WorldWideScience

Sample records for arthropods

  1. Arthropod (Insect) Bite or Sting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or Sting Information for adults A A A Insect (arthropod) bites are typically pink or red and ... round in shape. Overview Bites or stings from insects (arthropods) are very common. Most reactions are mild ...

  2. Arthropod use of invertebrate carrion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seastedt, T.R.; Mameli, L.; Gridley, K.

    1981-01-01

    Arthropods associated with cricket carcasses placed on top and within deciduous forest litter were collected for 12 months. Vespid wasps and ants quickly removed carcasses left on top of forest litter, but carcasses placed within litter persisted throughout the study. Major consumers of carcasses in litter varied seasonally; maggots dominated on fresh carcasses in summer, but fresh carcasses placed in litter in autumn were consumed by other arthropods. A gamasid mite, Hypoaspis (Laelaspis) johnieae, dominated the microarthropod fauna found on exoskeleton fragments. A method for collecting invertebrate carrion feeders and measuring carrion disappearance is presented. 15 references, 2 tables.

  3. Arthropod use of invertebrate carrion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seastedt, T.R.; Mameli, L.; Gridley, K.

    1980-08-01

    Arthropods associated with cricket carcasses placed on top and within deciduous forest litter were collected over a 12 month interval. Vespid wasps and ants quickly removed carcasses left on top of forest litter, but carcasses placed within litter persisted throughout the study. Major consumers of carcasses in litter varied seasonally; maggots dominated on fresh carcasses in summer, but fresh carcasses placed in litter in autumn were consumed by other arthropods. A gamasid mite, Hypoaspis (Laelaspis) johnieae dominated the microarthropod fauna found on exoskeleton fragments. A method for collecting invertebrate carrion feeders and measuring carrion disappearance is presented.

  4. Hedgerows and beneficial phytophagous arthropods

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, S; DEFRANCE, H.; RIEUX, R.; SAUPHANOR, B.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Organic Farming and Integrated Pest Management aim to favour and to rely on natural enemies for pest management. The ability of plant diversity to provide the orchard with natural enemies without any induced damage was studied: (1) in hedgerow lined orchards from different areas in order to assess the effect of hedgerows on the orchard arthropod community and (2) in experimental orchards, in order to test tree assemblages designed for the pear orchard, likely to supply the cro...

  5. Factors Influencing Arthropod Diversity on Green Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracha Y. Schindler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs have potential for providing substantial habitat to plants, birds, and arthropod species that are not well supported by other urban habitats. Whereas the plants on a typical green roof are chosen and planted by people, the arthropods that colonize it can serve as an indicator of the ability of this novel habitat to support a diverse community of organisms. The goal of this observational study was to determine which physical characteristics of a roof or characteristics of its vegetation correlate with arthropod diversity on the roof. We intensively sampled the number of insect families on one roof with pitfall traps and also measured the soil arthropod species richness on six green roofs in the Boston, MA area. We found that the number of arthropod species in soil, and arthropod families in pitfall traps, was positively correlated with living vegetation cover. The number of arthropod species was not significantly correlated with plant diversity, green roof size, distance from the ground, or distance to the nearest vegetated habitat from the roof. Our results suggest that vegetation cover may be more important than vegetation diversity for roof arthropod diversity, at least for the first few years after establishment. Additionally, we found that even green roofs that are small and isolated can support a community of arthropods that include important functional groups of the soil food web.

  6. Arthropod Diversity in a Tropical Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basset, Yves; Cizek, Lukas; Cuénoud, Philippe; Didham, Raphael K.; Guilhaumon, François; Missa, Olivier; Novotny, Vojtech; Ødegaard, Frode; Roslin, Tomas; Schmidl, Jürgen; Tishechkin, Alexey K.; Winchester, Neville N.; Roubik, David W.; Aberlenc, Henri-Pierre; Bail, Johannes; Barrios, Héctor; Bridle, Jon R.; Castaño-Meneses, Gabriela; Corbara, Bruno; Curletti, Gianfranco; Duarte da Rocha, Wesley; De Bakker, Domir; Delabie, Jacques H. C.; Dejean, Alain; Fagan, Laura L.; Floren, Andreas; Kitching, Roger L.; Medianero, Enrique; Miller, Scott E.; Gama de Oliveira, Evandro; Orivel, Jérôme; Pollet, Marc; Rapp, Mathieu; Ribeiro, Sérvio P.; Roisin, Yves; Schmidt, Jesper B.; Sørensen, Line; Leponce, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Most eukaryotic organisms are arthropods. Yet, their diversity in rich terrestrial ecosystems is still unknown. Here we produce tangible estimates of the total species richness of arthropods in a tropical rainforest. Using a comprehensive range of structured protocols, we sampled the phylogenetic......,000 arthropod species. Notably, just 1 hectare of rainforest yields >60% of the arthropod biodiversity held in the wider landscape. Models based on plant diversity fitted the accumulated species richness of both herbivore and nonherbivore taxa exceptionally well. This lends credence to global estimates of...

  7. Knowledge of Arthropod Carnivory and Herbivory: Factors Influencing Preservice Elementary Teacher's Attitudes and Beliefs toward Arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron; Wagler, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Human negativity toward arthropods has been well documented but the factors that contribute to this negativity have been elusive. This study explored knowledge of arthropod carnivory and herbivory as possible casual factors that contribute to the negative tendencies preservice elementary teachers have toward most arthropods. Specifically, this…

  8. Artificial diet development for entomophagous arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial diets promised an economical way to mass produce entomophagous arthropods for augmentative biological control. Many decades later this promise has not been fulfilled and most of the commercial mass production of entomophagous arthropods is being done in-vivo. Although many successful arti...

  9. Noninsect Arthropods in Popular Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R. Coelho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of noninsect arthropods in popular music was examined in order to explore human attitudes toward these species, especially as compared to insects. Crustaceans were the most commonly referenced taxonomic group in artist names, album titles and cover art, followed by spiders and scorpions. The surprising prevalence of crustaceans may be related to the palatability of many of the species. Spiders and scorpions were primarily used for shock value, as well as totemic qualities of strength and ferocity. Spiders were the most abundant group among song titles, perhaps because of their familiarity to the general public. Three noninsect arthropod album titles were found from the early 1970s, then none appear until 1990. Older albums are difficult to find unless they are quite popular, and the resurgence of albums coincides with the rise of the internet. After 1990, issuance of such albums increased approximately linearly. Giant and chimeric album covers were the most common of themes, indicating the use of these animals to inspire fear and surprise. The lyrics of select songs are presented to illustrate the diversity of sentiments present, from camp spookiness to edibility.

  10. Effects of invasive plants on arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Andrea R; Cord, Erin E; Fulbright, Timothy E; Schuster, Greta L

    2014-12-01

    Non-native plants have invaded nearly all ecosystems and represent a major component of global ecological change. Plant invasions frequently change the composition and structure of vegetation communities, which can alter animal communities and ecosystem processes. We reviewed 87 articles published in the peer-reviewed literature to evaluate responses of arthropod communities and functional groups to non-native invasive plants. Total abundance of arthropods decreased in 62% of studies and increased in 15%. Taxonomic richness decreased in 48% of studies and increased in 13%. Herbivorous arthropods decreased in response to plant invasions in 48% of studies and increased in 17%, likely due to direct effects of decreased plant diversity. Predaceous arthropods decreased in response to invasive plants in 44% of studies, which may reflect indirect effects due to reductions in prey. Twenty-two percent of studies documented increases in predators, which may reflect changes in vegetation structure that improved mobility, survival, or web-building for these species. Detritivores increased in 67% of studies, likely in response to increased litter and decaying vegetation; no studies documented decreased abundance in this functional group. Although many researchers have examined effects of plant invasions on arthropods, sizeable information gaps remain, specifically regarding how invasive plants influence habitat and dietary requirements. Beyond this, the ability to predict changes in arthropod populations and communities associated with plant invasions could be improved by adopting a more functional and mechanistic approach. Understanding responses of arthropods to invasive plants will critically inform conservation of virtually all biodiversity and ecological processes because so many organisms depend on arthropods as prey or for their functional roles, including pollination, seed dispersal, and decomposition. Given their short generation times and ability to respond rapidly to

  11. Arthropods (http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/online-version.asp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    arthropods@iaees.org

    Full Text Available Arthropods ISSN 2224-4255 URL: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/online-version.asp RSS: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml E-mail: arthropods@iaees.org Editor-in-Chief: WenJun Zhang Aims and Scope ARTHROPODS (ISSN 2224-4255 is an international journal devoted to the publication of articles on various aspects of arthropods, e.g., ecology, biogeography, systematics, biodiversity (species diversity, genetic diversity, et al., conservation, control, etc. The journal provides a forum for examining the importance of arthropods in biosphere (both terrestrial and marine ecosystems and human life in such fields as agriculture, forestry, fishery, environmental management and human health. The scope of Arthropods is wide and embraces all arthropods-insects, arachnids, crustaceans, centipedes, millipedes, and other arthropods. Articles/short communications on new taxa (species, genus, families, orders, etc. and new records of arthropods are particularly welcome. Authors can submit their works to the email box of this journal, arthropods@iaees.org. All manuscripts submitted to this journal must be previously unpublished and may not be considered for publication elsewhere at any time during review period of this journal. Authors are asked to read Author Guidelines before submitting manuscripts. In addition to free submissions from authors around the world, special issues are also accepted. The organizer of a special issue can collect submissions (yielded from a research project, a research group, etc. on a specific research topic, or submissions of a scientific conference for publication of special issue.

  12. Cysteine Proteases from Bloodfeeding Arthropod Ectoparasites

    OpenAIRE

    Sojka, Daniel; FRANCISCHETTI, IVO M. B.; Calvo, Eric; KOTSYFAKIS, MICHALIS

    2011-01-01

    Cysteine proteases have been discovered in various bloodfeeding ectoparasites. Here, we assemble the available information about the function of these peptidases and reveal their role in hematophagy and parasite development. While most of the data shed light on key proteolytic events that play a role in arthropod physiology, we also report on the association of cysteine proteases with arthropod vectorial capacity. With emphasis on ticks, specifically Ixodes ricinus, we finally propose a model...

  13. Factors Influencing Arthropod Diversity on Green Roofs

    OpenAIRE

    Bracha Y. Schindler; Alden B. Griffith; Kristina N. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Green roofs have potential for providing substantial habitat to plants, birds, and arthropod species that are not well supported by other urban habitats. Whereas the plants on a typical green roof are chosen and planted by people, the arthropods that colonize it can serve as an indicator of the ability of this novel habitat to support a diverse community of organisms. The goal of this observational study was to determine which physical characteristics of a roof or characteristics of its veget...

  14. Key to marine arthropod larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

  15. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the way in which animals diversified and radiated during their early evolutionary history remains one of the most captivating of scientific challenges. Integral to this is the 'Cambrian explosion', which records the rapid emergence of most animal phyla, and for which the triggering and accelerating factors, whether environmental or biological, are still unclear. Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans and trace these structures through the early evolutionary lineage of fossil arthropods. These digestive structures are assumed to have allowed for more efficient digestion and metabolism, promoting carnivory and macrophagy in early arthropods via predation or scavenging. This key innovation may have been of critical importance in the radiation and ecological success of Arthropoda, which has been the most diverse and abundant invertebrate phylum since the Cambrian. PMID:24785191

  16. Responses of prairie arthropod communities to fire and fertilizer: Balancing plant and arthropod conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, M.K.; Rogers, W.E.; Siemann, E.; Grace, J.

    2007-01-01

    Fire is an important tool for limiting woody plant invasions into prairies, but using fire management to maintain grassland plant communities may inadvertently reduce arthropod diversity. To test this, we established twenty-four 100 m2 plots in a tallgrass prairie in Galveston County, Texas, in spring 2000. Plots were assigned a fire (no burn, one time burn [2000], two time burn [2000, 2001]) and fertilization treatment (none, NPK addition) in a full factorial design. Fertilization treatments allowed us to examine the effects of fire at a different level of productivity. We measured plant cover by species and sampled arthropods with sweep nets during the 2001 growing season. Path analysis indicated that fertilization reduced while annual fires increased arthropod diversity via increases and decreases in woody plant abundance, respectively. There was no direct effect of fire on arthropod diversity or abundance. Diptera and Homoptera exhibited particularly strong positive responses to fires. Lepidoptera had a negative response to nutrient enrichment. Overall, the negative effects of fire on the arthropod community were minor in contrast to the strong positive indirect effects of small-scale burning on arthropod diversity if conservation of particular taxa is not a priority. The same fire regime that minimized woody plant invasion also maximized arthropod diversity.

  17. Pacific Remote Islands MNM: Initial Survey Instructions for Terrestrial Arthropods

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purposes of the terrestrial arthropod surveys are to: develop a species list of native and non-native terrestrial arthropods on land portions of the refuge;...

