Eveline de Cássia Batista de Almeida Alves
Full Text Available Sialoliths are calcified structures that develop into the salivary duct system, they have a round or oval shape and are usually asymptomatic. They result from the deposition of calcium salts around focal areas of organic matter and grow continuously, with the possibility of causing obstruction and reduced salivary flow. Commonly reported in humans, sialoliths may also affect, less frequently, the salivary glands of domestic and wild animals. This paper aimed to describe the histopathological characteristics of a sialolith affecting the excretory duct in the salivary gland of an adult male specimen of the tropical bat Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae. This specimen was collected in the urban area of Vitória de Santo Antão, Pernambuco, Brazil. Histological preparations were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE and histochemical techniques with Schiff-periodic acid (PAS and Alcian blue (pH 1.0 and 2.5 were applied for a better characterization and description of the sialolith. Although the formation of sialoliths is very common in the salivary glands of mammals, its occurrence in bats had not been reported before.
Distribuição geográfica e análise morfológica de Artibeus lituratus Olfers e de Artibeus fimbriatus Gray (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Geographical distribution and morphological analysis of Artibeus lituratus Olfers and Artibeus fimbriatus Gray (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Ana Maria Rui
Full Text Available A study has been made on the geographical distribution and comparative external and cranial morphological analysis of Artibeus lituratus Olfers, 1818 and Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A. lituratus and A. fimbriatus were found to be sympatric in the state north to the "Planície Costeira", in the "Depressão Central", in the hillsides of "Serra Geral", and in the northern region of the state, areas previously covered by forests. The southernmost point for Artibeus Leach, 1821 distribution is 30º South, and A. lituratus and A. fimbriatus are the two species found more to the south. The two species studied do not show sexual dimorphism as to external characteristics. Cranial measurements revealed significant differences between males and females of A. lituratus in mandible length, which was significantly larger in females(p<5%, and between males and females of A. fimbriatus, in the length of the set of lower teeth and in the external width between the cingula of canine teeth, which were significantly larger in males (p<5%. No further morphological cranial differences were found between genders of both species. A. lituratus and A. fimbriatus can be externally distinguished by size, for A. lituratus is larger than A. fimbriatus as concerns all external dimensions analysed except for the tibia length (p<5%. The two species can also be differentiated by pelage colour, hair length, and facial stripes appearance. In the skull, a number of differences were found in rostrum format, in the developmental degree of supraorbital and post-orbital crests and pre-orbital and post-orbital processes, and in several cranial dimensions analysed.
Santos, Renata T S; Pires, Laís R M; Albernaz, Edna S S; Andrade, Cleber S; Santiago, Cornélio S; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R; Beguelini, Mateus R
Bats are distributed worldwide from tropical to temperate regions. Despite their wide geographical radiation and advances in studies using evolutionary approaches, aspects related to the reproduction of these animals remain poorly explored, especially those related to the male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the morphophysiology of the male RAGs in the bat Artibeus lituratus. The RAGs in A. lituratus are composed of a compact intra-abdominal glandular complex, consisting of the prostate with two prostatic regions (ventral and dorsal), plus Littre glands and a pair of extra-abdominal bulbourethral glands. The ventral region of the prostate has an epithelium with variable morphology, due to its holocrine type of secretion. In contrast, the dorsal region has a typical cubic-to-columnar pseudostratified epithelium. Both regions contain two cell types, basal and secretory cells. Similar to the epithelial morphology, the secretion also varies, with the ventral region containing numerous PAS-positive globular vesicles, whereas the dorsal region has a more fluid, hyaline and PAS-negative secretion. Littre glands are dispersed in the connective tissue of the urethra, while the bulbourethral glands are located in the penile root, both glands with cubic-to-columnar pseudostratified epithelium and globular PAS-positive secretion. The results demonstrate that the RAGs of A. lituratus are composed of two prostatic regions, ventral and dorsal, and urethral and bulbourethral glands, with no seminal vesicles. Each prostatic region has unique and distinctive characteristics, with the ventral region presenting an exclusive holocrine nature and the dorsal region having similarities to the ventral prostate of rodents. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Forest fragmentation associated with the expansion of human development is a phenomenon that occurs worldwide. Studies reveal that there have been both a decline in species diversity and a decrease in Neotropical bat population size because of habitat loss. The aim of this study was to investigate whether human action has been affecting the food availability to wildlife species, which could impact the storage of body energy reserves. For this purpose, fruit-eating bats (Artibeus lituratus were collected in two areas in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The concentrations of plasma glucose, as well as glycogen, lipids and protein in liver in muscles were performed, in addition to adipose tissue weight and carcass fatty acids. Our results indicate that fat reserves were significantly lower in most tested tissues (muscle of the hindlimbs, breast muscles, adipose tissue and carcass in animals collected in the region with a higher degree of human disturbance. The other parameters showed no significant differences in the groups collected at different locations. In conclusion, we suggest that human action on the environment may be affecting the storage of body fat energy reserves of this species during the autumn, particularly in metropolitan region areas of Belo Horizonte, MG - Brazil, requiring special attention to the species conservation.
Melo, B E S; Barros, M S; Carvalho, T F; Amaral, T S; Freitas, M B
Forest fragmentation associated with the expansion of human development is a phenomenon that occurs worldwide. Studies reveal that there have been both a decline in species diversity and a decrease in Neotropical bat population size because of habitat loss. The aim of this study was to investigate whether human action has been affecting the food availability to wildlife species, which could impact the storage of body energy reserves. For this purpose, fruit-eating bats (Artibeus lituratus) were collected in two areas in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The concentrations of plasma glucose, as well as glycogen, lipids and protein in liver in muscles were performed, in addition to adipose tissue weight and carcass fatty acids. Our results indicate that fat reserves were significantly lower in most tested tissues (muscle of the hindlimbs, breast muscles, adipose tissue and carcass) in animals collected in the region with a higher degree of human disturbance. The other parameters showed no significant differences in the groups collected at different locations. In conclusion, we suggest that human action on the environment may be affecting the storage of body fat energy reserves of this species during the autumn, particularly in metropolitan region areas of Belo Horizonte, MG - Brazil, requiring special attention to the species conservation.
Campolina-Silva, Gabriel H; Hess, Rex A; Oliveira, Cleida A
The balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis is important for maintenance of male fertility, being influenced by a variety of stimuli including androgens and estrogens. However, studies concerning regulation of these processes along the male reproductive tract under physiological conditions are scarce. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the profile of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the efferent ductules and epididymis of the Neotropical bat Artibeus lituratus, a seasonal breeder that presents natural variation in components of the androgen and estrogen responsive systems along the circannual cycle. Low rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis were found in the efferent ductules and epididymis of A. lituratus during the reproductive period, as few epithelial cells were positive for MCM7 (proliferation marker) and cleaved caspase-3 or TUNEL (apoptosis markers). In contrast, during the regressive period, the rate of both proliferating and apoptotic cells was significantly higher in the epithelium lining the efferent ductules as well as throughout the epididymis. The increased proliferative activity at this phase was positively correlated with the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), whereas the variation in apoptosis appears to be unrelated to the local expression of androgen and estrogen receptors. Together, these data suggest that cell proliferation and apoptosis are differentially modulated in the efferent ductules and epididymis of A. lituratus during the annual reproductive cycle, and support the hypothesis that ERα may be important in preparing the male reproductive tract for sexual recrudescence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arnone,Ives Simões; Trajano,Eleonora; Pulchério-Leite,Atenisi; Passos,Fernando de Camargo
In Brazil, bat migrations have been inferred based on seasonal variations in bat abundances observed for several species, probably as a result of variations in temperature and food availability. However, direct evidence of individual medium to long distance (> 10 km) movements, based on marked specimens, is restricted to large frugivorous bats, genus Artibeus (Phyllostomidae). We report the longest bat movement recorded in Brazil, along 113 km in a straight line, difference in altitude of 738...
Seasonal variation in the number of captures of Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae in the upper strata of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southern Brazil
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of seasonal variations in the number of captures of Artibeus lituratus and Sturnira lilium in the upper strata of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southern Brazil. It was conducted in the town of Pedras Grandes, in the southern end of Santa Catarina. The chiropterans were captured with mist nets installed in the canopy and subcanopy. To check whether there were differences in the number of captures between seasons, we used the chi-square test (χ2, with a significance level of 0.05, and, whenever needed, partial χ2 tests. Artibeus lituratus showed significant differences between seasons, and the largest number of captures occurs in autumn. For S. lilium we did not observe statistically significant differences. The seasonal variation found out for A. lituratus may be related to its diet, which is based on fruits whose availability has seasonal variations. For S. lilium, besides the diet, mainly based on plants that do not have seasonal variations with regard to fruit availability, the altitude of the study area and its variations in temperature also seem to explain the absence of seasonal variation.
Taxa e velocidade de germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae ingeridas por Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.879 Germination rate and velocity of seeds of Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae eaten by Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.879
Eliane Cristine Vicente
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se o morcego frugívoro Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor na germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya, sendo avaliadas a taxa e a velocidade de germinação das sementes em diferentes condições. Os morcegos e os frutos foram coletados na região central de Campo Grande, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul; o experimento foi dividido em cinco tratamentos. O primeiro contou com sementes retiradas dos frutos; o segundo, com sementes retiradas das fezes, e o terceiro dividido em três tratamentos ácidos, com concentrações de pH 1, 2 e 3. As sementes que passaram pelo sistema digestório dos animais germinaram com maior velocidade (p 0,05 quando comparada às sementes sem tratamento. O tratamento com pH igual a 3 foi estatisticamente igual ao grupo sem tratamento e ao grupo experimental, com sementes retiradas das fezes, indicando o valor aproximado da concentração dos ácidos estomacais desta espécie frugívora. Conclui-se que Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor do aumento da velocidade de germinação nas sementes desta espécie vegetal, refletindo na importância desta espécie frugívora na manutenção ecológica dos ecossistemas tropicais, principalmente em áreas de Cerrado.The objective with this study was to verify whether frugivorous bat Artibeus lituratus can be considered an efficient germination inducer for Cecropia pachystachya seeds. Bats and fruits were collected in Campo Grande (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, with the experiment being divided in five treatments: one composed by seeds taken from natural fresh fruits, another with seeds taken from the bats’ excrements, and the last one sub-divided in three sub-groups with different acid treatments that corresponded to pH 1, 2 and 3. The seeds that passed through the digestive tract of the animals presented a higher germination velocity index (p 0.05 when compared with the seeds without any treatment. The
Parolin, Lays C; Mikich, Sandra B; Bianconi, Gledson V
Studies suggest that frugivorous bats search and select fruit mainly by olfaction so that they can be attracted by smell alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in captivity, the behavioural response (number of foraging attempts) of Artibeus lituratus and Carollia perspicillata offered essential oils extracted from ripe fruit of Ficus insipida (Moraceae) and Piper hispidum (Piperaceae) as well as intact fruit wrapped in gauze to attract bats with reduced visual stimuli. Based on previous reports, we hypothesized that A.lituratus would exhibit preference for Ficus fruits/oil while C. perspicillata would prefer Piper fruit/oil. Four arrangements of these attractants were tested in triplicate: P. hispidum fruit vs. F. insipida fruit, P.hispidum oil vs. F. insipida oil, P. hispidum oil vs. F. insipida fruit and P. hispidum fruit vs. F. insipida oil. As expected, in all tests, A. lituratus showed the highest number of foraging attempts in F. insipida while C. perspicillata in those of P. hispidum. Based on the number of foraging attempts both species exhibited a positive response to their favorite fruit genera, though the differences were not always statistically significant. The results confirm the importance of smell in fruit choice by these species.
Lays C. Parolin
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies suggest that frugivorous bats search and select fruit mainly by olfaction so that they can be attracted by smell alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in captivity, the behavioural response (number of foraging attempts of Artibeus lituratus and Carollia perspicillata offered essential oils extracted from ripe fruit of Ficus insipida (Moraceae and Piper hispidum (Piperaceae as well as intact fruit wrapped in gauze to attract bats with reduced visual stimuli. Based on previous reports, we hypothesized that A.lituratus would exhibit preference for Ficus fruits/oil while C. perspicillata would prefer Piper fruit/oil. Four arrangements of these attractants were tested in triplicate: P. hispidum fruit vs. F. insipida fruit, P.hispidum oil vs. F. insipida oil, P. hispidum oil vs. F. insipida fruit and P. hispidum fruit vs. F. insipida oil. As expected, in all tests, A. lituratus showed the highest number of foraging attempts in F. insipida while C. perspicillata in those of P. hispidum. Based on the number of foraging attempts both species exhibited a positive response to their favorite fruit genera, though the differences were not always statistically significant. The results confirm the importance of smell in fruit choice by these species.
Variação sazonal no número de capturas de Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e Sturnira lilium (É. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1810 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae no estrato superior de um remanescente de Mata Atlântica no sul do Brasil
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n3p131 O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a ocorrência de variações sazonais no número de captura de Artibeus lituratus e Sturnira lilium nos estratos superiores de remanescente de Mata Atlântica, no sul do Brasil. O estudo foi desenvolvido no município de Pedras Grandes, extremo sul de Santa Catarina. Os quirópteros foram capturados com redes de neblina, instaladas no dossel e sub-dossel. Para verificar se houve diferença no número de capturas entre as estações, utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado (χ2 com nível de significância de 0,05 e, quando necessário, qui-quadrados (χ2 parciais. Artibeus lituratus apresentou diferenças significativas entre as estações, com o maior número de capturas ocorrendo no outono. Em S. lilium, não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas. A variação sazonal observada para A. lituratus, pode estar relacionado a sua dieta baseada principalmente em frutos que apresentam variação sazonal em sua disponibilidade. Para S. lilium além da dieta, baseada principalmente em plantas que não apresentam variações sazonais na disponibilidade de frutos, a altimetria da área de estudo e suas variações de temperatura parecem também explicar a ausência de variação sazonal.
Anomalias e variações na fórmula dentária em morcegos do gênero Artibeus Leach (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Anomalies and variation in the dental formula of bats of the genus Artibeus Leach (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae
Ana Maria Rui
Full Text Available Descreve-se a ocorrência e analisa-se as causas de anomalias dentárias em Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae provenientes de populações do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. São discutidas, com base no material examinado e em ampla revisão da literatura, as variações quanto à presença dos terceiros molares superior e inferior entre diferentes espécies de Artibeus Leach, 1821. Foram analisados 104 crânios de A. lituratus e 44 de A. fimbriatus quanto à fórmula dentária. Em A. lituratus ocorreram dois casos de dentes extranumerários, um incisivo superior e um terceiro molar superior direito, e um de agênese dentária dos terceiros molares inferiores. Em A. fimbriatus constatou-se a ocorrência de um segundo pré-molar superior direito extranumerário. As ocorrências do terceiro molar superior em A. lituratus e do segundo pré-molar superior em A. fimbriatus são casos de atavismos. Em Artibeus (Artibeus ocorrem variações quanto à presença do terceiro molar superior, de maior ou menor intensidade, em praticamente todas as espécies. Estas variações ocorrem tanto a nível intrapopulacional quanto geográfico. Já o terceiro molar inferior está ausente em baixa freqüência em várias populações de diferentes espécies. Os terceiros molares superiores e inferiores estão em processo de desaparecimento na linhagem dos Artibeus (Artibeus. O fato destes dentes já não ocorrerem em algumas espécies, terem ocorrência variável em outras e serem sempre estruturas reduzidas e simplificadas, sem função na mastigação, são indicativos deste processo evolutivo. A variação intensa observada quanto à ocorrência do terceiro molar superior inviabiliza o seu uso como caráter útil na identificação de espécies.This paper describes and analyzes the causes of dental formula anomalies in the bats Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838
Oliveira, Jerusa Maria; Brinati, Alessandro; Miranda, Liany Divina Lima; Morais, Danielle Barbosa; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Freitas, Mariella Bontempo
Exposure to pesticides may increase the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidation of cell membrane lipids and proteins. Although fruit bats are potentially exposed to pesticides during their entire lifespan, the impacts of this exposure are still poorly investigated. We examined the effects of low, commercially recommended concentrations (0, 1.05 and 2.1 g/l) of an organochlorine insecticide endosulfan (EDS) formulation on oxidative responses in the liver and kidneys of Neotropical fruit bats (Artibeus lituratus), as well as possible liver morphological alterations following a 35-day oral exposure. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased upon exposure to 1.05 g/l of EDS in the liver and kidneys, catalase was decreased in the liver of 2.1 g/l EDS-exposed bats, while glutathione S-transferase was increased in the liver of 2.1 g/l EDS-exposed bats. Protein carbonyls increased following the exposure to the highest EDS dose tested. Endosulfan-induced morphological alterations in the liver included cell degeneration and cell death, with apparent cytoplasm lipid accumulation (steatosis) and pyknotic nuclei, karyolysis and deposit of collagen fibres. Our findings suggest that exposure to low concentrations of EDS induced a certain extent of oxidative damage in fruit bats, which may have led to liver morphological alterations. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2017 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.
Mário Pinzan Scatena
Full Text Available To establish a technique which minimized the effects of fixation on the extraction of DNA from formalin-fixed tissues preserved in scientific collections we extracted DNA samples from fixed tissues using different methods and evaluated the effect of the different procedures on PCR and sequencing analysis. We investigated muscle and liver tissues from museum specimens of five species of fruit-eating (frugivorous bats of the Neotropical genus Artibeus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae: A. fimbriatus, A. lituratus, A. jamaicensis, A. obscurus, and A. planirostris. The results indicated that treatment of tissues in buffered solutions at neutral pH and about 37 °C for at least four days improves the quality and quantity of extracted DNA and the quality of the amplification and sequencing products. However, the comparison between the performance of DNA obtained from fixed and fresh tissues showed that, in spite of the fact that both types of tissue generate reliable sequences for use in phylogenetic analyses, DNA samples from fixed tissues presented a larger rate of errors in the different stages of the study. These results suggest that DNA extracted from formalin-fixed tissue can be used in molecular studies of Neotropical Artibeus bats and that our methodology may be applicable to other animal groups.
Érica Martinha Silva de Souza
Full Text Available Species in the subgenus Artibeus Leach, 1821 are widely distributed in Brazil. Conserved karyotypes characterize the group with identical diploid number and chromosome morphology. Recent studies suggested that the heterochromatin distribution and accumulation patterns can vary among species. In order to assess whether variation can also occur within species, we have analyzed the chromosomal distribution of constitutive heterochromatin in A. planirostris (Spix, 1823 and A. lituratus (Olfers, 1818 from Central Amazon (North Brazil and contrasted our findings with those reported for other localities in Brazil. In addition, Ag-NOR staining and FISH with 18S rDNA, telomeric, and LINE-1 probes were performed to assess the potential role that these different repetitive markers had in shaping the current architecture of heterochromatic regions. Both species presented interindividual variation of constitutive heterochromatin. In addition, in A. planirostris the centromeres of most chromosomes are enriched with LINE-1, colocated with pericentromeric heterochromatin blocks. Overall, our data indicate that amplification and differential distribution of the investigated repetitive DNAs might have played a significant role in shaping the chromosome architecture of the subgenus Artibeus.
de Souza, Érica Martinha Silva; Gross, Maria Claudia; Silva, Carlos Eduardo Faresin E; Sotero-Caio, Cibele Gomes; Feldberg, Eliana
Species in the subgenus Artibeus Leach, 1821 are widely distributed in Brazil. Conserved karyotypes characterize the group with identical diploid number and chromosome morphology. Recent studies suggested that the heterochromatin distribution and accumulation patterns can vary among species. In order to assess whether variation can also occur within species, we have analyzed the chromosomal distribution of constitutive heterochromatin in A. planirostris (Spix, 1823) and A. lituratus (Olfers, 1818) from Central Amazon (North Brazil) and contrasted our findings with those reported for other localities in Brazil. In addition, Ag-NOR staining and FISH with 18S rDNA, telomeric, and LINE-1 probes were performed to assess the potential role that these different repetitive markers had in shaping the current architecture of heterochromatic regions. Both species presented interindividual variation of constitutive heterochromatin. In addition, in A. planirostris the centromeres of most chromosomes are enriched with LINE-1, colocated with pericentromeric heterochromatin blocks. Overall, our data indicate that amplification and differential distribution of the investigated repetitive DNAs might have played a significant role in shaping the chromosome architecture of the subgenus Artibeus.
Oliveira, Jerusa Maria; Losano, Nicole Fontes; Condessa, Suellen Silva; de Freitas, Renata Maria Pereira; Cardoso, Silvia Almeida; Freitas, Mariella Bontempo; de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi
Deltamethrin (DTM) is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide highly used by farmers and home users. This pesticide has lipophilic properties that facilitate a high absorption and can cause toxicity in non-target organisms. During foraging, the fruit-eating bats Artibeus lituratus are exposed to pesticides. However, the knowledge of the toxicity of pesticides on the physiology of bats is relatively scarce. This study aimed to check the toxicity of short-term exposure to low concentration of DTM on fruit-eating bat A. lituratus. After seven days of exposure to two doses of DTM (0.02 and 0.04mg/kg of papaya), the fruit bats showed an increase in the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and hyperglycemia. The liver and pectoral muscle presented oxidative stress. In the liver, the hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and nitric oxide (NO) were increased as well as the antioxidant glutathione (GSH), the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) but in a lesser extent. Yet, total lipids were increased while hepatic glycogen content is reduced. The pectoral muscle showed NO, SOD, CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA), and carbonyl increased protein levels in both concentrations of DTM. All these results show that low doses of DTM can cause hepatic and muscular toxicity and induce changes in carbohydrate metabolism. Physiological changes caused by exposure to DTM in bats may have direct consequences in flight capacity, reproduction, and metabolism of these animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nogueira, M R; Ventura, A; da Veiga, C C P; Monteiro, L R; Pinheiro, N L; Peracchi, A L
Conjoined twinning is an embryological anomaly rarely reported in wild mammals and with only two previous records in Chiroptera. Here, we report a case of dicephalic parapagus conjoined twins in the Neotropical phyllostomid genus Artibeus. These twins are males and present separated heads and necks, but a conjoined trunk with an expanded upper thoracic region. They developed two complete forelimbs and two complete hindlimbs, all laterally to the trunk. There is a volume in the upper midback and between the heads that resembles a third rudimentary medial forelimb, but X-ray images only suggest the presence of medial skeletal elements of the pectoral girdle (clavicle and scapulae) in this region. The X-ray images also show that vertebral columns run separated from head until the base of lumbar region, where they form a single structure. Using ultrasound images, we detected the presence of two similarly sized and apparently separated hearts. The accumulation of study cases like this will help in the understanding of patterns and process behind this phenomena, and collection material plays a key role in this context. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil
Isai Jorge de Castro
Full Text Available Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. A vocalização dos morcegos provavelmente atraiu os marsupiais para a rede, onde estes os predaram aproveitando que estavam presos. Este tipo de interação pode ocorrer naturalmente, no entanto, com maior dificuldade de registro.We observed three occasional predations of bats captured in mist nets by marsupials and a frog during studies in a várzea forest in the Amapá state. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed upon by Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed on by Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. The bats vocalizations probably attracted the marsupials and a frog to the mist nets where they preyed. This interaction form can occur naturally, however, are more difficult to observed.
Puga, Cíntia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R
The prostatic complex (ventral and dorsal regions) of Artibeus planirostris exhibits seasonal variations throughout the year. Circulating testosterone was correlated with prostate weight, showing an increase from autumn to summer, with the highest peak in summer corresponding to the largest breeding season. This indicates that the level of serum testosterone influences variations in both testicular and prostatic weights. Serum testosterone levels seem to be closely related to the different responses of these glands throughout the year. The castration (consequent suppression of testosterone) and subsequent hormone supplementation may elucidate the relationship of these two glandular types with testosterone. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of castration and the testosterone supplementation in the male prostatic complex of A. planirostris. The results indicated that both prostatic regions were affected by the ablation of testosterone, presenting a decrease in cell proliferation and an increase in apoptosis. Similarly, the prostate was responsive to hormonal supplementation, having a recovery of the active morphophysiological pattern with testosterone supplementation. However, data have shown that the ventral region was more sensitive to changes in testosterone than the dorsal, presenting greater cell renewal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Protzek, André Otavio Peres
O morcego frugívoro Artibeus lituratus absorve grandes quantidades de glicose em curtos períodos de tempo, além de mantém a normoglicemia, mesmo após prolongado período de jejum. Com base nesses dados, nosso objetivo foi investigar diversos aspectos relacionados à homeostase da glicose: concentrações plasmáticas de glicose e insulina; teste intraperitoneal de tolerância à glicose e à insulina (ipGTT e ipITT), secreção de insulina em fragmentos de pâncreas estimulados por glicose (2,8, 5,6 ou ...
Una especie nueva de Cheiropteronema (Nematoda, Molineidae en Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae en la Argentina A new species of Cheiropteronema (Nematoda, Molineidae in Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae from Argentina
Mirna C Oviedo
Full Text Available Se describe a Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. parásita del murciélago Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823. Se caracteriza por presentar vesícula cefálica estriada, superficie de los huevos con puntuaciones, espículas iguales, nacimiento simétrico del ala espicular, particular disposición y número de crestas del synlophe y por carecer de diente esofágico. Es la segunda especie del género y la primera que se registra en quirópteros frugívoros de la Argentina.Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. is a parasite of the bat Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823. This species is characterized by cephalic vesicle striate, thick egg shell punctate, spicules equal, symmetrical development of spicule wings, particular arrangement and number the ridges of synlophe, and lack of esophageal tooth. Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. is the second species described for the genus and the first recorded in frugivorous bats of Argentina.
Lays C. Parolin
Full Text Available Abstract The frugivorous phyllostomid bat genera Artibeus , Carollia and Sturnira are important seed dispersers in the Neotropics, and exhibit supposed preferences for fruits of the genus Ficus , Piper and Solanum , respectively. We performed a quantified literature review to test the hypothesis that interactions with plants are consistent throughout the bats´ geographic ranges. Through an extensive literature review we obtained a total of 4,448 records of fruit consumption from 180 publications. To test which fruits were most frequently consumed across the Neotropical region and in each of its component countries these data were organized by bat species and country. In general, considering the 176 botanical genera eaten by these bats, the results showed a high consumption frequency of Ficus (24.0% by Artibeus , Piper (38.7% by Carollia and Solanum (31.0% by Sturnira . Additionally, our findings support the hypothesis of diet consistency throughout the geographic range of these genera. We suggest that this consistency is related to the wide distribution of the study groups (both bats and plants, the phenology of the zoochoric species consumed, the spatial fidelity of bats and the foraging patterns of the different bat species.
Ruiz-Ramoni, Damián; Ramoni-Perazzi, Paolo; Muñoz-Romo, Mariana
Bimodal polyestry is the most common reproductive pattern in tropical bats, and it consists in producing one offspring per female twice a year. Reproductive patterns are closely related to rainfall regimes, frequently occurring twice a year in tropical regions. The goal of our study was to determine the reproductive pattern of the large fruit-eating bat, Artibeus amplus Handley, 1987 in a cave in the Venezuelan Andes inhabited by a large, stable colony. Thus, in this study we describe for the first time this important biological aspect of this unknown Neotropical bat species through the examination of external reproductive characteristics of males (inguinal or scrotal testes) and females (pregnant, lactating, post-lactating), based on 211 individuals (120 males and 91 females) captured between September 2008 and August 2009, in Cueva del Parque Las Escaleras, Estado Táchira, Venezuela. During this period of monthly sampling for a full year, most males displayed large scrotal testes, averaging 10 mm maximum length. The examination of females indicated that although pregnancy was first observed in November 2008, it reached a maximum during January and February 2009. Although adult males with scrotal testes throughout the year could imply that females have more than one pregnancy, our results suggested a seasonally monoestrous reproductive pattern for A. amplus. This study represents the first report of reproductive pattern for this poorly-known Neotropical frugivorous species. The observed monoestrous reproductive pattern supports the existence of synchronization between precipitation and reproduction. This synchronization has been frequently observed in most species of fruit bats. In this study, Artibeus amplus presumably adjust the parturition to anticipate the rainy season, as a strategy that allows maintenance of offspring during high availability of fruits.
Meganathan, P R; Pagan, Heidi J T; McCulloch, Eve S; Stevens, Richard D; Ray, David A
Order Chiroptera is a unique group of mammals whose members have attained self-powered flight as their main mode of locomotion. Much speculation persists regarding bat evolution; however, lack of sufficient molecular data hampers evolutionary and conservation studies. Of ~1200 species, complete mitochondrial genome sequences are available for only eleven. Additional sequences should be generated if we are to resolve many questions concerning these fascinating mammals. Herein, we describe the complete mitochondrial genomes of three bats: Corynorhinus rafinesquii, Lasiurus borealis and Artibeus lituratus. We also compare the currently available mitochondrial genomes and analyze codon usage in Chiroptera. C. rafinesquii, L. borealis and A. lituratus mitochondrial genomes are 16438 bp, 17048 bp and 16709 bp, respectively. Genome organization and gene arrangements are similar to other bats. Phylogenetic analyses using complete mitochondrial genome sequences support previously established phylogenetic relationships and suggest utility in future studies focusing on the evolutionary aspects of these species. Comprehensive analyses of available bat mitochondrial genomes reveal distinct nucleotide patterns and synonymous codon preferences corresponding to different chiropteran families. These patterns suggest that mutational and selection forces are acting to different extents within Chiroptera and shape their mitochondrial genomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cibele Maria Vianna Zanon
Full Text Available The present study aimed to inventory of bats species present in an urban area, located within the main campus of the State University of Maringá, northwestern Paraná State, and to present data on the diet, reproduction, and activity times of the captured species. Collections were performed monthly, between September 2007 and August 2008, and 377 individuals were captured, belonging to four species from the Phyllostomidae family: Artibeus lituratus (90%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (6.4%, Sturnira lilium (2.4%, and Carollia perspicillata (1.3%. The types of fruit ingested consisted especially of Cecropiaceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae and Solanaceae. Among the captured exemplars, 51% were female and 49% male. No pregnant females of A. lituratus or males with descended testicles were captured in autumn, and the largest recorded numbers of these groups were verified in winter. With regard to lactating females, A. lituratus was sampled year-round, with predominance during the warmer season. In spite of the low species diversity, the campus area is used by frugivore species that are generalists and are able to feed and reproduce in urbanized areas. In order to increase that diversity, management programs should be implemented so that urbanization and Chiroptera diversity can coexist with lower risks and losses to ecosystems.
Puga, Cíntia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R
This study evaluated the effects of testosterone in the bulbourethral glands (BG) of the bat, Artibeus planirostris, by performing castration and posterior hormonal supplementation of the animals. The results showed a decrease in testosterone levels in animals 15days after castration, which induced a small reduction in epithelium height, percentage of AR+ cells, and an increase in the amount of basal cells. This reduction became more severe in groups castrated for longer periods (19 and 22days), where there was also an increase in apoptotic cells. Moreover, the hormonal supplementation increased testosterone levels (after 3 and 7days of supplementation), causing a glandular reactivation that increased the epithelium height and AR expression. In conclusion, BG took longer to respond to ablation of testosterone than other reproductive glands, since it showed evident aspects of regression only in animals 22days after castrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Priscilla Maria Peixoto Patrício
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to correlate Streblidae parasitism rates with temperature and humidity as well as sex, age and reproductive condition of Artibeus bats. Streblidae specimens were collected during two years in the Tinguá Biological Reserve and in two areas inside buffer zone, located in Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro State and preserved as wet specimens. The abundance of Streblidae species parasitizing Artibeus was analyzed, and no differences were found between them. However, the number of females parasitizing Artibeus fimbriatus was higher. Moreover, regarding sex, Artibeus females were more parasitized, particularly A. fimbriatus and A. lituratus. There was no correlation between mean intensity of infestation and body mass index of Artibeus species, even when correlated to abiotic data. This study contributes to better understand the parasitism on Artibeus by Streblidae, and based on results, it is clear that Streblidae show no preferences in terms of reproductive condition, body size, age, sex, temperature and humidity in parasitizing Artibeus species.
Mariana Pires Veiga Martins
Full Text Available Os morcegos (Chiroptera, devido à sua diversidade e abundância exercem um importante papel ecológico para o ecossistema. O objetivo deste trabalho foi reportar a dieta das espécies de morcegos frugívoros capturados nos fragmentos do Instituto São Vicente, zona urbana do município de Campo Grande, MS. As coletas ocorreram entre setembro de 2011 e Junho de 2012, sendo realizadas com o auxílio de redes-de-neblina. Foram realizadas 154 capturas, com ocorrência de 10 espécies representantes de três famílias, sendo predominantes as espécies frugívoras. Dentre as capturas foram obtidas 41 amostras fecais, onde se verificou a presença de polpa, vestígios de artrópodes e sementes. O recurso mais utilizado por quirópteros foram plantas pioneiras, constatado através do predomínio de sementes da espécie Cecropia pachystachya, consumida em maior intensidade por Artibeus lituratus. Os resultados ressaltam a importância destes animais no ambiente, em especial no processo de regeneração dessas áreas através da dispersão de sementes.
Ballados-González, G G; Sánchez-Montes, S; Romero-Salas, D; Colunga Salas, P; Gutiérrez-Molina, R; León-Paniagua, L; Becker, I; Méndez-Ojeda, M L; Barrientos-Salcedo, C; Serna-Lagunes, R; Cruz-Romero, A
The genus Leptospira encompass 22 species of spirochaetes, with ten pathogenic species that have been recorded in more than 160 mammals worldwide. In the last two decades, the numbers of records of these agents associated with bats have increased exponentially, particularly in America. Although order Chiroptera represents the second most diverse order of mammals in Mexico, and leptospirosis represents a human and veterinary problem in the country, few studies have been conducted to identify potential wildlife reservoirs. The aim of this study was to detect the presence and diversity of Leptospira sp. in communities of bats in an endemic state of leptospirosis in Mexico. During January to September 2016, 81 bats of ten species from three localities of Veracruz, Mexico, were collected with mist nets. Kidney samples were obtained from all specimens. For the detection of Leptospira sp., we amplified several genes using specific primers. Amplicons of the expected size were submitted to sequencing, and sequences recovered were compared with those of reference deposited in GenBank using the BLAST tool. To identify their phylogenetic position, we realized a reconstruction using maximum-likelihood (ML) method. Twenty-five samples from three bat species (Artibeus lituratus, Choeroniscus godmani and Desmodus rotundus) showed the presence of Leptospira DNA. Sequences recovered were close to Leptospira noguchii, Leptospira weilii and Leptospira interrogans. Our results include the first record of Leptospira in bats from Mexico and exhibit a high diversity of these pathogens circulating in the state. Due to the finding of a large number of positive wild animals, it is necessary to implement a surveillance system in populations of the positive bats as well as in related species, in order to understand their role as carriers of this bacterial genus. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Elenise A. Bastos Sipinski
Full Text Available A study on the ecology of Chiroptera was made at the Reserve of Volta Velha on the Northern coast of Santa Catarina. This study aimed at knowing the frequency of the individuals colleeted in each season, part of their feeding diet and their time of activity as well as their breeding activity. The investigation was carried out from March, 1990 to February, 1991 by means of periodical captures which ocurred during four days each month totalizing 144 hours of net use. One hundred and thirty-five individuals belonging to 15 different species were caught. Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 were captured in the highest number throughout the seasons of the year. Fruit-eating bats confirm their feeding preference for Cecropiaceae, Solanaceae. Myrtaceae and Piperaceae. The births occurred mostly in seasons other than the dry. Around 1:15 hours after sunset was the time when the highest numher of individuals were collected in the nets.
MOl1thly changes in the female reproductive organs and the reproductive cycle of Myotis tricolor. (Vespertilionidae : Chiroptera). R.T.F. Bernard. Department of Zoology, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg. Myotis tricolor was monoestrous and monotocous. The oestrous cycle was characterized by a prolonged period of.
Partição de recursos alimentares entre quatro espécies de morcegos frugívoros (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Partition of food resources among four species of frugivorous bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae
Marília Feleciano Muller
Full Text Available This study was carried out in the region of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil in three different areas: a primary forest, a disturbed primary forest and an open area. Within 207 hours of capture, 990 individuals were collected, 939 of them being fruit-eating bats. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810 and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 were the four most collected species in a total of 899 individuals. A. lituratus was found in greater number in all the areas, showing significant variation in relation to the size of the forests. The partition of food resources among the four most collected species was known through the analysis of their feces. The coexixtence of these species can be explained by their investing in different foods or their diverging time activity.
Full Text Available A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842; Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856; Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767; Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823; Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903; Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Glosso-phaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838; Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Artibeus obscuras Schinz, 1821; Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901; Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843; Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Diphylla ecaudata Von Spix, 1823; Eptesicus brasiliensis (DesMarest, 1819; Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Molossus molossus (Palas, 1766. One external (forearm length and 13 cranial meansurements were studied for 23 species. The meansurements of male and female specimens were treated separately. Comments about some taxonomic respects for some species studied are also included.
Diversidad de frutos que consumen tres especies de murciélagos (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae en la selva lacandona, Chiapas, México Diversity of fruits consumed by three species of bats (Chiroptera:Phyllostomidae in the Lacandona rainforest, Chiapas, Mexico
Full Text Available Este estudio amplía el conocimiento de los hábitos alimentarios de 3 especies de murciélagos frugívoros como dispersores de semillas en 2 localidades de la selva alta perennifolia en la zona sur de la Reserva de la Biosfera de Montes Azules (REBIMA, y dentro del Ejido Playón de la Gloria (PDLG. Se estimó la abundancia relativa de Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata y Sturnira lilium, así como la diversidad y categoría sucesional de los frutos que consumen estas 3 especies en ambas localidades, mediante la identificación de semillas en las excretas. La división de especies vegetales por categoría sucesional mostró que A. lituratus y C. perspicillata consumen frutos tanto de especies pioneras como de especies persistentes, mientras que S. lilium únicamente se alimenta de especies pioneras. Durante la época seca A. lituratus y C. perspicillata presentaron una mayor diversidad y riqueza de especies consumidas dentro de la REBIMA, en tanto que en la época de lluvia mostraron mayor diversidad y riqueza dentro de PDLG; es decir, la diversidad de semillas colectadas por ambos dispersores responde a la época anual. S. lilium presentó mayor riqueza y diversidad dentro de PDLG a lo largo del muestreo indicando preferencia por frutos establecidos en estadios tempranos en la sucesión vegetal.This study examined the feeding habits of three species of frugivorous bats in relation to their role as seed dispersers in two localities, one in a Neotropical rainforest area in the southern part of the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve (REBIMA, and the other in Ejido Playón de la Gloria (PDLG. We estimated the relative abundance of Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata and Sturnira lilium. We determined the diversity and the successional category of fruits consumed by these species in both localities through the identification of seeds in their feces. The plant species diversity based on successional category showed that A. lituratus and C
Sotero-Caio, Cibele G.; Baker, Robert J.; Volleth, Marianne
Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62). As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within d...
Sotero-Caio, Cibele G; Baker, Robert J; Volleth, Marianne
Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62). As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within distinct bat lineages (especially Phyllostomidae, Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae), focusing on two perspectives: evolution of genome architecture, modes of chromosomal evolution, and the use of chromosome data to resolve taxonomic problems.
Cibele G. Sotero-Caio
Full Text Available Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62. As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within distinct bat lineages (especially Phyllostomidae, Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae, focusing on two perspectives: evolution of genome architecture, modes of chromosomal evolution, and the use of chromosome data to resolve taxonomic problems.
Moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae de morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no sul do Brasil: associações hospedeiros-parasitos e taxas de infestação Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in southern Brazil: hosts-parasites associations and infestation rates
Ana M. Rui
Full Text Available As associações hospedeiros-parasitos e as taxas de infestação de dípteros ectoparasitos da família Streblidae foram estudadas em morcegos da família Phyllostomidae na Floresta Atlântica no extremo sul do Brasil. Para as espécies mais abundantes de filostomídeos, foi examinado se há diferenças nos valores de prevalência e intensidade média dos ectoparasitos nas diferentes estações do ano e conforme sexo e idade do hospedeiro. Em quatro espécies de filostomídeos (Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e Sturnira lilium E. Geoffroy, 1810 foram coletados 118 indivíduos de sete espécies de Streblidae (Anastrebla caudiferae Wenzel, 1976, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, 1899, Megistopoda proxima (Séguy, 1926, Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, 1907, Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907, Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel, 1925 e Trichobius tiptoni Wenzel, 1976. Para A. lituratus, A. fimbriatus e S. lilium, as taxas de infestação foram baixas e houve uma tendência à infestação ser maior no verão e outono, fato provavelmente relacionado à sazonalidade de temperatura na região, que afeta as taxas reprodutivas e a mortalidade dos ectoparasitos. A infestação por P. longicrus em A. lituratus não foi afetada pelo sexo e idade do hospedeiro. Para S. lilium, a infestação por M. proxima não foi afetada por sexo e idade do hospedeiro, com exceção da maior prevalência de ectoparasitos em indivíduos jovens. Os dados indicam que não existem diferenças comportamentais ligadas a sexo e idade do hospedeiro que favoreçam ou comprometam a infestação por Streblidae nestas espécies de morcegos filostomídeos.Hosts-parasites associations, including infestation rates, between ectoparasitic bat flies of the family Streblidae and bats of the family Phyllostomidae were studied in Atlantic Forest habitats in southern Brazil. For the more abundant phyllostomid bats
Ferreira, Wallax Augusto Silva; Borges, Bárbara do Nascimento; Rodrigues-Antunes, Symara; de Andrade, Fernanda Atanaena Gonçalves; Aguiar, Gilberto Ferreira de Souza; de Sousa e Silva-Junior, José; Marques-Aguiar, Suely Aparecida; Harada, Maria Lúcia
Artibeus obscurus (Mammalia: Chiroptera) is endemic to South America, being found in at least 18 Brazilian states. Recent studies revealed that different populations of this genus present distinct phylogeographic patterns; however, very little is known on the population genetics structure of A. obscurus in the Amazon rainforest. Here, using a fragment (1010bp) of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b from 87 samples, we investigated patterns of genetic divergence among populations of A. obscurus from different locations in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest and compared them with other Brazilian and South American regions. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), fixation index (Fst) analysis, and phylogeographic patterns showed divergence between two major monophyletic groups, each one corresponding to a geographic region associated with the Atlantic and Amazon forest biomes. The Atlantic forest clusters formed a monophyletic group with a high bootstrap support and a fragmented distribution that follows the pattern predicted by the Refuge Theory. On the other hand, a different scenario was observed for the Amazon forest, where no fragmentation was identified. The AMOVA results revealed a significant geographic heterogeneity in the distribution of genetic variation, with 70% found within populations across the studied populations (Fst values ranging from 0.05864 to 0.09673; φST = 0.55). The intrapopulational analysis revealed that one population (Bragança) showed significant evidence of population expansion, with the formation of 2 distinct phylogroups, suggesting the occurrence of a subspecies or at least a different population in this region. These results also suggest considerable heterogeneity for A. obscurus in the Amazon region.
Almeida, Juliana; Serra-Freire, Nicolau; Peracchi, Adriano
Spinturnicid mites are ectoparasites that infest the wings of bats, and species of the genus Periglischrus Kolenati, 1857 are associated exclusively with bats of the family Phyllostomidae. We tested the hypothesis that a long-term evolutionary association led P. iheringi to choose very specific wing locations to infest the great fruit-eating bats, Artibeus lituratus. Seven anatomical wing regions and the uropatagium from 140 bats were analyzed and a total of 78 parasites were collected. Periglischrus iheringi had a significant preference for the plagiopatagium and dactylopatgium major wing regions (i.e., large, proximal regions) and infestation was directly correlated to area (r=0.9744). However, other factors may also influence mite choice, such as higher and more stable temperature and humidity, vascularization and lower risk of displacement.
Abundância e frugivoria da quiropterofauna (Mammalia, chiroptera de um fragmento no noroeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Chiropterofauna abundance and frugivory in a forest remnant in northwestern Paraná State, Brazil
João Eduardo Cavalcanti Brito
Full Text Available A abundância e a frugivoria de morcegos que compõem a taxocenose em uma área de mata ripária, à margem esquerda do rio Ivaí, foram foco do presente estudo. O Recanto Marista possui 57,6 hectares, dos quais 40,8 são cobertos por Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, situado no município de Doutor Camargo, região Noroeste do Estado do Paraná. Foram realizadas 14 noites de capturas de morcegos de maio de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, com redesneblina (7 x 2,5 m, totalizando 13.475 m² h de esforço amostral, distribuído em 72h de esforço. Foram capturados 193 indivíduos, representantes de dez espécies, pertencentes a duas famílias: Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus e Pygoderma bilabiatum e Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. e Lasiurus blossevillii. Um representante da família Molossidae (Molossus rufus foi encontrado morto no solo. Foram consumidos frutos pertencentes às famílias Moraceae (Ficus guaranitica, Ficus insipida, Ficus sp. e Maclura tinctoria, Solanaceae (Solanum aspero-lanatum e Solanum sp., Piperaceae (Piper aduncum, Piper amalago e Piper sp. e Urticaceae (Cecropia pachystachya e Cecropia sp..This study aims to evaluate the abundance and frugivory of bats from the Recanto Marista, a small riparian forest remnant in the margins of the Ivaí river. The Recanto Marista has 57.6 ha, of which 40.8 ha are covered by semideciduous seasonal forest and is located in the Doutor Camargo municipality. Collections were conducted from May 2007to January 2008 using mist nets (7 x 2.5 m totaling 13,475 m² h and comprising about 72 hours. Ten species were found pertaining to two families, Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus and Pygoderma bilabiatum and Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. and Lasiurus
Willian Oliveira Fahl
Full Text Available In Brazil, bats have been assigned an increasing importance in public health as they are important rabies reservoirs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that rabies virus (RABV strains from frugivorous bats Artibeus spp. are closely associated to those from the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, but little is known about the molecular diversity of RABV in Artibeus spp. The N and G genes of RABV isolated from Artibeus spp. and cattle infected by D. rotundus were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The N gene nucleotides tree showed three clusters: one for D. rotundus and two for Artibeus spp. Regarding putative N amino acid-trees, two clusters were formed, one for D. rotundus and another for Artibeus spp. RABV G gene phylogeny supported the distinction between D. rotundus and Artibeus spp. strains. These results show the intricate host relationship of RABV's evolutionary history, and are invaluable for the determination of RABV infection sources.
Willian Oliveira Fahl
Full Text Available In Brazil, bats have been assigned an increasing importance in public health as they are important rabies reservoirs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that rabies virus (RABV strains from frugivorous bats Artibeus spp. are closely associated to those from the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, but little is known about the molecular diversity of RABV in Artibeus spp. The N and G genes of RABV isolated from Artibeus spp. and cattle infected by D. rotundus were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The N gene nucleotides tree showed three clusters: one for D. rotundus and two for Artibeus spp. Regarding putative N amino acid-trees, two clusters were formed, one for D. rotundus and another for Artibeus spp. RABV G gene phylogeny supported the distinction between D. rotundus and Artibeus spp. strains. These results show the intricate host relationship of RABV's evolutionary history, and are invaluable for the determination of RABV infection sources.
Fahl, Willian Oliveira; Carnieli, Pedro; Castilho, Juliana Galera; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Kotait, Ivanete; Iamamoto, Keila; Oliveira, Rafael Novaes; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo
In Brazil, bats have been assigned an increasing importance in public health as they are important rabies reservoirs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that rabies virus (RABV) strains from frugivorous bats Artibeus spp. are closely associated to those from the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, but little is known about the molecular diversity of RABV in Artibeus spp. The N and G genes of RABV isolated from Artibeus spp. and cattle infected by D. rotundus were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The N gene nucleotides tree showed three clusters: one for D. rotundus and two for Artibeus spp. Regarding putative N amino acid-trees, two clusters were formed, one for D. rotundus and another for Artibeus spp. RABV G gene phylogeny supported the distinction between D. rotundus and Artibeus spp. strains. These results show the intricate host relationship of RABV's evolutionary history, and are invaluable for the determination of RABV infection sources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Fernando C. Passos
Full Text Available This study was carried out at the Intervales State Park, an Atlantic Rain Forest area in Southeastern Brazil. Bats were monthly mist netted over a full year, and fecal samples were collected for dietary analysis. The seeds found in each sample were identified in the laboratory under a stereoscopic microscope by comparison with seeds taken from ripe fruits collected in the study area. Three hundred and seventy one bats were collected, of which 316 (85.2% were frugivorous. The total number of fecal samples with seeds and/or pulp was 121. Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 was the most abundant species in the study area (n = 157 captures and Solanaceae fruits accounted for 78.5% of the fecal samples with seeds (n = 56. Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (n = 21 samples fed mostly on Cecropiaceae (38% and Moraceae fruits (24%, and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (n = 7 samples on Cecropiaceae (57% and Moraceae (29%. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (n = 16 samples fed mostly on Piperaceae fruits (56,3%, but Solanaceae (31,3% and Rosaceae seeds (12,5% were also found in feces. Overall, seeds found in bat feces belong to eight plant families: Solanaceae (n = 67 samples; Cecropiaceae (n = 14; Piperaceae (n = 14; Moraceae (n = 8; Rosaceae (n = 3; Cucurbitaceae (n = 3; Cluseaceae (n = 1, and Araceae (n = 1. The close association of different bat species with fruits of certain plant families and genus may be related to a possible mechanism of resource partitioning that shapes the structure of the community.
Fang, Lu; Shen, Bin; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi
Glycogen synthase, which catalyzes the synthesis of glycogen, is especially important for Old World (Pteropodidae) and New World (Phyllostomidae) fruit bats that ingest high-carbohydrate diets. Glycogen synthase 1, encoded by the Gys1 gene, is the glycogen synthase isozyme that functions in muscles. To determine whether Gys1 has undergone adaptive evolution in bats with carbohydrate-rich diets, in comparison to insect-eating sister bat taxa, we sequenced the coding region of the Gys1 gene from 10 species of bats, including two Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and a New World fruit bat (Phyllostomidae). Our results show no evidence for positive selection in the Gys1 coding sequence on the ancestral Old World and the New World Artibeus lituratus branches. Tests for convergent evolution indicated convergence of the sequences and one parallel amino acid substitution (T395A) was detected on these branches, which was likely driven by natural selection.
Patrícia Beloto Bertola
Full Text Available A total of 443 bat flies belonging to the families Nycteribiidae and Strelidae, were collected on 22 species of bats (Molossidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae from Parque Estadual da Cantareira (São Paulo, Brazil, between January, 2000 and January, 2001. Eighteen new occurrences of bat flies were recorded on Anoura geoffroyi (Anastrebla caudiferae, Glossophaga soricina (A. caudiferae, Sturnira lilium (Trichobius phyllostomae, T. furmani, and Paraeuctenodes similis, Artibeus lituratus (A. caudiferae, A. fimbriatus (Megistopoda proxima, A. obscurus (Metelasmus pseudopterus, Myotis nigricans (M. proxima, M. aranea, Paratrichobius longicrus, M. ruber (Anatrichobius passosi, Joblingia sp., M. levis (A. passosi, M. albescens (A. passosi, Basilia andersoni, and Histiotus velatus (M. aranea. Seven new occurrences were recorded for the state of São Paulo, increasing the range for T. tiptoni, T. furmani, M. proxima, Aspidoptera falcata, A. caudiferae, A. modestini and B. andersoni. The relationships between parasitism and host sex, reproductive stage, age hyperparasitism by fungi are discussed.
Abundância e frugivoria da quiropterofauna (Mammalia, chiroptera de um fragmento no noroeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5351 Chiropterofauna abundance and frugivory in a forest remnant in northwestern Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5351
Full Text Available A abundância e a frugivoria de morcegos que compõem a taxocenose em uma área de mata ripária, à margem esquerda do rio Ivaí, foram foco do presente estudo. O Recanto Marista possui 57,6 hectares, dos quais 40,8 são cobertos por Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, situado no município de Doutor Camargo, região Noroeste do Estado do Paraná. Foram realizadas 14 noites de capturas de morcegos de maio de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, com redes-neblina (7 x 2,5 m, totalizando 13.475 m² h de esforço amostral, distribuído em 72h de esforço. Foram capturados 193 indivíduos, representantes de dez espécies, pertencentes a duas famílias: Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus e Pygoderma bilabiatum e Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. e Lasiurus blossevillii. Um representante da família Molossidae (Molossus rufus foi encontrado morto no solo. Foram consumidos frutos pertencentes às famílias Moraceae (Ficus guaranitica, Ficus insipida, Ficus sp. e Maclura tinctoria, Solanaceae (Solanum aspero-lanatum e Solanum sp. , Piperaceae (Piper aduncum, Piper amalago e Piper sp. e Urticaceae (Cecropia pachystachya e Cecropia sp..This study aims to evaluate the abundance and frugivory of bats from the Recanto Marista, a small riparian forest remnant in the margins of the Ivaí river. The Recanto Marista has 57.6 ha, of which 40.8 ha are covered by semideciduous seasonal forest and is located in the Doutor Camargo municipality. Collections were conducted from May 2007 to January 2008 using mist nets (7 x 2.5 m totaling 13,475 m² h and comprising about 72 hours. Ten species were found pertaining to two families, Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus and Pygoderma bilabiatum and Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. and Lasiurus
de Castro Ferreira, Eduardo; Pereira, Agnes Antônio Sampaio; Silveira, Maurício; Margonari, Carina; Marcon, Glaucia Elisete Barbosa; de Oliveira França, Adriana; Castro, Ludiele Souza; Bordignon, Marcelo Oscar; Fischer, Erich; Tomas, Walfrido Moraes; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira
In the New World genus Leishmania parasites are etiological agents of neglected zoonoses known as leishmaniasis. Its epidemiology is very complex due to the participation of several species of sand fly vectors and mammalian hosts, and man is an accidental host. Control is very difficult because of the different epidemiological patterns of transmission observed. Studies about Leishmania spp. infection in bats are so scarce, which represents a large gap in knowledge about the role of these animals in the transmission cycle of these pathogens, especially when considering that Chiroptera is one of the most abundant and diverse orders among mammals. Leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil are remarkably frequent, probably due to the abundance of its regional mastofauna. The recent record of L. braziliensis in bats from this state indicates the need to clarify the role of these mammals in the transmission cycle. In this study we evaluated the presence of Leishmania parasites in the skin of different species of bats, using PCR directed to Leishmania spp. kDNA for screening followed by PCR/RFLP analysis of the hsp70 gene for the identification of parasite species. Leishmania species identification was confirmed by PCR directed to the G6PD gene of L. braziliensis, followed by sequencing of the PCR product. Samples from 47 bats were processed, of which in three specimens (6.38%) was detected the presence of Leishmania sp. kDNA. PCR/RFLP and sequencing identified the species involved in the infection as L. braziliensis in all of them. This is the first report of Leishmania braziliensis in bats from Pantanal ecosystem and the first record of this species in Platyrrhinus lineatus and Artibeus planirostris, bats with a wide distribution in South America. These results reinforce the need to deepen the knowledge about the possibility of bats act as reservoirs of Leishmania spp. especially considering their ability of dispersion and occupation of anthropic environments
Full Text Available We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort.
França, D S; Pereira, S N; Maas, A C S; Martins, M A; Bolzan, D P; Lima, I P; Dias, D; Peracchi, A L
We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort.
Reyes-Amaya, Nicolás; Jerez, Adriana; Flores, David
The hindlimbs in bats are functionally adapted to serve as a hook to attach to the mother from birth, and to roost during independent life. Although bats exhibit different terrestrial locomotion capabilities involving hindlimbs, hindlimb morphology and postnatal development have been poorly studied. We describe in detail the postnatal development and bone morphology of hindlimbs of the nimble walker vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, and compare adult characters with the insectivorous Molossus molossus (erratic walker) and the frugivorous Artibeus lituratus (non-walker). The advanced ossification of most hindlimb elements of D. rotundus at the newborn stage is consistent with the functional role of this structure at birth in bats. The development completion events of hindlimb bone elements and bone processes in D. rotundus coincide with the cranial bone processes completion and suture closure events. Those events occur when individuals begin to feed by themselves. There are differences in the number and position of bone processes and sesamoids in adults among the compared species, most of which are described for the first time, and in the case of D. rotundus and M. molossus mostly related to a greater and tight articulation between elements. These facts seem to be closely associated with the different terrestrial locomotion capabilities, and in the case of the exclusively sanguivorous D. rotundus with specializations for obtaining food. Anat Rec, 300:2150-2165, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rodrigo M. Mello
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Many studies have demonstrated the ecological relevance and great biodiversity of bats in Brazil. However, mountainous areas have been disproportionately less sampled, mainly in the Southeast. The aim of this study was to identify and compare the richness and diversity of Phyllostomidae, the most diverse bat family, in different forest types in Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, trying to understand the causes of possible differences. The Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca is inserted in the Serra da Mantiqueira's domain, in an Atlantic Forest region known as "Zona da Mata", state of Minas Gerais, with an altitudinal range between 1200-1784 meters. The study was conducted in two forest types, classified as "Nanofloresta Nebular" and "Floresta Nebular", whose respective data on richness and diversity were compared. The bats were captured with 8-10 mist nets for 14 months (April 2011 to May 2012 and four nights per month totaling 62,171.25 m2h of capture effort. A total of 392 captures (12 species belonging to the Phyllostomidae family were obtained. The most abundant species were Sturnira lilium (59.9%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (11.3%, Artibeus lituratus (8.7% and Carollia perspicillata (7.6%. The two sampled areas presented differences in bat richness, diversity and species composition, and this difference was predominantly influenced by S. lilium. It is likely that the observed difference in the assembly of bats between the two study sites depends on the variation in floristic composition. The records of A. lituratus and P. lineatus in a few months of the year and close to Ficus mexiae bearing ripe fruits suggests that at least these species move to the park for a few periods of the year in search of food resources, possibly moving through the altitudinal landscapes.
Montoya-Bustamante, Sebastián; Rojas-Díaz, Vladimir; Torres-González, Alba Marina
In any ecosystem, fruits are resources that vary in time and space as well as in nutritional content. Coexistence of species from a trophic guild depends on the division and use of resources. Therefore, the organisms that depend on them as a food source, tend to show a certain degree of specialization. This way, understanding the factors that influence the dynamics of seed dispersal is important for the regeneration and conservation of tropical ecosystems. Our aim was to determine variation in consumption of Piper tuberculatum by fruit bat assemblages in the village of Robles (Jamundí, Valle del Cauca, Colombia). P. tuberculatum is a resource used not only by wildlife but also by people in the village of Robles. Bats were captured in mist nets between June and November 2014, their feces were collected, and the length of the forearm, wing area, leg length and mass were recorded. At the Universidad del Valle seed laboratory, fecal samples were washed, and their content determined. Of the 14 species captured, Sturnira lilium, Carollia brevicauda, Carollia perspicillata and Artibeus lituratus showed signs of having consumed P. tuberculatum. Sturnira lilium was the main consumer of P. tuberculatum fruits, with the greatest number of consumption events of fruit from this plant species, whereas the other bats showed more diversified consumption events. The greatest niche overlap was recorded between C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata, species that showed similar sizes (i.e., wing area and forearm length) followed by S. lilium and C. perspicillata. In contrast, A. lituratus showed the least niche overlap with the other three fruit bats captured. In conclusion, Sturnira lilium showed an interaction Sturnira-Piper, which is the result of low Solanum availability, and this bat species was the largest consumer of P. tuberculatum in the region.
Patrícia Helena Gallo
Full Text Available Generally, natural environments have been transformed into small forest remnants, with the consequent habitat loss and species extinction. The North Paraná State is not an exception, since only 2 to 4% of the original ecosystem occurs in small fragments of Stational Semidecidual Forest. We studied the species richness and abundance of bats in two forest fragments from the Fazenda Congonhas, in Rancho Alegre city, Paraná State, Brazil. Four samplings were undertaken in a legally protected native area (107.8ha and in a reforested area (11.8ha between April 2007 and March 2008. Samplings began at nightfall and lasted six hours, during two consecutive nights in each location. The individuals were captured using eight mist nets, with the same capture effort in both environments. A total of 397 individuals, 14 species and 10 genera were captured in the native area; while in the reforested area, 105 individuals, six species and four genera. Artibeus lituratus was the most common species in both fragments (n=328, 65.3%, followed by Artibeus fimbriatus (n=44, 8.8% and Artibeus jamaicensis (n=30, 6.0%. Other species including Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspicillata, Sturnira lilium, Chrotopterus auritus, Desmodus rotundus, Michronycteris megalotis, Phyllostomus hastatus, Phyllostomus discolor, Myoti levis, Myotis nigricans and Lasiurus blossevillii, accounted for 19.9% of the captures. The native area presented higher values of species richness (S=14 and diversity (H’=1.4802 in comparison to the reforested area (S=6, H’=0.57015. The t-test evidenced a significant difference between diversity among the sites (t=7.1075. Chao 1 index indicated that the sampling effort recorded approximately 78% from the total species richness for the native area and 75% for the reforested area. Therefore, the preservation of the forest fragment is essential since it provides habitat for a diverse community of bats. Forest management and reforestation actions may
O que é melhor para manter a riqueza de espécies de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera: um fragmento florestal grande ou vários fragmentos de pequeno tamanho? What is better for maintaining the richness of bat (Mammalia, Chiroptera species: a large forest fragment or many small fragments?
