoke and cardoon cultivars.Each California population was compared with its putative progenitors using STRUCTURE analysis.Our results suggest that California's artichoke thistle populations are polyphyletic.Surprisingly,two-thirds of California's populations closely matched populations from the Iberian Peninsula.Three populations matched domesticated artichoke.One population appears to have wild and cultivar hybrid ancestry.Alleles specific to Italian populations were found at low frequencies in some California plants,suggesting that Italian wild plants may have been in California,but have left a trivial genetic legacy.Given that the de-domesticated plants in this study appear to be as invasive as the wild taxon,we conclude with a discussion of the role that ferality and de-domestication may have in plant invasions.

  1. Soft Robotic Manipulation of Onions and Artichokes in the Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    R Morales; F. J. Badesa; Garcia-Aracil, N.; Sabater, J. M.; Zollo, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a robotic solution for a problem of fast manipulation and handling of onions or artichokes in the food industry. The complete solution consists of a parallel robotic manipulatior, a specially designed end-effector based on a customized vacuum suction cup, and a computer vision software developed for pick and place operations. First, the selection and design process of the proposed robotic solution to fit with the initial requeriments is presented, includ...

  2. Torrefaction of Yacon and Jerusalem Artichoke Stems as a Contribution to the Alternative Production of Inulin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, Václav; Sobek, Jiří; Hanika, Jiří; Punčochář, Miroslav

    Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2013 - (Marquis, F.), s. 103-110 ISBN 978-0-470-94309-0. [Pacific Rim International Congress on Advanced Materials and Processing (PRICM-8) /8./. Waikoloa, Hawaii (US), 04.09.2013-09.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080; GA TA ČR TA02020369; GA TA ČR TA03020880 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : torrefaction * yakon * jerusalem artichoke Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  3. RNA-seq analysis and de novo transcriptome assembly of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linne.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Yong Jung

    Full Text Available Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. has long been cultivated as a vegetable and as a source of fructans (inulin for pharmaceutical applications in diabetes and obesity prevention. However, transcriptomic and genomic data for Jerusalem artichoke remain scarce. In this study, Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq was performed on samples from Jerusalem artichoke leaves, roots, stems and two different tuber tissues (early and late tuber development. Data were used for de novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome. In total 206,215,632 paired-end reads were generated. These were assembled into 66,322 loci with 272,548 transcripts. Loci were annotated by querying against the NCBI non-redundant, Phytozome and UniProt databases, and 40,215 loci were homologous to existing database sequences. Gene Ontology terms were assigned to 19,848 loci, 15,434 loci were matched to 25 Clusters of Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups classifications, and 11,844 loci were classified into 142 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. The assembled loci also contained 10,778 potential simple sequence repeats. The newly assembled transcriptome was used to identify loci with tissue-specific differential expression patterns. In total, 670 loci exhibited tissue-specific expression, and a subset of these were confirmed using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Gene expression related to inulin biosynthesis in tuber tissue was also investigated. Exsiting genetic and genomic data for H. tuberosus are scarce. The sequence resources developed in this study will enable the analysis of thousands of transcripts and will thus accelerate marker-assisted breeding studies and studies of inulin biosynthesis in Jerusalem artichoke.

  4. Quality of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) Tubers in Relation to Storage Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Honorata DANILČENKO; Elvyra JARIENE; Paulina ALEKNAVICIENE

    2008-01-01

    The influence of storage conditions on quality parameters of Jerusalem artichoke cv. 'Swojecki' was investigated. Tubers were kept in a cold chamber at the temperature of 20C and RH 90-95% for a period of four months. Three methods of storage were applied: in polypropylene (PP) net bags, in the sand or the peat. During storage period there were systematically determined, using standard methods: weight loss, dry matter, soluble solids, total and reducing sugars content and sucrose content. Res...

  5. Yield component analysis and diversity in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sikora V.; Berenji J.; Latković D.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the variability and mutual dependence of the tuber weight per plant, tuber number per plant, average tuber weight and total sugars content in the tubers of 20 Jerusalem artichoke genotypes included in a varietal trial conducted in the period 1994-2008. The variability of tuber weight per plant, tuber number per plant and average tuber weight was significantly affected by environmental conditions, while the total su...

  6. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for pyraclostrobin in cucumbers and Jerusalem artichokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, Belgium, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, compiled an application to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance pyraclostrobin in cucumbers and Jerusalem artichokes. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of pyraclostrobin, Belgium proposed to raise the existing MRL for cucumbers to 0.5 mg/kg; for Jerusalem artichokes the EMS proposed to raise the existing MRL, which is set at the limit of quantification (0.02 mg/kg, to 0.1 mg/kg. Belgium drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the submitted data fully support the MRL proposals of 0.5 mg/kg on cucumbers. The MRL proposal of 0.09 mg/kg on Jerusalem artichokes is derived by extrapolation from overdosed trials on carrots, given that this crop is classified as very minor. Alternatively, EFSA derived a tentative MRL of 0.06 mg/kg by applying the proportionality approach. Adequate enforcement analytical methods are available to control the residues of pyraclostrobin in the commodities under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed uses of pyraclostrobin on cucumbers and Jerusalem artichokes in Belgium will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore are unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  7. Studies on Fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke Juice by Beneficial Lactic Acid Bacteria and the Flavor Compounds of Fermented Jerusalem artichoke Juice%乳酸菌发酵菊芋汁及其风味的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李信; 董英; 程新; 刘崇万

    2012-01-01

    对不同品种和产地的菊芋主要成分进行了测定,并利用乳酸菌对菊芋汁进行发酵,研究了不同乳酸菌在菊芋汁中的生长规律、低温存活性及发酵菊芋汁中主要风味物质。结果表明,4种乳酸菌在菊芋汁中均生长良好,最高活菌数可达到10^9CFU/mL;菊芋汁经乳酸菌发酵后具有良好风味,其风味的差异与发酵菌种有关;发酵菊芋汁中乳酸菌在4℃低温贮藏过程中具有较好的低温存活性,4周后活菌数保持在10^9CFU/mL。菊芋汁适用于开发成新的功能性乳酸菌饮料。%Jerusalem artichoke possesses abundant inulin, high content of potassium and low content of sodium. The main nutritional compositions of Jerusalem artichoke from diverse varieties and regions were analyzed. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the growth of four lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus brevis) on Jerusalem artichoke juice and the production of flavor com- pounds in these bacteria. Growth rule, low-temperature survivability of lactic acid bacteria in Jerusalem artichoke and the major flavor compounds of fermented Jerusalem artichoke juice were considered in this study. In this research it was found that four lactic cultures grew well on the Jerusalem artichoke juice, and the viable cell counts of lactic acid bacteria reached 10^9CFU/mL. Jerusalem artichoke juice that was fermented by beneficial lactic acid bacteria had a good flavor, the main flavor compounds were diverse due to the different species of lactic acid bacteria. Although the lactic cultures of fermented Jerusalem artichoke juice gradually lost their viability during cold storage, the viable cell counts of these lactic acid bacteria still remained at 10^8CFU/mL after 4 weeks of refrigeration at 4℃. The results of this study showed that Jerusalem artichoke juice was a potential substrate to be used for healthy

  8. Occurrence and distribution of pepper veinal mottle virus and cucumber mosaic virus in pepper in Ibadan, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Arogundade Olawale; Balogun Olusegun; Kareem Kehinde

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Viral diseases constitute obstacles to pepper production in the world. In Nigeria, pepper plants are primarily affected by pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Pepper leaf curl Virus (TLCV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Pepper mottle virus (PMV) and a host of other viruses. The experiment was carried out with a diagnostic survey on the experimental field of the National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria and on pepper farms in six local govern...

  9. Molecular and biological characterization of corchorus mottle virus, a new begomovirus from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blawid, Rosana; Fontenele, Rafaela S; Lacorte, Cristiano; Ribeiro, Simone G

    2013-12-01

    A begomovirus infecting Orinoco jute (Corchorus hirtus) from Brazil was characterized. Molecular analysis revealed a bipartite genomic organization, which is typical of the New World begomoviruses. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic data showed that both genomic components have the closest relationship with abutilon mosaic Brazil virus, with an identity of 87.3 % for DNA-A, indicating that this virus is a member of a new begomovirus species for which the name "Corchorus mottle virus" (CoMoV) is proposed. Sida rhombifolia plants inoculated by biolistics with an infectious clone of CoMoV showed systemic vein chlorosis, mottling and leaf deformation symptoms, while Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato plants had symptomless infection. CoMoV is the first corchorus-infecting begomovirus reported in Brazil. PMID:23812656

  10. Breeding biology of Mottled Ducks on agricultural lands in southwestern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, R.S.; Afton, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    Breeding biology of Anas fulvigula maculosa (Mottled Ducks) has been described in coastal marsh and associated habitats, but little information is available for agricultural habitats in Louisiana. We located nests to determine nest-initiation dates and clutch sizes during the primary breeding season (February-May) in 1999 (n = 29) and 2000 (n = 37) on agricultural lands in southwestern Louisiana. In 1999, 60% of located nests were initiated between 22 March and 10 April, whereas in 2000, only 22% of nests were initiated during the same time period. Average clutch size was 0.9 eggs smaller in 2000 than in 1999. Annual differences in reproductive parameters corresponded with extremely dry conditions caused by low rainfall before the laying period in 2000. Flooded rice fields appear to be important loafing and feeding habitat of Mottled Ducks nesting in agricultural lands, especially during drought periods when other wetland types are not available or where natural wetlands have been eliminated.

  11. Complete genome sequence of yacon necrotic mottle virus, a novel putative member of the genus Badnavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ye-Ji; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Young-Kee; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Hong-Soo; Seo, Jang-Kyun

    2015-04-01

    The complete genome sequence of a previously undescribed virus isolated from a yacon plant exhibiting necrotic mottle, chlorosis, stunting, and leaf malformation symptoms in Gyeongju, Korea, was determined. The genome of this virus consists of one circular double-stranded DNA of 7661 bp in size. The genome contained four open reading frames (ORFs 1 to 4) on the plus strand that potentially encode proteins of 26, 32, 234, and 25 kDa. Protein BLAST analysis showed that ORF3, which is the largest ORF, has 45 % amino acid sequence identity (with 89 % coverage) to the ORF3 of fig badnavirus 1 (FBV-1), a recently identified badnavirus. Phylogenetic analysis provided further evidence that the virus identified in this study is probably a member of a new species in the genus Badnavirus. The name yacon necrotic mottle virus (YNMoV) is proposed for this new virus. PMID:25643816

  12. Protective Effect of γ-Irradiated Dried Powder of Artichoke Leaves against CCl4 Oxidative Stress Induced in Rat Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liver injuries are one of the most degenerative worldwide diseases and can lead to different complications. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is full of natural antioxidants and has hepato protective effect against liver toxicity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used as a first choice sterilization method of raw medicinal plants to be used in the phytotherapic industry worldwide .This study was designed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with γ- irradiated artichoke against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity. The results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of artichoke leaves indicated that the value of some of the main phenolic constituents was elevated under the effect of γ-irradiation (10 KGy). CCl4 administration resulted in significant increase in the activity of serum alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase and transaminase in addition to an increase in the level of total bilirubine, malondialdehyde (MDA), glucose and the concentration of some lipid contents. Furthermore, CCl4 administration reduced glutathione content, superoxides dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity as well as a remarkable decrease in the level of insulin and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was observed. In CCl4-treated rats dietary supplemented with either raw or γ-irradiated artichoke, a significant amelioration was observed on the adverse effects of the above mentioned parameters induced by CCl4 administration. The present findings concluded that artichoke may be useful, as dietary supplement and possess phenolic compounds, for the prevention of oxidative stress-induced hepatotoxicity

  13. Carbon sequestration and Jerusalem artichoke biomass under nitrogen applications in coastal saline zone in the northern region of Jiangsu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Li; Manxia, Chen; Xiumei, Gao; Xiaohua, Long; Hongbo, Shao; Zhaopu, Liu; Zed, Rengel

    2016-10-15

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in guream(-2)): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK). The biomass of different organs of Jerusalem artichoke during the growth cycle was significantly higher in N2 than the other treatments. Under different nitrogen treatments, carbon density in organs of Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419gCkg(-1). Carbon sequestration in Jerusalem artichoke was higher in treatments with nitrogen fertilization compared to the CK treatment. The highest carbon sequestration was found in the N2 treatment. Soil carbon content was higher in the 0-10cm than 10-20cm layer, with nitrogen fertilization increasing carbon content in both soil layers. The highest soil carbon sequestration was measured in the N2 treatment. Carbon sequestration in both soil and Jerusalem artichoke residue was increased by nitrogen fertilization depending on the rates in the coastal saline zone studied. PMID:27317133

  14. Thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains representing potentials for bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke by consolidated bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Nan [Agricultural Univ., Qingdao, SD (China). College of Animal Science and Technology; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, SD (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Shi-An; Li, Fu-Li [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, SD (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels; Sun, Juan [Agricultural Univ., Qingdao, SD (China). College of Animal Science and Technology

    2012-09-15

    Thermotolerant inulin-utilizing yeast strains are desirable for ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). To obtain such strains, 21 naturally occurring yeast strains isolated by using an enrichment method and 65 previously isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were investigated in inulin utilization, extracellular inulinase activity, and ethanol fermentation from inulin and Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour at 40 C. The strains Kluyveromyces marxianus PT-1 (CGMCC AS2.4515) and S. cerevisiae JZ1C (CGMCC AS2.3878) presented the highest extracellular inulinase activity and ethanol yield in this study. The highest ethanol concentration in Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour fermentation (200 g L{sup -1}) at 40 C achieved by K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C was 73.6 and 65.2 g L{sup -1}, which corresponded to the theoretical ethanol yield of 90.0 and 79.7 %, respectively. In the range of 30 to 40 C, temperature did not have a significant effect on ethanol production for both strains. This study displayed the distinctive superiority of K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C in the thermotolerance and utilization of inulin-type oligosaccharides reserved in Jerusalem artichoke tubers. It is proposed that both K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae have considerable potential in ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by a high temperature CBP. (orig.)

  15. Monoclonal antibody-based serological methods for detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Yajuan; Zhou Xueping; Xie Yan; Shang Haili; Wu Jianxiang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), a member of the genus Tobamovirus, can be transmitted by seeds and infects many cucurbit species, causing serious yield losses in cucumber and watermelon plants. In this paper, five serological methods including antigen-coated plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA), triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA), Dot-immunobinding assay (DBIA), direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA) and immuno...

  16. Survey of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus and Cherry green ring mottle virus incidence in Korea by Duplex RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Yeol Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV and Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV have recently been occurred in Korea, posing a problem for sweet cherry cultivation. Since infected trees have symptomless leaves or ring-like spots on the pericarp, it is difficult to identify a viral infection. In this study, the incidence of CNRMV and CGRMV in sweet cherry in Gyeongbuk province was surveyed using a newly developed duplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method that can detect both viruses in a single reaction. CNRMV and CGRMV co-infection rates were 29.6%, 53.6%, and 17.6%, respectively, in samples collected from three different sites (Daegu, Gyeongju and Gyeongsan in Gyeongbuk province during 2012 and 2013. This duplex RT-PCR method offers a simple, rapid, and effective way of identifying CNRMV and CGRMV simultaneously in sweet cherry trees, which can aid in the management of viral infections that could undermine yield.

  17. Identification of Cherry green ring mottle virus on Sweet Cherry Trees in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sook Cho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2012 growing season, 154 leaf samples were collected from sweet cherry trees in Hwaseong, Pyeongtaek, Gyeongju, Kimcheon, Daegu, Yeongju and Eumseong and tested for the presence of Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV. PCR products of the expected size (807 bp were obtained from 6 samples. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences of the clones showed over 88% identities to published coat protein sequences of CGRMV isolates in the GenBank database. The sequences of CGRMV isolates, CGR-KO 1−6 shared 98.8 to 99.8% nucleotide and 99.6 to 100% amino acid similarities. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Korean CGRMV isolates belong to the group II of CGRMV coat protein genes. The CGRMV infected sweet cherry trees were also tested for Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV, Apple mosaic virus (ApMV, Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV, Cherry mottle leaf virus (CMLV, Cherry rasp leaf virus (CRLV, Cherry leafroll virus (CLRV, Cherry virus A (CVA, Little cherry virus 1 (LChV1, Prune dwarf virus (PDV and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV by RT-PCR. All of the tested trees were also infected with ACLSV.

  18. Diagnostic sérologique des isolats soudano-sahéliens du virus de la panachure jaune du riz (Rice Yellow Mottle Virus, RYMV)

    OpenAIRE

    Konaté, G.; Gumedzoé, MYD.; Traoré, EVS.; Traoré, O.

    2008-01-01

    Serological Diagnosis of Sudano-Sahelian Isolates of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV). Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) is the most damaging virus infecting rice in Africa. Serology is a suitable detection method for RYMV but most available anti-RYMV polyclonal antibodies react poorly with some isolates of the virus, which undermine the reliability of the method. A broad-spectrum polyclonal antibody was raised against Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) in order to improve the serological detection...

  19. Enzymatic browning and after-cooking darkening of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Vibe; Bennedbæk-Jensen, Sidsel; Clausen, Morten Rahr;

    2013-01-01

    enzymatic browning, but Rema and Draga had higher scores than Mari in after-cooking darkening. Jerusalem artichoke tubers had higher contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids and citric acid in the autumn and low contents in the spring, while it was the opposite for malic acid. None of the chemical......Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) undergo enzymatic browning when peeled or cut, and turn grey after boiling, due to after-cooking darkening reactions between iron and phenolic acids. In an attempt to reveal the components responsible for these discolouration reactions, sensory...... evaluation and instrumental colour measurements were related to contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids, organic acids and iron in three varieties of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers harvested in the autumn and the spring. No differences were found between varieties in sensory evaluated...

  20. [Effects of hot-NaOH pretreatment on Jerusalem artichoke stalk composition and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Qiu, Jingwen; Li, Yang; Shen, Fei

    2015-10-01

    In order to explore the possibility of Jerusalem artichoke stalk for bioenergy conversion, we analyzed the main composition of whole stalk, pitch, and core of the stalk. Meanwhile, these parts were pretreated with different NaOH concentrations at 121 degrees C. Afterwards, enzymatic hydrolysis was performed to evaluate the pretreatment efficiency. Jerusalem artichoke stalk was characterized by relatively high lignin content (32.0%) compared with traditional crop stalks. The total carbohydrate content was close to that of crop stalks, but with higher cellulose content (40.5%) and lower hemicellulose (19.6%) than those of traditional crop stalks. After pretreatment, the lignin content in the whole stalk, pitch, and core decreased by 13.1%-13.4%, 8.3%-13.5%, and 19.9%-27.2%, respectively, compared with the unpretreated substrates. The hemicellulose content in the whole stalk, pitch, and core decreased 87.8%-96.9%, 87.6%-95.0%, and 74.0%-90.2%, respectively. Correspondingly, the cellulose content in the pretreated whole stalk, pitch, and core increased by 56.5%-60.2%, 52.2%-55.4%, and 62.7%-73.2%, respectively. Moreover, increase of NaOH concentration for pretreatment could improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of the whole stalk and pitch by 2.3-2.6 folds and 10.3-18.5 folds, respectively. The hydrolysis of pretreated stalk core decreased significantly as 2.0 mol/L NaOH was employed, although the increased NaOH concentration can also improve its hydrolysis performance. Based on these results, hot-NaOH can be regarded as an option for Jerusalem artichoke stalk pretreatment. Increasing NaOH concentration was beneficial to hemicellulose and lignin removal, and consequently improved sugar conversion. However, the potential decrease of sugar conversion of the pretreated core by higher NaOH concentration suggested further optimization on the pretreatment conditions should be performed. PMID:26964335

  1. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in cucurbit crops of KPK, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Asad Ali; Adil Hussain; Musharaf Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Field survey of the cucurbit crops revealed a high incidence of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK), Pakistan. Among the seven districts surveyed, average percent incidence of CGMMV was recorded up to 58.1% in district Nowshera, followed by 51.1% in district Charsada, 40.5% in district Swabi and 37.3% in district Mardan. In Swat and Dir districts average incidence CGMMV was recorded upto 31.2% and 29.4%, respectively. Among the different crops highe...

  2. Detection and molecular characterization of Pepper mild mottle virus in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Dragana; Stanković Ivana; Bulajić Aleksandra; Ignjatov Maja; Nikolić Zorica; Petrović Gordana; Krstić Branka

    2015-01-01

    During 2009 and 2010, a survey was conducted in pepper crops to detect the possible presence of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) in Serbia. A total of 239 pepper samples from 39 crops at 26 localities were collected and analyzed for the presence of PMMoV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Potato virus Y (PVY), and Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), using DAS-ELISA test. Although it was detected in a small percentage, PMMoV could pose a threat to pepper production in Se...

  3. Establishment of fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Bionectria ochroleuca (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) as endophytes on artichoke Cynara scolymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesmi-Jouini, J; Garrido-Jurado, I; López-Díaz, C; Ben Halima-Kamel, M; Quesada-Moraga, E

    2014-06-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are commonly found in diverse habitats and are known to cause mycoses in many different taxa of arthropods. Various unexpected roles have been recently reported for fungal entomopathogens, including their presence as fungal endophytes, plant disease antagonists, rhizosphere colonizers and plant growth promoting fungi. In Tunisia, a wide range of indigenous EPF isolates from different species, such as Beauveria bassiana and Bionectria ochroleuca, were found to occur in the soil, and to be pathogenic against the artichoke aphid Capitophorus elaeagni (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Since endophytic fungi are recently regarded as plant-defending mutualists and their presence in internal plant tissue has been discussed as an adaptive protection against insects, we were interested on elucidating the possible endophytic behavior of B. bassiana and B. ochroleuca on artichoke, Cynara scolymus, after foliar spraying tehcnique. The leaf spray inoculation method was effective in introducing the inoculated fungi into the plant tissues and showed, then, an endophytic activity on artichoke even 10 days later. According S-N-K test, there was significant differences between the two fungal treatments, B. ochroleuca (84% a) and B. bassiana (78% a), and controls (0% b). Likewise, the inoculated entomopathogenic fungi were also isolated from new leaves even though with significant differences respectively between controls (0% c), B. bassiana (56% b) and B. ochroleuca (78% a). These results reveals significant new data on the interaction of inoculated fungi with artichoke plant as ecological roles that can be exploited for the protection of plants. PMID:24681358

  4. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. in a Biorefinery Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Johansson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals as a single product was too expensive to be competitive with petrochemically produced sugars. Therefore, production of several products from the same crop is a must. Additional products are protein based ones from tubers and leaves and biogas from residues, although both are of low value and amount. High bioactive activity was found in the young leaves of the crop, and the sesquiterpene lactones are of specific interest, as other compounds from this group have shown inhibitory effects on several human diseases. Thus, future focus should be on understanding the usefulness of small molecules, to develop methods for their extraction and purification and to further develop sustainable and viable methods for the production of platform chemicals.

  5. Screening of Jerusalem artichoke varieties for bio-ethanol production in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarinho, P.C.; Oliveira, A.C.; Rosa, M.F. [INETI, Departamento de Energias Renovaveis, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, Ed. G, 1649-038, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of the potential of 9 Jerusalem artichoke varieties for the sustainable production of bio-ethanol in Portugal. The tubers, which are the part of the plant with higher sugar content, were harvested at different stages of development (29 to 55 weeks), and crashed for juice extraction. The two phases obtained were characterized in terms of total sugars, protein, ash and dry matter. The ethanol productivity of the different J. artichoke varieties was then evaluated fermenting juice or mixtures of juice and pulp aqueous extract with a strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, a yeast able to hydrolyze and ferment inulin polymers. The chamical characteristic more dependable on the harvest period was the amount of total sugars in the tubers. Juices, obtained until 48 weeks development, contained 173 - 235 g/L of total sugars while juices from the last harvest presented markedly lower sugar contents, indicating crop degradation or sugar migration to the soil. Regarding the fermentative process, ethanol yields ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 g/g. The main conclusion of this work indicates C13 variety as the best. Although bearing a lower sugar concentration in tubers, the substantially higher agricultural productivities (kg/m2) after 8 months growing allowed to estimate productions higher than 10 000 L/ha.

  6. Protective Role of Ca Against NaCl Toxicity in Jerusalem Artichoke by Up-Regulation of Antioxidant Enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Yan-Feng; LIU Ling; LIU Zhao-Pu; S. K.MEHTA; ZHAO Geng-Mao

    2008-01-01

    The ameliorative effect of external Ca2+ on Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) under salt stress was studied through biochemical and physiological analyses of Jerusalem artichoke seedlings treated with or without 10 mol L-1 CaCl2, 150 mmol L-1 NaCl, and/or 5 mmol L-1 ethylene-bis(oxyethylenenitrilo)-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) for five days. Exposure to NaCl (150 mmol L-1) decreased growth, leaf chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic rate of Jerusalem artichoke seedlings. NaCl treatment showed 59% and 37% higher lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage, respectively, than the control. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) were decreased by NaCl, indicating an impeded antioxidant defense mechanism of Jerusalem artichoke grown under salt stress. Addition of 10 mmol L-1 CaCl2 to the salt solutions significantly decreased the damaging effect of NaCl on growth and chlorophyll content and simultaneously restored the rate of photosynthesis almost to the level of the control. Ca2+ addition decreased the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage from NaCl-treated seedlings by 47% and 24%, respectively, and significantly improved the activities of SOD, POD, and CAT in NaCl-treated plants. Addition of ECTA, a specific chelator of Ca2+, decreased the growth, chlorophyll content, and photosynthesis, and increased level of MDA and electrolyte leakage from NaCl-treated plants and from the control plants. ECTA addition to the growth medium also repressed the activities of SOD, POD, and CAT in NaCl-treated and control seedlings. External Ca2+ might protect Jerusalem artichoke against NaCl stress by up-regulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes and thereby decreasing the oxidative stress.

  7. THE SUPPLEMENTARY RELATIONS BETWEEN THE PROTEINS OF MOTTLED GRAM BEAN AND CERTAIN OTHER CEREALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗登义

    2006-01-01

    @@ It has been well understood that a mixture of vegetable and animal proteins is of higher quality than the former alone, and also there are some remarkable instances of effective supplementing between the proteins of certain cereals and certain legume seeds[1]. In practice, it is very valuable for the selection of human diets and farm-animal relations. This question is especially important in China where the protein of the average diet are mainly of vegetable origin, in which about 83 percent are derived from cereals and 11 percent from beans[2]. However, a review of the literature indicates that no work has been done on the supplementary relationships of the protein of mottled gram bean with those of other cereals. The writer purchased, therefore, from the Peiping market some cheaper cereals commonly used in China, namely, yellow corn(黄玉米), red kaoliang(红高粱),oat meal(油麦面),panicled glutinous and non-glutinous millets(黄米及糜子米); and determined the supplementary values between the proteins of mottled gram bean and these cereals. The experimental details are communicated in the present paper.

  8. The occurrence and control of pepper mild mottle virus(PMMoV)in the USDA/ARS Capsicum germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four-thousand-four-hundred and three seed inventories of Capsicum spp. obtained from the USDA/ARS Capsicum germplasm collection were tested for the presence of Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV). Approximately 32% of these inventories tested positive for PMMoV and the virus distribution was nearly un...

  9. Detection of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus-infected watermelon seeds using short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cucurbit diseases caused by cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) have led to a serious problem to growers and seed producers because it is difficult to prevent spreading through causal agent of seeds. Conventional detection methods for infected seed such as a biological, serological, and m...

  10. CyMSatDB: The Globe Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) Microsatellite Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portis, Ezio; Portis, Flavio; Valente, Luisa;

    include 66.700 compound SSRs. CyMSatDB (http://www.artichokegenome.unito.it) is a user-friendly and freely accessible tool, and offers chromosome wise as well as location wise search of primers by implementing Primer3. This web application, based on a LAMP solution stack, organizes microsatellites data in......The first high-quality genome assembly of the globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) has been recently produced at the DISAFA (Plant Genetics and Breeding) within the Compositae Genome Project (Scaglione et al. 2014, XXII PAG Conference). The assembly contains 13K scaffolds (N50= 125...... a MySQL database and provides an effective and responsive interface developed in PHP. To cater the customized needs of wet lab, features with a novelty of an automated primer designing tool is added. The feature of user defined primer designing has great advantage in terms of precise selection from...

  11. CyMSatDB: The Globe Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) Microsatellite Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Portis, Ezio; Portis, Flavio; Valente, Luisa;

    2015-01-01

    include 66.700 compound SSRs. CyMSatDB (http://www.artichokegenome.unito.it) is a user-friendly and freely accessible tool, and offers chromosome wise as well as location wise search of primers by implementing Primer3. This web application, based on a LAMP solution stack, organizes microsatellites data in......The first high-quality genome assembly of the globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) has been recently produced at the DISAFA (Plant Genetics and Breeding) within the Compositae Genome Project (Scaglione et al. 2014, XXII PAG Conference). The assembly contains 13K scaffolds (N50= 125...... a MySQL database and provides an effective and responsive interface developed in PHP. To cater the customized needs of wet lab, features with a novelty of an automated primer designing tool is added. The feature of user defined primer designing has great advantage in terms of precise selection from...

  12. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a Biorefinery Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini;

    2015-01-01

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper...... as a single product was too expensive to be competitive with petrochemically produced sugars. Therefore, production of several products from the same crop is a must. Additional products are protein based ones from tubers and leaves and biogas from residues, although both are of low value and amount. High...... bioactive activity was found in the young leaves of the crop, and the sesquiterpene lactones are of specific interest, as other compounds from this group have shown inhibitory effects on several human diseases. Thus, future focus should be on understanding the usefulness of small molecules, to develop...

  13. Artichoke and milk thistle pills and syrups as sources of phenolic compounds with antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; José Alves, Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-07-13

    Dietary supplements based on hepatoprotective plants have been increasingly used in the prevention of liver injuries. In the present work, the aim was to study the phenolic profile and possibly relate it to the in vitro antimicrobial activity of two different formulations (pills and syrups) of artichoke and milk thistle, the antioxidant and anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activities of which were previously reported by our research group. The phenolic profiles were obtained by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, and the antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed with the clinical isolates of multiresistant bacteria (Escherichia coli, extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Artichoke syrup revealed the presence of vanillic acid and luteolin-7-O-glucoside while the pills possessed higher concentrations of 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and 1,3-O-dicaffeoylquinic acids, this latest being able to inhibit the growth of MRSA. Regarding milk thistle formulations, the syrup presented isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-dihexoside, isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-hexoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside as the major phenolic constituents whereas the pills were richer in taxifolin, silymarin derivatives and hydroxylated silibinin; the syrup revealed antimicrobial activity against all the studied bacteria with the exception of Proteus mirabilis whereas the pills revealed activity against ESBL producing Escherichia coli. Overall, all of the studied formulations revealed to be a good source of phenolic compounds, among which milk thistle syrup presented the highest variety and concentration of flavonoids, which is possibly related to its strongest antimicrobial activity. PMID:27273551

  14. Ontology and diversity of transcript-associated microsatellites mined from a globe artichoke EST database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanteri Sergio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L. is a significant crop in the Mediterranean basin. Despite its commercial importance and its both dietary and pharmaceutical value, knowledge of its genetics and genomics remains scant. Microsatellite markers have become a key tool in genetic and genomic analysis, and we have exploited recently acquired EST (expressed sequence tag sequence data (Composite Genome Project - CGP to develop an extensive set of microsatellite markers. Results A unigene assembly was created from over 36,000 globe artichoke EST sequences, containing 6,621 contigs and 12,434 singletons. Over 12,000 of these unigenes were functionally assigned on the basis of homology with Arabidopsis thaliana reference proteins. A total of 4,219 perfect repeats, located within 3,308 unigenes was identified and the gene ontology (GO analysis highlighted some GO term's enrichments among different classes of microsatellites with respect to their position. Sufficient flanking sequence was available to enable the design of primers to amplify 2,311 of these microsatellites, and a set of 300 was tested against a DNA panel derived from 28 C. cardunculus genotypes. Consistent amplification and polymorphism was obtained from 236 of these assays. Their polymorphic information content (PIC ranged from 0.04 to 0.90 (mean 0.66. Between 176 and 198 of the assays were informative in at least one of the three available mapping populations. Conclusion EST-based microsatellites have provided a large set of de novo genetic markers, which show significant amounts of polymorphism both between and within the three taxa of C. cardunculus. They are thus well suited as assays for phylogenetic analysis, the construction of genetic maps, marker-assisted breeding, transcript mapping and other genomic applications in the species.

  15. Syneresis, rheological characteristic and sensory consistency of the artichoke sauce (Cynara scolymus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mora Barandiarán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the concentration of three hydrocolloids: CMC, guar gum and xanthan gum on the syneresis, rheological features and sensory consistency of the artichoke sauce (Cynara scolymus L. Imperial Star variety was studied. The syneresis was determined by the water loss by centrifugation, the rheological features of the artichoke sauce was determined using a Brookfield RVDV – III model rheometer and finally, the sensory consistency was determined by measuring the degree of satisfaction with hedonic scale of nine points. A simplex lattice design blends with centroid expanded under the response surface methodology was applied to establish the effect of the concentration of hydrocolloid on syneresis, rheological features and sensory consistency. In all treatments, the apparent viscosity decreased with shear rate demonstrating a “non Newtonian” behavior of “general plastic” type with an “n” value less than 1 and an initial shear stress. The flow behavior index “n” was in the range of 0.0856 and 0.3131 (n < 1 and the consistency index “k” in the range of 84.55 y 167.80 Pa.sn , the initial shear stress was in the range of 9,10 y 13,51 Pa and consistency sensory presented score of “like” to “like slightly”. Finally, the hydrocolloid mixture was optimized over the area of feasible formulation. With the optimal mixture, corresponding to 0.28% CMC, 0.13% guar gum and 0.59% xanthan gum is expected to obtain a 0.089% of syneresis and a rating of 6 in terms of sensory consistency.

  16. Genetic mapping and identification of QTL for earliness in the globe artichoke/cultivated cardoon complex

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    Portis Ezio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asteraceae species Cynara cardunculus (2n = 2x = 34 includes the two fully cross-compatible domesticated taxa globe artichoke (var. scolymus L. and cultivated cardoon (var. altilis DC. As both are out-pollinators and suffer from marked inbreeding depression, linkage analysis has focussed on the use of a two way pseudo-test cross approach. Results A set of 172 microsatellite (SSR loci derived from expressed sequence tag DNA sequence were integrated into the reference C. cardunculus genetic maps, based on segregation among the F1 progeny of a cross between a globe artichoke and a cultivated cardoon. The resulting maps each detected 17 major linkage groups, corresponding to the species’ haploid chromosome number. A consensus map based on 66 co-dominant shared loci (64 SSRs and two SNPs assembled 694 loci, with a mean inter-marker spacing of 2.5 cM. When the maps were used to elucidate the pattern of inheritance of head production earliness, a key commercial trait, seven regions were shown to harbour relevant quantitative trait loci (QTL. Together, these QTL accounted for up to 74% of the overall phenotypic variance. Conclusion The newly developed consensus as well as the parental genetic maps can accelerate the process of tagging and eventually isolating the genes underlying earliness in both the domesticated C. cardunculus forms. The largest single effect mapped to the same linkage group in each parental maps, and explained about one half of the phenotypic variance, thus representing a good candidate for marker assisted selection.

  17. Jerusalem artichoke as a platform for inulin, ethanol and feed production in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anyia, A.O.; Mostafa, H.; Melnichuk, R.; Slaski, J.J. [Alberta Research Council, Vegreville, AB (Canada). Bioresource Technologies Unit

    2009-07-01

    The Alberta Research Council (ARC) is developing an extraction and fermentation process for making ethanol from Jerusalem artichoke (JA). In particular, ARC has collaborated with Olds College in developing an extraction process and an engineering process for the commercial production of inulin, ethanol, polymers and animal feed from JA tubers. Fresh JA tubers contain about 20 per cent of water soluble carbohydrates, which occur primarily in the form of inulin. Several health promoting benefits are associated with intake of inulin. High volumes of dry residual aerial biomass following tuber harvest contain 40 to 50 per cent water soluble carbohydrates that are fermentable to ethanol. Some studies have shown that under optimal climatic conditions, JA can yield more ethanol per ha than sugarcane. ARC has the exclusive North American rights to several high yielding JA cultivars. Jerusalem artichoke is not a designated food crop and has a high biomass yield for soluble sugars. This perennial crop forms tubers, has a deep root system that can be adapted to marginal lands. ARC's research involves a seed to final product technology development approach that includes new variety development, agronomy and processing. ARC applied a hot water extraction technique along with a low liquid to JA stalk ratio to achieve more than 40 per cent total water soluble carbohydrates per gram of biomass that are fermentable to ethanol without the need for weak acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. A 400 hectare plantation of JA in Alberta could produce about 1,500 tonnes of inulin and 1.5 million liters of ethanol per year in a pilot scale bio-refining plant. An economic and market analysis showed that capital investments in an inulin production plant in Alberta will be a profitable venture. ARC has estimated a 5 year Internal Rate of Return (IRR) to range from 10 to 30 per cent and payback period of 4 to 5 years depending on plant location and value of by-products. tabs., figs.

  18. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. productivity in different Italian growing areas: a modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Baldini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jerusalem artichoke is considered one of the more interesting crops for inulin production. It has been used to date for the production of low calorie sweetening syrups, dietetic food enriched with fibre, medicines and cosmetics, while more recently, interesting prospects have been opening up for energy uses. The main aspects influencing its adaptability to different pedo-climatic conditions and cropping systems were analysed by implementing CSS (Cropping System Simulator, a simulation model describing crop biomass production for this specific crop. Growth analysis experimental data of plant dry matter accumulation, obtained over two years of trials (1999-2000 in different Italian growing areas (Udine, Bologna, Bari under irrigated and rain-fed conditions, were used for the parameterisation and calibration of the model. The biomass accumulation observed and simulated under rain-fed and irrigated conditions in the different growing areas is reported for the different plant organs, with good correspondence shown between simulated and measured values as reported by the statistical indices for the model calibration, particularly for biomass of tubers and leaves. The model studied, despite a simplified description of some processes, proves to represent the maximum biomass yield of Jerusalem artichoke satisfactorily, with an adequate response to the main environmental factors causing yield and biomass production variation among the years and locations. However, further model improvements are necessary in order to better represent the relationship between phenology and translocation of the assimilates between stalk and tuber during the development phases of the plant, suggesting shorter survey intervals over this growing phase.

  19. Classification of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infected watermelon seeds using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoonsoo; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-05-01

    The Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus (CGMMV) is a globally distributed plant virus. CGMMV-infected plants exhibit severe mosaic symptoms, discoloration, and deformation. Therefore, rapid and early detection of CGMMV infected seeds is very important for preventing disease damage and yield losses. Raman spectroscopy was investigated in this study as a potential tool for rapid, accurate, and nondestructive detection of infected seeds. Raman spectra of healthy and infected seeds were acquired in the 400 cm-1 to 1800 cm-1 wavenumber range and an algorithm based on partial least-squares discriminant analysis was developed to classify infected and healthy seeds. The classification model's accuracies for calibration and prediction data sets were 100% and 86%, respectively. Results showed that the Raman spectroscopic technique has good potential for nondestructive detection of virus-infected seeds.

  20. Landscape epidemiology of bean pod mottle comovirus: molecular evidence of heterogeneous sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jeffrey D; Zhang, Chunquan; Hill, John H; Rice, Marlin E

    2011-09-01

    Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) RNAs are grouped into subgroups (sgI and sgII). A BPMV partial diploid reassortant (IA-Di1) from the perennial Desmodium illinoense contained both RNA1 subgroups and an RNA1 recombinant. The RNA2 of IA-Di1 was characteristic of sgII. Additionally, ten BPMV isolates from a soybean field adjacent to the locality of IA-Di1 shared >98.5% nucleotide identity with RNA1 sgII of IA-Di1. The data demonstrate the co-existence of two differing consensus BPMV RNA1 subgroups in adjacent habitats and illustrate variation in virus genetic structure that can occur in a contiguous plant community. PMID:21562882

  1. Evidence for Non-Transmission of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV through Rice Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy, AA.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An indexing of the organs (radicle and plumule and components (husk, endosperm and embryo of rice seeds using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was carried out to detect Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV and establish the exact location of the virus in the rice seed. RYMV was detected only in the husk (seed coat but not in the endosperm, plumule, radicle, nor embryo. None of the seedlings raised from the seeds expressed RYMV symptoms. No virus particle was detected by the ELISA test in the leaves of the screenhouse-reared plants obtained from seeds of infected plants. The results indicate that RYMV is apparently not transmitted through rice seed probably because the virus is seed-borne in the husk (seed coat of mature rice seeds.

  2. Cellulosic bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) using hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Younho; Wi, Seung Gon; Kim, Ho Myeong; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is recognized as a suitable candidate biomass crop for bioethanol production because it has a rapid growth rate and high biomass productivity. In this study, hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) pretreatment was used to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis and to effectively remove the lignin of JA. With optimized enzyme doses, synergy was observed from the combination of three different enzymes (RUT-C30, pectinase, and xylanase) which provided a conversion rate was approximately 30% higher than the rate with from treatment with RUT-C30 alone. Fermentation of the JA hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced a fermentation yield of approximately 84%. Therefore, Jerusalem artichoke has potential as a bioenergy crop for bioethanol production. PMID:27115748

  3. The Extracellular Matrix Protein Artichoke Is Required for Integrity of Ciliated Mechanosensory and Chemosensory Organs in Drosophila Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés, Marta; Turiégano, Enrique; Göpfert, Martin C.; Canal, Inmaculada; Torroja, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Sensory cilia are often encapsulated by an extracellular matrix (ECM). In Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and vertebrates, this ECM is thought to be directly involved in ciliary mechanosensing by coupling external forces to the ciliary membrane. Drosophila mechano- and chemosensory cilia are both associated with an ECM, indicating that the ECM may have additional roles that go beyond mechanosensory cilium function. Here, we identify Artichoke (ATK), an evolutionarily conse...

  4. The content of protein and of amino acids in Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L. of red variety Rote Zonenkugel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Cieślik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. is grown primarily for its edible tubers, which were first cultivated by native Americans before the arrival of the Europeans. Unlike most tubers, but in common with other members of the Asteraceae, the tubers store fructans instead of starch. Fructans are non-digestible carbohydrates considered functional food ingredients because they affect body processes in ways that result in better health and in many diseases prevention. However, the Jerusalem artichoke deserves attention not only because of the content of fructans, recent studies also indicate a high protein content, including essential amino acids. Material and methods. The aim of the work was to establish the content of protein and amino acids in Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L. of red variety – Rote Zonenkugel. The content of protein was estimated by Dumas method. The amino acids composition was analysed with ion-change chromatography with postcolumn derivatisation and detection of ninhydryn reaction with automatic amino acids analyser. Results. The assessed liophylisate was characterised by high protein content (6.36% in comparison to chicory (which is the main industrial source of fructans and to commonly consumed potatoes. There was shown a few times higher content of essential amino acids (also of methionine in comparison to chicory and potato. The examined essential amino acids were present in very advantagenous proportions. Conclusions. In Jerusalem artichoke tubers of Rote Zonenkugel variety of the high content of protein was established in comparison to other plant sources. The high content was found of amino acids with special stress on essential amino acids (esp. sulphur ones.  

  5. Cloning and functional characterization of two abiotic stress-responsive Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) fructan 1-exohydrolases (1-FEHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanhuan; Liang, Mingxiang; Xu, Li; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xi; Kang, Jian; Zhao, Qingxin; Zhao, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Two fructan hydrolases were previously reported to exist in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) and one native fructan-β-fructosidase (1-FEH) was purified to homogeneity by SDS-PAGE, but no corresponding cDNA was cloned. Here, we cloned two full-length 1-FEH cDNA sequences from Jerusalem artichoke, named Ht1-FEH I and Ht1-FEH II, which showed high levels of identity with chicory 1-FEH I and 1-FEH II. Functional characterization of the corresponding recombinant proteins in Pichia pastoris X-33 demonstrated that both Ht1-FEHs had high levels of hydrolase activity towards β(2,1)-linked fructans, but low or no activity towards β(2,6)-linked levan and sucrose. Like other plant FEHs, the activities of the recombinant Ht1-FEHs were greatly inhibited by sucrose. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that Ht1-FEH I transcripts accumulated to high levels in the developing leaves and stems of artichoke, whereas the expression levels of Ht1-FEH II increased in tubers during tuber sprouting, which implies that the two Ht1-FEHs play different roles. The levels of both Ht1-FEH I and II transcript were significantly increased in the stems of NaCl-treated plants. NaCl treatment also induced transcription of both Ht1-FEHs in the tubers, while PEG treatments slightly inhibited the expression of Ht1-FEH II in tubers. Analysis of sugar-metabolizing enzyme activities and carbohydrate concentration via HPLC showed that the enzyme activities of 1-FEHs were increased but the fructose content was decreased under NaCl and PEG treatments. Given that FEH hydrolyzes fructan to yield Fru, we discuss possible explanations for the inconsistency between 1-FEH activity and fructan dynamics in artichokes subjected to abiotic stress. PMID:25522837

  6. Analysis of Essential Oil in Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) Leaves and Tubers by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmi, Zead; Al Azzam, Khaldun Mohammad; Tsymbalista, Yuliya; Ghazleh, Refat Abo; Shaibah, Hassan; Aboul-Enein, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate, for the first time, the chemical composition of essential oil of the tubers and leaves of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), a species of sunflower native to eastern North America, growing in Ukraine. Methods: A hydrodistillation apparatus was used for the extraction of volatile components and then it was analysed by gas chromatography equipped with a split-splitless injector (split ratio, 1:50) and flame ionization detector (FID). The oil was analyzed under linear temperature programming applied at 4°C/min from 50°C - 340°C. Temperatures of the injector and FID detector were maintained at 280°C and 300°C, respectively. The chemical analysis of the oil was carried out using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), to determine the chemical composition of the volatile fraction. Results: The essential oils content ranged from 0.00019 to 0.03486 and 0.00011 to 0.00205 (g/100g), in leaves and tubers, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative analysis led to the identification of 17 components in both species samples. The major component found in leaves and tubers was (-)-β-bisabolene with 70.7% and 63.1%, respectively. Conclusion: Essential oil profile of Jerusalem artichoke species showed significant differences between leaves and tubers species. Additionally, the leaves of Jerusalem artichoke are a promising source of natural β-bisabolene. PMID:25671184

  7. Soil Properties and Yield of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) with Seawater Irrigation in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Geng-Mao; LIU Zhao-Pu; CHEN Ming-Da; GUO Shi-Wei

    2008-01-01

    Irrigation with various dilutions of seawater can act as an alternate water resource and thus plays an important role in saving freshwater resources as well as promoting agriculture in the coastal semi-arid areas of the North China Plain.Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) grown in a field experiment was irrigated with seawater diluted with freshwater from 2001 to 2003 to determine the feasibility of seawater irrigation in the Laizhou area.For treatments of CK (non-irrigation) along with seawater concentrations of 25%,50%,and 75%,total dissolved solid (TDS) in the non-irrigated soil significantly increased (P ≤0.05) in both 2002 and 2003 and was 1.3 times higher in 2003 than in 2001.In the 25%and 50% seawater concentration treatments,TDS in 2001 was significantly greater (P ≤ 0.05) than CK;however,TDS in these two treatments decreased by 34.9% and 40.1%,respectively,in 2003 compared with 2001.The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) remained below 10 mmol1/2 L-1/2,indicating that alkalization was low with seawater irrigation.In 2001 and 2002,compared to CK and the irrigation treatment with 75% seawater,irrigation with 25% and 50% seawater increased the yields of Jerusalem artichoke,This meant that Jerusalem artichoke could be safely grown in salt-affected land of Laizhou area with 25% and 50% seawater irrigation.

  8. Conte nt of nutritive components, dietary fi bre and energy value of artichoke depending on the variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Mentel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. is a perennial plant belonging to Asteraceae family. It is less popular vegetable in Poland but very valuable from nutritive and medicinal points of view plant. Material and methods. The experiments were conducted in 2008 and 2009 on fi ve artichoke varieties: ‘Deutscher Hybrid’, ‘Emerald F1’, Green Globe’, ‘Gros Camus de Bretague’ and ‘Kerlouan’, grew in Poland, France and Austria. The experimental material was assessed for: dry mass, protein, ash, vitamin C and dietary fi ber contents and some mineral components (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, iron, zinc levels. Also the energy value and total carbohydrates content were calculated in the vegetable. Results. Among assessed varieties, the highest contents of such components as: dry mass (total solids, carbohydrates, ash, vitamin C, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron were found in ‘Gros Camus de Bretague’. The hearts of that artichoke had also higher energy value than others. Whereas the lowest ash, phosphorus, sodium, potassium and magnesium were noticed in ‘Kerlouan’ variety. But the highest values of dietary fi ber was observed in that variety. Conclusions. Basing on performed assessments the differences in nutritive components and dietary fi ber, between analysed vegetable varieties were found.

  9. Extractions of High Quality RNA from the Seeds of Jerusalem Artichoke and Other Plant Species with High Levels of Starch and Lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanupat Mornkham

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. is an important tuber crop. However, Jerusalem artichoke seeds contain high levels of starch and lipid, making the extraction of high-quality RNA extremely difficult and the gene expression analysis challenging. This study was aimed to improve existing methods for extracting total RNA from Jerusalem artichoke dry seeds and to assess the applicability of the improved method in other plant species. Five RNA extraction methods were evaluated on Jerusalem artichoke seeds and two were modified. One modified method with the significant improvement was applied to assay seeds of diverse Jerusalem artichoke accessions, sunflower, rice, maize, peanut and marigold. The effectiveness of the improved method to extract total RNA from seeds was assessed using qPCR analysis of four selected genes. The improved method of Ma and Yang (2011 yielded a maximum RNA solubility and removed most interfering substances. The improved protocol generated 29 to 41 µg RNA/30 mg fresh weight. An A260/A280 ratio of 1.79 to 2.22 showed their RNA purity. Extracted RNA was effective for downstream applications such as first-stranded cDNA synthesis, cDNA cloning and qPCR. The improved method was also effective to extract total RNA from seeds of sunflower, rice, maize and peanut that are rich in polyphenols, lipids and polysaccharides.

  10. Chicory and Jerusalem artichoke productivity in different areas of Italy, in relation to water availability and time of harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe De Mastro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Inulin is an important polysaccharide synthesised by different crops, which, in the EU has been included in the system of sugar quotas since 1994. Currently, one of the major problems of the agro-industry is the need to extend the length of the sugar crop harvest season. It was therefore decided, also in relation to the increased demand for inulin, to study the two main inulin producing crops in Italy (chicory and Jerusalem artichoke, to verify yield and quality potential and stability in relation to some important agronomic factors such as irrigation and time of harvest. The work was conducted in 1999 and 2000 in four areas of Italy (Udine, Rovigo, Bologna and Bari. The effects evaluated were time of harvest (3 for chicory and 2 for Jerusalem artichoke and irrigation system (evapotranspiration replacement and dry regime, with irrigation applied only when strictly necessary on the production of storage organs, sugars and inulin in the two crops. The highest chicory root yield was in Bologna, with an average production of 65.6 t ha-1 (fresh weight, compared to Rovigo (54.4 t ha-1, Bari (46.5 t ha-1 and Udine (38.7 t ha-1. For final tuber yield in Jerusalem artichoke, Bari was the most productive environment with an average of 80 t ha-1, followed by Bologna (61 t ha-1 and Udine (55.5 t ha-1. However, when this crop is whole-plant harvested (stalks and tubers at pre-flowering, Bologna, with high stalk yields (58.7 t ha-1 appeared to be the most suitable environment. This type of harvesting was also shown to be more productive in terms of sugar and inulin yield. The total sugar content in the different organs analysed (roots, stalk and tubers was always higher in Udine compared to Bologna, for both crops. Lastly, the length of the inulin chain (average degree of polymerisation [DP] diminishes with the delaying of the harvest in both crops. The Bologna area had the highest potential in terms of chicory root production, while for the tubers yield of

  11. A reassessment of the epidemiology of Rice yellow mottle virus following recent advances in field and molecular studies

    OpenAIRE

    Traoré, O.; Pinel Galzi, Agnès; Sorho, F.; Sarra, S.; Rakotomalala, M.; Sangu, E.; Kanyeka, Z.; Séré, Y.; Konaté, G.; Fargette, Denis

    2009-01-01

    The available knowledge on the epidemiology of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) is reassessed in the light of major advances in field and molecular studies of the disease it causes in rice. Previously undescribed means of transmission by mammals and through leaf contact have been discovered recently. Several agricultural practices, including the use of seedbed nurseries, have also contributed to a massive build-up of RYMV inoculum. Phytosanitation is now known to be critical to reduce disease ...

