WorldWideScience

Sample records for artic sea ice

  1. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Artic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Arctic sea ice cover and its impact on the heat and mass balance of the ice and upper ocean ... Arctic Ocean and surrounding seas, with particular emphasis on the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Some of the largest changes to the sea ice cover are...other parts of the Arctic ice cover appear to now be accelerating. Figure 6. Maps of the linear trend of annual solar heat input to the ocean

  2. The North Atlantic Oscillation: variability and interactions with the North Atlantic ocean and Artic sea ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, T.

    2000-07-01

    The North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) represents the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic region and describes the strengthening and weakening of the midlatitude westerlies. In this study, variability of the NAO during wintertime and its relationship to the North Atlantic ocean and Arctic sea ice is investigated. For this purpose, observational data are analyzed along with integrations of models for the Atlantic ocean, Arctic sea ice, and the coupled global climate system. From a statistical point of view, the observed NAO index shows unusually high variance on interdecadal time scales during the 20th century. Variability on other time scales is consistent with realizations of random processes (''white noise''). Recurrence of wintertime NAO anomalies from winter-to-winter with missing signals during the inbetween nonwinter seasons is primarily associated with interdecadal variability of the NAO. This recurrence indicates that low-frequency changes of the NAO during the 20th century were in part externally forced. (orig.)

  3. Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  4. Experiment-based relations between level ice loads and managed ice loads on an Artic jack-up structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, J.S.; Vermeulen, R.; Mesu, A.W.; Cammaert, A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Jack-ups have been constructed for numerous ocean environments, but to date there has been no operating experience under Arctic sea ice conditions. The current state of jack-up technology does not allow working outside the ice-free season and thus ice management will be needed to extend the drilling

  5. IOMASA SEA ICE DEVELOPMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Tonboe, Rasmus; Heygster, Georg

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity studies show that the radiometer ice concentration estimate can be biased by +10% by anomalous atmospheric emissivity and -20% by anomalous ice surface emissivity. The aim of the sea ice activities in EU 5th FP project IOMASA is to improve sea ice concentration estimates at higher...... spatial resolution. The project is in the process of facilitating an ice concentration observing system through validation and a better understanding of the microwave radiative transfer of the sea ice and overlying snow layers. By use of a novel modelling approach, it is possible to better detect...... and determine the circumstances that may lead to anomalous sea ice concentration retrieval as well as to assess and possibly minimize the sensitivities of the retrieval system. Through an active partnership with the SAF on Ocean and Sea Ice, a prototype system will be implemented as an experimental product...

  6. Seafloor Control on Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Rigor, I. G.; Hall, D. K.; Neumann, G.

    2011-01-01

    The seafloor has a profound role in Arctic sea ice formation and seasonal evolution. Ocean bathymetry controls the distribution and mixing of warm and cold waters, which may originate from different sources, thereby dictating the pattern of sea ice on the ocean surface. Sea ice dynamics, forced by surface winds, are also guided by seafloor features in preferential directions. Here, satellite mapping of sea ice together with buoy measurements are used to reveal the bathymetric control on sea ice growth and dynamics. Bathymetric effects on sea ice formation are clearly observed in the conformation between sea ice patterns and bathymetric characteristics in the peripheral seas. Beyond local features, bathymetric control appears over extensive ice-prone regions across the Arctic Ocean. The large-scale conformation between bathymetry and patterns of different synoptic sea ice classes, including seasonal and perennial sea ice, is identified. An implication of the bathymetric influence is that the maximum extent of the total sea ice cover is relatively stable, as observed by scatterometer data in the decade of the 2000s, while the minimum ice extent has decreased drastically. Because of the geologic control, the sea ice cover can expand only as far as it reaches the seashore, the continental shelf break, or other pronounced bathymetric features in the peripheral seas. Since the seafloor does not change significantly for decades or centuries, sea ice patterns can be recurrent around certain bathymetric features, which, once identified, may help improve short-term forecast and seasonal outlook of the sea ice cover. Moreover, the seafloor can indirectly influence cloud cover by its control on sea ice distribution, which differentially modulates the latent heat flux through ice covered and open water areas.

  7. EASE-Grid Sea Ice Age

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides weekly estimates of sea ice age for the Arctic Ocean from remotely sensed sea ice motion and sea ice extent. The ice age data are derived from...

  8. Arctic Sea Ice Predictability and the Sea Ice Prediction Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Stroeve, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Drastic reductions in Arctic sea ice cover have increased the demand for Arctic sea ice predictions by a range of stakeholders, including local communities, resource managers, industry and the public. The science of sea-ice prediction has been challenged to keep up with these developments. Efforts such as the SEARCH Sea Ice Outlook (SIO; http://www.arcus.org/sipn/sea-ice-outlook) and the Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook have provided a forum for the international sea-ice prediction and observing community to explore and compare different approaches. The SIO, originally organized by the Study of Environmental Change (SEARCH), is now managed by the new Sea Ice Prediction Network (SIPN), which is building a collaborative network of scientists and stakeholders to improve arctic sea ice prediction. The SIO synthesizes predictions from a variety of methods, including heuristic and from a statistical and/or dynamical model. In a recent study, SIO data from 2008 to 2013 were analyzed. The analysis revealed that in some years the predictions were very successful, in other years they were not. Years that were anomalous compared to the long-term trend have proven more difficult to predict, regardless of which method was employed. This year, in response to feedback from users and contributors to the SIO, several enhancements have been made to the SIO reports. One is to encourage contributors to provide spatial probability maps of sea ice cover in September and the first day each location becomes ice-free; these are an example of subseasonal to seasonal, local-scale predictions. Another enhancement is a separate analysis of the modeling contributions. In the June 2014 SIO report, 10 of 28 outlooks were produced from models that explicitly simulate sea ice from dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice models. Half of the models included fully-coupled (atmosphere, ice, and ocean) models that additionally employ data assimilation. Both of these subsets (models and coupled models with data

  9. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    the Arctic Ocean and surrounding seas, with particular emphasis on the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Some of the largest changes to the sea ice cover are...Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover Don Perovich ERDC – CRREL 72 Lyme Road Hanover, NH 03755 Phone: 603-646-4255 Email: donald.k.perovich...quantitative understanding of the partitioning of solar radiation by the Arctic sea ice cover and its impact on the heat and mass balance of the ice and upper

  10. Clusters of interannual sea ice variability in the northern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fučkar, Neven S.; Guemas, Virginie; Johnson, Nathaniel C.; Massonnet, François; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.

    2016-09-01

    We determine robust modes of the northern hemisphere (NH) sea ice variability on interannual timescales disentangled from the long-term climate change. This study focuses on sea ice thickness (SIT), reconstructed with an ocean-sea-ice general circulation model, because SIT has a potential to contain most of the interannual memory and predictability of the NH sea ice system. We use the K-means cluster analysis—one of clustering methods that partition data into groups or clusters based on their distances in the physical space without the typical constraints of other unsupervised learning statistical methods such as the widely-used principal component analysis. To adequately filter out climate change signal in the Arctic from 1958 to 2013 we have to approximate it with a 2nd degree polynomial. Using 2nd degree residuals of SIT leads to robust K-means cluster patterns, i.e. invariant to further increase of the polynomial degree. A set of clustering validity indices yields K = 3 as the optimal number of SIT clusters for all considered months and seasons with strong similarities in their cluster patterns. The associated time series of cluster occurrences exhibit predominant interannual persistence with mean timescale of about 2 years. Compositing analysis of the NH surface climate conditions associated with each cluster indicates that wind forcing seem to be the key factor driving the formation of interannual SIT cluster patterns during the winter. Climate memory in SIT with such interannual persistence could lead to increased predictability of the Artic sea ice cover beyond seasonal timescales.

  11. Jet formation at the sea ice edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltham, D. L.; Heorton, H. D.

    2014-12-01

    The sea ice edge presents a region of many feedback processes between the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice, which are inadequately represented in current climate models. Here we focus on on-ice atmospheric and oceanic flows at the sea ice edge. Mesoscale jet formation due to the Coriolis effect is well understood over sharp changes in surface roughness such as coastlines. This sharp change in surface roughness is experienced by the atmosphere flowing over, and ocean flowing under, a compacted sea ice edge. We have studied a dynamic sea ice edge responding to atmospheric and oceanic jet formation. The shape and strength of atmospheric and oceanic jets during on-ice flows is calculated from existing studies of the sea ice edge and prescribed to idealised models of the sea ice edge. An idealised analytical model of sea ice drift is developed and compared to a sea ice climate model (the CICE model) run on an idealised domain. The response of the CICE model to jet formation is tested at various resolutions. We find that the formation of atmospheric jets during on-ice winds at the sea ice edge increases the wind speed parallel to the sea ice edge and results in the formation of a sea ice edge jet. The modelled sea ice edge jet is in agreement with an observed jet although more observations are needed for validation. The increase in ice drift speed is dependent upon the angle between the ice edge and wind and can result in a 40% increase in ice transport along the sea ice edge. The possibility of oceanic jet formation during on-ice currents and the resultant effect upon the sea ice edge is less conclusive. Observations and climate model data of the polar oceans has been analysed to show areas of likely atmospheric jet formation, with the Fram Strait being of particular interest.

  12. Sea Ice Concentration and Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2014-01-01

    Among the most seasonal and most dynamic parameters on the surface of the Earth is sea ice which at any one time covers about 3-6% of the planet. In the Northern Hemisphere, sea ice grows in extent from about 6 x 10(exp 6) sq km to 16 x 10(exp 6) sq km, while in the Southern Hemisphere, it grows from about 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km to about 19 x 10(exp 6) sq km (Comiso, 2010; Gloersen et al., 1992). Sea ice is up to about 2-3 m thick in the Northern Hemisphere and about 1 m thick in the Southern Hemisphere (Wadhams, 2002), and compared to the average ocean depth of about 3 km, it is a relatively thin, fragile sheet that can break due to waves and winds or melt due to upwelling of warm water. Being constantly advected by winds, waves, and currents, sea ice is very dynamic and usually follows the directions of the many gyres in the polar regions. Despite its vast expanse, the sea ice cover was previously left largely unstudied and it was only in recent years that we have understood its true impact and significance as related to the Earths climate, the oceans, and marine life.

  13. Ice Tank Experiments Highlight Changes in Sea Ice Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jeremy P.; DeCarolis, Giacomo; Ehlert, Iris; Notz, Dirk; Evers, Karl-Ulrich; Jochmann, Peter; Gerland, Sebastian; Nicolaus, Marcel; Hughes, Nick; Kern, Stefan; de la Rosa, Sara; Smedsrud, Lars; Sakai, Shigeki; Shen, Hayley; Wadhams, Peter

    2009-03-01

    With the current and likely continuing reduction of summer sea ice extent in the Arctic Ocean, the predominant mechanism of sea ice formation in the Arctic is likely to change in the future. Although substantial new ice formation occurred under preexisting ice in the past, the fraction of sea ice formation in open water likely will increase significantly. In open water, sea ice formation starts with the development of small ice crystals, called frazil ice, which are suspended in the water column [World Meteorological Organization, 1985]. Under quiescent conditions, these crystals accumulate at the surface to form an unbroken ice sheet known in its early stage as nilas. Under turbulent conditions, caused by wind and waves, frazil ice continues to grow and forms into a thick, soupy mixture called grease ice. Eventually the frazil ice will coalesce into small, rounded pieces known as pancake ice, which finally consolidate into an ice sheet with the return of calm conditions. This frazil/pancake/ice sheet cycle is currently frequently observed in the Antarctic [Lange et al., 1989]. The cycle normally occurs in regions that have a significant stretch of open water, because this allows for the formation of larger waves and hence increased turbulence. Given the increase of such open water in the Arctic Ocean caused by retreating summer sea ice, the frazil/pancake/ice sheet cycle may also become the dominant ice formation process during freezeup in the Arctic.

  14. Sea ice thickness and recent Arctic warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andreas; Yang, Shuting; Kaas, Eigil

    2017-01-01

    The climatic impact of increased Arctic sea ice loss has received growing attention in the last years. However, little focus has been set on the role of sea ice thickness, although it strongly determines surface heat fluxes. Here ensembles of simulations using the EC-Earth atmospheric model (Integrated Forecast System) are performed and analyzed to quantify the atmospheric impacts of Arctic sea ice thickness change since 1982 as revealed by the sea ice model assimilation Global Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System. Results show that the recent sea ice thinning has significantly affected the Arctic climate, while remote atmospheric responses are less pronounced owing to a high internal atmospheric variability. Locally, the sea ice thinning results in enhancement of near-surface warming of about 1°C per decade in winter, which is most pronounced over marginal sea ice areas with thin ice. This leads to an increase of the Arctic amplification factor by 37%.

  15. Summer sea ice characteristics of the Chukchi Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    During August 1999, we investigated sea ice characteristics; its distribution, surface feature, thickness, ice floe movement, and the temperature field around inter-borders of air/ice/seawater in the Chukchi Sea. Thirteen ice cores were drilled at 11 floe stations in the area of 72°24′ 77°18′N, 153°34′ 163°28′W and the ice core structure was observed. From field observation, three melting processes of ice were observed; surface layer melting, surface and bottom layers melting, and all of ice melting. The observation of temperature fields around sea ice floes showed that the bottom melting under the ice floes were important process. As ice floes and open water areas were alternately distributed in summer Arctic Ocean; the water under ice was colder than the open water by 0.4 2.8℃. The sun radiation heated seawater in open sea areas so that the warmer water went to the bottom when the ice floes move to those areas. This causes ice melting to start at the bottom of the ice floes. This process can balance effectively the temperature fluctuating in the sea in summer. From the crystalline structure of sea ice observed from the cores, it was concluded that the ice was composed of ice crystals and brine-ice films. During the sea ice melting, the brine-ice films between ice crystals melted firstly; then the ice crystals were encircled by brine films; the sea ice became the mixture of ice and liquid brine. At the end of melting, the ice crystals would be separated each other, the bond between ice crystals weakens and this leads to the collapse of the ice sheet.

  16. EXPERIMENTS OF SEA ICE SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xi-ying; ZHANG Xue-hong; YU Ru-cong; LIU Hai-long; YU Yong-qiang

    2005-01-01

    As a substitute for the original displaced pole grids, a simple rotated spherical coordinate system was introduced into the Community Sea Ice Model version 4(CSIM4), which is a component of the Community Climate System Model(CCSM) of the American National Center of Atmospheric Research(NCAR), to deal with the "pole problems".In the new coordinates, both the geographical North Pole and South Pole lie in the model equator and grid sizes near the polar region are more uniform.With reanalysis dataset of American National Centers for Environment Prediction(NCEP) and Levitus dataset without considering sub-mixed layer heat flux, the model was integrated for 100 years with thermodynamics process involved only in the former 49 years and both dynamic and thermodynamic processes involved in the left time.Inner consistency of model results was checked with no contradiction found.The results of last 10 years' model output were analyzed and it is shown that the simulated sea ice seasonal variation is rational whereas sea ice extent in the Barents Sea in winter is larger than that of observation.Numerical experiment on influence of sub-mixed layer heat flux was also carried out and it is shown that the sub-mixed layer heat flux can modulate seasonal variation of sea ice greatly.As a model component, the sea ice model with rotated spherical coordinates was coupled with other models (the oceanic general circulation model is the LASG/IAP Climate System Ocean Model(LICOM) with reduced grid, other models are components of NCAR CCSM2) forming a climate system model and its preliminary results were also given briefly.

  17. Loss of sea ice in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, Donald K; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline A

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover is in decline. The areal extent of the ice cover has been decreasing for the past few decades at an accelerating rate. Evidence also points to a decrease in sea ice thickness and a reduction in the amount of thicker perennial sea ice. A general global warming trend has made the ice cover more vulnerable to natural fluctuations in atmospheric and oceanic forcing. The observed reduction in Arctic sea ice is a consequence of both thermodynamic and dynamic processes, including such factors as preconditioning of the ice cover, overall warming trends, changes in cloud coverage, shifts in atmospheric circulation patterns, increased export of older ice out of the Arctic, advection of ocean heat from the Pacific and North Atlantic, enhanced solar heating of the ocean, and the ice-albedo feedback. The diminishing Arctic sea ice is creating social, political, economic, and ecological challenges.

  18. The Sea Ice Board Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Kathryn Berry

    2008-01-01

    The National Science Foundation-funded Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) provides "curriculum resource-based professional development" materials that combine current science information with practical classroom instruction embedded with "best practice" techniques for teaching science to diverse students. The Sea Ice Board…

  19. Radar for Mapping Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barath, F. T.; Jordan, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    X-band system has 100-m2 resolution. Wide swath imaging radar of synthetic aperature type transmits signal to ground station for subsequent processing into imagery. Concept meets functional requirements for continuously mapping sea ice in north and south polar regions.

  20. Ecological consequences of sea-ice decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Eric; Bhatt, Uma S; Bitz, Cecilia M; Brodie, Jedediah F; Fulton, Tara L; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kerby, Jeffrey; Kutz, Susan J; Stirling, Ian; Walker, Donald A

    2013-08-02

    After a decade with nine of the lowest arctic sea-ice minima on record, including the historically low minimum in 2012, we synthesize recent developments in the study of ecological responses to sea-ice decline. Sea-ice loss emerges as an important driver of marine and terrestrial ecological dynamics, influencing productivity, species interactions, population mixing, gene flow, and pathogen and disease transmission. Major challenges in the near future include assigning clearer attribution to sea ice as a primary driver of such dynamics, especially in terrestrial systems, and addressing pressures arising from human use of arctic coastal and near-shore areas as sea ice diminishes.

  1. Sea Ice Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    aq pnoiqs suol)0!pOid AixoolQA 00! 191100 (1I ’uoTow poAlosqo aql jo lqlgti 04) ol a~xe juqp suotioaJip 4)!A% parto s~t S stqi pule ’spoods 001 a)tUJT...to provide information as ating characteristics of PIPS. These factors in- to processes and their scales (as ascertained by elude the vertical grid...warranted horizontal compression being compensated by at this time. Further investigation is needed. vertical motion. In the case of ice, upward The space

  2. Multiscale Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 Multiscale Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice Kenneth M. Golden University of Utah, Department of Mathematics phone: (801) 581-6851...feedback has played a major role in the recent declines of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. However, understanding the evolution of melt ponds and sea...Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER

  3. Albedo evolution of seasonal Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, Donald K.; Polashenski, Christopher

    2012-04-01

    There is an ongoing shift in the Arctic sea ice cover from multiyear ice to seasonal ice. Here we examine the impact of this shift on sea ice albedo. Our analysis of observations from four years of field experiments indicates that seasonal ice undergoes an albedo evolution with seven phases; cold snow, melting snow, pond formation, pond drainage, pond evolution, open water, and freezeup. Once surface ice melt begins, seasonal ice albedos are consistently less than albedos for multiyear ice resulting in more solar heat absorbed in the ice and transmitted to the ocean. The shift from a multiyear to seasonal ice cover has significant implications for the heat and mass budget of the ice and for primary productivity in the upper ocean. There will be enhanced melting of the ice cover and an increase in the amount of sunlight available in the upper ocean.

  4. Sea ice, climate, and multiscale composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    In September of 2012, the area of the Arctic Ocean covered by sea ice reached its lowest level ever recorded in more than three decades of satellite measurements. In fact, compared to the 1980's and 1990's, this represents a loss of more than half of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. While global climate models generally predict sea ice declines over the 21st century, the precipitous losses observed so far have significantly outpaced most projections. I will discuss how mathematical models of composite materials and statistical physics are being used to study key sea ice processes and advance how sea ice is represented in climate models. This work is helping to improve projections of the fate of Earth's ice packs, and the response of polar ecosystems. A brief video of a recent Antarctic expedition where sea ice properties were measured will be shown. Supported by NSF and ONR.

  5. Better constraints on the sea-ice state using global sea-ice data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mathiot

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Short-term and decadal sea-ice prediction systems need a realistic initial state, generally obtained using ice-ocean model simulations with data assimilation. However, only sea-ice concentration and velocity data are currently assimilated. In this work, an Ensemble Kalman Filter system is used to assimilate observed ice concentration and freeboard (i.e. thickness of emerged sea ice data into a global coupled ocean–sea-ice model. The impact and effectiveness of our data assimilation system is assessed in two steps: firstly, through the assimilation of synthetic data (i.e., model-generated data and, secondly, through the assimilation of satellite data. While ice concentrations are available daily, freeboard data used in this study are only available during six one-month periods spread over 2005–2007. Our results show that the simulated Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice extents are improved by the assimilation of synthetic ice concentration data. Assimilation of synthetic ice freeboard data improves the simulated sea-ice thickness field. Using real ice concentration data enhances the model realism in both hemispheres. Assimilation of ice concentration data significantly improves the total hemispheric sea-ice extent all year long, especially in summer. Combining the assimilation of ice freeboard and concentration data leads to better ice thickness, but does not further improve the ice extent. Moreover, the improvements in sea-ice thickness due to the assimilation of ice freeboard remain visible well beyond the assimilation periods.

  6. Snow on Antarctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massom, Robert A.; Eicken, Hajo; Hass, Christian; Jeffries, Martin O.; Drinkwater, Mark R.; Sturm, Matthew; Worby, Anthony P.; Wu, Xingren; Lytle, Victoria I.; Ushio, Shuki; Morris, Kim; Reid, Phillip A.; Warren, Stephen G.; Allison, Ian

    2001-08-01

    Snow on Antarctic sea ice plays a complex and highly variable role in air-sea-ice interaction processes and the Earth's climate system. Using data collected mostly during the past 10 years, this paper reviews the following topics: snow thickness and snow type and their geographical and seasonal variations; snow grain size, density, and salinity; frequency of occurrence of slush; thermal conductivity, snow surface temperature, and temperature gradients within snow; and the effect of snow thickness on albedo. Major findings include large regional and seasonal differences in snow properties and thicknesses; the consequences of thicker snow and thinner ice in the Antarctic relative to the Arctic (e.g., the importance of flooding and snow-ice formation); the potential impact of increasing snowfall resulting from global climate change; lower observed values of snow thermal conductivity than those typically used in models; periodic large-scale melt in winter; and the contrast in summer melt processes between the Arctic and the Antarctic. Both climate modeling and remote sensing would benefit by taking account of the differences between the two polar regions.

  7. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  8. Quantification of ikaite in Antarctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fischer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate precipitation in sea ice can increase pCO2 during precipitation in winter and decrease pCO2 during dissolution in spring. CaCO3 precipitation in sea ice is thought to potentially drive significant CO2 uptake by the ocean. However, little is known about the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of CaCO3 within sea ice. This is the first quantitative study of hydrous calcium carbonate, as ikaite, in sea ice and discusses its potential significance for the carbon cycle in polar oceans. Ice cores and brine samples were collected from pack and land fast sea ice between September and December 2007 during an expedition in the East Antarctic and another off Terre Adélie, Antarctica. Samples were analysed for CaCO3, Salinity, DOC, DON, Phosphate, and total alkalinity. A relationship between the measured parameters and CaCO3 precipitation could not be observed. We found calcium carbonate, as ikaite, mostly in the top layer of sea ice with values up to 126 mg ikaite per liter melted sea ice. This potentially represents a contribution between 0.12 and 9 Tg C to the annual carbon flux in polar oceans. The horizontal distribution of ikaite in sea ice was heterogenous. We also found the precipitate in the snow on top of the sea ice.

  9. Predictability of the Arctic sea ice edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessling, H. F.; Tietsche, S.; Day, J. J.; Hawkins, E.; Jung, T.

    2016-02-01

    Skillful sea ice forecasts from days to years ahead are becoming increasingly important for the operation and planning of human activities in the Arctic. Here we analyze the potential predictability of the Arctic sea ice edge in six climate models. We introduce the integrated ice-edge error (IIEE), a user-relevant verification metric defined as the area where the forecast and the "truth" disagree on the ice concentration being above or below 15%. The IIEE lends itself to decomposition into an absolute extent error, corresponding to the common sea ice extent error, and a misplacement error. We find that the often-neglected misplacement error makes up more than half of the climatological IIEE. In idealized forecast ensembles initialized on 1 July, the IIEE grows faster than the absolute extent error. This means that the Arctic sea ice edge is less predictable than sea ice extent, particularly in September, with implications for the potential skill of end-user relevant forecasts.

  10. Arctic Landfast Sea Ice 1953-1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The files in this data set contain landfast sea ice data (monthly means) gathered from both Russian Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) and Canadian Ice...

  11. Impact of sea ice initialization on sea ice and atmosphere prediction skill on seasonal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guemas, V.; Chevallier, M.; Déqué, M.; Bellprat, O.; Doblas-Reyes, F.

    2016-04-01

    We present a robust assessment of the impact of sea ice initialization from reconstructions of the real state on the sea ice and atmosphere prediction skill. We ran two ensemble seasonal prediction experiments from 1979 to 2012 : one using realistic sea ice initial conditions and another where sea ice is initialized from a climatology, with two forecast systems. During the melting season in the Arctic Ocean, sea ice forecasts become skilful with sea ice initialization until 3-5 months ahead, thanks to the memory held by sea ice thickness. During the freezing season in both the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, sea ice forecasts are skilful for 7 and 2 months, respectively, with negligible differences between the two experiments, the memory being held by the ocean heat content. A weak impact on the atmosphere prediction skill is obtained.

  12. The Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Tremblay, B.; Newton, R.; Fowler, C.

    2010-12-01

    Summer sea ice may persist along the northern flank of Canada and Greenland for decades longer than the rest of the Arctic, raising the possibility of a naturally formed refugium for ice-associated species. Observations and models indicate that some ice in this region forms locally, while some is transported to the area by winds and ocean currents. Depending on future changes in melt patterns and sea ice transport rates, both the central Arctic and Siberian shelf seas may be sources of ice to the region. An international system of monitoring and management of the sea ice refuge, along with the ice source regions, has the potential to maintain viable habitat for ice-associated species, including polar bears, for decades into the future. Issues to consider in developing a strategy include: + the likely duration and extent of summer sea ice in this region based on observations, models and paleoenvironmental information + the extent and characteristics of the “ice shed” contributing sea ice to the refuge, including its dynamics, physical and biological characteristics as well as potential for contamination from local or long-range sources + likely assemblages of ice-associated species and their habitats + potential stressors such as transportation, tourism, resource extraction, contamination + policy, governance, and development issues including management strategies that could maintain the viability of the refuge.

  13. Variability and Trends in Sea Ice Extent and Ice Production in the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino; Kwok, Ronald; Martin, Seelye; Gordon, Arnold L.

    2011-01-01

    Salt release during sea ice formation in the Ross Sea coastal regions is regarded as a primary forcing for the regional generation of Antarctic Bottom Water. Passive microwave data from November 1978 through 2008 are used to examine the detailed seasonal and interannual characteristics of the sea ice cover of the Ross Sea and the adjacent Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. For this period the sea ice extent in the Ross Sea shows the greatest increase of all the Antarctic seas. Variability in the ice cover in these regions is linked to changes in the Southern Annular Mode and secondarily to the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. Over the Ross Sea shelf, analysis of sea ice drift data from 1992 to 2008 yields a positive rate of increase in the net ice export of about 30,000 sq km/yr. For a characteristic ice thickness of 0.6 m, this yields a volume transport of about 20 cu km/yr, which is almost identical, within error bars, to our estimate of the trend in ice production. The increase in brine rejection in the Ross Shelf Polynya associated with the estimated increase with the ice production, however, is not consistent with the reported Ross Sea salinity decrease. The locally generated sea ice enhancement of Ross Sea salinity may be offset by an increase of relatively low salinity of the water advected into the region from the Amundsen Sea, a consequence of increased precipitation and regional glacial ice melt.

  14. Fracture Networks in Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Nesland Vevatne

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fracturing and refreezing of sea ice in the Kara sea are investigated using complex networkanalysis. By going to the dual network, where the fractures are nodes and their intersectionslinks, we gain access to topological features which are easy to measure and hence comparewith modeled networks. Resulting network reveal statistical properties of the fracturing process.The dual networks have a broad degree distribution, with a scale-free tail, high clusteringand efficiency. The degree-degree correlation profile shows disassortative behavior, indicatingpreferential growth. This implies that long, dominating fractures appear earlier than shorterfractures, and that the short fractures which are created later tend to connect to the longfractures.The knowledge of the fracturing process is used to construct growing fracture network (GFNmodel which provides insight into the generation of fracture networks. The GFN model isprimarily based on the observation that fractures in sea ice are likely to end when hitting existingfractures. Based on an investigation of which fractures survive over time, a simple model forrefreezing is also added to the GFN model, and the model is analyzed and compared to the realnetworks.

  15. Modified PIC Method for Sea Ice Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui-xue; JI Shun-ying; SHEN Hung-tao; YUE Qian-jin

    2005-01-01

    The sea ice cover displays various dynamical characteristics such as breakup, rafting, and ridging under external forces. To model the ice dynamic process accurately, the effective numerical modeling method should be established. In this paper, a modified particle-in-cell (PIC) method for sea ice dynamics is developed coupling the finite difference (FD) method and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). In this method, the ice cover is first discretized into a series of Lagrangian ice particles which have their own sizes, thicknesses, concentrations and velocities. The ice thickness and concentration at Eulerian grid positions are obtained by interpolation with the Gaussian function from their surrounding ice particles. The momentum of ice cover is solved with FD approach to obtain the Eulerian cell velocity, which is used to estimate the ice particle velocity with the Gaussian function also. The thickness and concentration of ice particles are adjusted with particle mass density and smooth length, which are adjusted with the redistribution of ice particles. With the above modified PIC method, numerical simulations for ice motion in an idealized rectangular basin and the ice dynamics in the Bohai Sea are carried out. These simulations show that this modified PIC method is applicable to sea ice dynamics simulation.

  16. SMOS sea ice product: Operational application and validation in the Barents Sea marginal ice zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaleschke, Lars; Tian-Kunze, Xiangshan; Maaß, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Brightness temperatures at 1.4. GHz (L-band) measured by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Mission have been used to derive the thickness of sea ice. The retrieval method is applicable only for relatively thin ice and not during the melting period. Hitherto, the availability of ground...... truth sea ice thickness measurements for validation of SMOS sea ice products was mainly limited to relatively thick ice. The situation has improved with an extensive field campaign in the Barents Sea during an anomalous ice edge retreat and subsequent freeze-up event in March 2014. A sea ice forecast...... system for ship route optimisation has been developed and was tested during this field campaign with the ice-strengthened research vessel RV Lance. The ship cruise was complemented with coordinated measurements from a helicopter and the research aircraft Polar 5. Sea ice thickness was measured using...

  17. The consolidation of rafted sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, E.; Feltham, D.; Sammonds, P.

    2009-04-01

    Rafting is an important process in the deformation of sea ice that occurs when two ice sheets collide. This process is particularly common in the North Caspian Sea, where ice floes override one another multiple times to produce thick sea ice features. To date, rafting has received little attention in the literature perhaps because in most regions pressure ridges produce the greatest loads on offshore structures. In the North Caspian Sea the shallow waters constrain the size to which pressure ridges can grow and the low salinity seems to favor rafting over ridging. Therefore it is likely that multiply-rafted sea ice may be the governing design feature for ice loads in the Caspian Sea. Here we present a one-dimensional, thermal-consolidation model for rafted sea ice. This is of interest because the degree of consolidation will affect the strength of a rafted structure, and therefore may be of value for modeling rafted ice loads. Results show that the thickness of the liquid layers reduces asymptotically with time, such that there always remains a thin liquid layer. We propose that when the liquid layer is equal to the surface roughness the adjacent layers can be considered consolidated. Using parameters specific to the North Caspian Sea, calculations show that it took 1hr, 14mins for the ice sheets to consolidate. To test the accuracy of the model concurrent experiments were carried out in the HSVA ice basin. During an experiment, equally sized portions of level ice were manually piled on top of one another to produce a rafted section. The rate of consolidation or bonding of the layers was then monitored by coring and using thermistors that were frozen into the level ice prior to rafting. Once consolidated, strength tests were carried out on the rafted ice and compared with those of level ice.

  18. Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) products provide measurements of daily sea ice extent and sea ice edge boundary for the...

  19. On the measure of sea ice area from sea ice concentration data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccolari, Mauro; Parmiggiani, Flavio

    2015-10-01

    The measure of sea ice surface variability provides a fundamental information on the climatology of the Arctic region. Sea ice extension is conventionally measured by two parameters, i.e. Sea Ice Extent (SIE) and Sea Ice Area (SIA), both parameters being derived from Sea Ice Concentration (SIC) data sets. In this work a new parameter (CSIA) is introduced, which takes into account only the compact sea-ice, which is defined as the sea-ice having concentration at least equal the 70%. Aim of this study is to compare the performances of the two parameters, SIA and CSIA, in analyzing the trends of three monthly time-series of the whole Arctic region. The SIC data set used in this study was produced by the Institute of Environmental Physics of the University of Bremen and covers the period January 2003 - December 2014, i.e. the period in which the data set is built using the new AMSR passive microwave sensor.

  20. On the Predictability of Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, Edward

    We investigate the persistence and predictability of sea ice in numerical models and observations. We first use the 3rd generation Community Climate System Model (CCSM3) General Circulation Model (GCM) to investigate the inherent persistence of sea-ice area and thickness. We find that sea-ice area anomalies have a seasonal decay timescale, exhibiting an initial decorrelation similar to a first order auto-regressive (AR1, or red noise) process. Beyond this initial loss of memory, there is a re-emergence of memory at certain times of the year. There are two distinct modes of re-emergence in the model, one driven by the seasonal coupling of area and thickness anomalies in the summer, the other by the persistence of upper ocean temperature anomalies that originate from ice anomalies in the melt season and then influence ice anomalies in the growth season. Comparison with satellite observations where available indicate these processes appear in nature. We then use the 4th generation CCSM (CCSM4) to investigate the partition of Arctic sea-ice predictability into its initial-value and boundary forced components under present day forcing conditions. We find that initial-value predictability lasts for 1-2 years for sea-ice area, and 3-4 years for sea-ice volume. Forced predictability arises after just 4-5 years for both area and volume. Initial-value predictability of sea-ice area during the summer hinges on the coupling between thickness and area anomalies during that season. We find that the loss of initial-value predictability with time is not uniform --- there is a rapid loss of predictability of sea-ice volume during the late spring early summer associated with snow melt and albedo feedbacks. At the same time, loss of predictability is not uniform across different regions. Given the usefulness of ice thickness as a predictor of summer sea-ice area, we obtain a hindcast of September sea-ice area initializing the GCM on May 1with an estimate of observed sea-ice thickness

  1. History of sea ice in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyak, Leonid; Alley, Richard B.; Andrews, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Arctic sea-ice extent and volume are declining rapidly. Several studies project that the Arctic Ocean may become seasonally ice-free by the year 2040 or even earlier. Putting this into perspective requires information on the history of Arctic sea-ice conditions through the geologic past....... This information can be provided by proxy records fromthe Arctic Ocean floor and from the surrounding coasts. Although existing records are far from complete, they indicate that sea ice became a feature of the Arctic by 47 Ma, following a pronounced decline in atmospheric pCO2 after the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal...... Optimum, and consistently covered at least part of the Arctic Ocean for no less than the last 13–14 million years. Ice was apparently most widespread during the last 2–3 million years, in accordance with Earth’s overall cooler climate. Nevertheless, episodes of considerably reduced sea ice or even...

  2. Massive phytoplankton blooms under Arctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Kevin R; Perovich, Donald K; Pickart, Robert S; Brown, Zachary W; van Dijken, Gert L; Lowry, Kate E; Mills, Matthew M; Palmer, Molly A; Balch, William M; Bahr, Frank; Bates, Nicholas R; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia; Bowler, Bruce; Brownlee, Emily; Ehn, Jens K; Frey, Karen E; Garley, Rebecca; Laney, Samuel R; Lubelczyk, Laura; Mathis, Jeremy; Matsuoka, Atsushi; Mitchell, B Greg; Moore, G W K; Ortega-Retuerta, Eva; Pal, Sharmila; Polashenski, Chris M; Reynolds, Rick A; Schieber, Brian; Sosik, Heidi M; Stephens, Michael; Swift, James H

    2012-06-15

    Phytoplankton blooms over Arctic Ocean continental shelves are thought to be restricted to waters free of sea ice. Here, we document a massive phytoplankton bloom beneath fully consolidated pack ice far from the ice edge in the Chukchi Sea, where light transmission has increased in recent decades because of thinning ice cover and proliferation of melt ponds. The bloom was characterized by high diatom biomass and rates of growth and primary production. Evidence suggests that under-ice phytoplankton blooms may be more widespread over nutrient-rich Arctic continental shelves and that satellite-based estimates of annual primary production in these waters may be underestimated by up to 10-fold.

  3. A toy model of sea ice growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndike, Alan S.

    1992-01-01

    My purpose here is to present a simplified treatment of the growth of sea ice. By ignoring many details, it is possible to obtain several results that help to clarify the ways in which the sea ice cover will respond to climate change. Three models are discussed. The first deals with the growth of sea ice during the cold season. The second describes the cycle of growth and melting for perennial ice. The third model extends the second to account for the possibility that the ice melts away entirely in the summer. In each case, the objective is to understand what physical processes are most important, what ice properties determine the ice behavior, and to which climate variables the system is most sensitive.

  4. Record Arctic Sea Ice Loss in 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This image of the Arctic was produced from sea ice observations collected by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) Instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, overlaid on the NASA Blue Marble. The image captures ice conditions at the end of the melt season. Sea ice (white, image center) stretches across the Arctic Ocean from Greenland to Russia, but large areas of open water were apparent as well. In addition to record melt, the summer of 2007 brought an ice-free opening though the Northwest Passage that lasted several weeks. The Northeast Passage did not open during the summer of 2007, however, as a substantial tongue of ice remained in place north of the Russian coast. According to the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), on September 16, 2007, sea ice extent dropped to 4.13 million square kilometers (1.59 million square miles)--38 percent below average and 24 percent below the 2005 record.

  5. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing...... of Global Positioning System (GPS) buoys placed on sea-ice at five different sites north of Greenland for the study of sea level height and tidal analysis to improve tidal models in the Central Arctic. The GPS measurements are compared with the Arctic tidal model AOTIM-5, which assimilates tide...

  6. On sea level - ice sheet interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Natalya Alissa

    This thesis focuses on the physics of static sea-level changes following variations in the distribution of grounded ice and the influence of these changes on the stability and dynamics of marine ice sheets. Gravitational, deformational and rotational effects associated with changes in grounded ice mass lead to markedly non-uniform spatial patterns of sea-level change. I outline a revised theory for computing post-glacial sea-level predictions and discuss the dominant physical effects that contribute to the patterns of sea-level change associated with surface loading on different timescales. I show, in particular, that a large sea-level fall (rise) occurs in the vicinity of a retreating (advancing) ice sheet on both short and long timescales. I also present an application of the sea-level theory in which I predict the sea-level changes associated with a new model of North American ice sheet evolution and consider the implications of the results for efforts to establish the sources of Meltwater Pulse 1A. These results demonstrate that viscous deformational effects can influence the amplitude of sea-level changes observed at far-field sea-level sites, even when the time window being considered is relatively short (≤ 500 years). Subsequently, I investigate the feedback of sea-level changes on marine ice-sheet stability and dynamics by coupling a global sea-level model to ice-sheet models of increasing complexity. To begin, I incorporate gravitationally self-consistent sea-level changes into an equilibrium marine ice-sheet stability theory to show that the sea-level changes have a stabilizing influence on ice-sheet retreat. Next, I consider the impact of the stabilizing mechanism on the timescale of ice-sheet retreat using a 1D dynamic coupled ice sheet - sea level model. Simulations with the coupled model, which incorporate viscoelastic deformation of the solid Earth, show that local sea-level changes at the grounding line act to slow, and in some cases, halt

  7. Sea Ice Biogeochemistry: A Guide for Modellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Letizia; Vichi, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Sea ice is a fundamental component of the climate system and plays a key role in polar trophic food webs. Nonetheless sea ice biogeochemical dynamics at large temporal and spatial scales are still rarely described. Numerical models may potentially contribute integrating among sparse observations, but available models of sea ice biogeochemistry are still scarce, whether their relevance for properly describing the current and future state of the polar oceans has been recently addressed. A general methodology to develop a sea ice biogeochemical model is presented, deriving it from an existing validated model application by extension of generic pelagic biogeochemistry model parameterizations. The described methodology is flexible and considers different levels of ecosystem complexity and vertical representation, while adopting a strategy of coupling that ensures mass conservation. We show how to apply this methodology step by step by building an intermediate complexity model from a published realistic application and applying it to analyze theoretically a typical season of first-year sea ice in the Arctic, the one currently needing the most urgent understanding. The aim is to (1) introduce sea ice biogeochemistry and address its relevance to ocean modelers of polar regions, supporting them in adding a new sea ice component to their modelling framework for a more adequate representation of the sea ice-covered ocean ecosystem as a whole, and (2) extend our knowledge on the relevant controlling factors of sea ice algal production, showing that beyond the light and nutrient availability, the duration of the sea ice season may play a key-role shaping the algal production during the on going and upcoming projected changes. PMID:24586604

  8. Sea ice biogeochemistry: a guide for modellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Letizia; Vichi, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Sea ice is a fundamental component of the climate system and plays a key role in polar trophic food webs. Nonetheless sea ice biogeochemical dynamics at large temporal and spatial scales are still rarely described. Numerical models may potentially contribute integrating among sparse observations, but available models of sea ice biogeochemistry are still scarce, whether their relevance for properly describing the current and future state of the polar oceans has been recently addressed. A general methodology to develop a sea ice biogeochemical model is presented, deriving it from an existing validated model application by extension of generic pelagic biogeochemistry model parameterizations. The described methodology is flexible and considers different levels of ecosystem complexity and vertical representation, while adopting a strategy of coupling that ensures mass conservation. We show how to apply this methodology step by step by building an intermediate complexity model from a published realistic application and applying it to analyze theoretically a typical season of first-year sea ice in the Arctic, the one currently needing the most urgent understanding. The aim is to (1) introduce sea ice biogeochemistry and address its relevance to ocean modelers of polar regions, supporting them in adding a new sea ice component to their modelling framework for a more adequate representation of the sea ice-covered ocean ecosystem as a whole, and (2) extend our knowledge on the relevant controlling factors of sea ice algal production, showing that beyond the light and nutrient availability, the duration of the sea ice season may play a key-role shaping the algal production during the on going and upcoming projected changes.

  9. Sea ice biogeochemistry: a guide for modellers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Tedesco

    Full Text Available Sea ice is a fundamental component of the climate system and plays a key role in polar trophic food webs. Nonetheless sea ice biogeochemical dynamics at large temporal and spatial scales are still rarely described. Numerical models may potentially contribute integrating among sparse observations, but available models of sea ice biogeochemistry are still scarce, whether their relevance for properly describing the current and future state of the polar oceans has been recently addressed. A general methodology to develop a sea ice biogeochemical model is presented, deriving it from an existing validated model application by extension of generic pelagic biogeochemistry model parameterizations. The described methodology is flexible and considers different levels of ecosystem complexity and vertical representation, while adopting a strategy of coupling that ensures mass conservation. We show how to apply this methodology step by step by building an intermediate complexity model from a published realistic application and applying it to analyze theoretically a typical season of first-year sea ice in the Arctic, the one currently needing the most urgent understanding. The aim is to (1 introduce sea ice biogeochemistry and address its relevance to ocean modelers of polar regions, supporting them in adding a new sea ice component to their modelling framework for a more adequate representation of the sea ice-covered ocean ecosystem as a whole, and (2 extend our knowledge on the relevant controlling factors of sea ice algal production, showing that beyond the light and nutrient availability, the duration of the sea ice season may play a key-role shaping the algal production during the on going and upcoming projected changes.

  10. Correlated Energy Exchange in Drifting Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chmel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ice floe speed variations were monitored at the research camp North Pole 35 established on the Arctic ice pack in 2008. A three-month time series of measured speed values was used for determining changes in the kinetic energy of the drifting ice floe. The constructed energy distributions were analyzed by methods of nonextensive statistical mechanics based on the Tsallis statistics for open nonequilibrium systems, such as tectonic formations and drifting sea ice. The nonextensivity means the nonadditivity of externally induced energy changes in multicomponent systems due to dynamic interrelation of components having no structural links. The Tsallis formalism gives one an opportunity to assess the correlation between ice floe motions through a specific parameter, the so-called parameter of nonextensivity. This formalistic assessment of the actual state of drifting pack allows one to forecast some important trends in sea ice behavior, because the level of correlated dynamics determines conditions for extended mechanical perturbations in ice pack. In this work, we revealed temporal fluctuations of the parameter of nonextensivity and observed its maximum value before a large-scale sea ice fragmentation (faulting of consolidated sea ice. The correlation was not detected in fragmented sea ice where long-range interactions are weakened.

  11. Arctic sea-ice ridges—Safe heavens for sea-ice fauna during periods of extreme ice melt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradinger, Rolf; Bluhm, Bodil; Iken, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    The abundances and distribution of metazoan within-ice meiofauna (13 stations) and under-ice fauna (12 stations) were investigated in level sea ice and sea-ice ridges in the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas and Canada Basin in June/July 2005 using a combination of ice coring and SCUBA diving. Ice meiofauna abundance was estimated based on live counts in the bottom 30 cm of level sea ice based on triplicate ice core sampling at each location, and in individual ice chunks from ridges at four locations. Under-ice amphipods were counted in situ in replicate ( N=24-65 per station) 0.25 m 2 quadrats using SCUBA to a maximum water depth of 12 m. In level sea ice, the most abundant ice meiofauna groups were Turbellaria (46%), Nematoda (35%), and Harpacticoida (19%), with overall low abundances per station that ranged from 0.0 to 10.9 ind l -1 (median 0.8 ind l -1). In level ice, low ice algal pigment concentrations (3 m where abundances were up to 42-fold higher compared with level ice. We propose that the summer ice melt impacted meiofauna and under-ice amphipod abundance and distribution through (a) flushing, and (b) enhanced salinity stress at thinner level sea ice (less than 3 m thickness). We further suggest that pressure ridges, which extend into deeper, high-salinity water, become accumulation regions for ice meiofauna and under-ice amphipods in summer. Pressure ridges thus might be crucial for faunal survival during periods of enhanced summer ice melt. Previous estimates of Arctic sea ice meiofauna and under-ice amphipods on regional and pan-Arctic scales likely underestimate abundances at least in summer because they typically do not include pressure ridges.

  12. History of sea ice in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyak, Leonid; Alley, Richard B.; Andrews, John T.

    2010-01-01

    -scale) and lower-magnitude variability. The current reduction in Arctic ice cover started in the late 19th century, consistent with the rapidly warming climate, and became very pronounced over the last three decades. This ice loss appears to be unmatched over at least the last few thousand years and unexplainable......Arctic sea-ice extent and volume are declining rapidly. Several studies project that the Arctic Ocean may become seasonally ice-free by the year 2040 or even earlier. Putting this into perspective requires information on the history of Arctic sea-ice conditions through the geologic past....... This information can be provided by proxy records fromthe Arctic Ocean floor and from the surrounding coasts. Although existing records are far from complete, they indicate that sea ice became a feature of the Arctic by 47 Ma, following a pronounced decline in atmospheric pCO2 after the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal...

  13. Linking scales in sea ice mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jérôme; Dansereau, Véronique

    2017-02-01

    Mechanics plays a key role in the evolution of the sea ice cover through its control on drift, on momentum and thermal energy exchanges between the polar oceans and the atmosphere along cracks and faults, and on ice thickness distribution through opening and ridging processes. At the local scale, a significant variability of the mechanical strength is associated with the microstructural heterogeneity of saline ice, however characterized by a small correlation length, below the ice thickness scale. Conversely, the sea ice mechanical fields (velocity, strain and stress) are characterized by long-ranged (more than 1000 km) and long-lasting (approx. few months) correlations. The associated space and time scaling laws are the signature of the brittle character of sea ice mechanics, with deformation resulting from a multi-scale accumulation of episodic fracturing and faulting events. To translate the short-range-correlated disorder on strength into long-range-correlated mechanical fields, several key ingredients are identified: long-ranged elastic interactions, slow driving conditions, a slow viscous-like relaxation of elastic stresses and a restoring/healing mechanism. These ingredients constrained the development of a new continuum mechanics modelling framework for the sea ice cover, called Maxwell-elasto-brittle. Idealized simulations without advection demonstrate that this rheological framework reproduces the main characteristics of sea ice mechanics, including anisotropy, spatial localization and intermittency, as well as the associated scaling laws. This article is part of the themed issue 'Microdynamics of ice'.

  14. Constraining projections of summer Arctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Massonnet

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine the recent (1979–2010 and future (2011–2100 characteristics of the summer Arctic sea ice cover as simulated by 29 Earth system and general circulation models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP5. As was the case with CMIP3, a large intermodel spread persists in the simulated summer sea ice losses over the 21st century for a given forcing scenario. The 1979–2010 sea ice extent, thickness distribution and volume characteristics of each CMIP5 model are discussed as potential constraints on the September sea ice extent (SSIE projections. Our results suggest first that the future changes in SSIE with respect to the 1979–2010 model SSIE are related in a complicated manner to the initial 1979–2010 sea ice model characteristics, due to the large diversity of the CMIP5 population: at a given time, some models are in an ice-free state while others are still on the track of ice loss. However, in phase plane plots (that do not consider the time as an independent variable, we show that the transition towards ice-free conditions is actually occurring in a very similar manner for all models. We also find that the year at which SSIE drops below a certain threshold is likely to be constrained by the present-day sea ice properties. In a second step, using several adequate 1979–2010 sea ice metrics, we effectively reduce the uncertainty as to when the Arctic could become nearly ice-free in summertime, the interval [2041, 2060] being our best estimate for a high climate forcing scenario.

  15. Enhancing calculation of thin sea ice growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Igor

    2016-12-01

    The goal of the present study is to develop, generate, and integrate into operational practice a new model of ice growth. The development of this Sea Ice Growth Model for Arctic (SIGMA), a description of the theoretical foundation, the model advantages and analysis of its results are considered in the paper. The enhanced model includes two principal modifications. Surface temperature of snow on ice is defined as internal model parameter maintaining rigorous consistency between processes of atmosphere-ice thermodynamic interaction and ice growth. The snow depth on ice is naturally defined as a function of a local snowfall rate and linearly depends on time rather than ice thickness. The model was initially outlined in the Visible Infrared Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Sea Ice Characterization Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (Appel et al., 2005) that included two different approaches to retrieve sea ice age: reflectance analysis for daytime and derivation of ice thickness using energy balance for nighttime. Only the latter method is considered in this paper. The improved account for the influence of surface temperature and snow depth increases the reliability of ice thickness calculations and is used to develop an analytical Snow Depth/Ice Thickness Look up table suitable to the VIIRS observations as well as to other instruments. The applicability of SIGMA to retrieve ice thickness from the VIIRS satellite observations and the comparison of its results with the One-dimensional Thermodynamic Ice Model (OTIM) are also considered. The comparison of the two models demonstrating the difference between their assessments of heat fluxes and radical distinction between the influences of snow depth uncertainty on errors of ice thickness calculations is of great significance to further improve the retrieval of ice thickness from satellite observations.

  16. Stratospheric Impacts on Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichler, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Long-term circulation change in the stratosphere can have substantial effects on the oceans and their circulation. In this study we investigate whether and how sea ice at the ocean surface responds to intraseasonal stratospheric variability. Our main question is whether the surface impact of stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) is strong and long enough to affect sea ice. A related question is whether the increased frequency of SSWs during the 2000s contributed to the rapid decrease in Arctic sea ice during this time. To this end we analyze observations of sea ice, NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, and a long control integration with a stratospherically-enhanced version of the GFDL CM2.1 climate model. From both observations and the model we find that stratospheric extreme events have a demonstrable impact on the distribution of Arctic sea ice. The areas most affected are near the edge of the climatological ice line over the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and the Arctic Ocean. The absolute changes in sea ice coverage amount to +/-10 %. Areas and magnitudes of increase and decrease are about the same. It is thus unlikely that the increased SSW frequency during the 2000s contributed to the decline of sea ice during that period. The sea ice changes are consistent with the impacts of a negative NAO at the surface and can be understood in terms of (1) dynamical change due to altered surface wind stress and (2) thermodynamical change due to altered temperature advection. Both dynamical and thermodynamical change positively reinforce each other in producing sea change. A simple advection model is used to demonstrate that most of the sea ice change can be explained from the sea ice drift due to the anomalous surface wind stress. Changes in the production or melt of sea ice by thermodynamical effects are less important. Overall, this study adds to an increasing body of evidence that the stratosphere not only impacts weather and climate of the atmosphere but also the surface and

  17. Mirabilite solubility in equilibrium sea ice brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Benjamin Miles; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Santoro, Anna; Kennedy, Hilary

    2016-06-01

    The sea ice microstructure is permeated by brine channels and pockets that contain concentrated seawater-derived brine. Cooling the sea ice results in further formation of pure ice within these pockets as thermal equilibrium is attained, resulting in a smaller volume of increasingly concentrated residual brine. The coupled changes in temperature and ionic composition result in supersaturation of the brine with respect to mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) at temperatures below -6.38 °C, which consequently precipitates within the sea ice microstructure. Here, mirabilite solubility in natural and synthetic seawater derived brines, representative of sea ice at thermal equilibrium, has been measured in laboratory experiments between 0.2 and -20.6 °C, and hence we present a detailed examination of mirabilite dynamics within the sea ice system. Below -6.38 °C mirabilite displays particularly large changes in solubility as the temperature decreases, and by -20.6 °C its precipitation results in 12.90% and 91.97% reductions in the total dissolved Na+ and SO42- concentrations respectively, compared to that of conservative seawater concentration. Such large non-conservative changes in brine composition could potentially impact upon the measurement of sea ice brine salinity and pH, whilst the altered osmotic conditions may create additional challenges for the sympagic organisms that inhabit the sea ice system. At temperatures above -6.38 °C, mirabilite again displays large changes in solubility that likely aid in impeding its identification in field samples of sea ice. Our solubility measurements display excellent agreement with that of the FREZCHEM model, which was therefore used to supplement our measurements to colder temperatures. Measured and modelled solubility data were incorporated into a 1D model for the growth of first-year Arctic sea ice. Model results ultimately suggest that mirabilite has a near ubiquitous presence in much of the sea ice on Earth, and illustrate the

  18. Early Student Support to Investigate the Role of Sea Ice Albedo Feedback in Sea Ice Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Qu, 2009: September sea- ice cover in the Arctic Ocean expected to vanish by 2100, Nature Geosciences, doi:10.1038/NGEO467. Kay, J.E, M.M. Holland...predictive capability. IMPACT/APPLICATIONS Loss of sea ice in recent decades has opened the Arctic Ocean to increasing access of wide-ranging...vessels and activities. The Navy is concerned about the potential for conflict and need for search and rescue on the Arctic Ocean . Each year the sea ice

  19. Influence of sea ice on Arctic precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Ben G; Feng, Xiahong; Michel, Fred A; Posmentier, Eric S

    2016-01-05

    Global climate is influenced by the Arctic hydrologic cycle, which is, in part, regulated by sea ice through its control on evaporation and precipitation. However, the quantitative link between precipitation and sea ice extent is poorly constrained. Here we present observational evidence for the response of precipitation to sea ice reduction and assess the sensitivity of the response. Changes in the proportion of moisture sourced from the Arctic with sea ice change in the Canadian Arctic and Greenland Sea regions over the past two decades are inferred from annually averaged deuterium excess (d-excess) measurements from six sites. Other influences on the Arctic hydrologic cycle, such as the strength of meridional transport, are assessed using the North Atlantic Oscillation index. We find that the independent, direct effect of sea ice on the increase of the percentage of Arctic sourced moisture (or Arctic moisture proportion, AMP) is 18.2 ± 4.6% and 10.8 ± 3.6%/100,000 km(2) sea ice lost for each region, respectively, corresponding to increases of 10.9 ± 2.8% and 2.7 ± 1.1%/1 °C of warming in the vapor source regions. The moisture source changes likely result in increases of precipitation and changes in energy balance, creating significant uncertainty for climate predictions.

  20. Halocarbons associated with Arctic sea ice

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Helen M.; Hughes, Claire; Shaw, Marvin J.; Roscoe, Howard K.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Liss, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Short-lived halocarbons were measured in Arctic sea-ice brine, seawater and air above the Greenland and Norwegian seas (∼81°N, 2 to 5°E) in mid-summer, from a melting ice floe at the edge of the ice pack. In the ice floe, concentrations of C2H5I, 2-C3H7I and CH2Br2 showed significant enhancement in the sea ice brine, of average factors of 1.7, 1.4 and 2.5 times respectively, compared to the water underneath and after normalising to brine volume. Concentrations of mono-iodocarbons in air are t...

  1. Floating ice-algal aggregates below melting arctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmy, Philipp; Ehn, Jens K; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Hop, Haakon; Katlein, Christian; Sundfjord, Arild; Bluhm, Katrin; Daase, Malin; Engel, Anja; Fransson, Agneta; Granskog, Mats A; Hudson, Stephen R; Kristiansen, Svein; Nicolaus, Marcel; Peeken, Ilka; Renner, Angelika H H; Spreen, Gunnar; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Wiktor, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    During two consecutive cruises to the Eastern Central Arctic in late summer 2012, we observed floating algal aggregates in the melt-water layer below and between melting ice floes of first-year pack ice. The macroscopic (1-15 cm in diameter) aggregates had a mucous consistency and were dominated by typical ice-associated pennate diatoms embedded within the mucous matrix. Aggregates maintained buoyancy and accumulated just above a strong pycnocline that separated meltwater and seawater layers. We were able, for the first time, to obtain quantitative abundance and biomass estimates of these aggregates. Although their biomass and production on a square metre basis was small compared to ice-algal blooms, the floating ice-algal aggregates supported high levels of biological activity on the scale of the individual aggregate. In addition they constituted a food source for the ice-associated fauna as revealed by pigments indicative of zooplankton grazing, high abundance of naked ciliates, and ice amphipods associated with them. During the Arctic melt season, these floating aggregates likely play an important ecological role in an otherwise impoverished near-surface sea ice environment. Our findings provide important observations and measurements of a unique aggregate-based habitat during the 2012 record sea ice minimum year.

  2. Arctic and Southern Ocean Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly sea ice concentration for Arctic (1901 to 1995) and Southern oceans (1973 to 1990) were digitized on a standard 1-degree grid (cylindrical projection) to...

  3. SENTINEL-1 RESULTS: SEA ICE OPERATIONAL MONITORING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toudal Pedersen, Leif; Saldo, Roberto; Fenger-Nielsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we demonstrate the capabilities of the Sentinel-1 SAR data for operational sea-ice and iceberg monitoring. Most of the examples are drawn from the Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service (CMEMS) production.......In the present paper we demonstrate the capabilities of the Sentinel-1 SAR data for operational sea-ice and iceberg monitoring. Most of the examples are drawn from the Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service (CMEMS) production....