Nelio Roberto dos Reis
Full Text Available This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating if the size of forest fragments affects the diversity of bat species. In order to do that, seven fragments were studied in Londrina, Paraná: five small fragments, whose areas varied between 1 and 10 ha; a fragment which is considered medium-sized (Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas - 85,47 ha.; and a large fragment (Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy - 680 ha.. Thirty three species were collected. Ten species were common to all three types of fragments: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843, Eptesicus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819, and Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821. Eight species were only found in the large fragment: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Uroderma bilobatum Peters, 1866, Diaemus youngi (Jentink,1893, Diphylla ecaudata Spix, 1823, Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847, Histiotus velatus (I. Geoffroy, 1824 and Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824. Five were only found in the small fragments: Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843, Chiroderma villosum Peters, 1860, Eptesicus sp. e Rogheessa tumida H. Allen, 1866. Chiroderma doriae, which is threatened by extinction, was captured in the large fragment and in one of the small fragments; M. ruber, also threatened by extinction, was captured in the medium-sized and large fragments. We believe that the major cause for the loss of organic diversity is not rational exploitation, but the destruction of habitats, a result of the expansion of irrational human activities.
Barriga Bonilla, Ernesto
This work is a contribution to the systematic and zoogeographical knowledge of the Colombian mammals. Three species of bats (Artibeus concolor, Chiroderma trinitatum gorgasi and Todarida laticaudata) are recorded by first time from this country Artibeus concolor (a species known up to date by three specimens recorded in the literature, two of them apparently lost) is redescribed on the bases of six specimens collected in the vicinity of Mitú, Vaupés, The species is closely related to the symp...
Obregón-Morales, Cirani; Aguilar-Setién, Álvaro; Perea Martínez, Leonardo; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Martínez-Martínez, Flor Olivia; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia
Experimental infection of Artibeus intermedius, the great fruit-eating bat, was performed with vampire bat rabies isolates. Bats (n=35) were captured in the wild and quarantined prior to experimental infection. No rabies antibodies were detected by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) prior to infection. Three doses of rabies virus (RV) and three different routes of infection were used. One out of 35 bats died without showing any clinical signs at day 14 and was positive for rabies. None of the 34 other bats showed clinical signs for rabies, but high antibody titers were detected post-inoculation, suggesting either innate immune response to the vampire bat rabies virus or possible pre-exposure to RV and inoculation leading to a booster effect. Rabies virus was detected by hemi-nested RT-PCR (hnRT-PCR) in the brain (n=3), stomach (n=1) of bats that were negative by immunofluorescence and that survived rabies infection. The bat that died on day 14 was positive by hnRT-PCR on the brain, heart and liver. These results suggest that either previous non-lethal exposure to RV or natural low susceptibility to vampire bat viruses somehow protected Artibeus intermedius from clinical rabies infection leading to a marginal lethality effect on this bats species population in the wild. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Therys M. Sato
Full Text Available A estrutura de comunidades de morcegos no Brasil ainda é pouco estudada e vêm sofrendo sérias modificações devido à perda de habitats. O principal objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a comunidade de morcegos da Estação Experimental de Itirapina, município de Itirapina, Estado de São Paulo. Nesta Estação, além das espécies cultivadas de Eucalyptus e Pinus, há diversas plantas que podem fornecer alimento aos morcegos. Entre julho de 2001 e julho de 2006, foram realizadas 58 sessões noturnas de captura de morcegos com 4 a 12 redes-de-neblina dispostas a cada sessão. Nesse período, foram capturados 720 indivíduos de 16 espécies de morcegos dos quais 13 pertencem à família Phyllostomidae, duas à Vespertilionidae e uma à Molossidae. A curva cumulativa de espécies atingiu o equilíbrio, no qual apenas espécies raras são acrescentadas. Cinco espécies (Artibeus lituratus, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspicillata, Glossophaga soricina e Sturnira lilium representaram 80% dos morcegos capturados na Estação Experimental, onde se alimentavam de frutos de plantas pioneiras, tais como Cecropia pachystachya, Solanum spp. e Piper spp. A prevalência do vírus rábico foi zero na amostragem das 10 espécies analisadas. Apesar de estar muito modificada, a Estação Experimental de Itirapina pode ser uma importante área de abrigo e alimento para os morcegos e tem potencial de atuar como corredor entre áreas de Cerrado e Mata Atlântica.
Primeiro registro de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae no Brasil First record of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae in Brazil
Sílvia Gonzalez Monteiro
Full Text Available Descreve-se o parasitismo de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera no município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The parasitism of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae is described in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera in the county of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Timothy I Shaw
Full Text Available The Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis is one of the most common bats in the tropical Americas. It is thought to be a potential reservoir host of Tacaribe virus, an arenavirus closely related to the South American hemorrhagic fever viruses. We performed transcriptome sequencing and annotation from lung, kidney and spleen tissues using 454 and Illumina platforms to develop this species as an animal model. More than 100,000 contigs were assembled, with 25,000 genes that were functionally annotated. Of the remaining unannotated contigs, 80% were found within bat genomes or transcriptomes. Annotated genes are involved in a broad range of activities ranging from cellular metabolism to genome regulation through ncRNAs. Reciprocal BLAST best hits yielded 8,785 sequences that are orthologous to mouse, rat, cattle, horse and human. Species tree analysis of sequences from 2,378 loci was used to achieve 95% bootstrap support for the placement of bat as sister to the clade containing horse, dog, and cattle. Through substitution rate estimation between bat and human, 32 genes were identified with evidence for positive selection. We also identified 466 immune-related genes, which may be useful for studying Tacaribe virus infection of this species. The Jamaican fruit bat transcriptome dataset is a resource that should provide additional candidate markers for studying bat evolution and ecology, and tools for analysis of the host response and pathology of disease.
Full Text Available Once thought to be uniquely human, prosocial behavior has been observed in a number of species, including vampire bats that engage in costly food-sharing. Another social chiropteran, Jamaican fruit bats (Artibeus jamaicensis, have been observed to engage in cooperative mate guarding, and thus might be expected to display prosocial behavior as well. However, frugivory and hematophagy diets may impose different selection pressures on prosocial preferences, given that prosocial preferences may depend upon cognitive abilities selected by different ecological constraints. Thus, we assessed whether Jamaican fruit bats would assist a conspecific in an escape paradigm in which a donor could opt to release a recipient from an enclosure. The test apparatus contained two compartments—one of which was equipped with a sensor that, once triggered, released the trap door of the adjacent compartment. Sixty-six exhaustive pairs of 12 bats were tested, with each bat in each role, twice when the recipient was present and twice when absent. Bats decreased their behavior of releasing the trapdoor in both conditions over time, decreasing the behavior slightly more rapidly in the recipient absent condition. Bats did not release the door more often when recipients were present, regardless of the recipient; thus, there was no clear evidence of prosocial behavior.
Bats were marked and monitored on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, to study seasonal and annual variation in distribution, abundance, and natural history from 1975 through 1980. Data gathered advances our knowledge about flocking; abundance; feeding strategies; social behavior; species richness; population structure and stability; age and sex ratios; life expectancy and longevity; nightly, seasonal, and annual movements; synchrony within and between species in reproductive activity; timing of reproductive cycles; survival and dispersal of recruits; intra-and inter-specific relationships; and day and night roost selection. Barro Colorado Island (BCI) harbors large populations of bats that feed on the fruit of canopy trees, especially figs. These trees are abundant, and the individual asynchrony of their fruiting rhythms results in a fairly uniform abundance of fruit. When figs are scarce, a variety of other fruits is available to replace them. This relatively dependable food supply attracts a remarkably rich guild of bats. Although we marked all bats caught, we tried to maximize the number of Artibeus jamaicensis netted, because it is abundant (2/3 of the total catch of bats on BCI), easily captured by conventional means (mist nets set at ground level), and responds well to handling and marking. An average Artibeus jamaicensis is a 45 g frugivore that eats roughly its weight in fruit every night. These bats prefer figs and often seek them out even when other types of fruit they might eat are far more abundant. They commute several hundred meters to feeding trees on the average, feeding on fruit from one to four trees each night, and returning to a single fruiting tree an average of four nights in succession. The bats tend to fly farther when fewer fig trees are bearing ripe fruit, and they feed from fewer trees, on the average, when the moon is nearly full. These bats, like their congeners, do not feed in the fruiting tree itself. Instead, they select a fruit and
Brinkløv, Signe; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Surlykke, Annemarie
Bats use echolocation to exploit a variety of habitats and food types. Much research has documented how frequency-time features of echolocation calls are adapted to acoustic constraints imposed by habitat and prey but emitted sound intensities have received little attention. Bats from the family of Phyllostomidae have been categorised as low intensity (whispering) gleaners, assumed to emit echolocation calls with low source levels (approximately 70 dB SPL measured 10 cm from the bat's mouth). We used a multi-microphone array to determine intensities emitted from two phyllostomid bats from Panamá with entirely different foraging strategies. Macrophyllum macrophyllum hunts insects on the wing and gaffs them with its tail membrane and feet from or above water surfaces whereas Artibeus jamaicensis picks fruit from vegetation with its mouth. Recordings were made from bats foraging on the wing in a flight room. Both species emitted surprisingly intense signals with maximum source levels of 105 dB SPL r.m.s. for M. macrophyllum and 110 dB SPL r.m.s. for A. jamaicensis, hence much louder than a ;whisper'. M. macrophyllum was consistently loud (mean source level 101 dB SPL) whereas A. jamaicensis showed a much more variable output, including many faint calls and a mean source level of 96 dB SPL. Our results support increasing evidence that echolocating bats in general are much louder than previously thought. We discuss the importance of loud calls and large output flexibility for both species in an ecological context.
Luciano Nery Tencate
Full Text Available Os morcegos são hospedeiros de uma rica diversidade de microrganismos. Muitos trabalhos apontam uma estreita ligação entre quirópteros e fungos com potencial patogênico, principalmente por habitarem ambientes como cavernas, grutas e ocos de árvores, favoráveis à manutenção e propagação dos fungos. O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a microbiota fúngica gastrintestinal de morcegos. Das 98 amostras pertencentes a 11 espécies de morcegos procedentes de 15 cidades estudadas, 20% são da espécie Carollia perspicillata, 19% Artibeus lituratus, 17% Molossus rufus, 13% Glossophaga soricina, 9% Nyctinomops macrotis, 8% Molossus molossus, 7% Desmodus rotundus, 2% Lasiurus ega, e 1% Eptesicus furinalis, Myotis nigricans e Tadarida brasiliensis. O gênero Aspergillus sp. foi isolado de 29% das amostras, seguidos por 6% Microsporum sp. e Penicillium sp., 4% Tricophyton sp. e zigomicetos e 2% Fusarium sp. Das espécies de leveduras, 14% foram de Rhodotorula sp., 10% Candida sp. e 2% Cryptococcus sp., 22% dos isolados permaneceram sem identificação. Todos os 82 cultivos de vísceras foram negativos para Histoplasma capsulatum. Houve associação estatística significativa entre os resultados do cultivo microbiológico e as espécies de morcegos (p < 0,05. Concluímos que os morcegos podem atuar como agentes veiculadores de fungos com potencial patogênico, entretanto outros trabalhos devem ser realizados a fim de estabelecer estratégias que permitam identificar os principais fatores correlacionados com o crescimento e a disseminação dos microrganismos na natureza e qual a implicação dos quirópteros no ciclo epidemiológico.
Jaire M. Torres
Full Text Available RESUMO Os morcegos filostomídeos são potenciais dispersores de sementes, devido ao seu hábito de forrageio e grande mobilidade, sendo os principais responsáveis pela regeneração de florestas neotropicais. No Mato Grosso do Sul as pesquisas com dieta de morcegos se concentram na região do Pantanal, com poucos trabalhos focados na porção de Cerrado, e somente um em área urbana. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a dieta de filostomídeos frugívoros em dois remanescentes urbanos de Cerrado em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, avaliando-se se a formulação da dieta das espécies é baseada em preferências alimentares específicas ou não. Os morcegos foram capturados em duas unidades de conservação (a Estação Ecológica Dahma e o Parque Estadual do Prosa por 12 noites em cada área, usando-se seis redes-de-neblina, que permaneceram abertas durante seis horas a partir do ocaso. Após a captura, cada morcego foi mantido em saco de algodão individual por uma hora para coleta das fezes. As amostras fecais foram armazenadas individualmente em frasco hermético e imersas em glicerina, sendo posteriormente analisadas em laboratório. Todas as sementes encontradas nas amostras foram identificadas. Foram capturados 250 morcegos, distribuídos em dez espécies, oito gêneros e duas famílias. Os filostomídeos constituíram 93,2% das capturas (n=233. As espécies mais frequentes foram Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (27,6% e Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (27,2%. Foram encontradas sementes em 46 amostras fecais de sete espécies de morcegos filostomídeos. A maioria das sementes encontradas era da família Piperaceae (69,6% das amostras, sendo um recurso-chave consumido por quase todas as espécies de filostomídeos. Os frugívoros auxiliam na manutenção de unidades de conservação, pois promovem a auto-renovação, sendo a frugivoria um processo importante em remanescentes florestais. O consumo exclusivo de espécies pioneiras
Kasso, Mohammed; Balakrishnan, Mundanthra
Order Chiroptera is the second most diverse and abundant order of mammals with great physiological and ecological diversity. They play important ecological roles as prey and predator, arthropod suppression, seed dispersal, pollination, material and nutrient distribution, and recycle. They have great advantage and disadvantage in economic terms. The economic benefits obtained from bats include biological pest control, plant pollination, seed dispersal, guano mining, bush meat and medicine, aes...
Benda, P.; Faizolahi, K.; Andreas, M.; Obuch, J.; Reiter, A.; Ševčík, M.; Uhrin, M.; Vallo, Peter; Ashrafi, S.
Roč. 76, 3-4 (2012), s. 163-562 ISSN 1211-376X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : distribution * ecology * echolocation * ectoparasites * Chiroptera * Iran * Middle East * Palaearctic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology
Khwanmunee, Jiraporn; Leelawatwattana, Ladda; Prapunpoj, Porntip
Bats are mammals in the order Chiroptera. Although many extensive morphologic and molecular genetics analyses have been attempted, phylogenetic relationships of bats has not been completely resolved. The paraphyly of microbats is of particular controversy that needs to be confirmed. In this study, we attempted to use the nucleotide sequence of transthyretin (TTR) intron 1 to resolve the relationship among bats. To explore its utility, the complete sequences of TTR gene and intron 1 region of bats in Vespertilionidae: genus Eptesicus (Eptesicus fuscus) and genus Myotis (Myotis brandtii, Myotis davidii, and Myotis lucifugus), and Pteropodidae (Pteropus alecto and Pteropus vampyrus) were extracted from the retrieved sequences, whereas those of Rhinoluphus affinis and Scotophilus kuhlii were amplified and sequenced. The derived overall amino sequences of bat TTRs were found to be very similar to those in other eutherians but differed from those in other classes of vertebrates. However, missing of amino acids from N-terminal or C-terminal region was observed. The phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences suggested bat and other eutherian TTRs lineal descent from a single most recent common ancestor which differed from those of non-placental mammals and the other classes of vertebrates. The splicing of bat TTR precursor mRNAs was similar to those of other eutherian but different from those of marsupial, bird, reptile and amphibian. Based on TTR intron 1 sequence, the inferred evolutionary relationship within Chiroptera revealed more closely relatedness of R. affinis to megabats than to microbats. Accordingly, the paraphyly of microbats was suggested.
Carter, Richard T
The production of echolocation calls in bats along with forces produced by contraction of thoracic musculature used in flight presumably puts relatively high mechanical loads on the lower respiratory tract (LRT). Thus, there are likely adaptations to prevent collapse or distortion of the bronchial tree and trachea during flight in echolocating bats. By clearing and staining (Alcian blue and Alizarin red) LRTs removed from nonvolant neonates, semivolant juveniles, volant subadults, and adult Jamaican fruit bats (Artibeus jamaicensis), I found that calcification of the tracheal, primary bronchial, and secondary bronchial (lobar) cartilage rings occurs over the span of about 3 days and coincides with later developmental stages of flight and the increased production of echolocation calls. Tracheal rings that are immediately adjacent to the larynx calcified first, followed by more caudal tracheal rings and then the rings of the primary and secondary bronchi. I suggest that calcification of LRT cartilage rings in echolocating bats provides increased rigidity to counter the thoracic compressions incurred during flight. Calcification of the LRT rings is an adaptation to support the emission of laryngeally produced echolocation calls during flight in bats. © 2016 Anatomical Society.
Yunpeng, Liang; Li, Yu
As the second biggest animal group in mammals, Chiroptera (bats) demonstrates many unique adaptive features in terms of flight, echolocation, auditory acuity, feeding habit, hibernation and immune defense, providing an excellent system for understanding the molecular basis of how organisms adapt to the living environments encountered. In this review, we summarize the researches on the molecular mechanism of the adaptive evolution of Chiroptera, especially the recent researches at the genome levels, suggesting a far more complex evolutionary pattern and functional diversity than previously thought. In the future, along with the increasing numbers of Chiroptera species genomes available, new evolutionary patterns and functional divergence will be revealed, which can promote the further understanding of this animal group and the molecular mechanism of adaptive evolution.
Brinkløv, Signe; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Surlykke, Annemarie
Bats use echolocation to exploit a variety of habitats and food types. Much research has documented how frequency-time features of echolocation calls are adapted to acoustic constraints imposed by habitat and prey but emitted sound intensities have received little attention. Bats from the family...... with entirely different foraging strategies. Macrophyllum macrophyllum hunts insects on the wing and gaffs them with its tail membrane and feet from or above water surfaces whereas Artibeus jamaicensis picks fruit from vegetation with its mouth. Recordings were made from bats foraging on the wing in a flight...
Hance, P; Garnotel, E; Morillon, M
Zoonosis is the cause of the vast majority of emerging diseases. Bats that occupy the second place in the mammal class play an important role. Whether they belong to the microchiroptera suborder or to the megachiroptera suborder, bats on all five continents have been implicated in transmission of numerous pathogens including not only viruses such as Lyssavirus (e.g. rabies), Hepanivirus (e.g. Hendra and Nipah virus) and recently coronavirus (e.g. SARS-like coronavirus and Ebola virus) but also fungus such as histoplasmosis. By modifying environmental conditions and encroaching on their biotope, human intervention has probably contributed to the introduction of chiropteras into an epidemiologic chain in which they previously had no place, thus promoting the emergence of new pathogens.
Yu, Danna; Qian, Kenan; Storey, Kenneth B; Hu, Yizhong; Zhang, Jiayong
The mitochondrial genome of the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), is a circular molecule of 17,038 bp in length, containing 22 transfer RNAs genes, 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, and one D-loop region. The A + T content of the overall base composition of the H-strand is 63.2% with individual nucleotides comprising T 29.8%, C 23.4%, A 33.3%, and G 13.5%. In BI and ML trees, we found M. lucifugus is a sister clade to M. brandtii, Myotis is a sister clade to Murina, and Pipistrellus is a sister clade to (Chalinolobus + (Eptesicus + Vespertilio)) (1.00 in BI, >100% in ML). The monophyly of Myotis, Murina, and Plecotus is well supported (1.00 in BI, 100% in ML).
AZEVEDO, M. S.
Lonchorhina aurita é uma espécie da família Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera) com ampla distribuição geográfica, ocorrendo desde o sul do México até o leste do Brasil. Estudos preliminares demonstraram evidências para uma estruturação de suas populações em sul e norte da Mata Atlântica (MA) baseada em um pequeno número amostral de poucas localidades distintas, além de uma controversa história taxonômica. Assim, o presente estudo buscou identificar o padrão filogeográfico e populacional de L. aurita...
Tereba, A.; Čížková, Dagmar; Sundari, A. A.; Rajan, K. E.; Bogdanowicz, W.
Roč. 3, č. 4 (2011), s. 749-751 ISSN 1877-7252 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Chiroptera * Megaderma lyra * Microsatellites * Polymorphism Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.485, year: 2011
Farkašová, Helena; Hron, Tomáš; Pačes, Jan; Hulva, P.; Benda, P.; Gifford, R.J.; Elleder, Daniel
Roč. 114, č. 12 (2017), s. 3145-3150 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LK11215; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015047 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Deltaretroviruses * Endogenous retroviruses * Chiroptera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 9.661, year: 2016
Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B
Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.
Hermes Ribeiro Luz
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the authors report ticks parasitizing bats from the Serra das Almas Natural Reserve (RPPN located in the municipality of Crateús, state of Ceará, in the semiarid Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out during nine nights in the dry season (July 2012 and 10 nights in the rainy season (February 2013. Only bats of the Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae families were parasitized by ticks. The species Artibeus planirostris and Carolia perspicillata were the most parasitized. A total of 409 larvae were collected and classified into three genera: Antricola (n = 1, Nothoaspis (n = 1 and Ornithodoros (n = 407. Four species were morphologically identified as Nothoaspis amazoniensis, Ornithodoros cavernicolous, Ornithodoros fonsecai, Ornithodoros hasei, and Ornithodoros marinkellei. Ornithodoros hasei was the most common tick associated with bats in the current study. The present study expand the distributional ranges of at least three soft ticks into the Caatinga biome, and highlight an unexpected richness of argasid ticks inhabiting this arid ecosystem.
Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Almeida, Juliana Cardoso de; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia
In this paper, the authors report ticks parasitizing bats from the Serra das Almas Natural Reserve (RPPN) located in the municipality of Crateús, state of Ceará, in the semiarid Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out during nine nights in the dry season (July 2012) and 10 nights in the rainy season (February 2013). Only bats of the Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae families were parasitized by ticks. The species Artibeus planirostris and Carolia perspicillata were the most parasitized. A total of 409 larvae were collected and classified into three genera: Antricola (n = 1), Nothoaspis (n = 1) and Ornithodoros (n = 407). Four species were morphologically identified as Nothoaspis amazoniensis, Ornithodoros cavernicolous, Ornithodoros fonsecai, Ornithodoros hasei, and Ornithodoros marinkellei. Ornithodoros hasei was the most common tick associated with bats in the current study. The present study expand the distributional ranges of at least three soft ticks into the Caatinga biome, and highlight an unexpected richness of argasid ticks inhabiting this arid ecosystem.
Smith, Jillian D L; Bickham, John W; Gregory, T Ryan
Despite being a group of particular interest in considering relationships between genome size and metabolic parameters, bats have not been well studied from this perspective. This study presents new estimates for 121 "microbat" species from 12 families and complements a previous study on members of the family Pteropodidae ("megabats"). The results confirm that diversity in genome size in bats is very limited even compared with other mammals, varying approximately 2-fold from 1.63 pg in Lophostoma carrikeri to 3.17 pg in Rhinopoma hardwickii and averaging only 2.35 pg ± 0.02 SE (versus 3.5 pg overall for mammals). However, contrary to some other vertebrate groups, and perhaps owing to the narrow range observed, genome size correlations were not apparent with any chromosomal, physiological, flight-related, developmental, or ecological characteristics within the order Chiroptera. Genome size is positively correlated with measures of body size in bats, though the strength of the relationships differs between pteropodids ("megabats") and nonpteropodids ("microbats").
Kirillov, A A; Kirillova, N Iu; Vekhnik, V P
The data on species diversity of trematodes from bats collected in the Middle Volga Region are summarized. According to original and literary data, 20 trematode species were recorded in bats of the region examined. Plagiorchis elegans, Lecithodendrium skrjabini, L. rysavyi, Prosthodendrium hurkovaae, and Pycnoporus megacotyle are specified for the bat fauna of Russia for the first time. For 11 species of parasites, new hosts are recorded. The analysis of bat helminthes demonstrated that the fauna of trematodes of the northern bat (12 species of trematodes), of the pond, and of the Brandt's bats is the most diverse, constituting more than 10 parasite species per bat species. The largest number of final hosts in the Middle Volga Region is characteristic of Plagiorchis koreanus and Prosthodendrium chilostomum; the latter species were revealed in 8 and 7 bat species, respectively. Trematodes of bats possess a high degree of host specificity. 17 species parasitize exclusively in bats out of 20 parasite species registered for the order Chiroptera. Only 3 species (Plagiorchis elegans, P. vespertilionis, and Prosthodendrium chilostomum) show wide degree of specificity, being found in other animals. Taxonomic position, the circle of hosts, collecting sites, and brief data in biology and geographical distribution for each helminth species are specified. Morphological descriptions and original figures for all the trematode species revealed in bats of the Middle Volga Region are given.
Jones, Kate E; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; Gittleman, John L
Identifying nonrandom clade diversification is a critical first step toward understanding the evolutionary processes underlying any radiation and how best to preserve future phylogenetic diversity. However, differences in diversification rates have not been quantitatively assessed for the majority of groups because of the lack of necessary analytical tools (e.g., complete species-level phylogenies, estimates of divergence times, and robust statistics which incorporate phylogenetic uncertainty and test appropriate null models of clade growth). Here, for the first time, we investigate diversification rate heterogeneity in one of the largest groups studied thus far, the bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera). We use a recent, robust statistical approach (whole-tree likelihood-based relative rate tests) on complete dated species-level supertree phylogenies. As has been demonstrated previously for most other groups, among-lineage diversification rate within bats has not been constant. However, we show that bat diversification is more heterogeneous than in other mammalian clades thus far studied. The whole-tree likelihood-based relative rates tests suggest that clades within the families Phyllostomidae and Molossidae underwent a number of significant changes in relative diversification rate. There is also some evidence for rate shifts within Pteropodidae, Emballonuridae, Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae, and Vespertilionidae, but the significance of these shifts depends on polytomy resolution within each family. Diversification rate in bats has also not been constant, with the largest diversification rate shifts occurring 30-50 million years ago, a time overlapping with the greatest number of shifts in flowering plant diversification rates.
Schmid, Michael; Steinlein, Claus; Lomb, Christian; Volleth, Marianne
5-Methylcytosine-rich heterochromatic regions were demonstrated in metaphase chromosomes of 5 species of Chiroptera by indirect immunofluorescence using a monoclonal anti-5-methylcytosine antibody. These species belong to 4 genera and 2 families and are characterized by divergent karyotypes. One species (Glauconycteris beatrix) has an extremely low diploid chromosome number of 2n = 22 with only meta- to submetacentric elements and remarkably large amounts of constitutive heterochromatin located in the centromeric and pericentromeric regions of all chromosome pairs. Two species (G. beatrix and Neoromicia cf. guineensis) possess X-autosome translocations. In all species, the hypermethylated chromosome segments correspond to constitutive heterochromatin, and the numbers and positions of hypermethylated chromosome segments in the karyotypes are constant and species-specific. In some species (Pipistrellus hesperidus, Neoromicia cf. somalicus), there are several smaller chromosome pairs in which the bright anti-5-methylcytosine antibody labeling is not restricted to constitutively heterochromatic regions but is observed along the whole lengths of these chromosomes. The nature of these additional hypermethylated regions is discussed. The analysis of 5-methylcytosine-rich chromosome regions elucidates valuable data for chiropteran cytogenetics and reflects the high pace of evolution of the repetitive DNA fraction in their genomes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Harada, Masashi
A new species of the Rhinolophus philippinensis group (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) is described from Guangdong, Guangxi, and Jiangxi Provinces in China. Rhinolophus huananus n. sp. is characterized by the horseshoe, as well as by external and cranial characteristics that separate it at the species level from the other members of the philippinensis group. One of the small species of the philippinensis group, R. huananus is intermediate in size between smaller R. siamensis and larger R. macrotis.
Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Harada, Masashi
A new species of the Rhinolophus philippinensis group (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) is described from Guangdong, Guangxi, and Jiangxi Provinces in China. Rhinolophus huananus n. sp. is characterized by the horseshoe, as well as by external and cranial characteristics that separate it at the species level from the other members of the philippinensis group. One of the small species of the philippinensis group, R. huananus is intermediate in size between smaller R. siamensis and larger R. macrotis.
Paksuz, E P; Hayretdağ, S; Olgun, K
Order Chiroptera is the second largest mammal group after rodents. An understanding of the development of the bats, which is a very special mammal group in terms of their lifestyles, morphology and their ability to fly, is very important because most of the adult anatomical differences characterizing species occur during organogenesis. In this study, developmental stages were determined for Myotis myotis species based on external morphological characteristics from embryos obtained from wild-caught pregnant females. The developmental stages of M. myotis were comparable with those of other bat species. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Nélio Roberto dos Reis
Full Text Available Study carried out within the urban perimeter of Londrina, which is located in the North of the state of Paraná. The objectives were the identification of urban species of bats and diurnal roosts used by them and the verification of the problems they can cause to the population. The fire brigade, the Autarquia Municipal do Ambiente de Londrina (Municipal Environment Autarchy of Londrina, the Biology Department of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina (State University of Londrina and local residents helped spot the roosts. The collections were carried out in regular intervals between April 1998 and March 1999. By the end of them, 815 bats of 23 different species had been captured. Among these, 12 were found near or inside human constructions: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818; Artibeits lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Eptesicus brasiliensis Desmarest 1819; Lasiurus bore-alls (Muller 1776; Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856; Eumops glaucinus (Wagner, 1843; Molossus rufus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766; Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Nyctinomops macrotis (Gray, 1840 e Tadarida brasiliensis (i. Geoffroy, 1824. Roost sites comprised expansion joints, roofs, attics and parks, among others. It can be concluded that bats are treated as undesirable animals by the population due to the lack of knowledge about the subject.
Castonguay, M. [Pesca Environnement, Maria, PQ (Canada)
Environmental monitoring at wind turbine arrays is needed before, during and after project development. Pesca Environmental evaluates the impact of proposed wind turbine arrays on birds and chiroptera by examining their migration patterns through visual and auditory observations during the springtime reproductive and nesting season as well as in the autumn. In order to complete a feasibility study, spring migration patterns of birds and chiroptera must be documented and characterized. In addition to building an inventory of birds and chiroptera, Pesca examines bird behaviour and flight patterns and nesting locations. figs.
Kim, Yoo-Kyung; Park, Su-Gon; Kim, Tae-Wook; Park, Jun-Ho; Adhikari, Pradeep; Kim, Garam; Park, Seon-Mi; Lee, Jun-Won; Oh, Dae-Ju; Han, Sang-Hyun; Oh, Hong-Shik
The complete mitochondrial genome of the Far Eastern Myotis, Myotis bombinus (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) is determined in this study. It is 17 128 base pairs in length with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding control region. Its gene order is identical to that of other typical vertebrates. There are two tandem repeat sequences in the non-coding control region. Each repeat sequences contains 5 copies of 81 nucleotides and 42 copies of 6 nucleotides. Phylogenetic tree of mt 13 protein-coding gene sequences of 18 species in the family Vespertilionidae shows two distinct clades. Clade I consists of Myotis and Murina, while Clade II contains all other species analyzed.
Hwang, Jae Yeon; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Park, Jongbin; Lee, Sang-Goo; Kim, Eun Bae
Complete mitochondria genome sequences of myotis petax (Chiroptera; Microchiroptera; Vespertilionidae) were first identified in the present study. The sequences were obtained from the four individuals and composition of nucleotide AT and GC was about 64.58% and 35.42%, respectively. The lengths of mitogenomes were ranged from 17 296 to 17 299 bp. Total 51 variable sites were observed in the four mitogenomes and 38 sites were singleton polymorphic sites. Phylogenic study revealed that the species would have relatively closed evolutionary distance with m. macrodactylus rather than other species in the genus, myotis. Present study will provide important genomic materials supporting confirmation of taxon of species called bats, which is included in one of the largest orders among the mammals.
Rediscovery of Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) parasitizing the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), with a key to mites of bats in Egypt.
Negm, Mohamed W; Fakeer, Mahmoud M
Faunistic information about bat mites in Egypt is scarce. Collection records of parasitic mites, Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati, 1856) (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae), are reported from the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy, 1810) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Seven species of bat mites are recognized from Egypt to date. A host-parasite checklist and an identification key to these species are presented.
Dos Santos, Francisco C B; Lisboa, Cristiane V; Xavier, Samanta C C; Dario, Maria A; Verde, Rair de S; Calouro, Armando M; Roque, André Luiz R; Jansen, Ana M
Bats are ancient hosts of Trypanosoma species and their flying ability, longevity and adaptability to distinct environments indicate that they are efficient dispersers of parasites. Bats from Acre state (Amazon Biome) were collected in four expeditions conducted in an urban forest (Parque Zoobotânico) and one relatively more preserved area (Seringal Cahoeira) in Rio Branco and Xapuri municipalities. Trypanosoma sp. infection was detected by hemoculture and fresh blood examination. Isolated parasite species were identified by the similarity of the obtained DNA sequence from 18S rDNA polymerase chain reaction and reference strains. Overall, 367 bats from 23 genera and 32 species were examined. Chiropterofauna composition was specific to each municipality, although Artibeus sp. and Carollia sp. prevailed throughout. Trypanosoma sp. infection was detected in 85 bats (23·2%). The most widely distributed and prevalent genotypes were (in order) Trypanosoma cruzi TcI, T. cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, T. cruzi TcIV and Trypanosoma rangeli. At least one still-undescribed Trypanosoma species was also detected in this study. The detection of T. cruzi TcI and TcIV (the ones associated with Chagas disease in Amazon biome) demonstrates the putative importance of these mammal hosts in the epidemiology of the disease in the Acre State.
Rocha, Patrício A da; Pereira, Arivania S; Silvestre, Saulo M; Santana, José Paulo; Beltão-Mendes, Raone; Zortéa, Marlon; Ferrari, Stephen F
Until now, the consumption of leaves by bats has been considered rare or sporadic, even among the herbivorous families Pteropodidae and Phyllostomidae. Among the phyllostomids there are reports of folivory in the genera Artibeus and Platyrrhinus, based on opportunistic observations. Here, we conducted behavioural sampling using camera-trapping in the roost of a colony of Platyrrhinus lineatus already known to consume leaves during the dry and wet seasons, in order to investigate the frequency of leaf consumption, as well as eventual seasonal differences. We observed feeding activity in 80.5% of sampling nights, where fruit was present in 90.3% and leaves at 80.6%, with no significant differences between the consumption of items. When analyzing video recordings, we observed feeding activity in 22.2% of the samples, in which the consumption of fruits was significantly more frequent than the consumption of leaves. We also observed seasonal variation, with the consumption of leaves being significantly higher than that of fruits during the dry season, whereas in the rainy season, fruits were consumed significantly more frequently. Fruits and leaves were consumed in equal proportions during the night, with no differences between the early and late night. Our findings show that the consumption of leaves by herbivorous bats may be more widespread than previously thought. Leaves may often be a regular food item rather than a fallback. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Eick, Geeta N; Jacobs, David S; Matthee, Conrad A
Bats (Order Chiroptera), the only mammals capable of powered flight and sophisticated laryngeal echolocation, represent one of the most species-rich and ubiquitous orders of mammals. However, phylogenetic relationships within this group are poorly resolved. A robust evolutionary tree of Chiroptera is essential for evaluating the phylogeny of echolocation within Chiroptera, as well as for understanding their biogeographical history. We generated 4 kb of sequence data from portions of four novel nuclear intron markers for multiple representatives of 17 of the 18 recognized extant bat families, as well as the putative bat family Miniopteridae. Three echolocation-call characters were examined by mapping them onto the combined topology: (1) high-duty cycle versus low-duty cycle, (2) high-intensity versus low-intensity call emission, and (3) oral versus nasal emission. Echolocation seems to be highly convergent, and the mapping of echolocation-call design onto our phylogeny does not appear to resolve the question of whether echolocation had a single or two origins. Fossil taxa may also provide insight into the evolution of bats; we therefore evaluate 195 morphological characters in light of our nuclear DNA phylogeny. All but 24 of the morphological characters were found to be homoplasious when mapped onto the supermatrix topology, while the remaining characters provided insufficient information to reconstruct the placement of the fossil bat taxa with respect to extant families. However, a morphological synapomorphy characterizing the Rhinolophoidea was identified and is suggestive of a separate origin of echolocation in this clade. Dispersal-Vicariance analysis together with a relaxed Bayesian clock were used to evaluate possible biogeographic scenarios that could account for the current distribution pattern of extant bat families. Africa was reconstructed as the center of origin of modern-day bat families.
Makarikova, Tatiana A; Makarikov, Arseny A
Potorolepis gulyaevi sp. n. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) is described from the Chinese horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus sinicus Andersen (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae), from southern China. The new species differs from known species of the genus by the shape, number and size of rostellar hooks, the relative position and length of the cirrus-sac and the morphology of gravid uterus. This is the first report of a member of the genus from non-marsupial mammals and the first record of a Potorolepis Spassky, 1994 from eastern Asia. The generic diagnosis of Potorolepis is amended.
A new species of nematode, Pterygodermatites (Pterygodermatites) mexicana n. sp., is described based on specimens recovered from the intestine of the gray sac-winged bat, Balantiopteryx plicata (Chiroptera, Emballonuridae), from the Biosphere Reserve “Sierra de Huautla” in the state of Morelos, Mexico. This is the second species in the genus described from bats in the New World, since most of the rictaluriids reported in these hosts belong to the closely related genus Rictularia Froelich, 1802. However, members of Rictularia possess only a single oesophageal tooth at the base of the buccal capsule, whereas in the current nematodes three conspicuous oesophageal teeth are present. They are therefore included in Pterygodermatites Wedl, 1861. The new species is characterized by the presence of 23 small denticles on the periphery of the buccal capsule and by the presence of 40 and 66 pairs of cuticular processes in males and females, respectively. Additionally, males possess 3–4 ventral precloacal fan-like processes, and the cuticular processes of females are divided into 40 pairs of comb-like and 26 pairs of spine-like processes; the vulva opens on the level of approximately pair 40. The dorsally directed stoma and the 40 prevulvar cuticular processes makes it difficult to place the species in any of the subgenera present in the New World, yet characters correspond with the diagnosis of Pterygodermatites (Pterygodermatites) in the Mediterranean region and North Africa. PMID:24267823
Tatag Bagus Putra Prakarsa
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui diversitas kelelawar penghuni gua di gua Ngerong. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian Nature Snapshop Experiment (NSE. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan November - Desember 2011 di gua Ngerong, Desa Rengel, Kecamatan Rengel, Kabupaten Tuban, Jawa Timur. Penangkapan dilakukan dengan metode tangkap langsung. Penangkapan dilakukan dengan menggunakan misnet dan handnet. Kelelawar diidentifikasi berdasarkan pengukuran morfometri dan ciri morfologi mengacu kunci identifikasi Suyanto, 2001 dan Payne et al., 2000. Seluruh data dianalisis secara deskriptif. Di gua Ngerong terdapat 9 spesies dari 4 famili atau 60% dari total spesies kelelawar penghuni gua di kawasan karst Tuban. Enam spesies anggota Subordo Microchiroptera yang merupakan insectivor dan 3 spesies anggota Subordo Megachiroptera yang merupakan frugivor dan nictivor. Keanekaragaman di gua Ngerong tergolong tinggi dengan nilai Simpson's Diversity Index sebesar 0,76. Tingginya diversitas kelelawar penghuni gua Ngerong berbanding lurus dengan panjang lorong gua Ngerong. gua Ngerong merupakan gua terpanjang di kawasan karst Tuban, dengan panjang lorong mencapai 1800m.kata kunci: Kelelawar (Chiroptera, Diversitas, Gua Ngerong, Biospeleologi, Karst
Rojas, Danny; Warsi, Omar M; Dávalos, Liliana M
The mechanisms underlying the high extant biodiversity in the Neotropics have been controversial since the 19th century. Support for the influence of period-specific changes on diversification often rests on detecting more speciation events during a particular period. The timing of speciation events may reflect the influence of incomplete taxon sampling, protracted speciation, and null processes of lineage accumulation. Here we assess the influence of these factors on the timing of speciation with new multilocus data for New World noctilionoid bats (Chiroptera: Noctilionoidea). Biogeographic analyses revealed the importance of the Neotropics in noctilionoid diversification, and the critical role of dispersal. We detected no shift in speciation rate associated with the Quaternary or pre-Quaternary periods, and instead found an increase in speciation linked to the evolution of the subfamily Stenodermatinae (∼18 Ma). Simulations modeling constant speciation and extinction rates for the phylogeny systematically showed more speciation events in the Quaternary. Since recording more divergence events in the Quaternary can result from lineage accumulation, the age of extant sister species cannot be interpreted as supporting higher speciation rates during this period. Instead, analyzing the factors that influence speciation requires modeling lineage-specific traits and environmental, spatial, and ecological drivers of speciation. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Harada, Masashi; Thong, Vu Dinh; Lin, Liang-Kong; Li, Yu-Chun
Based on 203 specimens belonging to the Rhinolophus "pusillus group" (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae), univariate and multivariate morphometric analyses using 19 characters were performed to assess the confused species taxonomy. The results indicated that R. pusillus (including calidus, parcus, and szechuanus) in the continental region and Hainan Island of China and "R. cornutus" in Japan are morphologically divergent species. Rhinolophus cornutus should be further split into R. cornutus (including orii, pumilus, and miyakonis) in the main islands of Japan, the Amami and Okinawa Group of the central Ryukyu Archipelago, and Miyako Group of the southern Ryukyus; and R. perditus and R. imaizumii from the Yaeyama Group in the southern Ryukyus. Rhinolophus monoceros from Taiwan is morphologically more similar to species in Japan than to R. pusillus. In addition to R. pusillus, another form that is morphologically similar to species in Japan was recognized from Langzhong in Sichuan Province; this may represent an undescribed species, and further examination is necessary to determine its taxonomic status. Specimens from Guang'an in Sichuan Province, China, are also different from the others, and are characterized by the smallest skull size. Although further studies are required, these specimens were tentatively identified as R. subbadius.
López-Wilchis, Ricardo; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel Ángel; Guevara-Chumacero, Luis Manuel
We described the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the Wagner's mustached bat, Pteronotus personatus, a species belonging to the family Mormoopidae, and compared it with other published mitogenomes of bats (Chiroptera). The mitogenome of P. personatus was 16,570 bp long and contained a typically conserved structure including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and one control region (D-loop). Most of the genes were encoded on the H-strand, except for eight tRNA and the ND6 genes. The order of protein-coding and rRNA genes was highly conserved in all mitogenomes. All protein-coding genes started with an ATG codon, except for ND2, ND3, and ND5, which initiated with ATA, and terminated with the typical stop codon TAA/TAG or the codon AGA. Phylogenetic trees constructed using Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods showed an identical topology and indicated the monophyly of different families of bats (Mormoopidae, Phyllostomidae, Vespertilionidae, Rhinolophidae, and Pteropopidae) and the existence of two major clades corresponding to the suborders Yangochiroptera and Yinpterochiroptera. The mitogenome sequence provided here will be useful for further phylogenetic analyses and population genetic studies in mormoopid bats.
Yoon, Gwang Bae; Park, Yung Chul
The complete mitogenome of the Korean greater tube-nosed bat Murina leucogaster (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) was determined. The mitogenome of M. leucogaster is 16,723 bp in length with a total base composition of 32.8% A, 27.5% T, 25.3% C and 14.4% G. All the protein-coding genes (total length of 11,404 bp) were encoded in H-strand except for ND6 in L-strand. Total length of 22 tRNA genes was 1508 bp varying from 62 bp (tRNA(Ser(AGY))) to 74 bp (tRNA(Leu(UUR)) and tRNA(Gln)). The 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes were 972 and 1558 bp in length, respectively. The D-loop region was 1383 bp in length and included 54 copies of 6 bp tandem repeat (ACGCAT).
Ao, Lei; Mao, Xiuguang; Nie, Wenhui; Gu, Xiaoming; Feng, Qing; Wang, Jinhuan; Su, Weiting; Wang, Yingxiang; Volleth, Marianne; Yang, Fengtang
Bats are a unique but enigmatic group of mammals and have a world-wide distribution. The phylogenetic relationships of extant bats are far from being resolved. Here, we investigated the karyotypic relationships of representative species from four families of the order Chiroptera by comparative chromosome painting and banding. A complete set of painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of Myotis myotis (family Vespertilionidae) were hybridized onto metaphases of Cynopterus sphinx (2n = 34, family Pteropodidae), Rhinolophus sinicus (2n=36, family Rhinolophidae) and Aselliscus stoliczkanus (2n=30, family Hipposideridae) and delimited 27, 30 and 25 conserved chromosomal segments in the three genomes, respectively. The results substantiate that Robertsonian translocation is the main mode of chromosome evolution in the order Chiroptera, with extensive conservation of whole chromosomal arms. The use of M. myotis (2n=44) probes has enabled the integration of C. sphinx, R. sinicus and A. stoliczkanus chromosomes into the previously established comparative maps between human and Eonycteris spelaea (2n=36), Rhinolophus mehelyi (2n=58), Hipposideros larvatus (2n=32), and M. myotis. Our results provide the first cytogenetic signature rearrangement that supports the grouping of Pteropodidae and Rhinolophoidea in a common clade (i.e. Pteropodiformes or Yinpterochiroptera) and thus improve our understanding on the karyotypic relationships and genome phylogeny of these bat species.
Full Text Available The Chiroptera from Escobosa de Calatañazor (Soria, Spain, an Upper Aragonian karstic site, are described in this report. The faunal list of Chiroptera is as follows: Megaderma gaillardi, Rhinolophus grivensis, Rhinolophus delphinensis and one chiropter, indeterminate family, different to the mentioned species. This fauna is typical of karstic sites and allows to compare it with those of other sites of the Miocene and Pliocene of west Europe and north Africa.
Se describen en este trabajo los quirópteros del yacimiento kárstico del Aragoniense superior de Escobosa de Calatañazor (prov. de Soria, España. La fauna de quirópteros es la siguiente: Megaderma gaillardi, Rhinolophus grivensis, Rhinolophus delphinensis y un quiróptero, familia indeterminada, distinto de las especies mencionadas. Esta fauna, característica de yacimiento kárstico, permite su comparación con las de otros yacimientos del Mioceno y Plioceno de Europa occidental y norte de Africa.
Badrane, Hassan; Tordo, Noël
Lyssaviruses are unsegmented RNA viruses causing rabies. Their vectors belong to the Carnivora and Chiroptera orders. We studied 36 carnivoran and 17 chiropteran lyssaviruses representing the main genotypes and variants. We compared their genes encoding the surface glycoprotein, which is responsible for receptor recognition and membrane fusion. The glycoprotein is the main protecting antigen and bears virulence determinants. Point mutation is the main force in lyssavirus evolution, as Sawyer's test and phylogenetic analysis showed no evidence of recombination. Tests of neutrality indicated a neutral model of evolution, also supported by globally high ratios of synonymous substitutions (dS) to nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) (>7). Relative-rate tests suggested similar rates of evolution for all lyssavirus lineages. Therefore, the absence of recombination and similar evolutionary rates make phylogeny-based conclusions reliable. Phylogenetic reconstruction strongly supported the hypothesis that host switching occurred in the history of lyssaviruses. Indeed, lyssaviruses evolved in chiropters long before the emergence of carnivoran rabies, very likely following spillovers from bats. Using dated isolates, the average rate of evolution was estimated to be roughly 4.3 × 10−4 dS/site/year. Consequently, the emergence of carnivoran rabies from chiropteran lyssaviruses was determined to have occurred 888 to 1,459 years ago. Glycoprotein segments accumulating more dN than dS were distinctly detected in carnivoran and chiropteran lyssaviruses. They may have contributed to the adaptation of the virus to the two distinct mammal orders. In carnivoran lyssaviruses they overlapped the main antigenic sites, II and III, whereas in chiropteran lyssaviruses they were located in regions of unknown functions. PMID:11483755
Gunnell, Gregg F; Smith, Richard; Smith, Thierry
The bat genus Myotis is represented by 120+ living species and 40+ extinct species and is found on every continent except Antarctica. The time of divergence of Myotis has been contentious as has the time and place of origin of its encompassing group the Vespertilionidae, the most diverse (450+ species) and widely distributed extant bat family. Fossil Myotis species are common, especially in Europe, beginning in the Miocene but earlier records are poor. Recent study of new specimens from the Belgian early Oligocene locality of Boutersem reveals the presence of a relatively large vespertilionid. Morphological comparison and phylogenetic analysis confirms that the new, large form can be confidently assigned to the genus Myotis, making this record the earliest known for that taxon and extending the temporal range of this extant genus to over 33 million years. This suggests that previously published molecular divergence dates for crown myotines (Myotis) are too young by at least 7 million years. Additionally, examination of first fossil appearance data of 1,011 extant placental mammal genera indicates that only 13 first occurred in the middle to late Paleogene (48 to 33 million years ago) and of these, six represent bats, including Myotis. Paleogene members of both major suborders of Chiroptera (Yangochiroptera and Yinpterochiroptera) include extant genera indicating early establishment of successful and long-term adaptive strategies as bats underwent an explosive radiation near the beginning of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum in the Old World. A second bat adaptive radiation in the New World began coincident with the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum.
Orbach, Dara N; Veselka, Nina; Dzal, Yvonne; Lazure, Louis; Fenton, M Brock
In the wild, frugivorous and nectarivorous bats often eat fermenting fruits and nectar, and thus may consume levels of ethanol that could induce inebriation. To understand if consumption of ethanol by bats alters their access to food and general survival requires examination of behavioural responses to its ingestion, as well as assessment of interspecific variation in those responses. We predicted that bats fed ethanol would show impaired flight and echolocation behaviour compared to bats fed control sugar water, and that there would be behavioural differences among species. We fed wild caught Artibeus jamaicensis, A. lituratus, A. phaeotis, Carollia sowelli, Glossophaga soricina, and Sturnira lilium (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) sugar water (44 g of table sugar in 500 ml of water) or sugar water with ethanol before challenging them to fly through an obstacle course while we simultaneously recorded their echolocation calls. We used bat saliva, a non-invasive proxy, to measure blood ethanol concentrations ranging from 0 to >0.3% immediately before flight trials. Flight performance and echolocation behaviour were not significantly affected by consumption of ethanol, but species differed in their blood alcohol concentrations after consuming it. The bats we studied display a tolerance for ethanol that could have ramifications for the adaptive radiation of frugivorous and nectarivorous bats by allowing them to use ephemeral food resources over a wide span of time. By sampling across phyllostomid genera, we show that patterns of apparent ethanol tolerance in New World bats are broad, and thus may have been an important early step in the evolution of frugivory and nectarivory in these animals.
Full Text Available Two new species of yellow-shouldered bats Sturnira Gray, 1842 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae from Central America and western South America are described using molecular and morphological data. The two new species, which occur in Costa Rica and Panama and in western Ecuador, were previously confused with S. ludovici, and S. lilium and S. luisi, respectively. Sturnira now includes 22 described species, making it the most speciose genus in the Neotropical family Phyllostomidae.
Yoon, Kwang Bae; Park, Yung Chul
The complete mitogenome (NC_021119) of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) was annotated and characterized in our recent publication (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_021119). Here we provide additional information on methods in detail for obtaining the complete sequence of M. ussuriensis mitogenome. In addition, we describe characteristics of 22 tRNA genes and secondary structure and feature of 22 tRNAs of M. ussuriensis mitogenome.
Kwang Bae Yoon
Full Text Available The complete mitogenome (NC_021119 of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae was annotated and characterized in our recent publication (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_021119. Here we provide additional information on methods in detail for obtaining the complete sequence of M. ussuriensis mitogenome. In addition, we describe characteristics of 22 tRNA genes and secondary structure and feature of 22 tRNAs of M. ussuriensis mitogenome.
de Araújo, Ramon Everton Ferreira; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; da Costa, Marlyson Jeremias Rodrigues; Noronha, Renata Coelho Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Pieczarka, Julio César
Twelve specimens of the bat Cormura brevirostris (Emballonuridae: Chiroptera) were collected from four localities in the Brazilian Amazon region and analyzed by classical and molecular cytogenetics. The diploid number and autosomal fundamental number were as previously reported (2n = 22 and FNa = 40, respectively). Fluorescence in situ hybridization using rDNA probes and silver nitrate technique demonstrated the presence of two NOR sites and the presence of internal telomeric sequences at pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes with exception of Y. Based on meiotic studies and chromosome banding we suggest that the sex chromosome pair of C. brevirostris was equivocally identified as it appears in the literature. Meiotic analysis demonstrated that at diplotene-diakinesis the cells had a ring conformation involving four chromosome pairs. This suggests the occurrence of multiple reciprocal translocations among these chromosomes, which is a very rare phenomenon in vertebrates, and has never been described in Eutheria.
Full Text Available Riassunto Ritrovamento del Vespertilio di Brandt Myotis brandtii (Eversmann, 1845 in Piemonte (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae Viene riportata la cattura con mist-net di 5 maschi adulti di Vespertilio di Brandt Myotis brandtii, nell’agosto 2005, nei pressi dell’abitato di Devero (Baceno, VB, a 1827 metri d’altitudine, nel Parco Naturale Alpe Veglia e Alpe Devero. Tale dato rappresenta la prima segnalazione certa della specie in Piemonte. L’identificazione è stata effettuata sulla base delle caratteristiche dentarie e del pene. Sono fornite indicazioni sulle caratteristiche dei segnali di ecolocalizzazione ottenuti dopo il rilascio degli individui.
Full Text Available Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae. Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographical distribution of the genus to east of the Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. was found on Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 in southeastern Brazil. Anterior parts of the body, wing, tergite 7, epiproct and male genitalia are illustrated, and a key to females for species of Synthesiostrebla is provided.
Makarikova, Tatiana A
A previously unrecognised species of hymenolepidid cestode attributable to Vampirolepis Spassky, 1954 is described based on specimens from the common noctule bat Nyctalus noctula (Schreber) (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from southeastern Kazakhstan (Dzungarian Alatau). Specimens of Vampirolepis kulkinae n. sp. differ from the morphologically similar congeners based on the number, size and shape of the rostellar hooks. The new species is further distinguished from additional cestodes attributed to Vampirolepis (sensu lato) by the arrangement of the testes in one row, egg structure (i.e. thin outer coat and emryophore without polar filaments) and the relative position and length of the cirrus-sac. This is the first species of the genus Vampirolepis described from Kazakhstan.
Richards, Leigh R; Rambau, Ramugondo V; Lamb, Jennifer M; Taylor, Peter J; Yang, Fengtang; Schoeman, M Corrie; Goodman, Steven M
The chiropteran fauna of Madagascar comprises eight of the 19 recognized families of bats, including the endemic Myzopodidae. While recent systematic studies of Malagasy bats have contributed to our understanding of the morphological and genetic diversity of the island's fauna, little is known about their cytosystematics. Here we investigate karyotypic relationships among four species, representing four families of Chiroptera endemic to the Malagasy region using cross-species chromosome painting with painting probes of Myotis myotis: Myzopodidae (Myzopoda aurita, 2n = 26), Molossidae (Mormopterus jugularis, 2n = 48), Miniopteridae (Miniopterus griveaudi, 2n = 46), and Vespertilionidae (Myotis goudoti, 2n = 44). This study represents the first time a member of the family Myzopodidae has been investigated using chromosome painting. Painting probes of M. myotis were used to delimit 29, 24, 23, and 22 homologous chromosomal segments in the genomes of M. aurita, M. jugularis, M. griveaudi, and M. goudoti, respectively. Comparison of GTG-banded homologous chromosomes/chromosomal segments among the four species revealed the genome of M. aurita has been structured through 14 fusions of chromosomes and chromosomal segments of M. myotis chromosomes leading to a karyotype consisting solely of bi-armed chromosomes. In addition, chromosome painting revealed a novel X-autosome translocation in M. aurita. Comparison of our results with published chromosome maps provided further evidence for karyotypic conservatism within the genera Mormopterus, Miniopterus, and Myotis. Mapping of chromosomal rearrangements onto a molecular consensus phylogeny revealed ancestral syntenies shared between Myzopoda and other bat species of the infraorders Pteropodiformes and Vespertilioniformes. Our study provides further evidence for the involvement of Robertsonian (Rb) translocations and fusions/fissions in chromosomal evolution within Chiroptera.
Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.
The Neotropical bat genus Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae) currently comprises 15 species. Our morphological and morphometric analysis of large and medium-sized Platyrrhinus revealed a distinctive Undescribed species from western South America. We also recognize P. aquilus (Handley & Ferris 1972) and P. umbratus (Lyon 1902) as valid species. We describe P. nitelinea sp. nov. from western Colombia and Ecuador and provide emended diagnoses along with descriptions of P. aquilus, P.. dorsalis, and P. umbratus. Phylogenetic analysis of Platyrrhinus based on morphological characters indicates that P. aquilus is closely related to P. aurarius and P. nigellus, P. umbratus to P. chocoensis, and P. nitelinea to P. vittatus.
Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Glanz, William E.; Sandford, Clark M.
Fruiting almendro trees, Dipteryx panamensis, are visited by sixteen species of mammals that eat the fruits exocarp or seed. Seeds are susceptible to predation by granivorous rodents and peccaries. Most mammals that visit Dipteryx trees act as commensals·, eating only the fleshy exocarp and dropping the endocarp with its enclosed seed below the parent tree. So me primates, tayras, coatis, and kinkajous occasionally disperse Dipteryx seeds, but only Artibeus lituratus, Dasyprocta punctata, and...
Mao, Xiuguang; Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; Su, Weiting; Ao, Lei; Feng, Qing; Wang, Yingxiang; Volleth, Marianne; Yang, Fengtang
Rhinolophus (Rhinolophidae) is the second most speciose genus in Chiroptera and has extensively diversified diploid chromosome numbers (from 2n = 28 to 62). In spite of many attempts to explore the karyotypic evolution of this genus, most studies have been based on conventional Giemsa staining rather than G-banding. Here we have made a whole set of chromosome-specific painting probes from flow-sorted chromosomes of Aselliscus stoliczkanus (Hipposideridae). These probes have been utilized to establish the first genome-wide homology maps among six Rhinolophus species with four different diploid chromosome numbers (2n = 36, 44, 58, and 62) and three species from other families: Rousettus leschenaulti (2n = 36, Pteropodidae), Hipposideros larvatus (2n = 32, Hipposideridae), and Myotis altarium (2n = 44, Vespertilionidae) by fluorescence in situ hybridization. To facilitate integration with published maps, human paints were also hybridized to A. stoliczkanus chromosomes. Our painting results substantiate the wide occurrence of whole-chromosome arm conservation in Rhinolophus bats and suggest that Robertsonian translocations of different combinations account for their karyotype differences. Parsimony analysis using chromosomal characters has provided some new insights into the Rhinolophus ancestral karyotype and phylogenetic relationships among these Rhinolophus species so far studied. In addition to Robertsonian translocations, our results suggest that whole-arm (reciprocal) translocations involving multiple non-homologous chromosomes as well could have been involved in the karyotypic evolution within Rhinolophus, in particular those bats with low and medium diploid numbers.
Full Text Available Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto Prima segnalazione di Rinolofo minore Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800 (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera in Siria La specie è stata rinvenuta nel 2005-06 con il ritrovamento di due esemplari solitari ibernanti (un maschio e una femmina, rispettivamente in una grotta presso il paese di Basofan, NO di Aleppo e in Al Marqab, Banyas. Per entrambi gli esemplari sono riportate le misure craniali e esterne. Con il ritrovamento del Rinolofo minore la chirotterofauna della Siria è attualmente rappresentata da 17 specie.
Ferreira, Marcelo; Soldati, Aline; Rodrigues, Sirlene S S; Benjamin, Laércio Dos Anjos
The insectivorous bat Myotis nigricans is widely distributed throughout the Neotropics, including Brazil, and has a reproductive biology that is affected by climate and food availability. To evaluate the reproductive capacity of this species, morphofunctional parameters of the testes were correlated with environmental variables and the body condition of individuals captured. After bats had been killed, their testes were removed, fixed in Karnovsky's fluid for 24h and embedded in resin for evaluation by light microscopy. The mean annual tubulosomatic index (0.58%) and the percentage of seminiferous tubules in the testes (88.96%) were the highest ever recorded for the Order Chiroptera. The percentage of Leydig cells and volume of the cytoplasm of Leydig cells were higher in the rainy than dry season (80.62±3.19% and 573.57±166.95μm, respectively; mean±s.d.). Conversely, the percentage of nuclei of the Leydig cells in the dry season (26.17±3.70%; mean±s.d.) and the total number of Leydig cells (6.38±1.84×109; mean±s.d.) were higher in the dry season. The results of the present study could help in future conservation of these bats because they provide a better understanding of the bats' reproductive strategies and how the species can adapt to changes.
A dieta dos morcegos frugívoros (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae de um pequeno remanescente de Floresta Estacionai Semidecidual do sul do Brasil The diet of fruit-eating bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in a small Semideciduous Seasonal Forest remnant in south Brazil
Sandra Bos Mikich
Full Text Available The diet of some leaf-nosed frugivorous bats - Artibeus Leach, 1821, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Sturnira lilium (e. Geoffroy, 1810 - was studied for nine consecutive months through faecal analysis of individuais captured with mist-nets in a small forest remnant of Paraná state, Brazil. The analysis revealed that Artibeus spp. exhibited preference for fruits of Ficus spp. and Carollia perspicillata for those of Piper spp., which is in accordance with the results of previous studies. But contrary to what was expected, fruit of Solanum spp. were not found for the diet of Sturnira lilium in spite of their high availabilily (16 species in the study area and their known relationship with this bat genus. The species of consumed fruit belonged to several plant life forms (trees, bushes, and lianas and occurred in several habitais. This result emphasizes the importance of keeping habitat diversity, especially in small isolated reserves. Most consumed fruits were green, in agreement with the chiropterochoric syndrome, but ali seeds were small due to limitations of the sampling method. Fruit species abundance in the study area did not seem to have influenced their consumption, but intra-specific fruit availability did so, since most fruits were consumed within their intra-annual peak of availability.