  12. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in cucurbit crops of KPK, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asad; Hussain, Adil; Ahmad, Musharaf

    2014-01-01

    Field survey of the cucurbit crops revealed a high incidence of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK), Pakistan. Among the seven districts surveyed, average percent incidence of CGMMV was recorded up to 58.1% in district Nowshera, followed by 51.1% in district Charsada, 40.5% in district Swabi and 37.3% in district Mardan. In Swat and Dir districts average incidence CGMMV was recorded upto 31.2% and 29.4%, respectively. Among the different crops highest incidence in plain areas of KPK was recorded in bottle gourd (59.3%) followed by 56.3% in Squash, 54.5% in Pumpkin, 45.5% in Melon, 41.7% in Cucumber and 29.9% in Sponge gourd. In Northern hilly areas highest incidence of CGMMV (52.9%) was observed in pumpkin, followed by 49.6% in bottle gourd, 47.3% in squash, 45.1% in Melon 42.3% in cucumber and 41.6% in sponge gourd. Little variability was observed in the coat protein amino acid sequence identities of CGMMV Pakistan isolate, when compared with other reported isolates. PMID:25763028

  13. Short communication. First report of Eggplant mottled dwarf virus in China rose in southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Parrella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV, genus Nucleorhabdovirus, family Rhabdoviridae is transmitted in nature by leafhoppers and its natural host range includes vegetable crops (eggplant, tomato, potato, pepper, ornamentals (pittosporum, honeysuckle, pelargonium and wild plants (caper, Solanum nigrum. The prevalence of infections is generally very low. EMDV has been demonstrated to be the causal agent of a vein yellowing disease of China rose (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in southern Italy. In this work, four locations from Málaga and Granada provinces (southern Spain were surveyed in 2011 to study the prevalence of EMDV infections in China rose by serological and molecular methods. Overall, EMDV was detected in 77.3% of the samples (33 out of 45 samples tested. Mechanical transmission tests and immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the presence of EMDV. The possible causes of such a high and unexpected prevalence are discussed. The use of molecular hibridization with an EMDV specific riboprobe is proposed for early screening of vegetative propagated China rose plants to avoid dissemination of infected material.

  14. Structural rigidity in the capsid assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has a protein cage, or capsid, which encloses its genetic material. The structure of the capsid consists of 180 copies of a single protein that self-assemble inside a cell to form a complete capsid with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral surface can be naturally divided into pentagonal and hexagonal faces, and the formation of either of these faces has been proposed to be the first step in the capsid assembly process. We have used the software FIRST to analyse the rigidity of pentameric and hexameric substructures of the complete capsid to explore the viability of certain capsid assembly pathways. FIRST uses the 3D pebble game to determine structural rigidity, and a brief description of this algorithm, as applied to body-bar networks, is given here. We find that the pentameric substructure, which corresponds to a pentagonal face on the icosahedral surface, provides the best structural properties for nucleating the capsid assembly process, consistent with experimental observations

  15. Unstable infectivity and sedimentable ds-RNA associated with lettuce speckles mottle virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, B W; Morris, T J; Duffus, J E

    1979-07-15

    Infectivity associated with extracts of lettuce speckles mottle virus (LSMV)-infected tissues is unstable and is susceptible to short periods of aging in vitro or low concentrations of RNase. Infected leaves extracted using phenol yielded greater infectivity than comparable tissue extracted with buffer. No typical virus particles were observed in infected tissues or clarified preparations, but 50- to 70-nm spherical membranous particles were observed associated with the tonoplast in vacuoles of infected cells. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of nucleic acids from infected tissue and LSMV-clarified preparations revealed abundant double-stranded RNA (ds-RNA) in both preparations. A species of LSMV-specific single-stranded RNA (ss-RNA) was also present in LSMV bentonite-clarified preparations. Infectivity was associated only with the ss-RNA fraction. Quantitative isolation of ds-RNA from whole tissue and clarified preparations showed the majority of the ds-RNA was recovered from the bentonite-clarified fractions, and this RNA appeared to be associated with a relatively small structure of a low buoyant density. These data suggest that LSMV lacks a functional coat protein and the sedimentable dsRNA fraction from LSMV-infected tissues more likely contains a viral-specific replication site and not true virus particles. PMID:18631594

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of the mottled skate: Raja pulchra (Rajiformes, Rajidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dageum; Kim, Sung; Kim, Choong-Gon; Myoung, Jung-Goo; Lee, Youn-Ho

    2016-05-01

    The complete sequence of mitochondrial DNA of a mottled skate, Raja pulchra was sequenced as being circular molecules of 16,907 bp including 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and an AT-rich control region. The organization of the PCGs is the same as those found in other Rajidae species. The nucleotide of L-strand is composed of 29.8% A, 28.0% C, 27.9% T, and 14.3% G with a bias toward A + T slightly. Twelve of 13 PCGs are initiated by the ATG codon while COX1 starts with GTG. Only ND4 harbors the incomplete termination codon, TA. All tRNA genes have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA with the exception of [Formula: see text] which has a reduced DHU arm. This mitogenome will provide essential information for better phylogenetic resolution and precision of the family Rajidae and the genus Raja as well as for establishment of a fish stock recovery plan of the species. PMID:25317638

  17. Purification and immuno-gold labeling of lily mottle virus from lily leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yubao; Wang, Yajun; Xie, Zhongkui; Wang, Ruoyu; Guo, Zhihong; van der Werf, Wopke; Wang, Le

    2016-06-01

    Lily mottle virus (LMoV) is prevalent in Lilium species worldwide causing dwarfing, flower breaking, and reduced bulb yield. In this paper, an easy to use and efficient procedure is described for purification of LMoV from lily leaves. The resulting sample is characterized by a 260/280nm absorbance ratio of 1.20 at a concentration of 1.27mg/ml. The procedure results in high protein purity and particle integrity as shown by UV-spectrophotometry, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), Western blotting, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in combination with immuno-gold labeling. This is the first time that an immuno-gold labeling (IGL) assay was performed to identify a virus of lily. Purified products can be used as a source of antigen in the preparation of antibodies against LMoV and may assist in the development of a diagnostic test for LMoV and in epidemiological surveys. PMID:26927705

  18. Detection and molecular characterization of Pepper mild mottle virus in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2009 and 2010, a survey was conducted in pepper crops to detect the possible presence of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV in Serbia. A total of 239 pepper samples from 39 crops at 26 localities were collected and analyzed for the presence of PMMoV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Potato virus Y (PVY, and Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, using DAS-ELISA test. Although it was detected in a small percentage, PMMoV could pose a threat to pepper production in Serbia due to its rapid seed-borne spread. Presence of PMMoV was confirmed by serological and biological detection, followed by conventional reverse transcription RT-PCR, using primers specific for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp and the coat protein (CP genes. Molecular identification confirmed that the Serbian isolates belong to PMMoV pathotypes P1,2 which do not break the resistance gene L3. Reconstructed phylogenetic tree confirmed the allocation of the Serbian isolates together with the majority of PMMoV isolates which belong to pathotypes P1,2. This study represents the first serological and molecular characterization of PMMoV infection of pepper in Serbia, and provides important data on the population structure. The obtained data could have great influence on pepper production in Serbia as well as future pepper resistance breeding in the country. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31030 i br. III-43001

  19. Preparation of Inulin Powder from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) Tuber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinameb, Bang-orn; Nuchadomrong, Suporn; Jogloy, Sanun; Patanothai, Aran; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2015-06-01

    The complete procedure for the production of inulin powder from Jerusalem artichoke tubers (JAT) was investigated. The procedure consists of isolation of inulin from JAT, elimination of color from the inulin extract and solidification. Washed tubers were first sliced, dried in a 60 °C oven for 10 h and then milled and sieved into a powder. Inulin was isolated from the JAT powder by hot water extraction using an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE). The effects of temperature and time for the extraction were investigated. The highest extraction efficiency was obtained at the extraction temperature of 80 °C for 20 min. The color of the extract was eliminated using ion exchange process with diethylaminoethyl cellulose as the sorbent. The inulin powder was subsequently obtained by freeze drying. Inulin content and inulin profiles were monitored to evaluate the efficiencies of the complete procedure. The inulin content was indirectly determined by spectrophotometry from free and total fructose measurements using potassium iodide. The inulin profile was monitored using high performance anion exchange chromatography equipped with integrated pulse amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). The proposed method provided the inulin production yield of 92.5%. The present procedure is fast, simple and effective for production of inulin powder from JAT. In addition, infrared spectra and some physico-chemical properties of the obtained inulin powder were determined and compared with the standard inulin. PMID:25804251

  20. Salting-out Extraction of 2,3-Butanediol from Jerusalem artichoke-based Fermentation Broth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Jianying; ZHANG Yuanli; XIU Zhilong

    2011-01-01

    The removal of solid impurities and separation of target products from a fermentation broth is becoming more tedious with the utilization of lignocelluloses as source of substrate.2,3-Butanediol,an important chemical used widely is also a main product of sugar-based fermentation carried out by Klebsiella pneumoniae.In this study,we investigated the use of salting-out extraction(SOE) that employed a K2HPO4/ethanol system consisting of 21% ethanol and 17% K2HPO4(mass fraction) to separate 2,3-butanediol from the viscous Jerusalem artichoke-based fermentation broth.After SOE,about 98% of solid matters was removed,and the viscosity decreased from 72.5 mPa s in the original fermentation broth to 4.4 mPa s in the top phase.The partition coefficient and yield of 2,3-butanediol reached 13.4 and 99%,respectively,and 89% of soluble proteins was removed from the broth.The results showed that SOE is an efficient way for isolating 2,3-BD from a highly viscous fermentation broth by removing much of the solid matters within the broth.

  1. Effect of temperature on acid hydrolysis of Jerusalem artichoke as raw material for ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmovski Radojka N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jerusalem artichoke (JA is a low-requirement crop, which does not interfere with food chain, and is a promising carbon source for industrial fermentation. Microbial conversion of such a renewable raw material to useful products, such as ethanol, is an important objective in industrial biotechnology. In this study, ethanol was efficiently produced from the hydrolyzates of JA obtained at different pH values (pH 2.5, pH 3.0 and pH 3.5, temperature (120, 130, 132 and 134°C and hold time (30 and 60 min by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The efficient degradation of JA by HCl under certain experimental conditions was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography. Ethanol concentration of 7.52% (w/w, which corresponds to 93.89 % of the theoretical yield is achieved by ethanol fermentation of JA hydrolyzate obtained at pH 2.5. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31002

  2. Effect of Seawater Stress on Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Five Jerusalem Artichoke Ecotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Xiao-Hua; CHI Jin-He; LIU Ling; LI Qing; LIU Zhao-Pu

    2009-01-01

    Three treatments consisting of 0%,15%,and 30% seawater were investigated to analyse the ecotypic variabilities among five populations of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) regarding their responses to seawater stress under a hydroponic culture system.Analyses were done 2,4,and 6 days after treatments.The 15% and 30% seawater treatments reduced the growth rates of roots and shoots of H.tuberosus populations.The activities of superoxide dismutase,peroxidase,and catalase majored in the leaves were stimulated under the seawater stress.The electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde contents of the leaves were also stimulated owing to seawater stress.The contents of proline and solublesugars in the leaves increased significantly with increasing seawater concentrations.The concentrations of Na+,K+,and Cl-in the aerial parts and roots increased with an increase in the seawater concentration throughout the experimental period.There were ccotypic differences among the five populations of H.tuberosus as evidenced by the analyses of the above items in both aerial parts and roots under seawater treatment.The magnitude of the ecotypic variance components indicated that a substantial proportion of the total variation for these physiological and biochemical responses were owing to ecotype,indicating the possibility of improvement through hybridization and selection.

  3. Quality of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. Tubers in Relation to Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honorata DANILČENKO

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of storage conditions on quality parameters of Jerusalem artichoke cv. 'Swojecki' was investigated. Tubers were kept in a cold chamber at the temperature of 20C and RH 90-95% for a period of four months. Three methods of storage were applied: in polypropylene (PP net bags, in the sand or the peat. During storage period there were systematically determined, using standard methods: weight loss, dry matter, soluble solids, total and reducing sugars content and sucrose content. Results showed that the method of storage strongly affected quality degradation of the tubers. The biggest weight loss after two months of storage were noticed for tubers kept in PP net bags. Storage in the sand or the peat significantly reduced weight loss. When tubers were kept in PP net bags, dry matter after four months of storage was 2.2 times bigger, compared with tubers kept in the sand or the peat. The highest loss of soluble solids (4% was found after four months of storage in the case of storage tubers in PP net bags. Irrespective of storage conditions, the lowest content of total sugars and sucrose in tubers were found after two months of storage. The biggest concentration of reducing sugars in tissue was found in tubers kept in PP net bags.

  4. Artichoke compound cynarin differentially affects the survival, growth and stress response of normal, immortalized and cancerous human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gezer, Ceren; Yücecan, Sevinç; Rattan, Suresh Inder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Cynarin (CYN) is the main derivative of caffeoylquinic acid, found in leaves and heads of artichoke. Potential health-beneficial effects of CYN include as being choloretic-cholesterol lowering, hepatoprotective, anti-atherosclerotic, and antioxidative. We have tested the effects of various doses of...... CYN on the proliferative potential, survival, morphology, and stress response (SR) markers haemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) in normal human skin fibroblasts (FSF-1), telomerase-immortalized mesenchymal stem cells (hTERT-MSC) and cervical cancer cells, HeLa. Effects of CYN on...

  5. The giant mottled eel, Anguilla marmorata, uses blue-shifted rod photoreceptors during upstream migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Catadromous fishes migrate between ocean and freshwater during particular phases of their life cycle. The dramatic environmental changes shape their physiological features, e.g. visual sensitivity, olfactory ability, and salinity tolerance. Anguilla marmorata, a catadromous eel, migrates upstream on dark nights, following the lunar cycle. Such behavior may be correlated with ontogenetic changes in sensory systems. Therefore, this study was designed to identify changes in spectral sensitivity and opsin gene expression of A. marmorata during upstream migration. Microspectrophotometry analysis revealed that the tropical eel possesses a duplex retina with rod and cone photoreceptors. The λmax of rod cells are 493, 489, and 489 nm in glass, yellow, and wild eels, while those of cone cells are 508, and 517 nm in yellow, and wild eels, respectively. Unlike European and American eels, Asian eels exhibited a blue-shifted pattern of rod photoreceptors during upstream migration. Quantitative gene expression analyses of four cloned opsin genes (Rh1f, Rh1d, Rh2, and SWS2 revealed that Rh1f expression is dominant at all three stages, while Rh1d is expressed only in older yellow eel. Furthermore, sequence comparison and protein modeling studies implied that a blue shift in Rh1d opsin may be induced by two known (N83, S292 and four putative (S124, V189, V286, I290 tuning sites adjacent to the retinal binding sites. Finally, expression of blue-shifted Rh1d opsin resulted in a spectral shift in rod photoreceptors. Our observations indicate that the giant mottled eel is color-blind, and its blue-shifted scotopic vision may influence its upstream migration behavior and habitat choice.

  6. Bean pod mottle virus: a new powerful tool for functional genomics studies in Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziadi, Chouaib; Blanchet, Sophie; Richard, Manon M S; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Geffroy, Valérie; Pflieger, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important legume worldwide. The importance of pea in arable rotations and nutritional value for both human and animal consumption have fostered sustained production and different studies to improve agronomic traits of interest. Moreover, complete sequencing of the pea genome is currently underway and will lead to the identification of a large number of genes potentially associated with important agronomic traits. Because stable genetic transformation is laborious for pea, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) appears as a powerful alternative technology for determining the function of unknown genes. In this work, we present a rapid and efficient viral inoculation method using DNA infectious plasmids of Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-derived VIGS vector. Six pea genotypes with important genes controlling biotic and/or abiotic stresses were found susceptible to BPMV carrying a GFP reporter gene and showed fluorescence in both shoots and roots. In a second step, we investigated 37 additional pea genotypes and found that 30 were susceptible to BPMV and only 7 were resistant. The capacity of BPMV to induce silencing of endogenes was investigated in the most susceptible genotype using two visual reporter genes: PsPDS and PsKORRIGAN1 (PsKOR1) encoding PHYTOENE DESATURASE and a 1,4-β-D-glucanase, respectively. The features of the 'one-step' BPMV-derived VIGS vector include (i) the ease of rub-inoculation, without any need for biolistic or agro-inoculation procedures, (ii) simple cost-effective procedure and (iii) noninterference of viral symptoms with silencing. These features make BPMV the most adapted VIGS vector in pea to make low- to high-throughput VIGS studies. PMID:26896301

  7. The three-dimensional structure of ryegrass mottle virus at 2.9 A resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevka, Pavel; Tars, Kaspars; Zeltins, Andris; Balke, Ina; Truve, Erkki; Liljas, Lars

    2007-12-20

    The crystal structure of the sobemovirus Ryegrass mottle virus (RGMoV) has been determined at 2.9 A resolution. The coat protein has a canonical jellyroll beta-sandwich fold. In comparison to other sobemoviruses the RGMoV coat protein is missing several residues in two of the loop regions. The first loop contributes to contacts between subunits around the quasi-threefold symmetry axis. The altered contact interface results in tilting of the subunits towards the quasi-threefold axis. The assembly of the T=3 capsid of sobemoviruses is controlled by the N-termini of C subunits forming a so-called beta-annulus. The other loop that is smaller in the RGMoV structure contains a helix that participates in stabilization of the beta-annulus in other sobemoviruses. The loss of interaction between the RGMoV loop and the beta-annulus has been compensated for by additional interactions between the N-terminal arms. As a consequence of these differences, the diameter of the RGMoV particle is 8 A smaller than that of the other sobemoviruses. The interactions of coat proteins in sobemovirus capsids involve calcium ions. Depletion of calcium ions results in particle swelling, which is considered a first step in disassembly. We could not identify any density for metal ions in the proximity of the conserved residues normally involved in calcium binding, but the RGMoV structure does not show any signs of swelling. A likely reason is the low pH (3.0) of the crystallization buffer in which the groups interacting with the calcium ions are not charged. PMID:17881031

  8. Monoclonal antibody-based serological methods for detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yajuan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV, a member of the genus Tobamovirus, can be transmitted by seeds and infects many cucurbit species, causing serious yield losses in cucumber and watermelon plants. In this paper, five serological methods including antigen-coated plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA, triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA, Dot-immunobinding assay (DBIA, direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA and immunocapture reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR were described for detection and diagnosis of CGMMV. Results Using the purified CGMMV particles as immunogens, six murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs were produced. Five serological methods were established using the MAb 4H1 and detection sensitivity was compared using purified preparations and infected-plant tissue extracts. The detection sensitivity of ACP-ELISA was 0.16 ng of purified CGMMV, whereas TAS-ELISA was more sensitive than ACP-ELISA with a minimum detection of 0.04 ng of purified CGMMV. The sensitivities of TAS-ELISA and DBIA were similar for detecting CGMMV in infected-plant tissue extracts, and were four times higher than ACP-ELISA. The IC-RT-PCR was the most sensitive method, which could detect as little as 0.1 pg of purified virus. The detection sensitivity of IC-RT-PCR for CGMMV-infected plant tissues was about 400 times higher than that of TAS-ELISA and DBIA. Conclusions The established ACP-ELISA, TAS-ELISA, DBIA and DTBIA are suitable for routine CGMMV detection of large-scale samples in the field survey, while IC-RT-PCR is more sensitive and suitable for acquiring information about the viral genome.

  9. Study on the Molecular Variation and PCR Detection of Strawberry mottle virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong-yi; LI Li-li; DAI Hong-yan; ZHANG Zhi-hong

    2009-01-01

    Strawberry mottle virus (SMoV) is an important viral pathogen infecting strawberry (Fragaria spp.). The study was conducted to analyze the characterization of the molecular variation of SMoV and develop the methods for detection of SMoV by nested PCR and transcriptional enhancement techniques. The 3' non-coding region (NCR) and large coat protein (LCP) gene of SMoV genome were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The specific segments were cloned and sequenced. The characterization of the molecular variation for some isolates of SMoV and phylogenetic analysis were studied. Based on the primers located in the conserved region of genome of SMoV, SMoV could be steadily detected using semi-nested PCR and transcriptional enhancement techniques. Both semi-nested PCR and transcriptional enhancement techniques were considerably more sensitive than the standard RT-PCR. The nucleotide sequences of NCR and partial LCP gene of Chinese isolates were obtained, and sequence analysis of the partial LCP gene of various SMoV isolates showed nucleotide identities ranging from 76.8 to 99.7%. There was a slight tendency for isolates to group according to their geographical origin. All 3 Polish isolates, 4 isolates of 7 Dutch isolates, and 3 isolates of 4 Chinese isolates formed a small separate branch, respectively. Two Germanic isolates had a far relationship with other isolates, and formed a separate clade. A high level of sequence variability was found among SMoV isolates, and the Germanic isolates were likely to a special strain group.

  10. In vitro callus-induction in globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) as a system for the production of caffeoylquinic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menin, B.; Moglia, A.; Comino, C.; Hakkert, J.C.; Lanteri, S.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) provides a rich dietary source of bio-active compounds derived from phenylpropanoid metabolism, notably caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) and flavonoids. Micropropagation techniques have been established for this species, but in vitro cultures have not

  11. Genetic mapping and characterization of the globe artichoke (+)-germacrene A synthase gene, encoding the first dedicated enzyme for biosynthesis of the bitter sesquiterpene lactone cynaropicrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menin, B.; Comino, C.; Portis, E.; Moglia, A.; Cankar, K.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Lanteri, S.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L., Asteraceae) is a perennial crop traditionally consumed as a vegetable in the Mediterranean countries and rich in nutraceutically and pharmaceutically active compounds, including phenolic and terpenoid compounds. Its bitter taste is caused by its

  12. Free-range pigs foraging on Jerusalem artichokes (Helianthus tuberosus L.) – Effect of feeding strategy on growth, feed conversion and animal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Horsted, Klaus; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional contributions from free-range foraging, growth, feed conversion and behaviour were investigated in 36 growing pigs foraging on Jerusalem artichokes (JA) and fed concentrates restrictedly (30% of energy recommendations) or ad libitum. Compared to the ad libitum fed pigs, the pigs fed...

  13. Complete Nucleotide Sequences and Genome Organization of Two Pepper Mild Mottle Virus Isolates from Capsicum annuum in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Kook; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Yoon, Ju-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV)-P2 and -P3 were determined by the Sanger sequencing method. Although PMMoV-P2 and PMMoV-P3 have different pathogenicity in some pepper cultivars, the complete genome sequences of PMMoV-P2 and -P3 are composed of 6,356 nucleotides (nt). In this study, we report the complete genome sequences and genome organization of PMMoV-P2 and -P3 isolates from pepper species in South Korea. PMID:27198033

  14. Molecular characterization of Indian isolate of peanut mottle virus and immunodiagnosis using bacterial expressed core capsid protein

    OpenAIRE

    Soumya, K.; Yogita, M.; Prasanthi, Y.; K.Anitha; Kishor, P. B. Kavi; Jain, R. K.; Mandal, Bikash

    2014-01-01

    Peanut mottle virus (PeMoV), a seed borne potyvirus was recorded in India in 1978, however the virus was not characterized at molecular level. In the present study, an isolate of PeMoV infecting peanut in southern India was characterized based on host reactions and coat protein (CP) gene sequence, which revealed that the Indian isolate was very close to a peanut isolate reported from Israel and distinct from pea isolate reported from USA. The core region of CP gene that contained majority of ...

  15. Spawning Characteristics and Artificial Hatching of Female Mottled Skate, Beringraja pulchra in the West Coast of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Hee-Woong; Jo, Yeong-Rok; Kang, Duk-Yong; Jeong, Gyeong-Suk; Jo, Hyun-Su

    2013-01-01

    The gonadsomatic index (GSI) of mottled skate was the highest in April, GSI and HSI showed a reverse phase for its reproductive cycle. The fish had one pair of egg capsules, having 1 to 7 fertilized eggs, and spawned all the year round. When surveying the reproductive characteristics of females over 63 ㎝ in disc width, we found the spawning peak was between April to June, and the appearance ratio of egg capsules was the highest in May (32.1%). The eggs were hatched at 8°C, 13°C, 18°C, water t...

  16. Effect of NO-3-N Enrichment on Seawater Stress Tolerance of Jerusalem Artichoke(Helianthus tuberosus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment with six treatments,i.e.,0% seawater(control),10% seawater,25% seawater,0% seawater +N(7.5 mmol L-1 NaNO3),10% seawater + N(7.5 mmol L-1 NaNO3),and 25% seawater +N(7.5 mmol L-1 NaNO3),was carried out to study the effect of nitrogen addition on the growth and physiological and biochemical characteristics of Jerusalem artichoke(Helianthus tuberosus)seedlings under seawater stress.The 10% seawater stress treatment had the least effect on plant growth while at 25% seawater growth was significantly inhibited.The malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage in leaves under 10% seawater were similar to those of the control,but significantly higher under the 25% seawater stress.The activities of superoxide dismutase,peroxidase and catalase in the leaves increased concomitantly with increasing seawater concentration and time.Proline and soluble-sugars in the leaves and Na+,K+,and Cl- contents in shoots and roots increased significantly with the concentration of seawater increasing.Nitrogen addition resulted in increasing fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots compared with seawater treatment without N.Nitrogen supplemen-tation also significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in leaves.Addition of N to seawater enhanced the contents of proline and soluble-sugars in the leaves and K+ and total-N in the aerial parts and roots of H.tuberosus,but it resulted in declined concentrations of Na+ and Cl- in the aerial parts and roots.Nitrogen addition ameliorated the toxicity of seawater by improving the antioxidative enzymes,accumulating of proline and soluble-sugars,and altering the distribution of inorganic ions in H.tuberosus.

  17. Preparative separation of polyphenols from artichoke by polyamide column chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Xikai; Wang, Mei; Liu, Daicheng [College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Wang, Daijie; Lin, Xiaojing; Liu, Jianhua; Wang, Xiao; Huang, Luqi, E-mail: wxjn1998@126.com [Shandong Analysis and Test Center, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2013-09-01

    An efficient method for the rapid separation and purification of polyphenols from artichoke by polyamide column chromatography in combination with high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully built. The crude ethanol extracts from dry artichoke were first pre-separated by polyamide column chromatography and divided in two parts as sample 1 and sample 2. Then, the samples were further separated by HSCCC and yielded 7.8 mg of chlorogenic acid (compound I), 24.5 mg of luteolin-7-O-{beta}-D-rutinoside (compound II), 18.4 mg of luteolin-7-O-{beta}-D-glucoside (compound III), and 33.4 mg of cynarin (compound IV) with purity levels of 92.0%, 98.2%, 98.5%, and 98.0%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The chemical structures of these compounds were identified by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). (author)

  18. New method for determining sensory shelf life using fuzzy logic: canned marinated artichoke hearts (Cynara scolymus L. case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Vásquez-Villalobos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sensory preference (sp and shelf life of sensory acceptability (SLSA of canned artichoke hearts were modeled using fuzzy logic (FL and accelerated testing. The artichoke hearts were marinated in oil of sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis, soybean (Glycine max and olive (Olea europea; and evaluated using a Ranking test with a semi-trained panel, to identify the best preference both for flavor (f and limpidity (l. We evaluated a global sp through intersection (AND and union (OR fuzzy operations of f and l, using functions of triangular membership with the Mamdani method for defuzzificacion through 25 linguistic rules. The intersection showed the best modeling performance, with the highest sp value at 3.30 for the treatment with sacha inchi (50%, olive (25% and soybean (25% (p << 0.05 oil, which was subjected to accelerated testing at 37 °C, 49 °C, 55 °C and evaluated according to their sensory acceptability (SA through an unstructured scale test in terms of f and l. The SLSA was determined using accelerated testing with FL through intersection fuzzy operation of f and l, triangular membership functions for f and l, and also 25 linguistic rules. A SLSA at 20 ºC was determined for a "high" SA of 296 days, and 569 days for a SA between "high and beginning of medium SA". Both values were lower than the 892 days’ time determined by accelerated testing when evaluating the peroxide index in canned products.

  19. Preparative separation of polyphenols from artichoke by polyamide column chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient method for the rapid separation and purification of polyphenols from artichoke by polyamide column chromatography in combination with high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully built. The crude ethanol extracts from dry artichoke were first pre-separated by polyamide column chromatography and divided in two parts as sample 1 and sample 2. Then, the samples were further separated by HSCCC and yielded 7.8 mg of chlorogenic acid (compound I), 24.5 mg of luteolin-7-O-β-D-rutinoside (compound II), 18.4 mg of luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (compound III), and 33.4 mg of cynarin (compound IV) with purity levels of 92.0%, 98.2%, 98.5%, and 98.0%, respectively, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The chemical structures of these compounds were identified by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). (author)

  20. Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, J.M.; Mebane, C.A.; Mount, D.R.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; Greer, I.E.; May, T.W.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 ??g/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 ??g/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 ??g/L (Missouri) and 1.9 ??g/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 ??g/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 ??g/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  1. Genomic analyses of cherry rusty mottle group and cherry twisted leaf-associated viruses reveal a possible new genus within the family betaflexiviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, D E V; Susaimuthu, J; Eastwell, K C

    2015-03-01

    It is demonstrated that closely related viruses within the family Betaflexiviridae are associated with a number of diseases that affect sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and other Prunus spp. Cherry rusty mottle-associated virus (CRMaV) is correlated with the appearance of cherry rusty mottle disease (CRMD), and Cherry twisted leaf-associated virus (CTLaV) is linked to cherry twisted leaf disease (CTLD) and apricot ringpox disease (ARPD). Comprehensive analysis of previously reported full genomic sequences plus those determined in this study representing isolates of CTLaV, CRMaV, Cherry green ring mottle virus, and Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus revealed segregation of sequences into four clades corresponding to distinct virus species. High-throughput sequencing of RNA from representative source trees for CRMD, CTLD, and ARPD did not reveal additional unique virus sequences that might be associated with these diseases, thereby further substantiating the association of CRMaV and CTLaV with CRMD and CTLD or ARPD, respectively. Based on comparison of the nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity values, phylogenetic relationships with other triple-gene block-coding viruses within the family Betaflexiviridae, genome organization, and natural host range, a new genus (Robigovirus) is suggested. PMID:25496302

  2. Seed transmission rates of Bean pod mottle virus and Soybean mosaic virus in soybean may be affected by mixed infection or expression of the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    To facilitate their spread, plant viruses have developed several methods for dispersal including insect and seed transmission. While insect transmission requires virus stability against insect digestion, seed-transmitted viruses have to overcome barriers to entry into embryos. Bean pod mottle virus ...

  3. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  4. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for rapid diagnosis of chilli veinal mottle virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amrita; Roy, Somnath; Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Dutta, Sudip Kumar; Chandra, Satish; Ngachan, S V

    2016-07-01

    Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV) causes significant economic loss to chilli cultivation in northeastern India, as well as in eastern Asia. In this study, we have developed a single-tube one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for rapid, sensitive and specific diagnosis of ChiVMV. Amplification could be visualized after adding SYBR Green I (1000×) dye within 60 min under isothermal conditions at 63 °C, with a set of four primers designed based on the large nuclear inclusion protein (NIb) domain of ChiVMV (isolate KC-ML1). The RT-LAMP method was 100 times more sensitive than one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), with a detection limit of 0.0001 ng of total RNA per reaction. PMID:27063408

  5. A note on outbreak of cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) in common bean in the River Nile State, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An outbreak of a devastating virus disease occurred in common ben (phaseolus vulgaris) in Berber area, the River Nile State, during the 2004/2005 cropping season, with symptoms of stunting and yellowing. The disease incidence reached a level of more than 85% in all visited fields. One hundred fifty symptomatic samples, collected from different fields at Hudeiba, Berber and Shendi were blotted on nitrocellulose membranes and tested for the presence of different viruses, using the tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA) technique. The results of the serological tests revealed that 95% of the samples were positive for cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV). Among the common bean genotypes screened for resistance to CPMMV, only RO/2/1 and Giza 3 were resistant to the disease.(Author)

  6. A Current Overview of Two Viroids That Infect Chrysanthemums: Chrysanthemum stunt viroid and Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid

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    Won Kyong Cho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The chrysanthemum (Dendranthema X grandiflorum belongs to the family Asteraceae and it is one of the most popular flowers in the world. Viroids are the smallest known plant pathogens. They consist of a circular, single-stranded RNA, which does not encode a protein. Chrysanthemums are a common host for two different viroids, the Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd and the Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd. These viroids are quite different from each other in structure and function. Here, we reviewed research associated with CSVd and CChMVd that covered disease symptoms, identification, host range, nucleotide sequences, phylogenetic relationships, structures, replication mechanisms, symptom determinants, detection methods, viroid elimination, and development of viroid resistant chrysanthemums, among other studies. We propose that the chrysanthemum and these two viroids represent convenient genetic resources for host–viroid interaction studies.

  7. Effect of the application of sulphur for the control of oidiosis “leveillula taurica” in the culture of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. var. imperial star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mauricio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the important reasons for the decay of the production of artichoke is for the disease known with the name of oidium or oidiosis or ash, " Leveillula taurica ", which provokes powdery formations in the back of the leaves, and then they invade the bundle.; inducing to a loss of mass to foliate, death of the plant and reduction in performance. With the purpose of being able to offset the effect of infection and advance of the mushroom it raise the work of investigation which was to determine the suitable dose of the sulphur for the control of oidiosis (Leveillula taurica in the culture of artichoke Cynara scolymus L var. imperial. The experiment was carried out in Victor Larco District, Trujillo, La Libertad; soil of texture clayey, a system of irrigation being used by gravity which frequency of irrigation is fortnightly for the conduction of the culture. There was used a Design of Complete Blocks at random, with four treatments and a witness, and with four repetitions. There was realized an analysis of variance and Duncan's test by a level of significant of 5 %. The results showed that the applied treatments of sulphur reduce and control the advance of the mushroom, being the best the T2, with dose 1 kg/cil. It concludes that these treatments are adapted to there be applied in the culture of artichoke for the control of oidium (Leveillula taurica.

  8. Concentración nutrimental en hojas de aguacate 'Hass' con síntoma de moteado Nutrimental concentration in 'Hass' avocado leaves with mottled symptom

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    Edgardo Federico Hernández-Valdés

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El llamado "moteado de las hojas" en el cultivo de aguacate está ampliamente distribuido en las zonas de producción más importante de México, y se desconoce los factores involucrados en la aparición de este síntoma foliar. Por ello, se contrastó el contenido nutrimental en hojas de aguacate 'Hass' colectadas de árboles sin la presencia del moteado (tratamiento A, contra hojas que tampoco manifestaran el síntoma pero provenientes de árboles con el daño foliar (tratamiento B y hojas con la presencia del síntoma (Tratamiento C. Se encontró que, aquellas hojas con "moteados" intervenales tuvieron menor concentración de N, P, K, y Mn, respecto a las que no presentaron el síntoma, mientras que las concentraciones de Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu y B hojas con y sin moteado fueron similares.The problem called as "mottled leaves" in avocado crop is widely spread in the most important production zones from Mexico, and it is unknown which factors are involved in this foliar symptom appearance. By this reason, the nutrimental content in 'Hass' avocado foils collected from trees without mottled presence (treatment A was collated against leaves that either showed the symptom although coming from trees with foliar damage (treatment b and leaves with symptom presence (Treatment C. It was found that those leaves with interveinal "mottled" had least N, P, K, and Mn concentration with regards the ones that show no symptom, while Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and B concentrations in leaves with and without mottling were similar.

  9. Diagnostic sérologique des isolats soudano-sahéliens du virus de la panachure jaune du riz (Rice Yellow Mottle Virus, RYMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konaté, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Serological Diagnosis of Sudano-Sahelian Isolates of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV. Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV is the most damaging virus infecting rice in Africa. Serology is a suitable detection method for RYMV but most available anti-RYMV polyclonal antibodies react poorly with some isolates of the virus, which undermine the reliability of the method. A broad-spectrum polyclonal antibody was raised against Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV in order to improve the serological detection of the virus. This antibody was used to diagnose the virus in field samples collected from both irrigated and upland rice and wild host plants in five West and Central African countries (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Mali and Togo. RYMV was readily detected in about 500 samples whereas a new natural host species (Eragrostis atrovirens collected from Mali was identified. The viral isolates gathered in this study constitute the starting point for a reference collection of plant viruses in the Sudano-Sahelian region. This collection will be particularly useful for the assessment of RYMV variability which is a key factor in developing rice varieties with stable resistance to the virus.

  10. Structural transitions and energy landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus capsid mechanics from nanomanipulation in vitro and in silico

    CERN Document Server

    Kononova, Olga; Brasch, Melanie; Cornelissen, Jeroen; Dima, Ruxandra I; Marx, Kenneth A; Wuite, Gijs J L; Roos, Wouter H; Barsegov, Valeri

    2015-01-01

    Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Virus shells can have applications as nanocontainers and delivery vehicles in biotechnology and medicine. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on sub-second timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) capsid show that the capsid's physical properties are dynamic and local characteristics of the structure, which depend on the magnitude and geometry of mechanical input. Surprisingly, under large deformations the CCMV capsid transitions to the collapsed state without substantial local structural alterations. The enthalpy change in this deformation state dH = 11.5 - 12.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to large-amplitude out-of-plane excitations, which contribute to the capsid bending, and the entropy change TdS = 5.1 - 5.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to coherent in-plane rearrangements of pr...

  11. Diversification of rice yellow mottle virus and related viruses spans the history of agriculture from the neolithic to the present.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Fargette

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of evolution of plant viruses are being unraveled, yet the timescale of their evolution remains an enigma. To address this critical issue, the divergence time of plant viruses at the intra- and inter-specific levels was assessed. The time of the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV; genus Sobemovirus was calculated by a Bayesian coalescent analysis of the coat protein sequences of 253 isolates collected between 1966 and 2006 from all over Africa. It is inferred that RYMV diversified approximately 200 years ago in Africa, i.e., centuries after rice was domesticated or introduced, and decades before epidemics were reported. The divergence time of sobemoviruses and viruses of related genera was subsequently assessed using the age of RYMV under a relaxed molecular clock for calibration. The divergence time between sobemoviruses and related viruses was estimated to be approximately 9,000 years, that between sobemoviruses and poleroviruses approximately 5,000 years, and that among sobemoviruses approximately 3,000 years. The TMRCA of closely related pairs of sobemoviruses, poleroviruses, and luteoviruses was approximately 500 years, which is a measure of the time associated with plant virus speciation. It is concluded that the diversification of RYMV and related viruses has spanned the history of agriculture, from the Neolithic age to the present.

  12. The 42-kDa coat protein of Andean potato mottle virus acts as a transcriptional activator in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of viral proteins play an important role in the virus life cycle, especially in capsid assembly. Andean potato mottle comovirus (APMoV is a plant RNA virus with a virion formed by two coat proteins (CP42 and CP22. Both APMoV coat protein open reading frames were cloned into pGBT9 and pGAD10, two-hybrid system vectors. HF7c yeast cells transformed with the p9CP42 construct grew on yeast dropout selection media lacking tryptophan and histidine. Clones also exhibited ß-galactosidase activity in both qualitative and quantitative assays. These results suggest that CP42 protein contains an amino acid motif able to activate transcription of His3 and lacZ reporter genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several deletions of the CP42 gene were cloned into the pGBT9 vector to locate the region involved in this activation. CP42 constructions lacking 12 residues from the C-terminal region and another one with 267 residues deleted from the N-terminus are still able to activate transcription of reporter genes. However, transcription activation was not observed with construction p9CP42deltaC57, which does not contain the last 57 amino acid residues. These results demonstrate that a transcription activation domain is present at the C-terminus of CP42 between residues 267 and 374.

  13. One-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the rapid detection of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-yu; Wei, Qi-wei; Liu, Yong; Tan, Xin-qiu; Zhang, Wen-na; Wu, Jian-yan; Charimbu, Miriam Karwitha; Hu, Bai-shi; Cheng, Zhao-bang; Yu, Cui; Tao, Xiao-rong

    2013-11-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) has caused serious damage to Cucurbitaceae crops worldwide. The virus is considered one of the most serious Cucurbitaceae quarantine causes in many countries. In this study, a highly efficient and practical one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was developed for the detection of CGMMV. The total RNA or crude RNA extracted from watermelon plants or seeds could be detected easily by this RT-LAMP assay. The RT-LAMP assay was conducted in isothermal (63°C) conditions within 1h. The amplified products of CGMMV could be detected as ladder-like bands using agarose gel electrophoresis or visualized in-tube under UV light with the addition of a fluorescent dye. The RT-LAMP amplification was specific to CGMMV, as no cross-reaction was observed with other viruses. The RT-LAMP assay was 100-fold more sensitive than that of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This is the first report of the application of the RT-LAMP assay to detect CGMMV. The sensitive, specific and rapid RT-LAMP assay developed in this study can be applied widely in laboratories, the field and quarantine surveillance of CGMMV. PMID:23933076

  14. Molecular characterization of Indian isolate of peanut mottle virus and immunodiagnosis using bacterial expressed core capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, K; Yogita, M; Prasanthi, Y; Anitha, K; Kishor, P B Kavi; Jain, R K; Mandal, Bikash

    2014-01-01

    Peanut mottle virus (PeMoV), a seed borne potyvirus was recorded in India in 1978, however the virus was not characterized at molecular level. In the present study, an isolate of PeMoV infecting peanut in southern India was characterized based on host reactions and coat protein (CP) gene sequence, which revealed that the Indian isolate was very close to a peanut isolate reported from Israel and distinct from pea isolate reported from USA. The core region of CP gene that contained majority of the predicted epitopes was successfully expressed (1.75 mg/l) in Escherichia coli as a 22 kDa protein. A high titer polyclonal antibody (PAb) to the expressed core CP was produced, which efficiently detected PeMoV. The antiserum was useful in specific detection of PeMoV as it showed negligible cross reactivity with the other potyviruses e.g., peanut stripe virus, potato virus Y, papaya ringspot virus and onion yellow dwarf virus. The PAb was validated in ELISA using 1,169 field and greenhouse samples of peanut which showed 1.85-26.3 % incidence of PeMoV in peanut seed multiplication field during 2011-2012. This is the first report of immunodiagnosis of PeMoV with a PAb to recombinant core CP of PeMoV. PMID:25674600

  15. The extracellular matrix protein artichoke is required for integrity of ciliated mechanosensory and chemosensory organs in Drosophila embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Marta; Turiégano, Enrique; Göpfert, Martin C; Canal, Inmaculada; Torroja, Laura

    2014-04-01

    Sensory cilia are often encapsulated by an extracellular matrix (ECM). In Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and vertebrates, this ECM is thought to be directly involved in ciliary mechanosensing by coupling external forces to the ciliary membrane. Drosophila mechano- and chemosensory cilia are both associated with an ECM, indicating that the ECM may have additional roles that go beyond mechanosensory cilium function. Here, we identify Artichoke (ATK), an evolutionarily conserved leucine-rich repeat ECM protein that is required for normal morphogenesis and function of ciliated sensilla in Drosophila. atk is transiently expressed in accessory cells in all ciliated sensory organs during their late embryonic development. Antibody stainings show ATK protein in the ECM that surrounds sensory cilia. Loss of ATK protein in atk null mutants leads to cilium deformation and disorientation in chordotonal organs, apparently without uncoupling the cilia from the ECM, and consequently to locomotion defects. Moreover, impaired chemotaxis in atk mutant larvae suggests that, based on ATK protein localization, the ECM is also crucial for the correct assembly of chemosensory receptors. In addition to defining a novel ECM component, our findings show the importance of ECM integrity for the proper morphogenesis of ciliated organs in different sensory modalities. PMID:24496014

  16. Salinity altered root distribution and increased diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soil of Jerusalem artichoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Hu, Jinxiang; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between roots and bacterial communities in halophytic species is poorly understood. Here, we used Jerusalem artichoke cultivar Nanyu 1 (NY-1) to characterise root distribution patterns and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil under variable salinity. Root growth was not inhibited within the salinity range 1.2 to 1.9 g salt/kg, but roots were mainly confined to 0-20 cm soil layer vertically and 0-30 cm horizontally from the plant centre. Root concentrations of K(+), Na(+), Mg(2+) and particularly Ca(2+) were relatively high under salinity stress. High salinity stress decreased soil invertase and catalase activity. Using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach, we determined higher diversity of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil at high than low salinity. More than 15,500 valid reads were obtained, and Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria predominated in all samples, accounting for >80% of the reads. On a genus level, 636 genera were common to the low and high salinity treatments at 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm depth. The abundance of Steroidobacter and Sphingomonas was significantly decreased by increasing salinity. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices with increasing severity of salt stress indicated that high salt stress increased diversity in the bacterial communities. PMID:26852800

  17. EFFECTS OF ARTICHOKE (CYNARA SCOLYMUS L. EXTRACT ADDITION ON MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PROBIOTIC YOGURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Ehsani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of addition of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. leaf extract into yogurt (0 or 0.5% on biochemical parameters (pH, titrable acidity and the viability of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 during fermentation and over 28 days of refrigerated storage (4°C were investigated. Moreover, the amounts of syneresis, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and sensory attributes of yogurts at the end of fermentation were assessed. Yogurts contained the two yogurt bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus: ABY or only S. thermophilus (ABT as adjunct culture to probiotics. Yogurts containing Cynara scolymus L. (ABT-C and ABY-C had faster acidity increase, shorter incubation time and greater final titrable acidity than control yogurts (ABT and ABY. Also, yogurts containing Cynara scolymus L. had lower syneresis, higher total phenolic content and greater antioxidant activity. ABT-C yogurt had the ever greatest viability of probiotics. In case of samples sensory evaluation, generally, the highest total score was related to ABT yogurt whereas lowest total score belonged to ABT-C yogurt.

  18. A Two-Step Nanofiltration Process for the Production of Phenolic-Rich Fractions from Artichoke Aqueous Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Cassano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercial nanofiltration (NF membranes in spiral-wound configuration (NP030 from Microdyn Nadir and Desal DK from GE Water & Process Technologies were used in a sequential design in order to produce a separated fraction of phenolic and sugar compounds from an aqueous artichoke extract. For both membranes, the effect of transmembrane pressure (TMP on the permeation flux was evaluated. In optimized conditions of TMP, the NP030 membrane exhibited high rejections of apigenin, cynarin and chlorogenic acid (higher than 85%; on the other hand, very low rejections of fructose, glucose and sucrose (lower than 4% were measured. Starting from an extract with a total antioxidant activity (TAA of 5.28 mM trolox a retentate fraction with a TAA of 47.75 mM trolox was obtained. The NF permeate from the NP030 membrane was processed with the Desal DK membrane in optimized conditions of TMP producing a permeate stream free of phenolic and sugar compounds. Accordingly, as most part of phenolic compounds was removed in the first NF step, the concentration of sugar compounds in the NF retentate had much higher results than that of phenolic compounds.

  19. Extraction of bioactive carbohydrates from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts using microwave assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; García-Sarrió, M Jesús; Alonso-Rodriguez, Belén; Ramos, Lourdes; Sanz, M Luz

    2016-04-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) methods using water as solvent have been optimized by means of a Box-Behnken and 3(2) composite experimental designs, respectively, for the effective extraction of bioactive carbohydrates (inositols and inulin) from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts. MAE at 60 °C for 3 min of 0.3 g of sample allowed the extraction of slightly higher concentrations of inositol than PLE at 75 °C for 26.7 min (11.6 mg/g dry sample vs. 7.6 mg/g dry sample). On the contrary, under these conditions, higher concentrations of inulin were extracted with the latter technique (185.4 mg/g vs. 96.4 mg/g dry sample), considering two successive extraction cycles for both techniques. Both methodologies can be considered appropriate for the simultaneous extraction of these bioactive carbohydrates from this particular industrial by-product. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that these techniques are applied for this purpose. PMID:26593602

  20. Salinity altered root distribution and increased diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soil of Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Hu, Jinxiang; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between roots and bacterial communities in halophytic species is poorly understood. Here, we used Jerusalem artichoke cultivar Nanyu 1 (NY-1) to characterise root distribution patterns and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil under variable salinity. Root growth was not inhibited within the salinity range 1.2 to 1.9 g salt/kg, but roots were mainly confined to 0–20 cm soil layer vertically and 0–30 cm horizontally from the plant centre. Root concentrations of K+, Na+, Mg2+ and particularly Ca2+ were relatively high under salinity stress. High salinity stress decreased soil invertase and catalase activity. Using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach, we determined higher diversity of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil at high than low salinity. More than 15,500 valid reads were obtained, and Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria predominated in all samples, accounting for >80% of the reads. On a genus level, 636 genera were common to the low and high salinity treatments at 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm depth. The abundance of Steroidobacter and Sphingomonas was significantly decreased by increasing salinity. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices with increasing severity of salt stress indicated that high salt stress increased diversity in the bacterial communities. PMID:26852800

  1. Optimization of microwave-assisted drying of Jerusalem artichokes (Helianthus tuberosus L. by response surface methodology and genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. KARACABEY

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate microwave-assisted drying of Jerusalem artichoke tubers to determine the effects of the processing conditions. Drying time (DT and effectivemoisture diffusivity (EMD were determined to evaluate the drying process in terms of dehydration performance, whereas the rehydration ratio (RhR was considered as a significant quality index. A pretreatment of soaking in a NaCl solution was applied before all trials. The output power of the microwave oven, slice thickness and NaCl concentration of the pretreatment solution werethe three investigated parameters. The drying process was accelerated by altering the conditions while obtaining a higher quality product. For optimization of the drying process, response surface methodology (RSM and genetic algorithms (GA were used. Model adequacy was evaluated for each corresponding mathematical expression developed for interested responses by RSM. The residual of the model obtained by GA was compared to that of the RSM model. The GA was successful in high-performance prediction and produced results similar to those of RSM. The analysis and results of the present study show that both RSM and GA models can be used in cohesion to gain insight into the bioprocessing system.

  2. Nursery inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus viscosum and its effect on the growth and physiology of hybrid artichoke seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Campanelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Most nurseries operating in Italy adopt high technologies and produce transplants that well suit and satisfy the grower’s need to produce high value crops. Mycorrhizas are discussed as a tool for improving and developing plant production in the nursery. Much research has been carried out on mycorrhizal symbiosis and we now know more about the symbiontic relationship between fungi and host plants. Plants receive numerous benefits from this symbiosis which are more macroscopic the earlier in the ontogenetic cycle this symbiosis is established. Therefore, it appears that the most effective period in which the inoculum should be made corresponds to the in-nursery growing stage. The earlier the plant is inoculated, the more evident the effect will be. In this study, several aspects related to the physiological foundations of arbuscular mycorrhiza in artichoke plants are presented. The main goal was to study the effects of mycorrhiza on the growth and physiological parameters of three hybrids of artichokes growing in the nursery. The experimental 3¥2 design included two treatments (with or without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and three hybrids of artichokes marketed by Nunhems (Opal F1, Madrigal F1, Concerto F1. Mycorrhizal plants have greater shoot length, leaf area, shoot and root fresh and dry mass, and root density. This also corresponded with increased photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance of mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal colonization improves relative water content and increases proline concentration in vegetal tissue. Inoculation produced the most beneficial effect on hybrid Madrigal F1 and on hybrid Opal F1; the best mycorrhizal affinity was enhanced when compared to hybrid Concerto F1. The results showed that mycorrhizal symbiosis stimulated the growth of inoculated seedlings providing a qualitatively good propagation material.