  4. How reversible is sea ice loss?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Ridley

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well accepted that increasing atmospheric CO2 results in global warming, leading to a decline in polar sea ice area. Here, the specific question of whether there is a tipping point in the sea ice cover is investigated. The global climate model HadCM3 is used to map the trajectory of sea ice area under idealised scenarios. The atmospheric CO2 is first ramped up to four times pre-industrial levels (4 × CO2, then ramped down to pre-industrial levels. We also examine the impact of stabilising climate at 4 × CO2 prior to ramping CO2 down to pre-industrial levels. Against global mean temperature, Arctic sea ice area is reversible, while the Antarctic sea ice shows some asymmetric behaviour – its rate of change slower, with falling temperatures, than its rate of change with rising temperatures. However, we show that the asymmetric behaviour is driven by hemispherical differences in temperature change between transient and stabilisation periods. We find no irreversible behaviour in the sea ice cover.

  5. How reversible is sea ice loss?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Ridley

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well accepted that increasing atmospheric CO2 results in global warming, leading to a decline in polar sea ice area. Here, the specific question of whether there is a tipping point in the sea ice cover is investigated. The global climate model HadCM3, is used to map the trajectory of sea ice area under idealised scenarios. The atmospheric CO2 is first ramped up to four times pre-industrial levels (4 × CO2 then ramped down back to pre-industrial levels. We also examine the impact of stabilising climate at 4 × CO2 prior to ramping CO2 down to pre-industrial levels. Against global mean temperature Arctic sea ice area has little hysteresis while the Antarctic sea ice shows significant hysteresis – its rate of change slower, with falling temperatures, than its rate of change with rising temperatures. However, we show that the driver of the hysteresis is the hemispherical differences in temperature change between transient and stabilisation periods. We find no irreversible behaviour in the sea ice cover.

  6. Canadian Ice Service Arctic Regional Sea Ice Charts in SIGRID-3 Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Canadian Ice Service (CIS) produces digital Arctic regional sea ice charts for marine navigation, climate research, and input to the Global Digital Sea Ice Data...

  7. Grease ice in basin-scale sea-ice ocean models

    OpenAIRE

    Lars H. Smedsrud; Martin, Torge

    2015-01-01

    The first stage of sea-ice formation is often grease ice, a mixture of sea water and frazil ice crystals. Over time, grease ice typically congeals first to pancake ice floes and then to a solid sea-ice cover. Grease ice is commonly not explicitly simulated in basin-scale sea-ice ocean models, though it affects oceanic heat loss and ice growth and is expected to play a greater role in a more seasonally icecovered Arctic Ocean. We present an approach to simulate the grease-ice layer with, as ba...

  8. Arctic and Antarctic sea ice and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, S.

    2014-12-01

    Principal Components Analysis in T-Mode Varimax rotated was performed on Antarctic and Arctic monthly sea ice concentration anomalies (SICA) fields for the period 1979-2014, in order to investigate which are the main spatial characteristics of sea ice and its relationship with atmospheric circulation. This analysis provides 5 patterns of sea ice for inter-spring period and 3 patterns for summer-autumn for Antarctica (69,2% of the total variance) and 3 different patterns for summer-autumn and 3 for winter-spring season for the Arctic Ocean (67,8% of the total variance).Each of these patterns has a positive and negative phase. We used the Monthly Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations database derived from satellite information generated by NASA Team algorithm. To understand the links between the SICA and climate trends, we extracted the mean pressure and, temperature field patterns for the months with high loadings (positive or negative) of the sea ice patterns that gave distinct atmospheric structures associated with each one. For Antarctica, the first SICA spatial winter-spring pattern in positive phase shows a negative SICA centre over the Drake Passage and north region of Bellingshausen and Weddell Seas together with another negative SICA centre over the East Indian Ocean. Strong positive centres over the rest of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans basins and the Amundsen Sea are also presented. A strong negative pressure anomaly covers most of the Antarctic Continent centered over the Bellingshausen Sea accompanied by three positive pressure anomalies in middle-latitudes. During recent years, the Arctic showed persistent associations of sea-ice and climate patterns principally during summer. Our strongest summer-autumn pattern in negative phase showed a marked reduction on SICA over western Arctic, primarily linked to an overall increase in Arctic atmospheric temperature most pronounced over the Beaufort, Chukchi and East Siberian Seas, and a positive anomaly of

  9. Arctic sea ice thickness changes in terms of sea ice age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Haibo; FU Min; SUN Ke; LIU Yilin; XU Xiuli; HUANG Haijun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, changes in Arctic sea ice thickness for each ice age category were examined based on satellite observations and modelled results. Interannual changes obtained from Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat)-based results show a thickness reduction over perennial sea ice (ice that survives at least one melt season with an age of no less than 2 year) up to approximately 0.5–1.0 m and 0.6–0.8 m (depending on ice age) during the investigated winter and autumn ICESat periods, respectively. Pan-Arctic Ice Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System (PIOMAS)-based results provide a view of a continued thickness reduction over the past four decades. Compared to 1980s, there is a clear thickness drop of roughly 0.50 m in 2010s for perennial ice. This overall decrease in sea ice thickness can be in part attributed to the amplified warming climate in north latitudes. Besides, we figure out that strongly anomalous southerly summer surface winds may play an important role in prompting the thickness decline in perennial ice zone through transporting heat deposited in open water (primarily via albedo feedback) in Eurasian sector deep into a broader sea ice regime in central Arctic Ocean. This heat source is responsible for enhanced ice bottom melting, leading to further reduction in ice thickness.

  10. Spatial-temporal characters of Antarctic sea ice variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Lijuan; Lu Longhua; Bian Lingen

    2004-01-01

    Using sea ice concentration dataset covering the period of 1968-2002 obtained from the Hadley Center of UK, this paper investigates characters of Antarctic sea ice variations .The finding demonstrates that the change of mean sea-ice extent is almost consistent with that of sea-ice area, so sea-ice extent can be chosen to go on this research. The maximum and the minimum of Antarctic sea ice appear in September and February respectively. The maximum and the maximal variation of sea ice appear in Weddell Sea and Ross Sea, while the minimum and the minimal variation of sea-ice appear in Antarctic Peninsula. In recent 35 years, as a whole, Antarctic sea ice decreased distinctly. Moreover, there are 5 subdivision characteristic regions considering their different variations. Hereinto, the sea-ice extent of Weddell Sea and Ross Sea regions extends and area increases, while the sea-ice extent of the other three regions contracts and area decreases. They are all of obvious 2-4 years and 5-7 years significant oscillation periods. It is of significance for further understanding the sea-ice-air interaction in Antarctica region and discussing the relationship between sea-ice variation and atmospheric circulation.

  11. Response of passive microwave sea ice concentration algorithms to thin ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heygster, Georg; Huntemann, Marcus; Ivanova, Natalia;

    2014-01-01

    The influence of sea ice thickness brightness temperatures and ice concentrations retrieved from passive microwave observations is quantified, using horizontally homogeneous sea ice thickness retrievals from ESA's SMOS sensor observations at high incidence angles. Brightness temperatures are infl......The influence of sea ice thickness brightness temperatures and ice concentrations retrieved from passive microwave observations is quantified, using horizontally homogeneous sea ice thickness retrievals from ESA's SMOS sensor observations at high incidence angles. Brightness temperatures...

  12. Using Sea Ice Age as a Proxy for Sea Ice Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeve, J. C.; Tschudi, M. A.; Maslanik, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Since the beginning of the modern satellite record starting in October 1978, the Arctic sea ice cover has been shrinking, with the largest changes observed at the end of the melt season in September. Through 2013, the September ice extent has declined at a rate of -14.0% dec-1, or -895,300 km2 dec-1. The seven lowest September extents in the satellite record have all occurred in the past seven years. This reduction in ice extent is accompanied by large reductions in winter ice thicknesses that are primarily explained by changes in the ocean's coverage of multiyear ice (MYI). Using the University of Colorado ice age product developed by J. Maslanik and C. Fowler, and currently produced by M. Tschudi we present recent changes in the distribution of ice age from the mid 1980s to present. The CU ice age product is based on (1) the use of ice motion to track areas of sea ice and thus estimate how long the ice survives within the Arctic, and (2) satellite imagery of sea ice concentration to determine when the ice disappears. Age is assigned on a yearly basis, with the age incremented by one year if the ice survives summer melt and stays within the Arctic domain. Age is counted from 1 to 10 years, with all ice older than 10 years assigned to the "10+" age category. The position of the ice is calculated on weekly time steps on NSIDC's 12.5-km EASE-grid. In the mid-1980s, MYI accounted for 70% of total winter ice extent, whereas by the end of 2012 it had dropped to less than 20%. This reflects not only a change in ice type, but also a general thinning of the ice pack, as older ice tends to be thicker ice. Thus, with older ice being replaced by thinner first-year ice, the ice pack is more susceptible to melting out than it was in 1980's. It has been suggested that ice age may be a useful proxy for long-term changes in ice thickness. To assess the relationship between ice age and thickness, and how this may be changing over time, we compare the ice age fields to several

  13. Sea-ice dynamics strongly promote Snowball Earth initiation and destabilize tropical sea-ice margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Voigt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Snowball Earth bifurcation, or runaway ice-albedo feedback, is defined for particular boundary conditions by a critical CO2 and a critical sea-ice cover (SI, both of which are essential for evaluating hypotheses related to Neoproterozoic glaciations. Previous work has shown that the Snowball Earth bifurcation, denoted as (CO2, SI*, differs greatly among climate models. Here, we study the effect of bare sea-ice albedo, sea-ice dynamics and ocean heat transport on (CO2, SI* in the atmosphere–ocean general circulation model ECHAM5/MPI-OM with Marinoan (~ 635 Ma continents and solar insolation (94% of modern. In its standard setup, ECHAM5/MPI-OM initiates a~Snowball Earth much more easily than other climate models at (CO2, SI* ≈ (500 ppm, 55%. Replacing the model's standard bare sea-ice albedo of 0.75 by a much lower value of 0.45, we find (CO2, SI* ≈ (204 ppm, 70%. This is consistent with previous work and results from net evaporation and local melting near the sea-ice margin. When we additionally disable sea-ice dynamics, we find that the Snowball Earth bifurcation can be pushed even closer to the equator and occurs at a hundred times lower CO2: (CO2, SI* ≈ (2 ppm, 85%. Therefore, the simulation of sea-ice dynamics in ECHAM5/MPI-OM is a dominant determinant of its high critical CO2 for Snowball initiation relative to other models. Ocean heat transport has no effect on the critical sea-ice cover and only slightly decreases the critical CO2. For disabled sea-ice dynamics, the state with 85% sea-ice cover is stabilized by the Jormungand mechanism and shares characteristics with the Jormungand climate states. However, there is no indication of the Jormungand bifurcation and hysteresis in ECHAM5/MPI-OM. The state with 85% sea-ice cover therefore is a soft Snowball state rather than a true

  14. Arctic sea-ice cover and sea-ice cover anomalies over eastern Canadian waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnew, T.

    1990-01-01

    Concerns about global climate warming have increased interest in climate monitoring and analysis of climate trends in Canada. Sea-ice cover is of interest for climate monitoring since it is very sensitive to changes in the climate controls over a region and is an integrator of temperature anomalies over periods of a week and longer. In addition, climate models suggest that polar regions will have the largest climate warming signal. The existence of long-term digital sea-ice databases makes analysis of sea ice as a climate change indicator possible. The northern hemisphere sea-ice concentration database for 1953 to 1988 was qualitatively evaluated for its representativeness over eastern Canadian Arctic waters. Despite inhomogeneity problems, the database identifies the average freezeup and breakup patterns in the Canadian Arctic islands, Baffin Bay/Davis Strait, and the Hudson Bay area, and can be used for sea-ice variability and anomaly studies. However, inhomogeneity problems put into question the use of the database for sea-ice trend analysis. Sea-ice anomalies for the 1982/83 El Nino winter are compared to atmospheric temperature and circulation anomalies over the Baffin Bay/Davis Strait area. Sea-ice anomaly charts for 1953-1988 are calculated and have been made available as an unpublished catalogue within the Canadian Climate Centre. 15 refs., 27 figs.

  15. Intercomparison of passive microwave sea ice concentration retrievals over the high-concentration Arctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    andersen, susanne; Tonboe, R.; Kaleschke, L.

    2007-01-01

    -swath synthetic aperture radar (SAR) scenes. The analysis is confined to the high-concentration Arctic sea ice, where the ice cover is near 100%. During winter the results indicate that the variability of the SSM/I concentration estimates is larger than the true variability of ice concentration. Results from...... a trusted subset of the SAR scenes across the central Arctic allow the separation of the ice concentration uncertainty due to emissivity variations and sensor noise from other error sources during the winter of 2003-2004. Depending on the algorithm, error standard deviations from 2.5 to 5.0% are found......[1] Measurements of sea ice concentration from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) using seven different algorithms are compared to ship observations, sea ice divergence estimates from the Radarsat Geophysical Processor System, and ice and water surface type classification of 59 wide...

  16. Ice sheet systems and sea level change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Modern views of ice sheets provided by satellites, airborne surveys, in situ data and paleoclimate records while transformative of glaciology have not fundamentally changed concerns about ice sheet stability and collapse that emerged in the 1970's. Motivated by the desire to learn more about ice sheets using new technologies, we stumbled on an unexplored field of science and witnessed surprising changes before realizing that most were coming too fast, soon and large. Ice sheets are integrant part of the Earth system; they interact vigorously with the atmosphere and the oceans, yet most of this interaction is not part of current global climate models. Since we have never witnessed the collapse of a marine ice sheet, observations and exploration remain critical sentinels. At present, these observations suggest that Antarctica and Greenland have been launched into a path of multi-meter sea level rise caused by rapid climate warming. While the current loss of ice sheet mass to the ocean remains a trickle, every mm of sea level change will take centuries of climate reversal to get back, several major marine-terminating sectors have been pushed out of equilibrium, and ice shelves are irremediably being lost. As glaciers retreat from their salty, warm, oceanic margins, they will melt away and retreat slower, but concerns remain about sea level change from vastly marine-based sectors: 2-m sea level equivalent in Greenland and 23-m in Antarctica. Significant changes affect 2/4 marine-based sectors in Greenland - Jakobshavn Isb. and the northeast stream - with Petermann Gl. not far behind. Major changes have affected the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica since the 1980s. Smaller yet significant changes affect the marine-based Wilkes Land sector of East Antarctica, a reminder that not all marine-based ice is in West Antarctica. Major advances in reducing uncertainties in sea level projections will require massive, interdisciplinary efforts that are not currently in place

  17. Arctic Sea Ice : Trends, Stability and Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, W.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    A stochastic Arctic sea-ice model is derived and analysed in detail to interpret the recent decay and associated variability of Arctic sea-ice under changes in radiative forcing. The approach begins from a deterministic model of the heat flux balance through the air/sea/ice system, which uses observed monthly-averaged heat fluxesto drive a time evolution of sea-ice thickness. This model reproduces the observed seasonal cycle of the ice cover and it is to this that stochastic noise--representing high frequency variability--is introduced.The model takes the form of a single periodic non-autonomous stochastic ordinary differential equation. The value of such a model is that it provides a relatively simple framework to examine the role of noise in the basic nonlinear interactions at play as transitions in the state of the ice cover (e.g., from perennial to seasonal) are approached. Moreover, the stability and the noise conspire to underlie the inter annual variability and how that variability changes as one approaches the deterministic bifurcations in the system.

  18. Global Sea Ice Charting at the National Ice Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Colon, P.

    2006-12-01

    The National Ice Center (NIC) is a U.S. government tri-agency operational center comprised of components from the United States Navy, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the U. S. Coast Guard (USCG). The mission of the NIC is to provide the highest quality strategic and tactical ice services tailored to meet operational requirements of U.S. national interests. This includes broad responsibilities to monitor all frozen ocean regions of the world in support of coastal and marine sea ice operations and research. Sea ice conditions are routinely monitored and mapped using satellite imagery along with ancillary model and in-situ data. Active microwave images from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors are the data of choice for NIC analysts because of their high spatial resolution (~100 m). SAR is in fact the primary data source for ice analysis when available. The high spatial resolution of available SAR data and the reliability shown by the RADARSAT- 1 mission in particular have made the use of these data critical for vessels operating in or near the ice. Limited data from the ESA Envisat Advanced SAR (ASAR) are also used in the analyses when available. Preparations for the use of the Phased Array type L-band SAR (PALSAR) aboard the soon to be launched Japanese ALOS satellite are also underway. Scatterometer backscatter imagery from QuikSCAT is also routinely used for basin-scale and circumpolar ice edge mapping. Automated algorithms for ice type and melt ponds detection as well as the synergy between these observations and the QuikSCAT wind vectors off the marginal ice zone (MIZ) are been explored. ESA Envisat Advanced SAR (ASAR) Global Monitoring Mode (GMM) mosaics of the Arctic and Antarctic regions are becoming an important tool for sea ice edge delineation too. Although SAR observations are the choice for NIC analysts to produce high spatial resolution products gear toward tactical support, passive microwave data such as those from the

  19. Evaluation of the ESA Sea Ice CCI (SICCI) project sea ice concentration data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kern, Stefan; Bell, Louisa; Ivanova, Natalia;

    around these two SIC values; consequently SIC can be negative or above 100%. In order to fully evaluate SICCI SIC this natural variability needs to be taken into account. In contrast to most other SIC retrieval algorithms the SICCI algorithm does not filter spurious sea ice over open water with a weather......During phase 1 of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) climate change initiative (CCI) sea ice project (SICCI project) a sea ice concentration (SIC) data product was produced by employing a hybrid SIC retrieval algorithm comprising the Bristol and the Comiso-Bootstrap algorithm in frequency mode. SIC...... filter because by doing so often substantial portions of the sea ice cover along the ice edge are discarded....

  20. The EUMETSAT sea ice concentration climate data record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonboe, Rasmus T.; Eastwood, Steinar; Lavergne, Thomas; Sørensen, Atle M.; Rathmann, Nicholas; Dybkjær, Gorm; Toudal Pedersen, Leif; Høyer, Jacob L.; Kern, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    An Arctic and Antarctic sea ice area and extent dataset has been generated by EUMETSAT's Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSISAF) using the record of microwave radiometer data from NASA's Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave radiometer (SMMR) and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager and Sounder (SSMIS) satellite sensors. The dataset covers the period from October 1978 to April 2015 and updates and further developments are planned for the next phase of the project. The methodology for computing the sea ice concentration uses (1) numerical weather prediction (NWP) data input to a radiative transfer model for reduction of the impact of weather conditions on the measured brightness temperatures; (2) dynamical algorithm tie points to mitigate trends in residual atmospheric, sea ice, and water emission characteristics and inter-sensor differences/biases; and (3) a hybrid sea ice concentration algorithm using the Bristol algorithm over ice and the Bootstrap algorithm in frequency mode over open water. A new sea ice concentration uncertainty algorithm has been developed to estimate the spatial and temporal variability in sea ice concentration retrieval accuracy. A comparison to US National Ice Center sea ice charts from the Arctic and the Antarctic shows that ice concentrations are higher in the ice charts than estimated from the radiometer data at intermediate sea ice concentrations between open water and 100 % ice. The sea ice concentration climate data record is available for download at www.osi-saf.org, including documentation.

  1. Influence of sea ice on ocean water vapor isotopes and Greenland ice core records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eric S.; Welker, Jeffrey M.

    2016-12-01

    A warming climate results in sea ice loss and impacts to the Arctic water cycle. The water isotope parameter deuterium excess, a moisture source proxy, can serve as a tracer to help understand hydrological changes due to sea ice loss. However, unlocking the sea ice change signal of isotopes from ice cores requires understanding how sea ice changes impact deuterium excess, which is unknown. Here we present the first isotope data linking a gradient of sea ice extents to oceanic water vapor deuterium excess values. Initial loss of sea ice extent leads to lower deuterium excess moisture sources, and then values progressively increase with further ice loss. Our new process-based interpretation suggests that past rapid (1-3 years) Greenland ice core changes in deuterium excess during warming might not be the result of abrupt atmospheric circulation shifts, but rather gradual loss of sea ice extent at northern latitude moisture sources.

  2. Arctic Sea Ice Decline - Results from Winter 2015/16

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolaus, Marcel; Hendricks, Stefan; Ricker, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Sea ice physicists from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), are anticipating that the sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean this summer may shrink to the record low of 2012. The scientists made this projection after evaluating current satellite data about the thickness of the ice cover. The data show that the arctic sea ice was already extraordinarily thin in the summer of 2015. Comparably little new ice formed during the past winter.

  3. Ice core reconstruction of sea ice change in the Amundsen-Ross Seas since 1702 A.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Elizabeth R.; Abram, Nerilie J.

    2016-05-01

    Antarctic sea ice has been increasing in recent decades, but with strong regional differences in the expression of sea ice change. Declining sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea since 1979 (the satellite era) has been linked to the observed warming on the Antarctic Peninsula, while the Ross Sea sector has seen a marked increase in sea ice during this period. Here we present a 308 year record of methansulphonic acid from coastal West Antarctica, representing sea ice conditions in the Amundsen-Ross Sea. We demonstrate that the recent increase in sea ice in this region is part of a longer trend, with an estimated ~1° northward expansion in winter sea ice extent (SIE) during the twentieth century and a total expansion of ~1.3° since 1702. The greatest reconstructed SIE occurred during the mid-1990s, with five of the past 30 years considered exceptional in the context of the past three centuries.

  4. The ASIBIA sea-ice facility: First results from the Atmosphere-Sea-Ice-Biogeochemistry in the Arctic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, James L.; Thomas, Max

    2016-04-01

    Working in the natural ocean-ice-atmosphere system is very difficult, as conducting fieldwork on sea-ice presents many challenges ice including costs, safety, experimental controls and access. The new ASIBIA (Atmosphere-Sea-Ice-Biogeochemistry in the Arctic) coupled Ocean-Sea-Ice-(Snow)-Atmosphere chamber facility at the University of East Anglia, UK, we are aiming to perform controlled first-year sea-ice investigations in areas such as sea-ice physics, physicochemical and biogeochemical processes in sea-ice and quantification of the bi-directional flux of gases in various states of first-year sea-ice conditions. The facility is a medium sized chamber with programmable temperatures from -55°C to +30°C, allowing a full range of first year sea-ice growing conditions in both the Arctic and Antarctic to be simulated. The water depth can be up to 1 m (including up to 25 cm of sea-ice) and an optional 1 m tall Teflon film atmosphere on top of the sea-ice, thus creating a closed and coupled ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere mesocosm. Ice growth in the tank is well suited for studying first-year sea-ice physical properties, with in-situ ice-profile measurements of temperature, salinity, conductivity, pressure and spectral light transmission. Underwater and above ice cameras are installed to record the physical development of the sea-ice. Here, we present the data from the first suites of experiments in the ASIBIA chamber focussing on sea-ice physics and give a brief description of the capabilities of the facility going forward. The ASIBIA chamber was funded as part of an ERC consolidator grant to the late Prof. Roland von Glasow and we hope this work and further development of the facility will act as a lasting legacy.

  5. Mechanism of seasonal Arctic sea ice evolution and Arctic amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kwang-Yul; Hamlington, Benjamin D.; Na, Hanna; Kim, Jinju

    2016-01-01

    Sea ice loss is proposed as a primary reason for the Arctic amplification, although the physical mechanism of the Arctic amplification and its connection with sea ice melting is still in debate. In the present study, monthly ERA-Interim reanalysis data are analyzed via cyclostationary empirical orthogonal function analysis to understand the seasonal mechanism of sea ice loss in the Arctic Ocean and the Arctic amplification. While sea ice loss is widespread over much of the p...

  6. Iron in sea ice: Review and new insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lannuzel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The discovery that melting sea ice can fertilize iron (Fe-depleted polar waters has recently fostered trace metal research efforts in sea ice. The aim of this review is to summarize and synthesize the current understanding of Fe biogeochemistry in sea ice. To do so, we compiled available data on particulate, dissolved, and total dissolvable Fe (PFe, DFe and TDFe, respectively from sea-ice studies from both polar regions and from sub-Arctic and northern Hemisphere temperate areas. Data analysis focused on a circum-Antarctic Fe dataset derived from 61 ice cores collected during 10 field expeditions carried out between 1997 and 2012 in the Southern Ocean. Our key findings are that 1 concentrations of all forms of Fe (PFe, DFe, TDFe are at least a magnitude larger in fast ice and pack ice than in typical Antarctic surface waters; 2 DFe, PFe and TDFe behave differently when plotted against sea-ice salinity, suggesting that their distributions in sea ice are driven by distinct, spatially and temporally decoupled processes; 3 DFe is actively extracted from seawater into growing sea ice; 4 fast ice generally has more Fe-bearing particles, a finding supported by the significant negative correlation observed between both PFe and TDFe concentrations in sea ice and water depth; 5 the Fe pool in sea ice is coupled to biota, as indicated by the positive correlations of PFe and TDFe with chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon; and 6 the vast majority of DFe appears to be adsorbed onto something in sea ice. This review also addresses the role of sea ice as a reservoir of Fe and its role in seeding seasonally ice-covered waters. We discuss the pivotal role of organic ligands in controlling DFe concentrations in sea ice and highlight the uncertainties that remain regarding the mechanisms of Fe incorporation in sea ice.

  7. Polar Sea Ice Monitoring Using HY-2A Scatterometer Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A sea ice detection algorithm based on Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis is developed to segment sea ice and open water for the Ku-band scatterometer onboard the China’s Hai Yang 2A Satellite (HY-2A/SCAT. Residual classification errors are reduced through image erosion/dilation techniques and sea ice growth/retreat constraint methods. The arctic sea-ice-type classification is estimated via a time-dependent threshold derived from the annual backscatter trends based on previous HY-2A/SCAT derived sea ice extent. The extent and edge of the sea ice obtained in this study is compared with the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS sea ice concentration data and the Sentinel-1 SAR imagery for verification, respectively. Meanwhile, the classified sea ice type is compared with a multi-sensor sea ice type product based on data from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT and SSMIS. Results show that HY-2A/SCAT is powerful in providing sea ice extent and type information, while differences in the sensitivities of active/passive products are found. In addition, HY-2A/SCAT derived sea ice products are also proved to be valuable complements for existing polar sea ice data products.

  8. Quaternary Sea-ice history in the Arctic Ocean based on a new Ostracode sea-ice proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T. M.; Gemery, L.; Briggs, W.M.; Jakobsson, M.; Polyak, L.; Brouwers, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Paleo-sea-ice history in the Arctic Ocean was reconstructed using the sea-ice dwelling ostracode Acetabulastoma arcticum from late Quaternary sediments from the Mendeleyev, Lomonosov, and Gakkel Ridges, the Morris Jesup Rise and the Yermak Plateau. Results suggest intermittently high levels of perennial sea ice in the central Arctic Ocean during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 (25-45 ka), minimal sea ice during the last deglacial (16-11 ka) and early Holocene thermal maximum (11-5 ka) and increasing sea ice during the mid-to-late Holocene (5-0 ka). Sediment core records from the Iceland and Rockall Plateaus show that perennial sea ice existed in these regions only during glacial intervals MIS 2, 4, and 6. These results show that sea ice exhibits complex temporal and spatial variability during different climatic regimes and that the development of modern perennial sea ice may be a relatively recent phenomenon. ?? 2010.

  9. High resolution modelling of the decreasing Arctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K. S.; Rasmussen, T. A. S.; Blüthgen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover has been rapidly decreasing and thinning over the last decade, with minimum ice extent in 2007 and almost as low extent in 2011. This study investigates two aspects of the decreasing ice cover; first the large scale thinning and changing dynamics of the polar sea ice......, and secondly oceanic oil drift in ice affected conditions. Both investigations are made with the coupled ocean - sea ice model HYCOM-CICE at 10 km resolution, which is also used operationally at DMI and allows detailed studies of sea ice build-up, drift and melt. To investigate the sea ice decrease of the last...... and changing dynamics and discuss how they relate to satellite observations. The relation to the upper ocean heat content is also investigated. The decreasing sea ice has opened up for increased ship traffic and oil exploration in the polar oceans. To avoid damage on the pristine Arctic ecosystem...

  10. Early Student Support to Investigate the Role of Sea Ice-Albedo Feedback in Sea Ice Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    all its versions employs the Los Alamos National Laboratory ( LANL ) sea ice model, known as CICE. The sea ice in CESM1 has been documented in a...their method so successful and yet a nonlocal relationship exists between sea ice meltponds and the location Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB... LANL , who is the chief developer of CICE. Dr. Hunke is a partner with the sea ice prediction network and has a postdoc working with her to improve CICE

  11. Forecasting Future Sea Ice Conditions: A Lagrangian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    that survives the summer melt season in each of the Arctic peripheral seas. The Lagrangian Model is forced with weekly mean satellite-derived sea- ice ...GCM to drive the Lagrangian code and map the regions for the multi-year ice surviving the summer melt in each of the Arctic peripheral seas in todays...1995, Emery et al. 1997, Meier et al. 2000, Tschudi et al. 2010) 3- Assess whether the source region of sea ice melting in peripheral seas in the

  12. The effects of additional black carbon on Arctic sea ice surface albedo: variation with sea ice type and snow cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marks

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon in sea ice will decrease sea ice surface albedo through increased absorption of incident solar radiation, exacerbating sea ice melting. Previous literature has reported different albedo responses to additions of black carbon in sea ice and has not considered how a snow cover may mitigate the effect of black carbon in sea ice. Sea ice is predominately snow covered. Visible light absorption and light scattering coefficients are calculated for a typical first year and multi-year sea ice and "dry" and "wet" snow types that suggest black carbon is the dominating absorbing impurity. The albedo response of first year and multi-year sea ice to increasing black carbon, from 1–1024 ng g−1, in a top 5 cm layer of a 155 cm thick sea ice was calculated using the radiative transfer model: TUV-snow. Sea ice albedo is surprisingly unresponsive to black carbon additions up to 100 ng g−1 with a decrease in albedo to 98.7% of the original albedo value due to an addition of 8 ng g−1 of black carbon in first year sea ice compared to an albedo decrease to 99.6% for the same black carbon mass ratio increase in multi-year sea ice. The first year sea ice proved more responsive to black carbon additions than the multi-year ice. Comparison with previous modelling of black carbon in sea ice suggests a more scattering sea ice environment will be less responsive to black carbon additions. Snow layers on sea ice may mitigate the effects of black carbon in sea ice. "Wet" and "dry" snow layers of 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 cm were added onto the sea ice surface and the snow surface albedo calculated with the same increase in black carbon in the underlying sea ice. Just a 0.5 cm layer of snow greatly diminishes the effect of black carbon on surface albedo, and a 2–5 cm layer (less than half the e-folding depth of snow is enough to "mask" any change in surface albedo owing to additional black carbon in sea ice, but not thick enough to ignore the underlying sea ice.

  13. Recent sea-ice reduction and possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Doo-Sun R.

    2016-04-01

    Arctic sea-ice extent has been rapidly declining since the late 20th century. Given the accelerating rate of the sea-ice decline, an ice-free Arctic Ocean is expected to occur within this century. This rapid sea-ice melting is attributable to various Arctic environmental changes, such as increased downward infrared radiation (IR), sea-ice preconditioning, temperate ocean water inflow, and sea-ice export. However, their relative contributions are uncertain. Assessing the relative contributions is essential for improving our prediction of the future state of the Arctic sea ice. Most of the previous research had focused on summer sea ice, which is however sensitive to previous winter sea ice, suggesting that winter sea-ice processes are also important for understanding sea-ice variability and its trend. Here we show, for the Arctic winter of 1979-2011, that a positive trend of downward IR accounts for nearly half of the sea-ice concentration (SIC) decline. Furthermore, we show that the Arctic downward IR increase is driven by horizontal atmospheric water flux into the Arctic, and not by evaporation from the Arctic Ocean. The rest of the SIC decline likely comes from warm ocean.

  14. Iodine emissions from the sea ice of the Weddell Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Atkinson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Iodine compounds were measured above, below and within the sea ice of the Weddell Sea during a cruise in 2009, to make progress in elucidating the mechanism of local enhancement and volatilisation of iodine. I2 mixing ratios of up to 12.4 pptv were measured 10 m above the sea ice, and up to 31 pptv was observed above surface snow on the nearby Brunt Ice Shelf – large amounts. Atmospheric IO of up to 7 pptv was measured from the ship, and the average sum of HOI and ICl was 1.9 pptv. These measurements confirm the Weddell Sea as an iodine hotspot. Average atmospheric concentrations of CH3I, C2H5I, CH2ICl, 2-C3H7I, CH2IBr and 1-C3H7I were each 0.2 pptv or less. On the Brunt Ice Shelf, enhanced concentrations of CH3I and C2H5I (up to 0.5 and 1 pptv respectively were observed in firn air, with a diurnal profile that suggests the snow may be a source. In the sea ice brine, iodocarbons concentrations were over 10 times those of the sea water below. The sum of iodide + iodate was depleted in sea ice samples, suggesting some missing iodine chemistry. Flux calculations suggest I2 dominates the iodine atom flux to the atmosphere, but models cannot reconcile the observations and suggest either a missing iodine source or other deficiencies in our understanding of iodine chemistry. The observation of new particle formation, consistent with the model predictions, strongly suggests an iodine source. This combined study of iodine compounds is the first of its kind in this unique region of sea ice rich in biology and rich in iodine chemistry.

  15. Iodine emissions from the sea ice of the Weddell Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Atkinson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Iodine compounds were measured above, below and within the sea ice of the Weddell Sea during a cruise in 2009, to elucidate the mechanism of local enhancement and volatilisation of iodine. I2 mixing ratios of up to 12.4 pptv were measured 10 m above the sea ice, and up to 31 pptv was observed above surface snow on the nearby Brunt Ice Shelf – large amounts. Atmospheric IO of up to 7 pptv was measured from the ship, and the average sum of HOI and ICl was 1.9 pptv. These measurements confirm the Weddell Sea as an iodine hotspot. Average atmospheric concentrations of CH3I, C2H5I, CH2ICl, 2-C3H7I, CH2IBr and 1-C3H7I were each 0.2 pptv or less. On the Brunt Ice Shelf, enhanced concentrations of CH3I and C2H5I (up to 0.5 and 1 pptv, respectively were observed in firn air, with a diurnal profile that suggests the snow may be a source. In the sea ice brine, iodocarbons concentrations were over 10 times those of the sea water below. The sum of iodide + iodate was depleted in sea ice samples, suggesting some missing iodine chemistry. Flux calculations suggest I2 dominates the iodine atom flux to the atmosphere, but models cannot reconcile the observations and suggest either a missing iodine source or other deficiencies in our understanding of iodine chemistry. The observation of new particle formation, consistent with the model predictions, strongly suggests an iodine source. This combined study of iodine compounds is the first of its kind in this unique region of sea ice rich in biology and rich in iodine chemistry.

  16. Ocean circulation: its effects on seasonal sea-ice simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibler, W D; Bryan, K

    1984-05-04

    A diagnostic ice-ocean model of the Arctic, Greenland, and Norwegian seas is constructed and used to examine the role of ocean circulation in seasonal sea-ice simulations. The model includes lateral ice motion and three-dimensional ocean circulation. The ocean portion of the model is weakly forced by observed temperature and salinity data. Simulation results show that including modeled ocean circulation in seasonal sea-ice simulations substantially improves the predicted ice drift and ice margin location. Simulations that do not include lateral ocean movment predict a much less realistic ice edge.

  17. Wave-Ice and Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction During the Chukchi Sea Ice Edge Advance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Ocean Heat: In the new Arctic summer ice regime, with extended open water periods in areas previously covered with sea ice, ocean heat, received...additional buoy with an 80m temperature chain for monitoring the upper ocean evolution has been built at WHOI to replace the loss of one of the UpTempo...addition was made to the Sea State field program through separate funding to Luc Rainville of APL, who will provide an underway temperature and salinity

  18. Recent wind driven high sea ice export in the Fram Strait contributes to Arctic sea ice decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Smedsrud

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Arctic sea ice area decrease has been visible for two decades, and continues at a steady rate. Apart from melting, the southward drift through Fram Strait is the main loss. We present high resolution sea ice drift across 79° N from 2004 to 2010. The ice drift is based on radar satellite data and correspond well with variability in local geostrophic wind. The underlying current contributes with a constant southward speed close to 5 cm s−1, and drives about 33 % of the ice export. We use geostrophic winds derived from reanalysis data to calculate the Fram Strait ice area export back to 1957, finding that the sea ice area export recently is about 25 % larger than during the 1960's. The increase in ice export occurred mostly during winter and is directly connected to higher southward ice drift velocities, due to stronger geostrophic winds. The increase in ice drift is large enough to counteract a decrease in ice concentration of the exported sea ice. Using storm tracking we link changes in geostrophic winds to more intense Nordic Sea low pressure systems. Annual sea ice export likely has a significant influence on the summer sea ice variability and we find low values in the 60's, the late 80's and 90's, and particularly high values during 2005–2008. The study highlight the possible role of variability in ice export as an explanatory factor for understanding the dramatic loss of Arctic sea ice the last decades.

  19. Sea ice classification using dual polarization SAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huiying, Liu; Huadong, Guo; Lu, Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Sea ice is an indicator of climate change and also a threat to the navigation security of ships. Polarimetric SAR images are useful in the sea ice detection and classification. In this paper, backscattering coefficients and texture features derived from dual polarization SAR images are used for sea ice classification. Firstly, the HH image is recalculated based on the angular dependences of sea ice types. Then the effective gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture features are selected for the support vector machine (SVM) classification. In the end, because sea ice concentration can provide a better separation of pancake ice from old ice, it is used to improve the SVM result. This method provides a good classification result, compared with the sea ice chart from CIS.

  20. Thermal Diffusivity Identification of Distributed Parameter Systems to Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiong Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of optimal control is presented as a numerical tool for solving the sea ice heat transfer problem governed by a parabolic partial differential equation. Taken the deviation between the calculated ice temperature and the measurements as the performance criterion, an optimal control model of distributed parameter systems with specific constraints of thermal properties of sea ice was proposed to determine the thermal diffusivity of sea ice. Based on sea ice physical processes, the parameterization of the thermal diffusivity was derived through field data. The simulation results illustrated that the identified parameterization of the thermal diffusivity is reasonably effective in sea ice thermodynamics. The direct relation between the thermal diffusivity of sea ice and ice porosity is physically significant and can considerably reduce the computational errors. The successful application of this method also explained that the optimal control model of distributed parameter systems in conjunction with the engineering background has great potential in dealing with practical problems.

  1. A network model for electrical transport in sea ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J., E-mail: zhu@math.utah.ed [University of Utah, Department of Mathematics, 155 S 1400 E RM 233, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090 (United States); Golden, K.M., E-mail: golden@math.utah.ed [University of Utah, Department of Mathematics, 155 S 1400 E RM 233, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090 (United States); Gully, A., E-mail: gully@math.utah.ed [University of Utah, Department of Mathematics, 155 S 1400 E RM 233, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090 (United States); Sampson, C., E-mail: christian.sampson@gmail.co [University of Utah, Department of Mathematics, 155 S 1400 E RM 233, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Monitoring the thickness of sea ice is an important tool in assessing the impact of global warming on Earth's polar regions, and most methods of measuring ice thickness depend on detailed knowledge of its electrical properties. We develop a network model for the electrical conductivity of sea ice, which incorporates statistical measurements of the brine microstructure. The numerical simulations are in close agreement with direct measurements we made in Antarctica on the vertical conductivity of first year sea ice.

  2. Ice and AIS: ship speed data and sea ice forecasts in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Löptien

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered marginal sea located in a densely populated area in northern Europe. Severe sea ice conditions have the potential to hinder the intense ship traffic considerably. Thus, sea ice fore- and nowcasts are regularly provided by the national weather services. Typically, the forecast comprises several ice properties that are distributed as prognostic variables, but their actual usefulness is difficult to measure, and the ship captains must determine their relative importance and relevance for optimal ship speed and safety ad hoc. The present study provides a more objective approach by comparing the ship speeds, obtained by the automatic identification system (AIS, with the respective forecasted ice conditions. We find that, despite an unavoidable random component, this information is useful to constrain and rate fore- and nowcasts. More precisely, 62–67% of ship speed variations can be explained by the forecasted ice properties when fitting a mixed-effect model. This statistical fit is based on a test region in the Bothnian Sea during the severe winter 2011 and employs 15 to 25 min averages of ship speed.

  3. Role of sea ice in air-sea exchange and its relation to sea fog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解思梅; 包澄澜; 姜德中; 邹斌

    2001-01-01

    Synchronous or quasi-synchronous stereoscopic sea-ice-air comprehensive observation was conducted during the First China Arctic Expedition in summer of 1999. Based on these data, the role of sea ice in sea-air exchange was studied. The study shows that the kinds, distribution and thickness of sea ice and their variation significantly influence the air-sea heat exchange. In floating ice area, the heat momentum transferred from ocean to atmosphere is in form of latent heat; latent heat flux is closely related to floating ice concentration; if floating ice is less, the heat flux would be larger. Latent heat flux is about 21 23.6 W*m-2, which is greater than sensible heat flux. On ice field or giant floating ice, heat momentum transferred from atmosphere to sea ice or snow surface is in form of sensible heat. In the floating ice area or polynya, sea-air exchange is the most active, and also the most sensible for climate. Also this area is the most important condition for the creation of Arctic vapor fog. The heat exchange of a large-scale vapor fog process of about 500000 km2 on Aug. 21 22,1999 was calculated; the heat momentum transferred from ocean to air was about 14.8×109 kW. There are various kinds of sea fog, radiation fog, vapor fog and advection fog, forming in the Arctic Ocean in summer. One important cause is the existence of sea ice and its resultant complexity of both underlying surface and sea-air exchange.

  4. Evidence for middle Eocene Arctic sea ice from diatoms and ice-rafted debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Catherine E; St John, Kristen; Koç, Nalân; Jordan, Richard W; Passchier, Sandra; Pearce, Richard B; Kearns, Lance E

    2009-07-16

    Oceanic sediments from long cores drilled on the Lomonosov ridge, in the central Arctic, contain ice-rafted debris (IRD) back to the middle Eocene epoch, prompting recent suggestions that ice appeared in the Arctic about 46 million years (Myr) ago. However, because IRD can be transported by icebergs (derived from land-based ice) and also by sea ice, IRD records are restricted to providing a history of general ice-rafting only. It is critical to differentiate sea ice from glacial (land-based) ice as climate feedback mechanisms vary and global impacts differ between these systems: sea ice directly affects ocean-atmosphere exchanges, whereas land-based ice affects sea level and consequently ocean acidity. An earlier report assumed that sea ice was prevalent in the middle Eocene Arctic on the basis of IRD, and although somewhat preliminary supportive evidence exists, these data are neither comprehensive nor quantified. Here we show the presence of middle Eocene Arctic sea ice from an extraordinary abundance of a group of sea-ice-dependent fossil diatoms (Synedropsis spp.). Analysis of quartz grain textural characteristics further supports sea ice as the dominant transporter of IRD at this time. Together with new information on cosmopolitan diatoms and existing IRD records, our data strongly suggest a two-phase establishment of sea ice: initial episodic formation in marginal shelf areas approximately 47.5 Myr ago, followed approximately 0.5 Myr later by the onset of seasonally paced sea-ice formation in offshore areas of the central Arctic. Our data establish a 2-Myr record of sea ice, documenting the transition from a warm, ice-free environment to one dominated by winter sea ice at the start of the middle Eocene climatic cooling phase.

  5. Mechanical sea-ice strength parameterized as a function of ice temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Yukie; Tremblay, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical sea-ice strength is key for a better simulation of the timing of landlock ice onset and break-up in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). We estimate the mechanical strength of sea ice in the CAA by analyzing the position record measured by the several buoys deployed in the CAA between 2008 and 2013, and wind data from the Canadian Meteorological Centre's Global Deterministic Prediction System (CMC_GDPS) REforecasts (CGRF). First, we calculate the total force acting on the ice using the wind data. Next, we estimate upper (lower) bounds on the sea-ice strength by identifying cases when the sea ice deforms (does not deform) under the action of a given total force. Results from this analysis show that the ice strength of landlock sea ice in the CAA is approximately 40 kN/m on the landfast ice onset (in ice growth season). Additionally, it becomes approximately 10 kN/m on the landfast ice break-up (in melting season). The ice strength decreases with ice temperature increase, which is in accord with results from Johnston [2006]. We also include this new parametrization of sea-ice strength as a function of ice temperature in a coupled slab ocean sea ice model. The results from the model with and without the new parametrization are compared with the buoy data from the International Arctic Buoy Program (IABP).

  6. Influence of stochastic sea ice parametrization on climate and the role of atmosphere-sea ice-ocean interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juricke, Stephan; Jung, Thomas

    2014-06-28

    The influence of a stochastic sea ice strength parametrization on the mean climate is investigated in a coupled atmosphere-sea ice-ocean model. The results are compared with an uncoupled simulation with a prescribed atmosphere. It is found that the stochastic sea ice parametrization causes an effective weakening of the sea ice. In the uncoupled model this leads to an Arctic sea ice volume increase of about 10-20% after an accumulation period of approximately 20-30 years. In the coupled model, no such increase is found. Rather, the stochastic perturbations lead to a spatial redistribution of the Arctic sea ice thickness field. A mechanism involving a slightly negative atmospheric feedback is proposed that can explain the different responses in the coupled and uncoupled system. Changes in integrated Antarctic sea ice quantities caused by the stochastic parametrization are generally small, as memory is lost during the melting season because of an almost complete loss of sea ice. However, stochastic sea ice perturbations affect regional sea ice characteristics in the Southern Hemisphere, both in the uncoupled and coupled model. Remote impacts of the stochastic sea ice parametrization on the mean climate of non-polar regions were found to be small.

  7. Multifractals, random walks and Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sahil; Wettlaufer, John

    We examine the long-term correlations and multifractal properties of daily satellite retrievals of Arctic sea ice albedo, extent, and ice velocity for decadal periods. The approach harnesses a recent development called Multifractal Temporally Weighted Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-TWDFA), which exploits the intuition that points closer in time are more likely to be related than distant points. In both data sets we extract multiple crossover times, as characterized by generalized Hurst exponents, ranging from synoptic to decadal. The method goes beyond treatments that assume a single decay scale process, such as a first-order autoregression, which cannot be justifiably fit to these observations. The ice extent data exhibits white noise behavior from seasonal to bi-seasonal time scales, whereas the clear fingerprints of the short (weather) and long (~ 7 and 9 year) time scales remain, the latter associated with the recent decay in the ice cover. Thus, long term persistence is reentrant beyond the seasonal scale and it is not possible to distinguish whether a given ice extent minimum/maximum will be followed by a minimum/maximum that is larger or smaller in magnitude. The ice velocity data show long term persistence in auto covariance. NASA Grant NNH13ZDA001N-CRYO and Swedish Research Council Grant No. 638-2013-9243.

  8. In situ primary production in young Antarctic sea ice

    OpenAIRE

    Mock, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    An in situ incubation technique used successfully to measure the photosynthetic carbon assimilation of internal algal assemblages within thick multiyear Arctic sea ice was developed and improved to measure the photosynthetic carbon assimilation within young sea ice only 50 cm thick (Eastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica). The new device enabled some of the first precise measurements of in situ photosynthetic carbon assimilation in newly formed Antarctic sea ice.

  9. Antarctic Sea Ice Variability and Trends, 1979-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, C. L.; Cavalieri, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    In sharp contrast to the decreasing sea ice coverage of the Arctic, in the Antarctic the sea ice cover has, on average, expanded since the late 1970s. More specifically, satellite passive-microwave data for the period November 1978 - December 2010 reveal an overall positive trend in ice extents of 17,100 +/- 2,300 square km/yr. Much of the increase, at 13,700 +/- 1,500 square km/yr, has occurred in the region of the Ross Sea, with lesser contributions from the Weddell Sea and Indian Ocean. One region, that of the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas, has, like the Arctic, instead experienced significant sea ice decreases, with an overall ice extent trend of -8,200 +/- 1,200 square km/yr. When examined through the annual cycle over the 32-year period 1979-2010, the Southern Hemisphere sea ice cover as a whole experienced positive ice extent trends in every month, ranging in magnitude from a low of 9,100 +/- 6,300 square km/yr in February to a high of 24,700 +/- 10,000 square km/yr in May. The Ross Sea and Indian Ocean also had positive trends in each month, while the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas had negative trends in each month, and the Weddell Sea and Western Pacific Ocean had a mixture of positive and negative trends. Comparing ice-area results to ice-extent results, in each case the ice-area trend has the same sign as the ice-extent trend, but differences in the magnitudes of the two trends identify regions with overall increasing ice concentrations and others with overall decreasing ice concentrations. The strong pattern of decreasing ice coverage in the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas region and increasing ice coverage in the Ross Sea region is suggestive of changes in atmospheric circulation. This is a key topic for future research.

  10. Antarctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Cavalieri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In sharp contrast to the decreasing sea ice coverage of the Arctic, in the Antarctic the sea ice cover has, on average, expanded since the late 1970s. More specifically, satellite passive-microwave data for the period November 1978–December 2010 reveal an overall positive trend in ice extents of 17 100 ± 2300 km2 yr−1. Much of the increase, at 13 700 ± 1500 km2 yr−1, has occurred in the region of the Ross Sea, with lesser contributions from the Weddell Sea and Indian Ocean. One region, that of the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas, has, like the Arctic, instead experienced significant sea ice decreases, with an overall ice extent trend of −8200 ± 1200 km2 yr−1. When examined through the annual cycle over the 32-yr period 1979–2010, the Southern Hemisphere sea ice cover as a whole experienced positive ice extent trends in every month, ranging in magnitude from a low of 9100 ± 6300 km2 yr−1 in February to a high of 24 700 ± 10 000 km2 yr−1 in May. The Ross Sea and Indian Ocean also had positive trends in each month, while the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas had negative trends in each month, and the Weddell Sea and Western Pacific Ocean had a mixture of positive and negative trends. Comparing ice-area results to ice-extent results, in each case the ice-area trend has the same sign as the ice-extent trend, but differences in the magnitudes of the two trends identify regions with overall increasing ice concentrations and others with overall decreasing ice concentrations. The strong pattern of decreasing ice coverage in the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas region and increasing ice coverage in the Ross Sea region is suggestive of changes in atmospheric circulation. This is a key topic for future research.

  11. Operationally Merged Satellite Visible/IR and Passive Microwave Sea Ice Information for Improved Sea Ice Forecasts and Ship Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    contrast between ice and water becomes small, rendering the extraction of sea ice concentration impossible for IR data; however, IR is usable during...are often at their melting temperatures, causing the temperature contrast between ice and water to become small and rendering the extraction of sea...those data and make them available to NRL/SSC. New satellite algorithms will be developed to integrate passive microwave and Vis/NIR/IR sea ice

  12. Antarctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Cavalieri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In sharp contrast to the decreasing sea ice coverage of the Arctic, in the Antarctic the sea ice cover has, on average, expanded since the late 1970s. More specifically, satellite passive-microwave data for the period November 1978–December 2010 reveal an overall positive trend in ice extents of 17 100 ± 2300 km2 yr−1. Much of the increase, at 13 700 ± 1500 km2 yr−1, has occurred in the region of the Ross Sea, with lesser contributions from the Weddell Sea and Indian Ocean. One region, that of the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas, has (like the Arctic instead experienced significant sea ice decreases, with an overall ice extent trend of −8200 ± 1200 km2 yr−1. When examined through the annual cycle over the 32-yr period 1979–2010, the Southern Hemisphere sea ice cover as a whole experienced positive ice extent trends in every month, ranging in magnitude from a low of 9100 ± 6300 km2 yr−1 in February to a high of 24 700 ± 10 000 km2 yr−1 in May. The Ross Sea and Indian Ocean also had positive trends in each month, while the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas had negative trends in each month, and the Weddell Sea and western Pacific Ocean had a mixture of positive and negative trends. Comparing ice-area results to ice-extent results, in each case the ice-area trend has the same sign as the ice-extent trend, but the magnitudes of the two trends differ, and in some cases these differences allow inferences about the corresponding changes in sea ice concentrations. The strong pattern of decreasing ice coverage in the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas region and increasing ice coverage in the Ross Sea region is suggestive of changes in atmospheric circulation. This is a key topic for future research.

  13. Canadian Arctic sea ice reconstructed from bromine in the Greenland NEEM ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolaor, Andrea; Vallelonga, Paul; Turetta, Clara; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Cozzi, Giulio; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2016-09-01

    Reconstructing the past variability of Arctic sea ice provides an essential context for recent multi-year sea ice decline, although few quantitative reconstructions cover the Holocene period prior to the earliest historical records 1,200 years ago. Photochemical recycling of bromine is observed over first-year, or seasonal, sea ice in so-called “bromine explosions” and we employ a 1-D chemistry transport model to quantify processes of bromine enrichment over first-year sea ice and depositional transport over multi-year sea ice and land ice. We report bromine enrichment in the Northwest Greenland Eemian NEEM ice core since the end of the Eemian interglacial 120,000 years ago, finding the maximum extension of first-year sea ice occurred approximately 9,000 years ago during the Holocene climate optimum, when Greenland temperatures were 2 to 3 °C above present values. First-year sea ice extent was lowest during the glacial stadials suggesting complete coverage of the Arctic Ocean by multi-year sea ice. These findings demonstrate a clear relationship between temperature and first-year sea ice extent in the Arctic and suggest multi-year sea ice will continue to decline as polar amplification drives Arctic temperatures beyond the 2 °C global average warming target of the recent COP21 Paris climate agreement.

  14. Canadian Arctic sea ice reconstructed from bromine in the Greenland NEEM ice core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolaor, Andrea; Vallelonga, Paul; Turetta, Clara; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Cozzi, Giulio; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2016-09-21

    Reconstructing the past variability of Arctic sea ice provides an essential context for recent multi-year sea ice decline, although few quantitative reconstructions cover the Holocene period prior to the earliest historical records 1,200 years ago. Photochemical recycling of bromine is observed over first-year, or seasonal, sea ice in so-called "bromine explosions" and we employ a 1-D chemistry transport model to quantify processes of bromine enrichment over first-year sea ice and depositional transport over multi-year sea ice and land ice. We report bromine enrichment in the Northwest Greenland Eemian NEEM ice core since the end of the Eemian interglacial 120,000 years ago, finding the maximum extension of first-year sea ice occurred approximately 9,000 years ago during the Holocene climate optimum, when Greenland temperatures were 2 to 3 °C above present values. First-year sea ice extent was lowest during the glacial stadials suggesting complete coverage of the Arctic Ocean by multi-year sea ice. These findings demonstrate a clear relationship between temperature and first-year sea ice extent in the Arctic and suggest multi-year sea ice will continue to decline as polar amplification drives Arctic temperatures beyond the 2 °C global average warming target of the recent COP21 Paris climate agreement.

  15. Canadian Arctic sea ice reconstructed from bromine in the Greenland NEEM ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolaor, Andrea; Vallelonga, Paul; Turetta, Clara; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Cozzi, Giulio; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing the past variability of Arctic sea ice provides an essential context for recent multi-year sea ice decline, although few quantitative reconstructions cover the Holocene period prior to the earliest historical records 1,200 years ago. Photochemical recycling of bromine is observed over first-year, or seasonal, sea ice in so-called “bromine explosions” and we employ a 1-D chemistry transport model to quantify processes of bromine enrichment over first-year sea ice and depositional transport over multi-year sea ice and land ice. We report bromine enrichment in the Northwest Greenland Eemian NEEM ice core since the end of the Eemian interglacial 120,000 years ago, finding the maximum extension of first-year sea ice occurred approximately 9,000 years ago during the Holocene climate optimum, when Greenland temperatures were 2 to 3 °C above present values. First-year sea ice extent was lowest during the glacial stadials suggesting complete coverage of the Arctic Ocean by multi-year sea ice. These findings demonstrate a clear relationship between temperature and first-year sea ice extent in the Arctic and suggest multi-year sea ice will continue to decline as polar amplification drives Arctic temperatures beyond the 2 °C global average warming target of the recent COP21 Paris climate agreement. PMID:27650478

  16. Albedo parametrization and reversibility of sea ice decay

    OpenAIRE

    M. Müller-Stoffels; R. Wackerbauer

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic's sea ice cover has been receding rapidly in recent years, and global climate models typically predict a further decline over the next century. It is an open question whether a possible loss of Arctic sea ice is reversible. We study the stability of Arctic model sea ice in a conceptual, two-dimensional energy-based regular network model of the ice-ocean layer that considers ARM's longwave radiative budget data and SHEBA albedo measurements. Seasonal ice cover, perennial ice and per...

  17. Knowledge-based sea ice classification by polarimetric SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Dierking, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Polarimetric SAR images acquired at C- and L-band over sea ice in the Greenland Sea, Baltic Sea, and Beaufort Sea have been analysed with respect to their potential for ice type classification. The polarimetric data were gathered by the Danish EMISAR and the US AIRSAR which both are airborne...... systems. A hierarchical classification scheme was chosen for sea ice because our knowledge about magnitudes, variations, and dependences of sea ice signatures can be directly considered. The optimal sequence of classification rules and the rules themselves depend on the ice conditions/regimes. The use...... of the polarimetric phase information improves the classification only in the case of thin ice types but is not necessary for thicker ice (above about 30 cm thickness)...

  18. Sea Ice Microorganisms: Environmental Constraints and Extracellular Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody W. Deming

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Inherent to sea ice, like other high latitude environments, is the strong seasonality driven by changes in insolation throughout the year. Sea-ice organisms are exposed to shifting, sometimes limiting, conditions of temperature and salinity. An array of adaptations to survive these and other challenges has been acquired by those organisms that inhabit the ice. One key adaptive response is the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS, which play multiple roles in the entrapment, retention and survival of microorganisms in sea ice. In this concept paper we consider two main areas of sea-ice microbiology: the physico-chemical properties that define sea ice as a microbial habitat, imparting particular advantages and limits; and extracellular responses elicited in microbial inhabitants as they exploit or survive these conditions. Emphasis is placed on protective strategies used in the face of fluctuating and extreme environmental conditions in sea ice. Gaps in knowledge and testable hypotheses are identified for future research.