  18. Collective behavior in an early Cambrian arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xian-Guang; Siveter, Derek J; Aldridge, Richard J; Siveter, David J

    2008-10-10

    Examples that indicate collective behavior in the fossil record are rare. A group association of specimens that belong to a previously unknown arthropod from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte, China, provides evidence that such behavior was present in the early Cambrian (about 525 million years ago), coincident with the earliest extensive diversification of the Metazoa, the so-called Cambrian explosion event. The chainlike form of these specimens is unique for any arthropod, fossil or living, and most likely represents behavior associated with migration. PMID:18845748

  19. Arthropods vector grapevine trunk disease pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, P; Allsopp, E; Roets, F; Mostert, L; Halleen, F

    2014-10-01

    Arthropod-mediated dispersal of pathogens is known in many cropping systems but has never been demonstrated for grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Arthropods from vineyards were screened for the presence of pathogens associated with Petri disease and esca using cultural and molecular techniques. The ability of the most abundant pathogen-carrying species to inoculate healthy grapevine vascular tissues was also determined. Millipedes and ants were allowed to associate with a DsRed- Express-transformed Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, after which they were exposed to freshly pruned healthy grapevines under controlled conditions and wounds were monitored for subsequent infection. In addition, the possibility of millipede excreta, commonly found on pruning wounds in the field, to act as inoculum source was determined. A diverse arthropod fauna was associated with declining grapevines and many of these carried trunk disease pathogens. However, spiders, the ant Crematogaster peringueyi, and the millipede Ommattoiulus moreleti were the most abundant pathogen carriers. The ant and millipede species fed on pruning wound sap and effectively transmitted trunk disease pathogens. Millipede excreta contained viable spores of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and may serve as an inoculum source. Numerous arthropods, including beneficial predators, are potential vectors of grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Our results highlight the need for an integrated approach, including targeted management of ants and millipedes at the time of pruning, to limit the spread of grapevine trunk diseases. PMID:24624953

  20. Ecology of herbivorous arthropods in urban landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupp, Michael J; Shrewsbury, Paula M; Herms, Daniel A

    2010-01-01

    Urbanization affects communities of herbivorous arthropods and provides opportunities for dramatic changes in their abundance and richness. Underlying these changes are creation of impervious surfaces; variation in the density, diversity, and complexity of vegetation; and maintenance practices including pulsed inputs of fertilizers, water, and pesticides. A rich body of knowledge provides theoretical underpinnings for predicting and understanding impacts of urbanization on arthropods. However, relatively few studies have elucidated mechanisms that explain patterns of insect and mite abundance and diversity across urbanization gradients. Published accounts suggest that responses to urbanization are often taxon specific, highly variable, and linked to properties of urbanization that weaken top-down and/or bottom-up processes, thereby destabilizing populations of herbivores and their natural enemies. In addition to revealing patterns in diversity and abundance of herbivores across urbanization gradients, a primary objective of this review is to examine mechanisms underlying these patterns and to identify potential hypotheses for future testing. PMID:19961321

  1. Arthropods: Developmental diversity within a (super) phylum

    OpenAIRE

    Akam, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The expression patterns of developmental genes provide new markers that address the homology of body parts and provide clues as to how body plans have evolved. Such markers support the idea that insect wings evolved from limbs but refute the idea that insect and crustacean jaws are fundamentally different in structure. They also confirm that arthropod tagmosis reflects underlying patterns of Hox gene regulation but they do not yet resolve to what extent Hox expression ...

  2. Molecular bases of proliferation of Francisella tularensis in Arthropod vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Asare, Rexford; Akimana, Christine; Jones, Snake; Kwaik, Yousef Abu

    2010-01-01

    Arthropod vectors are important vehicles for transmission of Francisella tularensis between mammals, but very little is known about the F. tularensis-arthropod vector interaction. Drosophila melanogaster has been recently developed as an arthropod vector model for F. tularensis. We have shown that intracellular trafficking of F. tularensis within human monocytes-derived macrophages and D. melanogaster-derived S2 cells is very similar. Within both evolutionarily distant host cells, the Francis...

  3. Arthropod Surveillance Programs: Basic Components, Strategies, and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cohnstaedt, Lee W.; Rochon, Kateryn; Duehl, Adrian J.; Anderson, John F.; Barrera, Roberto; Su, Nan-Yao; Gerry, Alec C.; Obenauer, Peter J.; Campbell, James F.; Lysyk, Tim J.; Allan, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    Effective entomological surveillance planning stresses a careful consideration of methodology, trapping technologies, and analysis techniques. Herein, the basic principles and technological components of arthropod surveillance plans are described, as promoted in the symposium “Advancements in arthropod monitoring technology, techniques, and analysis” presented at the 58th annual meeting of the Entomological Society of America in San Diego, CA. Interdisciplinary examples of arthropod monitorin...

  4. Arthropod Borne Diseases in Imposed War during 1980-88

    OpenAIRE

    Khoobdel, M; A Mehrabi Tavana; H Vatandoost; MR Abaei

    2008-01-01

    Background: Personnel of military forces have close contact with natural habitat and usually encounter with bite of arthropods and prone to be infected with arthropod borne diseases. The imposed war against Iran was one of the most important and the longest war in the Middle East and even in the world and military people faced various diseases. The aim of this study was to review prevalence of arthropod borne diseases and to collect relevant information and valuable experiences during the imp...

  5. Cyberdiversity: Improving the Informatic Value of Diverse Tropical Arthropod Inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Jeremy A.; Miller, Joshua H.; Pham, Dinh-Sac; Beentjes, Kevin K.

    2014-01-01

    In an era of biodiversity crisis, arthropods have great potential to inform conservation assessment and test hypotheses about community assembly. This is because their relatively narrow geographic distributions and high diversity offer high-resolution data on landscape-scale patterns of biodiversity. However, a major impediment to the more widespread application of arthropod data to a range of scientific and policy questions is the poor state of modern arthropod taxonomy, especially in the tr...

  6. Arthropod Borne Diseases in Imposed War during 1980-88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khoobdel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personnel of military forces have close contact with natural habitat and usually encounter with bite of arthropods and prone to be infected with arthropod borne diseases. The imposed war against Iran was one of the most important and the longest war in the Middle East and even in the world and military people faced various diseases. The aim of this study was to review prevalence of arthropod borne diseases and to collect relevant information and valuable experiences during the imposed war.Methods: The present survey is a historical research and cross-sectional study, focused on arthropod fauna, situation of different arthropod borne diseases and also the ways which military personnel used to protect themselves against them. The information was adopted from valid military health files and also interviewing people who participated in the war.Results: Scabies, cutaneous leishmaniasis, sandfly fever and pediculosis were more prevalent among other arthropod -borne diseases in Iran-Iraq war. Measures to control arthropods and diseases at wartime mainly included: scheduled spraying of pesticides, leishmanization and treatment of patients.Conclusion: Although measures used during the war to control arthropods were proper, however, due to needs and importance of military forces to new equipment and technologies, it is recommended to use deltamethrin-impreg­nated bed net, permethrin treated military uniforms and various insect repellents in future.

  7. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly K. Ober

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantations of three different species (loblolly, Pinus taeda; longleaf, P. palustris; and slash, P. elliottii. We sampled arthropods quarterly for three years in raked and un-raked pine stands to assess temporal shifts in abundance among dominant orders of arthropods. Effects varied greatly among orders of arthropods, among timber types, and among years. Distinct trends over time were apparent among orders that occupied both high trophic positions (predators and low trophic positions (fungivores, detritivores. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that raking caused stronger shifts in arthropod community composition in longleaf and loblolly than slash pine stands. Results highlight the role of pine litter in shaping terrestrial arthropod communities, and imply that repeated removal of pine straw during consecutive years is likely to have unintended consequences on arthropod communities that exacerbate over time.

  8. Arthropod Borne Diseases in Imposed War during 1980-88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khoobdel

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personnel of military forces have close contact with natural habitat and usually encounter with bite of arthropods and prone to be infected with arthropod borne diseases. The imposed war against Iran was one of the most important and the longest war in the Middle East and even in the world and military people faced various diseases. The aim of this study was to review prevalence of arthropod borne diseases and to collect relevant information and valuable experiences during the imposed war. Methods: The present survey is a historical research and cross-sectional study, focused on arthropod fauna, situation of different arthropod borne diseases and also the ways which military personnel used to protect themselves against them. The information was adopted from valid military health files and also interviewing people who participated in the war. Results: Scabies, cutaneous leishmaniasis, sandfly fever and pediculosis were more prevalent among other arthropod -borne diseases in Iran-Iraq war. Measures to control arthropods and diseases at wartime mainly included: scheduled spraying of pesticides, leishmanization and treatment of patients. Conclusion: Although measures used during the war to control arthropods were proper, however, due to needs and importance of military forces to new equipment and technologies, it is recommended to use deltamethrin-impreg­nated bed net, permethrin treated military uniforms and various insect repellents in future.

  9. Soil arthropods as test organisms for ecotoxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglisch, I.

    1981-02-01

    The importance of arthropods - organisms which usually grow in masses - for soil biology depends on their capacity to participate in the continuous transformation of organic substances within the relevant biocenosis and thus to take part in the maintenance of the ecological balance. In ecotoxicology, i.e. the science of substances having a detrimental effect on the natural balance of ecosystems, we try to find ways to evaluate risk of substances hazardous to the environment. In principle, biocenoses would offer themselves in their entirety as appropriate test objects for ecotoxicological evaluation of chemicals. Since it will not yet be possible in the near future to carry out this kind of studies, individual organisms proved as representatives of terrestial biotopes have to be chosen for these purposes. Primarily, Collembola, Coleoptera, and Diptera (larvae) are part of the meso- and macrofauna of soil arthropods or soil insects according to the experience made up to now in respect of their importance for soil biology. Representatives of such organisms should be used to develop test procedures to indicate damage even of a subacute, chronic nature or the impairment of their functional performance the maintance of which is a prerequisite for the ecological balance.

  10. Hematopoiesis and hematopoietic organs in arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorian, Melina; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-03-01

    Hemocytes (blood cells) are motile cells that move throughout the extracellular space and that exist in all clades of the animal kingdom. Hemocytes play an important role in shaping the extracellular environment and in the immune response. Developmentally, hemocytes are closely related to the epithelial cells lining the vascular system (endothelia) and the body cavity (mesothelia). In vertebrates and insects, common progenitors, called hemangioblasts, give rise to the endothelia and blood cells. In the adult animal, many differentiated hemocytes seem to retain the ability to proliferate; however, in most cases investigated closely, the bulk of hemocyte proliferation takes place in specialized hematopoietic organs. Hematopoietic organs provide an environment where undifferentiated blood stem cells are able to self-renew, and at the same time generate offspring that differentiate into different blood cell types. Hematopoiesis in vertebrates, taking place in the bone marrow, has been subject to intensive research by immunologists and stem cell biologists. Much less is known about blood cell formation in invertebrate animals. In this review, we will survey structural and functional properties of invertebrate hematopoietic organs, with a main focus on insects and other arthropod taxa. We will then discuss similarities, at the molecular and structural level, that are apparent when comparing the development of blood cells in hematopoietic organs of vertebrates and arthropods. Our comparative review is intended to elucidate aspects of the biology of blood stem cells that are more easily missed when focusing on one or a few model species. PMID:23319182

  11. A molecular palaeobiological exploration of arthropod terrestrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, Robert; Edgecombe, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding animal terrestrialization, the process through which animals colonized the land, is crucial to clarify extant biodiversity and biological adaptation. Arthropoda (insects, spiders, centipedes and their allies) represent the largest majority of terrestrial biodiversity. Here we implemented a molecular palaeobiological approach, merging molecular and fossil evidence, to elucidate the deepest history of the terrestrial arthropods. We focused on the three independent, Palaeozoic arthropod terrestrialization events (those of Myriapoda, Hexapoda and Arachnida) and showed that a marine route to the colonization of land is the most likely scenario. Molecular clock analyses confirmed an origin for the three terrestrial lineages bracketed between the Cambrian and the Silurian. While molecular divergence times for Arachnida are consistent with the fossil record, Myriapoda are inferred to have colonized land earlier, substantially predating trace or body fossil evidence. An estimated origin of myriapods by the Early Cambrian precedes the appearance of embryophytes and perhaps even terrestrial fungi, raising the possibility that terrestrialization had independent origins in crown-group myriapod lineages, consistent with morphological arguments for convergence in tracheal systems. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325830

  12. Sarotrocercus oblitus - Small arthropod with great impact on the understanding of arthropod evolution?

    OpenAIRE

    Waloszek D; Haug C; Maas A; Haug J T

    2011-01-01

    Sarotrocercus oblitus is a small arthropod from the Cambrian Burgess Shale. It was originally described with a short head with only two appendage-bearing segments (the first appendage being limb-shaped), a short trunk of nine segments and lamellate trunk limbs. This rather “unusual” morphology inspired various authors to propose evolutionary scenarios concerning segmentation and appendages. The head of S. oblitus served also for scenarios about the evolut...