  3. Nursery inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus viscosum and its effect on the growth and physiology of hybrid artichoke seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Campanelli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Most nurseries operating in Italy adopt high technologies and produce transplants that well suit and satisfy the grower’s need to produce high value crops. Mycorrhizas are discussed as a tool for improving and developing plant production in the nursery. Much research has been carried out on mycorrhizal symbiosis and we now know more about the symbiontic relationship between fungi and host plants. Plants receive numerous benefits from this symbiosis which are more macroscopic the earlier in the ontogenetic cycle this symbiosis is established. Therefore, it appears that the most effective period in which the inoculum should be made corresponds to the in-nursery growing stage. The earlier the plant is inoculated, the more evident the effect will be. In this study, several aspects related to the physiological foundations of arbuscular mycorrhiza in artichoke plants are presented. The main goal was to study the effects of mycorrhiza on the growth and physiological parameters of three hybrids of artichokes growing in the nursery. The experimental 3¥2 design included two treatments (with or without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and three hybrids of artichokes marketed by Nunhems (Opal F1, Madrigal F1, Concerto F1. Mycorrhizal plants have greater shoot length, leaf area, shoot and root fresh and dry mass, and root density. This also corresponded with increased photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance of mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal colonization improves relative water content and increases proline concentration in vegetal tissue. Inoculation produced the most beneficial effect on hybrid Madrigal F1 and on hybrid Opal F1; the best mycorrhizal affinity was enhanced when compared to hybrid Concerto F1. The results showed that mycorrhizal symbiosis stimulated the growth of inoculated seedlings providing a qualitatively good propagation material.

  4. A reassessment of the epidemiology of Rice yellow mottle virus following recent advances in field and molecular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, O; Pinel-Galzi, A; Sorho, F; Sarra, S; Rakotomalala, M; Sangu, E; Kanyeka, Z; Séré, Y; Konaté, G; Fargette, D

    2009-05-01

    The available knowledge on the epidemiology of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) is reassessed in the light of major advances in field and molecular studies of the disease it causes in rice. Previously un-described means of transmission by mammals and through leaf contact have been discovered recently. Several agricultural practices, including the use of seedbed nurseries, have also contributed to a massive build-up of RYMV inoculum. Phytosanitation is now known to be critical to reduce disease incidence in rice. A new model of the ecology of RYMV in which man plays a central role has emerged. Furthermore, estimates of the evolutionary rate of change of RYMV provided a time-frame for its epidemiology, the first attempt for a plant virus. Earlier interpretations of the patterns of virus diversity which assumed a long-term evolution, and assigned a major role to adaptive events had to be discarded. In contrast, a wave-like model of dispersal of RYMV, which postulates its initial diversification in East Africa, followed by westward spread across the continent, was developed, refined and dated. The most salient -- and largely unexpected -- finding is that RYMV emerged recently and subsequently spread rapidly throughout Africa in the last two centuries. Diversification and spread of RYMV has been concomitant with an extension of rice cultivation in Africa since the 19th century. This major agro-ecological change increased the encounters between primary hosts of RYMV and cultivated rice. It also modified the landscape ecology in ways that facilitated virus spread. PMID:19195488

  5. Effects of glucose irradiated by high doses of 60cobalt gamma rays, and of some products of glucose radiolysis on the growth of Jerusalem Artichoke tissue and potato shoots culture in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glucose, irradiated in dry conditions by gamma rays from 5.105 to 107 rad, and incorporated into culture medium, inhibits growth and, simultaneously, increases rhizogenesis of Jerusalem Artichoke tissue in culture. Tuberisation of potato shoots grown in vitro is delayed and partially inhibited. Some substances which result from radiolysis of sugars give the same results, but only at higher concentrations

  6. Infection cycle of Artichoke Italian latent virus in tobacco plants: meristem invasion and recovery from disease symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Santovito

    Full Text Available Nepoviral infections induce recovery in fully expanded leaves but persist in shoot apical meristem (SAM by a largely unknown mechanism. The dynamics of infection of a grapevine isolate of Artichoke Italian latent virus (AILV-V, genus Nepovirus in tobacco plants, including colonization of SAM, symptom induction and subsequent recovery of mature leaves from symptoms, were characterized. AILV-V moved from the inoculated leaves systemically and invaded SAM in 7 days post-inoculation (dpi, remaining detectable in SAM at least up to 40 dpi. The new top leaves recovered from viral symptoms earliest at 21 dpi. Accumulation of viral RNA to a threshold level was required to trigger the overexpression of RDR6 and DCL4. Consequently, accumulation of viral RNA decreased in the systemically infected leaves, reaching the lowest concentration in the 3rd and 4th leaves at 23 dpi, which was concomitant with recovery of the younger, upper leaves from disease symptoms. No evidence of virus replication was found in the recovered leaves, but they contained infectious virus particles and were protected against re-inoculation with AILV-V. In this study we also showed that AILV-V did not suppress initiation or maintenance of RNA silencing in transgenic plants, but was able to interfere with the cell-to-cell movement of the RNA silencing signal. Our results suggest that AILV-V entrance in SAM and activation of RNA silencing may be distinct processes since the latter is triggered in fully expanded leaves by the accumulation of viral RNA above a threshold level rather than by virus entrance in SAM.

  7. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinalis) and Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus) Extract Supplementation on Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomised, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacosa, Attilio; Guido, Davide; Grassi, Mario; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Bombardelli, Ezio; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena A; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a frequent clinical finding in western world. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of a ginger and artichoke supplementation versus placebo in the treatment of FD. Methods. A prospective multicentre, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, parallel-group comparison of the supplement and placebo over a period of 4 weeks was performed. Two capsules/day were supplied (before lunch and dinner) to 126 FD patients (supplementation/placebo: 65/61). Results. After 14 days of treatment, only supplementation group (SG) showed a significant amelioration (SG: α S = +1.195 MCA score units (u), P = 0.017; placebo: α P = +0.347 u, P = 0.513). The intercept (α) resulted to be significantly higher in SG than in placebo (α S - α P = +0.848 u, P nausea (β S - β P = -0.398 u, P < 0.001), epigastric fullness (β S - β P = -0.241, P < 0.001), epigastric pain (β S - β P = -0.173 u, P = 0.002), and bloating (β S - β P = -0.167 u, P = 0.017). Conclusions. The association between ginger and artichoke leaf extracts appears safe and efficacious in the treatment of FD and could represent a promising treatment for this disease. PMID:25954317

  8. Replication and encapsidation of the viroid-like satellite RNA of lucerne transient streak virus are supported in divergent hosts by cocksfoot mottle virus and turnip rosette virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, O P; Sinha, R C; Gellatly, D L; Ivanov, I; AbouHaidar, M G

    1993-04-01

    Cocksfoot mottle sobemovirus supports replication and encapsidation of the viroid-like satellite RNA (sat-RNA) of lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in two monocotyledonous species, Triticum aestivum and Dactylis glomerata. Additionally, LTSV sat-RNA replicates effectively in the presence of turnip rosette sobemovirus in Brassica rapa, Raphanus raphanistrum and Sinapsis arvensis, but not in Thlaspi arvense or Nicotiana bigelovii, indicating that host species markedly influence this interaction. Previous reports of the association between LTSV sat-RNA and helper sobemoviruses were limited to dicotyledonous hosts. Our results demonstrate that the biological interaction between these two entities spans divergent dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous species. PMID:7682254

  9. A tyrosine residue in the small nuclear inclusion protein of tobacco vein mottling virus links the VPg to the viral RNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, J F; Rychlik, W; Rhoads, R E; Hunt, A G; Shaw, J. G.

    1991-01-01

    The identity of the amino acid residue that links the VPg of the potyvirus tobacco vein mottling virus (TVMV) to the viral RNA was determined. 32P-labeled TVMV RNA was digested with RNase A and micrococcal nuclease. The resulting 32P-labeled VPg was isolated and partially hydrolyzed with 6 N HCl at 110 degrees C for 2 h. Analysis by thin-layer electrophoresis revealed the presence of [32P]phosphotyrosine but not [32P]phosphoserine or [32P]phosphothreonine. Another preparation of TVMV RNA was ...

  10. El potencial del topinambur en la salud y la nutrición The potential of Jerusalem Artichokes in health and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Scollo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El topinambur es un tubérculo con alto contenido en inulina. La inulina es un carbohidrato soluble no digerible que está presente en muchos vegetales, frutas y cereales siendo usada ampliamente como ingrediente en alimentos funcionales. Objetivo: Obtener tubérculos de topinambur, fijar distintos parámetros de extracción de inulina y preparar diversos alimentos, reemplazando parte de las harinas tradicionales por harina de topinambur. Se propuso, además, evaluar la preferencia de los consumidores sobre los mismos. Material y métodos: Se sembraron y cosecharon tubérculos de topinambur partiendo de 4 parcelas con diferentes condiciones de riego y fertilización. Los mismos se conservaron a variadas temperaturas. Se determinó el contenido de inulina por HPLC y se realizó la extracción de la misma de los tubérculos. A partir de los tubérculos cosechados en la parcela 3 se elaboraron harinas que fueron utilizadas para reemplazar parcialmente a la harina de trigo en la preparación de diferentes productos alimenticios. Sobre los mismos se realizó una evaluación de preferencia. Resultados: El rinde de la cosecha fue mayor en la parcela 3 (tierra fértil y riego según necesidades, 91 ton/Ha. El método de conservación más adecuado fue el frío, sin embargo no se utilizaron estos tubérculos para la extracción de inulina. Los productos alimenticios obtenidos fueron considerados adecuados por los jueces intervinientes. Conclusiones: la elaboración de productos alimenticios a partir de harina de topinambur podría ser una alternativa de alimento funcional por su contenido de inulina.Introduction: The Jerusalem artichoke Is a tuber high in inulin. Inulin is a soluble non-digestible carbohydrate that is present in many vegetables, fruits and cereals and is widely used as an ingredient in functional foods. Objective: To get Jerusalem artichoke tubers, set various parameters for extraction of inulin and prepare various foods

  11. A possible general mechanism for ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) suggested from the results of UAE of chlorogenic acid from Cynara scolymus L. (artichoke) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, I A; Vinatoru, M; Mason, T J; Abdel-Azim, N S; Aboutabl, E A; Hammouda, F M

    2016-07-01

    The use of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the extraction of chlorogenic acid (CA) from Cynara scolymus L., (artichoke) leaves using 80% methanol at room temperature over 15 min gave a significant increase in yield (up to a 50%) compared with maceration at room temperature and close to that obtained by boiling over the same time period. A note of caution is introduced when comparing UAE with Soxhlet extraction because, in the latter case, the liquid entering the Soxhlet extractor is more concentrated in methanol (nearly 100%) that the solvent in the reservoir (80% methanol) due to fractionation during distillation. The mechanism of UAE is discussed in terms of the effects of cavitation on the swelling index, solvent diffusion and the removal of a stagnant layer of solvent surrounding the plant material. PMID:26964956

  12. 酒曲应用于菊芋发酵的初步研究%A preliminary study fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke with koji

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯迪; 隆小华; 辛本荣; 刘兆普

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke is a kind of alternative ethanol fermentation of raw materials. Compared with starch materials,the temperature of paste for Jerusalem artichoke is lower,which has the advantage in saving energy.Anqi liquor-making koji, Anqi Liqueur Koji and Xinma Liquor Industry Koji were used to study by one-step fermentation experiment and demonstrate the feasibility of producing ethanol fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke.The results were as follows:In the low raw sugar concentration and general treated conditions ,the alcohol content of Anqi liquor-making koji was higher than the other two koji, up to 5.5 degrees. Fermentation process, the weight loss of carbon dioxide of Anqi liquor-making koji was always higher than the other two koji. Use Anqi liquor-making koji to ferment,the ethanol concentration increased with the experimental time lasting during three days. With the further extension of the fermentation time, pH value of its broth was 6.35. pH value fell to 4.82 after 1 day fermentation and 4.48 after 3 days later,then pH value of the trend was stable. It can be concluded that compared with the other two koji, Anqi liquor-making koji was more suitable for bioethanol production using Jerusalem artichoke.%菊芋是一种极具潜力的乙醇发酵原料,与淀粉质原料相比,菊芋低温条件下即可实现糊化,在节能方面具有优势.本文选取了安琪甜酒曲、安琪酿酒曲和欣马酒业酒曲进行一步法发酵实验,论证不同种类及品种的酒曲应用于菊芋发酵生产乙醇的可行性.结果表明:在原料含糖量不高且未经任何条件优化的情况下,安琪酿酒曲的酒度高于其他两种酒曲,酒度可达5.5度;发酵过程中,安琪酿酒曲的CO2失重量始终高于安琪甜酒曲和欣马酒曲;使用安琪酿酒曲进行发酵,第1d到第3d乙醇含量逐渐升高,在第3d时达到最大值;随着发酵时间的继续延长,安琪酿酒曲发酵液PH为6.35.发酵1d后pH降至4.82,3d后pH降至4

  13. Production of a single cyclic type of fructooligosaccharide structure by inulin-degrading Paenibacillus sp. LX16 newly isolated from Jerusalem artichoke root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhihua; Guo, Jiqiang; Tang, Wenzhu; Sun, Zhen; Hou, Yingmin; Li, Xianzhen

    2016-05-01

    A novel inulin-degrading bacterium was isolated from a soil sample collected on Jerusalem artichoke roots. It is a Gram-positive, aerobic, motile and central endospore-forming straight rod, and exhibits phenotypic properties being consistent with its classification in the genus Paenibacillus. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, C16:0 and anteiso-C17:0. This strain represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus on the basis of phenotypic data together with phylogenetic analysis, and it is here designated as LX16 and deposited in China centre for type collection, China (= CCTCC 2015256). Strain LX16 could produce a cyclofructooligosaccharide fructanotransferase catalysing the formation of one type of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) from inulin. The FOS was identified as a cyclofructooligosaccharide with a degree of polymerization of 6. Such homology in inulin degradation products may be beneficial for the functional FOS production. PMID:26996537

  14. Enzymatic milk clotting activity in artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaves and alpine thistle (Carduus defloratus) flowers. Immobilization of alpine thistle aspartic protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marilena; Di Pierro, Prospero; Dejonghe, Winnie; Mariniello, Loredana; Porta, Raffaele

    2016-08-01

    Two different milk clotting enzymes, belonging to the aspartic protease family, were extracted from both artichoke leaves and alpine thistle flowers, and the latter was covalently immobilized by using a polyacrylic support containing polar epoxy groups. Our findings showed that the alpine thistle aspartic protease was successfully immobilized at pH 7.0 on Immobeads IB-150P beads and that, under these experimental conditions, an immobilization yield of about 68% and a recovery of about 54% were obtained. Since the enzyme showed an optimal pH of 5.0, a value very similar to the one generally used for milk clotting during cheese making, and exhibited a satisfactory stability over time, the use of such immobilized vegetable rennet for the production of novel dairy products is suggested. PMID:26988483

  15. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinalis and Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus Extract Supplementation on Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomised, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Giacosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Functional dyspepsia (FD is a frequent clinical finding in western world. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of a ginger and artichoke supplementation versus placebo in the treatment of FD. Methods. A prospective multicentre, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, parallel-group comparison of the supplement and placebo over a period of 4 weeks was performed. Two capsules/day were supplied (before lunch and dinner to 126 FD patients (supplementation/placebo: 65/61. Results. After 14 days of treatment, only supplementation group (SG showed a significant amelioration (SG: αS=+1.195 MCA score units (u, P=0.017; placebo: αP=+0.347 u, P=0.513. The intercept (α resulted to be significantly higher in SG than in placebo (αS-αP=+0.848 u, P<0.001. At the end of the study, the advantage of SG versus placebo persists without variation (βS-βP=+0.077 u, P=0.542. In SG, a significant advantage is observed for nausea (βS-βP=-0.398 u, P<0.001, epigastric fullness (βS-βP=-0.241, P<0.001, epigastric pain (βS-βP=-0.173 u, P=0.002, and bloating (βS-βP=-0.167 u, P=0.017. Conclusions. The association between ginger and artichoke leaf extracts appears safe and efficacious in the treatment of FD and could represent a promising treatment for this disease.

  16. The wild Egyptian artichoke as a promising functional food for the treatment of hepatitis C virus as revealed via UPLC-MS and clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsebai, Mahmoud Fahmi; Abass, Khaled; Hakkola, Jukka; Atawia, Ahmed Rezk; Farag, Mohamed A

    2016-07-13

    Infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) and its subsequent complications are a major cause of mortality worldwide. The water extract of the wild Egyptian artichoke (WEA) (Cynara cardunculus L. var. sylvestris (Lam.) Fiori) leaves is a freely available herbal product that is used for treatment of HCV-infection complications such as jaundice and ascites. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether WEA exhibits activity against HCV, identify bioactive chemicals in its extract and to tentatively examine the potential inhibitory interactions of WEA with human drug-metabolizing enzymes. The current pilot clinical trial revealed that the water extract of a WEA plant decreased the HCV viral load below the detection level in 12 out of 15 patients. Furthermore, the liver enzymes ALT and AST, as well as the level of bilirubin were normalized. The total WEA extract inhibited CYP2B6 (OH-BUP) and CYP2C19 (5-OH-OME) with high affinity, IC50 ∼ 20 μg ml(-1), while moderate inhibitory interactions were observed for CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4. Results presented herein suggest that the WEA exhibits strong antiviral activity against HCV and may be useful for its treatment. Compared to the artichoke product "Hepar SL Forte(®)", WEA was found to be more enriched in sesquiterpenes versus the abundance of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids in Hepar SL Forte(®) as revealed via UPLC-MS analysis coupled to chemometrics. PMID:27296047

  17. Can the RNA of the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus be released through a channel by means of free diffusion? A test in silico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isea, Raul; Aponte, Carlos; Cipriani, Roberto

    2004-02-01

    Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), a plant virus which is member of the Bromoviridae family, is used as a model for the diffusion of a random, short, single stranded RNA, [5'-R(PGpGpApCpUpUpCpGpGpUpCpC)-3')], through a channel on the pseudo-three-fold axis using molecular dynamic simulations. This proposition is based the fact that CCMV undergoes a dynamic structural transition as a response to changes of pH, temperature and ionic strength. Results indicate that the RNA looses its secondary structure and moves into the capside channel by free diffusion. These results are congruent with the hypothesis suggesting that the CCMV capside does not have to dissolve in order to release the RNA into the host. PMID:14962592

  18. Sequence variation of block III segment identifies three distinct lineages within Eggplant mottled dwarf virus isolates from Italy, Spain and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrella, G; Greco, B

    2016-03-01

    Partial polymerase (L) gene sequences of 919 nts, including the conserved segments pre-motif A and motif A of block III, of 20 Eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV) isolates were generated, and trimmed sequences of 889 nts, based on the length of available sequences of other isolates, were used to determine phylogenetic relationships. Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed two divergent lineages, designated as genetic group A (Italian isolates) and group B, with the latter further divided into subgroups BI (Greek isolates) and BII (Spanish isolates). No evidence of recombination signals among sequences was detected, whereas analysis of the nonsynonymous/synonymous ratio indicated strong purifying selection, with codons under negative selection uniformly distributed along the sequences. An RT-PCR-RFLP method able to discriminate EMDV isolates of the two main genetic groups was proposed. PMID:26982474

  19. Kinetic study of the effects of calcium ions on cationic artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) peroxidase: calcium binding, steady-state kinetics and reactions with hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiner, Alexander N P; Sidrach, Lara; Chazarra, Soledad; Varón, Ramón; Tudela, José; García-Cánovas, Francisco; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno

    2004-01-01

    The apparent catalytic constant (k(cat)) of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) peroxidase (AKPC) with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) increased 130-fold in the presence of calcium ions (Ca2+) but the affinity (K(m)) of the enzyme for ABTS was 500 times lower than for Ca2+-free AKPC. AKPC is known to exhibit an equilibrium between 6-aquo hexa-coordinate and penta-coordinate forms of the haem iron that is modulated by Ca2+ and affects compound I formation. Measurements of the Ca2+ dissociation constant (K(D)) were complicated by the water-association/dissociation equilibrium yielding a global value more than 1000 times too high. The value for the Ca2+ binding step alone has now been determined to be K(D) approximately 10 nM. AKPC-Ca2+ was more resistant to inactivation by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and exhibited increased catalase activity. An analysis of the complex H(2)O(2) concentration dependent kinetics of Ca2+-free AKPC is presented. PMID:15556277

  20. Alkali-based pretreatments distinctively extract lignin and pectin for enhancing biomass saccharification by altering cellulose features in sugar-rich Jerusalem artichoke stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yuezhou; Xie, Guanghui

    2016-05-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA) has been known as a potential nonfood feedstock for biofuels. Based on systems analysis of total 59 accessions, both soluble sugar and ash could positively affect biomass digestibility after dilute sodium hydroxide pretreatment (A). In this study, one representative accession (HEN-3) was used to illustrate its enzymatic digestibility with pretreatments of ultrasonic-assisted dilute sodium hydroxide (B), alkaline peroxide (C), and ultrasonic-assisted alkaline peroxide (D). Pretreatment D exhibited the highest hexose release rate (79.4%) and total sugar yield (10.4g/L), which were 2.4 and 2.6 times higher, respectively, than those of the control. The analysis of cellulose crystalline index (CrI), cellulose degree of polymerization (DP), thermal behavior and SEM suggested that alkali-based pretreatments could distinctively extract lignin and pectin polymers, leading to significant alterations of cellulose CrI and DP for high biomass saccharification. Additionally, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) could significant reduce the generation of fermentation inhibitors during alkali-based pretreatments. PMID:26918836

  1. Caracterização de um isolado do Pepper mild mottle virus que não quebra a resistência do gene L3 em Capsicum sp. Characterization of a non-L3 gene-resistance breaking Pepper mild mottle virus isolate in Capsicum

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Eiras; Alexandre L.R. Chaves; Silvia R. Moreira; Jansen Araujo; Addolorata Colariccio

    2004-01-01

    Sementes de pimenta (Capsicum baccatum) 'Dedo de Moça' destinadas ao plantio comercial e adquiridas no município de São Paulo, SP, analisadas quanto à presença de vírus, por meio de testes biológicos e sorológicos revelaram-se infetadas por uma estirpe do Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV). Para confirmar a identidade do isolado, promoveu-se a RT-PCR com oligonucleotídeos que flanqueiam a ORF da capa protéica de espécies do gênero Tobamovirus do subgrupo 1. Os fragmentos de DNA amplificados, qu...

  2. Processes of diversification and dispersion of rice yellow mottle virus inferred from large-scale and high-resolution phylogeographical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, O; Sorho, F; Pinel, A; Abubakar, Z; Banwo, O; Maley, J; Hebrard, E; Winter, S; Sere, Y; Konate, G; Fargette, D

    2005-06-01

    Phylogeography of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) was reconstructed from the coat protein gene sequences of a selection of 173 isolates from the 14 countries of mainland Africa where the disease occurred and from the full sequences of 16 representative isolates. Genetic variation was linked to geographical distribution and not to host species as isolates from wild rice always clustered with isolates from cultivated rice of the same region. Genetic variation was not associated to agro-ecology, viral interference and insect vector species. Distinct RYMV lineages occurred in East, Central and West Africa, although the Central African lineage included isolates from Benin, Togo and Niger at the west, adjacent to countries of the West African lineage. Genetic subdivision at finer geographical scales was apparent within lineages of Central and West Africa, although less pronounced than in East Africa. Physical obstacles, but also habitat fragmentation, as exemplified by the small low-lying island of Pemba offshore Tanzania mainland, explained strain localization. Three new highly divergent strains were found in eastern Tanzania. By contrast, intensive surveys in Cote d'Ivoire and Guinea at the west of Africa did not reveal any new variant. Altogether, this supported the view that the Eastern Arc Mountains biodiversity hotspot was the centre of origin of RYMV and that the virus spread subsequently from east to west across Africa. In West Africa, specific strains occurred in the Inner Niger Delta and suggested it was a secondary centre of diversification. Processes for diversification and dispersion of RYMV are proposed. PMID:15910330

  3. Virus-Specific Read-Through Codon Preference Affects Infectivity of Chimeric Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Viruses Displaying a Dengue Virus Epitope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak-Guan Teoh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV was used to present a truncated dengue virus type 2 envelope (E protein binding region from amino acids 379 to 423 (EB4. The EB4 gene was inserted at the terminal end of the CGMMV coat protein (CP open reading frame (ORF. Read-through sequences of TMV or CGMMV, CAA-UAG-CAA-UUA, or AAA-UAG-CAA-UUA were, respectively, inserted in between the CP and the EB4 genes. The chimeric clones, pRT, pRG, and pCG+FSRTRE, were transcribed into full-length capped recombinant CGMMV transcripts. Only constructs with the wild-type CGMMV read-through sequence yielded infectious viruses following infection of host plant, muskmelon (Cucumis melo leaves. The ratio of modified to unmodified CP for the read-through expression clone developed was also found to be approximately 1:1, higher than what has been previously reported. It was also observed that infectivity was not affected by differences in pI between the chimera and its wild counterpart. Analysis of recombinant viruses after 21-days-postinculation (dpi revealed that deletions occurred resulting in partial reversions of the viral population to near wild type and suggesting that this would be the limiting harvest period for obtaining true to type recombinants with this construct.

  4. Pathogenicity of Pepper mild mottle virus Is Controlled by the RNA Silencing Suppression Activity of Its Replication Protein but Not the Viral Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Shinya; Kubota, Kenji; Kanda, Ayami; Ohki, Takehiro; Meshi, Tetsuo

    2007-04-01

    ABSTRACT Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) infects pepper plants, causing mosaic symptoms on the upper developing leaves. We investigated the relationship between a virus pathogenicity determinant domain and the appearance of mosaic symptoms. Genetically modified PMMoV mutants were constructed, which had a base substitution in the 130K replication protein gene causing an amino acid change or a truncation of the 3' terminal pseudoknot structure. Only one substitution mutant (at amino acid residue 349) failed to cause symptoms, although its accumulation was relatively high. Conversely, the pseudoknot mutants showed the lower accumulation, but they still caused mosaic symptoms as severe as the wild-type virus. Therefore, the level of virus accumulation in a plant does not necessarily correlate with the development of mosaic symptoms. The activity to suppress posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) was impaired in the asymptomatic mutant. Consequently, pathogenicity causing mosaic symptoms should be controlled by combat between host PTGS and its suppression by the 130K replication protein rather than virus accumulation. PMID:18943281

  5. Identification of the subgenomic promoter of the coat protein gene of cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus and development of a heterologous expression vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Sun-Ju; Jang, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Gung Pyo

    2016-06-01

    Heterologous gene expression using plant virus vectors enables research on host-virus interactions and the production of useful proteins, but the host range of plant viruses limits the practical applications of such vectors. Here, we aimed to develop a viral vector based on cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus (CFMMV), a member of the genus Tobamovirus, whose members infect cucurbits. The subgenomic promoter (SGP) in the coat protein (CP) gene, which was used to drive heterologous expression, was mapped by analyzing deletion mutants from a CaMV 35S promoter-driven infectious CFMMV clone. The region from nucleotides (nt) -55 to +160 relative to the start codon of the open reading frame (ORF) of CP was found to be a fully active promoter, and the region from nt -55 to +100 was identified as the active core promoter. Based on these SGPs, we constructed a cloning site in the CFMMV vector and successfully expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in Nicotiana benthamiana and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Co-inoculation with the P19 suppressor increased EGFP expression and viral replication by blocking degradation of the viral genome. Our CFMMV vector will be useful as an expression vector in cucurbits. PMID:26976138

  6. Preoaration and application of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus antiserum%黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒抗血清制备及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦碧霞; 蔡健和; 黄金玲; 胡冬梅; 陆秀红; 刘志明

    2010-01-01

    用葫芦[Lagenaria siceraria(Molina)Stand.]作为黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒(Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus,CGMMV)的繁殖寄主,通过差速离心和PEG二次沉淀法进行病毒提纯,用提纯病毒液免疫新西兰兔制备CGMMV抗血清.制备的CGMMV抗血清经间接ELISA法测定效价为1:5120;利用制备的抗血清检测田间样品,证明其可以用于CGMMV的血清学及免疫捕获RT-PCR检测.研究结果对今后开展葫芦科作物CGMMV检测,及时发现疫情以便采取防控措施,避免病毒扩散为害,确保葫芦科作物的安全生产具有重要意义.

  7. Effects of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. Leaf Meal and Vitamin E on Productive Performance, Intestinal Microflora and Morphology in Japanese Quail

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    Samadi F

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 240, one-day-old quail chicks (Coturnix coturnix japonica were used to study the effects of Artichoke leaf meal (ALM and vitamin E in diet on growth performance, ileal microbial populations and intestinal morphology in a 42-d trial. This experiment was performed as a completely randomized design with 4 replicates of 15 quails each, using a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement with diet and gender as the main effects. Four dietary treatments were formulated by addition of 2 levels (1.5 and 3 percent of ALM and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E to the basal diet. Supplementing basal diet with ALM did not improve growth performance at different rearing periods, whereas dietary vitamin E increased feed intake and body weight gain at day 21 of age (P. The ileal populations of lactobacillus and coliforms was not affected by dietary ALM treatments, whereas vitamin E increased the population of total aerobic bacteria (P≤0.04. The ileal villus height (P≤0.01 and crypt depth (P≤0.008 were reduced in quails fed on diets with ALM and vitamin E. The quails fed diets containing 3 percent ALM and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E had higher villus height:crypt depth ratio. The thickness of muscularies (P≤0.04 and mucosa (P≤0.0007 layers were decreased in birds fed diets containing ALM than control birds. Birds treated with ALM and vitamin E showed a shorter intestinal length (P≤0.02 and a lower pancereas relative weight. The results of this study showed that supplementing diet by ALM (1.5 and 3% and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E did not improve growth performance, ileal microbiota pupolations and intestinal morphometric indices in Japanese quail.

  8. The effects of inulin, dried Jerusalem artichoke tuber and a multispecies probiotic preparation on microbiota ecology and immune status of the large intestine in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barszcz, Marcin; Taciak, Marcin; Skomiał, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    The study aimed at determining the effect of two types of prebiotics and a multispecies probiotic on microbiota activity and composition, as well as mucosal immunity in the large intestine of young pigs. In total 48 piglets were divided into 6 groups (n = 8), which received from day 10 of life probiotic-unsupplemented (PU) or probiotic-supplemented (PS) diets. Probiotics were added at 0.5 g/kg diet and contained: Lactococcus lactis, Carnobacterium divergens, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The PU and PS diets were formulated without prebiotic addition (control) or with addition of 2% of inulin from chicory root (IN) or 4% of dried Jerusalem artichoke tubers (DJA). After 40 days of feeding, digesta and tissue samples were taken from the caecum and three sections of the colon for analyses of microbiota activity and composition, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). IN diets decreased the caecal digesta pH and β-glucosidase activity but increased propionic, valeric and total short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations compared to control diets. Feeding DJA diets increased caecal valeric acid level, decreased the concentration of isoacids in the colon, reduced β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase activity in the middle colon and increased Bifidobacterium spp. populations in the proximal and distal colon. PS diets increased the caecal acetic acid and total SCFA level, and Clostridium spp. populations in the distal colon. Neither probiotic nor prebiotics affected sIgA level or IEL number in the large intestine. In conclusion, DJA modified the microbiota ecology in the large intestine of young pigs to a greater extent than IN and the applied probiotic did not enhance effects of prebiotics. PMID:27216555

  9. Evaluation of a SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme involved in resistance to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in Solanum peruvianum, through a tomato mottle virus VIGS assay

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    Mayra Janeth Esparza-Araiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm causes bacterial wilt and canker of tomato. Currently, no Solanum lycopersicum resistant varieties are commercially available, but some degree of Cmm resistance has been identified in Solanum peruvianum. Previous research showed up-regulation of a SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme (SCEI transcript in resistant S. peruvianum compared to susceptible S. lycopersicum following infection by Cmm. In order to test the role of SCEI in resistance to Cmm, a fragment of the gene from S. peruvianum was cloned into a novel virus-induced gene-silencing (VIGS vector based on the geminivirus Tomato Mottle Virus (ToMoV. Using biolistic inoculation, the ToMoV-based VIGS vector was shown to be effective in S. peruvianum by silencing the magnesium chelatase gene, which resulted in leaf bleaching. The ToMoV_SCEI construct resulted in approx. 61% silencing of SCEI in leaves of S. peruvianum as determined by quantitative RT-PCR. VIGS of SCEI in S. peruvianum resulted in unilateral wilting (15 dpi and subsequent death (20 dpi of the entire plant after Cmm inoculation, whereas empty vector-treated plants only showed wilting in the Cmm-inoculated leaf. SCEI-silenced plants also showed higher Cmm colonization with an average of 4.5 times more damaged tissue compared to the empty vector control plants. SCEI appears to play an important role in the innate immunity of S. peruvianum against Cmm, perhaps through the regulation of WRKY transcription factors, which may lead to expression of proteins involved in salicylic acid-dependent defense responses.

  10. Evaluation of a SUMO E2 Conjugating Enzyme Involved in Resistance to Clavibacter michiganensis Subsp. michiganensis in Solanum peruvianum, Through a Tomato Mottle Virus VIGS Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza-Araiza, Mayra J; Bañuelos-Hernández, Bernardo; Argüello-Astorga, Gerardo R; Lara-Ávila, José P; Goodwin, Paul H; Isordia-Jasso, María I; Castillo-Collazo, Rosalba; Rougon-Cardoso, Alejandra; Alpuche-Solís, Ángel G

    2015-01-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) causes bacterial wilt and canker of tomato. Currently, no Solanum lycopersicum resistant varieties are commercially available, but some degree of Cmm resistance has been identified in Solanum peruvianum. Previous research showed up-regulation of a SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme (SCEI) transcript in S. peruvianum compared to S. lycopersicum following infection with Cmm. In order to test the role of SCEI in resistance to Cmm, a fragment of SCEI from S. peruvianum was cloned into a novel virus-induced gene-silencing (VIGS) vector based on the geminivirus, Tomato Mottle Virus (ToMoV). Using biolistic inoculation, the ToMoV-based VIGS vector was shown to be effective in S. peruvianum by silencing the magnesium chelatase gene, resulting in leaf bleaching. VIGS with the ToMoV_SCEI construct resulted in ~61% silencing of SCEI in leaves of S. peruvianum as determined by quantitative RT-PCR. The SCEI-silenced plants showed unilateral wilting (15 dpi) and subsequent death (20 dpi) of the entire plant after Cmm inoculation, whereas the empty vector-treated plants only showed wilting in the Cmm-inoculated leaf. The SCEI-silenced plants showed higher Cmm colonization and an average of 4.5 times more damaged tissue compared to the empty vector control plants. SCEI appears to play an important role in the innate immunity of S. peruvianum against Cmm, perhaps through the regulation of transcription factors, leading to expression of proteins involved in salicylic acid-dependent defense responses. PMID:26734014

  11. Characterization of burdock mottle virus, a novel member of the genus Benyvirus, and the identification of benyvirus-related sequences in the plant and insect genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hideki; Hirano, Shuichi; Chiba, Sotaro; Andika, Ida Bagus; Hirai, Makoto; Maeda, Takanori; Tamada, Tetsuo

    2013-10-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the burdock mottle virus (BdMoV) isolated from an edible burdock plant (Arctium lappa) in Japan has been determined. BdMoV has a bipartite genome, whose organization is similar to RNA1 and RNA2 of benyviruses, beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), beet soil-borne mosaic virus (BSBMV), and rice stripe necrosis virus (RSNV). BdMoV RNA1 (7038 nt) contains a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 249-kDa polypeptide that consists of methyl-transferase, helicase, papain-like protease, AlkB-like, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains. The AlkB-like domain sequence is not present in the proteins encoded by other known benyviruses, but is found in replication-associated proteins of viruses mainly belonging to the families Alfaflexiviridae and Betaflexiviridae. BdMoV RNA2 (4315 nt) contains six ORFs that are similar to those of benyviruses: these are coat protein (CP), CP readthrough, triple gene block movement and cysteine-rich proteins. Phylogenetic analyses showed that BdMoV is more closely related to BNYVV and BSBMV than to RSNV. Database searches showed that benyvirus replicase-related sequences are present in the chromosomes of a chickpea plant (Cicer arietinum) and a blood-sucking insect (Rhodnius prolixus). Some other benyvirus-related sequences are found in the transcriptome shotgun libraries of a few species of plants and a bark beetle. Our results show that BdMoV is a distinct species of the genus Benyvirus and that ancestral and extant benyviruses may have infected or currently infect a wide range of hosts, including plants and insects. PMID:23911632

  12. One-step detection of Bean pod mottle virus in soybean seeds by the reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification

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    Wei Qi-Wei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV is a wide-spread and destructive virus that causes huge economic losses in many countries every year. A sensitive, reliable and specific method for rapid surveillance is urgently needed to prevent further spread of BPMV. Methods A degenerate reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP primer set was designed on the conserved region of BPMV CP gene. The reaction conditions of RT-LAMP were optimized and the feasibility, specificity and sensitivity of this method to detect BPMV were evaluated using the crude RNA rapidly extracted from soybean seeds. Results The optimized RT-LAMP parameters including 6 mM MgCl2, 0.8 M betaine and temperature at 62.5-65°C could successfully amplify the ladder-like bands from BPMV infected soybean seeds. The amplification was very specific to BPMV that no cross-reaction was observed with other soybean viruses. Inclusion of a fluorescent dye makes it easily be detected in-tube by naked eye. The sensitivity of RT-LAMP assay is higher than the conventional RT-PCR under the conditions tested, and the conventional RT-PCR couldn’t be used for detection of BPMV using crude RNA extract from soybean seeds. Conclusion A highly efficient and practical method was developed for the detection of BPMV in soybean seeds by the combination of rapid RNA extraction and RT-LAMP. This RT-LAMP method has great potential for rapid BPMV surveillance and will assist in preventing further spread of this devastating virus.

  13. Genome sequence analysis of five Canadian isolates of strawberry mottle virus reveals extensive intra-species diversity and a longer RNA2 with increased coding capacity compared to a previously characterized European isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Basdeo; Dickison, Virginia; Ding, Xinlun; Walker, Melanie; Bernardy, Michael; Bouthillier, Michel; Creelman, Alexa; DeYoung, Robyn; Li, Yinzi; Nie, Xianzhou; Wang, Aiming; Xiang, Yu; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report the genome sequence of five isolates of strawberry mottle virus (family Secoviridae, order Picornavirales) from strawberry field samples with decline symptoms collected in Eastern Canada. The Canadian isolates differed from the previously characterized European isolate 1134 in that they had a longer RNA2, resulting in a 239-amino-acid extension of the C-terminal region of the polyprotein. Sequence analysis suggests that reassortment and recombination occurred among the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Canadian isolates are diverse, grouping in two separate branches along with isolates from Europe and the Americas. PMID:26984225

  14. Ocorrência generalizada do Lettuce mottle virus em três regiões produtoras de alface comercial do Estado de São Paulo Occurrence of Lettuce mottle virus on three lettuce producing areas from São Paulo State

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    Renate Krause-Sakate

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Os sequivírus são vírus isométricos transmitidos por afídeos. Lettuce mottle virus (LeMoV, um provável sequivirus foi descrito no Brasil em 1982 e causa sintomas de mosaico semelhantes aos observados pelo Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV. Um levantamento para ocorrência do LeMoV nos campos de produção de alface de três diferentes regiões do Estado de São Paulo (Mogi das Cruzes, Campinas e Bauru foi realizado durante 2002 a 2005. RNA total foi extraído e utilizado na detecção, em RT-PCR, com oligonucleotídeos específicos para o LeMoV. Do total de 1362 amostras, 137 (10,05% foram positivas para o LeMoV. Infecção mista com o LMV foi verificada em 43 amostras (31,4%. Foi verificada a ocorrência do LeMoV nas três diferentes regiões analisadas, porém sua ocorrência foi baixa nas diferentes épocas do ano.Sequiviruses are isometric aphid-borne plant viruses. Lettuce mottle virus (LeMoV, a putative sequivirus was first described in Brazil on 1982 causing similar mosaic symptoms as Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV. A survey for the occurrence of LeMoV on open field conditions was carried out during 2002 to 2005 on Mogi das Cruzes, Campinas and Bauru in São Paulo state. Total RNA was extracted and used on RT-PCR with specific LeMoV primers. On 1362 samples tested, 137 (10,05% were positive for LeMoV. Mixed infections with LMV was observed on 43 samples (31,4%. The presence of LeMoV was observed in the three different regions, but with low incidence during the year.

  15. Pepper mild mottle virus as an indicator and a tracer of fecal pollution in water environments: comparative evaluation with wastewater-tracer pharmaceuticals in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Nakada, Norihide; Hanamoto, Seiya; Inaba, Manami; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Do, An Thuan; Nga, Tran Thi Viet; Oguma, Kumiko; Hayashi, Takeshi; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2015-02-15

    We analyzed pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) in 36 samples taken from surface water, wastewater, groundwater, tap water and bottled water in Hanoi, Vietnam. We then compared the occurrence and fates of PMMoV with pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), which are known wastewater tracers. PMMoV was detected in 94% of the surface water samples (ponds, water from irrigated farmlands and rivers) and in all the wastewater samples. The PMMoV concentration ranged from 5.5×10(6)-7.2×10(6)copies/L in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents, 6.5×10(5)-8.5×10(5)copies/L in WWTP effluents and 1.0×10(4)-1.8×10(6)copies/L in surface water. Among the sixty PPCPs analyzed, caffeine and carbamazepine had high detection rates in surface water (100% and 88%, respectively). In surface water, the concentration ratio of PMMoV to caffeine remained unchanged than that in WWTP influents, suggesting that the persistence of PMMoV in surface water was comparable to that of caffeine. The persistence and the large concentration ratio of PMMoV in WWTP influents to the method detection limit would account for its ubiquitous detection in surface water. In comparison, human enteric viruses (HEV) were less frequently detected (18-59%) than PMMoV in surface water, probably because of their faster decay. Together with the reported high human feces-specificity, our results suggested that PMMoV is useful as a sensitive fecal indicator for evaluating the potential occurrence of pathogenic viruses in surface water. Moreover, PMMoV can be useful as a moderately conservative fecal tracer for specifically tracking fecal pollution of surface water. PMMoV was detected in 38% of the groundwater samples at low concentrations (up to 19copies/L). PMMoV was not detected in the tap water and bottled water samples. In groundwater, tap water and bottled water samples, the occurrence of PPCPs and HEV disagreed with that of PMMoV, suggesting that PMMoV is not suitable as an indicator or a tracer in

  16. 利用西瓜种子检测黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒%Utilizing Watermelon Seeds for Detection of Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖璐; 李玲; 唐炎英; 戴思慧; 王军辉; 刘泽发; 孙小武

    2013-01-01

      以疑似感染黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒(Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus,CGMMV)的西瓜植株上收取的种子为材料,提取总RNA为模板进行RT-PCR扩增,并对电泳后的目标条带进行回收测序,将测序结果提交genebank与已知序列比较,结果显示所扩增序列为CGMMV 外壳蛋白(CP)基因中的一个片段,说明此方法可以成功检测出西瓜种子携带的CGMMV,可作为一种快速检测西瓜种子是否携带CGMMV的方法。%In the paper, we took the seeds harvesting from watermelons which were suspected of being infected with cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) as material, and extracted total RNA for RT-PCR amplification, then we recycled and sequenced the target bands, and submitted the sequencing results to genebank. The results showed that the amplified sequence was a fragment of the CGMMV coat protein (cp) gene, which indicated that the method used in the test could successfully detect whether the watermelon seeds carrying CGMMV or not, and the method was a rapid method of detecting CGMMV of watermelon seeds.

  17. Caracterização de um isolado do Pepper mild mottle virus que não quebra a resistência do gene L3 em Capsicum sp. Characterization of a non-L3 gene-resistance breaking Pepper mild mottle virus isolate in Capsicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Eiras

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de pimenta (Capsicum baccatum 'Dedo de Moça' destinadas ao plantio comercial e adquiridas no município de São Paulo, SP, analisadas quanto à presença de vírus, por meio de testes biológicos e sorológicos revelaram-se infetadas por uma estirpe do Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV. Para confirmar a identidade do isolado, promoveu-se a RT-PCR com oligonucleotídeos que flanqueiam a ORF da capa protéica de espécies do gênero Tobamovirus do subgrupo 1. Os fragmentos de DNA amplificados, quando seqüenciados e comparados com outros isolados de tobamovírus depositados no GenBank, apresentaram valores de identidade de nucleotídeos entre 94 e 100% com outras seqüências de PMMoV, inferiores a 75% para as demais espécies de tobamovírus do subgrupo I (Tobacco mosaic virus, Tomato mosaic virus e Odontoglossum ringspot virus e 65% para os tobamovírus dos subgrupos II e III. O PMMoV-BR revelou 100% de identidade com isolados japoneses, sugerindo que este patógeno pode ter sido introduzido daquele país. A seqüência de aminoácidos deduzidos da capa protéica indicou também, que este isolado não é capaz de quebrar a resistência do gene L3 de Capsicum spp. Fato confirmado pelos sintomas causados nas hospedeiras diferenciais de Capsicum spp., verificando-se que este isolado não foi capaz de infetar plantas de C. chinense (L3 e C. chacoense (L4. Estes resultados confirmaram a importância da caracterização dos isolados de tobamovírus, fundamental para adequação de medidas de controle, principalmente, prevenindo a entrada e posterior disseminação do patógeno em novas áreas de cultivo.A strain of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV was identified by biological and serological analysis of pepper (Capsicum baccatum 'Dedo de Moça' seeds from São Paulo, SP, Brazil. To confirm these results, RT-PCR was performed with specific primers flanking the coat protein (CP ORF of tobamoviruses in subgroup 1. The DNA-amplified fragments, when

  18. Transmissão do Cowpea mild mottle virus pela mosca branca Bemisia tabaci biótipo B para plantas de feijão e soja Transmission of the Cowpea mild mottle virus by whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B for plants of beans and soy

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    Julio Massaharu Marubayashi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A necrose da haste da soja é causada por um vírus do gênero Carlavirus transmitido pela mosca branca Bemisia tabaci, também infectante de feijão e identificado como Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV. Neste trabalho foram realizados testes para determinação do número de moscas-brancas B. tabaci biótipo B necessários para transmissão do vírus em feijoeiro e soja. Na sequência foram realizados dois outros testes, com 10 insetos por planta. Avaliaram-se períodos de acesso à aquisição (PAA de 'Jalo' para 'Jalo', e o efeito de períodos de acesso à inoculação (PAI. Foram visualmente constatados sintomas típicos do carlavírus como mosaico, clareamento de nervuras, necrose sistêmica e redução de crescimento. Houve transmissão do vírus para 'BT-2' de feijão e 'BRS-132' de soja com apenas um inseto por planta, sendo mais eficaz nesta última espécie. A taxa de transmissão do vírus foi maior com o aumento do número de insetos por planta. E o PAA foi determinado após 15' de tempo para aquisição, e o PAI com 5 min e aumentando os períodos de acesso a aquisição e inoculação aumentou-se a taxa de transmissão.The stem necrosis of soybean is caused by a virus of the Carlavirus and transmitted for the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, also infectad of beans and identified as Cowpea mild mottle virus (CpMMV. In this work biotype B for transmission of the virus in beans and soy had been carried through tests for determination of the number of necessary whiteflys B. tabaci. In the sequence two other tests had been carried through, with 10 insects for plant. Periods of access to the acquisition (PAA of 'Jalo' for 'Jalo', and the effect of periods of access to the inoculation (PAI had been evaluated increase. Visually typical symptoms of carlavirus had been evidenced as mosaic, veinclearing, sistemic necrosis and reduction of growth. It had transmission of the virus for 'BT-2' of beans and 'BRS-132' of soy with only one insect for plant

  19. 黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒多克隆抗体制备及检测应用%Prepartion and testing of polyclonal for cucumber mottle mosaic viru

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂芬; 马洁; 陈红运; 李明福; 陈笑瑜; 丁建云

    2007-01-01

    将黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒(cucumber green mottle mosaicvirus,CGMMV)辽宁分离物繁殖在葫芦(Lagenaria siceraria)上,用葫芦作为繁殖寄主进行病毒提纯,将提纯病毒制剂免疫家兔制备多克隆抗体,抗体效价为1∶320 000,建立了间接ELISA检测黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒方法,检测病汁液的灵敏度为1∶32 000,检测提纯病毒的灵敏度为4.75×105 mg.

  20. Ocorrência do vírus do mosqueado do morangueiro no estado de São Paulo Occurrence of the strawberry mottle virus in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria B. Carvalho

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a ocorrência de estirpes do vírus do grupo denominado mosqueado («strawberry mottle» em plantações de morangueiro no Estado de São Paulo. Variedades antigas, como a Dr. Morère. acham-se totalmente infetatas. sendo portadoras sem sintomas. Alguns clones novos plantados apenas por poucos anos em campo, já se acham parcialmente infetados, indicando que há transmissão da moléstia sob condições naturais. Sintomas de palidez das nervuras, mosqueado, paralisação no crescimento e encrespamento são apresentados por plantas de Fragaria vesca infetadas pelos vírus dêsse grupo. Numerosas espécies de plantas-teste habituais foram inoculadas com diferentes isolados do vírus, por meio do vetor, mas os resultados foram geralmente negativos. Afídios virulíferos, colonizados sôbre plantas novas de Cassia accidentalis, Chenopodiam quinoa, Leonotis nepaetifolia e Leonurus sibiricus. induziram o aparecimento de sintomas. Não se conseguiu retransmitir o vírus dessas espécies para F. vesca, existindo, portanto, dúvidas sôbre a verdadeira identidade do vírus que infetava tais plantas. O vírus do mosqueado não foi aparentemente transmitido pela semente. Também não se mostrou transmissível mecânicamente para Frogaria vesca. O virus obtido por inoculação com o vetor em Chenopodium quinoa e que se supõe ser o do mosqueado, pôde se transmitido mecânicamente de C. quinoa para C. quinoa. mas não para F. vesca. O pulgão Pentatrichopus fragaefolii mostrou-se eficiente vetor do mosqueado, conseguindo-se obter em média mais de 50% de infecção em infestações com 1 afidio por planta. Aphis gossypii também transmitiu o vírus do mosqueado, mas com muito menor eficiência. Não se conseguiu transmitir o mosqueado com uma espécie de Cuscuta que ocorre comumeute em Campinas. Em testes de transmissão por enxertia de fôlhas, os resultados foram muito fracos devido ao mau pegamento. O pulgão Pentatrichopus fragaefolii

  1. Detection of the Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in seeds of bottle gourd%葫芦种子传黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦碧霞; 蔡健和; 陆秀红; 林林; 廖富荣; 刘志明

    2011-01-01

    从感染黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒(Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus,CGMMV)的葫芦植株上收取种子,通过苗期症状观察法、双抗体夹心酶联免疫吸附法(DAS-ELISA)、免疫捕获反转录PCR(IC-RT-PCR)法测定葫芦种子的带毒情况,并用生物学接种方法测定葫芦种千携带病毒的侵染活性.苗期症状观察法结果表明,199株幼苗有2株表现花叶斑驳症状,种子传毒率为1.01%;而利用DAS-ELISA和IC-RT-PCR法随机检测30粒葫芦病株种子,CGMMV检出率为100%.种子各部位携带的CGMMV接种葫芦表现典型的花叶斑驳症状,表明葫芦种子携带的CGMMV具有侵染活性.DAS-ELISA检测葫芦种子CGMMV的灵敏度为1/5120种子研磨液.%The seed transmission rate of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) in the bottle gourd Lagenaria siceraria was detected based on seedling symptoms, DAS-ELISA and immunocapture RT-PCR (IC-RTPCR). Seed transmission ratio of CGMMV in bottle gourd from the virus-contaminated seeds was 1.01%, while seed-borne ratio of CGMMV in bottle gourd seeds tested was 100% by DAS-ELISA and IC-RT-PCR. CGMMV in bottle gourd seeds was demonstrated to have infection activity by biological inoculation. The sensitivity of DASELISA used for detection of CGMMV in the seed sap of bottle gourd was 1/5120.