  19. Arctic sea ice decline: Projected changes in timing and extent of sea ice in the Bering and Chukchi Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic region is warming faster than most regions of the world due in part to increasing greenhouse gases and positive feedbacks associated with the loss of snow and ice cover. One consequence has been a rapid decline in Arctic sea ice over the past 3 decades?a decline that is projected to continue by state-of-the-art models. Many stakeholders are therefore interested in how global warming may change the timing and extent of sea ice Arctic-wide, and for specific regions. To inform the public and decision makers of anticipated environmental changes, scientists are striving to better understand how sea ice influences ecosystem structure, local weather, and global climate. Here, projected changes in the Bering and Chukchi Seas are examined because sea ice influences the presence of, or accessibility to, a variety of local resources of commercial and cultural value. In this study, 21st century sea ice conditions in the Bering and Chukchi Seas are based on projections by 18 general circulation models (GCMs) prepared for the fourth reporting period by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007. Sea ice projections are analyzed for each of two IPCC greenhouse gas forcing scenarios: the A1B `business as usual? scenario and the A2 scenario that is somewhat more aggressive in its CO2 emissions during the second half of the century. A large spread of uncertainty among projections by all 18 models was constrained by creating model subsets that excluded GCMs that poorly simulated the 1979-2008 satellite record of ice extent and seasonality. At the end of the 21st century (2090-2099), median sea ice projections among all combinations of model ensemble and forcing scenario were qualitatively similar. June is projected to experience the least amount of sea ice loss among all months. For the Chukchi Sea, projections show extensive ice melt during July and ice-free conditions during August, September, and October by the end of the century, with high agreement

  20. Theory of the sea ice thickness distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Toppaladoddi, Srikanth

    2015-01-01

    We use concepts from statistical physics to transform the original evolution equation for the sea ice thickness distribution $g(h)$ due to Thorndike et al., (1975) into a Fokker-Planck like conservation law. The steady solution is $g(h) = {\\cal N}(q) h^q \\mathrm{e}^{-~ h/H}$, where $q$ and $H$ are expressible in terms of moments over the transition probabilities between thickness categories. The solution exhibits the functional form used in observational fits and shows that for $h \\ll 1$, $g(h)$ is controlled by both thermodynamics and mechanics, whereas for $h \\gg 1$ only mechanics controls $g(h)$. Finally, we derive the underlying Langevin equation governing the dynamics of the ice thickness $h$, from which we predict the observed $g(h)$. The genericity of our approach provides a framework for studying the geophysical scale structure of the ice pack using methods of broad relevance in statistical mechanics.

  1. Mechanism of seasonal Arctic sea ice evolution and Arctic amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Yul; Hamlington, Benjamin D.; Na, Hanna; Kim, Jinju

    2016-09-01

    Sea ice loss is proposed as a primary reason for the Arctic amplification, although the physical mechanism of the Arctic amplification and its connection with sea ice melting is still in debate. In the present study, monthly ERA-Interim reanalysis data are analyzed via cyclostationary empirical orthogonal function analysis to understand the seasonal mechanism of sea ice loss in the Arctic Ocean and the Arctic amplification. While sea ice loss is widespread over much of the perimeter of the Arctic Ocean in summer, sea ice remains thin in winter only in the Barents-Kara seas. Excessive turbulent heat flux through the sea surface exposed to air due to sea ice reduction warms the atmospheric column. Warmer air increases the downward longwave radiation and subsequently surface air temperature, which facilitates sea surface remains to be free of ice. This positive feedback mechanism is not clearly observed in the Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas, since sea ice refreezes in late fall (November) before excessive turbulent heat flux is available for warming the atmospheric column in winter. A detailed seasonal heat budget is presented in order to understand specific differences between the Barents-Kara seas and Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas.

  2. Storm-induced sea-ice breakup and the implications for ice extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, A. L.; Williams, M. J. M.; Dean, S. M.; Meylan, M. H.

    2014-05-01

    The propagation of large, storm-generated waves through sea ice has so far not been measured, limiting our understanding of how ocean waves break sea ice. Without improved knowledge of ice breakup, we are unable to understand recent changes, or predict future changes, in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice. Here we show that storm-generated ocean waves propagating through Antarctic sea ice are able to transport enough energy to break sea ice hundreds of kilometres from the ice edge. Our results, which are based on concurrent observations at multiple locations, establish that large waves break sea ice much farther from the ice edge than would be predicted by the commonly assumed exponential decay. We observed the wave height decay to be almost linear for large waves--those with a significant wave height greater than three metres--and to be exponential only for small waves. This implies a more prominent role for large ocean waves in sea-ice breakup and retreat than previously thought. We examine the wider relevance of this by comparing observed Antarctic sea-ice edge positions with changes in modelled significant wave heights for the Southern Ocean between 1997 and 2009, and find that the retreat and expansion of the sea-ice edge correlate with mean significant wave height increases and decreases, respectively. This includes capturing the spatial variability in sea-ice trends found in the Ross and Amundsen-Bellingshausen seas. Climate models fail to capture recent changes in sea ice in both polar regions. Our results suggest that the incorporation of explicit or parameterized interactions between ocean waves and sea ice may resolve this problem.

  3. Temporal dynamics of ikaite in experimental sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Wang, F.; Galley, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    -covered seas. Little is known, however, of the spatial and temporal dynamics of ikaite in sea ice. Here we present evidence for highly dynamic ikaite precipitation and dissolution in sea ice grown at an outdoor pool of the Sea-ice Environmental Research Facility (SERF) in Manitoba, Canada. During...... with ikaite concentrations of 200–400 μmol kg−1, and (3) a bottom layer with ikaite concentrations of Manual removal of the snow cover allowed the sea ice to cool and brine salinities to increase, resulting in rapid...

  4. Mapping Arctic sea ice from the Earth Resources Technology Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. C. (Principal Investigator); Bowley, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Methods of detecting ice and for distinguishing between ice and clouds are discussed, and examples of ERTS-1 data showing ice distributions in northern Hudson Bay, M'Clure Strait, the eastern Beaufort Sea, and the Greenland Sea are presented. The results of the initial analysis of ERTS-1 data indicate that the locations of ice edges and ice concentrations can be accurately mapped, and that considerable information on ice type can be derived through use of the various spectral bands. Ice features as small as 80 to 100 m width can be mapped.

  5. The application of ERTS imagery to monitoring Arctic sea ice. [mapping ice in Bering Sea, Beaufort Sea, Canadian Archipelago, and Greenland Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. C. (Principal Investigator); Bowley, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Because of the effect of sea ice on the heat balance of the Arctic and because of the expanding economic interest in arctic oil and minerals, extensive monitoring and further study of sea ice is required. The application of ERTS data for mapping ice is evaluated for several arctic areas, including the Bering Sea, the eastern Beaufort Sea, parts of the Canadian Archipelago, and the Greenland Sea. Interpretive techniques are discussed, and the scales and types of ice features that can be detected are described. For the Bering Sea, a sample of ERTS-1 imagery is compared with visual ice reports and aerial photography from the NASA CV-990 aircraft. The results of the investigation demonstrate that ERTS-1 imagery has substantial practical application for monitoring arctic sea ice. Ice features as small as 80-100 m in width can be detected, and the combined use of the visible and near-IR imagery is a powerful tool for identifying ice types. Sequential ERTS-1 observations at high latitudes enable ice deformations and movements to be mapped. Ice conditions in the Bering Sea during early March depicted in ERTS-1 images are in close agreement with aerial ice observations and photographs.

  6. Sensitivity of sea ice and ocean simulations to sea ice salinity in a coupled global climate model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The impacts of the spatiotemporal variations of sea ice salinity on sea ice and ocean characteristics have not been studied in detail, as the existing climate models neglect or misrepresent this process. To address this issue, this paper formulated a parameterization with more realistic sea ice salinity budget, and examined the sensitivity of sea ice and ocean simulations to the ice salinity variations and associated salt flux into the ocean using a coupled global climate model. Results show that the inclusion of such a parameterization leads to an increase and thickening of sea ice in the Eurasian Arctic and within the ice pack in the Antarctic circumpolar region, and a weakening of the North Atlantic Deep Water and a strengthening of the Antarctic Bottom Water. The atmospheric responses associated with the ice changes were also discussed.

  7. The future of ice sheets and sea ice: between reversible retreat and unstoppable loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notz, Dirk

    2009-12-08

    We discuss the existence of cryospheric "tipping points" in the Earth's climate system. Such critical thresholds have been suggested to exist for the disappearance of Arctic sea ice and the retreat of ice sheets: Once these ice masses have shrunk below an anticipated critical extent, the ice-albedo feedback might lead to the irreversible and unstoppable loss of the remaining ice. We here give an overview of our current understanding of such threshold behavior. By using conceptual arguments, we review the recent findings that such a tipping point probably does not exist for the loss of Arctic summer sea ice. Hence, in a cooler climate, sea ice could recover rapidly from the loss it has experienced in recent years. In addition, we discuss why this recent rapid retreat of Arctic summer sea ice might largely be a consequence of a slow shift in ice-thickness distribution, which will lead to strongly increased year-to-year variability of the Arctic summer sea-ice extent. This variability will render seasonal forecasts of the Arctic summer sea-ice extent increasingly difficult. We also discuss why, in contrast to Arctic summer sea ice, a tipping point is more likely to exist for the loss of the Greenland ice sheet and the West Antarctic ice sheet.

  8. Sea ice and pollution-modulated changes in Greenland ice core methanesulfonate and bromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, Olivia J.; Chellman, Nathan J.; Grieman, Mackenzie; Layman, Lawrence; McConnell, Joseph R.; Pasteris, Daniel; Rhodes, Rachael H.; Saltzman, Eric; Sigl, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of past changes in Arctic sea ice extent may be critical for understanding its future evolution. Methanesulfonate (MSA) and bromine concentrations preserved in ice cores have both been proposed as indicators of past sea ice conditions. In this study, two ice cores from central and north-eastern Greenland were analysed at sub-annual resolution for MSA (CH3SO3H) and bromine, covering the time period 1750-2010. We examine correlations between ice core MSA and the HadISST1 ICE sea ice dataset and consult back trajectories to infer the likely source regions. A strong correlation between the low-frequency MSA and bromine records during pre-industrial times indicates that both chemical species are likely linked to processes occurring on or near sea ice in the same source regions. The positive correlation between ice core MSA and bromine persists until the mid-20th century, when the acidity of Greenland ice begins to increase markedly due to increased fossil fuel emissions. After that time, MSA levels decrease as a result of declining sea ice extent but bromine levels increase. We consider several possible explanations and ultimately suggest that increased acidity, specifically nitric acid, of snow on sea ice stimulates the release of reactive Br from sea ice, resulting in increased transport and deposition on the Greenland ice sheet.

  9. Estimates of ikaite export from sea ice to the underlying seawater in a sea ice-seawater mesocosm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Galley, Ryan J.; Else, Brent G. T.; Campbell, Karley; Papakyriakou, Tim; Crabeck, Odile; Lemes, Marcos; Delille, Bruno; Rysgaard, Søren

    2016-09-01

    The precipitation of ikaite and its fate within sea ice is still poorly understood. We quantify temporal inorganic carbon dynamics in sea ice from initial formation to its melt in a sea ice-seawater mesocosm pool from 11 to 29 January 2013. Based on measurements of total alkalinity (TA) and total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2), the main processes affecting inorganic carbon dynamics within sea ice were ikaite precipitation and CO2 exchange with the atmosphere. In the underlying seawater, the dissolution of ikaite was the main process affecting inorganic carbon dynamics. Sea ice acted as an active layer, releasing CO2 to the atmosphere during the growth phase, taking up CO2 as it melted and exporting both ikaite and TCO2 into the underlying seawater during the whole experiment. Ikaite precipitation of up to 167 µmol kg-1 within sea ice was estimated, while its export and dissolution into the underlying seawater was responsible for a TA increase of 64-66 µmol kg-1 in the water column. The export of TCO2 from sea ice to the water column increased the underlying seawater TCO2 by 43.5 µmol kg-1, suggesting that almost all of the TCO2 that left the sea ice was exported to the underlying seawater. The export of ikaite from the ice to the underlying seawater was associated with brine rejection during sea ice growth, increased vertical connectivity in sea ice due to the upward percolation of seawater and meltwater flushing during sea ice melt. Based on the change in TA in the water column around the onset of sea ice melt, more than half of the total ikaite precipitated in the ice during sea ice growth was still contained in the ice when the sea ice began to melt. Ikaite crystal dissolution in the water column kept the seawater pCO2 undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere in spite of increased salinity, TA and TCO2 associated with sea ice growth. Results indicate that ikaite export from sea ice and its dissolution in the underlying seawater can potentially hamper

  10. The impact of under-ice melt ponds on Arctic sea ice volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Naomi; Flocco, Daniela; Feltham, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    A one-dimensional, thermodynamic model of Arctic sea ice [Flocco et al, 2015] has been adapted to study the evolution of under-ice melt ponds, pools of fresh water that are found below the Arctic sea ice, and false bottoms, sheets of ice that form at the boundary between the under-ice melt pond and the oceanic mixed layer. Over time, either the under-ice melt pond freezes or the false bottom is completely ablated. We have been investigating the impact that these features have on the growth or ablation of sea ice during the time that they are present. The sensitivity of our model to a range of parameters has been tested, revealing some interesting effects of the thermodynamic processes taking place during the life-cycle of these phenomena. For example, the under-ice melt pond and its associated false bottom can insulate the sea ice layer from ocean, increasing the thickness of sea ice present at the end of the time frame considered. A comparison of the results of the model of under-ice melt pond evolution with that of sea ice with a bare base has been used to estimate the impact of under-ice melt ponds on sea ice volume towards the end of the melt season. We find that the under-ice melt ponds could have a significant impact on the mass balance of the sea ice, suggesting that it could be desirable to include a parameterisation of the effects of under-ice melt pond in the sea ice components of climate models.

  11. 30-Year Satellite Record Reveals Accelerated Arctic Sea Ice Loss, Antarctic Sea Ice Trend Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Parkinson, C. L.; Vinnikov, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Arctic sea ice extent decreased by 0.30 plus or minus 0.03 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per decade from 1972 through 2002, but decreased by 0.36 plus or minus 0.05 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per decade from 1979 through 2002, indicating an acceleration of 20% in the rate of decrease. In contrast to the Arctic, the Antarctic sea ice extent decreased dramatically over the period 1973-1977, then gradually increased, with an overall 30-year trend of -0.15 plus or minus 0.08 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per 10yr. The trend reversal is attributed to a large positive anomaly in Antarctic sea ice extent observed in the early 1970's.

  12. Model resolution influence on simulated sea ice decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Sewall

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Satellite observations and model predictions of recent and future Arctic sea ice decline have raised concerns over the timing and potential impacts of a seasonally ice-free Arctic Ocean. Model predictions of seasonally ice-free Arctic conditions are, however, highly variable. Here I present results from fourteen climate system models from the World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3 multi-model dataset that indicate modeled Arctic sea ice sensitivity to increased atmospheric CO2 forcing is strongly correlated with ice/ocean model horizontal resolution. Based on coupled model analyses and ice only simulations with the Los Alamos National Lab sea ice model (CICE, the correlation between declining Arctic sea ice cover and ice/ocean model resolution appears to depend largely on ocean model resolution and its influence on ocean heat transport into the Arctic basin. The correlation between model resolution, northward ocean heat transport, and the degree of Arctic ice loss is independent of ice model physics and complexity. This not only illustrates one difficulty in using numerical models to accurately predict the timing and magnitude of Arctic sea ice decline under increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas forcing, but also highlights one area where improved simulation (of northward ocean heat transport could greatly decrease the uncertainties associated with predictions of future Arctic sea ice cover.

  13. The signature analysis of summer Antarctic sea-ice distribution by ship-based sea-ice observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Chinese 19th National Antarctic Research Expedition,we carried out ship-based Antarctic sea-ice observa-tion on icebreaker Xue Long using Antarctic sea-ice process and climate (ASPeCt) criteria during austral summer.Sea-ice distribution data were obtained along nearly 6,500 km of the ship’s track.The measurement parameters included sea-ice thickness,sea-ice concentration,snow thickness,and floe size.Analysis showed the presence of the large spatial varia-tions of the observed sea-ice characteristics.Sea-ice concentration varied between 0 and 80 percent and reached its peak value in Weddell Sea because of the specific dynamical process affecting in summer sea-ice melting.There are large areas of open water along the study section.Sea ice and the upper snow thickness of the section varied between 10 cm and 210 cm and 2 cm and 80 cm,respectively,and each reaches its peak values near Amery ice shelf.The floe size varied from less than 10 cm and the maximum of more than 2,000 km along the section.

  14. Air-ice carbon pathways inferred from a sea ice tank experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Kotovitch; Sébastien Moreau; Jiayun Zhou; Martin Vancoppenolle; Dieckmann, Gerhard S.; Karl-Ulrich Evers; Fanny Van der Linden; Thomas, David N.; Jean-Louis Tison; Bruno Delille

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Given rapid sea ice changes in the Arctic Ocean in the context of climate warming, better constraints on the role of sea ice in CO2 cycling are needed to assess the capacity of polar oceans to buffer the rise of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Air-ice CO2 fluxes were measured continuously using automated chambers from the initial freezing of a sea ice cover until its decay during the INTERICE V experiment at the Hamburg Ship Model Basin. Cooling seawater prior to sea ice formation act...

  15. Definition of Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice Variation Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hongxia; Liu Na; Pan Zengdi; Zhang Qinghua

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that varying of the sea ice not only in the Antarctic but also in the Arctic has an active influence on the globe atmosphere and ocean. In order to understand the sea ice variation in detail, for the first time, an objective index of the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice variation is defined by projecting the monthly sea ice concentration anomalies poleward of 20°N or 20°S onto the EOF (empirical orthogonal function)-1 spatial pattern. Comparing with some work in former studies of polar sea ice, the index has the potential for clarifying the variability of sea ice in northern and southern high latitudes.

  16. Global coupled sea ice-ocean state estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenty, Ian; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Zhang, Hong

    2015-09-01

    We study the impact of synthesizing ocean and sea ice concentration data with a global, eddying coupled sea ice-ocean configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model with the goal of reproducing the 2004 three-dimensional time-evolving ice-ocean state. This work builds on the state estimation framework developed in the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean consortium by seeking a reconstruction of the global sea ice-ocean system that is simultaneously consistent with (1) a suite of in situ and remotely-sensed ocean and ice data and (2) the physics encoded in the numerical model. This dual consistency is successfully achieved here by adjusting only the model's initial hydrographic state and its atmospheric boundary conditions such that misfits between the model and data are minimized in a least-squares sense. We show that synthesizing both ocean and sea ice concentration data is required for the model to adequately reproduce the observed details of the sea ice annual cycle in both hemispheres. Surprisingly, only modest adjustments to our first-guess atmospheric state and ocean initial conditions are necessary to achieve model-data consistency, suggesting that atmospheric reanalysis products remain a leading source of errors for sea ice-ocean model hindcasts and reanalyses. The synthesis of sea ice data is found to ameliorate misfits in the high latitude ocean, especially with respect to upper ocean stratification, temperature, and salinity. Constraining the model to sea ice concentration modestly reduces ICESat-derived Arctic ice thickness errors by improving the temporal and spatial evolution of seasonal ice. Further increases in the accuracy of global sea ice thickness in the model likely require the direct synthesis of sea ice thickness data.

  17. Assessment of the sea-ice carbon pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimm, R.; Notz, D.; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that geochemical processes related to sea-ice growth and melt might be important for the polar carbon cycle via the so called sea-ice carbon pump (SICP). The SICP affects the air-sea CO2 exchange by influencing the composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total...... in regions with net sea-ice melt, and enhanced SICP-induced oceanic CO2 out-gassing in regions with net sea-ice growth. These general regional patterns are modified further by the blockage of air-sea gas exchange through sea-ice coverage. Integrated over the sea-ice zones of both hemispheres, the SICP...... alkalinity (TA) in the surface ocean. Here we quantify the strength of the SICP-induced air-sea CO2 flux using the global three-dimensional ocean-sea-ice-biogeochemical model MPIOM/HAMOCC. Simulations prescribing the range of observed DIC and TA concentrations in the sea ice were performed under two...

  18. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ice age, and iv) onset dates of melt and freezeup . 4. Assess the magnitude of the contribution from ice-albedo feedback to the observed decrease of...the impact on albedo evolution of ice concentration and melt and freezeup onset dates. This effort will expand on previous work by i) examining...radiation, ice concentration, ice type, and melt and freezeup onset dates on a 25 x 25 km equal area scalable grid. We have daily values of these parameters

  19. Arctic sea ice and Eurasian climate: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yongqi; Sun, Jianqi; Li, Fei; He, Shengping; SANDVEN, Stein; Yan, Qing; Zhang, Zhongshi; LOHMANN, Katja; KEENLYSIDE, Noel; Furevik, Tore; Suo, Lingling

    2014-01-01

    The Arctic plays a fundamental role in the climate system and has shown significant climate change in recent decades, including the Arctic warming and decline of Arctic sea-ice extent and thickness. In contrast to the Arctic warming and reduction of Arctic sea ice, Europe, East Asia and North America have experienced anomalously cold conditions, with record snowfall during recent years. In this paper, we review current understanding of the sea-ice impacts on the Eurasian climate. Paleo, obser...

  20. A recent bifurcation in Arctic sea-ice cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Livina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is ongoing debate over whether Arctic sea-ice has already passed a "tipping point", or whether it will do so in future, with several recent studies arguing that the loss of summer sea ice does not involve a bifurcation because it is highly reversible in models. Recently developed methods can detect and sometimes forewarn of bifurcations in time-series data, hence we applied them to satellite data for Arctic sea-ice cover. Here we show that a new low ice cover state has appeared from 2007 onwards, which is distinct from the normal state of seasonal sea ice variation, suggesting a bifurcation has occurred from one attractor to two. There was no robust early warning signal of critical slowing down prior to this bifurcation, consistent with it representing the appearance of a new ice cover state rather than the loss of stability of the existing state. The new low ice cover state has been sampled predominantly in summer-autumn and seasonal forcing combined with internal climate variability are likely responsible for triggering recent transitions between the two ice cover states. However, all early warning indicators show destabilization of the summer-autumn sea-ice since 2007. This suggests the new low ice cover state may be a transient feature and further abrupt changes in summer-autumn Arctic sea-ice cover could lie ahead; either reversion to the normal state or a yet larger ice loss.

  1. Interannual Variability of the Sea-Ice-Induced Salt Flux in the Greenland Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Leif Toudal; Coon, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    ; Visbeck and others, 1995). The predominant ice types in the Greenland Sea arc frazil/grease ice and pancake ice. A numerical model has been developed relating ice formation and decay of these ice types as observed by the SMMR and SSM/I microwave radiometers and evaluating their contribution to salt...

  2. Sea ice dynamics influence halogen deposition to Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spolaor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice is an important parameter in the climate system and its changes impact upon the polar albedo and the atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Iodine (I and bromine (Br have been measured in a shallow ice core drilled at the summit of the Holtedahlfonna glacier (Northwest Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Changing I concentrations can be linked to the spring maximum sea ice extension. Bromine enrichment, indexed to the Br/Na sea water mass ratio, appears to be influenced by changes in the seasonal sea ice area. I is emitted from marine biota and so the retreat of spring sea ice coincides with enlargement of the open ocean surface which enhances marine primary production and consequent I emission. The observed Br enrichment can be explained by greater Br emissions during the Br explosion that have been observed to occur above first year sea ice during the early springtime. In this work we present the first comparison between halogens in surface snow and Arctic sea ice extension. Although further investigation is required to characterize potential depositional and post-depositional processes, these preliminary findings suggest that I and Br can be linked to variability in the spring maximum sea ice extension and seasonal sea ice surface area.

  3. Sea-ice indicators of polar bear habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Harry L.; Laidre, Kristin L.

    2016-09-01

    Nineteen subpopulations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are found throughout the circumpolar Arctic, and in all regions they depend on sea ice as a platform for traveling, hunting, and breeding. Therefore polar bear phenology - the cycle of biological events - is linked to the timing of sea-ice retreat in spring and advance in fall. We analyzed the dates of sea-ice retreat and advance in all 19 polar bear subpopulation regions from 1979 to 2014, using daily sea-ice concentration data from satellite passive microwave instruments. We define the dates of sea-ice retreat and advance in a region as the dates when the area of sea ice drops below a certain threshold (retreat) on its way to the summer minimum or rises above the threshold (advance) on its way to the winter maximum. The threshold is chosen to be halfway between the historical (1979-2014) mean September and mean March sea-ice areas. In all 19 regions there is a trend toward earlier sea-ice retreat and later sea-ice advance. Trends generally range from -3 to -9 days decade-1 in spring and from +3 to +9 days decade-1 in fall, with larger trends in the Barents Sea and central Arctic Basin. The trends are not sensitive to the threshold. We also calculated the number of days per year that the sea-ice area exceeded the threshold (termed ice-covered days) and the average sea-ice concentration from 1 June through 31 October. The number of ice-covered days is declining in all regions at the rate of -7 to -19 days decade-1, with larger trends in the Barents Sea and central Arctic Basin. The June-October sea-ice concentration is declining in all regions at rates ranging from -1 to -9 percent decade-1. These sea-ice metrics (or indicators of habitat change) were designed to be useful for management agencies and for comparative purposes among subpopulations. We recommend that the National Climate Assessment include the timing of sea-ice retreat and advance in future reports.

  4. Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice Changes and Impacts (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    The extent of springtime Arctic perennial sea ice, important to preconditioning summer melt and to polar sunrise photochemistry, continues its precipitous reduction in the last decade marked by a record low in 2012, as the Bromine, Ozone, and Mercury Experiment (BROMEX) was conducted around Barrow, Alaska, to investigate impacts of sea ice reduction on photochemical processes, transport, and distribution in the polar environment. In spring 2013, there was further loss of perennial sea ice, as it was not observed in the ocean region adjacent to the Alaskan north coast, where there was a stretch of perennial sea ice in 2012 in the Beaufort Sea and Chukchi Sea. In contrast to the rapid and extensive loss of sea ice in the Arctic, Antarctic sea ice has a trend of a slight increase in the past three decades. Given the significant variability in time and in space together with uncertainties in satellite observations, the increasing trend of Antarctic sea ice may arguably be considered as having a low confidence level; however, there was no overall reduction of Antarctic sea ice extent anywhere close to the decreasing rate of Arctic sea ice. There exist publications presenting various factors driving changes in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice. After a short review of these published factors, new observations and atmospheric, oceanic, hydrological, and geological mechanisms contributed to different behaviors of sea ice changes in the Arctic and Antarctic are presented. The contribution from of hydrologic factors may provide a linkage to and enhance thermal impacts from lower latitudes. While geological factors may affect the sensitivity of sea ice response to climate change, these factors can serve as the long-term memory in the system that should be exploited to improve future projections or predictions of sea ice changes. Furthermore, similarities and differences in chemical impacts of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice changes are discussed. Understanding sea ice changes and

  5. Ice Draft and Ice Velocity Data in the Beaufort Sea, 1990-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set provides measurement of sea ice draft (m) and the movement of sea ice (cm/s) over the continental shelf of the Eastern Beaufort Sea. The data set spans...

  6. Nonlinear threshold behavior during the loss of Arctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, I; Wettlaufer, J S

    2009-01-06

    In light of the rapid recent retreat of Arctic sea ice, a number of studies have discussed the possibility of a critical threshold (or "tipping point") beyond which the ice-albedo feedback causes the ice cover to melt away in an irreversible process. The focus has typically been centered on the annual minimum (September) ice cover, which is often seen as particularly susceptible to destabilization by the ice-albedo feedback. Here, we examine the central physical processes associated with the transition from ice-covered to ice-free Arctic Ocean conditions. We show that although the ice-albedo feedback promotes the existence of multiple ice-cover states, the stabilizing thermodynamic effects of sea ice mitigate this when the Arctic Ocean is ice covered during a sufficiently large fraction of the year. These results suggest that critical threshold behavior is unlikely during the approach from current perennial sea-ice conditions to seasonally ice-free conditions. In a further warmed climate, however, we find that a critical threshold associated with the sudden loss of the remaining wintertime-only sea ice cover may be likely.

  7. Thermodynamics of slush and snow-ice formation in the Antarctic sea-ice zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutras, Mathilde; Vancoppenolle, Martin; Lourenço, Antonio; Vivier, Frédéric; Carnat, Gauthier; Madec, Gurvan; Rousset, Clément; Tison, Jean-Louis

    2016-09-01

    Snow over Antarctic sea ice is often flooded by brine or seawater, particularly in spring, forming slush and snow ice. Here, we evaluate the representation of the thermodynamics of slush and snow-ice formation in large-scale sea-ice models, using laboratory experiments (NaCl solutions poured into grated ice in an isolated container). Scaling analysis highlights latent heat as the main term of the energy budget. The temperature of the new sea ice immediately after flooding is found very close to the saltwater freezing point, whereas its bulk salinity is typically > 20 g / kg. Large-scale sea-ice models faithfully represent such physics, yet the uncertainty on the origin of flooding saltwater impacts the calculated new ice temperature, because of the different salinities of seawater and brine. The laboratory experiments also suggest a potential limitation to the existing physical representations of flooding: for brine fractions > 60 %, ice crystals start floating upon saltwater. Natural sea-ice observations suggest that the isolated system assumption holds for a few hours at most, after which rapid heat and salt exchanges mostly destroy the initial flooding signature on temperature and salinity. A small footprint on ice salinity remains however, natural snow ice is found 3-5 g/kg more saline than other forms of sea ice.

  8. Analysis of Sea Ice Cover Sensitivity in Global Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Parhomenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents joint calculations using a 3D atmospheric general circulation model, an ocean model, and a sea ice evolution model. The purpose of the work is to analyze a seasonal and annual evolution of sea ice, long-term variability of a model ice cover, and its sensitivity to some parameters of model as well to define atmosphere-ice-ocean interaction.Results of 100 years simulations of Arctic basin sea ice evolution are analyzed. There are significant (about 0.5 m inter-annual fluctuations of an ice cover.The ice - atmosphere sensible heat flux reduced by 10% leads to the growth of average sea ice thickness within the limits of 0.05 m – 0.1 m. However in separate spatial points the thickness decreases up to 0.5 m. An analysis of the seasonably changing average ice thickness with decreasing, as compared to the basic variant by 0.05 of clear sea ice albedo and that of snow shows the ice thickness reduction in a range from 0.2 m up to 0.6 m, and the change maximum falls for the summer season of intensive melting. The spatial distribution of ice thickness changes shows, that on the large part of the Arctic Ocean there was a reduction of ice thickness down to 1 m. However, there is also an area of some increase of the ice layer basically in a range up to 0.2 m (Beaufort Sea. The 0.05 decrease of sea ice snow albedo leads to reduction of average ice thickness approximately by 0.2 m, and this value slightly depends on a season. In the following experiment the ocean – ice thermal interaction influence on the ice cover is estimated. It is carried out by increase of a heat flux from ocean to the bottom surface of sea ice by 2 W/sq. m in comparison with base variant. The analysis demonstrates, that the average ice thickness reduces in a range from 0.2 m to 0.35 m. There are small seasonal changes of this value.The numerical experiments results have shown, that an ice cover and its seasonal evolution rather strongly depend on varied parameters

  9. SEDNA: Sea ice Experiment - Dynamic Nature of the Arctic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Ice Experiment - Dynamic Nature of the Arctic (SEDNA) is an international collaborative effort to improve the understanding of the interaction between sea...

  10. National Ice Center Arctic Sea Ice Charts and Climatologies in Gridded Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Ice Center (NIC) is an inter-agency sea ice analysis and forecasting center comprised of the Department of Commerce/NOAA, the Department of...

  11. Air-ice carbon pathways inferred from a sea ice tank experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Kotovitch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Given rapid sea ice changes in the Arctic Ocean in the context of climate warming, better constraints on the role of sea ice in CO2 cycling are needed to assess the capacity of polar oceans to buffer the rise of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Air-ice CO2 fluxes were measured continuously using automated chambers from the initial freezing of a sea ice cover until its decay during the INTERICE V experiment at the Hamburg Ship Model Basin. Cooling seawater prior to sea ice formation acted as a sink for atmospheric CO2, but as soon as the first ice crystals started to form, sea ice turned to a source of CO2, which lasted throughout the whole ice growth phase. Once ice decay was initiated by warming the atmosphere, the sea ice shifted back again to a sink of CO2. Direct measurements of outward ice-atmosphere CO2 fluxes were consistent with the depletion of dissolved inorganic carbon in the upper half of sea ice. Combining measured air-ice CO2 fluxes with the partial pressure of CO2 in sea ice, we determined strongly different gas transfer coefficients of CO2 at the air-ice interface between the growth and the decay phases (from 2.5 to 0.4 mol m−2 d−1 atm−1. A 1D sea ice carbon cycle model including gas physics and carbon biogeochemistry was used in various configurations in order to interpret the observations. All model simulations correctly predicted the sign of the air-ice flux. By contrast, the amplitude of the flux was much more variable between the different simulations. In none of the simulations was the dissolved gas pathway strong enough to explain the large fluxes during ice growth. This pathway weakness is due to an intrinsic limitation of ice-air fluxes of dissolved CO2 by the slow transport of dissolved inorganic carbon in the ice. The best means we found to explain the high air-ice carbon fluxes during ice growth is an intense yet uncertain gas bubble efflux, requiring sufficient bubble nucleation and upwards rise. We

  12. Climate change and ice hazards in the Beaufort Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barber, D. G.; McCullough, G.; Babb, D.;

    2014-01-01

    and gas deposits known to occur throughout the Arctic. Here we show that hazardous ice features remain a threat to stationary and mobile infrastructure in the southern Beaufort Sea. With the opening up of the ice pack, forecasting of high-frequency oscillations or local eddy-driven ice motion......Recent reductions in the summer extent of sea ice have focused the world’s attention on the effects of climate change. Increased CO2-derived global warming is rapidly shrinking the Arctic multi-year ice pack. This shift in ice regimes allows for increasing development opportunities for large oil...... will be a much more complex task than modeling average ice circulation. Given the observed reduction in sea ice extent and thickness this rather counterintuitive situation, associated with a warming climate, poses significant hazards to Arctic marine oil and gas development and marine transportation. Accurate...

  13. Reducing uncertainty in high-resolution sea ice models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston

    2013-07-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system, reflecting a significant amount of solar radiation, insulating the ocean from the atmosphere and influencing ocean circulation by modifying the salinity of the upper ocean. The thickness and extent of Arctic sea ice have shown a significant decline in recent decades with implications for global climate as well as regional geopolitics. Increasing interest in exploration as well as climate feedback effects make predictive mathematical modeling of sea ice a task of tremendous practical import. Satellite data obtained over the last few decades have provided a wealth of information on sea ice motion and deformation. The data clearly show that ice deformation is focused along narrow linear features and this type of deformation is not well-represented in existing models. To improve sea ice dynamics we have incorporated an anisotropic rheology into the Los Alamos National Laboratory global sea ice model, CICE. Sensitivity analyses were performed using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA) to determine the impact of material parameters on sea ice response functions. Two material strength parameters that exhibited the most significant impact on responses were further analyzed to evaluate their influence on quantitative comparisons between model output and data. The sensitivity analysis along with ten year model runs indicate that while the anisotropic rheology provides some benefit in velocity predictions, additional improvements are required to make this material model a viable alternative for global sea ice simulations.

  14. The research of Polar sea ice and its role in climate change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As an important part of global climate system, the Polar sea ice is effecting on global climate changes through ocean surface radiation balance, mass balance, energy balance as well as the circulating of sea water temperature and salinity. Sea ice research has a centuries-old history. The many correlative sea ice projects were established through the extensive international cooperation during the period from the primary research of intensity and the bearing capacity of sea ice to the development of sea/ice/air coupled model. Based on these researches, the sea ice variety was combined with the global climate change. All research about sea ice includes: the physical properties and processes of sea ice and its snow cover, the ecosystem of sea ice regions, sea ice and upper snow albedo, mass balance of sea ice regions, sea ice and climate coupled model. The simulation suggests that the both of the area and volume of polar sea ice would be reduced in next century. With the developing of the sea ice research, more scientific issues are mentioned. Such as the interaction between sea ice and the other factors of global climate system, the seasonal and regional distribution of polar sea ice thickness, polar sea ice boundary and area variety trends, the growth and melt as well as their influencing factors, the role of the polynya and the sea/air interactions. We should give the best solutions to all of the issues in future sea ice studying.

  15. Interdecadal changes in snow depth on Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Melinda A.; Rigor, Ignatius G.; Nghiem, Son V.; Kurtz, Nathan T.; Farrell, Sinead L.; Perovich, Donald K.; Sturm, Matthew

    2014-08-01

    Snow plays a key role in the growth and decay of Arctic sea ice. In winter, it insulates sea ice from cold air temperatures, slowing sea ice growth. From spring to summer, the albedo of snow determines how much insolation is absorbed by the sea ice and underlying ocean, impacting ice melt processes. Knowledge of the contemporary snow depth distribution is essential for estimating sea ice thickness and volume, and for understanding and modeling sea ice thermodynamics in the changing Arctic. This study assesses spring snow depth distribution on Arctic sea ice using airborne radar observations from Operation IceBridge for 2009-2013. Data were validated using coordinated in situ measurements taken in March 2012 during the Bromine, Ozone, and Mercury Experiment (BROMEX) field campaign. We find a correlation of 0.59 and root-mean-square error of 5.8 cm between the airborne and in situ data. Using this relationship and IceBridge snow thickness products, we compared the recent results with data from the 1937, 1954-1991 Soviet drifting ice stations. The comparison shows thinning of the snowpack, from 35.1 ± 9.4 to 22.2 ± 1.9 cm in the western Arctic, and from 32.8 ± 9.4 to 14.5 ± 1.9 cm in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas. These changes suggest a snow depth decline of 37 ± 29% in the western Arctic and 56 ± 33% in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas. Thinning is negatively correlated with the delayed onset of sea ice freezeup during autumn.

  16. Sea ice dynamics influence halogen deposition to Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spolaor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice is an important parameter in the climate system and its changes impact upon the polar albedo and atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Iodine (I and bromine (Br have been measured in a shallow firn core drilled at the summit of the Holtedahlfonna glacier (Northwest Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Changing I concentrations can be linked to the March–May maximum sea ice extension. Bromine enrichment, indexed to the Br / Na sea water mass ratio, appears to be influenced by changes in the seasonal sea ice area. I is emitted from marine biota and so the retreat of March–May sea ice coincides with enlargement of the open-ocean surface which enhances marine primary production and consequent I emission. The observed Br enrichment could be explained by greater Br emissions during the Br explosions that have been observed to occur mainly above first year sea ice during the early springtime. In this work we present the first comparison between halogens in surface snow and Arctic sea ice extension. Although further investigation is required to characterize potential depositional and post-depositional processes, these preliminary findings suggest that I and Br can be linked to variability in the spring maximum sea ice extension and seasonal sea ice surface area.

  17. NWS Alaska Sea Ice Program: Operations and Decision Support Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, M. B.; Nelson, J. A., Jr.; Heim, R.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service's Alaska Sea Ice Program is designed to service customers and partners operating and planning operations within Alaska waters. The Alaska Sea Ice Program offers daily sea ice and sea surface temperature analysis products. The program also delivers a five day sea ice forecast 3 times each week, provides a 3 month sea ice outlook at the end of each month, and has staff available to respond to sea ice related information inquiries. These analysis and forecast products are utilized by many entities around the state of Alaska and nationally for safety of navigation and community strategic planning. The list of current customers stem from academia and research institutions, to local state and federal agencies, to resupply barges, to coastal subsistence hunters, to gold dredgers, to fisheries, to the general public. Due to a longer sea ice free season over recent years, activity in the waters around Alaska has increased. This has led to a rise in decision support services from the Alaska Sea Ice Program. The ASIP is in constant contact with the National Ice Center as well as the United States Coast Guard (USCG) for safety of navigation. In the past, the ASIP provided briefings to the USCG when in support of search and rescue efforts. Currently, not only does that support remain, but our team is also briefing on sea ice outlooks into the next few months. As traffic in the Arctic increases, the ASIP will be called upon to provide more and more services on varying time scales to meet customer needs. This talk will address the many facets of the current Alaska Sea Ice Program as well as delve into what we see as the future of the ASIP.

  18. First Results from the ASIBIA (Arctic Sea-Ice, snow, Biogeochemistry and Impacts on the Atmosphere) Sea-Ice Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, M. M.; France, J.; von Glasow, R.; Thomas, M.

    2015-12-01

    The ocean-ice-atmosphere system is very complex, and there are numerous challenges with conducting fieldwork on sea-ice including costs, safety, experimental controls and access. By creating a new coupled Ocean-Sea-Ice-(Snow)-Atmosphere facility at the University of East Anglia, UK, we are able to perform controlled investigations in areas such as sea-ice physics, physicochemical and biogeochemical processes in sea-ice, and to quantify the bi-directional flux of gases in established, freezing and melting sea-ice. The environmental chamber is capable of controlled programmable temperatures from -55°C to +30°C, allowing a full range of first year sea-ice growing conditions in both the Arctic and Antarctic to be simulated. The sea-ice tank within the chamber measures 2.4 m x 1.4 m x 1 m water depth, with an identically sized Teflon film atmosphere on top of the tank. The tank and atmosphere forms a coupled, isolated mesocosm. Above the atmosphere is a light bank with dimmable solar simulation LEDs, and UVA and UVB broadband fluorescent battens, providing light for a range of experiments such as under ice biogeochemistry and photochemistry. Ice growth in the tank will be ideally suited for studying first-year sea-ice physical properties, with in-situ ice-profile measurements of temperature, salinity, conductivity, pressure and spectral light transmission. Under water and above ice cameras are installed to observe the physical development of the sea-ice. The ASIBIA facility is also well equipped for gas exchange and diffusion studies through sea-ice with a suite of climate relevant gas measuring instruments (CH4, CO2, O3, NOx, NOy permanently installed, further instruments available) able to measure either directly in the atmospheric component, or via a membrane for water side dissolved gases. Here, we present the first results from the ASIBIA sea-ice chamber, focussing on the physical development of first-year sea-ice and show the future plans for the facility over

  19. Seasonal Changes of Arctic Sea Ice Physical Properties Observed During N-ICE2015: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerland, S.; Spreen, G.; Granskog, M. A.; Divine, D.; Ehn, J. K.; Eltoft, T.; Gallet, J. C.; Haapala, J. J.; Hudson, S. R.; Hughes, N. E.; Itkin, P.; King, J.; Krumpen, T.; Kustov, V. Y.; Liston, G. E.; Mundy, C. J.; Nicolaus, M.; Pavlov, A.; Polashenski, C.; Provost, C.; Richter-Menge, J.; Rösel, A.; Sennechael, N.; Shestov, A.; Taskjelle, T.; Wilkinson, J.; Steen, H.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic sea ice is changing, and for improving the understanding of the cryosphere, data is needed to describe the status and processes controlling current seasonal sea ice growth, change and decay. We present preliminary results from in-situ observations on sea ice in the Arctic Basin north of Svalbard from January to June 2015. Over that time, the Norwegian research vessel «Lance» was moored to in total four ice floes, drifting with the sea ice and allowing an international group of scientists to conduct detailed research. Each drift lasted until the ship reached the marginal ice zone and ice started to break up, before moving further north and starting the next drift. The ship stayed within the area approximately 80°-83° N and 5°-25° E. While the expedition covered measurements in the atmosphere, the snow and sea ice system, and in the ocean, as well as biological studies, in this presentation we focus on physics of snow and sea ice. Different ice types could be investigated: young ice in refrozen leads, first year ice, and old ice. Snow surveys included regular snow pits with standardized measurements of physical properties and sampling. Snow and ice thickness were measured at stake fields, along transects with electromagnetics, and in drillholes. For quantifying ice physical properties and texture, ice cores were obtained regularly and analyzed. Optical properties of snow and ice were measured both with fixed installed radiometers, and from mobile systems, a sledge and an ROV. For six weeks, the surface topography was scanned with a ground LIDAR system. Spatial scales of surveys ranged from spot measurements to regional surveys from helicopter (ice thickness, photography) during two months of the expedition, and by means of an array of autonomous buoys in the region. Other regional information was obtained from SAR satellite imagery and from satellite based radar altimetry. The analysis of the data collected has started, and first results will be

  20. Amplification of European Little Ice Age by sea ice-ocean-atmosphere feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Flavio; Born, Andreas; Raible, Christoph C.; Stocker, Thomas F.

    2013-04-01

    The transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly (~950-1250 AD) to the Little Ice Age (~1400-1700 AD) is believed to have been driven by an interplay of external forcing and climate system-internal variability. While the hemispheric signal seems to have been dominated by solar irradiance and volcanic eruptions, the understanding of mechanisms shaping the climate on continental scale is less robust. Examining an ensemble of transient model simulations as well as a new type of sensitivity experiments with artificial sea ice growth, we identify a sea ice-ocean-atmosphere feedback mechanism that amplifies the Little Ice Age cooling in the North Atlantic-European region and produces the temperature pattern expected from reconstructions. Initiated by increasing negative forcing, the Arctic sea ice substantially expands at the beginning of the Little Ice Age. The excess of sea ice is exported to the subpolar North Atlantic, where it melts, thereby weakening convection of the ocean. As a consequence, northward ocean heat transport is reduced, reinforcing the expansion of the sea ice and the cooling of the Northern Hemisphere. In the Nordic Seas, sea surface height anomalies cause the oceanic recirculation to strengthen at the expense of the warm Barents Sea inflow, thereby further reinforcing sea ice growth in the Barents Sea. The absent ocean-atmosphere heat flux in the Barents Sea results in an amplified cooling over Northern Europe. The positive nature of this feedback mechanism enables sea ice to remain in an expanded state for decades to centuries and explain sustained cold periods over Europe such as the Little Ice Age. Support for the feedback mechanism comes from recent proxy reconstructions around the Nordic Seas.

  1. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF SEA ICE WITH DIFFERENT ADVECTION SCHEMES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xi-ying

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulations are carried out for sea ice with four different advection schemes to study their effects on the simulation results.The sea ice model employed here is the Sea Ice Simulator (SIS) of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) Modular Ocean Model version 4b (MOM4b) and the four advection schemes are, the upwind scheme originally used in the SIS, the Multi-Dimensional Positive Advection (MDPA) scheme, the Incremental Remapping Scheme (IRS) and the Two Step Shape Preserving (TSSP) scheme.The latter three schemes are newly introduced.To consider the interactions between sea ice and ocean, a mixed layer ocean model is introduced and coupled to the SIS.The coupled model uses a tri-polar coordinate with 120×65 grids,covering the whole earth globe, in the horizontal plane.Simulation results in the northern high latitudes are analyzed.In all simulations, the model reproduces the seasonal variation of sea ice in the northern high latitudes well.Compared with the results from the observation, the sea ice model produces some extra sea ice coverage in the Greenland Sea and Barents Sea in winter due to the exclusion of ocean current effects and the smaller simulated sea ice thickness in the Arctic basin.There are similar features among the results obtained with the introduced three advection schemes.The simulated sea ice thickness with the three newly introduced schemes are all smaller than that of the upwind scheme and the simulated sea ice velocities of movement are all smaller than that of the upwind scheme.There are more similarities shared in the results obtained with the MPDA and TSSP schemes.

  2. Image Techniques for Identifying Sea-Ice Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of ice forces are critical to Dynamic Positioning (DP operations in Arctic waters. Ice conditions are important for the analysis of ice-structure interaction in an ice field. To monitor sea-ice conditions, cameras are used as field observation sensors on mobile sensor platforms in Arctic. Various image processing techniques, such as Otsu thresholding, k-means clustering, distance transform, Gradient Vector Flow (GVF Snake, mathematical morphology, are then applied to obtain ice concentration, ice types, and floe size distribution from sea-ice images to ensure safe operations of structures in ice covered regions. Those techniques yield acceptable results, and their effectiveness are demonstrated in case studies.

  3. Age characteristics in a multidecadal Arctic sea ice simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunke, Elizabeth C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bitz, Cecllia M [UNIV. OF WASHINGTON

    2008-01-01

    Results from adding a tracer for age of sea ice to a sophisticated sea ice model that is widely used for climate studies are presented. The consistent simulation of ice age, dynamics, and thermodynamics in the model shows explicitly that the loss of Arctic perennial ice has accelerated in the past three decades, as has been seen in satellite-derived observations. Our model shows that the September ice age average across the Northern Hemisphere varies from about 5 to 8 years, and the ice is much younger (about 2--3 years) in late winter because of the expansion of first-year ice. We find seasonal ice on average comprises about 5% of the total ice area in September, but as much as 1.34 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} survives in some years. Our simulated ice age in the late 1980s and early 1990s declined markedly in agreement with other studies. After this period of decline, the ice age began to recover, but in the final years of the simulation very little young ice remains after the melt season, a strong indication that the age of the pack will again decline in the future as older ice classes fail to be replenished. The Arctic ice pack has fluctuated between older and younger ice types over the past 30 years, while ice area, thickness, and volume all declined over the same period, with an apparent acceleration in the last decade.

  4. Radiative transfer in atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Z.; Stamnes, K.; Weeks, W.F. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Tsay, S.C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Radiative energy is critical in controlling the heat and mass balance of sea ice, which significantly affects the polar climate. In the polar oceans, light transmission through the atmosphere and sea ice is essential to the growth of plankton and algae and, consequently, to the microbial community both in the ice and in the ocean. Therefore, the study of radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean system is of particular importance. Lacking a properly coupled radiative transfer model for the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system, a consistent study of the radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, snow, sea ice, and ocean system has not been undertaken before. The radiative transfer processes in the atmosphere and in the ice and ocean have been treated separately. Because the radiation processes in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean depend on each other, this separate treatment is inconsistent. To study the radiative interaction between the atmosphere, clouds, snow, sea ice, and ocean, a radiative transfer model with consistent treatment of radiation in the coupled system is needed and is under development.

  5. Seasonal sea ice changes in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica, over the period of 1979–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Stammerjohn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent attention has focused on accelerated glacial losses along the Amundsen Sea coast that result from changes in atmosphere and ocean circulation, with sea ice playing a mediating but not well-understood role. Here, we investigated how sea ice has changed in the Amundsen Sea over the period of 1979 to 2014, focusing on spatio-temporal changes in ice edge advance/retreat and percent sea ice cover in relation to changes in winds. In contrast to the widespread sea ice decreases to the east and increases to the west of the Amundsen Sea, sea ice changes in the Amundsen Sea were confined to three areas: (i offshore of the shelf break, (ii the southern Pine Island Polynya, and (iii the eastern Amundsen Sea Polynya. Offshore, a 2-month decrease in ice season duration coincided with seasonal shifts in wind speed and direction from March to May (relating to later ice advance and from September to August (relating to earlier retreat, consistent with reported changes in the depth/location of the Amundsen Sea Low. In contrast, sea ice decreases in the polynya areas corresponded to episodic or step changes in spring ice retreat (earlier by 1–2 months and were coincident with changes to Thwaites Iceberg Tongue (located between the two polynyas and increased southeasterly winds. Temporal correlations among these three areas were weak, indicating different local forcing and/or differential response to large-scale forcing. Although our analysis has shown that part of the variability can be explained by changes in winds or to the coastal icescape, an additional but unknown factor is how sea ice has responded to changes in ocean heat and freshwater inputs. Unraveling cause and effect, critical for predicting changes to this rapidly evolving ocean-ice shelf-sea ice system, will require in situ observations, along with improved remote sensing capabilities and ocean modeling.

  6. Quantifying uncertainty and sensitivity in sea ice models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urrego Blanco, Jorge Rolando [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hunke, Elizabeth Clare [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Urban, Nathan Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-15

    The Los Alamos Sea Ice model has a number of input parameters for which accurate values are not always well established. We conduct a variance-based sensitivity analysis of hemispheric sea ice properties to 39 input parameters. The method accounts for non-linear and non-additive effects in the model.

  7. MEASURING SEA ICE DRIFT VIA CROSS-CORRELATION OF RADAR ICE IMAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN He-quan; SHEN Yong-ming; Qiu Da-hong

    2004-01-01

    The motion of sea ice has a great effect on winter navigation, and oil field exploration in the Bohai Sea. It is very important to measure the ice drift accurately and efficiently. As a practical technique, radar imagery has been used for sea ice monitoring and forecasting for a long time. Combining with the radar imagery and cross-correlation technique, a new measurement method based on the cross-correlation of radar ice images is specified in this paper to obtain full field measurement of sea ice drift. The theory and fast implementation of cross-correlation are presented briefly in the paper, including the filtering method to modify the invalid vectors. To show deeply the validity of the present method, the velocity maps of sea ice drift are provided in the paper, which are calculated from the radar images grabbed in the Liaodong Gulf. The comparison with the traditional tracing method is also conducted.

  8. Physical characteristics of summer sea ice across the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, W. B.; Gow, A.J.; Meese, D.A.; Bosworth, H.W.; Reimnitz, E.

    1999-01-01

    Sea ice characteristics were investigated during July and August on the 1994 transect across the Arctic Ocean. Properties examined from ice cores included salinity, temperature, and ice structure. Salinities measured near zero at the surface, increasing to 3-4??? at the ice-water interface. Ice crystal texture was dominated by columnar ice, comprising 90% of the ice sampled. Surface albedos of various ice types, measured with radiometers, showed integrated shortwave albedos of 0.1 to 0.3 for melt ponds, 0.5 for bare, discolored ice, and 0.6 to 0.8 for a deteriorated surface or snow-covered ice. Aerial photography was utilized to document the distribution of open melt ponds, which decreased from 12% coverage of the ice surface in late July at 76??N to almost none in mid-August at 88??N. Most melt ponds were shallow, and depth bore no relationship to size. Sediment was pervasive from the southern Chukchi Sea to the north pole, occurring in bands or patches. It was absent in the Eurasian Arctic, where it had been observed on earlier expeditions. Calculations of reverse trajectories of the sediment-bearing floes suggest that the southernmost sediment was entrained during ice formation in the Beaufort Sea while more northerly samples probably originated in the East Siberian Sea, some as far west as the New Siberian Islands.

  9. Polarimetric C-Band SAR Observations of Sea Ice in the Greenland Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bjørn Bavnehøj; Nghiem, S.V.; Kwok, R.

    1998-01-01

    The fully polarimetric EMISAR acquired C-band radar signatures of sea ice in the Greenland Sea during a campaign in March 1995. The authors present maps of polarimetric signatures over an area containing various kinds of ice and discuss the use of polarimetric SAR for identification of ice types...

  10. Sea Ice Thickness, Freeboard, and Snow Depth products from Operation IceBridge Airborne Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, N. T.; Farrell, S. L.; Studinger, M.; Galin, N.; Harbeck, J. P.; Lindsay, R.; Onana, V. D.; Panzer, B.; Sonntag, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    The study of sea ice using airborne remote sensing platforms provides unique capabilities to measure a wide variety of sea ice properties. These measurements are useful for a variety of topics including model evaluation and improvement, assessment of satellite retrievals, and incorporation into climate data records for analysis of interannual variability and long-term trends in sea ice properties. In this paper we describe methods for the retrieval of sea ice thickness, freeboard, and snow depth using data from a multisensor suite of instruments on NASA's Operation IceBridge airborne campaign. We assess the consistency of the results through comparison with independent data sets that demonstrate that the IceBridge products are capable of providing a reliable record of snow depth and sea ice thickness. We explore the impact of inter-campaign instrument changes and associated algorithm adaptations as well as the applicability of the adapted algorithms to the ongoing IceBridge mission. The uncertainties associated with the retrieval methods are determined and placed in the context of their impact on the retrieved sea ice thickness. Lastly, we present results for the 2009 and 2010 IceBridge campaigns, which are currently available in product form via the National Snow and Ice Data Center

  11. Arctic sea ice decline contributes to thinning lake ice trend in northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Vladimir A.; Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Cai, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Field measurements, satellite observations, and models document a thinning trend in seasonal Arctic lake ice growth, causing a shift from bedfast to floating ice conditions. September sea ice concentrations in the Arctic Ocean since 1991 correlate well (r = +0.69, p Weather Research and Forecasting model output produced a 7% decrease in lake ice growth when 2007/08 sea ice was imposed on 1991/92 climatology and a 9% increase in lake ice growth for the opposing experiment. Here, we clearly link early winter ‘ocean-effect’ snowfall and warming to reduced lake ice growth. Future reductions in sea ice extent will alter hydrological, biogeochemical, and habitat functioning of Arctic lakes and cause sub-lake permafrost thaw.

  12. Arctic sea ice decline contributes to thinning lake ice trend in northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Vladimir; Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Cai, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Field measurements, satellite observations, and models document a thinning trend in seasonal Arctic lake ice growth, causing a shift from bedfast to floating ice conditions. September sea ice concentrations in the Arctic Ocean since 1991 correlate well (r = +0.69,p sea ice affects lakes, we conducted model experiments to simulate winters with years of high (1991/92) and low (2007/08) sea ice extent for which we also had field measurements and satellite imagery characterizing lake ice conditions. A lake ice growth model forced with Weather Research and Forecasting model output produced a 7% decrease in lake ice growth when 2007/08 sea ice was imposed on 1991/92 climatology and a 9% increase in lake ice growth for the opposing experiment. Here, we clearly link early winter 'ocean-effect' snowfall and warming to reduced lake ice growth. Future reductions in sea ice extent will alter hydrological, biogeochemical, and habitat functioning of Arctic lakes and cause sub-lake permafrost thaw.

  13. Physical Characteristics and Geobiology of 'Rotten' Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, C. M.; Light, B.; Orellana, M. V.; Carpenter, S.; Junge, K.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic sea ice in its final stage of demise, "rotten ice", is characterized by seriously compromised structural integrity, making it difficult to collect and study. Consequently, little is known about the physical, chemical and biological properties of this ice type. Yet, as the Arctic melt season lengthens, this ice type will likely appear sooner and become more prevalent in the Arctic Ocean and its occurrence may be more common than satellite mapping and ice charts suggest (e.g., Barber et al., 2009). Here we present physical, chemical, biological, and optical measurements of first-year ice near Barrow, Alaska during the spring and summer of 2015. Samples represent a progression from solid, "springtime" shorefast ice (May); through melting, heavily melt-ponded, "summertime" shorefast ice (June); to the final stage of barely-intact, "rotten" ice collected from small floes Beaufort Sea (July). Results indicate that rotten ice exhibits low salinity, is well drained and has a lower density than its springtime counterpart. X-ray tomography of dimethyl phthalate-casted sea ice samples indicates differences in porosity and relative permeability in rotten ice vs. spring- and summertime ice. We also present a preliminary characterization of rotten sea ice as a microbial habitat using preliminary results of chemical measurements (nutrients, dissolved organic and inorganic carbon), and microbiological characterizations (concentrations and16S/18S rDNA-based identifications) from seawater vs. sea ice vs. sea ice brines. Optical measurements show that while decreased ice thickness and increased melt pond coverage cause an overall increase in solar radiation to the ocean as sea ice warms, rotten ice is actually less transparent to solar radiation than its spring- and summertime counterparts. These factors determine solar heating in the ocean and, ultimately, the potential for accelerated ice melting (e.g., Light et al., 2008). This work provides a foundation for understanding

  14. Sea-ice switches and abrupt climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildor, Hezi; Tziperman, Eli

    2003-09-15

    We propose that past abrupt climate changes were probably a result of rapid and extensive variations in sea-ice cover. We explain why this seems a perhaps more likely explanation than a purely thermohaline circulation mechanism. We emphasize that because of the significant influence of sea ice on the climate system, it seems that high priority should be given to developing ways for reconstructing high-resolution (in space and time) sea-ice extent for past climate-change events. If proxy data can confirm that sea ice was indeed the major player in past abrupt climate-change events, it seems less likely that such dramatic abrupt changes will occur due to global warming, when extensive sea-ice cover will not be present.