  13. An effective method for terrestrial arthropod euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Neil A C; Loaring, Christopher D; Bennie, Mikaella M G; Trim, Steven A

    2012-12-15

    As scientific understanding of invertebrate life increases, so does the concern for how to end that life in an effective way that minimises (potential) suffering and is also safe for those carrying out the procedure. There is increasing debate on the most appropriate euthanasia methods for invertebrates as their use in experimental research and zoological institutions grows. Their popularity as pet species has also led to an increase in the need for greater veterinary understanding. Through the use of a local injection of potassium chloride (KCl) initially developed for use in American lobsters, this paper describes a safe and effective method for euthanasia in terrestrial invertebrates. Initial work focused on empirically determining the dose for cockroaches, which was then extrapolated to other arthropod species. For this method of euthanasia, we propose the term 'targeted hyperkalosis' to describe death through terminal depolarisation of the thoracic ganglia as a result of high potassium concentration. PMID:22996446

  14. Arthropod diversity in a tropical forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basset, Y.; Čížek, Lukáš; Cuénoud, P.; Didham, R. K.; Guilhaumon, F.; Missa, O.; Novotný, Vojtěch; Odegaard, F.; Roslin, T.; Schmidl, J.; Tishechkin, A. K.; Winchester, N. N.; Roubik, D. W.; Aberlenc, H.-P.; Bail, J.; Barrios, H.; Bridle, J. R.; Castano-Meneses, G.; Corbara, B.; Curletti, G.; Duarte da Rocha, W.; De Bakker, D.; Delabie, J. H. C.; Dejean, A.; Fagan, L. L.; Florean, A.; Kitching, R. L.; Medianero, E.; Miller, S. E.; Gama de Oliveira, E.; Orivel, J.; Pollet, M.; Rapp, M.; Riberio, S. P.; Roisin, Y.; Schmidt, J. B.; Sorensen, L.; Leponce, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 338, č. 6113 (2012), s. 1481-1484. ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0115; GA ČR GAP504/12/1952 Grant ostatní: European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064; U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0841885; University of Canterbury and Royal Scoiety of New Zealand(NZ) PNX0011-2009; Australian Research Council Future Fellowship(AU) FT100100040; Ciencia e a Tecnologia (PT) PTDC/AAC-AMB/098163/2008; U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0516311; U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0949790 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : arthropod diversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 31.027, year: 2012 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/338/6113/1481.full

  15. Evaluating potential risks of transgenic arthropods for pest management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic modification using recombinant DNA methods can now be used, almost routinely, to transform pest and beneficial arthropods and such genetically engineered insects and mites could be used to improve pest management programs. Genetic manipulation with recombinant DNA techniques may generate concerns about risk, requiring additional time and resources to resolve. Risk assessments must be conducted prior to releasing transgenic arthropods into the environment for either short term experiments or permanent establishment. Potential risk issues to be resolved include whether: the inserted gene(s) (trait) is stable; the traits can be horizontally transferred to other populations or species; released arthropods will perform as expected (especially with regard to their geographic distribution, host or prey specificity; released arthropods will have unintended environmental effects; and, in the case of short term releases, the released arthropods can be recovered from field sites. If the transgenic arthropods strain(s) perform well in preliminary, short term releases and risk assessments are completed satisfactorily, permanent releases into the environment may follow. Many pest management programs, especially those involving replacement of pest populations by the transgenic population, will require permanent establishment in the environment and the use of 'drive mechanisms', have been proposed to achieve this. Because efficacy can be severely compromised by 'transgene silencing', plant molecular biologists are now attempting to stabilize gene expression by building in 'insulators'. Transgene silencing occurs in Drosophila and will no doubt be a factor in other transgenic arthropods. (author)

  16. Ecdysis triggering hormone signaling in arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Ladislav; Zitnanová, Inka; Dai, Li; Simo, Ladislav; Park, Yoonseong; Satake, Honoo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Adams, Michael E; Zitnan, Dusan

    2010-03-01

    Ecdysis triggering hormones (ETHs) from endocrine Inka cells initiate the ecdysis sequence through action on central neurons expressing ETH receptors (ETHR) in model moth and dipteran species. We used various biochemical, molecular and BLAST search techniques to detect these signaling molecules in representatives of diverse arthropods. Using peptide isolation from tracheal extracts, cDNA cloning or homology searches, we identified ETHs in a variety of hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects. Most insects produce two related ETHs, but only a single active peptide was isolated from the cricket and one peptide is encoded by the eth gene of the honeybee, parasitic wasp and aphid. Immunohistochemical staining with antiserum to Manduca PETH revealed Inka cells on tracheal surface of diverse insects. In spite of conserved ETH sequences, comparison of natural and the ETH-induced ecdysis sequence in the honeybee and beetle revealed considerable species-specific differences in pre-ecdysis and ecdysis behaviors. DNA sequences coding for putative ETHR were deduced from available genomes of several hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects. In all insects examined, the ethr gene encodes two subtypes of the receptor (ETHR-A and ETHR-B). Phylogenetic analysis showed that these receptors fall into a family of closely related GPCRs. We report for the first time the presence of putative ETHs and ETHRs in genomes of other arthropods, including the tick (Arachnida) and water flea (Crustacea). The possible source of ETH in ticks was detected in paired cells located in all pedal segments. Our results provide further evidence of structural and functional conservation of ETH-ETHR signaling. PMID:19951734

  17. Insecticide-induced hormesis and arthropod pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Cutler, G Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Ecological backlashes such as insecticide resistance, resurgence and secondary pest outbreaks are frequent problems associated with insecticide use against arthropod pest species. The last two have been particularly important in sparking interest in the phenomenon of insecticide-induced hormesis within entomology and acarology. Hormesis describes a biphasic dose-response relationship that is characterized by a reversal of response between low and high doses of a stressor (e.g. insecticides). Although the concept of insecticide-induced hormesis often does not receive sufficient attention, or has been subject to semantic confusion, it has been reported in many arthropod pest species and natural enemies, and has been linked to pest outbreaks and potential problems with insecticide resistance. The study of hormesis remains largely neglected in entomology and acarology. Here, we examined the concept of insecticide-induced hormesis in arthropods, its functional basis and potential fitness consequences, and its importance in arthropod pest management and other areas. PMID:24155227

  18. Repeated Raking of Pine Plantations Alters Soil Arthropod Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Holly K. Ober; Lucas W. DeGroote

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial arthropods in forests are engaged in vital ecosystem functions that ultimately help maintain soil productivity. Repeated disturbance can cause abrupt and irreversible changes in arthropod community composition and thereby alter trophic interactions among soil fauna. An increasingly popular means of generating income from pine plantations in the Southeastern U.S. is annual raking to collect pine litter. We raked litter once per year for three consecutive years in the pine plantatio...

  19. Arthropod responses to the experimental isolation of Amazonian forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo L. Vasconcelos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Arthropods are the most diverse and abundant group of animals found in tropical lowland forests, and in light of ongoing global change phenomena, it is essential to better understand their responses to anthropogenic disturbances. Here we present a review of arthropod responses to forest deforestation and fragmentation based on studies conducted at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP, located in central Amazonia. These studies involved a wide range of arthropod groups. All but one of the studies evaluated changes in total species number or species density in relation to fragment size, (i.e. area effects, and one-third also evaluated edge effects. Our review indicates that almost every arthropod group studied showed some kind of response to reduction in forest area, including altered abundances, species richness or composition in comparisons of different-sized fragments, fragmented and non-fragmented areas, or comparisons of forest edges and forest interiors. These responses tended to be idiosyncratic, with some groups showing predicted declines in abundance or diversity in the fragments while others show no response or even increases. However, some of the observed effects on arthropods, or on the ecological processes in which they are involved, were transient. The most likely explanation for this was the rapid development of secondary growth around fragments, which greatly increased the connectivity between fragments and the remaining forest. Although the BDFFP has provided many insights regarding the effects of forest fragmentation on arthropod assemblages, many diverse groups, such as canopy arthropods, have received scant attention. For those that have been studied, much remains to be learned regarding the long-term dynamics of these assemblages and how landscape context influences local biodiversity. The BDFFP remains an exceptional site in which to investigate how the ecological interactions in which arthropods are

  20. Administering and Detecting Protein Marks on Arthropods for Dispersal Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, James R; Machtley, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring arthropod movement is often required to better understand associated population dynamics, dispersal patterns, host plant preferences, and other ecological interactions. Arthropods are usually tracked in nature by tagging them with a unique mark and then re-collecting them over time and space to determine their dispersal capabilities. In addition to actual physical tags, such as colored dust or paint, various types of proteins have proven very effective for marking arthropods for ecological research. Proteins can be administered internally and/or externally. The proteins can then be detected on recaptured arthropods with a protein-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Here we describe protocols for externally and internally tagging arthropods with protein. Two simple experimental examples are demonstrated: (1) an internal protein mark introduced to an insect by providing a protein-enriched diet and (2) an external protein mark topically applied to an insect using a medical nebulizer. We then relate a step-by-step guide of the sandwich and indirect ELISA methods used to detect protein marks on the insects. In this demonstration, various aspects of the acquisition and detection of protein markers on arthropods for mark-release-recapture, mark-capture, and self-mark-capture types of research are discussed, along with the various ways that the immunomarking procedure has been adapted to suit a wide variety of research objectives. PMID:26863574

  1. Antiviral responses of arthropod vectors: an update on recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückert, Claudia; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Fazakerley, John K; Fragkoudis, Rennos

    2014-01-01

    Arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks, biting midges and sand flies, transmit many viruses that can cause outbreaks of disease in humans and animals around the world. Arthropod vector species are invading new areas due to globalisation and environmental changes, and contact between exotic animal species, humans and arthropod vectors is increasing, bringing with it the regular emergence of new arboviruses. For future strategies to control arbovirus transmission, it is important to improve our understanding of virus-vector interactions. In the last decade knowledge of arthropod antiviral immunity has increased rapidly. RNAi has been proposed as the most important antiviral response in mosquitoes and it is likely to be the most important antiviral response in all arthropods. However, other newly-discovered antiviral strategies such as melanisation and the link between RNAi and the JAK/STAT pathway via the cytokine Vago have been characterised in the last few years. This review aims to summarise the most important and most recent advances made in arthropod antiviral immunity. PMID:25674592

  2. The role of ecological infrastructure on beneficial arthropods in vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrijela Kuštera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Weeds and non-cultivated plants have a great impact on abundance and diversity of beneficial arthropods in agriculture. The main aim of this work was to study the influence of the ecological infrastructure (meadows and weedy margins on the arthropod composition in vineyard surrounding landscape. Research was carried out from May to October during three years. Sampling took place in the ecological infrastructure of three differently managed vineyards (organic, integrated and extensive. Three zones were chosen in each vineyard (3 m, 10 m, and 30 m from the edge of the vineyard. Samples were taken using a standardised sweep net method. In total, we captured 6032 spiders and 1309 insects belonging to 4 orders and 10 families. Arthropod fauna was numerically dominated by Aranea (82.1%; among insects, Coleoptera was the most abundant taxonomic group (10.6%; Neuroptera showed the lowest value (0.88%. Significant differences were found between sites and zones. Organic vineyard showed the highest abundance of arthropods (92.41% were spiders and in the integrated vineyard there was a 23% of insects. Both the highest abundance of arthropods and the highest Shannon Index value (2.46 was found 3 m away from the edge of the vineyard. Results showed that spiders were the dominant arthropods and ladybugs the dominant insects. Weedy strips near the edge of the vineyard contained a high number of insects and spiders. Our results support the importance of weedy margins in enhancing the population of arthropods as well as in biodiversity promotion. Well-managed field margins could play important role in biological control of vineyard pests.

  3. Arthropod abundance and diversity in transgenic Bt soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huilin; Li, Yunhe; Li, Xiangju; Wu, Kongming

    2014-08-01

    Before the commercialization of any insect-resistant genetically modified crop, it must be subjected to a rigorous premarket risk assessment. Here, possible effects of growing of transgenic Cry1Ac soybean on arthropod communities under field conditions were assessed for 2 yr and quantified in terms of arthropod community indices including the Shannon-Weaver diversity index, richness index, and dominance index. Our results showed no significant differences of diversity, richness, or dominant indices for Bt soybean compared with the recipient cultivar, conventional soybean, or sprayed conventional soybean. Conventional soybean treatment with insecticide had an adverse effect on the arthropod community after spraying, but arthropod community diversity recovered quickly. Bt soybean had no negative effect on the dominant distribution of subcommunities, including sucking pests, other pests, predators, parasitoids, and others except for lepidopteran pests. The dominance distribution of lepidopteran pests decreased significantly in Bt soybean because of the significant decrease in the numbers of Spodoptera litura (F.) and Ascotis selenaria Schiffermüller et Denis compared with the recipient cultivar. Our results showed that there were no negative effects of Cry1Ac soybean on the arthropod community in soybean field plots in the short term. PMID:24915416

  4. The occurrence of arthropods in processed rice products in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariana A; Heah SK; Wong AL; Ho TM

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine distribution of arthropods in processed rice products such as rice flour and rice cereal-based infant food. Methods: Random samples of rice flour and rice cereal-based infant food purchased from commercial outlets were examined for the presence of arthropods using a modified Berlese Tullgren Funnel Method. Mites were mounted prior to identification and weevils were directly identified. Results: For non-expired products, infestation was found in 6.7%of rice flour and none was found in rice cereal-based infant food samples. The arthropods found in the flour samples were Cheyletus spp., Suidasia pontifica (S. pontifica), Tarsonemus spp., Tyrophagus putrescentiae (T. putrescentiae), Sitophilus granarius (S. granarius) and Sitophilus oryzae (S. oryzae). Others which cannot be identified were Oribatid and Prostigmatid mites. The most common mites in rice flour were Tarsonemus spp. (69.1%), followed by S. pontifica (18.2%). For expired products, only one sample of rice cereal-based infant food was infested and the infestation was by mites of the family Tydeidae. Conclusions:This study demonstrates the presence of 4 allergenic species of S. pontifica, T. putrescentiae, S. granarius and S. oryzae in rice flour. These arthropods can contribute to the incidence of anaphylaxis upon consumption by atopic individuals. There was no infestation of arthropods in rice cereal-based infant food surveyed except for an expired product in a moderate rusty tin container.