Faith M Walker
Full Text Available Bat guano is a relatively untapped reservoir of information, having great utility as a DNA source because it is often available at roosts even when bats are not and is an easy type of sample to collect from a difficult-to-study mammalian order. Recent advances from microbial community studies in primer design, sequencing, and analysis enable fast, accurate, and cost-effective species identification. Here, we borrow from this discipline to develop an order-wide DNA mini-barcode assay (Species from Feces based on a segment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI. The assay works effectively with fecal DNA and is conveniently transferable to low-cost, high-throughput Illumina MiSeq technology that also allows simultaneous pairing with other markers. Our PCR primers target a region of COI that is highly discriminatory among Chiroptera (92% species-level identification of barcoded species, and are sufficiently degenerate to allow hybridization across diverse bat taxa. We successfully validated our system with 54 bat species across both suborders. Despite abundant arthropod prey DNA in guano, our primers were highly specific to bats; no arthropod DNA was detected in thousands of feces run on Sanger and Illumina platforms. The assay is extendable to fecal pellets of unknown age as well as individual and pooled guano, to allow for individual (using singular fecal pellets and community (using combined pellets collected from across long-term roost sites analyses. We developed a searchable database (http://nau.edu/CEFNS/Forestry/Research/Bats/Search-Tool/ that allows users to determine the discriminatory capability of our markers for bat species of interest. Our assay has applications worldwide for examining disease impacts on vulnerable species, determining species assemblages within roosts, and assessing the presence of bat species that are vulnerable or facing extinction. The development and analytical pathways are rapid, reliable, and
Background New World leaf-nosed bats, Phyllostomidae, represent a lineage of Chiroptera marked by unprecedented morphological/ecological diversity and extensive intergeneric chromosomal reorganization. There are still disagreements regarding their systematic relationships due to morphological convergence among some groups. Their history of karyotypic evolution also remains to be documented. Results To better understand the evolutionary relationships within Phyllostomidae, we developed chromosome paints from the bat species Macrotus californicus. We tested the potential of these paints as phylogenetic tools by looking for chromosomal signatures in two lineages of nectarivorous phyllostomids whose independent origins have been statistically supported by molecular phylogenies. By examining the chromosomal homologies defined by chromosome painting among two representatives of the subfamily Glossophaginae (Glossophaga soricina and Anoura cultrata) and one species from the subfamily Lonchophyllinae (Lonchophylla concava), we found chromosomal correspondence in regions not previously detected by other comparative cytogenetic techniques. We proposed the corresponding human chromosomal segments for chromosomes of the investigated species and found two syntenic associations shared by G. soricina and A. cultrata. Conclusion Comparative painting with whole chromosome-specific paints of M. californicus demonstrates an extensive chromosomal reorganization within the two lineages of nectarivorous phyllostomids, with a large number of chromosomes shared between M. californicus and G. soricina. We show that the evolution of nectar-feeding bats occurs mainly by reshuffling of chiropteran Evolutionarily Conserved Units (ECUs). Robertsonian fusions/fissions and inversions seem to be important modifiers of phyllostomid karyotypes, and autapomorphic character states are common within species. Macrotus californicus chromosome paints will be a valuable tool for documenting the pattern of
Sotero-Caio, Cibele G; Volleth, Marianne; Gollahon, Lauren S; Fu, Beiyuan; Cheng, William; Ng, Bee L; Yang, Fengtang; Baker, Robert J
New World leaf-nosed bats, Phyllostomidae, represent a lineage of Chiroptera marked by unprecedented morphological/ecological diversity and extensive intergeneric chromosomal reorganization. There are still disagreements regarding their systematic relationships due to morphological convergence among some groups. Their history of karyotypic evolution also remains to be documented. To better understand the evolutionary relationships within Phyllostomidae, we developed chromosome paints from the bat species Macrotus californicus. We tested the potential of these paints as phylogenetic tools by looking for chromosomal signatures in two lineages of nectarivorous phyllostomids whose independent origins have been statistically supported by molecular phylogenies. By examining the chromosomal homologies defined by chromosome painting among two representatives of the subfamily Glossophaginae (Glossophaga soricina and Anoura cultrata) and one species from the subfamily Lonchophyllinae (Lonchophylla concava), we found chromosomal correspondence in regions not previously detected by other comparative cytogenetic techniques. We proposed the corresponding human chromosomal segments for chromosomes of the investigated species and found two syntenic associations shared by G. soricina and A. cultrata. Comparative painting with whole chromosome-specific paints of M. californicus demonstrates an extensive chromosomal reorganization within the two lineages of nectarivorous phyllostomids, with a large number of chromosomes shared between M. californicus and G. soricina. We show that the evolution of nectar-feeding bats occurs mainly by reshuffling of chiropteran Evolutionarily Conserved Units (ECUs). Robertsonian fusions/fissions and inversions seem to be important modifiers of phyllostomid karyotypes, and autapomorphic character states are common within species. Macrotus californicus chromosome paints will be a valuable tool for documenting the pattern of karyotypic evolution within
Walker, Faith M; Williamson, Charles H D; Sanchez, Daniel E; Sobek, Colin J; Chambers, Carol L
Bat guano is a relatively untapped reservoir of information, having great utility as a DNA source because it is often available at roosts even when bats are not and is an easy type of sample to collect from a difficult-to-study mammalian order. Recent advances from microbial community studies in primer design, sequencing, and analysis enable fast, accurate, and cost-effective species identification. Here, we borrow from this discipline to develop an order-wide DNA mini-barcode assay (Species from Feces) based on a segment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI). The assay works effectively with fecal DNA and is conveniently transferable to low-cost, high-throughput Illumina MiSeq technology that also allows simultaneous pairing with other markers. Our PCR primers target a region of COI that is highly discriminatory among Chiroptera (92% species-level identification of barcoded species), and are sufficiently degenerate to allow hybridization across diverse bat taxa. We successfully validated our system with 54 bat species across both suborders. Despite abundant arthropod prey DNA in guano, our primers were highly specific to bats; no arthropod DNA was detected in thousands of feces run on Sanger and Illumina platforms. The assay is extendable to fecal pellets of unknown age as well as individual and pooled guano, to allow for individual (using singular fecal pellets) and community (using combined pellets collected from across long-term roost sites) analyses. We developed a searchable database (http://nau.edu/CEFNS/Forestry/Research/Bats/Search-Tool/) that allows users to determine the discriminatory capability of our markers for bat species of interest. Our assay has applications worldwide for examining disease impacts on vulnerable species, determining species assemblages within roosts, and assessing the presence of bat species that are vulnerable or facing extinction. The development and analytical pathways are rapid, reliable, and inexpensive, and
Durettenema guangdongense gen. et sp. nov. (Nematoda: Molineoidea) from Hipposideros larvatus (Horsfield) (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) with discussion of the taxonomic status of Macielia rhinolophi Yin, 1980.
Ju, Hui-Dong; Li, Liang; Zhang, Lu-Ping
Durettenema guangdongense gen. et sp. nov. is described from Hipposideros larvatus (Horsfield) (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) in Guangdong Province, China. The new genus differs from the other genera of subfamily Molineinae in the structure of the synlophe, the absence of lateral alae, the arrangement of the bursa rays, the shape of the spicules, the female tail and the presence of gubernaculum. Meanwhile, considering the morphological characters of Macielia rhinolophi Yin, 1980, including the pattern of the bursa ray, the shape of the spicules, and the female tail, this species should be transferred to the genus Durettenema, as D. rhinolophi (Yin, 1980) comb. nov., which can be distinguished from D. guangdongense in the shape of the ovejector. In addition, the ITS-1 sequences of D. guangdongense were also analysed, these sequence added new data for the molecular diagnosis of trichostrongylid nematodes.
Full Text Available Abstract Between 1994 and 2008, we studied the structure of harems in Nyctalus leisleri and factors that determine their size by monitoring 90 bat-boxes placed in a beech forest in the natural reserve Pian degli Ontani (Tuscany, northern Italy. The number of females in the harem positively correlated with the number of males defending a harem. The number of males in the mating area did not significantly influence harem size, whilst we found a significant correlation between the variance in harem size and mean harem size. This may be explained by the existence of an uneven aggregation favouring few males. A strong relation was found between males’ age (estimated by teeth wear and mean harem size.
Riassunto Dimensioni dell'harem e tattiche riproduttive dei maschi di Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1817 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae. Sono presentati i risultati di uno studio sulla struttura dell'harem in Nyctalus leisleri e sui fattori che ne determinano la dimensione. Tra il 1994 e il 2008, sono stati monitorati 90 rifugi artificiali (bat-box per pipistrelli collocati in una faggeta della Riserva Statale di Pian degli Ontani (Pistoia, Toscana. Il numero di femmine presenti nel harem è risultato positivamente correlato con il numero di maschi presenti nell’area di accoppiamento. Il numero di maschi presenti non influenza la dimensione media dell'harem mentre una significativa correlazione positiva è stata evidenziata tra il valore della varianza delle dimensioni dell'harem e la sua dimensione media. Tale relazione suggerisce che le femmine tendono ad aggregarsi, favorendo i maschi più competitivi. Infine è stato evidenziato un modello generale dove sia i maschi giovani sia quelli ad età più avanzata (stimata in base all’usura dei denti hanno minor capacità di formare harem con un numero elevato di femmine.
Colín-Martínez, Helisama; García-Estrada, Carlos
Studies of mites on bats in the Mexican state Oaxaca are scarce. Our objective was therefore to evaluate the richness, infestation, and specificity of spinturnicid mites on bats in southern Oaxaca, Mexico. Bats were monthly captured from April 2010 to February 2011, in four sites using four mist-nets; also, we visited natural (crevices) and artificial roosts (tunnel). Of each bat we account the number of spinturnicid mites, considering the area of the body where they were collected. Mites were preserved in 70 % ethanol and later they were mounted on microscope slides in Hoyer's medium. We captured bats of 15 species, of which eight species were infested. We recorded seven spinturnicid mites: five of the genus Periglischrus, one of the genus Cameronieta, and one of the genus Mesoperiglischrus. Periglischrus caligus, P. iheringi, and Periglischrus sp. are new records on Artibeus lituratus, Glossophaga soricina, and G. commissarisi, respectively. More infested bat species were Artibeus jamaicensis (93.8 %), A. lituratus (88.9 %), G. commissarisi and Sturnira parvidens (both 66.7 %). Prevalence of A. jamaicensis and A. lituratus was significantly higher than most other bat species. Although prevalence percentage was high, mean and median intensity were low. Spinturnicid mites were recorded in particular areas of a bat's body; therefore, they could be an additional tool for the taxonomic identification of bats.
Tencate, Luciano Nery [UNESP
Os morcegos são hospedeiros de uma rica diversidade de microrganismos. Muitos trabalhos apontam uma estreita ligação entre os quirópteros e fungos com potencial patogênico, principalmente por habitar ambientes como cavernas, grutas e ocos de árvores, favoráveis, à manutenção e propagação dos fungos. O seguinte trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a microbiota fúngica gastrintestinal de morcegos capturados vivos ou cedidos pelos Laboratórios de Chiroptera e de Raiva do Departamento de Apoio e P...
Julia Ramos Estêvão
(Interação mutualista entre morcegos nectarívoros (Chiroptera) e a pata-devaca Bauhinia holophylla Steud. (Fabaceae) em uma área de cerrado: atração e recompensa) Nos mutualismos facultativos, espécies competem fortemente entre si por parceiros. Portanto, espera-se que plantas simpátricas e polinizadas por uma mesma guilda de animais invistam muito na atração dos parceiros. Investigamos a interação entre a pata-de-vaca Bauhinia holophylla e seus polinizadores, a fim de testar se: (1) essa pla...
Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.
The type collection of Recent Mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 820 specimens bearing names of 809 species-group taxa of Didelphimorphia through Chiroptera, excluding Rodentia, as of June 2014. This catalog presents an annotated list of these holdings comprised of 788 holotypes, 26 lectotypes, 11 syntypes (22 specimens), and 4 neotypes. Included are several specimens that should be in the collection but cannot be found or are now known to be in other collections. One hundred and twenty-seven of the names are new since the last type catalog covering these orders, Poole and Schantz (1942). Five specimens reported in Poole and Schantz (1942) were subsequently sent to the Vertebrate Paleontology collection and are not included here. Orders and families are ordered as in Wilson and Reeder (2005); within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically; within each currently recognized genus, accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon (or new name combination if used herein for the first time), type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, date of collection and collector, original collector number, type locality, and remarks as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen will serve as a condition report and will be attached to each electronic specimen record.
Full Text Available The micromammals remains from the Late Pleistocene site of the cave of El Castillo studied here in detail, came from the Aurignacian levels 18b and 18c (dated in 40.000-45.000 BP, level 19, and the Musterian levels 20b, 20c, 20d, 20e (dated in 41.000-49.000 BP, 21a and 21b. The micromammal association is the following: Erinaceus europaeus, Crocidura russula, Sorex coronatus, Sorex minutus, Neomys fodiens, Talpa europaea, Galemys pyrenaicus, cf. Miniopterus schreibersii, Chiroptera indet., Pliomys lenki, Microtus arvalis – Microtus agrestis, Microtus lusitanicus, Microtus oeconomus, Chionomys nivalis, Arvicola terrestris, Apodemus sylvaticus – Apodemus flavicollis and Lepus sp. Most of these species are in the present fauna of Cantabria, except Pliomys lenki that got extinct in the last third of the Upper Pleistocene, and Microtus oeconomus that disappeared from the Iberian Peninsula during the Holocene, in historical times, and is nowadays present in northern Euroasiatic regions. There is a great continuity of most of the taxa in all the levels. The faunal association seems to indicate a mainly open environment, in general with wet meadows (and few dry meadows, with good vegetation cover in the soil, with perhaps also some tree-covered areas, and some watercourses. The thermophiles indicators are very scarce, which could indicate that the climate could be a lesser temperate than other Upper Pleistocene periods and the present-day climate in the area.
, Desmodus rotundus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae. This study addresses the composition of microbial flora in the vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus primarily because all available data are outdated, and because of the economical significance of this bat species. Twenty-one bats were collected and their aerobic bacteria documented separately for stomach and intestine. Bacteria were identified through the Analytical Profile Index (API, and results analyzed with the APILAB software. A total of thirty bacterial species were isolated from sixteen females and five males. The most common species were Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, although other bacteria, such as Acinetobacter johnsonii, Enterobacter sakazakii, Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. hyicus and S. xylosus were also common. The number of species found in the stomach and intestine was significantly different, and the intestine presented a higher diversity compared to the stomach. This has previously been found in other mammals and it is attributed to a reduction of acidity. Most of the species found in this study are considered normal components of the digestive tract of mammals, although other bacteria common in the skin of mammals and from aquatic environments were found. Bacteria from the skin may invade the vampire’s stomach and/or intestine when the bat has contact with its prey, and may suggest that the vampire’s feeding habit facilitates the invasion of other microbes not common in its digestive tract. The fact that bacteria from aquatic environments were also found suggests that D. rotundus, as previously found by other researchers, drinks free water when available, and water may be another source of microbial invasion. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 717-724. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.
Morales Alarcón, A.; Osorno-Mesa, E.; Bernal Cubides, C.; Lleras Pizarro, A.
Se intentó el aislamiento de virus rábico en 919 murciélagos, más 83 sin clasificar que no se incluyen en el cuadro, insectívoros y frugívoros procedentes de 3 zonas de Colombia. Las especies estudiadas fueron las siguientes: Corollia perspicillata, Myotis nigricans, Lasiurus ega, Artibeus Lituratus palmarum, Vampyrops helleri, Trachops cirrhosus cirrhosus, Glossophaga longirostris, Saccopteryx bilineata, Molossus molossus, Peropteryx kappleri, Phyllostomus hastatus. No se encontró ningún ej...
Delpietro, H A; Lord, R D; Russo, R G; Gury-Dhomen, F
During rabies outbreaks in cattle (paralytic rabies) in Argentina associated with the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, rabies was observed in marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus), red brocket deer (Mazama americana), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), savanna fox (Cerdocyon thous), and great fruit-eating bat (Artibeus lituratus). Rabies could constitute a threat to the survival of marsh deer in places where they live in small groups, and infection of both great fruit-eating bats and savanna fox represent a risk for humans; both species exhibit aggressiveness and fury when infected.
Menozzi, Benedito Donizete; de Novaes Oliveira, Rafael; Paiz, Laís Moraes; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; Langoni, Helio
Bats have aroused growing attention in the public health sphere because they are considered the main reservoir of rabies virus (RABV) in the Americas, in places where canine rabies is under control. Antigenic and genetic studies of RABV isolates have been used to describe the epidemiological profile of rabies and to identify possible hosts/reservoirs for different epidemiological cycles. This study describes the antigenic and genotypic characterization of 19 RABV isolates from central nervous system samples of non-hematophagous bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera). These bats were diagnosed as RABV positive by direct fluorescent antibody and mouse inoculation tests. Antigenic characterization using a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies revealed that 7 of 19 RABV isolates from these bats belonged to variant 3, for which the hematophagous bat species Desmodus rotundus is the main reservoir, and 1 of 19 RABV isolates from an insectivorous bat belonged to variant 4, which is characteristic of these bats. The remaining 11 RABV samples were divided into six non-compatible profiles. The isolates were subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the N gene and partially sequenced. Genetic characterization of these isolates was performed by grouping the sequences obtained with known RABV lineages. The sequences were grouped in clusters by the phylogenetic inference neighbor-joining method, together with another 89 homologous sequences obtained from GenBank. This analysis grouped the isolates into four known lineages: Nyctinomops Brazil, Myotis Brazil, Eptesicus Brazil and D. rotundus Brazil, as well as another cluster that may define a RABV lineage not yet characterized, here named Myotis Brazil II, for which bats of the genus Myotis apparently act as reservoirs. This assumption of a new lineage is also based on the observation of amino acid substitutions, with an average intraspecific identity of 99.8%, varying from 99.6 to 100.0% for nucleotides and 100
Full Text Available The Upper Paraná River floodplain is inserted in a region of the Mata Atlântica biome, which is a critical area to preserve. Due to the scarcity of researches about the chiropterofauna in this region, the present study investigated species richness and abundance of bats in remnants from the stational semidecidual forest of the Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil. Samplings were taken every month, from January to December 2006, using 32 mist nets with 8.0 x 2.5 m, resulting in 640 m²/h and totaling a capture effort of 87,040 m²/h. In order to estimate the species richness, the following estimators were employed Chao1 and Jack2. During the study, a total of 563 individuals belonging to 17 species (Artibeus planirostris, Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Sturnira lilium, Artibeus fimbriatus, Myotis nigricans, Desmodus rotundus, Artibeus obscurus, Noctilio albiventris, Phylostomus discolor, Phylostomus hastatus, Chrotopterus auritus, Lasiurus ega, Chiroderma villosum, Pygoderma bilabiatum and Lasiurus blossevillii were captured. The estimated richness curves tended to stabilize, indicating that most of the species were sampled. Captured species represented 10% of the taxa recorded in Brazil and 28% in Paraná State, revealing the importance of this area for the diversity of bats. These findings indicate the need to determine actions aiming to restrict human activities in these forest fragments, in order to minimize anthropogenic impacts on the chiropterofauna.
Full Text Available Para estudiar la asimilación protoplasmática de los granos de polen de cactáceas columnares en dos especies de murciélagos glosofaginos, determinamos el porcentaje de granos de polen vacíos (digeridos en muestras fecales de Glossophaga longirostris y Leptonycteris curasoae , capturados en una zona árida de Venezuela. Para determinar el porcentaje de granos de polen digeridos por los murciélagos, aplicamos un colorante sobre las muestras fecales que permite diferenciar sin dificultad el polen vacio del polen lleno. Después de cuantificar los granos de polen de ambas categorías en las muestras fecales, los valores fueron corregidos tomando en cuenta el porcentaje de polen vacío (previo a la antesis en las flores maduras de las especies de cactáceas columnares (Subpilocereus repandus, Stenocereus griseus y Pilosocereus tillianus . G. longirostris asimila el 64.2% de los granos de polen que ingiere y L. curasoae asimila el 71.3%. Estos elevados porcentajes confirman la importancia del polen en la dieta de estos murciélagos, dado su alto contenido de nitrógenoDigestibility of columnar cacti pollen grains in the glosophagine bats Glossophaga longirostris and Leptonycteris curasoae (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae. We examined the protoplasmic assimilation of columnar cacti pollen grains in two species of Venezuelan desert glosophagine bats, Glossophaga longirostris and Leptonycteris curasoae, by determining the amount of empty (digested pollen grains found in their fecal samples. To determine the amount of empty pollen grains, the fecal samples were stained to differ between empty and full (non-digested pollen grains. The number of empty and full pollen grains observed in the fecal samples were corrected using the amount of aborted pollens present (before anthesis in flowers of the columnar cacti species (Subpilocereus repandus, Stenocereus griseus and Pilosocereus tillianus used by bats as food in the study site; G. longirostris and L
C. B. Batista
Full Text Available Abstract The State Park Mata dos Godoy has 42 identified bat species, among which 21 are frugivorous and belong to the Phyllostomidae family. Current study investigated the concentrations of carbohydrate, lipid and protein in fruits consumed by Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata and Sturnira lilium to understand their potential differentiated food preferences. The Sampling effort it was from April/2013 to March/2014. Animals captured in mist nets were identified in the field and maintained in cotton bags for 30 minutes to defecate. The diet was inferred from fecal samples analyzed in the laboratory, the fruits whose seeds were found in the feces had the determinations of the nutrients accomplished by centesimal composition method. Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn's multiple comparison method verified the most abundant nutrients for each species of bat. Whereas Carollia perspicillata and Sturnira lilium feeds mainly in food with carbohydrates that provide them with more energy, the diet of Artibeus lituratus is richer in carbohydrates and lipids. Only fruits considered scarcely represent a complete nutrition for the three bat species, however, the complementarity with other food items such as leaves, pollen, and insects, can provide a complete nutrient diet for these animals.
virtud de su importancia como reservorio de la diversidad biológica que tipifica los ecosistemas boscosos de la Cordillera de la Costa, una bio-región altamente amenazada como consecuencia de un elevado crecimiento socio-económico.Bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia from Yurubí National Park, Venezuela: taxonomic list and community study. Bats represent a key component in the dynamics of many terrestrial ecosystems, and one of the groups of mammals with the highest levels of diversification in the Neotropics. Here we describe the results of a study of the bat fauna from Yurubí National Park (mountain area in Northern Venezuela, that includes a taxonomic list and the characterization of some community attributes in forested areas. Data was collected from zoological collections and diversified sampling methods from February to July of 2009 in an altitudinal gradient (100-1 500m, with three principal ecological units: semideciduous, evergreen and cloud forests. We recorded 64 species grouped in five families (63% of the bats known from La Cordillera de la Costa, of which Phyllostomidae was the dominant taxa (42 species; 66% of total, followed by Vespertilionidae, Molossidae, Emballonuridae and Mormoopidae. The community with the highest taxonomic diversification was found in the lowest elevation range, while the lowest number of species was found at the highest range. Eleven trophic guilds were identified; the insectivorous guild was the richest, whereas the frugivorous was the most abundant. Our results allow us to indicate these forest ecosystems have an appropriate conservation status, taking into account the presence of a relatively high proportion of species from the subfamily Phyllostominae, as well as the presence of other species with conservation priorities. All these aspects, and the fact that this represents a reservoir of the biological diversity of the forest ecosystems of La Cordillera de la Costa, make this protected area of an essential conservation value, in a
M. Brock Fenton
Full Text Available With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000 have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012. Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and diversity of trophic roles makes bats potentially valuable as indicators of ecosystem health (Cumming & Spiesman 2006. Lack of detailed information, however, makes it easy to overlook bats when focusing on issues of conservation.
M. Brock Fenton
Full Text Available With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000 have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012. Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and diversity of trophic roles makes bats potentially valuable as indicators of ecosystem health (Cumming & Spiesman 2006. Lack of detailed information, however, makes it easy to overlook bats when focusing on issues of conservation.
M. Brock Fenton
With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000) have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012). Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and dive...
Laar, van Vincent; Daan, Serge
On a trip to Greece between the 25th April and the 25th July 1963, the authors collected (on the mainland and some islands in the Aegean) insects, amphibians and reptiles as well as 194 mammals. Among the mammals, mainly rodents and insectivores, there were also 27 bats, belonging to five species.
Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K.; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J. Leopoldo; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo
To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR–positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined. PMID:24752688
Full Text Available Abstract Captivity observation on body weight cycle and digestive efficiency in Pipistrellus kuhlii and Hypsugo savii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae Many bat species of cold-temperate climate are subject to seasonal variation of temperature and food availability. Fat reserve during summer-autumn is therefore a physiological adaptation to spend the winter months by hibernating or to sustain migration. During a research on bats in urban areas, two juveniles of Kuhl's bat (Pipistrellus kuhlii, 2 females and two juveniles of Savi's bat (Hypsugo savii, 1 male and 1 female were collected in 1997 in the urban area of Florence (central Italy. Bats were kept in a cage of 50x40x30 cm with a temperature between 17° and 22° C. Every day they were weighted with an electronic balance before eating mealworms (Tenebrio molitor. Digestive efficiency, calculated on dry material, was about 90% for both species. In about six months P. kuhlii and H. savii increased on the average of 450% and 280% in weight respectively. Deposition of fat reserve seemed to be faster in P. kuhlii than in H. savii. Both species showed a circannual cycle in the variation of weight. Riassunto Molte specie di pipistrelli dei climi temperato-freddi sono soggette a marcate variazioni stagionali di temperatura e disponibilità di cibo. L'accumulo di grasso in tarda estate-autunno è quindi un adattamento fisiologico per trascorrere in ibernazione i mesi invernali o per intraprendere la migrazione. Nell'ambito di una ricerca pluriennale sui pipistrelli in ambienti urbani, 4 esemplari giovani, di cui 2 di Pipistrello albolimbato (Pipistrellus kuhlii, 2 femmine e due di Pipistrello di Savi (Hypsugo savii, 1 maschio e 1 femmina, sono stati raccolti nella pianura di Firenze durante l'estate del 1997 e mantenuti in un contenitore di 50x40x30 cm ad
de Rezende, M B; Herrera, H M; Carvalho, C M E; Carvalho Anjos, E A; Ramos, C A N; de Araújo, F R; Torres, J M; de Oliveira, C E
The multihost parasites Leishmania spp. infect a broad range of wild mammalian species including bats. Several species of bats have adapted to a variety of food resources and shelters in urban areas. This study aimed to detect Leishmania spp. DNA in bats present in forest fragments located in metropolitan areas endemic for leishmaniasis in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. Blood samples were obtained from 80 individuals, including eight species of Phyllostomidae and one species of Vespertilionidae. Thirty of the 80 bats were positive for Leishmania spp. using conventional PCR, all belonging to the family Phyllostomidae. Eighteen samples tested by real-time PCR (qPCR) using specific primers for the kDNA of Leishmania infantum were positive. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report detecting Leishmania spp. in Platyrrhinus incarum in addition to being the first reported detection of L. infantum in the bat species Phyllostomus discolor, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Artibeus planirostris and Artibeus lituratus. Our results show that bats can host Leishmania spp. in areas endemic for leishmaniasis, which must be taken into account in disease control operations by public health authorities. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania
The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America.
Full Text Available Currently twelve species of Myotis Kaup, 1829 (Vespertilionidae: Myotinae are recognized from South America, with several other named taxa regarded as synonyms, among them Myotis punensis J.A. Allen, 1914. This name was first regarded as a junior synonym of Myotis albescens (É. Geoffroy, 1806 and subsequently of Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821. To address the taxonomic status of the holotype of M. punensis, we compared it to all South American species in the genus. The fringe of hairs on the trailing edge of the uropatagium, the fur color, and external and skull dimensions all suggest M. punensis should be treated as a junior synonym of M. albescens
Pérez-Jordá, Juan L.; Ibáñez, Carlos; Muñoz-Cervera, Marina; Tellez, Antonio
To determine the prevalence of European Bat Lyssavirus 1 (EBL1), antibodies plasma samples were obtained from 175 serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus) from four colonies in southern Spain between September of 1991 and September 1992. Five bats were detected with EBL1 virus in one colony in 1989. The prevalence of antibodies rose to 74% in one of the colonies studied (Villarrasa) in the spring of 1992. After a few months the prevalence declined to under 10%. Individuals with a high antibody lev...
Wibbelt, Gudrun; Moore, Marianne S.; Schountz, Tony; Voigt, Christian C.
A conference entitled ‘2nd International Berlin Bat Meeting: Bat Biology and Infectious Diseases’ was held between the 19 and 21 of February 2010 in Berlin, Germany. Researchers from two major disciplines, bat biologists and disease specialists, met for the first time in an interdisciplinary event to share their knowledge about bat-associated diseases. The focus of the meeting was to understand why in particular bats are the hosts of so many of the most virulent diseases globally. During several sessions, key note speakers and participants discussed infectious diseases associated with bats, including viral diseases caused by Henipa-, Filo-, Corona- and Lyssaviruses, the spread of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, bat immunology/immunogenetics, bat parasites, and finally, conservation and human health issues. PMID:20427329
Bergmans, Wim; Jachmann, Hugo
Five species of bats are recorded from Kasungu National Park, Malawi: Eidolon helvum (Kerr, 1792); Epomophorus anurus Heuglin, 1864; Epomophorus minor Dobson, 1880; Epomops dobsonii (Bocage, 1889); and Scotoecus hindei Thomas, 1901. Some other Malawian records of these species, based on literature
L.V. De Knegt
Full Text Available Entre os anos de 1999 e 2001, realizaram-se 18 capturas de morcegos em Belo Horizonte, sendo uma na estação seca e uma na estação chuvosa em cada regional administrativa. Foram capturados 316 exemplares, com predominância de Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, 55,1%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810, 24,4% e Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, 10,1%, além de Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Phyllostomus discolor (Wagner, 1843, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 e Anoura caudifer (Geoffroy, 1818, totalizando oito espécies, pertencentes às famílias Phyllostomidae e Vespertilionidae. Observou-se concentração de partos próximos à estação chuvosa, coincidindo com a maior disponibilidade de alimento para os períodos de prenhez e lactação. Partos esporádicos ocorreram durante todo o ano. Entre 2002 e 2003, foi feita uma busca em diversos tipos de abrigos nas mesmas regionais. Os abrigos foram registrados, e as espécies encontradas foram somadas às já observadas na primeira parte deste estudo, bem como às citadas em diversas fontes bibliográficas e disponíveis em coleções acadêmicas, gerando um relato atualizado das espécies de morcegos já encontrados no município.A total of 316 bats were trapped using mist nets during 18 nights at nine strategic locations in Belo Horizonte between 1999 and 2001. The most predominant species were Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, 55.1%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810, 24.4%, and Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, 10.1%. Other trapped species were: Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Phyllostomus discolor (Wagner, 1843, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Anoura caudifer (Geoffroy, 1818, resulting in a total of eight species belonging the families Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae. All species bred predominantly during the wet season, probably because of the need for food availability to support energetic
Morales Alarcón A.
Full Text Available Se intentó el aislamiento de virus rábico en 919 murciélagos, más 83 sin clasificar que no se incluyen en el cuadro, insectívoros y frugívoros procedentes de 3 zonas de Colombia. Las especies estudiadas fueron las siguientes: Corollia perspicillata, Myotis nigricans, Lasiurus ega, Artibeus Lituratus palmarum, Vampyrops helleri, Trachops cirrhosus cirrhosus, Glossophaga longirostris, Saccopteryx bilineata, Molossus molossus, Peropteryx kappleri, Phyllostomus hastatus. No se encontró ningún ejemplar de murciélago hematófago. Virus rábico fue aislado de Myotis nigricans + Lasiurus ega en Pavarandocito, Antioquia, en donde la rabia paresiante estaba activa en el momento de la investigación; en San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, se aisló virus rábico de un ejemplar, Carollia perspicillata, zona en donde no se ha presentado, hasta ahora, rabia paresiante. Ningún aislamiento de virus rábico se hizo en la Guajira en donde, en años anteriores, ha habido brotes de rabia paresiante. Se intentó el aislamiento de virus rábico en 919 murciélagos, más 83 sin clasificar que no se incluyen en el cuadro, insectívoros y frugívoros procedentes de 3 zonas de Colombia. Las especies estudiadas fueron las siguientes: Corollia perspicillata, Myotis nigricans, Lasiurus ega, Artibeus Lituratus palmarum, Vampyrops helleri, Trachops cirrhosus cirrhosus, Glossophaga longirostris, Saccopteryx bilineata, Molossus molossus, Peropteryx kappleri, Phyllostomus hastatus. No se encontró ningún ejemplar de murciélago hematófago. Virus rábico fue aislado de Myotis nigricans + Lasiurus ega en Pavarandocito, Antioquia, en donde la rabia paresiante estaba activa en el momento de la investigación; en San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, se aisló virus rábico de un ejemplar, Carollia perspicillata, zona en donde no se ha presentado, hasta ahora, rabia paresiante. Ningún aislamiento de virus rábico se hizo en la Guajira en donde, en años anteriores, ha
H. Ortêncio Filho
Full Text Available Bats may exhibit different patterns of activity, considering aspects concerning niche dynamics as well as the establishment and permanence of the communities in the ecosystems. In this way, the present study analyzed the time and seasonal patterns of activity in different species of frequent phyllostomid bats in remnants of the stational semidecidual forest from the Upper Paraná River, Southern Brazil. Captures were performed between January and December, 2006, using 32 mist nets set above the soil along the nocturnal period during the four seasons of the year. The daily and seasonal patterns of activity of each species was modeled using generalized linear models with Poisson error. The best model was selected using Akaike's Information Criterion (AICc. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 did not exhibit a conspicuous time pattern, whereas A. lituratus (Olfers, 1818 was more frequent after the sixth hour and A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838 had an activity increase along the night. Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 was registered during all sampling hours. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 were the most active during the first four hours. Concerning seasonal pattern, the highest activity of these species was verified during the summer. These data contribute to the information about the ecology of bats in the region, highlighting the high adaptive potential of the species studied in relation to the use of space throughout the night and in to variations in environmental conditions.
Nilton Carlos Cáceres
Full Text Available A study of removal of fruits of the wild tomato, Solanum granulosoleprosum Dunal (N = 5 plants, by vertebrates was carried out in an urban environment of southern Brazil from January to May 1997 and February 1998. To verify diurnal and nocturnal removals, fruits were counted in several fruit bunches, being classified by size and color. Diurnal observations were made on plants to verify bird removal. A mist net was placed among the plants from the evening to 23:00 h to verify bat consumption. Live traps baited with S. granulosoleprosum fruits were placed on the ground among plants to verify terrestrial removers. On average it was found two ripe fruits available per bunch/day, but unripe, small, fruits were dominant (70%. Nocturnal mammals and birds-diurnal mammals partitioned fruits similarly. Bats removing fruits were Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810. Birds were Saltator similis Lafresnaye & d'Orbigny, 1837 and Thraupis sayaca (Linnaeus, 1766. Terrestrial mammals were a marsupial and three rodent species. Except for rodents, these vertebrates must be promoting the seed dispersal of S. granulosoleprosum seeds in disturbed mixed forests of southern Brazil.
Luis F. Menezes Jr
Full Text Available RESUMO Foram realizadas dez coletas em 2013 na RPPN Fazenda Bom Retiro, sendo cinco em uma área florestada, localizada no interior da mata e outras cinco em área aberta, distante cerca de 600 m uma da outra. O mesmo esforço de coleta foi empregado nas duas áreas, e as mesmas foram realizadas sempre no mesmo dia. A área florestada se mostrou mais diversa, sendo capturados 256 morcegos, todos de Phyllostomidae, pertencentes a 14 espécies; Carollia perspicillata (n=112, Sturnira lilium(n=46 e Desmodus rotundus (n=25 foram as mais capturadas. Na área aberta foram capturados 153 espécimes pertencentes a quatro famílias, Phyllostomidae, Noctilidae, Vespertilionidae e Molossidae, sendo registradas 10 espécies; Carollia perspicillata (n=52, Desmodus rotundus (n=39 e Artibeus lituratus (n=24 foram as mais capturadas. Observou-se maior diversidade na área florestada (Hʼ 1,812, onde devem existir mais recursos e abrigos, e, consequentemente mais proteção.
Fournier, Gislene Fátima da Silva Rocha; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Marcili, Arlei; Ramirez, Diego Garcia; Acosta, Igor Cunha Lima; Ferreira, Juliana Isabel Giuli da Silva; Cabral, Aline Diniz; Lima, Júlia Tereza Ribeiro de; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Gennari, Solange Maria
Toxoplasmosis stands out as a global disease that has felines as definitive hosts. In the municipality of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, two parks are notable for their ecological and social importance. This study aimed to investigate the presence of Toxoplasma gondii in short hair cats, bats and small non-volant mammals in these two ecological reserves. Altogether, biological samples were obtained from 154 mammals, 92 wild animals from both areas and 62 domestic cats of the Parque da Cidade. In total, 22 (53.7%) non-volant wild mammals, 11 (21.5%) bats and 28 (52.8%) cats were positive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies using the Modified Agglutination Test (≥ 25). It was possible to detect the presence of T. gondii DNA, by means of a molecular amplification of a B1 gene fragment (155bp), in 92 tissue samples from wild animals, including Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata and Glossophaga soricina. Of the 62 cats examined by the same molecular method, T. gondii DNA could be detected in 4 cats. In this study, it was observed the circulation of T. gondii in wild species and domestic cats, demonstrating the involvement of wild and domestic animals in the cycle of T. gondii.
Ayesha Ribeiro Pedrozo
Full Text Available This study recorded the bat species that occur on Santo Antônio dos Ipês Farm, in Jaú, SP, Brazil, studied the food items the bats consumed and analyzed bats for the rabies virus. Sampling was performed using mist nets, on twenty-one nights in five areas on the farm, between November 2009 and July 2011. After a capture effort of 18,217.5 m2.h, 580 bats and 16 species were netted. Sturnira lilium (n = 184 captures, Artibeus lituratus (n = 134 and Carollia perspicillata (n = 126 were the most abundant species. In addition, two individuals of Lasiurus ega were observed in their shelter, resulting in 17 sampled species. The most consumed food items were fruits of Solanaceae and Piperaceae and fruits of Muntingia calabura were less consumed. None of the 132 bats analyzed for rabies was positive. Santo Antônio dos Ipês Farm is an important area because it contains Reserva Ecológica Amadeu Botelho (a conservation unit, a unique remnant of semideciduous seasonal forest in the Jaú region that serves as refuge for wild animals, including bats.
Marilene Fernandes de Almeida
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bats are one of the most important reservoirs and vectors of the rabies virus in the world. METHODS: From 1988 to 2003, the Zoonosis Control Center in São Paulo City performed rabies diagnosis on 5,670 bats by direct immunofluorescent test and mouse inoculation test. Blood samples were collected from 1,618 bats and the sera were analyzed using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test to confirm rabies antibodies. RESULTS: Forty-four (0.8% bats were positive for rabies. The prevalence of rabies antibodies was 5.9% using 0.5IU/ml as a cutoff. Insectivorous bats (69.8% and bats of the species Molossus molossus (51.8% constituted the majority of the sample; however, the highest prevalence of antibodies were observed in Glossophaga soricina (14/133, Histiotus velatus (16/60, Desmodus rotundus (8/66, Artibeus lituratus (5/54, Nyctinomops macrotis (3/23, Tadarida brasiliensis (3/48, Carollia perspicillata (3/9, Eumops auripendulus (2/30, Nyctinomops laticaudatus (2/16, Sturnira lilium (2/17 and Eumops perotis (1/13. The prevalence of rabies antibodies was analyzed by species, food preference and sex. CONCLUSIONS: The expressive levels of antibodies associated with the low virus positivity verified in these bats indicate that rabies virus circulates actively among them.
Maurice E Thomas
Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli-like trypanosomes have been found in a variety of neotropical bat species. In this study, bats (Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Desmodus rotundus, Glossophaga soricina, Molossus molossus, Phyllostomus hastatus were maintained under controlled conditions, and experiments were conducted to determine how they might become infected naturally with trypanosomes. All bats were first screened for existing infections by hemoculture and the examination of blood smears, and only apparently uninfected animals were then used in the experiments. Proof was obtained that the triatomine bug Rhodnius prolixus would readily feed upon some of the bats, and two species became infected after being bitten by bugs infected with T. rangeli. Some bats also became infected by ingesting R. prolixus carrying T. cruzi, or following subcutaneous or intragastic inoculation with fecal suspensions of R. prolixus containing T. cruzi. P. hastatus became infected after ingesting mice carrying T. cruzi. All of the bats studied inhabit roosts that may be occupied by triatomine bugs and, with the exception of D. rotundus, all also feed to at least some extent upon insects. These findings provide further evidence of how bats may play significant roles in the epidemiology of T. cruzi and T. rangeli in the New World tropics.
Aguiar,Ludmilla Moura de Souza; Motta,Adarene; Esberárd,Carlos
In Brazil, there are two published references on the diet of American kestrel falcons, Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758, and one is for the Cerrado biome. The only mammal prey so far found in the diet of F. sparverius was the rodent Calomys tener (Winge, 1887). Herein we report on daily hunting activities by American kestrel falcons at a factory in the city of Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, during an attempt to remove a bat colony. Two American kestrel falcons were obs...
Smith, Thierry; Rana, Rajendra S.; Missiaen, Pieter; Rose, Kenneth D.; Sahni, Ashok; Singh, Hukam; Singh, Lachham
The geographic origin of bats is still unknown, and fossils of earliest bats are rare and poorly diversified, with, maybe, the exception of Europe. The earliest bats are recorded from the Early Eocene of North America, Europe, North Africa and Australia where they seem to appear suddenly and simultaneously. Until now, the oldest record in Asia was from the Middle Eocene. In this paper, we report the discovery of the oldest bat fauna of Asia dating from the Early Eocene of the Cambay Formation at Vastan Lignite Mine in Western India. The fossil taxa are described on the basis of well-preserved fragments of dentaries and lower teeth. The fauna is highly diversified and is represented by seven species belonging to seven genera and at least four families. Two genera and five species are new. Three species exhibit very primitive dental characters, whereas four others indicate more advanced states. Unexpectedly, this fauna presents strong affinities with the European faunas from the French Paris Basin and the German Messel locality. This could result from the limited fossil record of bats in Asia, but could also suggest new palaeobiogeographic scenarios involving the relative position of India during the Early Eocene.
Gunnell, Gregg F; Manthi, Fredrick K
Fossil bats from the Pliocene of Africa are extremely rare, especially in East Africa where meager records have been reported only from two localities in the Omo River Basin Shungura Formation and from a scattering of localities in the Afar Depression, both in Ethiopia. Here we report on a diverse assemblage of bats from Kanapoi in the Turkana Basin that date to approximately 4.19 million years ago. The Kanapoi bat community consists of four different species of fruit bats including a new genus and two new species as well as five species of echolocating bats, the most common of which are two new species of the molossid genus Mops. Additionally, among the echolocating bats, a new species of the emballonurid Saccolaimus is documented at Kanapoi along with an additional Saccolaimus species and a potentially new species of the nycterid Nycteris. Compared to other East African Pliocene bat assemblages, the Kanapoi bat community is unique in preserving molossids and curiously lacks any evidence of cave dwelling bats like rhinolophids or hipposiderids, which are both common at other East African sites. The bats making up the Kanapoi community all typically roost in trees, with some preferring deeper forests and larger trees (molossids), while the others (pteropodids, nycterids and emballonurids) roost in trees near open areas. Living fruit bats that are related to Kanapoi species typically forage for fruits along the margins of forests and in open savannah. The echolocating forms from Kanapoi consist of groups that aerially hawk for insects in open areas between patches of forest and along water courses. The habitats preferred by living relatives of the Kanapoi bats are in agreement with those constructed for Kanapoi based on other lines of evidence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kovaleva, I M
Study on the morphology and morphogenesis of wing membranes in Bats has revealed some peculiarities in their structure and development. Understanding the embryogenesis of these animals, as well as attraction of data obtained on their molecular genetics and paleontology, allows one to single out some factors that could have initiated evolutionary modifications in development programs. A scenario of the key morphofunctional transformations in the forelimbs during the evolution of chiropterans is given.
Morales-Malacara, J B; López, R
Four hundred nineteen arthropod ectoparasites were taken from Plecotus mexicanus (Vespertilionidae) collected in the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico: the insects Trichobius corynorhini Cockerell (Diptera: Streblidae) and Myodopsylla collinsi Kohls (Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae) and the mites Macronyssus longisetosus (Furman) and M. unidens Radovsky (Macronyssidae), Spinturnix sp. (Spinturnicidae), Pteracarus elegans Dusbádek & Wilson and Acanthophthirius (Myotimyobia) sp. (Myobiidae), and Whartonia glenni Brennan (Trombiculidae). P. mexicanus is reported in the state of Tlaxcala for the first time. This is the first survey of ectoparasites of this bat, and all parasite associations with P. mexicanus are new host records as well as new range records for Tlaxcala. This is the first report from Mexico; it records a major southern extension of the ranges of M. longisetosus, M. unidens, and P. elegans. The genus Acanthophthirius is also reported in Mexico for the first time.
Barragán, M J L; Martínez, S; Marchal, J A; Fernández, R; Bullejos, M; Díaz de la Guardia, R; Sánchez, A
This paper reports the molecular and cytogenetic characterization of a HindIII family of satellite DNA in the bat species Pipistrellus pipistrellus. This satellite is organized in tandem repeats of 418 bp monomer units, and represents approximately 3% of the whole genome. The consensus sequence from five cloned monomer units has an A-T content of 62.20%. We have found differences in the ladder pattern of bands between two populations of the same species. These differences are probably because of the absence of the target sites for the HindIII enzyme in most monomer units of one population, but not in the other. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) localized the satellite DNA in the pericentromeric regions of all autosomes and the X chromosome, but it was absent from the Y chromosome. Digestion of genomic DNAs with HpaII and its isoschizomer MspI demonstrated that these repetitive DNA sequences are not methylated. Other bat species were tested for the presence of this repetitive DNA. It was absent in five Vespertilionidae and one Rhinolophidae species, indicating that it could be a species/genus specific, repetitive DNA family.
Wu, Yi; Thong, Vu Dinh
A new species of the genus Rhinolophus is described from Yunnan Province, southwestern China. The new taxon belongs to the Rhinolophus "philippinensis-group" and is distinguished by differences in the nose-leaf structures, craniodental characteristics, and bacular features.
Curtis, Abigail A; Simmons, Nancy B
The mammalian nasal fossa contains a set of delicate and often structurally complex bones called turbinals. Turbinals and associated mucosae function in regulating respiratory heat and water loss, increasing surface area for olfactory tissue, and directing airflow within the nasal fossa. We used high-resolution micro-CT scanning to investigate a unique maxilloturbinal morphology in 37 species from the bat family Rhinolophidae, which we compared with those of families Hipposideridae, Megadermatidae, and Pteropodidae. Rhinolophids exhibit numerous structural modifications along the nasopharyngeal tract associated with emission of high duty cycle echolocation calls via the nostrils. In rhinolophids, we found that the maxilloturbinals and a portion of ethmoturbinal I form a pair of strand-like bony structures on each side of the nasal chamber. These structures project anteriorly from the transverse lamina and complete a hairpin turn to project posteriorly down the nasopharyngeal duct, and vary in length among species. The strand-like maxilloturbinals in Rhinolophidae were not observed in our outgroups and represent a synapomorphy for this family, and are unique in form among mammals. Within Rhinolophidae, maxilloturbinal size and cross-sectional shape were correlated with phylogeny. We hypothesize that strand-shaped maxilloturbinals may function to reduce respiratory heat and water loss without greatly impacting echolocation call transmission since they provide increased mucosal surface area for heat and moisture exchange but occupy minimal space. Alternatively, they may play a role in transmission of echolocation calls since they are located directly along the path sound travels between the larynx and nostrils during call emission. Anat Rec, 300:309-325, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Koubínová, D.; Sreepada, K. S.; Koubek, Petr; Zima, Jan
Roč. 12, č. 2 (2010), s. 393-400 ISSN 1508-1109 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093403; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : chromosomal evolution * karyosystematics * Robertsonian translocations Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.012, year: 2010
Idárraga, Liu; Wilson, Don Ellis
Abstract Background Myotis midastactus Moratelli and Wilson, 2014 (Vespertilionidae, Myotinae) was described from the Myotis simus Thomas, 1901 complex based on collections from the Bolivian Savannah. New information Four vouchers previously assigned to M. simus from the Alto Chaco in Paraguay (West of the Paraguay River) are reassigned here to M. midastactus. These specimens extend the geographic distribution of M. midastactus 1200 km southward, and constitute the first evidence of the species in the country. Based on other material from the Brazilian Pantanal and Cerrado, Central Paraguay and north-eastern Argentina, we also discuss the identity of simus-like populations south of the Amazon Basin. The status of these populations is still unclear, but the little evidence we have at hand indicates that these populations may represent another taxon—M. guaycuru Proença, 1943; whereas M. simus seems to be restricted to the Amazon basin. This hypothesis is still very speculative and requires further investigation. With the assignment of material from Alto Chaco to M. midastactus, seven species of Myotis are confirmed for Paraguay: M. albescens, M. lavali, M. levis, M. midastactus, M. nigricans, M. riparius, and M. ruber. PMID:26379462
Mario Hernando Contreras Vega
Full Text Available Se detectó la presencia de 11 especies del género Sturnira en Colombia (S. aratathomasi, S. bidens, S. bogotensis, S. erythromos, S. lilium, S. ludovici, S. magna, S. mordax, S. tildae y Sturnira mistratensis sp nov. En el presente estudio se evaluaron los caracteres corporales y cráneo mandibulares utilizados en la identificación y se examinaron nuevos caracteres morfológicos y morfométricos útiles en la identificación y se examinaron nuevos caracteres morfológicos y morfométricos útiles en la identificación de los taxones. Dentro de los nuevos caracteres, se resalta la utilidad de la morfología del primer molar inferior en la identificación de las especies. Los análisis de variación morfométrica identificaron pocas variables corporales y cráneo mandibulares cuantitativas significativas para separar los sexos, lo que permite asumir bajo dimorfismo sexual secundario para las especies de Sturnira en Colombia. De igual manera, el análisis de variación entre localidades (variación microgeográfica identificó pocas variables significativas, por lo que se asume mínima variación entre las localidades y por ende gran similaridad morfométrica entre los especimenes de las distintas localidades de cada especie. los valores propios del primer componente principal para las medidas de ala y cráneo fueron analizados en modelos de regresión lineal múltiple con variables geográficas, climáticas y corporales. La variación en la mayoría de especies fue explicada por las variables corporales. La distribución geográfica revela la presencia de S. magna y S. tildae en el oriente colombiano y la ubicación de las restantes especies hacia el centro-occidente de Colombia. Los datos de la distribución vertical permitieron ampliar los limites altitudinales para todas las especies de Sturnira. La distribución geográfica puntual reveló un alto número de localidades geográficas andinas con presencia simultánea (simpatría de especies de Sturnira.
Feijó, Anderson; Da Rocha, Patrício Adriano; Althoff, Sergio Luiz
Histiotus are vespertilionid bats endemic to South America, easily recognized by its very long ears. During a twelve-month bat inventory in northeastern Brazil, eleven specimens of Histiotus were collected with a unique combination of characters that did not match those of any known species. In this paper, we describe these specimens as a new species. Histiotus sp. nov is distinguished from its congeners by its pale transparent wings and translucent ears, a triangular-shaped ear with a prominent lobe in the inner border connected by a band (~4 mm) across the forehead; its general golden-brownish body color and well-marked bicolor dorsal hairs. Its geographic distribution is unique among vespertilionids, arranged in a northeast-southwest diagonal across South America, includes the Caatinga and Cerrado of Brazil and Chaco of Bolivia. The available data suggest a seasonal reproductive pattern, with births occurring in the mid to late rainy season.
Yob, J. M.; Field, H.; Rashdi, A. M.; Morrissy, C.; van der Heide, B.; Rota, P.; bin Adzhar, A.; White, J.; Daniels, P.; Jamaluddin, A.; Ksiazek, T.
Nipah virus, family Paramyxoviridae, caused disease in pigs and humans in peninsular Malaysia in 1998-99. Because Nipah virus appears closely related to Hendra virus, wildlife surveillance focused primarily on pteropid bats (suborder Megachiroptera), a natural host of Hendra virus in Australia. We collected 324 bats from 14 species on peninsular Malaysia. Neutralizing antibodies to Nipah virus were demonstrated in five species, suggesting widespread infection in bat populations in peninsular Malaysia. PMID:11384522
Moratelli, Ricardo; Wilson, Don E.; Gardner, Alfred; Fisher, Robert D.; Gutiérrez, Eliécer E.
We describe a new species of bat in the genus Myotis (Vespertilionidae: Myotinae) from the district of Sipaliwini, Suriname. The new species (Myotis clydejonesi sp. nov.), known from a single specimen, is sister to a clade of M. nigricans (Schinz) from southern South America, but differs from all Neotropical species of Myotis in qualitative and quantitative morphological characters and in its cytochrome-b gene sequence. Our findings also indicate that M. nigricans remains composite and provide support for restricting M. nigricans (sensu stricto) to southern South America.
Almeida, Brunna; Novaes, Roberto Leonan Morim; Aguieiras, Marcia; Souza, Renan de França; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo Lustosa; Geise, Lena
Lonchophylla Thomas, 1903 is a Neotropical bat genus that comprises 12 species, with little cytogenetic information available. Here we present the description of the karyotype of three species collected in Southeastern Brazil. Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978, Lonchophylla dekeyseri Taddei, Vizotto & Sazima, 1983, and Lonchophylla peracchii Dias, Moratelli & Esberard, 2013 showed the same diploid number 2n = 28 and the same autosomal fundamental number FNa = 50, in both Lonchophylla bokermanni and Lonchophylla peracchii. We observed that the karyotypes were also cytogenetically similar when we compared the studied species with other species within the same genus. It is therefore not possible to differentiate the species using only karyotypes with conventional staining. However, this information increases the knowledge of the genus and can be one more important character for a better phylogenetic comprehension of this taxon.
Ludmilla Moura de Souza Aguiar
Full Text Available In Brazil, there are two published references on the diet of American kestrel falcons, Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758, and one is for the Cerrado biome. The only mammal prey so far found in the diet of F. sparverius was the rodent Calomys tener (Winge, 1887. Herein we report on daily hunting activities by American kestrel falcons at a factory in the city of Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, during an attempt to remove a bat colony. Two American kestrel falcons were observed on 14 occasions during two consecutive days: in two of these occasions, they were hunting in pairs, from 12:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. on 06/X/2003, and from 07:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. on 07/X/2003. During this period, American kestrel falcons made 27 hunting attempts and captured four bats of the same species, Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1805 (14.81% success. This report corroborates observations made in the Northern hemisphere, where bats are a dietary item of this falcon. Our findings are noteworthy because they reveal that the known natural predators of bats are few not only in Brazil but also worldwide.
Albuja V., Luis; Gardner, Alfred L.
We describe Lonchophylla orcesi, sp. nov., from the Choco, a region of high biotic diversity, endemism, and rainfall along the western Andean slopes and Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador. One of the largest known Lonchophylla, it occurs sympatrically with at least two other species of Lonchophylla including the similar, but somewhat smaller L. robusta. We also recognize L. concava as a Middle American Province species distinct from L. mordax of Brazil and Bolivia on the basis of cranial and dental features.
Smith, Jillian D.L.; Gregory, T. Ryan
It has long been recognized that bats and birds contain less DNA in their genomes than their non-flying relatives. It has been suggested that this relates to the high metabolic demands of powered flight, a notion that is supported by the fact that pterosaurs also appear to have exhibited small genomes. Given the long-standing interest in this question, it is surprising that almost no data have been presented regarding genome size diversity among megabats (family Pteropodidae). The present study provides genome size estimates for 43 species of megabats in an effort to fill this gap and to test the hypothesis that all bats, and not just microbats, possess small genomes. Intriguingly, megabats appear to be even more constrained in terms of genome size than the members of other bat families. PMID:19324635
Cadena García Augusto Alberto; Contreras Vega Mario Hernando
Se detectó la presencia de 11 especies del género Sturnira en Colombia (S. aratathomasi, S. bidens, S. bogotensis, S. erythromos, S. lilium, S. ludovici, S. magna, S. mordax, S. tildae y Sturnira mistratensis sp nov). En el presente estudio se evaluaron los caracteres corporales y cráneo mandibulares utilizados en la identificación y se ex...
Novaes, Roberto Leonan Morim; Souza, Renan de França; Ribeiro, Edvandro Abreu; Siqueira, André Costa; Greco, Alexandre Verçosa; Moratelli, Ricardo
Myotis occurs from tropical to temperate regions throughout the globe, and it is the largest bat genus with more than 100 species. Most species are insect-eaters, but a few also feed on other invertebrates and fishes; there is no confirmed evidence of a plant item in their diet. During fieldwork in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, small seeds were retrieved from the feces of one adult female of the Black Myotis, Myotis nigricans-one of the most common Neotropical bats. In a germination experiment, 40% of those seeds grew into seedlings. Our findings are the first evidence of fruit consumption for any Myotis species. We reject a possible contamination because the cotton bag was never used before for bats. This study is the first evidence of frugivory in the genus Myotis.
Moratelli, Ricardo; Idárraga, Liu; Wilson, Don Ellis
Myotis midastactus Moratelli and Wilson, 2014 (Vespertilionidae, Myotinae) was described from the Myotis simus Thomas, 1901 complex based on collections from the Bolivian Savannah. Four vouchers previously assigned to M. simus from the Alto Chaco in Paraguay (West of the Paraguay River) are reassigned here to M. midastactus. These specimens extend the geographic distribution of M. midastactus 1200 km southward, and constitute the first evidence of the species in the country. Based on other material from the Brazilian Pantanal and Cerrado, Central Paraguay and north-eastern Argentina, we also discuss the identity of simus-like populations south of the Amazon Basin. The status of these populations is still unclear, but the little evidence we have at hand indicates that these populations may represent another taxon-M. guaycuru Proença, 1943; whereas M. simus seems to be restricted to the Amazon basin. This hypothesis is still very speculative and requires further investigation. With the assignment of material from Alto Chaco to M. midastactus, seven species of Myotis are confirmed for Paraguay: M. albescens, M. lavali, M. levis, M. midastactus, M. nigricans, M. riparius, and M. ruber.
The taxonomic history of Scotophilus borbonicus (E. Geoffroy, 1803) from Réunion Island is reviewed and summarised, with the designation of a lectotype. The insular form that it represents is considered conspecific with the small Scotophilus viridis (Peters, 1852) of southern Africa. As a result,
Full Text Available A reproductive colony of Phylloderma stenops was established in captivity. The bats were maintained in 1/2" wired screen cages sized 90 × 60 × 80 cm in a room with cycles of 13 hours of light and 11 hours of dark and with temperature and humidity ranging from 27 to 31 °C and 75 to 90% respectively. Bats were fed with a semi-liquid diet composed of chopped fruits, raw eggs, bovine meat, dog food, honey, dehydrated shrimp, salt and a vitamin and mineral complex offered daily. In the first two years of confinement the diet was complemented with laboratory-raised cockroaches, mealworms, young mice and seasonal fruits. Nine births occurred from three wild caught females 770-1050 days after capture and two captive-born females. Births occurred in September, February and November-December. The neonate measured 15.0 g of weight and present 34.1 mm of forearm length. Two captive-born females gave birth for the first time at 402-445 days of age. Phylloderma stenops species presents postpartum oestrus, gestation of 5.5 months, lactation of 3.3 months and sexual maturity at 8.0-8.5 months. Fetuses are palpable around two months before birth and females may present synchronisation of births.
Moratelli, Ricardo; Dewynter, Maël; Delaval, Marguerite; Catzeflis, François; Ruedi, Manuel
Myotis albescens occurs from Mexico southward to Uruguay and Argentina. The species is known for all South American countries except French Guiana and Chile. Based on one specimen recently collected in French Guiana we fill part of the gap in the distribution of the species in South America. Myotis albescens occurs in the Guiana Shield with other four congeners, from which it can be distinguished by external and skull traits. As an aid to future identifications, we provide a key to this assemblage.
Qian, Kenan; Yu, Danna; Cheng, Hongyi; Storey, Kenneth B; Zhang, Jiayong
The mitochondrial genome of Nyctalus noctula is a circular molecule of 17,478 bp in length, containing 22 transfer RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs and a D-loop region. The overall A + T content of the H-strand is 61.4% (A 32.0%, T 29.4%, C 24.1% and G 14.5%). Among the 13 protein-coding genes, most of them begin with ATG as the start codon except for ND5 with ATA and ND2 and ND3 with ATT. ND1 and ND2 genes terminate with TAG as the stop codon, Cyt b ends with AGA, COIII, ND3 and ND4 genes end with an incomplete stop codon (T- -) and the other protein-coding genes end with TAA. In Bayesian inference (BI) and Maximum likelihood (ML) trees, we found that N. noctula is a sister clade to Pipistrellus abramus, and (Nyctalus + Pipistrellus) is a sister clade to (Chalinolobus + (Eptesicus + Vespertilio)) (1.00 in BI and 100% in ML).
RUBÉN M. BARQUEZ
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seven new species of Myotis have been recently described from South America, elevating to 20 the total number of species of the genus recognized for the region. Myotis izecksohni and Myotis lavali were recently described from the States of Río de Janeiro, Paraná and Pernambuco, Brazil. These are clearly different from all other known species of the genus in their external and cranial characters, which are exactly comparable with our specimens collected in Argentina. This allows to greatly expand the known geographic distributions for these two species. The addition to Argentina of Myotis lavali with specimens collected in the Yungas ecoregion of Salta Province, and Myotis izecksohni with specimens collected in the Fields and Weedlands ecoregion of Misiones Province, increases the known ecoregions to date for the distribution of the two species.