  15. The Seasonal Evolution of Sea Ice Floe Size Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. “The Seasonal Evolution of Sea Ice Floe Size Distribution...occur in the appearance and morphology of the Arctic sea ice cover over and annual cycle. These photos were taken over the pack ice near SHEBA in May...element model [Hopkins et al., 2004], using morphological conditions derived from the analyzed satellite imagery, confirms that breaking occurs along

  16. Nonlinear threshold behavior during the loss of Arctic sea ice

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenman, I; 10.1073/pnas.0806887106

    2008-01-01

    In light of the rapid recent retreat of Arctic sea ice, a number of studies have discussed the possibility of a critical threshold (or "tipping point") beyond which the ice-albedo feedback causes the ice cover to melt away in an irreversible process. The focus has typically been centered on the annual minimum (September) ice cover, which is often seen as particularly susceptible to destabilization by the ice-albedo feedback. Here we examine the central physical processes associated with the transition from ice-covered to ice-free Arctic Ocean conditions. We show that while the ice-albedo feedback promotes the existence of multiple ice cover states, the stabilizing thermodynamic effects of sea ice mitigate this when the Arctic Ocean is ice-covered during a sufficiently large fraction of the year. These results suggest that critical threshold behavior is unlikely during the approach from current perennial sea ice conditions to seasonally ice-free conditions. In a further warmed climate, however, we find that a ...

  17. Geometrical constraints on the evolution of ridged sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundrud, Trisha L.; Melling, Humfrey; Ingram, R. Grant

    2004-06-01

    A numerical model of the evolving draft distribution of seasonal pack ice is driven by freezing and ice field compression in one dimension. Spatial transects of sea ice draft acquired during winter in the Beaufort Sea are used to evaluate the model. Histograms obtained by ice-profiling sonar on subsea moorings reveal changes in the draft distribution, while observations of ice velocity by Doppler sonar allow calculation of the strain to which the draft distribution is responding. Numerical diffusion in thermal ice growth is controlled using a remapping algorithm. Mechanical redistribution algorithms in common use generate much more deep ridged ice than is observed. Geometric constraints on ridge-keel development that reflect the finite extent of level floes available for ridge building and the true average shape of keels produce more realistic results. In the seasonal pack ice of the Beaufort Sea, 75% of all floes are too small to provide a volume of ice sufficient to construct a keel of draft equal to that commonly assumed in ice dynamics modeling. On average, the distribution of draft within keels has a negative exponential form, implying a cusped keel shape with more area on the thinner flanks than at the crest; models commonly assume a uniform redistribution of ice into a keel of triangular shape. Clearly, the spatial organization of ice within seasonal pack or, equivalently, the existence of ridges and floes should be an acknowledged factor in redistribution theory for pack ice thickness.

  18. Sea ice thickness estimation in the Bohai Sea using geostationary ocean color imager data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wensong; SHENG Hui; ZHANG Xi

    2016-01-01

    A method to estimate the thickness of the sea ice of the Bohai Sea is proposed using geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) data and then applied to the dynamic monitoring of the sea ice thickness in the Bohai Sea during the winter of 2014 to 2015. First of all, a model is given between the GOCI shortwave broadband albedo and the reflectance of each band with high temporal resolution GOCI data. Then, the relationship model between the sea ice thickness and the GOCI shortwave broadband albedo is established and applied to the thickness extraction of the sea ice in the Bohai Sea. Finally, the sea ice thickness extraction method is tested by the results based on the MODIS data, thermodynamic empirical models (Lebedev and Zubov), and thein situ ice thickness data. The test results not only indicated that the sea ice thickness retrieval method based on the GOCI data was a good correlation (r2>0.86) with the sea ice thickness retrieved by the MODIS and thermodynamic empirical models, but also that the RMS is only 6.82 cm different from the thickness of the sea ice based on the GOCI andin situ data.

  19. Fram Strait sea ice export variability and September Arctic sea ice extent over the last 80 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedsrud, Lars H.; Halvorsen, Mari H.; Stroeve, Julienne C.; Zhang, Rong; Kloster, Kjell

    2017-01-01

    A new long-term data record of Fram Strait sea ice area export from 1935 to 2014 is developed using a combination of satellite radar images and station observations of surface pressure across Fram Strait. This data record shows that the long-term annual mean export is about 880 000 km2, representing 10 % of the sea-ice-covered area inside the basin. The time series has large interannual and multi-decadal variability but no long-term trend. However, during the last decades, the amount of ice exported has increased, with several years having annual ice exports that exceeded 1 million km2. This increase is a result of faster southward ice drift speeds due to stronger southward geostrophic winds, largely explained by increasing surface pressure over Greenland. Evaluating the trend onwards from 1979 reveals an increase in annual ice export of about +6 % per decade, with spring and summer showing larger changes in ice export (+11 % per decade) compared to autumn and winter (+2.6 % per decade). Increased ice export during winter will generally result in new ice growth and contributes to thinning inside the Arctic Basin. Increased ice export during summer or spring will, in contrast, contribute directly to open water further north and a reduced summer sea ice extent through the ice-albedo feedback. Relatively low spring and summer export from 1950 to 1970 is thus consistent with a higher mid-September sea ice extent for these years. Our results are not sensitive to long-term change in Fram Strait sea ice concentration. We find a general moderate influence between export anomalies and the following September sea ice extent, explaining 18 % of the variance between 1935 and 2014, but with higher values since 2004.

  20. Relationship between Hadley circulation and sea ice extent in the Bering Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU BoTao; WANG HuiJun

    2008-01-01

    The linkage between Hadley circulation (HC) and sea ice extent in the Bering Sea during March-April is investigated through an analysis of observed data in this research. It is found that HC is negatively correlated to the sea ice extent in the Bering Sea, namely, strong (weak) HC is corresponding to less (more) sea ice in the Bering Sea. The present study also addresses the large-scale atmospheric general circulation changes underlying the relationship between HC and sea ice in the Bering Sea. It follows that a positive phase of HC corresponds to westward located Aleutian low, anomalous southerlies over the eastern North Pacific and higher temperature in the Bering Sea, providing unfavorable atmospheric and thermal conditions for the sea ice forming, and thus sea ice extent in the Bering Sea is decreased, and vice versa. In addition, it is further identified that East Asian-North Pacific-North America telecon-nection may play an important role in linking HC and changes of atmospheric circulations as well as sea ice in the Bering Sea.

  1. Global warming releases microplastic legacy frozen in Arctic Sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbard, Rachel W.; Sadri, Saeed; Wong, Ying Qi; Khitun, Alexandra A.; Baker, Ian; Thompson, Richard C.

    2014-06-01

    When sea ice forms it scavenges and concentrates particulates from the water column, which then become trapped until the ice melts. In recent years, melting has led to record lows in Arctic Sea ice extent, the most recent in September 2012. Global climate models, such as that of Gregory et al. (2002), suggest that the decline in Arctic Sea ice volume (3.4% per decade) will actually exceed the decline in sea ice extent, something that Laxon et al. (2013) have shown supported by satellite data. The extent to which melting ice could release anthropogenic particulates back to the open ocean has not yet been examined. Here we show that Arctic Sea ice from remote locations contains concentrations of microplastics at least two orders of magnitude greater than those that have been previously reported in highly contaminated surface waters, such as those of the Pacific Gyre. Our findings indicate that microplastics have accumulated far from population centers and that polar sea ice represents a major historic global sink of man-made particulates. The potential for substantial quantities of legacy microplastic contamination to be released to the ocean as the ice melts therefore needs to be evaluated, as do the physical and toxicological effects of plastics on marine life.

  2. Smoluchowski coagulation models of sea ice thickness distribution dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlovitch, D.; Illner, R.; Monahan, A.

    2011-12-01

    Sea ice thickness distributions display a ubiquitous exponential decrease with thickness. This tail characterizes the range of ice thickness produced by mechanical redistribution of ice through the process of ridging, rafting, and shearing. We investigate how well the thickness distribution can be simulated by representing mechanical redistribution as a generalized stacking process. Such processes are naturally described by a well-studied class of models known as Smoluchowski Coagulation Models (SCMs), which describe the dynamics of a population of fixed-mass "particles" which combine in pairs to form a "particle" with the combined mass of the constituent pair at a rate which depends on the mass of the interacting particles. Like observed sea ice thickness distributions, the mass distribution of the populations generated by SCMs has an exponential or quasi-exponential form. We use SCMs to model sea ice, identifying mass-increasing particle combinations with thickness-increasing ice redistribution processes. Our model couples an SCM component with a thermodynamic component and generates qualitatively accurate thickness distributions with a variety of rate kernels. Our results suggest that the exponential tail of the sea ice thickness distribution arises from the nature of the ridging process, rather than specific physical properties of sea ice or the spatial arrangement of floes, and that the relative strengths of the dynamic and thermodynamic processes are key in accurately simulating the rate at which the sea ice thickness tail drops off with thickness.

  3. Increased CO2 uptake due to sea ice growth and decay in the Nordic Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, S.; Bendtsen, J.; Pedersen, L. T.

    2009-01-01

    uptake in the Nordic Seas is currently unknown. We present evidence from 50 localities in the Arctic Ocean that dissolved inorganic carbon is rejected together with brine from growing sea ice and that sea ice melting during summer is rich in carbonates. Model calculations show that melting of sea ice......The uptake rates of atmospheric CO2 in the Nordic Seas are among the highest in the world's oceans. This has been ascribed mainly to a strong biological drawdown, but chemical processes within the sea ice itself have also been suggested to play a role. The importance of sea ice for the carbon...... exported from the Arctic Ocean into the East Greenland current and the Nordic Seas plays an important and overlooked role in regulating the surface water partial pressure of CO2 and increases the seasonal CO2 uptake in the area by approximately 50%....

  4. What sea-ice biogeochemical modellers need from observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Steiner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical models can be a powerful tool helping to understand the role biogeochemical processes play in local and global systems and how this role may be altered in a changing climate. With respect to sea-ice biogeochemical models, our knowledge is severely limited by our poor confidence in numerical model parameterisations representing those processes. Improving model parameterisations requires communication between observers and modellers to guide model development and improve the acquisition and presentation of observations. In addition to more observations, modellers need conceptual and quantitative descriptions of the processes controlling, for example: primary production and diversity of algal functional types in sea ice, ice algal growth, release from sea ice, heterotrophic remineralisation, transfer and emission of gases (e.g., DMS, CH4, BrO, incorporation of seawater components in growing sea ice (including Fe, organic and inorganic carbon, and major salts and subsequent release; CO2 dynamics (including CaCO3 precipitation, flushing and supply of nutrients to sea-ice ecosystems; and radiative transfer through sea ice. These issues can be addressed by focused observations, as well as controlled laboratory and field experiments that target specific processes. The guidelines provided here should help modellers and observers improve the integration of measurements and modelling efforts and advance toward the common goal of understanding biogeochemical processes in sea ice and their current and future impacts on environmental systems.

  5. Optical properties of sea ice in Liaodong Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhantang; Yang, Yuezhong; Wang, Guifen; Cao, Wenxi; Li, Zhijun; Sun, Zhaohua

    2012-03-01

    Many industrial, agricultural, and residential areas surrounding Liaodong Bay are responsible for much of the particulate matter (PM) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) found in the sea ice in the bay. Understanding the optical properties of "dirty" sea ice is important for analyzing remote sensing data and calculating energy balances. We designed a hyperspectral radiation instrument to observe the optical properties of sea ice. The results show that albedo peaks ranged from 0.3 to 0.85 and that the peaks shifted to a longer wavelength for high PM and CDOM concentrations. The absorption and scattering coefficients for sea ice were obtained. The bulk absorption coefficient shows that bulk absorption is primarily determined by PM and CDOM at shorter wavelengths, while pure ice and brine pockets become more important at longer wavelengths. Scattering coefficients for sea ice ranged from 197 to 1072 m-1, and showed consistent variations with gas bubble and brine pocket concentrations. The effects of PM and CDOM on the bulk absorption coefficient of sea ice were studied. At 440 nm, particulates accounted for 55-98% and CDOM accounted for 2-37% of the bulk absorption. Ratios between particulate absorption and bulk absorption for sea ice were almost constant from 400 to 550 nm, and began to decrease sharply for wavelengths >550 nm. Ratios between CDOM and bulk absorption decreased almost linearly with increasing wavelength.

  6. Contributing factors to an enhanced ice albedo feedback in Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D. K.; Jones, K. F.; Light, B.; Holland, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover is in decline. In recent years there has been a decrease in summer ice area; a thinning of the ice cover; an increase in the amount of seasonal ice; an earlier onset of summer melt; and a later start of fall freeze up. Decreases in ice concentration substantially increase solar heat input to the ocean. Earlier dates of melt onset reduce ice albedo during a period when incident solar irradiance is large increasing solar heat input to the ice. Seasonal sea ice typically has a smaller albedo than perennial ice throughout the melt season. Thus, the observed shift to a seasonal ice cover causes greater solar heat input to the ice and more melting thereby accelerating ice decay. Thinner ice results in greater transmission of solar heat to the upper ocean, where it contributes to bottom melting, lateral melting, and warming of the water. All of these changes enhance the amount of solar energy deposited in the ice ocean system, and increasing ice melt. We will examine the relative magnitude of each of these changes individually as well as their collective contribution to the ice albedo feedback.

  7. Fine-resolution simulation of surface current and sea ice in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiying; ZHANG Xuehong; YU Rucong; LIU Hailong; LI Wei

    2007-01-01

    A fine-resolution model is developed for ocean circulation simulation in the National Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG),Chinese Academy of Sciences, and is applied to simulate surface current and sea ice variations in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas. A dynamic sea ice model in elastic-viscous-plastic rheology and a thermodynamic sea ice model are employed. A 200-year simulation is performed and a dimatological average of a 10-year period (141 st-150 th) is presented with focus on sea ice concentration and surface current variations in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas. The model is able to simulate well the East Greenland Current, Beaufort Gyre and the Transpolar Drift, but the simulated West Spitsbergen Current is small and weak. In the March climatology, the sea ice coverage can be simulated well except for a bit more ice in east of Spitsbergen Island. The result is also good for the September scenario except for less ice concentration east of Greenland and greater ice concentration near the ice margin. The extra ice east of Spitsbergen Island is caused by sea ice current convergence forced by atmospheric wind stress.

  8. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  9. Influence of ice thickness and surface properties on light transmission through Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katlein, Christian; Arndt, Stefanie; Nicolaus, Marcel; Perovich, Donald K.; Jakuba, Michael V.; Suman, Stefano; Elliott, Stephen; Whitcomb, Louis L.; McFarland, Christopher J.; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Boetius, Antje; German, Christopher R.

    2015-09-01

    The observed changes in physical properties of sea ice such as decreased thickness and increased melt pond cover severely impact the energy budget of Arctic sea ice. Increased light transmission leads to increased deposition of solar energy in the upper ocean and thus plays a crucial role for amount and timing of sea-ice-melt and under-ice primary production. Recent developments in underwater technology provide new opportunities to study light transmission below the largely inaccessible underside of sea ice. We measured spectral under-ice radiance and irradiance using the new Nereid Under-Ice (NUI) underwater robotic vehicle, during a cruise of the R/V Polarstern to 83°N 6°W in the Arctic Ocean in July 2014. NUI is a next generation hybrid remotely operated vehicle (H-ROV) designed for both remotely piloted and autonomous surveys underneath land-fast and moving sea ice. Here we present results from one of the first comprehensive scientific dives of NUI employing its interdisciplinary sensor suite. We combine under-ice optical measurements with three dimensional under-ice topography (multibeam sonar) and aerial images of the surface conditions. We investigate the influence of spatially varying ice-thickness and surface properties on the spatial variability of light transmittance during summer. Our results show that surface properties such as melt ponds dominate the spatial distribution of the under-ice light field on small scales (<1000 m2), while sea ice-thickness is the most important predictor for light transmission on larger scales. In addition, we propose the use of an algorithm to obtain histograms of light transmission from distributions of sea ice thickness and surface albedo.

  10. Influence of ice thickness and surface properties on light transmission through Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katlein, C.; Arndt, S.; Nicolaus, M.; Perovich, D. K.; Jakuba, M.; Suman, S.; Elliott, S.; Whitcomb, L. L.; McFarland, C.; Gerdes, R.; Boetius, A.

    2015-12-01

    The changes in physical properties of sea ice such as decreased thickness and increased melt pond cover observed over the last decades severely impact the energy budget of Arctic sea ice. Increased light transmission leads to increased deposition of solar energy in the upper ocean and thus plays a crucial role in the amount and timing of sea-ice-melt and under-ice primary production. Recent developments in underwater technology provide new opportunities to undertake challenging research at the largely inaccessible underside of sea ice. We measured spectral under-ice radiance and irradiance onboard the new Nereid Under-Ice (NUI) underwater robotic vehicle, during a cruise of the R/V Polarstern to 83°N 6°W in the Arctic Ocean in July 2014. NUI is a next generation hybrid remotely operated vehicle (H-ROV) designed for both remotely-piloted and autonomous surveys underneath land-fast and moving sea ice. Here we present results from one of the first comprehensive scientific dives of NUI employing its interdisciplinary sensor suite. We combine under-ice optical measurements with three-dimensional under-ice topography and aerial images of the surface conditions. We investigate the influence of spatially varying ice-thickness and surface properties during summer on the spatial variability of light transmittance. Results show that surface properties dominate the spatial distribution of the under-ice light field on small scales (<1000m²), while sea ice-thickness is the most important predictor for light transmission on larger scales. In addition, we suggest an algorithm to obtain histograms of light transmission from distributions of sea ice thickness and surface albedo.

  11. Sea ice algal biomass and physiology in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Arrigo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sea ice covers approximately 5% of the ocean surface and is one of the most extensive ecosystems on the planet. The microbial communities that live in sea ice represent an important food source for numerous organisms at a time of year when phytoplankton in the water column are scarce. Here we describe the distributions and physiology of sea ice microalgae in the poorly studied Amundsen Sea sector of the Southern Ocean. Microalgal biomass was relatively high in sea ice in the Amundsen Sea, due primarily to well developed surface communities that would have been replenished with nutrients during seawater flooding of the surface as a result of heavy snow accumulation. Elevated biomass was also occasionally observed in slush, interior, and bottom ice microhabitats throughout the region. Sea ice microalgal photophysiology appeared to be controlled by the availability of both light and nutrients. Surface communities used an active xanthophyll cycle and effective pigment sunscreens to protect themselves from harmful ultraviolet and visible radiation. Acclimation to low light microhabitats in sea ice was facilitated by enhanced pigment content per cell, greater photosynthetic accessory pigments, and increased photosynthetic efficiency. Photoacclimation was especially effective in the bottom ice community, where ready access to nutrients would have allowed ice microalgae to synthesize a more efficient photosynthetic apparatus. Surprisingly, the pigment-detected prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis antarctica was an important component of surface communities (slush and surface ponds where its acclimation to high light may precondition it to seed phytoplankton blooms after the sea ice melts in spring.

  12. Pacific Walrus Response to Arctic Sea Ice Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Chadwick V.; Fischbach, Anthony S.

    2008-01-01

    Sea ice plays an important role in the life of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens). U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are seeking to understand how losses of sea ice during summer over important foraging grounds in the Chukchi Sea will affect walruses. USGS scientists recently modified a remotely deployed satellite radio-tag that will aid in studying walrus foraging habitats and behaviors. Information from the tags will help USGS understand how walruses are responding to their changing environment.

  13. On the assimilation of ice velocity and concentration data into large-scale sea ice models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dulière

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Data assimilation into sea ice models designed for climate studies has started about 15 years ago. In most of the studies conducted so far, it is assumed that the improvement brought by the assimilation is straightforward. However, some studies suggest this might not be true. In order to elucidate this question and to find an appropriate way to further assimilate sea ice concentration and velocity observations into a global sea ice-ocean model, we analyze here results from a number of twin experiments (i.e. experiments in which the assimilated data are model outputs carried out with a simplified model of the Arctic sea ice pack. Our objective is to determine to what degree the assimilation of ice velocity and/or concentration data improves the global performance of the model and, more specifically, reduces the error in the computed ice thickness. A simple optimal interpolation scheme is used, and outputs from a control run and from perturbed experiments without and with data assimilation are thoroughly compared. Our results indicate that, under certain conditions depending on the assimilation weights and the type of model error, the assimilation of ice velocity data enhances the model performance. The assimilation of ice concentration data can also help in improving the model behavior, but it has to be handled with care because of the strong connection between ice concentration and ice thickness.

    This study is preliminary study towards real observation data assimilation into NEMOLIM, a global sea ice-ocean model.

  14. Measurements of sea ice proxies from Antarctic coastal shallow cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Vallelonga, Paul; Spolaor, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Frezzotti, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Despite its close relationship with climate, the climatic impact of sea ice remains only partially understood: an indication of this is the Arctic sea ice which is declining at a faster rate than models predict. Thus, the need for reliable sea ice proxies is of crucial importance. Among the sea ice proxies that can be extracted from ice cores, interest has recently been shown in the halogens Iodine (I) and Bromine (Br) (Spolaor, A., et al., 2013a, 2013b). The production of sea ice is a source of Sodium and Bromine aerosols through frost flower crystal formation and sublimation of salty blowing snow, while Iodine is emitted by the algae living underneath sea ice. We present here the results of Na, Br and I measurements in Antarctic shallow cores, drilled during a traverse made in late 2013 - early 2014 from Talos Dome (72° 00'S, 159°12'E) to GV7 (70° 41'S, 158° 51'E) seeking for sea ice signature. The samples were kept frozen until the analyses, that were carried out by Sector Field Mass Spectroscopy Inductive Coupled Plasma (SFMS-ICP): special precautions and experimental steps were adopted for the detection of such elements. The coastal location of the cores allows a clear signal from the nearby sea ice masses. The multiple cores are located about 50 km from each other and can help us to infer the provenance of the sea ice that contributed to the proxy signature. Moreover, by simultaneously determining other chemical elements and compounds in the snow, it is possible to determine the relative timing of their deposition, thus helping us to understand their processes of emission and deposition.

  15. The microwave scattering characteristics of sea ice in the Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Meijie; DAI Yongshou; ZHANG Jie; ZHANG Xi; MENG Junmin; ZHU Xiuqin; YIN Yalei

    2016-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing has become the primary means for sea-ice research, and has been supported by a great deal of field experiments and theoretical studies regarding sea-ice microwave scattering. However, these studies have been barely carried in the Bohai Sea. The sea-ice microwave scattering mechanism was first developed for the thin sea ice with slight roughness in the Bohai Sea in the winter of 2012, and included the backscattering coefficients which were measured on the different conditions of three bands (L, C and X), two polarizations (HH and VV), and incident angles of 20° to 60°, using a ground-based scatterometer and the synchronous physical parameters of the sea-ice temperature, density, thickness, salinity, and so on. The theoretical model of the sea-ice electromagnetic scattering is obtained based on these physical parameters. The research regarding the sea-ice microwave scattering mechanism is carried out through two means, which includes the comparison between the field microwave scattering data and the simulation results of the theoretical model, as well as the feature analysis of the four components of the sea-ice electromagnetic scattering. It is revealed that the sea-ice microwave scattering data and the theoretical simulation results vary in the same trend with the incident angles. Also, there is a visible variant in the sensitivity of every component to the different bands. For example, the C and X bands are sensitive to the top surface, the X band is sensitive to the scatterers, and the L and C bands are sensitive to the bottom surface, and so on. It is suggested that the features of the sea-ice surfaces and scatterers can be retrieved by the further research in the future. This experiment can provide an experimental and theoretical foundation for research regarding the sea-ice microwave scattering characteristics in the Bohai Sea.

  16. A multivariate analysis of Antarctic sea ice since 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes Neto, Newton de; Evangelista, Heitor [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Uerj), LARAMG - Laboratorio de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais, Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tanizaki-Fonseca, Kenny [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Uerj), LARAMG - Laboratorio de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais, Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Dept. Analise Geoambiental, Inst. de Geociencias, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Penello Meirelles, Margareth Simoes [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ)/Geomatica, Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Carlos Eiras [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Laboratorio de Oceanografia Fisica, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Recent satellite observations have shown an increase in the total extent of Antarctic sea ice, during periods when the atmosphere and oceans tend to be warmer surrounding a significant part of the continent. Despite an increase in total sea ice, regional analyses depict negative trends in the Bellingshausen-Amundsen Sea and positive trends in the Ross Sea. Although several climate parameters are believed to drive the formation of Antarctic sea ice and the local atmosphere, a descriptive mechanism that could trigger such differences in trends are still unknown. In this study we employed a multivariate analysis in order to identify the response of the Antarctic sea ice with respect to commonly utilized climate forcings/parameters, as follows: (1) The global air surface temperature, (2) The global sea surface temperature, (3) The atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, (4) The South Annular Mode, (5) The Nino 3, (6) The Nino (3 + 4, 7) The Nino 4, (8) The Southern Oscillation Index, (9) The Multivariate ENSO Index, (10) the Total Solar Irradiance, (11) The maximum O{sub 3} depletion area, and (12) The minimum O{sub 3} concentration over Antarctica. Our results indicate that western Antarctic sea ice is simultaneously impacted by several parameters; and that the minimum, mean, and maximum sea ice extent may respond to a separate set of climatic/geochemical parameters. (orig.)

  17. Modeling the summertime evolution of sea-ice melt ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüthje, Mikael; Feltham, D.L.; Taylor, P.D.;

    2006-01-01

    We present a mathematical model describing the summer melting of sea ice. We simulate the evolution of melt ponds and determine area coverage and total surface ablation. The model predictions are tested for sensitivity to the melt rate of unponded ice, enhanced melt rate beneath the melt ponds......, vertical seepage, and horizontal permeability. The model is initialized with surface topographies derived from laser altimetry corresponding to first-year sea ice and multiyear sea ice. We predict that there are large differences in the depth of melt ponds and the area of coverage between the two types...... of ice. We also find that the vertical seepage rate and the melt rate of unponded ice are important in determining the total surface ablation and area covered by melt ponds....

  18. Remote sensing of sea ice: advances during the DAMOCLES project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Heygster

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Arctic, global warming is particularly pronounced so that we need to monitor its development continuously. On the other hand, the vast and hostile conditions make in situ observation difficult, so that available satellite observations should be exploited in the best possible way to extract geophysical information. Here, we give a résumé of the sea ice remote sensing efforts of the European Union's (EU project DAMOCLES (Developing Arctic Modeling and Observing Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies. In order to better understand the seasonal variation of the microwave emission of sea ice observed from space, the monthly variations of the microwave emissivity of first-year and multi-year sea ice have been derived for the frequencies of the microwave imagers like AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS and sounding frequencies of AMSU (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit, and have been used to develop an optimal estimation method to retrieve sea ice and atmospheric parameters simultaneously. In addition, a sea ice microwave emissivity model has been used together with a thermodynamic model to establish relations between the emissivities from 6 GHz to 50 GHz. At the latter frequency, the emissivity is needed for assimilation into atmospheric circulation models, but is more difficult to observe directly. The size of the snow grains on top of the sea ice influences both its albedo and the microwave emission. A method to determine the effective size of the snow grains from observations in the visible range (MODIS is developed and demonstrated in an application on the Ross ice shelf. The bidirectional reflectivity distribution function (BRDF of snow, which is an essential input parameter to the retrieval, has been measured in situ on Svalbard during the DAMOCLES campaign, and a BRDF model assuming aspherical particles is developed. Sea ice drift and deformation is derived from satellite observations with the scatterometer

  19. Community-based sea ice thickness observatories in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearheard, S.; Mahoney, A. R.; Huntington, H.; Oshima, T.; Qillaq, T.; Barry, R. G.

    2007-12-01

    The thickness of sea ice is a fundamental diagnostic variable for assessing the state of the ice cover. At the scale of the Arctic Basin, the ice thickness distribution determines the volume of the ice pack and its susceptibility to a warming climate as well as affecting the exchange of heat between the ocean and atmosphere. At the local scale, it dictates where and when it is safe to travel on the ice or through the water. Measuring the thickness of sea ice is challenging both technically and logistically and any measurement program strikes a balance between cost and coverage accordingly. Accurately measuring the thickness of large areas of sea ice generally requires airplanes, ice breakers or submarines and electromagnetic or acoustic devices. In this study, we use one of the least technical methods combined with support from remote communities to establish a set of sea ice observation stations in Barrow (Alaska), Clyde River (Baffin Island, Nunavut) and Qaanaaq (northwest Greenland). We employ hunters from these communities, who are experts in traveling and working on the ice, and train them to deploy ice observation stations and take measurements. Each station consists of snow stakes and hot-wire ice thickness gauges and the local observers take measurements on a weekly basis. Involvement of the community is fundamental to the success of these measurement programs and ensures the data collected are relevant to the local use of the sea ice. Community elders and hunters chose the station locations according to where they hunt and travel and to be representative of local variability. As partners in research, the scientists and local hunters are able to share and synthesize their knowledge; the scientific community gains a better understanding of the extraordinary depth of traditional knowledge and the communities improve their understanding of global changes and ability to adapt. Here we present data from observation stations near Clyde River and Qaanaaq. At Clyde

  20. Regional Changes in the Sea Ice Cover and Ice Production in the Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal polynyas around the Antarctic continent have been regarded as sea ice factories because of high ice production rates in these regions. The observation of a positive trend in the extent of Antarctic sea ice during the satellite era has been intriguing in light of the observed rapid decline of the ice extent in the Arctic. The results of analysis of the time series of passive microwave data indicate large regional variability with the trends being strongly positive in the Ross Sea, strongly negative in the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas and close to zero in the other regions. The atmospheric circulation in the Antarctic is controlled mainly by the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and the marginal ice zone around the continent shows an alternating pattern of advance and retreat suggesting the presence of a propagating wave (called Antarctic Circumpolar Wave) around the circumpolar region. The results of analysis of the passive microwave data suggest that the positive trend in the Antarctic sea ice cover could be caused primarily by enhanced ice production in the Ross Sea that may be associated with more persistent and larger coastal polynyas in the region. Over the Ross Sea shelf, analysis of sea ice drift data from 1992 to 2008 yields a positive rate-of-increase in the net ice export of about 30,000 km2 per year. For a characteristic ice thickness of 0.6 m, this yields a volume transport of about 20 km3/year, which is almost identical, within error bars, to our estimate of the trend in ice production. In addition to the possibility of changes in SAM, modeling studies have also indicated that the ozone hole may have a role in that it causes the deepening of the lows in the western Antarctic region thereby causing strong winds to occur offthe Ross-ice shelf.

  1. Characterizing Arctic sea ice topography using high-resolution IceBridge data

    OpenAIRE

    Petty, Alek A.; Tsamados, Michel C.; Kurtz, Nathan T.; Farrell, Sinead L.; Newman, Thomas; Harbeck, Jeremy P.; FELTHAM, DANIEL L.; Richter-Menge, Jackie A.

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of Arctic sea ice topography using high resolution, three-dimensional, surface elevation data from the Airborne Topographic Mapper, flown as part of NASA's Operation IceBridge mission. Surface features in the sea ice cover are detected using a newly developed surface feature picking algorithm. We derive information regarding the height, volume and geometry of surface features from 2009–2014 within the Beaufort/Chukchi and Central Arcti...

  2. Antartic sea ice, 1973 - 1976: Satellite passive-microwave observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H. J.; Comiso, J. C.; Parkinson, C. L.; Campbell, W. J.; Carsey, F. D.; Gloersen, P.

    1983-01-01

    Data from the Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) on the Nimbus 5 satellite are used to determine the extent and distribution of Antarctic sea ice. The characteristics of the southern ocean, the mathematical formulas used to obtain quantitative sea ice concentrations, the general characteristics of the seasonal sea ice growth/decay cycle and regional differences, and the observed seasonal growth/decay cycle for individual years and interannual variations of the ice cover are discussed. The sea ice data from the ESMR are presented in the form of color-coded maps of the Antarctic and the southern oceans. The maps show brightness temperatures and concentrations of pack ice averaged for each month, 4-year monthly averages, and month-to-month changes. Graphs summarizing the results, such as areas of sea ice as a function of time in the various sectors of the southern ocean are included. The images demonstrate that satellite microwave data provide unique information on large-scale sea ice conditions for determining climatic conditions in polar regions and possible global climatic changes.

  3. The sea ice in Young Sound: Implications for carbon cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Ronnie Nøhr; Rysgaard, Søren; Kühl, Michael

    2007-01-01

    , and 7 of the longest sea-ice-free periods observed in 50 years were recorded after 1990. The snow and sea-ice cover regulates the activity of the light-limited marine ecosystem of Young Sound. As the snow cover melts during late May and June, the irradiance refl ectance decreases, especially for red...... and near infrared light. Differences in snow cover thickness and patchy distribution of dry snow, wet snow and melting ponds on the sea-ice surface result in a very heterogeneous light environment at the underside of the ice. In areas with suffi cient light, sea-ice algae begin to fl ourish......–30 μg Chl a l-1 sea ice at the underside of the ice and with maximum area integrated values of c. 3 mg Chl a m-2. We speculate that the extreme dynamics in sea-ice appearance, structure and brine percolation, which is driven primarily by large but variable freshwater inputs during snow melt...

  4. Spring Snow Depth on Arctic Sea Ice using the IceBridge Snow Depth Product (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, M.; Rigor, I. G.; Nghiem, S. V.; Kurtz, N. T.; Farrell, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Snow has dual roles in the growth and decay of Arctic sea ice. In winter, it insulates sea ice from colder air temperatures, slowing its growth. From spring into summer, the albedo of snow determines how much insolation is transmitted through the sea ice and into the underlying ocean, ultimately impacting the progression of the summer ice melt. Knowing the snow thickness and distribution are essential for understanding and modeling sea ice thermodynamics and the surface heat budget. Therefore, an accurate assessment of the snow cover is necessary for identifying its impacts in the changing Arctic. This study assesses springtime snow conditions on Arctic sea ice using airborne snow thickness measurements from Operation IceBridge (2009-2012). The 2012 data were validated with coordinated in situ measurements taken in March 2012 during the BRomine, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment field campaign. We find a statistically significant correlation coefficient of 0.59 and RMS error of 5.8 cm. The comparison between the IceBridge snow thickness product and the 1937, 1954-1991 Soviet drifting ice station data suggests that the snow cover has thinned by 33% in the western Arctic and 44% in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas. A rudimentary estimation shows that a thinner snow cover in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas translates to a mid-December surface heat flux as high as 81 W/m2 compared to 32 W/m2. The relationship between the 2009-2012 thinner snow depth distribution and later sea ice freeze-up is statistically significant, with a correlation coefficient of 0.59. These results may help us better understand the surface energy budget in the changing Arctic, and may improve our ability to predict the future state of the sea ice cover.

  5. On large outflows of Arctic sea ice into the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Ron; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Laxon, Seymour W.

    2005-01-01

    Winter outflows of Arctic sea ice into the Barents Sea are estimated using a 10-year record of satellite ice motion and thickness. The mean winter volume export through the Svalbard/Franz Josef Land passage is 40 km3, and ranges from -280 km3 to 340 km3. A large outflow in 2003 is preconditioned by an unusually high concentration of thick perennial ice over the Nansen Basin at the end of the 2002 summer. With a deep atmospheric low situated over the eastern Barents Sea in winter, the result is an increased export of Arctic ice. The Oct-Mar ice area flux, at 110 x 10 to the third power km3, is not only unusual in magnitude but also remarkable in that >70% of the area is multiyear ice; the ice volume flux at340 km3 is almost one-fifth of the ice flux through the Fram Strait. Another large outflow of Arctic sea ice through this passage, comparable to that in 2003, is found in 1996. This southward flux of sea ice represents one of two major sources of freshwater in the Barents Sea; the other is the eastward flux of water via the Norwegian Coastal Current. The possible consequences of variable freshwater input on the Barents Sea hydrography and its impact on transformation of Atlantic Water en route to the Arctic Ocean are examined with a 25-year coupled ice-ocean model.

  6. Influence of ice thickness and surface properties on light transmission through Arctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katlein, Christian; Arndt, Stefanie; Nicolaus, Marcel; Perovich, Donald K; Jakuba, Michael V; Suman, Stefano; Elliott, Stephen; Whitcomb, Louis L; McFarland, Christopher J; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Boetius, Antje; German, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    The observed changes in physical properties of sea ice such as decreased thickness and increased melt pond cover severely impact the energy budget of Arctic sea ice. Increased light transmission leads to increased deposition of solar energy in the upper ocean and thus plays a crucial role for amount and timing of sea-ice-melt and under-ice primary production. Recent developments in underwater technology provide new opportunities to study light transmission below the largely inaccessible underside of sea ice. We measured spectral under-ice radiance and irradiance using the new Nereid Under-Ice (NUI) underwater robotic vehicle, during a cruise of the R/V Polarstern to 83°N 6°W in the Arctic Ocean in July 2014. NUI is a next generation hybrid remotely operated vehicle (H-ROV) designed for both remotely piloted and autonomous surveys underneath land-fast and moving sea ice. Here we present results from one of the first comprehensive scientific dives of NUI employing its interdisciplinary sensor suite. We combine under-ice optical measurements with three dimensional under-ice topography (multibeam sonar) and aerial images of the surface conditions. We investigate the influence of spatially varying ice-thickness and surface properties on the spatial variability of light transmittance during summer. Our results show that surface properties such as melt ponds dominate the spatial distribution of the under-ice light field on small scales (ice-thickness is the most important predictor for light transmission on larger scales. In addition, we propose the use of an algorithm to obtain histograms of light transmission from distributions of sea ice thickness and surface albedo.

  7. Physically-based Ice Thickness and Surface Roughness Retrievals over Rough Deformed Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Gaiser, Peter; Allard, Richard; Posey, Pamela; Hebert, David; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline; Polashenski, Christopher; Claffey, Keran

    2016-04-01

    The observations of sea ice thickness and ice surface roughness are critical for our understanding of the state of the changing Arctic. Currently, the Radar and/or LiDAR data of sea ice freeboard are used to infer sea ice thickness via isostasy. The underlying assumption is that the LiDAR signal returns at the air/snow interface and radar signal at the snow/ice interface. The elevations of these interfaces are determined based on LiDAR/Radar return waveforms. However, the commonly used threshold-based surface detection techniques are empirical in nature and work well only over level/smooth sea ice. Rough sea ice surfaces can modify the return waveforms, resulting in significant Electromagnetic (EM) bias in the estimated surface elevations, and thus large errors in the ice thickness retrievals. To understand and quantify such sea ice surface roughness effects, a combined EM rough surface and volume scattering model was developed to simulate radar returns from the rough sea ice 'layer cake' structure. A waveform matching technique was also developed to fit observed waveforms to a physically-based waveform model and subsequently correct the roughness induced EM bias in the estimated freeboard. This new EM Bias Corrected (EMBC) algorithm was able to better retrieve surface elevations and estimate the surface roughness parameter simultaneously. Both the ice thickness and surface roughness retrievals are validated using in-situ data. For the surface roughness retrievals, we applied this EMBC algorithm to co-incident LiDAR/Radar measurements collected during a Cryosat-2 under-flight by the NASA IceBridge missions. Results show that not only does the waveform model fit very well to the measured radar waveform, but also the roughness parameters derived independently from the LiDAR and radar data agree very well for both level and deformed sea ice. For sea ice thickness retrievals, validation based on in-situ data from the coordinated CRREL/NRL field campaign demonstrates

  8. The Importance of Snow Distribution on Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B.; Polashenski, C.; Divine, D.; King, J.; Liston, G. E.; Nicolaus, M.; Rösel, A.

    2015-12-01

    Snow's insulating and reflective properties substantially influence Arctic sea ice growth and decay. A particularly important, but under-appreciated, aspect of snow on sea ice is its fine-scale spatial distribution. Snow redistribution into dunes and drifts controls the effective thermal conductivity of a snowpack and dictates the locations of melt pond formation, exerting considerable control over ice mass balance. The effective thermal conductivity of snow distributions created on sea ice, for example, is often considerably greater than a uniform snowpack of equivalent mean thickness. During the N-ICE 2015 campaign north of Svalbard, we studied snow distributions across multiple ice types and the impacts these have on thermal fluxes and ice mass balance. We used terrestrial LiDAR to observe the snow surface topography over km2 areas, conducted many thousands of manual snow depth measurements, and collected hundreds of observations of the snow physical properties in snow pits. We find that the wind driven redistribution of snow can alter the net effect of a constant snow cover volume on ice mass balance as strongly as inter-annual variability in the amount and timing of snowfall. Further comparison with snow depth distributions from field campaigns in other parts of the Arctic highlights regional and inter-annual differences in snow distribution. We quantify the impact of this variability on ice mass balance and demonstrate the need for considering snow distributions and redistribution processes in sea ice models.

  9. Linking the northern hemisphere sea-ice reduction trend and the quasi-decadal arctic sea-ice oscillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J. [University of Alaska Fairbanks, International Arctic Research Center, Alaska (United States); Ikeda, M. [Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Sapporo (Japan); Zhang, S. [University of Alaska Fairbanks Fairbanks, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Alaska (United States); Gerdes, R. [Alfred-Wegener Institute for Polar Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    The nature of the reduction trend and quasi-decadal oscillation in Northern Hemisphere sea-ice extent is investigated. The trend and oscillation that seem to be two separate phenomena have been found in data. This study examines a hypothesis that the Arctic sea-ice reduction trend in the last three decades amplified the quasi-decadal Arctic sea-ice oscillation (ASIO) due to a positive ice/ocean-albedo feedback, based on data analysis and a conceptual model proposed by Ikeda et al. The theoretical, conceptual model predicts that the quasi-decadal oscillation is amplified by the thinning sea-ice, leading to the ASIO, which is driven by the strong positive feedback between the atmosphere and ice-ocean systems. Such oscillation is predicted to be out-of-phase between the Arctic Basin and the Nordic Seas with a phase difference of 3{pi}/4, with the Nordic Seas leading the Arctic. The wavelet analysis of the sea ice data reveals that the quasi-decadal ASIO occurred actively since the 1970s following the trend starting in the 1960s (i.e., as sea-ice became thinner and thinner), as the atmosphere experienced quasi-decadal oscillations during the last century. The wavelet analysis also confirms the prediction of such out-of-phase feature between these two basins, which varied from 0.62{pi} in 1960 to 0.25{pi} in 1995. Furthermore, a coupled ice-ocean general circulation model (GCM) was used to simulate two scenarios, one without the greenhouse gas warming and the other having realistic atmospheric forcing along with the warming that leads to sea-ice reduction trend. The quasi-decadal ASIO is excited in the latter case compared to the no-warming case. The wavelet analyses of the simulated ice volume were also conducted to derive decadal ASIO and similar phase relationship between the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas. An independent data source was used to confirm such decadal oscillation in the upper layer (or freshwater) thickness, which is consistent with the model

  10. Application of the HY-1 satellite to sea ice monitoring and forecasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yawei; WU Huiding; ZHANG Yunfei; SUN Congrong; LIU Yu

    2004-01-01

    The HY-1A satellite is the first oceanic satellite of China. During the winter of 2002~2003, the data of the HY-1A were applied to the sea ice monitoring and forecasting for the Bohai Sea of China for the first time. The sea ice retrieval system of the HY-1A has been constructed. It receives 1B data from the satellite, outputs sea ice images and provides digital products of ice concentration, ice thickness and ice edge, which can be used as important information for sea ice monitoring and the initial fields of the numeric sea ice forecast and as one of the reference data for the sea ice forecasting verification. The sea ice retrieval system of the satellite is described, including its processes, methods and parameters. The retrieving results and their application to the sea ice monitoring and forecasting for the Bohai Sea are also discussed.

  11. IceMap250—Automatic 250 m Sea Ice Extent Mapping Using MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Gignac

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea ice cover in the North evolves at a rapid rate. To adequately monitor this evolution, tools with high temporal and spatial resolution are needed. This paper presents IceMap250, an automatic sea ice extent mapping algorithm using MODIS reflective/emissive bands. Hybrid cloud-masking using both the MOD35 mask and a visibility mask, combined with downscaling of Bands 3–7 to 250 m, are utilized to delineate sea ice extent using a decision tree approach. IceMap250 was tested on scenes from the freeze-up, stable cover, and melt seasons in the Hudson Bay complex, in Northeastern Canada. IceMap250 first product is a daily composite sea ice presence map at 250 m. Validation based on comparisons with photo-interpreted ground-truth show the ability of the algorithm to achieve high classification accuracy, with kappa values systematically over 90%. IceMap250 second product is a weekly clear sky map that provides a synthesis of 7 days of daily composite maps. This map, produced using a majority filter, makes the sea ice presence map even more accurate by filtering out the effects of isolated classification errors. The synthesis maps show spatial consistency through time when compared to passive microwave and national ice services maps.

  12. Can regional climate engineering save the summer Arctic sea ice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, S.; Jahn, Alexandra; Kay, Jennifer E.; Holland, Marika; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2014-02-01

    Rapid declines in summer Arctic sea ice extent are projected under high-forcing future climate scenarios. Regional Arctic climate engineering has been suggested as an emergency strategy to save the sea ice. Model simulations of idealized regional dimming experiments compared to a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission simulation demonstrate the importance of both local and remote feedback mechanisms to the surface energy budget in high latitudes. With increasing artificial reduction in incoming shortwave radiation, the positive surface albedo feedback from Arctic sea ice loss is reduced. However, changes in Arctic clouds and the strongly increasing northward heat transport both counteract the direct dimming effects. A 4 times stronger local reduction in solar radiation compared to a global experiment is required to preserve summer Arctic sea ice area. Even with regional Arctic dimming, a reduction in the strength of the oceanic meridional overturning circulation and a shut down of Labrador Sea deep convection are possible.

  13. Skill improvement of dynamical seasonal Arctic sea ice forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikken, Folmer; Schmeits, Maurice; Vlot, Willem; Guemas, Virginie; Hazeleger, Wilco

    2016-05-01

    We explore the error and improve the skill of the outcome from dynamical seasonal Arctic sea ice reforecasts using different bias correction and ensemble calibration methods. These reforecasts consist of a five-member ensemble from 1979 to 2012 using the general circulation model EC-Earth. The raw model reforecasts show large biases in Arctic sea ice area, mainly due to a differently simulated seasonal cycle and long term trend compared to observations. This translates very quickly (1-3 months) into large biases. We find that (heteroscedastic) extended logistic regressions are viable ensemble calibration methods, as the forecast skill is improved compared to standard bias correction methods. Analysis of regional skill of Arctic sea ice shows that the Northeast Passage and the Kara and Barents Sea are most predictable. These results show the importance of reducing model error and the potential for ensemble calibration in improving skill of seasonal forecasts of Arctic sea ice.

  14. Use of ERTS data for mapping Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. C. (Principal Investigator); Bowley, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Data from ERTS passes crossing the Bering Sea in early March have been correlated with ice observations collected in the Bering Sea Experiment (BESEX). On two flights of the NASA CV-990 aircraft, the ice conditions in the vicinity of St. Lawrence Island reported by the onboard observer are in close agreement with the ice conditions mapped from the corresponding ERTS imagery. The ice features identified in ERTS imagery and substantiated by the aerial observer include the locations of boundaries between areas consisting of mostly grey ice and of mostly first and multi-year ice, the existence of shearing leads, and the occurrence of open water with the associated development of stratus cloud streaks. The BESEX correlative ice formation verifies the potential of practical applications of ERTS data.

  15. Sea ice contribution to the air-sea CO(2) exchange in the Arctic and Southern Oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard...[], Søren; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Delille, B.

    2011-01-01

    -sea CO(2) exchange and use recent measurements of inorganic carbon compounds in bulk sea ice to estimate that oceanic CO(2) uptake during the seasonal cycle of sea-ice growth and decay in ice-covered oceanic regions equals almost half of the net atmospheric CO(2) uptake in ice-free polar seas. This sea......-ice driven CO(2) uptake has not been considered so far in estimates of global oceanic CO(2) uptake. Net CO(2) uptake in sea-ice-covered oceans can be driven by; (1) rejection during sea-ice formation and sinking of CO(2)-rich brine into intermediate and abyssal oceanic water masses, (2) blocking of air......-sea CO(2) exchange during winter, and (3) release of CO(2)-depleted melt water with excess total alkalinity during sea-ice decay and (4) biological CO(2) drawdown during primary production in sea ice and surface oceanic waters....

  16. Environmental predictors of ice seal presence in the Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Madden, Laura E

    2014-01-01

    Ice seals overwintering in the Bering Sea are challenged with foraging, finding mates, and maintaining breathing holes in a dark and ice covered environment. Due to the difficulty of studying these species in their natural environment, very little is known about how the seals navigate under ice. Here we identify specific environmental parameters, including components of the ambient background sound, that are predictive of ice seal presence in the Bering Sea. Multi-year mooring deployments provided synoptic time series of acoustic and oceanographic parameters from which environmental parameters predictive of species presence were identified through a series of mixed models. Ice cover and 10 kHz sound level were significant predictors of seal presence, with 40 kHz sound and prey presence (combined with ice cover) as potential predictors as well. Ice seal presence showed a strong positive correlation with ice cover and a negative association with 10 kHz environmental sound. On average, there was a 20-30 dB difference between sound levels during solid ice conditions compared to open water or melting conditions, providing a salient acoustic gradient between open water and solid ice conditions by which ice seals could orient. By constantly assessing the acoustic environment associated with the seasonal ice movement in the Bering Sea, it is possible that ice seals could utilize aspects of the soundscape to gauge their safe distance to open water or the ice edge by orienting in the direction of higher sound levels indicative of open water, especially in the frequency range above 1 kHz. In rapidly changing Arctic and sub-Arctic environments, the seasonal ice conditions and soundscapes are likely to change which may impact the ability of animals using ice presence and cues to successfully function during the winter breeding season.

  17. Environmental predictors of ice seal presence in the Bering Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Miksis-Olds

    Full Text Available Ice seals overwintering in the Bering Sea are challenged with foraging, finding mates, and maintaining breathing holes in a dark and ice covered environment. Due to the difficulty of studying these species in their natural environment, very little is known about how the seals navigate under ice. Here we identify specific environmental parameters, including components of the ambient background sound, that are predictive of ice seal presence in the Bering Sea. Multi-year mooring deployments provided synoptic time series of acoustic and oceanographic parameters from which environmental parameters predictive of species presence were identified through a series of mixed models. Ice cover and 10 kHz sound level were significant predictors of seal presence, with 40 kHz sound and prey presence (combined with ice cover as potential predictors as well. Ice seal presence showed a strong positive correlation with ice cover and a negative association with 10 kHz environmental sound. On average, there was a 20-30 dB difference between sound levels during solid ice conditions compared to open water or melting conditions, providing a salient acoustic gradient between open water and solid ice conditions by which ice seals could orient. By constantly assessing the acoustic environment associated with the seasonal ice movement in the Bering Sea, it is possible that ice seals could utilize aspects of the soundscape to gauge their safe distance to open water or the ice edge by orienting in the direction of higher sound levels indicative of open water, especially in the frequency range above 1 kHz. In rapidly changing Arctic and sub-Arctic environments, the seasonal ice conditions and soundscapes are likely to change which may impact the ability of animals using ice presence and cues to successfully function during the winter breeding season.

  18. On the characteristics of sea ice divergence/convergence in the Southern Beaufort Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Lukovich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of spatial gradients in sea ice motion, or deformation, is essential to understanding of ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere interactions and realistic representations of sea ice in models used for the purposes of prediction. This is particularly true for the southern Beaufort Sea, where significant offshore hydrocarbon resource development increases the risk of oil and other contaminants dispersing into the marginal ice zone. In this study, sea ice deformation is examined through evaluation of ice beacon triplets from September to November 2009 in the southern Beaufort Sea (SBS, defined according to distance from the coastline on deployment. Results from this analysis illustrate that ice beacon triplets in the SBS demonstrate spatiotemporal differences in their evolution at the periphery and interior of the ice pack. The time rate of change in triplet area highlights two intervals of enhanced divergence and convergence in fall, 2009. Investigation of sea ice and atmospheric conditions during these intervals shows that until mid-September, all triplets respond to northerly flow, while during the second interval of enhanced divergence/convergence in October only one triplet responds to persistent northeasterly flow due to its proximity to the ice edge, in contrast to triplets located at the interior of the pack. Differences in sea ice deformation and dispersion near the pack ice edge and interior are further demonstrated in the behavior of triplets B and C in late October/early November. The results from this analysis highlight differences in dispersion and deformation characteristics based on triplet proximity to the southernmost ice edge and coastline, with implications for modeling studies pertaining to sea ice dynamics and dispersion.

  19. The future of ice sheets and sea ice: Between reversible retreat and unstoppable loss

    OpenAIRE

    Notz, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the existence of cryospheric “tipping points” in the Earth's climate system. Such critical thresholds have been suggested to exist for the disappearance of Arctic sea ice and the retreat of ice sheets: Once these ice masses have shrunk below an anticipated critical extent, the ice–albedo feedback might lead to the irreversible and unstoppable loss of the remaining ice. We here give an overview of our current understanding of such threshold behavior. By using conceptual arguments, w...

  20. Simulation of the crystal growth of platelet sea ice with diffusive heat and mass transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wangpan, Pat; Langhorne, Patricia J.; Dempsey, David E.; Hahn-Woernle, L.; Sun, Zhifa

    2015-01-01

    Antarctic coastal sea ice often grows in water that has been supercooled by interaction with an ice shelf. In these situations, ice crystals can form at depth, rise and deposit under the sea-ice cover to form a porous layer that eventually consolidates near the base of the existing sea ice. The leas

  1. The potential transport of pollutants by Arctic sea ice

    OpenAIRE

    Pfirman, S. L.; Eicken, H.; Bauch, Dorothea; Weeks, W. F.

    1995-01-01

    Drifting sea ice in the Arctic may transport contaminants from coastal areas across the pole and release them during melting far from the source areas. Arctic sea ice often contains sediments entrained on the Siberian shelves and receives atmospheric deposition from Arctic haze. Elevated levels of some heavy metals (e.g. lead, iron, copper and cadmium) and organochlorines (e.g. PCBs and DDTs) have been observed in ice sampled in the Siberian seas, north of Svalbard, and in Baffin Bay. In orde...

  2. Loss of sea ice during winter north of Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid H. Onarheim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice loss in the Arctic Ocean has up to now been strongest during summer. In contrast, the sea ice concentration north of Svalbard has experienced a larger decline during winter since 1979. The trend in winter ice area loss is close to 10% per decade, and concurrent with a 0.3°C per decade warming of the Atlantic Water entering the Arctic Ocean in this region. Simultaneously, there has been a 2°C per decade warming of winter mean surface air temperature north of Svalbard, which is 20–45% higher than observations on the west coast. Generally, the ice edge north of Svalbard has retreated towards the northeast, along the Atlantic Water pathway. By making reasonable assumptions about the Atlantic Water volume and associated heat transport, we show that the extra oceanic heat brought into the region is likely to have caused the sea ice loss. The reduced sea ice cover leads to more oceanic heat transferred to the atmosphere, suggesting that part of the atmospheric warming is driven by larger open water area. In contrast to significant trends in sea ice concentration, Atlantic Water temperature and air temperature, there is no significant temporal trend in the local winds. Thus, winds have not caused the long-term warming or sea ice loss. However, the dominant winds transport sea ice from the Arctic Ocean into the region north of Svalbard, and the local wind has influence on the year-to-year variability of the ice concentration, which correlates with surface air temperatures, ocean temperatures, as well as the local wind.

  3. Atmospheric Response to Variations in Arctic Sea Ice Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, U.; Alexander, M.; Walsh, J.; Timlin, M.; Miller, J.

    2001-12-01

    While it is generally accepted that changes in air temperature and circulation determine sea ice conditions, it is not understood how the atmosphere is influenced by changes in sea ice. We employ the NCAR CCM 3.6 with specified ice extent and sea surface temperatures (sst). The overarching question addressed in this study is: how do variations in sea ice influence the atmosphere? We are particularly interested in the summer time response to highlight this unique aspect of this research. A control experiment has been integrated for 55 years by repeating the mean annual cycle of observed sea ice extent (either 0% or 100% ice cover) and sst, based on the period 1979-99. Sets of 50 member ensemble experiments were constructed by integrating the CCM from October to April using climatological sst (same as control) and observed sea ice extent from the winters of 1982-83 (ice maximum) and 1995-96 (ice minimum). Similar summertime sensitivity experiments were performed using ice extent conditions from April to October during 1982 (maximum) and 1995 (minimum). While responses were found both in winter and summer, the results described below refer to the summer of 1995. A set of 50 ensembles was also integrated for the summer of 1995 using sea ice concentration instead of extent. During the summer of 1995, negative sea ice anomalies were particularly large in the Siberian Arctic. Sea ice reductions result in increased surface and air temperatures and enhanced latent, sensible, and longwave fluxes out of the ocean. However, the net heat flux out of the ocean decreases because the changes are dominated by increased absorption of solar radiation over the low-albedo ocean. Cloud feedbacks are important in the Arctic and the downwelling solar at the surface decreases. The total cloud amount decreases due to reductions in low level clouds, however, convective cloud amounts increased. The net cloud radiative (shortwave and longwave) forcing is smaller in the experiment than the

  4. Albedo parametrization and reversibility of sea ice decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Stoffels, M.; Wackerbauer, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Arctic's sea ice cover has been receding rapidly in recent years, and global climate models typically predict a further decline over the next century. It is an open question whether a possible loss of Arctic sea ice is reversible. We study the stability of Arctic model sea ice in a conceptual, two-dimensional energy-based regular network model of the ice-ocean layer that considers ARM's longwave radiative budget data and SHEBA albedo measurements. Seasonal ice cover, perennial ice and perennial open water are asymptotic states accessible by the model. We show that the shape of albedo parameterization near the melting temperature differentiates between reversible continuous sea ice decrease under atmospheric forcing and hysteresis behavior. Fixed points induced solely by the surface energy budget are essential for understanding the interaction of surface energy with the radiative forcing and the underlying body of ice/water, particularly close to a bifurcation point. Future studies will explore ice edge stability and reversibility in this lattice model, generalized to a latitudinal transect with spatiotemporal lateral atmospheric heat transfer and high spatial resolution.

  5. Albedo parametrization and reversibility of sea ice decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Müller-Stoffels

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic's sea ice cover has been receding rapidly in recent years, and global climate models typically predict a further decline over the next century. It is an open question whether a possible loss of Arctic sea ice is reversible. We study the stability of Arctic model sea ice in a conceptual, two-dimensional energy-based regular network model of the ice-ocean layer that considers ARM's longwave radiative budget data and SHEBA albedo measurements. Seasonal ice cover, perennial ice and perennial open water are asymptotic states accessible by the model. We show that the shape of albedo parameterization near the melting temperature differentiates between reversible continuous sea ice decrease under atmospheric forcing and hysteresis behavior. Fixed points induced solely by the surface energy budget are essential for understanding the interaction of surface energy with the radiative forcing and the underlying body of ice/water, particularly close to a bifurcation point. Future studies will explore ice edge stability and reversibility in this lattice model, generalized to a latitudinal transect with spatiotemporal lateral atmospheric heat transfer and high spatial resolution.