  5. Exoskeletons and economics: indoor arthropod diversity increases in affluent neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Misha; Bertone, Matthew A; Bayless, Keith M; Dunn, Robert R; Trautwein, Michelle D

    2016-08-01

    In urban ecosystems, socioeconomics contribute to patterns of biodiversity. The 'luxury effect', in which wealthier neighbourhoods are more biologically diverse, has been observed for plants, birds, bats and lizards. Here, we used data from a survey of indoor arthropod diversity (defined throughout as family-level richness) from 50 urban houses and found that house size, surrounding vegetation, as well as mean neighbourhood income best predict the number of kinds of arthropods found indoors. Our finding, that homes in wealthier neighbourhoods host higher indoor arthropod diversity (consisting of primarily non-pest species), shows that the luxury effect can extend to the indoor environment. The effect of mean neighbourhood income on indoor arthropod diversity was particularly strong for individual houses that lacked high surrounding vegetation ground cover, suggesting that neighbourhood dynamics can compensate for local choices of homeowners. Our work suggests that the management of neighbourhoods and cities can have effects on biodiversity that can extend from trees and birds all the way to the arthropod life in bedrooms and basements. PMID:27484644

  6. The non-target impact of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Antonio; Mommaerts, Veerle; Smagghe, Guy; Viñuela, Elisa; Zappalà, Lucia; Desneux, Nicolas

    2012-12-01

    Spinosyn-based products, mostly spinosad, have been widely recommended by extension specialists and agribusiness companies; consequently, they have been used to control various pests in many different cropping systems. Following the worldwide adoption of spinosad-based products for integrated and organic farming, an increasing number of ecotoxicological studies have been published in the past 10 years. These studies are primarily related to the risk assessment of spinosad towards beneficial arthropods. This review takes into account recent data with the aim of (i) highlighting potentially adverse effects of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods (and hence on ecosystem services that they provide in agroecosystems), (ii) clarifying the range of methods used to address spinosyn side effects on biocontrol agents and pollinators in order to provide new insights for the development of more accurate bioassays, (iii) identifying pitfalls when analysing laboratory results to assess field risks and (iv) gaining increasing knowledge on side effects when using spinosad for integrated pest management (IPM) programmes and organic farming. For the first time, a thorough review of possible risks of spinosad and novel spinosyns (such as spinetoram) to beneficial arthropods (notably natural enemies and pollinators) is provided. The acute lethal effect and multiple sublethal effects have been identified in almost all arthropod groups studied. This review will help to optimise the future use of spinosad and new spinosyns in IPM programmes and for organic farming, notably by preventing the possible side effects of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods. PMID:23109262

  7. Epigeic soil arthropod abundance under different agricultural land uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Bote, J. L.; Romero, A. J.

    2012-11-01

    The study of soil arthropods can provide valuable information how ecosystems respond to different management practices. The objective was to assess the total abundance, richness, and composition of epiedaphic arthropods in different agrosystems from southwestern Spain. Six sites with different agricultural uses were selected: olive grove, vineyards, olive grove with vineyards, wheat fields, fallows (150-300 m long), and abandoned vineyards. Crops were managed in extensive. Field margins were used as reference habitats. At the seven sites a total of 30 pitfall traps were arranged in a 10 × 3 grid. Traps were arranged to short (SD, 1 m), medium (MD, 6 m) and large (LD, 11 m) distance to the field margins in the middle of selected plots. Pitfall traps captured a total of 11,992 edaphic arthropods belonging to 11 different taxa. Soil fauna was numerically dominated by Formicidae (26.60%), Coleoptera (19.77%), and Aranae (16.76%). The higher number of soil arthropods were captured in the field margins followed by the abandoned vineyard. Significant differences were found between sites for total abundance, and zones. However, no significant differences for total abundance were found between months (April-July). Richness and diversity was highest in field margins and abandoned vineyards. Significant differences were found for these variables between sites. Our results suggest that agricultural intensification affects soil arthropods in Tierra de Barros area, a taxonomic group with an important role in the functioning of agricultural ecosystems. (Author) 32 refs.

  8. Inbreeding and the evolution of sociality in arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabadkani, Seyed Mohammad; Nozari, Jamasb; Lihoreau, Mathieu

    2012-10-01

    Animals have evolved strategies to optimally balance costs and benefits of inbreeding. In social species, these adaptations can have a considerable impact on the structure, the organization, and the functioning of groups. Here, we consider how selection for inbreeding avoidance fashions the social behavior of arthropods, a phylum exhibiting an unparalleled richness of social lifestyles. We first examine life histories and parental investment patterns determining whether individuals should actively avoid or prefer inbreeding. Next, we illustrate the diversity of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in arthropods, from the dispersal of individuals to the rejection of kin during mate choice and the production of unisexual broods by females. Then, we address the particular case of haplodiploid insects. Finally, we discuss how inbreeding may drive and shape the evolution of arthropods societies along two theoretical pathways.

  9. [2013 update about arthropod envenomations in French Guyana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganteaume, F; Imbert, C

    2014-02-01

    French Guiana, by its geographical situation, its climate and its biodiversity, is often called "the green hell". Indeed, this French department of America shelters a wildlife rich, abundant among which many species of arthropods, some of which are responsible for envenomations. These accidents consist of scorpion's or hymenoptera's stings or spider's bites. The associated clinical aspect is variable, from simple pain to circulatory collapse, or lung oedema. However, symptomatology is generally mild; four deaths associated to arthropod envenomations have been reported in the past 25 years. This article focuses on envenomations in French Guiana, describing favoring human behavior, risks and venoms associated with the main related animal species. PMID:24415535

  10. Canopy arthropods community within and among oak species in central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Efraín TOVAR-SANCHEZ

    2009-01-01

    Quercus rugosa and Q.laurina are species that presents a wide geographical distribution range in temperate forests of Mexico. Oak canopies contain a considerable portion of arthropod diversity and the arthropods fauna fulfill a wide variety of ecological roles. We examined the effect of oak species and seasonal changes on some community structure parameters (diversity, composition, similarity, biomass, rare species, and density of arthropod fauna) of canopy arthropods. In total, 40 oak ca...

  11. Stable isotope methods in biological and ecological studies of arthropods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hood-Nowotny, R.C.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    This is an eclectic review and analysis of contemporary and promising stable isotope methodologies to study the biology and ecology of arthropods. It is augmented with literature from other disciplines, indicative of the potential for knowledge transfer. It is demonstrated that stable isotopes can b

  12. Manipulation of arthropod pathogens for integrated pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    A great diversity of pathogenic microorganisms and nematodes has been developed for microbial biological control of insect and other arthropod pests. These control agents have many characteristics that determine their capacities to provide reliable pest control, and these characteristics must be ta...

  13. Arthropods associated with medicinal plants in coastal South Carolina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROLANDO LOPEZ; B. MERLE SHEPARD

    2007-01-01

    Arthropods were sampled from feverfew [Tanacetum parthenium (L.) SchultzBip], Echinaceapurpurea (L.) Moench, Echinaceapallida (Nutt.) Nutt., Valeriana officinalis L., and St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) during 1998-2001. In addition,arthropods were sampled on tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) from 2001-2004. In general,50-60 arthropod species where collected and identified among all of the medicinal plant species. Among the predators, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), Geocoris punctipes (Say) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) and spiders were most abundant from 1998-2004.The three-cornered alfalfa hopper, Spissistilus festinus (Say), was the most abundant herbivore found from 1998 to 2001. Orius insidiosus and G. punctipes were 3-4 times more abundant on T. parthenium than on any other medicinal plant species. Based on the numbers of predatory arthropods found on T. parthenium, this crop could be suitable as a companion or "banker" plant to attract and maintain populations of predators, especially O. insidiosus and G. punctipes. Whitefly nymphs attacked by predators with piercing/sucking mouthparts are easily identified using a microscope because of the general appearance of the carcass left by the predators. Thus, populations of predators on T. parthenium suppressed Bemisia tabaci populations on E. purpurea when these crops were planted as companion crops.

  14. Diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation for prolonged fasting arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizota, Chitoshi; Yamanaka, Toshiro

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen acquisition for cellular metabolism during diapause is a primary concern for herbivorous arthropods. Analyses of naturally occurring stable isotopes of nitrogen help elucidate the mechanism. Relevant articles have cited (58 times up to mid-June 2011) anomalously elevated δ(15)N (per mil deviation of (15)N/(14)N, relative to atmospheric nitrogen=0 ‰) values (diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation; up to 12 ‰) for a prolonged fasting raspberry beetle (Byturus tomentosus Degeer (Coleoptera: Byturidae)), which feeds on red raspberries (Rubus idaeus: δ(15)N= ~ +2 ‰). Biologists have hypothesised that extensive recycling of amino acid nitrogen is responsible for the prolonged fasting. Since this hypothesis was proposed in 1995, scientists have integrated biochemical and molecular knowledge to support the mechanism of prolonged diapausing of animals. To test the validity of the recycling hypothesis, we analysed tissue nitrogen isotope ratios for four Japanese arthropods: the shield bug Parastrachia japonensis Scott (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), the burrower bug Canthophorus niveimarginatus Scott (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), leaf beetle Gastrophysa atrocyanea Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and the Japanese oak silkworm Antheraea yamamai (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), all of which fast for more than 6 months as part of their life-history strategy. Resulting diet-consumer nitrogen isotope discrimination during fasting ranged from 0 to 7‰, as in many commonly known terrestrial arthropods. We conclude that prolonged fasting of arthropods does not always result in anomalous diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation, since the recycling process is closed or nearly closed with respect to nitrogen isotopes. PMID:22166153

  15. Injuries caused by arthropods: diagnostic and therapeutic approach in ER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutto Moreno

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Injuries caused by arthropods, primarily insects and arachnids, represent a significant source of lesions and allergies even in Italy, a country that has a negligible number of species with important toxicological characteristics from an emergency medicine point of view; unlike areas such as the Americas or Africa (including northern Africa where highly toxic autochthonous species are present, whose bite or sting can be life-threatening. Medical consultation both in hospital Emergency Rooms and general practitioners’ surgeries is markedly seasonal, occurring mainly in the spring and summer (April – September, consistent with arthropod activity. At the current time, in Italy, urgent acute arthropod-related injuries are rare and usually involve type I hypersensitivity, and in most cases they are localised lesions that cause discomfort. The aim of the article is to briefly summarise the species of insects and arachnids that are most frequently cause for medical consultation in Italy and to provide assistance in the diagnostic and therapeutic plan, focusing in particular on the importance of health education that in many acute arthropod-derived cases can play an important part in preventing reoccurrence.

  16. Horizontal Gene Transfer Contributes to the Evolution of Arthropod Herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybouw, Nicky; Pauchet, Yannick; Heckel, David G; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Within animals, evolutionary transition toward herbivory is severely limited by the hostile characteristics of plants. Arthropods have nonetheless counteracted many nutritional and defensive barriers imposed by plants and are currently considered as the most successful animal herbivores in terrestrial ecosystems. We gather a body of evidence showing that genomes of various plant feeding insects and mites possess genes whose presence can only be explained by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). HGT is the asexual transmission of genetic information between reproductively isolated species. Although HGT is known to have great adaptive significance in prokaryotes, its impact on eukaryotic evolution remains obscure. Here, we show that laterally transferred genes into arthropods underpin many adaptations to phytophagy, including efficient assimilation and detoxification of plant produced metabolites. Horizontally acquired genes and the traits they encode often functionally diversify within arthropod recipients, enabling the colonization of more host plant species and organs. We demonstrate that HGT can drive metazoan evolution by uncovering its prominent role in the adaptations of arthropods to exploit plants. PMID:27307274

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of the Wolbachia of nematodes and arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn Fenn

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia are well known as bacterial symbionts of arthropods, where they are reproductive parasites, but have also been described from nematode hosts, where the symbiotic interaction has features of mutualism. The majority of arthropod Wolbachia belong to clades A and B, while nematode Wolbachia mostly belong to clades C and D, but these relationships have been based on analysis of a small number of genes. To investigate the evolution and relationships of Wolbachia symbionts we have sequenced over 70 kb of the genome of wOvo, a Wolbachia from the human-parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus, and compared the genes identified to orthologues in other sequenced Wolbachia genomes. In comparisons of conserved local synteny, we find that wBm, from the nematode Brugia malayi, and wMel, from Drosophila melanogaster, are more similar to each other than either is to wOvo. Phylogenetic analysis of the protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes on the sequenced fragments supports reciprocal monophyly of nematode and arthropod Wolbachia. The nematode Wolbachia did not arise from within the A clade of arthropod Wolbachia, and the root of the Wolbachia clade lies between the nematode and arthropod symbionts. Using the wOvo sequence, we identified a lateral transfer event whereby segments of the Wolbachia genome were inserted into the Onchocerca nuclear genome. This event predated the separation of the human parasite O. volvulus from its cattle-parasitic sister species, O. ochengi. The long association between filarial nematodes and Wolbachia symbionts may permit more frequent genetic exchange between their genomes.