  2. 侵染葫芦的黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒广西分离物分子鉴定%Molecular identification of an isolate of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus infecting bottle gourd in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦碧霞; 蔡健和; 刘志明; 魏源文; 谢玲; 朱桂宁

    2008-01-01

    从广西南宁市郊温室大棚中的葫芦[Lagenaria siceraria(Molina)Stand.]上采集到一个表现脉绿、花叶症状的病毒样品,ELISA检测表明,该样品与黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒(Cucumbergreen mottle mosaic virus,CGMMV)有密切的血清学关系,利用RT-PCR方法从样品中扩增获得约500bp的DNA片段,序列分析表明,该片段是CGMMV的外壳蛋白基因,暂将该病毒分离物定名为GX-BG.外壳蛋白基因核苷酸序列系统进化树分析表明,已报道的CGMMV主要分为3大群体,GX-BG与中国辽宁分离物(CGMMV-LN)分别属于不同的群体.

  3. Efeitos na fotossíntese e área foliar de cultivares de alface inoculadas mecanicamente com patótipos do Lettuce mosaic virus e Lettuce mottle virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadão Adriana S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Levantamentos realizados no estado de São Paulo indicaram a ocorrência isolada e em infecções mistas do Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV e do Lettuce mottle virus (LeMoV em plantas de alface (Lactuca sativa. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos da infecção isolada e mista entre o LMV (patótipos II e IV e o LeMoV, em cultivares de alface suscetível (White Boston e tolerante (Elisa - gene mol¹ ao LMV patótipo II. As plantas foram inoculadas via extrato vegetal tamponado com isolados de LMV-II, LMV-IV e LeMoV separadamente e em diferentes combinações, com intervalo de 24 h ou simultaneamente com os dois vírus. As plantas infetadas foram analisadas utilizando-se hospedeiras diferenciais para o LMV e o LeMoV, e no caso do LMV pelo teste sorológico de PTA-ELISA. Nas avaliações de peso fresco e seco, área foliar e teor de clorofila, observou-se que a cultivar White Boston foi a mais afetada por ambos os vírus. As infecções mistas e isoladas na cultivar Elisa causaram efeitos semelhantes, provavelmente devido a presença do gene mo1¹ de tolerância ao LMV-II. O isolado LMV-IV foi considerado o mais agressivo nestas cultivares quando comparado ao LMV-II e o LeMoV.

  4. Preparation of A Compound Beverage with Inulin of Jerusalem Artichok, Hawthorn and Chrysanthemum%菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 朱畅

    2016-01-01

    The hot water was used to extract inulin. Through orthogonal test the optimal conditions of extract in-ulin were:the ratio of sample to water was 1∶25 (g/g),temperature 90℃,time 60 min. Under these conditions, the extract ratio was 79.98 %. Inulin of jerusalem artichoke ,hawthorn and chrysanthemum were used as the main materials,added white granulate sugar,honey and other accessories. A discussion was carried out on the key technologies,through single factor and orthogonal experimental design ,the sensory score was investigated an indicator to determine the optimum formula of the compound beverage. The results showed that the mixing proportion of hawthorn extract and chrysanthemum extract was 2∶3(mL/mL),inulin 2%,white granulate sugar 4%,honey 3%,the best stabilizer was sodium alginate 0.05%and CMC-Na 0.1%. The compound beverage is nutritions and good for health,can be developed with good color, flavor and taste.%采用热水浸提法对菊糖进行提取,通过正交试验确定了提取菊糖的最佳条件为:料水比1∶25(g/g),温度90℃,提取时间60 min,菊糖提取率为79.98%。以菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花为主要原料,添加白砂糖、蜂蜜等辅料。针对其关键技术进行了探讨,采用单因素和正交试验设计,以产品感官评价为指标,确定菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花复合饮料的最佳工艺配方。结果表明:山楂和菊花提取液比为2∶3(mL/mL)、菊芋菊糖2%、白砂糖4%、蜂蜜3%、最佳稳定剂为0.05%海藻酸钠和0.1%CMC-Na。该复合饮料具有营养、保健的功能,色泽、香味、口感俱佳。

  5. Optimization of extraction conditions of protein from Jerusalem artichoke residue by response surface methodology%响应面分析法优化菊芋渣中蛋白的提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维; 李雪雁; 张秀兰; 胡志明; 李冰

    2012-01-01

    以菊芋渣为研究对象,用蛋白质提取率作为衡量提取工艺的指标。在单因素实验基础上,选取pH、提取温度、提取时间为自变量,蛋白提取率为响应值,利用Box-Benhnken中心组合设计原理和响应面分析法,研究各自变量及其交互作用对提取率的影响,模拟得到二次多项式回归方程的预测模型,在固液比为1:30(g/mL)的条件下,确定最佳提取条件为pH14.0、提取温度82℃、提取时间2h。在此条件下,平均蛋白提取率为22.7747mg/g。与理论预测值23.3187mg/g相比,其相对误差约为2.33%。说明通过响应面优化后得出的回归方程具有一定的实践指导意义。%Jerusalem artichoke residue as the research object,with the protein extraction rate as a measure indicator.Three extraction parameters including pH,extraction temperature and extraction time were optimized using central composite design and response surface methodology based on single factor investigations for achieving maximum the protein extraction rate.The interaction of the respective variables and their influence on the extraction rate were studied by using Box-Benhnken central composite design and response surface analysis theory,the simulated quadratic polynomial regression equation of prediction model was set up.Under the condition of solid-liquid ratio1:30(g/mL),the optimum extraction condition for pH14,extraction temperature 82℃,extraction time of 2h.Under these conditions,the average protein yield ratio was 22.7747mg/g,compared to the theoretical value,the relative error of 2.33%.Optimized by response surface regression equation derived some practical significance.

  6. "Mancha-cafe" em soja: seleção para resistência e interação entre genótipos e épocas de inoculação Seedcoat mottling in soybeans: selection for resistance and interaction between genotypes and inoculation date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourençao

    1996-01-01

    infectadas no estádio vegetativo. Esses resultados fortalecem a diretriz utilizada no programa de melhoramento da Seção de Leguminosas do IAC: a de eliminar plantas e/ou linhagens com incidência de "mancha-café".The soybean mosaic virus (SMV is widespread in all soybean production areas. The mottled brown seed is the most characteristic symptom under our conditions, so in Brazil the disease was called "mancha-café" (coffee-spot. The mottling was the main limiting factor to the seed production in the certification system. The present paper had two objetives: screenning lines with different levels of mottled seeds, and to verify the interaction between selected genotypes and inoculation dates. During 1987, 131 F4:5 experimental lines from the cross IAC78-2318 x Santa Rosa, both susceptible to SMV, were evaluated under field conditions in Campinas (SP, Brazil. In the next year, seventeen selected lines plus the cultivars Santa Rosa, representing the five levels of mottling were planted again under field conditions in randomized complete-block design, with six replications. The results showed that the screenning realized in the field was efficient to identify the lines with different levels of mottled seeds. It was also observed that this characteristic was not much influenced by environmental effects as indicated by the positive and high correlation between diseases notes of both years, as well as the low value of the coefficient of variation. An additional study was carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate genotypes in distinct growth stages when mechanically inoculated with the virus. It consisted of a factorial experiment, involving a non-inoculated control, three inoculation times, and five lines representing notes from 1 to 5, plus the cultivars Santa Rosa, IAC-Santa Rosa PC and IAC-Santa Rosa DF. The genotypes were sowed in plastic bags and at the maturity, the following evaluations were made: the mottled seed rate, seed production (g/3 plants, mass (g of

  7. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies ), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to the combination of artichoke leaf dry extract standardised in caffeoylquinic acids, monacolin K in red yeast ric e, sugar - cane derived, policosanols, OPC from French maritime pine bark, garlic dry extract standardised in allicin, d - α - tocopheryl hydrogen succinate , riboflavin and inositol hexanicotinate in Limicol ® and reduction of blood LDL - cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to the combination of artichoke leaf dry extract standardised in caffeoylquinic acids, monacolin K in red yeast rice, sugar-cane derived policosanols, OPC from French maritime pine bark, garlic dry extract standardised in allicin, d-α-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, riboflavin and inositol...... ingredients in Limicol® on blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of the combination of artichoke leaf dry extract standardised in caffeoylquinic acids, monacolin K in red yeast rice, sugar-cane derived......Following an application from Laboratoire Lescuyer, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health...

  8. 山东地区樱桃绿环斑驳病毒(CGRMV)的RT-PCR 检测及外壳蛋白基因的克隆%DETECTION OF CHERRY GREEN RING MOTTLE VIRUS (CGRMV) AND ISOLATION OF ITS COAT PROTEIN GENES FROM SWEET CHERRY IN SHANDONG PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文文; 宗晓娟; 陈立伟; 王甲威; 魏海蓉; 徐丽; 孟艳玲; 严雪瑞; 刘庆忠

    2012-01-01

    为调查我省甜樱桃感染樱桃绿环斑驳病毒(Cherry Green Ring Mottle Virus,CCRMV)情况,本研究以甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)品种“红灯”叶片总RNA为模板,根据CGRMV基因组序列设计特异引物,对山东地区37份甜樱桃“红灯”样品进行RT - PCR检测,共检测出19份阳性样品.利用CGRMV外壳蛋白基因序列引物,从阳性植物样本中分离到约800bp的目的片段,克隆测序,序列分析显示该片段全长807 bp,编码268个氨基酸,与G enBank中已登录的CGRMV分离物的外壳蛋白基因序列一致性为87% ~97%,氨基酸序列相似性为95%~99%.该结果表明山东地区甜樱桃生产园中感染CGRMV的病例较为普遍.%In order to investigate the infection of Cherry Green Ring Mottle Virus (CGRMV) from sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L. ) in Shandong province, total RNA was extracted from the leaves of the sweet cherry cultivar Red Lamp' The specific primers were designed corresponding to the CGRMV genome sequence and used for the RT - PCR detection. Thirty - seven sweet cherry samples from six orchards were analyzed in the experiment and nineteen of them were detected as positive. The gene that encodes the virus coat protein was amplified and se-quenced. Sequence analysis revealed that the fragment was 807 nucleotides in length, encoding 268 amino acids. It shared 87% ~97% identity to the other CGRMV isolates reported in GenBank in the nucleotide level and 95% ~99% similarity in the amino acids level. These results showed CGRMV had been wide spread on sweet cherry in Shandong district.

  9. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to the combination of artichoke leaf dry extract standardised in caffeoylquinic acids, monacolin K in red yeast rice, sugar-cane derived policosanols, OPC from French maritime pine bark, garlic dry extract standardised in allicin, d-α-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, riboflavin and inositol hexanicotinate in Limicol® and reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Laboratoire Lescuyer, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to the combination of artichoke leaf dry extract standardised in caffeoylquinic acids, monacolin K in red yeast rice, sugar-cane derived policosanols, OPC from French maritime pine bark, garlic dry extract standardised in allicin, d-α-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, riboflavin and inositol hexanicotinate in Limicol® and reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The Panel considers that the food which is the subject of the claim is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations is a beneficial physiological effect. High LDL-cholesterol is a risk factor in the development of coronary heart disease. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that, although no evidence was provided for an LDL-cholesterol lowering effect of any of the single food constituents in Limicol® at the proposed conditions of use or as to how the ingredients individually or in any combination could contribute to the claimed effect and despite the lack of a dose-response relationship observed in one human intervention study, three human intervention studies conducted by two independent research groups showed an effect of the combination of food ingredients in Limicol® on blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of the combination of artichoke leaf dry extract standardised in caffeoylquinic acids, monacolin K in red yeast rice, sugar-cane derived policosanols, OPC from French maritime pine bark, garlic dry extract standardised in allicin, d-α-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, riboflavin and inositol

  10. Response of Productive and Morphovegetative Traits of Globe Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus to Mass Selection and Estimation of their Heritability Respuesta de Rasgos Productivos y Morfovegetativos de Alcachofa (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus a Selección Masal y Estimación de su Heredabilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Martin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been few reports on genetic parameters or artificial selection for growth traits in globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus, the study of the effect of one cycle of mass selection and realized heritability estimates would be valuable for planning breeding strategies in this species. A C0 segregating population was formed from the cross of two contrasting seed-grown cultivars, Imperial Star and Estrella del Sur FCA. Selected plants for productive traits were intercrossed to produce a C1 population. The C1 population along with the C0 population, both parents and the F1 were evaluated obtaining the response to selection and estimating realized heritability. Mass selection for increased yield and precocity was particularly successful, where for the first trait realized heritability reached 0.71 and 0.60 for the second one. For most traits, the observed values for realized heritability in the experiment (0.75, 0.61 and 0.52 for weight of the main head, marketable yield and length of the main head, respectively indicate that a substantial part of the observed phenotypic variance is of additive nature. Therefore, in general, selection for these traits in seed-grown globe artichoke populations will be effective.Existe a nivel mundial poca información sobre parámetros genéticos o de selección artificial para caracteres relacionados a la producción en el cultivo de alcachofa, por lo que el estudio de los efectos de un ciclo de selección masal y estimaciones de la heredabilidad sería útil para la planificación de estrategias de mejoramiento en esta especie. Las estimaciones de la importancia relativa de la variación genética y de la heredabilidad son fundamentales en la toma de decisiones en todas las etapas de los programas de mejoramiento. Una población segregante (C0 se formó de la hibridación de dos cultivares contrastantes multiplicados por semillas ‘Imperial Star’ y‘Estrella del Sur FCA’. Se evaluaron

  11. Cadmium-induced Membrane Lipid Peroxidation and Changes in Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Peroxidase Isoforms in Jerusalem Artichoke Seedlings%镉诱导的菊芋幼苗膜脂过氧化和抗氧化酶活性及过氧化物酶同工酶的改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶毅明; 陈燕珍; 梁杨琳; 徐美燕; 徐祥明

    2007-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.)seedlings cultured in sandy media were treated with Hoagland nutrition solution with different concentrations of Cd(NO3)2 from 0 to 400 μmol/L. After 50 days' treatment, Cd accumulation, activities of peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7), superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) were measured and electrophoretograms of POD isoenzymes were analyzed. The accumulation of Cd in seedlings increased from Cd 50-100 μmol/L, after which further increases in Cd concentration resulted in only small increases in accumulation of Cd in seedlings. MDA content was markedly higher than control values indicating the enhanced membrane lipid peroxidation in roots and leaves. POD activities in leaf and root extracts increased with an increase of Cd concentration from 0 to 50 and 100 μmol/L and then decreased with further increases to 200 and 400 μmol/L. Under moderate Cd level of 50-200 μmol/L,SOD activities in leaf and root extracts increased whereas with a higher Cd level of 400 μmol/L marked inhibitions in enzyme activities were observed. With increase in Cd concentration marked elevations in CAT activities in leaves and roots were observed. Results of electrophoresis show that the alteration of POD isoenzyme was noticeable to Cd and an additional POD isoenzyme LP10 appeared. It is suggested that POD isoenzyme of Jerusalem artichoke seedlings could be used as bioindicator for soil contamination by Cd.%用含有不同浓度(0~400 μmol/L)Cd(NO3)2的Hoagland营养液处理砂培的菊芋.处理50 d后,测定植物体内镉积累量以及过氧化物酶(POD)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性,并对POD同工酶进行电泳分析.发现在Cd 50~100 μmol/L浓度内,随着镉浓度的升高,菊芋根和叶中镉的积累量显著增加,而随后积累量的增加有所减少.根和叶中MDA含量显著上升,说明镉引起了膜脂过氧化.0~100 μmol/L Cd处理,根和叶中POD活性

  12. 黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒西瓜、甜瓜种子的带毒率和传毒率%The Rate of Seed Contamination and Transmission of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in Watermelon and Melon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴会杰; 秦碧霞; 陈红运; 彭斌; 蔡建和; 古勤生

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of this study is to strengthen detection of seeds which carry virus, and to prevent the spread and prevalence of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV). [ Method ] The rate of contamination and seed-to-seedling transmission of CGMMV in watermelon and melon were evaluated by DAS-ELISA. The seeds detected in the study were harvested from fruits of infected watermelon and melon plants by inoculation in insect-proof plastic house. [Result] The results showed that the contamination rate and seed-to-seedling transmission rate of CGMMV in watermelon were 100% and 2.25%,respectively, by testing 250 seeds and 623 seedlings. The contamination rate and seed-to-seedling transmission rate of melon was 93.85% and 2.83%, respectively, by analyzing 130 melon seeds and 2 050 melon seedlings. In the mixtures of CGMMV infected/healthy seeds or leaves, the sensitivity was successfully detected at ratios of 1/1 000 and 1/10 000, respectively. [Conclusion] The contamination rate was higher than the seed-to-seedling transmission rate, which showed that the virus distributes mainly in the seed coat. The sensitivity detection indicated that DAS-ELISA could be used to detect a large number of the seeds.%[目的]加强种子带毒检测,防止黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒 (Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus,CGMMV)通过种子传播而导致该病害的扩散和流行.[方法]以感染CGMMV的西瓜、甜瓜病株收获的种子为材料,应用DAS-ELISA检测感染CGMMV的种子带毒率和传毒率.[结果]250粒西瓜种子全部为阳性,带毒率达100%;623株西瓜幼苗14株为阳性,传毒率为2.25%.130粒甜瓜种子122粒为阳性,带毒率达93.85%;2 050株甜瓜幼苗58株为阳性,传毒率为2.83%.灵敏度检测种子带毒量在感染种子研磨样体积与健康种子研磨样体积为1/1 000时仍检测是阳性;叶片带毒量在病叶研磨样体积与健康叶研磨样体积为1/10 000时仍检测是阳性.[结论]感染CGMMV西瓜、

  13. Mottled Mice and Non-Mammalian Models of Menkes Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenartowicz, Małgorzata; Krzeptowski, Wojciech; Lipiński, Paweł;

    2015-01-01

    Menkes disease is a multi-systemic copper metabolism disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked ATP7A gene and characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and severe connective tissue defects. The ATP7A protein is a copper (Cu)-transporting ATPase expressed in all tissues and plays a critical...... synaptogenesis and axonal development. In cells, ATP7A participates in the incorporation of copper into Cu-dependent enzymes during the course of its maturation in the secretory pathway. There is a high degree of homology (>80%) between the human ATP7A and murine Atp7a genes. Mice with mutations in the Atp7a......-mammalian models of Menkes disease, Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio mutants were used in experiments which would be technically difficult to carry out in mammals....

  14. Parameters of dark mottles based on high resolution optical spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotrč, Pavel; Heinzel, Petr; Tsiropoula, G.; Tziotziou, K.

    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2005 - (Stepanov, A.; Benevolenskaya, E.; Kosovichev, A.), s.275-276 [Symposium of the International Astronomical Union /223./. St. Petersburg (RU), 14.07.2004-19.07.2004] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 687; GA AV ČR KSK2043105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : spectra Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  15. Efecto de una generación de endocría sobre caracteres vegetativos y productivos en dos estructuras familiares de alcaucil Effect of one generation of selfing over vegetative and productive traits in two family structures of globe artichoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina P. Cravero

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available El alcaucil (Cynara scolymus L. es una especie alógama cuyos cultivares no son aptos para ser propagados a través de semillas debido a su elevada heterocigosis. Para obtener materiales genéticamente homogéneos es necesario producir líneas endocriadas que pueden ser utilizadas directamente u obtener híbridos a través de ellas. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron evaluar el efecto de una generación de endocría sobre los caracteres tanto vegetativos como productivos y determinar la existencia de variabilidad genética entre las familias S1 a través de la estimación del Grado de Determinación Génico (G.D.G. en dos estructuras familiares diferentes. Se utilizaron 2 conjuntos de familias S1 provenientes uno de ellos de cruzamientos dirigidos entre clones y el otro por cruzamientos al azar de los mismos clones. Se evaluaron, en plantas individuales, caracteres productivos y vegetativos. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto la importancia del material de origen para la obtención de líneas con buen comportamiento agronómico. La generación S1 originada de plantas half-sibs no sería la más adecuada para la obtención de líneas ya que manifestaron una mayor depresión endogámica para la mayoría de los caracteres que las originadas de plantas full-sibs. Si bien los principales caracteres de interés selectivo manifestaron depresión endogámica, la variabilidad existente entre conjuntos, entre familias S1 y entre plantas dentro de familias permitiría elegir plantas individuales con buenas características agronómicas adecuadas para continuar el proceso de endocría o para ser propagadas clonalmente.Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. is an allogamous species where vegetative propagated cultivars are not suitable for seed multiplication due to their high heterozigous condition. To obtain homogeneous materials, the inbreeding process is necessary. Inbred lines could be used as cultivars or in hybrid combinations. The

  16. 四种化学诱抗剂防治黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒病的试验初报%Preliminary Report about Using 4 Chemical Inducers to ControlCucumber green mottle mosaic virusDisease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊香; 古勤生

    2015-01-01

    In order to screen the chemicals,which could induce resistance to CGMMV in bottle gourd 〔Lagenaria siceraria(Molina) Standl.〕,2,1,3-Benzothiodiazole (BTH),Brassinolide (BL),Chitosan Oligosaccharide (CTS) and Salicylic Acid (SA),were applied to bottle gourd seedlings to test their induced resistance in this experiment. BTH,BL,CTS and SA were sprayed before the plants were inoculated with CGMMV. Their relative control effects were evaluated.The results showed that 3 days before innoculation,treatments with BTH (0.050 g·L-1),BL (5.0×10-5 g·L-1),CTS(1.0 g·L-1),SA (0.138 g·L-1 ) could significantly reduce the disease indexes. Among them,5.0×10-5 g · L-1 had the best control effect,reaching 70.38%. Further studies indicated that after spraying BL,CTS,SA,3 days was the optimum inducing time,while after spraying BTH, the optimum inducing time was 1 day.Those 4 chemicals all showed potentials in inducing bottle gourd to produce resistance to CGMMV. Their differences in resistance were related with inducers and inducing times.%为了筛选出能够诱导瓠瓜产生黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒(Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus,CGMMV )病抗性的化学诱抗剂,在瓠瓜幼苗上分别喷施不同浓度的2,1,3-苯并噻二唑(2,1,3-Benzothiodiazole,BTH)、芸薹素内酯(Brassinolide, BL)、壳聚糖(Chitosan Oligosaccharide,CTS)、水杨酸(Salicylic Acid,SA)后,人工摩擦接种CGMMV,评价它们的相对防治效果。结果表明:接种前3 d用0.050 g·L-1 BTH、5.0×10-5 g·L-1 BL、1.0 g·L-1 CTS、0.138 g·L-1 SA处理均可使瓠瓜CGMMV的病情指数降低,其中5.0×10-5 g·L-1 BL防效最佳,达70.38%。进一步研究表明,BL、CTS、SA以喷药后3 d为最佳诱导时间,而BTH为喷药后1 d。4种化学物质均能诱导瓠瓜对CGMMV产生抗性,其抗性差异与诱抗剂种类、浓度及诱导时间相关。

  17. Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus)

    OpenAIRE

    ZİYAN, Emine; PEKYARDIMCI, Şule

    2003-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPO) in Jerusalem arthichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) skin and flesh were extracted and purified through (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, dialysis and gel filtration chromatography. The samples obtained from ammonium sulfate precipitation and dialysis were used for the characterization of crude skin and flesh PPO. Optimum pH values were 7.5 for skin PPO and 8.0 for flesh PPO with 50 mM catechol. The optimum temperatures for skin and flesh PPO were 25 °C and 30 °C respectiv...

  18. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF CADMIUM, COPPER, AND ZINC TO MOTTLED SCULPIN AND RAINBOW TROUT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This poster describes research conducted under the RARE program project to evaluate the sensitivity of sculpin to several metal contaminants common to hard rock mining sites in the Mountain West. This research was specifically requested by scientists in Region 10, but will have s...

  19. Physical Parameters of Dark Mottles Derived from High Resolution Optical Spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsiropoula, G.; Tziotziou, K.; Schwartz, Pavol; Kotrč, Pavel; Heinzel, Petr

    Nizozemí: ESA Publications Division, 2005 - (Danesy, D.), ---. (SP. 600). ISBN 92-9092-911-1. [European Solar Physics Meeting /11/. Leuven (BE), 11.09.2005-16.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : chromosphere * fine structure Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  20. Host range of rice yellow mottle virus in Sudano-Sahelian Savannahs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allarangaye, M D; Traoré, O; Traoré, E V S; Millogo, R J; Guinko, S; Konaté, G

    2007-05-01

    In the present study, we investigated on the experimental host range of RYMV among plant species most of which are frequently encountered in rice-growing environments of west and central African savannahs. Only seven out of 66 plant species inoculated were infected by RYMV. All susceptible plant species belonged to the Poaceae family and three of them (Chloris prieuri, Eragrostis cilianensis and Shoenefeldia gracilis) were reported for the first time. Symptoms were conspicuous and persistent in most species but disappeared totally in older plants of some host species such as S. gracilis and Eragrostis tenella. Therefore, surveys for identification ofRYMV wild hosts should be conducted before the flowering stage. Virus-host Interactions were studied between 15 RYMV isolates of different strains and 10 wild host species. Differential reactions were obtained in the crow-foot grass Dactyloctenium aegyptium which was susceptible to five of the fifteen isolates. All other plants were susceptible to the whole set of virus isolates. Altogether, this study underlined the narrowness of RYMV host range and pointed out the complexity of interactions between the virus and its hosts, especially the rationale behind overcoming host barriers. PMID:19069951

  1. Bagpipes and Artichokes: Surprise as a Stimulus to Learning in the Elementary Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Bonnie Schaffhauser

    2016-01-01

    Incorporating surprise into music instruction can stimulate student attention, curiosity, and interest. Novelty focuses attention in the reticular activating system, increasing the potential for brain memory storage. Elementary ages are ideal for introducing novel instruments, pieces, composers, or styles of music. Young children have fewer…

  2. Characterization and selection of globe artichoke and cardoon germplasm for biomass, food and biocompound production

    OpenAIRE

    Ciancolini, Anna

    2012-01-01

    L'artichaut et le cardon, appartenant à la famille des Asteraceae (Compositae), sont des plantes pérennes herbacées natives du bassin méditerranéen, et qui sont traditionnellement cultivées comme plantes maraîchères, respectivement pour leurs têtes et leurs cardes. L'Italie est le pays possédant la plus importante collection de germoplasmes autochtones d'artichaut. Dans le centre de l'Italie, le type Romanesco est étendu. Ces dernières années, le développement des techniques in vitro a permis...

  3. Potential of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) as a biorefinery crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Svensson, S.-E.; Johansson, E.;

    2014-01-01

    an excellent crop, for e.g. inulin extraction, production of high fructose syrup or fermentations. Less mature plants were shown to have degree of polymerization (DP) up to 14, which makes biomass useful as dietary fibre, while the inulin DP in tubers harvested later became as low as 6, showing lower potential...

  4. Environ: E00756 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00756 Artichoke Globe artichoke Medicinal herb Chlorogenic acid [CPD:C10468 C17147...terol [CPD:C08636] Cynara scolymus [TAX:59895] Asteraceae Artichoke leaves Major component: Cynarin [CPD:C10445] Medicina

  5. 7 CFR 201.56-2 - Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-2 Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae). Kinds of seed: Artichoke, cardoon, chicory, dandelion... primary infection. (C) Albino. (b) Other kinds in the sunflower family: Artichoke, cardoon,...

  6. Complete nucleotide sequence of a strain of cherry mottle leaf virus associated with peach wart disease in peach

    OpenAIRE

    Mekuria, Tefera A.; Druffel, Keri L.; Susaimuthu, James; Eastwell, Kenneth C.

    2013-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a peach virus isolate from a naturally infected peach tree showing typical peach wart-like symptoms on the fruit surface was determined and compared to sequences of members of the family Betaflexiviridae. The genome consists of 7,987 nucleotides, excluding the poly-A tail, and has four open reading frames (ORFs). Analysis of the whole genome and putative proteins encoded by each ORF revealed greatest sequence similarity to a cherry i...

  7. A new species of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from the giant mottled eel Anguilla marmorata in South Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Taraschewski, H.; Appelhoff, D.; Weyl, O.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2012), s. 174-180. ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Hysterothylacium * Anguilla * South Africa Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.783, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/article/10.2478%2Fs11687-012-0035-9

  8. Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) keralaensis sp nov (Rhabdochonidae) and some other nematodes in the Indian mottled eel Anguilla bengalensis bengalensis from India

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Sheeba, S.; Kumar, A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2012), 74-82. ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Rhabdochona * Anguilla * India Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2012

  9. Differentiation study between alfalfa mosaic virus and red clover mottle virus affecting broad bean by biological and molecular characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahmoud, S.Y.M.; Khaled, A.-S.G.A.; Petrzik, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2010), s. 224-239. ISSN 1816-4900 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : identification * phylogenetic relationship * nucleotide sequences Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  10. The effect of culinary preparation on carbohydrate composition, texture and sensory quality of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Vibe; Bennedbæk-Jensen, Sidsel; Kidmose, Ulla;

    2013-01-01

    measurements. The inulin content was not correlated to sweetness in any culinary preparation, but total sugars and sweetness were positively correlated in raw tubers. The mass loss during baking was higher in tubers harvested in spring than in autumn, indicating that the water binding capacity and cell...

  11. Concentración nutrimental en hojas de aguacate 'Hass' con síntoma de moteado Nutrimental concentration in 'Hass' avocado leaves with mottled symptom

    OpenAIRE

    Edgardo Federico Hernández-Valdés; Salvador Aguilar-Campoverde; Verónica Aguiera-Taylor; Rosa Elena Pérez-Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    El llamado "moteado de las hojas" en el cultivo de aguacate está ampliamente distribuido en las zonas de producción más importante de México, y se desconoce los factores involucrados en la aparición de este síntoma foliar. Por ello, se contrastó el contenido nutrimental en hojas de aguacate 'Hass' colectadas de árboles sin la presencia del moteado (tratamiento A), contra hojas que tampoco manifestaran el síntoma pero provenientes de árboles con el daño foliar (tratamiento B) y hojas con la pr...

  12. Characterization of the in vitro activities of the P1 and helper component proteases of Soybean mosaic virus Strain G2 and Tobacco vein mottling virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potyviruses express their RNA genomes through the production of polyproteins that are processed in host cells by three virus-encoded proteases. Soybean plants produce large amounts of protease inhibitors during seed development and in response to wounding that could affect the activities of these pr...

  13. 菊芋制备生物乙醇的研究进展%Research Progress of Bioethanol from Jerusalem Artichoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美德

    2010-01-01

    从发酵工艺、栽培、收获等方面概述了国内外菊芋制备生物乙醇方面的研究进展,在分析菊芋制备生物乙醇的优势的同时,提出了菊芋制备生物乙醇产业化中尚待解决的一些问题.

  14. New ribosome-inactivating proteins with polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase and antiviral activities from Basella rubra L. and bougainvillea spectabilis Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, A; Polito, L; Olivieri, F; Valbonesi, P; Barbieri, L; Battelli, M G; Carusi, M V; Benvenuto, E; Del Vecchio Blanco, F; Di Maro, A; Parente, A; Di Loreto, M; Stirpe, F

    1997-12-01

    New single-chain (type 1) ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were isolated from the seeds of Basella rubra L. (two proteins) and from the leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (one protein). These RIPs inhibit protein synthesis both in a cell-free system, with an IC50 (concentration causing 50% inhibition) in the 10(-10) M range, and by various cell lines, with IC50S in the 10(-8)-10(-6) M range. All three RIPs released adenine not only from rat liver ribosomes but also from Escherichia coli rRNA, polyadenylic acid, herring sperm DNA, and artichoke mottled crinkle virus (AMCV) genomic RNA, thus being polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidases. The proteins from Basella rubra had toxicity to mice similar to that of most type 1 RIPs (Barbieri et al., 1993, Biochim Biophys Acta 1154: 237-282) with an LD50 (concentration that is 50% lethal) 32 mg.kg-1. The N-terminal sequence of the two RIPs from Basella rubra had 80-93% identity, whereas it differed from the sequence of the RIP from Bougainvillea spectabilis. When tested with antibodies against various RIPs, the RIPs from Basella gave some cross-reactivity with sera against dianthin 32, and weak cross-reactivity with momordin I and momorcochin-S, whilst the RIP from Bougainvillea did not cross-react with any antiserum tested. An RIP from Basella rubra and one from Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested for antiviral activity, and both inhibited infection of Nicotiana benthamiana by AMCV. PMID:9421927

  15. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. Mottling or mottled skin refers to blood vessel changes in ... in the skin cells that gives skin its color Growth of bacteria or other organisms on the ...

  16. QTL Information Table: 779 [Q-TARO

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Symptoms Resistance or Tolerance Other disease resistance yellow mottle virus ... (RYMV) RFLP C)Inte ... nd mapping of the resistance to rice yellow mottle virus . I. QTLs identification and relationship between r ...

  17. QTL Information Table: 923 [Q-TARO

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RG869 Resistance or Tolerance Other disease resistance resistance to rice yellow mottle virus ... RF ... nd mapping of the resistance to rice yellow mottle virus . II. Evidence of a complementary epistasis between ...

  18. 7 CFR 1412.47 - Planting flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Independence, Jackson, Jefferson, Lee, Lincoln, Logan, Lonoke, Mississippi, Phillips, Pulaski, St. Francis..., honeydew melon, huckleberries, jackfruit, jerusalem artichokes, jicama, jojoba, kale, kenya,...

  19. 75 FR 16113 - Bacillus subtilis; Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... seedlings and as a foliar spray on asparagus, cole crops, bulb vegetables, berry crops, cucurbits, flowers... artichoke, asparagus, avocado, beans, beets, berries, brassica crops, bulb vegetables, celery, cereal...

  20. Identification and Sequence Analysis of Liaoning Isolate of Pepper Mild Mottle Virus%辣椒轻斑驳病毒辽宁分离物的鉴定及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓冬; 安梦楠; 王冠中; 赵秀香; 吴元华

    2016-01-01

    采用鉴别寄主、血清学及RT-PCR检测的方法对采自辽宁省葫芦岛地区的辣椒病毒进行了分离与鉴定,并将克隆得到的病毒CP基因进行测序及同源性比较.结果表明:该病毒分离物可侵染辣椒(Capsicum frutescens)产生局部枯斑、系统斑驳或花叶;局部侵染普通烟(Nicotiana tabacum)、心叶烟(Nicotiana glutinosa)、三生烟(Nicotiana tabacum.var.samsun)、矮牵牛(Petunia hybrida)产生坏死枯斑,在曼陀罗(Datura stramonium)、洋酸浆(Physalis pubescens)和苋色藜(Chenopodium amaranticolor)上引起褪绿斑;不能侵染番茄(Lycopersicon esculentum)、葫芦(Lagenaria siceraria)、甜瓜(Cucumisnelo)、黄瓜(Cucumis sativus)、千日红(Gomphrena globosa)、白菜(Brassica pekinensis)、百日草(Zinnia elegans)、蚕豆(Vicia faba)和玉米(Zea mays).辣椒病叶、病果和种子及表现症状的鉴别寄主叶片经DAS-ELISA检测均证实存在辣椒轻斑驳病毒(Pepper mildmottle virus,PMMoV).通过RTPCR技术成功克隆获得该病毒CP基因,测序并分析其同源性表明,该分离物与GenBank上已报道的13个国内外PMMoV分离物同源性很高,核苷酸和氨基酸同源性均为94%~100%.将该分离物与其他13个PMMoV分离物的CP基因序列一起构建系统发育进化树分析表明,该分离物与各亚洲分离物亲缘关系密切,并与国内各分离物可能具有相同的进化祖先.综上所述,辽宁辣椒上发现的病毒可鉴定为辣椒轻斑驳病毒辽宁分离物(PMMoV-LN),此为辽宁辣椒生产区首次报道.由于PMMoV具有典型的种传特性,而我国目前尚未将其列为检疫对象,这将促进病毒的快速扩展蔓延,因此应重视该病毒的危害性及对我国辣椒生产的潜在威胁,并加强其抗病育种和检验检疫工作以达到对PMMoV防控的目的.

  1. Composição química e atividades biológicas das folhas de Cynara scolymus L. (alcachofra cultivada no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noldin Vânia Floriani

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the chemical composition and biological activities of artichoke cultivated in Brazil. Our studies demonstrated that glycosyl flavonoids (cynaroside and scolymoside, are the major constituents, along with cynaropicrin, a sesquiterpene lactone, and the triterpene lupeol. Cynarin, which is the main compound described for artichoke, was detected in very low concentration. Hexanic fraction exhibited considerable cytotoxicity and diuretic activities.

  2. 以菊芋(或菊苣)为原料酶法生产菊糖、果糖%Production of inulin and fructose from Jerusalem artichoke (or chicory) by enzymatic method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍元兴; 孙蔚榕

    2004-01-01

    以菊芋(或菊苣)为原料,热水浸提获得提取液.酶法处理提取液,使压滤液流畅,提高菊糖出率达95%以上.应用纳滤高纯化技术分离去除葡萄糖、果糖和蔗糖,使菊糖纯度(蔗果三糖以上含量)达94.85%~98.58%;高纯化菊糖液经菊糖酶转化,得到高纯度果糖浆,果糖含量达85.56%~87.24%.

  3. Study on strategy of pH control on the inulin extraction from Jerusalem artichoke%菊芋多糖提取过程中的pH控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁磊; 李平; 朱明军

    2012-01-01

    Two kinds of Jerusalem artichoke(rinsed and unrinsed) were used for inulin extraction at the condition of 85℃,solid/liquid ratio of 1:10,and the pH of 5.0~9.0.The reducing sugars concentration of the extraction increased with lower pH;while the protein concentration of the extraction increased with higher pH.The highest inulin concentration was reached at 100min.Considering the inulin concentration,the impurities(reducing sugars and protein) and the color of the extraction,the optimum extraction conditions for the unrinsed material and rinsed material were pH7.0,110min and pH7.0,100min,respectively.The inulin concentration and extraction rate for unrinsed material and rinsed material were 88.43g/L,76.46% and 86.10g/L,72.65%,respectively.%采用未漂洗和漂洗过的菊芋做原料,在pH5.0~9.0,85℃、固液比1:10下提取,并在60~120min每隔10min取样分析,得出如下结论:pH越低,提取液中的还原糖含量越高;pH越高,提取液中的蛋白质的含量越高;菊糖含量在100min左右达到最高值。考虑还原糖及蛋白质等杂质、脱色及菊糖的含量,未漂洗的原料最佳提取条件为pH7.0,提取110min,其菊糖含量为88.43g/L,菊糖提取率为76.46%;漂洗过的原料最佳提取条件则是pH7.0,提取100min,其菊糖含量为86.10g/L,菊糖提取率为72.65%。

  4. The relationship of certain tymoviruses assessed from the amino acid composition of their coat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, H L; Gibbs, A; Wittman-Liebold, B

    1980-01-01

    The amino acid composition of the coat proteins of the following viruses is reported: Andean potato latent, clitoria yellow vein, desmodium yellow mottle, dulcamara mottle, eggplant mosaic, okra mosaic, ononis yellow mosaic, scrophularia mottle, and, as controls, cocksfoot mild mosaic and cocksfoot mottle viruses. These data, together with some already published, were used to compute classifications of the tymoviruses. These classifications show a general similarity to Koenig's serological classification of the tymoviruses, but the correlation is poor, unlike similar comparisons of tobamovirus classifications. Several possible reasons for the poor correlation have been examined and excluded, and its implications are discussed. PMID:7372445

  5. Simulation granularity of radiographs exposed with screen-film systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simulation is performed by superposing the Markov random numbers and the random step function, respectively expressing the density fluctuation due to the screen mottle and the film granularity. As the results, the autocorrelation function and the Wiener spectrum of the screen mottle are expressed by the exponential and Lorentzian formulae respectively, and those of the film granularity by the triangular wave and the square sampling function respectively. The correlation lengths of rare earth screen mottles are longer than those of calcium tungstate screen mottles. (author)

  6. 40 CFR 180.458 - Clethodim; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on... Parts per million Alfalfa, forage 6.0 Alfalfa, hay 10 Artichoke, globe 1.2 Asparagus 1.7 Bean, dry,...

  7. Cytochrome P450s from Cynara cardunculus L. CYP71AV9 andCYP71BL5, catalyze distinct hydroxylations in the sesquiterpenelactone biosynthetic pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eljounaidi, K.; Cankar, K.; Comino, C.; Moglia, A.; Hehn, A.; Bourgaud, F.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Menin, B.; Lanteri, S.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cynara cardunculus (Asteraceae) is a cross pollinated perennial crop which includes the two cultivatedtaxa globe artichoke and cultivated cardoon. The leaves of these plants contain high concentrationsof sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) among which cynaropicrin is the most represented, and has recently

  8. 75 FR 78932 - Federal Seed Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ...--Zea mays L. subsp. mays'', ``Crambe--Crambe abyssinica R.E. Fr.'', ``Crotalaria, slenderleaf...--Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. cardunculus'', ``Asparagus--Asparagus officinalis Baker'', ``Bean, garden... ``Artichoke--Cynara cardunculus L.'', ``Asparagus--Asparagus officinalis L.'', ``Bean,...

  9. CHANGE IN THE QUALITY OF SUGAR COOKIES WITH THE INTRODUCTION OF PREBIOTIC SUPPLEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Коркач, Г. В.; Г. В. Крусир; Єгорова, А. В.; Кушнір, Ю. Р.

    2015-01-01

    The application of unconventional raw materials is the promising direction to get sugar cookies enriched with physiologically functional food ingredients. Odessa National Academy of Food Technologies (ONAFT) developed a fractionation technology for Jerusalem artichoke tubers, which exhibit prebiotic properties: aqueous extract of finely cut tubers, inulin preparation; dietary fiber from a solid insoluble residue. Exactly the aqueous extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers and dietary fiber from...

  10. The host range of Phomopsis cirsii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Vibeke; Andreasen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    greenhouses in order to encircle the host range of P. cirsii. Susceptible plant species were found only in the thistle group (Cardueae) which contained 34 species belonging to 12 genera. Susceptible species were found in thirteen of these genera. Highly susceptible species included Carduusacanthoides...... areas where artichokes are cultivated, would depend on the existence of P.cirsii resistant varieties or the existence of P.cirsiiisolates non-pathogenic to artichoke....

  11. Selección de mercados para la exportación intracomunitaria de alcachofa en conserva mediante técnicas de decisión multicriterio discretas. Estudio comparativo

    OpenAIRE

    Aragonés-Beltrán, Pablo; Cosa-Martínez, Juan; Sabater-Romero, Enric

    2012-01-01

    [EN]: The object of this study is to determine the priorities for export and introduction into European Union countries canned the product of artichoke, specifically established as alternatives, Germany, France and Italy, in the case of Germany for its growing import market, and France and Italy, for its great tradition in the consumption of artichoke. The company is engaged in the manufacture of canned vegetables, for the study were taken into account the current economic situation affect...

  12. fRNAdb Summary: FR131244 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FR131244 D00685,D00721 Hairpin ribozyme ribozyme Chicory yellow mottle virus satellite ... RNA,Chico ... ry yellow mottle virus small satellite ... RNA RF00173 Rfam v8.1 FR131244.jpg FR131244.png FR ...

  13. Resistance of Pepper Accessions and Lines to Economically Important Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Stoimenova, Elisaveta; Bogatzevska, Nevena; Mitrev, Sasa; Daskalov, S.

    2006-01-01

    Macedonian and Bulgarian pepper accessions and lines were tested for resistance to cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), paprika mild mottle virus (PMMoV) - (P1 pathotype), pepper mild mottle virus pMMoV - (P1.2 and P1.2.3. pathotype) and Xanthomonas vesicatoria pepper - tomato pathotype (XvPT).

  14. QTL Information Table: 786 [Q-TARO

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Area Under Symptoms Progression Curve (AUSPC) Resistance or Tolerance Other disease resistance y ... ellow mottle virus ... (RYMV) SSR B)Fine RIL&DHL IR64 Azucena B MV4 AB28 ... for partial resistance QTLs to Rice yellow mottle virus ... in rice. Theor Appl Genet 116, 53-62. ...

  15. QTL Information Table: 785 [Q-TARO

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Area Under Symptoms Progression Curve (AUSPC) Resistance or Tolerance Other disease resistance y ... ellow mottle virus ... (RYMV) SSR C)Interval RIL&DHL IR64 Azucena B RM550 ... for partial resistance QTLs to Rice yellow mottle virus ... in rice. Theor Appl Genet 116, 53-62. ...

  16. [Biotechnological optimization of nutrient composition of fermented dairy drink].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donskaya, G A

    2014-01-01

    The receipt based on the results of carried out studies is substantiated and technology of the new fermented dairy drink containing whole milk and whey with inulin (Jerusalem artichoke extract) and optimizing initial mineral composition of raw material has been developed. The starters ascertaining optimal organoleptic properties of the drink have been selected. It has been established that Jerusalem artichoke and its derivatives in the form of syrups and extracts stimulate fermentative processes of technological microflora, with maximum activity observed with Jerusalem artichoke extract. Physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics of the drink have been defined during storage. The possibility to optimize the nutrient composition of fermented dairy product by means of introducing of Jerusalem artichoke extract into milk-protein base has been demonstrated. It has been calculated that consumption of 100 g of fermented dairy drink enriched with Jerusalem artichoke extract makes it possible to satisfy the physiological needs (recommended daily allowance--RDA) for babies from 0 to 3 months in vitamins B1, B2 and B6 by 25-35% and in minerals P, K, and Ca by 20, 68, 34, 26%. For adults receiving 250 g of fermented beverage meets RDA for vitamins B1, B2 and B6 by 10-19% and in the macronutrients P, K, Ca-by 25-35%. Designed fermented dairy drink supplemented with natural plant ingredient possesses increased antioxidant activity and may be recommended for mass consumption without any limitations. PMID:25929025

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14329-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NA polymerase subunit H; ... 51 5e-05 CP001140_1373( CP001140 |pid:none) Desulfurococcus kamcha...S. ratti mixed stage pAMP Stro... 58 1e-04 2 ( EL463193 ) CHTS17640.b1_P18.ab1 CHT(LMS) Jerusalem artichoke....Segment 1 Rattus norvegi... 38 0.32 2 ( EL472628 ) CHTS18956.b1_H11.ab1 CHT(LMS) Jerusalem artichoke... 38 0....34 2 ( EL472200 ) CHTS18527.b1_M23.ab1 CHT(LMS) Jerusalem artichoke... 38 0.34 2 ( CX582971 ) TTE00028538 A... sunflower Hel... 38 0.37 2 ( EL459060 ) CHTS12445.b1_J15.ab1 CHT(LMS) Jerusalem artich

  18. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bulb here, the round ligaments, the pelvic cul-de-sac. We see some radiation fibrosis, the mottled ... And freeing up this pelvic peritoneum, pelvic cul-de-sac. De facto already free the ureter off ...

  19. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... part of the vagina, the cervix and surrounding tissues as well last the uterus and both tubes ... sac. We see some radiation fibrosis, the mottled tissue from fibrosis. And that will become an issue ...

  20. 78 FR 42972 - Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on the John Day River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    .../recreation/johnday/boat-fee.php FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Heidi Mottl, Recreation Planner, at the.../boat-fee.php . The plan addresses recreation opportunities, the issuance of SRPs, and the charging...

  1. Highly Specific Detection of Five Exotic Quarantine Plant Viruses using RT-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hoseong; Cho, Won Kyong; Yu, Jisuk; Lee, Jong-Seung; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    To detect five plant viruses (Beet black scorch virus, Beet necrotic yellow vein virus, Eggplant mottled dwarf virus, Pelargonium zonate spot virus, and Rice yellow mottle virus) for quarantine purposes, we designed 15 RT-PCR primer sets. Primer design was based on the nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene, which is highly conserved within species. All but one primer set successfully amplified the targets, and gradient PCRs indicated that the optimal temperature for the 14 useful prime...

  2. Molecular resolution of genetic variability of major sweetpotato viruses and improved diagnosis of potyviruses co-infecting sweetpotato

    OpenAIRE

    Tairo, Fred

    2006-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis contribute to improved resolution of genetic variability and diagnosis of potyviruses co-infecting sweetpotatoes. The most prevalent viruses infecting sweetpotato in Tanzania were Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV), Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV) and Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV). They were serologically detected and results confirmed by RT-PCR and sequencing. Nucleotide (nt) sequence...

  3. Penicillium subrubescens, a new species efficiently producing inulinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, S.; Houbraken, J.; Samson, R.A.;

    2013-01-01

    carbon or ground Jerusalem artichoke tubers, which contains up to 19 % (fresh weight) inulin. Inulinase and invertase activities were assayed by the dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method and a freshly isolated Penicillium strain originating from agricultural soil (FBCC 1632) was the most efficient inulinase...... fructose and glucose. To find efficient inulin degrading fungi, 126 fungal strains from the Fungal Biotechnology Culture Collection (FBCC) at University of Helsinki and 74 freshly isolated strains from soil around Jerusalem artichoke tubers were screened in liquid cultures with inulin as a sole source of...

  4. Biofuels: on your marks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass fuels are in France: ethanol (from wheat, sugar beets, potatoes, jerusalem artichoke, ligno-cellulose wastes or forests) and its derived ETBE (ethyltertiobutylether), methanol (from petroleum) and its derived MTBE (methyltertiobutylether), vegetable oils and its derived DIESTER (methylester of colza or sunflower). Economic and energy balances are given with environmental impacts. (A.B.). 6 refs

  5. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists…

  6. ВЗАИМОСВЯЗЬ СОСТОЯНИЯ МИКРОБИОЦЕНОЗА ТОЛСТОГО КИШЕЧНИКА С ВЫРАЖЕННОСТЬЮ СИСТЕМНОЙ ЭНДОТОКСИНЕМИИ И АНТИЭНДОТОКСИНОВОЙ ЗАЩИТЫ У БЕРЕМЕННЫХ С ОБСТИПАЦИОННЫМ СИНДРОМОМ

    OpenAIRE

    Субханкулова, С.; Габидуллина, Р.; Газизов, Р.; Зинкевич, О.; Сафина, Н.; Субханкулова, А.

    2008-01-01

    The composition of bowel microflora, the level of serum endotoxin and indicators anti-endotoxin protection were studied in pregnant women with constipation. Treatment with cholagogue artichoke extract helped to stop constipation in most patients, as well as to improve the composition of microflora of the bowel and reduce the endotoxemia.

  7. Iluravi või totaalne muutumine / Madle Mühlbach

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mühlbach, Madle

    2008-01-01

    Maal asuva eramu uuest sisekujundusest. Sisearhitekt Aivar Mühlbach. Elutoa põrand on tammelaudadest, trepitagune sein ja tualettruumi seinad on kaetud kuldkollase looduskiviga. Köögist eraldatud elutoas on firma Mang kaarekujuline diivan, Poul Henningseni disainitud valgusti Artichoke jm. 13 värv. vaadet

  8. 21 CFR 155.200 - Certain other canned vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... artichoke plant Whole; half or halves or halved; whole hearts; halved hearts; quartered hearts. Asparagus Edible portions of sprouts of the asparagus plant, as follows: 3 and 3/4 in or more of upper end Stalks... water. Asparagus may be canned with added water, asparagus juice, or a mixture of both. For the...

  9. Plain radiography with a rare-earth screen: comparison with calcium tungstate screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plain radiographic examinations were performed on 388 patients (adult and pediatric) using either a calcium tungstate or rare-earth screen. Radiographs were compared for overall image quality, mottle, contrast, density, and detail. The rare-earth screen produced radiographs with significantly more mottle than did the standard screen. This was the result of minor differences between the grading of optimal and good. A major advantage or rare-earth screens is a 50% or more reduction in radiation exposure. The results here show that rare-earth screens may be used in plain radiographic examinations without a clinically important decrease in image quality

  10. 浅释花式纸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仁庆

    2008-01-01

    花式纸(Decorative paper)商业上又称“艺术纸”(Fancy paper),它是多种美术装饰用纸的统称。其中包括有花岗岩纸(Granite Paper)、木纹纸(Wood—veined Paper)、斑纹纸(Mottled Paper)以及其他名目繁多的品种,如彩岩纸(Mottled color paper)、云彩纸(Cloud paper)、龙纹纸(Dragon-veined paper)、

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14468-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 720 |pid:none) Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 ... 78 5e-16 CP001140_300( CP001140 |pid:none) Desulfurococcus kamcha.... 36 2.0 CP000529_3639( CP000529 |pid:none) Polaromonas naphthalenivorans C... 35...0571_1612( CP000571 |pid:none) Burkholderia pseudomallei 668 c... 34 5.9 CP000679_384( CP000679 |pid:none) Cal... ... 54 7e-07 2 ( EL512413 ) CHTX772.b1_G01.ab1 CHT(XYZ) Jerusalem artichoke H......274.b1_D04.ab1 CHT(LMS) Jerusalem artichoke... 54 7e-07 2 ( EL462920 ) CHTS17390.b1_L03.ab1 CHT(LMS) Jerusalem artich

  12. Prospects Of Using Walnut In Technologies Of Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Tiurikova Inna; Peresichnyi Mykhailo

    2015-01-01

    The results of studies in the field of beverage functionality using walnut are presented. The main components such as celery, Jerusalem artichokes, carrots, pumpkin and rhubarb, as a dietary supplement - extracts from walnut of milk-maturity stage are offered for creating blends. The basic physical and chemical properties of fruit and vegetable raw materials and semi-finished products created on the base of them have been studied, and their nutritional and biological value has been proved. Ra...