Roč. 11, č. 2 (2000), s. 5-15 ISSN 0394-1914. [Italian Theriological Congress /2./. Varese, 28.10.1998-30.10.1998] R&D Projects: GA MŠk VS97102 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology http://www.italian-journal-of-mammalogy.it/include/getdoc.php?id=668&article=234&mode=pdf
Valdez, Ernest W.; Ritzi, Christopher M.; Whitaker, John O.
Only a single previous study has examined ectoparasites of the occult bat (Myotis occultus), from which only 2 species of fleas were identified. For our study, we examined 202 individuals, 52 fresh hosts and 150 museum specimens, from New Mexico and southern Colorado for ectoparasites. We recorded 2158 ectoparasites, 634 from fresh hosts and 1524 from museum specimens. Ectoparasites belonged to 10 families and 13 genera of insect or acari and represent new host and locality records. In general, ectoparasites collected from fresh hosts and museum specimens were represented by 4 major species of mite: Macronyssus crosbyi, Alabidocarpus calcaratus, Acanthophthirius lucifugus, and Alabidocarpus nr. eptesicus. From our study, we found fresh hosts to have significantly greater prevalence values for Myodopsylla gentilis (flea), Chiroptonyssus robustipes (mite), and Leptotrombidium myotis (chigger), whereas museum specimens had significantly greater prevalence values for A. calcaratus(mite) and A. nr. eptesicus (mite). There were no significant differences between prevalence values for 4 mites including M. crosbyi, A. lucifugus, Pteracarus nr. minutus, and Cryptonyssussp. Our study represents the only extensive study of ectoparasites on M. occultus and provides evidence for the importance of examining fresh hosts and museum specimens in future ectoparasite studies.
Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquin; Gardner, A.L.
In 1868, Wilhelm Peters described Glossonycteris lasiopyga, based on a specimen provided by Henri de Saussure and collected in Mexico. The type specimen was presumed to be among those housed in the collections of the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt Universitat in Berlin, Germany. Our study of one of Saussure?s specimens from Mexico, discovered in the collections of the Museum d?Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland, demonstrates that it and not one of the Berlin specimens is the holotype.
Benda, P.; Červený, J.; Konečný, Adam; Reiter, A.; Ševčík, M.; Uhrin, M.; Vallo, Peter
Roč. 41, - (2010), s. 151-166 ISSN 0024-7774 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bats * North Africa * Western Sahara * distribution * echolocation * Maghreb Subject RIV: EG - Zoology
João M. D. Miranda
Full Text Available The first record of Histiotus laephotis Thomas, 1916 from Brazil is reported here. An adult male was caught with a mist net in a barn located within an Araucaria pine forest in the municipality of Passos Maia, State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil (26º46'48"S and 52º03'34"W. This record extends the distribution of this species in South America. Morphological and taxonomic notes of this species are described as well.O primeiro registro de Histiotus laephotis Thomas, 1916 o Brasil é aqui reportado. Um macho adulto foi coletado com rede de neblina (em abrigo artificial nos domínios da Floresta com Araucária, no Município de Passos Maia, Estado de Santa Catarina, Sul do Brasil (26º46'48"S e 52º03'34"W. Este registro amplia a distribuição da própria espécie na América do Sul. Aspectos morfológicos e taxonômicos desta espécie são também descritos.
Becker, Daniel J; Chumchal, Matthew M; Broders, Hugh G; Korstian, Jennifer M; Clare, Elizabeth L; Rainwater, Thomas R; Platt, Steven G; Simmons, Nancy B; Fenton, M Brock
Mercury (Hg) is a persistent and widespread heavy metal with neurotoxic effects in wildlife. While bioaccumulation of Hg has historically been studied in aquatic food webs, terrestrial consumers can become contaminated with Hg when they feed on aquatic organisms (e.g., emergent aquatic insects, fish, and amphibians). However, the extent to which dietary connectivity to aquatic ecosystems can explain patterns of Hg bioaccumulation in terrestrial consumers has not been well studied. Bats (Order: Chiroptera) can serve as a model system for illuminating the trophic transfer of Hg given their high dietary diversity and foraging links to both aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Here we quantitatively characterize the dietary correlates of long-term exposure to Hg across a diverse local assemblage of bats in Belize and more globally across bat species from around the world with a comparative analysis of hair samples. Our data demonstrate considerable interspecific variation in hair total Hg concentrations in bats that span three orders of magnitude across species, ranging from 0.04 mg/kg in frugivorous bats (Artibeus spp.) to 145.27 mg/kg in the piscivorous Noctilio leporinus. Hg concentrations showed strong phylogenetic signal and were best explained by dietary connectivity of bat species to aquatic food webs. Our results highlight that phylogeny can be predictive of Hg concentrations through similarity in diet and how interspecific variation in feeding strategies influences chronic exposure to Hg and enables movement of contaminants from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marilene Fernandes de Almeida
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bats are one of the most important reservoirs and vectors of the rabies virus in the world. METHODS: From 1988 to 2003, the Zoonosis Control Center in São Paulo City performed rabies diagnosis on 5,670 bats by direct immunofluorescent test and mouse inoculation test. Blood samples were collected from 1,618 bats and the sera were analyzed using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test to confirm rabies antibodies. RESULTS: Forty-four (0.8% bats were positive for rabies. The prevalence of rabies antibodies was 5.9% using 0.5IU/ml as a cutoff. Insectivorous bats (69.8% and bats of the species Molossus molossus (51.8% constituted the majority of the sample; however, the highest prevalence of antibodies were observed in Glossophaga soricina (14/133, Histiotus velatus (16/60, Desmodus rotundus (8/66, Artibeus lituratus (5/54, Nyctinomops macrotis (3/23, Tadarida brasiliensis (3/48, Carollia perspicillata (3/9, Eumops auripendulus (2/30, Nyctinomops laticaudatus (2/16, Sturnira lilium (2/17 and Eumops perotis (1/13. The prevalence of rabies antibodies was analyzed by species, food preference and sex. CONCLUSIONS: The expressive levels of antibodies associated with the low virus positivity verified in these bats indicate that rabies virus circulates actively among them.INTRODUÇÃO: Morcegos são um dos mais importantes reservatórios e vetores do vírus da raiva no mundo. MÉTODOS: No período entre 1998 e 2003, o Centro de Controle de Zoonoses da Cidade de São Paulo realizou o diagnóstico de raiva em 5.670 morcegos utilizando as técnicas de imunofluorescência direta e inoculação intracerebral em camundongos. Sangue foi coletado de 1.618 espécimes para pesquisa de anticorpos pela técnica de inibição de foco de fluorescência rápida. RESULTADOS: Quarenta e quatro (0,8% morcegos foram positivos para raiva. A prevalência de anticorpos foi de 5,9% usando 0,5UI/ml como ponto de corte. Os morcegos de hábito alimentar inset
Elenice M.S. Cunha
Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the pathogenicity of rabies virus isolated from bats and dogs, and to verify the efficacy of a commercial rabies vaccine against these isolates. For evaluation of pathogenicity, mice were inoculated by the intramuscular route (IM with 500MICLD50/0.03mL of the viruses. The cross-protection test was performed by vaccinating groups of mice by the subcutaneous route and challenged through the intracerebral (IC route. Isolates were fully pathogenic when inoculated by the IC route. When inoculated intramuscularly, the pathogenicity observed showed different death rates: 60.0% for the Desmodus rotundus isolate; 50.0% for dog and Nyctinomops laticaudatus isolates; 40.0% for Artibeus lituratus isolate; 9.5% Molossus molossus isolate; and 5.2% for the Eptesicus furinalis isolate. Mice receiving two doses of the vaccine and challenged by the IC route with the isolates were fully protected. Mice receiving only one dose of vaccine were partially protected against the dog isolate. The isolates from bats were pathogenic by the IC route in mice. However, when inoculated through the intramuscular route, the same isolates were found with different degrees of pathogenicity. The results of this work suggest that a commercial vaccine protects mice from infection with bat rabies virus isolates, in addition to a canine rabies virus isolate.O estudo avaliou e comparou as propriedades patogênicas de cinco isolados do vírus da raiva de morcegos e um isolado do vírus da raiva de cão e analisou a eficácia de vacina comercial contra estes isolados, em camundongos. Para o estudo de patogenicidade camundongos foram inoculados pela via IM com 0,1 mL contendo 500MICLD50/0,03mL das amostras de vírus. Quando inoculados pela via IC, os isolados do vírus da raiva provocaram a morte de 100% dos camundongos. No entanto, 500MICLD50/0,03mL das mesmas amostras, inoculadas pela via IM, ocasionaram mortalidade de: 60,0% quando a amostra
Brun, Antonio; Price, Edwin R; Gontero-Fourcade, Manuel N; Fernandez-Marinone, Guido; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P; Karasov, William H; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique
Water-soluble nutrients are absorbed by the small intestine via transcellular and paracellular mechanisms. Based on a few previous studies, the capacity for paracellular nutrient absorption seems greater in flying mammals than in nonflying mammals, but there has been little investigation of the mechanisms driving this difference. Therefore, we studied three species each of bats (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium and Carollia perspicillata) and nonflying mammals (Akodon montensis, Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus). Using standard pharmacokinetic techniques in intact animals, we confirmed the greater paracellular nutrient absorption in the fliers, comparing one species in each group. Then we conducted in situ intestinal perfusions on individuals of all species. In both approaches, we measured the absorption of 3OMD-glucose, a nonmetabolizable glucose analog absorbed both paracellularly and transcellularly, as well as L-arabinose, which has no mediated transport. Fractional absorption of L-arabinose was three times higher in the bat (S. lilium: 1.2±0.24) than in the rodent (A. montensis: 0.35±0.04), whereas fractional absorption of 3OMD-glucose was complete in both species (1.46±0.4 and 0.97±0.12, respectively). In agreement, bats exhibited two to 12 times higher l-arabinose clearance per square centimeter nominal surface area than rodents in intestinal perfusions. Using L-arabinose, we estimated that the contribution of the paracellular pathway to total glucose absorption was higher in all three bats (109-137%) than in the rodents (13-39%). These findings contribute to an emerging picture that reliance on the paracellular pathway for nutrient absorption is much greater in bats relative to nonflying mammals and that this difference is driven by differences in intestinal permeability to nutrient-sized molecules. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Karin Corrêa Scheffer
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as espécies de morcegos envolvidas na manutenção do ciclo da raiva, verificar a distribuição do vírus da raiva em tecidos e órgãos de morcegos e os períodos de mortalidade dos camundongos inoculados. MÉTODOS: A positividade para o vírus da raiva foi avaliada por imunofluorescência direta em morcegos de municípios do Estado de São Paulo, de abril de 2002 a novembro de 2003. A distribuição do vírus nos morcegos foi avaliada pela inoculação de camundongos e infecção de células N2A, com suspensões a 20% preparadas a partir de fragmentos de diversos órgãos e tecidos, além de cérebro e glândula salivar. A mortalidade dos camundongos foi observada diariamente, após inoculação intracerebral. RESULTADOS: Dos 4.393 morcegos pesquisados, 1,9% foram positivos para o vírus da raiva, pertencentes a dez gêneros, com predomínio de insetívoros. A média do período máximo de mortalidade dos camundongos pós-inoculação a partir de cérebros e glândulas salivares de morcegos hematófagos foi de 15,33±2,08 dias e 11,33±2,30 dias; insetívoros, 16,45±4,48 dias e 18,91±6,12 dias; e frugívoros, 12,60±2,13 dias e 15,67±4,82 dias, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: As espécies infectadas com o vírus da raiva foram: Artibeus lituratus, Artibeus sp., Myotis nigricans, Myotis sp., Eptesicus sp., Lasiurus ega, Lasiurus cinereus, Nyctinomops laticaudatus, Tadarida brasiliensis, Histiotus velatus, Molossus rufus, Eumops sp. e Desmodus rotundus. A pesquisa de vírus em diferentes tecidos e órgãos mostrou-se que os mais apropriados para o isolamento foram cérebro e glândulas salivares.OBJECTIVE: To identify the species of bats involved in maintaining the rabies cycle; to investigate the distribution of the rabies virus in the tissues and organs of bats and the time taken for mortality among inoculated mice. METHODS: From April 2002 to November 2003, bats from municipalities in the State of São Paulo were
Full Text Available We studied the bat fauna of the Pantanal floodplain and its surrounding plateaus in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, based on the scientific collection at Universidade Anhanguera - Uniderp and on the Projeto Morcegos do Pantanal data bank at UFMS, comprising 9,037 captures of 56 species recorded from 1994 to 2007. The Pantanal surveys were carried out in the Nhecolândia, Aquidauana, Miranda, and Paraguai sub-regions; the uplands surveys took place in the Maracaju, Bodoquena, and Urucum formations. Bat specimens were mist-netted over 376 nights in 35 sites, predominantly near fruiting trees, bat shelters, and forest patches. In the floodplain 46 species were recorded (n = 6,292 individuals, and 44 species were found in the uplands (n = 2,745 individuals. Six families were recorded: Phyllostomidae (30 species, Molossidae (12 species, Verpertilionidae (nine species Noctilionidae (two species, Emballorunidae (two species and Mormoopidae (one species. The bat fauna was predominantly composed of insectivore (32 and frugivore (15 species. The frugivorous Artibeus planirostris (n = 3,101 individuals was the commonest species in floodplain and uplands. Other common species were Myotis nigricans (n = 762, Molossus molossus (n = 692, Noctilio albiventris (n = 681, Platyrrhinus lineatus (n = 633, Sturnira lilium (n = 461, Carollia perspicillata (n = 451, Glossophaga soricina (n = 436, Artibeus lituratus (n = 320, and Desmodus rotundus (n = 281. In the floodplain there were three insectivores among the most common species, contrasting with the uplands dominated by the frugivores. The diversity for the 35 sites assembled (H' = 2.5 is comparable to that recorded for tropical forests. The bat fauna presented here represents 34% of the Brazilian bat species, and 62% of species reported for the Upper Paraguay River Basin. Additionally, five species are reported for the first time in Mato Grosso do Sul.Estudamos a fauna de morcegos na planície do Pantanal e nos
Sylvia Ceppas Teixeira
Full Text Available A preliminary survey of bats species from the Serra da Tiririca State Park is presented. Two hundred and seventy two bats of 20 species were collected. Comments about reproduction and feeding habits of the captured species are included.
Nélio Roberto dos Reis
Full Text Available Due to the lack of information concerning mammals in the North of Paraná State, Brazil. a preliminary survey of bat species of the region of Londrina is presented. Three hundred and thirty four individuais of 18 species belonging to Phyllostomidae, Desmodontidae, Vespertilionidae and Molossidae families were collected. Data were gathered related to threir feeding habits, reproduction and time of achvity.
Full Text Available Background A wide range of microorganisms inhabit animal skin. This microbial community (microbiome plays an important role in host defense against pathogens and disease. Bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia are an ecologically and evolutionarily diversified group with a relatively unexplored skin microbiome. The bat skin microbiome could play a role in disease resistance, for example, to white nose syndrome (WNS, an infection which has been devastating North American bat populations. However, fundamental knowledge of the bat skin microbiome is needed before understanding its role in health and disease resistance. Captive neotropical frugivorous bats Artibeus jamaicensis and Carollia perspicillataprovide a simple controlled system in which to characterize the factors shaping the bat microbiome. Here, we aimed to determine the relative importance of habitat and host species on the bat skin microbiome. Methods We performed high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the skin microbiome of two different bat species living in captivity in two different habitats. In the first habitat, A. jamaicensis and C. perspicillata lived together, while the second habitat contained only A. jamaicensis. Results We found that both habitat and host species shape the composition and diversity of the skin microbiome, with habitat having the strongest influence. Cohabitating A. jamaicensis and C. perspicillata shared more similar skin microbiomes than members of the same species (A. jamaicensis across two habitats. Discussion These results suggest that in captivity, the skin microbial community is homogenised by the shared environments and individual proximities of bats living together in the same habitat, at the expense of the innate host species factors. The predominant influence of habitat suggests that environmental microorganisms or pathogens might colonize bat skin. We also propose that bat populations could differ in pathogen susceptibility depending on their immediate
Lemieux-Labonté, Virginie; Tromas, Nicolas; Shapiro, B Jesse; Lapointe, François-Joseph
A wide range of microorganisms inhabit animal skin. This microbial community (microbiome) plays an important role in host defense against pathogens and disease. Bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia) are an ecologically and evolutionarily diversified group with a relatively unexplored skin microbiome. The bat skin microbiome could play a role in disease resistance, for example, to white nose syndrome (WNS), an infection which has been devastating North American bat populations. However, fundamental knowledge of the bat skin microbiome is needed before understanding its role in health and disease resistance. Captive neotropical frugivorous bats Artibeus jamaicensis and Carollia perspicillataprovide a simple controlled system in which to characterize the factors shaping the bat microbiome. Here, we aimed to determine the relative importance of habitat and host species on the bat skin microbiome. We performed high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the skin microbiome of two different bat species living in captivity in two different habitats. In the first habitat, A. jamaicensis and C. perspicillata lived together, while the second habitat contained only A. jamaicensis. We found that both habitat and host species shape the composition and diversity of the skin microbiome, with habitat having the strongest influence. Cohabitating A. jamaicensis and C. perspicillata shared more similar skin microbiomes than members of the same species (A. jamaicensis) across two habitats. These results suggest that in captivity, the skin microbial community is homogenised by the shared environments and individual proximities of bats living together in the same habitat, at the expense of the innate host species factors. The predominant influence of habitat suggests that environmental microorganisms or pathogens might colonize bat skin. We also propose that bat populations could differ in pathogen susceptibility depending on their immediate environment and habitat.
Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Peralta-Rodríguez, Jorge Luis; Galindo-García, María Guadalupe; Jiménez, Francisco Agustín
A new species of nematode, Torrestrongylus tetradorsalis n. sp., is described herein, based on specimens recovered from the small intestine of the leaf-nosed bat, Macrotus waterhousii, from the Biosphere Reserve “Sierra de Huautla” in the state of Morelos, Mexico. The new species is included in Torrestrongylus because it features a bursa of the type 3 – 2, a divided cephalic vesicle with an anterior half in the shape of an umbrella, and a posterior widened half. The new species can be distinguished from the only other congener T. torrei Pérez-Vigueras, 1935 by four key features: first, by the absence of cervical alae in both males and females; second, by the relatively longer second half of the cephalic cap; third, by the configuration of the dorsal ray, that does not have a medial terminal ray, and finally, by the structure of the spicules. This is the second species in the genus, previously known from bats of the families Phyllostomidae and Molossidae in Cuba, and now in Mexico. PMID:26514594
Marcelo R. Nogueira
Full Text Available The Caatinga-endemic nectar-feeding bat, Xeronycteris vieirai Gregorin & Ditchfield, 2005 was described based on four specimens. Since then, only two additional specimens have been reported in the literature. Examination of a new specimen that closely agrees with the original description but presents two additional upper premolars, led us to review the type series of this taxon. Our analysis provided support to the recognition of the new specimen as a X. vieirai with supernumerary teeth and revealed new diagnostic characters that can help in the field identification of this species. Xeronycteris vieirai presents tricolored dorsal fur, entirely naked forearm, connection of the base of the spear of the noseleaf with the upper limit of the horseshoe with a marked ridge, and chin with simple dermal pads and a relatively slight cleft. Additional new characters described here include anterior zygomatic arches reduced and not extending laterally and upward with respect to upper toothrow, basioccipital pits deep and separated by a high and thin bone septum, and mandible with a pronounced ridge at anterior symphysis. We propose an emended diagnosis based on morphological characters and provide a rectification on the original notation related to the holotype.
Peters, Felipe; Roth, Paulo; Christoff, Alexandre
This paper presents seven new records of occurrence of Molossus rufus for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, three from the Atlantic Forest Biome and four from the Pampa Biome. The southern limit of the known geographical distribution of this species in Brazil is extended by 159 km.
Luz, Júlia Lins; Costa, Luciana de Moraes; Gomes, Luiz Antonio Costa; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo Lustosa
In the present study, we investigated the prevalence and intensity of Hectopsylla pulex infection in Molossus rufus and Molossus molossus, the parasite's choice of attachment site, and whether this host-parasite system varies with host size. Twenty-four bats were captured by hand from the roof of a house in Southeastern Brazil. M. rufus exhibited a prevalence of 71.4% and the mean intensity averaged 5 ectoparasites per bat. M. molossus exhibited a prevalence of 90%, and the average mean intensity was 2.11 ectoparasites. The attachment sites were: ear, tragus, shoulder blade and tibia, anus, wing, axilla, mouth and dactylopatagium. A positive correlation was observed between the bats' weight and the number of fleas.
Hernández Camacho Jorge
Full Text Available Hace algún tiempo el doctor Jorge Boshell Manrique capturó un ejemplar de murciélago del género Diclidurus cuyos caracteres indican que aparentemente corresponde a una especie previamente no descrita. Por primera vez se registra así la presencia de este género en Colombia, del cual se reconocen actualmente otras dos especies: D. albus (1, cuya distribución conocida comprende las Guayanas y el Brasil (Estados de Amazonas, Baía y Espirito Santo, y D. virgo (2 repartida a través de Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica y Panamá, lo cual hacia indudable la presencia de este género en territorio colombiano. Además es muy posible que la distribución de D, albus comprenda la Orinoquia y la Amazonía colombiana. y por tanto coexista dicha especie con D, ingens en la Alta Amazonia.
Full Text Available Phyllostomus hastatus bat is species broadly distributed over the Neotropical region, which uses as diurnal roosts caves, hollow trees, palm leaves and human buildings. Thirteen diurnal roosts of P. hastatus were analysed from 1990 to 2009 in several localities of Rio de Janeiro State, regarding environment (rural, urban or protected area, type of roost (hollow tree, basement or roof, sex ratio and cohabitation. A nocturnal roost was also analysed. Sex ratio of P. hastatus varied considerably among roosts what may be explained by the fact this species can roost alone, in couples, in harems or in groups of bachelor males. Phyllostomus hastatus was observed in cohabitation with three other species: Molossus rufus, Molossus molossus and Myotis nigricans. Due to the frequency of cohabitation observed between P. hastatus and species of the genus Molossus, one or more advantages for the members of this association may be expected. The simultaneous usage of a feeding roost by a group of bachelor males is unknown information in the literature, and may suggest that this kind of group may interact with each other even when away from their diurnal roosts.
Vallo, Peter; Guillén-Servent, A.; Benda, P.; Pires, D. B.; Koubek, Petr
Roč. 10, č. 2 (2008), s. 193-206 ISSN 1508-1109 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : leaf-nosed bats * Africa * cryptic species * cytochrome b * molecular systematics * phylogeny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.825, year: 2008
Míšek, Ivan; Witter, K.
Roč. 89, - (2002), s. 1-6 ISSN 0043-535X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP304/01/P021; GA ČR GA304/02/0448; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : large mouse-eared * odontogenesis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.258, year: 2002
van Cakenberghe, V.; de Vree, F.; Leirs, Herwig
The collection of vertebrates made in Kikwit in the aftermath of the 1995 Ebola haemorrhagic fever epidemic included 538 bat specimens, representing 18 species. This collection contains large numbers of a very common species, Chaerephon pumila, but also of Chaerephon ansorgei, which was not yet...
Tatiana C. Pesenti
Full Text Available Tadarida brasiliensis (Geoffroy, 1824, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an insectivorous bat that occurs from southern United States of America to southern South America. In this study we present the first data on diversity of ectoparasitic mites of T. brasiliensis in Brazil. A compilation and analysis of the studies of mite diversity conducted in different points the geographic distribution this bat species are provided. The mites were collected from March 2010 to November 2011 on 160 T. brasiliensis adult bats captured in southern Brazil. Four species of mites have been found: Chiroptonyssus robustipes (Ewing, 1925, Ewingana longa (Ewing, 1938, Ewingana inaequalis (Radford, 1948, and specimens of Cheyletidae. Chiroptonyssus robustipes was the most prevalent species (100%, followed by E. longa (20%, E. inaequalis (10%, and specimens of Cheyletidae (1.25%. The data currently available show that C. robustipes parasitizes T. brasiliensis throughout its region of occurrence, and this mite is highly prevalent and abundant. The two species of Ewingana accompany the geographical distribution of T. brasiliensis, but with much lower prevalence and abundance.
Full Text Available A limited number of studies have focused on the population genetic structure of vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus in America. This medium-sized bat is distributed in tropical areas of the continent with high prevalence in forested livestock areas. The aim of this work was to characterize the vampire population structure and their genetic differentiation. For this, we followed standard methods by which live vampires (caught by mist-netting and preserved material from scientific collections, were obtained for a total of 15 different locations, ranging from Chihuahua (North to Quintana Roo (Southeast. Tissue samples were obtained from both live and collected animals, and the genetic differentiation, within and among localities, was assessed by the use of seven microsatellite loci. Our results showed that all loci were polymorphic and no private alleles were detected. High levels of heterozygosis were detected when the proportion of alleles in each locus were compared. Pairwise F ST and R ST detected significant genetic differentiation among individuals from different localities. Our population structure results indicate the presence of eleven clusters, with a high percentage of assigned individuals to some specific collecting site. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (2: 659-669. Epub 2014 June 01.
Carter, A M; Goodman, S M; Enders, A C
The reproductive tract was examined in four non-pregnant and two gravid specimens of Myzopoda. The ovaries had little interstitial tissue. The uterus was bicornuate and the lenticular placental disk was situated mesometrially in one horn. The interhaemal barrier of the placental labyrinth was of ...
Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Patrício, Priscilla Maria Peixoto; Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Dias, Renan Medeiros; Famadas, Kátia Maria
Because of the few records of Streblidae on bats, despite extensive study on these mammals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, a survey was carried out in an area of Atlantic Forest, in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, known as the Tinguá region. Thirteen species were added to the list of Streblidae in the state of Rio de Janeiro, of which two were new records for Brazil. Thirty-one species have now been reported this state.
Moreno-Brush, Mónica; Portillo, Alejandro; Brändel, Stefan Dominik; Storch, Ilse; Tschapka, Marco; Biester, Harald
In the southeastern Peruvian Amazon, artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is estimated to have released up to 300 tonnes of mercury (Hg) to the environment between 1995 and 2007 alone, and is claimed to be responsible for Hg concentrations above international thresholds for aquatic wildlife species. Here, we examined whether Hg concentrations in bat populations are potentially related to regional ASGM-Hg releases. We determined Hg concentrations in the fur of bats collected at three different distances from the major ASGM areas in Peru. Our findings from 204 individuals of 32 species indicate that Hg concentrations in bat fur mainly resulted from differences in feeding habits, because Hg concentrations were significantly higher in omnivorous bats than in frugivorous bats. At least in two species, populations living in ASGM-affected sites harbored higher Hg concentrations than did populations in unaffected sites. Because Hg concentrations reflect Hg dietary exposure, Hg emissions from amalgam roasting sites appear to deposit locally and enter the terrestrial food web. Although our study demonstrates that ASGM activities (and Hg point sources) increase Hg exposure in wildlife, the overall Hg concentrations reported here are relatively low. The measured Hg concentrations were below the toxicity threshold at which adverse neurological effects have been reported in rodents and mink (>10 µg g -1 ), and were in the range of Hg concentrations in the fur of bats from nonpoint source affected sites in other latitudes. This study emphasizes the importance of considering feeding habits when evaluating Hg concentrations in bats and other vertebrates.
Lord, Jennifer S; Parker, Steve; Parker, Fiona; Brooks, Darren R
Although bats are one of the most successful and diverse of mammalian orders, studies that focus upon bat endoparasites are limited. To further knowledge of bat parasitology, pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus) were acquired from across the Greater Manchester and Lancashire region of England and examined for gastrointestinal helminths using morphological and molecular analyses. Sixty-eight of 90 adult/juvenile bats (76% prevalence) were infected with at least 1 species of helminth and mean helminth abundance was 48·2 (+/-7·0). All helminths were digenean trematodes and the following species were identified in 51 P. pipistrellus specimens (prevalence in parentheses): Lecithodendrium linstowi (80·4%), L. spathulatum (19·6%), Prosthodendrium sp. (35·3%), Plagiorchis koreanus (29·4%) and Pycnoporus heteroporus (9·8%). Statistical analyses, incorporating multifactorial models, showed that male bats exhibited a significantly more aggregated helminth distribution and lower abundance than females. Positive associations were observed between L. linstowi and L. spathulatum, Prosthodendrium sp. and P. heteroporus and between L. spathulatum and P. koreanus. A revised phylogeny of bat-associated Lecithodendriidae, incorporating novel L. spathulatum and Prosthodendrium sp. 28S rRNA sequences, separated the controversial clade formed by L. linstowi and P. hurkovaae. Further studies are likely to assist the understanding of bat-parasite/pathogen relationships, helminth infracommunity structures and phylogenetics.
Ruedi, Manuel; Friedli-Weyeneth, Nicole; Teeling, Emma C; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Goodman, Steven M
Extant bats of the genus Emballonura have a trans-Indian Ocean distribution, with two endemic species restricted to Madagascar, and eight species occurring in mainland southeast Asia and islands in the western Pacific Ocean. Ancestral Emballonura may have been more widespread on continental areas, but no fossil identified to this genus is known from the Old World. Emballonura belongs to the subfamily Emballonurinae, which occurs in the New and Old World. Relationships of all Old World genera of this subfamily, including Emballonura and members of the genera Coleura from Africa and western Indian Ocean islands and Mosia nigrescens from the western Pacific region, are previously unresolved. Using 1833 bp of nuclear and mitochondrial genes, we reconstructed the phylogenetic history of Old World emballonurine bats. We estimated that these lineages diverged around 30 million years ago into two monophyletic sister groups, one represented by the two taxa of Malagasy Emballonura, Coleura and possibly Mosia, and the other by a radiation of Indo-Pacific Emballonura, hence, rendering the genus Emballonura paraphyletic. The fossil record combined with these phylogenetic relationships suggest at least one long-distance dispersal event across the Indian Ocean, presumably of African origin, giving rise to all Indo-Pacific Emballonura species (and possibly Mosia). Cladogenesis of the extant Malagasy taxa took place during the Quaternary giving rise to two vicariant species, E. atrata in the humid east and E. tiavato in the dry west. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oleg N. Artaev
Full Text Available This article presents the specific structure and distribution of the bats made in the territory of the Republic of Mordovia (Central Russia from the first half of the 20th century to the present. Occurence, relative abundance and patterns of distribution are briefly assessed for rare species. On this base, recommendations for inclusion these bats in the regional Red Data Book are presented. .In Mordovia twelve species of bats have been observed. There are widespread and numerous species: Pipistrellus nathusii, Myotis daubentonii, M. dasycneme, Nyctalus noctula and Vespertilio murinus. Widespread but less numerous species are: Myotis brandtii and Plecotus auritus. Finally, rare species are: Myotis nattereri, Nyctalus lasiopterus, N. leisleri, Pipistrellus pygmaeus and P. kuhlii.
Kamani, Joshua; Baneth, Gad; Mitchell, Mark; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Harrus, Shimon
Previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. To date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in bats and bat flies from Nigeria, despite the fact that bats are used as food and for cultural ritual purposes by some ethnic groups in Nigeria. To elucidate the role of bats as reservoirs of bartonellae, we screened by molecular methods 148 bats and 34 bat flies, Diptera:Hippoboscoidea:Nycteribiidae (Cyclopodia greeffi) from Nigeria for Bartonella spp. Overall, Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in 76 out of 148 (51.4%) bat blood samples tested and 10 out of 24 (41.7%) bat flies tested by qPCR targeting the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus. Bartonella was isolated from 23 of 148 (15.5%) bat blood samples, and the isolates were genetically characterized. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. culture-positive samples ranged from 0% to 45.5% among five bat species. Micropterus spp. bats had a significantly higher relative risk of 3.45 for being culture positive compared to Eidolon helvum, Epomophorus spp., Rhinolophus spp., and Chaerephon nigeriae. Bartonella spp. detected in this study fall into three distinct clusters along with other Bartonella spp. isolated from bats and bat flies from Kenya and Ghana, respectively. The isolation of Bartonella spp. in 10.0-45.5% of four out of five bat species screened in this study indicates a widespread infection in bat population in Nigeria. Further investigation is warranted to determine the role of these bacteria as a cause of human and animal diseases in Nigeria.
Shen, Bin; Fang, Tao; Yang, Tianxiao; Jones, Gareth; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi
Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid) catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats) formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet.
Cabral, A D; Gama, A R; Sodré, M M; Savani, E S M M; Galvão-Dias, M A; Jordão, L R; Maeda, M M; Yai, L E O; Gennari, S M; Pena, H F J
There are currently no reports on the isolation and molecular examination of Toxoplasma gondii from bats. Here, we report the isolation and genotypic characterisation of two T. gondii isolates from bats. A total of 369 bats from different municipalities in São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, were captured and euthanised, and collected tissues (heart and pectoral muscle) were processed for each bat or in pools of two or three bats and bioassayed in mice (a total of 283 bioassays). Eleven PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers were used to genotype positive samples: SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and alt. SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-2, PK1, CS3 and Apico. The parasite was isolated from two bats from São Paulo city: an insectivorous bat, the velvety free-tailed bat Molossus molossus, and a hematophagous bat, the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Isolates were designated TgBatBr1 and TgBatBr2, respectively. The genotype of the isolate from M. molossus (TgBatBr1) has been previously described in an isolate from a capybara from São Paulo state, and the genotype from the D. rotundus isolate (TgBatBr2) has already been identified in isolates from cats, chickens, capybaras, sheep, a rodent and a common rabbit from different Brazilian states, suggesting that this may be a common T. gondii lineage circulating in some Brazilian regions. Isolation of T. gondii from a hematophagous species is striking. This study reveals that bats can share the same isolates that are found in domesticated and wild terrestrial animals. This is the first report of the isolation and genotyping of T. gondii in chiropterans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Li; Li, Gang; Wang, Jinhong; Ye, Shaohui; Jones, Gareth; Zhang, Shuyi
Gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43), encoded by the GJA1 gene, is the most abundant connexin in the cardiovascular system and was reported as a crucial factor maintaining cardiac electrical conduction, as well as having a very important function in facilitating the recycling of potassium ions from hair cells in the cochlea back into the cochlear endolymph during auditory transduction processes. In mammals, bats are the only taxon possessing powered flight, placing exceptional demand on many organismal processes. To meet the demands of flying, the hearts of bats show many specialties. Moreover, ultrasonic echolocation allows bat species to orientate and often detect and locate food in darkness. In this study, we cloned the full-length coding region of GJA1 gene from 12 different species of bats and obtained orthologous sequences from other mammals. We used the maximum likelihood method to analyse the evolution of GJA1 gene in mammals and the lineage of bats. Our results showed this gene is much conserved in mammals, as well as in bats' lineage. Compared with other mammals, we found one private amino acid substitution shared by bats, which is located on the inner loop domain, as well as some species-specific amino acid substitutions. The evolution rate analyses showed the signature of purifying selection on not only different classification level lineages but also the different domains and amino acid residue sites of this gene. Also, we suggested that GJA1 gene could be used as a good molecular marker to do the phylogenetic reconstruction.
Velazco, Paúl M; Patterson, Bruce D
The Yellow-shouldered bats, Genus Sturnira, are widespread, diverse, and abundant throughout the Neotropical Region, but little is known of their phylogeny and biogeography. We collected 4409 bp of DNA from three mitochondrial (cyt-b, ND2, D-loop) and two nuclear (RAG1, RAG2) sequences from 138 individuals representing all but two recognized species of Sturnira and five other phyllostomid bats used as outgroups. The sequence data were subjected to maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses. Results overwhelmingly support the monophyly of the genus Sturnira but not continued recognition of Corvira as a subgenus; the two species (bidens and nana) allocated to that group constitute separate, basal branches on the phylogeny. A total of 21 monophyletic putatively species-level groups were recovered; pairs were separated by an average 7.09% (SD=1.61) pairwise genetic distance in cyt-b, and three of these groups are apparently unnamed. Several well-supported clades are evident, including a complex of seven species formerly confused with S. lilium, a species that is actually limited to the Brazilian Shield. We used four calibration points to construct a time-tree for Sturnira, using BEAST. Sturnira diverged from other stenodermatines in the mid-Miocene, and by the end of that epoch (5.3 Ma), three basal lineages were present. Most living species belong to one of two clades, A and B, which appeared and diversified shortly afterwards, during the Pliocene. Both parsimony (DIVA) and likelihood (Lagrange) methods for reconstructing ancestral ranges indicate that the radiation of Sturnira is rooted in the Andes; all three basal lineages (in order, bidens, nana, and aratathomasi) have strictly or mainly Andean distributions. Only later did Sturnira colonize the Pacific lowlands (Chocó) and thence Central America. Sturnira species that are endemic to Central America appeared after the final emergence of the Panamanian landbridge ~3 Ma. Despite its ability to fly and to colonize the Antilles overwater, this genus probably accompanied the "legions" of South American taxa that moved overland during the Great American Biotic Interchange. Its eventual colonization of the Lesser Antilles and the appearance of two endemic lineages there did not take place until the Pleistocene. Because of its continual residence and diversification in South America, Andean assemblages of Sturnira contain both basal and highly derived members of the genus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Nudacotyle carollia sp. nov. (Trematoda, Nudacotylidae is described on the basis of specimens from the intestinal tracts of three Colombian bats of the species Carollia perspicillata L. The new species resembles both of the genera of the family, Nudacotyle and Neocotyle, in the general position of the organs and in having a vertical cleft. It differs from Nudacotyle in the position of the ovary and cirrus sac and in the lenth of the ceca. The new species differs from Neocotyle in the shape of the body and the vitelline lobes and in the length of the ceca. The ventral cleft is considered to be an important generic character which can be used to unit all the species of both genera in the single genus, Nudacotyle.
Chen, Yao; Shen, Bin; Zhang, Junpeng; Jones, Gareth; He, Guimei
Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae) ingest significant quantities of ethanol while foraging. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2, encoded by the Aldh2 gene) plays an important role in ethanol metabolism. To test whether the Aldh2 gene has undergone adaptive evolution in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats in relation to ethanol elimination, we sequenced part of the coding region of the gene (1,143 bp, ~73 % coverage) in 14 bat species, including three Old World fruit bats and two New World fruit bats. Our results showed that the Aldh2 coding sequences are highly conserved across all bat species we examined, and no evidence of positive selection was detected in the ancestral branches leading to Old World fruit bats and New World fruit bats. Further research is needed to determine whether other genes involved in ethanol metabolism have been the targets of positive selection in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats.
van Cakenberghe, V.; de Vree, F.; Leirs, Herwig
The collection of vertebrates made in Kikwit in the aftermath of the 1995 Ebola haemorrhagic fever epidemic included 538 bat specimens, representing 18 species. This collection contains large numbers of a very common species, Chaerephon pumila, but also of Chaerephon ansorgei, which was not yet...... reported in such large numbers. Other rather common African bat species - e.g. Pipistrellus nanus - are represented with two specimens only. Surprisingly, some rare species were found to be present in the collection: e.g. Casinycteris argynnis, Miniopterus minor, Myopterus whitleyi, especially when...
PABLO J. GAUDIOSO
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here we present detailed descriptions and comparisons of the axial skeleton of seven species of bats belonging to five subfamilies of Phyllostomidae of different trophic guilds. The material examined consisted of 34 complete skeletons of seven species. For five of the studied species, previous descriptions have not been conducted, and for the vampires only limited information is available, so that descriptions for these species are here completed. The axial skeleton has characters that allow grouping of the species phylogenetically of the same subfamily and by feeding habits. At the same time, there are characters that associate species from different subfamilies with different types of diet or ways to obtain food.
I. L Rautenbach
Full Text Available On a recent collecting expedition in the Kruger National Park, the occurrence of seven species of small mammals (one shrew and six bats within the confines of this sanctuary was confirmed for the first time. One species (Pipistrellus rusticus is reported for the first time from within the borders of the Transvaal, whereas another species (Myotis bocagei is reported for the first time for the Republic of South Africa. The seven species are briefly discussed and the collections where the specimens have been accessioned are indicated.
Sotero-Caio, C G; Pieczarka, J C; Nagamachi, C Y; Gomes, A J B; Lira, T C; O'Brien, P C M; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Souza, M J; Santos, N
Substantial effort has been made to elucidate karyotypic evolution of phyllostomid bats, mostly through comparisons of G-banding patterns. However, due to the limited number of G-bands in respective karyotypes and to the similarity of non-homologous bands, an accurate evolutionary history of chromosome segments remains questionable. This is the case for vampire bats (Desmodontinae). Despite several proposed homologies, banding data have not yet provided a detailed understanding of the chromosomal changes within vampire genera. We examined karyotype differentiation of the 3 species within this subfamily using whole chromosomal probes from Phyllostomus hastatus (Phyllostominae) and Carollia brevicauda (Carolliinae). Painting probes of P. hastatus respectively detected 22, 21 and 23 conserved segments in Diphylla ecaudata, Diaemus youngi, and Desmodus rotundus karyotypes, whereas 27, 27 and 28 were respectively detectedwith C. brevicauda paints. Based on the evolutionary relationships proposed by morphological and molecular data, we present probable chromosomal synapomorphies for vampire bats and propose chromosomes that were present in the common ancestor of the 5 genera analyzed. Karyotype comparisons allowed us to relate a number of conserved chromosomal segments among the 5 species, providing a broader database for understanding karyotype evolution in the family. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Comparación de la morfología alar de Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae y Myotis chiloensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae, representantes de dos diferentes patrones de vuelo Comparison of the wing morphology of Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae and Myotis chiloensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae as representatives of two flight patterns
Full Text Available La morfología alar de los quirópteros se encuentra relacionada por una parte con la biomecánica y energética del vuelo y por otra parte con aspectos ecológicos y conductuales (i.e., patrón de vuelo, conducta de forrajeo y selección de hábitat y de presas. En este trabajo se compara la morfometría alar de Tadarida brasiliensis (Molossidae y Myotis chiloensis (Vespertilionidae, representantes de diferentes patrones de vuelo, buscando compromisos entre la morfometría alar y aspectos ecológicos y conductuales. Nuestros resultados muestran que T. brasiliensis es un murciélago más robusto, de mayor envergadura, pero con un área alar similar a la de M. chiloensis. Esta última especie tiene una menor variabilidad en su masa y área cortical del húmero, que probablemente se encuentre relacionada con restricciones mecánicas y energéticas impuestas por su diseño. Descontando el efecto de la masa se detectaron diferencias en el diámetro externo y diámetro medular del húmero con una similar área cortical. El húmero de T. brasiliensis es un hueso de similar longitud, más ancho y con un menor grosor cortical que el de M. chiloensis, lo que está relacionado con una mayor resistencia a las fuerzas de flexión y torsión. Las características alares son consistentes con los modos de vida de cada murciélago: vuelos lentos, cortos y maniobrables en zonas arbustivas de M. chiloensis y vuelo veloz y de grandes distancias en espacios abiertos de T. brasiliensisWing morphology is related by one hand to biomechanical properties and energetics of flying, and on the other hand to ecological and behavioral aspects of flying, such as flight pattern, foraging behavior, habitat selection and size of prey. In this work we compare the wing morphology of Tadarida brasiliensis (Molossidae and Myotis chiloensis (Vespertilionidae, as representatives of two flight patterns, and looking for trade-offs between wing morphology, ecology and behavior. Our results showed that T. brasiliensis is larger and with higher wing span than M. chiloensis, although the wing area does not differ between these bats. The latter species showed a smaller variability in body mass and cortical area of humerus, probably related with mechanic and energetic constraints. Without size effect, there were differences in the external diameter and medullar diameter of humerus, but with a similar cortical area. The humerus of T. brasiliensis is a bone of similar length, wider and with smaller cortical thickness than in M. chiloensis, which is related to a higher resistance to bending and torsional forces. The wing shape found in each bat is in agree with the life mode: slow, short and manoeuvrable flight in wooded zones of M. chiloensis and fast and long distance flight in open areas of T. brasiliensis
Bueno, Larissa M; Beguelini, Mateus R; Comelis, Manuela T; Taboga, Sebastião R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana
Studies have shown that the annual reproductive cycle of Eptesicus furinalis includes at least one period of total testicular regression. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate their reproductive cycle ultrastructurally. The annual reproductive cycle was divided into four periods: active, regressing, regressed and recrudescence. The active period was similar to that of other bats, including the completion of spermatogenesis with three main types of spermatogonia (Ad, Ap and B) and 12 steps in the process of spermatid differentiation. However, its spermatozoa differed in that outer dense fibers 1, 5, 6 and 9 are larger than the others and due to the presence of what is likely a probably genera-specific bulging in the anterior portion. In the regressing period, Sertoli cell nuclei migrate to the basal compartment with the nuclei close to the basal lamina. The basal compartment had a more compact appearance than the adluminal compartment, with relaxed cellular connections. In the regressed period, spermatogenesis ceased; the seminiferous epithelium was composed only of Sertoli cells and three types of spermatogonia: types Ad, 1 and 2. In the recrudescence period, spermatogenesis restarted, with the process of reactivation divided into three phases: early, medial and late recrudescence. In conclusion, our study described the process of spermatogenesis and the ultrastructure of the spermatozoa and confirmed the presence of a process of total testicular regression in the annual cycle of E. furinalis. We characterize distinct morphologic variations in the ultrastructure of the testicular cells during the four different periods of the annual reproductive cycle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Arriaga–Flores, J. C.
Full Text Available Species’ spatial distribution patterns allow us to understand the establishment of different biotic components in different environmental conditions. This study analyzes the spatial distribution of the Phyllostomidae family in Mexico to identify groups of species that occur in similar sites, the environmental conditions associated with species distribution, and the percent of overlap with human–modified areas. The results suggest six groups of sites with particular species composition. The spatial variation in richness pattern was associated with species tolerance to environmental conditions, such as minimum temperature and tree cover. The convergence between species distribution and modified areas varied per species feeding guild. Insectivorous and nectarivorous bats were sensitive species because they occurred in narrow environmental conditions and their distributions overlapped with areas modified by human activities. The approach implemented here analyzes regional species distributions and estimates their environmental requirements, contributing to the development of optimal conservation strategies for susceptible bat species.
José Luís García-García
Full Text Available The fruit-eating bat, Dermanura tolteca, has a broad geographic distribution in Mexico and it is a very important seed dispersal of Neotropical plants. Nonetheless, information on the biology of this bat species is scarce, especially with regard to demography. We studied some ecological aspects and population dynamics of D. tolteca from Southeastern Mexican State of Oaxaca. The study was conducted in a perennial tropical forest, over a period of 80 nights, a sampling effort of 73 200 mist-net-hour, from May 2006 to August 2007. A total of 176 specimens were captured, 98 females and 78 males. Population size was estimated in 237 individuals in the study area, with a greater number during rainy season. The population density of this bat, in its range of distribution in Mexico is low compared to other nose-leaf bats. Captures were correlated with monthly precipitation, and this result may be linked to food resources abundance in tropical and subtropical areas. The reproductive pattern was bimodal polyestrous, with birth periods between August-September and April-June. Greater body mass was observed in females than males. The male-female ratio and age-related demographics were similar to other noseleaf bats. The biological characteristics of D. tolteca are typical of nose-leaf bats of the family Phyllostomidae. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1323-1334. Epub 2010 December 01.El murciélago Dermanura tolteca presenta una amplia distribución geográfica en México y es un importante dispersor de semillas de una variedad de plantas neotropicales. Sin embargo la información biológica sobre este murciélago es escasa, especialmente en aspectos demográficos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue documentar la dinámica poblacional y varios aspectos ecológicos de la especie. El trabajo fue conducido entre mayo 2006 y agosto 2007 en un bosque tropical perennifolio en el estado de Oaxaca, sureste de México, durante 80 noches, con un esfuerzo de muestreo total de 73 200m² de red-hora. Se capturaron 187 individuos, 98 hembras y 78 machos. Se estimó el tamaño poblacional en 237 individuos, con un mayor número en la época lluviosa. Las capturas están correlacionadas con la precipitación mensual y este fenómeno puede estar ligado a la abundancia del recurso alimenticio en zonas tropicales y subtropicales. La proporción de sexos y la estructura de edad son las típicas de varios murciélagos filostómidos. El patrón de reproducción fue del tipo poliestrica bimodal, con periodos de nacimiento entre agosto-septiembre y abril-junio. Las hembras muestran mayor peso corporal que los machos. Es posible que este murciélago presente una baja densidad comparada con la de otros murciélagos filostómidos en todo su rango de distribución en México.
Costa, L M; Lourenço, E C; Esbérard, C E L; Silva, R M
Phyllostomus hastatus bat is species broadly distributed over the Neotropical region, which uses as diurnal roosts caves, hollow trees, palm leaves and human buildings. Thirteen diurnal roosts of P. hastatus were analysed from 1990 to 2009 in several localities of Rio de Janeiro State, regarding environment (rural, urban or protected area), type of roost (hollow tree, basement or roof), sex ratio and cohabitation. A nocturnal roost was also analysed. Sex ratio of P. hastatus varied considerably among roosts what may be explained by the fact this species can roost alone, in couples, in harems or in groups of bachelor males. Phyllostomus hastatus was observed in cohabitation with three other species: Molossus rufus, Molossus molossus and Myotis nigricans. Due to the frequency of cohabitation observed between P. hastatus and species of the genus Molossus, one or more advantages for the members of this association may be expected. The simultaneous usage of a feeding roost by a group of bachelor males is unknown information in the literature, and may suggest that this kind of group may interact with each other even when away from their diurnal roosts.
David S Jacobs
Full Text Available Phenotypes of distantly related species may converge through adaptation to similar habitats and/or because they share biological constraints that limit the phenotypic variants produced. A common theme in bats is the sympatric occurrence of cryptic species that are convergent in morphology but divergent in echolocation frequency, suggesting that echolocation may facilitate niche partitioning, reducing competition. If so, allopatric populations freed from competition, could converge in both morphology and echolocation provided they occupy similar niches or share biological constraints. We investigated the evolutionary history of a widely distributed African horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus darlingi, in the context of phenotypic convergence. We used phylogenetic inference to identify and date lineage divergence together with phenotypic comparisons and ecological niche modelling to identify morphological and geographical correlates of those lineages. Our results indicate that R. darlingi is paraphyletic, the eastern and western parts of its distribution forming two distinct non-sister lineages that diverged ~9.7 Mya. We retain R. darlingi for the eastern lineage and argue that the western lineage, currently the sub-species R. d. damarensis, should be elevated to full species status. R. damarensis comprises two lineages that diverged ~5 Mya. Our findings concur with patterns of divergence of other co-distributed taxa which are associated with increased regional aridification between 7-5 Mya suggesting possible vicariant evolution. The morphology and echolocation calls of R. darlingi and R. damarensis are convergent despite occupying different biomes. This suggests that adaptation to similar habitats is not responsible for the convergence. Furthermore, R. darlingi forms part of a clade comprising species that are bigger and echolocate at lower frequencies than R. darlingi, suggesting that biological constraints are unlikely to have influenced the convergence. Instead, the striking similarity in morphology and sensory biology are probably the result of neutral evolutionary processes, resulting in the independent evolution of similar phenotypes.
Full Text Available Metabolic adaptations induced by 24 and 48 hours of fasting were investigated in male and female insectivorous bats (Molossus molossus Pallas, 1766. For this purpose, plasma glucose, non esterified fatty acids (NEFA, glycogen, protein and lipids concentrations in liver and muscles were obtained. Data presented here demonstrate that fed bats showed plasma glucose levels similar to those reported for other mammal species. In response to fasting, glycemia was decreased only in 48 hours fasted females. Plasma NEFA levels were similar in both sexes, and did not exhibit any changes during fasting. Considering the data from energy reserve variations, fed females presented an increased content of liver glycogen as well as higher breast muscle protein and limbs lipids concentrations, compared to fed males. In response to fasting, liver and muscle glycogen levels remained unchanged. Considering protein and lipid reserves, only females showed decreased values following fasting, as seen in breast, limbs and carcass lipids and breast muscle protein reserves, but still fail to keep glucose homeostasis after 48 hours without food. Taken together, our data suggest that the energy metabolism of insectivorous bats may vary according to sexual differences, a pattern that might be associated to different reproduction investments and costs between genders.
dan Gito Hadiprayitno, Siti Rabiatul Fajri, Agil Al Idrus
A research on diversity of bats of cave in the south area of Lombok island was conducted.Five caves survied for this research were Gale-Gale, Buwun, Kenculit, Raksasa, and cave PantaiSurga. Survey was done during Mart to Mei 2014. Samples of bat were obtained by using Mistnet. The bats were observed and identified in the Biology Laboratorium FMIPA University ofMataram. This research fully identified 12 species from 6 Famili of bats. The species are such as:Hipposederos ater, Rhinolopus simple...
Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Li, Yu-Chun; Harada, Masashi; Chen, Zhong; Lin, Liang-Kong
Karyotypes and chromosomal data are presented for eight bat species representing two families (Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae) from Hainan Island, China. The species investigated were Rhinolophus lepidus (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. pusillus (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. affinis (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. sinicus (2n = 36, FN = 60), Myotis horsfieldi (2n = 44, FN = 52), Pipistrellus abramus (2n = 26, FN = 44), Miniopterus australis (2n = 46, FN = 50) and M. schreibersii (2n = 46, FN = 50). The karyotype of Rhinolophus lepidus is reported for the first time.
Yoon, Kwang Bae; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Ri; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul
There are two subspecies of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum currently recognized in South Korea. The Korean greater horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum quelpartis, is distributed only in Jeju Island. The complete mitochondrial genome of the island subspecies was determined and revealed 99.7% similarity to the mainland subspecies Rhinolophus ferrumequinum korai. If d-loop region is excluded, similarity of the two genomes was 99.9%.
Ma, Jin-You; Yu, Yan; Peng, Wen-Feng
A new species of Mesotretes (Trematoda: Mesotretidae) parasitizing the small intestine of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum was obtained by the examination of 48 bats collected from 4 localities in Henan Province, China, from August 2003 to January 2005. This species, Mesotretes jiyuanensis n. sp., is similar to Mesotretes orientalis and Mesotretes hangzhouensis, but mainly differs from them in the ratio of the oral sucker and the ventral sucker, and the distance of the intestinal bifurcation from anterior edge of acetabulum, as well as from the former in the extension of the vitellarium. Mesotretes jiyuanensis n. sp. differs from Mesotretes peregrinus chiefly in the shape of the testes and the distribution of cuticular spines. The ratio of the oral sucker and the ventral sucker in this species also differs from that of M. peregrinus.
Full Text Available The qualitative and quantitative analyses of the digenean fauna of bats were conducted for the first time in Serbia. The sample comprised of 118 individuals of 12 bat species (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, Myotis mystacinus, M. alcathoe, M. brandtii, M. oxygnathus, M. myotis, Hypsugo savii, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. nathusii, Plecotus auritus, P. austriacus and Nyctalus noctula collected from 15 sites throughout Serbia. Six digenean species were identified: Lecithodendrium linstowi, Plagiorchis sp., Prosthodendrium longiforme, P. chilostomum, P. parvouterus and Mesotretes peregrinus. The helminths were recorded from 35 individual hosts (29.7 %. The species Lecithodendrium linstowi infected the highest percentage of hosts (19.5 %, with a mean abundance of 4.6. GLM analysis of exploratory factors showed that host species and host sex had a significant influence on parasite load, while locality and host age did not influence parasite abundance. No evidence of zoonotic species was found.
Duszynski, D W
Fecal samples from 56 Japanese bats representing 6 species in 2 families were examined for coccidian oocysts. Two of the 56 (Rhinolophidae), but only 2 sporulated oocysts were seen, which is not enough to describe a new species.
Shehab, Adwan; Mamkhair, Inrahim; Amr, Zuhair
Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female) were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto&l...
Full Text Available A trade-off between the sensory modalities of vision and hearing is likely to have occurred in echolocating bats as the sophisticated mechanism of laryngeal echolocation requires considerable neural processing and has reduced the reliance of echolocating bats on vision for perceiving the environment. If such a trade-off exists, it is reasonable to hypothesize that some genes involved in visual function may have undergone relaxed selection or even functional loss in echolocating bats. The Gap junction protein, alpha 10 (Gja10, encoded by Gja10 gene is expressed abundantly in mammal retinal horizontal cells and plays an important role in horizontal cell coupling. The interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (Irbp, encoded by the Rbp3 gene is mainly expressed in interphotoreceptor matrix and is known to be critical for normal functioning of the visual cycle. We sequenced Gja10 and Rbp3 genes in a taxonomically wide range of bats with divergent auditory characteristics (35 and 18 species for Gja10 and Rbp3, respectively. Both genes have became pseudogenes in species from the families Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae that emit constant frequency echolocation calls with Doppler shift compensation at high-duty-cycles (the most sophisticated form of biosonar known, and in some bat species that emit echolocation calls at low-duty-cycles. Our study thus provides further evidence for the hypothesis that a trade-off occurs at the genetic level between vision and echolocation in bats.
Obrist, M K; Fenton, M B; Eger, J L; Schlegel, P A
Using a moveable loudspeaker and an implanted microphone, we studied the sound pressure transformation of the external ears of 47 species of bats from 13 families. We compared pinna gain, directionality of hearing and interaural intensity differences (IID) in echolocating and non-echolocating bats, in species using different echolocation strategies and in species that depend upon prey-generated sounds to locate their targets. In the Pteropodidae, two echolocating species had slightly higher directionality than a non-echolocating species. The ears of phyllostomid and vespertilionid species showed moderate directionality. In the Mormoopidae, the ear directionality of Pteronotus parnellii clearly matched the dominant spectral component of its echolocation calls, unlike the situation in three other species. Species in the Emballonuridae, Molossidae, Rhinopomatidae and two vespertilionids that use narrow-band search-phase echolocation calls showed increasingly sharp tuning of the pinna to the main frequency of their signals. Similar tuning was most evident in Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae, species specialized for flutter detection via Doppler-shifted echoes of high-duty-cycle narrow-band signals. The large pinnae of bats that use prey-generated sounds to find their targets supply high sound pressure gain at lower frequencies. Increasing domination of a narrow spectral band in echolocation is reflected in the passive acoustic properties of the external ears (sharper directionality). The importance of IIDs for lateralization and horizontal localization is discussed by comparing the behavioural directional performance of bats with their bioacoustical features.
Several ecomorphological aspects in the European horseshoe bats were studied. The analysis of the data allows to draw some conclusions about possible niche separating parameters. The thesis consists of seven parts, details can be found in the abstracts of each chapter. Verschiedene ökomorphologische Aspekte der europäischen Hufeisennasen-Fledermäuse wurden untersucht. Die Auswertung der Daten erlaubt Rückschlüsse auf mögliche Parameter, die eine Nischentrennung ermöglichen. Die Arbeit best...
Shen, Bin; Fang, Tao; Dai, Mengyao; Jones, Gareth; Zhang, Shuyi
A trade-off between the sensory modalities of vision and hearing is likely to have occurred in echolocating bats as the sophisticated mechanism of laryngeal echolocation requires considerable neural processing and has reduced the reliance of echolocating bats on vision for perceiving the environment. If such a trade-off exists, it is reasonable to hypothesize that some genes involved in visual function may have undergone relaxed selection or even functional loss in echolocating bats. The Gap junction protein, alpha 10 (Gja10, encoded by Gja10 gene) is expressed abundantly in mammal retinal horizontal cells and plays an important role in horizontal cell coupling. The interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (Irbp, encoded by the Rbp3 gene) is mainly expressed in interphotoreceptor matrix and is known to be critical for normal functioning of the visual cycle. We sequenced Gja10 and Rbp3 genes in a taxonomically wide range of bats with divergent auditory characteristics (35 and 18 species for Gja10 and Rbp3, respectively). Both genes have became pseudogenes in species from the families Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae that emit constant frequency echolocation calls with Doppler shift compensation at high-duty-cycles (the most sophisticated form of biosonar known), and in some bat species that emit echolocation calls at low-duty-cycles. Our study thus provides further evidence for the hypothesis that a trade-off occurs at the genetic level between vision and echolocation in bats.
Full Text Available During the winter, bats use hibernation as a means of surviving the period of low prey offer. However, the Mediterranean horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus euryale arouses from torpor quite frequently. Based on the actual climatic conditions, it can profit from occasional foraging oportunities, when they occur. We analysed faeces collected on four nights during the period from November 2012 to February 2013 from the Domica-Baradla cave system (Slovakia and Hungary. In mid-November, the largest proportion of faecal contents were from Lepidoptera. Later on, the proportion of non-consumptive mass in the faeces increased and prey remnants disappeared. We analysed the activity of digestive enzymes (amylase, chitobiase, endochitinase and glukosaminidase in faeces. The activity of these enzymes was detected in fresh faeces throughout the whole winter. The faecal activity of the chitinases was relatively stable during the monitored period, whilst the activity of amylase was highest during late November and December. Some level of active digestive enzymes during the winter could be an adaptation to occasional winter foraging.