  6. A modified discrete element model for sea ice dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Baohui; LI Hai; LIU Yu; WANG Anliang; JI Shunying

    2014-01-01

    Considering the discontinuous characteristics of sea ice on various scales, a modified discrete element mod-el (DEM) for sea ice dynamics is developed based on the granular material rheology. In this modified DEM, a soft sea ice particle element is introduced as a self-adjustive particle size function. Each ice particle can be treated as an assembly of ice floes, with its concentration and thickness changing to variable sizes un-der the conservation of mass. In this model, the contact forces among ice particles are calculated using a viscous-elastic-plastic model, while the maximum shear forces are described with the Mohr-Coulomb fric-tion law. With this modified DEM, the ice flow dynamics is simulated under the drags of wind and current in a channel of various widths. The thicknesses, concentrations and velocities of ice particles are obtained, and then reasonable dynamic process is analyzed. The sea ice dynamic process is also simulated in a vortex wind field. Taking the influence of thermodynamics into account, this modified DEM will be improved in the future work.

  7. NOAA/NMC/CAC Arctic and Antarctic Monthly Sea Ice Extent, 1973-1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea ice extent from January 1973 through August 1990 was digitized from weekly operational sea ice charts produced by the Navy/NOAA Joint Ice Center. Charts were...

  8. Effects of Mackenzie River Discharge and Bathymetry on Sea Ice in the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Rigor, I. G; Li, P.; Neumann, G.

    2014-01-01

    Mackenzie River discharge and bathymetry effects on sea ice in the Beaufort Sea are examined in 2012 when Arctic sea ice extent hit a record low. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature revealed warmer waters closer to river mouths. By 5 July 2012, Mackenzie warm waters occupied most of an open water area about 316,000 sq km. Surface temperature in a common open water area increased by 6.5 C between 14 June and 5 July 2012, before and after the river waters broke through a recurrent landfast ice barrier formed over the shallow seafloor offshore the Mackenzie Delta. In 2012, melting by warm river waters was especially effective when the strong Beaufort Gyre fragmented sea ice into unconsolidated floes. The Mackenzie and other large rivers can transport an enormous amount of heat across immense continental watersheds into the Arctic Ocean, constituting a stark contrast to the Antarctic that has no such rivers to affect sea ice.

  9. Improving Surface Mass Balance Over Ice Sheets and Snow Depth on Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Lora Suzanne; Box, Jason; Kurtz, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Surface mass balance (SMB) over ice sheets and snow on sea ice (SOSI) are important components of the cryosphere. Large knowledge gaps remain in scientists' abilities to monitor SMB and SOSI, including insufficient measurements and difficulties with satellite retrievals. On ice sheets, snow accumulation is the sole mass gain to SMB, and meltwater runoff can be the dominant single loss factor in extremely warm years such as 2012. SOSI affects the growth and melt cycle of the Earth's polar sea ice cover. The summer of 2012 saw the largest satellite-recorded melt area over the Greenland ice sheet and the smallest satellite-recorded Arctic sea ice extent, making this meeting both timely and relevant.

  10. Estimation of Snow Thickness on Sea Ice and Lake Ice Using Airborne SnowSAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veijola, Katriina; Makynen, Marko; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Praks, Jaan

    2016-08-01

    Currently, snow thickness on sea ice is operationally estimated using microwave radiometer data. However, the estimates are hampered by the inherent coarse spatial resolution of passive microwave sensors. Successful application of SAR imagery for snow thickness estimation has the potential of providing estimates of snow thickness with much finer spatial resolution.In this study, we concentrate on assessing the capability of X- and Ku-band SAR backscattering to estimate snow thickness on sea and lake ice. Co- and cross -polarized X- and Ku-band SAR backscattering data, acquired with the ESA airborne SnowSAR sensor, are applied. The SAR data acquisition and co-incident in-situ measurements were conducted in Finland in the winter of 2012 over sea ice and lake ice test sites.Our analysis shows which frequency and polarization combinations have best sensitivity to snow thickness on sea and lake ice and in deep discussion provides plausible ways to improve the results.

  11. Antarctic last interglacial isotope peak in response to sea ice retreat not ice-sheet collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Max D; Sime, Louise C; Singarayer, Joy S; Tindall, Julia C; Bunch, Pete; Valdes, Paul J

    2016-08-16

    Several studies have suggested that sea-level rise during the last interglacial implies retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). The prevalent hypothesis is that the retreat coincided with the peak Antarctic temperature and stable water isotope values from 128,000 years ago (128 ka); very early in the last interglacial. Here, by analysing climate model simulations of last interglacial WAIS loss featuring water isotopes, we show instead that the isotopic response to WAIS loss is in opposition to the isotopic evidence at 128 ka. Instead, a reduction in winter sea ice area of 65±7% fully explains the 128 ka ice core evidence. Our finding of a marked retreat of the sea ice at 128 ka demonstrates the sensitivity of Antarctic sea ice extent to climate warming.

  12. Applicability of highly branched isoprenoids as a sea ice proxy in the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Jae Il; Belt, Simon T.; Gal, Jong-Ku; Smik, Lukas; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    Sea ice is an integral component of the polar climate system, constraining the effect of changing surface albedo, ocean-atmosphere heat exchanges, the formation of deep and intermediate waters that participate in driving the meridional overturning circulation and thus global climate. In recent years, a mono-unsaturated highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) alkene which is biosynthesised by certain sea ice diatoms during the spring bloom and, upon ice melt, deposited into underlying sediments, has been uniquely observed in Arctic sea ice and in Arctic sediments. Hence, the term IP25 (ice proxy with 25 carbon atoms) was proposed to distinguish this compound from other HBI isomers and has become an established proxy for the reconstruction of Arctic sea ice. In contrast, a monounsaturated HBI alkene, i.e. IP25, has not been observed in sea ice or sediments from the Antarctic. Hence, the application of diene and triene HBI concentrations and the resulting diene/triene (D/T) ratio was alternatively introduced as sea ice/open water indicators in the Southern Ocean. However, there is still lack of data covering the wide areas around the Antarctic, especially from the Ross Sea. Hence, we investigated surface sediment samples from the Ross Sea (n=14) collected during the R/V ARAON cruise in 2015 as well as from the Antarctic Peninsula (n=17) collected during several R/V ARAON cruises between 2001 and 2013. We will present our preliminary results and will discuss the applicability of the HBI in the Ross Sea.

  13. Export of Algal Biomass from the Melting Arctic Sea Ice

    OpenAIRE

    A. Boetius; S. Albrecht; Bakker, K; Bienhold, C.; J. Felden; Fernandez-Mendez, M; Hendricks, S.; C. Katlein; C Lalande; Krumpen, T.; M. Nicolaus; Peeken, I.; Rabe, B.; Rogacheva, A.; Rybakova, E.

    2013-01-01

    In the Arctic, under-ice primary production is limited to summer months and is restricted not only by ice thickness and snow cover but also by the stratification of the water column, which constrains nutrient supply for algal growth. Research Vessel Polarstern visited the ice-covered eastern-central basins between 82° to 89°N and 30° to 130°E in summer 2012, when Arctic sea ice declined to a record minimum. During this cruise, we observed a widespread deposition of ice algal biomass of on ave...

  14. Dependence of NAO variability on coupling with sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Courtenay; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

    2011-05-01

    The variance of the North Atlantic Oscillation index (denoted N) is shown to depend on its coupling with area-averaged sea ice concentration anomalies in and around the Barents Sea (index denoted B). The observed form of this coupling is a negative feedback whereby positive N tends to produce negative B, which in turn forces negative N. The effects of this feedback in the system are examined by modifying the feedback in two modeling frameworks: a statistical vector autoregressive model ( F VAR) and an atmospheric global climate model ( F CAM) customized so that sea ice anomalies on the lower boundary are stochastic with adjustable sensitivity to the model's evolving N. Experiments show that the variance of N decreases nearly linearly with the sensitivity of B to N, where the sensitivity is a measure of the negative feedback strength. Given that the sea ice concentration field has anomalies, the variance of N goes down as these anomalies become more sensitive to N. If the sea ice concentration anomalies are entirely absent, the variance of N is even smaller than the experiment with the most sensitive anomalies. Quantifying how the variance of N depends on the presence and sensitivity of sea ice anomalies to N has implications for the simulation of N in global climate models. In the physical system, projected changes in sea ice thickness or extent could alter the sensitivity of B to N, impacting the within-season variability and hence predictability of N.

  15. Fabric and crystal characteristics of Bohai and Arctic sea ice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志军; 康建成; 蒲毅彬

    2002-01-01

    The fabrics and crystals of Bohai one-year ice show that the noncontinuous ice growth rate enables the level ice layers with different amount of air bubbles to be formed in lower part of an ice sheet which was clearly seen from CT technology; typical grain ice and columnar ice occur in the grey ice which grows in stable water; thaw-refrozen ice and rafted ice have their specific crystal characters. On the Arctic sea ice, the ice core located at 72°24.037′N, 153°33.994′W and 2.2 m in length was a 3-year ice floe and a new sort of crystal was found, which is defined as refrozen clastic pieces. The crystal profile of the ice core 4.86 m in length located at 74°58.614′N, 160°31.830′W shows the evidence that ice ridge changed into hummock.

  16. Relating Regional Arctic Sea Ice and climate extremes over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita-Scholz, Monica; Grosfeld, Klaus; Lohmann, Gerrit; Scholz, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The potential increase of temperature extremes under climate change is a major threat to society, as temperature extremes have a deep impact on environment, hydrology, agriculture, society and economy. Hence, the analysis of the mechanisms underlying their occurrence, including their relationships with the large-scale atmospheric circulation and sea ice concentration, is of major importance. At the same time, the decline in Arctic sea ice cover during the last 30 years has been widely documented and it is clear that this change is having profound impacts at regional as well as planetary scale. As such, this study aims to investigate the relation between the autumn regional sea ice concentration variability and cold winters in Europe, as identified by the numbers of cold nights (TN10p), cold days (TX10p), ice days (ID) and consecutive frost days (CFD). We analyze the relationship between Arctic sea ice variation in autumn (September-October-November) averaged over eight different Arctic regions (Barents/Kara Seas, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi/Bering Seas, Central Arctic, Greenland Sea, Labrador Sea/Baffin Bay, Laptev/East Siberian Seas and Northern Hemisphere) and variations in atmospheric circulation and climate extreme indices in the following winter season over Europe using composite map analysis. Based on the composite map analysis it is shown that the response of the winter extreme temperatures over Europe is highly correlated/connected to changes in Arctic sea ice variability. However, this signal is not symmetrical for the case of high and low sea ice years. Moreover, the response of temperatures extreme over Europe to sea ice variability over the different Arctic regions differs substantially. The regions which have the strongest impact on the extreme winter temperature over Europe are: Barents/Kara Seas, Beaufort Sea, Central Arctic and the Northern Hemisphere. For the years of high sea ice concentration in the Barents/Kara Seas there is a reduction in the number

  17. Remote Oil Spill Detection and Monitoring Beneath Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Adam; Marshall, Stephen; Ren, Jinchang; Hwang, Byongjun (Phil); Hagan, Bernard; Stothard, David J. M.

    2016-08-01

    The spillage of oil in Polar Regions is particularly serious due to the threat to the environment and the difficulties in detecting and tracking the full extent of the oil seepage beneath the sea ice. Development of fast and reliable sensing techniques is highly desirable. In this paper hyperspectral imaging combined with signal processing and classification techniques are proposed as a potential tool to detect the presence of oil beneath the sea ice. A small sample, lab based experiment, serving as a proof of concept, resulted in the successful identification of oil presence beneath the thin ice layer as opposed to the other sample with ice only. The paper demonstrates the results of this experiment that granted a financial support to execute full feasibility study of this technology for oil spill detection beneath the sea ice.

  18. Introduction of parameterized sea ice drag coefficients into ice free-drift modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Peng; LI Zhijun; HAN Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Many interesting characteristics of sea ice drift depend on the atmospheric drag coefficient (Ca) and oceanic drag coefficient (Cw). Parameterizations of drag coefficients rather than constant values provide us a way to look insight into the dependence of these characteristics on sea ice conditions. In the present study, the parameterized ice drag coefficients are included into a free-drift sea ice dynamic model, and the wind factorα and the deflection angleθ between sea ice drift and wind velocity as well as the ratio ofCa toCw are studied to investigate their dependence on the impact factors such as local drag coefficients, floe and ridge geometry. The results reveal that in an idealized steady ocean,Ca/Cw increases obviously with the increasing ice concentration for small ice floes in the marginal ice zone, while it remains at a steady level (0.2–0.25) for large floes in the central ice zone. The wind factorα increases rapidly at first and approaches a steady level of 0.018 whenA is greater than 20%. And the deflection angleθ drops rapidly from an initial value of approximate 80° and decreases slowly asA is greater than 20% without a steady level likeα. The values of these parameters agree well with the previously reported observations in Arctic. The ridging intensity is an important parameter to determine the dominant contribution of the ratio of skin friction drag coefficient (Cs’/Cs) and the ratio of ridge form drag coefficient (Cr’/Cr) to the value of Ca/Cw,α, andθ, because of the dominance of ridge form drag for large ridging intensity and skin friction for small ridging intensity among the total drag forces. Parameterization of sea ice drag coefficients has the potential to be embedded into ice dynamic models to better account for the variability of sea ice in the transient Arctic Ocean.

  19. Large-Scale Surveys of Snow Depth on Arctic Sea Ice from Operation IceBridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Nathan T.; Farrell, Sinead L.

    2011-01-01

    We show the first results of a large ]scale survey of snow depth on Arctic sea ice from NASA fs Operation IceBridge snow radar system for the 2009 season and compare the data to climatological snow depth values established over the 1954.1991 time period. For multiyear ice, the mean radar derived snow depth is 33.1 cm and the corresponding mean climatological snow depth is 33.4 cm. The small mean difference suggests consistency between contemporary estimates of snow depth with the historical climatology for the multiyear ice region of the Arctic. A 16.5 cm mean difference (climatology minus radar) is observed for first year ice areas suggesting that the increasingly seasonal sea ice cover of the Arctic Ocean has led to an overall loss of snow as the region has transitioned away from a dominantly multiyear ice cover.

  20. Arctic Sea Ice Charts from Danish Meteorological Institute, 1893 - 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1893 to 1956, the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) created charts of observed and inferred sea ice extent for each summer month. These charts are based on...

  1. Sea Ice Prediction Has Easy and Difficult Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lawrence C.; Bitz, Cecilia M.; Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, Edward; Cutler, Matthew; Kay, Jennifer; Meier, Walter N.; Stroeve, Julienne; Wiggins, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Arctic sea ice follows an annual cycle, reaching its low point in September each year. The extent of sea ice remaining at this low point has been trending downwards for decades as the Arctic warms. Around the long-term downward trend, however, there is significant variation in the minimum extent from one year to the next. Accurate forecasts of yearly conditions would have great value to Arctic residents, shipping companies, and other stakeholders and are the subject of much current research. Since 2008 the Sea Ice Outlook (SIO) (http://www.arcus.org/search-program/seaiceoutlook) organized by the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) (http://www.arcus.org/search-program) has invited predictions of the September Arctic sea ice minimum extent, which are contributed from the Arctic research community. Individual predictions, based on a variety of approaches, are solicited in three cycles each year in early June, July, and August. (SEARCH 2013).

  2. Sea Ice Melt Pond Data from the Canadian Arctic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains observations of albedo, depth, and physical characteristics of melt ponds on sea ice, taken during the summer of 1994. The melt ponds studied...

  3. Modelling sea ice formation in the Terra Nova Bay polynya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansiviero, M.; Morales Maqueda, M. Á.; Fusco, G.; Aulicino, G.; Flocco, D.; Budillon, G.

    2017-02-01

    Antarctic sea ice is constantly exported from the shore by strong near surface winds that open leads and large polynyas in the pack ice. The latter, known as wind-driven polynyas, are responsible for significant water mass modification due to the high salt flux into the ocean associated with enhanced ice growth. In this article, we focus on the wind-driven Terra Nova Bay (TNB) polynya, in the western Ross Sea. Brine rejected during sea ice formation processes that occur in the TNB polynya densifies the water column leading to the formation of the most characteristic water mass of the Ross Sea, the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW). This water mass, in turn, takes part in the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), the densest water mass of the world ocean, which plays a major role in the global meridional overturning circulation, thus affecting the global climate system. A simple coupled sea ice-ocean model has been developed to simulate the seasonal cycle of sea ice formation and export within a polynya. The sea ice model accounts for both thermal and mechanical ice processes. The oceanic circulation is described by a one-and-a-half layer, reduced gravity model. The domain resolution is 1 km × 1 km, which is sufficient to represent the salient features of the coastline geometry, notably the Drygalski Ice Tongue. The model is forced by a combination of Era Interim reanalysis and in-situ data from automatic weather stations, and also by a climatological oceanic dataset developed from in situ hydrographic observations. The sensitivity of the polynya to the atmospheric forcing is well reproduced by the model when atmospheric in situ measurements are combined with reanalysis data. Merging the two datasets allows us to capture in detail the strength and the spatial distribution of the katabatic winds that often drive the opening of the polynya. The model resolves fairly accurately the sea ice drift and sea ice production rates in the TNB polynya, leading to

  4. The Satellite Passive-Microwave Record of Sea Ice in the Ross Sea Since Late 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2009-01-01

    Satellites have provided us with a remarkable ability to monitor many aspects of the globe day-in and day-out and sea ice is one of numerous variables that by now have quite substantial satellite records. Passive-microwave data have been particularly valuable in sea ice monitoring, with a record that extends back to August 1987 on daily basis (for most of the period), to November 1970 on a less complete basis (again for most of the period), and to December 1972 on a less complete basis. For the period since November 1970, Ross Sea sea ice imagery is available at spatial resolution of approximately 25 km. This allows good depictions of the seasonal advance and retreat of the ice cover each year, along with its marked interannual variability. The Ross Sea ice extent typically reaches a minimum of approximately 0.7 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers in February, rising to a maximum of approximately 4.0 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers in September, with much variability among years for both those numbers. The Ross Sea images show clearly the day-by-day activity greatly from year to year. Animations of the data help to highlight the dynamic nature of the Ross Sea ice cover. The satellite data also allow calculation of trends in the ice cover over the period of the satellite record. Using linear least-squares fits, the Ross Sea ice extent increased at an average rate of 12,600 plus or minus 1,800 square kilometers per year between November 1978 and December 2007, with every month exhibiting increased ice extent and the rates of increase ranging from a low of 7,500 plus or minus 5,000 square kilometers per year for the February ice extents to a high of 20,300 plus or minus 6,100 kilometers per year for the October ice extents. On a yearly average basis, for 1979-2007 the Ross Sea ice extent increased at a rate of 4.8 plus or minus 1.6 % per decade. Placing the Ross Sea in the context of the Southern Ocean as a whole, over the November 1978-December 2007 period the Ross Sea had

  5. Ice–ocean coupled computations for sea-ice prediction to support ice navigation in Arctic sea routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyanarachchi Waruna Arampath De Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the recent rapid decrease in summer sea ice in the Arctic Ocean extending the navigation period in the Arctic sea routes (ASR, the precise prediction of ice distribution is crucial for safe and efficient navigation in the Arctic Ocean. In general, however, most of the available numerical models have exhibited significant uncertainties in short-term and narrow-area predictions, especially in marginal ice zones such as the ASR. In this study, we predict short-term sea-ice conditions in the ASR by using a mesoscale eddy-resolving ice–ocean coupled model that explicitly treats ice floe collisions in marginal ice zones. First, numerical issues associated with collision rheology in the ice–ocean coupled model (ice–Princeton Ocean Model [POM] are discussed and resolved. A model for the whole of the Arctic Ocean with a coarser resolution (about 25 km was developed to investigate the performance of the ice–POM model by examining the reproducibility of seasonal and interannual sea-ice variability. It was found that this coarser resolution model can reproduce seasonal and interannual sea-ice variations compared to observations, but it cannot be used to predict variations over the short-term, such as one to two weeks. Therefore, second, high-resolution (about 2.5 km regional models were set up along the ASR to investigate the accuracy of short-term sea-ice predictions. High-resolution computations were able to reasonably reproduce the sea-ice extent compared to Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer–Earth Observing System satellite observations because of the improved expression of the ice–albedo feedback process and the ice–eddy interaction process.

  6. Processes controlling surface, bottom and lateral melt of Arctic sea ice in a state of the art sea ice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamados, Michel; Feltham, Daniel; Petty, Alek; Schroeder, David; Flocco, Daniela

    2015-10-13

    We present a modelling study of processes controlling the summer melt of the Arctic sea ice cover. We perform a sensitivity study and focus our interest on the thermodynamics at the ice-atmosphere and ice-ocean interfaces. We use the Los Alamos community sea ice model CICE, and additionally implement and test three new parametrization schemes: (i) a prognostic mixed layer; (ii) a three equation boundary condition for the salt and heat flux at the ice-ocean interface; and (iii) a new lateral melt parametrization. Recent additions to the CICE model are also tested, including explicit melt ponds, a form drag parametrization and a halodynamic brine drainage scheme. The various sea ice parametrizations tested in this sensitivity study introduce a wide spread in the simulated sea ice characteristics. For each simulation, the total melt is decomposed into its surface, bottom and lateral melt components to assess the processes driving melt and how this varies regionally and temporally. Because this study quantifies the relative importance of several processes in driving the summer melt of sea ice, this work can serve as a guide for future research priorities.

  7. Seasonal cycle of solar energy fluxes through Arctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arndt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arctic sea ice has not only decreased considerably during the last decades, but also changed its physical properties towards a thinner and more seasonal cover. These changes strongly impact the energy budget and might affect the ice-associated ecosystem of the Arctic. But until now, it is not possible to quantify shortwave energy fluxes through sea ice sufficiently well over large regions and during different seasons. Here, we present a new parameterization of light transmittance through sea ice for all seasons as a function of variable sea ice properties. The annual maximum solar heat flux of 30 × 105 J m−2 occurs in June, then also matching the under ice ocean heat flux. Furthermore, our results suggest that 96% of the total annual solar heat input occurs from May to August, during four months only. Applying the new parameterization on remote sensing and reanalysis data from 1979 to 2011, we find an increase in light transmission of 1.5% a−1 for all regions. Sensitivity studies reveal that the results strongly depend on the timing of melt onset and the correct classification of ice types. Hence, these parameters are of great importance for quantifying under-ice radiation fluxes and the uncertainty of this parameterization. Assuming a two weeks earlier melt onset, the annual budget increases by 20%. Continuing the observed transition from Arctic multi- to first year sea ice could increase light transmittance by another 18%. Furthermore, the increase in light transmission directly contributes to an increase in internal and bottom melt of sea ice, resulting in a positive transmittance-melt feedback process.

  8. Ice gouge processes in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rearic, Douglas M.; Ticken, Edward J.

    1988-01-01

    A generalized picture of ice gouge characteristics from shallow inshore depths to the outer shelf at about 60 m of water is presented. Data from recent studies show that the size and quantity of gouging increases in an offshore direction to depths of about 45 m where this trend then reverses and the features decrease in size and quantity as the shelf break is approached. Ice gouges are oriented east-west and this suggests that most gouging is caused by ice approaching from the east, possibly driven by the Beaufort Sea gyre. The most intense gouging occurs in the stamukhi zone, between 20 and 40 m of water, and is caused by a high rate of ice keel production owing to shearing forces between mobile and stable sea ice. Inshore of the stamukhi zone, ice gouging still presents a significant hazard but their greatly decreased size and number make it possible to design against this hazard.

  9. Floating Ice-Algal Aggregates below melting Arctic Sea Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Assmy; Jens K. Ehn; Mar Fernández-Méndez; Haakon Hop; Christian Katlein; Arild Sundfjord; Katrin Bluhm; Malin Daase; Anja Engel; Agneta Fransson; Granskog, Mats A.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Svein Kristiansen; Marcel Nicolaus; Ilka Peeken

    2013-01-01

    During two consecutive cruises to the Eastern Central Arctic in late summer 2012, we observed floating algal aggregates in the melt-water layer below and between melting ice floes of first-year pack ice. The macroscopic (1 – 15 cm in diameter) aggregates had a mucous consistency and were dominated by typical ice-associated pennate diatoms embedded within the mucous matrix. Aggregates maintained buoyancy and accumulated just above a strong pycnocline that separated meltwater and seawater layer...

  10. Impact of declining Arctic sea ice on winter snowfall

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jiping; Curry, Judith A.; Wang, Huijun; Song, Mirong; Radley M. Horton

    2012-01-01

    While the Arctic region has been warming strongly in recent decades, anomalously large snowfall in recent winters has affected large parts of North America, Europe, and east Asia. Here we demonstrate that the decrease in autumn Arctic sea ice area is linked to changes in the winter Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation that have some resemblance to the negative phase of the winter Arctic oscillation. However, the atmospheric circulation change linked to the reduction of sea ice shows mu...

  11. Atmospheric forcing of sea ice anomalies in the Ross Sea Polynya region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Ethan; McDonald, Adrian; Rack, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Despite warming trends in global temperatures, sea ice extent in the southern hemisphere has shown an increasing trend over recent decades. Wind-driven sea ice export from coastal polynyas is an important source of sea ice production. Areas of major polynyas in the Ross Sea, the region with largest increase in sea ice extent, have been suggested to produce the vast amount of the sea ice in the region. We investigate the impacts of strong wind events on polynyas and the subsequent sea ice production. We utilize Bootstrap sea ice concentration (SIC) measurements derived from satellite based, Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperature images. These are compared with surface wind measurements made by automatic weather stations of the University of Wisconsin-Madison Antarctic Meteorology Program. Our analysis focusses on the winter period defined as 1st April to 1st November in this study. Wind data was used to classify each day into characteristic regimes based on the change of wind speed. For each regime, a composite of SIC anomaly was formed for the Ross Sea region. We found that persistent weak winds near the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf are generally associated with positive SIC anomalies in the Ross Sea polynya area (RSP). Conversely we found negative SIC anomalies in this area during persistent strong winds. By analyzing sea ice motion vectors derived from SSM/I brightness temperatures, we find significant sea ice motion anomalies throughout the Ross Sea during strong wind events. These anomalies persist for several days after the strong wing event. Strong, negative correlations are found between SIC within the RSP and wind speed indicating that strong winds cause significant advection of sea ice in the RSP. This rapid decrease in SIC is followed by a more gradual recovery in SIC. This increase occurs on a time scale greater than the average persistence of strong wind events and the resulting Sea ice motion anomalies, highlighting the production

  12. Model resolution influence on simulated sea ice decline

    OpenAIRE

    Sewall, J.O.

    2008-01-01

    Satellite observations and model predictions of recent and future Arctic sea ice decline have raised concerns over the timing and potential impacts of a seasonally ice-free Arctic Ocean. Model predictions of seasonally ice-free Arctic conditions are, however, highly variable. Here I present results from fourteen climate system models from the World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) multi-model dataset that indicate modeled Ar...

  13. Forecasting Future Sea Ice Conditions: A Lagrangian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    are preceded by a pulse of heat of Atlantic origin into the Arctic Ocean , causing an increase in open water area, and absorbed solar radiation at the...Transport in Sea Ice and Ocean Surface Waters from Ten Potential Spill Sites Marine Pollution Bulletin, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2015. 12 3- Hata...keywhich factors most important in explaining the promotion of first year ice into multi- year ice, including ocean heat fluxes, radiative and

  14. Sea-Ice Feature Mapping using JERS-1 Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslanik, James; Heinrichs, John

    1994-01-01

    JERS-1 SAR and OPS imagery are examined in combination with other data sets to investigate the utility of the JERS-1 sensors for mapping fine-scale sea ice conditions. Combining ERS-1 C band and JERS-1 L band SAR aids in discriminating multiyear and first-year ice. Analysis of OPS imagery for a field site in the Canadian Archipelago highlights the advantages of OPS's high spatial and spectral resolution for mapping ice structure, melt pond distribution, and surface albedo.

  15. A Modified NASA Team Sea Ice Algorithm for the Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Markus, Thorsten

    1998-01-01

    A recent comparative study of the NASA Team and Bootstrap passive microwave sea ice algorithms revealed significantly different sea ice concentration retrievals in some parts of the Antarctic. The study identified potential reasons for the discrepancies including the influence of sea ice temperature variability on the Bootstrap retrievals and the influence of ice surface reflectivity on the horizontally polarized emissivity in the NASA Team retrievals. In this study, we present a modified version of the NASA Team algorithm which reduces the error associated with the use of horizontally polarized radiance data, while retaining the relative insensitivity to ice temperature variations provided by radiance ratios. By retaining the 19 GHz polarization as an independent variable, we also maintain a relatively large dynamic range in sea ice concentration. The modified algorithm utilizes the 19 GHz polarization (PR19) and both gradient ratios, GRV and GRH defined by (37V-19V)/(37V+19V) and (37H-19H)/(37H+19H), respectively, rather than just GRV used in the current NASA Team algorithm. A plot of GRV versus GRH shows that the preponderance of points lie along a quadratic curve, whereas those points affected by surface reflectivity anomalies deviate from this curve. This serves as a method of identifying the problems points. The 19H brightness temperature of these problem points is increased so they too fall along quadratic curve. Sea ice concentrations derived from AVHRR imagery illustrate the extent to which this method reduces the error associated with surface layering.

  16. Arctic sea ice reaches second lowest in satellite record

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Xinhua reports that the blanket of sea ice that floats on the Arctic Ocean appears to have reached its lowest extent for 2011, the second lowest recorded since satellites began measuring it in 1979, according to a report released on September 15 by the University of Colorado Boulder's National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC).

  17. Large sea ice outflow into the Nares Strait in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, R.; Pedersen, L.T.; Gudmandsen, Preben

    2010-01-01

    ice in the 13-year record between 1997 and 2009. The 2007 area and volume outflows of 87 x 10(3) km(2) and 254 km(3) are more than twice their 13-year means. This contributes to the recent loss of the thick, multiyear Arctic sea ice and represents similar to 10% of our estimates of the mean ice export......Sea ice flux through the Nares Strait is most active during the fall and early winter, ceases in mid- to late winter after the formation of ice arches along the strait, and re-commences after breakup in summer. In 2007, ice arches failed to form. This resulted in the highest outflow of Arctic sea...... at Fram Strait. Clearly, the ice arches control Arctic sea ice outflow. The duration of unobstructed flow explains more than 84% of the variance in the annual area flux. In our record, seasonal stoppages are always associated with the formation of an arch near the same location in the southern Kane Basin...

  18. A Validation Dataset for CryoSat Sea Ice Investigators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julia, Gaudelli,; Baker, Steve; Haas, Christian;

    Since its launch in April 2010 Cryosat has been collecting valuable sea ice data over the Arctic region. Over the same period ESA’s CryoVEx and NASA IceBridge validation campaigns have been collecting a unique set of coincident airborne measurements in the Arctic. The CryoVal-SI project has colla...

  19. Global Daily Sea Ice Concentration Reprocessing Data Set for 1978-2007 from the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (NCEI Accession 0068294)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data constitute the reprocessed sea ice concentration data set from the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF), covering the...

  20. Numerical modelling of thermodynamics and dynamics of sea ice in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical dynamic-thermo-dynamic sea-ice model for the Baltic Sea is used to analyze the variability of ice conditions in three winter seasons. The modelling results are validated with station (water temperature and satellite data (ice concentration as well as by qualitative comparisons with the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute ice charts. Analysis of the results addresses two major questions. One concerns effects of meteorological forcing on the spatio-temporal distribution of ice concentration in the Baltic. Patterns of correlations between air temperature, wind speed, and ice-covered area are demonstrated to be different in larger, more open sub-basins (e.g., the Bothnian Sea than in the smaller ones (e.g., the Bothnian Bay. Whereas the correlations with the air temperature are positive in both cases, the influence of wind is pronounced only in large basins, leading to increase/decrease of areas with small/large ice concentrations, respectively. The other question concerns the role of ice dynamics in the evolution of the ice cover. By means of simulations with the dynamic model turned on and off, the ice dynamics is shown to play a crucial role in interactions between the ice and the upper layers of the water column, especially during periods with highly varying wind speeds and directions. In particular, due to the fragmentation of the ice cover and the modified surface fluxes, the ice dynamics influences the rate of change of the total ice volume, in some cases by as much as 1 km3 per day. As opposed to most other numerical studies on the sea-ice in the Baltic Sea, this work concentrates on the short-term variability of the ice cover and its response to the synoptic-scale forcing.

  1. Numerical modelling of thermodynamics and dynamics of sea ice in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice model for the Baltic Sea is used to analyze the variability of ice conditions in three winter seasons. The modelling results are validated with station (water temperature and satellite data (ice concentration as well as by qualitative comparisons with the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute ice charts. Analysis of the results addresses two major questions. One concerns effects of meteorological forcing on the spatio-temporal distribution of ice concentration in the Baltic. Patterns of correlations between air temperature, wind speed, and ice-covered area are demonstrated to be different in larger, more open sub-basins (e.g., the Bothnian Sea than in the smaller ones (e.g., the Bothnian Bay. Whereas the correlations with the air temperature are positive in both cases, the influence of wind is pronounced only in large basins, leading to increase/decrease of areas with small/large ice concentrations, respectively. The other question concerns the role of ice dynamics in the evolution of the ice cover. By means of simulations with the dynamic model turned on and off, the ice dynamics is shown to play a crucial role in interactions between the ice and the upper layers of the water column, especially during periods with highly varying wind speeds and directions. In particular, due to the fragmentation of the ice cover and the modified surface fluxes, the ice dynamics influences the rate of change of the total ice volume, in some cases by as much as 1 km3 per day. As opposed to most other numerical studies on the sea-ice in the Baltic Sea, this work concentrates on the short-term variability of the ice cover and its response to the synoptic-scale forcing.

  2. Arctic Ocean sea ice drift origin derived from artificial radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara-Mor, P; Masqué, P; Garcia-Orellana, J; Cochran, J K; Mas, J L; Chamizo, E; Hanfland, C

    2010-07-15

    Since the 1950s, nuclear weapon testing and releases from the nuclear industry have introduced anthropogenic radionuclides into the sea, and in many instances their ultimate fate are the bottom sediments. The Arctic Ocean is one of the most polluted in this respect, because, in addition to global fallout, it is impacted by regional fallout from nuclear weapon testing, and indirectly by releases from nuclear reprocessing facilities and nuclear accidents. Sea-ice formed in the shallow continental shelves incorporate sediments with variable concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides that are transported through the Arctic Ocean and are finally released in the melting areas. In this work, we present the results of anthropogenic radionuclide analyses of sea-ice sediments (SIS) collected on five cruises from different Arctic regions and combine them with a database including prior measurements of these radionuclides in SIS. The distribution of (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu activities and the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in SIS showed geographical differences, in agreement with the two main sea ice drift patterns derived from the mean field of sea-ice motion, the Transpolar Drift and Beaufort Gyre, with the Fram Strait as the main ablation area. A direct comparison of data measured in SIS samples against those reported for the potential source regions permits identification of the regions from which sea ice incorporates sediments. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in SIS may be used to discern the origin of sea ice from the Kara-Laptev Sea and the Alaskan shelf. However, if the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio is similar to global fallout, it does not provide a unique diagnostic indicator of the source area, and in such cases, the source of SIS can be constrained with a combination of the (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu activities. Therefore, these anthropogenic radionuclides can be used in many instances to determine the geographical source area of sea-ice.

  3. Bellingshausen Sea ice extent recorded in an Antarctic Peninsula ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stacy E.; Parkinson, Claire L.; Mosley-Thompson, Ellen

    2016-12-01

    Annual net accumulation (An) from the Bruce Plateau (BP) ice core retrieved from the Antarctic Peninsula exhibits a notable relationship with sea ice extent (SIE) in the Bellingshausen Sea. Over the satellite era, both BP An and Bellingshausen SIE are influenced by large-scale climatic factors such as the Amundsen Sea Low, Southern Annular Mode, and Southern Oscillation. In addition to the direct response of BP An to Bellingshausen SIE (e.g., more open water as a moisture source), these large-scale climate phenomena also link the BP and the Bellingshausen Sea indirectly such that they exhibit similar responses (e.g., northerly wind anomalies advect warm, moist air to the Antarctic Peninsula and neighboring Bellingshausen Sea, which reduces SIE and increases An). Comparison with a time series of fast ice at South Orkney Islands reveals a relationship between BP An and sea ice in the northern Weddell Sea that is relatively consistent over the twentieth century, except when it is modulated by atmospheric wave patterns described by the Trans-Polar Index. The trend of increasing accumulation on the Bruce Plateau since 1970 agrees with other climate records and reconstructions in the region and suggests that the current rate of sea ice loss in the Bellingshausen Sea is unrivaled in the twentieth century.

  4. On using numerical sea-ice prediction and indigenous observations to improve operational sea-ice forecasts during spring in the bering sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemer, Gregory Joseph

    Impacts of a rapidly changing climate are amplified in the Arctic. The most notorious change has come in the form of record-breaking summertime sea-ice retreat. Larger areas of open water and a prolonged ice-free season create opportunity for some industries, but bring new challenges to indigenous populations that rely on sea-ice cover for subsistence. Observed and projected increases in maritime activities require accurate sea-ice forecasts on the weather timescale, which are currently lacking. Motivated by this need, this study explores how new modeling developments and local-scale observations can contribute to improving sea-ice forecasts. The Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast System, a research sea-ice forecast model developed by the U.S. Navy, is evaluated for forecast skill. Forecasts of ice concentration, thickness, and drift speed produced by the model from April through June 2011 in the Bering Sea were investigated to determine how the model performs relative to persistence and climatology. Results show that model forecasts can outperform forecasts based on climatology or persistence. However, predictive skill is less consistent during powerful, synoptic-scale events and near the Bering Slope. Forecast case studies in Western Alaska were presented. Community-based observations from recognized indigenous sea-ice experts have been analyzed to gauge the prospect of using local observations in the operational sea-ice monitoring and prediction process. Local observations were discussed in the context of cross-validating model guidance, data sources used in operational ice monitoring, and public sea-ice information products issued by the U.S. National Weather Service. Instrumentation for observing sea-ice and weather at the local scale was supplied to key observers. The instrumentation shows utility in the field and may help translate the context of indigenous observations and provide ground-truth data for use by forecasters.

  5. Sea ice occurrence predicts genetic isolation in the Arctic fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffen, Eli; Waidyaratne, Sitara; Dalén, Love; Angerbjörn, Anders; Vila, Carles; Hersteinsson, Pall; Fuglei, Eva; White, Paula A; Goltsman, Michael; Kapel, Christian M O; Wayne, Robert K

    2007-10-01

    Unlike Oceanic islands, the islands of the Arctic Sea are not completely isolated from migration by terrestrial vertebrates. The pack ice connects many Arctic Sea islands to the mainland during winter months. The Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), which has a circumpolar distribution, populates numerous islands in the Arctic Sea. In this study, we used genetic data from 20 different populations, spanning the entire distribution of the Arctic fox, to identify barriers to dispersal. Specifically, we considered geographical distance, occurrence of sea ice, winter temperature, ecotype, and the presence of red fox and polar bear as nonexclusive factors that influence the dispersal behaviour of individuals. Using distance-based redundancy analysis and the BIOENV procedure, we showed that occurrence of sea ice is the key predictor and explained 40-60% of the genetic distance among populations. In addition, our analysis identified the Commander and Pribilof Islands Arctic populations as genetically unique suggesting they deserve special attention from a conservation perspective.

  6. Arctic autumn sea ice decline and Asian winter temperature anomaly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Na; LIN Lina; WANG Yingjie; KONG Bin; ZHANG Zhanhai; CHEN Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Associations between the autumn Arctic sea ice concentration (SIC) and Asian winter temperature are discussed using the singular value decomposition analysis. Results show that in recent 33 years reduced autumn Arctic sea ice is accompanied by Asian winter temperature decrease except in the Tibetan plateau and the Arctic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean coast. The autumn SIC reduction excites two geopotential height centers in Eurasia and the north Arctic Ocean, which are persistent from autumn to winter. The negative center is in Barents Sea/Kara Sea. The positive center is located in Mongolia. The anomalous winds are associated with geopotential height centers, providing favorable clod air for the Asian winter temperature decreasing in recent 33 years. This relationship indicates a potential long-term outlook for the Asian winter temperature decrease as the decline of the autumn sea ice in the Arctic Ocean is expected to continue as climate warms.

  7. Sensitivity of ocean circulation and sea-ice conditions to loss of West Antarctic ice shelves and ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougamont, Marion; Hunke, Elizabeth C.; Tulaczyk, Slawek

    We use a global coupled ocean-sea ice model to test the hypothesis that the disintegration of the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS), or just its ice shelves, may modify ocean circulation and sea-ice conditions in the Southern Ocean. We compare the results of three model runs: (1) a control run with a standard (modern) configuration of landmask in West Antarctica, (2) a no-shelves run with West Antarctic ice shelves removed and (3) a no-WAIS run. In the latter two runs, up to a few million square kilometres of new sea surface area opens to sea-ice formation, causing the volume and extent of Antarctic sea-ice cover to increase compared with the control run. In general, near-surface waters are cooler around Antarctica in the no-shelves and no-WAIS model runs than in the control run, while warm intermediate and deep waters penetrate further south, increasing poleward heat transport. Varying regional responses to the imposed changes in landmask configuration are determined by the fact that Antarctic polynyas and fast ice develop in different parts of the model domain in each run. Model results suggest that changes in the extent of WAIS may modify oceanographic conditions in the Southern Ocean.

  8. Wind waves in ice-free areas of Arctic seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubkin, Pavel; Chapron, Bertrand; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir

    Wind-generated waves in Kara, Laptev and East Siberian Seas are investigated using altimeter data from ENVISAT and SARAL-AltiKa. Only the “isolated” ice-free areas had been selected for analysis. In this case wind seas can be treated as pure wind-generated waves without any contamination by the swell. The isolated ice-free areas are identified using National Snow & Ice Data Center (NSIDC) ice concentration data generated from brightness temperatures derived from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) on board the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F13 and F17 satellites, respectively. The altimeter data, both significant wave height (SWH) and wind speed which were accompanied with ASCAT scatterometer wind velocity field (since 2007), have been selected for these areas in the time period 2002-2013. This data set is analyzed in terms of dimensionless SWH and dimensionless ice-free area. Either of these quantities is scaled using “standard” dimension analysis based on wind speed and gravity acceleration. Universal empirical dependences of dimensionless SWH on dimensionless ice-free areas are established. At smallest ice-free areas they are consistent with known universal dependences for wind wave generation at fetch limited conditions. At the largest ice-free areas the established dependences are consistent with field data for the open ocean conditions. Impact of climate change and ice melting in the Arctic areas on wind seas is discussed.

  9. Climate change and ice hazards in the Beaufort Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Barber

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent reductions in the summer extent of sea ice have focused the world’s attention on the effects of climate change. Increased CO2-derived global warming is rapidly shrinking the Arctic multi-year ice pack. This shift in ice regimes allows for increasing development opportunities for large oil and gas deposits known to occur throughout the Arctic. Here we show that hazardous ice features remain a threat to stationary and mobile infrastructure in the southern Beaufort Sea. With the opening up of the ice pack, forecasting of high-frequency oscillations or local eddy-driven ice motion will be a much more complex task than modeling average ice circulation. Given the observed reduction in sea ice extent and thickness this rather counterintuitive situation, associated with a warming climate, poses significant hazards to Arctic marine oil and gas development and marine transportation. Accurate forecasting of hazardous ice motion will require improved real-time surface wind and ocean current forecast models capable of ingesting local satellite-derived wind data and/or local, closely-spaced networks of anemometers and improved methods of determining high-frequency components of surface ocean current fields ‘up-stream’ from drilling and extraction operations.

  10. Assimilation of ice and water observations from SAR imagery to improve estimates of sea ice concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Andrea Scott

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the assimilation of binary observations calculated from synthetic aperture radar (SAR images of sea ice is investigated. Ice and water observations are obtained from a set of SAR images by thresholding ice and water probabilities calculated using a supervised maximum likelihood estimator (MLE. These ice and water observations are then assimilated in combination with ice concentration from passive microwave imagery for the purpose of estimating sea ice concentration. Due to the fact that the observations are binary, consisting of zeros and ones, while the state vector is a continuous variable (ice concentration, the forward model used to map the state vector to the observation space requires special consideration. Both linear and non-linear forward models were investigated. In both cases, the assimilation of SAR data was able to produce ice concentration analyses in closer agreement with image analysis charts than when assimilating passive microwave data only. When both passive microwave and SAR data are assimilated, the bias between the ice concentration analyses and the ice concentration from ice charts is 19.78%, as compared to 26.72% when only passive microwave data are assimilated. The method presented here for the assimilation of SAR data could be applied to other binary observations, such as ice/water information from visual/infrared sensors.

  11. Spatial and temporal variability of sea ice in the southern Beaufort Sea and Amundsen Gulf: 1980-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galley, R. J.; Key, E.; Barber, D. G.; Hwang, B. J.; Ehn, J. K.

    2008-05-01

    Changing extent, location, and motion of the Arctic perennial pack affect the annual evolution of seasonal ice zones. Canadian Ice Service digital ice charts covering the southern Beaufort Sea and Amundsen Gulf are used to illustrate summer and winter conditions and trends between 1980 and 2004 for several sea ice stages of development. Results illustrate average sea ice conditions within the region in summer and winter for predominant sea ice types and changes in the relative concentration of sea ice types in summer and winter. In summer, a trend toward increased old sea ice concentration occurred near the mouth of Amundsen Gulf, with a trend toward decreasing summer first-year sea ice farther west. In winter, increasing thick first-year sea ice extent appears to be replacing young sea ice within the flaw lead system in the region. The dynamically driven breakup of sea ice in spring in the Amundsen Gulf is a highly variable event taking anywhere between 2 and 22 weeks to completely remove ice from the gulf. The timing and duration of the open water season depends upon the extent and timing of old ice influx. Freezeup occurs very quickly, proceeding from west to east with little temporal variability. The results of this paper are used to set the context for the Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study (CASES) in terms of sea ice dynamic and thermodynamic processes.

  12. Ross sea ice motion, area flux, and deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    kwok, Ron

    2005-01-01

    The sea ice motion, area export, and deformation of the Ross Sea ice cover are examined with satellite passive microwave and RADARSAT observations. The record of high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, from 1998 and 2000, allows the estimation of the variability of ice deformation at the small scale (10 km) and to assess the quality of the longer record of passive microwave ice motion. Daily and subdaily deformation fields and RADARSAT imagery highlight the variability of motion and deformation in the Ross Sea. With the passive microwave ice motion, the area export at a flux gate positioned between Cape Adare and Land Bay is estimated. Between 1992 and 2003, a positive trend can be seen in the winter (March-November) ice area flux that has a mean of 990 x 103 km2 and ranges from a low of 600 x 103 km2 in 1992 to a peak of 1600 x 103 km2 in 2001. In the mean, the southern Ross Sea produces almost twice its own area of sea ice during the winter. Cross-gate sea level pressure (SLP) gradients explain 60% of the variance in the ice area flux. A positive trend in this gradient, from reanalysis products, suggests a 'spinup' of the Ross Sea Gyre over the past 12 yr. In both the NCEP-NCAR and ERA-40 surface pressure fields, longer-term trends in this gradient and mean SLP between 1979 and 2002 are explored along with positive anomalies in the monthly cross-gate SLP gradient associated with the positive phase of the Southern Hemisphere annular mode and the extrapolar Southern Oscillation.

  13. Satellite information of sea ice for model validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheed, P. P.; Mitra, Ashis K.; Momin, Imranali M.; Mahapatra, Debasis K.; Rajagopal, E. N.

    2016-05-01

    Emergence of extensively large computational facilities have enabled the scientific world to use earth system models for understating the prevailing dynamics of the earth's atmosphere, ocean and cryosphere and their inter relations. The sea ice in the arctic and the Antarctic has been identified as one of the main proxies to study the climate changes. The rapid sea-ice melting in the Arctic and disappearance of multi-year sea ice has become a matter of concern. The earth system models couple the ocean, atmosphere and sea-ice in order to bring out the possible inter connections between these three very important components and their role in the changing climate. The Indian monsoon is seen to be subjected to nonlinear changes in the recent years. The rapid ice melt in the Arctic sea ice is apparently linked to the changes in the weather and climate of the Indian subcontinent. The recent findings reveal the relation between the high events occurs in the Indian subcontinent and the Arctic sea ice melt episodes. The coupled models are being used in order to study the depth of these relations. However, the models have to be validated extensively by using measured parameters. The satellite measurements of sea-ice starts from way back in 1979. There have been many data sets available since then. Here in this study, an evaluation of the existing data sets is conducted. There are some uncertainties in these data sets. It could be associated with the absence of a single sensor for a long period of time and also the absence of accurate in-situ measurements in order to validate the satellite measurements.

  14. Multiyear ice transport and small scale sea ice deformation near the Alaska coast measured by air-deployable Ice Trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, A. R.; Kasper, J.; Winsor, P.

    2015-12-01

    Highly complex patterns of ice motion and deformation were captured by fifteen satellite-telemetered GPS buoys (known as Ice Trackers) deployed near Barrow, Alaska, in spring 2015. Two pentagonal clusters of buoys were deployed on pack ice by helicopter in the Beaufort Sea between 20 and 80 km offshore. During deployment, ice motion in the study region was effectively zero, but two days later the buoys captured a rapid transport event in which multiyear ice from the Beaufort Sea was flushed into the Chukchi Sea. During this event, westward ice motion began in the Chukchi Sea and propagated eastward. This created new openings in the ice and led to rapid elongation of the clusters as the westernmost buoys accelerated away from their neighbors to the east. The buoys tracked ice velocities of over 1.5 ms-1, with fastest motion occurring closest to the coast indicating strong current shear. Three days later, ice motion reversed and the two clusters became intermingled, rendering divergence calculations based on the area enclosed by clusters invalid. The data show no detectable difference in velocity between first year and multiyear ice floes, but Lagrangian timeseries of SAR imagery centered on each buoy show that first year ice underwent significant small-scale deformation during the event. The five remaining buoys were deployed by local residents on prominent ridges embedded in the landfast ice within 16 km of Barrow in order to track the fate of such features after they detached from the coast. Break-up of the landfast ice took place over a period of several days and, although the buoys each initially followed a similar eastward trajectory around Point Barrow into the Beaufort Sea, they rapidly dispersed over an area more than 50 km across. With rapid environmental and socio-economic change in the Arctic, understanding the complexity of nearshore ice motion is increasingly important for predict future changes in the ice and the tracking ice-related hazards

  15. A microwave technique for mapping thin sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.

    1994-01-01

    A technique is presented for mapping the distribution of new, young and first-year sea ice in seasonal sea ice zones that utilizes microwave spectral and polarization information from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (DMSP SSM/I). The motivation for this work stems from the need for accurate estimates of open water and thin ice within the Arctic ice pack. The technique utilizes the microwave polarization and spectral characteristics of these three ice types through two microwave radiance ratios: the 19.4 GHz polarization and the spectral gradient ratio, which is a measure of the spectral difference between the 19.4-GHz and the 37.0-GHz vertically polarized radiance components. The combined use of the spectral gradient ratio and polarization reduces the low ice concentration bias generally associated with the presence of thin ice types. The microwave polarization, which is sensitive to changes in ice thickness and ice surface characteristics, is used to classify new, young, and first-year ice types.

  16. Microwave signature of sea-ice for GCOM-W1/AMSR2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoki, K.; Nishio, F.; Yoshikawa, M.

    2011-12-01

    The lowest Arctic sea-ice cover has been recorded in September 2007. After that, though it has increased in 2008 and 2009, it has decreased again in 2010. The factor of the sea-ice change is researched in various fields. Monitoring of a thin sea-ice thickness is important as these researches because the sea-ice thickness has influences for the heat budget. However the retrieval of thin sea-ice thickness is difficult because thin sea-ice brightness temperature (TB) depends on the salinity and temperature, and there exist the snow over the thin sea-ice. In order to know the relationship between sea-ice TB and sea-ice parameters, we observed thin sea-ice TB using Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) and measured ice thickness by ship. The effect of sea-ice parameters on the TB was examined by model. The brightness temperature of the thin sea-ice was observed using PSR on board an aircraft in the Okhotsk on February 7, 2003. The sea-ice thickness was measured from the icebreaker synchronizing with the aircraft. The TB calculated the variation at the sea-ice with/without of the snow, thickness, and the density of the snow. The calculated result was consistent with the observed one in the 18GHz-Hpol. We show the snow density influenced the increased brightness temperature.

  17. Remote sensing of sea ice: advances during the DAMOCLES project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Heygster

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Arctic, global warming is particularly pronounced so that we need to monitor its development continuously. On the other hand, the vast and hostile conditions make in situ observation difficult, so that available satellite observations should be exploited in the best possible way to extract geophysical information. Here, we give a résumé of the sea ice remote sensing efforts of the EU project DAMOCLES (Developing Arctic Modeling and Observing Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies. The monthly variation of the microwave emissivity of first-year and multiyear sea ice has been derived for the frequencies of the microwave imagers like AMSR-E and sounding frequencies of AMSU, and has been used to develop an optimal estimation method to retrieve sea ice and atmospheric parameters simultaneously. A sea ice microwave emissivity model has been used together with a thermodynamic model to establish relations between the emisivities at 6 GHz and 50 GHz. At the latter frequency, the emissivity is needed for assimilation into atmospheric circulation models, but more difficult to observe directly. A method to determine the effective size of the snow grains from observations in the visible range (MODIS is developed and applied. The bidirectional reflectivity distribution function (BRDF of snow, which is an essential input parameter to the retrieval, has been measured in situ on Svalbard during the DAMOCLES campaign, and a BRDF model assuming aspherical particles is developed. Sea ice drift and deformation is derived from satellite observations with the scatterometer ASCAT (62.5 km grid spacing, with visible AVHRR observations (20 km, with the synthetic aperture radar sensor ASAR (10 km, and a multi-sensor product (62.5 km with improved angular resolution (Continuous Maximum Cross Correlation, CMCC method is presented. CMCC is also used to derive the sea ice deformation, important for formation of sea ice leads (diverging deformation and

  18. Biopolymers form a gelatinous microlayer at the air-sea interface when Arctic sea ice melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Luisa; Piontek, Judith; Engel, Anja

    2016-07-20

    The interface layer between ocean and atmosphere is only a couple of micrometers thick but plays a critical role in climate relevant processes, including the air-sea exchange of gas and heat and the emission of primary organic aerosols (POA). Recent findings suggest that low-level cloud formation above the Arctic Ocean may be linked to organic polymers produced by marine microorganisms. Sea ice harbors high amounts of polymeric substances that are produced by cells growing within the sea-ice brine. Here, we report from a research cruise to the central Arctic Ocean in 2012. Our study shows that microbial polymers accumulate at the air-sea interface when the sea ice melts. Proteinaceous compounds represented the major fraction of polymers supporting the formation of a gelatinous interface microlayer and providing a hitherto unrecognized potential source of marine POA. Our study indicates a novel link between sea ice-ocean and atmosphere that may be sensitive to climate change.

  19. Biopolymers form a gelatinous microlayer at the air-sea interface when Arctic sea ice melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Luisa; Piontek, Judith; Engel, Anja

    2016-07-01

    The interface layer between ocean and atmosphere is only a couple of micrometers thick but plays a critical role in climate relevant processes, including the air-sea exchange of gas and heat and the emission of primary organic aerosols (POA). Recent findings suggest that low-level cloud formation above the Arctic Ocean may be linked to organic polymers produced by marine microorganisms. Sea ice harbors high amounts of polymeric substances that are produced by cells growing within the sea-ice brine. Here, we report from a research cruise to the central Arctic Ocean in 2012. Our study shows that microbial polymers accumulate at the air-sea interface when the sea ice melts. Proteinaceous compounds represented the major fraction of polymers supporting the formation of a gelatinous interface microlayer and providing a hitherto unrecognized potential source of marine POA. Our study indicates a novel link between sea ice-ocean and atmosphere that may be sensitive to climate change.

  20. Ross Sea Polynyas: Response of Ice Concentration Retrievals to Large Areas of Thin Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R.; Comiso, J. C.; Martin, S.; Drucker, R.

    2007-01-01

    For a 3-month period between May and July of 2005, we examine the response of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) Enhanced NASA Team 2 (NT2) and AMSR-E Bootstrap (ABA) ice concentration algorithms to large areas of thin ice of the Ross Sea polynyas. Coincident Envisat Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) coverage of the region during this period offers a detailed look at the development of the polynyas within several hundred kilometers of the ice front. The high-resolution imagery and derived ice motion fields show bands of polynya ice, covering up to approximately 105 km(sup 2) of the Ross Sea, that are associated with wind-forced advection. In this study, ice thickness from AMSR-E 36 GHz polarization information serves as the basis for examination of the response. The quality of the thickness of newly formed sea ice (<10 cm) from AMSR-E is first assessed with thickness estimates derived from ice surface temperatures from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. The effect of large areas of thin ice in lowering the ice concentration estimates from both NT2/ABA approaches is clearly demonstrated. Results show relatively robust relationships between retrieved ice concentrations and thin ice thickness estimates that differ between the two algorithms. These relationships define the approximate spatial coincidence of ice concentration and thickness isopleths. Using the 83% (ABA) and 91% (NT2) isopleths as polynya boundaries, we show that the computed coverage compares well with that using the estimated 10-cm thickness contour. The thin ice response characterized here suggests that in regions with polynyas, the retrieval results could be used to provide useful geophysical information, namely thickness and coverage.

  1. Sea ice contribution to the air-sea CO{sub 2} exchange in the Arctic and Southern Oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rysgaard, Soeren (Greenland Climate Research Centre, Greenland Inst. of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Centre for Earth Observation Science, CHR Faculty of Environment Earth and Resources, Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)), e-mail: rysgaard@natur.gl; Bendtsen, Joergen (Greenland Climate Research Centre, Greenland Inst. of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Inst., Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen O (Denmark)); Delille, Bruno (Unit' e d' Oceanographie Chimique, Interfacultary Centre for Marine Research, Universite de Liege, Liege (Belgium)); Dieckmann, Gerhard S. (Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)); Glud, Ronnie N. (Greenland Climate Research Centre, Greenland Inst. of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Scottish Association of Marine Sciences, Scotland UK, Southern Danish Univ. and NordCee, Odense M (Denmark)); Kennedy, Hilary; Papadimitriou, Stathys (School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor Univ., Menai Bridge, Anglesey, Wales (United Kingdom)); Mortensen, John (Greenland Climate Research Centre, Greenland Inst. of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark)); Thomas, David N. (School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor Univ., Menai Bridge, Anglesey, Wales (United Kingdom); Finnish Environment Inst. (SYKE), Marine Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)); Tison, Jean-Louis (Glaciology Unit, Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, (Belgium))

    2011-11-15

    Although salt rejection from sea ice is a key process in deep-water formation in ice-covered seas, the concurrent rejection of CO{sub 2} and the subsequent effect on air-sea CO{sub 2} exchange have received little attention. We review the mechanisms by which sea ice directly and indirectly controls the air-sea CO{sub 2} exchange and use recent measurements of inorganic carbon compounds in bulk sea ice to estimate that oceanic CO{sub 2} uptake during the seasonal cycle of sea-ice growth and decay in ice-covered oceanic regions equals almost half of the net atmospheric CO{sub 2} uptake in ice-free polar seas. This sea-ice driven CO{sub 2} uptake has not been considered so far in estimates of global oceanic CO{sub 2} uptake. Net CO{sub 2} uptake in sea-ice-covered oceans can be driven by; (1) rejection during sea-ice formation and sinking of CO{sub 2}-rich brine into intermediate and abyssal oceanic water masses, (2) blocking of air-sea CO{sub 2} exchange during winter, and (3) release of CO{sub 2}-depleted melt water with excess total alkalinity during sea-ice decay and (4) biological CO{sub 2} drawdown during primary production in sea ice and surface oceanic waters

  2. Sea ice thickness analyses for the Bohai Sea using MODIS thermal infrared imagery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Tao; SHI Lijian; MARKO Makynen; CHENG Bin; ZOU Juhong; ZHANG Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    Level ice thickness distribution pattern in the Bohai Sea in the winter of 2009–2010 was investigated in this paper using MODIS night-time thermal infrared imagery. The cloud cover in the imagery was masked out manually. Level ice thickness was calculated using MODIS ice surface temperature and an ice surface heat balance equation. Weather forcing data was from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses. The retrieved ice thickness agreed reasonable well within situ observations from two off-shore oil platforms. The overall bias and the root mean square error of the MODIS ice thickness are –1.4 cm and 3.9 cm, respectively. The MODIS results under cold conditions (air temperature < –10°C) also agree with the estimated ice growth from Lebedev and Zubov models. The MODIS ice thickness is sensitive to the changes of the sea ice and air temperature, in particular when the sea ice is relatively thin. It is less sensitive to the wind speed. Our method is feasible for the Bohai Sea operational ice thickness analyses during cold freezing seasons.