  13. Enzymatic hydrolysis of plant extracts containing inulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiraud, J.P.; Galzy, P.

    1981-10-01

    Inulin-rich extracts of chicory and Jerusalem artichoke are a good potential source of fructose. Total enzymatic hydrolysis of these extracts can be effected by yeast inulinases (EC 3.2.1.7). Chemical prehydrolysis is unfavourable. Enzymatic hydrolysis has advantages over chemical hydrolysis: it does not produce a dark-coloured fraction or secondary substances. It is possible to envisage the preparation of high fructose syrups using this process. (Refs. 42).

  14. Incorporation of different natural polyphenol extracts into a yoghurt and their effect on viability of a selected probiotic strain

    OpenAIRE

    Pisu, Rosa; Juliano, Claudia Clelia Assunta; Alamanni, Maria Cristina Paolina; Coloru, Gavina Carmina; Cossu, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    The aims of our project were: (1) to prepare different extracts of strawberry-tree honey, Cynara scolymus L. (artichoke), Arbutus unedo L. fruits (strawberry-tree) and Prunus avium L. var. Bonnannaro fruits (cherry) and characterise them with respect to their polyphenol contents; (2) to study the effect of these extracts on viability of probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei ATCC 12116; (3) to incorporate these extracts into commercial yoghurt samples to verify if their presence ...

  15. Ulteriori esperienze di lotta contro il «marciume dei capolini» del carciofo da Botrytis cinerea Pers.

    OpenAIRE

    Corda, Pietro Maria; Fiori, Mario; Franceschini, Antonio

    1981-01-01

    During the winter of 1982 field control trials were carried out against head rot of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) induced by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Treatments bega n when first symptoms appeared and were repeated every 10 days. for 4 times in alI. Among tested compounds the best results were given by dicarboximide derivatives (vinchlozolin, procymidox, iprodione, dichlozolinate) and by prochloraz while less satisfactory appeared dichlofluanid and a mixture of captafol + ...

  16. Comparative Fingerprint and Extraction Yield of Medicinal Herb Phenolics with Hepatoprotective Potential, as Determined by UV-Vis and FT-MIR Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Simona ZAVOI; Florinela FETEA; Floricuta RANGA; Raluca M. POP; Anca BACIU; Socaciu, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed to compare the polyphenolic composition of six medicinal herbs, from wild flora of Romania. The plants investigated, Cynara scolimus (artichoke), Taraxacum officinalis (dandelion), Chelidonium majus (celandine), Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort), Silybum marianum (Mary thistle) and Lycopodium clavatum (Wolf’s claw) are known, to have hepatoprotective action. Using in parallel glycerol-water, ethanol-water and methanol, the solvent-dependence of the extract fin...

  17. An Investigation of the Acute Effects of Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin on Subjective Wellbeing, Mood and Cognitive Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew P. Smith; David Sutherland; Paul Hewlett

    2015-01-01

    Inulin is a natural food component found in many plants that are part of the human diet (e.g., leeks, onions, wheat, garlic, chicory and artichokes). It is added to many foods and is used to increase dietary fibre, replace fats or carbohydrates, and as a prebiotic (a stimulant of beneficial bacteria in the colon). Oligofructose, which is also present in these foods, produces similar effects and most research has used a combination of these products. A previous study (Smith, 2005) investigated...

  18. Your Game Plan to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes: Fat and Calorie Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Apricots, fresh (2 = 1/2 cup) Artichoke, globe Asparagus spears Avocado, black or green skin   (g)  1 ... 128    (g)  New England clam chowder or potato asparagus or broccoli corn celery chicken mushroom with whole ...

  19. Selection of lactic acid bacteria able to ferment inulin hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian BASTON; Oana Emilia CONSTANTIN

    2012-01-01

    Eight homofermentative lactic acid bacteria isolates were tested for lactic acid production using chicory and Jerusalem artichoke hydrolysate as substrate. The pH, lactic acid yield and productivity were used to select the best homolactic bacteria for lactic acid production. The selected strains produced lactic acid at maximum yield after 24 hours of fermentation and the productivity was greater at 24 hours of fermentation. From all studied strains, Lb1 and Lb2 showed the best results regardi...

  20. Nutrition of monogastrics: A summary of research conducted under the German Federal Programme for Organic Agriculture and other forms of Sustainable Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    ANON, AN

    2012-01-01

    The thematic focus of monogastric nutrition runs very regularly through the entire federal programme. A strong focus was on the use of feed made from 100% organic origin (EC Eco-Regulation). In experiments in 2006 on the use of roughage in outdoor rearing pigs, for example, it was shown that Jerusalem artichoke can lead to significantly higher weight gains, compared to the control, while weight gain decreased significantly in some cases using other roughages. In another project in 2007, the v...

  1. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for bupirimate in several crops

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, the Netherlands, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an application from Makhteshim-Agan Holland B.V. to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance bupirimate in apricots, peaches, strawberries, grapes, blackberries, dewberries, cucurbits, herbs and globe artichokes. In order to accommodate for the intended uses, The Netherlands proposed to raise the existing MRLs for bupirimate and for its me...

  2. Reclamation Of Plant Wastes (Straw) And Obtaining (Nano) Chips With Bactericidal Properties Based On Them

    OpenAIRE

    Leonidovna Voropaeva Nadezda; Mukhin Viktor Mikhailovich; Anatolyevna Revina Alexandra; Alekseevich Busev Sergey; Vladimirovich Karpachev Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Rape, camelina, wheat and Jerusalem artichoke vegetable wastes (straw) as annually renewable raw materials were processed into activated carbons, which were modified with silver nanoparticles for carbonaceous sorbents to acquire specific properties, since carbonaceous sorbents are usually widely used in the food industry, agriculture, medicine and other fields of human activity. The technology to obtain active carbons from agricultural crop residues has been developed, active carbon physico-c...

  3. EFFECT OF LIVING MULCH ON PEST/BENEFICIAL INTERACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Burgio, Giovanni; Kristensen, Hanne L.; Campanelli, Gabriele; Bavec, Franc; Bavec, Martina; von Fragstein und Niemsdorff, Peter; Depalo, Laura; Lanzoni, Alberto; Canali, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cover crops on pest/beneficial dynamics and to test the potential of living mulch on enhancing biological control against insect pests. The research, carried out in the frame of the InterVeg (Core Organic II) project, involved four European countries: Germany, Slovenia, Denmark and Italy. Three crops were tested: cauliflower, leek and artichoke. The preliminary results obtained in Italy on cauliflower, indicated that the living mulch did not...

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION FOR BIOETHANOL OBTAINING FROM INULIN AND INULIN RICH FEEDSTOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia (Bonciu Neagu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol serves as liquid fuel or gasoline enhancer in many countries in response to the progressive depletion of the world’s energetic resources. Production of bioethanol from inulin rich raw materials has been a subject of great interest for many years due to the large amount of existing and not completely developed technologies. The aim of this work was to study three different methods for hydrolysis and fermentation of pure inulin and Jerusalem artichoke flour: separate hydrolysis by A. niger MIUG 1.15 strain as active producer of inulinase, in stationary phase and under agitation, followed by fructose fermentation and simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation of inulin and Jerusalem artichoke flour respectively, in order to increase the yield of biotransformation of substrate into ethanol. The highest amount of ethanol was formed during simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation, for both pure inulin and Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus tubers used as raw materials, of 16.2 g∙L-1 and 28.1 g∙L-1 respectively.

  5. On the biotechnology of plants with fructosan content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaushofer, H.

    1986-03-01

    Inulin, as to its chemical nature, is a polyfructosane. Fructosanes (fructanes) are hardly less abundant in nature than starch. However, there are only few plants with sufficient fructosane content for technological utilization. The most important of them are Jerusalem artichoke and chicory. At first this paper deals with inulin and the homologous series of fructosanes. The importance of Jerusalem artichoke and chicory as agricultural crops and their respective peculiarities are pointed out as far as they are relevant for their use as technical source materials. Inulin containing plants are of interest with respect to the production of fructose and fructose syrup and as energy plants (production of ethanol). Chicory is particularly suitable as source material for fructose-(syrup-)production, Jerusalem artichoke mainly for the production of ethanol, although principally both product groups can be obtained from chicory roots and from topinambur bulbs. If inulin containing raw materials are used for ethanol production, it's of interest that yeast invertase splits polyfructosanes of higher molecular mass considerably more slowly than inulinase and yields are less satisfactory with S. cerevisiae and increasing inulin content in the mash. If yeast types are used containing inulinase and invertase, e.g. Kl. fragilis and marxianus, satisfactory fermentation can be obtained even with these types of mashes.

  6. 76 FR 52544 - Importation of Peppers From Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ..., we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 30303- 30305, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0002) a proposal \\1... discussed below by topic. Pest List Section 319.56-40 requires the national plant protection organizations... ovatipennis, bacterial wilt, Andean potato mottle virus, Lantana mealybug, Passionvine mealybug, and the...

  7. Evaluation of low-volume sprayers used in asian citrus Psyllid control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kumayama, Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae) is a detrimental pest to citrus crops when it serves as a vector of the pathogen that causes greening (huanglongbing, or HLB). Transmission of this disease causes mottling, chlorosis, dieback and reductions in both frui...

  8. Tomato necrotic ring virus (TNRV), a recently described tospovirus species infecting tomato and pepper in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehraban, A.; Cheewachaiwit, S.; Relevante, C.; Kormelink, R.J.M.; Peters, D.

    2011-01-01

    Two tospovirus isolates collected from tomato and bell pepper in Thailand were studied. The isolates induced severe necrotic mottling and/or necrotic spots and rings on the leaves and fruits of the respective plants as confirmed by back-inoculation. A polyclonal antiserum raised against its nucleoca

  9. 7 CFR 29.3076 - Variegated (K).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variegated (K). 29.3076 Section 29.3076 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Variegated (K). Any leaf of which 20 percent or more of its surface is yellow, grayish, mottled, or...

  10. First report of Potato virus V and Peru tomato mosaic virus on tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) orchards of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Ecuador, tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) represents an important cash crop for hundreds of small farmers. In 2013, leaves from tamarillo plants showing severe virus-like symptoms (mosaic, mottling and leaf deformation) were collected from old orchards in Pichincha and Tungurahua. Double-stranded RN...

  11. Blackberry Yellow Vein Disease is Caused by Multiple Virus Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackberry yellow vein disease, with symptoms of vein clearing, yellow mottling, ringspots and plant decline has been observed in blackberry in the southeastern United States since about 2000. At least six viruses have been identified by cloning and sequencing of double-stranded RNA from diseased p...

  12. Complex Assembly Behavior During the Encapsulation of Green Fluorescent Protein Analogs in Virus Derived Protein Capsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minten, Inge J.; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Enzymes encapsulated in nanocontainers are a better model of the conditions inside a living cell than free enzymes in solution. In a first step toward the encapsulation of multiple enzymes inside the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) capsid, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was attached

  13. First Report of Cherry virus A in Sweet Cherry Trees in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants in the genus Prunus of the family Rosaceae are important ornamental and fruit trees in China (1). In June 2007, sweet cherry (Prunus avium) trees with mottling and mosaic symptoms were observed in a private garden near Kunming, Yunnan Province. Twenty-four samples were then collected from swe...

  14. Raspberry viruses affect the behaviour and performance of Amphorophora agathonica in single and mixed infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathogens may alter their hosts which consequently increases transmission efficiency by vectors. We examined the effects Raspberry leaf mottle virus (RLMV; genus Closterovirus, family Closteroviridae) and Raspberry latent virus (RpLV; genus Reovirus, family Reoviridae) alone and in a co-infection in...

  15. Sequence Analysis of a New Carlavirus that Infects Verbena x hybrida

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Verbena x hybrida sample cv. ‘Taylor Town Red’ from Illinois showed symptoms of reduced vigor, leaf mottling, and necrosis on older leaves under low light conditions. Double-stranded RNA extracted from this plant was reverse transcribed, cloned and sequenced. Three viruses, Broad bean wilt virus...

  16. Simultaneous multiplex PCR detection of seven cucurbit-infecting viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji Yeon; Hong, Jin Sung; Kim, Min Jea; Choi, Sun Hee; Min, Byeong Eun; Song, Eun Gyeong; Kim, Hyun Hee; Ryu, Ki Hyun

    2014-09-01

    Two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems using dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) primers were developed for the simultaneous detection of seven cucurbit-infecting viruses. One system allows for the detection of papaya ringspot virus, watermelon mosaic virus, and zucchini yellow mosaic virus, whereas the other permits the detection of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus, kyuri green mottle mosaic virus, and zucchini green mottle mosaic virus. Viral species-specific DPO primers developed in this study detected as little as 10 fg/μl of viral RNA under monoplex conditions and 10 pg/μl of viral RNA under multiplex conditions. Multiplex PCR using the DPO primer sets was capable of amplifying viral genes at annealing temperatures ranging from 53 °C to 63 °C. Whereas the use of conventional primers gave rise to non-specific bands, the DPO primers detected target viral genes in the absence of non-specific amplification. When these DPO multiplex primer sets were applied to virus-infected cucurbit samples obtained in the field, multiple infection as well as single infection was accurately identified. This novel approach could also detect multiple viruses in infected seeds. The reliability of multiplex PCR systems using DPO primers for plant virus detection is discussed. PMID:24937806

  17. Multiplex RT-PCR detection of four aphid-borne strawberry viruses in Fragaria spp. in combination with a plant mRNA specific internal control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, J.R.; Wetzel, S.; Klerks, M.M.; Vasková, D.; Schoen, C.D.; Spak, J.; Jelkmann, W.

    2003-01-01

    The principal aphid-borne viruses infecting Strawberry (Fragaria spp.) Strawberry crinkle virus (SCV), Strawberry mild yellow edge virus (SMYEV), Strawberry mottle virus (SMoV) and Strawberry vein banding virus (SVBV) can cause serious crop losses. In this paper, a multiplex reverse transcriptase po

  18. A case of dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria with adermatoglyphia: A rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria (DUH is a rare, autosomal dominant genodermatosis with a peculiar reticulate pigmentary change, consisting of hyperpigmented macules mingled with hypopigmented lesions to give an overall impression of mottling. We herein report a case of DUH with adermatoglyphia in a young male with family history of the disorder.

  19. Susceptibility of Ten Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) Cultivars to Six Viruses after Artificial Inoculation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fránová, Jana; Jakešová, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2014), s. 113-118. ISSN 1212-2580 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71145 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Red clover mottle virus * White clover mosaic virus * DAS-ELISA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.597, year: 2014

  20. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of four closely related sweet potato potyviruses by a multiplex one-step RT-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four closely related potyviruses, Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato virus C (SPVC), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG) and/or Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), are involved in Sweet Potato Viral Disease, the most devastating disease of sweet potato worldwide. Identification and detection ...

  1. First report of Xylella fastidiosa in Avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the late 1990s, chlorotic mottling, marginal scorch, deformation of leaves, defoliation, shortening of internodes, and branch dieback have been observed in avocado trees (Persea americana Mill.) in Costa Rica. The symptoms are not uniformly distributed in the tree, so some branches of a tree ...

  2. Disseminated candidiasis 18 years after renal transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Bismay, K.; Mathew, A.; R. Rajesh; Kurian, G.; Unni, V. N.; Kavita, R. D.; Sreehari, S.

    2012-01-01

    Although mucocutaneous candidiasis is a common infection in renal transplant recipients, disseminated candidiasis is rare. Candida pnemonia causing miliary mottling on X-ray chest with the central nervous system involvement is still rarer. We report an unusual case with disseminated candidiasis that presented 18 years after renal transplantation and improved on conventional antifungal therapy; the relevant literature is reviewed.

  3. Tappet Chill Depth Measuring by Magnetic Permeability and Inductance Displacement Meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is possible to measure different position along the axle direction of tappet. According to the maximum output of signal, the boundary of white iron structure and mottled iron structure can be deduced, and at the same time, it is possible to use inductance displacement meter to show the chill depth which is the distance from the boundary to the end.

  4. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Gayathri Devi, H.J.; K N Mohan Rao; Prathima, K. M.; Das, Jayanth K.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare disease of unknown cause. We report a case in a young boy who presented with history of failure to thrive and chest X-ray finding suggestive of miliary mottling. Open lung biopsy revealed pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis.

  5. A knottin-like putative antimicrobial gene family in the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci B: cloning and transcript regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is a worldwide plant pest and the vector of agriculturally important plant pathogenic begomoviruses. Of two vectored begomoviruses, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is transcriptionally active in B. tabaci and Tomato mottle virus (ToMoV)is not. Comparative analyses...

  6. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus determined at 2.8 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of melon necrotic spot virus is reported. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was determined at 2.8 Å resolution. Although MNSV is classified into the genus Carmovirus of the family Tombusviridae, the three-dimensional structure of MNSV showed a higher degree of similarity to tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), which belongs to the genus Tombusvirus, than to carnation mottle virus (CMtV), turnip crinkle virus (TCV) or cowpea mottle virus (CPMtV) from the genus Carmovirus. Thus, the classification of the family Tombusviridae at the genus level conflicts with the patterns of similarity among coat-protein structures. MNSV is one of the viruses belonging to the genera Tombusvirus or Carmovirus that are naturally transmitted in the soil by zoospores of fungal vectors. The X-ray structure of MNSV provides us with a representative structure of viruses transmitted by fungi

  7. Shell Colour Polymorphism in Bulla ampulla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1999-01-01

    coexist over most of the distribution area. It is striking that many museum samples contain specimens of only one of the colour morphs. One possible explanation is that Bulla ampulla is a complex of sibling species. It should therefore be studied if the morphs for example occupy different habitats or......Colour patterns of Bulla ampulla shells collected from Africa eastward to Pacific Islands were studied. 1\\vo common colour morphs were found. The typical morph is commonest. It is closely and finely mottled or all over with pinkish-gray on a creamy or flesh~tinted ground, with darker clouds......, irregular, V-shaped, or as longitudinal bands. The colouration of the other common morph is more uniform. It is lacking the darker clouds or bands and the colour is more greyish. The entire shell surface is densely mottled all over with small brown spots on a grey or beige background. Both morphs seem to...

  8. Characteristics of rose mosaic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek S. Szyndel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Presented review of rose diseases, associated with the mosaic symptoms, includes common and yellow rose mosaic, rose ring pattern, rose X disease, rose line pattern, yellow vein mosaic and rose mottle mosaic disease. Based on symptomatology and graft transmissibility of causing agent many of those rose disorders are called "virus-like diseases" since the pathogen has never been identified. However, several viruses were detected and identified in roses expressing mosaic symptoms. Currently the most prevalent rose viruses are Prunus necrotic ringspot virus - PNRSV, Apple mosaic virus - ApMV (syn. Rose mosaic virus and Arabis mosaic virus - ArMV Symptoms and damages caused by these viruses are described. Tomato ringspot virus, Tobacco ringspot virus and Rose mottle mosaic virus are also mentioned as rose pa thogcns. Methods of control of rose mosaic diseases are discussed.

  9. Development of chloroplast genomic resources for Cynara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, Pasquale L; De Paola, Domenico; Sonnante, Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    In this study, new chloroplast (cp) resources were developed for the genus Cynara, using whole cp genomes from 20 genotypes, by means of high-throughput sequencing technologies. Our target species included seven globe artichokes, two cultivated cardoons, eight wild artichokes, and three other wild Cynara species (C. baetica, C. cornigera and C. syriaca). One complete cp genome was isolated using short reads from a whole-genome sequencing project, while the others were obtained by means of long-range PCR, for which primer pairs are provided here. A de novo assembly strategy combined with a reference-based assembly allowed us to reconstruct each cp genome. Comparative analyses among the newly sequenced genotypes and two additional Cynara cp genomes ('Brindisino' artichoke and C. humilis) retrieved from public databases revealed 126 parsimony informative characters and 258 singletons in Cynara, for a total of 384 variable characters. Thirty-nine SSR loci and 34 other INDEL events were detected. After data analysis, 37 primer pairs for SSR amplification were designed, and these molecular markers were subsequently validated in our Cynara genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis based on all cp variable characters provided the best resolution when compared to what was observed using only parsimony informative characters, or only short 'variable' cp regions. The evaluation of the molecular resources obtained from this study led us to support the 'super-barcode' theory and consider the total cp sequence of Cynara as a reliable and valuable molecular marker for exploring species diversity and examining variation below the species level. PMID:26354522

  10. CARDOON, RENEWABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus is a herbaceous perennial plant in the vegetable, artichoke, wild or garden, which belongs to the Compositae family (Asteraceae Compositae-and more precisely Cynara species and is grown specifically for the production of biomass (solid bio fuel as a pellet, or solid and liquid bio fuel, bio diesel. In this paper I have tried to highlight the profitability and economic efficiency of growing of this plant. Production capacity exceeding 2 tonnes dry matter/1000mp. The yield depends on climatic conditions, adequate soil moisture, soil nutrients, and range from 1 to 3 t/1000mp, dry. Cardoon seed contains on average 24% oil (category: 19-32%, with the same qualities as the sunflower. Quantity of seed production to 480 kgs/1000mp, while ordinary productivities range 70 to 330 kg/1000mp, always depending on the total biomass production. Growing cardooncan replace traditional crops, partly by ensuring a good profit for the farmer (double the wheat and rapeseed and bio fuel production with high energy content. Solid bio fuels (pellets, briquettes, artichokes, etc. can reach the enduser, at prices up to 30-40% lower than the price of oil. Because cardoon is a perennial plant which grows once every 10-12 years, and preparing the ground and sowing it will be carried out at intervals so large (this plant is harvested annually,it is remarkable cost reduction efficiency of growing this plant.In addition to the obvious environmental advantages by producing green energy, growing artichokes garden preserves the soil covered for the most part of the year, thereby minimizing the risk of soil erosion and limit the pollution of soil and groundwater with agrochemical products, especially in areas with intensive agriculture, because it does not require additional fertilization and/or with the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides.

  11. Effect of Enhanced Zinc Nutrition on Mitigation of Huanglongbing (HLB)-affected Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S L; Li, Z. G.; He, Z. L.

    2014-01-01

    The growth decline of huanglongbing (HLB)-affected citrus trees is considered to be associated with nutritional disorder, as typical symptoms of HLB such as stunted tree growth, chlorosis or blotchy mottle of leaves, resembles zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) deficiencies, while lower Zn concentration has been consistently reported in the HLB affected compared to healthy plants. Hydroponic culture studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of enhanced Zn nutrition on the mitigation...

  12. Early root infection and damage in Huanglongbing disease development

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, E.G.; Wu, J.; Bright, D. B.; Graham, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing in grove trees is initially identified by foliar symptoms, most commonly blotchy mottle.  Detection of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) in leaf tissue by qPCR early in disease development is usually limited to symptomatic leaves and proximal young leaves.  Over multiple years, disease symptoms spread to the rest of the canopy.  Although Las has been detected in root tissue, the decline of roots has been assumed to happen later in disease development when photosynthate pro...

  13. Transcriptional Analyses of Mandarins Seriously Infected by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Meirong; Li, Ya; Zheng, Zheng; Dai, Zehan; Tao, Yang; Deng, Xiaoling

    2015-01-01

    A range of leaf symptoms, including blotchy mottle, yellowing, and small, upright leaves with a variety of chlorotic patterns resembling those induced by zinc deficiencies, are associated with huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease), a worldwide destructive citrus disease. HLB is presumably caused by the phloem-limited fastidious prokaryotic α-proteobacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter spp.’ Previous studies focused on the proteome and transcriptome analyses of citrus 5 to 35 weeks after ‘Ca....

  14. Spatial Imaging of Zinc and Other Elements in Huanglongbing-affected Grapefruit by Microscopically Focused Synchrotron X-Ray Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    He, Z. L.; Tian, S. K.; Lu, L. L.; M. Q. Zhang; Powell, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a highly destructive, fast spreading disease of citrus that causes substantial economic losses to the citrus industry worldwide. Nutrient levels and their cellular distribution patterns in HLB-affected grapefruit were analyzed after graft-inoculation with infected lemon scions containing ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’, the heat-tolerant Asian type of HLB bacterium. After 12 months, infected plants showed typical HLB symptoms including leaf curling and blotchy mottl...

  15. Evaluation of tyrosinase minigene co-injection as a marker for genetic manipulations in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Methot, D; Reudelhuber, T L; Silversides, D W

    1995-01-01

    The utility of tyrosinase minigene co-injection was evaluated as a visual marker for the generation and breeding of transgenic mice. In an evaluation of 39 transgenic founder animals and 44 transgenic lines five phenotypic patterns of pigmentation were consistently observed, including albino, dark, light, mottled and himalayan. In these studies co-injection of the tyrosinase minigene along with the transgene of interest (TOI) resulted in genomic integration of the two transgenes in 95% of the...

  16. A Case of Pelvic Schwannoma Presenting Prominent Eggshell-Like Calcification

    OpenAIRE

    Takaaki Nakashima; Daisuke Tsurumaru; Yusuke Nishimuta; Mitsutoshi Miyasaka; Akihiro Nishie; Hiroshi Honda

    2013-01-01

    Pelvic schwannoma typically forms a large, well-circumscribed mass in the retroperitoneum or presacral area and frequently undergoes cystic degeneration. It appears as a well-demarcated round or oval mass, often showing prominent cystic degeneration and calcification. Characteristics of these calcifications are punctate, mottled, or curvilinear and are seen along the walls of the mass. Herein, we describe a case of schwannoma presenting a huge pelvic mass with unique eggshell-like calcification.

  17. Breast hamartoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamartoma of the breast is a rare circumscribed lesion composed of fat and other breast tissue which may be normal or which may show various benign changes. Pathognomonic mammographic features are non-homogenous mass containing mottled densities corresponding to fat, epithelium and connective tissue. In this report, radiological, pathological and histological findings are described. The lesions are usually diagnosed radiologically and accurate diagnosis is necessary for the patient's management and prognosis

  18. Miliary nodules due to secondary pulmonary hemosiderosis in rheumatic heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary hemosiderosis is defined as the clinical and functional consequence of iron overload of the lungs, which usually occurs due to recurrent intra-alveolar bleeding. It can manifest as miliary mottling and should be entertained in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with miliary nodules on chest radiography, especially those with mitral stenosis. The management of secondary pulmonary hemosiderosis secondary to valvular heart disease includes valvuloplasty and/or valve repl...

  19. Dowling-Degos Disease: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Selma Emre; Gülşen Akoğlu; Ahmet Metin; Saliha Kırbaş; Sibel Orhun Yavuz

    2012-01-01

    Dowling-Degos Disease (DDD), is a rare, autosomal dominantly inherited pigmentation disorder. It is characterized by slowly progressive mottled or reticulated pigmented macules on the axillae, groins, perineum, inframammary regions and other flexural areas. The disease appears after puberty, most frequently during the fourth decade of life. Herein, we report a 42-year old female patient who presented with dark brown hyperpigmented macules on her groins, perineum and inframammary areas at our ...

  20. Assessment of periodontal status of the patients with dental fluorosis in area with natural high levels of fluoride: A cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ketan Sukumar Vora; Pallavi Ketan Vora

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Dental fluorosis exhibits as enamel mottling, surface irregularities, leading to plaque accumulation and periodontal diseases. It may cause failure of cemental resorption leading to hypercementosis and causes osteonecrosis of alveolar bone leading to reduced bone height. The study is conducted in Raichur, being known as one of the highest fluoride containing area in Karnataka with level of fluoride in drinking water approximately 3.5-5.5 ppm. This is an effort to find an associa...

  1. Vibratory sources as compound stimuli for the octavolateralis systems: Dissection of specific stimulation channels using multiple behavioral approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Christopher B.; Coombs, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    An underwater vibratory source simultaneously presents acoustic and hydrodynamic disturbances. Because vibratory dipole sources are poor sonic projectors, most researchers have assumed that such sources are of greatest relevance to the lateral line system (LL). Both hydroacoustic principles and empirical studies have shown that vibratory dipole sources are also a potent stimulus to the inner ear of fishes. Responses to vibratory sources in mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi) were assessed using u...

  2. Cephalopod dynamic camouflage: bridging the continuum between background matching and disruptive coloration

    OpenAIRE

    Hanlon, R.T.; Chiao, C.-C.; Mäthger, L.M.; BARBOSA, A.; Buresch, K.C.; Chubb, C

    2008-01-01

    Individual cuttlefish, octopus and squid have the versatile capability to use body patterns for background matching and disruptive coloration. We define—qualitatively and quantitatively—the chief characteristics of the three major body pattern types used for camouflage by cephalopods: uniform and mottle patterns for background matching, and disruptive patterns that primarily enhance disruptiveness but aid background matching as well. There is great variation within each of the three body patt...

  3. Itʼs not what you Perceive itʼs the way that you Perceive it: Reflections on the Relationship Between Perceptual Appearance and Perceptual Aesthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, David R.

    2012-01-01

    For some time we have been interested in the measurement of visual appearance in medical applications. My previous presentations at CIE Expert Symposia have focused on the measurement and characterisation of dental fluorosis (i.e. white mottling on the teeth caused by the ingestion of too much fluoride in childhood) and post-surgical facial scarring ([1], [2]). In this presentation, however, I wish to broaden the focus to include other work from my labora...

  4. Occurrence of Cucumber mosaic virus Infecting Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sevik, Mehmet Ali; Cemile AKCUCURA

    2011-01-01

    Parsley plants are grown throughout Turkey as summer and winter crops. Diseased plants having typical of a virus infection such as mosaic, mottling, and leaf distortion symptoms were frequently observed in most of the parsley fields and vegetable public markets in the Middle Black Sea Region of Turkey in 2010. Using double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was detected on the diseased parsley plants. However, using farmers and commerc...

  5. Resource Use within the Crab-Eating Guild in Upper Kairezi River, Zimbabwe: Proposed Project

    OpenAIRE

    Butler J.

    1993-01-01

    The management problem that this study will address is the apparent decline in the biological productivity of the Upper Kairezi River for rainbow trout. Fishery managers believe that the cause could be predation on trout by resident Cape Clawless Otters and the African mottled eel. The area is part of a CAMPFIRE (Communal Areas Management Programme For Indigenous Resource) programme and agriculture is excluded from the environs. However, owing to the falls in catches, fishermen have been disc...

  6. A Steatite "Owl" Effigy from San Diego County, California

    OpenAIRE

    Musser, Ruth

    1980-01-01

    In the winter 1978 issue of the Journal of California Anthropology, Hudson (1978:262- 265) discussed an unusual stone effigy from San Clemente Island, which after a comparison with other effigies from that island he concluded to be a Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypogaea). Concurrently, as this report appeared in print, the subject of a special exhibit on display at Riverside Municipal Museum in Riverside, California, was an incised, mottled red steatite tablet. Incised lines on the tabl...

  7. AUTHORSHIP PATTERN AND COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH IN BIOINFORMATICS

    OpenAIRE

    Amsaveni.N; Manikandan.M; Manjula.M

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the authorship collaboration research is a well-recognized feature of the modern science andthere has been a reliable trend towards enlarged collaboration in all branches of science and technology during the presentcentury. It has also been found that the rate of increased in multiple authorship pattern mottled considerably with subjectarea. Totally 91655 authors were produced 17318 articles in this subject of bioinformatics. 9.77 percent of articles weresingle authors...

  8. Fluoride and dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, George E.

    1998-01-01

    Fluorine was probably discovered by the chemist Scheele in 1771, and eventually isolated in 1886 by Moissan. Its presence in bones and teeth was initially disputed but eventually confirmed in the middle of the eighteenth century. In this article the author discusses the few epidemiological studies which confirm the relationship between fluoride concentration in drinking water, mottled enamel and the incidence of dental caries and also describes the Maltese scene in regards the caries level in...

  9. Virus-induced gene silencing in Medicago truncatula and Lathyrus odorata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Mette; Kjær, Gabriela Didina Constantin; Piednoir, Elodie; Kovacev, Jordan; Johansen, Elisabeth; Lund, Ole Søgaard

    2008-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has become an important reverse genetics tool for functional genomics. VIGS vectors based on Pea early browning virus (PEBV, genus Tobravirus) and Bean pod mottle virus (genus Comovirus) are available for the legume species Pisum sativum and Glycine max...... expression. In M. truncatula this was supported by quantification of PDS mRNA levels by real-time PCR...

  10. Molecular Characterization of Five Potyviruses Infecting Korean Sweet Potatoes Based on Analyses of Complete Genome Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Jaedeok; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Jung, Mi-Nam; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Lee, Sukchan; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas L.) are grown extensively, in tropical and temperate regions, and are important food crops worldwide. In Korea, potyviruses, including Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato virus C (SPVC), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG), Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV), have been detected in sweet potato fields at a high (~95%) incidence. In the present work, complete genome sequences of 18 isolates, representing the five potyvir...

  11. Nanoindentation of virus capsids in a molecular model

    OpenAIRE

    Cieplak, Marek; Robbins, Mark O.

    2010-01-01

    A molecular-level model is used to study the mechanical response of empty cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) and cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) capsids. The model is based on the native structure of the proteins that consitute the capsids and is described in terms of the C-alpha atoms. Nanoindentation by a large tip is modeled as compression between parallel plates. Plots of the compressive force versus plate separation for CCMV are qualitatively consistent with continuum models and experiments...

  12. Presence and Distribution of Tobacco Viruses in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Duduk; Aleksandra Bulajić; Janoš Berenji; Ivana Đekić; Bojan Duduk; Branka Krstić

    2006-01-01

    Infection with a large number of plant viruses could imperil tobacco yield and quality. Tobacco is a natural host for more than 20 viruses, among which the most important and economically harmful are tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), potato virus Y (PVY), alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), tobacco each virus (TEV) and tobacco vein mottling virus (TVMV).The occurence and distribution of tobacco viruses were invest...

  13. Viruses of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Morocco; surveying, identification, and ecological aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Fortass, M

    1993-01-01

    A systematic virus survey covering the main areas where faba bean ( Viciafaba L.) is grown in Morocco was conducted in 1988 and 1990. From the 240 leaf samples collected on the basis of symptoms suggestive of virus infection from 52 fields, the following viruses were detected by means of electron microscopy, biological indexing, and serology, and their incidence and geographical distribution were assessed: alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), broad bean mottle virus (B...

  14. CT findings of necrotizing jejunitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Kyung Soo; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young; Lee, Byoung Ho [College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang Univ., Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Necrotizing enterocolitis, which is localized only in the jejunum, is very rare and this entity cannot be found in the English medical literature. We report the computed tomographic(CT) findings of necrotizing jejunitis in a 45-year-old man, which showed ring like and mottled air shadows between the contrast filled bowel lumen and its wall, dirty mesenteric fat and prominent mesenteric vascular enhancement. We regard CT is a useful diagnostic method of necrotizing jejunitis.

  15. Characteristics of family Pieridae (Lepidoptera) in Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon; Farzana Perveen

    2016-01-01

    The butterflies are the most beautiful and colorful insects of the world. Which attract most of the animals for their food easily available. The present research were conducted at Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during August 2014 to May 2015. The family Pieridae were collected with the help of insects net and naked hands. A total of 8 species and 6 genera were collected, i.e., Common or lemon emigrant, Catopsilia ponoma Fabricius; Mottled emigrant, Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus; Cl...

  16. Production and characterization of a novel yeast extracellular invertase activity towards improved dibenzothiophene biodesulfurization

    OpenAIRE

    Arez, B. F.; Alves, Luís Manuel; Paixão, Susana M.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this work was the production and characterization of a novel invertase activity from Zygosaccharomyces bailii strain Talf1 for further application to biodesulfurization (BDS) in order to expand the exploitable alternative carbon sources to renewable sucrose-rich feedstock. The maximum invertase activity (163 U ml.1) was achieved after 7 days of Z. bailii strain Talf1 cultivation at pH 5.5–6.0, 25 °C, and 150 rpm in Yeast Malt Broth with 25 % Jerusalem artichoke pulp as in...

  17. СРАВНИТЕЛЬНОЕ ИЗУЧЕНИЕ СОРБЦИОННОЙ СПОСОБНОСТИ ПЕКТИНА, ПОЛУЧЕННОГО РАЗЛИЧНЫМИ СПОСОБАМИ ИЗ КЛУБНЕЙ ТОПИНАМБУРА (HELIANTHUS TUBEROSUS L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Кисиева, Манана; Мыкоц, Лилия; Туховская, Нина; Бондарь, Светлана; Зяблицева, Надежда; Компанцев, Владислав; Белоусова, Анна

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to study the sorption ability of pectins, obtained by acid method and enzymatic extraction from tubers of Jerusalem artichoke. Determination of sorption capacities of pectin was conducted by complexometric method with use of the isolation method of Ostvald. There were established complexing abilities of pectins, obtained by acid method (132,8 mg/g) and of pectins, obtained by enzymatic extraction (298,92 mg/g). The maximum degree of the extraction has formed 25,52%...

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04591-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Espina Barnadesia spino... 58 9e-07 2 ( EL484881 ) CHUM6679.b1_N13.ab1 CHU(LMS) puzzle sunflower Hel... 56 ... Parent Washington Navel Orange Ca... 38 0.001 4 ( EL480201 ) CHUM2184.b1_O18.ab1 CHU(LMS) puzzle sunflower ...87116 ) CCPW11351.b1_M06.ab1 CCP(UWX) Globe Artichoke Cyn... 38 0.003 3 ( EL489229 ) CHUS4408.b1_P21.ab1 CHU(LMS) puzzle

  19. Detection of radiation treatment of dry plant extracts by thermoluminescence and pulsed photostimulated luminescence. Comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the examination of the variety of dry plant extracts (Thyme extract, Celery seed extract, Artichoke extract, Citrus aurantium extract and others) by two different detection methods are described. Both PSL and TL methods are presented and discussed. Comparative study based on the analysis of the results obtained by thermoluminescence (TL) and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) measurements delivered the arguments that preselection of detection methods based on model studies is rational to be adapted in analytical laboratories specialized in the detection of irradiated foods. (authors)

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10052-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 41 0.035 CP001140_1084( CP001140 |pid:none) Desulfurococcus kamchatkensis 1... 4...6 1.5 AK038690_1( AK038690 |pid:none) Mus musculus adult male hypothalam... 36 1....( EL462199 ) CHTS16729.b1_A08.ab1 CHT(LMS) Jerusalem artichoke... 44 7.5 1 ( DY28...85 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 2 ... 148 2e-34 AY088156_1( AY088156 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thal...iana clone 42141 m... 147 3e-34 AK176351_1( AK176351 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA, comple

  1. Purification of biomass-derived 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and its catalytic conversion to 2,5-furandicarboxylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Guangshun; Teong, Siew Ping; Li, Xiukai; Zhang, Yugen

    2014-08-01

    A simple and effective water extraction method is presented for the purification 5-hydroxylmethylfurfural (HMF) obtained from a biomass dehydration system. Up to 99% of the HMF can be recovered and the HMF in aqueous solution is directly converted to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) as the sole product. This purification technique allows an integrated process to produce FDCA from fructose via HMF prepared in an isopropanol monophasic system, with an overall FDCA yield of 83% obtained. From Jerusalem raw artichoke biomass to FDCA via HMF prepared in a water/MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone) biphasic system, an overall FDCA yield of 55% is obtained. PMID:24889713

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03832-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 07 GQ041 - Shoot tip - Dormant (Norma... 44 6.7 1 ( L77117 ) Methanocaldococcus jannaschii DSM 2661, complet...y: 660 length of database: 5,674,871 effective HSP length: 16 effective length of query: 644 effe...SKS TTPLSQSTNSTPVVSGKKPQPPQQQQQQQQQQQQSQLQQ Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: rkgkr*rywfkysky*fnnkwcclfttrfef...ctive length of database: 5,564,391 effective search space: 3583467804 effective search space used: 358346...) Globe Artichoke Cyn... 46 1.7 1 ( GD493219 ) 454PCS0120910 Scarlet Runner Bean globular-stage ... 46 1.7 1 ( AC202540 ) Zea ma

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16465-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( FG288615 ) 1108793273066 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 70 3e-22 4 ( FG...291868 ) 1108800219977 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 70 3e-22 4 ( AK248126 ) Dugesia japonica mRNA ... artichoke H... 98 1e-20 3 ( FG282965 ) 1108383361014 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 70 2e-20 4 ( DY...BCA) Royal Gala fruit stored... 78 2e-18 2 ( FG286014 ) 1108770710800 New World S...crewworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 70 3e-18 3 ( FG291726 ) 1108793360180 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 70

  4. 褐变抑制剂对菊芋切片防褐变效果的研究%Anti-brow ning Effects of Brow ning Inhibitors on Jerusalem A rtichoke Slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕊

    2013-01-01

    为了提高菊芋加工产品质量,采用单因素和正交试验对菊芋切片褐变抑制剂进行褐变抑制效果研究。结果表明,柠檬酸、抗坏血酸、EDTA 2Na、CaCl2、NaCl、植酸、醋酸、乳酸、乙醇及泡菜腌制液对菊芋切片褐变均有一定的抑制作用,其中柠檬酸、抗坏血酸、EDTA 2Na、CaCl2、植酸抑制效果较好;复合抑制剂4 g/L柠檬酸+1.5 g/L 抗坏血酸+4 g/L CaCl2+3 g/L EDTA 2Na +0.7%植酸对菊芋切片褐变抑制效果最佳,其总色差(DE)值(4)比未经褐变抑制剂处理的菊芋切片DE值(42)降低了90.48%。%In order to improve the quality of Jerusalem artichoke products ,brow ning inhibitors of Jerusalem artichoke slices were studied by the single factor and orthogonal experiments .The re-sults showed that citric acid ,ascorbic acid ,EDTA-2Na ,calcium chloride ,sodium chloride ,phytic acid ,acetic acid ,lactic acid ,ethanol and pickle juice had some inhibitory effects on brow ning of Je-rusalem artichoke slices ,especially the inhibitory effects of citric acid ,ascorbic acid ,EDTA-2Na , calcium chloride ,phytic acid were better ;the optimum composite browning inhibitor was 4 g/L citric acid +1 .5 g/L ascorbic acid +4 g/L calcium chloride +3 g/L EDTA-2Na +0.7% phytic acid ,the treatment with which significantly inhibited the browning of Jerusalem artichoke slices , maintained lower DE value(4)compared to the control(42)without browning inhibitor .

  5. Hodnocení chemického složení hlíz topinamburu z podzimní a jarní sklizně

    OpenAIRE

    BRABCOVÁ, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This bachalor´s thesis deals with the evaluation of the chemical composition of tubers of Jerusalem artichoke for the selected set of 8 clones (Lola, Refla, Gigant, Běloslupký, Úrodný, Völkenroder Spindel, C 63, Karina). Due to the possibility of overwintering tubers in the soil, the tubers were analyzed genotypes of autumn (when dry above-ground plant matter) and then spring harvest (before the germination of tubers) were searched and any changes due to the influence of the winter. The tuber...

  6. Hodnocení vlivu genotypu na strukturu výnosu a vybrané parametry hlíz u topinamburu (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Vaněček, Petr

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor's thesis was the evaluation of the effect of the Jerusalem artichoke´s (Helianthus tuberosus L.) genotype (clone) on yield structure and selected parameters of the tubers. A one-year field experiment was established on 25th April 2012 on the experimental station of the University of South Bohemia in the České Budějovice (altitude 395 m, a cereal production area), where 8 different genotypes (Refla, Lola, Gigant, Karina, Völkenroder Spindel, Úrodný, Běloslupký, C 63) w...

  7. Identification and elimination of organic contaminants on the surface of PLZT ceramic wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface contamination of PLZT (lead lanthanum zirconate-titanate) hot-pressed ferroelectric ceramics being used as the electrooptic wafers in thermal/flash protective goggles has caused ''mottling'' on the surface of the wafers adversely affecting the performance of the goggles. Mottling describes the nonuniform appearance of the goggle lens in the transmitting (open) and protective (closed) states. Experiments were devised to identify the contaminant and to find a method of effectively removing it from the ceramic surface without changing the electrical properties of the PLZT. Infrared spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to determine the type and extent of contamination and effectiveness of cleaning methods. The contaminant was identified as the residue from an optical adhesive used in processing the wafers. Various cleaning methods were compared: washing and soaking wafers in a 50 percent potassium carbonate/deionized water solution; solvent cleaning with various combinations of tetrahydrofuran, methylene chloride, methylethylketone; oxygen plasma; ultraviolet light. Results indicated that although solvents and potassium carbonate solutions removed the gross contamination there was still a sufficient amount present to cause the ''mottling''. In addition, some adverse effects on the ceramic surface were discovered in the case of K2CO3 cleaning. Auger scans proved ultraviolet light to be the most effective method with no contamination remaining after a two hour exposure and no apparent surface damage. A model explaining the behavior of the contaminated surface with respect to various solvents was developed

  8. CT Findings of Malarial Spleens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Kim, Mi Jeong; Rho, Byung Hak; Lee, Mi Young [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the CT findings of malarial spleens. We reviewed the patient records of 44 patients with malaria during a recent 3.5-year period and we selected 18 patients who underwent an abdominal CT scan. We retrospectively evaluated the CT findings of the malarial spleens and we compared then with those of a control group of 18 men. We analyzed the splenic size, whether or not there was mottled striped splenic enhancement during the arterial phase and the differences of splenic attenuation and the attenuation between the liver and spleen during the precontrast phase, the arterial phase and the portal phase between the two groups. In malarial patients, the spleen was enlarged in all cases (p < 0.001), and splenic attenuation and the degree of enhancement were significantly decreased during the precontrast phase, the arterial phase and the portal phase (p < 0.001). Loss of mottled striped enhancement during the arterial phase was seen in 11 cases (61.1%) (p < 0.001). The attenuation of the spleen was lower than that of the liver in 13 cases (72.2%) during the portal phase (p = 0.003) and in 1 case (5.6%) during the arterial phase (p = 1.000). Splenomegaly, decreased splenic enhancement, the lack of mottled striped enhancement during the arterial phase and lower attenuation than that of the liver during the portal phase are helpful CT findings to diagnose the malarial spleen.

  9. Influence of Gloss and Surface Roughness of Coated Ink Jet Papers on Print Uniformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Jurič

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The final print quality depends on the quality of the digital image as well as the properties of the printing system, the inks and the paper used. One of the most widely used digital printing technologies is ink jet, where ink is ejected directly onto a substrate from a jet device driven by an electronic signal. Most ink jet inks have low viscosity and low surface tension, which pose high demands upon the surface properties of the paper. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of paper properties of commercially available papers suitable for ink jet printing on print mottle, non-uniformity. We used two high glossy, one glossy, one semi-glossy and two matte papers. For the assessment of the surface properties, we measured surface roughness with the portable Roughness Tester TR 200. We also measured surface gloss with QIP Glossmaster. To characterise the print mottle we used the image analysis method – Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM. Print mottle was estimated according to five GLCM parameters: Contrast, Correlation, Entropy, Energy and Homogeneity. Results obtained in this paper showed that the surface properties of paper are not in any direct relation with print uniformity.

  10. Surficial phase-identification and structural profiles from weathered natural pyrites: A grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Yuanfeng [State Key Laboratory of Mineral Deposits Research, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Earth Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)], E-mail: caiyf@nju.edu.cn; Pan, Yuguan [State Key Laboratory of Mineral Deposits Research, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xue Jiyue; Su Guizhen [Department of Earth Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2009-01-15

    Five pyrites with original crystal face (1 0 0) with different tarnish colours were selected from one pyrite-bearing ore sample from Tongling multi-metal deposit, Anhui, China. They are henna mottled with dark violet, yellow mottled with red, yellow, blue mottled with violet and reddish brown in surface colour. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffractometry (GIXRD) was used to study the phases formed or precipitated on the surface of pyrite (1 0 0) face during chemical weathering. By changing the incident angle, GIXRD can provide information on the changes in the mineral phases from the surface as a function of depth. Products formed or precipitated on the surface of pyrite (1 0 0) face are one or several sulfur or iron-bearing hydrated oxides and include gypsum, jalpaite, goethite, goldichite. The sulfur-bearing minerals present on the surface imply the oxidation of sulfur to sulfate, or the reduction of sulfur to sulfide. By analyzing a series of GIXRD patterns obtained at different angles of incidence for a single pyrite, the mineral assemblage differs from the surface into the body of the crystal. Taking the reddish brown sample as an example, four diffraction profiles at 2.575, 2.2105, 1.9118 and 1.613 A are present in the pattern of a 2{sup o} incident angle experiment whereas they cannot be found at a GIXRD angle smaller than 0.6{sup o}.

  11. Surficial phase-identification and structural profiles from weathered natural pyrites: A grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five pyrites with original crystal face (1 0 0) with different tarnish colours were selected from one pyrite-bearing ore sample from Tongling multi-metal deposit, Anhui, China. They are henna mottled with dark violet, yellow mottled with red, yellow, blue mottled with violet and reddish brown in surface colour. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffractometry (GIXRD) was used to study the phases formed or precipitated on the surface of pyrite (1 0 0) face during chemical weathering. By changing the incident angle, GIXRD can provide information on the changes in the mineral phases from the surface as a function of depth. Products formed or precipitated on the surface of pyrite (1 0 0) face are one or several sulfur or iron-bearing hydrated oxides and include gypsum, jalpaite, goethite, goldichite. The sulfur-bearing minerals present on the surface imply the oxidation of sulfur to sulfate, or the reduction of sulfur to sulfide. By analyzing a series of GIXRD patterns obtained at different angles of incidence for a single pyrite, the mineral assemblage differs from the surface into the body of the crystal. Taking the reddish brown sample as an example, four diffraction profiles at 2.575, 2.2105, 1.9118 and 1.613 A are present in the pattern of a 2o incident angle experiment whereas they cannot be found at a GIXRD angle smaller than 0.6o.

  12. Selection of lactic acid bacteria able to ferment inulin hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian BASTON

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight homofermentative lactic acid bacteria isolates were tested for lactic acid production using chicory and Jerusalem artichoke hydrolysate as substrate. The pH, lactic acid yield and productivity were used to select the best homolactic bacteria for lactic acid production. The selected strains produced lactic acid at maximum yield after 24 hours of fermentation and the productivity was greater at 24 hours of fermentation. From all studied strains, Lb1 and Lb2 showed the best results regarding lactic acid yields andproductivity. After 48 hours of chicory and Jerusalem artichhoke hydrolysates fermentation, from all the studied strains, Lb2 produced the highest lactic acid yield (0.97%. Lb2 produced after 48 hours of fermentation the lowest pH value of 3.45±0.01. Lb2 showed greater lactic acid productivity compared to the other studied lactic acid bacteria, the highest values, 0.13 g·L-1·h-1fromJerusalem artichoke hydrolysate and 0.11g·L-1·h-1 from chicory hydrolysate, being produced after 24 hours of fermentation.