Odendaal, Lizelle J; Jacobs, David S
We investigated intraspecific variation in echolocation calls of the Cape horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus capensis, by comparing echolocation and associated morphological parameters among individuals from three populations of this species. The populations were situated in the center and at the western and eastern limits of the distribution of R. capensis. The latter two populations were situated in ecotones between vegetation biomes. Ecotone populations deviated slightly from the allometric relationship between body size and peak frequency for the genus, and there was no relationship between these variables within R. capensis. Nasal chamber length was the best predictor of peak frequency but not correlated with body size. The evolution of echolocation thus appears to have been uncoupled from body size in R. capensis. Furthermore, females used higher frequencies than males, which imply a potential social role for peak frequency. The differences in peak frequency may have originated from random founder effects and then compounded by genetic drift and/or natural selection. The latter may have acted directly on peak frequency altering skull parameters involved in echolocation independently of body size, resulting in the evolution of local acoustic signatures.
Xie, Lifen; Sun, Keping; Feng, Jiang
We present a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus from Central China and provide its annotation, as well as showed the phylogenetic relationship and mitogenomic variation with other published mitochondrial genomes of congeneric bat species. Our results revealed a relatively high mitogenomic variation between two R. s. sinucus from Central and East China, which is similar to interspecific divergence level.
Full Text Available Abstract The present paper summarizes the results of 3 years of observation made at six month intervals for six months at a time (18 field surveys in a man-made cave in Northern Latium (Central Italy from April 1992 to April 1995. Its aim is to analyze the main structural and dynamic features of a bat community which hibernates at the shelter. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and especially Rhinolophus euryale are the most abundant species. Population dynamics of both species as well as that of Rhinoluphus hipposideros show higher levels of abundance between December and February of each semester. In mid-winter, large and sometimes mixed aggregations of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Rhinolophus euryale in deep hypothermia occur. A small number of Rhinolophus hipposideros, mainly adult males, was observed. The paper compares the structure of this community to the structure of another community of the same district which has been previously analyzed, in which Vespertilionidae, especially Miniopterus schreibersi, are much more abundant. Despite the difference in species composition, body size was found to be a significant and common feature (as highlighted by forearm length, of the dominant species in both communities, Rhinolophus euryale and Miniopterus schreibersi respectively.
Sun, Haijian; Dong, Ji; Shi, Huizhen; Ren, Min; Hua, Panyu
There are two subspecies of Rhinolophus sinicus currently recognized in China. In this study, using next generation sequencing approaches, the complete mitochondrial genome of one subspecies R. s. sinicus was obtained. The total length of the genome sequence is 16,898 bp. The arrangement and contents of R. s. sinicus mitochondrial genes exhibit high similarity with other bats of family Rhinolophida. Phylogenetic reconstructions support the sister relationship of the two subspecies and confirm the subspecies status of our specimen.
Yoon, Kwang Bae; Kim, Ji Young; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul
The total length of the mitogenome of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum korai is 16,839 bp with a total base composition of 31.8% A, 25.4% T, 28.7% C, and 14.0% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (12S and 16S RNA) genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region.
Beguelini, Mateus R; Taboga, Sebastião R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana
Despite the large number of species, their wide distribution, and unique reproductive characteristics, Neotropical bats have been poorly studied, and important aspects of the reproduction of these animals have not been elucidated. We made an ultrastructural analysis of spermatogenesis in Molossus molossus (Molossidae). The process of spermatogonial differentiation is similar to that found in other bats and is also relatively similar to that of Primates, with three main spermatogonia types: A(d), A(p), and B. Meiotic divisions proceed similarly to those of most mammals, and spermiogenesis is clearly divided into 12 steps, in the middle of the range known for bats (9-16 steps). Formation of the acrosome is similar to that known from other mammals; however, the ultrastructure of spermatozoa was found to have unique characteristics, including many wavy acrosomal projections on its surface, which seems to be specific for the family Molossidae. Comparing the ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of M. molossus with other bats already study, we observed that three characters vary: morphology of the outer dense fibers, of the perforatorium, and of the spermatozoon head. The great similarity of morphological characters between M. molossus and Platyrrhinus lineatus suggests that M. molossus is more closely related to the Phyllostomidae than to the Rhinolophidae and the Vespertilionidae. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zhang, Lin; Sun, Keping; Feng, Jiang
We sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of the big-eared horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus macrotis. Total length of the mitogenome is 16,848 bp, with a base composition of 31.2% A, 25.3% T, 28.8% C and 14.7% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (12S and 16S rRNA) genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. It has the same gene arrangement pattern as those of typical vertebrate mitochondrial genome. The results will contribute to our understanding of the taxonomic status and evolution in the genus Rhinolophus bats.
Maxinová, E.; Šustr, Vladimír; Uhrin, M.
Roč. 3, č. 1 (2017), s. 91-96 E-ISSN 1339-8474 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bats * winter season * faecal matter * diet analysis * amylase * chitinases Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology
Jojic, Vida; Budinski, Ivana; Blagojevic, Jelena; Vujosevic, Mladen
We report the first evaluation of mandibular and cranial modularity in the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum). Although some authors found no modular pattern of these morphological structures in mammals, we discovered that traits integration in R. ferrumequinum is not uniform throughout the mandible and cranium, but structured into two distinct modules. Allometry does not affect mandibular and cranial modularity in R. ferrumequinum probably as a result of the low fraction of sh...
Vallo, Peter; Benda, P.; Červený, J.; Koubek, Petr
Roč. 79, č. 2 (2015), s. 225-231 ISSN 0025-1461 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/09/P624; GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : cranial morphometrics * cytochrome b * phylogeny * zinc finger protein Y Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.538, year: 2015
Bezerra, Rayanna Hellem Santos; de Vasconcelos, Pedro Fonseca; Bocchiglieri, Adriana
In Brazil, most studies involving parasites of bats (bat flies) treat the mid-west, south-east, and south of the country. This work aimed to characterize the ectoparasites community associated with bats in the Atlantic forest in the state of Sergipe, north-eastern Brazil. Sampling was conducted between January and June 2013 in the Serra de Itabaiana National Park (PNSI) and between November 2013 and June 2015 in the Wildlife Refuge Mata do Junco (RVSMJ). Parasitological indexes were determined, and the influence of host sex and the seasonality in prevalence rates and mean intensity for the most abundant parasites was evaluated. Some 129 parasites were collected in PNSI and 296 in RVSMJ, and 100 and 70.6 %, respectively, belong to the family Streblidae. The differences in parasitological rates in Sergipe in relation to other studies may be associated with the environmental characteristics and the composition of the host community. The influence of sex and the seasonal prevalence of Speiseria ambigua and Trichobius joblingi, associated with Carollia perspicillata, may be associated with a lower rate of female captures and low sampling in the dry season. This is a pioneer study in Sergipe that reveals the occurrence of 16 species of streblids and representatives of Acari and Basilia spp., highlighting the need for more studies to increase the wealth and understanding of host-parasite associations in the state.
Nguyen Truong Son
Full Text Available Bat communities of mainland Southeast Asia can be highly diverse. Many are under threat. Despite this, regional faunal composition is not well documented for many areas, including regions of Vietnam. We assessed the biodiversity of bats in a watershed protection forest in the southeastern Truong Son (Annamite Mountains, southwestern Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam in 2011–2013. Twenty species of insectivorous bats were documented including a high diversity of Murina species Tube-nosed Bats. Diversity and abundance indices were compared with that recorded previously in two nature reserves and one national park in Vietnam, and were higher or comparable in several measures despite the lack of a karst substrate for roosts. Reproduction in the insectivorous bat fauna coincided with the early rainy season. In the late dry season, pregnant females of several species were observed but volant juveniles were not present, whereas in the early wet season adult females were lactating or post-lactating and volant juveniles of nine species were detected. We recorded echolocation calls of 14 bat species; for each species, we compared features of calls with those reported previously in other Asian localities. For some species we found discrepancies in call metrics among studies, perhaps suggesting a greater hidden biodiversity of bats in Southeast Asia.
Suzanne J Hand
Full Text Available The New Zealand endemic bat family Mystacinidae comprises just two Recent species referred to a single genus, Mystacina. The family was once more diverse and widespread, with an additional six extinct taxa recorded from Australia and New Zealand. Here, a new mystacinid is described from the early Miocene (19-16 Ma St Bathans Fauna of Central Otago, South Island, New Zealand. It is the first pre-Pleistocene record of the modern genus and it extends the evolutionary history of Mystacina back at least 16 million years. Extant Mystacina species occupy old-growth rainforest and are semi-terrestrial with an exceptionally broad omnivorous diet. The majority of the plants inhabited, pollinated, dispersed or eaten by modern Mystacina were well-established in southern New Zealand in the early Miocene, based on the fossil record from sites at or near where the bat fossils are found. Similarly, many of the arthropod prey of living Mystacina are recorded as fossils in the same area. Although none of the Miocene plant and arthropod species is extant, most are closely related to modern taxa, demonstrating potentially long-standing ecological associations with Mystacina.
Benda, P.; Vallo, Peter; Hulva, P.; Horáček, I.
Roč. 67, č. 6 (2012), s. 1230-1244 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Rousettus * morphometrics * mtDNA * taxonomy * distribution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.506, year: 2012
Full Text Available The existance of bats in cave type with diverge managerial system are influenced abundance and species bats. This research was conducted from January to June 2012 that counting abundance and to identify bats at Gunung Kendeng Karst Area Pati Central Java. The bats were collected by using mist net and stalk net at flying track surrounding cave’s mouth of Pancur Cave, Serut Cave, Bandung Cave, Pawon Cave, Larangan Cave and Gantung Cave. Bats abundance at Pancur Cave amount ± 484 bats, Serut Cave amount ± 1233 bats, Bandung Cave amount ± 715 bats, Pawon Cave amount ± 392 bats, Larangan Cave ± 23 bats and Gantung Cave ± 5 bats. The six species were collected from this research, such as Cyanopterus horsfieldii, Hipposederos larvatus, Hipposideros bicolor, Rhinolophus affinis, Murina suilla dan Miniopterus australis. The analyst result is used Diversity Index of Shannon-Wiennner showed the highest diversity at Pancur Cave (H=0,35054 and the lowest at Gantung Cave (H=0,13633. Similarity index of shannon Evenness is showed the highest similarity at Pancur Cave (E=0,50572 and the lowest at Larangan Cave (E=0. Domination index of simpson is showed the highest domination at Pancur Cave (C=0,06805 and the lowest at Gantung Cave (C=0,00189. Hipposederos larvatus and Miniopterus australis are species that common and often founded during this research.
Full Text Available Excessive water loss during the day due to heat stress in bats of the genus Pteropus appears to be inevitable, because these bats are exposed to direct sunlight. Rain also affects the rest pattern of the Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus during the day. When rain occurred during the day, most of the bats hung in a slanting position and did not exhibit any movements. After rain, they licked both ventral and dorsal surfaces of the wing membrane and scratched their body with their thumb claws. They also licked the water droplets that remained on the leaves and branches of the tree. Even though their rest had been affected by the rain the bats utilized the water droplets to quench their thirst, cool their body and clean their fur. The construction of water reservoirs near Pteropus roosts will help to assure their long-term conservation.
Kim, J Y; Park, Y C
We sequenced and characterized the complete mitogenome of Hypsugo alaschanicus (Vespertilionidae) to provide more data for comparative mitogenomics of the genus Hypsugo. The mitogenome of H. alaschanicus is a circular molecule of 17,300 bp, consisting of a control region and a typically conserved set of 37 vertebrate genes containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). The mitogenome of H. alaschanicus is AT-biased, with a nucleotide composition of 34.1 A, 30.9 T, 22.4 C, and 12.6% G. In the 13 mitochondrial PCGs of H. alaschanicus, the start codon ATG is used in all PCGs, except Nd2 and Nd3 (which use ATT), and Nd5 (which uses ATA). Eight PCGs (Nd1, Cox1, Cox2, Atp8, Atp6, Nd4L, Nd5, and Nd6) use TAA as the stop codon, while the stop codon AGA occurs only in Cytb. Incomplete stop codons (T--) are used in the other four PCGs (Cox3, Nd2, Nd3, and Nd4). These findings contribute to our understanding of the nucleotide composition and molecular evolution of the mitogenomes of the genus Hypsugo, and provide more data for comparative mitogenomics and higher phylogeny in the family Vespertilionidae.
Boada, C. E.
Full Text Available In Ecuador, Thyroptera tricolor is distributed on the northern coastal region, in Amazonia, and in the foothillsof the Andes between 50 to 1,800 m of altitude. We reported a capture of a non-breeding female at El Descanso, Los RíosProvince, in the central coastal region of Ecuador. With this record, we have extended the geographical distribution of T.tricolor in Ecuador 55 km further south. Using the available data for Ecuador, a predictive distribution model was generatedusing a Maximum Entropy approach.
Hasan, Noor Haliza; Abdullah, M. T.
The aim of the study is to use cluster analysis on morphometric parameters within the genus Kerivoula to produce a dendrogram and to determine the suitability of this method to describe the relationship among species within this genus. A total of 15 adult male individuals from genus Kerivoula taken from sampling trips around Borneo and specimens kept at the zoological museum of Universiti Malaysia Sarawak were examined. A total of 27 characters using dental, skull and external body measurements were recorded. Clustering analysis illustrated the grouping and morphometric relationships between the species of this genus. It has clearly separated each species from each other despite the overlapping of measurements of some species within the genus. Cluster analysis provides an alternative approach to make a preliminary identification of a species.
Safi, Kamran; Dechmann, Dina K. N.
Vertebrate brains are organized in modules which process information from sensory inputs selectively. Therefore they are probably under different evolutionary pressures. We investigated the impact of environmental influences on specific brain centres in bats. We showed in a phylogenetically independent contrast analysis that the wing area of a species corrected for body size correlated with estimates of habitat complexity. We subsequently compared wing area, as an indirect measure of habitat complexity, with the size of regions associated with hearing, olfaction and spatial memory, while controlling for phylogeny and body mass. The inferior colliculi, the largest sub-cortical auditory centre, showed a strong positive correlation with wing area in echolocating bats. The size of the main olfactory bulb did not increase with wing area, suggesting that the need for olfaction may not increase during the localization of food and orientation in denser habitat. As expected, a larger wing area was linked to a larger hippocampus in all bats. Our results suggest that morphological adaptations related to flight and neuronal capabilities as reflected by the sizes of brain regions coevolved under similar ecological pressures. Thus, habitat complexity presumably influenced and shaped sensory abilities in this mammalian order independently of each other. PMID:15695209
Wiles, G.J.; Jonhson, N.C.
Based on count results, we estimated the population of Mariana fruit bats (Pteropus mariannus Desmarest) on Sarigan, Mariana Islands, to number 150-200 bats in 1999, 185-235 bats in 2000, and about 300-400 bats in 2001. Our results, plus those of two previous surveys, indicate that bat abundance on the island probably remained relatively stable at about 125-235 animals during much of the period from 1983 to 2000, then increased suddenly in 2001, most likely due to immigration from a neighboring island. Sarigan's population differs from those of larger islands in the archipelago by usually having smaller roost sizes, typically 3-75 bats, and large numbers of solitary bats that at times comprise up to half of the population. Colonies and smaller aggregations were composed primarily of harems with multiple females, whereas a nearly equal sex ratio occurred among solitary animals. Colonies roosted in isolated coconut trees in open grasslands and in native forest stands of various sizes, but avoided dense coconut forest. An estimated 30-50% of harem and solitary females possessed young in July 1999. Bats were recorded feeding on just six species of plants, which partly reflects the island's impoverished flora. We speculate that fruit bat abundance on Sarigan is limited primarily by food availability rather than hunting losses, in contrast to some other islands in the Marianas. Our study supports the contention that populations of P. mariannus in the northern Marianas are usually sedentary, but that interisland movements of larger numbers of bats may occur rarely. ?? 2004 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.
Gomes, Anderson José Baia; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Rodrigues, Luis Reginaldo Ribeiro; Benathar, Thayse Cristine Melo; Ribas, Talita Fernanda Augusto; O'Brien, Patricia Caroline Mary; Yang, Fengtang; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm Andrew; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar
The subtribe Vampyressina (sensu Baker et al. 2003) encompasses approximately 43 species and seven genera and is a recent and diversified group of New World leaf-nosed bats specialized in fruit eating. The systematics of this group continues to be debated mainly because of the lack of congruence between topologies generated by molecular and morphological data. We analyzed seven species of all genera of vampyressine bats by multidirectional chromosome painting, using whole-chromosome-painting probes from Carollia brevicauda and Phyllostomus hastatus. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using shared discrete chromosomal segments as characters and the Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (PAUP) software package, using Desmodontinae as outgroup. We also used the Tree Analysis Using New Technology (TNT) software. The result showed a well-supported phylogeny congruent with molecular topologies regarding the sister taxa relationship of Vampyressa and Mesophylla genera, as well as the close relationship between the genus Chiroderma and Vampyriscus. Our results supported the hypothesis that all genera of this subtribe have compound sex chromosome systems that originated from an X-autosome translocation, an ancestral condition observed in the Stenodermatinae. Additional rearrangements occurred independently in the genus Vampyressa and Mesophylla yielding the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system. This work presents additional data supporting the hypothesis based on molecular studies regarding the polyphyly of the genus Vampyressa and its sister relationship to Mesophylla.
Piaggio, A.J.; Valdez, E.W.; Bogan, M.A.; Spicer, G.S.
The systematic relationship between Myotis lucifugus carissima and Myotis occultus has been the subject of multiple studies. Although several studies, including a recent allozyme study, concluded that M. occultus is a subspecies of M. lucifugus, this view has not been universally accepted. We reexamined the relationships of these 2 taxa by sequencing the mitochondrial cytochrome-b (cyt-b) and cytochrome oxidase II (COII) genes of specimens from the allozyme study. The results suggest that M. occultus represents an evolutionarily distinct monophyletic lineage and provide support to arguments that M. occultus is a distinct species.
Silveira, Maurício; Trevelin, Leonardo; Port-Carvalho, Marcio; Godoi, Simone; Mandetta, Elizabeth Neuenhaus; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P.
We studied the potential contribution of frugivorous bats to the reestablishment of vegetational diversity in a restored area. We analysed the diets of the bat species and the differences between them in the consumption of fruits of autochtonous and allochthonous species. Planted (autochtonous) species were the basis of diets, especially Solanum mauritianum and Cecropia pachystachya, whereas for allochthonous species we found that Piperaceae to be of particular importance. Carollia perspicillata was the main seed disperser for allochthonous species, and potentially the most important bat in the promotion of vegetation diversity in the study area. Our results suggest that frugivorous bats are especially important in the reestablishment of vegetation in disturbed areas, and that restorarion efforts should focus on the planting of different zoochorous species that would guarantee a high year-round fruit production, thereby facilitating natural plant reestablishment by frugivorous bats in regenerating areas.
Phyllostomidae comprises the most diverse family of neotropical bats, its wide range of morphological features leading to uncertainty regarding phylogenetic relationships. Seeing that cytogenetics is one of the fields capable of providing support for currently adopted classifications through the use of several markers, a comparative analysis between two Phyllostomidae species was undertaken in the present study, with a view to supplying datasets for the further establishment of Phyllostomidae evolutionary relationships. Karyotypes of Lonchorhina aurita (2n = 32; FN = 60) and Trachops cirrhosus (2n = 30; FN = 56) were analyzed by G- and C-banding, silver nitrate staining (Ag-NOR) and base-specific fluorochromes. Chromosomal data obtained for both species are in agreement with those previously described, except for X chromosome morphology in T. cirrhosus, hence indicating chromosomal geographical variation in this species. A comparison of G-banding permitted the identification of homeologies in nearly all the chromosomes. Furthermore, C-banding and Ag-NOR patterns were comparable to what has already been observed in the family. In both species CMA3 /DA/DAPI staining revealed an R-banding-like pattern with CMA 3 , whereas DAPI showed uniform staining in all the chromosomes. Fluorochrome staining patterns for pericentromeric constitutive heterochromatin (CH) regions, as well as for nucleolar organizing regions (NORs), indicated heterogeneity regarding these sequences among Phyllostomidae species. PMID:21637449
Ball, H C; Moussa, F M; Mbimba, T; Orman, R; Safadi, F F; Cooper, L N
Osteoprogenitor cells contribute to the development and maintenance of skeletal tissues. Bats are unique model taxa whose cellular processes are poorly understood, especially in regards to skeletal biology. Forelimb bones of bats, unlike those of terrestrial mammals, bend during flight and function in controlled deformation. As a first step towards understanding the molecular processes governing deposition of this flexible bone matrix, we provide the first method for isolation and differentiation of cell populations derived from the bone marrow and cortical bone of bats, and compare results with those harvested from C57BL/6J mice. Osteogenic capacity of these cells was assessed via absolute quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and through quantification of in vitro mineral deposition. Results indicate the differentiated bone cells of bats display significantly lower gene expression of known osteogenic markers (Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX2), osteocalcin (BGLAP) and osterix (SP7)), and deposit a less-mineralized matrix compared with murine controls. By characterizing the in vitro performance of osteoprogenitor cells throughout differentiation and matrix production, this study lays the ground work for in vitro manipulations of bat stem and osteoprogenitor cells and extends our understanding of the cellular diversity across mammals that occupy different habitats. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Warner, J.W.; Patton, J.L.; Gardner, A.L.; Baker, R.J.
Examination of 135 specimens representing 21 species from seven genera of the family Molossidae revealed diploid numbers ranging from 34 to 48. Seventeen species from six genera have diploid numbers of 48. Geographic variation and polymorphism were found only in Eumops glaucinus. Chromosomal variation within the family is presumed to be primarily due to changes in diploid number resulting from Robertsonian translocations.
Full Text Available Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae. Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet.
Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.
We report the discovery of a new species of Lophostoma from Panama, which we name L. kalkoae. This new species resembles L. carrikeri and L. yasuni in possessing a white venter, but is distinguishable from both by external and cranial characteristics. The new species is similar in size to L. carrikeri and L. schulzi. Lophostoma sp. nov. can be most easily recognized by its combination of white venter, postauricular patches connected by a thin line of pale hair to the white fur on the chest, elongated clitoris and swollen labia, less strongly developed lateral projection of mastoid processes, well-marked indentation on the lingual cingulum of the upper canine, well-developed P3, well-developed posterior lingual cusp on the cingulum of P4, and parastyle absent on M1 and M2. We present a dichotomous key for the genus Lophostoma and a map showing all the localities where white-bellied Lophostoma have been recorded.
Marco A. R. Mello
Full Text Available Some bat species seem to be lunar phobic, i.e., they avoid flying in bright areas or during bright periods of the night; however, the evidence is still controversial. We think that part of this controversy comes from pooling data on bat captures and moonlight intensity according to broad categories, such as moon phases, which conceal the high variability among nights. Therefore, we used detailed, long-term field data on three phyllostomid bat species, in order to test the hypothesis of lunar phobia at two different time scales: 1 among nights, by pooling data of different nights according to moon phases and testing for differences in the distribution of captures; and 2 within a night, by analyzing the relationship between capturability and moonlight intensity (measured as illuminance in one-hour intervals for 29 individual nights. Although most captures of the studied bat species occurred in the first half of the night, their activity pattern varied largely among nights, and was not always unimodal as commonly assumed. At the larger time scale, all studied bat species showed evidence of lunar phobia, as they were more frequently captured on dark moon phases. Nevertheless, at the smaller time scale, only Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 was less frequently captured on brighter periods of the night. We propose that the unimodal activity pattern assumed for frugivorous phyllostomid bats may be an artifact of data organization, and that activity and lunar phobia are much more variable than previously assumed.
Gao, Cheng-Wen; Wang, Shuo; Gao, Li-Zhi
In this article we report the complete mitochondrial genome of black flying fox, Pteropus alecto, with the sequence length of 16,739 bp for the first time. The mitogenome contained a total of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 control region. The base composition was A (33.1%), G (14.5%), C (27.2%) and T (25.2%), indicating that the percentage of A and T (58.3%) was higher than that of G and C. Most of these genes were distributed on the H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and eight tRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome analyzed here will provide new genetic information to study the evolution of bats.
Marília A. S. Barros
Full Text Available In temperate zones, insectivorous bats use some types of habitat more frequently than others, and are more active in the warmest periods of the year. We assessed the spatial and seasonal activity patterns of bats in open areas of the southernmost region of Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that bat activity differs among habitat types, among seasons, and is influenced by weather variables. We monitored four 1,500-m transects monthly, from April 2009 to March 2010. Transects corresponded to the five habitat types that predominate in the region. In each sampling session, we detected and counted bat passes with an ultrasound detector (Pettersson D230 and measured climatic variables at the transects. We recorded 1,183 bat passes, and observed the highest activity at the edge of a eucalyptus stand (0.64 bat passes/min and along an irrigation channel (0.54 bat passes/min. The second highest activity values (0.31 and 0.20 bat passes/min, respectively were obtained at the edge of a riparian forest and at the margin of a wetland. The grasslands were used significantly less (0.05 bat passes/min. Bat activity was significantly lower in the winter (0.21 bat passes/min and showed similar values in the autumn (0.33 bat passes/min, spring (0.26 bat passes/min, and summer (0.29 bat passes/min. Bat activity was correlated with temperature, but it was not correlated with wind speed and relative humidity of the air. Our data suggest that, in the study area, insectivorous bats are active throughout the year, and use mostly forest and watercourses areas. These habitat types should be considered prioritary for the conservation of bats in the southernmost region of Brazil.
Lim, Lee-Sim; Csorba, Gábor; Wong, Cheng-Min; Zubaid, Akbar; Rahman, Sultana Parvin Habeebur; Kumaran, Jayaraj Vijaya; Khan, Faisal Ali Anwarali; Huang, Joe Chun-Chia; Najimudin, Nazalan; Görföl, Tamás
The Southeast Asian species of Hypsugo are rare bats, except for H. cadornae and H. pulveratus, which are distributed throughout the Indomalayan region. Hypsugo macrotis is restricted to Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java and adjacent islands, and is known only from a handful of specimens. Here we report a new locality record of the species from Seremban, Peninsular Malaysia, which also represents the first known building-dweller colony of any Hypsugo from the region. We discuss the taxonomic status of two morphologically similar species, H. macrotis and H. vordermanni, and provide the first COI and cyt b gene sequences for H. macrotis and reconstruct the species' phylogenetic relationships.
Camacho, M Alejandra; Chávez, Daniel; Burneo, Santiago F
The Yasuni Round-eared bat, Lophostoma yasuni, was described in 2004 by morphological analysis of the holotype, the only specimen attributed to this taxon to date. A molecular analysis using cytochrome-b sequences and a new morpholo-gical analysis that includes the holotype of L. yasuni and two specimens of L. carrikeri from near the type locality of L. yasuni were carried out. The new molecular and morphological evidence places L. yasuni within the clade of L. carrikeri. We propose that L. yasuni should therefore be considered as a synonym of L. carrikeri. An emended diagnosis for L. carrikeri extending ranges of craniodental measurements for this species is presented.
Tavares, Valéria da C.; Gardner, Alfred L.; Ramírez-Chaves, Héctor E.; Velazco, Paúl M.
Vampyressa melissa is a poorly known phyllostomid bat listed as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Since its description in 1926, fewer than 40 V. melissa have been reported in the literature, and less than half of these may have been correctly identified. During revisionary studies of Vampyressa, we uncovered two previously unrecognized species related to V. melissa, all associated with higher elevation habitats (>1400 m), one from the Andes of Colombia (Vampyressa sinchi, new species) and the other from western Panama (Vampyressa elisabethae, new species) revealing that V. melissa, as traditionally defined, is a composite of at least three species. In this paper, we provide a restricted diagnosis for the genus Vampyressa, an emended diagnosis of V. melissa, and descriptions of the two new species. The separation of these frugivorous bats, previously identified as V. melissa, into three isolated upper-elevation species, each having restricted distributions further highlights their fragile conservation status.
Full Text Available In mitochondrial DNA, variations in the sequence of 16S rRNA region were analyzed to infer the genetic relationship and population history of three sympatric hipposiderid bats, Hipposideros speoris, H. fulvus and H. ater. Based on the DNA sequence data, we observed relatively lower haplotype and higher nucleotide diversity in H. speoris than in the other two species. The pairwise comparisons of the genetic divergence inferred a genetic relationship between the three hipposiderid bats. We used haplotype sequences to construct a phylogenetic tree. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analysis generated a tree with similar topology. H. fulvus and H. ater formed one cluster and H. speoris formed another cluster. Analysis of the demographic history of populations using Jajima’s D test revealed past changes in populations. Comparison of the observed distribution of pairwise differences in the nucleotides with expected sudden expansion model accepts for H. fulvus and H. ater but not for H. speoris populations.
Rakotoarivelo, Andrinajoro R; Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie; Lamb, Jennifer M; Goodman, Steven M
The Commerson's leaf-nosed bat, Hipposideros commersoni sensu stricto, is endemic to Madagascar and is relatively common in the western portion of the island, where it is found in areas, including forested zones, from sea level to 1325 m. A previous study on morphological patterns of geographic variation within the species highlighted the presence of two distinct morphotypes; larger individuals in the north portion of the island and smaller individuals in the south. The main aim of this study was to use a combination of craniodental morphology and molecular data (mitochondrial and nuclear) to test previous hypotheses based on morphology and clarify the evolutionary history of the species group. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genes from Hipposideros commersoni obtained from the western portion of Madagascar, and compared them with other African species as outgroups. We analyzed the sequence data using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference. Divergence dates were estimated using Bayesian molecular clock approach. Variation in craniodental variables was also assessed from sequenced individuals. The molecular analyses suggest that H. commersoni is not monophyletic, with strong support for the presence of several independently evolving lineages. Two individuals amongst those sequenced from Isalo (south central) and Itampolo (southwest) form a separate clade (Clade A), distinct from other H. commersoni, and sister to continental African H. vittatus and H. gigas. Within the H. commersoni clade, the molecular data support two geographically distributed clades; one from the south (Clade B) and the other from the north (Clade C), which diverged approximately 3.38 million years ago. Morphometric data were consistent with the molecular analyses, suggesting a north-south break within H. commersoni. However, at some localities, animals from both clades occurred in sympatry and these individuals could not be differentiated based on external and craniodental measurements. Using a combination of molecular and morphological characters, this study presents evidence of cryptic diversity in H. commersoni on Madagascar. Further fine-scale phylogeographic studies are needed to fully resolve the systematics of H. commersoni. This study highlights the utility of the combined approach in employing both morphological and molecular data to provide insights into the evolutionary history of Malagasy population currently assigned to H. commersoni.
Marcelo C Romano
Full Text Available Bat colonies were sampled in the city of Rosario to increase the understanding of bat ecology in urban areas of the southern cone of South America. Seven species were recorded, of which three are new records for Rosario. One representative colony was chosen for intensive ecological study. Approximately 64 000 Tadarida brasiliensis formed a maternity colony in the attic of an old building. Most of the bats were pregnant or lactating females and their young.. Adults arrive in the colony in mid-September and leave in February, no bats were present at this site from the beginning of March to mid-September. Births occur between mid-November and mid-December. Pups roosted in compact clusters in the nursery areas, spatially segregated from adults. Densities of these aggregations were 643 + 76 bats/m2 (p Con el objetivo de incrementar el conocimiento de la ecología de los murciélagos en áreas urbanas, se muestrearon colonias en la ciudad de Rosario. Fueron registradas siete especies, de las cuales tres son nuevos registros. Se seleccionó una colonia que se consideró más representativa, para realizar un intensivo estudio ecológico. Se realizaron conteos poblacionales, que arrojaron aproximadamente 64 000 Tadarida brasiliensis formando una colonia maternal en el ático de un antigüo edificio. Se hicieron registros de comportamiento (fechas de arribo y partida, patrones diarios de actividad, pariciones, etc.. Los adultos arrivan al refugio a mediados de septiembre y lo abandonan en febrero. Las pariciones ocurren entre mediados de noviembre y mediados de diciembre. Las crías se ubicaron en grupos compactos en áreas separadas de los adultos, siendo su densidad de 643 + 76 /m2 (p < 0.20. y la de los adultos de 161 + 21 /m2 (p < 0.20. 182 animales capturados fueron identificados, sexados y pesados. Los registros incluyeron patrones diarios de actividad.. Se detectó predación por "lechuza de campanario" (Tyto alba y gatos domésticos. La búsqueda de virus rábico resultó negativa. Se estimó el control ejercido sobre poblaciones de insectos que, para esta colonia puede ser de 209 a 385 kg por noche entre septiembre y febrero, demostrando el importante rol que desempeñan en el ecosistema urbano.
Ribeiro Mello, Marco Aurelio
In the present study, I described the organization of a Neotropical bat assemblage, and tested whether this organization was variable in time. In an Atlantic Forest reserve in southeastern Brazil bats were captured monthly with mist nets over 4 years, and individuals were classified into guilds. I analyzed only leaf-nosed bats, and observed that guilds of fruit-eating bats dominated the assemblage. This pattern was repeated across months and years. However, among frugivores, canopy and understory guilds peaked during different months, but in both cases during the rainy season, while variation among habitat-opportunistic species was not explained by rainfall. The most reliable ecological service delivered by phyllostomid bats in the area is seed dispersal, although other services may be also important in particular seasons. My results suggest that the observed patterns of temporal species turnover are related to the abundance of preferred food items.
Falconaro, Antonella C; Vega, Rocío M; Viozzi, Gustavo P
Most of the studies on chiropteran endoparasites in Argentina come from the Central and Northeast regions of the country, and there is only one parasitological study of bats from the Argentinean Patagonia. The aim of this study is to describe the helminth fauna of 42 Myotis chiloensis, comparing the composition and the structure of the endoparasite communities between two populations, inhabiting different environments in Andean humid forest and the ecotone between forest and Patagonian steppe. A total of 697 helminths were recovered from 33 bats: five species of trematodes, Ochoterenatrema sp., Paralecithodendrium sp., Parabascus limatulus , Parabascus sp., and Postorchigenes cf. joannae , two species of cestodes, Vampirolepis sp. 1 and Vampirolepis sp. 2, and three species of nematodes, Allintoshius baudi , Physaloptera sp., and Physocephalus sp. All the helminths, but Physocephalus sp., were recovered from the small and large intestine. This is the first survey of M. chiloensis ' helminth fauna. All the species, but A. baudi , represent new records of helminths in Patagonian bats. There were differences of parasite species richness between localities and both bat populations share almost half of the endoparasite species. Different preferences for intestinal regions were found for three species of trematodes in the bats from the site in the humid forest. Myotis chiloensis serves as both a definitive and intermediate host for endoparasites in the Patagonian ecosystem.
Roxanne J Larsen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptic morphological variation in the Chiropteran genus Myotis limits the understanding of species boundaries and species richness within the genus. Several authors have suggested that it is likely there are unrecognized species-level lineages of Myotis in the Neotropics. This study provides an assessment of the diversity in New World Myotis by analyzing cytochrome-b gene variation from an expansive sample ranging throughout North, Central, and South America. We provide baseline genetic data for researchers investigating phylogeographic and phylogenetic patterns of Myotis in these regions, with an emphasis on South America. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cytochrome-b sequences were generated and phylogenetically analyzed from 215 specimens, providing DNA sequence data for the most species of New World Myotis to date. Based on genetic data in our sample, and on comparisons with available DNA sequence data from GenBank, we estimate the number of species-level genetic lineages in South America alone to be at least 18, rather than the 15 species currently recognized. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that the perception of lower species richness in South American Myotis is largely due to a combination of cryptic morphological variation and insufficient sampling coverage in genetic-based systematic studies. A more accurate assessment of the level of diversity and species richness in New World Myotis is not only helpful for delimiting species boundaries, but also for understanding evolutionary processes within this globally distributed bat genus.
Farkašová, Helena; Hron, Tomáš; Pačes, Jan; Hulva, Pavel; Benda, Petr; Gifford, Robert James; Elleder, Daniel
Retroviruses can create endogenous forms on infiltration into the germline cells of their hosts. These forms are then vertically transmitted and can be considered as genetic fossils of ancient viruses. All retrovirus genera, with the exception of deltaretroviruses, have had their representation identified in the host genome as a virus fossil record. Here we describe an endogenous Deltaretrovirus, identified in the germline of long-fingered bats (Miniopteridae). A single, heavily deleted copy of this retrovirus has been found in the genome of miniopterid species, but not in the genomes of the phylogenetically closest bat families, Vespertilionidae and Cistugonidae. Therefore, the endogenization occurred in a time interval between 20 and 45 million years ago. This discovery closes the last major gap in the retroviral fossil record and provides important insights into the history of deltaretroviruses in mammals.
Full Text Available Occurrence of Scotophilus kuhlii was speculated throughout the southern plain (Tarai of Nepal. However, there was no record of voucher specimen of the species from Nepal. We collected a specimen from the Tikulia tole, Pakali Village Development Committee, Sunsari District of southeastern Nepal and deposited at Central Department of Zoology (CDZ Museum, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu. The specimen was identified as S. kuhlii based on measurement of external body, cranial, dental parts and detail description of the species. This is the first specific locality record of the species from Nepal that confirms its presence in the country.
Hernández-Canchola, Giovani; León-Paniagua, Livia
With 22 species, Sturnira is the most speciose genus of frugivorous Neotropical bats. Sturnira parvidens inhabits lowland tropical areas from Mexico to Central America. The elevation of this taxon to species level was recent, and discrepancies with respect to its geographic limits and phylogenetic position continue to exist. In order to identify genetic and ecological processes likely involved in the diversification and current distribution of S. parvidens, we evaluated relationships, researched phylogeographic and demographic history, and tested the divergence/conservatism of the climatic niche of this bat. We used data from mitochondrial loci (cytochrome b and the hypervariable D-loop region I) and the nuclear recombination activating gene 1, in 173 samples of S. parvidens and 77 samples of related species. We performed Bayesian analyses to infer phylogenetic relationships and analyzed phylogeographic structure, genetic diversity, divergence times and historical demography. Sturnira bakeri is the sister group of S. parvidens, and inhabits Western Ecuador. The two species diverged c. 1.84Ma, and their distributions are disjunct and separated by Sturnira luisi. Within S. parvidens there are two haplogroups with nearly allopatric distributions that are limited to the Sierra Madre del Sur, on the Mexican Pacific Slope. The divergence time between haplogroups was c. 0.423Ma and we detected signals of demographic expansion. We also analyzed 526 occurrence data of S. parvidens to test for changes in environmental niche of this species. We detected signals of divergence of climatic niche, mainly in temperature and seasonality variables. Likely, both genetic and ecological processes have shaped the evolutionary history of S. parvidens. Despite many climatic fluctuations during the Pleistocene, only the most intense oscillations had an impact on these bats. In addition, ecological differentiation prevents admixture of genetic lineages that are in contact and lack apparent geographical barriers at the southern Sierra Madre del Sur. We concluded that speciation in Sturnira was promoted by this taxon's ability to colonize new geographical and environmental spaces and form genetically structured groups when populations become isolated. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ding, Nai-Zheng; Xu, Dong-Shuai; Sun, Yuan-Yuan; He, Hong-Bin; He, Cheng-Qiang
Bat virus host shifts can result in the spread of diseases with significant effects. The rabies virus (RABV) is able to infect almost all mammals and is therefore a useful model for the study of host shift mechanisms. Carnivore RABVs originated from two historical host shifts from bat viruses. To reveal the genetic pathways by which bat RABVs changed their host tropism from bats to carnivores, we investigated the second permanent bat-to-carnivore shift resulting in two carnivore variants, known as raccoon RABV (RRV) and south-central skunk RABV (SCSKV). We found that their glycoprotein (G) genes are the result of recombination between an American bat virus and a carnivore virus. This recombination allowed the bat RABV to acquire the head of the G-protein ectodomain of the carnivore virus. This region is involved in receptor recognition and binding, response to changes in the pH microenvironment, trimerization of G proteins, and cell-to-cell transmission during the viral infection. Therefore, this recombination event may have significantly improved the variant's adaptability to carnivores, altering its host tropism and thus leading to large-scale epidemics in striped skunk and raccoon.
Jebb, David; Foley, Nicole M; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Teeling, Emma C
In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome of the Greater Mouse-Eared Bat, Myotis myotis. The mitogenome is 17 213 bp with base composition A (34.2%), G (13%), C (22.4%), and T (30.5%). The genome shows conserved synteny with other mammalian mitogenomes, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 1 control region (D-Loop). The majority of the genes are encoded on the H-Strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNAs. All protein-coding genes start with the ATG start codon, except for ND2, ND3, and ND5 which begin with ATT or ATA. Seven protein-coding genes terminated in a canonical stop codon, TAA or TAG, five contain incomplete stop codons, T or TA. Cytochrome b terminates in the mitochondria specific stop codon AGA. This mitogenome provides a valuable resource for future studies of M. myotis and other bat and mammal species.
Yoon, Kwang Bae; Lee, Jin Hong; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul
The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Asian particolored bat, Vespertilio sinensis, was determined. The genome organization, gene contents, and codon usage conformed to those of other bat mitochondrial genomes. The total length of the mitogenome of Vespertilio sinensis is 16,971 bp with a total base composition of 32.6% A, 29.6% T, 23.7% C and 14.0% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (12S and 16S RNA) genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region.
Full Text Available In the bat genus Carollia, C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata are the most abundant and widely distributed in South America; also, their distributional ranges are almost completely overlapped. Because these species are morphologically very similar, they are frequently misidentified. The aims of this study were to determine the morphological and morphometric differences of C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata. For that reason, I employed a detail morphological assessment and several multivariate morphometric tools. I evaluated 26 normally craniodental variables in 375 adult specimens from Peruvian and Ecuadorian populations. In addition, 54 specimens of C. benkeithi, C. manu, and Carollia sp. were included for comparisons. I found that C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata are differentiated by 28 discrete characters, and are significantly different in 25 morphometric variables. Also, C. brevicauda, C. perspicillata, and C. manu are clustered in a different group from the group of C. benkeithi and Carollia sp. My results complement previous studies adding several characters that confidently differentiate C. brevicauda from C. perspicillata; which needs to be tested in other regions.
Background Bats of the family Phyllostomidae show a unique diversity in feeding specializations. This taxon includes species that are highly specialized on insects, blood, small vertebrates, fruits or nectar, and pollen. Feeding specialization is accompanied by morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations. Several attempts were made to resolve the phylogenetic relationships within this family in order to reconstruct the evolutionary transitions accompanied by nutritional specialization. Nevertheless, the evolution of nectarivory remained equivocal. Results Phylogenetic reconstructions, based on a concatenated nuclear-and mitochondrial data set, revealed a paraphyletic relationship of nectarivorous phyllostomid bats. Our phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the nectarivorous genera Lonchophylla and Lionycteris are closer related to mainly frugivorous phyllostomids of the subfamilies Rhinophyllinae, Stenodermatinae, Carolliinae, and the insectivorous Glyphonycterinae rather than to nectarivorous bats of the Glossophaginae. This suggests an independent origin of morphological adaptations to a nectarivorous lifestyle within Lonchophyllinae and Glossophaginae. Molecular clock analysis revealed a relatively short time frame of about ten million years for the divergence of subfamilies. Conclusions Our study provides strong support for diphyly of nectarivorous phyllostomids. This is remarkable, since their morphological adaptations to nutrition, like elongated rostrums and tongues, reduced teeth and the ability to use hovering flight while ingestion, closely resemble each other. However, more precise examinations of their tongues (e.g. type and structure of papillae and muscular innervation) revealed levels of difference in line with an independent evolution of nectarivory in these bats. PMID:20525339
Hand, Suzanne J; Lee, Daphne E; Worthy, Trevor H; Archer, Michael; Worthy, Jennifer P; Tennyson, Alan J D; Salisbury, Steven W; Scofield, R Paul; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Kennedy, Elizabeth M; Lindqvist, Jon K
The New Zealand endemic bat family Mystacinidae comprises just two Recent species referred to a single genus, Mystacina. The family was once more diverse and widespread, with an additional six extinct taxa recorded from Australia and New Zealand. Here, a new mystacinid is described from the early Miocene (19-16 Ma) St Bathans Fauna of Central Otago, South Island, New Zealand. It is the first pre-Pleistocene record of the modern genus and it extends the evolutionary history of Mystacina back at least 16 million years. Extant Mystacina species occupy old-growth rainforest and are semi-terrestrial with an exceptionally broad omnivorous diet. The majority of the plants inhabited, pollinated, dispersed or eaten by modern Mystacina were well-established in southern New Zealand in the early Miocene, based on the fossil record from sites at or near where the bat fossils are found. Similarly, many of the arthropod prey of living Mystacina are recorded as fossils in the same area. Although none of the Miocene plant and arthropod species is extant, most are closely related to modern taxa, demonstrating potentially long-standing ecological associations with Mystacina.
Kumar, Anjali; Divoll, Timothy J; Ganguli, Priya M; Trama, Florencia A; Lamborg, Carl H
Mercury, a toxic trace metal, has been used extensively as an inexpensive and readily available method of extracting gold from fine-grained sediment. Worldwide, artisanal mining is responsible for one third of all mercury released into the environment. By testing bat hair from museum specimens and field collected samples from areas both impacted and unimpacted by artisanal gold mining in Perú, we show monomethylmercury (MMHg) has increased in the last 100 years. MMHg concentrations were also greatest in the highest bat trophic level (insectivores), and in areas experiencing extractive artisanal mining. Reproductive female bats had higher MMHg concentrations, and both juvenile and adult bats from mercury contaminated sites had more MMHg than those from uncontaminated sites. Bats have important ecological functions, providing vital ecosystem services such as pollination, seed dispersal, and insect control. Natural populations can act as environmental sentinels and offer the chance to expand our understanding of, and responses to, environmental and human health concerns. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Al-Dakhil, Mohamed; Al-Shawa, Yaser
Fecal samples from 12 Pipistrellus kuhlii captured at Shagrah, Saudi Arabia, were examined for coccidia and three (25%) found to harbor a undescribed eimerian, herein described as Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. Sporulated oocysts were subspherical, 24.8×23.2 (22-27×20-25) µm, with a bilayered and smooth wall. The micropyle was absent, but a large oocyst residuum and a single polar granule were present. Sporocysts were ovoid, 11.6×8.3 (10.5-13×7.5-9) µm, with a prominent Stieda body, but without a substiedal body; sporozoites lay head to tail in sporocysts and contained one large posterior refractile body. Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. is the 3rd species of the genus Eimeria found from bats of the genus Pipistrellus. PMID:10188376
Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Li, Yu-Chun; Harada, Masashi; Chen, Zhong; Lin, Liang-Kong
Karyotypes and chromosomal data are presented for eight bat species representing two families (Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae) from Hainan Island, China. The species investigated were Rhinolophus lepidus (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. pusillus (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. affinis (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. sinicus (2n = 36, FN = 60), Myotis horsfieldi (2n = 44, FN = 52), Pipistrellus abramus (2n = 26, FN = 44), Miniopterus australis (2n = 46, FN = 50) and M. schreibersii (2n = 46, FN = 50). The karyotype of Rhinolophus lepidus is reported for the first time. PMID:19847322
Gaudioso, Pablo J; Díaz, M Mónica; Barquez, Rubén M
Here we present detailed descriptions and comparisons of the axial skeleton of seven species of bats belonging to five subfamilies of Phyllostomidae of different trophic guilds. The material examined consisted of 34 complete skeletons of seven species. For five of the studied species, previous descriptions have not been conducted, and for the vampires only limited information is available, so that descriptions for these species are here completed. The axial skeleton has characters that allow grouping of the species phylogenetically of the same subfamily and by feeding habits. At the same time, there are characters that associate species from different subfamilies with different types of diet or ways to obtain food.
Clarke-Crespo, Emilio; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce; Montiel-Ortega, Salvador; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel
Bats are recognized as potential hosts of pathogens exploiting the food chain to reach them as definitive hosts. However, very little is known about their endoparasites, especially for Neotropical bats. In this study, we assessed the helminth fauna associated with 3 insectivorous bat species roosting in the same single hot cave in central Veracruz, México: Mormoops megalophylla, Pteronotus davyi, and Pteronotus personatus. During a period of 1 yr (April 2007-2008), 135 mormoopid bats in total were collected and examined for helminths. Six parasite species representing 3 types of intestinal helminths were found: 1 cestode Vampirolepis elongatus; 2 trematodes Maxbraunium tubiporum and Ochoterenatrema labda; and 3 nematodes Linustrongylus pteronoti, Molineidae gen. sp., and Capillaria sp. Overall, trematodes were the most abundant parasite group (72.4%), followed by nematodes (20.7%) and cestodes (6.9%). Species-accumulation curves suggest that the worms collected (n = 1,331) from these 6 parasite species comprise the helminth fauna associated with the 3 bat populations studied. The only species shared by the 3 bat species was Capillaria sp. Most (5/6) of the helminth species recorded use Lepidoptera and Diptera as intermediate hosts; therefore, diet is likely the main source of infection. Although insectivorous bats are considered dietary generalist species, the differences found in helminth diversity in these sympatric populations of closely related bat species, suggest that diet partitioning occurs in mormoopid bat communities. Helminths tend to exploit the food chain to reach their final hosts; therefore, studying these parasites can provide useful information to further understand the biology of bats.
Nguyen, Son Truong; Motokawa, Masaharu; Oshida, Tatsuo; Endo, Hideki
Southeast Asia is a region of high biodiversity, containing species of plants and animals that are yet to be discovered. In this region, bats of the subfamily Kerivoulinae are widespread and diverse with six species recorded in Vietnam. However, the taxonomy of the Kerivoulinae in Asia is complicated. In our study, we used diagnostic characters and multivariate analysis to determine morphological differences between the genera Kerivoula and Phoniscus. We showed that the two genera are distinguishable by the size of second upper incisors, the shape of skull, nasal sinus, canines, second upper and lower premolars. In addition, the two genera can be osteometrically separated by measurements of the braincase height, interorbital width and shape of anterior palatal emargination. Our data clearly revealed the morphological variations in the skull shape of Kerivoula hardwickii in Vietnam. This suggests a possible separation into three morphotypes, representing cryptic species supported by statistical differences with wide variation in skull shape, size and teeth. These results demonstrated Kerivoula hardwickii can be separated three subspecies, and the result will serve as the basis for the future assessment and classification of this group in Southeast Asia.
Andriollo, Tommy; Naciri, Yamama; Ruedi, Manuel
The Kuhl's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii) is a Western Palaearctic species of bat that exhibits several deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages across its range. These lineages could represent cryptic species or merely ancient polymorphism, but no nuclear markers have been studied so far to properly assess the taxonomic status of these lineages. We examined here two lineages occurring in Western Europe, and used both mitochondrial and nuclear markers to measure degrees of genetic isolation between bats carrying them. The sampling focused on an area of strict lineage sympatry in Switzerland but also included bats from further south, in North Africa. All individuals were barcoded for the COI gene to identify their mitochondrial lineages and five highly polymorphic microsatellite loci were used to cluster them according to their nuclear genotypes. Despite this low number of nuclear markers, all North African nuclear genotypes were grouped in a highly distinct subpopulation when compared with European samples sharing the same mitochondrial barcodes. The reverse situation prevailed in Switzerland where bats carrying distinct barcodes had similar nuclear genotypes. There was a weak east/west nuclear structure of populations, but this was independent of mitochondrial lineages as bats carrying either variant were completely admixed. Thus, the divergent mitochondrial barcodes present in Western Europe do not represent cryptic species, but are part of a single biological species. We argue that these distinct barcodes evolved in allopatry and came recently into secondary contact in an area of admixture north of the Alps. Historical records from this area and molecular dating support such a recent bipolar spatial expansion. These results also highlight the need for using appropriate markers before claiming the existence of cryptic species based on highly divergent barcodes.
This study began in November, 1960 and involved studies of all bats living within one large and complex roof. Furzebrook House, built in 1885, was of brick with hollow walls and a black slate roof. The roof consisted of 9 distinct sections comprising some 385 m³ of which 60 % was accessible for
Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate the diversity of bats in two forest fragments in an area of restinga in the municipality of Jaguaruna, south of Santa Catarina. We performed 18 nights of sampling between November 2006 and September 2008, using in each night’s collection five mist nets installed at ground level, open for six hours after sunset. The Shannon index of diversity (H’ and the expected richness (Jackkinife first order were calculated for the total sampled area. We captured 135 individuals belonging to nine species and two families (Phyllostomidae = 5; Vespertilionidae = 4. Sturnira lilium was the most abundant species (40% of the sample. The diversity index was 1.75 and the estimated richness was 9.94. The observed richness represents 21.5% of the bat fauna recorded in the restinga area of Brazil. The diversity index recorded is close to that observed in other studies on areas of restinga. Studies that provide data on richness and abundance of species in restingas are very important, given the lack of studies on this ecosystem, especially regarding bats and the anthropogenic pressure that they are suffering.
Enders, A C; Jones, C J P; Taylor, P J
Bats are a highly successful, widely distributed group, with considerable variation in placental structure. The Egyptian slit-faced bat Nycteris thebaica is a member of one of the few families with previously undescribed placentation. It was found that, although the interhemal type of the Nycteris...... placenta is endotheliochorial with a single layer of cytotrophoblast, the arborizing pattern of the maternal vessels and especially the extraordinary major placental artery differs from the placenta of the emballonurid bats to which this family is considered to be most closely related. The major placental...... other bat species. The paraplacenta is extensive with abundant fetal vessels underlying cytotrophoblast and syncytial trophoblast layers, fronting on an endometrium that largely lacks uterine epithelial cells but has large decidual cells and is poorly vascularized. The placenta of Nycteris lacks...
Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Todd, Christopher M.; Miles, Adam C.; Gorresen, P. Marcos
We documented nightly movements of Hawaiian hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) on the island of Hawai’i. Based on data from 28 radiotagged individuals mean foraging range (FR) was 230.7±72.3 ha, core-use area (CUA) was 25.5±6.9 ha (or 11.1% of mean FR), and the mean long axis (LAX) across the FR was 3,390.8±754.3 m. There was almost no overlap in CUAs among 4 adult males having overlapping foraging areas and tracked simultaneously or within a 90-day window of each other. CUAs of subadults partially overlapped with multiple adult males or with one other subadult. High variance in FRs, cores use areas, and LAX across the FR perhaps reflect localized stochastic variables such as weather, habitat, and food resources. Hawaiian hoary bats use moderately large FRs among insectivorous bats studied with comparable methodologies; however, foraging activity indicated by documentation of acoustic feeding buzzes is concentrated within one or a few disjunct areas cumulatively forming the 50% fixed kernel of CUA. The concentration of feeding activity, low values of individual overlap, and agonistic chasing behavior within CUAs all demonstrate a structured use of individual space by Hawaiian hoary bats.
Hiller, Thomas; Honner, Benjamin; Page, Rachel A; Tschapka, Marco
Bat flies (Streblidae) are diverse, obligate blood-feeding insects and probably the most conspicuous ectoparasites of bats. They show preferences for specific body regions on their host bat, which are reflected in behavioural characteristics. In this study, we corroborate the categorization of bat flies into three ecomorphological groups, focusing only on differences in hind leg morphology. As no detailed phylogeny of bat flies is available, it remains uncertain whether these morphological differences reflect the evolutionary history of bat flies or show convergent adaptations for the host habitat type. We show that the division of the host bat into three distinct habitats contributes to the avoidance of interspecific competition of bat fly species. Finally, we found evidence for density-dependent competition between species belonging to the same ecomorphological group.
Júlia Lins Luz
Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the prevalence and intensity of Hectopsylla pulex infection in Molossus rufus and Molossus molossus, the parasite's choice of attachment site, and whether this host-parasite system varies with host size. Twenty-four bats were captured by hand from the roof of a house in Southeastern Brazil. M. rufus exhibited a prevalence of 71.4% and the mean intensity averaged 5 ectoparasites per bat. M. molossus exhibited a prevalence of 90%, and the average mean intensity was 2.11 ectoparasites. The attachment sites were: ear, tragus, shoulder blade and tibia, anus, wing, axilla, mouth and dactylopatagium. A positive correlation was observed between the bats' weight and the number of fleas.
Luiz Augustinho Menezes da Silva
Full Text Available Rabies virus was detected in bats (Molossus molossus from an urban area in the City of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Four individuals were found during the day in visible, non-habitual places, lying on the ground, but still alive. No contact occurred with people or animals. Of these, only two were identified; it was not possible to identify two specimens, since they were incinerated prior to identification. Diagnosis was positive by direct immunofluorescence and intracerebral inoculation in mice. This study presents the first instance in which the virus was detected in insectivorous bats in the State of Pernambuco.
Jacobs, David S.; Babiker, Hassan; Bastian, Anna; Kearney, Teresa; van Eeden, Rowen; Bishop, Jacqueline M.
Phenotypes of distantly related species may converge through adaptation to similar habitats and/or because they share biological constraints that limit the phenotypic variants produced. A common theme in bats is the sympatric occurrence of cryptic species that are convergent in morphology but divergent in echolocation frequency, suggesting that echolocation may facilitate niche partitioning, reducing competition. If so, allopatric populations freed from competition, could converge in both mor...
Jacobs, David S; Babiker, Hassan; Bastian, Anna; Kearney, Teresa; van Eeden, Rowen; Bishop, Jacqueline M
Phenotypes of distantly related species may converge through adaptation to similar habitats and/or because they share biological constraints that limit the phenotypic variants produced. A common theme in bats is the sympatric occurrence of cryptic species that are convergent in morphology but divergent in echolocation frequency, suggesting that echolocation may facilitate niche partitioning, reducing competition. If so, allopatric populations freed from competition, could converge in both morphology and echolocation provided they occupy similar niches or share biological constraints. We investigated the evolutionary history of a widely distributed African horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus darlingi, in the context of phenotypic convergence. We used phylogenetic inference to identify and date lineage divergence together with phenotypic comparisons and ecological niche modelling to identify morphological and geographical correlates of those lineages. Our results indicate that R. darlingi is paraphyletic, the eastern and western parts of its distribution forming two distinct non-sister lineages that diverged ~9.7 Mya. We retain R. darlingi for the eastern lineage and argue that the western lineage, currently the sub-species R. d. damarensis, should be elevated to full species status. R. damarensis comprises two lineages that diverged ~5 Mya. Our findings concur with patterns of divergence of other co-distributed taxa which are associated with increased regional aridification between 7-5 Mya suggesting possible vicariant evolution. The morphology and echolocation calls of R. darlingi and R. damarensis are convergent despite occupying different biomes. This suggests that adaptation to similar habitats is not responsible for the convergence. Furthermore, R. darlingi forms part of a clade comprising species that are bigger and echolocate at lower frequencies than R. darlingi, suggesting that biological constraints are unlikely to have influenced the convergence. Instead, the striking similarity in morphology and sensory biology are probably the result of neutral evolutionary processes, resulting in the independent evolution of similar phenotypes.
Helen Maria Duarte do Rêgo Barros
Full Text Available Phyllostomidae comprises the most diverse family of neotropical bats, its wide range of morphological features leading to uncertainty regarding phylogenetic relationships. Seeing that cytogenetics is one of the fields capable of providing support for currently adopted classifications through the use of several markers, a comparative analysis between two Phyllostomidae species was undertaken in the present study, with a view to supplying datasets for the further establishment of Phyllostomidae evolutionary relationships. Karyotypes of Lonchorhina aurita (2n = 32; FN = 60 and Trachops cirrhosus (2n = 30; FN = 56 were analyzed by G- and C-banding, silver nitrate staining (Ag-NOR and base-specific fluorochromes. Chromosomal data obtained for both species are in agreement with those previously described, except for X chromosome morphology in T. cirrhosus, hence indicating chromosomal geographical variation in this species. A comparison of G-banding permitted the identification of homeologies in nearly all the chromosomes. Furthermore, C-banding and Ag-NOR patterns were comparable to what has already been observed in the family. In both species CMA3/DA/DAPI staining revealed an R-banding-like pattern with CMA3, whereas DAPI showed uniform staining in all the chromosomes. Fluorochrome staining patterns for pericentromeric constitutive heterochromatin (CH regions, as well as for nucleolar organizing regions (NORs, indicated heterogeneity regarding these sequences among Phyllostomidae species.
Krizler C. Tanalgo
Full Text Available The stable microclimate in caves provides a relatively constant habitat for many bat species in the Philippines, but human encroachment continues to disrupt this habitat and imperil many of the species roosting in the caves. In South central Mindanao, the diversity and conservation status of cave bats remain undocumented and unexplored. We employed mist-netting to capture bats from five different caves within the town of Kabacan, northern Cotabato, Philippines. A total of 14 bat species were identified including the Philippine endemics Hipposideros pygmaeus and Ptenochirus jagori and the threatened Megaerops wetmorei. However, despite the declining conservation status of the bats, local disturbance such as bat hunting for bush meat and unregulated tourism are currently taking place in the caves. Large species such as Eonycteris spelaea and Rousettus amplexicaudatus are killed almost every day for food and trade. Therefore, the high species richness, and the presence of endemic and threatened species coupled with the occurrence of anthropogenic disturbances in caves suggests the need for an urgent and effective conservation intervention involving the local government and public community.
Vuong Tan Tu
Full Text Available In Southeast Asia, bats of the genus Tylonycteris Peters, 1872 have traditionally been classified into two wide-ranging species, T. pachypus (Temminck, 1840 and T. robustula Thomas, 1915. Our comparative phylogeographic analyses based on two mitochondrial and seven nuclear genes, combined with our multivariate morphological analyses, show that these species actually represent cryptic species complexes that share a similar biogeographic history in three major regions, i.e., Sundaland, southern Indochina, and northern Indochina. Our molecular dating estimates suggest that Pleistocene climatic oscillations and sea level changes have repeatedly isolated ancestral populations of Tylonycteris spp. in distant bamboo forest refugia. The analyses indicate, however, that populations of the T. pachypus complex were less affected by forest fragmentation in mainland Southeast Asia than those of the T. robustula complex. Accordingly, we propose several taxonomic changes within the genus Tylonycteris: the species T. fulvida and T. malayana are revalidated, and a new species, T. tonkinensis Tu, Csorba, Ruedi & Hassanin sp. nov., endemic to northern Indochina, is described.