  3. Surface and basal sea ice melt from autonomous buoy arrays during the 2014 sea ice retreat in the Beaufort/Chukchi Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksym, T. L.; Wilkinson, J.; Hwang, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    As the Arctic continues its transition to a seasonal ice cover, the nature and role of the processes driving sea ice retreat are expected to change. Key questions revolve around how the coupling between dynamics and thermodynamic processes and potential changes in the role of melt ponds contribute to an accelerated seasonal ice retreat. To address these issues, 44 autonomous platforms were deployed in four arrays in the Beaufort Sea in March, 2014, with an additional array deployed in August in the Chukchi Sea to monitor the evolution of ice conditions during the seasonal sea ice retreat. Each "5-dice" array included four or five co-sited ice mass balance buoys (IMB) and wave buoys with digital cameras, and one automatic weather station (AWS) at the array center. The sensors on these buoys, combined with satellite imagery monitoring the large-scale evolution of the ice cover, provide a near-complete history of the processes involved in the seasonal melt of sea ice. We present a preliminary analysis of the contributions of several key processes to the seasonal ice decay. The evolution of surface ponding was observed at several sites with differing ice types and surface morphologies. The records of surface melt and ice thickness demonstrate a key role of ice type in driving the evolution of the ice cover. Analysis of the surface forcing and estimates of solar energy partitioning between the surface and upper ocean is compared to the surface and basal mass balance from the IMBs. The role of ice divergence and deformation in driving sea ice decay - in particular its role in accelerating thermodynamic melt processes - is discussed.

  4. New IceTracker Tool Depicts Forward and Backward Arctic Sea Ice Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Campbell, G.; Tremblay, B.; Newton, R.; Meier, W.

    2013-12-01

    The IceTracker allows researchers, educators and the public to depict the forward drift trajectories of sea ice, as well as back trajectories showing the path the ice took to the specified location. Users enter in the location and date of an ice parcel - or parcels -- of interest, then select a later or earlier date, depending on whether they want to see the forward or the backward trajectory. The database for the IceTracker contains ice motion vectors based upon a pattern recognition algorithm applied to images of sea ice derived from microwave satellite data. Ice motion vector plots are single day motion estimates. The available database starts November 1978 and runs to the present with ca. 1 month delay. IceTracker output includes both an image of the ice motion path as well as a data file that has quasi-daily date, latitude, longitude, estimated sea ice age, ice drift speed, mean air temperature, and water depth. One can overlay different days on the same plot in different colors for comparing different seasons. This presentation highlights research, education, and outreach applications of the tool. Research applications include estimating the origin and melt location of sediment and contaminants sampled on or in sea ice, assessing potential trajectories oil spilled in ice-infested waters, documenting seasonal and interannual variability in ice drift trajectories from specific locations, defining the typical origins of ice that tend to melt in an area of interest, such as a polynya, and assessing the deviation from drift of polar bear foraging. The IceTracker can also be used in the social sciences, for example recreating Nansen's historic 1893-1896 trans-Arctic drift with the Fram under modern conditions and considering the implications of alternative fates. Educational purposes include teaching students about ice dynamics and interannual variability by setting up team competitions to be the first to reach the North Pole or some other location. Applications

  5. Arctic Tides from GPS on sea-ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    2013-01-01

    ) placed on sea-ice, at six different sites north of Greenland for the preliminary study of sea surface height (SSH), and tidal analysis to improve tide models in the Central Arctic. The GPS measurements are compared with the Arctic tide model AOTIM-5, which assimilates tide-gauges and altimetry data...

  6. [Comparative analysis of sea-ice diatom species composition in the seas of Russian Arctic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'iash, L V; Zhitina, L S

    2009-01-01

    Comparative analysis of species composition of ice diatom algae (IDA) of the White, Barents, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi Seas and the Basin of the Arctic Ocean was conducted on the basis of both original and published data. Species composition of IDA counts 567 taxa including 122 centric and 446 pennate diatoms. The freshwater algae composed about 18% of the total species number. In the White Sea, IDA were the most numerous (272 taxa), in the Kara Sea they are the least numerous (57 taxa). The species compositions in different seas differ significantly from each other. Similarity of IDA was consistent with the Arctic Ocean circulation and ice drift. IDA of Chukchi, East Siberian and Laptev Seas are the most similar, as are IDA of White and Kara Seas. Similarity of IDA of Chukchi Sea to those of other seas decrease in the west direction. IDA species differences between regions within one sea could be greater than those between different seas.

  7. A recent bifurcation in Arctic sea-ice cover

    CERN Document Server

    Livina, Valerie N

    2012-01-01

    There is ongoing debate over whether Arctic sea-ice has already passed a 'tipping point', or whether it will do so in future, with several recent studies arguing that the loss of summer sea ice does not involve a bifurcation because it is highly reversible in models. Recently developed methods can detect and sometimes forewarn of bifurcations in time-series data, hence we applied them to satellite data for Arctic sea-ice cover. Here we show that a new low ice cover state has appeared from 2007 onwards, which is distinct from the normal state of seasonal sea ice variation, suggesting a bifurcation has occurred from one attractor to two. There was no robust early warning signal of critical slowing down prior to this bifurcation, consistent with it representing the appearance of a new ice cover state rather than the loss of stability of the existing state. The new low ice cover state has been sampled predominantly in summer-autumn and seasonal forcing combined with internal climate variability are likely respons...

  8. Arctic Sea Ice Simulation in the PlioMIP Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Fergus W.; Haywood, Alan M.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Bragg, Fran; Chan, Wing-Le; Chandler, Mark A.; Contoux, Camille; Kamae, Youichi; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Rosenbloom, Nan A.; Stepanek, Christian; Zhang, Zhongshi

    2016-01-01

    Eight general circulation models have simulated the mid-Pliocene warm period (mid-Pliocene, 3.264 to 3.025 Ma) as part of the Pliocene Modelling Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP). Here, we analyse and compare their simulation of Arctic sea ice for both the pre-industrial period and the mid-Pliocene. Mid-Pliocene sea ice thickness and extent is reduced, and the model spread of extent is more than twice the pre-industrial spread in some summer months. Half of the PlioMIP models simulate ice-free conditions in the mid-Pliocene. This spread amongst the ensemble is in line with the uncertainties amongst proxy reconstructions for mid-Pliocene sea ice extent. Correlations between mid-Pliocene Arctic temperatures and sea ice extents are almost twice as strong as the equivalent correlations for the pre-industrial simulations. The need for more comprehensive sea ice proxy data is highlighted, in order to better compare model performances.

  9. Sea ice inertial oscillations in the Arctic Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gimbert

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An original method to quantify the amplitude of inertial motion of oceanic and ice drifters, through the introduction of a non-dimensional parameter M defined from a spectral analysis, is presented. A strong seasonal dependence of the magnitude of sea ice inertial oscillations is revealed, in agreement with the corresponding annual cycles of sea ice extent, concentration, thickness, advection velocity, and deformation rates. The spatial pattern of the magnitude of the sea ice inertial oscillations over the Arctic Basin is also in agreement with the sea ice thickness and concentration patterns. This argues for a strong interaction between the magnitude of inertial motion on one hand, the dissipation of energy through mechanical processes, and the cohesiveness of the cover on the other hand. Finally, a significant multi-annual evolution towards greater magnitudes of inertial oscillations in recent years, in both summer and winter, is reported, thus concomitant with reduced sea ice thickness, concentration and spatial extent.

  10. Measurements of sea ice by satellite and airborne altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine

    A changing sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean is an early indicator of a climate in transition, the sea ice has in addition a large impact on the climate. The annual and interannual variations of the sea ice cover have been observed by satellites since the start of the satellite era in 1979......, and it has been in retreat every since. The mass balance of the sea ice is an important input to climate models, where the ice thickness is the most uncertain parameter. In this study, data from the CryoSat-2 radar altimeter satellite are used. CryoSat-2 has been measuring the sea ice in the Arctic Ocean...... freeboard is found to be 35 cm for both the airborne and satellite data implying, that the radar signal is here reflected from the snow surface, probably due to weather conditions. CryoSat-2 is very sensitive to returns from specular surfaces, even if they appear o_-nadir. This contaminates the “true...

  11. Regional variability in sea ice melt in a changing Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, Donald K; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline A

    2015-07-13

    In recent years, the Arctic sea ice cover has undergone a precipitous decline in summer extent. The sea ice mass balance integrates heat and provides insight on atmospheric and oceanic forcing. The amount of surface melt and bottom melt that occurs during the summer melt season was measured at 41 sites over the time period 1957 to 2014. There are large regional and temporal variations in both surface and bottom melting. Combined surface and bottom melt ranged from 16 to 294 cm, with a mean of 101 cm. The mean ice equivalent surface melt was 48 cm and the mean bottom melt was 53 cm. On average, surface melting decreases moving northward from the Beaufort Sea towards the North Pole; however interannual differences in atmospheric forcing can overwhelm the influence of latitude. Substantial increases in bottom melting are a major contributor to ice losses in the Beaufort Sea, due to decreases in ice concentration. In the central Arctic, surface and bottom melting demonstrate interannual variability, but show no strong temporal trends from 2000 to 2014. This suggests that under current conditions, summer melting in the central Arctic is not large enough to completely remove the sea ice cover.

  12. Increased Land Use by Chukchi Sea Polar Bears in Relation to Changing Sea Ice Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn D Rode

    Full Text Available Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986-1995 and 2008-2013 when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia, highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions.

  13. Increased Land Use by Chukchi Sea Polar Bears in Relation to Changing Sea Ice Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Wilson, Ryan R.; Regehr, Eric V.; St. Martin, Michelle; Douglas, David C.; Olson, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986–1995 and 2008–2013) when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia), highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions. PMID:26580809

  14. Passive microwave remote sensing for sea ice research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for gathering data by remote sensors on satellites utilized for sea ice research are summarized. Measurement of brightness temperatures by a passive microwave imager converted to maps of total sea ice concentration and to the areal fractions covered by first year and multiyear ice are described. Several ancillary observations, especially by means of automatic data buoys and submarines equipped with upward looking sonars, are needed to improve the validation and interpretation of satellite data. The design and performance characteristics of the Navy's Special Sensor Microwave Imager, expected to be in orbit in late 1985, are described. It is recommended that data from that instrument be processed to a form suitable for research applications and archived in a readily accessible form. The sea ice data products required for research purposes are described and recommendations for their archival and distribution to the scientific community are presented.

  15. Periodic fluctuations in deep water formation due to sea ice

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Raj

    2015-01-01

    During the last ice age several quasi-periodic abrupt warming events took place. Known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events their effects were felt globally, although the North Atlantic experienced the largest temperature anomalies. Paleoclimate data shows that the fluctuations often occurred right after massive glacial meltwater releases in the North Atlantic and in bursts of three or four with progressively decreasing strengths. In this study a simple dynamical model of an overturning circulation and sea ice is developed with the goal of understanding the fundamental mechanisms that could have caused the DO events. Interaction between sea ice and the overturning circulation in the model produces self-sustained oscillations. Analysis and numerical experiments reveal that the insulating effect of sea ice causes the ocean to periodically vent out accumulated heat in the deep ocean into the atmosphere. Subjecting the model to idealized freshwater forcing mimicking Heinrich events causes modulation of the natural p...

  16. Sea ice dynamics and the role of wind forcing over the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, A.; Hutchings, J. K.; Farrell, S. L.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Both the ocean circulation and overlying sea ice cover of the Beaufort and Chukchi seas have experienced significant change in recent decades. We use sea ice drift estimates from satellite feature tracking (NSIDC/CERSAT), wind forcing from atmospheric reanalysis products (NCEP-R2/ERA-I/JRA-55), and ice type information from satellite and direct ship-based observations (obtained during the Beaufort Gyre Exploration Project), to investigate the role of wind forcing and ice mechanics in driving these changes. An assessment of ice drift shows reasonable agreement across the different products, revealing interannual variability in the ice flux around the Beaufort Sea. However, clear uncertainties remain in determining the magnitude of these fluxes, especially in regions of low ice concentration. We find an increase in ice export out of the southern Beaufort Sea (into the Chukchi Sea) across all seasons. We find slight differences in the strength of the decadal (1980-2013) trends in the mean seasonal wind curl over the Beaufort Sea, although all reanalysis products indicate a strong and significant increase in anti-cyclonic winds in summer. Analysis of ice drift curl suggests increasing anti-cyclonic drift across all seasons, despite the wind curl showing a similar trend in summer only. The strongest trend in ice drift curl appears to be in autumn, however recent years have seen a strong reduction in this anti-cyclonic drift, likely due to a combination of changes in the wind forcing and sea ice state. The implication of this finding is an enhanced response of the ocean circulation to shifts in atmospheric circulation compared to that experienced prior to 2000.

  17. Air-sea interactions in the marginal ice zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Zippel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The importance of waves in the Arctic Ocean has increased with the significant retreat of the seasonal sea-ice extent. Here, we use wind, wave, turbulence, and ice measurements to evaluate the response of the ocean surface to a given wind stress within the marginal ice zone, with a focus on the local wind input to waves and subsequent ocean surface turbulence. Observations are from the Beaufort Sea in the summer and early fall of 2014, with fractional ice cover of up to 50%. Observations showed strong damping and scattering of short waves, which, in turn, decreased the wind energy input to waves. Near-surface turbulent dissipation rates were also greatly reduced in partial ice cover. The reductions in waves and turbulence were balanced, suggesting that a wind-wave equilibrium is maintained in the marginal ice zone, though at levels much less than in open water. These results suggest that air-sea interactions are suppressed in the marginal ice zone relative to open ocean conditions at a given wind forcing, and this suppression may act as a feedback mechanism in expanding a persistent marginal ice zone throughout the Arctic.

  18. Albedo changes of the Arctic sea ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D. K.; Light, B.; Jones, K. F.; Eicken, H.; Runciman, K.; Nghiem, S. V.; Stroeve, J.; Markus, T.

    2008-12-01

    The summer extent of the Arctic sea ice cover has decreased in recent decades and there have been alterations in the timing and duration of the summer melt season. This has resulted in changes in the evolution of albedo of the Arctic sea ice cover, and consequently in the partitioning of solar energy. These changes are examined on a pan-Arctic scale on a 25 x 25 km Equal Area Scalable Earth Grid for the years 1979 - 2007. Daily values of incident solar irradiance are obtained from ERA-40 reanalysis products and ice concentrations are determined from passive microwave satellite data. The albedo of the ice is modeled by a five-phase process that includes dry snow, melting snow, melt pond formation, melt pond evolution, and freezeup. The timing of these phases is governed by the onset dates of summer melt and fall freezeup, which are determined from satellite observations. Results indicate a general trend of increasing solar heat input to the Arctic ice-ocean system due to reductions in ice concentration and longer melt seasons. This trend may accelerate the loss of sea ice through the ice-albedo feedback. The evolution of albedo, and hence the total solar heating of the ocean, is more sensitive to the date of melt onset than the date of fall freezeup.

  19. Melt ponds and marginal ice zone from new algorithm of sea ice concentration retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repina, Irina; Tikhonov, Vasiliy; Komarova, Nataliia; Raev, Mikhail; Sharkov, Evgeniy

    2016-04-01

    Studies of spatial and temporal properties of sea ice distribution in polar regions help to monitor global environmental changes and reveal their natural and anthropogenic factors, as well as make forecasts of weather, marine transportation and fishing conditions, assess perspectives of mineral mining on the continental shelf, etc. Contact methods of observation are often insufficient to meet the goals, very complicated technically and organizationally and not always safe for people involved. Remote sensing techniques are believed to be the best alternative. Its include monitoring of polar regions by means of passive microwave sensing with the aim to determine spatial distribution, types, thickness and snow cover of ice. However, the algorithms employed today to retrieve sea ice characteristics from passive microwave sensing data for different reasons give significant errors, especially in summer period and also near ice edges and in cases of open ice. A new algorithm of sea ice concentration retrieval in polar regions from satellite microwave radiometry data is discussed. Beside estimating sea ice concentration, the algorithm makes it possible to indicate ice areas with melting snow and melt ponds. Melt ponds are an important element of the Arctic climate system. Covering up to 50% of the surface of drifting ice in summer, they are characterized by low albedo values and absorb several times more incident shortwave radiation than the rest of the snow and ice cover. The change of melt ponds area in summer period 1987-2015 is investigated. The marginal ice zone (MIZ) is defined as the area where open ocean processes, including specifically ocean waves, alter significantly the dynamical properties of the sea ice cover. Ocean wave fields comprise short waves generated locally and swell propagating from the large ocean basins. Depending on factors like wind direction and ocean currents, it may consist of anything from isolated, small and large ice floes drifting over a

  20. Primary production calculations for sea ice from bio-optical observations in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Müller

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bio-optics is a powerful approach for estimating photosynthesis rates, but has seldom been applied to sea ice, where measuring photosynthesis is a challenge. We measured absorption coefficients of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM, algae, and non-algal particles along with solar radiation, albedo and transmittance at four sea-ice stations in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea. This unique compilation of optical and biological data for Baltic Sea ice was used to build a radiative transfer model describing the light field and the light absorption by algae in 1-cm increments. The maximum quantum yields and photoadaptation of photosynthesis were determined from 14C-incorporation in photosynthetic-irradiance experiments using melted ice. The quantum yields were applied to the radiative transfer model estimating the rate of photosynthesis based on incident solar irradiance measured at 1-min intervals. The calculated depth-integrated mean primary production was 5 mg C m–2 d–1 for the surface layer (0–20 cm ice depth at Station 3 (fast ice and 0.5 mg C m–2 d–1 for the bottom layer (20–57 cm ice depth. Additional calculations were performed for typical sea ice in the area in March using all ice types and a typical light spectrum, resulting in depth-integrated mean primary production rates of 34 and 5.6 mg C m–2 d–1 in surface ice and bottom ice, respectively. These calculated rates were compared to rates determined from 14C incorporation experiments with melted ice incubated in situ. The rate of the calculated photosynthesis and the rates measured in situ at Station 3 were lower than those calculated by the bio-optical algorithm for typical conditions in March in the Gulf of Finland by the bio-optical algorithm. Nevertheless, our study shows the applicability of bio-optics for estimating the photosynthesis of sea-ice algae.

  1. River-ice and sea-ice velocity fields from near-simultaneous satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeaeb, A.; Leprince, S.; Prowse, T. D.; Beltaos, S.; Lamare, M.; Abrams, M.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite stereo and satellites that follow each other on similar orbits within short time periods produce near-simultaneous space imagery, a kind of data that is little exploited. In this study, we track river-ice and sea-ice motion over time periods of tens of seconds to several minutes, which is the typical time lag between the two or more images of such near-simultaneous acquisition constellations. Using this novel approach, we measure and visualize for the first time the almost complete two-dimensional minute-scale velocity fields over several thousand square-kilometers of sea ice cover or over up to several hundred kilometers long river reaches. We present the types of near-simultaneous imagery and constellations suitable for the measurements and discuss application examples, using a range of high and medium resolution imagery such as from ASTER, ALOS PRISM, Ikonos, WorldView-2, Landsat and EO-1. The river ice velocities obtained provide new insights into ice dynamics, river flow and river morphology, in particular during ice breakup. River-ice breakup and the associated downstream transport of ice debris is often the most important hydrological event of the year, producing flood levels that commonly exceed those for the open-water period and dramatic consequences for river infrastructure and ecology. We also estimate river discharge from ice/water surface velocities using near-simultaneous satellite imagery. Our results for sea ice complement velocity fields typically obtained over time-scales of days and can thus contribute to better understanding of a number of processes involved in sea ice drift, such as wind impact, tidal currents and interaction of ice floes with each other and with obstacles.

  2. Peopling of the high Arctic - induced by sea ice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, Svend

    2010-05-01

    'We travelled in the winter after the return of daylight and did not go into fixed camp until spring, when the ice broke up. There was good hunting on the way, seals, beluga, walrus, bear.' (From Old Merkrusârk's account of his childhood's trek from Baffin Island to Northwest Greenland, told to Knud Rasmussen on Saunders Island in 1904) Five thousand years ago people moving eastwards from Beringia spread over the barrens of the Canadian high Arctic. This was the first of three waves of prehistoric Arctic 'cultures', which eventually reached Greenland. The passage into Greenland has to go through the northernmost and most hostile part of the country with a 5 month Polar night, and to understand this extraordinary example of human behaviour and endurance, it has been customary to invoke a more favourable (warmer) climate. This presentation suggests that land-fast sea ice, i.e. stationary sea ice anchored to the coast, is among the most important environmental factors behind the spread of prehistoric polar cultures. The ice provides the road for travelling and social communion - and access to the most important source of food, the ocean. In the LongTerm Project (2006 and 2007) we attempted to establish a Holocene record for sea ice variations along oceanic coasts in northernmost Greenland. Presently the coasts north of 80° N are beleaguered by year-round sea ice - for ten months this is land-fast ice, and only for a period in the stormy autumn months are the coasts exposed to pack-ice. This presentation Land-fast ice - as opposed to pack-ice - is a product of local temperatures, but its duration over the year, and especially into the daylight season, is also conditioned by other factors, notably wind strength. In the geological record we recognize long lasting land-fast ice by two absences: absence of traces of wave action (no beach formation), which, however, can also be a result of pack-ice along the coast; - and absence of driftwood on the shore (land-fast ice

  3. Export of algal biomass from the melting Arctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boetius, Antje; Albrecht, Sebastian; Bakker, Karel; Bienhold, Christina; Felden, Janine; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Hendricks, Stefan; Katlein, Christian; Lalande, Catherine; Krumpen, Thomas; Nicolaus, Marcel; Peeken, Ilka; Rabe, Benjamin; Rogacheva, Antonina; Rybakova, Elena; Somavilla, Raquel; Wenzhöfer, Frank

    2013-03-22

    In the Arctic, under-ice primary production is limited to summer months and is restricted not only by ice thickness and snow cover but also by the stratification of the water column, which constrains nutrient supply for algal growth. Research Vessel Polarstern visited the ice-covered eastern-central basins between 82° to 89°N and 30° to 130°E in summer 2012, when Arctic sea ice declined to a record minimum. During this cruise, we observed a widespread deposition of ice algal biomass of on average 9 grams of carbon per square meter to the deep-sea floor of the central Arctic basins. Data from this cruise will contribute to assessing the effect of current climate change on Arctic productivity, biodiversity, and ecological function.

  4. Sea ice characteristics between the middle Weddell Sea and the Prydz Bay, Antarctica during the austral summer of 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Shulin; KANG Jiancheng; ZHOU Shangzhe; LI Zhijun

    2005-01-01

    The antarctic sea ice was investigated upon five occasions between January 4 and February 15, 2003. The investigations included: (1)estimation of sea ice distribution by ship-based observations between the middle Weddell Sea and the Prydz Bay; (2) estimation of sea ice distribution by aerial photography in the Prydz Bay; (3) direct measurements of fast ice thickness and snow cover, as well as ice core sampling in Nella Fjord; (4) estimation of melting sea ice distribution near the Zhongshan Station; and (5) observation of sea ice early freeze near the Zhongshan Station. On average, sea ice covered 14.4% of the study area. The highest sea ice concentration (80%)was observed in the Weddell Sea. First-year ice was dominant (99.7%~99.8%). Sea ice distributions in the Prydz Bay were more variable due to complex inshore topography, proximity of the Larsemann Hills, and/or grounded icebergs. The average thickness of landfast ice in Nella Fjord was 169.5 cm. Wind-blown snow redistribution plays an important role in affecting the ice thickness in Nella Fjord. Preliminary freezing of sea ice near the Zhongshan Station follows the first two phases of the pancake cycle.

  5. Trends in sea-ice variability on the way to an ice-free Arctic

    CERN Document Server

    Bathiany, Sebastian; Williamson, Mark S; Lenton, Timothy M; Scheffer, Marten; van Nes, Egbert; Notz, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    It has been widely debated whether Arctic sea-ice loss can reach a tipping point beyond which a large sea-ice area disappears abruptly. The theory of dynamical systems predicts a slowing down when a system destabilises towards a tipping point. In simple stochastic systems this can result in increasing variance and autocorrelation, potentially yielding an early warning of an abrupt change. Here we aim to establish whether the loss of Arctic sea ice would follow these conceptual predictions, and which trends in sea ice variability can be expected from pre-industrial conditions toward an Arctic that is ice-free during the whole year. To this end, we apply a model hierarchy consisting of two box models and one comprehensive Earth system model. We find a consistent and robust decrease of the ice volume's annual relaxation time before summer ice is lost because thinner ice can adjust more quickly to perturbations. Thereafter, the relaxation time increases, mainly because the system becomes dominated by the ocean wa...

  6. A Low Order Theory of Arctic Sea Ice Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, W

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the stability of a low-order coupled sea ice and climate model and extract the essential physics governing the time scales of response as a function of greenhouse gas forcing. Under present climate conditions the stability is controlled by longwave radiation driven heat conduction. However, as greenhouse gas forcing increases and the ice cover decays, the destabilizing influence of ice-albedo feedback acts on equal footing with longwave stabilization. Both are seasonally out of phase and as the system warms towards a seasonal ice state these effects, which underlie the bifurcations between climate states, combine to extend the intrinsic relaxation time scale from ~ 2 yr to 5 yr.

  7. High resolution Holocene sea ice records from Herald Canyon, Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Christof; Jakobsson, Martin; O'Regan, Matt; Rattray, Jayne; Barrientos, Natalia; Muchitiello, Francesco; Smittenburg, Rienk; Cronin, Tom; Coxall, Helen; Semiletov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Arctic Ocean sea ice plays a critical role in the Earth's climate system because of the positive ice-albedo feedback mechanisms as well as its control on ocean-atmospheric heat exchange and potential influence on the thermohaline circulation. Key to improving our understanding of Arctic sea ice cover and its reaction to external forcing is the reconstruction of past variability through paleo-records such as marine sediment cores. Although the observed recent sea ice loss seems to be the strongest of the last millennia, it is still uncertain whether the shift from perennial to seasonal ice cover expected for the near future was unprecedented during the current interglacial. High resolution sea ice reconstructions from the Arctic Ocean are rare, and specifically records from the Russian Arctic are underrepresented. In this study, we present results from marine sediment cores from the Herald Canyon in the East Siberian Sea. The area is one of the major conduits of Pacific water entering the Arctic Ocean basin from the Bering Strait and is thus an ideal place to study past variability of the inflow of these nutrient rich waters. Radiocarbon dating of mollusks indicates very high sedimentation rates at the coring sites which allowed for analyses at centennial resolution up to decadal resolution in the late Holocene. Core samples were analyzed for the biomarker IP25, which is produced by diatoms living in sea ice and is used as a proxy of past seasonal sea ice concentrations. Preliminary results indicate the presence of seasonal sea ice during the entire Late Holocene and show a significant increase of sea ice concentrations during the last millennia.

  8. Observations of Recent Arctic Sea Ice Volume Loss and Its Impact on Ocean-Atmosphere Energy Exchange and Ice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, N. T.; Markus, T.; Farrell, S. L.; Worthen, D. L.; Boisvert, L. N.

    2011-01-01

    Using recently developed techniques we estimate snow and sea ice thickness distributions for the Arctic basin through the combination of freeboard data from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and a snow depth model. These data are used with meteorological data and a thermodynamic sea ice model to calculate ocean-atmosphere heat exchange and ice volume production during the 2003-2008 fall and winter seasons. The calculated heat fluxes and ice growth rates are in agreement with previous observations over multiyear ice. In this study, we calculate heat fluxes and ice growth rates for the full distribution of ice thicknesses covering the Arctic basin and determine the impact of ice thickness change on the calculated values. Thinning of the sea ice is observed which greatly increases the 2005-2007 fall period ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes compared to those observed in 2003. Although there was also a decline in sea ice thickness for the winter periods, the winter time heat flux was found to be less impacted by the observed changes in ice thickness. A large increase in the net Arctic ocean-atmosphere heat output is also observed in the fall periods due to changes in the areal coverage of sea ice. The anomalously low sea ice coverage in 2007 led to a net ocean-atmosphere heat output approximately 3 times greater than was observed in previous years and suggests that sea ice losses are now playing a role in increasing surface air temperatures in the Arctic.

  9. Predicted slowdown in the rate of Atlantic sea ice loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Stephen G.; Karspeck, Alicia R.; Danabasoglu, Gokhan

    2015-12-01

    Coupled climate models initialized from historical climate states and subject to anthropogenic forcings can produce skillful decadal predictions of sea surface temperature change in the subpolar North Atlantic. The skill derives largely from initialization, which improves the representation of slow changes in ocean circulation and associated poleward heat transport. We show that skillful predictions of decadal trends in Arctic winter sea ice extent are also possible, particularly in the Atlantic sector. External radiative forcing contributes to the skill of retrospective decadal sea ice predictions, but the spatial and temporal accuracy is greatly enhanced by the more realistic representation of ocean heat transport anomalies afforded by initialization. Recent forecasts indicate that a spin-down of the thermohaline circulation that began near the turn of the century will continue, and this will result in near-neutral decadal trends in Atlantic winter sea ice extent in the coming years, with decadal growth in select regions.

  10. Diagnostic sea ice predictability in the pan-Arctic and U.S. Arctic regional seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, Edward; Bitz, Cecilia M.; Ladd, Carol; Stabeno, Phyllis J.

    2016-11-01

    This study assesses sea ice predictability in the pan-Arctic and U.S. Arctic regional (Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort) seas with a purpose of understanding regional differences from the pan-Arctic perspective and how predictability might change under changing climate. Lagged correlation is derived using existing output from the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble (CESM-LE), Pan-Arctic Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System, and NOAA Coupled Forecast System Reanalysis models. While qualitatively similar, quantitative differences exist in Arctic ice area lagged correlation in models with or without data assimilation. On regional scales, modeled ice area lagged correlations are strongly location and season dependent. A robust feature in the CESM-LE is that the pan-Arctic melt-to-freeze season ice area memory intensifies, whereas the freeze-to-melt season memory weakens as climate warms, but there are across-region variations in the sea ice predictability changes with changing climate.

  11. The impact of snow depth, snow density and ice density on sea ice thickness retrieval from satellite radar altimetry: results from the ESA-CCI Sea Ice ECV Project Round Robin Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kern, S.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Skourup, H.

    2015-01-01

    We assess different methods and input parameters, namely snow depth, snow density and ice density, used in freeboard-to-thickness conversion of Arctic sea ice. This conversion is an important part of sea ice thickness retrieval from spaceborne altimetry. A data base is created comprising sea ice ...

  12. Upper limits for chlorophylla changes with brine volume in sea ice during the austral spring in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhijun; LI Runling; WANG Zipan; HAAS Christian; DIECKMANN Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    During the winter and spring of 2006, we investigated the sea ice physics and marine biology in the northwest Weddell Sea, Antarctica aboard R/VPolarstern. We determined the texture of each ice core and 71 ice crystal thin sections from 27 ice cores. We analyzed 393 ice cores, their temperatures, 348 block density and salinity samples, and 311 chlorophylla (Chla) and phaeophytin samples along the cruise route during the investigation. Based on the vertical distributions of 302 groups of data for the ice porosity and Chla content in the ice at the same position, we obtained new evidence that ice physical parameters influence the Chla content in ice. We collected snow and ice thickness data, and established the effects of the snow and ice thickness on the Chla blooms under the ice, as well as the relationships between the activity of ice algae cells and the brine volume in ice according to the principle of environmental control of the ecological balance. We determined the upper limits for Chla in the brine volume of granular and columnar ice in the Antarctica, thereby demonstrating the effects of ice crystals on brine drainage, and the contributions of the physical properties of sea ice to Chla blooms near the ice bottom and on the ice-water interface in the austral spring. Moreover, we found that the physical properties of sea ice affect ice algae and they are key control elements that modulate marine phytoplankton blooms in the ice-covered waters around Antarctica.

  13. Norwegian Young Sea Ice Experiment (N-ICE) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walden, V. P. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Hudson, S. R. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromso (Norway); Cohen, L. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromso (Norway)

    2016-03-01

    The Norwegian Young Sea Ice (N-ICE) experiment was conducted aboard the R/V Lance research vessel from January through June 2015. The primary purpose of the experiment was to better understand thin, first-year sea ice. This includes understanding of how different components of the Arctic system affect sea ice, but also how changing sea ice affects the system. A major part of this effort is to characterize the atmospheric conditions throughout the experiment. A micropulse lidar (MPL) (S/N: 108) was deployed from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility as part of the atmospheric suite of instruments. The MPL operated successfully throughout the entire experiment, acquiring data from 21 January 2015 through 23 June 2015. The MPL was the essential instrument for determining the phase (water, ice or mixed) of the lower-level clouds over the sea ice. Data obtained from the MPL during the N-ICE experiment show large cloud fractions over young, thin Arctic sea ice from January through June 2015 (north of Svalbard). The winter season was characterized by frequent synoptic storms and large fluctuations in the near-surface temperature. There was much less synoptic activity in spring and summer as the near-surface temperature rose to 0 C. The cloud fraction was lower in winter (60%) than in the spring and summer (80%). Supercooled liquid clouds were observed for most of the deployment, appearing first in mid-February. Spring and summer clouds were characterized by low, thick, uniform clouds.

  14. The study on an Antarctic sea ice identification algorithm of the HY-2A microwave scatterometer data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Juhong; ZENG Tao; GUO Maohua; CUI Songxue

    2016-01-01

    An Antarctic sea ice identification algorithm on the HY-2A scatterometer (HSCAT) employs backscattering coefficient (σ0) and active polarization ratio (APR) for a preliminary sea ice identification. Then standard deviation (STD) filtering and space filtering are carried out. Finally, it is used to identify sea ice. A process uses aσ0, STD threshold and an APR as sea ice indicators. The sea ice identification results are verified using the sea ice distribution data of the ASMR2 released by the National Snow and Ice Data Center as a reference. The results show very good consistence of sea ice development trends, seasonal changes, area distribution, and sea ice edge distribution of the sea ice identification results obtained by this algorithm relative to the ASMR2 sea ice results. The accuracy of a sea ice coverage is 90.8% versus the ASMR2 sea ice results. This indicates that this algorithm is reliable.

  15. Greenland ice sheet initiation and Arctic sea ice coincide with Eocene and Oligocene CO2 changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripati, Aradhna; Darby, Dennis

    2016-04-01

    Earth's modern ocean-climate system is largely defined by the presence of glacial ice on landmasses in both hemispheres. Northern Hemisphere ice was previously thought to have formed no earlier than the Miocene or Oligocene, about 20-30 million years after the widespread onset of Antarctic glaciation at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. Controversially, the episodic presence of seasonal Arctic sea ice and glacial ice in the Northern Hemisphere beginning in the early Oligocene to Middle Eocene has been inferred from multiple observations. Here we use precise source determinations based on geochemical measurements of ice-rafted debris (IRD) from an ODP core in the Greenland Sea (75° N) to constrain glacial ice and sea ice-rafting in the Northern Hemisphere during the middle Eocene through early Oligocene. The chemical fingerprint of 2,334 detrital Fe oxide grains indicates most of these grains are from Greenland with >98% certainty. Thus the coarse IRD in the Greenland Sea originates from widespread areas of east Greenland as far south as the Denmark Strait area (~68° N), with additional IRD sources from the circum-Arctic Ocean. This is the first definitive evidence that mid-Eocene IRD in the Greenland Sea is from Greenland. Episodic glaciation of different source regions on Greenland is synchronous with times of ice-rafting in the western Arctic and ephemeral perennial Arctic ice cover. Intervals of bipolar glacial ice storage in the middle Eocene through early Oligocene coincide with evidence for periods of reduced CO2, associated with carbon cycle perturbations.

  16. Additional Arctic observations improve weather and sea-ice forecasts for the Northern Sea Route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Jun; Yamazaki, Akira; Ono, Jun; Dethloff, Klaus; Maturilli, Marion; Neuber, Roland; Edwards, Patti; Yamaguchi, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    During ice-free periods, the Northern Sea Route (NSR) could be an attractive shipping route. The decline in Arctic sea-ice extent, however, could be associated with an increase in the frequency of the causes of severe weather phenomena, and high wind-driven waves and the advection of sea ice could make ship navigation along the NSR difficult. Accurate forecasts of weather and sea ice are desirable for safe navigation, but large uncertainties exist in current forecasts, partly owing to the sparse observational network over the Arctic Ocean. Here, we show that the incorporation of additional Arctic observations improves the initial analysis and enhances the skill of weather and sea-ice forecasts, the application of which has socioeconomic benefits. Comparison of 63-member ensemble atmospheric forecasts, using different initial data sets, revealed that additional Arctic radiosonde observations were useful for predicting a persistent strong wind event. The sea-ice forecast, initialised by the wind fields that included the effects of the observations, skilfully predicted rapid wind-driven sea-ice advection along the NSR.

  17. EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice Validation Program: Intercomparison Between Modeled and Measured Sea Ice Brightness Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeve, J.; Markus, T.; Cavalieri, D. J.; Maslanik, J.; Sturm, M.; Henrichs, J.; Gasiewski, A.; Klein, M.

    2004-01-01

    During March 2003, an extensive field campaign was conducted near Barrow, Alaska to validate AQUA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) sea ice products. Field, airborne and satellite data were collected over three different types of sea ice: 1) first year ice with little deformation, 2) first year ice with various amounts of deformation and 3) mixed first year ice and multi-year ice with various degrees of deformation. The validation plan relies primarily on comparisons between satellite, aircraft flights and ground-based measurements. Although these efforts are important, key aspects such as the effects of atmospheric conditions, snow properties, surface roughness, melt processes, etc on the sea ice algorithms are not sufficiently well understood or documented. To improve our understanding of these effects, we combined the detailed, in-situ data collection from the 2003 field campaign with radiance modeling using a radiative transfer model to simulate the top of the atmosphere AMSR brightness temperatures. This study reports on the results of the simulations for a variety of snow and ice types and compares the results with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (NOAA) (ETL) (PSR) microwave radiometer that was flown on the NASA P-3.

  18. RING-TENSILE-STRENGTH AND FLEXURE-STRENGTH CORRELATIONS OF SEA ICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEA ICE, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES), TENSILE PROPERTIES, SALINITY, TEMPERATURE, ICE, FLEXURAL STRENGTH , CORRELATION TECHNIQUES, ACCURACY, SAMPLING, THICKNESS, PREDICTIONS, ANTARCTIC REGIONS, LOADS(FORCES)

  19. Circumpolar thinning of Arctic sea ice following the 2007 record ice extent minimum

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, K.A.; Laxon, S. W.; Ridout, A. L.

    2008-01-01

    September 2007 marked a record minimum in sea ice extent. While there have been many studies published recently describing the minimum and its causes, little is known about how the ice thickness has changed in the run up to, and following, the summer of 2007. Using satellite radar altimetry data, covering the Arctic Ocean up to 81.5 degrees North, we show that the average winter sea ice thickness anomaly, after the melt season of 2007, was 0.26 m below the 2002/2003 to 2007/2008 average. More...

  20. Variability and Anomalous Trends in the Global Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of satellite data came fortuitously at a time when the global sea ice cover has been changing rapidly and new techniques are needed to accurately assess the true state and characteristics of the global sea ice cover. The extent of the sea ice in the Northern Hemisphere has been declining by about -4% per decade for the period 1979 to 2011 but for the period from 1996 to 2010, the rate of decline became even more negative at -8% per decade, indicating an acceleration in the decline. More intriguing is the drastically declining perennial sea ice area, which is the ice that survives the summer melt and observed to be retreating at the rate of -14% per decade during the 1979 to 2012 period. Although a slight recovery occurred in the last three years from an abrupt decline in 2007, the perennial ice extent was almost as low as in 2007 in 2011. The multiyear ice, which is the thick component of the perennial ice and regarded as the mainstay of the Arctic sea ice cover is declining at an even higher rate of -19% per decade. The more rapid decline of the extent of this thicker ice type means that the volume of the ice is also declining making the survival of the Arctic ice in summer highly questionable. The slight recovery in 2008, 2009 and 2010 for the perennial ice in summer was likely associated with an apparent cycle in the time series with a period of about 8 years. Results of analysis of concurrent MODIS and AMSR-E data in summer also provide some evidence of more extensive summer melt and meltponding in 2007 and 2011 than in other years. Meanwhile, the Antarctic sea ice cover, as observed by the same set of satellite data, is showing an unexpected and counter intuitive increase of about 1 % per decade over the same period. Although a strong decline in ice extent is apparent in the Bellingshausen/ Amundsen Seas region, such decline is more than compensated by increases in the extent of the sea ice cover in the Ross Sea region. The results of analysis of

  1. Measurements of sea ice thickness and its subice morphology analysis using ice-penetration radar in the Arctic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙波; 邓新生; 康建成; 罗宇忠; 温家洪; 李院生

    2003-01-01

    Based on radar penetrating measurements and analysis of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean, The potential of radar wave to measure sea ice thickness and map the morphology of the underside of sea ice is investigated.The results indicate that the radar wave can penetrate Arctic summer sea ice of over 6 meters thick; and the propagation velocity of the radar wave in sea ice is in the range of 0.142 m*ns-1 to 0.154 m*ns-1.The radar images display the roughness and micro-relief variation of sea ice bottom surface.These features are closely related to sea ice types, which show that radar survey may be used to identify and classify ice types.Since radar images can simultaneously display the linear profile features of both the upper surface and the underside of sea ice, we use these images to quantify their actual linear length discrepancy.A new length factor is suggested in relation to the actual linear length discrepancy in linear profiles of sea ice, which may be useful in further study of the area difference between the upper surface and bottom surface of sea ice.

  2. Total and methylated mercury in Arctic multiyear sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Sarah A; Armstrong, Debbie; Chaulk, Amanda; Comte, Jérôme; Gosselin, Michel; Wang, Feiyue

    2014-05-20

    Mercury is one of the primary contaminants of concern in the Arctic marine ecosystem. While considerable efforts have been directed toward understanding mercury cycling in the Arctic, little is known about mercury dynamics within Arctic multiyear sea ice, which is being rapidly replaced with first-year ice. Here we report the first study on the distribution and potential methylation of mercury in Arctic multiyear sea ice. Based on three multiyear ice cores taken from the eastern Beaufort Sea and McClure Strait, total mercury concentrations ranged from 0.65 to 60.8 pM in bulk ice, with the highest values occurring in the topmost layer (∼40 cm) which is attributed to the dynamics of particulate matter. Methylated mercury concentrations ranged from below the method detection limit (ice, suggesting the potential occurrence of in situ mercury methylation. The annual fluxes of total and methylated mercury into the Arctic Ocean via melt of multiyear ice are estimated to be 420 and 42 kg yr(-1), respectively, representing an important and changing source of mercury and methylmercury into the Arctic Ocean marine ecosystem.

  3. Online sea ice data platform: www.seaiceportal.de

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, Marcel; Asseng, Jölund; Bartsch, Annekathrin; Bräuer, Benny; Fritzsch, Bernadette; Grosfeld, Klaus; Hendricks, Stefan; Hiller, Wolfgang; Heygster, Georg; Krumpen, Thomas; Melsheimer, Christian; Ricker, Robert; Treffeisen, Renate; Weigelt, Marietta; Nicolaus, Anja; Lemke, Peter

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing public interest in sea ice information from both Polar Regions, which requires up-to-date background information and data sets at different levels for various target groups. In order to serve this interest and need, seaiceportal.de (originally: meereisportal.de) was developed as a comprehensive German knowledge platform on sea ice and its snow cover in the Arctic and Antarctic. It was launched in April 2013. Since then, the content and selection of data sets increased and the data portal received increasing attention, also from the international science community. Meanwhile, we are providing near-real time and archive data of many key parameters of sea ice and its snow cover. The data sets result from measurements acquired by various platforms as well as numerical simulations. Satellite observations of sea ice concentration, freeboard, thickness and drift are available as gridded data sets. Sea ice and snow temperatures and thickness as well as atmospheric parameters are available from autonomous platforms (buoys). Additional ship observations, ice station measurements, and mooring time series are compiled as data collections over the last decade. In parallel, we are continuously extending our meta-data and uncertainty information for all data sets. In addition to the data portal, seaiceportal.de provides general comprehensive background information on sea ice and snow as well as expert statements on recent observations and developments. This content is mostly in German in order to complement the various existing international sites for the German speaking public. We will present the portal, its content and function, but we are also asking for direct user feedback.

  4. Evaluation of Arctic Sea Ice Thickness Simulated by AOMIP Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark; Proshutinsky, Andrey; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Nguyen, An T.; Lindsay, Ron; Haas, Christian; Zhang, Jinlun; Diansky, Nimolay; Kwok, Ron; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Hakkinen, Sirpa; Ashik, Igor; de Cuevas, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    We compare results from six AOMIP model simulations with estimates of sea ice thickness obtained from ICESat, moored and submarine-based upward looking sensors, airborne electromagnetic measurements and drill holes. Our goal is to find patterns of model performance to guide model improvement. The satellite data is pan-arctic from 2004-2008, ice-draft data is from moored instruments in Fram Strait, the Greenland Sea and the Beaufort Sea from 1992-2008 and from submarines from 1975-2000. The drill hole data are from the Laptev and East Siberian marginal seas from 1982-1986 and from coastal stations from 1998-2009. While there are important caveats when comparing modeled results with measurements from different platforms and time periods such as these, the models agree well with moored ULS data. In general, the AOMIP models underestimate the thickness of measured ice thicker than about 2 m and overestimate thickness of ice thinner than 2 m. The simulated results are poor over the fast ice and marginal seas of the Siberian shelves. Averaging over all observational data sets, the better correlations and smaller differences from observed thickness are from the ECCO2 and UW models.

  5. Sea ice detection with space-based LIDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rodier

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring long-term climate change in the Polar Regions relies on accurate, detailed and repeatable measurements of geophysical processes and states. These regions are among the Earth's most vulnerable ecosystems, and measurements there have shown rapid changes in the seasonality and the extent of snow and sea ice coverage. The authors have recently developed a promising new technique that uses lidar surface measurements from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO mission to infer ocean surface ice-water phase. CALIPSO's 532 nm depolarization ratio measurements of the ocean surface are uniquely capable of providing information about the ever-changing sea surface state within the Polar Regions. With the finer resolution of the CALIPSO footprint (90 m diameter, spaced 335 m apart and its ability to acquire measurements during both daytime and nighttime orbit segments and in the presence of clouds, the CALIPSO sea ice product provides fine-scale information on mixed phase scenes and can be used to assess/validate the estimates of sea-ice concentration currently provided by passive sensors. This paper describes the fundamentals of the CALIPSO sea-ice detection and classification technique. We present retrieval results from a six-year study, which are compared to existing data sets obtained by satellite-based passive remote sensors.

  6. Leads in Arctic pack ice enable early phytoplankton blooms below snow-covered sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmy, Philipp; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Duarte, Pedro; Meyer, Amelie; Randelhoff, Achim; Mundy, Christopher J.; Olsen, Lasse M.; Kauko, Hanna M.; Bailey, Allison; Chierici, Melissa; Cohen, Lana; Doulgeris, Anthony P.; Ehn, Jens K.; Fransson, Agneta; Gerland, Sebastian; Hop, Haakon; Hudson, Stephen R.; Hughes, Nick; Itkin, Polona; Johnsen, Geir; King, Jennifer A.; Koch, Boris P.; Koenig, Zoe; Kwasniewski, Slawomir; Laney, Samuel R.; Nicolaus, Marcel; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Polashenski, Christopher M.; Provost, Christine; Rösel, Anja; Sandbu, Marthe; Spreen, Gunnar; Smedsrud, Lars H.; Sundfjord, Arild; Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Wiktor, Jozef; Wagner, Penelope M.; Wold, Anette; Steen, Harald; Granskog, Mats A.

    2017-01-01

    The Arctic icescape is rapidly transforming from a thicker multiyear ice cover to a thinner and largely seasonal first-year ice cover with significant consequences for Arctic primary production. One critical challenge is to understand how productivity will change within the next decades. Recent studies have reported extensive phytoplankton blooms beneath ponded sea ice during summer, indicating that satellite-based Arctic annual primary production estimates may be significantly underestimated. Here we present a unique time-series of a phytoplankton spring bloom observed beneath snow-covered Arctic pack ice. The bloom, dominated by the haptophyte algae Phaeocystis pouchetii, caused near depletion of the surface nitrate inventory and a decline in dissolved inorganic carbon by 16 ± 6 g C m‑2. Ocean circulation characteristics in the area indicated that the bloom developed in situ despite the snow-covered sea ice. Leads in the dynamic ice cover provided added sunlight necessary to initiate and sustain the bloom. Phytoplankton blooms beneath snow-covered ice might become more common and widespread in the future Arctic Ocean with frequent lead formation due to thinner and more dynamic sea ice despite projected increases in high-Arctic snowfall. This could alter productivity, marine food webs and carbon sequestration in the Arctic Ocean.

  7. Leads in Arctic pack ice enable early phytoplankton blooms below snow-covered sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmy, Philipp; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Duarte, Pedro; Meyer, Amelie; Randelhoff, Achim; Mundy, Christopher J.; Olsen, Lasse M.; Kauko, Hanna M.; Bailey, Allison; Chierici, Melissa; Cohen, Lana; Doulgeris, Anthony P.; Ehn, Jens K.; Fransson, Agneta; Gerland, Sebastian; Hop, Haakon; Hudson, Stephen R.; Hughes, Nick; Itkin, Polona; Johnsen, Geir; King, Jennifer A.; Koch, Boris P.; Koenig, Zoe; Kwasniewski, Slawomir; Laney, Samuel R.; Nicolaus, Marcel; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Polashenski, Christopher M.; Provost, Christine; Rösel, Anja; Sandbu, Marthe; Spreen, Gunnar; Smedsrud, Lars H.; Sundfjord, Arild; Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Wiktor, Jozef; Wagner, Penelope M.; Wold, Anette; Steen, Harald; Granskog, Mats A.

    2017-01-01

    The Arctic icescape is rapidly transforming from a thicker multiyear ice cover to a thinner and largely seasonal first-year ice cover with significant consequences for Arctic primary production. One critical challenge is to understand how productivity will change within the next decades. Recent studies have reported extensive phytoplankton blooms beneath ponded sea ice during summer, indicating that satellite-based Arctic annual primary production estimates may be significantly underestimated. Here we present a unique time-series of a phytoplankton spring bloom observed beneath snow-covered Arctic pack ice. The bloom, dominated by the haptophyte algae Phaeocystis pouchetii, caused near depletion of the surface nitrate inventory and a decline in dissolved inorganic carbon by 16 ± 6 g C m−2. Ocean circulation characteristics in the area indicated that the bloom developed in situ despite the snow-covered sea ice. Leads in the dynamic ice cover provided added sunlight necessary to initiate and sustain the bloom. Phytoplankton blooms beneath snow-covered ice might become more common and widespread in the future Arctic Ocean with frequent lead formation due to thinner and more dynamic sea ice despite projected increases in high-Arctic snowfall. This could alter productivity, marine food webs and carbon sequestration in the Arctic Ocean. PMID:28102329

  8. Sea ice loss enhances wave action at the Arctic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, I.; Anderson, R. Scott; Wobus, C.W.; Clow, G.D.; Urban, F.E.; Matell, N.

    2011-01-01

    Erosion rates of permafrost coasts along the Beaufort Sea accelerated over the past 50 years synchronously with Arctic-wide declines in sea ice extent, suggesting a causal relationship between the two. A fetch-limited wave model driven by sea ice position and local wind data from northern Alaska indicates that the exposure of permafrost bluffs to seawater increased by a factor of 2.5 during 1979-2009. The duration of the open water season expanded from ???45 days to ???95 days. Open water expanded more rapidly toward the fall (???0.92 day yr-1), when sea surface temperatures are cooler, than into the mid-summer (???0.71 days yr-1).Time-lapse imagery demonstrates the relatively efficient erosive action of a single storm in August. Sea surface temperatures have already decreased significantly by fall, reducing the potential impact of thermal erosion due to fall season storm waves. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Shrinking sea ice, increasing snowfall and thinning lake ice: a complex Arctic linkage explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Ben W.

    2016-09-01

    The dramatic shrinkage of Arctic sea ice is one of the starkest symptoms of global warming, with potentially severe and far-reaching impacts on arctic marine and terrestrial ecology (Post et al 2013 Science 341 519-24) and northern hemisphere climate (Screen et al 2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 084006). In their recent article, Alexeev et al (2016 Environ. Res. Lett. 11 074022) highlight another, and unexpected, consequence of Arctic sea ice retreat: the thinning of lake ice in northern Alaska. This is attributed to early winter ‘ocean effect’ snowfall which insulates lake surfaces and inhibits the formation of deep lake ice. Lake ice thinning has important consequences for Arctic lake hydrology, biology and permafrost degradation.

  10. Analysis on long-term variability of sea ice albedo and its relationship with sea ice concentration over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Minji; Kim, Hyun-cheol; Seong, Noh-hun; Kwon, Chaeyoung; Kim, Honghee; Han, Kyung-Soo

    2016-10-01

    Sea ice is an important factor for understanding Antarctic climate change. Especially, annual change of sea ice shows different trend in Antarctica and Arctic. This different variation need to continuously observe the Polar Regions. Sea Ice Albedo (SIA) and Sea Ice Concentration (SIC) are an indicator of variation on sea ice. In addition, albedo is key parameter to understand the energy budget in Antarctica. This being so, it is important to analyze long-term variation of the two factors for observing of change of Antarctic environment. In this study, we analyzed long-term variability of SIC and SIA to understand the changes of sea ice over Antarctic and researched the relationship with two factors. We used the SIA data at The Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) and the SIC data provided by Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI-SAF) from 1982 to 2009. The study period was selected to Antarctic summer season due to polar nights. We divided study periods into two terms, Nov-Dec(ND) and Jan-Feb(JF) in order to reflect the characteristics of sea ice area, which minimum extend occurred in September and maximum extend occurred in February. We analyzed the correlation between SIA and SIC. As a results, two variables have a strong positive correlation (each correlation coefficients are 0.91 in Nov-Dec and 0.90 in Jan-Feb). We performed time series analysis using linear regression to understand the spatial and temporal tendency of SIA and SIC. As a results, SIA and SIC have a same spatial trend such as Weddle sea and Ross sea sections show the positive trend and Bellingshausen Amundsen sea shows the negative trend of two factors. Moreover, annual SIA change rate is 0.26% 0.04% yr-1 over section where represent positive trend during two study periods. And annual SIA change rate is - 0.14 - 0.25 % yr-1 of in the other part where represent negative trend during two study periods.

  11. Light Absorption in Arctic Sea Ice - Black Carbon vs Chlorophyll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunro, O. O.; Wingenter, O. W.; Elliott, S.; Hunke, E. C.; Flanner, M.; Wang, H.; Dubey, M. K.; Jeffery, N.

    2015-12-01

    The fingerprint of climate change is more obvious in the Arctic than any other place on Earth. This is not only because the surface temperature there has increased at twice the rate of global mean temperature but also because Arctic sea ice extent has reached a record low of 49% reduction relative to the 1979-2000 climatology. Radiation absorption through black carbon (BC) deposited on Arctic snow and sea ice surface is one of the major hypothesized contributors to the decline. However, we note that chlorophyll-a absorption owing to increasing biology activity in this region could be a major competitor during boreal spring. Modeling of sea-ice physical and biological processes together with experiments and field observations promise rapid progress in the quality of Arctic ice predictions. Here we develop a dynamic ice system module to investigate discrete absorption of both BC and chlorophyll in the Arctic, using BC deposition fields from version 5 of Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) and vertically distributed layers of chlorophyll concentrations from Sea Ice Model (CICE). To this point, our black carbon mixing ratios compare well with available in situ data. Both results are in the same order of magnitude. Estimates from our calculations show that sea ice and snow around the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Baffin Bay has the least black carbon absorption while values at the ice-ocean perimeter in the region of the Barents Sea peak significantly. With regard to pigment concentrations, high amounts of chlorophyll are produced in Arctic sea ice by the bottom microbial community, and also within the columnar pack wherever substantial biological activity takes place in the presence of moderate light. We show that the percentage of photons absorbed by chlorophyll in the spring is comparable to the amount attributed to BC, especially in areas where the total deposition rates are decreasing with time on interannual timescale. We expect a continuous increase in

  12. Does Arctic sea ice reduction foster shelf-basin exchange?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Vladimir; Watanabe, Eiji

    2013-12-01

    The recent shift in Arctic ice conditions from prevailing multi-year ice to first-year ice will presumably intensify fall-winter sea ice freezing and the associated salt flux to the underlying water column. Here, we conduct a dual modeling study whose results suggest that the predicted catastrophic consequences for the global thermohaline circulation (THC), as a result of the disappearance of Arctic sea ice, may not necessarily occur. In a warmer climate, the substantial fraction of dense water feeding the Greenland-Scotland overflow may form on Arctic shelves and cascade to the deep basin, thus replenishing dense water, which currently forms through open ocean convection in the sub-Arctic seas. We have used a simplified model for estimating how increased ice production influences shelf-basin exchange associated with dense water cascading. We have carried out case studies in two regions of the Arctic Ocean where cascading was observed in the past. The baseline range of buoyancy-forcing derived from the columnar ice formation was calculated as part of a 30-year experiment of the pan-Arctic coupled ice-ocean general circulation model (GCM). The GCM results indicate that mechanical sea ice divergence associated with lateral advection accounts for a significant part of the interannual variations in sea ice thermal production in the coastal polynya regions. This forcing was then rectified by taking into account sub-grid processes and used in a regional model with analytically prescribed bottom topography and vertical stratification in order to examine specific cascading conditions in the Pacific and Atlantic sectors of the Arctic Ocean. Our results demonstrate that the consequences of enhanced ice formation depend on geographical location and shelf-basin bathymetry. In the Pacific sector, strong density stratification in slope waters impedes noticeable deepening of shelf-origin water, even for the strongest forcing applied. In the Atlantic sector, a 1.5x increase of

  13. Reemergence of sea ice cover anomalies and the role of the sea ice-albedo feedback in CCSM simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deweaver, E. T.