  13. Effect of Dietary Inulin Source on Piglet Performance, Immunoglobulin Concentration, and Plasma Lipid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grela Eugeniusz R.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of an inulin source (aqueous or aqueous-alcoholic extract, dried chicory root, or dried Jerusalem artichoke tubers on piglet performance, plasma lipid profile, and immunoglobulin concentration. The study was conducted on 534 piglets (44 litters allocated to five nutritional groups: group I (control - fed basal diet, groups II and III receiving basal diet supplemented with 2% of inulin (aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic extract respectively, and groups IV and V -4% additive of dried artichoke or dried chicory respectively. During the trial, piglets’ body weight, feed intake, diarrhoea incidence, and mortality were controlled. Blood samples were collected twice from six animals of each group. In blood plasma, indices of lipid profile and concentrations of IgA, IgG and IgM were measured. The addition of inulin, regardless of its form (extracts or dried plants, significantly improved the rearing indices. In piglets of groups III, IV and V a significant improvement of daily weight gains and feed efficiency was noted. Inulin showed hypolipidemic activity (lowered total cholesterol level and stimulated piglet immune system manifested by elevated IgA and IgG concentrations. Irrespective of the inulin source, a lower mortality rate resulting from the improvement of animal health was noted in all experimental groups.

  14. Development of base populations from root and tuber crops for the production of sugar and starch as raw material for the industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frese, L.; Schittenhelm, S.; Dambroth, M.

    1987-01-01

    Based on results of evaluation and breeding programmes with beets, potato, Jerusalem artichoke and chicory the following conclusions can be drawn: For breeding beets with a high sugar yield it seems favourable to produce hybrids between sugar and fodder beet. Compared to the average of their parents the sugar beet x fodder beet and fodder beet x sugar beet hybrids produced 3,8 and 12,9% resp., higher sugar yields. It is, however, from this experiment not fully clear if heterosis allone is the explanation for this increase. Several preselected populations of the primitive potato species S. tuberosum subsp. andigena and S. phureja from the United States, Scotland and the Netherlands have been tested in a field trial. Compared to Phureja the Andigena material has reached a high level of adaptation. An immediate use in commercial breeding programmes for the production of high yielding Tuberosum-Andigena hybrids is possible. In Jerusalem artichoke the production of new genetic variability by crossing is complicated by the bad fertility of this species. Because of the very limited breeding activities in the past a large advance is possible. Even though the species C. intybus is of many shapes, only the root chicory is suitable for use as an industrial crop. Leaf chicory produces only low to medium sugar yields and is badly adapted to mechanical harvest. (orig.)

  15. Ecological effects of crude oil residues on the functional diversity of soil microorganisms in three weed rhizospheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian-ru; ZHOU Qi-xing; REN Li-ping; ZHU Yong-guan; SUN Shu-lan

    2006-01-01

    Ecological effects of crude oil residues on weed rhizospheres are still vague. The quantitative and diversity changes and metabolic responses of soil-bacterial communities in common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), jemsalem artichoke (Silphium perfoliatum L.) and evening primrose (A calypha australis L.) rhizospheric soils were thus examined using the method of carbon source utilization. The results indicated that there were various toxic effects of crude oil residues on the growth and reproduction of soil bacteria, but the weed rhizospheres could mitigate the toxic effects. Total heterotrophic counting colony-forming units (CFUs) in the rhizospheric soils were significantly higher than those in the non-rhizospheric soils. The culturable soil-bacterial CFUs in the jerusalem artichoke (S. perfoltatum) rhizosphere polluted with 0.50 kg/pot of crude oil residues were almost twice as much as those with 0.25 kg/pot and without the addition of crude oil residues. The addition of crude oil residues increased the difference in substrate evenness, substrate richness, and substrate diversity between non-rhizospheric and rhizospheric soils of T. officinale and A. australis,but there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the Shannon's diversity index between non-rhizospheric and rhizospheric soils of S.perfoliatum. The rhizospheric response of weed species to crude oil residues suggested that S. perfoliatum may be a potential weed species for the effective plant-microorganism bioremediation of contaminated soils by crude oil residues.

  16. Application of ultrasound for enhanced extraction of prebiotic oligosaccharides from selected fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic-Malinovska, Ruzica; Kuzmanova, Slobodanka; Winkelhausen, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract oligosaccharides from selected fruits (blueberry, nectarine, raspberry, watermelon) and vegetables (garlic, Jerusalem artichoke, leek, scallion, spring garlic and white onion). The individual fractions of the oligosaccharides were analyzed: 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1F-β-fructofuranosylnystose (GF4) from the fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), and raffinose and stachyose from the raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO). Extraction parameters including solvent concentration (35-85% v/v), extraction temperature (25-50°C) and sonication time (5-15min) were examined using response surface methodology (RSM). Ethanol concentration of 63% v/v, temperature of 40°C and extraction time of 10min gave maximal concentration of the extracted oligosaccharides. The experimental values under optimal conditions were consistent with the predicted values. UAE increased the concentration of extracted oligosaccharides in all fruits and vegetables from 2 to 4-fold compared to conventional extraction. The highest increase of total oligosaccharides extracted by UAE was detected in Jerusalem artichoke, 7.17±0.348g/100gFW, compared to 1.62±0.094g/100gFW with conventional method. PMID:25116595

  17. In vitro investigations of Cynara scolymus L. extract on cell physiology of HepG2 liver cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesine Löhr

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the investigation of a potential influence of artichoke leaf extract (ALE on the cell physiology and gene expression of phase I/II enzymes of human liver cells HepG2 and investigation on potential cell protective effects against ethanol-induced cell toxicity against HepG2 cells. Cell biological assays under in vitro conditions using HepG2 liver cells and investigation of mitochondrial activity (MTT test, proliferation assay (BrdU incorporation ELISA, LDH as toxicity marker, gene expression analysis by RT-PCR and enzyme activity of glutationtransferase. Artichocke extract, containing 27% caffeoylquinic acids and 7% flavonoids induced mitochondrial activity, proliferation and total protein content under in vitro conditions in human liver cells HepG2. These effects could not be correlated to the well-known artichoke secondary compounds cynarin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside. The flavones luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside had inhibitory effects at 100 µg/mL level on HepG2 cells, with luteolin being a significant stronger inhibitor compared to the respective glucoside. Artichoke leaf extract had minor stimulating effect on gene expression of CYP1A2, while CYP3A4, GGT, GPX2, GSR and GST were slightly inhibited. GST inhibition under in vitro conditions was also shown by quantification of GST enzyme activity. Induction of gene expression of CYP1A2 was shown to be supraadditive after simultaneous application of ethanol plus artichoke extract. Artichoke leaf extract exhibited cell protective effects against ethanol-induced toxicity within cotreatment under in vitro conditions. Also H2O2 damage was significantly inhibited by simultaneous artichoke incubation. Pre- and posttreatments did not exert protective effects. DMSO-induced toxicity was significantly reduced by pre-, post- and cotreatment with artichoke extract and especially with luteolin-7-O-glucoside, indicating a direct

  18. Variability of rock texture and morphology correlated with the clay-bearing units at Mawrth Vallis, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Nancy K.; Bishop, Janice L.; Silver, Eli A.

    2013-06-01

    The clay units at Mawrth Vallis have been well-characterized in hyperspectral data; however, a similar study of high spatial resolution High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) data has not been previously conducted. Here the textures of the clay units are described and related to mineralogy across the central Mawrth Vallis region. The nontronite-bearing rocks appear tan in HiRISE COLOR data and are polygonally fractured with polygons 2-5 m across. In some cases, the fractures appear wider and/or have darker fill or the rocks are a darker brown. The montmorillonite-bearing rocks appear blue with regular polygons 0.5-1.5 m across; sometimes, there are larger polygons surrounded by regular polygons, a square fracture pattern, or the color appears yellow or mottled blue-yellow. Kaolinite-rich rocks are the brightest outcrops and are nonpolygonally fractured. Regions with spectra consistent with hydrated silica or the ferrous mineral component do not have unique textures. Hydrated silica-bearing rocks appear yellow or mottled with a regular polygonal texture or yellow with hummocky appearance with no polygons. It is also possible that dust/sand on the surface alters the montmorillonite spectrum to appear like that of hydrated silica. The ferrous component may be expressed as mottled coloring or as a bright fracture fill. The nontronite- and montmorillonite-bearing units have remarkably consistent textures in this region, allowing them to be uniquely identified in the Mawrth Vallis region in nonhyperspectral data sets such as CTX and HiRISE. The morphology of the polygons in these two units suggests that their formation is likely dominated by desiccation and controlled by composition.

  19. Inventaire des insectes ravageurs et vecteurs de la panachure jaune du riz dans les périmètres irrigués de Maga (Extrême Nord Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghogomu, TR.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inventory of Devastating and Vectorial Insects of The Rice Yellow Mottle Virus in the Irrigated Perimeter of Maga (Far-North of Cameroon. The present study was carried out in the research framework conducted by the Regional Center of Agricultural Research of Maroua. This investigation aimed at making an inventory of devastating and vectorial insects of the Rice Yellow Mottle Virus in the irrigated perimeter of Maga (Far-North of Cameroon. In order to attain this objective, two collection methods were used. These included collection by D-VAC and collection by the Sweep net. The collection of the insect species with the two methods was done at the different phonological stages of the rice plant (nursery, heading, booting and maturity. The principle was to choose randomly a reference plot for each transplanted rice batch in the irrigated perimeter of Maga. The insect identification key of Heinrich (10 and the family recognition key of Delvare et al. (5 were used to identify the different species collected. The insect inventory of rice in the irrigated perimeter of Maga showed that the species vary in abundance and quality with the different phonological stages of the plant. Also the abundance of the species at the different stages varied following the collection methods. The results of the inventory showed that 46 species belonged to 26 families (Cicadellidae, Pentatomidae, Delphacidae, Diopsidae, Chloropidae Chrysomelidae, Coccinellidae, Acrididae, Pyralidae, Noctuidae… and 7 orders (Lepidoptera, Diptera, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Thysanoptera and Hymenoptera. The same inventory with the D-VAC and the Sweep net showed that the insects associated with the rice in the irrigated perimeter of the study area consisted of pest, of which some were vectors of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (Nephottetis nigropictus, Oxya hyla, etc. and natural ennemis of this pest.

  20. A Study on the Diagnostic Significance of Hepatoscintigram with Colloidal Gold in Parenchymal Liver Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hapatoscintigram has been a useful diagnostic method for the liver disease since 1953, but reasonable diagnostic criteria for parenchymal liver diseases are not yet accurately established. For the purpose of searching for more advanced diagnostic criteria for various types of live diseases by the liver scan, a retrospective study was made of 272 cases who underwent both hepatoscintigram with 198 Au colloid and liver biopsy in Hanyang University Hospital from Jan, 1978 to Dec, 1981. The results were as follows: 1. Fuzzy margin (irregular indentation of the liver margin) in the hepatoscintigram was noted in 226 cases (97.79%) 2. Of 35 cases with fuzzy margin only, 28 cases (80%)revealed mild parenchymal liver disease, such as acute hepatitis or chronic persistent hepatitis by the liver biopsy. 3. Mottling change (209 cases) was always accomplished by fuzzy margin except only one case, and 31 cases (86.1%) of fuzzy and mottling cases (36 cases) showed mild parenchymal liver disease. 4. Configuration change (193 cases) was usually accompanied with other changes and especially 104 cases had configuration changed with fuzzy and mottling changes. 73 cases (88.445) of 86 cases with severe configuration changed revealed advanced parenchymal liver disease on biopsy. If liver scan showed mild configuration change, we could not decide the type of liver disease only liver scan, and so further studies are needed. 5. Splenic uptake was noted 34 cases (40.48%) of 84 cases with advanced parenchymal liver disease, and the degree of splenic uptake was for the most part moderate or severe; whereas splenic uptake was noted in 18 cases (16.51%) of the mild parenchymal liver disease (109 cases), and the degree of splenic uptake was largely mild.

  1. Basic study of the effect of the extended-cycle process on mammographic screen/film systems. Granularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With single-emulsion films like those used in screen/film mammography, if the developing temperature is higher and/or the processing time is longer than recommended (i.e., extended-cycle process), film speed and/or film contrast are effectively increased. However, it can also be expected that radiographic noise will be increased by the extended-cycle process. Therefore, film graininess and radiographic mottle were investigated with standard- and extended-cycle processes in four single-screen/single-emulsion film systems for mammography, the Konica M-150/New CM, Fuji UM MAMMO Fine/UM-MA HC, Kodak Min-R 2000/Min-R 2000, and Kodak Min-R Medium/Min-R M. Investigation was carried out by measurement of the Wiener spectrum (WS). Results showed that the WS of film graininess increased in all films. The increase was greatest in Min-R M, and the rate of increase at 2.0 cycles/mm was 1.67 or more. The film showing the smallest increase was UM-MA HC, for which the rate of increase was 1.03-1.21. There were cases in which the spatial frequency at a 50 percent contribution rate of film graininess to radiographic mottle changed to a low spatial frequency. When only the increase in WS of radiographic mottle was examined, the increase was greatest in Min-R Medium/Min-R M, and the rate of increase at 2.0 cycles/mm was 1.65 or more. Min-R 2000/Min-R 2000 showed the least increase, and the rate of increase was 1.12-1.24. Increases in WS values were larger at 0.1-0.5 cycle/mm than at 2.0 cycles/mm when investigating the influence of trend using film graininess, and roller marks and so on could not be specified as a cause. (author)

  2. Correlation of Major Scan Findings and Esophageal Varices in Liver Cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an endeavor to help understand some typical scan findings and portal hemodynamics in liver cirrhosis, several commonly occurring scan changes and esophageal varices as demonstrated by esophagram were correlated one another from quantitative and qualitative stand points. Clinical materials consisted of 34 patients with proven diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and esophageal varices. Liver scan was performed with colloidal 198-Au and the changes in the size and internal architecture of the Liver, splenic uptake and splenomegaly were graded and scored by repeated double-blind readings. The variceal changes on esophagrams were also graded according to the classification of Shanks and Kerley following modification. Of 34 patients, 91% showed definite reducing in liver volume(shrinkage) constituting the most frequent scan change. The splenic uptake and splenomegaly were noted in 73.5 and 79.4%, respectively. The present study revealed no positive correlation between the graded scan findings including shrinkage of the liver, splenic uptake or splenomegaly and severity of variceal changes of the esophagus. Exceptionally, however, apparently paradoxical correlation was noted between the severity of mottling and varices. Thus, in the majority(73.5%) of patients mottling were either absent or mild. This interesting observation is in favor of the view held by Christie et al. who consider the mottlings to be not faithful expression of actual scarring of the cirrhosis liver. This also would indicate that variceal changes are to be the results of intrahepatic arteriovenous shunting of blood with hypervolemic load to the portal system rather than simple hypertension secondary to fibrosis and shrinkage.

  3. FORMULATION OF SYNBIOTIC DRINK TO ENHANCE INTESTINAL GUT FLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Sridevi Sivakami

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The transition in diet has lead to an increase in lifestyle disorders and thereby increased dependency on wonder drugs. With increased drug discovery and marketing, there is a compelling trend towards large drug dosage. However, food is judged not only for its nutritive properties but also for its ability to improve the health and well being of consumers, thus leading to the advent of “FUNCTIONAL FOODS”. Probiotic organisms of the gut and prebiotics are two under explored functional foods. Hence the current study was done with the aim of formulating a synbiotic health drink to enhance the intestinal flora. Dietary prebiotic sources like whole wheat, oats, soyabean, samai and artichoke were used in the preparation of the health drink. Whole wheat, samai and soyabean was malted separately, shade dried and powdered. Standard procedure was followed while preparing artichoke powder. All the selected ingredients were blended together along with one gram of lyophilized vacuum dried lactic acid bacillus. Six variations of the drink was prepared and organoleptically evaluated to find the most accepted variation. On sensory evaluation, Variation II was graded to be very good in all aspects like appearance, taste, texture, colour and flavour. Ten grams of the best accepted variation II contained 4.7g of malted soyabean, 2.3g of oats powder, 1.2g each of malted wheat and malted samai and 0.5g of artichoke. The above variation also provided more energy (37.84 Kcal, protein (2.58g, fibre (1.23g and less fat (0.07g. The nutrient content was analysed in the laboratory for energy, protein, fat, fibre and inulin (3.65g content. The drink when supplemented was also found to reduce the faecal pathogenic load. Hence it can be concluded that the formulated synbiotic drink was low cost, nutritionally rich and also enhanced the intestinal flora. This drink can sure be considered as a potential nutritional supplement and a ideal alternative to drugs.

  4. Highly efficient enzyme encapsulation in a protein nanocage: towards enzyme catalysis in a cellular nanocompartment mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonen, Lise; Nolte, Roeland J M; van Hest, Jan C M

    2016-08-14

    The study of enzyme behavior in small nanocompartments is crucial for the understanding of biocatalytic processes in the cellular environment. We have developed an enzymatic conjugation strategy to attach a model enzyme to the interior of a cowpea chlorotic mottle virus capsid. It is shown that with this methodology high encapsulation efficiencies can be achieved. Additionally, we demonstrate that the encapsulation does not affect the enzyme performance in terms of a decreased activity or a hampered substrate diffusion. Finally, it is shown that the encapsulated enzymes are protected against proteases. We believe that our strategy can be used to study enzyme kinetics in an environment that approaches physiological conditions. PMID:27407020

  5. Retinal pigment epithelial atrophy following indocyanine green dye-assisted surgery for serous macular detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Nazimul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To report subretinal migration of indocyanine green dye (ICG and subsequent retinal pigment epithelial (RPE atrophy during macular surgery for serous macular detachment. A 65-year-old woman presented with residual epiretinal membrane and serous detachment of the macula following vitreoretinal surgery for epiretinal membrane. She underwent resurgery with ICG-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling and intraocular tamponade. Intraoperatively a large area of subretinal ICG was seen with subsequent RPE mottling and atrophy of the macula in the area involved during follow-up. This case demonstrates that subretinal migration of ICG is possible and can be toxic to RPE.

  6. Vector Control and Foliar Nutrition for Management of Huanglongbing in Florida Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Stansly, Philip A.; Arevalo, H. Alejandro; Jawwad A Qureshi; Jones, Moneen M.; Hendricks, Katherine; Roberts, Pamela D.; Roka, Fritz M.

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening is a bacterial disease vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) and causing mottled leaves, tree decline, and yield loss.  Vector control and foliar nutrition are widely employed in Florida and elsewhere to respectively slow the spread of HLB and mitigate debilitating effects of the disease.  A replicated field study was conducted in a 5.4-ha commercial block of young ‘Valencia’ orange trees through four harvests employing a factorial design to evaluat...

  7. Exploiting Fluorescent Polymers To Probe the Self-Assembly of Virus-like Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caden-Nava, Ruben D.; Hu, Yufang; Garmann, Rees F.; Ng, Benny; Zelikin, Alexander N.; Knobler, Charles M.; Gelbart, William M.

    2011-01-01

    , for example, poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS), forming virus-like particles (VLPs). We have demonstrated recently that the VLPs formed from cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) capsid protein increase in size (from T = 2 to T = 3 structures) upon increase in PSS molecular weight (from 400 kDa to 3.4MDa......; increasing the molar ratio of protein to PSS in the reaction mix shifts the VLP distribution from T = 1 to T = 2 structures. By combining fluorescence and gel electrophoresis measurements, it is determined that, on average, there are two polymers in each T = 1 capsid and three in each T = 2, with the PSS...

  8. Male Breast Abscess Secondary to Actinomycosis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendiran, Shavitri A; Leibman, A Jill; Kommehl, Adam S

    2016-04-01

    Primary breast actinomycosis is a rare condition that has been previously reported in the female breast. Male breast infection is uncommon and most often associated with trauma to the skin or predisposing conditions like diabetes. We report the first case to our knowledge of primary breast actinomycosis in the male breast caused by Actinomycesneuii (A. neuii), a rare strain of Actinomyces. Mammography demonstrated periareolar skin thickening with a mottled pattern. Sonography showed multiple small cystic structures. Definitive diagnosis was made by culture of the nipple discharge. PMID:27190917

  9. Breakfast in a hotel dining room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kennan Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available My father and I were the only ones there on a winter Saturday.Yet a full staff of penguins was on duty, webbed shoes muffled on thick but aging carpet, their lined faces and beaks a bit mottled.They brought us the morning newspaper, toast, coffee, orange juice, grapefruit (a beauty nestled on ice in a pewter tureen, an old-fashioned presentation,with a hint of decay.The hotel was closed shortly thereafter, for a decade, then remodeled,reopened with new crystal, dinnerware with postmodern chi...

  10. A First Look at the Turnover Dynamics of Low Molecular Weight Organic Carbon in Shallow and Deep Soils of Coastal Prairie Grassland Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfarland, J. W.; Lawrence, C. R.; Haw, M.; Waldrop, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    The functional importance of low molecular weight organic compounds (LMWOC) is in disproportion to their abundance within soil organic carbon (SOC) pools. They are critical in driving microbial metabolism, though microbial utilization of LMWOC is likely dependent on C chemistry. Studies of C turnover in soils tend to focus in shallower horizons despite that for many ecosystems a substantial fraction of SOC resides below 1 m. In this study, we examined the fate of two important components of soluble SOC, sugars and carboxylic acids, through a soil profile extending to 150 cm. Our objective was to evaluate the turnover of LMWOC under varying physical, biological, and chemical conditions through the soil column. Our study area is part of a soil chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. From the side wall of a soil pit we installed intact soil collars and injected 13C-labeled glucose (GLU), 13C-labeled oxalic acid (OA), or deionized water (control) into the A, B (argillic) , and B/C (mottled) horizons at depths of 25, 75, and 125 cm, respectively. We sampled soil gas for 13CO2 intensively at graduated sampling intervals (6 hours to 2 weeks). The entire experiment was also replicated in the laboratory. We measured dissolved organic C (DOC) and microbial biomass C (MBC), and calculated total recovery of 13C in atmospheric and soil pools. Measures of DOC indicated a significant priming effect in the deepest (mottled) horizon and an increase in MBC in the argillic and mottled horizons. In all instances residence time was significantly lower for GLU than OA and increased with depth for both substrates. Mass balance calculations from the laboratory component indicated stronger retention for GLU than OA for the upper soils; however, this trend reversed below the argillic horizon. We hypothesize the greater retention of OA in the deepest (mottled) soil horizon may result from enhanced organo-metal complexation (e.g., between OA and dissolved Fe or Al). This hypothesis is consistent

  11. An ichnofabric approach to the depositional interpretation of the intensely burrowed Bateig Limestone, Miocene, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gibert, Jordi M.; Goldring, Roland

    2007-01-01

    The foraminiferal-rich pelagic Bateig Limestone forms several varieties of the important building stones quarried at Bateig Hill in southeastern Spain. Three principal ichnofabrics ( Bichordites, mottled- Palaeophycus and mottled- Ophiomorpha) are recognized, which are present in at least two (possibly up to four) repeated successions (cycles). Each succession begins with an erosional event. The Bichordites ichnofabric represents a new type of facies, formed as thin turbidity/grain flow, stratiform units derived from sediment slips off a fault into deep water. Each slipped unit became almost completely bioturbated by infaunal echinoids, colonizing by lateral migration. Because of the thinness of the units, successive colonizations tended to truncate the underlying burrows giving rise to a pseudo-stratification. As the Bichordites ichnofabric accumulated on the fault apron, thus reducing the effective height of the fault scarp, the substrate gradually came under the influence of currents traversing the shelf. This led to a change in hydraulic regime, and to the mottled- Palaeophycus and mottled- Ophiomorpha ichnofabrics in sediment deposited under bed load transport, and associated with laminar and cross-stratified beds and local muddy intervals. Reactivation of the fault triggered erosion and channeling and a return to grain flow sedimentation, and to the Bichordites ichnofabric of the succeeding cycle. The highest unit of the Bateig Limestone is formed entirely of cross-stratified calcarenites with occasional Ophiomorpha ( Ophiomorpha-primary lamination ichnofabric) and is similar to many shallow marine facies but they still bear a significant content of pelagic foraminifera. The sedimentary setting bears resemblance with that described for the Pleistocene Monte Torre Paleostrait and the modern Strait of Messina (Italy), where the narrow morphology of the depositional area enhanced tidal currents and allowed for high-energy sandy deposition in relatively deep

  12. Probable herpesvirus infection in an eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S P; Bates, G N; Lewandoski, P J

    1992-10-01

    One wild eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) from Milwaukee County, Wisconsin was necropsied. The lungs contained numerous multifocal, circumscribed, tan foci; the spleen was markedly enlarged and had a mottled reddish tan color; and the brain had a red to tan friable tract in the left hemisphere. Microscopically, the lung had a severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia. The bronchiolitis was characterized by epithelial cells containing eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. The encephalomalacia of the left cerebral cortex featured tissue disruption and astrocytes or neurons containing intranuclear inclusion bodies. Herpesvirus particles were found within the bronchiolar epithelial cells. Based on histopathological and ultrastructural findings, a herpesvirus seemed the most likely etiologic agent. PMID:1335521

  13. A study of important entomofauna in oak forests of Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Obu, Jaroš; Podobnikar, Tomaž; Harapin, Miroslav; Jurc, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Insects in 9 research areas in pedunculate oak and sessile oak forests in Slovenia have been studied. We identified 35 insect species as well as two genera from 13 families. The defoliation of oak leaves in studied forests was between 10 and 90 %. More than 80 % of the defoliation was caused by mottled umber and winter moth (Erannis defoliaria Cl., Operophthera brumata L.). Leaf-roll moths are an important group of pests of oak leaves and acorns. The most numerous is the green leaf-roll moth,...

  14. Raziskava pomembne entomofavne hrastovih gozdov Slovenije

    OpenAIRE

    Harapin, Miroslav; Jurc, Maja

    2000-01-01

    Insects in 9 research areas in pedunculate oak and sessile oak forests in Slovenia have been studied. We identified 35 insect species as well as two genera from 13 families. The defoliation of oak leaves in studied forests was between 10 and 90 %. More than 80 % of the defoliation was caused by mottled umber and winter moth (Erannis defoliaria Cl., Operophthera brumata L.). Leaf-roll moths are an important group of pests of oak leaves and acorns. The most numerous is the green leaf-roll moth,...

  15. A study of important entomofauna in oak forests of Slovenia: Raziskava pomembne entomofavne hrastovih gozdov Slovenije:

    OpenAIRE

    Harapin, Miroslav; Jurc, Maja

    2000-01-01

    Insects in 9 research areas in pedunculate oak and sessile oak forests in Slovenia have been studied. We identified 35 insect species as well as two genera from 13 families. The defoliation of oak leaves in studied forests was between 10 and 90 %. More than 80 % of the defoliation was caused by mottled umber and winter moth (Erannis defoliaria Cl., Operophthera brumata L.). Leaf-roll moths are an important group of pests of oak leaves and acorns. The most numerous is the green leaf-roll moth,...

  16. Image information in film digitization and display monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 10-12 bit gray scale is provided in commercial laser film digitizers. The true contrast resolution on the digitized image within 200 microns square is limited by both the quantum mottle and instrumentation noise. In this paper, the authors investigate that mean value, standard deviation, and adjacent pixel correlation coefficient on a calibrated step wedge film with two laser digitizers. The results were disappointing. On the output side, the brightness of different grey levels from a clinical monitor was measured with a narrow angle luminance probe. In addition, the implications for teleradiology applications are discussed in this paper

  17. Fat embolism syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A G; Mettler, F A; Christie, J H; Gordon, R E

    1986-07-01

    The fat embolism syndrome is clinically evident in approximately 0.5-2.0% of patients with long bone fractures. The clinical signs and symptoms are evident in 60% of patients within 24 hours and 85% of patients within 48 hours after trauma. A patient is reported who complained of dyspnea and hemoptysis approximately 72 hours after sustaining a fracture to the distal tibia and fibula. Radionuclide ventilation/perfusion imaging was obtained to rule out pulmonary thromboemboli. Perfusion imaging demonstrated the characteristic diffuse, subsegmental ("mottled") appearance of fatty emboli to the lung. PMID:3731649

  18. Paradoxical air embolus during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: an uncommon fatal complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Nicholas W; Montzingo, Candice R

    2015-04-01

    Air embolism during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is a rare but potentially fatal complication. A 66-year-old man underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and remained stable until the end of the procedure, when he was found to have mottling on his right side and became hypoxic and unresponsive. Transesophageal echocardiography showed air within the left ventricle, consistent with systemic air embolism. Mortality resulted from significant cardiac and cerebral ischemia. The literature suggests that capnography is helpful in early diagnosis of air embolus, but it could not be used in this case because the patient's trachea was not intubated. PMID:25827860

  19. Seleção de genótipos de soja resistentes a duas estirpes de Soybean mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALMEIDA ÁLVARO M. R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean mosaic virus (SMV is the most prevalent virus on soybeans (Glycine max throughout the world. It causes mottling on seeds and has been associated with yield reduction. Recently, a new strain (SMV 95-1 was found infecting resistant cultivars, causing dwarfing and systemic necrosis. In a screening test carried out with the strains SMV 95-1 and SMV 95-2 on the germplasm collection, several resistant cvs. Embrapa 60, Embrapa 61, Embrapa 62, Embrapa 66 , Embrapa 133, Embrapa 134, Embrapa 135, and Embrapa 136 were identified as resistant to both strains. The resistant genotypes may serve in future soybean breeding programs in Brazil.

  20. Rare earth element geochemistry of ferromanganese deposits of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Balaram, V.; Sudhakar, M.; Pluger, W.L.

    of a seamount 14.988 54.983 4300 16.016 55.980 4300 16.000 55.983 4130 11.000 73.250 5031 11.000 73.000 3580 Thin brownish oxide layer firmly en- crusted over greyish ( < 1 cm) brown consolidated mud underlain by mottled brown hardened mud... texture. Nucleus -- irreg- ular, elongated, dispersed yellowish brown altered hardened mud, extend- ing almost entire length of the nodule ~-MnO2 dominant, feldspar and quartz present Rectangular, irregular, small (3-4 cm); smooth texture (granular...

  1. Occurrence of Cucumber mosaic virus Infecting Parsley (Petroselinum crispum in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali SEVIK

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Parsley plants are grown throughout Turkey as summer and winter crops. Diseased plants having typical of a virus infection such as mosaic, mottling, and leaf distortion symptoms were frequently observed in most of the parsley fields and vegetable public markets in the Middle Black Sea Region of Turkey in 2010. Using double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV was detected on the diseased parsley plants. However, using farmers and commercial seed lots, CMV was not detected in seeds or germinating seedlings.

  2. Sequence diversity among badnavirus isolates infecting black pepper and related species in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, A. I.; Sasi, Shina; Revathy, K. A.; Deeshma, K. P.; Saji, K. V.

    2014-01-01

    The badnavirus, piper yellow mottle virus (PYMoV) is known to infect black pepper (Piper nigrum), betelvine (P. betle) and Indian long pepper (P. longum) in India and other parts of the world. Occurrence of PYMoV or other badnaviruses in other species of Piper and its variability is not reported so far. We have analysed sequence variability in the conserved putative reverse transcriptase (RT)/ribonuclease H (RNase H) coding region of the virus using specific badnavirus primers from 13 virus i...

  3. 歯牙フッ素症1症例の病理学的検索

    OpenAIRE

    枝, 重夫; 安東, 基善; 長谷川, 博雅; 川上, 敏行; 近藤 武; 笠原, 香; 中根, 卓; 樋口, 壽英; 赤羽, 章司

    1992-01-01

    Pathological changes of a mottled tooth were examined by microradiography and scanning electron microscopy. The tooth was a maxillary right central incisor of a 10-year-old boy, which had been removed by a traffic accident. The boy had lived in Ikuma, Takagi Village, Nagano Prefecture, and had used village water containing about 2.6 ppm fluorine for 6 years,: between the ages of 0 and 5. Under the light microscopy Retzius lines were clearly observed in the enamel, and enamel rods were disting...

  4. Analisa Kadar Fluor dalam Air Minum Isi Ulang pada Depot Pengisian Air di Kecamatan Medan Selayang pada Tahun 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Insyirah, Nur

    2012-01-01

    Fluoride is recognized as an effective agent for dental caries prevention. Generally, the main source of fluoride intake is drinking water. High level of fluoride at concentration up to 10 mg/L result in dental fluorosis (yellowish or brownish striation or mottling of enamel while low level of fluoride could increase the possibility of dental caries.WHO and Depkes has set 1.5 mg/L as the maximum concentration of fluoride in drinking water. WHO also recommends the rate of 1 m...

  5. Prospects Of Using Walnut In Technologies Of Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiurikova Inna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies in the field of beverage functionality using walnut are presented. The main components such as celery, Jerusalem artichokes, carrots, pumpkin and rhubarb, as a dietary supplement - extracts from walnut of milk-maturity stage are offered for creating blends. The basic physical and chemical properties of fruit and vegetable raw materials and semi-finished products created on the base of them have been studied, and their nutritional and biological value has been proved. Rational technologies of fruit and vegetable blends with nut additives have been identified. Their biological value has been confirmed. Drinks are recommended for use in the daily diet of human beings to satisfy thirst and enrich the body by biologically valuable components.

  6. Biotechnological potential of inulin for bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Zhen-Ming; Zhang, Tong; Cao, Tian-Shu; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Cui, Wei; Zhao, Chun-Hai

    2011-03-01

    Inulin consists of linear chains of β-2,1-linked D-fructofuranose molecules terminated by a glucose residue through a sucrose-type linkage at the reducing end. In this review article, inulin and its applications in bioprocesses are overviewed. The tubers of many plants, such as Jerusalem artichoke, chicory, dahlia, and yacon contain a large amount of inulin. Inulin can be actively hydrolyzed by microbial inulinases to produce fructose, glucose and inulooligosaccharides (IOS). The fructose and glucose formed can be further transformed into ethanol, single-cell protein, single cell oil and other useful products by different microorganisms. IOS formed have many functions. Therefore, inulin can be widely used in food, feed, pharmaceutical, chemical and biofuels industries. PMID:21247760

  7. Natural products - plenty more where that came from

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, M.

    1980-12-22

    In this article, natural products and their possible use as renewable resources are reviewed. The fermentation of corn for the production of alcohol for motor fuel is discussed and other crops for this purpose include sugar cane, cassava, sweet potato and Jerusalem artichoke. The hydrolysis of cellulose to sugars based on enzyme hydrolysis is currently being researched in the USA. Also in the USA, Melvin Calvin hopes to breed a rubber-bearing plant whose latex can be easily cracked to motor fuel. Guayule and jojoba rubber-bearing plants are also the focus of research at present. The importance of natural vegetation in the manufacturing of medicines and in the chemical and food industries is stressed. Finally products of the sea, particularly alginates and carragheenins are mentioned, but as yet, the full potential of the sea to yield renewable resources is unknown.

  8. Bioactive β-carbolines norharman and harman in traditional and novel raw materials for chicory coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Elżbieta; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, Renata; Przygoński, Krzysztof; Mildner-Szkudlarz, Sylwia

    2015-05-15

    The β-carboline compounds norharman and harman exhibit neuroactive activity in the human body. Chicory coffee has proved to be a source of β-carboline compounds. This study assessed the norharman and harman contents of traditional and novel raw materials for the production of chicory coffee, as well as in samples of chicory coffee with novel additives. The highest content of the β-carbolines among the traditional raw materials was recorded in roasted sugar beet (2.26 μg/g), while roasting the chicory caused a 25-fold increase in the content of norharman in this raw material (from 0.05 to 1.25 μg/g). In novel raw materials not subjected to the action of high temperature, β-carboline was not detected. Among the roasted novel raw materials, the highest contents of harman and norharman were found in artichokes. High harman levels were also recorded in roasted chokeberry. PMID:25577081

  9. Enzymatic hydrolysis of multi-use forage energy crops, year 2 report: Studies on the improvement of reaction conditions, differences between forages. SRC technical report No. 141, and SRC publication No. C-711-6-B-83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, L.J.; Coxworth, E.C.

    1983-12-31

    The main objective of the work described in this report is to optimize the conversion of forages and crop residues to simple sugars, and to determine the quantity of protein that can be readily recovered after enzymatic hydrolysis of those materials. The simple sugars would be used as substrates for fermentation to fuels and chemicals, and the protein is a potentially valuable byproduct for use as fertilizer or feed. The plant materials studied were kochia, Jerusalem artichoke, pea stem and chaff, oilseed radish, alfalfa, and slender wheat grass. The enzymes used in the hydrolysis were Onozuka R-10, Celluclast 200L Type N, and cellobiase 250L. Results reported include comparisons of enzymatic reactivity of the materials studied, the quantity of protein remaining after treatment, and the dry matter solubility of the materials achieved using the different enzymes.

  10. Application of "magnetic tongue" to the sensory evaluation of extra virgin olive oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauri, Ilaria; Pagano, Bruno; Malmendal, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    The perception of odour and flavour of foods is a complicated physiological and psychological process that cannot be explained by simple models. Unfortunately, taste is not objective, but partially subjective and it depends also on the mood of the taster. Generally, sensory analysis is used...... to describe sensory features. The availability of a number of instrumental techniques has opened up the possibility to calibrate the sensory perception. Here we have tested the potentiality of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as "magnetic tongue" to measure sensory descriptors in extra-virgin olive oil....... We were able to correlate the NMR metabolomic fingerprints of extra-virgin olive oil to the sensory descriptors: tomato, bitter, pungent, rosemary, artichoke, sweet, grassy and leaf....

  11. [Biodegradation of Cellulose-Containing Substrates by Micromycetes Followed by Bioconversion into Biogas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokudina, L I; Osmolovskii, A A; Egorova, M A; Malakhova, D V; Netrusov, A I; Tsavkelova, E A

    2016-01-01

    The ability of micromycetes Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus terreus to decompose the cellulose-containing substrates was studied. Office paper and cardboard, as well as a paper mixture, were found to be the most hydrolyzable. The cellulolytic activity of T. viride was 2-3 times higher than that of A. terreus; the highest values of 0.80 and 0.73 U/mLwere obtained from office paper and the paper mixture, respectively. The micromycete cultivation conditions (composition of culture medium, sucrose cosubstrate addition, seeding method) and the conditions of the fungus biomass treatment for its subsequent bioconversion into biogas by anaerobic microbial communities were optimized. It was shown that pretreatment improves the efficiency of biogas production from lignocellulosic materials under seeding with microbial community of bovine animal manure. After pretreatment of the Jerusalem artichoke phytomass (stems and leaves) and its subsequent bioconversion into biogas by methanogenic community, the biogas yield was increased by 1.5 times. PMID:27266249

  12. Estimation of un-used land potential for biofuels development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Yishui [Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering, Beijing 100026 (China); Maelardalen University, Vaesteraas SE-721 23 (Sweden); Zhao, Lixin; Meng, Haibo; Sun, Liying [Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering, Beijing 100026 (China); Yan, Jinyue [Maelardalen University, Vaesteraas SE-721 23 (Sweden); Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents the current status of biofuel development and estimates the potential of un-used land for biofuel development. The potential of crops including cassava, sweet potato, sweet sorghum, sugarcane, sugar beet and Jerusalem artichoke were assessed and discussed for different regions considering the geographical conditions and features of agricultural production. If reserved land resources are explored together with substitute planting implemented and unit area yield improved, potential production of ethanol fuel will be 22 million ton in 2020. The study also recommends the use of winter idle lands for rapeseed plantation for biofuel production. The potential for production of biodiesel by rapeseed and cottonseed can reach to 3.59 million ton. (author)

  13. [Malabsorption of fermentable oligo-, di-, or monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) as a common cause of unclear abdominal discomfort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel-Stengel, M; Mönnikes, H

    2014-06-01

    Carbohydrate malabsorption is a frequent but underestimated cause of unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms like meteorism, flatulence, pain and diarrhea. By means of hydrogen and/or methane breath test after ingestion of the respective carbohydrate it can be identified and diagnosed easily, fast and reliably by successful nutritional therapy. Besides the well known complaints caused by lactose and fructose malabsorption, other fermentable oligo-, di-, or monosaccharides and polyols (akronym: FODMAP) can cause abdominal discomfort and IBS-like symptoms. In addition to lactose (dairy products) and fructose (apples, pears, mango, watermelon), FODMAPs comprise galactans (legumes), fructans (wheat, onions, garlic, artichoke) and the artificial sweeteners sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol and xylitol (sugar free candy, light products). A general restriction of all FODMAP components can be beneficial in relieving symptoms and improving quality of life in patients with functional gastrointestinal complaints. PMID:24892470

  14. Studies on Possible Activation of Microbial Inulinase Production Using Gamma Radiation Under Solid State Fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    optimization of different parameters affecting productivity of inulinase/invertase enzyme by Penicillium chrysogenum was studied. Optimized media used was Wheat bran: Jerusalem artichoke (4:1) 66% moisture content acidified mineral solution (ph 4.9). spore suspension 1.8 x 107 spores/ml irradiated with 1.00 kGy of gamma radiation. distilled water ph 6 (extracting solvent), corn steep liquor 0.6%, Corn oil, SDS and CaCl2 with incubation temperature 35°C for 72 hr. Immobilization of a partially purified inulinase enzyme from a local gamma irradiated strain of Penicillium chrysogenum on cheap immobilization supports was carried out. Highest inulinase immobilized activity was maintained on Ca- alginate beads. The immobilized enzyme showed a marked enhancement with temperature, ph optima, and thermostability, thus suggesting a promising industrial production of fructose syrup using the immobilized enzyme.

  15. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part VI. Mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. The commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, lettuce, ginger, carrots, beet roots, turnips, olives, dates, chestnuts, almonds, pistachios, and other dried fruits and nuts. Changes induced by irradiation on metabolism, chemical constituents, and organoleptic qualities are considered while evaluating the shelf life. The commodities have been grouped into those showing potential benefits and those not showing any clear advantages from radiation treatment. Shelf life improvement of mushrooms and insect disinfestation in dried fruits, nuts, and certain fresh fruits appears to have immediate potential for commercial application. 194 references

  16. Increased Foraging in Outdoor Organic Pig Production—Modeling Environmental Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malene Jakobsen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Consumers’ motivations for buying organic products include a wish of acquiring healthy, environmentally friendly products from production systems that also ensure a high level of animal welfare. However, the current Danish organic pig production faces important challenges regarding environmental impact of the system. High ammonia emissions arise from outdoor concrete areas with growing pigs and sows on pasture possess an increased risk of nitrogen (N leaching. Direct foraging in the range area is suggested as a way to improve the nutrient efficiency at farm level and to support a more natural behavior of the pig. Thus, by modeling, we investigated the environmental consequences of two alternative scenarios with growing pigs foraging in the range area and different levels of crops available for foraging—grass–clover or a combination of Jerusalem artichokes and lucerne. It was possible to have growing pigs on free-range without increasing N leaching compared to the current practice. The alternative system with Jerusalem artichokes and lucerne (high integration of forage showed the lowest carbon foot print with 3.12 CO2 eq kg−1 live weight pig compared to the current Danish pasture based system with 3.69 kg CO2 eq kg−1 live weight pig. Due to positive impact on soil carbon sequestration, the second alternative system based on grass-clover (low integration of forage showed a similar carbon foot print compared to current practice with 3.68 kg CO2 eq kg−1 live weight pig. It is concluded that in practice there is room for development of organic farming systems where direct foraging plays a central role.

  17. Analysis of different substrates for processing into biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mursec

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main target is to produce as much biogas as possible with highest possible biomethane content from crops representing the principal fuel for driving the gas motors and electric generators and, consequently, production of electricity.Design/methodology/approach: The biogas production was measured by a mini digester according to the German standard DIN 38414, Part 8. It was effected in the mesophilic temperature range. The biogas production from six different energy crops and pig slurry was measured in the laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences. In six trial fields the monocultures such as maize, sorghum, amaranth, sunflower, Jerusalem artichoke and sugar beet were grown.Findings: The highest biomethane production was achieved with the sunflower substrate (283 Nl/kgVS, followed by the sorghum substrate (188 Nl/kgVS and maize (187 Nl/kgVS. The amaranth substrate produced 225 Nl/kgVS and the Jerusalem artichoke 115 Nl/kgVS. The least amount of biomethane was produced from the sugar beet (95 Nl/kgVS.Research limitations/implications: The basic structure of the laboratory device is welded from stainless steel (inox and is limited by the following dimensions: 2500 mm length, 1000 mm height and 350 mm width. The device consists of twelve units of fermentors ensuring four tests simultaneously with three replications and assuring high accuracy of results.Practical implications: The test fermentors serve to test the biogas production from different energy crops and other materials of organic origin. The results reached serve to plan the electricity production in the biogas production plant.Originality/value: The mini digesters simulated in laboratory the actual state from the biogas production plant. Anaerobic fermentation was introduced and the biogas to be processed into electricity was produced.

  18. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for chlorantraniliprole in several root and tuber vegetables and oilseeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from DuPont (UK Ltd to modify the existing MRLs in several root and tuber vegetables and to set import tolerances in several oilseeds for the active substance chlorantraniliprole. In order to accommodate for the intended uses of chlorantraniliprole, the United Kingdom proposed to raise the existing MRLs in carrots, beetroot, celeriac, horseradish, Jerusalem artichokes, parsnips, parsley root, salsify, swedes, turnips and other root and tuber vegetables, except sugar beet and radish, from the values of 0.02 mg/kg or 0.04 mg/kg (depending on the crop to 0.06 mg/kg and in oilseeds, except peanuts, soya bean and cotton seed, from the limit of quantification of 0.01 mg/kg to 2 mg/kg. The United Kingdom drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 0.06 mg/kg for the intended use on carrots, beetroot, celeriac, horseradish, Jerusalem artichokes, parsnips, parsley root, salsify, swedes, turnips, other root and tuber vegetables. For the import tolerance on rape seed, sunflower seed and the minor oilseeds a MRL of 2 mg/kg is derived. The MRLs proposed for rape seed and sunflower seed are tentative, because the submitted dataset was incomplete (six instead of the eight residue trials. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of chlorantraniliprole in the commodities under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed uses of chlorantraniliprole on the crops under consideration will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore are unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  19. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for bupirimate in several crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the Netherlands, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Makhteshim-Agan Holland B.V. to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance bupirimate in apricots, peaches, strawberries, grapes, blackberries, dewberries, cucurbits, herbs and globe artichokes. In order to accommodate for the intended uses, The Netherlands proposed to raise the existing MRLs for bupirimate and for its metabolite ethirimol. The EMS drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to provisionally derive MRL proposals for bupirimate of 0.3 mg/kg for peaches, apricots and cucurbits with inedible peel, 1.5 mg/kg for grapes and cane fruit, 2 mg/kg for strawberries, 3 mg/kg for courgettes. No change to the existing MRL for cucumbers is necessary. To cover the uses of bupirimate, an amendment of the MRLs for ethirimol is necessary for cane fruits and cucurbits with inedible peel only, to 0.1 and 0.08 mg/kg respectively. No MRLs are proposed for fresh herbs and globe artichokes. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of bupirimate and ethirimol in the commodities under consideration. Based on the preliminary risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed uses of bupirimate on apricots, peaches, grapes, strawberries, cane fruits, courgettes, cucumbers and cucurbits with inedible peel will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore are unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  20. Enhancing inulinase yield by irradiation mutation associated with optimization of culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Gou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new inulinase-producing strain was isolated from rhizosphere soils of Jerusalem artichoke collected from Shihezi (Xinjiang, China using Jerusalem artichoke power (JAP as sole carbon source. It was identified as an Aspergillus niger strain by analysis of 16S rRNA. To improve inulinase production, this fungus was subjected to mutagenesis induced by 60Co γ-irradiation. A genetically stable mutant (designated E12 was obtained and it showed 2.7-fold higher inulinase activity (128 U/mL than the parental strain in the supernatant of a submerged culture. Sequential methodology was used to optimize the inulinase production of stain E12. A screening trial was first performed using Plackett-Burman design and variables with statistically significant effects on inulinase bio-production were identified. These significant factors were further optimized by central composite design experiments and response surface methodology. Finally, it was found that the maximum inulinase production (185 U/mL could be achieved under the optimized conditions namely pH 7.0, yeast extract concentration of 5.0 g/L, JAP concentration of 66.5 g/L, peptone concentration of 29.1 g/L, solution volume of 49.4 mL in 250-mL shake flasks, agitation speed of 180 rpm, and fermentation time of 60 h. The yield of inulinase under optimized culture conditions was approximately 1.4-fold of that obtained by using basal culture medium. These findings are of significance for the potential industrial application of the mutant E12.

  1. Host Range Specificity in Verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, R G; Subbarao, K V

    1999-12-01

    ABSTRACT Verticillium dahliae isolates from artichoke, bell pepper, cabbage, cauliflower, chili pepper, cotton, eggplant, lettuce, mint, potato, strawberry, tomato, and watermelon and V. albo-atrum from alfalfa were evaluated for their pathogenicity on all 14 hosts. One-month-old seedlings were inoculated with a spore suspension of about 10(7) conidia per ml using a root-dip technique and incubated in the greenhouse. Disease incidence and severity, plant height, and root and shoot dry weights were recorded 6 weeks after inoculation. Bell pepper, cabbage, cauliflower, cotton, eggplant, and mint isolates exhibited host specificity and differential pathogenicity on other hosts, whereas isolates from artichoke, lettuce, potato, strawberry, tomato, and watermelon did not. Bell pepper was resistant to all Verticillium isolates except isolates from bell pepper and eggplant. Thus, host specificity exists in some isolates of V. dahliae. The same isolates were characterized for vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) through complementation of nitrate nonutilizing (nit) mutants. Cabbage and cauliflower isolates did not produce nit mutants. The isolate from cotton belonged to VCG 1; isolates from bell pepper, eggplant, potato, and tomato, to VCG 4; and the remaining isolates, to VCG 2. These isolates were also analyzed using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method. Forty random primers were screened, and eighteen of them amplified DNA from Verticillium. Based on RAPD banding patterns, cabbage and cauliflower isolates formed a unique group, distinct from other V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum groups. Minor genetic variations were observed among V. dahliae isolates from other hosts, regardless of whether they were host specific or not. There was no correlation among pathogenicity, VCGs, and RAPD banding patterns. Even though the isolates belonged to different VCGs, they shared similar RAPD profiles. These results suggest that management of Verticillium wilt in some crops

  2. Comparative Fingerprint and Extraction Yield of Medicinal Herb Phenolics with Hepatoprotective Potential, as Determined by UV-Vis and FT-MIR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona ZAVOI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to compare the polyphenolic composition of six medicinal herbs, from wild flora of Romania. The plants investigated, Cynara scolimus (artichoke, Taraxacum officinalis (dandelion, Chelidonium majus (celandine, Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort, Silybum marianum (Mary thistle and Lycopodium clavatum (Wolf’s claw are known, to have hepatoprotective action. Using in parallel glycerol-water, ethanol-water and methanol, the solvent-dependence of the extract fingerprint and composition in bioactive molecules was studied by UV-Vis and Infrared (FT-MIR spectrometry. The extraction yields, calculated as an extraction factor (EF were superior in acidic methanol comparative to glycerin and ethanol, favorising the increase in phenolic acids against flavonoid derivatives . Based on the differences of polarity between the three solvents used, higher EF values were obtained for dandelion, artichoke, celandine and St. John wort, more rich in phenolic acids than flavonoids. Mary thistle and Wolf’s claw had lower concentrations of phenolics, but higher content of lignans and terpenoids. Based on the FT-MIR peaks from 8 regions, for each plant extract, has been determined the fingerprint region between 900 and 1500 cm-1and identified the specific functional groups. A good, significant correlation was found between the concentration of total phenolics calculated by UV-Vis spectrometry and FTIR methods, after calibration with gallic acid. The value of the MIR signal at 1743 cm-1 may be considered a good indicator of phenolics concentration in such extracts. Combined UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy are recommended as rapid and reliable tools to investigate the fingerprint and to predict the composition of medicinal plants or to evaluate the quality and authenticity of different standardized formulas.