M. B. Freitas
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of seasonal variation and fasting on fat reserves of the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA, along with lipid content of the liver and muscles, and fatty acids from the carcass were obtained from bats fed bovine blood and from whom food was subsequently withheld for 24 and 48 h. Animals were caught during both dry and rainy seasons. In general, fat tissue stores were not significantly influenced by seasonal variation. Lipid content of liver, muscles, and carcass decreased during some food deprivation periods, although the concomitant increase expected in plasma FFA was not observed. Lipid metabolism is hypothesized as being continued by the tissues themselves. In addition, free access to food sources (e.g., domestic livestock throughout the year is believed to contribute to the low seasonal variations in fat reserves observed in the common vampire bat.
Shpak A. V.
Full Text Available Parti-coloured bat (Vespertilio murinus Linnaeus, 1758 was considered in Belarus as a migrant species until recently. This point of view was based on the absence of winter records as well as the registrations in Austria and Romania of two V. murinus′ specimens, banded in Belarus. The data, obtained over the past few years, allow to state, that the whole territory of Belarus belongs to the winter range of this species. Hibernating animals were observed exclusively in the anthropogenic roosts.
López-Wilchis, Ricardo; Flores-Romero, Mayela; Guevara-Chumacero, Luis M.; Serrato-Díaz, Alejandra; Díaz-Larrea, Jhoana; Salgado-Mejía, Fernando; Ibáñez, Carlos; Salles, Leandro O.; Juste, Javier
One of the major challenges to understanding the evolution of Neotropical bats concerns our capacity to successfully scrutinize phylogenetic patterns associated with cases of cryptic species complexes. In this study Pteronotus parnellii is examined as a selected example of a known lineage of mormoopid bat that potentially contains several cryptic species. A samples of 452 individuals from 83 different localities, essentially covering its entire mainland distribution, was evaluated using two g...
Marcelo R. Nogueira
Full Text Available Saccopteryx leptura (Schreber, 1774 is reported from two new localities in southeastern Brazil, both in Atlantic forest remains in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Analysisof food material showed that individuals from both localities had preyedon insects in the order Hymenoptera. Cheek contents were available from one specimen, and in this case identification of the food item (flying ants achieved generic level (Pheidole Westwood, 1841. Aspects in the social behavior observed in a colony suggest that the same traits documented in Central American populations (small colonies, monogamic mating system, and retention of young for up to a year in the parental unit may also characterize this species in the southern most part of its range. In both external and craniodental selected measurements, specimens from Rio de Janeiro were close to the upper limits of the ranges known for the species.
Sreepada, K. S.; Koubínová, D.; Konečný, Adam; Koubek, Petr; Ráb, Petr; Rábová, Marie; Zima, Jan
Roč. 57, č. 4 (2008), s. 347-357 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093403; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : bats * karyotype evolution * chromosome banding Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/57/4/347-357_MS1427.pdf
Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.; Patterson, Bruce D.
Platyrrhinus is a diverse genus of small to large phyllostomid bats characterized by a comparatively narrow uropatagium thickly fringed with hair, a white dorsal stripe, comparatively large inner upper incisors that are convergent at the tips, and three upper and three lower molars. Eighteen species are currently recognized, the majority occurring in the Andes. Molecular, morphological, and morphometric analyses of specimens formerly identified as Platyrrhinus helleri support recognition of Platyrrhinus incarum as a separate species and reveal the presence of two species from western and northern South America that we describe herein as new (Platyrrhinus angustirostris sp. nov. from eastern Colombia and Ecuador, north-eastern Peru, and Venezuela and Platyrrhinus fusciventris sp. nov. from Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Trinidad and Tobago, northern Brazil, eastern Ecuador, and southern Venezuela). These two new species are sister taxa and, in turn, sister to Platyrrhinus incarum.
Full Text Available The infestation of Rhynchopsyllus pulex on the bat Molossus molossus was observed using mist-nets opened between constructions in the Primatological Center, in Guapimirim, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Full Text Available Few sites have been well sampled for bats, and samplings in islands are even scarcer. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were: (1 to list the bat species of Ilha da Marambaia; (2 to compare richness, abundance and biomass of bat guilds found there; (3 to analyse abundance patterns of bat species; and (4 to compare richness, abundance and composition of the bat fauna among different kinds of environment. To capture bats we used mist nets set in five different environments, totalising 3559.2 net-hours, during 37 nights between October 2006 and August 2008. A total of 1,133 captures were accomplished, comprising 34 species from five families. The most abundant species was Molossus molossus. Frugivorous bats exhibited higher richness, abundance and biomass if compared to other guilds. Most species (N = 22 exhibited abundances between 1 to 10% of all captures. Sixteen species were restricted to just one of the environments sampled. The high richness may be attributed to sampling carried out in several environments, and to the capture of insectivorous species over water bodies.
Full Text Available The regional distribution and relative frequency of endocrine cells in the stomach and intestine of Phyllostomidae: Lonchorhina aurita and Molossidae: Molossus molossus bats were studied immunohistochemically. Three types of immunoreactive (IR endocrine cells - to serotonin (5-HT, gastrin (GAS and enteroglucagon (GLUC - were found in the gastric mucosa and four types of IR cells were identified in the intestinal mucosa. This study showed an interespecfic difference in the regional distribution and relative frequency of endocrine cells in the Chiropteran alimentary tract.
Full Text Available Sunset and sunrise regulate the activities of most studied bat species. To verify patterns of foraging activity, 29 bat sampling nights were carried out over a dam in Rio de Janeiro city, which resulted in 363 hours with 730 captures, representing 13 species of insectivorous bats. Molossus molossus constituted the bulk of the captures (79.9% and was present in 82.8% of the sampling nights. This bat species exhibited crepuscular and nocturnal activity (from -6 minutes to 900 minutes after the time of sunset. A bimodal activity pattern was observed, and two non-overlapping capture peaks. The first peak lasted from 6 minutes before sunset to 420 minutes after sunset. The second peak began at 564 minutes after sunset and ended just after sunrise. The first capture peak was observed in 75.9% of the nights, and the second peak in 62.1% of the nights. The time of the first capture exhibited a positive linear relationship with sunset and the time of the last capture, a positive linear relationship with sunrise. The existence of a relationship between night length and the difference between first and last captures of each night shows that M. molossus has longer activity the longer the night, showing a seasonal variation in the activity period.
Dario, Maria Augusta; Lisboa, Cristiane Varella; Costa, Luciana M.; Moratelli, Ricardo; Nascimento, Monique Pereira; Costa, Leonora Pires; Leite, Yuri Luiz Reis; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues
The aim of this study was to reevaluate the ecology of an area in the Atlantic Forest, southeast Brazil, where Chagas disease (CD) has been found to occur. In a previous study, immediately after the occurrence of a CD case, we did not observe any sylvatic small mammals or dogs with Trypanosoma cruzi cruzi infections, but Triatoma vitticeps presented high T. c. cruzi infection rates. In this study, we investigated bats together with non-volant mammals, dogs, and triatomines to explore other possible T. c. cruzi reservoirs/hosts in the area. Seventy-three non-volant mammals and 186 bats were captured at three sites within the Guarapari municipality, Espírito Santo state. Rio da Prata and Amarelos sites exhibited greater richness in terms of non-volant mammals and bats species, respectively. The marsupial Metachirus nudicaudatus, the rodent Trinomys paratus, and the bats Artibeus lituratus and Carollia perspicillata were the most frequently captured species. As determined by positive hemocultures, only two non-volant mammals were found to be infected by Trypanosoma species: Monodelphis americana, which was infected by T. cascavelli, T. dionisii and Trypanosoma sp., and Callithrix geoffroyi, which was infected by T. minasense. Bats presented T. c. cruzi TcI and TcIII/V, T. c. marinkellei, T. dionisii, T. rangeli B and D, and Trypanosoma sp. infections. Seven dogs were infected with T. cruzi based only on serological exams. The triatomines T. vitticeps and Panstrongylus geniculatus were found to be infected by trypanosomes via microscopy. According to molecular characterization, T. vitticeps specimens were infected with T. c. cruzi TcI, TcII, TcIII/V, and TcIV, T. c. marinkellei and T. dionisii. We observed high trypanosome diversity in a small and fragmented region of the Atlantic Forest. This diversity was primarily maintained by bats and T. vitticeps. Our findings show that the host specificity of the Trypanosoma genus should be thoroughly reviewed. In addition, our
Elenice Maria Sequetin Cunha
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Reports on bat rabies in Brazil are sporadic and isolated. This study aimed at describing the detection of rabies virus in bats in the state of São Paulo. METHODS: A total of 7,393 bats from 235 municipalities of the north and northwestern areas of the state of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, were assessed according to their morphological and morphometric characteristics from 1997 to 2002. Fluorescent antibody test and mice inoculation were used for viral identification. RESULTS: Of all samples examined, 1.3% was rabies virus positive, ranging from 0.2% in 1997 to 1.6% in 2001. There were found 98 bats infected, 87 in the urban area. Fluorescent antibody test was detected in 77 positive samples, whereas 92 produced rabies signs in mice; incubation period ranging from 4 to 23 days. In 43 cities at least one rabid bat was observed. The highest proportion (33.7% of rabies virus was found in Artibeus lituratus. Eptesicus and Myotis were the most frequent positive species (24.5% of the Vespertilionidae family. The species Molossus molossus and Molossus rufus showed 14.3% positive bats. There were no differences in the distribution of positive rabies between females (33; 48.5% and males (35; 51.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Rabies-infected bats were found in environments that pose a risk to both human and domestic animal population and there is a need for actions aiming at the control of these species and public education.OBJETIVO: Os relatos sobre a ocorrência de raiva em morcegos no Brasil são esporádicos e isolados. Assim, o objetivo do estudo foi descrever a detecção do vírus da raiva em morcegos do Estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 7.393 morcegos provenientes de 235 municípios do norte e noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, no período de 1997 a 2002 e identificados por meio de características morfológicas e morfométricas. Para a detecção do antígeno viral foi utilizada a técnica de imunofluorescência direta e o
Primeiro registro de Histiotus montanus (Philippi & Landbeck para o Estado do Paraná, Brasil (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae First record of Histiotus montanus (Philippi & Landbeck from Paraná State, Brazil (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae
João M. D. Miranda
Full Text Available A primeira ocorrência de Histiotus montanus (Philippi & Landbeck, 1861 para o Estado do Paraná é reportada. Um macho adulto foi coletado com rede de neblina (em abrigo de forro de casa em um remanescente de campo natural no Município de Palmas, no Sul do Paraná. Aspectos morfológicos e alguns aspectos biológicos desta espécie são também mostrados.The first occurrence of Histiotus montanus (Philippi & Landbeck, 1861 from Paraná State is reported. An adult male was caught with mist net in the (in attic building located at natural field remnant of Palmas Municipality, Southern Paraná. Morphological and some biological aspects of this species are showed too.
Ocorrência de Histiotus montanus montanus (Philippi & Landbeck (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Occurrence of Histiotus montanus montanus (Philippi & Landbeck (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Marta E. Fabián
Full Text Available Confirma-se o registro de Histiotus montanus montanus (Philippi & Landbeck, 1861 para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, considerando-se que até a presente data, não era conhecida sua área de ocorrência no Estado. Os exemplares examinados são provenientes dos municípios de Bagé, Ilópolis e Pinheiro Machado o que caracteriza ampla distribuição geográfica no estado do Rio Grande do Sul.It is registered the occurrence of Histiotus montanus montanus (Philippi & Landbeck, 1861 in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The examined specimens were collected in the counties of Bagé, Ilópolis and Pinheiro Machado, characterizing wide geographical distributtion in State of Rio Grande do Sul.
Occurrence of white-winged vampire bat, Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera, in the Cerrado of Distrito Federal, Brazil Ocorrência de Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera no Cerrado do Distrito Federal
Ludmilla M. de S. Aguiar
Full Text Available Authors cite Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 as occurring in all the Brazilian territory. In spite of that, there are no reports of capture sites for D. youngi in the literature for Distrito Federal or Cerrado of Central Brazil. Here we report the first precise record of this species for Central Brazil, rural area of Distrito Federal, and provide information on its biology, conservation and distribution in Brazil, according to our data and information from the literature.A espécie Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 é considerada por alguns autores como ocorrendo para todo o Brasil incluindo o bioma Cerrado e área rural do Distrito Federal. No entanto não há na literatura nenhum registro do local de coleta dessa espécie para essas regiões. Reportamos aqui o primeiro registro no Cerrado do Brasil Central, área rural do Distrito Federal, e alguns dados sobre a biologia, conservação e distribuição geográfica da espécie no Brasil, de acordo com dados desse trabalho e da literatura.
Full Text Available We studied discrete and quantitative data from 88 specimens of the subgenus Mimon previously identified as Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838 and M. cozumelae Goldman, 1914 from diverse parts of their range. Our data indicate that specimens of Mimon bennetii in Brazil presented geographic variation in morphometrical characters and mosaic variation in qualitative traits. Specimens from the Cerrado biome collected in Brazilian states like Piaui, Tocantins, and Goiás have longer forearms than those distributed in the Atlantic and Amazon forested domains. Based on morphometrics, as showed by t-tests, specimens of M. bennettii from the Brazilian Cerrado resemble phenetically more with M. cozumelae than the M. bennettii from Atlantic Forest. Characters presently used to diagnosis M. cozumelae also were also recorded to M. bennettii in diverse parts of Brazil, making that validity of M. cozumelae questionable based on this kind of traits. This research also updated the geographic distribution to the M. bennettii in Brazil.Foi analisada a morfologia quantitativa e qualitativa de 88 espécimes do subgênero Mimon previamente identificados como Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838 e M. cozumelae Goldman, 1914 de diversas localidades dentro de sua distribuição. Os dados indicam que os espécimes de Mimon bennetii no Brasil apresentam variação geográfica nos caracteres morfométricos e em mosaico nos qualitativos. Espécimes do bioma Cerrado provenientes dos estados brasileiros do Piauí, Tocantins e Goiás têm antebraço mais longo que os indivíduos dos domínios da Amazônia e Floresta Atlântica. Com base na morfometria aplicando teste t-Student, os espécimes de M. bennettii do Cerrado lembram fenéticamente mais M. cozumelae que M. bennettii da Floresta Atlântica. Os caracteres morfológicos atualmente empregados para diagnosticar M. cozumelae também foram registrados para M. bennettii em diversas áreas do Brasil, tornando a validade de M. cozumelae questionável nesses tipos de caracteres. O presente artigo também atualiza a distribuição geográfica de M. bennettii no Brazil.
Biology of Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner in Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Biologia de Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae
Full Text Available Vampyressa pusilla is widespread in Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. It occurs in forested areas, and is absent from urban and open habitats. This species occurs mainly in altitudes up to 1,300 m a.s.l. Vampyressa pusilla was captured during the whole night, from 18 minutes before sunset to 759 minutes after sunset. Captures peaked in the first two hours of the night. Reproductive activity was seasonal, pregnant females were observed in January, February, April, August, October, November and December and lactating females from November to January and in March.Vampyressa pusilla tem uma larga distribuição no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil. Pode ser encontrada em florestas, mas não em áreas urbanas nem em paisagens abertas. Esta espécie ocorre de 0 a 1300 m de altitude. Vampyressa pusilla foi capturada por toda a noite, desde 18 minutos antes do pôr-do-sol até 759 minutos após o pôr do sol. A frequência de captura foi maior dentro das duas primeiras horas. A atividade reprodutiva é estacional, com fêmeas grávidas observadas em janeiro, fevereiro, abril, agosto, outubro, novembro e dezembro e fêmeas lactantes de novembro a janeiro e março.
Predação de morcegos por Chrotopterus auritus (Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera no pantanal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Bat predation by Chrotopterus auritus (Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera in pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
Marcelo Oscar Bordignon
Full Text Available Foi registrada a predação de Carollia perspiscillata (Linnaeus, 1758 e Peropterix macrotis (Wagner, 1843 por Chrotopterus autitus (Peters, 1856 em uma caverna na morraria do Urucum em Corumbá, centro-oeste do Brasil. Os fragmentos de asas e um crânio encontrados sob o local de pouso de C. auritus junto às fezes, após comparados com material de coleção, mostraram que este morcego alimenta-se oportunamente de outras espécies de morcegos ocupantes do mesmo abrigo.The predation of Carollia perspiscillata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Peropterix macrotis (Wagner, 1843 by Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856 was registered in a cave at Urucum's mountains of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The wing fragments and cranium finded under feces deposites, in replace point of C. auritus, were comparated with colection reference material and revealed that C. auritus can eat occasionaly other bat species that inhabit in same roost.
Ocorrência de Glyphonycteris sylvestris Thomas (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil Occurrence of Glyphonycteris sylvestris Thomas (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil
Full Text Available The first occurrence of phyllostomid bat Glyphonycteris sylvestris Thomas, 1896 in Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil is reported. An adult female was caught with mist net in the Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, an AtlanticForest area in West Zone of Rio de Janeiro city, in July 9th, 1996. Morphological aspects of this species are discussed. Measurements obtained for the specimen are also provided.
Diet of the fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera in a mangrove area of southern Brazil Dieta do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera em uma área de manguezal do sul do Brasil
Marcelo O. Bordignon
Full Text Available From January to December 1999, the diet of Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 was determined in a salt-water ecosystem, by analysing the feces of bats captured in mist nets. Of the 61 samples analyzed, most contained remains of fish (90.2%, followed by insects (70.5% and crustaceous (29.5%. The most frequent fishes species were: silversides Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, anchovies Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 and scaly sardines Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. The most frequent insects were moths (Saturniidae and beetles (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae and Coccinellidae, as well as two species of bat ectoparasites (Streblidae. Among the crustaceous the shrimp (Palaemonidae and crabs (Gecarcinidae are was present. The consumption of fish, insects and crustaceans was different for the males and females throughout the year.De janeiro a dezembro de 1999, foi estudada a dieta de Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 em um ecossistema de manguezal, através da análise das fezes de morcegos capturados com redes-neblina. Das 61 amostras analisadas, a maioria continha fragmentos de peixes (90.2%, seguido de insetos (70.5% e crustáceos (29,5%. As espécies de peixes mais freqüentes foram: peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, manjuba Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 e sardinha Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. Os insetos mais freqüentes foram mariposas (Saturniidae e besouros (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae e Coccinellidae, além de duas espécies de ectoparasitas (Streblidae. Entre os crustáceos, houve a presença apenas de camarões (Palaemonidae e siris (Gecarcinidae. O consumo de peixes, insetos e crustáceos foi diferente para machos e fêmeas ao longo do ano.
First record of Parakosa flexipes (Acari: Chirodiscidae parasitizing a free-tailed bat (Chiroptera: Molossidae in Brazil Primeiro registro de Parakosa flexipes (Acari: Chirodiscidae parasitando um morcego-de-cauda-livre (Chiroptera: Molossidae no Brasil
Luiz Antonio Costa Gomes
Full Text Available The present study reports the occurrence of Parakosa flexipes (Pinichpongse (Chirodiscidae for the first time in Brazil, along with its infection sites on Molossus rufus E. Geoffroy. Thirty-eight bats were caught using mist nets that were placed near a house at the Mars Center for Cocoa Science in the state of Bahia, of which 14 (37% were parasitized by P. flexipes. Parakosa flexipes was observed parasitizing M. rufus on hairs that were evidently longer than others distributed over the bat's body, where up to three parasites could be spotted on a single hair.O presente estudo registra a ocorrência de Parakosa flexipes (Pinichpongse pela primeira vez no Brasil, bem como seus sítios de infecção em Molossus rufus E. Geoffroy. Foram capturados 38 morcegos com redes-de-neblina, dispostas próximas a uma residência da "Mars Center for Cocoa Science" no Sul da Bahia, dos quais 14 (37% estavam parasitados por P. flexipes. Parakosa flexipes foi observada parasitando M. rufus em pelos evidentemente maiores que os demais distribuídos pelo corpo do morcego, onde se pôde observar até três parasitos em um único pelo.
Carlos E.L. Esbérard
Full Text Available Some bat species are able to adapt to urban areas, where they find food and roosts. Despite the high number of parks in Brazilian cities, they did not yet raise the interest of most zoologists, except for some surveys of birds and butterflies. The objectives of the present study were: (i to inventory the bat species of Quinta da Boa Vista (QBV, a large (25 ha urban park centrally located in densely populated Rio de Janeiro, which is Brazil's second largest metropolis; (ii to compare the species richness observed in roosts with the richness recorded through mist netting in flight routes and near fruiting fig trees; and (iii to analyze recaptures of bats marked in this park and recaptured in other sites and vice-versa. Sampling totaled 104 sampling nights resulting in 3,256 captures (including 133 recaptures between April 1989 and December 2004. We also sampled roosts and received some specimens from park visitors and city workers. We documented 21 bat species, predominantly large frugivores. The number of expected species for this park was 24.0 ± 4.6, and the total sampled represented 87.5% of the expected. The recapture of bats marked in surrounding forest fragments and in QBV shows the importance of urban parks for the maintenance of bat diversity. Inspection of roosts produced two species that had not been captured with other methods. Sampling near fruiting fig trees did not differ in terms of richness from sampling carried out far from these trees or during their non-fruiting periods.
Lopes, Gerson; Santos, Tamily; Velazco, Paúl
Abstract: The present note reports the first record of Vampyrodes caraccioli in the Brazilian state of Amazonas, and the central Amazon region, based on 44 specimens caught in the Auati-Paraná Extractive Reserve, north bank of the Solimões/Amazonas River. Our record fills a distribution gap of this species in the Brazilian Amazon and illustrates that the current knowledge on the distribution of Amazonian bats is far from complete.
Danielle B Morais
Full Text Available Due to the scarcity of information about patterns of spermatogenesis in bats, this study aimed to provide information on the testicular activity of the bat Sturnira lilium along the annual seasons. Thus, a series of morphometrical and stereological analyses were made using the testes of adult S. lilium in order to achieve a better understanding of the sperm production dynamics. Light and transmission electron microscopy analyses were performed in testicular fragments of animals captured during dry and rainy seasons. The testes followed the pattern of organization described for other mammals, and there were no morphological differences between organs collected either in dry or in rainy seasons. Each tubular cross-section in stage 1 was made of 0.5 type-A spermatogonia, 4.4 primary spermatocytes in preleptotene/leptotene, 3.7 in zygotene, 11.9 in pachytene, 35.6 round spermatids and 8.5 Sertoli cells. The mitotic and meiotic indexes were 15.4 and 2.9 cells, respectively, while the spermatogenesis yield was 68.7 cells. The testicular sperm reserves was 37.61×10(6 cells, and daily sperm production per gram of testis averaged 209.68×10(6 cells, both highest averages occurring in the rainy season. S. lilium male bats have a continuous reproductive pattern, high spermatogenesis yield and low support capacity by the Sertoli cells.
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n3p193 O estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a diversidade de morcegos em dois fragmentos ﬂorestais em área de restinga no município de Jaguaruna sul de Santa Catarina. Foram realizadas 18 noites de amostragem entre novembro de 2006 e setembro de 2008, sendo utilizadas em cada noite de coleta, cinco redes de neblina instaladas ao nível do solo, abertas por seis horas após pôr-do-sol. Foram calculados o índice de diversidade de Shannon (H’ e a riqueza esperada (Jackkinife de primeira ordem para a área como um todo. Foram capturados 135 indivíduos pertencentes a nove espécies de duas famílias (Phyllostomidae = 5; Vespertilionidae = 4. Sturnira lilium foi à espécie mais abundante (40% da amostra. O índice de diversidade foi de 1,75 e a riqueza estimada de 9,94 espécies. A riqueza observada representa 21,5% da fauna de morcegos registrada para a área de restinga no Brasil. O índice de diversidade obtido ﬁcou próximo ao observado em outros estudos realizados em restingas brasileiras. Mesmo que pontuais, estudos que forneçam dados sobre a riqueza e abundância de espécies nas restingas são de grande importância, dada a carência de estudos neste ecossistema, principalmente sobre os morcegos, assim como, as pressões antrópicas que vem sofrendo.
Santana, Sharlene E; Geipel, Inga; Dumont, Elizabeth R; Kalka, Margareta B; Kalko, Elisabeth K V
Ecological specialization and resource partitioning are expected to be particularly high in the species-rich communities of tropical vertebrates, yet many species have broader ecological niches than expected. In Neotropical ecosystems, Neotropical leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae) are one of the most ecologically and functionally diverse vertebrate clades. Resource partitioning in phyllostomids might be achieved through differences in the ability to find and process food. We selected Micronycteris microtis, a very small (5-7 g) animalivorous phyllostomid, to explore whether broad resource use is associated with specific morphological, behavioral and performance traits within the phyllostomid radiation. We documented processing of natural prey and measured bite force in free-ranging M. microtis and other sympatric phyllostomids. We found that M. microtis had a remarkably broad diet for prey size and hardness. For the first time, we also report the consumption of vertebrates (lizards), which makes M. microtis the smallest carnivorous bat reported to date. Compared to other phyllostomids, M. microtis had the highest bite force for its size and cranial shape and high performance plasticity. Bite force and cranial shape appear to have evolved rapidly in the M. microtis lineage. High performance capacity and high efficiency in finding motionless prey might be key traits that allow M. microtis, and perhaps other species, to successfully co-exist with other gleaning bats.
Full Text Available Most natural forests have been converted for human use, restricting biological life to small forest fragments. Many animals, including some species of bats are disappearing and the list of these species grows every day. It seems that the destruction of the habitat is one of its major causes. This study aimed to analyze how this community of bats was made up in environments with different sizes and quality of habitat. Data from studies conducted in the region of Londrina, Parana, Brazil, from 1982 to 2000 were used. Originally, this area was covered by a semi deciduous forest, especially Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae, Ficus insipida (Moraceae, Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae, Croton floribundus (Euforbiaceae, and currently, only small remnants of the original vegetation still exist. The results showed a decline in the number of species caught in smaller areas compared to the largest remnant. In about 18 years of sampling, 42 species of bats were found in the region, representing 67% of the species that occur in Paraná and 24.4% in Brazil. There were two species of Noctilionidae; 21 of Phyllostoma; 11 Vespertilionidae and eight Molossidae. Eight of these were captured only in the largest fragment, Mata dos Godoy State Park (680 ha. Ten species had a low capture rate in the smaller areas with less than three individuals. Of the total sampled, 14 species were found in human buildings, and were able to tolerate modified environments, foraging and even using them as shelter. As the size of the forest area increases, there is a greater variety of ecological opportunities and their physical conditions become more stable, i.e., conditions favorable for growth and survival of a greater number of species. Forest fragmentation limits and creates subpopulations, preserving only long-lived K-strategist animals for some time, where the supporting capacity of the environment is a limiting factor. The reduction of habitats, species and genetic diversity resulting from human activities are endangering the future adaptability in natural ecosystems, which promotes the disappearance of low adaptive potential species.
Full Text Available Seasonal variation is a key factor regulating energy metabolism and reproduction in several mammals, including bats. This study aimed to track seasonal changes in the energy reserves of the insectivorous bat Molossus molossus associated with its reproductive cycle. Adult males were collected during the four neotropical annual seasons in Viçosa - MG, Brazil. Blood and tissues were collected for metabolic analysis and testes were removed for histology and morphometry. Our results show that liver and breast muscle glycogen concentrations were significantly lower in winter. The adiposity index was significantly higher in the fall compared to winter and spring. Seminiferous tubules were greater in diameter in animals captured in fall and winter, indicating a higher investment in spermatic production during these seasons. The percentage of Leydig cells was higher in summer compared to fall and winter. We suggest that M. molossus presents a type of seasonal reproduction with two peaks of testicular activity: one in fall, with higher sperm production (spermatogenesis, and another in summer, with higher hormone production (steroidogenesis. The metabolic pattern may be associated with reproductive events, especially due to the highest fat storage observed in the fall, which coincides with the further development of the seminiferous tubules.
Dixon, J. W.
Full Text Available Adequate roost sites for hibernacula are an important factor in the distribution and abundance of temperate batspecies and knowledge of specific hibernacula is necessary to make sound management decisions. Caves are recognized asone of the most important roosting sites for bats, yet surveys in caves are uncommon in North America. This paper presentsdata on the distribution and abundance of bats hibernating in Iowa (U.S.A. caves and includes new hibernacula records.These are the first published records of bats in Iowa caves in almost 25 years.
Sharlene E Santana
Full Text Available Ecological specialization and resource partitioning are expected to be particularly high in the species-rich communities of tropical vertebrates, yet many species have broader ecological niches than expected. In Neotropical ecosystems, Neotropical leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae are one of the most ecologically and functionally diverse vertebrate clades. Resource partitioning in phyllostomids might be achieved through differences in the ability to find and process food. We selected Micronycteris microtis, a very small (5-7 g animalivorous phyllostomid, to explore whether broad resource use is associated with specific morphological, behavioral and performance traits within the phyllostomid radiation. We documented processing of natural prey and measured bite force in free-ranging M. microtis and other sympatric phyllostomids. We found that M. microtis had a remarkably broad diet for prey size and hardness. For the first time, we also report the consumption of vertebrates (lizards, which makes M. microtis the smallest carnivorous bat reported to date. Compared to other phyllostomids, M. microtis had the highest bite force for its size and cranial shape and high performance plasticity. Bite force and cranial shape appear to have evolved rapidly in the M. microtis lineage. High performance capacity and high efficiency in finding motionless prey might be key traits that allow M. microtis, and perhaps other species, to successfully co-exist with other gleaning bats.
André B. Malekani
Full Text Available As part of biodiversity monitoring in the Kisangani Forest Region, a survey of bats was conducted in three protected areas, specifically Lomami, Yangambi and Epulu. In this pilot study, a total of 201 specimens were collected using Japanese nets of different lengths (6, 9 and 12 m long and a height of 2 m with a mesh size of 2 × 2 cm to capture bats. Captured specimens were identified using determination keys appropriate for the study area. The results of inventories in the three sites revealed that 201 specimens of captured bats belong to 2 sub-orders, 4 families, 9 genera and 12 species. The most abundant species were Epomops franqueti, Megaloglossus woermannii and Myotis bocagii. The following species, Epomops franqueti, Megaloglossus woermanii, Casinycteris argynnis, and Hipposideros caffer were found at all three sites. Based on the Shannon Index, it was observed that the Lomami site has a higher specific diversity than the two other areas (Yangambi and Epulu 1.74 against 1.51 and 1.42 respectively.
Smirnov, D G; Vekhnik, V P
A complex analysis of the food range of 15 bat species inhabiting floodplain ecosystems of the Samara Bend has been performed. It is shown that, in bats, an important component of the structuring of their communities is the division of food resources. The guild structure and position of species in the trophic space are described. Seven food guilds consisting of nonspecialized and specialized species are distinguished. It is noted that most species are characterized by a wide overlapping of their trophic niches, which may be a consequence of their weak competition in an environment that is rich in food resources.
S.J. Presley; M.R. Willig; L.N. Saldanha; Jr. Wunderle; I. Castro-Arellano
Reduced-impact logging (RIL) represents a viable option for sustainable use of Neotropical lowland forests while minimizing negative effects on local biodiversity. Many Neotropical bats of the family Phyllostomidae provide ecosystem services associated with pollination and seed dispersal that promote the regeneration of disturbed areas; therefore, effects of RIL on...
Colín-Martínez, Helisama; Morales-Malacara, Juan B; García-Estrada, Carlos
This is the first complete assessment of the ectoparasite fauna on phyllostomid bats in a shaded coffee plantation in Mexico. The study was carried out at Finca San Carlos, in the municipality of Tapachula, southeastern Chiapas, Mexico. The bats were captured over three consecutive nights every month, from December 2005 to November 2006, using four mist nets. We captured 192 phyllostomid bats, representing 18 species, upon which 1,971 ectoparasites, belonging to 11 families and 65 species, were found. We found that 160 of the 192 captured bats were hosts to ectoparasites, giving an infestation prevalence of 83.3%. Of the 65 ectoparasitic species, 14 were classified as monoxenous and 17 as stenoxenous. More ectoparasites were recorded in the dry season (n = 1,439) than the wet season (n = 532), and we recorded some families of ectoparasite on particular areas of the bat body. An ordination of bat species, based on their ectoparasitic species community structure, formed groups at the subfamily level or lower taxonomic categories. We suggest that the close ectoparasite-host relationships could be examined as an additional tool to elucidate the taxonomic relationships between the hosts. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available The barbastelle bat, Barbastella barbastellus (Schreber, 1774 is a medium-sized, tree-dwelling vespertilionid classified as ?Endangered? in Italy; in western Europe it may be one of the rarest bat species. B. barbastellus shows roosting preferences that should be regarded as a key point in conservation protocols. We examined roost selection in a breeding population of B. barbastellus from the Abruzzo Lazio and Molise National Park (central Italy at three levels: woodland structure and management type; tree characteristics; and cavity characteristics. In 2001-2002, we fitted 31 adult B. barbastellus (29 lactating females, one pregnant female and one male with 0.48g radio-tags and tracked them to their roost-trees. The bats were tracked for 4.5 ± 3.7 days (range: 0-12 days. We located 33 roosts used by 25 subjects (1.8±1.2 roosts/bat, range 1-5. The bats switched roosts frequently: 13 bats used more than one tree over the study period. A chi-square analysis showed that the roosts were not distributed at random across woodland categories: unmanaged woodland was positively selected, whereas shelterwood-harvested woodland was used in proportion to its availability, and ?pastures+scattered trees? was avoided. Twenty out of 33 roost trees were dead Fagus sylvatica trees; conversely, living F. sylvatica dominated in a tree sample obtained at random; dead trees were used more than expected (Χ² test, P <0.001. Overall, roost trees were significantly taller and had a larger diameter at breast?s height and more cavities than random trees; they also had a lower percent canopy closure than random trees. To highlight which variables were actually associated with selection, we devised a logistic regression model. The full model was significant (P <0.001; removal of tree type and tree height affected the model significantly, but the other variables did not produce detectable effects. The bats roosted under loose bark in 20 of 27 trees, i.e. more frequently than expected (Χ² test, P < 0.05. B. barbastellus preferred cavities at a greater height (median roost height = 10.1 m, n = 22; median random cavity height = 4.5 m, n = 30; Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.01. Most roosts faced south (63.6% south facing: 91-270 degrees; 36.4% north facing: 271-90 degrees, n = 22; Χ² test, P < 0.05. A logistic regression model including cavity type, height above ground and direction faced was significant (P <0.01 and all variables were important for selection. B. barbastellus is probably unable to find suitable roosting sites where intensive and non-selective logging is conducted: areas of ancient woodland should be protected to ensure optimal roosting conditions. In roosting areas, felling operations should be avoided as far as possible; in logged areas, selective timber harvesting protocols preserving dead trees and a significant fraction of mature trees should be adopted. We are indebted to the Nando Peretti Foundation and the Parco Nazionale d?Abruzzo Lazio e Molise for funding our work.
Full Text Available The family Phyllostomidae belongs to the most abundant and diverse group of bats in the Neotropics with more morphological traits variation at the family level than any other group within mammals. In this work, we present data of chromosome banding (G, C and Ag-NOR and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH for representatives of Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 collected in four states of Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso and Pará. Two karyomorphs were found in this species: 2n=34, FN=64 in populations from western Pará and Mato Grosso states and 2n=34, FN=62 from Amazonas, Bahia, and northeastern Pará and Marajó Island (northern. Difference in the Fundamental Number is determined by variation in the size of the Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR accompanied with heterochromatin on chromosomes of pair 16 or, alternatively, a pericentric inversion. The C-banding technique detected constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and on the distal part of the long arm of pair 15 of specimens from all localities. FISH with a DNA telomeric probe did not show any interstitial sequence, and an 18S rDNA probe and silver staining revealed the presence of NOR in the long arm of the pair 15, associated with heterochromatin, and in the short arm of the pair 16 for all specimens. The intra-specific analysis using chromosome banding did not show any significant difference between the samples. The comparative analyses using G-banding have shown that nearly all chromosomes of R. pumilio were conserved in the chromosome complements of Glossophaga soricina Pallas, 1766, Phyllostomus hastatus Pallas, 1767, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843 and Mimon crenulatum Geoffroy, 1801, with a single chromosomal pair unique to R. pumilio (pair 15. However, two chromosomes of M. crenulatum are polymorphic for two independent pericentric inversions. The karyotype with 2n=34, NF=62 is probably the ancestral one for the other karyotypes described for R. pumilio.
Liu, He-Qun; Wei, Jing-Kuan; Li, Bo; Wang, Ming-Shan; Wu, Rui-Qi; Rizak, Joshua D; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Xu, Fu-Qiang; Shen, Yong-Yi; Hu, Xin-Tian; Zhang, Ya-Ping
Dim-light vision is present in all bats, but is divergent among species. Old-World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) have fully developed eyes; the eyes of insectivorous bats are generally degraded, and these bats rely on well-developed echolocation. An exception is the Emballonuridae, which are capable of laryngeal echolocation but prefer to use vision for navigation and have normal eyes. In this study, integrated methods, comprising manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), f-VEP and RNA-seq, were utilized to verify the divergence. The results of MEMRI showed that Pteropodidae bats have a much larger superior colliculus (SC)/ inferior colliculus (IC) volume ratio (3:1) than insectivorous bats (1:7). Furthermore, the absolute visual thresholds (log cd/m(2)•s) of Pteropodidae (-6.30 and -6.37) and Emballonuridae (-3.71) bats were lower than those of other insectivorous bats (-1.90). Finally, genes related to the visual pathway showed signs of positive selection, convergent evolution, upregulation and similar gene expression patterns in Pteropodidae and Emballonuridae bats. Different results imply that Pteropodidae and Emballonuridae bats have more developed vision than the insectivorous bats and suggest that further research on bat behavior is warranted.
Benda, P.; Gazaryan, S.; Vallo, Peter
Roč. 40, č. 6 (2016), s. 842-863 ISSN 1300-0179 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Myotis * mtDNA * cytochrome b * morphometrics * identification * taxonomy * Middle East, Palaearctic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.785, year: 2016
Christidis, Les; Goodman, Steven M; Naughton, Kate; Appleton, Belinda
The past decade has seen a proliferation of new species of Miniopterus bats (family Miniopteridae) recognized from Madagascar and the neighboring Comoros archipelago. The interspecific relationships of these taxa, their colonization history, and the evolution of this presumed adaptive radiation have not been sufficiently explored. Using the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene, we present a phylogeny of the Malagasy members of this widespread Old World genus, based on 218 sequences, of which 82 are new and 136 derived from previous studies. Phylogenetic analyses recovered 18 clades, which divide into five primary lineages: (1) M. griveaudi; (2) M. mahafaliensis, M. sororculus and X3; (3) M. majori, M. gleni and M. griffithsi; (4) M. brachytragos; M. aelleniA, and M. aelleniB; and (5) M. manavi and M. petersoni recovered as sister species, which were in turn linked to a group comprising M. egeri and five genetically distinct populations referred to herein as P3, P4, P5, P6 and P7. Beast analysis indicated that the initial divergence within the Malagasy Miniopterus radiation took place 4.5 Myr; most species diverged between 4 and 2.5 Myr, and a secondary period was between 1.25 and 1 Myr. DNA K2P-distances between recognized taxa ranged from 12.9% to 2.5% and intraspecific variation was less than 1.8%. Of the 18 identified clades, Latin binomials are only associated with 11, which indicates much greater differentiation than currently recognized for Malagasy Miniopterus. These data are placed in a context of the dispersal history of this genus on the island and patterns of ecological diversity.
Reis, N R; Gallo, P H; Peracchi, A L; Lima, L P; Fregonezi, M N
Most natural forests have been converted for human use, restricting biological life to small forest fragments. Many animals, including some species of bats are disappearing and the list of these species grows every day. It seems that the destruction of the habitat is one of its major causes. This study aimed to analyze how this community of bats was made up in environments with different sizes and quality of habitat. Data from studies conducted in the region of Londrina, Parana, Brazil, from 1982 to 2000 were used. Originally, this area was covered by a semi deciduous forest, especially Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae), Ficus insipida (Moraceae), Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae), Croton floribundus (Euforbiaceae), and currently, only small remnants of the original vegetation still exist. The results showed a decline in the number of species caught in smaller areas compared to the largest remnant. In about 18 years of sampling, 42 species of bats were found in the region, representing 67% of the species that occur in Paraná and 24.4% in Brazil. There were two species of Noctilionidae; 21 of Phyllostoma; 11 Vespertilionidae and eight Molossidae. Eight of these were captured only in the largest fragment, Mata dos Godoy State Park (680 ha). Ten species had a low capture rate in the smaller areas with less than three individuals. Of the total sampled, 14 species were found in human buildings, and were able to tolerate modified environments, foraging and even using them as shelter. As the size of the forest area increases, there is a greater variety of ecological opportunities and their physical conditions become more stable, i.e., conditions favorable for growth and survival of a greater number of species. Forest fragmentation limits and creates subpopulations, preserving only long-lived K-strategist animals for some time, where the supporting capacity of the environment is a limiting factor. The reduction of habitats, species and genetic diversity resulting from human activities are endangering the future adaptability in natural ecosystems, which promotes the disappearance of low adaptive potential species.
Falcão Fábio de C.
Full Text Available The Serra do Caraça Reserve is situated in the southern portion of the Espinhaço Mountain Range, and contains areas of "campos de altitude", "cerrado" and atlantic forest. This study had as its objective the registering of the bats species that occur in the reserve. The data collection was carried out in one year through monthly samplings, using mist nets set on trails, and also through hand capture. A total of 246 individuals were collected (0.72 bats/net-hour, distributed across 15 species, belonging to the families Phyllostomidae (83.0%; nine species, Vespertilionidae (12.5%; three species and Molossidae (4.5%; three species. The most abundant species were Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 121, 60.5%, Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 (n = 21, 10.5% and Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 10, 5.0%, and less represented were Lasiurus blossevilli (Lesson y Garnot, 1826 (n = 2, 1.0%, Eumops perotis (Schinz, 1821 (n = 2, 1.0% e Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843 (n = 1, 0.5%. The richness of species found and the non-occurrence of phyllostomines in the reserve could be indicative of some level of forest disturbance.
Shi, Huizhen; Dong, Ji; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Mao, Xiuguang
Transposition of mitochondrial DNA into the nucleus, which gives rise to nuclear mitochondrial DNAs (NUMTs), has been well documented in eukaryotes. However, very few studies have assessed the frequency of these transpositions during the evolutionary history of a specific taxonomic group. Here we used the horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus) as a case study to determine the frequency and relative timing of nuclear transfers of mitochondrial control region sequences. For this, phylogenetic and coalescent analyzes were performed on NUMTs and authentic mtDNA sequences generated from eight horseshoe bat species. Our results suggest at least three independent transpositions, including two ancient and one more recent, during the evolutionary history of Rhinolophus. The two ancient transpositions are represented by the NUMT-1 and -2 clades, with each clade consisting of NUMTs from almost all studied species but originating from different portions of the mtDNA genome. Furthermore, estimates of the most recent common ancestor for each clade corresponded to the time of the initial diversification of this genus. The recent transposition is represented by NUMT-3, which was discovered only in a specific subgroup of Rhinolophus and exhibited a close relationship to its mitochondrial counterpart. Our similarity searches of mtDNA in the R. ferrumequinum genome confirmed the presence of NUMT-1 and NUMT-2 clade sequences and, for the first time, assessed the extent of NUMTs in a bat genome. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the frequency of transpositions of mtDNA occurring before the common ancestry of a genus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shen, Yong-Yi; Liu, Jie; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping
Rhodopsin, encoded by the gene Rhodopsin (RH1), is extremely sensitive to light, and is responsible for dim-light vision. Bats are nocturnal mammals that inhabit poor light environments. Megabats (Old-World fruit bats) generally have well-developed eyes, while microbats (insectivorous bats) have developed echolocation and in general their eyes were degraded, however, dramatic differences in the eyes, and their reliance on vision, exist in this group. In this study, we examined the rod opsin gene (RH1), and compared its evolution to that of two cone opsin genes (SWS1 and M/LWS). While phylogenetic reconstruction with the cone opsin genes SWS1 and M/LWS generated a species tree in accord with expectations, the RH1 gene tree united Pteropodidae (Old-World fruit bats) and Yangochiroptera, with very high bootstrap values, suggesting the possibility of convergent evolution. The hypothesis of convergent evolution was further supported when nonsynonymous sites or amino acid sequences were used to construct phylogenies. Reconstructed RH1 sequences at internal nodes of the bat species phylogeny showed that: (1) Old-World fruit bats share an amino acid change (S270G) with the tomb bat; (2) Miniopterus share two amino acid changes (V104I, M183L) with Rhinolophoidea; (3) the amino acid replacement I123V occurred independently on four branches, and the replacements L99M, L266V and I286V occurred each on two branches. The multiple parallel amino acid replacements that occurred in the evolution of bat RH1 suggest the possibility of multiple convergences of their ecological specialization (i.e., various photic environments) during adaptation for the nocturnal lifestyle, and suggest that further attention is needed on the study of the ecology and behavior of bats.
Šrámek, J.; Gvoždík, Václav; Benda, P.
Roč. 167, č. 1 (2013), s. 165-190 ISSN 0024-4082 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/09/0888 Keywords : Arabia * bent-winged bats * cryptic species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.658, year: 2013
Mohammad Nurul Islam
Full Text Available This note provides a morphological confirmation of the occurrence of Ratanaworabhans’s Fruit Bat Megaerops niphanae in Bangladesh. Although previously recorded in neighbouring territories in India, this constitutes the first country record for the taxon and highlights the current incompleteness of faunal knowledge and potential for future discoveries in the country. Greater survey effort and sustained investments into developing taxonomic capacity and museum collections in Bangladesh are required to realize this potential however.
Hu, Kai-Liang; Wei, Li; Zhu, Teng-Teng; Wang, Xu-Zhong; Zhang, Li-Biao
We investigated food (insect) availability in foraging areas utilized by the long-fingered bat Miniopterus fuliginosus using light traps, fish netting and fecal analysis. The dominant preys of M. fuliginosus were Lepidoptera (55%, by volume percent) and Coleoptera (38%) of a relatively large body size. M. fuliginosus has relatively long, narrow wings and a wing span of 6.58+/-0.12 and high wing loading of 9.85+/-0.83 N/m2. The echolocation calls of free flying M. fuliginosus were FM signals, with a pulse duration of 1.45+/-0.06 ms, interpulse interval of 63.08+/-21.55 ms, and low dominant frequency of 44.50+/-2.26 kHz. This study shows that the morphological characteristics and echolocation calls of long-fingered bats are closely linked to their predatory behavior.
Elkin A. Noguera-Urbano
Full Text Available Los esfuerzos globales para digitalizar los datos de ocurrencia de la biodiversidad en colecciones, museos y otras instituciones han estimulado el desarrollo de herramientas para mejorar el conocimiento y conservación de la biodiversidad. La “Global Biodiversity Information Facility” GBIF permite el acceso a más de 321 millones de registros, alojados en 379 instituciones. Los murciélagos neotropicales son un grupo muy diverso y especializado y la información geográfica del grupo se ha incrementado desde hace unos años, pero son pocos los reportes acerca del tema. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el número de registros disponibles en GBIF de los murciélagos neotropicales de 21 países de América. Por lo tanto, se evaluó la consistencia del nombre científico y la calidad geográfica a escala de país. Además, se evaluaron vacíos de información sobre una grilla de 1° latitud y 1° longitud. Hubo cerca de 1/2 millón de registros, de los cuales el 58% no incluyeron coordenadas geográficas; el 52% pasaron las dos evaluaciones. Se estimó que el 54% del área geográfica analizada no tiene registros; los vacíos están en centros de biodiversidad como la Amazonía y la Patagonia. En conclusión nuestros resultados sugieren que los datos disponibles en GBIF tienen sesgos geográficos y en los nombres científicos. Los datos de GBIF representan parcialmente las riquezas de murciélagos, además los principales vacíos de información se encuentran en América del Sur.
Hulva, Pavel; Horácek, Ivan; Benda, Petr
The Rhinopomatidae, traditionally considered to be one of the most ancient chiropteran clades, remains one of the least known groups of Rhinolophoidea. No relevant fossil record is available for this family. Whereas there have been extensive radiations in related families Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae, there are only a few species in the Rhinopomatidae and their phylogenetic relationship and status are not fully understood. Here we present (a) a phylogenetic analysis based on a partial cytochrome b sequence, (b) new fossils from the Upper Miocene site Elaiochoria 2 (Chalkidiki, Greece), which represents the first appearance datum of the family based on the fossil record, and (c) discussion of the phylogeographic patterns in both molecular and morphological traits. We found deep divergences in the Rhinopoma hardwickii lineage, suggesting that the allopatric populations in (i) Iran and (ii) North Africa and the Middle East should have separate species status. The latter species (R. cystops) exhibits a shallow pattern of isolation by distance (separating the Middle East and the African populations) that contrasts with the pattern of geographic variation in the morphometrical traits. A deep genetic gap was also found in Rhinopoma muscatellum (Iran vs. Yemen). We found only minute genetic distance between R. microphyllum from the Levant and India, which fails to support the sub/species distinctness of the Indian form (R. microphyllum kinneari). The mtDNA survey provided phylogenetic tree of the family Rhinopomatidae for the first time and revealed an unexpected diversification of the group both within R. hardwickii and R. muscatellum morphospecies. The paleobiogeographic scenario compiled in respect to molecular clock data suggests that the family originated in the region south of the Eocene Western Tethyan seaway or in India, and extended its range during the Early Miocene. The fossil record suggests a Miocene spread into the Mediterranean region, followed by a post-Miocene retreat. Morphological analysis compared with genetic data indicates considerable phenotypic plasticity in this group.
Hornok, Sándor; Görföl, Tamás; Estók, Péter; Tu, Vuong Tan; Kontschán, Jenő
In a recent study on ixodid bat ticks from Eurasia, a high genetic difference was found between Ixodes vespertilionis from Europe and Vietnam. Accordingly, it was proposed that I. vespertilionis is a species complex, with at least one additional, hitherto undescribed species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphology of bat ticks from Vietnam and to assess their taxonomic status in comparison with those collected in Europe. Ixodid bat ticks (two females and two nymphs) collected from the pomona leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros pomona) (Hipposideridae) and intermediate horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus affinis) (Rhinolophidae) in Vietnam showed major morphological differences from European isolates of I. vespertilionis, including the shape of the scutum, the enclosure and shape of porose areas, the presence of a caudo-lateral collar-like ridge ventrally on the basis capituli, polytrich coxae with short setae, and grouped (non-linear) arrangement of anterior pit sensillae in Haller's organ. In this study the female and the nymph of an ixodid bat tick species from Vietnam are described for the first time. The genetic and morphological differences between I. vespertilionis Koch, 1844 and these bat ticks from Vietnam justify the status of the latter as a distinct species, Ixodes collaris Hornok n. sp.
Dool, Serena E; Puechmaille, Sebastien J; Foley, Nicole M; Allegrini, Benjamin; Bastian, Anna; Mutumi, Gregory L; Maluleke, Tinyiko G; Odendaal, Lizelle J; Teeling, Emma C; Jacobs, David S
Despite many studies illustrating the perils of utilising mitochondrial DNA in phylogenetic studies, it remains one of the most widely used genetic markers for this purpose. Over the last decade, nuclear introns have been proposed as alternative markers for phylogenetic reconstruction. However, the resolution capabilities of mtDNA and nuclear introns have rarely been quantified and compared. In the current study we generated a novel ∼5kb dataset comprising six nuclear introns and a mtDNA fragment. We assessed the relative resolution capabilities of the six intronic fragments with respect to each other, when used in various combinations together, and when compared to the traditionally used mtDNA. We focused on a major clade in the horseshoe bat family (Afro-Palaearctic clade; Rhinolophidae) as our case study. This old, widely distributed and speciose group contains a high level of conserved morphology. This morphological stasis renders the reconstruction of the phylogeny of this group with traditional morphological characters complex. We sampled multiple individuals per species to represent their geographic distributions as best as possible (122 individuals, 24 species, 68 localities). We reconstructed the species phylogeny using several complementary methods (partitioned Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian and Bayesian multispecies-coalescent) and made inferences based on consensus across these methods. We computed pairwise comparisons based on Robinson-Foulds tree distance metric between all Bayesian topologies generated (27,000) for every gene(s) and visualised the tree space using multidimensional scaling (MDS) plots. Using our supported species phylogeny we estimated the ancestral state of key traits of interest within this group, e.g. echolocation peak frequency which has been implicated in speciation. Our results revealed many potential cryptic species within this group, even in taxa where this was not suspected a priori and also found evidence for mtDNA introgression. We demonstrated that by using just two introns one can recover a better supported species tree than when using the mtDNA alone, despite the shorter overall length of the combined introns. Additionally, when combining any single intron with mtDNA, we showed that the result is highly similar to the mtDNA gene tree and far from the true species tree and therefore this approach should be avoided. We caution against the indiscriminate use of mtDNA in phylogenetic studies and advocate for pilot studies to select nuclear introns. The selection of marker type and number is a crucial step that is best based on critical examination of preliminary or previously published data. Based on our findings and previous publications, we recommend the following markers to recover phylogenetic relationships between recently diverged taxa (<20 My) in bats and other mammals: ACOX2, COPS7A, BGN, ROGDI and STAT5A. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mao, Xiu-Guang; Wang, Jin-Huan; Su, Wei-Ting; Wang, Ying-Xiang; Yang, Feng-Tang; Nie, Wen-Hui
Comparing to its sister-family (Rhinolophidae), Hipposideridae was less studied by cytogenetic approaches. Only a few high-resolution G-banded karyotypes have been reported so far, and most of the conclusions on the karyotypic evolution in Hipposideridae were based on conventional Giemsa-staining. In this study, we applied comparative chromosome painting, a method of choice for genome-wide comparison at the molecular level, and G- and C-banding to establish comparative map between five hipposiderid species from China, using a whole set of chromosome-specific painting probes from one of them (Aselliscus stoliczkanus). G-band and C-band comparisons between homologous segments defined by chromosome painting revealed that Robertsonian translocations, paracentric inversions and heterochromatin addition could be the main mechanism of chromosome evolution in Hipposideridae. Comparative analysis of the conserved chromosomal segments among five hipposiderid species and outgroup species suggests that bi-armed chromosomes should be included into the ancestral karyotype of Hipposideridae, which was previously believed to be exclusively composed of acrocentric chromosomes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Rhinopomatidae, traditionally considered to be one of the most ancient chiropteran clades, remains one of the least known groups of Rhinolophoidea. No relevant fossil record is available for this family. Whereas there have been extensive radiations in related families Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae, there are only a few species in the Rhinopomatidae and their phylogenetic relationship and status are not fully understood. Results Here we present (a a phylogenetic analysis based on a partial cytochrome b sequence, (b new fossils from the Upper Miocene site Elaiochoria 2 (Chalkidiki, Greece, which represents the first appearance datum of the family based on the fossil record, and (c discussion of the phylogeographic patterns in both molecular and morphological traits. We found deep divergences in the Rhinopoma hardwickii lineage, suggesting that the allopatric populations in (i Iran and (ii North Africa and the Middle East should have separate species status. The latter species (R. cystops exhibits a shallow pattern of isolation by distance (separating the Middle East and the African populations that contrasts with the pattern of geographic variation in the morphometrical traits. A deep genetic gap was also found in Rhinopoma muscatellum (Iran vs. Yemen. We found only minute genetic distance between R. microphyllum from the Levant and India, which fails to support the sub/species distinctness of the Indian form (R. microphyllum kinneari. Conclusion The mtDNA survey provided phylogenetic tree of the family Rhinopomatidae for the first time and revealed an unexpected diversification of the group both within R. hardwickii and R. muscatellum morphospecies. The paleobiogeographic scenario compiled in respect to molecular clock data suggests that the family originated in the region south of the Eocene Western Tethyan seaway or in India, and extended its range during the Early Miocene. The fossil record suggests a Miocene spread into the Mediterranean region, followed by a post-Miocene retreat. Morphological analysis compared with genetic data indicates considerable phenotypic plasticity in this group.
Richards, Leigh R; Rambau, Ramugondo V; Goodman, Steven M; Taylor, Peter J; Schoeman, M Corrie; Yang, Fengtang; Lamb, Jennifer M
Pteropodidae and Hipposideridae are 2 of the 9 chiropteran families that occur on Madagascar. Despite major advancements in the systematic study of the island's bat fauna, few karyotypic data exist for endemic species. We utilized G- and C-banding in combination with chromosome painting with Myotismyotis probes to establish a genome-wide homology among Malagasy species belonging to the families Pteropodidae (Pteropus rufus 2n = 38; Rousettus madagascariensis, 2n = 36), Hipposideridae (Hipposideros commersoni s.s., 2n = 52), and a single South African representative of the Rhinolophidae (Rhinolophus clivosus, 2n = 58). Painting probes of M. myotis detected 26, 28, 28, and 29 regions of homology in R. madagascariensis, P. rufus, H. commersoni s.s, and R. clivosus, respectively. Translocations, pericentric inversions, and heterochromatin additions were responsible for karyotypic differences amongst the Malagasy pteropodids. Comparative chromosome painting revealed a novel pericentric inversion on P. rufus chromosome 4. Chromosomal characters suggest a close evolutionary relationship between Rousettus and Pteropus. H. commersoni s.s. shared several chromosomal characters with extralimital congeners but did not exhibit 2 chromosomal synapomorphies proposed for Hipposideridae. This study provides further insight into the ancestral karyotypes of pteropodid and hipposiderid bats and corroborates certain molecular phylogenetic hypotheses. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Sharifi, Mozafar; Taghinezhad, Najmeh; Mozafari, Fatema; Vaissi, Somaye
We studied variation of ectoparasite load in a free ranging populations of Mehely's horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus mehelyi) on five successive occasions in a nursery roost in western Iran. In total, 87 Rhinolophus mehelyi were captured. The patterns of abundance differed greatly among parasite species but total parasite load was markedly higher in pregnant females in spring and early summer and lower in solitary males. On average, 90% of bats were infested by Eyndhovenia sp. with a mean intensity of 13.79 individuals per bat. Penicillidia sp. and one species from Streblidae were found in 66.7% and 11.49% of bats with parasite load of 2.31 and 1.8 parasite per bat, respectively. Using ratio of forearm length to body mass as an indication of bat health the correlation coefficient between parasite load and the health indicator was 0.002 for males and 0.06 for females indicating that parasite load has no apparent impact on bat's health.
Xiao, Yanhong; Sun, Keping; Feng, Jiang
Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum tragatus are two subspecies of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum currently recognized in China. In this study, their mitochondrial genomes were completely sequenced and annotated. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that R. f. nippon has a close relationship with two subspecies of R. ferrumequinum from Korea with 0.1% divergence, which indicated they are synonyms.
Saha, Anik; Feeroz, Mohammed Mostafa; Hasan, Md Kamrul
Rhinolophus pusillus is a common species of India and Nepal in South Asia. Here, we report a new record of this bat captured in the mixed evergreen forest in Rangamati, southeastern part of Bangladesh. The identification was based on external morphology along with cranio-dental measurements. Roost counts was conducted through direct observation.
Puerma, Eva; Acosta, Manuel J; Barragán, Maria José L; Martínez, Sergio; Marchal, Juan Alberto; Bullejos, Mónica; Sánchez, Antonio
The karyotype of individuals of the species Rhinolophus hipposideros from Spain present a chromosome number of 2n = 54 (NFa = 62). The described karyotype for these specimens is very similar to another previously described in individual from Bulgaria. However, the presence of one additional pair of autosomal acrocentric chromosomes in the Bulgarian karyotype and the differences in X chromosome morphology indicated that we have described a new karyotype variant in this species. In addition, we have analyzed several clones of 1.4 and 1 kb of a PstI repeated DNA sequence from the genome of R. hipposideros. The repeated sequence included a region with high identity with the 5S rDNA genes and flanking regions, with no homology with GenBank sequences. Search for polymerase III regulatory elements demonstrated the presence of type I promoter elements (A-box, Intermediate Element and C-box) in the 5S rDNA region. In addition, upstream regulatory elements, as a D-box and Sp1 binding sequences, were present in flanking regions. All data indicated that the cloned repeated sequences are the functional rDNA genes from this species. Finally, FISH demonstrated the presence of rDNA in nine chromosome pairs, which is surprising as most mammals have only one carrier chromosome pair.
Robert G. Trujillo; John C. Patton; Duane A. Schlitter; John W. Bickham
The genus Scotophilusis composed of 15 recognized species with 7 species distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa, 4 distributed across southern and southeastern Asia, 3 endemic to Madagascar, and 1 endemic to Reunion Island. Scotophilusis plagued with problems in species definition, and systematic relationships among members of...
Ahmim, Mourad; Moali, Aissa
We analyzed the diet of four rhinolophids (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, R. euryale and R. blasii) in the region of Kabylia Babors, in northern Algeria. Between March 2007 and January 2008 we sampled droppings at ten sites and carried out a morphological identification of prey remains. Three main groups of Arthropoda (Insecta, Chilopoda and Araneida) were preyed upon but frequencies varied across species. The insect prey most frequently preyed upon by R. ferrumequinum are Dipter...