  18. Water balance in desert arthropods. Despite their small size, arthropods may be highly adapted for life in xeric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edney, E B

    1967-05-26

    As judged by the number of species, or of individuals, arthropods are an extremely successful group of desert inhabitants. There is very great structural and physiological diversity within the group, and since adaptations to desert life open to one are not open to all. we should not expect to find the maximum possible development of adaptive features in any arthropod simply because it lives in a desert. Most adult insects fly; their larvae and all other arthropods do not, and their adaptations will differ accordingly. Desert beetles have very impermeable cuticles and tolerate high body temperatures, while desert cockroaches live below the sand. have more permeable cuticles, and absorb water vapor. There is probably no single respect in which all desert arthropods differ from insects of other environments. Perhaps a profitable way of viewing desert animals is to recognize that each is a whole organism with a specific collection of adaptations that must be consistent within themselves and which are associated with a specific mode of life and a specific evolutionary history. The arthropod organization is capable of producing highly efficient desert species. There is, however, a converse way of looking at the situation, Which is often neglected but which may be of general biological interest: does the evolution of adaptations to desert environments necessarily involve loss of viability in more mesic habitats? If so, then what are these disavantages- what, for example, is the disadvantage of a highly impermeable cuticle? In some cases the answer is clear: sandroaches need sand dunes to live in because they are morphologically and behaviorly specialized for this habitat. More often the answer is not obvious. PMID:6024185

  19. Impact of alien terrestrial arthropods in Europe. Chapter 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Kenis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter reviews the effects of alien terrestrial arthropods on the economy, society and environment in Europe. Many alien insect and mite species cause serious socio-economic hazards as pests of agriculture, horticulture, stored products and forestry. They may also affect human or animal health. Interestingly, there is relatively little information available on the exact yield and financial losses due to alien agricultural and forestry pests in Europe, particularly at continental scale. Several alien species may have a positive impact on the economy, for example parasitoids and predators introduced for the biological control of important pests. Invasive alien arthropods can also cause environmental hazards. They may affect native biodiversity through various mechanisms, including herbivory, predation, parasitism, competition for resource and space, or as vectors of diseases. They can also affect ecosystem services and processes through cascading effects. However, these ecological impacts are poorly studied, particularly in Europe, where only a handful cases have been reported.

  20. Survey of the arthropods on jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, J.D.; Frommer, S.I.

    1980-02-01

    Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), a plant native to southwestern North America, has become of economic interest due to the various industrial uses of the unique liquid wax found in its seeds. In a survey of arthropods associated with sylvatic jojoba in California and Arizona, we collected 106 species of insects and mites. Of these, 50 are phytophagous, 29 are parasitic, and 18 are predaceous. Most of the phytophagous species are also known to feed on plants other than jojoba; several of these are notorious generalists. The bionomics of the 4 commonest phytophagous species, Asphondylia n. sp. (Cecidomyiidae), Epinotia kasloana (Olethreutidae), Periploca n. sp. (Walshiidae), and Incisitermes fruticavus (Kalotermitidae) are summarized briefly. None of the phytophagous species were observed to cause extensive damage to sylvatic jojoba. The numerous parasitic and predaceous arthropods probably account for the natural control of many of them. These relationships should be kept in mind when planning future commercial plantations of jojoba.

  1. Non-volant modes of migration in terrestrial arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds Don R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal migration is often defined in terms appropriate only to the ‘to-and-fro’ movements of large, charismatic (and often vertebrate species. However, like other important biological processes, the definition should apply over as broad a taxonomic range as possible in order to be intellectually satisfying. Here we illustrate the process of migration in insects and other terrestrial arthropods (e.g. arachnids, myriapods, and non-insect hexapods but provide a different perspective by excluding the ‘typical’ mode of migration in insects, i.e. flapping flight. Instead, we review non-volant migratory movements, including: aerial migration by wingless species, pedestrian and waterborne migration, and phoresy. This reveals some fascinating and sometimes bizarre morphological and behavioural adaptations to facilitate movement. We also outline some innovative modelling approaches exploring the interactions between atmospheric transport processes and biological factors affecting the ‘dispersal kernels’ of wingless arthropods

  2. Combined effects of arthropod herbivores and phytopathogens on plant performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Thure Pavlo; Christensen, Stina; Heimes, Christine;

    2013-01-01

    1. Many plants are simultaneously attacked by arthropod herbivores and phytopathogens. These may affect each other directly and indirectly, enhancing or reducing the amount of plant resources they each consume. Ultimately, this may reduce or enhance plant performance relative to what should be ex....... However, as interactive impacts also differed among environments and parasite manipulation methods, this suggests that the ability of plants to compensate such losses may depend on environmental conditions and probably also overall infection load....... patterns we found were related to plant traits and experimental conditions. 5. Our results suggest that immediate loss of resources from interactions between arthropod herbivores and pathogens is generally moderated by compensation to an extent where there are no interactive effects on plant performance...

  3. Personal Protection Measures Against Mosquitoes, Ticks, and Other Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpern, Jonathan D; Dunlop, Stephen J; Dolan, Benjamin J; Stauffer, William M; Boulware, David R

    2016-03-01

    Arthropod-associated diseases are a major cause of morbidity among travelers. Obtaining a detailed travel itinerary and understanding traveler-specific and destination-specific risk factors can help mitigate the risk of vector-borne diseases. DEET, picaridin, PMD, and IR3535 are insect repellents that offer sufficient protection against arthropod bites. IR3535 does not provide adequate protection against Anopheles mosquitoes, and should be avoided in malaria-endemic regions. General protective measures, such as bite avoidance, protective clothing, insecticide-treated bed nets, and insecticide-treated clothing, should be recommended, especially in malaria-endemic areas. Spatial repellents may prevent nuisance biting, but have not been shown to prevent against vector-borne disease. PMID:26900115

  4. Pesticides and Arthropods: Sublethal Effects and Demographic Toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan Marčić

    2007-01-01

    Insecticides and acaricides designed to control primary harmful insects and mites may also variously affect some other arthopods present in an (agro)ecosystem (e.g. secondary pests, predators, parasitoids, saprophytes, bioindicators, pollinators). Apart from insecticides and acaricides, arthropods may also be affected by the activity of other pesticides (fungicides, herbicides, etc.). Regardless of whether they are deemed desirable or not, the effects that pesticides have on arthopods need to...

  5. Epidemiology and control of malaria and other arthropod born diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. López-Antuñano

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria and other arthropod born diseases remain a serious public health problem affecting the lives and health of certain social groups when the two basic strategies to control fail due to : (1 the lack of effective chemoprophylaxis/chemotherapy or the rapid development of drug resistance of the infectious agents and (2 the ineffectiveness of pesticides or the arthropod vectors develop resistance to them. These situations enhances the need for the design and implementation of other alternatives for sustainable health programmes. The application of the epidemiological methods is essential not only for analyzing the relevant data for the understanding of the biological characteristics of the infectious agents, their reservoirs and vectors and the methods for their control, but also for the assessment of the human behaviour, the environmental, social and economic factors involved in disease transmission and the capacity of the health systems to implement interventions for both changes in human behaviour and environmental management to purpose guaranteed prevention and control of malaria and other arthropod born diseases with efficiency, efficacy and equity. This paper discuss the evolution of the malaria arthropod diseases programmes in the American Region and the perspectives for their integration into health promotion programs and emphasis is made in the need to establish solid basis in the decision-making process for the selection of intervention strategies to remove the risk factors determining the probability to get sick or die from ABDs. The implications of the general planning and the polices to be adopted in an area should be analyzed in the light of programme feasibility at the local level, in the multisectoral context specific social groups and taking in consideration the principles of stratification and equity

  6. Non-volant modes of migration in terrestrial arthropods

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds Don R.; Reynolds Andrew M.; Chapman Jason W.

    2014-01-01

    Animal migration is often defined in terms appropriate only to the ‘to-and-fro’ movements of large, charismatic (and often vertebrate) species. However, like other important biological processes, the definition should apply over as broad a taxonomic range as possible in order to be intellectually satisfying. Here we illustrate the process of migration in insects and other terrestrial arthropods (e.g. arachnids, myriapods, and non-insect hexapods) but provide a different perspective by excludi...

  7. Arthropod-Borne Diseases: The Camper's Uninvited Guests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckett, Gregory

    2015-08-01

    Arthropod-borne diseases are a major problem whenever outdoor activities bring arthropods and people into contact. The arthropods discussed here include arachnids (ticks) and insects. Most arthropod bites and stings are minor, with the notable exception being bee-sting anaphylaxis. Ticks cause the most disease transmission. Key hard tick vectors include black-legged (Ixodes), dog (Dermacentor), and lone star (Amblyomma) ticks, which transmit Lyme and various rickettsial diseases. Insect repellents, permethrin sprays, and proper tick inspection reduce this risk significantly. Lyme disease and the milder southern-tick-associated rash illness (STARI) are characterized by the erythema migrans rash followed, in the case of Lyme disease, by early, disseminated, and late systemic symptoms. Treatment is with doxycycline or ceftriaxone. Indefinite treatment of "chronic Lyme disease" based on subjective symptoms is not beneficial. Rickettsial diseases include ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever, which are characterized by fever, headache, and possible rash and should be empirically treated with doxycycline while awaiting laboratory confirmation. Tularemia is a bacterial disease (Francisella) spread by ticks and rabbits and characterized by fever and adenopathy. Treatment is with gentamicin or streptomycin. Babesiosis is a protozoal disease, mimicking malaria, that causes a self-limited flu-like disease in healthy hosts but can be life threatening with immune compromise. Treatment is with atovaquone and azithromycin. Other tick-related conditions include viral diseases (Powassan, Colorado tick fever, heartland virus), tick-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia), and tick paralysis (toxin). Mosquitoes, lice, fleas, and mites are notable for their annoying bites but are increasingly significant disease vectors even in the United States. PMID:26350321

  8. Cyberdiversity: improving the informatic value of diverse tropical arthropod inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeremy A; Miller, Joshua H; Pham, Dinh-Sac; Beentjes, Kevin K

    2014-01-01

    In an era of biodiversity crisis, arthropods have great potential to inform conservation assessment and test hypotheses about community assembly. This is because their relatively narrow geographic distributions and high diversity offer high-resolution data on landscape-scale patterns of biodiversity. However, a major impediment to the more widespread application of arthropod data to a range of scientific and policy questions is the poor state of modern arthropod taxonomy, especially in the tropics. Inventories of spiders and other megadiverse arthropods from tropical forests are dominated by undescribed species. Such studies typically organize their data using morphospecies codes, which make it difficult for data from independent inventories to be compared and combined. To combat this shortcoming, we offer cyberdiversity, an online community-based approach for reconciling results of independent inventory studies where current taxonomic knowledge is incomplete. Participating scientists can upload images and DNA barcode sequences to dedicated databases and submit occurrence data and links to a web site (www.digitalSpiders.org). Taxonomic determinations can be shared with a crowdsourcing comments feature, and researchers can discover specimens of interest available for loan and request aliquots of genomic DNA extract. To demonstrate the value of the cyberdiversity framework, we reconcile data from three rapid structured inventories of spiders conducted in Vietnam with an independent inventory (Doi Inthanon, Thailand) using online image libraries. Species richness and inventory completeness were assessed using non-parametric estimators. Community similarity was evaluated using a novel index based on the Jaccard replacing observed with estimated values to correct for unobserved species. We use a distance-decay framework to demonstrate a rudimentary model of landscape-scale changes in community composition that will become increasingly informative as additional

  9. Fossil calibrations for the arthropod Tree of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, JM; Daley, A; Legg, DA; Edgecombe, GD

    2016-01-01

    Fossil age data and molecular sequences are increasingly combined to establish a timescale for the Tree of Life. Arthropods, as the most species-rich and morphologically disparate animal phylum, have received substantial attention, particularly with regard to questions such as the timing of habitat shifts (e.g. terrestrialisation), genome evolution (e.g. gene family duplication and functional evolution), origins of novel characters and behaviours (e.g. wings and flight, venom, silk), biogeogr...

  10. Structural Diversity of Self-Assembled Iridescent Arthropod Biophotonic Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranathan, Vinod Kumar; Prum, Richard O.