  3. Impact of zinc supplementation on the improved fructose/xylose utilization and butanol production during acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You-Duo; Xue, Chuang; Chen, Li-Jie; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass and dedicated energy crops such as Jerusalem artichoke are promising alternatives for biobutanol production by solventogenic clostridia. However, fermentable sugars such as fructose or xylose released from the hydrolysis of these feedstocks were subjected to the incomplete utilization by the strains, leading to relatively low butanol production and productivity. When 0.001 g/L ZnSO4·7H2O was supplemented into the medium containing fructose as sole carbon source, 12.8 g/L of butanol was achieved with butanol productivity of 0.089 g/L/h compared to only 4.5 g/L of butanol produced with butanol productivity of 0.028 g/L/h in the control without zinc supplementation. Micronutrient zinc also led to the improved butanol production up to 8.3 g/L derived from 45.2 g/L xylose as sole carbon source with increasing butanol productivity by 31.7%. Moreover, the decreased acids production was observed under the zinc supplementation condition, resulting in the increased butanol yields of 0.202 g/g-fructose and 0.184 g/g-xylose, respectively. Similar improvements were also observed with increasing butanol production by 130.2 % and 8.5 %, butanol productivity by 203.4% and 18.4%, respectively, in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentations from sugar mixtures of fructose/glucose (4:1) and xylose/glucose (1:2) simulating the hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke tubers and corn stover. The results obtained from transcriptional analysis revealed that zinc may have regulatory mechanisms for the sugar transport and metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum L7. Therefore, micronutrient zinc supplementation could be an effective way for economic development of butanol production derived from these low-cost agricultural feedstocks. PMID:26149719

  4. Modified Chrispin-Norman chest radiography score for cystic fibrosis: observer agreement and correlation with lung function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong, P.A. de; Achterberg, J.A.; Kessels, O.A.M.; Beek, F.J. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ginneken, B. van; Hogeweg, L. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Terheggen-Lagro, S.W.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    To test observer agreement and two strategies for possible improvement (consensus meeting and reference images) for the modified Chrispin-Norman score for children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Before and after a consensus meeting and after developing reference images three observers scored sets of 25 chest radiographs from children with CF. Observer agreement was tested for line, ring, mottled and large soft shadows, for overinflation and for the composite modified Chrispin-Norman score. Correlation with lung function was assessed. Before the consensus meeting agreement between observers 1 and 2 was moderate-good, but with observer 3 agreement was poor-fair. Scores correlated significantly with spirometry for observers 1 and 2 (-0.72mottled and large shadows and correlation with lung function, but agreement for the modified Chrispin-Norman score did not improve further. Consensus meetings and reference images improve among-observer agreement for the modified Chrispin-Norman score, but good agreement was not achieved among all observers for the modified Chrispin-Norman score and for bronchial line and ring shadows. (orig.)

  5. Modified Chrispin-Norman chest radiography score for cystic fibrosis: observer agreement and correlation with lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To test observer agreement and two strategies for possible improvement (consensus meeting and reference images) for the modified Chrispin-Norman score for children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Before and after a consensus meeting and after developing reference images three observers scored sets of 25 chest radiographs from children with CF. Observer agreement was tested for line, ring, mottled and large soft shadows, for overinflation and for the composite modified Chrispin-Norman score. Correlation with lung function was assessed. Before the consensus meeting agreement between observers 1 and 2 was moderate-good, but with observer 3 agreement was poor-fair. Scores correlated significantly with spirometry for observers 1 and 2 (-0.72< R<-0.42, P < 0.05), but not for observer 3. Agreement with observer 3 improved after the consensus meeting. Reference images improved agreement for overinflation and mottled and large shadows and correlation with lung function, but agreement for the modified Chrispin-Norman score did not improve further. Consensus meetings and reference images improve among-observer agreement for the modified Chrispin-Norman score, but good agreement was not achieved among all observers for the modified Chrispin-Norman score and for bronchial line and ring shadows. (orig.)

  6. Preliminary study on features of mineralogical zoning of epigenetic alteration at sandstone-type uranium deposit, Dongsheng area, Ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstone-type uranium deposits located in Dongsheng area, northern Ordos basin, occur in Zhiluo Formation, Middle Jurassic. The Zhiluo Formation is divided into two members. The lower member is further divided into two submembers. The lower submember is dominantly composed of grey sandstone being the ore-hosting horizon; the upper submember consists of grey-green sandstone and mudstone. The upper member of Zhiluo Formation is made of mottled medium-fine grained sandstone and mudstone. Through the microscopic observation and study on sandstones of Zhiluo Formation, authors have established a vertical zonation of epigenetic alteration (from the top to the bottom): the limonitization + clayization + carbonation in the mottled fine-grained sandstone of the upper member of Zhiluo Formation; the green alteration (II) (mainly the chloritization of biotite, as well as the chloritization and epidotization of feldspar) + clayization + carbonation in the grey-green sandstone of the upper submember of the lower member of Zhiluo Formation; and the green alteration (I) (mainly the epidotization of feldspar) + carbonation in grey, grey-white sandstone of the lower submember. The epigenetic alteration basically occurs in grey-green sandstone. The sandstone shows grey-green color because it contains much green biotite (not chlorite). The epigenetic alteration in sandstone layer is closely associated with the uranium ore-formation

  7. Highly efficient enzyme encapsulation in a protein nanocage: towards enzyme catalysis in a cellular nanocompartment mimic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonen, Lise; Nolte, Roeland J. M.; van Hest, Jan C. M.

    2016-07-01

    The study of enzyme behavior in small nanocompartments is crucial for the understanding of biocatalytic processes in the cellular environment. We have developed an enzymatic conjugation strategy to attach a model enzyme to the interior of a cowpea chlorotic mottle virus capsid. It is shown that with this methodology high encapsulation efficiencies can be achieved. Additionally, we demonstrate that the encapsulation does not affect the enzyme performance in terms of a decreased activity or a hampered substrate diffusion. Finally, it is shown that the encapsulated enzymes are protected against proteases. We believe that our strategy can be used to study enzyme kinetics in an environment that approaches physiological conditions.The study of enzyme behavior in small nanocompartments is crucial for the understanding of biocatalytic processes in the cellular environment. We have developed an enzymatic conjugation strategy to attach a model enzyme to the interior of a cowpea chlorotic mottle virus capsid. It is shown that with this methodology high encapsulation efficiencies can be achieved. Additionally, we demonstrate that the encapsulation does not affect the enzyme performance in terms of a decreased activity or a hampered substrate diffusion. Finally, it is shown that the encapsulated enzymes are protected against proteases. We believe that our strategy can be used to study enzyme kinetics in an environment that approaches physiological conditions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures for the cloning, expression, and purification of all proteins, as well as supplementary figures and calculations. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr04181g

  8. Necrotizing fasciitis : plain radiographic and CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the plain radiographic and CT findings of the necrotizing fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic findings of 4 cases with necrotizing fasciitis. Three cases were proven pathologically. We evaluated pattern and extent of the gas shadows in plain films. CT findings were analysed, with emphasis on : (a) gas pattern, (b) extent, (c) location and involved site, (d) associated focal abscess, and (e) swelling of the adjacent muscles. On plain radiographs, four cases showed streaky or mottled gas densities in the pelvis, three cases in the perineum, one case in the abdomen, and two cases in the thigh. On CT images, gas pattern was mottled and streaky appearance with swelling of the adjacent muscles. Gas shadows located in the extraperitoneal space in four cases, fascial layer in four cases, and subcutaneous layer in four cases. There were gas shadows in pelvic wall, perineum, abdominal wall, buttock, thigh, and scrotum. Focal low density lesion suggestive of focal abscess was not visualized. Plain radiography is useful for early diagnosis of the necrotizing fasciitis and CT is very useful for detection of precise location and extent of the disease. CT is also useful for differentiation of necrotizing fasciitis from focal abscess and cellulitis

  9. Necrotizing fasciitis : plain radiographic and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Dae; Park, Jeong Hee; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Lim, Jong Nam; Heo, Tae Haeng; Park, Dong Rib [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate the plain radiographic and CT findings of the necrotizing fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic findings of 4 cases with necrotizing fasciitis. Three cases were proven pathologically. We evaluated pattern and extent of the gas shadows in plain films. CT findings were analysed, with emphasis on : (a) gas pattern, (b) extent, (c) location and involved site, (d) associated focal abscess, and (e) swelling of the adjacent muscles. On plain radiographs, four cases showed streaky or mottled gas densities in the pelvis, three cases in the perineum, one case in the abdomen, and two cases in the thigh. On CT images, gas pattern was mottled and streaky appearance with swelling of the adjacent muscles. Gas shadows located in the extraperitoneal space in four cases, fascial layer in four cases, and subcutaneous layer in four cases. There were gas shadows in pelvic wall, perineum, abdominal wall, buttock, thigh, and scrotum. Focal low density lesion suggestive of focal abscess was not visualized. Plain radiography is useful for early diagnosis of the necrotizing fasciitis and CT is very useful for detection of precise location and extent of the disease. CT is also useful for differentiation of necrotizing fasciitis from focal abscess and cellulitis.

  10. Genetic Compositions of Broad bean wilt virus 2 Infecting Red Pepper in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2 on red pepper was investigated using the samples obtained from 24 areas of 8 provinces in Korea. Two hundred and five samples (79% out of 260 collected samples were found to be infected with BBWV2. While the single infection rate of BBWV2 was 21.5%, the co-infection rate of BBWV2 with Cucumber mosaic virus, Pepper mottle virus, Pepper mild mottle virus and/or Potato virus Y was 78.5%. To characterize the genetic diversity of BBWV2 Korean isolates, 7 isolates were fully sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that BBWV2 isolates could be divided largely into two groups as Group I and Group II. Based on the partial sequence analyses, 153 selected BBWV2 isolates were subgrouped into GS-I (21.6%, GS-II (3.9% and GS-III (56.9%. BBWV2 GS-III, which was predominant in Korea, appears to be a new combination between Group I RNA-1 and Group II RNA-2. Viral disease incidence of BBWV2 on red pepper was under 2% before 2004. However, the incidence was increased abruptly to 41.3% in 2005, 58.2% in 2006 and 79% in 2007. These rapid increases might be related with the emergence of new combinations between BBWV2 groups.

  11. Ultrasonic and x-ray tomographic findings of Schistosomiasis Japonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, attempts were made to classify the ultrasonic patterns of the liver infected with Schistosoma Japonicum. The calcification and fibrosis of the liver were evaluated by comparative investigation with an ultrasonogram and computed tomography (CT). Schistosomiasis Japonica was examined in 23 patients who were more than 45 years of age. It was diagnosed by liver needle biopsy, an intracutaneous test, or autopsy. The cases with a fish scale and network pattern had attenuation of the liver on ultrasonography and were unspecific on CT. Histological findings demonstrated moderate liver fibrosis. The cases with a sieve pattern had attenuation on ultrasonography, and the CT disclosed a retractive liver and the CT number of that liver was increased. Histological findings demonstrated a severe fibrotic liver. The cases with a mottled pattern had increased reflective spotty echo with an acoustic shadow, and the CT disclosed calcification. The histological findings demonstrated a marked calcification of the eggs. The cases with a mixed pattern, which consisted of mottled and sieve based on fish scale and network, had no retraction with less increase in the CT number. These results suggest that the peculiar reflective echo pattern of Schistosomiasis Japonica was due to not only calcification but also fibrosis of the liver. (author)

  12. Geology and tectonics of Beta Regio, Guinevere Planitia, Sedna Planitia, and Western Eistla Regio, Venus - Results from Arecibo image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senske, D. A.; Fisher, P. C.; Head, J. W.; Aubele, J. C.; Campbell, D. B.; Stacy, N.; Stofan, E. R.; Hine, A. A.; Harmon, J. K.

    1991-01-01

    The geology of a portion of the equatorial region of Venus (1 deg S to 45 deg N and from 270 deg eastward to 30 deg) is assessed on the basis of new radar images obtained from the Arecibo Observatory. Nine geologic units are mapped on the basis of their radar characteristics, and their distribution and correspondences with topography are examined. Plains are the most abundant unit, comprising 80 percent of the area imaged, and are divided into bright, dark, and mottled. Mottled plains contain abundant lava flows and domes, suggesting that volcanism forming planes is a significant process in the equatorial region of Venus. Tesserae are found primarily on Beta Regio and its eastern flank and are interpreted to be locally stratigraphically older units, predating episodes of faulting and plains formation. On the basis of spatial and temporal relationships between geologic units, the highlands of Beta Regio and Western Eistla Regio are interpreted to have formed in association with areas of mantle upwelling which uplift plains, cause rifting, and, in the case of Beta Regio, disrupt a large region of tesserae.

  13. Gastrointestinal tract perforation: evaluation of MDCT according to perforation site and elapsed time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate mutidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for the prediction of perforation site according to each gastrointestinal (GI) tract site and elapsed time. One hundred and sixty-eight patients who underwent MDCT before laparotomy for GI tract perforation were enrolled and allocated to an early or late lapse group based on an elapsed time of 7 h. Two reviewers independently evaluated the perforation site and assessed the following CT findings: free air location, mottled extraluminal air bubbles, focal bowel wall discontinuity, segmental bowel wall thickening, perivisceral fat stranding and localised fluid collection. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 91.07 % and 91.67 % for reviewers 1 and 2, respectively, with excellent agreement (kappa 0.86). Accuracies (98.97 % and 97.94 %) and agreements (kappa 0.894) for stomach and duodenum perforation were higher than for other perforation sites. Strong predictors of perforation at each site were: focal bowel wall discontinuity for stomach, duodenal bulb and left colon, mottled extraluminal air bubbles for retroperitoneal duodenum and right colon, and segmental bowel wall thickening for small bowel. The diagnostic accuracy was not different between the early- and late-lapse groups. MDCT can accurately predict upper GI tract perforation with high reliability. Elapsed time did not affect the accuracy of perforation site prediction. (orig.)

  14. Gastrointestinal tract perforation: evaluation of MDCT according to perforation site and elapsed time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Yang, Dal Mo; Kim, Sang Won [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Jin [Kyung Hee University Hospital, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    To evaluate mutidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for the prediction of perforation site according to each gastrointestinal (GI) tract site and elapsed time. One hundred and sixty-eight patients who underwent MDCT before laparotomy for GI tract perforation were enrolled and allocated to an early or late lapse group based on an elapsed time of 7 h. Two reviewers independently evaluated the perforation site and assessed the following CT findings: free air location, mottled extraluminal air bubbles, focal bowel wall discontinuity, segmental bowel wall thickening, perivisceral fat stranding and localised fluid collection. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 91.07 % and 91.67 % for reviewers 1 and 2, respectively, with excellent agreement (kappa 0.86). Accuracies (98.97 % and 97.94 %) and agreements (kappa 0.894) for stomach and duodenum perforation were higher than for other perforation sites. Strong predictors of perforation at each site were: focal bowel wall discontinuity for stomach, duodenal bulb and left colon, mottled extraluminal air bubbles for retroperitoneal duodenum and right colon, and segmental bowel wall thickening for small bowel. The diagnostic accuracy was not different between the early- and late-lapse groups. MDCT can accurately predict upper GI tract perforation with high reliability. Elapsed time did not affect the accuracy of perforation site prediction. (orig.)

  15. A review of ozone-induced effects on the forests of central Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first report on oxidant-induced plant damage in the Valley of Mexico was presented over 30 years ago. Ozone is known to occur in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and elsewhere as the cause of chlorotic mottling on pine needles that are 2 years old or older as observed in 1976 on Pinus hartwegii and Pinus leiophylla. Visible evidences for the negative effects of ozone on the vegetation of central Mexico include foliar injury expressed as chlorotic mottling and premature defoliation on pines, a general decline of sacred fir, visible symptoms on native forest broadleaved species (e.g. Mexican black cherry). Recent investigations have also indicated that indirect effects are occurring such as limited root colonization by symbiotic fungi on ozone-damaged P. hartwegii trees and a negative influence of the pollutant on the natural regeneration of this species. The negative ozone-induced effects on the vegetation will most likely continue to increase. - Ozone induced symptoms, poor tree regeneration and limited root colonization by mycorrhiza fungi observed in the valley of Mexico

  16. Accuracy of quantitative visual soil assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; Heuvelink, Gerard; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Wallinga, Jakob; de Boer, Imke; van Dam, Jos; van Essen, Everhard; Moolenaar, Simon; Verhoeven, Frank; Stoof, Cathelijne

    2016-04-01

    Visual soil assessment (VSA) is a method to assess soil quality visually, when standing in the field. VSA is increasingly used by farmers, farm organisations and companies, because it is rapid and cost-effective, and because looking at soil provides understanding about soil functioning. Often VSA is regarded as subjective, so there is a need to verify VSA. Also, many VSAs have not been fine-tuned for contrasting soil types. This could lead to wrong interpretation of soil quality and soil functioning when contrasting sites are compared to each other. We wanted to assess accuracy of VSA, while taking into account soil type. The first objective was to test whether quantitative visual field observations, which form the basis in many VSAs, could be validated with standardized field or laboratory measurements. The second objective was to assess whether quantitative visual field observations are reproducible, when used by observers with contrasting backgrounds. For the validation study, we made quantitative visual observations at 26 cattle farms. Farms were located at sand, clay and peat soils in the North Friesian Woodlands, the Netherlands. Quantitative visual observations evaluated were grass cover, number of biopores, number of roots, soil colour, soil structure, number of earthworms, number of gley mottles and soil compaction. Linear regression analysis showed that four out of eight quantitative visual observations could be well validated with standardized field or laboratory measurements. The following quantitative visual observations correlated well with standardized field or laboratory measurements: grass cover with classified images of surface cover; number of roots with root dry weight; amount of large structure elements with mean weight diameter; and soil colour with soil organic matter content. Correlation coefficients were greater than 0.3, from which half of the correlations were significant. For the reproducibility study, a group of 9 soil scientists and 7

  17. Incidencia y sintomatología de cinco virus en parcelas comerciales de chile seco en Aguascalientes, San Luis Potosí y Zacatecas, México Incidence and symptomatology of five viruses in commercial dry chili pepper fields in Aguascalientes, San Luis Potosí, and Zacatecas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Velásquez-Valle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A nivel mundial el cultivo de chile es afectado por más de 60 enfermedades virales; sin embargo, poco se conoce acerca de ellas en el área productora de chile seco del norte centro de México por lo que el objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en detectar la presencia y sintomatología de cinco virus en parcelas comerciales de chile seco en los estados mencionados. Plantas de chile de los tipos mirasol y ancho fueron muestreadas y se anotó la presencia de síntomas como enanismo, clorosis, deformación de hojas, defoliación, necrosis vascular y ramas unidas. Las muestras fueron analizadas mediante la técnica DAS-ELISA empleando los antisueros para el virus del mosaico del tabaco (Tobacco mosaic virus: TMV, mosaico del pepino (Cucumber mosaic virus: CMV, Y de la papa (Potato virus Y: PVY, moteado del chile (Pepper mottle virus: PepMoV y jaspeado del tabaco (Tobacco etch virus: TEV. Esos virus fueron identificados en plantas de chile colectadas en las parcelas comerciales de chile seco de los tres estados antes mencionados.World-wide the chili pepper crop is affected by more than 60 viral diseases, although very little is known about them in the area of dry pepper plantation in northern-central Mexico. Consequently, the aims of this work were to identify the presence of the virus and the associated symptoms in commercial dry pepper fields of the states of Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí, and Aguascalientes, Mexico. Mirasol and ancho pepper plants were sampled and the presence of symptoms such as dwarfing, chlorosis, leaf deformation, defoliation, vascular necrosis and joined branches, were recorded. Samples were analyzed using DAS-ELISA with the antisera of the tobacco mosaic virus (Tobacco mosaic virus: TMV, cucumber mosaic virus (Cucumber mosaic virus: CMV, potato virus Y (Potato virus Y: PVY, pepper mottle virus (Pepper mottle virus: PepMoV, and tobacco etch virus (Tobacco etch virus: TEV. These viruses were identified in pepper plants

  18. Efeito da irradiação na microbiota fúngica de plantas medicinais Irradiation effect on mycoflora of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Prado

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O aumento do consumo de produtos de origem natural tem ocasionado problemas de saúde pública devido ao risco da contaminação fúngica e a possível presença de micotoxinas. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, identificar as espécies fúngicas com potencial micotoxigênico e avaliar o efeito da irradiação gama (60Co na destruição da microbiota fúngica natural de cinco plantas medicinais: Alcachofra (Cynara scolymus L., Boldo (Peumusboldus Molina, Camomila (Matricaria recutita L., Chapéu de couro (Echinodorusgrandiflorus Micheli e Sene (Cassia acutifolia Delile. A quantificação de fungos filamentosos e leveduras foi efetuada pela Técnica de Diluição Seriada em meio DRBC. Em Camomila foram identificados 8 isolados de Aspergillus flavus, sendo 2 (25% produtores de aflatoxina B1 e B2 e 5 isolados de Aspergillus ochraceus, sendo 2 (40% produtores de ocratoxina A. Em Alcachofra foi identificado 1 isolado de Aspergillus ostianus produtor de ocratoxina A. Observou-se redução total da contagem de fungos em Boldo a partir de 3 kGy e em Chapéu de couro e Sene a partir de 5 kGy. Em Alcachofra, a contagem inicial de 5,0 x 10(6 UFC/g foi reduzida para 3,5 x 10² UFC com dose de 10 kGy. Nessa mesma dose a contagem fúngica em Camomila foi reduzida de 3,0 x 10(5 UFC/g para 2,2 x 10³ UFC/g.The increasing consumption of natural products has brought about problems related to public health due to the risk of fungi contamination and the considerable possibility of mycotoxin presence. The aim of this work was to identify the fungi species with mycotoxigenic potential and to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation (60Co on killing the natural fungi microbiota of five medicinal plants: artichoke (Cynara scolymus L., boldo (Peumusboldus Molina, chamomile (Matricaria recutita L., burhead (Echinodorusgrandiflorus Micheli, and senna (Cassia acutifolia Delile. The qualification of filamentous fungi and yeast was carried out utilizing the Technique of Serial

  19. On estimation of complex refractive index and colour of dry black and cyan offset inks by a multi-function spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical properties of inks have much importance in quality inspection of prints. For instance, gloss and gloss mottling of a print depend not only on the surface roughness of the print but also on the spectral properties such as the wavelength-dependent complex refractive index of the ink. We have developed a device, the so-called multi-function spectrophotometer (MFS), that allows the measurement of reflectance and thereby assessment of the complex refractive index of the dry ink. Here, we report on the complex refractive index of dry black and cyan offset inks. Such information has importance in the study of gloss of prints. Furthermore, we show that the colour of these dry inks can be obtained with our apparatus by using light scattering data from the dry ink

  20. Pediatric case report: clinical profile of a patient with PCWH with p.Q377X nonsense mutation in the SOX10 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshimo, Tomoko; Fukai, Kazuyoshi; Abe, Yuko; Hozumi, Yutaka; Yokoi, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Akemi; Yamanishi, Kiyofumi; Ishii, Masamitsu; Suzuki, Tamio

    2012-12-01

    We report the case of a Japanese patient with PCWH, a neurological variant of Waardenburg type 4. Direct sequencing of the genomic DNA obtained from peripheral leukocytes revealed the p.Q377X nonsense mutation in the SOX10 gene. The patient had mottled hypopigmented macules on the trunk since birth; such macules have not been described previously. The so-called "white forelock", a triangular or diamond shaped leukoderma on the forehead, was absent. We also reviewed and summarized the outcomes of 23 patients with Waardenburg syndrome type 4, PCWH and Yemenite deaf-blind hypopigmentation syndrome, in which SOX10 mutations were identified. Among them, 17 cases were reported to have hypopigmented skin macule(s). The five patients who had the white forelock had PCWH with severe neurological complications. Paradoxically, two cases had hyperpigmented spots. Heterochromia of the iris was reported in four patients. PMID:22963253

  1. MHD wave modes resolved in fine-scale chromospheric magnetic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Verth, G

    2015-01-01

    Within the last decade, due to significant improvements in the spatial and temporal resolution of chromospheric data, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave studies in this fascinating region of the Sun's atmosphere have risen to the forefront of solar physics research. In this review we begin by reviewing the challenges and debates that have manifested in relation to MHD wave mode identification in fine-scale chromospheric magnetic structures, including spicules, fibrils and mottles. Next we go on to discuss how the process of accurately identifying MHD wave modes also has a crucial role to play in estimating their wave energy flux. This is of cardinal importance for estimating what the possible contribution of MHD waves is to solar atmospheric heating. Finally, we detail how such advances in chromospheric MHD wave studies have also allowed us, for the first time, to implement cutting-edge magnetoseismological techniques that provide new insight into the sub-resolution plasma structuring of the lower solar atmospher...

  2. Observer performance in detecting multiple radiographic signals: prediction and analysis using a generalized ROC approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, C.E.; Starr, S.J.; Lusted, L.B.

    1975-01-01

    The theories of decision processes and signal detection provide a framework for the evaluation of observer performance. Some radiologic procedures involve a search for multiple similar lesions, as in gallstone or pneumoconiosis examinations. A model is presented which attempts to predict, from the conventional receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve describing the detectability of a single visual signal in a radiograph, observer performance in an experiment requiring detection of more than one such signal. An experiment is described which tests the validity of this model for the case of detecting the presence of zero, one, or two low-contrast radiographic images of a two-mm.-diameter lucite bead embedded in radiographic mottle. Results from six observers, including three radiologists, confirm the validity of the model and suggest that human observer performance for relatively complex detection tasks can be predicted from the results of simpler experiments.

  3. Baseline blood Pb levels of black-necked stilts on the upper Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, Thomas V.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.

    2015-01-01

    There are no known biological requirements for lead (Pb), and elevated Pb levels in birds can cause a variety of sub-lethal effects and mortality. Historic and current levels of Pb in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) suggest that environmental sources of Pb remain available on the upper Texas coast. Because of potential risks of Pb exposure among coexisting marsh birds, black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) blood Pb concentrations were measured during the breeding season. Almost 80 % (n = 120) of 152 sampled stilts exceeded the background threshold (>20 μg/dL) for Pb exposure. However, blood Pb concentrations did not vary by age or gender, and toxic or potentially lethal concentrations were rare (Pb concentrations of black-necked stilts in this study suggest the presence of readily bioavailable sources of Pb, although potential impacts on local stilt populations remain unclear.

  4. Topical Retinoids: Therapeutic Mechanisms in the Treatment of Photodamaged Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Ryan R; Bush, Amelia E; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-06-01

    Retinoids are a group of substances comprising vitamin A and its natural and synthetic derivatives. Retinoids were first used in dermatology in 1943 by Straumfjord for acne vulgaris. Since that time, retinoids have been utilized in the management and treatment of various skin conditions, including photoaging. Photodamage of the skin occurs as a consequence of cumulative exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and is characterized by deep wrinkles, easy bruising, inelasticity, mottled pigmentation, roughness, and telangiectasias. The mechanism of UVR-induced photodamage is multifactorial. Retinoids have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of photoaged skin. Indeed, understanding the pathophysiology of photoaging and the molecular mechanism of retinoids can not only provide insight into the effects retinoids can exert in treating photoaging but also provide the rationale for their use in the treatment of other dermatologic diseases. PMID:26969582

  5. Collaborative Research: Instability and transport of laser beam in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Harvey Arnold [New Mexico Consortium; Lushnikov, Pavel [University of New Mexico

    2014-11-18

    Our goal was to determine the onset of laser light scattering due to plasma wave instabilities. Such scatter is usually regarded as deleterious since laser beam strength is thereby diminished. While this kind of laser-plasma-instability (LPI) has long been understood for the case of coherent laser light, the theory of LPI onset for a laser beam with degraded coherence is recent. Such a laser beam fills plasma with a mottled intensity distribution, which has large fluctuations. The key question is: do the exceptionally large fluctuations control LPI onset or is it controlled by the relatively quiescent background laser intensity? We have answered this question. This is significant because LPI onset power in the former case is typically small compared to that of the latter. In addition, if large laser intensity fluctuations control LPI onset, then nonlinear effects become significant for less powerful laser beams than otherwise estimated.

  6. Improving abdomen tumor low-dose CT images using a fast dictionary learning based processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In abdomen computed tomography (CT), repeated radiation exposures are often inevitable for cancer patients who receive surgery or radiotherapy guided by CT images. Low-dose scans should thus be considered in order to avoid the harm of accumulative x-ray radiation. This work is aimed at improving abdomen tumor CT images from low-dose scans by using a fast dictionary learning (DL) based processing. Stemming from sparse representation theory, the proposed patch-based DL approach allows effective suppression of both mottled noise and streak artifacts. The experiments carried out on clinical data show that the proposed method brings encouraging improvements in abdomen low-dose CT images with tumors. (paper)

  7. AcEST: DK960939 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ia with plantlets Developmental stage gametophytes with sporophytes...663 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0008_M07. 5' end sequence. Accession DK960939 Tissue type prothall... receptor subfamily B member 5 OS=Pan troglodytes GN=LILRB5 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 643 Score = 30.8 bits (68), Expect = 6.7 Identities...|Q8MJZ7|LIRB5_PANTR Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor sub... 31 6.7 >sp|P19199|POL_COYMV Putative polyprotein OS=Commelina yello... sp_hit_id P19199 Definition sp|P19199|POL_COYMV Putative polyprotein OS=Commelina yellow mottle virus Align length

  8. HYPERTENSIVE CHOROIDOPATHY AS AN UNCOMMON CAUSE S OF VISUAL LOSS IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijnya Birajita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HISTORY: A 30 year old lady in her 32 weeks gestation period was referred to our ophthalmology clinic with chief complaints of diminution of vision in both eyes for 4 months duration. Her medical history was suggestive of uncontrolled hypertension. On Ophthalmic evaluation she had best corrected visual acuity of 20/200 in both eyes with normal color vision. Her pupils were bilaterally equal in size and normally reacting to light. The intraocular pressure was within normal range and anterior segment evaluation was within normal limits. Dilated fundus evaluation revealed only arterio - venous crossing changes, mottled retina and resolving hard exudates in both eyes [Fig 1a, & 1 b]. The fundus picture could not explain the severity of vision loss in the patient which prompted us for further workup.

  9. Solar Spicules: Prospects for Breakthroughs in Understanding with Solar-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, A.

    Spicules densely populate the lower solar atmosphere; any image or movie of the chromosphere shows a plethora of them or their "cousins," such as mottles or fibrils. Yet despite several decades of effort we still do not know the mechanism that generates them, or how important their contribution is to the material and energy balance of the overall solar atmosphere. Solar-B will provide exciting new chromospheric observations at high time- and spatial-resolution, along with associated quality magnetic field data, that promise to open doors to revolutionary breakthroughs in spicule research. In this presentation we will review the current observational and theoretical status of spicule studies, and discuss prospects for advances in spicule understanding during the Solar-B era.

  10. Pittosporum cryptic virus 1: genome sequence completion using next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbeaino, Toufic; Kubaa, Raied Abou; Tuzlali, Hasan Tuna; Digiaro, Michele

    2016-07-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was applied to dsRNAs extracted from an Italian pittosporum plant infected with pittosporum cryptic virus 1 (PiCV1). NGS allowed assembly of the full genome sequence of PiCV1, comprising dsRNA1 (1.9 kbp) and dsRNA2 (1.5 kbp), which encode the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and capsid protein genes, respectively. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses confirmed that PiCV1 is a new member of the genus Deltapartitivirus, family Partiviridae. From the same plant, NSG also permitted assembly of the complete genome sequence of eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV), which shared 86 % to 98 % nucleotide sequence identity with complete and partial sequences (ca 6750 nt) of other known EMDV isolates with sequences available in the GenBank database. PMID:27087112

  11. [Simultaneous occurrence of metageria and Gottron's acrogeria in one family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, I; Thiele, B; Mahrle, G

    1985-06-15

    We report on a 17-year-old patient suffering from generalized mottled hyperpigmentation and multiple telangiectatic lesions of the skin. The subcutaneous fatty tissue was lacking or deficient. The patient showed a bird-like face. The cutaneous changes had been present since birth. X-ray studies revealed acro-osteolysis of the hands and feet. The metabolic and endocrine data were within normal ranges except of latent hypothyroidism. The clinical picture presented all criteria of metageria. The patient's mother and sister showed similar cutaneous changes, however, restricted to the distal parts of the extremities. We diagnosed acrogeria Gottron. The incidence of both metageria and acrogeria in one family makes metageria as an independent entity doubtful. PMID:4024679

  12. Meso-cenozoic tectonic evolution character and metallogenesis of sandstone-type uranium deposits in Tarim Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on comprehensive analyses on tectonic evolution of Tarim Basin and combined with isotopic ages of ores, the metallogenic stages of sandstone-type uranium deposits in the basin have been divided, the control of structures on ore-bearing strata and epigenetically altered metallogenic processes have been studied and it is believed that the structures before the last large-scale Himalayan Orogeny(before N2) are favorable for metallogenesis of sandstone-type uranium deposits and those after the Himalayan Orogeny mainly altered the ore bodies formed earlier. The metallogenic models for deposits controlled by structures have been studied and it is concluded that Kujieertai-type uranium deposits were formed in weakly deformed parts of structures, Sawabuqi-type uranium deposits were formed in strongly deformed parts of structures and however, Bashibulake-type uranium deposits were formed in the original red or mottled strata of K-N. (authors)

  13. Miliary nodules due to secondary pulmonary hemosiderosis in rheumatic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Gyanendra; Agarwal, Ritesh; Rohit, Manoj Kumar; Mahesh, Venkat; Vasishta, Rakesh Kumar

    2011-02-28

    Pulmonary hemosiderosis is defined as the clinical and functional consequence of iron overload of the lungs, which usually occurs due to recurrent intra-alveolar bleeding. It can manifest as miliary mottling and should be entertained in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with miliary nodules on chest radiography, especially those with mitral stenosis. The management of secondary pulmonary hemosiderosis secondary to valvular heart disease includes valvuloplasty and/or valve replacement. The radiological opacities may disappear with successful treatment of the underlying valvular disease in many patients. However, they may persist with no physiological impairment to the patient. Here, we present a 32-year-old man with mitral stenosis who presented with fever and miliary shadows on chest radiography, which was ultimately diagnosed as secondary pulmonary hemosiderosis. PMID:21390194

  14. Noise analysis of scintillation camera images: stochastic and non-stochastic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of noise was performed on scintillation camera images. The analysis was performed on sets of field floods, uniform exposures over the field of view, in such a way that stochastic and non-stochastic effects were separable. Stochastic noise for the digitally acquired images was found to approach the limit of Poisson count statistics. The non-stochastic component of the calculations dominated the results at the lower spatial frequencies. These results hold true even after standard methods of uniformity correction are applied, primarily due to the effects of Compton scatter events. The noise power spectrum calculations carry information about the patterns of the noise in flood images. Examples of digitisation, photomultiplier tube mottle and edge-packing artefacts are presented. (author)

  15. Protein Cages as Containers for Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aijie; Verwegen, Martijn; de Ruiter, Mark V; Maassen, Stan J; Traulsen, Christoph H-H; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M

    2016-07-01

    Abundant and highly diverse, viruses offer new scaffolds in nanotechnology for the encapsulation, organization, or even synthesis of novel materials. In this work the coat protein of the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is used to encapsulate gold nanoparticles with different sizes and stabilizing ligands yielding stable particles in buffered solutions at neutral pH. The sizes of the virus-like particles correspond to T = 1, 2, and 3 Caspar-Klug icosahedral triangulation numbers. We developed a simple one-step process enabling the encapsulation of commercially available gold nanoparticles without prior modification with up to 97% efficiency. The encapsulation efficiency is further increased using bis-p-(sufonatophenyl)phenyl phosphine surfactants up to 99%. Our work provides a simplified procedure for the preparation of metallic particles stabilized in CCMV protein cages. The presented results are expected to enable the preparation of a variety of similar virus-based colloids for current focus areas. PMID:27135176

  16. Dowling-Degos Disease: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Emre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dowling-Degos Disease (DDD, is a rare, autosomal dominantly inherited pigmentation disorder. It is characterized by slowly progressive mottled or reticulated pigmented macules on the axillae, groins, perineum, inframammary regions and other flexural areas. The disease appears after puberty, most frequently during the fourth decade of life. Herein, we report a 42-year old female patient who presented with dark brown hyperpigmented macules on her groins, perineum and inframammary areas at our outpatient clinic. The histopathological examination showed elongation of rete ridges from epidermis to dermis with a filiform or antler-like pattern. Increased melanin pigmentation on the peak of the rete ridges and melanophages in the papillary dermis were seen. Depending on these clinical and histopathological findings, DDD was diagnosed. DDD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of disorders with flexural pigmentation.

  17. Dowling-Degos Disease: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Emre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dowling-Degos Disease (DDD, is a rare, autosomal dominantly inherited pigmentation disorder. It is characterized by slowly progressive mottled or reticulated pigmented macules on the axillae, groins, perineum, inframammary regions and other flexural areas. The disease appears after puberty, most frequently during the fourth decade of life. Herein, we report a 42-year old female patient who presented with dark brown hyperpigmented macules on her groins, perineum and inframammary areas at our outpatient clinic. The histopathological examination showed elongation of rete ridges from epidermis to dermis with a filiform or antler-like pattern. Increased melanin pigmentation on the peak of the rete ridges and melanophages in the papillary dermis were seen. Depending on these clinical and histopathological findings, DDD was diagnosed. DDD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of disorders with flexural pigmentation. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 55-7

  18. The effects of transients on photospheric and chromospheric power distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Samanta, T; Banerjee, D; Prasad, S Krishna; Mathioudakis, M; Jess, D; Pant, V

    2016-01-01

    We have observed a quiet Sun region with the Swedish 1-meter Solar Telescope (SST) equipped with CRISP Imaging SpectroPolarimeter. High-resolution, high-cadence, H$\\alpha$ line scanning images were taken to observe different layers of the solar atmosphere from the photosphere to upper chromosphere. We study the distribution of power in different period-bands at different heights. Power maps of the upper photosphere and the lower chromosphere show suppressed power surrounding the magnetic-network elements, known as "magnetic shadows". These also show enhanced power close to the photosphere, traditionally referred to as "power halos". The interaction between acoustic waves and inclined magnetic fields is generally believed to be responsible for these two effects. In this study we explore if small-scale transients can influence the distribution of power at different heights. We show that the presence of transients, like mottles, Rapid Blueshifted Excursions (RBEs) and Rapid Redshifted Excursions (RREs), can stro...

  19. CT evaluation of the metastatic liver tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT figures of the metastatic liver tumor after contrast enhancement were retrospectively evaluated in 197 cases. Internal structures of the liver tumor were classified to 5 patterns, homogeneous, decrescent, stepwise, central high and mottled types. Many of the colon and gall-bladder cancer showed decrescent type, and ovarian cancer showed homogeneous type. Many of the adenocarcinoma presented decrescent type and many of the squamous cell, small cell and large cell carcinoma presented homogeneous type. Stepwise type was found more frequently in well differentiated adenocarcinoma than poorly differentiated one. Central high type was detected in 9 cases, due to marked fibrotic change. Table sliding rapid sequence method was used in 36 cases. This method is useful for detection of the hepatic tumors and discrimination between metastatic tumor and hepatocellular carcinoma. (author)

  20. Image-quality assessment of monochrome monitors for medical soft copy display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibrecht, Martin; Spekowius, Gerhard; Quadflieg, Peter; Blume, Hartwig R.

    1997-05-01

    Soft-copy presentation of medical images is becoming part of the medical routine as more and more health care facilities are converted to digital filmless hospital and radiological information management. To provide optimal image quality, display systems must be incorporated when assessing the overall system image quality. We developed a method to accomplish this. The proper working of the method is demonstrated with the analysis of four different monochrome monitors. We determined display functions and veiling glare with a high-performance photometer. Structure mottle of the CRT screens, point spread functions and images of stochastic structures were acquired by a scientific CCD camera. The images were analyzed with respect to signal transfer characteristics and noise power spectra. We determined the influence of the monitors on the detective quantum efficiency of a simulated digital x-ray imaging system. The method follows a physical approach; nevertheless, the results of the analysis are in good agreement with the subjective impression of human observers.

  1. Midtrimester fetal herpes simplex-2 diagnosis by serology, culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, William M; Menegus, Marilyn A; Patru, Maria-Magdalena; Peterson, C Jeanne; Metlay, Leon A; Mooney, Robert A; Stanwood, Nancy L; Scheible, Amy L; Dorgan, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in utero comprises a minority of neonatal herpes infections. Prenatal diagnosis is rare. We describe a midtrimester diagnosis of fetal HSV-2 infection. Ultrasound at 20 weeks for elevated maternal serum α-fetoprotein (MSAFP) showed lagging fetal growth, echogenic bowel, echogenic myocardium, and liver with a mottled pattern of echogenicity. Amniocentesis demonstrated normal karyotype, elevated AFP and positive acetylcholinesterase. Culture isolated HSV-2 with an aberrant growth pattern. Maternal serology was positive for HSV-2. Quantitative DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed 59 million copies/ml. Fetal autopsy demonstrated widespread tissue necrosis but only sparse HSV-2 inclusions. Fetal HSV-2 infection can be suspected when an elevated MSAFP accompanies ultrasound findings suggesting perinatal infection. Maternal HSV serology, amniotic fluid culture and quantitative PCR are recommended for diagnostic certainty and counseling. PMID:23075531

  2. Small amounts of functional ATP7A protein permit mild phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lisbeth Birk

    2015-01-01

    . The location of missense mutations on structural models of the ATP7A protein suggests that affected conserved residues generally lead to a severe phenotype. The ATP7A protein traffics within the cells. At low copper levels, ATP7A locates to the Trans-Golgi Network (TGN) to load cuproenzymes with...... copper, whereas at higher concentrations, ATP7A shifts to the post-Golgi compartments or to the plasma membrane to export copper out of the cell. Impaired copper-regulation trafficking has been observed for ATP7A mutants, but its impact on the clinical outcome is not clear. The major problem in patients...... with MD seems to be insufficient amounts of copper in the brain. In fact, prenatal treatment of mottled mice as a model for human MD with a combination of chelator and copper, produces a slight increase in copper levels in the brain which perhaps leads to longer survival and more active behavior. In...

  3. Pediatric complex regional pain syndrome: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissmann, Rotem; Uziel, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic, intensified localized pain condition that can affect children and adolescents as well as adults, but is more common among adolescent girls. Symptoms include limb pain; allodynia; hyperalgesia; swelling and/or changes in skin color of the affected limb; dry, mottled skin; hyperhidrosis and trophic changes of the nails and hair. The exact mechanism of CRPS is unknown, although several different mechanisms have been suggested. The diagnosis is clinical, with the aid of the adult criteria for CRPS. Standard care consists of a multidisciplinary approach with the implementation of intensive physical therapy in conjunction with psychological counseling. Pharmacological treatments may aid in reducing pain in order to allow the patient to participate fully in intensive physiotherapy. The prognosis in pediatric CRPS is favorable. PMID:27130211

  4. Coupling Peptide Antigens to Virus-Like Particles or to Protein Carriers Influences the Th1/Th2 Polarity of the Resulting Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattanaruji Pomwised

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have conjugated the S9 peptide, a mimic of the group B streptococcal type III capsular polysaccharide, to different carriers in an effort to elicit an optimal immune response. As carriers, we utilized the soluble protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin and virus-like particles (VLPs from two plant viruses, Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus and Cowpea Mosaic Virus. We have found that coupling the peptide to the soluble protein elicits a Th2 immune response, as evidenced by the production of the peptide-specific IgG1 antibody and IL-4/IL-10 production in response to antigen stimulation, whereas the peptide conjugated to VLPs elicited a Th1 response (IgG2a, IFN-γ. Because the VLPs used as carriers package RNA during the assembly process, we hypothesize that this effect may result from the presence of nucleic acid in the immunogen, which affects the Th1/Th2 polarity of the response.

  5. Packaging and structural phenotype of brome mosaic virus capsid protein with altered N-terminal β-hexamer structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first 45 amino acid region of brome mosaic virus (BMV) capsid protein (CP) contains RNA binding and structural domains that are implicated in the assembly of infectious virions. One such important structural domain encompassing amino acids 28QPVIV32, highly conserved between BMV and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), exhibits a β-hexamer structure. In this study we report that alteration of the β-hexamer structure by mutating 28QPVIV32 to 28AAAAA32 had no effect either on symptom phenotype, local and systemic movement in Chenopodium quinoa and RNA profile of in vivo assembled virions. However, sensitivity to RNase and assembly phenotypes distinguished virions assembled with CP subunits having β-hexamer from those of wild type. A comparison of 3-D models obtained by cryo electron microscopy revealed overall similar structural features for wild type and mutant virions, with small but significant differences near the 3-fold axes of symmetry.

  6. SEROLOGICAL IDENTITY OF POTATO VIRUS X (PVX AND PCR CHARACTERIZATION OF ITS COAT PROTEIN (CP GENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qudsia Nosheen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Potato virus X (PVX is among top ten most economically damaging plant viruses in the world and its increasing incidence is getting an alarming situation in potato crop of Pakistan. During two consecutive years (2010-11 and 2011-12, the incidence of PVX was recorded in potato fields at Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Faisalabad and Sahiwal. The samples were collected and subjected to Double Antibody Sandwiched (DAS Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA and average incidence of PVX was determined about 16.86% (OD405nm 1.38 during 2010-11 and 27.10% (OD405nm 0.479 in 2011-12. The infectivity of the virus was assayed through mechanical inoculation on Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun, N. rustica, Datura stramonium, Chenopodium sp. Gomphrena and Capsicum annuum producing local lesion, mosaic and mottling symptoms. Coat protein (CP gene specific sense and antisense primer successfully amplified a 750bp fragments through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR assay.

  7. Determination of anisotropy constants of protein encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles by electron magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hongyan [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Klem, Michael T.; Sebby, Karl B.; Singel, David J. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Young, Mark [Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Douglas, Trevor [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Idzerda, Yves U. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)], E-mail: Idzerda@montana.edu

    2009-02-15

    Angle-dependent electron magnetic resonance was performed on 4.9, 8.0, and 19 nm iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated within protein capsids and suspended in water. Measurements were taken at liquid nitrogen temperature after cooling in a 1 T field to partially align the particles. The angle dependence of the shifts in the resonance field for the iron oxide nanoparticles (synthesized within Listeria-Dps, horse spleen ferritin, and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus) all show evidence of a uniaxial anisotropy. Using a Boltzmann distribution for the particles' easy-axis direction, we are able to use the resonance field shifts to extract a value for the anisotropy energy, showing that the anisotropy energy density increases with decreasing particle size. This suggests that surface anisotropy plays a significant role in magnetic nanoparticles of this size.

  8. High-resolution seismic studies on geothermal heat extraction from low, permeable rock strata in the city of Hanover using depth-dependent, optimized acquisition parameters; Hochaufloesende seismische Untersuchungen zur Erdwaermegewinnung aus tiefen, permeablen Gesteinsformationen im Stadtgebiet Hannover unter Verwendung von Profilen mit teufenabhaengig optimierten Akquisitionsparametern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R. [GGA-Inst. fuer Geowissenschaftliche Gemeinschaftsaufgaben, Hannover (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The investigations accompanied a demonstration project on geothermal heat production planned by GEOZENTRUM, Hanover, in which geothermal heat will be produced from muschelkalk and mottled sandstone in the area of Hanover/Misburg by means of ''generated geothermal systems'' (GeneSys). This involves detailed seismic exploration of the geological strata of all depth levels. Profile data of the Thoense gas field will be integrated. [German] Die Untersuchungen stehen im Zusammenhang mit dem vom GEOZENTRUM-Hannover geplanten Demonstrationsvorhaben zur Erdwaermegewinnung mittels ''Generierter geothermischer Energie Systeme'' (GeneSys) im Stadtgebiet Hannover/Misburg. Zielhorizonte sind der Muschelkalk und der Buntsandstein. Dazu sollten die geologischen Strukturen im gesamten Teufenbereich detailliert seismisch erkundet werden, wobei neben neuen Messungen auch die vorliegenden Informationen aus bereits gemessenen Profilen des Gasfeldes Thoense einfliessen. (orig.)

  9. Bridging the Coarse-grained to Microscopic information gap: A numerical optimization method

    CERN Document Server

    Mansour, Andrew Abi

    2013-01-01

    Atom-resolved states must be constructed as part of a multiscale algorithm that coevolves the system at the atomic and coarse-grained (CG) scales. The CG description does not capture the constraints on distances and angles imposed by stiff bonded interactions. Thus, in isothermal simulations, using only CG information to construct the initial conditions yields microstates of negligible Boltzmann weight. In this paper, we present a reversible CG to all-atom mapping algorithm that overcomes this difficulty. The result is a scalable algorithm for simulating mesoscopic systems with atomic precision, over long periods of time, and with great efficiency over conventional MD. The mapping algorithm is implemented in parallel for distributed memory systems as part of the Deductive Multiscale Simulator software. It is demonstrated for Lactoferrin, an assembly of Nudaurelia Capensis Omega proteins, and Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle virus capsid.

  10. Identifying sex and age of akiapolaau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, T.K.; Fancy, S.G.; Harada, C.K.; Lindsey, G.D.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for identifying the sex and age of the Akiapolaau (Hemignathus munroi), an endangered honeycreeper found only on the island of Hawaii, were developed by examination and measurement of 73 museum specimens and 24 live birds captured in mist nests. Akiapolaau probably undergo a single annual molt, with most birds molting between February and July. The mottled juvenal plumage is replaced by a first basic plumage characterized by yellowish-gray or yellowish-green underparts and often by retained wingbars. Male Akiapolaau may not attain adult plumage until their third molt. In adult females, only the throat and upper breast become yellow, whereas in adult males the superciliaries, cheeks, and entire underparts are yellow. Adult males have greater exposed culmen, gonys, wing chord, tail, and tarsus lengths than do females. Akiapolaau in first prebasic molt or older can be identified as to sex by culmen length, that of males being >23.4 mm.

  11. Chronic actinic damage of facial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilaç, Cemal; Şahin, Mustafa Turhan; Öztürkcan, Serap

    2014-01-01

    Chronic actinic damage of the skin manifests itself as extrinsic skin aging (photoaging) and photocarcinogenesis. During the last decade, substantial progress has been made in understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms of photoaging. DNA photodamage and ultraviolet-generated reactive oxygen species are the initial events that lead to most of the typical histologic and clinical manifestations of chronic photodamage of the skin. Chronic actinic damage affects all layers of the skin. Keratinocytes, melanocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells are altered by ultraviolet radiation and can result in numerous changes in human skin, particularly the skin of fair-skinned individuals. These changes include actinic keratosis, thickening and wrinkling, elastosis, telengiectasia, solar comedones, diffuse or mottled hyperpigmentation, and skin cancers. There are many options in the treatment of changes caused by chronic actinic damage. The most effective measure of prevention of the photoaging and photocarcinogenesis is sun protection. PMID:25441468

  12. A reflectometer for the combined measurement of refractive index, microroughness, macroroughness and gloss of low-extinction surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, N. J.; Day, J. C. C.

    2009-02-01

    Roughness, porosity and gloss are important properties of many surfaces including coated and printed paper, paints and mineral-filled plastics. A visible light reflectometer is described for essentially simultaneous measurement of refractive index, gloss, microroughness (rms amplitude in the sub-wavelength region) and the two-dimensional forward scattering pattern (yielding the surface slope distribution and associated statistics) of glossy or semi-glossy low-extinction surfaces. The principal novelty is the ability to obtain this useful combination of data in a single measurement. In combination with an x-y stage, the reflectometer can readily produce surface maps of the various measurement parameters and it is expected that the data should offer improved insights into cause and effect in paper and other surfaces, for example to identify causes of gloss and print mottle. Illustrative experimental data are provided and some comparisons made between data obtained by reflectometry and by alternative techniques such as spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy.

  13. Avaliação da resistência a tobamovirus em acessos de Capsicum spp. Evaluation of resistance of Capsicum spp. genotypes to tobamovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Aparecida Cezar; Renate Krause-Sakate; Marcelo Agenor Pavan; Cyro Paulino da Costa

    2009-01-01

    A resistência em Capsicum spp a tobamovírus é governada pelos genes L¹ a L4. Baseado na capacidade de alguns isolados suplantarem a resistência destes genes, os tobamovírus podem ser classificados nos patótipos P0, P1, P1-2 e P1-2-3. No Brasil, até o momento as três espécies de tobamovírus conhecidas são: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), pertencentes aos patótipos P0 e Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) pertencente ao patótipo P1-2, respectivamente e podem infectar piment...