Full Text Available Surveillance of hematophagous bats is an important public health measure for the prevention and control of rabies epidemics in domestic herbivorous animals. The aim of this study was to locate and georeference D.rotundus shelters in the Municipality of São Pedro - SP, Brazil, and verify their nature (artificial or natural, surrounding landscape and distance from main rivers. To do this, two samples were taken of populations in shelters, with an interval of six months between them, capturing all the bats existent in shelters with fewer than 20 individuals and approximately 20% of the bats present in shelters with over 20 individuals in order to quantify their gender and age distribution. The majority of D. rotundus (67% were verified to be artificial and the remainder (33% natural. Of the six artificial shelters found, five were located in abandoned houses and one in a rain water drainage channel. There were no signs of D. rotundus in other rural buildings and viaducts located in the proximities of pastures. In spite of the majority of D. rotundus shelters being artificial, the three most populated shelters were maternity colonies, two being located in grottos and only one in an artificial shelter (rain water drainage channel. The remaining shelters were occupied by only male individuals. With the exception of one shelter, all the other shelters were at a distance of less than 3 km from the main bodies of water in the study area, corroborating studies that have reported that the main rivers in the State of São Paulo are the main geographic features related to the presence of D. rotundus. It was also verified that 67% of the shelters were inhabited by only male individuals, which confirms other studies conducted in the State of São Paulo, in which over 60% of the groups of Desmodus contain only male individuals.
Yoon, Kwang Bae; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Yung Chul
We describe the characteristics of complete mitogenome of C. brachyotis in this article. The complete mitogenome of C. brachyotis is 16,701 bp long with a total base composition of 32.4% A, 25.7% T, 27.7% C and 14.2% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes (11,408 bp), (KM659865) two rRNA (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA) genes (2,539 bp), 22 tRNA genes (1518 bp) and one control region (1239 bp).
Fullard, J. H.
The islands of Hawai'i offer a unique opportunity for studying the auditory ecology of moths and bats since this habitat has a single species of bat, the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), which exerts the entire predatory selection pressure on the ears of sympatric moths. I compared the moth wings discarded by foraging bats with the number of surviving moths on the island of Kaua'i and concluded that the endemic noctuid Haliophyle euclidias is more heavily preyed upon than similar-sized endemic (e.g. Agrotis diplosticta) and adventive (Agrotis ipsilon and Pseudaletia unipuncta) species. Electrophysiological examinations indicated that, compared with species less preyed upon, H. euclidias has lower auditory sensitivities to the bat's social and echolocation calls, which will result in shorter detection distances of the bat. The poor ears of H. euclidias suggest that this moth coevolved with the bat using non-auditory defences that resulted in auditory degeneration. This moth now suffers higher predation because it is drawn away from its normal habitat by the man-made lights that are exploited by the bat. PMID:11429137
A. S. Dias
Full Text Available Vampire bats are important agents in the field and currently regarded as the main reservoir in Latin America in the transmission of rabies of herbivores, thus, these animals are monitored by researchers and animal health protection services and suffer from populational control to minimize the impact of the occurrence of cases of rabies in domestic animals. Rabies is a zoonosis of 100% lethality. The presence of haematofagous flies have been observed in these animals. There of is to highlight the importance of these agents that are restricted parasites of bats and could be responsible for transmission of the rabies virus between them. It is also worth emphasizing the importance of assessing the distribution of these parasites of bats according to the climatic conditions of a given site, because these elements are essential to limit the distribution of these parasites. The presence of parasites in animals presents itself as an important element for understanding the mechanisms that are configured in the control of population of a given agent. The present study aimed to record the occurrence of flies in vampire bats in the Forest of Minas Gerais State.
López-Aguirre, Camilo; Pérez-Torres, Jairo; Wilson, Laura A B
Neotropical bats of the genus Carollia are widely studied due to their abundance, distribution and relevance for ecosystems. However, the ecomorphological boundaries of these species are poorly differentiated, and consequently correspondence between their geographic distribution, ecological plasticity and morphological variation remains unclear. In this study, patterns of cranial and mandibular morphological variation were assessed for Carollia brevicauda, C. castanea and C. perspicillata from Colombia. Using geometric morphometrics, morphological variation was examined with respect to: differences in intraspecific variation, morphological modularity and integration, and biogeographic patterns. Patterns of intraspecific variation were different for each species in both cranial and mandibular morphology, with functional differences apparent according to diet. Cranial modularity varied between species whereas mandibular modularity did not. High cranial and mandibular correlation reflects Cranium-Mandible integration as a functional unit. Similarity between the biogeographic patterns in C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata indicates that the Andes do not act as a barrier but rather as an independent region, isolating the morphology of Andean populations of larger-bodied species. The biogeographic pattern for C. castanea was not associated with the physiography of the Andes, suggesting that large body size does not benefit C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata in maintaining homogeneous morphologies among populations.
Czaplewski, Nicholas J
Thousands of vertebrate fossils have been recovered from the Gray Fossil Site, Tennessee, dating to the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. Among these are but eight specimens of bats representing two different taxa referable to the family Vespertilionidae. Comparison of the fossils with Neogene and Quaternary bats reveals that seven of the eight specimens pertain to a species of Eptesicus that cannot be distinguished from recent North American Eptesicus fuscus . The remaining specimen, a horizontal ramus with m3, is from a smaller vespertilionid bat that cannot confidently be assigned to a genus. Although many vespertilionid genera can be excluded through comparisons, and many extinct named taxa cannot be compared due to nonequivalence of preserved skeletal elements, the second taxon shows morphological similarities to small-bodied taxa with three lower premolar alveoli, three distinct m3 talonid cusps, and m3 postcristid showing the myotodont condition. It resembles especially Nycticeius humeralis and small species of Eptesicus . Eptesicus cf. E. fuscus potentially inhabited eastern North America continuously since the late Hemphillian land mammal age, when other evidence from the Gray Fossil Site indicates the presence in the southern Appalachian Mountains of a warm, subtropical, oak-hickory-conifer forest having autochthonous North American as well as allochthonous biogeographical ties to eastern Asia and tropical-subtropical Middle America.
Full Text Available We present a quantitative analysis of sexual dimorphism and geographic variation in the skull of Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 assessed by geometric morphometrics. Differences in size and shape of skulls were investigated using 30 landmarks plotted on two-dimensional images of lateral and ventral views. Results of geometric morphometrics revealed sexual dimorphism in the centroid size of the skull in both views. Females were larger than males. Nevertheless, there was no sexual dimorphism in skull shape of M. nigricans. Geographic variation was detected in size and shape of the skull. South Brazilian specimens were significantly larger than Ceará specimens only in the lateral view. Differences in skull shape were statistically significant in both views: specimens from South Brazil were brevirostri and presented a more expanded skull in the posterior region while Ceará specimens were longirostri and do not present any expansion in the brain case. Ecological factors for these phenomena are discussed in the text.
Farias, T O; Notini, A A; Talamoni, S A; Godinho, H P
Yellowish myotis, Myotis levis, is a seasonal, epididymal sperm-storing Neotropical vespertilionid. In the dry season, males show simultaneous testis regression and sperm storage in cauda epididymis, enabling them to mate during this season. In this study, we investigated seasonal variations in body mass, diameter and height of seminiferous tubules and nuclei of Leydig cells in a population of southeastern Brazil. We also determined the frequencies of the stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle (SEC) of mature individuals of this population. Body mass and diameter of Leydig cell nuclei showed no significant differences between dry and rainy seasons and stages of annual reproductive cycle; however, all other morphometric parameters varied significantly. The relative cumulative frequency of pre-meiotic stages of the SEC (1-3) was 51%, of meiotic stage (4) was 2% and of post-meiotic stages (5-8) was 47%. We confirmed that the yellowish myotis presents seasonal sperm production as revealed by testis regression and epididymal sperm storage during the dry season. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Beguelini, Mateus R; Góes, Rejane M; Rahal, Paula; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R
Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression during the annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of total testicular regression on the prostatic morphophisyology and its regulation. The prostatic complex (PC) of animals from the four periods of the reproductive cycle (active, regressing, regressed, and recrudescence) was analyzed by different histological, morphometric, and immunohistochemical procedures to characterize its variations, analyze its hormonal regulation and evaluate whether the prostate is affected by the processes of testicular regression and recrudescence. The results indicated a decrease in the prostatic parameters from the active to regressed periods, which are related to decreases in the testicular production of testosterone and in the prostatic expression of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor α (ERα) and aromatase. However, in regressed-recrudescence periods, the prostatic expression of AR, ERα and aromatase increased, indicating the reactivation of the PC. Despite this, the PC appears to have a slower reactivation and seems not to follow the testicular recrudescence in morphological and morphometric terms. With these data, we demonstrate that the prostatic physiology is directly affected by total testicular regression and conclude that it is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, via the production of testosterone by the testes, its conversion to dihydrotestosterone by 5α-redutase and to estrogen by aromatase, and the activation/deactivation of AR and ERα in epithelial cells, which regulate cell expression and proliferation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Santos, João D; Meyer, Christoph F J; Ibáñez, Carlos; Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G; Juste, Javier
For elusive mammals like bats, colonization of new areas and colony formation are poorly understood, as is their relationship with the genetic structure of populations. Understanding dispersal and group formation behaviors is critical not only for a better comprehension of mammalian social dynamics, but also for guiding conservation efforts of rare and endangered species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial markers, we studied patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation among and within breeding colonies of giant noctule bats ( Nyctalus lasiopterus ), their relation to a new colony still in formation, and the impact of this ongoing process on the regionwide genetic makeup. Nuclear differentiation among colonies was relatively low and mostly nonsignificant. Mitochondrial variation followed this pattern, contrasting with findings for other temperate bat species. Our results suggest that this may indicate a recent population expansion. On average, female giant noctules were not more closely related to other colony members than to foreign individuals. This was also true for members of the newly forming colony and those of another, older group sampled shortly after its formation, suggesting that contrary to findings for other temperate bats, giant noctule colonies are not founded by relatives. However, mother-daughter pairs were found in the same populations more often than expected under random dispersal. Given this indication of philopatry, the lack of mitochondrial differentiation among most colonies in the region is probably due to the combination of a recent population expansion and group formation events.
Full Text Available We studied the small mammal assemblage (bats, marsupials and rodents of Parque Nacional Chaco and Capitán Solari(Chaco Province, Argentina based on captures and analysis of owl pellets. Twenty-one species were recorded during abrief survey, including two marsupials, seven bats, and twelve rodents. In addition, we documented the first occurrenceof the bat Lasiurus ega in the Chaco Province, and extended to the southwest the distribution of the didelphid marsupialCryptonanus chacoensis and the oryzomyine rodent Oecomys sp. We also provided a second occurrence site in theHumid Chaco for the cricetid rodents Calomys laucha and Holochilus brasiliensis. Identified taxa belonged to speciesthat are typical of the Humid Chaco ecoregion of Argentina.
Goodman, Steven M; Kearney, Teresa; Ratsimbazafy, Malalatiana Michèle; Hassanin, Alexandre
The taxonomy of sub-Saharan small insectivore bats of the family Vespertilionidae is unresolved and currently five named species of the genus Neoromicia are recognized from southern Africa, with N. melckorum considered a synonym of N. capensis. Since several years, the name "N. cf. melckorum" has been used in the literature to designate an apparently undescribed and moderately large bodied vespertilionid bat known from different localities in southern and southeastern Africa. Using new data from molecular genetics, bacular morphology, and cranio-dental characters, we conclude that N. melckorum sensu stricto is indeed nested within N. capensis and obtain the needed evidence to formally describe "N. cf. melckorum", named herein as N. stanleyi sp. nov. On the basis of molecular and bacular evidence, N. stanleyi is found in Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Zambia, and using a combination of other characters is presumed to occur in northern South Africa and Malawi. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses based on 12S rRNA sequences indicate that it belongs to a clade containing four species of Neoromicia (N. capensis, N. malagasyensis, N. matroka, and N. robertsi) and Laephotis. Neoromicia stanleyi shows at least 3.2% nucleotide divergence from its closest relatives. It is larger in cranial characters than other members of the capensis group occurring in the southern portion of Africa, and a number of bacular characters distinguish N. stanleyi from N. capensis.
Full Text Available Bats can be monoestrous or polyestrous, and seasonal or non-seasonal in their reproductive patterns. The strategy adopted by each species or population depends on the regional climate. The objective this study was to analyze reproductive data of Sturnira lilium from long-term sampling carried out in several sites in Rio de Janeiro states, southeastern Brazil. We carried out sampling in 42 sites (with altitudes ranging from sea level to 1300 m a.s.l. from May 1989 to December 2011. In total, we obtained 2602 captures of S. lilium: 1242 captures of adult females, 1225 captures of adult males, and 136 captures of subadults. The sex ratio was 0.99 males: 1 female. The reproductive season varied from eight to twelve months a year, and it was not related to the total accumulated rainfall. Sturnira lilium have continuously polyestrous reproduction with postpartum estrus and pregnant females can be observed in all months except July. In the present study, the highest proportions of pregnant females were observed in the months with the highest rainfall.
Ralph, Taryn M C; Richards, Leigh R; Taylor, Peter J; Napier, Melanie C; Lamb, Jennifer M
The paucity of data for the molossid bat Otomops throughout its range has hindered our ability to resolve the number of Otomops species present within the Afro-Malagasy region (including the Arabian Peninsula). This paper employed an integrative approach by combining morphometric (cranial morphology) and molecular (mitochondrial cytochrome b and D-loop sequences, nuclear intron sequences and microsatellites) data to identify the number of Otomops taxa occurring in the Afro-Malagasy region. Three taxa were identified, two of which could be assigned to existing species, i.e. O. martiensseni and O. madagascariensis. The third taxon, previously recognised as O. martiensseni (Matschie 1897), is described herein as a new species, Otomops harrisoni sp. nov., and can be differentiated from O. martiensseni s.s. based on both molecular and morphometric data. Locality data of specimens belonging to O. harrisoni suggest that its distribution range extends from the Arabian Peninsula through to Eritrea and south to Ethiopia and Kenya.
Csorba, Gábor; Görföl, Tamás; Wiantoro, Sigit; Kingston, Tigga; Bates, Paul J J; Huang, Joe Chun-Chia
To date, three species of the genus Glischropus are recognized from the Indomalayan zoogeographic region-G. bucephalus from the Indochinese subregion, G. tylopus from the Sundaic subregion (Peninsular Thailand and Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra, Moluccas) and G. javanus, restricted to Java. The investigation of the holotype and three topotype specimens of G. batjanus supported the view that the name was previously correctly regarded as the junior subjective synonym of G. tylopus. During review of material recently collected in southwestern Sumatra, Indonesia, one specimen of a yet undescribed species of Thick-thumbed bat was identified. G. aquilus n. sp. markedly differs from its congeners by its dark brown pelage, nearly black ear and tragus, and in skull proportions. The phylogenetic analysis based on cytb sequences also supports the specific distinctness of G. aquilus n. sp. Its discovery brings the count to 88 species of bats known from Sumatra.
Moratelli, Ricardo; Dias, Daniela
We describe Lonchophyllainexpectata sp. n. from the Caatinga of Brazil. This new species can be distinguished from all known species of Lonchophylla that occur in Brazil by dental traits, cranial size, and fur colour. Specimens of Lonchophyllainexpectata have been misidentified as Lonchophyllamordax; but Lonchophyllainexpectata is a pale-venter species, similar in external appearance to Lonchophylladekeyseri. We have found Lonchophyllainexpectata in the Caatinga of North-eastern Brazil; Lonchophyllamordax along the eastern border of the Caatinga and in the Atlantic Forest-Caatinga ecotone in North-eastern Brazil; and Lonchophylladekeyseri in the Cerrado of Mid-western Brazil, in the Brazilian Cerrado-Caatinga ecotone, and as far west as the Cerrado of Bolivia.
Shen, Yong-Yi; Liu, Jie; Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Ya-Ping
Rhodopsin, encoded by the gene Rhodopsin (RH1), is extremely sensitive to light, and is responsible for dim-light vision. Bats are nocturnal mammals that inhabit poor light environments. Megabats (Old-World fruit bats) generally have well-developed eyes, while microbats (insectivorous bats) have developed echolocation and in general their eyes were degraded, however, dramatic differences in the eyes, and their reliance on vision, exist in this group. In this study, we examined the rod opsin gene (RH1), and compared its evolution to that of two cone opsin genes (SWS1 and M/LWS). While phylogenetic reconstruction with the cone opsin genes SWS1 and M/LWS generated a species tree in accord with expectations, the RH1 gene tree united Pteropodidae (Old-World fruit bats) and Yangochiroptera, with very high bootstrap values, suggesting the possibility of convergent evolution. The hypothesis of convergent evolution was further supported when nonsynonymous sites or amino acid sequences were used to construct phylogenies. Reconstructed RH1 sequences at internal nodes of the bat species phylogeny showed that: (1) Old-World fruit bats share an amino acid change (S270G) with the tomb bat; (2) Miniopterus share two amino acid changes (V104I, M183L) with Rhinolophoidea; (3) the amino acid replacement I123V occurred independently on four branches, and the replacements L99M, L266V and I286V occurred each on two branches. The multiple parallel amino acid replacements that occurred in the evolution of bat RH1 suggest the possibility of multiple convergences of their ecological specialization (i.e., various photic environments) during adaptation for the nocturnal lifestyle, and suggest that further attention is needed on the study of the ecology and behavior of bats. PMID:20098620
Full Text Available First record of new Aspergillus fumigatus variant (UNIMAS F009 was reported from the ears of bats at Kubah National Park, Borneo, Malaysia. Morphological characterization of this isolate showed some differences in terms of their growth rate, colony color, size of conidia and pigmentation on different media.
This paper presents the results of an analysis of about four hundred skulls of Myotis mystacinus and M. brandtii of the Holocene age from the Záskočie Cave (Central Slovakia). A review of criteria for species determination is presented, including a new criterion concerning the morphology of P4
de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Martins, Mayara Almeida; Guedes, Patrícia Gonçalves; Peracchi, Adriano Lucio; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maues
A first survey of mite species that ectoparasitize bats in the states of Ceará and Mato Grosso was conducted. The specimens of bats and their mites were collected in areas of the Caatinga and Pantanal biomes. A total of 450 spinturnicids representing two genera and ten species was collected from 15 bat species in the Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Serra das Almas, Ceará State, Northeast Brazil and 138 spinturnicids represented by two genera and four species were found in seven bats species collected in Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Sesc Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Central-Western Brazil. The occurrence of Cameronieta genus and the species Mesoperiglischrus natali as well as four new associations (Periglischrus iheringi - Chiroderma vizottoi; P. micronycteridis - Micronycteris sanborni; P. paracutisternus - Trachops cirrhosus; Spinturnix americanus - Myotis riparius) are registered for the first time in Brazil.
The twelve recognized species of nectar-feeding bats of the genus Lonchophylla occur in low- and middle-elevation, humid, Neotropical forests. Morphological and morphometrical analyses of specimens formerly lumped with Lonchophylla mordax O. Thomas (1903) support recognition of Lonchophylla concava Goldman (1914) as a separate species and reveal a third species from the western Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador that I describe herein as Lonchophylla jornicata. This new species is morphologically similar to Lonchophylla concava but is distinctively larger than that species. Tests for sexual dimorphism within these and other species of Lonchophyllini suggest a tendency for females to have slightly longer, narrower skulls, higher coronoid processes of the mandible, and longer forearms than males.
Valdez, Ernest W.; Bogan, Michael A.
Few studies have investigated the relationship between morphological variation and local feeding habits of bats in the United States. We used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to compare cranial morphology of Myotis occultus from southern Colorado, and central, and southern New Mexico. We analyzed guano collected from maternity colonies in southern Colorado and central New Mexico to compare food habits. Bats from southern Colorado had the smallest values on the first canonical variate (CV1) that also reflected the smallest measurements of key cranial and dental variables, including height of coronoid process, width of molar, and dentary thickness. Bats from central and southern New Mexico had intermediate and large CV1 values, respectively. Overall, CV1 discriminated individuals occurring in southern Colorado and central New Mexico from those in southern New Mexico. CV2 served best at discriminating bats of southern Colorado from those of central New Mexico. Comparison of food habits revealed that individuals from southern Colorado ate more soft-bodied prey items (e.g., flies) whereas bats from central New Mexico ate more hard-bodied prey items (e.g., beetles). As shown in earlier studies that investigated relationships between morphology and diet of insectivorous bats, we found differences in skull morphology of M. occultusthat were correlated with differences in food habits.
Hulva, Pavel; Horáček, Ivan; Benda, Petr
Background The Rhinopomatidae, traditionally considered to be one of the most ancient chiropteran clades, remains one of the least known groups of Rhinolophoidea. No relevant fossil record is available for this family. Whereas there have been extensive radiations in related families Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae, there are only a few species in the Rhinopomatidae and their phylogenetic relationship and status are not fully understood. Results Here we present (a) a phylogenetic analysis based on a partial cytochrome b sequence, (b) new fossils from the Upper Miocene site Elaiochoria 2 (Chalkidiki, Greece), which represents the first appearance datum of the family based on the fossil record, and (c) discussion of the phylogeographic patterns in both molecular and morphological traits. We found deep divergences in the Rhinopoma hardwickii lineage, suggesting that the allopatric populations in (i) Iran and (ii) North Africa and the Middle East should have separate species status. The latter species (R. cystops) exhibits a shallow pattern of isolation by distance (separating the Middle East and the African populations) that contrasts with the pattern of geographic variation in the morphometrical traits. A deep genetic gap was also found in Rhinopoma muscatellum (Iran vs. Yemen). We found only minute genetic distance between R. microphyllum from the Levant and India, which fails to support the sub/species distinctness of the Indian form (R. microphyllum kinneari). Conclusion The mtDNA survey provided phylogenetic tree of the family Rhinopomatidae for the first time and revealed an unexpected diversification of the group both within R. hardwickii and R. muscatellum morphospecies. The paleobiogeographic scenario compiled in respect to molecular clock data suggests that the family originated in the region south of the Eocene Western Tethyan seaway or in India, and extended its range during the Early Miocene. The fossil record suggests a Miocene spread into the Mediterranean region, followed by a post-Miocene retreat. Morphological analysis compared with genetic data indicates considerable phenotypic plasticity in this group. PMID:17868440
Marta Elena Fabián
Full Text Available Study of 179 specimens of Molossus molossus in Ceará, Brazil, showed morphological and functional ovarian asymmetry in adult females, with the right side more developed. Blastocyst implantation occurred also in the right uterine horn. Active male testicles were bigger (x = 5,38mm than inactive ones (x = 3,25mm. Pregnancy with subsequent offspring was found in March-April and November, during the wet season.
Lisón, Fulgencio; Espín, Silvia; Aroca, Bárbara; Calvo, José F; García-Fernández, Antonio J
Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic and widely distributed metal that is bioaccumulated in insectivorous mammals and may cause adverse effects on the reproductive system. Bats are considered excellent Hg bioindicators due to their wide distribution, life span, trophic position, metabolic rate and food intake. However, few studies have analysed Hg residues in bats, and to the best of our knowledge, no studies have been made in the Iberian Peninsula. The main aim of this study was to undertake the first ever assessment of Hg exposure in Schreiber's bent-winged bats inhabiting a natural cave in the southeast of Spain. The findings suggest that Schreiber's bent-winged bats in the sampling area are chronically exposed to low levels of Hg. The Hg concentrations found in different tissues (fur, kidney, liver, muscle and brain) were below the threshold levels associated with toxic effects in mammals. Non-gestating females showed Hg concentrations in the brain and muscle that doubled those found in gestating females. This could be due to Hg mobilization from the mother to the foetus in gestating females, although other factors could contribute to explain this result such as variations in hunting areas and the insect-prey consumed and/or different energetic needs and average food consumption during the breeding season. Hg levels were 1.7 times higher, although not significant, in foetus' brains than in the maternal brains, and Hg concentration in foetus' brain was significantly correlated with levels in the corresponding mothers' kidney. These results suggest that there could be an active mother-to-foetus transfer of Hg in bats, which would be of special relevance in a scenario of higher Hg exposure than that found in this study. However, further research is needed to support this view due to the limited number of samples analysed. Given the scarce ecotoxicological data available for bats and their protected status, we encourage further opportunistic studies using carcasses found in the field, the validation of non-destructive samples such as fur and guano for Hg monitoring, and new modelling approaches that will increase the data needed for proper ecological risk assessment in bat populations.
Benda, P.; Gvoždík, Václav
Roč. 12, č. 1 (2010), s. 83-102 ISSN 1508-1109 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Otonycteris * morphology * morphometry Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.012, year: 2010
Mourão Elizabeth D
Full Text Available The study of the surface topography added details regarding the disposition of male caudal papillae, spicules and area rugosa apart from vulva and oral aperture. The occurrence of this nematode in the state of Amapá represents a new geographical distribution.
Benda, P.; Lučan, R. K.; Obuch, J.; Reiter, A.; Andreas, M.; Bačkor, P.; Bohnenstengel, T.; Eid, E. K.; Ševčík, M.; Vallo, Peter; Amr, Z. S.
Roč. 74, 3-4 (2010), s. 185-353 ISSN 1211-376X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bats * distribution * ecology * echolocation * ectoparasites * Middle East * Jordan * Arabia * Palaearctic Region Subject RIV: EG - Zoology
Full Text Available Abstract Background Various mechanisms such as geographic barriers and glacial episodes have been proposed as determinants of intra-specific and inter-specific differentiation of populations, and the distribution of their genetic diversity. More recently, habitat and climate differences, and corresponding adaptations have been shown to be forces influencing the phylogeographic evolution of some vertebrates. In this study, we examined the contribution of these various factors on the genetic differentiation of the bent-winged bat, Miniopterus schreibersii, in southeastern Europe and Anatolia. Results and conclusion Our results showed differentiation in mitochondrial DNA coupled with weaker nuclear differentiation. We found evidence for restriction of lineages to geographical areas for hundreds of generations. The results showed that the most likely ancestral haplotype was restricted to the same geographic area (the Balkans for at least 6,000 years. We were able to delineate the migration routes during the population expansion process, which followed the coasts and the inland for different nested mitochondrial clades. Hence, we were able to describe a scenario showing how multiple biotic and abiotic events including glacial periods, climate and historical dispersal patterns complemented each other in causing regional and local differentiation within a species.
Nicholas J. Czaplewski
Full Text Available Thousands of vertebrate fossils have been recovered from the Gray Fossil Site, Tennessee, dating to the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. Among these are but eight specimens of bats representing two different taxa referable to the family Vespertilionidae. Comparison of the fossils with Neogene and Quaternary bats reveals that seven of the eight specimens pertain to a species of Eptesicus that cannot be distinguished from recent North American Eptesicus fuscus. The remaining specimen, a horizontal ramus with m3, is from a smaller vespertilionid bat that cannot confidently be assigned to a genus. Although many vespertilionid genera can be excluded through comparisons, and many extinct named taxa cannot be compared due to nonequivalence of preserved skeletal elements, the second taxon shows morphological similarities to small-bodied taxa with three lower premolar alveoli, three distinct m3 talonid cusps, and m3 postcristid showing the myotodont condition. It resembles especially Nycticeius humeralis and small species of Eptesicus. Eptesicus cf. E. fuscus potentially inhabited eastern North America continuously since the late Hemphillian land mammal age, when other evidence from the Gray Fossil Site indicates the presence in the southern Appalachian Mountains of a warm, subtropical, oak-hickory-conifer forest having autochthonous North American as well as allochthonous biogeographical ties to eastern Asia and tropical-subtropical Middle America.
Hornok, Sándor; Estók, Péter; Kováts, Dávid; Flaisz, Barbara; Takács, Nóra; Szőke, Krisztina; Krawczyk, Aleksandra; Kontschán, Jenő; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Fedák, András; Farkas, Róbert; Haarsma, Anne-Jifke; Sprong, Hein
Bats are among the most eco-epidemiologically important mammals, owing to their presence in human settlements and animal keeping facilities. Roosting of bats in buildings may bring pathogens of veterinary-medical importance into the environment of domestic animals and humans. In this context bats have long been studied as carriers of various pathogen groups. However, despite their close association with arthropods (both in their food and as their ectoparasites), only a few molecular surveys have been published on their role as carriers of vector-borne protozoa. The aim of the present study was to compensate for this scarcity of information. Altogether 221 (mostly individual) bat faecal samples were collected in Hungary and the Netherlands. The DNA was extracted, and analysed with PCR and sequencing for the presence of arthropod-borne apicomplexan protozoa. Babesia canis canis (with 99-100% homology) was identified in five samples, all from Hungary. Because it was excluded with an Ixodidae-specific PCR that the relevant bats consumed ticks, these sequences derive either from insect carriers of Ba. canis, or from the infection of bats. In one bat faecal sample from the Netherlands a sequence having the highest (99%) homology to Besnoitia besnoiti was amplified. These findings suggest that some aspects of the epidemiology of canine babesiosis are underestimated or unknown, i.e. the potential role of insect-borne mechanical transmission and/or the susceptibility of bats to Ba. canis. In addition, bats need to be added to future studies in the quest for the final host of Be. besnoiti.
Benda, P.; Vallo, Peter; Reiter, A.
Roč. 13, č. 2 (2011), s. 245-270 ISSN 1508-1109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Asellia * morphology * morphometry * mtDNA * taxonomy * phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.116, year: 2011
Full Text Available The past decade has seen a proliferation of new species of Miniopterus bats (family Miniopteridae recognized from Madagascar and the neighboring Comoros archipelago. The interspecific relationships of these taxa, their colonization history, and the evolution of this presumed adaptive radiation have not been sufficiently explored. Using the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene, we present a phylogeny of the Malagasy members of this widespread Old World genus, based on 218 sequences, of which 82 are new and 136 derived from previous studies. Phylogenetic analyses recovered 18 clades, which divide into five primary lineages: (1 M. griveaudi; (2 M. mahafaliensis, M. sororculus and X3; (3 M. majori, M. gleni and M. griffithsi; (4 M. brachytragos; M. aelleniA, and M. aelleniB; and (5 M. manavi and M. petersoni recovered as sister species, which were in turn linked to a group comprising M. egeri and five genetically distinct populations referred to herein as P3, P4, P5, P6 and P7. Beast analysis indicated that the initial divergence within the Malagasy Miniopterus radiation took place 4.5 Myr; most species diverged between 4 and 2.5 Myr, and a secondary period was between 1.25 and 1 Myr. DNA K2P-distances between recognized taxa ranged from 12.9% to 2.5% and intraspecific variation was less than 1.8%. Of the 18 identified clades, Latin binomials are only associated with 11, which indicates much greater differentiation than currently recognized for Malagasy Miniopterus. These data are placed in a context of the dispersal history of this genus on the island and patterns of ecological diversity.
Christidis, Les; Goodman, Steven M.; Naughton, Kate; Appleton, Belinda
The past decade has seen a proliferation of new species of Miniopterus bats (family Miniopteridae) recognized from Madagascar and the neighboring Comoros archipelago. The interspecific relationships of these taxa, their colonization history, and the evolution of this presumed adaptive radiation have not been sufficiently explored. Using the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene, we present a phylogeny of the Malagasy members of this widespread Old World genus, based on 218 sequences, of which 82 are new and 136 derived from previous studies. Phylogenetic analyses recovered 18 clades, which divide into five primary lineages: (1) M. griveaudi; (2) M. mahafaliensis, M. sororculus and X3; (3) M. majori, M. gleni and M. griffithsi; (4) M. brachytragos; M. aelleniA, and M. aelleniB; and (5) M. manavi and M. petersoni recovered as sister species, which were in turn linked to a group comprising M. egeri and five genetically distinct populations referred to herein as P3, P4, P5, P6 and P7. Beast analysis indicated that the initial divergence within the Malagasy Miniopterus radiation took place 4.5 Myr; most species diverged between 4 and 2.5 Myr, and a secondary period was between 1.25 and 1 Myr. DNA K2P-distances between recognized taxa ranged from 12.9% to 2.5% and intraspecific variation was less than 1.8%. Of the 18 identified clades, Latin binomials are only associated with 11, which indicates much greater differentiation than currently recognized for Malagasy Miniopterus. These data are placed in a context of the dispersal history of this genus on the island and patterns of ecological diversity. PMID:24642892
Gregg F Gunnell
Full Text Available Myzopodidae is a family of bats today represented by two extant species of the genus Myzopoda that are restricted to the island of Madagascar. These bats possess uniquely derived adhesive pads on their thumbs and ankles that they use for clinging to smooth roosting surfaces. Only one fossil myzopodid has been reported previously, a humerus from Pleistocene deposits at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania that was tentatively referred to the genus Myzopoda. Here we describe a new genus and two new species of myzopodids based on dental remains from Paleogene deposits in the Fayum Depression in Egypt, and provide an emended diagnosis for the family Myzopodidae. Phasmatonycteris phiomensis n. sp. is represented by four specimens from the early Oligocene Jebel Qatrani Formation and P. butleri n. sp. is known from a single specimen from the late Eocene Birket Qarun Formation. Together these specimens extend the temporal range of Myzopodidae by 36+ million years, and the geographic range by nearly 4000 kilometers. The new myzopodids, along with previously described bats from the Fayum and Australia, suggest that eastern Gondwana played a critical role in the origin and diversification of several bats clades notably including the superfamily Noctilionoidea, the majority of which live in the Neotropics today.
Salgueiro, P; Ruedi, M; Coelho, M M; Palmeirim, J M
We used three mitochondrial DNA fragments with different substitution rates (ND1, Cyt b and the CR) to infer phylogenetic relationships among six species of the genus Nyctalus, and compare levels of genetic divergence between the insular, vulnerable Nyctalus azoreum and its continental counterpart to assess the origins of the Azorean bat. The larger species found throughout the Palaearctic region (N. lasiopterus, N. aviator and N. noctula) share a unique chromosome formula (2n=42) and form a monophyletic clade in our reconstructions. Nyctalus plancyi (=velutinus), a Chinese taxon with 2n=36 chromosomes, is sometimes included in N. noctula, but is genetically very divergent from the latter and deserves full species status. All Cyt b and CR haplotypes of N. azoreum are closely related and only found in the Azores archipelago, but when compared to continental sequences of N. leisleri, levels of mtDNA divergence are unusually low for mammalian species. This contrasts with the high level of differentiation that N. azoreum has attained in its morphology, ecology, and echolocation calls, suggesting a recent split followed by fast evolutionary change. The molecular data suggest that N. azoreum originated from a European population of N. leisleri, and that the colonisation of the Azores occurred at the end of the Pleistocene. The Madeiran populations of N. leisleri also appear to have a European origin, whereas those of the Canary Islands probably came from North Africa. In spite of its recent origin and low genetic divergence, the Azorean bat is well differentiated and consequently represents a unique evolutionary unit with great conservation value.
Full Text Available The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp. remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz, 1836 is resurrected to replace the prevailing but younger name P. phaeocephalus Thomas, 1882 for the flying fox of the Mortlocks. On the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons, Pteropus pelagicus is united taxonomically with P. insularis “Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842” (with authority herein emended to Jacquinot and Pucheran, 1853, and the two formerly monotypic species are now treated as subspecies—P. pelagicus pelagicus in the Mortlocks, and P. p. insularis on the islands of Chuuk Lagoon and Namonuito Atoll. The closest relative of P. pelagicus is P. tokudae Tate, 1934, of Guam, which is best regarded as a distinct species. Pteropus p. pelagicus is the only known resident bat in the Mortlock Islands, a chain of more than 100 atoll islands with a total land area of <12 km2. Based on field observations in 2004, we estimated a population size of 925–1,200 bats, most of which occurred on Satawan and Lukunor Atolls, the two largest and southernmost atolls in the chain. Bats were absent on Nama Island and possibly extirpated from Losap Atoll in the northern Mortlocks. Resident Mortlockese indicated bats were more common in the past, but that the population generally has remained stable in recent years. Most P. p. pelagicus roosted alone or in groups of 5–10 bats; a roost of 27 was the largest noted. Diet is comprised of at least eight plant species, with breadfruit (Artocarpus spp. being a preferred food. Records of females with young (April, July and pregnant females (July suggest an extended breeding season. Pteropus p. pelagicus appears most threatened by the prospect of sea level rise associated with global climate change, which has the potential to submerge or reduce the size of atolls in the Mortlocks. Occasional severe typhoons probably temporarily reduce populations on heavily damaged atolls, but hunting and ongoing habitat loss are not current problems for the subspecies.
Nivaldo Bernardo de Lima Júnior
Full Text Available Esse estudo analisou a condição reprodutiva, por meio da histomorfometria, de P. discolor coletados em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica do litoral sul de Pernambuco, durante as estações seca e chuvosa. Os animais são de coleção e foram classificados de acordo com a posição testicular (descendentes e não descendentes. Para as análises histomorfométricas, foram selecionados aleatoriamente 18 espécimes durante as estações seca e chuvosa, dos quais (n = 11 com testículos descendentes e (n = 7 com testículos não descendentes. Os resultados demonstraram que as maiores médias da área de ocupação dos túbulos seminíferos foram na estação chuvosa, independente dos espécimes apresentarem os testículos descendentes ou não. Isso pode estar relacionado a um maior investimento em produção espermática, já que na estação chuvosa, existe uma maior disponibilidade de alimentos devido às precipitações pluviométricas.
Nivaldo Bernardo de Lima Júnior; Maria Juliana Gomes Arandas; Ketsia Sabrina do Nascimento Marinho; Francisco Carlos Amanajás de Aguiar Júnior; Antonio Rossano Mendes Pontes; Katharine Raquel Pereira dos Santos
Esse estudo analisou a condição reprodutiva, por meio da histomorfometria, de P. discolor coletados em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica do litoral sul de Pernambuco, durante as estações seca e chuvosa. Os animais são de coleção e foram classificados de acordo com a posição testicular (descendentes e não descendentes). Para as análises histomorfométricas, foram selecionados aleatoriamente 18 espécimes durante as estações seca e chuvosa, dos quais (n = 11) com testículos descendentes e (n = 7) com ...
Background Temperate winters produce extreme energetic challenges for small insectivorous mammals. Some bat species inhabiting locations with mild temperate winters forage during brief inter-torpor normothermic periods of activity. However, the winter diet of bats in mild temperate locations is studied infrequently. Although microscopic analyses of faeces have traditionally been used to characterise bat diet, recently the coupling of PCR with second generation sequencing has offered the potential to further advance our understanding of animal dietary composition and foraging behaviour by allowing identification of a much greater proportion of prey items often with increased taxonomic resolution. We used morphological analysis and Illumina-based second generation sequencing to study the winter diet of Natterer’s bat (Myotis nattereri) and compared the results obtained from these two approaches. For the first time, we demonstrate the applicability of the Illumina MiSeq platform as a data generation source for bat dietary analyses. Results Faecal pellets collected from a hibernation site in southern England during two winters (December-March 2009–10 and 2010–11), indicated that M. nattereri forages throughout winter at least in a location with a mild winter climate. Through morphological analysis, arthropod fragments from seven taxonomic orders were identified. A high proportion of these was non-volant (67.9% of faecal pellets) and unexpectedly included many lepidopteran larvae. Molecular analysis identified 43 prey species from six taxonomic orders and confirmed the frequent presence of lepidopteran species that overwinter as larvae. Conclusions The winter diet of M. nattereri is substantially different from other times of the year confirming that this species has a wide and adaptable dietary niche. Comparison of DNA derived from the prey to an extensive reference dataset of potential prey barcode sequences permitted fine scale taxonomic resolution of prey species. The high occurrence of non-volant prey suggests that gleaning allows prey capture at low ambient temperatures when the abundance of flying insects may be substantially reduced. Interesting questions arise as to how M. nattereri might successfully locate and capture some of the non-volant prey species encountered in its faeces. The consumption of lepidopteran larvae such as cutworms suggests that M. nattereri eats agricultural pest species. PMID:25093034
Santana, Sharlene E.; Geipel, Inga; Dumont, Elizabeth R.; Kalka, Margareta B.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.
Ecological specialization and resource partitioning are expected to be particularly high in the species-rich communities of tropical vertebrates, yet many species have broader ecological niches than expected. In Neotropical ecosystems, Neotropical leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae) are one of the most ecologically and functionally diverse vertebrate clades. Resource partitioning in phyllostomids might be achieved through differences in the ability to find and process food. We selected Micronycteris microtis, a very small (5–7 g) animalivorous phyllostomid, to explore whether broad resource use is associated with specific morphological, behavioral and performance traits within the phyllostomid radiation. We documented processing of natural prey and measured bite force in free-ranging M. microtis and other sympatric phyllostomids. We found that M. microtis had a remarkably broad diet for prey size and hardness. For the first time, we also report the consumption of vertebrates (lizards), which makes M. microtis the smallest carnivorous bat reported to date. Compared to other phyllostomids, M. microtis had the highest bite force for its size and cranial shape and high performance plasticity. Bite force and cranial shape appear to have evolved rapidly in the M. microtis lineage. High performance capacity and high efficiency in finding motionless prey might be key traits that allow M. microtis, and perhaps other species, to successfully co-exist with other gleaning bats. PMID:22164308
Luiz Augustinho Menezes da Silva
Full Text Available This communication is to report, through a fortuitous event, the predation of the bat Molossus molossus by the toad Rhinella jimi, on 29 May 2003 in the Caatinga, municipality of Orocó, state of Pernambuco, northeast Brazil.
Reproductive ecology of Commerson's leaf-nosed bats Hipposideros commersoni (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) in South-Central Africa: interactions between seasonality and large body size; and implications for conservation.
Vol 44, No 1 (2009) - Articles Cryptic lineages of little free-tailed bats, Chaerephon pumilus (Chiroptera: Molossidae) from southern Africa and the western Indian Ocean islands. Abstract · Vol 48, No 1 (2013) - Articles Stable Pleistocene-era populations of Chaerephon pumilus (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in southeastern Africa ...
Endemism in Chiroptera is low, however, with only two endemic species in the fynbos and Karoo biomes. The Carnivora display less biome specificity and endemism than the Chiroptera. Whereas the north-eastern savannas have the highest species richness, the transition between the Nama-Karoo and grassland biomes ...
Modelling the prey detection performance of Rhinonicteris aurantia (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) in different atmospheric conditions discounts the notional role of relative humidity in adaptive evolution.
Armstrong, Kyle N; Kerry, Leonard J
We examined a recent notion that differences in echolocation call frequency amongst geographic groups of constant frequency (CF)-emitting bats is the result of a trade-off between maximising prey detection range at lower frequencies and enhancing small-prey resolution at higher frequencies in different atmospheric (relative humidity; RH) environments. Isolated populations of the endemic Australian orange leaf-nosed bat Rhinonicteris aurantia were used as an example since geographic isolation in different environments has been a precursor to differences in their characteristic echolocation call frequencies (mean difference c. 6 kHz; means of 114.64 and 120.99 kHz). The influence of both atmospheric temperature and RH on maximum prey detection range was explored through mathematical modelling. This revealed that temperature was of similar importance to relative humidity and that under certain circumstances, each could reduce the effect of the other on ultrasound attenuation rates. The newly developed models contain significant conceptual improvements in method compared to other recent approaches, and can be applied to the situation of any other species of bat. For a given set of atmospheric conditions, the prey detection range of R. aurantia was reduced slightly when call frequency increased by 6 kHz, but an increase in RH, temperature or both reduced detection range significantly. A similar trend was also evident in prey detection volume ratios calculated for the same conditions. Spatial volume ratios were applied to assess the impact of changed atmospheric conditions and prey size on foraging ecology. Reductions in detection range associated with increases in RH and/or temperature also varied in relation to the size (cross sectional area) of insect prey. Modelling demonstrated that small (6 kHz) movements in call frequency could not compensate for the changes in prey detection range and spatial detection volumes that result from significant changes in atmospheric temperature or RH. The notion that differences in RH are the primary cause leading to adaptive evolution and speciation in CF-emitting bats by precipitating intraspecific differences in the mean call frequency of geographically isolated bat populations was not supported by the results of this case study. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hope, Paul R; Bohmann, Kristine; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.
approaches. For the first time, we demonstrate the applicability of the Illumina MiSeq platform as a data generation source for bat dietary analyses. RESULTS: Faecal pellets collected from a hibernation site in southern England during two winters (December-March 2009-10 and 2010-11), indicated that M....... nattereri forages throughout winter at least in a location with a mild winter climate. Through morphological analysis, arthropod fragments from seven taxonomic orders were identified. A high proportion of these was non-volant (67.9% of faecal pellets) and unexpectedly included many lepidopteran larvae....... Molecular analysis identified 43 prey species from six taxonomic orders and confirmed the frequent presence of lepidopteran species that overwinter as larvae. CONCLUSIONS: The winter diet of M. nattereri is substantially different from other times of the year confirming that this species has a wide...
Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of heat wave on the behavior and population count of Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus from a roosting colony occupying a Tamarind tree Tamarindus indica at Simla Village of Purulia District of West Bengal, India during the period from March 2010 to July 2010. A total population comprising 250 individuals, recorded in March 2010, came down to 80 by June 2010. Information obtained from local villagers affirmed that the roosting bat colony from the present study location was a century old and had no apparent conflicts with villagers; moreover, it was protected with reverence. However, soaring day temperatures (with a maximum of up to 480C, recorded during May and June 2010 alongside drought were the major threats that the population faced and mass die-offs caused the population to decline during the hotter months. Continuous fanning and belly-soaking were common behavioural features recorded during the summer months. However, death rate due to hyperthermia and dehydration was uncommonly high.
Benda, P.; Vallo, Peter
Roč. 58, č. 1 (2009), s. 1-45 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bats * morphological analysis * genetic analysis * cytochrome b * Middle East * Afrotropics * Madagascar Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.357, year: 2009
Walker Melissa J.
Full Text Available The Darién province in eastern Panama is one of the most unexplored and biodiverse regions in the world. The Chucantí Nature Reserve, in Serranía de Majé, consists of a diverse tropical cloud forest ecosystem. The aim of this research was to explore and study host associations of a tripartite system of bats, ectoparasitic flies on bats (Diptera, Streblidae, and ectoparasitic fungi (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales that use bat flies as hosts. We captured bats at Chucantí, screened each bat for presence of bat flies, and screened collected bat flies for presence of Laboulbeniales. We mistnetted for 68 mistnet hours and captured 227 bats representing 17 species. We captured Micronycteris schmidtorum, a species previously unreported in Darién. In addition, we encountered the rarely collected Platyrrhinus dorsalis, representing the westernmost report for this species. Of all captured bats, 148 carried bat flies (65%. The number of sampled bat flies was 437, representing 16 species. One species represents a new country record (Trichobius anducei and five species represent first reports for Darién (Basilia anceps, Anatrichobius scorzai, Nycterophilia parnelli, T. johnsonae, T. parasiticus. All 74 bat fly species currently reported in Panama are presented in tabulated form. Of all screened bat flies, 30 bore Laboulbeniales fungi (7%. Based on both morphology and large ribosomal subunit (LSU sequence data, we delimited 7 species of Laboulbeniales: Gloeandromyces nycteribiidarum (newly reported for Panama, G. pageanus, G. streblae, Nycteromyces streblidinus, and 3 undescribed species. Of the 30 infected flies, 21 were Trichobius joblingi. This species was the only host on which we observed double infections of Laboulbeniales.
Lu, Guanjun; Lin, Aiqing; Luo, Jinhong; Blondel, Dimitri V; Meiklejohn, Kelly A; Sun, Keping; Feng, Jiang
China is characterized by complex topographic structure and dramatic palaeoclimatic changes, making species biogeography studies particularly interesting. Previous researchers have also demonstrated multiple species experienced complex population histories, meanwhile multiple shelters existed in Chinese mainland. Despite this, species phylogeography is still largely unexplored. In the present study, we used a combination of microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to investigate the phylogeography of the east Asian fish-eating bat (Myotis pilosus). Phylogenetic analyses showed that M. pilosus comprised three main lineages: A, B and C, which corresponded to distinct geographic populations of the Yangtze Plain (YTP), Sichuan Basin (SCB) and North and South of China (NSC), respectively. The most recent common ancestor of M. pilosus was dated as 0.25 million years before present (BP). Population expansion events were inferred for populations of Clade C, North China Plain region, Clade B and YunGui Plateau region at 38,700, 15,900, 4,520 and 4,520 years BP, respectively. Conflicting results were obtained from mtDNA and microsatellite analyses; strong population genetic structure was obtained from mtDNA data but not microsatellite data. The microsatellite data indicated that genetic subdivision fits an isolation-by-distance (IBD) model, but the mtDNA data failed to support this model. Our results suggested that Pleistocene climatic oscillations might have had a profound influence on the demographic history of M. pilosus. Spatial genetic structures of maternal lineages that are different from those observed in other sympatric bats species may be as a result of interactions among special population history and local environmental factors. There are at least three possible refugia for M. pilosus during glacial episodes. Apparently contradictory genetic structure patterns of mtDNA and microsatellite could be explained by male-mediated gene flow among populations. This study also provides insights on the necessity of conservation of M. pilosus populations to conserve this genetic biodiversity, especially in the areas of YTP, SCB and NSC regions.
Walker, Melissa J; Dorrestein, Annabel; Camacho, Jasmin J; Meckler, Lauren A; Silas, Kirk A; Hiller, Thomas; Haelewaters, Danny
The Darién province in eastern Panama is one of the most unexplored and biodiverse regions in the world. The Chucantí Nature Reserve, in Serranía de Majé, consists of a diverse tropical cloud forest ecosystem. The aim of this research was to explore and study host associations of a tripartite system of bats, ectoparasitic flies on bats (Diptera, Streblidae), and ectoparasitic fungi (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales) that use bat flies as hosts. We captured bats at Chucantí, screened each bat for presence of bat flies, and screened collected bat flies for presence of Laboulbeniales. We mistnetted for 68 mistnet hours and captured 227 bats representing 17 species. We captured Micronycteris schmidtorum, a species previously unreported in Darién. In addition, we encountered the rarely collected Platyrrhinus dorsalis, representing the westernmost report for this species. Of all captured bats, 148 carried bat flies (65%). The number of sampled bat flies was 437, representing 16 species. One species represents a new country record (Trichobius anducei) and five species represent first reports for Darién (Basilia anceps, Anatrichobius scorzai, Nycterophilia parnelli, T. johnsonae, T. parasiticus). All 74 bat fly species currently reported in Panama are presented in tabulated form. Of all screened bat flies, 30 bore Laboulbeniales fungi (7%). Based on both morphology and large ribosomal subunit (LSU) sequence data, we delimited 7 species of Laboulbeniales: Gloeandromyces nycteribiidarum (newly reported for Panama), G. pageanus, G. streblae, Nycteromyces streblidinus, and 3 undescribed species. Of the 30 infected flies, 21 were Trichobius joblingi. This species was the only host on which we observed double infections of Laboulbeniales. © M.J. Walker et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2018.
Hassanin, Alexandre; Nesi, Nicolas; Marin, Julie; Kadjo, Blaise; Pourrut, Xavier; Leroy, Éric; Gembu, Guy-Crispin; Musaba Akawa, Prescott; Ngoagouni, Carine; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Ruedi, Manuel; Tshikung, Didier; Pongombo Shongo, Célestin; Bonillo, Céline
Both Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus were detected in several fruit bat species of the family Pteropodidae, suggesting that this taxon plays a key role in the life cycle of filoviruses. After four decades of Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBOV) outbreaks in Central Africa, the virus was detected for the first time in West Africa in 2014. To better understand the role of fruit bats as potential reservoirs and circulating hosts between Central and West Africa, we examine here the phylogeny and comparative phylogeography of Pteropodidae. Our phylogenetic results confirm the existence of four independent lineages of African fruit bats: the genera Eidolon and Rousettus, and the tribes Epomophorini and Scotonycterini, and indicate that the three species suspected to represent ZEBOV reservoir hosts (Epomops franqueti, Hypsignathus monstrosus, and Myonycteris torquata) belong to an African clade that diversified rapidly around 8-7 Mya. To test for phylogeographic structure and for recent gene flow from Central to West Africa, we analysed the nucleotide variation of 675 cytochrome b gene (Cytb) sequences, representing eight fruit bat species collected in 48 geographic localities. Within Epomophorina, our mitochondrial data do not support the monophyly of two genera (Epomops and Epomophorus) and four species (Epomophorus gambianus, Epomops franqueti, Epomops buettikoferi, and Micropteropus pusillus). In Epomops, however, we found two geographic haplogroups corresponding to the Congo Basin and Upper Guinea forests, respectively. By contrast, we found no genetic differentiation between Central and West African populations for all species known to make seasonal movements, Eidolon helvum, E. gambianus, H. monstrosus, M. pusillus, Nanonycteris veldkampii, and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our results suggest that only three fruit bat species were able to disperse directly ZEBOV from the Congo Basin to Upper Guinea: E. helvum, H. monstrosus, and R. aegyptiacus. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Yin, Qiuyuan; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Di; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yi-Hsuan
Mammals developed antioxidant systems to defend against oxidative damage in their daily life. Enzymatic antioxidants and low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWAs) constitute major parts of the antioxidant systems. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2, encoded by the Nrf2 gene) is a central transcriptional regulator, regulating transcription, of many antioxidant enzymes. Frugivorous bats eat large amounts of fruits that contain high levels of LMWAs such as vitamin C, thus, a reliance on LMWAs might greatly reduce the need for antioxidant enzymes in comparison to insectivorous bats. Therefore, it is possible that frugivorous bats have a reduced need for Nrf2 function due to their substantial intake of diet-antioxidants. To test whether the Nrf2 gene has undergone relaxed evolution in fruit-eating bats, we obtained Nrf2 sequences from 16 species of bats, including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and one New World fruit bat (Phyllostomidae). Our molecular evolutionary analyses revealed changes in the selection pressure acting on Nrf2 gene and identified seven specific amino acid substitutions that occurred on the ancestral lineage leading to Old World fruit bats. Biochemical experiments were conducted to examine Nrf2 in Old World fruit bats and showed that the amount of catalase, which is regulated by Nrf2, was significantly lower in the brain, heart and liver of Old World fruit bats despite higher levels of Nrf2 protein in Old World fruit bats. Computational predictions suggest that three of these seven amino acid replacements might be deleterious to Nrf2 function. Therefore, the results suggest that Nrf2 gene might have experienced relaxed constraint in Old World fruit bats, however, we cannot rule out the possibility of positive selection. Our study provides the first data on the molecular adaptation of Nrf2 gene in frugivorous bats in compensation to the increased levels of LWMAs from their fruit-diet.
Sein Sein Win
Full Text Available The diet of Pteropus giganteus from three roosts in Mandalay Region, central Myanmar was investigated for over two years by examining feeding remains in and around two villages. It consists of 24 species of fruits, six species of flowers and three of leaves. Of these, 13 species of fruits are eaten by the local people, three of which are also marketed. Two are used in traditional medicine and one for stuffing pillows. Most dietary plants are native, mangoes are seasonally superabundant and are eaten in large numbers. Interviews revealed no evidence of conflict between bats and villagers.
Hassanin, Alexandre; Khouider, Souraya; Gembu, Guy-Crispin; Goodman, Steven M; Kadjo, Blaise; Nesi, Nicolas; Pourrut, Xavier; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Bonillo, Céline
The hypothesis of Pleistocene forest refugia was tested using comparative phylogeography of Scotonycterini, a fruit bat tribe endemic to Africa containing four species: Scotonycteris zenkeri, Casinycteris argynnis, C. campomaanensis, and C. ophiodon. Patterns of genetic structure were assessed using 105 Scotonycterini (including material from three holotypes) collected at 37 localities, and DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 nt) and 12 nuclear introns (9641 nt). Phylogenetic trees and molecular dating were inferred by Bayesian methods. Multilocus analyses were performed using supermatrix, SuperTRI, and *BEAST approaches. Mitochondrial analyses reveal strong phylogeographical structure in Scotonycteris, with four divergent haplogroups (4.9-8.7%), from Upper Guinea, Cameroon, western Equatorial Africa, and eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In C. argynnis, we identify two mtDNA haplogroups corresponding to western and eastern Equatorial Africa (1.4-2.1%). In C. ophiodon, the mtDNA haplotypes from Cameroon and Ivory Coast differ by only 1.3%. Nuclear analyses confirm the validity of the recently described C. campomaanensis and indicate that western and eastern populations of C. argynnis are not fully isolated. All mtDNA clusters detected in Scotonycteris are found to be monophyletic based on the nuclear dataset, except in eastern DRC. In the nuclear tree, the clade from western Equatorial Africa is closely related to individuals from eastern DRC, whereas in the mitochondrial tree it appears to be the sister-group of the Cameroon clade. Migrate-n analyses support gene flow from western Equatorial Africa to eastern DRC. Molecular dating indicates that Pleistocene forest refugia have played an important role in shaping the evolution of Scotonycterini, with two phases of allopatric speciation at approximately 2.7 and 1.6 Mya, resulting from isolation in three main forest areas corresponding to Upper Guinea, Cameroon, and Equatorial Africa. Two cryptic species and two subspecies are described herein in the genus Scotonycteris. Female philopatry and male biased dispersal are supported for the smallest taxa, i.e., the three species of Scotonycteris and C. argynnis. The Congo, Ntem, and Sanaga rivers are identified as biogeographic barriers to the dispersal of Scotonycteris during interglacial periods. A greater capacity for long-distance dispersal is inferred for the largest species, C. ophiodon. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Within the Vespertilionidae the genus Pipistrellus Kaup, 1829 is characterized by the presence of a calcar lobe (epiblema) attached to the calcar bone, the presence of two upper premolars on each side and a forearm length smaller than 38 mm. Two representatives of this genus occur in The
Development and characterization of 10 microsatellite markers in the Cape horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus capensis (Chiroptera, Rhinolophidae) and cross-amplification in southern African Rhinolophus species.
Nesi, Nicolas; Jacobs, David S; Feldheim, Kevin; Bishop, Jacqueline M
The Cape horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus capensis, is endemic to the Cape region of South Africa. Coalescent analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data suggests extensive historical gene flow between populations despite strong geographic variation of their echolocation call phenotype. Nevertheless the fine-scale genetic structure and evolutionary ecology of R. capensis remains poorly understood. Here we describe the development of 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate of the dispersal ecology of R. capensis and to facilitate taxonomic studies of Rhinolophus species in southern Africa. We report 10 microsatellite primer pairs that consistently amplify scorable and polymorphic loci across 12 African rhinolophid species. Initial analysis of two populations of R. capensis from South Africa revealed moderate to high levels of allelic variation with 4-14 alleles per locus and observed heterozygosities of 0.450-0.900. No evidence of linkage disequilibrium was observed and eight of the loci showed no departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Cross-species utility of these markers revealed consistently amplifiable polymorphic loci in eleven additional rhinolophid species. The cross-amplification success of the microsatellites developed here provides a cost-effective set of population genetic marker for the study of rhinolophid evolutionary ecology and conservation in southern Africa.
Wing Membrane Biopsies for Bat Cytogenetics: Finding of 2n = 54 in Irish Rhinolophushipposideros (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera, Mammalia) Supports Two Geographically Separated Chromosomal Variants in Europe.
Kacprzyk, Joanna; Teeling, Emma C; Kelleher, Conor; Volleth, Marianne
In Europe, 2 different diploid chromosome numbers, 2n = 54 and 2n = 56, have been described in the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophushipposideros). The eastern form with 2n = 56 extends from the Czech Republic to Greece. To date, specimens with 54 chromosomes have been reported only from Spain and Germany. This study expands the distributional area of the western variant to Ireland. Strikingly, this distribution of European chromosomal variants is in contrast to the available molecular data that indicate little genetic differentiation of R. hipposideros populations spanning Northwestern to Central Europe. Further, we have developed an optimized protocol for establishing fibroblast cell cultures, suitable for karyotype analyses, from 3-mm wing membrane biopsies. This is a useful technique for cytogenetic studies of endangered bat species, as this non-lethal sampling method imposes only minimum stress to the animal without lasting adverse effects and is routinely used to sample tissue probes for molecular genetic studies in bats. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Shahabi, Saeed; Akmali, Vahid; Sharifi, Mozafar
To examine the level of genetic differentiation in the sequences of the mitochondrial D-loop gene of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, and to evaluate the current taxonomic status of this species, 50 tissue samples of greater horseshoe bats were collected in 2011-2015 from 21 different localities in northwest, northeast, west, central, and south regions of Iran. Twenty-two published D-loop sequences from Europe (Switzerland, United Kingdom, Bulgaria, and Tunisia), and Anatolia (south, west, and east Turkey) were downloaded from GenBank. Molecular genetic analyses revealed remarkable variation among populations of R. ferrumequinum. Two major clades with strong support were identified within the greater horseshoe bat. One of these clades consists of individuals of R. ferrumequinum from Iran and eastern Turkey, and is further subdivided into two subclades. A second clade includes samples from western Turkey and Europe. The two subclades from Iran and Turkey and the second clade from western Turkey and Europe represent three diagnosable categories, which most probably warrant three subspecies for the species. Thus, based on genetic differences, it is clear that two subspecific populations are found in Iran: R. f. irani (southern Iran) and R. f. proximus (northern Iran).