    2015-03-01

    Many organisms, especially arthropods, produce vivid interference colors using diverse mesoscopic (100-350 nm) integumentary biophotonic nanostructures that are increasingly being investigated for technological applications. Despite a century of interest, we lack precise structural knowledge of many biophotonic nanostructures and mechanisms controlling their development, when such knowledge can open novel biomimetic routes to facilely self-assemble tunable, multi-functional materials. Here, we use synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy to characterize the photonic nanostructure of 140 iridescent integumentary scales and setae from 127 species of terrestrial arthropods in 85 genera from 5 orders. We report a rich nanostructural diversity, including triply-periodic bicontinuous networks, close-packed spheres, inverse columnar, perforated lamellar, and disordered sponge-like morphologies, commonly observed as stable phases of amphiphilic surfactants, block copolymer, and lyotropic lipid-water systems. Diverse arthropod lineages appear to have independently evolved to utilize the self-assembly of infolding bilayer membranes to develop biophotonic nanostructures that span the phase-space of amphiphilic morphologies, but at optical length scales.

  11. The i5K Initiative: advancing arthropod genomics for knowledge, human health, agriculture, and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Insects and their arthropod relatives including mites, spiders, and crustaceans play major roles in the world's terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems. Arthropods compete with humans for food and transmit devastating diseases. They also comprise the most diverse and successful branch of metazoan evolution, with millions of extant species. Here, we describe an international effort to guide arthropod genomic efforts, from species prioritization to methodology and informatics. The 5000 arthropod genomes initiative (i5K) community met formally in 2012 to discuss a roadmap for sequencing and analyzing 5000 high-priority arthropods and is continuing this effort via pilot projects, the development of standard operating procedures, and training of students and career scientists. With university, governmental, and industry support, the i5K Consortium aspires to deliver sequences and analytical tools for each of the arthropod branches and each of the species having beneficial and negative effects on humankind. PMID:23940263

  12. Plant diversity impacts decomposition and herbivory via changes in aboveground arthropods

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Ebeling; Meyer, Sebastian T.; Maike Abbas; Nico Eisenhauer; Helmut Hillebrand; Markus Lange; Christoph Scherber; Anja Vogel; Alexandra Weigelt; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of plant diversity influences essential ecosystem processes as aboveground productivity, and can have cascading effects on the arthropod communities in adjacent trophic levels. However, few studies have examined how those changes in arthropod communities can have additional impacts on ecosystem processes caused by them (e.g. pollination, bioturbation, predation, decomposition, herbivory). Therefore, including arthropod effects in predictions of the impact of plant diversity loss on such ...

  13. Vertical T-maze Choice Assay for Arthropod Response to Odorants

    OpenAIRE

    Stelinski, Lukasz; Tiwari, Siddharth

    2013-01-01

    Given the economic importance of insects and arachnids as pests of agricultural crops, urban environments or as vectors of plant and human diseases, various technologies are being developed as control tools. A subset of these tools focuses on modifying the behavior of arthropods by attraction or repulsion. Therefore, arthropods are often the focus of behavioral investigations. Various tools have been developed to measure arthropod behavior, including wind tunnels, flight mills, servospheres, ...

  14. Diversity of Soil Arthropods in Teak Forest Plantation Forests at Cepu, Blora, Central Java

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Farikhah Haneda; Novia Tri Marfuah

    2014-01-01

    Insects are the main group of soil arthropod and the most dominant animals in the terrestrial ecosystems.  The aims of this study were to get information about soil arthropod diversity in relation to environmental influence at teak plantations at Cepu, Central Java. The sampling plot design was based on forest health monitoring design method. Pitfall trap and Berlese-Tullgren funnel were employed to collect the soil arthropods. The trapped specimens were sorted in the laboratory and then iden...

  15. RSS (http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthropods (ISSN 2224-4255

    Full Text Available Arthropods ISSN 2224-4255 URL: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/online-version.asp RSS: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml E-mail: arthropods@iaees.org Editor-in-Chief: WenJun Zhang Aims and Scope ARTHROPODS (ISSN 2224-4255 is an international journal devoted to the publication of articles on various aspects of arthropods, e.g., ecology, biogeography, systematics, biodiversity (species diversity, genetic diversity, et al., conservation, control, etc. The journal provides a forum for examining the importance of arthropods in biosphere (both terrestrial and marine ecosystems and human life in such fields as agriculture, forestry, fishery, environmental management and human health. The scope of Arthropods is wide and embraces all arthropods-insects, arachnids, crustaceans, centipedes, millipedes, and other arthropods. Articles/short communications on new taxa (species, genus, families, orders, etc. and new records of arthropods are particularly welcome. Authors can submit their works to the email box of this journal, arthropods@iaees.org. All manuscripts submitted to this journal must be previously unpublished and may not be considered for publication elsewhere at any time during review period of this journal. Authors are asked to read Author Guidelines before submitting manuscripts. In addition to free submissions from authors around the world, special issues are also accepted. The organizer of a special issue can collect submissions (yielded from a research project, a research group, etc. on a specific research topic, or submissions of a scientific conference for publication of special issue.

  16. Spatially selective colonization of the arthropod intestine through activation of Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation

    OpenAIRE

    Purdy, Alexandra E.; Watnick, Paula I.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is an estuarine bacterium and the human pathogen responsible for the diarrheal disease cholera. In the environment, arthropods are proposed to be carriers and reservoirs of V. cholerae. However, the molecular basis of the association between V. cholerae and viable arthropods has not been elucidated previously. Here, we show that the V. cholerae Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS)-dependent biofilm is highly activated upon entry into the arthropod intestine and is specifically required...

  17. Ectomycota Associated with Arthropods from Bat Hibernacula in Eastern Canada, with Particular Reference to Pseudogymnoasucs destructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwolf, Karen J; Malloch, David; McAlpine, Donald F

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) to North America, agent of white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats, has increased interest in fungi from underground habitats. While bats are assumed to be the main vector transmitting Pd cave-to-cave, the role of other fauna is unexplored. We documented the fungi associated with over-wintering arthropods in Pd-positive hibernacula, including sites where bats had been recently extirpated or near-extirpated, to determine if arthropods carried Pd, and to compare fungal assemblages on arthropods to bats. We isolated 87 fungal taxa in 64 genera from arthropods. Viable Pd was cultured from 15.3% of arthropods, most frequently from harvestmen (Nelima elegans). Fungal assemblages on arthropods were similar to those on bats. The different fungal assemblages documented among arthropods may be due to divergent patterns of movement, aggregation, feeding, or other factors. While it is unlikely that arthropods play a major role in the transmission dynamics of Pd, we demonstrate that arthropods may carry viable Pd spores and therefore have the potential to transport Pd, either naturally or anthropogenically, within or among hibernacula. This underlines the need for those entering hibernacula to observe decontamination procedures and for such procedures to evolve as our understanding of potential mechanisms of Pd dispersal improve. PMID:27110827

  18. Canopy arthropods community within and among oak species in central Mexico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Efraín TOVAR-SANCHEZ

    2009-01-01

    Quercus rugosa and Q.laurina are species that presents a wide geographical distribution range in temperate forests of Mexico. Oak canopies contain a considerable portion of arthropod diversity and the arthropods fauna fulfill a wide variety of ecological roles. We examined the effect of oak species and seasonal changes on some community structure parameters (diversity, composition, similarity, biomass, rare species, and density of arthropod fauna) of canopy arthropods. In total, 40 oak canopies were fogged during rainy and dry season. A total of 614 identified arthropod morphospecies were recognized belonging to 22 orders associated with tree canopies. A separation of host tree species during both seasons, suggesting a different community structure on host plants species was demonstrated by the principal component analyses (PCA), therefore, differences between oak species results in phenotypes that structure the composition of the arthropod community. Q.laurina registered the highest densities, diversity index and number of rare species in comparison with Q.rugosa. While arthropod biomass showed an inverse pattern. Trees more close to one another (spatial distance) register a more similar canopy arthropod fauna. This study suggests that the trees of Q.laurina could act as a center of biodiversity by the accumulation of arthropod fauna with a considerable number of rare species, which presents wide ecological roles or is involved in critical processes that maintain forest ecosystems[Current Zoology 55(2):132-144,2009].

  19. High spatial variation in terrestrial arthropod species diversity and composition near the Greenland ice cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Reisner; Hansen, Oskar Liset Pryds; Bowden, Joseph James;

    2016-01-01

    Arthropods form a major part of the terrestrial species diversity in the Arctic, and are particularly sensitive to temporal changes in the abiotic environment. It is assumed that most Arctic arthropods are habitat generalists and that their diversity patterns exhibit low spatial variation...... methods for spiders, beetles and butterflies. We employed non-metric multidimensional scaling, species richness estimation, community dissimilarity and indicator species analysis to test for local (within site)- and regional (between site)-scale differences in arthropod communities. To identify specific...... future changes to Arctic arthropod diversity, further efforts are needed to disentangle contemporary drivers of diversity at multiple spatial scales....

  20. Arthropods of the great indoorssuburban homes:characterizing diversity inside urban and suburban homes

    OpenAIRE

    Bertone, Matthew A.; Leong, Misha; Bayless, Keith M.; Malow, Tara L.F.; Dunn, Robert Roberdeau; Trautwein, Michelle D.

    2016-01-01

    Although humans and arthropods have been living and evolving together for all of our history, we know very little about the arthropods we share our homes with apart from major pest groups. Here we surveyed, for the first time, the complete arthropod fauna of the indoor biome in 50 houses (located in and around Raleigh, North Carolina, USA). We discovered high diversity, with a conservative estimate range of 32–211 morphospecies, and 24–128 distinct arthropod families per house. The majority o...

  1. Arthropods of the great indoors: characterizing diversity inside urban and suburban homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Matthew A; Leong, Misha; Bayless, Keith M; Malow, Tara L F; Dunn, Robert R; Trautwein, Michelle D

    2016-01-01

    Although humans and arthropods have been living and evolving together for all of our history, we know very little about the arthropods we share our homes with apart from major pest groups. Here we surveyed, for the first time, the complete arthropod fauna of the indoor biome in 50 houses (located in and around Raleigh, North Carolina, USA). We discovered high diversity, with a conservative estimate range of 32-211 morphospecies, and 24-128 distinct arthropod families per house. The majority of this indoor diversity (73%) was made up of true flies (Diptera), spiders (Araneae), beetles (Coleoptera), and wasps and kin (Hymenoptera, especially ants: Formicidae). Much of the arthropod diversity within houses did not consist of synanthropic species, but instead included arthropods that were filtered from the surrounding landscape. As such, common pest species were found less frequently than benign species. Some of the most frequently found arthropods in houses, such as gall midges (Cecidomyiidae) and book lice (Liposcelididae), are unfamiliar to the general public despite their ubiquity. These findings present a new understanding of the diversity, prevalence, and distribution of the arthropods in our daily lives. Considering their impact as household pests, disease vectors, generators of allergens, and facilitators of the indoor microbiome, advancing our knowledge of the ecology and evolution of arthropods in homes has major economic and human health implications. PMID:26819844

  2. Distribution of arthropods in rice grains in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariana A; Ho TM; Lau TY; Heah SK; Wong AL

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To determine distribution of arthropods in rice grains obtained from different sources.Methods:Rice samples were randomly collected from public in urban areas,farmers in rice field areas,aborigines in un-developed areas and retailers in commercial premises.Random samples of rice were taken out from each sam-ple for isolation of arthropods using a modified Berlese Tullgren Funnel Method.Mites were mounted prior to i-dentification;weevils were directly identified.Results:Samples of rice from retailers in commercial premises had the highest infestation by arthropods followed by samples from urbanites,aborigines and rice farmers.Two species of weevils,Sitophilus oryzae(S.oryzae)and Sitophilus granarius(S.granarius),were found.Samples from commercial premises had the least percentage of weevils compared to those collected from domestic premi-ses.Depending on the source of samples,densities of S.granarius and S.oryzae ranges from 1 1 -1 03 weevils? kg and 7-80 weevils?kg,respectively.Important species of mites in stored rice identified were mainly members of the families Cheyletidae,Echimyopodidae,Pyroglyphidae,Saproglyphidae and Tenuipalpidae.Among the species of mites identified were Austroglycyphagus malaysiensis,Cheyletus fortis,Cheyletus malaccensis,Der-matophagoides pteronyssinus,Grammolichus malukuensis and Suidasia pontifica.Average density of most of the mites was less than 40 mites?kg of rice grains.In this study,the highest number of mites in rice samples was recovered from commercial premises,followed by samples from urbanites.Samples from farmers and aborigines contained lesser mites.Conclusion:This study demonstrated the presence of 3 allergenic mite species in rice, i.e A.malaysiensis,D.pteronyssinus and S.pontifica.Weevils,S.oryzae and S.granarius that are known to be allergenic,were also found.