    2008-12-01

    The dramatic sea ice decline of 2007 and lack of recovery in 2008 raise the question of a "tipping point" for Arctic sea ice, beyond which the transition to a seasonal sea ice state becomes abrupt and irreversible. The tipping point is essentially a "memory catastrophe", in which a dramatic loss of sea ice in one summer is "remembered" in reduced ice thickness over the winter season and leads to a comparably dramatic loss the following summer. The dominant contributor to this memory is presumably the sea ice - albedo feedback (SIAF), in which excess insolation absorbed due to low summer ice cover leads to a shorter ice growth season and hence thinner ice. While these dynamics are clearly important, they are difficult to quantify given the lack of long-term observations in the Arctic and the suddenness of the recent loss. Alternatively, we attempt to quantify the contribution of the SIAF to the year-to-year memory of sea ice cover anomalies in simulations of the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) under 20th century conditions. Lagged autocorrelation plots of sea ice area anomalies show that anomalies in one year tend to "reemerge" in the following year. Further experiments using a slab ocean model (SOM) are used to assess the contribution of oceanic processes to the year-to-year reemergence. This contribution is substantial, particularly in the winter season, and includes memory due to the standard mixed layer reemergence mechanism and low-frequency ocean heat transport anomalies. The contribution of the SIAF to persistence in the SOM experiment is determined through additional experiments in which the SIAF is disabled by fixing surface albedo to its climatological value regardless of sea ice concentration anomalies. SIAF causes a 50% increase in the magnitude of the anomalies but a relatively small increase in their persistence. Persistence is not dramatically increased because the enhancement of shortwave flux anomalies by SIAF is compensated by stronger

  14. The effects of additional black carbon on the albedo of Arctic sea ice: variation with sea ice type and snow cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marks

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The response of the albedo of bare sea ice and snow-covered sea ice to the addition of black carbon is calculated. Visible light absorption and light-scattering cross-sections are derived for a typical first-year and multi-year sea ice with both "dry" and "wet" snow types. The cross-sections are derived using data from a 1970s field study that recorded both reflectivity and light penetration in Arctic sea ice and snow overlying sea ice. The variation of absorption cross-section over the visible wavelengths suggests black carbon is the dominating light-absorbing impurity. The response of first-year and multi-year sea ice albedo to increasing black carbon, from 1 to 1024 ng g−1, in a top 5 cm layer of a 155 cm-thick sea ice was calculated using a radiative-transfer model. The albedo of the first-year sea ice is more sensitive to additional loadings of black carbon than the multi-year sea ice. An addition of 8 ng g−1 of black carbon causes a decrease to 98.7% of the original albedo for first-year sea ice compared to a decrease to 99.7% for the albedo of multi-year sea ice, at a wavelength of 500 nm. The albedo of sea ice is surprisingly unresponsive to additional black carbon up to 100 ng g−1 . Snow layers on sea ice may mitigate the effects of black carbon in sea ice. Wet and dry snow layers of 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 cm depth were added onto the sea ice surface. The albedo of the snow surface was calculated whilst the black carbon in the underlying sea ice was increased. A layer of snow 0.5 cm thick greatly diminishes the effect of black carbon in sea ice on the surface albedo. The albedo of a 2–5 cm snow layer (less than the e-folding depth of snow is still influenced by the underlying sea ice, but the effect of additional black carbon in the sea ice is masked.

  15. Techniques for Sea Ice Characteristics Extraction and Sea Ice Monitoring Using Multi-Sensor Satellite Data in the Bohai Sea-Dragon 3 Programme Final Report (2012-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Jie; Meng, Junmin

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of Dragon-3 programme (ID: 10501) are to develop methods for classification sea ice types and retrieving ice thickness based on multi-sensor data. In this final results paper, we give a briefly introduction for our research work and mainly results. Key words: the Bohai Sea ice, Sea ice, optical and

  16. Stochastic dynamics of Arctic sea ice Part I: Additive noise

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Woosok

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the numerical solutions of a stochastic Arctic sea ice model with constant additive noise over a wide range of external heat-fluxes, $\\Delta F_0$, which correspond to greenhouse gas forcing. The variability that the stochasticity provides to the deterministic steady state solutions (perennial and seasonal ice states) is illustrated by examining both the stochastic paths and probability density functions (PDFs). The principal stochastic moments (standard deviation, mean and skewness) are calculated and compared with those determined from a stochastic perturbation theory described previously by Moon and Wettlaufer (2013). We examine in detail the competing roles of the destabilizing sea ice-albedo-feedback and the stabilizing long-wave radiative loss contributions to the variability of the ice cover under increased greenhouse-gas forcing. In particular, the variability of the stochastic paths at the end of summer shows a clear maximum, which is due to the combination of the increasing importance of t...

  17. The sub-ice platelet layer and its influence on freeboard to thickness conversion of Antarctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D.; Rack, W.; Langhorne, P. J.; Haas, C.; Leonard, G.; Barnsdale, K.

    2014-06-01

    This is an investigation to quantify the influence of the sub-ice platelet layer on satellite measurements of total freeboard and their conversion to thickness of Antarctic sea ice. The sub-ice platelet layer forms as a result of the seaward advection of supercooled ice shelf water from beneath ice shelves. This ice shelf water provides an oceanic heat sink promoting the formation of platelet crystals which accumulate at the sea ice-ocean interface. The build-up of this porous layer increases sea ice freeboard, and if not accounted for, leads to overestimates of sea ice thickness from surface elevation measurements. In order to quantify this buoyant effect, the solid fraction of the sub-ice platelet layer must be estimated. An extensive in situ data set measured in 2011 in McMurdo Sound in the southwestern Ross Sea is used to achieve this. We use drill-hole measurements and the hydrostatic equilibrium assumption to estimate a mean value for the solid fraction of this sub-ice platelet layer of 0.16. This is highly dependent upon the uncertainty in sea ice density. We test this value with independent Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) surface elevation data to estimate sea ice thickness. We find that sea ice thickness can be overestimated by up to 19%, with a mean deviation of 12% as a result of the influence of the sub-ice platelet layer. It is concluded that within 100 km of an ice shelf this influence might need to be considered when undertaking sea ice thickness investigations using remote sensing surface elevation measurements.

  18. Exopolymer alteration of physical properties of sea ice and implications for ice habitability and biogeochemistry in a warmer Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krembs, Christopher; Eicken, Hajo; Deming, Jody W

    2011-03-01

    The physical properties of Arctic sea ice determine its habitability. Whether ice-dwelling organisms can change those properties has rarely been addressed. Following discovery that sea ice contains an abundance of gelatinous extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), we examined the effects of algal EPS on the microstructure and salt retention of ice grown from saline solutions containing EPS from a culture of the sea-ice diatom, Melosira arctica. We also experimented with xanthan gum and with EPS from a culture of the cold-adapted bacterium Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H. Quantitative microscopic analyses of the artificial ice containing Melosira EPS revealed convoluted ice-pore morphologies of high fractal dimension, mimicking features found in EPS-rich coastal sea ice, whereas EPS-free (control) ice featured much simpler pore geometries. A heat-sensitive glycoprotein fraction of Melosira EPS accounted for complex pore morphologies. Although all tested forms of EPS increased bulk ice salinity (by 11-59%) above the controls, ice containing native Melosira EPS retained the most salt. EPS effects on ice and pore microstructure improve sea ice habitability, survivability, and potential for increased primary productivity, even as they may alter the persistence and biogeochemical imprint of sea ice on the surface ocean in a warming climate.

  19. Computing and Representing Sea Ice Trends: Toward a Community Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlleben, T.; Tivy, A.; Stroeve, J.; Meier, Walter N.; Fetterer, F.; Wang, J.; Assel, R.

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of the recent decline in Arctic Ocean summer sea ice extent can vary due to differences in sea ice data sources, in the number of years used to compute the trend, and in the start and end years used in the trend computation. Compounding such differences, estimates of the relative decline in sea ice cover (given in percent change per decade) can further vary due to the choice of reference value (the initial point of the trend line, a climatological baseline, etc.). Further adding to the confusion, very often when relative trends are reported in research papers, the reference values used are not specified or made clear. This can lead to confusion when trend studies are cited in the press and public reports.

  20. Application of satellite infrared measurements to mapping sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The application of the ITOS-SR (scanning radiometer) infrared measurements for mapping sea ice was examined. The work included detailed mapping of ice features visible in the ITOS nighttime DRSR (direct readout scanning radiometer) pictorial data and in Nimbus summertime film strip data. Analyses of digital temperature values from computer printouts of ITOS stored data and from Nimbus data listings were also undertaken, and densitometric measurements of both ITOS and Nimbus data were initiated.

  1. A Microwave Technique for Mapping Ice Temperature in the Arctic Seasonal Sea Ice Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.Germain, Karen M.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    1997-01-01

    A technique for deriving ice temperature in the Arctic seasonal sea ice zone from passive microwave radiances has been developed. The algorithm operates on brightness temperatures derived from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and uses ice concentration and type from a previously developed thin ice algorithm to estimate the surface emissivity. Comparisons of the microwave derived temperatures with estimates derived from infrared imagery of the Bering Strait yield a correlation coefficient of 0.93 and an RMS difference of 2.1 K when coastal and cloud contaminated pixels are removed. SSM/I temperatures were also compared with a time series of air temperature observations from Gambell on St. Lawrence Island and from Point Barrow, AK weather stations. These comparisons indicate that the relationship between the air temperature and the ice temperature depends on ice type.

  2. Factors controlling phytoplankton ice-edge blooms in the marginal ice-zone of the northwestern Weddell Sea during sea ice retreat 1988 : field observations and mathematical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancelot, Christiane; Mathot, Sylvie; Veth, Cornelis; Baar, Hein de

    1993-01-01

    The factors controlling phytoplankton bloom development in the marginal ice zone of the northwestern Weddell Sea were investigated during the EPOS (Leg 2) expedition (1988). Measurements were made of physical and chemical processes and biological activities associated with the process of ice-melting

  3. The sea level fingerprint of recent ice mass fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bamber

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The sea level contribution from glacial sources has been accelerating during the first decade of the 21st Century (Meier et al., 2007; Velicogna, 2009. This contribution is not distributed uniformly across the world's oceans due to both oceanographic and gravitational effects. We compute the sea level signature for ice mass fluxes due to changes in the gravity field, Earth's rotation and related effects for the nine year period 2000–2008. Mass loss from Greenland results in a relative sea level (RSL reduction for much of North Western Europe and Eastern Canada. RSL rise from this source is concentrated around South America. Losses in West Antarctica marginally compensate for this and produce maxima along the coastlines of North America, Australia and Oceania. The combined far-field pattern of wastage from all ice melt sources, is dominated by losses from the ice sheets and results in maxima at latitudes between 20° N and 40° S across the Pacific and Indian Oceans, affecting particularly vulnerable land masses in Oceania. The spatial pattern of RSL variations from ice mass losses used in this study is time-invariant and cumulative. Thus, sea level rise, based on the gravitational effects from the ice losses considered here, will be amplified for this sensitive region.

  4. Regional variability in sea ice melt in a changing Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Perovich, Donald K.; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline A.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the Arctic sea ice cover has undergone a precipitous decline in summer extent. The sea ice mass balance integrates heat and provides insight on atmospheric and oceanic forcing. The amount of surface melt and bottom melt that occurs during the summer melt season was measured at 41 sites over the time period 1957 to 2014. There are large regional and temporal variations in both surface and bottom melting. Combined surface and bottom melt ranged from 16 to 294 cm, with a mean of...

  5. Acoustic Scattering Kernels from Arctic Sea Ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    84-C-0180 S. PErfORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND AOMRSSS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT . TASK Science Applications International Corp. AREA & WORK UNIT...al. (1986) described an implementation of SISM/ICE for the ASTRAL and PE models. The concepts are also relevant to other models, including FACT, FFP...Even if the ice field contains keels of only a single size, the projected keel width intercepted by any particular track will take on a range of

  6. Implementation of a one-dimensional enthalpy sea-ice model in a simple pycnocline prediction model for sea-ice data assimilation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinrong; Zhang, Shaoqing; Liu, Zhengyu

    2016-02-01

    To further explore enthalpy-based sea-ice assimilation, a one-dimensional (1D) enthalpy sea-ice model is implemented into a simple pycnocline prediction model. The 1D enthalpy sea-ice model includes the physical processes such as brine expulsion, flushing, and salt diffusion. After being coupled with the atmosphere and ocean components, the enthalpy sea-ice model can be integrated stably and serves as an important modulator of model variability. Results from a twin experiment show that the sea-ice data assimilation in the enthalpy space can produce smaller root-mean-square errors of model variables than the traditional scheme that assimilates the observations of ice concentration, especially for slow-varying states. This study provides some insights into the improvement of sea-ice data assimilation in a coupled general circulation model.

  7. A coupled multi-category sea ice model and POM for Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhi-li

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the seasonal variation of sea-ice cover in Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea is given. A coupled ice-ocean model, CECOM, has been developed to study the seasonal variation and associated ice-ocean processes. The sea-ice component of the model is a multi-category ice model in which mean concentration and thickness are expressed in terms of a thickness distribution function. Ten categories of ice thickness are specified in the model. Sea ice is coupled dynamically and thermodynamically to the Princeton Ocean Model. Selected results from the model including the seasonal variation of sea ice in Baffin Bay, the North Water polynya and ice growth and melt over the Labrador Shelf are presented.

  8. The NRL 2011 Airborne Sea-Ice Thickness Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozena, J. M.; Gardner, J. M.; Liang, R.; Ball, D.; Richter-Menge, J.

    2011-12-01

    In March of 2011, the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) performed a study focused on the estimation of sea-ice thickness from airborne radar, laser and photogrammetric sensors. The study was funded by ONR to take advantage of the Navy's ICEX2011 ice-camp /submarine exercise, and to serve as a lead-in year for NRL's five year basic research program on the measurement and modeling of sea-ice scheduled to take place from 2012-2017. Researchers from the Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) and NRL worked with the Navy Arctic Submarine Lab (ASL) to emplace a 9 km-long ground-truth line near the ice-camp (see Richter-Menge et al., this session) along which ice and snow thickness were directly measured. Additionally, US Navy submarines collected ice draft measurements under the groundtruth line. Repeat passes directly over the ground-truth line were flown and a grid surrounding the line was also flown to collect altimeter, LiDAR and Photogrammetry data. Five CRYOSAT-2 satellite tracks were underflown, as well, coincident with satellite passage. Estimates of sea ice thickness are calculated assuming local hydrostatic balance, and require the densities of water, ice and snow, snow depth, and freeboard (defined as the elevation of sea ice, plus accumulated snow, above local sea level). Snow thickness is estimated from the difference between LiDAR and radar altimeter profiles, the latter of which is assumed to penetrate any snow cover. The concepts we used to estimate ice thickness are similar to those employed in NASA ICEBRIDGE sea-ice thickness estimation. Airborne sensors used for our experiment were a Reigl Q-560 scanning topographic LiDAR, a pulse-limited (2 nS), 10 GHz radar altimeter and an Applanix DSS-439 digital photogrammetric camera (for lead identification). Flights were conducted on a Twin Otter aircraft from Pt. Barrow, AK, and averaged ~ 5 hours in duration. It is challenging to directly compare results from the swath LiDAR with the

  9. Nonlinear threshold behavior during the loss of Arctic sea ice

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenman, I; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2008-01-01

    In light of the rapid recent retreat of Arctic sea ice, a number of studies have discussed the possibility of a critical threshold (or “tipping point”) beyond which the ice–albedo feedback causes the ice cover to melt away in an irreversible process. The focus has typically been centered on the annual minimum (September) ice cover, which is often seen as particularly susceptible to destabilization by the ice–albedo feedback. Here, we examine the central physical processes associated with the ...

  10. A New Normal for the Sea Ice Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterer, Florence; Windnagel, Ann; Meier, Walter N.

    2014-01-01

    The NSIDC Sea Ice Index is a popular data product that shows users how ice extent and concentration have changed since the beginning of the passive microwave satellite record in 1978. It shows time series of monthly ice extent anomalies rather than actual extent values, in order to emphasize the information the data are carrying. Along with the time series, an image of average extent for the previous month is shown as a white field, with a pink line showing the median extent for that month. These are updated monthly; corresponding daily products are updated daily.

  11. Ocean acoustic circumpropagation in the ice seas of Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Leighton, T.G.; Finfer, D.C.; P. R. White

    2007-01-01

    In recent years increased attention has been paid to the potential uses of acoustics for\\ud extraterrestrial exploration. A number of important papers have discussed propagation\\ud on Europa, primarily with respect to sound in the ice sheet which is believed to cover\\ud a salt water ocean. The models used to date assume a flat ice surface and a\\ud gravitational acceleration which does not vary with depth. Models of long range\\ud acoustic propagation through Europa’s ice seas require models wh...

  12. The sub-ice platelet layer and its influence on freeboard to thickness conversion of Antarctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Price

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This is an investigation to quantify the influence of the sub-ice platelet layer on satellite measurements of total freeboard and their conversion to thickness of Antarctic sea ice. The sub-ice platelet layer forms as a result of the seaward advection of supercooled ice shelf water from beneath ice shelves. This ice shelf water provides an oceanic heat sink promoting the formation of platelet crystals which accumulate at the sea ice–ocean interface. The build-up of this porous layer increases sea ice freeboard, and if not accounted for, leads to overestimates of sea ice thickness from surface elevation measurements. In order to quantify this buoyant effect, the solid fraction of the sub-ice platelet layer must be estimated. An extensive in situ data set measured in 2011 in McMurdo Sound in the south-western Ross Sea is used to achieve this. We use drill-hole measurements and the hydrostatic equilibrium assumption to estimate a mean value for the solid fraction of this sub-ice platelet layer of 0.16. This is highly dependent upon the uncertainty in sea ice density. We test this value with independent Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS surface elevation data to estimate sea ice thickness. We find that sea ice thickness can be overestimated by up to 19%, with a mean deviation of 12% as a result of the influence of the sub-ice platelet layer. It is concluded that in close proximity to ice shelves this influence should be considered universally when undertaking sea ice thickness investigations using remote sensing surface elevation measurements.

  13. Sea Ice Edge Location and Extent in the Russian Arctic, 1933-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Ice Edge Location and Extent in the Russian Arctic, 1933-2006 data are derived from sea ice charts from the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI),...

  14. GLAS/ICESat L2 Sea Ice Altimetry Data (HDF5) V033

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GLAH13 contains sea ice and open ocean elevations corrected for geodetic and atmospheric affects, calculated from algorithms fine-tuned for sea ice returns. Granules...

  15. Recurring Spring Leads and Landfast Ice in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, 1993-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, the most significant sea ice anomalies have occurred in the summer ice extent (Eicken et al. 2006). In addition, there has been a...

  16. Unified Sea Ice Thickness Climate Data Record Collection Spanning 1947-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Unified Sea Ice Thickness Climate Data Record is the result of a concerted effort to collect as many observations as possible of Arctic sea-ice draft, freeboard,...

  17. Atmospheric forcing of sea ice anomalies in the Ross Sea polynya region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Ethan R.; McDonald, Adrian J.; Coggins, Jack H. J.; Rack, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the impacts of strong wind events on the sea ice concentration within the Ross Sea polynya (RSP), which may have consequences on sea ice formation. Bootstrap sea ice concentration (SIC) measurements derived from satellite SSM/I brightness temperatures are correlated with surface winds and temperatures from Ross Ice Shelf automatic weather stations (AWSs) and weather models (ERA-Interim). Daily data in the austral winter period were used to classify characteristic weather regimes based on the percentiles of wind speed. For each regime a composite of a SIC anomaly was formed for the entire Ross Sea region and we found that persistent weak winds near the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf are generally associated with positive SIC anomalies in the Ross Sea polynya and vice versa. By analyzing sea ice motion vectors derived from the SSM/I brightness temperatures we find significant sea ice motion anomalies throughout the Ross Sea during strong wind events, which persist for several days after a strong wind event has ended. Strong, negative correlations are found between SIC and AWS wind speed within the RSP indicating that strong winds cause significant advection of sea ice in the region. We were able to partially recreate these correlations using colocated, modeled ERA-Interim wind speeds. However, large AWS and model differences are observed in the vicinity of Ross Island, where ERA-Interim underestimates wind speeds by a factor of 1.7 resulting in a significant misrepresentation of RSP processes in this area based on model data. Thus, the cross-correlation functions produced by compositing based on ERA-Interim wind speeds differed significantly from those produced with AWS wind speeds. In general the rapid decrease in SIC during a strong wind event is followed by a more gradual recovery in SIC. The SIC recovery continues over a time period greater than the average persistence of strong wind events and sea ice motion anomalies. This suggests that sea ice

  18. Spatial heterogeneity of ocean surface boundary conditions under sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthélemy, Antoine; Fichefet, Thierry; Goosse, Hugues

    2016-06-01

    The high heterogeneity of sea ice properties implies that its effects on the ocean are spatially variable at horizontal scales as small as a few meters. Previous studies have shown that taking this variability into account in models could be required to simulate adequately mixed layer processes and the upper ocean temperature and salinity structures. Although many advanced sea ice models include a subgrid-scale ice thickness distribution, potentially providing heterogeneous surface boundary conditions, the information is lost in the coupling with a unique ocean grid cell underneath. The present paper provides a thorough examination of boundary conditions at the ocean surface in the NEMO-LIM model, which can be used as a guideline for studies implementing subgrid-scale ocean vertical mixing schemes. Freshwater, salt, solar heat and non-solar heat fluxes are examined, as well as the norm of the surface stress. All of the thermohaline fluxes vary considerably between the open water and ice fractions of grid cells. To a lesser extent, this is also the case for the surface stress. Moreover, the salt fluxes in both hemispheres and the solar heat fluxes in the Arctic show a dependence on the ice thickness category, with more intense fluxes for thinner ice, which promotes further subgrid-scale heterogeneity. Our analysis also points out biases in the simulated open water fraction and in the ice thickness distribution, which should be investigated in more details in order to ensure that the latter is used to the best advantage.

  19. Arctic Ocean sea ice drift origin derived from artificial radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara-Mor, P., E-mail: patricia.camara@uab.es [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193. Bellaterra (Spain); Masque, P. [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193. Bellaterra (Spain); Dpt. de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193. Bellaterra (Spain); Garcia-Orellana, J. [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193. Bellaterra (Spain); Dpt. de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193. Bellaterra (Spain); School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Cochran, J.K. [School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Mas, J.L. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012, Seville. Spain (Spain); Chamizo, E. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Avd. Thomas Alva Edison 7, Isla de la Cartuja, E-41092, Seville (Spain); Hanfland, C. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Am Handelshafen 12, D-27570 Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Since the 1950s, nuclear weapon testing and releases from the nuclear industry have introduced anthropogenic radionuclides into the sea, and in many instances their ultimate fate are the bottom sediments. The Arctic Ocean is one of the most polluted in this respect, because, in addition to global fallout, it is impacted by regional fallout from nuclear weapon testing, and indirectly by releases from nuclear reprocessing facilities and nuclear accidents. Sea-ice formed in the shallow continental shelves incorporate sediments with variable concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides that are transported through the Arctic Ocean and are finally released in the melting areas. In this work, we present the results of anthropogenic radionuclide analyses of sea-ice sediments (SIS) collected on five cruises from different Arctic regions and combine them with a database including prior measurements of these radionuclides in SIS. The distribution of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu activities and the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in SIS showed geographical differences, in agreement with the two main sea ice drift patterns derived from the mean field of sea-ice motion, the Transpolar Drift and Beaufort Gyre, with the Fram Strait as the main ablation area. A direct comparison of data measured in SIS samples against those reported for the potential source regions permits identification of the regions from which sea ice incorporates sediments. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in SIS may be used to discern the origin of sea ice from the Kara-Laptev Sea and the Alaskan shelf. However, if the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio is similar to global fallout, it does not provide a unique diagnostic indicator of the source area, and in such cases, the source of SIS can be constrained with a combination of the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu activities. Therefore, these anthropogenic radionuclides can be used in many instances to determine the geographical source area of sea-ice.

  20. Macrofauna under sea ice and in the open surface layer of the Lazarev Sea, Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, Hauke; van Franeker, Jan-Andries; Cisewski, Boris; Leach, Harry; Van de Putte, Anton P.; Meesters, Erik (H. W. G.); Bathmann, Ulrich; Wolff, Wirn J.

    2011-01-01

    A new fishing gear was used to sample the macrozooplankton and micronekton community in the surface layer (0-2 m) under ice and in open water, the Surface and Under Ice Trawl (SUIT). In total, 57 quantitative hauls were conducted in the Lazarev Sea (Southern Ocean) during 3 different seasons (autumn

  1. Macrofauna under sea ice and in the open surface layer of the Lazarev Sea, Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florentino De Souza Silva, A.P.; Franeker, van J.A.; Cisewski, B.; Leach, H.; Putte, van de A.P.; Meesters, H.W.G.; Bathmann, U.; Wolff, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    A new fishing gear was used to sample the macrozooplankton and micronekton community in the surface layer (0–2 m) under ice and in open water, the Surface and Under Ice Trawl (SUIT). In total, 57 quantitative hauls were conducted in the Lazarev Sea (Southern Ocean) during 3 different seasons (autumn

  2. The reversibility of sea ice loss in a state-of-the-art climate model

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, K. C.; Eisenman, I; Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, E.; McCusker, K. E.; Bitz, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Rapid Arctic sea ice retreat has fueled speculation about the possibility of threshold (or ‘tipping point’) behavior and irreversible loss of the sea ice cover. We test sea ice reversibility within a state-of-the-art atmosphere–ocean global climate model by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide until the Arctic Ocean becomes ice-free throughout the year and subsequently decreasing it until the initial ice cover returns. Evidence for irreversibility in the form of hysteresis outside the envelo...

  3. The Dehn Collection of Arctic Sea Ice Charts, 1953-1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Snow and Ice Data Center holds a collection of charts depicting ice conditions in the seas off Alaska and western Canada coasts. Ice edge position and...

  4. Sea-ice extent provides a limited metric of model performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Notz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the common practice of using sea-ice extent as the primary metric to evaluate modeled sea-ice coverage. Based on this analysis, we recommend a possible best practice for model evaluation. We find that for Arctic summer sea ice, model biases in sea-ice extent can be qualitatively different compared to biases in the geophysically more meaningful sea-ice area. These differences come about by a different frequency distribution of high-concentration sea-ice: while in summer about half of the CMIP5 models and satellite retrievals based on the Bootstrap and the ASI algorithm show a compact ice cover with large areas of high concentration sea ice, the other half of the CMIP5 models and satellite retrievals based on the NASA Team algorithm show a loose ice cover. The different behaviour of the CMIP5 models can be explained by their different distribution of excess heat between lateral melt and sea-ice thinning. Differences in grid geometry and round-off errors during interpolation only have a minor impact on the different biases in sea-ice extent and sea-ice area. Because of regional cancellation of biases in the integrative measures sea-ice extent and sea-ice area, these measures show little correlation with the more meaningful mean absolute bias in sea-ice concentration. Comparing the uncertainty arising directly from the satellite retrievals with those that arise from internal variability, we find that the latter by far dominates the uncertainty estimate for trends in sea-ice extent and area: much of the differences between modeled and observed trends can simply be explained by internal variability. Only for the absolute value of sea-ice area, differences between observations and models are so large that they cannot be explained by either observational uncertainty nor internal variability.

  5. Survival and breeding of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea in relation to sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, E.V.; Hunter, C.M.; Caswell, H.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, I.

    2010-01-01

    1. Observed and predicted declines in Arctic sea ice have raised concerns about marine mammals. In May 2008, the US Fish and Wildlife Service listed polar bears (Ursus maritimus) - one of the most ice-dependent marine mammals - as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. 2. We evaluated the effects of sea ice conditions on vital rates (survival and breeding probabilities) for polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea. Although sea ice declines in this and other regions of the polar basin have been among the greatest in the Arctic, to date population-level effects of sea ice loss on polar bears have only been identified in western Hudson Bay, near the southern limit of the species' range. 3. We estimated vital rates using multistate capture-recapture models that classified individuals by sex, age and reproductive category. We used multimodel inference to evaluate a range of statistical models, all of which were structurally based on the polar bear life cycle. We estimated parameters by model averaging, and developed a parametric bootstrap procedure to quantify parameter uncertainty. 4. In the most supported models, polar bear survival declined with an increasing number of days per year that waters over the continental shelf were ice free. In 2001-2003, the ice-free period was relatively short (mean 101 days) and adult female survival was high (0 ∙ 96-0 ∙ 99, depending on reproductive state). In 2004 and 2005, the ice-free period was longer (mean 135 days) and adult female survival was low (0 ∙ 73-0 ∙ 79, depending on reproductive state). Breeding rates and cub litter survival also declined with increasing duration of the ice-free period. Confidence intervals on vital rate estimates were wide. 5. The effects of sea ice loss on polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea may apply to polar bear populations in other portions of the polar basin that have similar sea ice dynamics and have experienced similar, or more severe, sea ice declines. Our findings

  6. Indicators of Arctic Sea Ice Bistability in Climate Model Simulations and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Indicators of Arctic Sea Ice Bistability in Climate...possibility that the climate system supports multiple Arctic sea ice states that are relevant for the evolution of sea ice during the next several...the most relevant scalar quantities related to the hemisphere-scale Arctic sea ice cover that indicate the presence of bistability, as well as the

  7. Methane excess in Arctic surface water-triggered by sea ice formation and melting

    OpenAIRE

    Damm, E.; Rudels, B.; Schauer, U.; Mau, S.; Dieckmann, G.

    2015-01-01

    Arctic amplification of global warming has led to increased summer sea ice retreat, which influences gas exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the atmosphere where sea ice previously acted as a physical barrier. Indeed, recently observed enhanced atmospheric methane concentrations in Arctic regions with fractional sea-ice cover point to unexpected feedbacks in cycling of methane. We report on methane excess in sea ice-influenced water masses in the interior Arctic Ocean and provide evidence t...

  8. The Timing of Arctic Sea Ice Advance and Retreat as an Indicator of Ice-Dependent Marine Mammal Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, H. L.; Laidre, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic is widely recognized as the front line of climate change. Arctic air temperature is rising at twice the global average rate, and the sea-ice cover is shrinking and thinning, with total disappearance of summer sea ice projected to occur in a matter of decades. Arctic marine mammals such as polar bears, seals, walruses, belugas, narwhals, and bowhead whales depend on the sea-ice cover as an integral part of their existence. While the downward trend in sea-ice extent in a given month is an often-used metric for quantifying physical changes in the ice cover, it is not the most relevant measure for characterizing changes in the sea-ice habitat of marine mammals. Species that depend on sea ice are behaviorally tied to the annual retreat of sea ice in the spring and advance in the fall. Changes in the timing of the spring retreat and the fall advance are more relevant to Arctic marine species than changes in the areal sea-ice coverage in a particular month of the year. Many ecologically important regions of the Arctic are essentially ice-covered in winter and ice-free in summer, and will probably remain so for a long time into the future. But the dates of sea-ice retreat in spring and advance in fall are key indicators of climate change for ice-dependent marine mammals. We use daily sea-ice concentration data derived from satellite passive microwave sensors to calculate the dates of sea-ice retreat in spring and advance in fall in 12 regions of the Arctic for each year from 1979 through 2013. The regions include the peripheral seas around the Arctic Ocean (Beaufort, Chukchi, East Siberian, Laptev, Kara, Barents), the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and the marginal seas (Okhotsk, Bering, East Greenland, Baffin Bay, Hudson Bay). We find that in 11 of the 12 regions (all except the Bering Sea), sea ice is retreating earlier in spring and advancing later in fall. Rates of spring retreat range from -5 to -8 days/decade, and rates of fall advance range from +5 to +9

  9. Snow on Sea Ice Workshop - An Icy Meeting of the Minds: Modelers and Measurers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    cover resides atop Arctic and Antarctic sea ice for much of the...year. This snow cover impacts the surface heat budget, the atmosphere– ocean heat exchange, ice growth, ice melt, and light transmission to the ocean . It...period, the group went out on the ice and made measurements of snow and ice cover , and spent time indoors talking about how large scale sea ice

  10. The interaction between sea ice and salinity-dominated ocean circulation: implications for halocline stability and rapid changes of sea ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mari F.; Nilsson, Johan; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.

    2016-11-01

    Changes in the sea ice cover of the Nordic Seas have been proposed to play a key role for the dramatic temperature excursions associated with the Dansgaard-Oeschger events during the last glacial. In this study, we develop a simple conceptual model to examine how interactions between sea ice and oceanic heat and freshwater transports affect the stability of an upper-ocean halocline in a semi-enclosed basin. The model represents a sea ice covered and salinity stratified Nordic Seas, and consists of a sea ice component and a two-layer ocean. The sea ice thickness depends on the atmospheric energy fluxes as well as the ocean heat flux. We introduce a thickness-dependent sea ice export. Whether sea ice stabilizes or destabilizes against a freshwater perturbation is shown to depend on the representation of the diapycnal flow. In a system where the diapycnal flow increases with density differences, the sea ice acts as a positive feedback on a freshwater perturbation. If the diapycnal flow decreases with density differences, the sea ice acts as a negative feedback. However, both representations lead to a circulation that breaks down when the freshwater input at the surface is small. As a consequence, we get rapid changes in sea ice. In addition to low freshwater forcing, increasing deep-ocean temperatures promote instability and the disappearance of sea ice. Generally, the unstable state is reached before the vertical density difference disappears, and the temperature of the deep ocean do not need to increase as much as previously thought to provoke abrupt changes in sea ice.

  11. Development, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty quantification of high-fidelity arctic sea ice models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Paskaleva, Biliana S.

    2010-09-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and due to feedback effects the Arctic ice cover is changing rapidly. Predictive mathematical models are of paramount importance for accurate estimates of the future ice trajectory. However, the sea ice components of Global Climate Models (GCMs) vary significantly in their prediction of the future state of Arctic sea ice and have generally underestimated the rate of decline in minimum sea ice extent seen over the past thirty years. One of the contributing factors to this variability is the sensitivity of the sea ice to model physical parameters. A new sea ice model that has the potential to improve sea ice predictions incorporates an anisotropic elastic-decohesive rheology and dynamics solved using the material-point method (MPM), which combines Lagrangian particles for advection with a background grid for gradient computations. We evaluate the variability of the Los Alamos National Laboratory CICE code and the MPM sea ice code for a single year simulation of the Arctic basin using consistent ocean and atmospheric forcing. Sensitivities of ice volume, ice area, ice extent, root mean square (RMS) ice speed, central Arctic ice thickness, and central Arctic ice speed with respect to ten different dynamic and thermodynamic parameters are evaluated both individually and in combination using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA). We find similar responses for the two codes and some interesting seasonal variability in the strength of the parameters on the solution.

  12. Arctic Sea Ice: Using Airborne Topographic Mapper Measurements (ATM) to Determine Sea Ice Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    today. MATERIALS AND METHODS IceBridge is a six-year NASA airborne mission which is aimed at surveying both poles of the earth. IceBridge comprises a...http://psc.apl.washington.edu/ArcticSeaiceVolume/IceVolume.php> Wahdams, Peter. “Ice in the Oceans.” Scott Polar Reseach Institute, Cambridge United

  13. Comparison and Validation of Four Arctic Sea Ice Thickness Products of the EC POLAR ICE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsheimer, C.; Makynen, M.; Rasmussen, T. S.; Rudjord, Ø.; Simila, M.; Solberg, R.; Walker, N. P.

    2016-08-01

    Sea ice thickness (SIT) is an important parameter for monitoring Arctic change, modelling and predicting weather and climate, and for navigation and offshore operations. However, SIT is still not very well monitored operationally. In the European Commission (EC) FP7 project "POLAR ICE", three novel SIT products based on different satellite data as well as SIT from a state-of-the- art ocean and sea ice model are fed into a common data handling and distribution system for end users. Each SIT product has different scopes and limitations as to, e.g., spatial and temporal resolution, ice thickness range and geographical domain. The aim of this study is to compare the four different SIT products with each other and with SIT in-situ measurements in order to better understand the differences and limitations, and possibly give recommendations on how to best profit from the synergy of the different data.

  14. The impact of regional Arctic sea ice loss on atmospheric circulation and the NAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker Pedersen, Rasmus; Cvijanovic, Ivana; Langen, Peter Lang; Vinther, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Reduction of the Arctic sea ice cover can affect the atmospheric circulation, and thus impact the climate beyond the Arctic. The atmospheric response may, however, vary with the geographical location of sea ice loss. The atmospheric sensitivity to the location of sea ice loss is studied using a general circulation model in a configuration that allows combination of a prescribed sea ice cover and an active mixed layer ocean. This hybrid setup makes it possible to simulate the isolated impact of sea ice loss and provides a more complete response compared to experiments with fixed sea surface temperatures. Three investigated sea ice scenarios with ice loss in different regions all exhibit substantial near-surface warming which peaks over the area of ice loss. The maximum warming is found during winter, delayed compared to the maximum sea ice reduction. The wintertime response of the mid-latitude atmospheric circulation shows a non-uniform sensitivity to the location of sea ice reduction. While all three scenarios exhibit decreased zonal winds related to high-latitude geopotential height increases, the magnitudes and locations of the anomalies vary between the simulations. Investigation of the North Atlantic Oscillation reveals a high sensitivity to the location of the ice loss. The northern center of action exhibits clear shifts in response to the different sea ice reductions. Sea ice loss in the Atlantic and Pacific sectors of the Arctic cause westward and eastward shifts, respectively.

  15. Is Ice-Rafted Sediment in a North Pole Marine Record Evidence for Perennial Sea-ice Cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, L.B.; Schmidt, G.A.; Pfirman, S.; Newton, R.; DeRepentigny, P.

    2015-01-01

    Ice-rafted sediments of Eurasian and North American origin are found consistently in the upper part (13 Ma BP to present) of the Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) ocean core from the Lomonosov Ridge, near the North Pole (approximately 88 degrees N). Based on modern sea-ice drift trajectories and speeds, this has been taken as evidence of the presence of a perennial sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean from the middle Miocene onwards. However, other high latitude land and marine records indicate a long-term trend towards cooling broken by periods of extensive warming suggestive of a seasonally ice-free Arctic between the Miocene and the present. We use a coupled sea-ice slab-ocean model including sediment transport tracers to map the spatial distribution of ice-rafted deposits in the Arctic Ocean. We use 6 hourly wind forcing and surface heat fluxes for two different climates: one with a perennial sea-ice cover similar to that of the present day and one with seasonally ice-free conditions, similar to that simulated in future projections. Model results confirm that in the present-day climate, sea ice takes more than 1 year to transport sediment from all its peripheral seas to the North Pole. However, in a warmer climate, sea-ice speeds are significantly faster (for the same wind forcing) and can deposit sediments of Laptev, East Siberian and perhaps also Beaufort Sea origin at the North Pole. This is primarily because of the fact that sea-ice interactions are much weaker with a thinner ice cover and there is less resistance to drift. We conclude that the presence of ice-rafted sediment of Eurasian and North American origin at the North Pole does not imply a perennial sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean, reconciling the ACEX ocean core data with other land and marine records.

  16. Processes controlling surface, bottom and lateral melt of Arctic sea ice in a state of the art sea ice model

    OpenAIRE

    Tsamados, Michel; Feltham, Danny; Petty, Alex; Schroeder, David; Flocco, Dani

    2015-01-01

    We present a modelling study of processes controlling the summer melt of the Arctic sea ice cover. We perform a sensitivity study and focus our interest on the thermodynamics at the ice–atmosphere and ice–ocean interfaces. We use the Los Alamos community sea ice model CICE, and additionally implement and test three new parametrization schemes: (i) a prognostic mixed layer; (ii) a three equation boundary condition for the salt and heat flux at the ice–ocean interface; and (iii) a new lateral m...

  17. The Impact of Submarine Depth, Speed Sonar Systems on Arctic Sea-ice Draft Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-21

    speed sonar systems on Arctic sea - ice draft measurements April 21, 2015 Reporting period: Oct 5, 2010- Sept 30, 2014 Prepared for: Office...TERM GOALS Arctic sea ice thickness is critical to geophysical research into climate change, shipping, biological productivity and other things...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Arctic sea ice thickness is critical to geophysical research into climate change, shipping, biological

  18. Sea-ice Thickness and Draft Statistics from Submarine ULS, Moored ULS, and a Coupled Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of estimates of mean values of sea-ice thickness and sea-ice draft in meters computed from three different input data sets: sea ice draft from...

  19. Arctic energy budget in relation to sea ice variability on monthly-to-annual time scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, F.; Hazeleger, W.

    2015-01-01

    The large decrease in Arctic sea ice in recent years has triggered a strong interest in Arctic sea ice predictions on seasonal-to-decadal time scales. Hence, it is important to understand physical processes that provide enhanced predictability beyond persistence of sea ice anomalies. This study anal

  20. A coupled ice-ocean model for the Bohai Sea Ⅱ. Case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Jie; WU Huiding; ZHANG Yunfei; LIU Qinzhen; BAI Shan

    2005-01-01

    The coupled ice-ocean model for the Bohai Sea is used for simulating the freezing, melting, and variation of ice cover and the heat balance at the sea-ice, air-ice, and air-sea interfaces of the Bohai Sea during the entire winter in 1998~1999 and 2000~2001. The coupled model is forced by real time numerical weather prediction fields. The results show that the thermodynamic effects of atmosphere and ocean are very important for the evolvement of ice in the Bohai Sea, especially in the period of ice freezing and melting. Ocean heat flux plays a key role in the thermodynamic coupling. The simulation also presents the different thermodynamic features in the ice covered region and the marginal ice zone. Ice thickness, heat budget at the interface, and surface sea temperature, etc. between the two representative points are discussed.

  1. The impact of melt ponds on summertime microwave brightness temperatures and sea-ice concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kern, Stefan; Rösel, Anja; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    2016-01-01

    Sea-ice concentrations derived from satellite microwave brightness temperatures are less accurate during summer. In the Arctic Ocean the lack of accuracy is primarily caused by melt ponds, but also by changes in the properties of snow and the sea-ice surface itself. We investigate the sensitivity...... of eight sea-ice concentration retrieval algorithms to melt ponds by comparing sea-ice concentration with the melt-pond fraction. We derive gridded daily sea-ice concentrations from microwave brightness temperatures of summer 2009. We derive the daily fraction of melt ponds, open water between ice floes......, and the ice-surface fraction from contemporary Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance data. We only use grid cells where the MODIS sea ice concentration, which is the melt-pond fraction plus the ice-surface fraction, exceeds 90 %. For one group of algorithms, e.g., Bristol and Comiso...

  2. The statistical properties of sea ice velocity fields

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Sahil

    2016-01-01

    Thorndike (1982, 1986b) argued that the surface pressure field over the Arctic Ocean can be treated as an isotropic, stationary, homogeneous, Gaussian random field and thereby estimated a number of covariance functions from two years (1979 and 1980) of data. Given the active interest in changes of general circulation quantities and indices in the polar regions during the recent few decades, the spatial correlations in sea ice velocity fields are of particular interest. We ask how persistent are these correlations? To this end, we develop a stochastic model for Arctic sea ice velocity fields based on a multi-fractal analysis of observed sea ice velocity fields from satellites and buoys for the period 1978 - 2012. Having previously found that the Arctic Equivalent Ice Extent (EIE) has a white noise structure on annual to bi-annual time scales (Agarwal et al. 2012), we assess the connection between EIE and ice motion. We demonstrate the long-term stationarity of the spatial correlation structure of the velocity ...

  3. Recent changes in the dynamic properties of declining Arctic sea ice: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinlun; Lindsay, Ron; Schweiger, Axel; Rigor, Ignatius

    2012-10-01

    Results from a numerical model simulation show significant changes in the dynamic properties of Arctic sea ice during 2007-2011 compared to the 1979-2006 mean. These changes are linked to a 33% reduction in sea ice volume, with decreasing ice concentration, mostly in the marginal seas, and decreasing ice thickness over the entire Arctic, particularly in the western Arctic. The decline in ice volume results in a 37% decrease in ice mechanical strength and 31% in internal ice interaction force, which in turn leads to an increase in ice speed (13%) and deformation rates (17%). The increasing ice speed has the tendency to drive more ice out of the Arctic. However, ice volume export is reduced because the rate of decrease in ice thickness is greater than the rate of increase in ice speed, thus retarding the decline of Arctic sea ice volume. Ice deformation increases the most in fall and least in summer. Thus the effect of changes in ice deformation on the ice cover is likely strong in fall and weak in summer. The increase in ice deformation boosts ridged ice production in parts of the central Arctic near the Canadian Archipelago and Greenland in winter and early spring, but the average ridged ice production is reduced because less ice is available for ridging in most of the marginal seas in fall. The overall decrease in ridged ice production contributes to the demise of thicker, older ice. As the ice cover becomes thinner and weaker, ice motion approaches a state of free drift in summer and beyond and is therefore more susceptible to changes in wind forcing. This is likely to make seasonal or shorter-term forecasts of sea ice edge locations more challenging.

  4. Polar bear and walrus response to the rapid decline in Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, K.; Whalen, M.; Douglas, D.; Udevitz, M.; Atwood, T.; Jay, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic is warming faster than other regions of the world due to positive climate feedbacks associated with loss of snow and ice. One highly visible consequence has been a rapid decline in Arctic sea ice over the past 3 decades - a decline projected to continue and result in ice-free summers likely as soon as 2030. The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) are dependent on sea ice over the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean's marginal seas. The continental shelves are shallow regions with high biological productivity, supporting abundant marine life within the water column and on the sea floor. Polar bears use sea ice as a platform for hunting ice seals; walruses use sea ice as a resting platform between dives to forage for clams and other bottom-dwelling invertebrates. How have sea ice changes affected polar bears and walruses? How will anticipated changes affect them in the future?

  5. Skill improvement of dynamical seasonal Arctic sea ice forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, Folmer; Schmeits, Maurice; Vlot, Willem; Guemas, Virginie; Hazeleger, Wilco

    2016-01-01

    We explore the error and improve the skill of the outcome from dynamical seasonal Arctic sea ice reforecasts using different bias correction and ensemble calibration methods. These reforecasts consist of a five-member ensemble from 1979 to 2012 using the general circulation model EC-Earth. The ra

  6. Analysis of WindSat Data over Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The radiation of the 3rd and 4th Stokes components emitted by Arctic sea ice and observed by the spaceborne fully polarimetric radiometer WindSat is investigated. Two types of analysis are carried out, spatial (maps of different quadrants of azimuth look angles) and temporal (time series of daily av...

  7. Impact of declining Arctic sea ice on winter snowfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiping; Curry, Judith A; Wang, Huijun; Song, Mirong; Horton, Radley M

    2012-03-13

    While the Arctic region has been warming strongly in recent decades, anomalously large snowfall in recent winters has affected large parts of North America, Europe, and east Asia. Here we demonstrate that the decrease in autumn Arctic sea ice area is linked to changes in the winter Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation that have some resemblance to the negative phase of the winter Arctic oscillation. However, the atmospheric circulation change linked to the reduction of sea ice shows much broader meridional meanders in midlatitudes and clearly different interannual variability than the classical Arctic oscillation. This circulation change results in more frequent episodes of blocking patterns that lead to increased cold surges over large parts of northern continents. Moreover, the increase in atmospheric water vapor content in the Arctic region during late autumn and winter driven locally by the reduction of sea ice provides enhanced moisture sources, supporting increased heavy snowfall in Europe during early winter and the northeastern and midwestern United States during winter. We conclude that the recent decline of Arctic sea ice has played a critical role in recent cold and snowy winters.

  8. Mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet since the Little Ice Age, implications on sea level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, K. K.; Bjork, A. A.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    The impact of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) on 20th Century sea level rise (SLR) has long been subject to intense discussions. While globally distributed tide gauges suggest a global mean SLR of 15-20 cm, quantifying the separate components is of great concern - in particular...... for modeling sea level projections into the 21st Century. Estimates of the past GrIS contribution to SLR have been derived using a number of different approaches, e.g. surface mass balance (SMB) calculations combined with estimates of ice discharge found by in correlating SMB anomalies and calving rates. Here...

  9. Validation of SMOS sea ice thickness retrieval in the northern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Maaß

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission observes brightness temperatures at a low microwave frequency of 1.4 GHz (L-band with a daily coverage of the polar regions. L-band radiometry has been shown to provide information on the thickness of thin sea ice. Here, we apply a new emission model that has previously been used to investigate the impact of snow on thick Arctic sea ice. The model has not yet been used to retrieve ice thickness. In contrast to previous SMOS ice thickness retrievals, the new model allows us to include a snow layer in the brightness temperature simulations. Using ice thickness estimations from satellite thermal imagery, we simulate brightness temperatures during the ice growth season 2011 in the northern Baltic Sea. In both the simulations and the SMOS observations, brightness temperatures increase by more than 20 K, most likely due to an increase of ice thickness. Only if we include the snow in the model, the absolute values of the simulations and the observations agree well (mean deviations below 3.5 K. In a second comparison, we use high-resolution measurements of total ice thickness (sum of ice and snow thickness from an electromagnetic (EM sounding system to simulate brightness temperatures for 12 circular areas. While the SMOS observations and the simulations that use the EM modal ice thickness are highly correlated (r 2=0.95, the simulated brightness temperatures are on average 12 K higher than observed by SMOS. This would correspond to an 8-cm overestimation of the modal ice thickness by the SMOS retrieval. In contrast, if the simulations take into account the shape of the EM ice thickness distributions (r 2=0.87, the mean deviation between simulated and observed brightness temperatures is below 0.1 K.

  10. Improving the WRF model's (version 3.6.1) simulation over sea ice surface through coupling with a complex thermodynamic sea ice model (HIGHTSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Huang, Jianbin; Luo, Yong; Zhao, Zongci

    2016-06-01

    Sea ice plays an important role in the air-ice-ocean interaction, but it is often represented simply in many regional atmospheric models. The Noah sea ice scheme, which is the only option in the current Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (version 3.6.1), has a problem of energy imbalance due to its simplification in snow processes and lack of ablation and accretion processes in ice. Validated against the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) in situ observations, Noah underestimates the sea ice temperature which can reach -10 °C in winter. Sensitivity tests show that this bias is mainly attributed to the simulation within the ice when a time-dependent ice thickness is specified. Compared with the Noah sea ice model, the high-resolution thermodynamic snow and ice model (HIGHTSI) uses more realistic thermodynamics for snow and ice. Most importantly, HIGHTSI includes the ablation and accretion processes of sea ice and uses an interpolation method which can ensure the heat conservation during its integration. These allow the HIGHTSI to better resolve the energy balance in the sea ice, and the bias in sea ice temperature is reduced considerably. When HIGHTSI is coupled with the WRF model, the simulation of sea ice temperature by the original Polar WRF is greatly improved. Considering the bias with reference to SHEBA observations, WRF-HIGHTSI improves the simulation of surface temperature, 2 m air temperature and surface upward long-wave radiation flux in winter by 6, 5 °C and 20 W m-2, respectively. A discussion on the impact of specifying sea ice thickness in the WRF model is presented. Consistent with previous research, prescribing the sea ice thickness with observational information results in the best simulation among the available methods. If no observational information is available, we present a new method in which the sea ice thickness is initialized from empirical estimation and its further change is predicted by a complex thermodynamic

  11. Fast- and drift-ice communities in the Bothnian Bay and the impact of UVA radiation on the Baltic Sea ice ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Piiparinen, Jonna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study ecology of Baltic Sea ice from two perspectives. In the first two studies, sea-ice ecology from riverine-influenced fast ice to drift ice in the Bothnian Bay was investigated, whereas the last two studies focus on the sensitivity of sea-ice bacteria and algae to UVA examined in situ. The seasonal sea ice cover is one of the main characteristics of the Baltic Sea, and despite the brackish parental water, the ice structure is similar to polar ice with sa...

  12. Methane excess in Arctic surface water- triggered by sea ice formation and melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, E.; Rudels, B.; Schauer, U.; Mau, S.; Dieckmann, G.

    2015-11-01

    Arctic amplification of global warming has led to increased summer sea ice retreat, which influences gas exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the atmosphere where sea ice previously acted as a physical barrier. Indeed, recently observed enhanced atmospheric methane concentrations in Arctic regions with fractional sea-ice cover point to unexpected feedbacks in cycling of methane. We report on methane excess in sea ice-influenced water masses in the interior Arctic Ocean and provide evidence that sea ice is a potential source. We show that methane release from sea ice into the ocean occurs via brine drainage during freezing and melting i.e. in winter and spring. In summer under a fractional sea ice cover, reduced turbulence restricts gas transfer, then seawater acts as buffer in which methane remains entrained. However, in autumn and winter surface convection initiates pronounced efflux of methane from the ice covered ocean to the atmosphere. Our results demonstrate that sea ice-sourced methane cycles seasonally between sea ice, sea-ice-influenced seawater and the atmosphere, while the deeper ocean remains decoupled. Freshening due to summer sea ice retreat will enhance this decoupling, which restricts the capacity of the deeper Arctic Ocean to act as a sink for this greenhouse gas.

  13. Methane excess in Arctic surface water-triggered by sea ice formation and melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, E; Rudels, B; Schauer, U; Mau, S; Dieckmann, G

    2015-11-10

    Arctic amplification of global warming has led to increased summer sea ice retreat, which influences gas exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the atmosphere where sea ice previously acted as a physical barrier. Indeed, recently observed enhanced atmospheric methane concentrations in Arctic regions with fractional sea-ice cover point to unexpected feedbacks in cycling of methane. We report on methane excess in sea ice-influenced water masses in the interior Arctic Ocean and provide evidence that sea ice is a potential source. We show that methane release from sea ice into the ocean occurs via brine drainage during freezing and melting i.e. in winter and spring. In summer under a fractional sea ice cover, reduced turbulence restricts gas transfer, then seawater acts as buffer in which methane remains entrained. However, in autumn and winter surface convection initiates pronounced efflux of methane from the ice covered ocean to the atmosphere. Our results demonstrate that sea ice-sourced methane cycles seasonally between sea ice, sea-ice-influenced seawater and the atmosphere, while the deeper ocean remains decoupled. Freshening due to summer sea ice retreat will enhance this decoupling, which restricts the capacity of the deeper Arctic Ocean to act as a sink for this greenhouse gas.

  14. Sea ice, erosion, and vulnerability of Arctic coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Katherine; Overeem, Irina; Kay, Jennifer; Anderson, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Coasts form the dynamic interface between the terrestrial and oceanic systems. In the Arctic, and in much of the world, the coast is a zone of relatively high population, infrastructure, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. A significant difference between Arctic and temperate coasts is the presence of sea ice. Sea ice influences Arctic coasts in two main ways: (1) the length of the sea ice-free season controls the length of time over which nearshore water can interact with the land, and (2) the location of the sea ice edge controls the fetch over which storm winds can blow over open water, resulting in changes in nearshore water level and wave field. The resulting nearshore hydrodynamic environment impacts all aspects of the coastal system. We first combine satellite records of sea ice with a simple model for wind-driven storm surge and waves to estimate how changes in the length and character of the sea ice-free season have impacted the nearshore hydrodynamic environment along Alaska's Beaufort Sea Coast for the period 1979-2012. This region has experienced some of the greatest changes in both sea ice cover and coastal erosion rates in the Arctic and is anticipated to experience significant change in the future. The median length of the 2012 open-water season along this stretch of coast, in comparison to 1979, expanded by 1.9 x. At the same time, coastal erosion rates increased from 8.7 m yr-1 to 19 m yr-1. At Drew Point, winds from the northwest result in increased water levels at the coast and control the process of submarine notch incision, the rate-limiting step of coastal retreat. When open-water conditions exist, the distance to the sea ice edge exerts control on the water level and wave field through its control on fetch. We find that the extreme values of water-level setup at Drew Point have increased consistently with increasing fetch. We then extend our analysis of the length of the open water season to the entire Arctic using both satellite

  15. In-situ measured primary productivity of ice algae in Arctic sea ice floes using a new incubation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ho Jung; Lee, Jae Hyung; Kim, Gawn Woo; Ahn, So Hyun; Joo, Houng-Min; Jeong, Jin Young; Yang, Eun Jin; Kang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Sang Heon

    2016-09-01

    Recent changes in climate and environmental conditions have had great negative effects such as decreasing sea ice thickness and the extent of Arctic sea ice floes that support ice-related organisms. However, limited field observations hinder the understanding of the impacts of the current changes in the previously ice-covered regions on sea ice algae and other ice-related ecosystems. Our main objective in this study was to measure recent primary production of ice algae and their relative contribution to total primary production (ice plus pelagic primary production). In-situ primary productivity experiments with a new incubation system for ice algae were conducted in 3 sea ice cores at 2 different ice camps in the northern Chukchi Sea, 2014, using a 13C and 15N isotope tracer technique. A new incubation system was tested for conducting primary productivity experiments on ice algae that has several advantages over previous incubation methods, enabling stable carbon and nitrogen uptake experiments on ice algae under more natural environmental conditions. The vertical C-shaped distributions of the ice algal chl- a, with elevated concentrations at the top and bottom of the sea ice were observed in all cores, which is unusual for Arctic sea ice. The mean chl- a concentration (0.05 ± 0.03 mg chl- a m-3) and the daily carbon uptake rates (ranging from 0.55 to 2.23 mg C m-2 d-1) for the ice algae were much lower in this study than in previous studies in the Arctic Ocean. This is likely because of the late sampling periods and thus the substantial melting occurring. Ice algae contributed 1.5-5.7% of the total particulate organic carbon (POC) contents of the combined euphotic water columns and sea ice floes. In comparison, ice algae contributed 4.8-8.6% to the total primary production which is greater than previously reported in the Arctic Ocean. If all of the ice-associated productions were included, the contributions of the sea ice floes to the total primary production

  16. Sea ice and millennial-scale climate variability in the Nordic seas 90 kyr ago to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Ulrike; Rasmussen, Tine L.; Stein, Ruediger; Ezat, Mohamed M.; Fahl, Kirsten

    2016-07-01

    In the light of rapidly diminishing sea ice cover in the Arctic during the present atmospheric warming, it is imperative to study the distribution of sea ice in the past in relation to rapid climate change. Here we focus on glacial millennial-scale climatic events (Dansgaard/Oeschger events) using the sea ice proxy IP25 in combination with phytoplankton proxy data and quantification of diatom species in a record from the southeast Norwegian Sea. We demonstrate that expansion and retreat of sea ice varies consistently in pace with the rapid climate changes 90 kyr ago to present. Sea ice retreats abruptly at the start of warm interstadials, but spreads rapidly during cooling phases of the interstadials and becomes near perennial and perennial during cold stadials and Heinrich events, respectively. Low-salinity surface water and the sea ice edge spreads to the Greenland-Scotland Ridge, and during the largest Heinrich events, probably far into the Atlantic Ocean.