Najafi, Nargess; Akmali, Vahid; Sharifi, Mozafar
Molecular phylogeography and species distribution modelling (SDM) suggest that late Quaternary glacial cycles have portrayed a significant role in structuring current population genetic structure and diversity. Based on phylogenetic relationships using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood of 535 bp mtDNA (D-loop) and 745 bp mtDNA (Cytb) in 62 individuals of the Mediterranean Horseshoe Bat, Rhinolophus euryale, from 13 different localities in Iran we identified two subspecific populations with differing population genetic structure distributed in southern Zagros Mts. and northern Elburz Mts. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) obtained from D-loop sequences indicates that 21.18% of sequence variation is distributed among populations and 10.84% within them. Moreover, a degree of genetic subdivision, mainly attributable to the existence of significant variance among the two regions is shown (θCT = 0.68, p = .005). The positive and significant correlation between geographic and genetic distances (R 2 = 0.28, r = 0.529, p = .000) is obtained following controlling for environmental distance. Spatial distribution of haplotypes indicates that marginal population of the species in southern part of the species range have occupied this section as a glacial refugia. However, this genetic variation, in conjunction with results of the SDM shows a massive postglacial range expansion for R. euryale towards higher latitudes in Iran.
SAMPEDRO MARÍN ALCIDES C.
Full Text Available Esta investigación se realizó en la zona rural de los municipios Toluviejo, San Onofrey San Antonio de Palmito, pertenecientes al departamento de Sucre, Colombia, duranteel período comprendido entre noviembre de 2004 y noviembre de 2005 y tuvo comoobjetivo la determinación de los tipos de refugio utilizados por Desmodus rotundus enlas localidades mencionadas, así como conocer su composición social en esos sitiosy la época reproductiva. Se hicieron capturas mediante redes de niebla, en huecos detroncos de árboles, cuevas y construcciones humanas, que mostraban evidencia deheces sanguinolentas. Los animales eran obligados a salir mediante el humo y una vezcapturados eran conservados en alcohol al 70%. El número de animales en esos sitiosfluctúa entre 4 y 93. La proporción de machos activos sexualmente resultó siempremenor que la de hembras con diferentes estadios reproductivos (1:6, 1:7, 1:3, 1:2, 1:2para los diferentes refugios. Además aparecen varios machos inactivos sexualmentey neonatos. Esta composición y número parece influir en la eficiencia reproductiva,la estabilidad del grupo y en el establecimiento de su conducta de cooperación parala alimentación. Esta especie es monótoca y la reproducción puede efectuarse encualquier época del año, lo cual garantiza la supervivencia de la misma, dadas lasconocidas dificultades que afrontan cuando no pueden alimentarse
Full Text Available Cantor’s leaf-nosed bat is distributed in the South Asian and Southeast Asian region and recorded from few localities of India including one locality record from Bihar in Eastern India. Here we report its range extension in Eastern India and first record from Odisha. We recommend that the chiropteran diversity of Odisha need to be assessed for further inventories, particularly in the Eastern Ghats range.
Berrizbeitia, M Fernanda López; Sánchez, R Tatiana; Barquez, Ruben M; Díaz, M Monica
The mammalian and flea fauna of La Rioja Province is one of the least known from northwestern Argentina. In this study, the distribution and nomenclature of 13 species of fleas of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province are updated. Four species of fleas are recorded for the first time in La Rioja Province including a new record for northwestern Argentina, and two new flea-host associations. An identification key and distribution map are included for all known species of Siphonaptera of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province, Argentina.
Mammalia, Chiroptera, Molossidae, Molossops temminckii (Burmeister, 1854, and Vespertilionidae, Eptesicus furinalis (dOrbigny and Gervais, 1847: New locality record and distribution extension in Cordoba Province, Argentina
Castilla, M. C.
Full Text Available During a field trip to the Ramsar site “Bañados del Río Dulce y Laguna Mar Chiquita” we captured three specimensof Molossops temminckii (Burmeister, 1854 and two of Eptesicus furinalis (d’Orbigny and Gervais, 1847. Molossopstemminckii has a wide distribution in Argentina, but this new record represents the second mention of the species for theCordoba Province after 13 years. The specimens of E. furinalis represent the tenth record for Cordoba and the second for RíoPrimero Department. This new information reflects the scarcity of systematic studies on bats in Cordoba Province.
Baird, Amy B; Braun, Janet K; Engstrom, Mark D; Holbert, Ashlyn C; Huerta, Maritza G; Lim, Burton K; Mares, Michael A; Patton, John C; Bickham, John W
Previous studies on genetics of hoary bats produced differing conclusions on the timing of their colonization of the Hawaiian Islands and whether or not North American (Aeorestes cinereus) and Hawaiian (A. semotus) hoary bats are distinct species. One study, using mtDNA COI and nuclear Rag2 and CMA1, concluded that hoary bats colonized the Hawaiian Islands no more than 10,000 years ago based on indications of population expansion at that time using Extended Bayesian Skyline Plots. The other study, using 3 mtDNA and 1 Y-chromosome locus, concluded that the Hawaiian Islands were colonized about 1 million years ago. To address the marked inconsistencies between those studies, we examined DNA sequences from 4 mitochondrial and 2 nuclear loci in lasiurine bats to investigate the timing of colonization of the Hawaiian Islands by hoary bats, test the hypothesis that Hawaiian and North American hoary bats belong to different species, and further investigate the generic level taxonomy within the tribe. Phylogenetic analysis and dating of the nodes of mtDNA haplotypes and of nuclear CMA1 alleles show that A. semotus invaded the Hawaiian Islands approximately 1.35 Ma and that multiple arrivals of A. cinereus occurred much more recently. Extended Bayesian Skyline plots show population expansion at about 20,000 years ago in the Hawaiian Islands, which we conclude does not represent the timing of colonization of the Hawaiian Islands given the high degree of genetic differentiation among A. cinereus and A. semotus (4.2% divergence at mtDNA Cytb) and the high degree of genetic diversity within A. semotus. Rather, population expansion 20,000 years ago could have resulted from colonization of additional islands, expansion after a bottleneck, or other factors. New genetic data also support the recognition of A. semotus and A. cinereus as distinct species, a finding consistent with previous morphological and behavioral studies. The phylogenetic analysis of CMA1 alleles shows the presence of 2 clades that are primarily associated with A. semotus mtDNA haplotypes, and are unique to the Hawaiian Islands. There is evidence for low levels of hybridization between A. semotus and A. cinereus on the Hawaiian Islands, but it is not extensive (<15% of individuals are of hybrid origin), and clearly each species is able to maintain its own genetic distinctiveness. Both mtDNA and nuclear DNA sequences show deep divergence between the 3 groups (genera) of lasiurine bats that correspond to the previously recognized morphological differences between them. We show that the Tribe Lasiurini contains the genera Aeorestes (hoary bats), Lasiurus (red bats), and Dasypterus (yellow bats).
Mateus R Beguelini
Full Text Available Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression within the same annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Studies have demonstrated that its epididymis has an elongation of the caudal portion, which stores spermatozoa during the period of testicular regression in July, but that they had no sperm during the regression in November. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the total testicular regression in the epididymal morphophysiology and patterns of its hormonal regulation. The results demonstrate a continuous activity of the epididymis from the Active to the Regressing periods; a morphofunctional regression of the epididymis in the Regressed period; and a slow recrudescence process. Thus, we concluded that the processes of total testicular regression and posterior recrudescence suffered by M. nigricans also impact the physiology of the epididymis, but with a delay in epididymal response. Epididymal physiology is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, through the production and secretion of testosterone by the testes, its conduction to the epididymis (mainly through luminal fluid, conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by the 5α-reductase enzyme (mainly in epithelial cells and to estrogen by aromatase; and through the activation/deactivation of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor α in epithelial cells, which regulate the epithelial cell morphophysiology, prevents cell death and regulates their protein expression and secretion, which ensures the maturation and storage of the spermatozoa.
Full Text Available We examined whether, like many parasite-host systems of coevolution, a group of obligate parasitic bat flies (Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel and related species cospeciate with their hosts. We first did a cladistic analysis of the T. phyllostomae group and combined that analysis with a phylogenetic hypothesis from the literature for the Stenodermatinae bats. The cladistic analysis included, as outgroups, one species from each morphological group and complex of Trichobius Gervais, and one species from the following genera: Paratrichobius Miranda-Ribeiro, Megistopoda Macquart, Megistapophysys Dick & Wenzel, Neotrichobius Wenzel & Aitken, Speiseria Kessel and Strebla Wiedemann. The cladogram was rooted with a species of Strebla in the subfamily Streblinae. One cladogram was obtained and which found Trichobius to be polyphyletic. The phylogenetic hypothesis as follows: (Paratrichobius, (Neotrichobius, (Megistopoda, Megistapophysis is the sister-group of the phyllostomae group and the following relationships within the ingroup, (((T. vampyropis Wenzel, Trichobius sp. 2 ((T. hispidus Wenzel, T. petersoni Wenzel ((Trichobius sp. 1 (T. phyllostomae, T. brennani Wenzel. When we compared phylogenies through historical association analyses, cospeciation was uncommon, while host-switching was more common and better explained the association between the phyllostomae group and their bat hosts.
Luiz Augustinho Menezes da Silva
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n2p215 A presente comunicação relata um evento de predação oportunística do morcego Molossus molossus pelo sapo Rhinella jimi, ocorrido em 29 de maio de 2003 na Caatinga, município de Orocó, Estado de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil.
Woodman, N.; Timm, R.M.
The Neotropical Lonchophyllini (Chiropter: Phyllostomidae) currently comprise four genera and thirteen species of nectar-feeding bats. These species often are separated into larger-bodied (eight species) and smaller-bodied (five species) forms to aid in identification. Our morphological and morphometrical analyses of the smaller Lonchophyllini revealed the existence of two distinctive, previously undescribed species of bats of the genus Lonchophylla from western South America. We describe a new form from Amazonian Peru as Lonchophylla pattoni and one from western Colombia as Lonchophylla cadenai. Phyllogenetic analysis of the Lonchophyllini based primarily on morphological characters indicates that these two new species are closely related to Lonchophylla thomasi.
Martins, Fabiane F; Beguelini, Mateus R; Puga, Cintia C I; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R
The male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) are important organs that contribute to the secretion of different substances that composed the ejaculate. Despite this important function, their composition, anatomy and function vary widely between species. Thus, the RAGs of three species of phyllostomid bats were morphologically and ultrastructurally characterized and compared in this study. The RAGs of the three analyzed species are composed of a prostate and a pair of bulbourethral glands (BG). In all species, the prostate is composed of three well-defined regions (ventral, dorsolateral and dorsal regions). The ventral region showed an atypical epithelium (undefined) with no obvious cellular limits and a holocrine PAS-positive secretion. The dorsolateral region of Carollia perspicillata and Phyllostomus discolor showed a pseudostratified cubic morphology, and that from Glossophaga soricina had a columnar morphology endowed with cytoplasmic projections and stereocilia. The dorsal region of the three analyzed species is composed of a pseudostratified columnar epithelium endowed with stereocilia; however, G. soricina also presented cytoplasmic projections in the apical portions of the secretory cells similar to those in the dorsolateral region. The BG of the three analyzed species are composed of a pseudostratified columnar epithelium including basal and PAS-positive secretory cells. In conclusion, this study morphologically and ultrastructurally characterized the RAGs of three species of phyllostomid bats, demonstrating the presence of a novel third prostatic region in species of this family. The results also showed the absence of seminal vesicles and ampullary glands, and better characterized the holocrine pattern of the prostatic ventral region, which is unique to bats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Claire F.R. Wordley
Full Text Available Salim Ali’s Fruit Bat Latidens salimalii is an IUCN Red listed Endangered species known only from a few locations in southern India. Here we report three records of Latidens salimalii from the Valparai plateau and Anamalai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu where this species has not been previously recorded. This bat was caught in riparian habitats close to or inside intact tropical wet forest in the Western Ghats.
Molinari, Jesús; Bustos, Xiomar E; Burneo, Santiago F; Camacho, M Alejandra; Moreno, S Andrea; Fermín, Gustavo
Sturnira is the most speciose genus of New World leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae). We name Sturnira adrianae, new species. This taxon is born polytypic, divided into a larger subspecies (S. a. adrianae) widespread in the mountains of northern and western Venezuela, and northern Colombia, and a smaller subspecies (S. a. caripana) endemic to the mountains of northeastern Venezuela. The new species inhabits evergreen, deciduous, and cloud forests at mainly medium (1000-2000 m) elevations. It has long been confused with S. ludovici, but it is more closely related to S. oporaphilum. It can be distinguished from other species of Sturnira by genetic data, and based on discrete and continuously varying characters. Within the genus, the new species belongs to a clade that also includes S. oporaphilum, S. ludovici, S. hondurensis, and S. burtonlimi. The larger new subspecies is the largest member of this clade. The two new subspecies are the most sexually dimorphic members of this clade. The smaller new subspecies is restricted to small mountain systems undergoing severe deforestation processes, therefore can be assigned to the Vulnerable (VU) conservation category of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Famadas, Kátia Maria
The family Streblidae consists of obligate hematophagous ectoparasites of bats. The richness of Streblidae may be affected by environmental and host-related variables, collection methods, and sampling effort. The purposes of this study were to list the Streblidae species recorded in Brazil, verify their distribution in the Brazilian biomes and states, and pinpoint the parameters that favored the greatest richness. Through queries in online databases and libraries, 86 publications were found containing records of 83 species in 24 genera. The state with the largest number of publications was São Paulo and Federal District presented the highest richness of Streblidae. The largest number of records of Streblidae species was in Cerrado biome. The meta-analyses utilizing 26 Brazilian inventories showed that the richness of Streblidae was positively correlated with the number of flies and richness and abundance of Phyllostomidae. We hope that the results of this study will contribute to a better understanding of the distribution of research on Streblidae in Brazil and confirming the specificity between Streblidae and Phyllostomidae.
FÁBIO A.M. SOARES
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study reports the occurrence of bat species and their ectoparasites to a mangrove area of the State of Pernambuco. The bats were captured for seven consecutive months in four mangrove areas. Sampling occurred for 12 consecutive hours each night collection where mist-nets were used. Eighty-three bats of 14 species were captured. Of these, only 53 Phyllostomidae family bats found themselves parasited. We identified seven species of flies of the family Streblidae parasitizing bats. The diversity of bats is H’ = 2.19 for all areas sampled and the prevalence of streblid ranged from 8.3 to 66,6. The mean intensity ranged from one and five. It is reported for the first time the occurrence of Lophostoma brasiliense to the mangrove ecosystem, besides two species of streblid to Pernambuco.
Full Text Available A new species of Strebla Wiedemann, S. carvalhoi sp. nov., collected, on Anoura caudifer (E. Geoffroy, 1818 from Southern of Brazil, is described. Drawings of the postvertex, occipital plates, gonopods and tergite VII are provided.
de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Gomes, Luiz Antonio Costa; Owen, Robert D
We evaluated morphometric variation of the mite Periglischrus torrealbai (Spinturnicidae) on three species of host bats: Phyllostomus discolor, P. hastatus, and Tonatia bidens (Phyllostomidae). A total of 67 females and 74 males of P. torrealbai were collected from 41 host individuals of these three bat species that were sampled in Brazil, Paraguay, and Peru. Twenty-one measurements from the dorsal side and 28 from the ventral side were recorded from female mites and 21 dorsal and 34 ventral measurements were taken from males. To evaluate morphological variation of P. torrealbai on different species of host bats, principal component analysis and unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages cluster analysis with Euclidean distances were used. Both analyses showed three groups of mites clearly separated: group 1 comprised all ectoparasites collected from T. bidens, group 2 included all mites from P. hastatus, and group 3 had all those from P. discolor. This result indicates that P. torrealbai varies morphologically by host bat species and suggests that this nominal species comprises three morphologically distinct species. In the present study, we record for the first time, the association between P. torrealbai and T. bidens. Our data reinforce the high relationship of specificity between Periglischrus mites and phyllostomid bat species.
Integration of molecular cytogenetics, dated molecular phylogeny, and model-based predictions to understand the extreme chromosome reorganization in the Neotropical genus Tonatia (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).
Sotero-Caio, Cibele G; Volleth, Marianne; Hoffmann, Federico G; Scott, LuAnn; Wichman, Holly A; Yang, Fengtang; Baker, Robert J
Defining factors that contributed to the fixation of a high number of underdominant chromosomal rearrangements is a complex task because not only molecular mechanisms must be considered, but also the uniqueness of natural history attributes of each taxon. Ideally, detailed investigation of the chromosome architecture of an organism and related groups, placed within a phylogenetic context, is required. We used multiple approaches to investigate the dynamics of chromosomal evolution in lineages of bats with considerable karyotypic variation, focusing on the different facets contributing to fixation of the exceptional chromosomal changes in Tonatia saurophila. Integration of empirical data with proposed models of chromosome evolution was performed to understand the probable conditions for Tonatia's karyotypic evolution. The trajectory of reorganization of chromosome blocks since the common ancestor of Glossophaginae and Phyllostominae subfamilies suggests that multiple tandem fusions, as well as disruption and fusions of conserved phyllostomid chromosomes were major drivers of karyotypic reshuffling in Tonatia. Considerable variation in the rates of chromosomal evolution between phyllostomid lineages was observed. Thirty-nine unique fusions and fission events reached fixation in Tonatia over a short period of time, followed by ~12 million years of chromosomal stasis. Physical mapping of repetitive DNA revealed an unusual accumulation of LINE-1 sequences on centromeric regions, probably associated with the chromosomal dynamics of this genus. Multiple rearrangements have reached fixation in a wave-like fashion in phyllostomid bats. Different biological features of Tonatia support distinct models of rearrangement fixation, and it is unlikely that the fixations were a result of solely stochastic processes in small ancient populations. Increased recombination rates were probably facilitated by expansion of repetitive DNA, reinforced by aspects of taxon reproduction and ecology.
Moras, Ligiane Martins; Bernardi, Leopoldo Ferreira de Oliveira; Graciolli, Gustavo; Gregorin, Renato
A total of 71 bat flies belonging to families Nycteribiidae and Streblidae, and 37 mites were collected on 12 species of bats (Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae) from the Chapada do Abanador (Minas Gerais, Brazil), between July 2009 and April 2010. Two new occurrences of ectoparasites were recorded on Histiotus velatus (bat fly Basilia producta) and on Carollia perspicillata (mite Parichoronyssus bakeri). Five new occurrences were recorded for the state of Minas Gerais, increasing the range for bat flies Anatrichobius passosi, Paraeuctenodes similis, Basilia juquiensis, Basilia producta and for mite Periglischrus vargasi. Moreover, two new species of mites were recorded for Brazil (P. bakeri and Macronyssus aff. leislerianus). With regard to infracommunities, the most frequent association was between Anastrebla modestini and Exastinion clovisi on bat Anoura geoffroyi. This study contributed to characterize the fauna of bat ectoparasites in representative but poorly-sampled environments of the Atlantic Forest, the campos de altitude (high altitude grasslands) and cloud forests of southern Minas Gerais.
Full Text Available The Brandt’s Bat (Myotis brandtii Eversmann, 1845 is one of the rarest bat species in Ukraine. There are only a few known locations of this species in summer and less known hibernacula in the whole country. Moreover, for territory of the north-eastern Ukraine are known only two underground bat hibernation sites with aggregation more than several tens of individuals. We undertook population surveys of winter aggregations in newly discovered and dug up abandoned sandstone mines in the Chuguev district of the Kharkiv Region (49°54′ N, 36°43′ E from 2007 through 2015. We also surveyed summer bat assemblages in the forests surrounding these mines in 2012. The mines’ microclimate conditions were as follows: temperature +6 °C - +10 °C and humidity 60-80 %. M. brandtii, M. daubentonii (Kuhl, 1817 and Plecotus auritus (Linnaeus, 1758 hibernate in the mines; the first species is most abundant by number of individuals. In midsummer 9 bat species were recorded including the three previously mentioned. M. daubentonii and P. auritus breed in surrounding forest, but M. brandtii does not. One recaptured individual of M. brandtii was minimum 6 years old, providing us the first recorded information on longevity of this species for Ukraine. The total number of bats hibernating in these mines is estimated to be up to 100 individuals; a hibernaculum with several tens of M. brandtii could be classified as more numerous for this species in Ukraine. For this reason, the system of mines in the Kharkiv region needs species protection status and an action plan for monitoring and management.
Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquín; Gardner, Alfred; Sigé, Bernard; Catzeflis, Francois; McCarthy, Timothy J.
Gervais, in 1856, described the bats collected during Castelnau’s expedition through South America (1843–1847). We report that Phyllostoma angusticeps (Gervais, 1856), long treated as a junior synonym of Phyllostomus discolor(Wagner, 1843), is not a representative of the genus Phyllostomus. In fact, as we demonstrate, it represents the taxon known as Trachops cirrhosus. We also provide a summary, in tabular form, of the genera and species first described by Gervais (1856).
Full Text Available In August 2013, an adult male Kerivoula krauensis was captured in a harp trap set in forest understorey in Bala Forest, Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary, Narathiwat Province, Thailand. This is only the second locality recorded for the species, the first outside Malaysia, and represents a range extension of 254 km, northwards from Krau Wildlife Reserve, Malaysia. This discovery has important conservation implications suggesting that the species is more widespread than previously thought but also confirms previous findings that it appears to live in very low population densities as compared to other Kerivoula found in the same habitat. Information on its taxonomy, echolocation call, distribution and ecology is included. In addition, the new material from Thailand is briefly compared to other known species from the country
Full Text Available We provide the echolocation call characteristics of two endemic Hipposiderid bats, the Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros hypophyllus and Durga Das’s Leaf-nosed Bat H. durgadasi from Kolar district, Karnataka, India for the first time. The calls consisted of a constant frequency (CF component followed by a frequency modulated (FM tail. It was found that, on comparison with the call frequencies of other members of the bicolor group of the genus Hipposideros previously reported from different parts of southeast Asia, H. durgadasi, though larger than H. cineraceus, called at a much higher frequency (168.4 – 175.7 kHz. H. hypophyllus, on the other hand, called between 103.0 – 106.4 kHz. In this paper we present our findings and analysis of the calls of these endemic species.
M. Fernanda López Berrizbeitia
Full Text Available The mammalian and flea fauna of La Rioja Province is one of the least known from northwestern Argentina. In this study, the distribution and nomenclature of 13 species of fleas of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province are updated. Four species of fleas are recorded for the first time in La Rioja Province including a new record for northwestern Argentina, and two new flea-host associations. An identification key and distribution map are included for all known species of Siphonaptera of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province, Argentina.
Full Text Available Otomops wroughtoni is an extremely rare molossid bat, known so far by a single breeding colony in southwestern India and two single individuals recorded in Meghalaya and Cambodia. We report here the discovery of three new roosts located in large karstic caves of the Jaintia Hills, in southeastern Meghalaya. Visual counts indicate that at least 90 individuals occupied these new roosts in February 2014, which doubles the known world population of this species. The new populations of Wroughton’s Free-tailed Bats from the Jaintia Hills have considerable value for the conservation of this elusive species. Although these bats are protected under national laws, their cave roosts and hunting habitats are subjected to severe and ongoing degradation. A protection plan that would include more extensive surveys and a strict conservation of these caves should be implemented rapidly to mitigate these threats.
Full Text Available Los murciélagos constituyen el grupo de mamíferos más diversificado en la región neotropical y representan un componente clave en la dinámica de muchos ecosistemas terrestres. En este trabajo se describen los resultados de un estudio sobre la quiropterofauna del Parque Nacional Yurubí (ubicado en la zona montañosa del norte de Venezuela, se incluye un listado taxonómico y la caracterización de algunos atributos comunitarios en ambientes predominantemente boscosos. Los datos evaluados fueron obtenidos mediante la revisión de colecciones zoológicas y muestreos diversificados realizados entre febrero y julio del 2009, en un gradiente altitudinal (100-1 500m, que integra a tres unidades ecológicas: bosque semideciduo, bosque siempreverde y selva nublada. Se registraron 64 especies agrupadas en cinco familias, lo que constituye el 63% de los murciélagos conocidos en la Cordillera de la Costa. La familia Phyllostomidae fue dominante (42 especies; 66% del total, seguida por Vespertilionidae, Molossidae, Emballonuridae y Mormoopidae. La comunidad presente a baja elevación fue la más diversificada en términos taxonómicos, mientras que la del piso superior evidenció el menor grado de diversificación. Se identificaron 11 categorías tróficas, con dominancia de los insectívoros en cuanto a la riqueza taxonómica y de los frugívoros en lo que respecta a la abundancia. Nuestros resultados permiten inferir, en un contexto general, que los ecosistemas boscosos del área de estudio muestran un buen estado de conservación, en virtud de la presencia de una proporción relativamente alta de especies pertenecientes a la subfamilia Phyllostominae, cuyos componentes han sido considerados por otros autores como indicadores del grado de conservación de hábitats boscosos primarios, así como la presencia de otras especies con prioridades de conservación. Todos estos aspectos, le confieren a esta área protegida un alto valor proteccionista, en virtud de su importancia como reservorio de la diversidad biológica que tipifica los ecosistemas boscosos de la Cordillera de la Costa, una bio-región altamente amenazada como consecuencia de un elevado crecimiento socio-económico.
Full Text Available Micronycteris is divided into four subgenera, Micronycteris, Leuconycteris, Xenoctenes, and Schizonycteris. The latter includes Micronycteris (Schizonycteris minuta, Micronycteris (S. schmidtorum, Micronycteris (S. sanborni and Micronycteris (S. yatesi. Little is known of the biology of M. (S. sanborni, which is widely distributed in the dry forests of South America, but is known from only few sites. The scarcity of records of M. sanborni appears to be at least partly related to the difficulty of differentiating this species from the other members of the subgenus Schizonycteris. The present study identifies the key traits that distinguish this species from other Schizonycteris, reviews the geographic distribution of the species, and presents some notes on breeding patterns. Six new localities are presented for M. sanborni, and are analyzed together with those available in the literature, providing new insights into ecological and zoogeographic patterns. A number of the diagnostic features established by Simmons (1996 in the description of M. sanborni proved to have little taxonomic value, especially for the differentiation of M. minuta and M. yatesi, which it closely resembles. The primary external difference is the pure white color of the ventral pelage and the proportion of the white base (2/3-4/5 of the dorsal hair in M. sanborni, in contrast with dirty white or pale gray and a much shorter white base of the dorsal hair in the other species. A number of cranial traits are also important. The distributional data now indicate that M. sanborni occurs mainly in mesic and open areas, including disturbed habitats, in the Caatinga scrublands and the Cerrado savannas of northeastern Brazil, especially in areas with rocky outcrops. Micronycteris sanborni appears to be monoestrous, with births coinciding with the rainy season.
Beguelini, Mateus R.; Góes, Rejane M.; Rahal, Paula; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R.
Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression within the same annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Studies have demonstrated that its epididymis has an elongation of the caudal portion, which stores spermatozoa during the period of testicular regression in July, but that they had no sperm during the regression in November. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the total testicular regression in the epididymal morphophysiology and patterns of its hormonal regulation. The results demonstrate a continuous activity of the epididymis from the Active to the Regressing periods; a morphofunctional regression of the epididymis in the Regressed period; and a slow recrudescence process. Thus, we concluded that the processes of total testicular regression and posterior recrudescence suffered by M. nigricans also impact the physiology of the epididymis, but with a delay in epididymal response. Epididymal physiology is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, through the production and secretion of testosterone by the testes, its conduction to the epididymis (mainly through luminal fluid), conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by the 5α-reductase enzyme (mainly in epithelial cells) and to estrogen by aromatase; and through the activation/deactivation of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor α in epithelial cells, which regulate the epithelial cell morphophysiology, prevents cell death and regulates their protein expression and secretion, which ensures the maturation and storage of the spermatozoa. PMID:26057377
Soisook, Pipat; Sribuarod, Kriangsak; Karapan, Sunate; Safoowong, Mongkol; Billasoy, Sawwalak; Thong, Vu Dinh; Chang, Yang; Gong, Lixin; Lin, Aiqing; Sztencel-Jabłonka, Anna; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław; Bates, Paul J J
The Great evening bat Ia io Thomas, 1902, previously considered as an endemic to the Indochinese subregion, is reported from the Sundaic subregion for the first time based on specimens collected from three localities in Surat Thani Province and Phang Nga Province, peninsular Thailand. It is described herein as a new subspecies based on its substantially larger body and skull size. The mitochondrial COI and cytochrome b genes reveal that the new subspecies has a genetic distance of 1.89% and 1.65%, respectively, from the nominate subspecies. Echolocation calls comprise four harmonics, with the maximum energy in the first harmonic (fmaxe) of 23.6-27.4 kHz. Notes on the population size as well as roosting and foraging behaviour are also provided.
A new species of Parichoronyssus (Acari: Dermanyssoidea: Macronyssidae) from bats of the genus Phyllostomus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Peru and Venezuela, with keys to the species of Parichoronyssus.
Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Guerrero, Ricardo
Parichoronyssus bakeri new species was found on two phyllostomid bats species, the greater spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas), and the lesser spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus elongatus (E. Geoffroy), in Pakitza, National Park Manu, Madre de Dios, Peru, including additional material examined from Venezuela. The female, male, deutonymph, and protonymph are described and illustrated. A key to the seven species of Parichoronyssus is provided.
Silva Luzia H Queiroz da
Full Text Available Descreve-se o isolamento e a identificação do vírus rábico em morcegos insetívoros Molossus ater, no Estado de São Paulo, nos municípios de Araçatuba, Penápolis e São José do Rio Preto. A maioria dos exemplares foi capturada ainda com vida, não havendo, porém, contato com pessoas ou animais. O diagnóstico foi realizado pelas provas de imunofluorescência direta e inoculação intracerebral em camundongos.
Crasso Paulo Bosco Breviglieri
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n1p147 Em todo o mundo há descrição de casos nos quais morcegos são encontrados mortos devido a ações humanas. Os principais registros estão relacionados à influência de cercas de arame farpado, redes elétricas, pesticidas e turbinas eólicas. No Brasil, esses dados são pouco explorados e merecem mais atenção dos pesquisadores e agências governamentais. Esta nota tem o objetivo de descrever dois registros de morcegos (Molossus molossus e Molossus rufus encontrados mortos em cercas de arame farpado, no noroeste do estado de São Paulo. Além disso, discute brevemente a possível relação entre esse tipo de acidente e a proximidade de cercas de arame farpado de áreas de forrageio ou de abrigos dessas espécies.
Luzia H Queiroz da Silva
Full Text Available Descreve-se o isolamento e a identificação do vírus rábico em morcegos insetívoros Molossus ater, no Estado de São Paulo, nos municípios de Araçatuba, Penápolis e São José do Rio Preto. A maioria dos exemplares foi capturada ainda com vida, não havendo, porém, contato com pessoas ou animais. O diagnóstico foi realizado pelas provas de imunofluorescência direta e inoculação intracerebral em camundongos.
Crasso Paulo Bosco Breviglieri
Full Text Available Worldwide, there are descriptions of cases in which bats are found dead due to human actions. The main records are related to the influence of barbed-wire fences, electrical nets, pesticides, and wind turbines. In Brazil, these data are poorly explored and deserve more attention from researchers and government agencies. This note aims to describe two records of bats (Molossus molossus and Molossus rufus found dead in barbed-wire fences, in the northwestern São Paulo state, Brazil. Furthermore, it briefly discusses the possible relation between this kind of accident and closeness of barbed-wire fences to foraging or shelter areas for these species.
Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from the southern African subregion. M. van der Merwe and I.L. Rautenbach. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria and Transvaal Museum, Pretoria. Nycticeius schlieffenii is a monestrous species that ...
White-toothed shrew. *. *. *. Crocidura bottegi. Bottego's shrew. *. CHIROPTERA. Pteropodidae. Nanonycteris veldkampi. Veldkamp's dwarf bat. *. Rhinolophidae. Hippodideros commersoni. Commerson's leaf-nosed bat. *. RODENTIA. Muridae. Lemniscomys striatus. Zebra mouse. *. Lemniscomys barbarus. Zebra mouse.
Aspectos da história natural de Mimon bennettii (Gray na Escarpa Devoniana, Estado do Paraná, Brasil (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Notes on the natural history of Mimon bennettii (Gray in the Devonian Scarp, State of Paraná, Brazil (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae
João M. D. Miranda
Full Text Available A despeito de sua ampla distribuição, Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838 é uma espécie pouco conhecida. Cinco indivíduos foram capturados com redes de neblina no Distrito do Bugre (25º29'52"S, 49º39'24"W e quatro no Distrito de São Luiz do Purunã (25º28'18"S, 49º42'53"W ambos no Município de Balsa Nova, Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. As áreas encontram-se nos domínios da Floresta Ombrófila Mista, e na região da Escarpa Devoniana. Além do registro de dois novos pontos de ocorrência de uma espécie pouco amostrada no Estado, este trabalho também apresenta alguns dados sobre a biologia reprodutiva e utilização de abrigo diurno por M. bennettii.Despite its broad geographical distribution, Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838 is a poorly studied species. Five individuals were captured using mist nets in the District of Bugre (25º29'52"S, 49º39'24"W and four in the District of São Luiz do Purunã (25º28'18"S, 49º42'53"W, both in the Municipality of Balsa Nova, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. These areas are located within the domain of the Araucaria Pine Forest, in the region of the Devonian Scarp. In addition to the record of two new points of occurrence of this poorly know species in the State of Paraná, this study also reports on data on reproductive biology and use of daily roost by M. bennettii.
Padrão de atividade e comportamento de forrageamento do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Activity pattern and foraging behavior of bulldog-bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae in Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State, Brazil
Marcelo O. Bordignon
Full Text Available Entre 18 de janeiro a 16 de dezembro de 1999 foi estudado o comportamento de forrageamento e o padrão de atividade do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, em uma área de manguezal na Baía de Guaratuba, Sul do Brasil. Os grupos de N. leporinus observados permaneceram em atividade ao longo de todo o período noturno, mas com um aparente padrão bimodal. Durante os meses de abril a setembro, N. leporinus inicia a sua atividade geralmente às 18:00 h, uma hora mais cedo do que durante os meses de outubro a março, quando inicia sua atividade geralmente às 19:00 h. O comportamento de predação sobre os cardumes de peixes mostrou variações quanto ao local de forrageamento ao longo do período de atividade. Em baixos níveis de maré, os grupos de morcegos pescaram longe da margem em águas mais profundas, mas nos níveis de maré alta os grupos de morcegos permaneceram pescando sempre junto à margem, em águas mais rasas. Este padrão de comportamento em N. leporinus parece ser determinado pelo padrão de deslocamento dos cardumes de peixes na área de estudo.From January 18 to December 16 of 1999 the foraging behavior and activity pattern of fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied in mangrove ecosystem of Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil. The groups of N. leporinus observed remained active during all nightly period but showed an apparent bimodal pattern. During April and September N. leporinus generally begin their activity at 18:00h, one hour earlier than October to March months, when their activity started at 19:00 h. The foraging behavior on fish shoal varied spatially along all the activity period. During low tide level the bat groups remained fishing distant from margin on deeper water, but during high tide level the bats were always observed fishing close to the margin on flat water. This pattern in foraging behavior of N. leporinus appears to be determined by the fish shoal displacement pattern in Guaratuba Bay.
Ocorrência de moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae e Nycteribiidae de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera no cerrado de Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil Records of batflies (Diptera, Streblidae and Nycteribiidae on bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera from the cerrado of Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil
Full Text Available Two species of Basilia Miranda Ribeiro, 1903 (Nycteribiidae and eigth species of Streblidae were collected from Brasília. Basilia anceps Guimarães & D' Andretta, 1956; B. hughscotti Guimarães & D' Andretta, 1956; Megistopoda aranea (Coquillet, 1899; M. proxima (Séguy, 1926 and Neotrichobius delicatus (Machado-Allison, 1966 are collected for the first time at the Federal District.
First record on the use of leaves of Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae and fruits of Emmotum nitens (Icacinacea by Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the Brazilian Cerrado Primeiro registro do uso de folhas de Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae e de frutos de Emmotum nitens (Icacinacea por Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no Cerrado brasileiro
Ludmilla M. de S. Aguiar
Full Text Available During May, June and July of 2004, the feeding habits of Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 were investigated. Each morning food remains (dry oral pellets, seeds, feces and partly eaten foods were collected in two day roosts sites located inside the main building at Embrapa Cerrados. Fruits of Emmotum nitens (Benth. Miers (1852 and leaves of Solanum lycocarpum S. Hil. (1833 were items consumed by P. lineatus. Independent of plant and bat distribution area, the use of Solanum leaves by P. lineatus appears to be common.Durante os meses de maio, junho e julho de 2004, os hábitos alimentares de Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 foram investigados. Toda manhã os restos alimentares (pelotas de matéria seca, sementes, fezes e itens parcialmente comidos foram coletados em dois abrigos diurnos localizados dentro das dependências da Embrapa Cerrados. Além de frutos de Emmotum nitens (Benth. Miers (1852, folhas de Solanum lycocarpum S. Hil. (1833 foram consumidas por P. lineatus. Independentemente da área de distribuição, da planta ou do morcego, o uso de folhas de espécies do gênero Solanum por P. lineatus parece ser comum.
Composição de colônia e reprodução de Molossus rufus (E. Geoffroy (Chiroptera, Molossidae em um refúgio no sudeste do Brasil Composition of colony and reproduction of Molossus rufus (E. Geoffroy (Chiroptera, Molossidae in roost at Southeastern Brazil
Full Text Available In this study carried out in the Biological Reserve of Poço das Antas, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil, a roost of Molossus rufus (E. Geoffroy, 1805 was sampled one night per month, from November 2000 to October, 2001. The colonies in this species can exceed more than five hundreds, being present both sexes. The total number of animals captured was higher in the spring and declined in the autumn and winter. Between April to July the proportion of males overcome the females, while in other months the females prevailed. Molossus rufus have seasonal reproduction. Females arrived by July and the number increases until November. Few animals remained in this roost during colder months. Such fact suggests that females and great part of the males leave this roof after the end of the reproduction. Pregnant females were captured between September, October, November and February. Lactating females were observed in August, October, November, December and February. Active males were observed in all months, being overcome by males with abdominal testes only in July.
Phylogenetic reconstruction by cross-species chromosome painting and G-banding in four species of Phyllostomini tribe (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the Brazilian Amazon: an independent evidence for monophyly.
Talita Fernanda Augusto Ribas
Full Text Available The subfamily Phyllostominae comprises taxa with a variety of feeding strategies. From the cytogenetic point of view, Phyllostominae shows different rates of chromosomal evolution between genera, with Phyllostomus hastatus probably retaining the ancestral karyotype for the subfamily. Since chromosomal rearrangements occur rarely in the genome and have great value as phylogenetic markers and in taxonomic characterization, we analyzed three species: Lophostoma silvicola (LSI, Phyllostomus discolor (PDI and Tonatia saurophila (TSA, representing the tribe Phyllostomini, collected in the Amazon region, by classic and molecular cytogenetic techniques in order to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships within this tribe. LSA has a karyotype of 2n=34 and FN=60, PDI has 2n=32 and FN=60 and TSA has 2n=16 and FN=20. Comparative analysis using G-banding and chromosome painting show that the karyotypic complement of TSA is highly rearranged relative to LSI and PHA, while LSI, PHA and PDI have similar karyotypes, differing by only three chromosome pairs. Nearly all chromosomes of PDI and PHA were conserved in toto, except for chromosome 15 that was changed by a pericentric inversion. A strongly supported phylogeny (bootstrap=100 and Bremer=10 steps, confirms the monophyly of Phyllostomini. In agreement with molecular topologies, TSA was in the basal position, while PHA and LSI formed sister taxa. A few ancestral syntenies are conserved without rearrangements and most associations are autapomorphic traits for Tonatia or plesiomorphic for the three genera analyzed here. The karyotype of TSA is highly derived in relation to that of other phyllostomid bats, differing from the supposed ancestral karyotype of Phyllostomidae by multiple rearrangements. Phylogenies based on chromosomal data are independent evidence for the monophyly of tribe Phyllostomini as determined by molecular topologies and provide additional support for the paraphyly of the genus Tonatia by the exclusion of the genus Lophostoma.
Full Text Available Este estudo sintetiza o conhecimento atual sobre a riqueza e distribuição das espécies de morcegos ocorrentes no Estado do Paraná, Brazil, bem como, determina áreas prioritárias para novos inventários. Os dados analisados foram obtidos da coleção do Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia - MHNCI (em Curitiba e de um extenso levantamento bibliográfico. Foram registradas 53 espécies de cinco famílias: Phyllostomidae apresentou a maior riqueza de espécies (25; 47% do total, seguida por Molossidae (13; 24%, Vespertilionidae (12; 22%, Noctilionidae (2; 4% e Emballonuridae (1; 2,5%. Os resultados indicaram a ocorrência de apenas 55% das espécies do Bioma Floresta Atlântica e o predomínio relativo de vespertilionídeos e molossídeos sobre os filostomídeos. Estes resultados revelam uma fauna empobrecida em número de espécies e ressaltam o caráter subtropical da região ocupada pelo Paraná. A distribuição das espécies não se mostra homogênea, ocorrendo diferenças significativas entre as composições de espécies nas três principais formações florestais do Estado. A Floresta Estacional Semidecidual destaca-se pela maior riqueza de espécies (39; 74% e o maior número de exclusivas (10. Em seguida esta a Floresta Ombrófila Mista ou Floresta com Araucária (36; 68% sendo seis exclusivas e, por fim, a Floresta Ombrófila Densa (= Floresta Atlântica s.s. com 33 espécies (62% e somente três exclusivas. O grau de conhecimento foi estimado a partir do Método dos Quadrantes em um gradil de 30' latitude x 30' de longitude, obtendo-se 93 quadrículas. Desse total, 53% (49 quadrículas não apresentaram nenhuma ocorrência de morcegos e a média de espécies por quadrícula foi de 3,4, riqueza muito abaixo da considerada como satisfatória para o Estado, que é de 24 espécies. Somente três quadrículas ultrapassaram e estimativa satisfatória: duas na região leste (Curitiba e uma ao norte (Londrina. Aproximadamente 2/3 do território paranaense foi considerado como insuficientemente conhecido e classificado como "áreas de altíssima prioridade" para novos levantamentos, por apresentar uma fauna inferior a 11 espécies.This study is a summary of the present knowledge on the existence and distribution of the bat species occurring in the State of Paraná, Brazil, identifying areas for additional surveys. The analysed data was obtained from the collection belonging to the Capão da Imbuia Natural History Museum (Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia, MHNCI in Curitiba, and from a bibliographical update. Fifty-three species in 5 families were identified the Phyllostomidae present the highest abundance of species (25; 47% in total followed by the Molossidae (13; 24%, Vespertilionidae (12; 23%, Noctilionidae (2; 4%, and Emballonuridae (1; 2%. The results indicate that only 55% of the species belong to the Biome of the Atlantic Forest and that there is a relative predominance of vespertilionids and molossids over phyllostomids. These results reveal an impoverished fauna confirming the subtropical character of the Paraná region. The distribution of the species is irregular. Significant differences occur between the species compositions in the three principal forest formations of Paraná. The Semideciduous seazonal Forest contains the highest abundance (39; 74% and the highest number of exclusive species (10. It is followed by the Mixed Ombrophylous Forest or Araucaria Forest (36; 68%, with 6 exclusive species, and finally by the Dense Ombrophylous Forest (= Atlantic Forest sensu stricto with 33 species (62% of which only 3 are exclusive. The degree of knowledge was estimated with the Method of Squares. The area was subdivided using a grid drawn at intervals of 30' longitude and 30' latitude, forming 93 small squares. Of these, 53% (49 small squares do not contain any bats and the average per square is 3.4 species, much less than the 24 species that would be considered satisfactory for Paraná. Only three small squares reach this amount: two surveys done in the eastern (Curitiba
Streblidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea sobre morcegos filostomídeos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae em cavernas do Distrito Federal Brasil Streblid batflies (Diptera, Streblidae on phyllostomid bats from eaves in Distrito Federal Brazil
Full Text Available A survey of streblid batflies on phyllostomid bats was carried out from caves in Distrito Federal, Brazil during 1997 and 1998. Thirteen species were found on eight species of bats. Two species of batflies, Trichobius lonchophyllae Wenzel, 1966 and T. propinquus Wenzel, 1976, are new records for Brazil.
Phylogenetic reconstruction by cross-species chromosome painting and G-banding in four species of Phyllostomini tribe (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in the Brazilian Amazon: an independent evidence for monophyly.
Ribas, Talita Fernanda Augusto; Rodrigues, Luis Reginaldo Ribeiro; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Gomes, Anderson José Baia; Rissino, Jorge das Dores; O'Brien, Patricia Caroline Mary; Yang, Fengtang; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm Andrew; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar
The subfamily Phyllostominae comprises taxa with a variety of feeding strategies. From the cytogenetic point of view, Phyllostominae shows different rates of chromosomal evolution between genera, with Phyllostomus hastatus probably retaining the ancestral karyotype for the subfamily. Since chromosomal rearrangements occur rarely in the genome and have great value as phylogenetic markers and in taxonomic characterization, we analyzed three species: Lophostoma silvicola (LSI), Phyllostomus discolor (PDI) and Tonatia saurophila (TSA), representing the tribe Phyllostomini, collected in the Amazon region, by classic and molecular cytogenetic techniques in order to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships within this tribe. LSA has a karyotype of 2n=34 and FN=60, PDI has 2n=32 and FN=60 and TSA has 2n=16 and FN=20. Comparative analysis using G-banding and chromosome painting show that the karyotypic complement of TSA is highly rearranged relative to LSI and PHA, while LSI, PHA and PDI have similar karyotypes, differing by only three chromosome pairs. Nearly all chromosomes of PDI and PHA were conserved in toto, except for chromosome 15 that was changed by a pericentric inversion. A strongly supported phylogeny (bootstrap=100 and Bremer=10 steps), confirms the monophyly of Phyllostomini. In agreement with molecular topologies, TSA was in the basal position, while PHA and LSI formed sister taxa. A few ancestral syntenies are conserved without rearrangements and most associations are autapomorphic traits for Tonatia or plesiomorphic for the three genera analyzed here. The karyotype of TSA is highly derived in relation to that of other phyllostomid bats, differing from the supposed ancestral karyotype of Phyllostomidae by multiple rearrangements. Phylogenies based on chromosomal data are independent evidence for the monophyly of tribe Phyllostomini as determined by molecular topologies and provide additional support for the paraphyly of the genus Tonatia by the exclusion of the genus Lophostoma.
Geographical distribution of bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae and Streblidae), including two new records, Nycteribia allotopa and N. formosana, collected from bats (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae) in the Republic of Korea.
Kim, Heung Chul; Han, Sang Hoon; Dick, Carl W; Choi, Yong Gun; Chong, Sung Tae; Klein, Terry A; Rueda, Leopoldo M
As part of the 65(th) Medical Brigade, U.S. Army, arthropod-borne disease surveillance program and in collaboration with the Korea National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), bats were captured from caves and abandoned mines in the Republic of Korea. A total of 39 adult bat flies including five species of Nycteribiidae [Penicillidia jenynsii, Nycteribia parvula, N. formosana, N. allotopa mikado, and an unidentified species of Nycteribia (N. cf. formosana)], and one species of Streblidae, Brachytarsina kanoi, were collected from bats belonging to two families, Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae. This is the first report of N. allotopa mikado and N. formosana from the Republic of Korea. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.
Redescription of Periglischrus herrerai (Acari: Spinturnicidae) Associated to Desmodus rotundus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae), With a Description of Adult Female Heteromorphism and an Analysis of its Variability Throughout the Neotropics.
Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Aldana, Linda Y M; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique; Almazán-Marín, Cenia E; Ruiz-Piña, Hugo A; Cuxim-Koyoc, Alan; Aguilar-Setién, Álvaro; Colín-Martínez, Helisama; García-Estrada, Carlos; Ojeda, Margarita
A redescription, with a discussion of new features and illustrations, for all life stages is presented for the parasitic mite Periglischrus herrerai Machado-Allison associated with the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus (Geoffoy), including a description of the heteromorphic female and the first description of its female deutonymph. In addition, the morphological variation of P. herrerai is evaluated by morphometric analysis of the adults, concluding that there is an evident geographic variation throughout the neotropics. This study was possible by using type material of P. herrerai from the Machado-Allison collection, and voucher specimens from other collections, and specimens from an extensive surveying of hematophagous bats in some localities of the Pacific and Atlantic versants, and central Mexico.
Орлов, Максим; Лада, Георгий
Приводятся новые оригинальные сведения о видовом составе и распространении рукокрылых Тамбовской области, полученные в результате полевых исследований 2009–2010 гг. Указаны первые конкретные места находок ночницы Наттерера ( Myotis nattereri ), малой вечерницы ( Nyctalus leisleri ) и нетопыря-карлика ( Pipistrellus pipistrellus ) в регионе, а также новые точки обитания других видов....
Ludmilla M. S. Aguiar
Full Text Available We examined food habits of Vespertilionidae bats Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847 by fecal analysis in cerrado sensu stricto and gallery forests, within APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. Out of 20 fecal samples collected, seven were of Eptesicus furinalis and 13 of Myotis nigricans. The diet of E. furinalis included six orders of insects: Coleoptera (5/7 by items presence, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera (3/7, Diptera, Hemiptera and Homoptera (1/7. The diet of M. nigricans included all the main orders consumed by E. furinalis (6/13, 4/13, 4/13, 3/13, 1/13, and 4/13 respectively and one other order: Orthoptera (1/13. Homoptera, Diptera and Orthoptera were collected only in bats captured in gallery forest. There is 80% of overlap in the diet of these two species. Predation on species of Scarabeidae, Hesperiidae, Sphingidae and Saturniidae families confirms bats potential as biological control agents of pests in agricultural ecosystems.Foi examinado o hábito alimentar das espécies de Vespertilionidae Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 e Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847 por meio de análise de amostras fecais coletadas em animais capturados em área de cerrado sensu stricto e matas de galeria, na APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Um total de 20 amostras fecais foi analisado, sendo sete de E. furinalis e 13 de M. nigricans. A dieta de E. furinalis incluiu seis ordens de insetos: Coleoptera (5/7 (presença na amostra total, Lepidoptera e Hymenoptera (3/7, Diptera, Hemiptera e Homoptera (1/7. A dieta de M. nigricans incluiu todas as ordens consumidas por E. furinalis (6/13, 4/13, 4/13, 3/13, 1/13, and 4/13 respectively e uma ordem a mais: Orthoptera (1/13. Homoptera, Diptera e Orthoptera só foram amostrados para morcegos capturados em mata de galeria. Há 80% de sobreposição na dieta destas duas espécies. A predação sobre espécies das famílias Scarabeidae, Hesperiidae, Sphingidae e Saturniidae confirma o potencial dos morcegos como agentes de controle biológicos de pragas em ecossistemas agrícolas.
Helminth (Cestoda, Nematoda) and coccidian (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) parasites of the eastern small-footed myotis, Myotis leibii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from Arkansas, with a description of a new species of Eimeria.
McAllister, Chris T; Seville, R Scott; Bursey, Charles R
During May and July 2016, 32 eastern small-footed myotis (Myotis leibii) were collected from five counties of northwestern Arkansas and their faeces examined for coccidian parasites. Four of 32 (13%) M. leibii harboured an eimerian that we describe here as new. Oocysts of Eimeria sassei sp. n. were ovoidal to ellipsoidal with a bi-layered wall and measured (length × width, L × W) 18.3 × 15.2 µm, with an L/W ratio of 1.2. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but 1-2 polar granules were present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 9.6 × 6.3 µm, with an L/W ratio of 1.5. A pronounced, button-like Stieda body was present but substieda and parastieda bodies were absent. A sporocyst residuum was present as distinct aligned or dispersed granules. One bat that we found dead was examined for helminth parasites. It harbored the tapeworm, Vampirolepis sp. and a nematode, Seuratum cancellatum. This is the first coccidian as well as the second helminths reported from M. leibii. In addition, this is the seventh species of coccidian parasite documented from Arkansas bats.
Full Text Available Molte specie di pipistrelli delle fasce climatiche temperato-fredde sono soggette a marcate variazioni stagionali di temperatura e disponibilità di cibo. L'accumulo di grasso in autunno è quindi un adattamento per trascorrere, in uno stato di profondo torpore definibile ibernazione, i mesi invernali, aumentando così la probabilità di sopravvivenza durante tale periodo. Nell?ambito di una attività pluriennale relativa alla raccolta, studio e, quando possibile, riabilitazione di pipistrelli in ambienti urbani, due esemplari di Pipistrellus kuhlii (2 femmine e due di Hypsugo savii (1 maschio e 1 femmina, in entrambi casi giovani che ancora non avevano acquisito una sufficiente capacità nel volo e quindi non liberabili, sono stati raccolti nella pianura di Firenze durante l?estate del 1998 e mantenuti in condizioni di temperatura ambientale oscillante tra i 17 e i 22°C, in un contenitore di 150x40x30 cm. Ogni sera sono stati pesati, prima della somministrazione di cibo e acqua, con una bilancia elettronica con precisione di 0.1 g (modello Tanita 1479. L'alimentazione è stata a base di vermi della farina (Tenebrio molitor. L?efficienza digestiva è calcolata nel seguente modo, su materiale disidratato: (quantità ingerita ? quantità escrementi/quantità ingerita*100. Per il calcolo di tale indice gli esemplari delle due specie sono stati separati e mantenuti per 24 ore a partire dalla successiva sera dell?ultima somministrazione, favorendo così lo svuotamento dell?intestino. Successivamente, per due giorni è stato fornito del cibo ad libitum, pesando i singoli esemplari una volta terminata la fase di alimentazione, per determinare la quantità ingerita. Al termine abbiamo mantenuto gli esemplari a digiuno per 24 ore successive all?ultima somministrazione per permettere lo svuotamento dell?intestino. Gli escrementi raccolti sono stati posti in forno elettrico a 90 °C per 24 ore e successivamente pesati. Un campione di 10 vermi della farina è stato soppresso e successivamente disidratato per 36 ore a 90 C° in forno determinandone così il contenuto in acqua. La comparazione dei dati relativi alla variazione del peso, benché il numero di campioni sia limitato, offre la possibilità di evidenziare alcune differenze tra le due specie: 1 l'andamento del peso nel periodo compreso tra lo svezzamento e l'incremento autunnale: in P. kuhlii, dopo un massimo nel peso raggiunto allo svezzamento, tende evidentemente a calare. In H. savii invece si è osservato un leggero incremento nel peso. 2 È evidente che l'inizio del processo di accumulo di grasso è molto più rapido in P. kuhlii che in H. savii. In quest'ultima specie il processo appare più graduale nel tempo. 3 In ambedue le specie osserviamo un leggero decremento del peso nel periodo successivo al momento in cui raggiungono il massimo peso per poi aumentare la velocità di decremento nel periodo terdo-invernale. 4 Il peso medio alla raccolta in P. kuhlii è di 2.6 g (1.9 - 3.3 il peso massimo medio di 11.7 g (11.5 - 12; il peso medio alla raccolta in H. savii è di 3.7 g (3.2 ? 4.2 il peso massimo medio di 10.3 g (11.4 ? 9.3. 5 Si evidenzia un ciclo circannuale. L?efficienza digestiva, valutata a 90.5% per H. savii e 89.7% per P. kuhlii, non evidenzia una differenza significativa tra le due specie e neppure durante le varie stagioni.
First record of the Diadem Leaf-Nosed Bat Hipposideros diadema (E. Geoffroy, 1813 (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae from the Andaman Islands, India with the possible occurrence of a hitherto unreported subspecies
Full Text Available The Diadem Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros diadema (E. Geoffroy, 1813 is recorded for the first time from the Andaman Islands, India. A solitary female specimen was collected on October 13, 2015 from a limestone cave on Baratang Island. Cranial measurements and other morphological characters indicate that the specimen differs from the endemic subspecies, the Nicobar Diadem Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros diadema nicobarensis (Dobson, 1871, but compares favourably with the South-east Asian subspecies, Mason’s Diadem Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros diadema masoni (Dobson, 1872, in description, craniodental characters, and echolocation calls. This is the first record of Hipposideros diadema (E. Geoffroy, 1813 from Andaman Islands, and the subspecies Mason’s Diadem Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros diadema masoni (Dobson, 1872 from India.
Altitudinal distribution of the common longeared bat Plecotus auritus (Linnaeus, 1758 and grey long-eared bat Plecotus austriacus (J. B. Fischer, 1829 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae in the Tatra mountains (southern Poland
Full Text Available Riassunto Distribuzione altitudinale di Orecchione bruno (Plecotus auritus e Orecchione meridionale (Plecotus austriacus nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale. Vengono riportati nuovi dati relativi alla distribuzione altitudinale nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale di Plecotus auritus e P. austriacus. Tali segnalazioni incrementano le conoscenze relative alla presenza di questi chirotteri a quote elevate, in particolare per la Polonia. In inverno P. auritus è stato rinvenuto a 1921 m s.l.m. mentre in estate è stato rinvenuto a 2250 m s.l.m.; in aggiunta, sono stati ritrovati resti ossei a 1929 m s.l.m. P. austriacus è stato segnalato in ibernazione a 1294 m s.l.m.
Luzia H Queiroz da Silva
Full Text Available Descreve-se o isolamento e a identificação do vírus rábico em morcegos insetívoros Molossus ater, no Estado de São Paulo, nos municípios de Araçatuba, Penápolis e São José do Rio Preto. A maioria dos exemplares foi capturada ainda com vida, não havendo, porém, contato com pessoas ou animais. O diagnóstico foi realizado pelas provas de imunofluorescência direta e inoculação intracerebral em camundongos.This is a report of rabies infection in insectivorous bat Molossus ater in the city districts of Araçatuba, Penápolis and São José do Rio Preto, in São Paulo state, Brazil. Fluorescent antibody test detected the virus in the brain and isolation was obtained by intracerebral inoculation of mice with nervous tissue and organs suspension. There was no contact with humans or other animals.
Eimeria peltocephali n. sp., (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae from the Freshwater Turtle Peltocephalus dumerilianus (Chelonia:Pelomusidae and Eimeria molossi n. sp., from the Bat, Molossus ater (Mammalia:Chiroptera
Full Text Available The oocyst is described of Eimeria peltocephali n.sp. from faeces of the freshwater turtle Peltocephalus dumerilianus from Barcelos, State of Amazonas, Brazil. Sporulation is exogenous and fully developed oocysts are elongate, ellipsoidal or cylindrical, frequently curved to a banana-shape, 54.4 x19.1 (37.5 - 68.7 x 18.7-20.0 µm, shape-index 2.8 (1.8 -3.9. The oocyst wall is a single thin, colourless layer about 1 µm thick, with no micropyle. There is a bulky oocyst residuum, at first spherical to ellipsoidal, 19 x 16 (16. 2 -26.2 x 16 - 21.5µm , but becoming dispersed on maturation. There are no polar bodies. The sporocysts, 19.1 x 6.8 ( 17.5 -21.2 x 6.2 -7.5 µm, shape- index 2.8 (2.3 -3.2, are usually disposed in pairs at each end of the oocyst, and bear an inconspicuous Stieda body in the form of a flat cap. The sporozoites are elongate and slightly curved around the residuum. No refractile bodies were seen. Eimeria molossi n.sp., is described from the molossid bat Molossus ater. Sporulation is exogenous and the mature oocysts are predominantly broadly ellipsoidal, 23.4 x 17.5 (18-30 x 15-22.5 µm, shape-index 1.3 (1-1.6. The oocyst wall is about 2 µm thick, and of three layers: an inner thin, colourless one and two outer layers which are thicker, yellowish-brown, prominently striated and in close apposition. There is no micropyle or oocyst residuum, but one and occasionally two polar bodies are usually present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 10.2 x 7.5 (10-12.5 x 7.5 µm, shape-index 1.4 (1.3-1.7 with an inconspicuous Stieda body. Endogenous stages are described in the epithelial cells of the small intestine
Small mammals were sampled in the Udzungwa Mountains National Park, Tanzania, during 1995 and 1996. Twenty-four species, representing 16 genera were recorded for three orders: Insectivora, Chiroptera and Rodentia. Identifications and natural history information are presented for this poorly known fauna from a ...
food), accidental (a species washed, fallen, or carried into caves and not part of the cave ecosystem). CECKLIST OF SPECIES KINGDOM PLANTAE DIVISION...MAMMALIA Order Chiroptera (bats) Undetermin~d material ’trogloxene) RCeords.--CORYELZ COUNTY: Egypt Cave; Shell Mountain Bat Cave. Order Carnivora Family
Zahradníková Jr., A.; Kováčová, V.; Martínková, Natália; Orlova, M. V.; Orlov, O. L.; Piaček, V.; Zukal, Jan; Pikula, J.
Roč. 65, č. 2 (2018), s. 303-308 ISSN 1865-1674 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-20286S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Chiroptera * ectoparasite * Eurasia * fungal infection * Russia * white-nose syndrome Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 3.585, year: 2016
The position of the testes close to the kidney represents the ontogenetically primary condition termed testicondy. Werdelin and Nilsonne (1999: 67) argued that 'the hypothesis that testicondy is primitive requires the independent evolution of a scrotum in at least four groups: Marsupialia, Rodentia,. Primates + Chiroptera and ...
Small mammals were sampled in Tarangire National Park between 1994 and 1996. Twenty-six species of small mammals, including four species of Soricomorpha, seven species of Chiroptera and 15 species of Rodentia were documented, with some records being the first for the park. Identifications and natural history data ...
Small mammals were sampled on Mount Malundwe in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania, during July 2004. Nine species, representing seven genera were recorded for three mammalian orders: Insectivora, Chiroptera and Rodentia. Species documented included those common in other montane areas of Tanzania as well as ...