  3. cuticleDB: a relational database of Arthropod cuticular proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis Judith H

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insect exoskeleton or cuticle is a bi-partite composite of proteins and chitin that provides protective, skeletal and structural functions. Little information is available about the molecular structure of this important complex that exhibits a helicoidal architecture. Scores of sequences of cuticular proteins have been obtained from direct protein sequencing, from cDNAs, and from genomic analyses. Most of these cuticular protein sequences contain motifs found only in arthropod proteins. Description cuticleDB is a relational database containing all structural proteins of Arthropod cuticle identified to date. Many come from direct sequencing of proteins isolated from cuticle and from sequences from cDNAs that share common features with these authentic cuticular proteins. It also includes proteins from the Drosophila melanogaster and the Anopheles gambiae genomes, that have been predicted to be cuticular proteins, based on a Pfam motif (PF00379 responsible for chitin binding in Arthropod cuticle. The total number of the database entries is 445: 370 derive from insects, 60 from Crustacea and 15 from Chelicerata. The database can be accessed from our web server at http://bioinformatics.biol.uoa.gr/cuticleDB. Conclusions CuticleDB was primarily designed to contain correct and full annotation of cuticular protein data. The database will be of help to future genome annotators. Users will be able to test hypotheses for the existence of known and also of yet unknown motifs in cuticular proteins. An analysis of motifs may contribute to understanding how proteins contribute to the physical properties of cuticle as well as to the precise nature of their interaction with chitin.

  4. Ad-Hoc vs. Standardized and Optimized Arthropod Diversity Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cardoso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of standardized and optimized protocols has been recently advocated for different arthropod taxa instead of ad-hoc sampling or sampling with protocols defined on a case-by-case basis. We present a comparison of both sampling approaches applied for spiders in a natural area of Portugal. Tests were made to their efficiency, over-collection of common species, singletons proportions, species abundance distributions, average specimen size, average taxonomic distinctness and behavior of richness estimators. The standardized protocol revealed three main advantages: (1 higher efficiency; (2 more reliable estimations of true richness; and (3 meaningful comparisons between undersampled areas.

  5. Pesticides and Arthropods: Sublethal Effects and Demographic Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Marčić

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticides and acaricides designed to control primary harmful insects and mites may also variously affect some other arthopods present in an (agroecosystem (e.g. secondary pests, predators, parasitoids, saprophytes, bioindicators, pollinators. Apart from insecticides and acaricides, arthropods may also be affected by the activity of other pesticides (fungicides, herbicides, etc.. Regardless of whether they are deemed desirable or not, the effects that pesticides have on arthopods need to be quantified as closely as possible through appropriate experimental procedures. Data acquired in tests designed to determined LD50/LC50 values are inadequate for evaluation of pesticide effectiveness in the field as pesticidesalso cause various sublethal effects, generally disregarded in such investigations. The sublethal effects of pesticides refer to any altered behaviour and/or physiology of individuals that have survived exposure to pesticides at doses/concentrations that can be lethal(within range causing mortality in an experimental population that exceeds mortality in an untreated population or sublethal (below that range. Pesticides affect locomotion and mobility, stimulate dispersion of arthropods from treated areas, complicate or prevent their navigation, orientation and ability to locate hosts, and cause changes in their feeding, mating and egg-laying patterns. Sublethal pesticide effects on arthropod physiology reflect on the life span, rate of development, fecundity and/or fertility, sex ratio and immunity of surviving individuals. Different parameters are being used in arthropod bioassays to determine sublethal effects (ED50/EC50, LOEC, NOEC, total effect index. Compared to acute toxicity tests, these parameters improve the quality of evaluation and create a more accurate view of the effects of a pesticide. However, such approach covers mainly fecundity/fertility alone, while all other sublethal effects remain unaccounted for. Besides, it

  6. Interactions among predators and the cascading effects of vertebrate insectivores on arthropod communities and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Kailen A; Gruner, Daniel S; Barber, Nicholas A; Van Bael, Sunshine A; Philpott, Stacy M; Greenberg, Russell

    2010-04-20

    Theory on trophic interactions predicts that predators increase plant biomass by feeding on herbivores, an indirect interaction called a trophic cascade. Theory also predicts that predators feeding on predators, or intraguild predation, will weaken trophic cascades. Although past syntheses have confirmed cascading effects of terrestrial arthropod predators, we lack a comprehensive analysis for vertebrate insectivores-which by virtue of their body size and feeding habits are often top predators in these systems-and of how intraguild predation mediates trophic cascade strength. We report here on a meta-analysis of 113 experiments documenting the effects of insectivorous birds, bats, or lizards on predaceous arthropods, herbivorous arthropods, and plants. Although vertebrate insectivores fed as intraguild predators, strongly reducing predaceous arthropods (38%), they nevertheless suppressed herbivores (39%), indirectly reduced plant damage (40%), and increased plant biomass (14%). Furthermore, effects of vertebrate insectivores on predatory and herbivorous arthropods were positively correlated. Effects were strongest on arthropods and plants in communities with abundant predaceous arthropods and strong intraguild predation, but weak in communities depauperate in arthropod predators and intraguild predation. The naturally occurring ratio of arthropod predators relative to herbivores varied tremendously among the studied communities, and the skew to predators increased with site primary productivity and in trees relative to shrubs. Although intraguild predation among arthropod predators has been shown to weaken herbivore suppression, we find this paradigm does not extend to vertebrate insectivores in these communities. Instead, vertebrate intraguild preda-tion is associated with strengthened trophic cascades, and insectivores function as dominant predators in terrestrial plant-arthropod communities. PMID:20368418

  7. Genetic variation in functional traits influences arthropod community composition in aspen (Populus tremula L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Robinson

    Full Text Available We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod community traits. The majority of arthropods were specialists, those coevolved with P. tremula to tolerate and even utilize leaf defence compounds. Arthropod abundance and richness were more closely related to plant growth rates than general chemical defences and relationships were identified between the arthropod community and stem growth, leaf and petiole morphology, anthocyanins, and condensed tannins. Heritable genetic variation in plant traits in young aspen was found to structure arthropod community; however no single trait drives the preferences of arthropod folivores among young aspen genotypes. The influence of natural variation in plant traits on the arthropod community indicates the importance of maintaining genetic variation in wild trees as keystone species for biodiversity. It further suggests that aspen can be a resource for the study of mechanisms of natural resistance to herbivores.

  8. Composition and Diversity of Soil Arthropods of Rajegwesi Meru Betiri National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Zayadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Meru Betiri National Park (MBNP is one of the nature conservation area that has the potential of flora, fauna, and ecosystems that could develop as a nature-based tourism attraction. The existence of certain indicator species was related to estimation of stress level and disturbance on ecosystem stability for making strategic decisions about the restoration in this area. One of the important indicator species at forest ecosystem were soil arthropods. Aim this research were analyzed composition and diversity of soil arthropods at Rajegwesi, MBNP areas. The methods in this research used pitfall trap, measurement of distribution structure and soil arthropods composition based on the Shannon - Wiener index, Morisita similarity index and Importance Value Index (IVI. The number of families and individuals of soil arthropods found in the coastal area of Rajegwesi consists of 10 order with 21 families (702 individual. The number of individuals of the order Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Collembola and Araneida was more widely found. Soil arthropods diversity index on each land use indicated that soil arthropod diversity in these areas were moderate. Soil arthropod community of orchards and forest had a similarity of species composition, whereas soil arthropod community of savanna had a similarity of species composition with paddy fields.

  9. Arthropods in no-tillage soybean agroecosystems: Community composition and ecosystem interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Garfield J.; Stinner, Benjamin R.

    1983-01-01

    Sampling data are provided and concepts discussed regarding soil and foliage arthropod communities in conventional and no-tillage soybean agroecosystems Soil arthropod communities from the two cropping systems were also compared with that from an adjacent old field. Biweekly arthropod samples were collected from conventional, no-tillage, and old-field systems Soil arthropods were sampled by quadrat and pitfall trap methods, foliage arthropods were collected by sweep net Quadrat sampling revealed that ground beetle number, species diversity, and biomass were significantly higher ( Ptrap data indicated higher densities and species diversity for most major soil macro-arthropod guilds Foliage arthropod guilds from no-tillage treatments showed higher species diversity throughout the growing season than those of conventional tillage, possibly because of greater structural diversity provided by weeds and litter in notillage systems No-tillage systems supported a larger and more diverse arthropod community than conventionally grown soybeans, suggesting a need for pest management strategies that simultaneously consider many variables. Both foliar grazing and leaf nitrogen content were higher in conventional than in no-tillage systems, indicating a possible causal connection between soil tillage and insect herbivory rates

  10. Effects of weed harrowing frequency on beneficial arthropods, plants and crop yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navntoft, Søren; Kristensen, Kristian; Johnsen, Ib;

    2016-01-01

    * Weed harrowing is an alternative to herbicides but it may have negative effects on epigaeic arthropods. We assessed the effects of frequent (four) versus two harrowings during the growing season on the density and diversity of generalist arthropods and the weed flora. Collection by flooding was...

  11. [Natural concentration of antimalaric components in Tropical arthropods (in vitro)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla-Carmona, Misael; Guerrero Bermúdez, Olga Marta; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Appel, Ana Sittenfeld; Jiménez-Somarribas, Alberto; Valerio-Campos, Idalia

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol, hexane and dichlorometane extracts of 751 samples of Costa Rican arthropods were studied for the presence of antimalaric components. With Plasmodium berghei we set an in vitro model in which the effect of the extract was determined by staining of the parasites with cresil brilliant blue. Active extracts at concentration of 50 mg or less, were considered positive. Promissory extracts were found in the orders Lepidoptera (24.1%), Coleoptera (32.8%), Hemiptera (38.5%) and Polydesmida (81.3%). Since most of the Lepidoptera samples were in the immature stages, the relation with the host plant was analyzed. Cannaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Crisobalanaceae, Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Ulmaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Rubiaceae, Lauraceae and Caprifoliaceae were related with the Lepidoptera larvae, and an antimalaric effect has been reported in most of these families. In the orders Polydesmida, Opiliones and Blattodea, the extract from adults also had some important effect, probably because all of them fed on plants. Polydesmida and Opiliones have chemical substances that probably serve as defensive purposes; these chemicals could also have some antiparasitic effect. Therefore, the detection of antimalaric components in arthropod species led to the identification of plants with promissory antimalaric components. PMID:19256421

  12. Arthropod succession on pig carcasses in southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Ekanem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The domestic pig (Sus scrofa was used as a model to study arthropod succession on carcasses under tree shade and out of shade in southern Nigeria. Carcass decomposition took longer periods under tree shade than in exposed sites, at 24.5 and 16.5 days, respectively. Four decomposition stages - fresh, bloated, decay, and dry - were observed. No significant variabilities were recorded in the types and patterns of infestation of the carcasses by arthropods in both locations. Four classes of arthropods - Insecta, Arachnida, Diplopoda and Crustacea - were recorded. The class Insecta dominated the total arthropods collected with 24 families, and formed 94% of the catches. The other three classes each had one family represented, and contributed only 2% of the total catches. The calliphorids, a phorid, and sarcophagids arrived and bred on the carcasses only a few hours after death of the pigs. Families of coleopterans came during the bloated stage, and fed on the immature dipterous maggots and carrion materials. The ants (Hymenoptera came in large numbers to eat the carcasses, and also preyed on all other fauna of the food resource. A muscid and a stratiomyiid, bred on the carcass as to the decay stage. Other insects and arthropods arrived mostly during the decay stage to feed on the carcasses. Species richness on the carcasses peaked during the decay stage.O porco branco (Sus scrofa foi usado como modelo para o estudo da sucessão de Artrópodes em cadáveres em zonas sombreadas e não sombreadas por árvores no sul da Nigéria. Nos cadáveres em decomposição em zonas sombreadas observou-se um processo de decomposição mais lento que nos expostos ao sol; 24,5 e 16,5 dias, respectivamente. Foram observadas quatro etapas de decomposição; fresco (autólise, intumescido (putrefação, deteriorado e seco (diagênese. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas de tipo e padrão nas infestações dos cadáveres por Artrópodes em ambas as condi

  13. Arthropods and associated arthropod-borne diseases transmitted by migrating birds. The case of ticks and tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparagano, Olivier; George, David; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Špitalská, Eva

    2015-09-30

    Geographic spread of parasites and pathogens poses a constant risk to animal health and welfare, particularly given that climate change is expected to potentially expand appropriate ranges for many key species. The spread of deleterious organisms via trade routes and human travelling is relatively closely controlled, though represents only one possible means of parasite/pathogen distribution. The transmission via natural parasite/pathogen movement between geographic locales, is far harder to manage. Though the extent of such movement may be limited by the relative inability of many parasites and pathogens to actively migrate, passive movement over long distances may still occur via migratory hosts. This paper reviews the potential role of migrating birds in the transfer of ectoparasites and pathogens between geographic locales, focusing primarily on ticks. Bird-tick-pathogen relationships are considered, and evidence provided of long-range parasite/pathogen transfer from one location to another during bird migration events. As shown in this paper not only many different arthropod species are carried by migrating birds but consequently these pests carry many different pathogens species which can be transmitted to the migrating birds or to other animal species when those arthropods are dropping during these migrations. Data available from the literature are provided highlighting the need to understand better dissemination paths and disease epidemiology. PMID:26343302

  14. Perspectives on the evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolff, Jens; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2016-05-26

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important elements of the innate immune defence in multicellular organisms that target and kill microbes. Here, we reflect on the various points that are raised by the authors of the 11 contributions to a special issue of Philosophical Transactions on the 'evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'. We see five interesting topics emerging. (i) AMP genes in insects, and perhaps in arthropods more generally, evolve much slower than most other immune genes. One explanation refers to the constraints set by AMPs being part of a finely tuned defence system. A new view argues that AMPs are under strong stabilizing selection. Regardless, this striking observation still invites many more questions than have been answered so far. (ii) AMPs almost always are expressed in combinations and sometimes show expression patterns that are dependent on the infectious agent. While it is often assumed that this can be explained by synergistic interactions, such interactions have rarely been demonstrated and need to be studied further. Moreover, how to define synergy in the first place remains difficult and needs to be addressed. (iii) AMPs play a very important role in mediating the interaction between a host and its mutualistic or commensal microbes. This has only been studied in a very small number of (insect) species. It has become clear that the very same AMPs play different roles in different situations and hence are under concurrent selection. (iv) Different environments shape the physiology of organisms; especially the host-associated microbial communities should impact on the evolution host AMPs. Studies in social insects and some organisms from extreme environments seem to support this notion, but, overall, the evidence for adaptation of AMPs to a given environment is scant. (v) AMPs are considered or already developed as new drugs in medicine. However, bacteria can evolve resistance to AMPs. Therefore, in the light of our

  15. Bacteria, fungi and arthropod pests collected on modern human mummies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Palla

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey of opportunistic biocenosis (macro and micro organisms associated with a rest of human mummy samples was carried out to characterise the biocenosis and to detect the potential of biodeteriogens. The rests of the human modern mummies come from a hypogeic site. Since mummies are relevant from a historic-artistic-scientific point of view, an aspect of this study was the identification and characterization of the biological systems related with biodeterioration of organic matter. In a first step, different sampling methods, according to the taxa, were applied. Technological procedures were combined in order to have an interdisciplinary approach to the conservation actions for testing future restoration protocols. Specimens were collected, identified and characterized by Microscopy (light, SEM, CLSM and molecular analyses (DNA extraction, in vitro target sequence amplification, sequencing, sequence analysis. The results highlight a rather complex biocenonsis consisting of fungi, cyanobacteria, several insects and other arthropods.