  17. Prediction of sea ice thickness cluster in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuckar, Neven-Stjepan; Guemas, Virginie; Johnson, Nathaniel; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Sea ice thickness (SIT) has a potential to contain substantial climate memory and predictability in the northern hemisphere (NH) sea ice system. We use 5-member NH SIT, reconstructed with an ocean-sea-ice general circulation model (NEMOv3.3 with LIM2) with a simple data assimilation routine, to determine NH SIT modes of variability disentangled from the long-term climate change. Specifically, we apply the K-means cluster analysis - one of nonhierarchical clustering methods that partition data into modes or clusters based on their distances in the physical - to determine optimal number of NH SIT clusters (K=3) and their historical variability. To examine prediction skill of NH SIT clusters in EC-Earth2.3, a state-of-the-art coupled climate forecast system, we use 5-member ocean and sea ice initial conditions (IC) from the same ocean-sea-ice historical reconstruction and atmospheric IC from ERA-Interim reanalysis. We focus on May 1st and Nov 1st start dates from 1979 to 2010. Common skill metrics of probability forecast, such as rank probability skill core and ROC (relative operating characteristics - hit rate versus false alarm rate) and reliability diagrams show that our dynamical model predominately perform better than the 1st order Marko chain forecast (that beats climatological forecast) over the first forecast year. On average May 1st start dates initially have lower skill than Nov 1st start dates, but their skill is degraded at slower rate than skill of forecast started on Nov 1st.

  18. A toy model linking atmospheric thermal radiation and sea ice growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndike, A. S.

    1992-01-01

    A simplified analytical model of sea ice growth is presented where the atmosphere is in thermal radiative equilibrium with the ice. This makes the downwelling longwave radiation reaching the ice surface an internal variable rather than a specified forcing. Analytical results demonstrate how the ice state depends on properties of the ice and on the externally specified climate.

  19. Changes in sea-ice cover and temperature in the Western Ross Sea during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Sophie; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Gal, Jong-Ku; Mezgec, Karin; Belt, Simon; Smik, Lukas; Stenni, Barbara; Melis, Romana; Crosta, Xavier; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    Although changes in sea-ice cover contribute to global climatic variations, they are poorly constrained for periods earlier than the last decades. More records are especially required around Antarctica, where the formation of Antarctic Bottom Waters participates to global thermohaline circulation. However, this region provided only a few marine sediment cores spanning the entire Holocene, especially because of generally low sedimentation rates. This study focuses on marine sediment core ANTA99-CJ5 (73°49'S; 175°39'E), located in the open sea ice zone (OSIZ) of the western Ross Sea. We analyzed several lipid biomarkers: highly branched isoprenoids (HBIs), sterols, diols and GDGTs. The combination of several biomarkers and the comparison of these results with a diatom record previously published on the same core enabled us to trace past changes in temperatures as well as in sea-ice condition over the last 11,600 years.

  20. In situ expression of eukaryotic ice-binding proteins in microbial communities of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Christiane; Kilpert, Fabian; Frickenhaus, Stephan; Kegel, Jessica U; Krell, Andreas; Mock, Thomas; Valentin, Klaus; Beszteri, Bánk

    2015-01-01

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) have been isolated from various sea-ice organisms. Their characterisation points to a crucial role in protecting the organisms in sub-zero environments. However, their in situ abundance and diversity in natural sea-ice microbial communities is largely unknown. In this study, we analysed the expression and phylogenetic diversity of eukaryotic IBP transcripts from microbial communities of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice. IBP transcripts were found in abundances similar to those of proteins involved in core cellular processes such as photosynthesis. Eighty-nine percent of the IBP transcripts grouped with known IBP sequences from diatoms, haptophytes and crustaceans, but the majority represented novel sequences not previously characterized in cultured organisms. The observed high eukaryotic IBP expression in natural eukaryotic sea ice communities underlines the essential role of IBPs for survival of many microorganisms in communities living under the extreme conditions of polar sea ice. PMID:25885562

  1. Modelling sea ice for climate studies: recent advances and future challenges (Louis Agassiz Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichefet, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of satellite measurements in 1979, the summer Arctic sea ice extent has shrunk at a mean rate of ~12% per decade, and there is evidence that the rate of decline has accelerated over the last decade. Current global climate models project further decrease in Arctic sea ice areal coverage through the 21st century if atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations continue to increase. However, rates of loss vary greatly between models, yielding a large uncertainty as to when a seasonally ice-free Arctic Ocean may be realized. Narrowing this uncertainty is of crucial importance since such changes in the Arctic sea ice cover might have profound ramifications, including the global ocean circulation and heat budget, regional ecosystems and wildlife, the indigenous human population, and commercial exploration and transportation. Regarding the Antarctic sea ice, its extent has been observed to slightly increase during the last 37 years, which appears puzzling in a global warming context. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this feature, but the issue is far from being settled. On the other hand, the majority of global climate models simulate a decreasing trend in Antarctic sea ice extent over this period, which questions the validity of their Antarctic sea ice projections for the coming decades. In this lecture, we show through simulations conducted with the state of the art Louvain-la-Neuve Sea Ice Model (LIM) coupled to the Nucleous European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) platform that a number of small-scale sea ice processes, which are omitted or crudely represented in global climate models (in particular, the subgrid-scale sea ice thickness distribution, the thermodynamics and dynamics of brine pockets trapped within sea ice, processes related to snow on top of sea ice, including surface melt ponds, the sea ice mechanical deformation, and the subgrid-scale heterogeneity of atmosphere-ice-ocean interactions), play a significant role in

  2. DMSP and DMS cycling within Antarctic sea ice during the winter-spring transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, E.; Nomura, D.; Martin, A.; Dieckmann, G. S.; Meiners, K. M.

    2016-09-01

    This study describes within-ice concentrations of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), its degradation product dimethylsulphide (DMS), as well as nutrients and chlorophyll a, that were sampled during the Sea Ice Physics and Ecosystems eXperiment-2 (SIPEX-2) in 2012. DMSP is a methylated substrate produced in large amounts annually by ice-associated microalgae, while DMS plays a significant role in carbon and sulphur cycling in the Southern Ocean. In the East Antarctic study area between 115-125°E and 64-66°S, ice and slush cores, brine, under-ice seawater and zooplankton (Antarctic krill) samples were collected at 6 ice stations. The pack-ice was characterised by high snow loading which initiated flooding events and triggered nutrient supply to the sea-ice surface, while variation in ice conditions influenced sea-ice permeability. This ranged from impermeable surface and middle sections of the sea ice, to completely permeable ice cores at some stations. Chlorophyll a maxima shifted from the sea-ice surface horizon at the first station to the sea ice bottom layer at the last station. Highest DMSP concentrations were detected in brine samples at the sea-ice surface, reflecting a mismatch with respect to the distribution of chlorophyll a. Our data suggest enhanced DMSP production by sea-ice surface algal communities and its release into brine during freezing and melting, which in turn is coupled to flooding events early in the season. A time-cycle of DMS production by DMSP degradation and DMS efflux is evident at the sea ice-snow interface when slush is formed during melt. Seawater under the ice contained only low concentrations of DMSP and DMS, even when brine drainage was evident and the sea ice became permeable. We postulate that in situ grazing by zooplankton may act as sink for the DMSP produced early in the season.

  3. Arctic Sea Ice Variability and Trends, 1979-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of Arctic sea ice extents derived from satellite passive-microwave data for the 28 years, 1979-2006 yields an overall negative trend of -45,100 +/- 4,600 km2/yr (-3.7 +/- 0.4%/decade) in the yearly averages, with negative ice-extent trends also occurring for each of the four seasons and each of the 12 months. For the yearly averages the largest decreases occur in the Kara and Barents Seas and the Arctic Ocean, with linear least squares slopes of -10,600 +/- 2,800 km2/yr (-7.4 +/- 2.0%/decade) and -10,100 +/- 2,200 km2/yr (-1.5 +/- 0.3%/decade), respectively, followed by Baffin Bay/Labrador Sea, with a slope of -8,000 +/- 2,000 km2/yr) -9.0 +/- 2.3%/decade), the Greenland Sea, with a slope of -7,000 +/- 1,400 km2/yr (-9.3 +/- 1.9%/decade), and Hudson Bay, with a slope of -4,500 +/- 900 km2/yr (-5.3 +/- 1.1%/decade). These are all statistically significant decreases at a 99% confidence level. The Seas of Okhotsk and Japan also have a statistically significant ice decrease, although at a 95% confidence level, and the three remaining regions, the Bering Sea, Canadian Archipelago, and Gulf of St. Lawrence, have negative slopes that are not statistically significant. The 28-year trends in ice areas for the Northern Hemisphere total are also statistically significant and negative in each season, each month, and for the yearly averages.

  4. Reflective properties of white sea ice and snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinka, Aleksey; Zege, Eleonora; Heygster, Georg; Istomina, Larysa

    2016-11-01

    White ice (ice with a highly scattering granular layer on top of its surface) and snow-covered ice occupy a large part of the sea ice area in the Arctic, the former in summer, the latter in the cold period. The inherent optical properties (IOPs) and the reflectance of these types of ice are considered from the point of view of the light scattering and radiative transfer theories. The IOPs - the extinction and absorption coefficients and the scattering phase function - are derived with the assumption that both the snow cover and the scattering layer of white ice are random mixtures of air and ice with the characteristic grain size significantly larger than the wavelength of incident light. Simple analytical formulas are put forward to calculate the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF), albedo at direct incidence (the directional-hemispherical reflectance), and albedo at diffuse incidence (the bihemispherical reflectance). The optical model developed is verified with the data of the in situ measurements made during the R/V Polarstern expedition ARK-XXVII/3 in 2012.

  5. Mapping wave heights in sea ice with Sentinel 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopa, Justin; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Collard, Fabrice; Mouche, Alexis; Guitton, Gilles; Sutherland, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Sea ice plays an important role in the Earth system by regulating air-sea fluxes. These fluxes can be enhanced by the breaking of ice into floes which critically depends on wave heights propagating across the ice. Remote sensing with SAR provides a unique coverage of the polar regions but so far the measurement of wave heights has been performed routinely only for open water. The presence of ice completely changes the mechanisms by which waves make patterns in radar images. Namely, in the open ocean, the constructed images appear blurred due to the fact that the high frequency waves are unresolved by the sensor. Instead, in ice-covered seas, high frequency waves have been dissipated or scattered away, and only the low-frequency swell components are observed. Two new algorithms have been proposed by Ardhuin et al. (2015). Refining these algorithms, we analyze the intricate wave patterns captured over sea ice by Sentinel 1-A, and measure both the wave heights and directional spreading of the wave spectrum. The procedure is a two-step process which uses an estimation of the orbital vertical velocities that produce the observed image intensity. The first step is implemented when wiggly lines are present. Wiggly lines are created by the presence of two swell systems and are removed by estimating the wave orbital velocity that causes the amplitude in the wiggly line. The second step uses Fourier analysis to invert the straightened image into a velocity field. As a result we obtain a full non-linear inversion the mapping from the velocity field to the SAR intensity image. The inverted velocities can be used to obtain the wavenumber-direction spectrum. Our algorithm is applied to S1A images from the Arctic and Antarctic and discussions follow in terms of wave-ice interaction. These data will be validated using in situ measurements from the ONR Sea State DRI (Beaufort sea, 2016), and combined with numerical modeling using the WAVEWATCH III model to adjust parameterization

  6. NASA Team 2 Sea Ice Concentration Algorithm Retrieval Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Ludovic; Cavalieri, Donald J.; Markus, Thorsten; Ivanoff, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Satellite microwave radiometers are widely used to estimate sea ice cover properties (concentration, extent, and area) through the use of sea ice concentration (IC) algorithms. Rare are the algorithms providing associated IC uncertainty estimates. Algorithm uncertainty estimates are needed to assess accurately global and regional trends in IC (and thus extent and area), and to improve sea ice predictions on seasonal to interannual timescales using data assimilation approaches. This paper presents a method to provide relative IC uncertainty estimates using the enhanced NASA Team (NT2) IC algorithm. The proposed approach takes advantage of the NT2 calculations and solely relies on the brightness temperatures (TBs) used as input. NT2 IC and its associated relative uncertainty are obtained for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) TB. NT2 IC relative uncertainties estimated on a footprint-by-footprint swath-by-swath basis were averaged daily over each 12.5-km grid cell of the polar stereographic grid. For both hemispheres and throughout the year, the NT2 relative uncertainty is less than 5%. In the Southern Hemisphere, it is low in the interior ice pack, and it increases in the marginal ice zone up to 5%. In the Northern Hemisphere, areas with high uncertainties are also found in the high IC area of the Central Arctic. Retrieval uncertainties are greater in areas corresponding to NT2 ice types associated with deep snow and new ice. Seasonal variations in uncertainty show larger values in summer as a result of melt conditions and greater atmospheric contributions. Our analysis also includes an evaluation of the NT2 algorithm sensitivity to AMSR-E sensor noise. There is a 60% probability that the IC does not change (to within the computed retrieval precision of 1%) due to sensor noise, and the cumulated probability shows that there is a 90% chance that the IC varies by less than

  7. Classification of new-ice in the Greenland Sea using Satellite SSM/I radiometer and SeaWinds scatterometer data and comparison with ice model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonboe, Rasmus; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    2005-01-01

    In the ice covered waters of the Greenland Sea the polarisation ratio of QuikSCAT SeaWinds Ku-band (13.4 GHz) scatterometer measurements and the polarisation ratio of DMSP-SSM/I 19 GHz radiometer measurements are used in combination to classify new-ice and mature ice. In particular, the formation...... and radiative properties as reflected in the polarisation ratio. Our results based on these comparisons show that the transformation into older mature (sheet) ice occurs within 5 - 10 days. During one day the new-ice cover increased by 33 000 km(2). The new-ice appears in March 2001 as a peninsula (maximum...... to the physical transition of the ice cover from pancake ice to a consolidated young-ice sheet. The classification of each pixel into ice or water is done using two scatterometer parameters, namely the polarisation ratio and the daily standard deviation of the backscatter. (C) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights...

  8. Polarimetric signatures of sea ice in the Greenland Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    1995-01-01

    acquired. Microwave signatures of mulityear ice and open water have been studied, i.e. the backscatter coefficients for VV- and HV-polarizations. The co- and cross-polarized ratios, the correlations coefficients and phase difference have been computed as a function of incidence angle. The results...

  9. Ice-sheet sourced juxtaposed turbidite systems in Labrador Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, R.; Klaucke, I.; Ryan, William B. F.; Piper, D.J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Ice-sheet sourced Pleistocene turbidite systems of the Labrador Sea are different from non-glacially influenced systems in their facies distribution and depositional processes. Two large-scale sediment dispersal systems are juxtaposed, one mud-dominated and associated with the Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel (NAMOC), the other sand-dominated and forming a huge submarine braided sandplain. Co-existence of the two systems reflects grain-size separation of the coarse and fine fractions on an enormous scale, caused by sediment winnowing at the entrance points of meltwater from the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) to the sea (Hudson Strait, fiords) and involves a complex interplay of depositional and redepositional processes. The mud-rich NAMOC system is multisourced and represents a basinwide converging system of tributary canyons and channels. It focusses its sand load to the central trunk channel in basin centre, in the fashion of a "reverse" deep-sea fan. The sand plain received its sediment from the Hudson Strait by turbidity currents that were generated either by failure of glacial prodelta slopes at the ice margin, or by direct meltwater discharges with high bedload concentration. We speculate that the latter might have been related to subglacial-lake outburst flooding through the Hudson Strait, possibly associated with ice-rafting (Heinrich) events.

  10. Regional and interannual variability of sea ice mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter-Menge, J. A.; Perovich, D. K.; Nghiem, S. V.; Overland, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover is undergoing significant climate-induced changes, affecting both its extent and thickness. The ice mass balance provides key insights into the nature of these changes by attributing them to variations in growth, surface melt, and bottom ablation. Ice mass balance buoys (IMB) autonomously monitor snow accumulation and ablation, ice growth and melt, and internal ice temperature. These buoys have been deployed in many locations, with an emphasis on the Beaufort Sea and the North Pole Environmental Observatory (NPEO). At the NPEO, the IMB sites are complemented by web cams which provide photographs showing changing surface conditions and the evolution of melt ponds in summer. IMB results indicate that there is significant regional and interannual variability in the mass balance. North Pole buoys, in particular, have recorded significant interannual variability in surface ablation, with values ranging from 0 to 35 cm from 2000 to 2005. There is good agreement determining the onset of melt and freezeup dates at the sites from both IMB results and from QuikScat satellite data. Results suggest that the total amount of surface melting is most significantly influenced by the date of the onset of summer melt. Quikscat results indicated that melt onset occurs concurrently over hundreds of kilometers providing a thermodynamic length scale, which may then be used to extrapolate the point measurements from the IMBs to larger scales.

  11. Sea ice draft in the Weddell Sea, measured by upward looking sonars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Behrendt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presented database contains time-referenced sea ice draft values from upward looking sonar (ULS measurements in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The sea ice draft data can be used to infer the thickness of the ice. They were collected during the period 1990–2008. In total, the database includes measurements from 13 locations in the Weddell Sea and was generated from more than 3.7 million measurements of sea ice draft. The files contain uncorrected raw drafts, corrected drafts and the basic parameters measured by the ULS. The measurement principle, the data processing procedure and the quality control are described in detail. To account for the unknown speed of sound in the water column above the ULS, two correction methods were applied to the draft data. The first method is based on defining a reference level from the identification of open water leads. The second method uses a model of sound speed in the oceanic mixed layer and is applied to ice draft in austral winter. Both methods are discussed and their accuracy is estimated. Finally, selected results of the processing are presented. The data can be downloaded from doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.785565.

  12. Sea ice draft in the Weddell Sea, measured by upward looking sonars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Behrendt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The presented database contains time-referenced sea ice draft values from upward looking sonar (ULS measurements in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The sea ice draft data can be used to infer the thickness of the ice. They were collected during the period 1990–2008. In total, the database includes measurements from 13 locations in the Weddell Sea and was generated from more than 3.7 million measurements of sea ice draft. The files contain uncorrected raw drafts, corrected drafts from two different methods and the basic parameters measured by the ULS. The measurement principle, the data processing procedure and the quality control are described in detail. To account for the unknown speed of sound in the water column above the ULS, two correction methods were applied to the data. The first method is based on defining a reference level from the identification of open water leads. The second method uses a model of sound speed in the oceanic mixed layer and is applied to ice draft in austral winter. Both methods are discussed and their accuracy is estimated. Finally, selected results of the processing are presented. The data can be downloaded under http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.785565.

  13. Airborne Surveys of Snow Depth over Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R.; Panzer, B.; Leuschen, C.; Pang, S.; Markus, T.; Holt, B.; Gogineni, S.

    2011-01-01

    During the spring of 2009, an ultrawideband microwave radar was deployed as part of Operation IceBridge to provide the first cross-basin surveys of snow thickness over Arctic sea ice. In this paper, we analyze data from three approx 2000 km transects to examine detection issues, the limitations of the current instrument, and the regional variability of the retrieved snow depth. Snow depth is the vertical distance between the air \\snow and snow-ice interfaces detected in the radar echograms. Under ideal conditions, the per echogram uncertainty in snow depth retrieval is approx 4 - 5 cm. The finite range resolution of the radar (approx 5 cm) and the relative amplitude of backscatter from the two interfaces limit the direct retrieval of snow depths much below approx 8 cm. Well-defined interfaces are observed over only relatively smooth surfaces within the radar footprint of approx 6.5 m. Sampling is thus restricted to undeformed, level ice. In early April, mean snow depths are 28.5 +/- 16.6 cm and 41.0 +/- 22.2 cm over first-year and multiyear sea ice (MYI), respectively. Regionally, snow thickness is thinner and quite uniform over the large expanse of seasonal ice in the Beaufort Sea, and gets progressively thicker toward the MYI cover north of Ellesmere Island, Greenland, and the Fram Strait. Snow depth over MYI is comparable to that reported in the climatology by Warren et al. Ongoing improvements to the radar system and the utility of these snow depth measurements are discussed.

  14. Sea-ice habitat preference of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in the Bering Sea: A multiscaled approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Alexander Edward

    The goal of this thesis is to define specific parameters of mesoscale sea-ice seascapes for which walruses show preference during important periods of their natural history. This research thesis incorporates sea-ice geophysics, marine-mammal ecology, remote sensing, computer vision techniques, and traditional ecological knowledge of indigenous subsistence hunters in order to quantitatively study walrus preference of sea ice during the spring migration in the Bering Sea. Using an approach that applies seascape ecology, or landscape ecology to the marine environment, our goal is to define specific parameters of ice patch descriptors, or mesoscale seascapes in order to evaluate and describe potential walrus preference for such ice and the ecological services it provides during an important period of their life-cycle. The importance of specific sea-ice properties to walrus occupation motivates an investigation into how walruses use sea ice at multiple spatial scales when previous research suggests that walruses do not show preference for particular floes. Analysis of aerial imagery, using image processing techniques and digital geomorphometric measurements (floe size, shape, and arrangement), demonstrated that while a particular floe may not be preferred, at larger scales a collection of floes, specifically an ice patch (< 4 km2), was preferred. This shows that walruses occupy ice patches with distinct ice features such as floe convexity, spatial density, and young ice and open water concentration. Ice patches that are occupied by adult and juvenile walruses show a small number of characteristics that vary from those ice patches that were visually unoccupied. Using synthetic aperture radar imagery, we analyzed co-located walrus observations and statistical texture analysis of radar imagery to quantify seascape preferences of walruses during the spring migration. At a coarse resolution of 100 -- 9,000 km2, seascape analysis shows that, for the years 2006 -- 2008

  15. The impact of snow depth, snow density and ice density on sea ice thickness retrieval from satellite radar altimetry: results from the ESA-CCI Sea Ice ECV Project Round Robin Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, S.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Skourup, H.; Rinne, E.; Parsakhoo, Z. S.; Djepa, V.; Wadhams, P.; Sandven, S.

    2015-01-01

    We assess different methods and input parameters, namely snow depth, snow density and ice density, used in freeboard-to-thickness conversion of Arctic sea ice. This conversion is an important part of sea ice thickness retrieval from spaceborne altimetry. A data base is created comprising sea ice freeboard derived from satellite radar altimetry between 1993 and 2012 and co-locate observations of total (sea ice + snow) and sea ice freeboard from the Operation Ice Bridge (OIB) and CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) airborne campaigns, of sea ice draft from moored and submarine upward looking sonar (ULS), and of snow depth from OIB campaigns, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the Warren climatology (Warren et al., 1999). We compare the different data sets in spatiotemporal scales where satellite radar altimetry yields meaningful results. An inter-comparison of the snow depth data sets emphasizes the limited usefulness of Warren climatology snow depth for freeboard-to-thickness conversion under current Arctic Ocean conditions reported in other studies. We test different freeboard-to-thickness and freeboard-to-draft conversion approaches. The mean observed ULS sea ice draft agrees with the mean sea ice draft derived from radar altimetry within the uncertainty bounds of the data sets involved. However, none of the approaches are able to reproduce the seasonal cycle in sea ice draft observed by moored ULS. A sensitivity analysis of the freeboard-to-thickness conversion suggests that sea ice density is as important as snow depth.

  16. Empirical sea ice thickness retrieval during the freeze up period from SMOS high incident angle observations

    OpenAIRE

    Huntemann, M.; G. Heygster; Kaleschke, L.; T. Krumpen; M. Mäkynen; M. Drusch

    2014-01-01

    Sea ice thickness information is important for sea ice modelling and ship operations. Here a method to detect the thickness of sea ice up to 50 cm during the freeze-up season based on high incidence angle observations of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite working at 1.4 GHz is suggested. By comparison of thermodynamic ice growth data with SMOS brightness temperatures, a high correlation to intensity and an anticorrelation to the difference bet...

  17. Isolation of novel psychrophilic bacteria from Arctic sea ice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of culturable psychrophilic bacteria associated with sea ice from the high latitude regions of Canadian Basin and Chukchi Sea, Arctic, was investigated. A total of 34 psychropilic strains were isolated using three methods of (Ⅰ) dilution plating (at 4 ℃), (Ⅱ) bath culturing (at -1 ℃) and dilution plating, and (Ⅲ) cold shock (-20 ℃ for 24 h), bath culturing and dilution plating under aerobic conditions. Sea-ice samples were exposed to -20 ℃ for 24 h that might reduce the number of common microorganisms and encourage outgrowth of psychrophilic strains. This process might be able to be introduced to isolation psychrophilic bacteria from other environmental samples in future study. 16S rDNA nearly full-length sequence analysis revealed that psychrophilic strains felled in two phylogenetic divisions, γ-proteobacteria (in the genera Colwellia、Marinobacter、Shewanella、Glaciecola、Marinomonas and Pseudoalteromonas) and Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (Flavobacterium and Psychroflexus). Fifteen of bacterial isolates quite likely represented novel species (16S rDNA sequence similarity below 98%). One of strains (BSi20002) from Canadian Basin showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Marinobacter sp. ANT8277 isolated from the Antarctic Weddell sea ice, suggesting bacteria may have a bipolar distribution at the species level.

  18. On the existence of stable seasonally varying Arctic sea ice

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, W

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework lower order thermodynamic theories for the climatic evolution of Arctic sea ice we isolate the conditions required for the existence of stable seasonally-varying ice states. This is done by constructing a two-season model from the continuously evolving theory of Eisenman and Wettlaufer (2009) and showing that the necessary and sufficient condition for stable seasonally-varying states resides in the relaxation of the constant annual average short-wave radiative forcing. This forcing is examined within the scenario of greenhouse gas warming, as a function of which stability conditions are discerned.

  19. An impact assessment of sea ice on ocean optics observations in the marginal ice zone of the Arctic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tao; ZHAO Jinping

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse attenuation coefficient (DAC) of sea water is an important parameter in ocean thermodynamics and biology, reflecting the absorption capability of sea water in different layers. In the Arctic Ocean, however, sea ice affects the radiance/irradiance measurements of upper ocean, which results in obvious errors in the DAC calculation. To better understand the impacts of sea ice on the ocean optics observations, a series ofin situ experiments were carried out in the summer of 2009 in the southern Beaufort Sea. Observational results show that the profiles of spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients of seawater near ice cover within upper surface of 50 m were not contaminated by the sea ice with a solar zenith angle of 55°, relative azimuth angle of 110°≤φ≤115° and horizontal distance between the sensors and ice edge of greater than 25 m. Based on geometric optics theory, the impact of ice cover could be avoided by adjusting the relative solar azimuth angle in a particular distance between the instrument and ice. Under an overcast sky, ice cover being 25 m away from sensors did not affect the profiles of spectral DACs within the upper 50 m either. Moreover, reli-able spectral DACs of seawater could be obtained with sensors completely covered by sea ice.

  20. Sea-Ice Freeboard Retrieval Using Digital Photon-Counting Laser Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Sinead L.; Brunt, Kelly M.; Ruth, Julia M.; Kuhn, John M.; Connor, Laurence N.; Walsh, Kaitlin M.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne and spaceborne altimeters provide measurements of sea-ice elevation, from which sea-ice freeboard and thickness may be derived. Observations of the Arctic ice pack by satellite altimeters indicate a significant decline in ice thickness, and volume, over the last decade. NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) is a next-generation laser altimeter designed to continue key sea-ice observations through the end of this decade. An airborne simulator for ICESat-2, the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), has been deployed to gather pre-launch data for mission development. We present an analysis of MABEL data gathered over sea ice in the Greenland Sea and assess the capabilities of photon-counting techniques for sea-ice freeboard retrieval. We compare freeboard estimates in the marginal ice zone derived from MABEL photon-counting data with coincident data collected by a conventional airborne laser altimeter. We find that freeboard estimates agree to within 0.03m in the areas where sea-ice floes were interspersed with wide leads, and to within 0.07m elsewhere. MABEL data may also be used to infer sea-ice thickness, and when compared with coincident but independent ice thickness estimates, MABEL ice thicknesses agreed to within 0.65m or better.

  1. Short-term sea ice forecasting: An assessment of ice concentration and ice drift forecasts using the U.S. Navy's Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, David A.; Allard, Richard A.; Metzger, E. Joseph; Posey, Pamela G.; Preller, Ruth H.; Wallcraft, Alan J.; Phelps, Michael W.; Smedstad, Ole Martin

    2015-12-01

    In this study the forecast skill of the U.S. Navy operational Arctic sea ice forecast system, the Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast System (ACNFS), is presented for the period February 2014 to June 2015. ACNFS is designed to provide short term, 1-7 day forecasts of Arctic sea ice and ocean conditions. Many quantities are forecast by ACNFS; the most commonly used include ice concentration, ice thickness, ice velocity, sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, and sea surface velocities. Ice concentration forecast skill is compared to a persistent ice state and historical sea ice climatology. Skill scores are focused on areas where ice concentration changes by ±5% or more, and are therefore limited to primarily the marginal ice zone. We demonstrate that ACNFS forecasts are skilful compared to assuming a persistent ice state, especially beyond 24 h. ACNFS is also shown to be particularly skilful compared to a climatologic state for forecasts up to 102 h. Modeled ice drift velocity is compared to observed buoy data from the International Arctic Buoy Programme. A seasonal bias is shown where ACNFS is slower than IABP velocity in the summer months and faster in the winter months. In February 2015, ACNFS began to assimilate a blended ice concentration derived from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) and the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS). Preliminary results show that assimilating AMSR2 blended with IMS improves the short-term forecast skill and ice edge location compared to the independently derived National Ice Center Ice Edge product.

  2. Sea salt aerosol from blowing snow on sea ice - modeling vs observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Frey, Markus; Norris, Sarah; Brooks, Ian; Anderson, Philip; Jones, Anna; wolff, Eric; Legrand, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Blowing snow over sea ice, through a subsequent sublimation process of salt-containing blown snow particles, has been hypothesized as a significant sea salt aerosol (SSA) source in high latitudes. This mechanism has been strongly supported by a winter cruise in the Weddell Sea (during June-August 2013). The newly collected data, including both physical and chemical components, provide a unique way to test and validate the parameterisation used for describing the SSA production from blowing snow events. With updates to some key parameters such as snow salinity in a global Chemistry-transport model pTOMCAT, simulated SSA concentrations can be well compared with measured SSA data. In this presentation, I will report modeled SSA number density against collected data on board of Polarstern ship during the Weddell Sea cruise, as well as modeled SSA massive concentrations against those measured at both coastal sites such as Alert in the North and Dumont d'Urville (DDU) in the South and central Antarctic sites such as Concordia and Kohnen stations. Model experiments indicated that open ocean-sourced SSA could not explain the observed winter SSA peaks seen in most polar sites, while with sea ice-sourced SSA in the model, the winter peaks can be well improved indicating the importance of sea ice-sourced SSA as a significant contributor to the salts (Na+, Cl-) recorded in the ice core.

  3. Sea ice thickness measurement in spring season in Bothnian Bay using an electromagnetic induction instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As an important component of the cryosphere, sea ice is very sensitive to the climate change. The study of the sea ice physics needs accurate sea ice thickness. This paper presents an electromagnetic-induction (EM) technique which can be used to measure the sea ice thickness distribution efficiently, and the successful application in Bothnian Bay. Based on the electromagnetic field theory and the electrical properties of sea ice and seawater,EM technique can detect the distance between the instrument and the ice/water interface accurately, than the sea ice thickness is obtained. Contrastive analysis of the apparent conductivity data obtained by EM and the value of drill-hole at same positions allows a construction of a transformable formula of the apparent conductivity to sea ice thickness. The verification of the sea ice thickness calculated by this formula indicates that EM technique is able to get reliable sea ice thickness with average relative error of only 12%. The statistic of all ice thickness profiles shows that the level ice distribution in Bothnian Bay was 0.4 - 0.6 m.

  4. Sea surface temperature and sea ice variability in the subpolar North Atlantic from explosive volcanism of the late thirteenth century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicre, M. -A.; Khodri, M.; Mignot, J.;

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we use IP25 and alkenone biomarker proxies to document the subdecadal variations of sea ice and sea surface temperature in the subpolar North Atlantic induced by the decadally paced explosive tropical volcanic eruptions of the second half of the thirteenth century. The short-and lo...... and subsurface heat buildup due to sea ice capping. As volcanic forcing relaxes, the surface ocean rapidly warms, likely amplified by subsurface heat, and remains almost ice free for several decades....

  5. Frost flowers on young Arctic sea ice: The climatic, chemical, and microbial significance of an emerging ice type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barber, D.; Ehn, J.; Pucko, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing changes in Arctic sea ice are increasing the spatial and temporal range of young sea ice types over which frost flowers can occur, yet the significance of frost flowers to ocean-sea ice-atmosphere exchange processes remains poorly understood. Frost flowers form when moisture from seawater...... formed. The new ice and frost flowers dramatically changed the radiative and thermal environment. The frost flowers were about 5°C colder than the brine surface, with an approximately linear temperature gradient from their base to their upper tips. Salinity and δ18O values indicated that frost flowers...... of CO2 at the brine-wetted sea ice surface, in line with expectations from the brine chemistry. Bacteria concentrations generally increased with salinity in frost flowers and the surface slush layer. Bacterial densities and taxa indicated that a selective process occurred at the ice surface...

  6. Mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet since the Little Ice Age, implications on sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, K. K.; Kjaer, K.; Bjork, A. A.; Khan, S. A.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Larsen, N. K.; Long, A. J.; Woodroffe, S.; Milne, G. A.; Wahr, J. M.; Geruo, A.; Bamber, J. L.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) on 20th Century sea level rise (SLR) has long been subject to intense discussions. While globally distributed tide gauges suggest a global mean SLR of 15-20 cm, quantifying the separate components is of great concern - in particular for modeling sea level projections into the 21st Century. Estimates of the past GrIS contribution to SLR have been derived using a number of different approaches, e.g. surface mass balance (SMB) calculations combined with estimates of ice discharge found by in correlating SMB anomalies and calving rates. Here, we adopt a novel geometric approach to determine the post-Little Ice Age (LIA) mass loss of the GrIS. We use high quality aerial stereo photogrammetric imagery recorded between 1978 and 1987 to map morphological features such as trim lines (boundary between freshly eroded and non-eroded bedrock) and end moraines marking the ice extent of the LIA, which thereby enables us to obtain vertical point-based differences associated with changes in ice extent. These point measurements are combined with contemporary ice surface differences derived using NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) from 2002-2010, NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) from 2003-2009, and NASA's Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS) from 2010, to estimate mass loss throughout the 20th and early 21st Century. We present mass balance estimates of the GrIS since retreat commence from the maximum extent of the LIA to 2010 derived for three intervals, LIAmax (1900) - 1978/87, 1978/87 - 2002, and 2002 - 2010. Results suggest that despite highly spatially- and temporally variable post-LIA mass loss, the total mass loss and thus the contribution from the GrIS to global SLR has accelerated significantly during the 20th Century.

  7. An investigation of sea ice motion and fluxes within the Prince Gustaf Adolf Sea, Queen Elizabeth Islands, Canada, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlleben, T.; Howell, S.; Agnew, T.; Komarov, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, the sea ice flux events that occurred through the Prince Gustaf Adolf Sea flux gate into the Queen Elizabeth Islands (QEI) over the 2010 season are investigated in detail. In the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, multi-year ice (MYI) exports and in situ summer melt are primarily balanced by MYI influx events into QEI during the brief period each year when ice exchanges freely between the Arctic Ocean and the QEI reservoir. Here, data from two Canadian Ice Service satellite tracking beacons that drifted through the Gustaf flux gate in 2010, along with atmospheric sea level pressure and wind data, are compared to ice drift velocities derived from RADARSAT imagery using a new sea ice tracking system. It is demonstrated in this study that the annual average ice drifts implied by the fluxes reported in previous works underestimate the basic current-driven flow of sea ice across the Prince Gustaf Adolf Sea gate (as determined from Radarsat imagery during periods of no wind). It is further established that ice drifts (and hence ice fluxes) through the Gustaf flux gate vary spatially, with velocities on the eastern side in 2010 being consistently greater than those on the western side by a factor of ~2. These results reveal the potential of using Radarsat-derived ice motion to expand upon and improve the limited data on ocean currents within the Queen Elizabeth Islands, as well as to refine estimates of ice flux magnitudes and spatial patterns in this area.

  8. Abnormal Winter Melting of the Arctic Sea Ice Cap Observed by the Spaceborne Passive Microwave Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seongsuk; Yi, Yu

    2016-12-01

    The spatial size and variation of Arctic sea ice play an important role in Earth’s climate system. These are affected by conditions in the polar atmosphere and Arctic sea temperatures. The Arctic sea ice concentration is calculated from brightness temperature data derived from the Defense Meteorological Satellite program (DMSP) F13 Special Sensor Microwave/Imagers (SSMI) and the DMSP F17 Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) sensors. Many previous studies point to significant reductions in sea ice and their causes. We investigated the variability of Arctic sea ice using the daily sea ice concentration data from passive microwave observations to identify the sea ice melting regions near the Arctic polar ice cap. We discovered the abnormal melting of the Arctic sea ice near the North Pole during the summer and the winter. This phenomenon is hard to explain only surface air temperature or solar heating as suggested by recent studies. We propose a hypothesis explaining this phenomenon. The heat from the deep sea in Arctic Ocean ridges and/ or the hydrothermal vents might be contributing to the melting of Arctic sea ice. This hypothesis could be verified by the observation of warm water column structure below the melting or thinning arctic sea ice through the project such as Coriolis dataset for reanalysis (CORA).

  9. Mass Balance of Multiyear Sea Ice in the Southern Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    seaice.alaska.edu/gi/ LONG-TERM GOALS 1) Determination of the net growth and melt of multiyear (MY) sea ice during its transit through the southern Beaufort...sparse. However, we will make use of airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data from the Tuktoyaktuk and Barrow regions to examine differences in the...buoys occupying each grid cell , with whiter shades indicating higher concentrations. Cross-validation of ice thickness and velocity data The fusion of

  10. Characteristics of Arctic Ocean ice determined from SMMR data for 1979 - Case studies in the seasonal sea ice zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. R.; Crane, R. G.; Barry, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    Sea ice data derived from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer are examined for sections of the Arctic Ocean during early summer 1979. The temporary appearance of spuriously high multiyear ice fractions in the seasonal ice zones of the Kara and Barents Seas is a result of surface melt phenomena and the relative responses of the different channels to these effects. These spurious signatures can provide early identification of melt onset and additional information on surface characteristics.

  11. On retrieving sea ice freeboard from ICESat laser altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvorostovsky, Kirill; Rampal, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Sea ice freeboard derived from satellite altimetry is the basis for the estimation of sea ice thickness using the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. High accuracy of altimeter measurements and freeboard retrieval procedure are, therefore, required. As of today, two approaches for estimating the freeboard using laser altimeter measurements from Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), referred to as tie points (TP) and lowest-level elevation (LLE) methods, have been developed and applied in different studies. We reproduced these methods for the ICESat observation periods (2003-2008) in order to assess and analyse the sources of differences found in the retrieved freeboard and corresponding thickness estimates of the Arctic sea ice as produced by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Three main factors are found to affect the freeboard differences when applying these methods: (a) the approach used for calculation of the local sea surface references in leads (TP or LLE methods), (b) the along-track averaging scales used for this calculation, and (c) the corrections for lead width relative to the ICESat footprint and for snow depth accumulated in refrozen leads. The LLE method with 100 km averaging scale, as used to produce the GSFC data set, and the LLE method with a shorter averaging scale of 25 km both give larger freeboard estimates comparing to those derived by applying the TP method with 25 km averaging scale as used for the JPL product. Two factors, (a) and (b), contribute to the freeboard differences in approximately equal proportions, and their combined effect is, on average, about 6-7 cm. The effect of using different methods varies spatially: the LLE method tends to give lower freeboards (by up to 15 cm) over the thick multiyear ice and higher freeboards (by up to 10 cm) over first-year ice and the thin part of multiyear ice; the higher freeboards dominate. We show that the freeboard underestimation

  12. Eastern-Western Arctic Sea Ice Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    3 .. 2 -~e, 8 6 8.’ PZ - 68, II 4-6 7-8O"W .2 010 -A 1-11 4-ŕ 󈧕 7 .1 1 -- ’ 5-7,* o / AA SO TH R IC L,’l % Dae- -. A /ST 1 L NAY5WA JON IC CETE ... CETE -INI /NN ICE IC CENER IGO ENTR METLN -T 175E/ IS /WIO 6W NW 15W1 4W10 n 5E70E15 0 50E 40E 30E 20E1 0IE 0 low 20W low 40# 0W 80E 85E 920E 925E 130ULM

  13. On the sensitivity of undeformed Arctic sea ice to its vertical salinity profile

    OpenAIRE

    Vancoppenolle, M.; Fichefet, T.; C. M. Bitz

    2005-01-01

    The temporal evolution of sea ice salinity affects the temperature profile and vertical growth and decay of the ice cover, as well as many other important properties. Here, we use a one-dimensional thermodynamic sea ice model to explore the sensitivity to the vertical profile of ice salinity of (1) Arctic first-year and equilibrium multiyear sea ice thickness, and (2) the salt/freshwater flux at the ice/ocean interface. Results indicate that increasing the mean salinity induces a higher therm...

  14. SIMULATION OF THE Ku-BAND RADAR ALTIMETER SEA ICE EFFECTIVE SCATTERING SURFACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonboe, Rasmus; Andersen, Søren; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    2006-01-01

    A radiative transfer model is used to simulate the sea ice radar altimeter effective scattering surface variability as a function of snow depth and density. Under dry snow conditions without layering these are the primary snow parameters affecting the scattering surface variability. The model...... is initialised with in situ data collected during the May 2004 GreenIce ice camp in the Lincoln Sea (73ºW; 85ºN). Our results show that the snow cover is important for the effective scattering surface depth in sea ice and thus for the range measurement, ice freeboard and ice thickness estimation....

  15. Observed Arctic sea-ice loss directly follows anthropogenic CO2 emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notz, Dirk; Stroeve, Julienne

    2016-11-01

    Arctic sea ice is retreating rapidly, raising prospects of a future ice-free Arctic Ocean during summer. Because climate-model simulations of the sea-ice loss differ substantially, we used a robust linear relationship between monthly-mean September sea-ice area and cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to infer the future evolution of Arctic summer sea ice directly from the observational record. The observed linear relationship implies a sustained loss of 3 ± 0.3 square meters of September sea-ice area per metric ton of CO2 emission. On the basis of this sensitivity, Arctic sea ice will be lost throughout September for an additional 1000 gigatons of CO2 emissions. Most models show a lower sensitivity, which is possibly linked to an underestimation of the modeled increase in incoming longwave radiation and of the modeled transient climate response.

  16. Variability in sea ice cover and climate elicit sex specific responses in an Antarctic predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrousse, Sara; Sallée, Jean-Baptiste; Fraser, Alexander D.; Massom, Rob A.; Reid, Phillip; Hobbs, William; Guinet, Christophe; Harcourt, Robert; McMahon, Clive; Authier, Matthieu; Bailleul, Frédéric; Hindell, Mark A.; Charrassin, Jean-Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Contrasting regional changes in Southern Ocean sea ice have occurred over the last 30 years with distinct regional effects on ecosystem structure and function. Quantifying how Antarctic predators respond to such changes provides the context for predicting how climate variability/change will affect these assemblages into the future. Over an 11-year time-series, we examine how inter-annual variability in sea ice concentration and advance affect the foraging behaviour of a top Antarctic predator, the southern elephant seal. Females foraged longer in pack ice in years with greatest sea ice concentration and earliest sea ice advance, while males foraged longer in polynyas in years of lowest sea ice concentration. There was a positive relationship between near-surface meridional wind anomalies and female foraging effort, but not for males. This study reveals the complexities of foraging responses to climate forcing by a poleward migratory predator through varying sea ice property and dynamic anomalies. PMID:28233791

  17. The 2014 high record of Antarctic sea ice extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massonnet, Francois; Guemas, Virginie; Fuckar, Neven; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    In September 2014, Antarctic sea ice extent exceeded the symbolic level of 20 million km²for the first time since 1978, when reliable satellite measurements became available. After the successive records of 2012 and 2013, sea ice extent in 2014 once again reinforced the positive trend observed since the late 1970s. We conduct here a dedicated study to elucidate the origins of a major, and perhaps the most intriguing, event that happened at our Poles recently. Observations, reanalyses and model results all point towards the important role of winds in modifying near-surface heat advection patterns around Antarctica. The role of pre-conditioning (summer conditions) is found to be of lesser importance. Finally, we find no evidence that anomalous freshwater forcing (from atmospheric or continental origin) could have explained the record extent of 2014.

  18. Coupling and feedback between Pacific sea ice and the Western Pacific pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthewman, N. J.; Magnusdottir, G.

    2010-12-01

    Coupling between sea ice variability in the Pacific basin and large scale modes of atmospheric variability are examined using weekly averaged data for December-April between 1979 and 2008. We define the large scale patterns of variability for sea ice concentration and 500hPa geopotential height over the Pacific basin and North America using Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs). The patterns associated with the leading two EOFs of sea ice variability are a dipole in sea ice concentration with centers of action in the Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk (first EOF, ICE1), and an advance or retreat of sea ice in both seas simultaneously (second EOF, ICE2). Correlation analysis between the 500hPa geopotential height field and the principal component of the ICE2 pattern shows a large non-local response in geopotential height to changes in the ICE2 sea ice pattern. At extratropical latitudes this response in 500hPa geopotential height has two strong centers of action over the Bering Strait and Hudson Bay, with two somewhat weaker centers of action in the subtropics over the Western Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. Further analysis suggests this response is due to sea ice in the Bering Sea region of the the ICE2 pattern, rather than the Sea of Okhotsk. This response pattern closely resembles a leading mode of 500hPa geopotential height variability, the Western Pacific (WP) pattern, indicating a coupled relationship between the WP pattern and the overall advance and retreat of sea ice in the Pacific basin. By considering intraseasonal time series of the principal components (indices) associated with the ICE2 and WP patterns, causality and coupling between the two is quantified using a stochastically forced Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model. Fitting the VAR model to observed time series for each index, we find that co-dependence between the ICE2 and WP significantly improves model performance compared with model configurations where dependence in either direction is

  19. Unprecedented low twentieth century winter sea ice extent in the Western Nordic Seas since A.D. 1200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias Fauria, M. [University of Calgary, Biogeoscience Institute, Calgary, AB (Canada); University of Helsinki, Department of Geology, Helsinki (Finland); Finnish Forest Institute, Rovaniemi Research Station, Rovaniemi (Finland); University of Barcelona, Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Barcelona (Spain); Grinsted, A. [University of Copenhagen, Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); University of Lapland, Arctic Centre, Rovaniemi (Finland); Helama, S.; Eronen, M. [University of Helsinki, Department of Geology, Helsinki (Finland); Moore, J. [University of Copenhagen, Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); University of Oulu, Thule Institute, Oulu (Finland); Beijing Normal University, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing (China); Timonen, M. [Finnish Forest Institute, Rovaniemi Research Station, Rovaniemi (Finland); Martma, T. [Tallinn University of Technology, Institute of Geology, Tallinn (Estonia); Isaksson, E. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Polar Environmental Centre, Tromsoe (Norway)

    2010-05-15

    We reconstructed decadal to centennial variability of maximum sea ice extent in the Western Nordic Seas for A.D. 1200-1997 using a combination of a regional tree-ring chronology from the timberline area in Fennoscandia and {delta}{sup 18}O from the Lomonosovfonna ice core in Svalbard. The reconstruction successfully explained 59% of the variance in sea ice extent based on the calibration period 1864-1997. The significance of the reconstruction statistics (reduction of error, coefficient of efficiency) is computed for the first time against a realistic noise background. The twentieth century sustained the lowest sea ice extent values since A.D. 1200: low sea ice extent also occurred before (mid-seventeenth and mid-eighteenth centuries, early fifteenth and late thirteenth centuries), but these periods were in no case as persistent as in the twentieth century. Largest sea ice extent values occurred from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries, during the Little Ice Age (LIA), with relatively smaller sea ice-covered area during the sixteenth century. Moderate sea ice extent occurred during thirteenth-fifteenth centuries. Reconstructed sea ice extent variability is dominated by decadal oscillations, frequently associated with decadal components of the North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO), and multi-decadal lower frequency oscillations operating at {proportional_to}50-120 year. Sea ice extent and NAO showed a non-stationary relationship during the observational period. The present low sea ice extent is unique over the last 800 years, and results from a decline started in late-nineteenth century after the LIA. (orig.)

  20. Seasonal changes in sea ice conditions along the Northeast Passage in 2007 and 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Ruibo; Li Na; Li Chunhua; Jnsdttir Ingibjrg

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing data from passive microwave and satellite-based altimeters, associated with the data measured underway, were used to characterize seasonal and spatial changes in sea ice conditions along the Arctic Northeast Passage (NEP) and the high-latitude sea route (HSR) north of the island groups in the eastern Arctic Ocean in 2007 and 2012. In both years, summer Arctic sea ice extent reached minima since satellite records began in 1979. However, there were large differences in spatial distribution of sea ice between the two years. Sea ice conditions in the eastern sections of the sea routes were relatively slight in the 2007 summer, because of the remarkable decline of sea ice in the Paciifc sector. A belt of sea ice that blocked sections from the western Laptev Sea to the eastern Kara Sea resulted in both sea routes not completely opening through the 2007 summer. The combination of a great storm in early August causing sea ice to be sheared from the Arctic pack ice and the thick ice surviving the winter delayed the summer opening of the eastern parts of the sea routes in 2012. However, the average open period, deifned by 50% ice concentration for the entire NEP and HSR, reached 82 d and 55 d, respectively. Thus, 2012 was the most accessible year since the satellite era began in 1979. The distinct decrease in sea ice in the western parts of the HSR in the 2012 summer can be attributed to the thinning preconditions of sea ice prior to the melt season. The HSR opening can beneift Arctic shipping of deeper-draft vessels.

  1. Sea-ice thickness from airborne laser altimetry over the Arctic Ocean north of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidegaard, Sine Munk; Forsberg, René

    2002-01-01

    We present a new method to measure ice thickness of polar sea-ice freeboard heights, using airborne laser altimetry combined with a precise geoid model, giving estimates of thickness of ice through isostatic equilibrium assumptions. In the paper we analyze a number of flights from the Polar Sea o...

  2. MASAM2: Daily 4 km Arctic Sea Ice Concentration, 2012-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The MASIE-AMSR2 (MASAM2) daily 4 km sea ice concentration is a prototype concentration product that is a blend of two other daily sea ice data products: ice coverage...

  3. [The arctic sea ice refractive index retrieval based on satellite AMSR-E observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Yue; Bi, Hai-Bo; Niu, Zheng

    2012-11-01

    The refractive index of sea ice in the polar region is an important geophysical parameter. It is needed as a vital input for some numerical climate models and is helpful to classifying sea ice types. In the present study, according to Hong Approximation (HA), we retrieved the arctic sea ice refractive index at 6.9, 10.7, 23, 37, and 89 GHz in different arctic climatological conditions. The refractive indices of wintertime first year (FY) sea ice and summertime ice were derived with average values of 1.78 - 1.75 and 1.724 - 1.70 at different frequencies respectively, which are consistent with previous studies. However, for multiyear (MY) ice, the results indicated relatively large bias between modeled results since 10.7 GHz. At a higher frequency, there is larger MY ice refractive index difference. This bias is mainly attributed to the volume scattering effect on MY microwave radiation due to emergence of massive small empty cavities after the brine water in MY ice is discharged into sea. In addition, the retrieved sea ice refractive indices can be utilized to classify ice types (for example, the winter derivation at 89 GHz), to identify coastal polynyas (winter retrieval at 6.9 GHz), and to outline the areal extent of significantly melting marginal sea ice zone (MIZ) (summer result at 6.9 GHz). The investigation of this study suggests an effective tool of passive microwave remote sensing in monitoring sea ice refractive index variability.

  4. On the potential for abrupt Arctic winter sea-ice loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bathiany, S.; Notz, Dirk; Mauritsen, T.; Raedel, G.; Brovkin, V.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the transition from a seasonally ice-covered Arctic to an Arctic Ocean that is sea ice free all year round under increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. It is shown that in comprehensive climate models, such loss of Arctic winter sea ice area is faster than the preceding loss of summe

  5. Hydrocarbon biodegradation by Arctic sea-ice and sub-ice microbial communities during microcosm experiments, Northwest Passage (Nunavut, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garneau, Marie-Ève; Michel, Christine; Meisterhans, Guillaume; Fortin, Nathalie; King, Thomas L; Greer, Charles W; Lee, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    The increasing accessibility to navigation and offshore oil exploration brings risks of hydrocarbon releases in Arctic waters. Bioremediation of hydrocarbons is a promising mitigation strategy but challenges remain, particularly due to low microbial metabolic rates in cold, ice-covered seas. Hydrocarbon degradation potential of ice-associated microbes collected from the Northwest Passage was investigated. Microcosm incubations were run for 15 days at -1.7°C with and without oil to determine the effects of hydrocarbon exposure on microbial abundance, diversity and activity, and to estimate component-specific hydrocarbon loss. Diversity was assessed with automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and Ion Torrent 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacterial activity was measured by (3)H-leucine uptake rates. After incubation, sub-ice and sea-ice communities degraded 94% and 48% of the initial hydrocarbons, respectively. Hydrocarbon exposure changed the composition of sea-ice and sub-ice communities; in sea-ice microcosms, Bacteroidetes (mainly Polaribacter) dominated whereas in sub-ice microcosms, the contribution of Epsilonproteobacteria increased, and that of Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased. Sequencing data revealed a decline in diversity and increases in Colwellia and Moritella in oil-treated microcosms. Low concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in sub-ice seawater may explain higher hydrocarbon degradation when compared to sea ice, where DOM was abundant and composed of labile exopolysaccharides.

  6. Incorporation of iron and organic matter into young Antarctic sea ice during its initial growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Janssens

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study reports concentrations of iron (Fe and organic matter in young Antarctic pack ice and during its initial growth stages in situ. Although the importance of sea ice as an Fe reservoir for oceanic waters of the Southern Ocean has been clearly established, the processes leading to the enrichment of Fe in sea ice have yet to be investigated and quantified. We conducted two in situ sea-ice growth experiments during a winter cruise in the Weddell Sea. Our aim was to improve the understanding of the processes responsible for the accumulation of dissolved Fe (DFe and particulate Fe (PFe in sea ice, and of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, extracellular polymeric substances, inorganic macro-nutrients (silicic acid, nitrate and nitrite, phosphate and ammonium, chlorophyll a and bacteria. Enrichment indices, calculated for natural young ice and ice newly formed in situ, indicate that during Antarctic winter all of the measured forms of particulate matter were enriched in sea ice compared to underlying seawater, and that enrichment started from the initial stages of sea-ice formation. Some dissolved material (DFe and ammonium was also enriched in the ice but at lower enrichment indices than the particulate phase, suggesting that size is a key factor for the incorporation of impurities in sea ice. Low chlorophyll a concentrations and the fit of the macro-nutrients (with the exception of ammonium with their theoretical dilution lines indicated low biological activity in the ice. From these and additional results we conclude that physical processes are the dominant mechanisms leading to the enrichment of DFe, PFe, organic matter and bacteria in young sea ice, and that PFe and DFe are decoupled during sea-ice formation. Our study thus provides unique quantitative insight into the initial incorporation of impurities, in particular DFe and PFe, into Antarctic sea ice.

  7. Mapping radiation transfer through sea ice using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, M.; Katlein, C.

    2013-05-01

    Transmission of sunlight into and through sea ice is of critical importance for sea-ice associated organisms and photosynthesis because light is their primary energy source. The amount of visible light transferred through sea ice contributes to the energy budget of the sea ice and the uppermost ocean. However, our current knowledge on the amount and distribution of light under sea ice is still restricted to a few local observations, and our understanding of light-driven processes and interdisciplinary interactions is still sparse. The main reasons are that the under-ice environment is difficult to access and that measurements require large logistical and instrumental efforts. Hence, it has not been possible to map light conditions under sea ice over larger areas and to quantify spatial variability on different scales. Here we present a detailed methodological description for operating spectral radiometers on a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) under sea ice. Recent advances in ROV and radiation-sensor technology have allowed us to map under-ice spectral radiance and irradiance on floe scales within a few hours of station time. The ROV was operated directly from the sea ice, allowing for direct relations of optical properties to other sea-ice and surface features. The ROV was flown close to the sea ice in order to capture small-scale variability. Results from the presented data set and similar future studies will allow for better quantification of light conditions under sea ice. The presented experiences will support further developments in order to gather large data sets of under-ice radiation for different ice conditions and during different seasons.

  8. Mapping radiation transfer through sea ice using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nicolaus

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of sunlight into and through sea ice is of critical importance for sea-ice associated organisms and photosynthesis because light is their primary energy source. The amount of visible light transferred through sea ice contributes to the energy budget of the sea ice and the uppermost ocean. However, our current knowledge on the amount and distribution of light under sea ice is still restricted to a few local observations, and our understanding of light-driven processes and interdisciplinary interactions is still sparse. The main reasons are that the under-ice environment is difficult to access and that measurements require large logistical and instrumental efforts. Hence, it has not been possible to map light conditions under sea ice over larger areas and to quantify spatial variability on different scales. Here we present a detailed methodological description for operating spectral radiometers on a remotely operated vehicle (ROV under sea ice. Recent advances in ROV and radiation-sensor technology have allowed us to map under-ice spectral radiance and irradiance on floe scales within a few hours of station time. The ROV was operated directly from the sea ice, allowing for direct relations of optical properties to other sea-ice and surface features. The ROV was flown close to the sea ice in order to capture small-scale variability. Results from the presented data set and similar future studies will allow for better quantification of light conditions under sea ice. The presented experiences will support further developments in order to gather large data sets of under-ice radiation for different ice conditions and during different seasons.

  9. The importance of sea ice for exchange of habitat-specific protist communities in the Central Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardge, Kristin; Peeken, Ilka; Neuhaus, Stefan; Lange, Benjamin A.; Stock, Alexandra; Stoeck, Thorsten; Weinisch, Lea; Metfies, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Sea ice is one of the main features influencing the Arctic marine protist community composition and diversity in sea ice and sea water. We analyzed protist communities within sea ice, melt pond water, under-ice water and deep-chlorophyll maximum water at eight sea ice stations sampled during summer of the 2012 record sea ice minimum year. Using Illumina sequencing, we identified characteristic communities associated with specific habitats and investigated protist exchange between these habitats. The highest abundance and diversity of unique taxa were found in sea ice, particularly in multi-year ice (MYI), highlighting the importance of sea ice as a unique habitat for sea ice protists. Melting of sea ice was associated with increased exchange of communities between sea ice and the underlying water column. In contrast, sea ice formation was associated with increased exchange between all four habitats, suggesting that brine rejection from the ice is an important factor for species redistribution in the Central Arctic. Ubiquitous taxa (e.g. Gymnodinium) that occurred in all habitats still had habitat-preferences. This demonstrates a limited ability to survive in adjacent but different environments. Our results suggest that the con