  14. Fluorosis as a probable cause of chronic lameness in free ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Emily; Beveridge, Ian; Slocombe, Ron; Coulson, Graeme

    2006-12-01

    A population of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) inhabiting heathland and farmland surrounding an aluminum smelter at Portland, Victoria, Australia, exhibited clinical signs of lameness. An investigation was undertaken to determine the cause of this lameness. Hematology, necropsy, histopathology, fecal egg count, total worm count, reproductive status, and the population age range were examined and failed to reveal any additional underlying disease state. The specific problem of lameness was addressed with bone histopathology, radiography, quantitative ultrasonography, microradiography, and multielement analysis of bone ash samples. The significant lesions observed were: osteophytosis of the distal tibia and fibula, tarsal bones, metatarsus IV, and proximal coccygeal vertebrae; osteopenia of the femur, tibia, and metatarsus IV; incisor enamel hypoplasia; stained, uneven, and abnormal teeth wear; abnormal bone matrix mineralization and mottling; increased bone density; and elevated bone fluoride levels. Microradiography of affected kangaroos exhibited "black osteons," which are a known manifestation of fluorosis. Collectively, these lesions were consistent with a diagnosis of fluorosis. PMID:17315432

  15. Sclerotic multiple myeloma with an unusual sunburst periosteal reaction occurring in the sternum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuqing; Wu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Zekun; Ding, Yang; Latif, Mahrukh

    2015-05-01

    Multiple myeloma is a disseminated neoplastic monoclonal gammopathy that usually affects the skull, clavicle, rib, pelvis, spinal column, and proximal portions of the humerus and femur. The initial manifestation of multiple myeloma in the sternum is rare. The classic radiological presentations of multiple myeloma are multiple "punched-out" areas of bone destruction, expansile lytic lesions, and generalized osteoporosis. Primary sclerotic presentation is rare and occurs in only 3 % of cases. A sclerotic multiple myeloma with a sunburst periosteal reaction occurring in the sternum has not been reported in the English literature. We report a case of sclerotic multiple myeloma of a 49-year-old woman. In the sternum, the lesion displayed extensive sclerosis mixed with mottled lytic areas with a sunburst periosteal reaction occurring in the periphery, which radiologically mimicked an osteosarcoma. Multiple focal areas of sclerosis were also found in the right clavicle, pelvis, multiple ribs, and vertebrae. PMID:25351419

  16. Subclinical high altitude pulmonary edema:A clinical observation of 12 cases in Yushu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shuzhi; Zheng Bihai; Wu Tianyi; Chen Huixing; Zhang Ming

    2013-01-01

    During the Yushu Earthquake on April 14,2010,a high incidence of acute high altitude illness was observed in the mountain rescuers,and 0.73 % of these patients suffered from high altitude pulmonary edema,of which 12 patients developed subclinical pulmonary edema and concomitantly contracted acute mountain sickness.Symptoms and signs were atypically high heart rate with high respiratory rate,striking cyanosis,and significantly low oxygen saturation,whereas no moist rates were heard on auscultation,and Chest X-ray showed peripheral with a patchy distribution of mottled infiltrations in one or both lung fields.We believe that subclinical high altitude pulmonary edema is an earliest stage of pulmonary edema at high altitude.The possible pathogenesis and the diagnosis were discussed.

  17. Coincidence in map positions between pathogen-induced defense-responsive genes and quantitative resistance loci in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG; Min(熊敏); WANG; Shiping(王石平); ZHANG; Qifa(张启发)

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative disease resistance conferred by quantitative trait loci (QTLs) is presumably of wider spectrum and durable. Forty-four cDNA clones, representing 44 defense-responsive genes, were fine mapped to 56 loci distributed on 9 of the 12 rice chromosomes. The locations of 32 loci detected by 27 cDNA clones were associated with previously identified resistance QTLs for different rice diseases, including blast, bacterial blight, sheath blight and yellow mottle virus. The loci detected by the same multiple-copy cDNA clones were frequently located on similar locations of different chromosomes. Some of the multiple loci detected by the same clones were all associated with resistance QTLs. These results suggest that some of the genes may be important components in regulation of defense responses against pathogen invasion and they may be the candidates for studying the mechanism of quantitative disease resistance in rice.

  18. The Incidence, Severity and Occurrence of Four Viruses Infecting Pepper (Capsicum spp. in the Southern Guinea Savannah Agro-ecological Zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiye Hussein Aliyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence, severity and occurrence of four viruses infecting pepper were determined in Kwara State, Nigeria. A disease survey and antigen-coated plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA were the tools deployed to achieve these objectives. The survey indicated the highest virus incidence (97% in four locations, and the lowest incidence (16% in three locations, with variations in severity scores. Th e ELISA result indicated the occurrence of all four viruses with the highest percentage occurrence of virus in the samples as follows: Pepper veinal mottle virus (36.3%, Blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (16.2%, Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus (7.4%, and Cucumber mosaic virus in the locations (4.8%. The results indicate the prevalence of these viruses on pepper in the Southern Guinea savannah agroecological zone and therefore the need for constant studies to detect other viruses that limit pepper production.

  19. Radiologic findings of emphysematous pyelonephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jung Im; Byun, Jae Young; Kim, Taek Geun; Ro, Hee Jeoug; Shinn, Kyung Sub [Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-15

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a rare, life threatening infection of kidney and the perinephric space, characterized by the production of gas within the renal parenchyma. The aim of this study is to analyze the clinical and radiologic characteristics of emphysematous pyelonephritis. We reviewed 7 cases of the emphysematous pyelonephritis. Six patients had plain abdominal radiographs, ultrasonograms and abdominal CT scans. Only one patient had plain radiograph and ultrasonogram. In 5 operated cases, CT findings were compared with surgical records. Plain radiographs showed characteristic diffuse mottling of gas in renal fossa. On sonogram, intrarenal gas was identified as echogenic foci with dirty shadows. CT scan showed inflammatory mass with gas and fluid levels in adjacent to the kidney. CT findings corresponded relatively wall with the surgical findings in regard to disease extent. Intrarenal gas in appropriate clinical setting is highly specific for emphysematous pyelonephritis. CT is the most sensitive method for demonstrating the disease extent as well as specific diagnosis.

  20. Radiologic findings of emphysematous pyelonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a rare, life threatening infection of kidney and the perinephric space, characterized by the production of gas within the renal parenchyma. The aim of this study is to analyze the clinical and radiologic characteristics of emphysematous pyelonephritis. We reviewed 7 cases of the emphysematous pyelonephritis. Six patients had plain abdominal radiographs, ultrasonograms and abdominal CT scans. Only one patient had plain radiograph and ultrasonogram. In 5 operated cases, CT findings were compared with surgical records. Plain radiographs showed characteristic diffuse mottling of gas in renal fossa. On sonogram, intrarenal gas was identified as echogenic foci with dirty shadows. CT scan showed inflammatory mass with gas and fluid levels in adjacent to the kidney. CT findings corresponded relatively wall with the surgical findings in regard to disease extent. Intrarenal gas in appropriate clinical setting is highly specific for emphysematous pyelonephritis. CT is the most sensitive method for demonstrating the disease extent as well as specific diagnosis

  1. Fluoride Importance in Controlling Caries and Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s. Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience.

  2. Bilateral type emphysematous pyelonephritis: imaging evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a serious infectious disease that occurs more frequently in diabetic patients. Radiological studies are indispensable for distinguishing between the two types since each is associated with a markedly different prognosis. We present a case of bilateral EPN diagnosed as type I on the basis of computed tomography findings, differentiating it from type II EPN, taking into account the prognostic value of this distinction. Type I EPN is characterized by the destruction of the renal parenchyma, a mottled or linear gas pattern and the absence of renal and perirenal fluid collection. Type II EPN is characterized by a loculated or bubbly gas pattern, the existence of fluid collection and less marked renal destruction. Type I is more aggressive and is associated with high rate of mortality. (Author) 7 refs

  3. Fluoride use in Controlling Dental Caries and Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience. The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s.

  4. Bilateral type emphysematous pyelonephritis: imaging evaluation; Pielonefritis enfisematosa bilateral tipo I. Evaluacion por la imagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador Cueto-Alvarez, L.; Piriz-Campos, E.; Ruiz-Garcia, T.; Roldan-Lora, F. [Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena. Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a serious infectious disease that occurs more frequently in diabetic patients. Radiological studies are indispensable for distinguishing between the two types since each is associated with a markedly different prognosis. We present a case of bilateral EPN diagnosed as type I on the basis of computed tomography findings, differentiating it from type II EPN, taking into account the prognostic value of this distinction. Type I EPN is characterized by the destruction of the renal parenchyma, a mottled or linear gas pattern and the absence of renal and perirenal fluid collection. Type II EPN is characterized by a loculated or bubbly gas pattern, the existence of fluid collection and less marked renal destruction. Type I is more aggressive and is associated with high rate of mortality. (Author) 7 refs.

  5. Effects of pH and ionic strength on precipitation of phytopathogenic viruses by polyethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorek, J; Marcinka, K

    1989-01-01

    The effects of ionic strength of the solution (changed by varying NaCl concentrations or buffer molarity) on the precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 were studied on phytopathogenic viruses of different morphology: the isometric red clover mottle virus (RCMV), rod-shaped tobacco mosaic virus, flexuous potato virus X (PVX) and bacilliform alfalfa mosaic virus. With increasing NaCl concentration or buffer molarity up to a certain level (0.1 mol/l), the efficiency of PEG precipitation increased. This relationship did not apply to PVX. The effects of pH on PEG precipitation were studied on RCMV. The efficiency of precipitation increased with decreasing difference between pH of the solution and pI of the virus. PMID:2565676

  6. Bunias orientalis L. as a natural overwintering host OF Turnip mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kobyłko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A virus was isolated, using mechanical inoculation, from hill mustard (Bunias orientalis L. plants exhibiting yellow mottling and blistering on leaves, which were frequently accompanied by asymmetric leaf narrowing. It systemically infected certain plants from the family Brassicaceae (Brassica rapa, Bunias orientalis, Hesperis matronalis, Sinapis alba as well as Cleome spinosa and Nicotiana clevelandii, and locally Atriplex hortensis, Chenopodium quinoa, Ch. amaranticolor, N. tabacum. In the sap, it maintained infectivity for 3-4 days and lost it after heating for 10 min. at a temperature of 55 - 60oC or when diluted with water at 10-3. Virus particles were thread- like with a length of 675 - 710 nm. Based on an analysis of biological properties of the pathogen, serological response, particle morphology and data from field observations, it was identified as an isolate of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, and hill mustard was recognised as a natural overwintering host for this pathogen.

  7. Novel coding, translation, and gene expression of a replicating covalently closed circular RNA of 220 nt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouHaidar, Mounir Georges; Venkataraman, Srividhya; Golshani, Ashkan; Liu, Bolin; Ahmad, Tauqeer

    2014-10-01

    The highly structured (64% GC) covalently closed circular (CCC) RNA (220 nt) of the virusoid associated with rice yellow mottle virus codes for a 16-kDa highly basic protein using novel modalities for coding, translation, and gene expression. This CCC RNA is the smallest among all known viroids and virusoids and the only one that codes proteins. Its sequence possesses an internal ribosome entry site and is directly translated through two (or three) completely overlapping ORFs (shifting to a new reading frame at the end of each round). The initiation and termination codons overlap UGAUGA (underline highlights the initiation codon AUG within the combined initiation-termination sequence). Termination codons can be ignored to obtain larger read-through proteins. This circular RNA with no noncoding sequences is a unique natural supercompact "nanogenome." PMID:25253891

  8. Effect of Chemical Composition on Number of Eutectic Colonies in Ni-Mn-Cu Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Janus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determined were direction and intensity of influence of alloying additions on the number of eutectic graphite colonies in austenitic cast iron Ni-Mn-Cu. Chemical composition of the cast iron was 1.7 to 3.3% C, 1.4 to 3.1% Si, 2.8 to 9.9% Ni, 0.4 to 7.7% Mn, 0 to 4.6% Cu,0.14 to 0.16% P and 0.03 to 0.04% S. Analysed were structures of mottled (20 castings and grey (20 castings cast iron. Obtained wereregression equations determining influence intensity of individual components on the number of graphite colonies per 1 cm2 (LK. It wasfound that, in spite of high total content of alloying elements in the examined cast iron, the element that mainly decides the LK value is carbon, like in a plain cast iron.

  9. Influence of temperature on symptom expression, detection of host factors in virus infected Piper nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umadevi, P; Bhat, A I; Krishnamurthy, K S; Anandaraj, M

    2016-05-01

    Expression of symptoms in black pepper plants (Piper nigrum) infected with Piper yellow mottle virus (PYMoV) vary depending on the season, being high during summer months. Here, we explored the influence of temperature on symptom expression in PYMoV infected P. nigrum. Our controlled environment study revealed increase in virus titer, total proteins, IAA and reducing sugars when exposed to temperature stress. There was change in the 2-D separated protein before and after exposure. The 2-D proteomics LC-MS identified host and viral proteins suggesting virus-host interaction during symptom expression. The analysis as well as detection of host biochemical compounds may help in understanding the detailed mechanisms underlying the viral replication and damage to the crop, and thereby plan management strategies. PMID:27319055

  10. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Nanoindentation of Viral Capsids

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbons, M M; Gibbons, Melissa M.; Klug, William S.

    2006-01-01

    Recent Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) nanoindentation experiments measuring mechanical response of the protein shells of viruses have provided a quantitative description of their strength and elasticity. To better understand and interpret these measurements, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, this paper adopts a course-grained modeling approach within the framework of three-dimensional nonlinear continuum elasticity. Homogeneous, isotropic, elastic, thick shell models are proposed for two capsids: the spherical Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV), and the ellipsocylindrical bacteriophage $\\phi 29$. As analyzed by the finite element method, these models enable parametric characterization of the effects of AFM tip geometry, capsid dimensions, and capsid constitutive descriptions. The generally nonlinear force response of capsids to indentation is shown to be insensitive to constitutive details, and greatly influenced by geometry. Nonlinear stiffening and softening of the force response is dependent on ...

  11. Polylabris lingaoensis sp. n. and Polylabris cf. mamaevi Ogawa et Egusa, 1980 (Monogenoidea: Microcotylidae) from perciform fishes in the Gulf of Tonkin, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingbao, Yang; Kritsky, Delane C; Jun, Pan

    2007-03-01

    Polylabris lingaoensis sp. n. is described from the gills of the bald glassy, Ambassis gymnocephalus (Chandidae), from the Gulf of Tonkin (South China Sea), near Lingao, Hainan Province, China. The new species is characterized by a midventral vaginal pore, comparatively few (5-7) testes, and 2 parallel rows each comprised of 30-43 microcotylid clamps in the haptor. Polylabris lingaoensis is the only member of the genus known to parasitize a chandid host. Polylabris cf. mamaevi is described from the gills of the mottled spinefoot, Siganus fuscescens (Siganidae), from the South China Sea, which represents new host and locality records for the helminth. The gill parasites from S. fuscescens are tentatively assigned to P. mamaevi pending new collections and restudy of microcotylid species from siganid fishes. PMID:17441434

  12. Effect of a television digital noise reduction device on fluoroscopic image quality and dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In conventional fluoroscopy, the current, and therefore the dose rate, is usually determined by the level at which the radiologist visualizes a just tolerable amount of photon ''mottle'' on the video monitor. In this study, digital processing of the analogue video image reduced noise and generated a television image at half the usual exposure rate. The technique uses frame delay to compare an incoming frame with the preceding output frame. A first-order recursive filter implemented under a motion-detection scheme operates on the image of a point-by-point basis. This effective motion detection algorithm permits noise suppression without creating noticeable lag in moving structures. Eight radiologists evaluated images of vesicoureteral reflux in the pig for noise, contrast, resolution, and general image quality on a five-point preferential scale. They rated the digitally processed fluoroscopy images equivalent in diagnostic value to unprocessed images

  13. A STUDY ON SPIROMETRIC EVALUATION OF LUNG VOLUME RESTRICTION IN PREDIAGNOSED CASES OF SKELETAL FLUOROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis is an important public health problem in India. Skeletal changes and mottled enamel may result when drinking water contains excess fluoride. Due to involvement of ribcage skeletal fluorosis causes restrictive lung disease causing reduction in vital capacity. This cross sectional observational study has been done on 55 pre diagnosed patients of skeletal fluorosis, they have been classified according to MMRC dyspnea grading & lung volume has been measured. Among 55 patients, 43 patients (78.18% have shortness of breath, it also has been seen that 13.95% patients have MMRC grade 4 dyspnea, i.e. too breathless to leave the home & 21.81% of cases have FVC < 34% of predicted, i.e. very severe lung volume restriction.

  14. Coat protein sequence shows that Cucumber mosaic virus isolate from geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) belongs to subgroup II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neeraj Verma; B K Mahinghara; Raja Ram; A A Zaidi

    2006-03-01

    A viral disease was identified on geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) grown in a greenhouse at the Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT), Palampur, exhibiting mild mottling and stunting. The causal virus (Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV) was identified and characterized on the basis of host range, aphid transmission, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), DNA-RNA hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR). A complete coat protein (CP) gene was amplified using degenerate primers and sequenced. The CP gene showed nucleotide and amino acid homology up to 97%–98% and 96%–99%, respectively with the sequences of CMV subgroup II. The CP gene also showed homologies of 75%–97% in nucleotide and 77%–96% in amino acid with the CMV Indian isolates infecting various crops. On the basis of sequence homology, it was concluded that CMV-infecting geraniums in India belong to subgroup II.

  15. The structure of tree stand and wood-destroying fungi of native pine biogeocoenoses of the Russian plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Storozhenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The author considered age structures of virgin indigenous pine forests of natural origin as well as plantations in the subzones of taiga, zones of mixed forests, deciduous forests and forest-steppe of the Russian plain. Native pine forests are heterogeneous by their structural characteristics. This heterogeneity is caused by high demands of the species to understory light requirements as well as by frequent pyrogenic influence that determine the age structure of stand forests. Virgin pine forests have up to 14 age generations and from 5 to 20 % of stand trees affected by fungi of biotrophic complex. That has a direct connection with their dynamic status. In the pine forests of digressive dynamic faze, where the initial age generations accommodate the major biomass amount, this volume may grow up to 50 %. Pine species planted discounting regularities of formation of stable forest communities are subject to spotty attacks by fungi of biotrophic complex. A species composition of wood-destroying fungi of biotrophic complex causing rot defects of pines in the entire longitudinal gradient of pine distribution within the Russian Plain stays virtually unchanged. Significant changes can be noted only in the occurrence of certain types of wood destroying fungi. The main types of wood biotrophic fungi include: Climacocystis borealis (Fr. Kotl. et Pouzar, Heterobasidion annosum (Fr. Bref., Phaeolus schweinitzii (Fr. Pat.; Porodaedalea chrysoloma (Fr. Fiasson et Niemelä; Phellinus pini (Thore: Fr. A. Ames [= Porodaedalea pini (Brot.: Fr. Murrill]. In the uneven-aged pine forests of natural origin, mottled butt rot does not form drying out spots and exists in the stands as an ordinary component of the total biotrophic defeat. Wood-destroying fungi of biotrophic complex are evolutionary determined as one of the endogenic mechanisms of destruction of unstable forest structures and formation of stable ones. The author also evaluated the volumes of biotrophic

  16. Molybdenite in the Montezuma District of central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuerburg, George J.; Botinelly, Theodore; Watterson, John R.

    1974-01-01

    The Montezuma mining district, in the Colorado mineral belt, is defined by an assemblage of porphyry, ore, and altered rocks that originated in the venting of a Tertiary batholith through weak structures in Precambrian rocks. The ore consists of silver-lead-zinc veins clustered on the propylitic fringe of a geometrically complex system of altered rocks, which is centered on the intersection of the Oligocene Montezuma stock with the Montezuma shear zone of Precambrian ancestry. Alteration chemistry conforms to the standard porphyry-metal model but is developed around several small intrusives strung out along the shear zone and is expressed as a mottled pattern, rather than as the usual thick concentric zones centered on one large plug. The distribution of trace amounts of molybdenite is consistent with the postulate of molybdenite deposits in the district, but the mottled alteration pattern may signify small and scattered, possibly very deep, deposits. Disseminated molybdenite is essentially coextensive with altered rock and increases slightly in quantity toward the inner alteration zones. Two groups of molybdenite veins, associated with phyllic and potassic alteration, represent possible diffuse halos of molybdenite deposits. One group of veins resembles the Climax and Henderson deposits but was seen only in a small and isolated area of outcrops. The second group of molybdenite veins is in a bismuth-rich part of the Montezuma stock and underlies an area of bismuth veins; this group records the passage of contact metasomatic ore fluids. Another bismuth-rich area is in the southeast corner of the stock in a region of bismuth veins and may indicate a third group of molybdenite veins.

  17. Land Use limitations and management option for a Savanna Zone Alfisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azubuike Chidowe Odunze

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A 50 by 50 m rigid grid survey of part of the Institute For Agricultural Research (IAR farm in Zaria (11° 10’N and 7°35’E was carried out to characterize the morphological, physical and chemical properties of soils at the site. Quick crosschecks in areas outside the rigid grid but having seemingly varying soil units was also studied in the field. Two soil units (‘Oxyaquic Vertic Paleustalfs / Gleyic Lixisol’ and ‘Aquic Kandiustalfs / Gleyic Lixisols’ were delineated. Soil samples were obtained from identified horizons of each pedon, air dried, sieved through 2.0mm sieve to obtain sub samples less than 2.0mm for laboratory analysis. Results obtained showed soils of the ‘Oxyaquic Vertic Paleustalfs / Gleyic Lixisol’ to have within its subsoil ‘Argillic’ pedogénetic features, mottling and ‘Gleyic’ properties, and no subsoil acidity problems. The subsoil has increasing clay with depth, and temporary stagnation of water. Soil condition in this unit would however be improved for sustainable crop production by liming and /or incorporation of farmyard manure, contour ridging and construction of field drainage ditches to conduct excess field and subsoil stagnated water away from the fields. Soils of the ‘Aquic Kandiustalfs / Gleyic Lixisols’ have ‘Kandic’ subsoil properties, ‘Gleyic’ and mottled subsoil horizons at shallow depths to the surface horizons, and exchange acidity (H++Al3+ values ranging between 0.6 and 1.4 cmolkg -1, suggesting acid soil problem in this unit. Also, extractable Zn values were very high and could adversely affect growth and production of crops. This problem would be corrected by liming, adequate drainage to remove stagnating subsoil and excess field water, and incorporation of farmyard manure to enhance the soils’ nutrient availability/exchange capacity, control soil acidity build up and improve aeration conditions in the plow layer.

  18. Ultrasonographic evaluation of suppurative cervical lymphadenitis in children: Focusing on abscess formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the US findings of suppurative cervical lymphadenitis in children and define the US features of drainable abscess. We retrospectively evaluated the US findings od suppurative cervical lymphadenitis in 22 children (age: 40 days-14 years). Among them, eighteen were confirmed by drainage or needle aspiration, and four diagnosed on the basis of typical findings of abscess on enhanced CT. Echogenicity, shape (ratio of long/short diameter) of suppurative lymph nodes, and the changes of adjacent soft tissues on US were assessed, and color signal patterns of 17 suppurative lymph nodes on color Doppler imaging were also recorded. We compared the US with CT findings (n=14). Eight of 22 were abscess of typical US pattern, showing the characteristic anechoic central cores. Fourteen demonstrated low echogenicity with mottled anechoic portions, atypical US pattern. Ratio of long/short diameter measured more than 2 in 16 of 22 and less than 2 in 6. Adjacent subcutaneous tissue was the thickened and increased in echogenicity with hypoechoic irregular lines in all lines. On color Doppler imaging, only peripheral pattern was seen in four of 5 suppurative lymph of typical pattern. In 12 suppurative lymph nodes of atypical pattern, there were 4 peripheral pattern, 2 central patterns and 6 mixed patterns. Compared the US findings with CT, all three suppurative lymph nodes of typical US pattern showed peripheral rim enhancement. Peripheral rim enhancement containing low attenuated internal portion (n=8) and inhomogeneous enhancement (n=3) were observed in 11 suppurative lymph nodes of atypical pattern. Any lymph node with complex echogenicity containing mottled anechoic portions with adjacent edematous subcutaneous tissue as well as central anechoic core could be regarded as the findings of drainable abscess in US diagnosis of suppurative cervical lymphadenitis in children.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate that how early we can detect an ischemic lesion and how we can recognize the stages of evolution of ischemic infarcts, 10 patients with acute hemispheric cerebral infarction were studied by a high resolution MRI apparatus with 0.5 Tesla magnetic field and the following results were obtained: 1) In ischemic infarcts, the earliest change was detected 3 hours after the insult in one patient. In the other two patients, the change was seen 5 and 6 hours after the accidents respectively. So MRI can detect the earliest change within 24 hours after ischemic infarcts by T2 weighted image. 2) The stages of evolution of infarction involving the cerebral hemisphere was quite similar to those seen by CT. Selective gray matter high signal images were noted as the earliest changes by T2 weighted images within a few hours after the episode. During 24 hours to 1 week, the MRI abnormalities gradually extended to involve the underlying white matter with homogenously increased signal intensity on T2 weighted scans. In the subacute stage between 1 week to 3 weeks, the MRI had a rather mottled appearance with surrounding isodense areas, probably correlating to the fogging phenomenon seen by CT. In the chronic stage after 4 weeks, the lesion of the T2 image became smaller with the areas of mottled and decreased signal intensity. Some lesions were surrounded by areas of increased signal intensity. 3) T1 and T2 values of ischemic areas prolong significantly in comparison to the value in healthy white matter. But the change of T1, T2 values does not seem to be specific for the evolution of pathological changes. (author)

  20. Galileo's Multiinstrument Spectral View of Europa's Surface Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanale, Fraser P.; Granahan, James C.; McCord, Thomas B.; Hansen, Gary; Hibbitts, Charles A.; Carlson, Robert; Matson, Dennis; Ocampo, Adriana; Kamp, Lucas; Smythe, William; Leader, Frank; Mehlman, Robert; Greeley, Ronald; Sullivan, Robert; Geissler, Paul; Barth, Charles; Hendrix, Amanda; Clark, Beth; Helfenstein, Paul; Veverka, Joseph; Belton, Michael J. S.; Becker, Kris; Becker, Tammy; Galileo NIMS, SSI, UVS instrument Teams

    1999-06-01

    We have combined spectral reflectance data from the Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment, the Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS), and the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) in an attempt to determine the composition and implied genesis of non-H2O components in the optical surface of Europa. We have considered four terrains: (1) the "dark terrains" on the trailing hemisphere, (2) the "mottled terrain," (3) the linea on the leading hemisphere, and (4) the linea embedded in the dark terrain on the trailing hemisphere. The darker materials in these terrains exhibit remarkably similar spectra in both the visible and near infrared. In the visible, a downturn toward shorter wavelengths has been attributed to sulfur. The broad concentrations of dark material on the trailing hemisphere was originally thought to be indicative of exogenic sulfur implantation. While an exogenic cause is still probable, more recent observations by the UVS team at higher spatial resolution have led to their suggestions that the role of the bombardment may have primarily been to sputter away overlying ice and to reveal underlying endogenic non-H2O contaminants. If so, this might explain why the spectra in all these terrains are so similar despite the fact that the contaminants in the linea are clearly endogenic and those in the mottled terrain are almost certainly so. In the near infrared, all these terrains exhibit much more asymmetrical bands at 1.4 and 2.0 μm at shorter wavelengths than spectra from elsewhere on Europa. It has been argued that this is because the water molecules are bound in hydrated salts. However, this interpretation has been challenged and it has also been argued that pure coarse ice can exhibit such asymmetric bands under certain conditions. The nature of this controversy is briefly discussed, as are theoretical and experimental studies bearing on this problem.

  1. Extractability, plant yield and toxicity thresholds for boron in compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinton, W.F.; Evans, E.; Blewett, C. [Woods End Labs Inc., Mt. Vernon, ME (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Boron (B) is a trace element essential to crop growth in small soil concentrations (0.2-1.5ppm), yet may produce plant toxicity symptoms readily as the amount in the soil solution increases over 2ppm. Our study examined commercial compost made with coal fly-ash used to prepare growing media for cultivars of varying sensitivity (corn, beans, cucumber, peas). We examined total vs. extractable boron content and relate final visual symptoms of B-toxicity to yields and tissue concentrations. Visual toxicity effects included tip burn (corn), leaf mottling and necrosis (beans and peas) and leaf mottling and cupping (cucumbers). Fly ash added to compost increased hot-water soluble (HWS) B in proportion to rate and in dependence on pH, with 30% and 10% of total-B expressed as HWS-B at a media pH of 6 and 7.5, respectively. Biomass for bean and cucumber was significantly reduced by 45 to 55%, respectively, by addition of 33% fly-ash compost to growing media (28ppm total-B) while plant tissue-B increased by 6- to 4-fold, respectively. Economic yield depressions in compost media are evident for all crops and appeared at levels of HWS-B in compost media exceeding 5 ppm. The study underscores the need for careful management of exogenous factors that may be present in composts and suggests detailed understanding of media-pH and cultivar preferences may be required in preparation of growing media in order to reduce potential negative growth effects.

  2. Galileo's Multiinstrument Spectral View of Europa's Surface Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanale, F.P.; Granahan, J.C.; McCord, T.B.; Hansen, G.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Carlson, R.; Matson, D.; Ocampo, A.; Kamp, L.; Smythe, W.; Leader, F.; Mehlman, R.; Greeley, R.; Sullivan, R.; Geissler, P.; Barth, C.; Hendrix, A.; Clark, B.; Helfenstein, P.; Veverka, J.; Belton, M.J.S.; Becker, K.; Becker, T.

    1999-01-01

    We have combined spectral reflectance data from the Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment, the Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS), and the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) in an attempt to determine the composition and implied genesis of non-H2O components in the optical surface of Europa. We have considered four terrains: (1) the "dark terrains" on the trailing hemisphere, (2) the "mottled terrain," (3) the linea on the leading hemisphere, and (4) the linea embedded in the dark terrain on the trailing hemisphere. The darker materials in these terrains exhibit remarkably similar spectra in both the visible and near infrared. In the visible, a downturn toward shorter wavelengths has been attributed to sulfur. The broad concentrations of dark material on the trailing hemisphere was originally thought to be indicative of exogenic sulfur implantation. While an exogenic cause is still probable, more recent observations by the UVS team at higher spatial resolution have led to their suggestions that the role of the bombardment may have primarily been to sputter away overlying ice and to reveal underlying endogenic non-H2O contaminants. If so, this might explain why the spectra in all these terrains are so similar despite the fact that the contaminants in the linea are clearly endogenic and those in the mottled terrain are almost certainly so. In the near infrared, all these terrains exhibit much more asymmetrical bands at 1.4 and 2.0 ??m at shorter wavelengths than spectra from elsewhere on Europa. It has been argued that this is because the water molecules are bound in hydrated salts. However, this interpretation has been challenged and it has also been argued that pure coarse ice can exhibit such asymmetric bands under certain conditions. The nature of this controversy is briefly discussed, as are theoretical and experimental studies bearing on this problem. ?? 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Ameliorating effect of UV-B radiation on the response of Norway spruce and Scots pine to ambient ozone concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevated levels of both ozone and UV-B radiation are typical for high-altitude sites. Few studies have investigated their possible interaction on plants. This study reports interactive effects of O3 and UV-B radiation in four-year-old Norway spruce and Scots pine trees. The trees were cultivated in controlled environmental facilities under simulated climatic conditions recorded on Mt Wank, an Alpine mountain in Bavaria, and were exposed for one growing season to simulated ambient or twice-ambient ozone regimes at either near ambient or near zero UV-B radiation levels. Chlorotic mottling and yellowing of current year needles became obvious under twice-ambient O3 in both species at the onset of a high ozone episode in July. Development of chlorotic mottling in relation to accumulated ozone concentrations over a threshold of 40 nL L–1 was more pronounced with near zero rather than ambient UV-B radiation levels. In Norway spruce, photosynthetic parameters at ambient CO2 concentration, measured at the end of the experiment, were reduced in trees cultivated under twice-ambient O3, irrespective of the UV-B treatment. Effects on photosynthetic capacity and carboxylation efficiency were restricted to trees exposed to near zero levels of UV-B radiation, and twice-ambient O3. The data indicate that UV-B radiation, applied together with O3, ameliorates the detrimental effects of O3. The data also demonstrate that foliar symptoms develop more rapidly in Scots pine than in Norway spruce at higher accumulated ozone concentrations. (author)

  4. Detection of Viruses on Pepper in Guizhou%贵州辣椒病毒病的种类检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉爽; 陈文; 谭清群; 陈小均; 吴石平; 何海永; 杨学辉

    2015-01-01

    为明确辣椒病毒病主要毒原种类及分布,采用双抗体夹心酶联免疫吸附法(DAS-ELISA)对采自贵阳、安顺、黔北、黔南和毕节等5个地区的562份样品进行检测.结果表明:检测出397份阳性样品,包括黄瓜花叶病毒(Cucumber mosaic virus,CMV)、烟草花叶病毒(Tobacco mosaic virus,TMV)、马铃薯Y病毒(Potato virus Y,PVY)、苜蓿花叶病毒(Alfalfa mosaic virus,AMV)、番茄花叶病毒(Tomato mosaic virus,ToMV)、番茄斑萎病毒(Tomato spotted wilt virus,TSWV)、芜菁花叶病毒(Turnip mosaic virus,TuMV)、辣椒轻微斑驳病毒(Pepper mild mottle virus,PMMoV)、辣椒斑驳病毒(Pepper mottle virus,PePMoV)及蚕豆萎蔫病毒(Broad bean wilt virus,BBWV)等10种病毒;其中以CMV和TMV的阳性检出率较高,分别为19.22%和7.83%.阳性样品中共有10种单一侵染类型和8种复合侵染类型,CMV与其他病毒复合侵染的类型有5种.研究可知,CMV是贵州辣椒病毒病最主要的毒原.

  5. Evaluation of fresh and preserved herbaceous field crops for biogas and ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakarinen, A.

    2012-07-01

    In the future, various forms of bioenergy will be increasingly required to replace fossil energy. Globally, transportation uses almost one third of fossil energy resources, and it is thus of great importance to find ethically, economically, and environmentally viable biofuels in near future. Fieldgrown biomass, including energy crops and crop residues, are alternatives to supplement other non-food biofuel raw materials. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of five crops, maize (Zea mays L.), fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), faba bean (Vicia faba L.), white lupin (Lupinus albus L.), and Jerusalem artichoke (Heliantus tuborosus L.) cultivated in boreal conditions as raw materials for methane and ethanol. Climate, cultivation requirements, chemical composition, and recalcitrance are some of the parameters to be considered when choosing energy crops for cultivation and for efficient conversion into biofuels. Among the studied crops, protein-rich legumes (faba bean and white lupin) were attractive options for methane, while hemp and Jerusalem artichoke had high theoretical potential for ethanol. Maize was, however, equally suitable for production of both energy carriers. Preservation of crop materials is essential to preserve and supply biomass material throughout the year. Preservation can be also considered as a mild pretreatment prior to biofuel production. Ensiling was conducted on maize, hemp, and faba bean in this work and additionally hemp was preserved in alkali conditions. Ensiling was found to be most beneficial for hemp when converted to methane, increasing the methane yield by more than 50%, whereas preservation with urea increased the energy yield of hemp as ethanol by 39%. Maize, with a high content of water-soluble carbohydrates (20% of DM), required an acid additive in order to preserve the sugars. Interestingly, hydrothermal pretreatment for maize and hemp prior to methane production was less efficient than ensiling. Enzymatic hydrolysis

  6. Facile synthesis of “green” gold nanocrystals using cynarin in an aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The first time a remarkably simple, versatile, environmentally friendly, one-pot and biogenic fabrication and aqueous synthesis of monodisperse gold nanoparticles by using cynarin. • Cynarin as a reductant and capping agent. • Exclusion of extra reducing agents or reductant. • Fabrication of Pd and Ag nanoparticles using cynarin in aqueous media. - Abstract: Herein we describe a water-based protocol that generates Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) by mixing aqueous solutions of HAuCl4 and cynarin (a natural product extract from artichoke leaf). Based on the observations from 1H NMR spectrum of AuNPs, a polyol oxidation mechanism by metal ions which eventually results in AuNPs formation, is proposed. Basically, the aromatic alcohol groups (1,2-benzenediol) of cynarin are oxidized to α-hydroxy ketone intermediate product, and then further oxidized to the vicinal diketone final product while the Au3+ ions are reduced to its atomic form (Au0) which leads the generation of Au nanoparticles. This new protocol has also been employed to prepare multiply twinned Pd nanoparticles and Ag cubical aggregates. Due to exclusion of organic solvent, surfactant, or stabilizer for all these synthesis, this protocol may provide a simple, versatile, and environmentally benign route to fabricate noble-metal nanoparticles having various compositions and morphologies

  7. Characterization of an exo-inulinase from Arthrobacter: a novel NaCl-tolerant exo-inulinase with high molecular mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jidong; Zhang, Rui; Li, Junjun; Tang, Xianghua; Li, Ruixian; Wang, Min; Huang, Zunxi; Zhou, Junpei

    2015-01-01

    A glycoside hydrolase family 32 exo-inulinase gene was cloned from Arthrobacter sp. HJ7 isolated from saline soil located in Heijing town. The gene encodes an 892-residue polypeptide with a calculated mass of 95.1 kDa and a high total frequency of amino acid residues G, A, and V (30.0%). Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells were used as hosts to express the exo-inulinase gene. The recombinant exo-inulinase (rInuAHJ7) showed an apparently maximal activity at pH 5.0-5.5 and 40-45°C. The addition of 1.0 and 10.0 mM Zn(2+) and Pb(2+) had little or no effect on the enzyme activity. rInuAHJ7 exhibited good salt tolerance, retaining more than 98% inulinase activity at a concentration of 3.0%-20.0% (w/v) NaCl. Fructose was the main product of inulin, levan, and Jerusalem artichoke tubers hydrolyzed by the enzyme. The present study is the first to report the identification and characterization of an Arthrobacter sp exo-inulinase showing a high molecular mass of 95.1 kDa and NaCl tolerance. These results suggest that the exo-inulinase might be an alternative material for potential applications in processing seafood and other foods with high saline contents, such as marine algae, pickles, and sauces. PMID:25695343

  8. Fifteenth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This collection contains 173 abstracts from presented papers and poster sessions. The five sessions of the conference were on the subjects of: (1) Thermal, Chemical, and Biological Processing, (2) Applied Biological Research, (3) Bioprocessing Research (4), Process Economics and Commercialization, and (5) Environmental Biotechnology. Examples of specific topics in the first session include the kinetics of ripening cheese, microbial liquefaction of lignite, and wheat as a feedstock for fuel ethanol. Typical topics in the second session were synergism studies of bacterial and fungal celluloses, conversion of inulin from jerusalem artichokes to sorbitol and ethanol by saccharomyces cerevisiae, and microbial conversion of high rank coals to methane. The third session entertained topics such as hydrodynamic modeling of a liquid fluidized bed bioreactor for coal biosolubilization, aqueous biphasic systems for biological particle partitioning, and arabinose utilization by xylose-fermenting yeast and fungi. The fourth session included such topics as silage processing of forage biomass to alcohol fuels, economics of molasses to ethanol in India, and production of lactic acid from renewable resources. the final session contained papers on such subjects as bioluminescent detection of contaminants in soils, characterization of petroleum contaminated soils in coral atolls in the south Pacific, and landfill management for methane generation and emission control.

  9. The effects of commercial fibres on frozen bread dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA FILIPOVIĆ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The daily intake of dietary fibres in highly industrialized countries is at a low level and, therefore, adversely affecting human health. The objective of this research was to analyze the influence of different commercial fibres (originating from sugar beet pulp fibrex, and Jerusalem artichoke inulin HPX and GR in yeast dough at a level of 5 %, on the rheological properties of dough and the quality of bread during frozen storage. Frozen dough characteristics were determined using a Brabender maturograph and test baking was followed according the AACC procedure. The dough was frozen at –18 °C and stored over a period of 60 days. The results concerning the dough (proving time and stability and bread quality (volume and crumb quality were statistically analyzed by multivariance Manova and discriminative analysis, which indicated that there was a significant difference between dough without fibres and dough with different fibres (fibrex, inulin HPX and GR. The discrimination coefficient points that the greatest influence of fibres on the final proof and proving stability is after 30 days (6.250 and after 0 days (6.158, respectively, but the greatest influence of fibres on bread volume and bread crumb quality (15.488 and 3.638, respectively can be expected on non frozen dough, due to above mention their adverse the effect on gluten network.

  10. Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koseki, Paula M.; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.; Brito, Mônica S.; Nahme, Ligia C.; Sebastião, Kátia I.; Rela, Paulo R.; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Freitas, Paulo C. D.

    2002-03-01

    For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total β-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis Linné), watercress ( Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke ( Cynara scolymus Linné) and sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum Linné). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography.

  11. Low cost sensing of vegetation volume and structure with a Microsoft Kinect sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzari, G.; Goulden, M.

    2011-12-01

    The market for videogames and digital entertainment has decreased the cost of advanced technology to affordable levels. The Microsoft Kinect sensor for Xbox 360 is an infrared time of flight camera designed to track body position and movement at a single-articulation level. Using open source drivers and libraries, we acquired point clouds of vegetation directly from the Kinect sensor. The data were filtered for outliers, co-registered, and cropped to isolate the plant of interest from the surroundings and soil. The volume of single plants was then estimated with several techniques, including fitting with solid shapes (cylinders, spheres, boxes), voxel counts, and 3D convex/concave hulls. Preliminary results are presented here. The volume of a series of wild artichoke plants was measured from nadir using a Kinect on a 3m-tall tower. The calculated volumes were compared with harvested biomass; comparisons and derived allometric relations will be presented, along with examples of the acquired point clouds. This Kinect sensor shows promise for ground-based, automated, biomass measurement systems, and possibly for comparison/validation of remotely sensed LIDAR.

  12. Investigations on the mechanism of oxygen-dependent plant processes: ethylene biosynthesis and cyanide-resistant respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two oxygen-dependent plant processes were investigated. A cell-free preparation from pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Alaska) was used to study ethylene biosynthesis from 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. Mitochondrial cyanide-resistant respiration was investigated in studies with 14C-butyl gallate and other respiratory effectors. Ethylene biosynthesis was not due to a specific enzyme, or oxygen radicals. Rather, hydrogen peroxide, generated at low levels, coupled with endogenous manganese produced ethylene. 14C-butyl gallate bound specifically to mitochondria from cyanide-sensitive and -resistant higher plants and Neurospora crassa mitochondria. The amount of gallate bound was similar for all higher plant mitochondria. Rat liver mitochondria bound very little 14C-butyl gallate. Plant mitochondria in which cyanide-resistance was induced bound as much 14C-butyl gallate as before induction. However mitochondria from recently harvested white potato tubers did not bind the gallate. The observations suggest that an engaging factor couples with a gallate binding site in the mitochondrial membrane. With skunk cabbage spadix mitochondria the I50 for antimycin A inhibition of oxygen uptake was decreased by salicylhydroxamic acid pretreatment; this was also true for reverse order additions. No shift was observed with mung bean hypocotyl or Jerusalem artichoke tuber mitochondria

  13. Inulin containing plants, alternative resources. Biochemical and plant physiological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, R.H.F.; Praznik, W.

    1986-11-01

    First the appearance and the physico-chemical properties of inulin are discussed and the classical and modern methods of the determination of inulin are compared. For the determination of the distribution and composition of inulin a HPLC- and a GPC-method are presented. Using these methods different carbohydrate distribution patterns are got by analyzing different inulin containing plants. The utilization of inulins for industrial production is narrowly connected with their molecular weight distribution. Thus inulin is split by invertase only very slowly whereas the inulooligosaccharides are split relative quickly. For the production of fructose long-chain inulins are advantageous because only little of the cristallization inhibitor glucose is got after hydrolysis. For fermentation short-chain oligosaccharides, that are easily fermentated by microorganisms, are favourable. As an example for high molecular weight inulins dahlia and chicory inulin are named. Jerusalem artichoke inulin however is composed of a high portion of low molecular weight oligosaccharides that is suited for the production of alcohol, especially when harvested at a late date (late autumn or spring).

  14. The effect of pH, temperature and heating time on inulin chemical stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Glibowski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inulin is a storage carbohydrate found in many plants especially in chicory root, Jerusalem artichoke and dahlia tuber. It is a prebiotic with many functional properties. In earlier research concerning chemical stability of inulin, the effect of pH on rheological properties of inulin gels was mainly analysed. In these studies, the effect of time, temperature and pH on inulin chemical stability was not analysed profoundly especially considering the inulin concentrations unable to form gel structure. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the effect of the above mentioned factors on inulin chemical stability in water solution. Material and methods. 5% (w/w inulin solutions at pH 1-12 were heated at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100°C for 5-60 min. After the neutralisation the content of reducing sugar was analysed according to Miller’s method (1959 with 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid. Results. The conducted studies showed that inulin chemical stability at pH £ 4 decreased with an increase of heating time and temperature. In a neutral and basic environment inulin was chemically stable regardless of heating time and temperature. Conclusions. Inulin application in food systems may be limited in acidic products especially when heated above 60°C during the production process. However, in products at pH ≥ 5, the degradation of this fructan does not occur even at thermal processing.

  15. Optimizing promoters and secretory signal sequences for producing ethanol from inulin by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying Kluyveromyces marxianus inulinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Jin-Woo; Lee, Dae-Hee; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2015-02-01

    Inulin is a polyfructan that is abundant in plants such as Jerusalem artichoke, chicory and dahlia. Inulinase can easily hydrolyze inulin to fructose, which is consumed by microorganisms. Generally, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an industrial workhorse strain for bioethanol production, is known for not having inulinase activity. The inulinase gene from Kluyveromyces marxianus (KmINU), with the ability of converting inulin to fructose, was introduced into S. cerevisiae D452-2. The inulinase gene was fused to three different types of promoter (GPD, PGK1, truncated HXT7) and secretory signal sequence (KmINU, MFα1, SUC2) to generate nine expression cassettes. The inulin fermentation performance of the nine transformants containing different promoter and signal sequence combinations for inulinase production were compared to select an optimized expression system for efficient inulin fermentation. Among the nine inulinase-producing transformants, the S. cerevisiae carrying the PGK1 promoter and MFα1 signal sequence (S. cerevisiae D452-2/p426PM) showed not only the highest specific KmINU activity, but also the best inulin fermentation capability. Finally, a batch fermentation of the selected S. cerevisiae D452-2/p426PM in a bioreactor with 188.2 g/L inulin was performed to produce 80.2 g/L ethanol with 0.43 g ethanol/g inulin of ethanol yield and 1.22 g/L h of ethanol productivity. PMID:25142154

  16. Fructan Prebiotics Derived from Inulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosscher, Douwina

    Inulin, as well as the shorter form oligofructose, is a nondigestible carbohydrate (fructan) that has been part of the daily food of mankind for centuries. Inulin-type fructans naturally occur in many edible plants as storage carbohydrates. They are present in leek, onion, garlic, wheat, chicory, artichoke, and banana. It is estimated that an average North American consumes about 1-4 g/day of inulin or oligofructose. In Western Europe, the average intake varies between 3 and 10 g/day. Occasionally, people can have higher intakes, e.g., after consuming a bowl of French onion soup, salsify dish, etc., and intakes can then exceed easily 10 g. This illustrates that via the normal diet some, and at certain times, all populations consume relatively high quantities of inulin-type fructans. It also follows that wheat, onion, and banana, and to a lesser extend garlic are the most important sources of inulin-type fructans in the diet. Although inulin-type fructans are nutritive substances and part of our daily diet, these compounds are currently not taken up in food composition tables.

  17. Ultrastructure and autoradiography of dormant and activated parenchyma of Helianthus tuberosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parenchyma cells of dormant tubers of Helianthus tuberosus L. cv. OB1 (Jerusalem artichoke) contain a very low amount of hormones, therefore they respond to 2.4-D or IAA treatment by dividing and synthesizing RNA, DNA, and polyamines. In particular the activation of the dormant tissues induces an early synthesis of DNA, which reaches the maximum at 3 hours, much before the beginning of the S phase (12 hours). By supplying [6-3H] thymidine and carrying out electron microscopic autoradiography, we were able to determine that plastids and mitochondria were the organelles responsible for this early synthesis while the DNA in the nucleus first appeared labeled at 15 hours. In addition, ultrastructural observations carried out to compare the dormant cells with activated ones, showed an increase in the nucleolar volume, a different organization of the tubular complex of the plastids and several other ultrastructural changes which indicate that at 3 hours some fundamental metabolic processes are already active; they become even more evident later on. The implication of these results in the physiology of the tuber cells during activation are discussed. (Author)

  18. Frost risks in the Mantaro river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Trasmonte

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of the study on the Mantaro river basin's (central Andes of Perú current vulnerability to climate change, the temporal and spatial characteristics of frosts were analysed. These characteristics included intensity, frequency, duration, frost-free periods, area distribution and historical trends. Maps of frost risk were determined for the entire river basin, by means of mathematical algorithms and GIS (Geographic Information Systems tools, using minimum temperature – 1960 to 2002 period, geomorphology, slope, land-use, types of soils, vegetation and life zones, emphasizing the rainy season (September to April, when the impacts of frost on agriculture are most severe. We recognized four categories of frost risks: low, moderate, high and critical. The critical risks (with a very high probability of occurrence were related to high altitudes on the basin (altitudes higher than 3800 m a.s.l., while the low (or null probability of occurring risks were found in the lower zones (less than 2500 m a.s.l.. Because of the very intense agricultural activity and the high sensitivity of the main crops (Maize, potato, artichoke in the Mantaro valley (altitudes between 3100 and 3300 m a.s.l., moderate to high frost risks can be expected, with a low to moderate probability of occurrence. Another significant result was a positive trend of 8 days per decade in the number of frost days during the rainy season.

  19. Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Cynara cardunculus L. Water Infusions: Phenolic Profile and Comparison of Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczmannová, Anika; Gál, Peter; Varinská, Lenka; Treml, Jakub; Kováč, Ivan; Novotný, Martin; Vasilenko, Tomáš; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Nagy, Milan; Mučaji, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly considered in the ethiopathogenesis of different pathological conditions because they may cause significant damage to cells and tissues. In this paper, we focused on potential antioxidant properties of two medical plants such as the Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Cynara cardunculus L. Both plants have previously been studied for their pharmacological activities, especially as hepatoprotective and hypoglycemic activities. It has been suggested, that their effects are related to the antioxidant properties of polyphenols, which are dominant compounds of the plants' extracts. In the present study HPLC-MS analysis of water infusion was performed allowing the identification of several phenolic constituents. Furthermore, antioxidant effects of the two extracts were compared showing higher effects for agrimony extract compared to artichoke. Thus, agrimony was selected for the in vivo study using the skin flap viability model. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that the A. eupatoria extract may be a valuable source of polyphenols to be studied for the future development of supplements useful in the prevention of diseases linked to oxidative stress. PMID:26593896

  20. Major Energy Plants and Their Potential for Bioenergy Development in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Hou, Shenglin; Su, Man; Yang, Mingfeng; Shen, Shihua; Jiang, Gaoming; Qi, Dongmei; Chen, Shuangyan; Liu, Gongshe

    2010-10-01

    China is rich in energy plant resources. In this article, 64 plant species are identified as potential energy plants in China. The energy plant species include 38 oilseed crops, 5 starch-producing crops, 3 sugar-producing crops and 18 species for lignocellulosic biomass. The species were evaluated on the basis of their production capacity and their resistance to salt, drought, and/or low temperature stress. Ten plant species have high production and/or stress resistance and can be potentially developed as the candidate energy plants. Of these, four species could be the primary energy plants in China: Barbados nut ( Jatropha curcas L.), Jerusalem artichoke ( Helianthus tuberosus L.), sweet sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L.) and Chinese silvergrass ( Miscanthus sinensis Anderss.). We discuss the use of biotechnological techniques such as genome sequencing, molecular markers, and genetic transformation to improve energy plants. These techniques are being used to develop new cultivars and to analyze and manipulate genetic variation to improve attributes of energy plants in China.