  16. Transient behavior of cadmium in a grassland arthropod food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological assimilation and transport of cadmium were determined for an arthropod food chain in an east Tennessee grassland community. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that there were no significant differences (P greater than 0.05) in assimilation rates (17 percent assimilation per day) or biological half-lives (7 days) of 109Cd either as soluble nitrate or insoluble oxide in crickets under identical conditions. Field experiments demonstrated that primary consumers (crickets) accumulated 109Cd much more rapidly (uptake rate = 0.55 day-1) than did the spider predators (uptake rate = 0.08 day-1). Equilibrium concentrations in crickets were obtained in 9 days (0.04 ppM cadmium), while equilibrium was not reached in spiders during the 30-day study. Food-chain concentration of cadmium did not occur as crickets accumulated levels of cadmium 60 percent of that in their vegetation food sources and spiders accumulated only 70 percent of the cadmium present in the cricket tissues

  17. A systematic review of arthropod community diversity in association with invasive plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Spafford

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Invasive plants represent a significant financial burden for land managers and also have the potential to severely degrade ecosystems. Arthropods interact strongly with plants, relying on them for food, shelter, and as nurseries for their young. For these reasons, the impacts of plant invasions are likely strongly reflected by arthropod community dynamics including diversity and abundances. A systematic review was conducted to ascertain the state of the literature with respect to plant invaders and their associated arthropod communities. We found that the majority of studies did not biogeographically contrast arthropod community dynamics from both the home and away ranges and that studies were typically narrow in scope, focusing only on the herbivore feeding guild, rather than assessing two or more trophic levels. Importantly, relative arthropod richness was significantly reduced on invasive plant species. Phylogenetic differences between the invasive and local plant community as well as the plant functional group impact arthropod diversity patterns. A framework highlighting some interaction mechanisms between multiple arthropod trophic levels and native and invasive plants is discussed and future research directions relating to these interactions and the findings herein are proposed.

  18. Arthropod abundance and seasonal bird use of bottomland forest harvest gaps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorman, Christopher, E.; Bowen, Liessa T.; Kilgo, John, C.; Hanula, James, L.; Horn, Scott; Ulyshen, Michael, D.

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the influence of arthropod abundance and vegetation structure on shifts in avian use of canopy gap, gap edge, and surrounding forest understory in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. We compared captures of foliage-gleaning birds among locations during four periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration). Foliage arthropod densities were greatest in the forest understory in all four seasons, but understory vegetation density was greatest in gaps. Foliage-gleaning bird abundance was positively associated with foliage-dwelling arthropods during the breeding (F = 18.5, P < 0.001) and post-breeding periods (F = 9.4, P = 0.004), and negatively associated with foliage-dwelling arthropods during fall migration (F = 5.4, P = 0.03). Relationships between birds and arthropods were inconsistent, but the arthropod prey base seemed to be least important during migratory periods. Conversely, bird captures were positively correlated with understory vegetation density during all four periods (P < 0.001). Our study suggests high bird abundance associated with canopy gaps during the non-breeding period resulted less from high arthropod food resource availability than from complex understory and midstory vegetation structure.

  19. Phenoptosis in arthropods and immortality of social insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartsev, V M

    2014-10-01

    In general, there are no drastic differences in phenoptosis patterns in plant and animal organisms. However, there are some specific features characteristic for insects and other arthropods: 1) their development includes metamorphosis with different biochemical laws at consecutive developmental stages; 2) arthropods can reduce or stop development and aging when in a state of diapause or temporal cold immobility; 3) their life cycle often correlates with seasonal changes of surroundings; 4) polymorphism is widespread - conspecifics differ by their lifespans and phenoptosis features; 5) lifespan-related sexual dimorphism is common; 6) significant situational plasticity of life cycle organization is an important feature; for example, the German wasp (Paravespula germanica) is obligatorily univoltine in the temperate zone, while in tropical regions its lifespan increases and leads to repeated reproduction; 7) life cycles of closely related species may differ significantly, for example, in contrast to German wasp, some tropical hornets (Vespa) have only one reproduction period. Surprisingly, many insect species have been shown to be subjected to gradual aging and phenoptosis, like the highest mammals. However, queens of social insects and some long-lived arachnids can apparently be considered non-aging organisms. In some species, lifespan is limited to one season, while others live much longer or shorter. Cases of one-time reproduction are rather rare. Aphagia is common in insects (over 10,000 species). Cannibalism is an important mortality factor in insects as well as in spiders. In social insects, which exist only in colonies (families), the lifetime of a colony can be virtually unlimited. However, in case of some species the developmental cycle and death of a colony after its completion are predetermined. Most likely, natural selection in insects does not lengthen individual lifespan, but favors increase in reproduction efficiency based on fast succession of

  20. Arthropods of Medical Importance in Brazil: Retrospective Epidemiological Information about Accidents Involving these Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danon Clemes Cardoso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The epidemiological information about arthropods bites/sting in Criciúma region no was reported. The aim of this Research was to draw the epidemiologic profile of accidents with arthropods in Criciúma region. Approach: The information regarding accidents with arthropods from 1994-2006 was prospectively collected from SINAN (System of Injury Notification Information files of the 21a Municipal Health Secretary of Criciúma region. Was calculated the frequency for each variable studied and incidence coefficient for period of study. Results: Results were recorded 1821 notifications of accidents with arthropods in region studied. The numbers of occurrence increased along of the years studied. The arthropod that most result in accidents was the spider with 1,126 (75.9% cases followed by Honeybees and others Arthropods with 149 (10.0% cases, Caterpillars including Lonomia genus and others genera (54/3.7% and scorpions with the least number of accidents with 6 (0.4% cases. The incidence of accidents every thousand inhabitants had a significant increase starting in the year of 2000. The majority of accidents occurred in the warmest months, increasing in the spring and summer seasons. Was recorded more than twice of accidents with arthropods in Urban area than in rural areas. The Chi-square test revealed that the frequency of accidents between locations and type of arthropods is different. Likewise, the number the victims and activity type in moment of the bite/sting had been a differ behavior between arthropods type. However, the number of accidents involving victims of male and female gender is equal. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies of this type in the extreme south of Santa Catarina are scarce. Only few studies have reported the patterns of occurrence and incidence of accidents with poisonous animals. These and other studies are of great importance for implementation of measures mitigation programs and education for

  1. Sweeping beauty: is grassland arthropod community composition effectively estimated by sweep netting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spafford, Ryan D; Lortie, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods are critical ecosystem components due to their high diversity and sensitivity to perturbation. Furthermore, due to their ease of capture they are often the focus of environmental health surveys. There is much debate regarding the best sampling method to use in these surveys. Sweep netting and pan trapping are two sampling methods commonly used in agricultural arthropod surveys, but have not been contrasted in natural grassland systems at the community level. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sweep netting was effective at estimating arthropod diversity at the community level in grasslands or if supplemental pan trapping was needed. Arthropods were collected from grassland sites in Montana, USA, in the summer of 2011. The following three standardized evaluation criteria (consistency, reliability, and precision) were developed to assess the efficacy of sweep netting and pan trapping, based on analyses of variations in arthropod abundances, species richness, evenness, capture frequency, and community composition. Neither sampling method was sufficient in any criteria to be used alone for community-level arthropod surveys. On a taxa-specific basis, however, sweep netting was consistent, reliable, and precise for Thysanoptera, infrequently collected (i.e., rare) insects, and Arachnida, whereas pan trapping was consistent, reliable, and precise for Collembola and bees, which is especially significant given current threats to the latter's populations worldwide. Species-level identifications increase the detected dissimilarity between sweep netting and pan trapping. We recommend that community-level arthropod surveys use both sampling methods concurrently, at least in grasslands, but likely in most nonagricultural systems. Target surveys, such as monitoring bee communities in fragmented grassland habitat or where detailed information on behavior of the target arthropod groups is available can in some instances employ singular methods. As a

  2. Grassland Arthropods Are Controlled by Direct and Indirect Interactions with Cattle but Are Largely Unaffected by Plant Provenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Anne Farrell

    Full Text Available Cattle grazing and invasion by non-native plant species are globally-ubiquitous changes occurring to plant communities that are likely to reverberate through whole food webs. We used a manipulative field experiment to quantify how arthropod community structure differed in native and non-native California grassland communities in the presence and absence of grazing. The arthropod community was strongly affected by cattle grazing: the biovolume of herbivorous arthropods was 79% higher in grazed than ungrazed plots, whereas the biovolume of predatory arthropods was 13% higher in ungrazed plots. In plots where non-native grasses were grazed, arthropod biovolume increased, possibly in response to increased plant productivity or increased nutritional quality of rapidly-growing annual plants. Grazing may thus affect plant biomass both through the direct removal of biomass, and through arthropod-mediated impacts. We also expected the arthropod community to differ between native and non-native plant communities; surprisingly, arthropod richness and diversity did not vary consistently between these grass community types, although arthropod abundance was slightly higher in plots with native and ungrazed grasses. These results suggest that whereas cattle grazing affects the arthropod community via direct and indirect pathways, arthropod community changes commonly associated with non-native plant invasions may not be due to the identity or dominance of the invasive species in those systems, but to accompanying changes in plant traits or functional group composition, not seen in this experiment because of the similarity of the plant communities.

  3. Acquisition of Cry1Ac Protein by Non-Target Arthropods in Bt Soybean Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Huilin Yu; Jörg Romeis; Yunhe Li; Xiangju Li; Kongming Wu

    2014-01-01

    Soybean tissue and arthropods were collected in Bt soybean fields in China at different times during the growing season to investigate the exposure of arthropods to the plant-produced Cry1Ac toxin and the transmission of the toxin within the food web. Samples from 52 arthropod species/taxa belonging to 42 families in 10 orders were analysed for their Cry1Ac content using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Among the 22 species/taxa for which three samples were analysed, toxin concentra...

  4. The arthropod community of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) canopies in Norway

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thunes, K. H.; Skartveit, J.; Gjerde, I.; Starý, Josef; Solhoy, T.; Fjellberg, A.; Kobro, S.; Nakahara, S.; zur Strassen, R.; Vierbergen, G.; Szadziewski, R.; Hagan, D. V.; Grogan Jr., W. L.; Jonassen, T.; Aakra, K.; Anonby, J.; Greve, L.; Aukema, B.; Heller, K.; Michelsen, V.; Haenni, J.-P.; Emeljanov, A. F.; Douwes, P.; Berggren, K.; Franzen, J.; Disney, R. H. L.; Prescher, S.; Johanson, K. A.; Mamaev, B.; Podenas, S.; Andersen, S.; Gaimari, S. D.; Nartshuk, E.; Soli, G. E. E.; Papp, L.; Midtgaard, F.; Andersen, A.; von Tschirnhaus, M.; Bächli, G.; Olsen, K. M.; Olsvik, H.; Földvári, M.; Raastad, J. E.; Hansen, L. O.; Djursvoll, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2004), s. 65-90. ISSN 0785-8760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : arthropod community * Scots pine * canopies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.298, year: 2004

  5. Introduction to symposium: Arthropods and wildlife conservation: synergy in complex biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The symposium will discuss the effects of arthropods and other stressors on wildlife conservation programs. Speakers with affiliations in wildlife biology, parasitology and entomology will be included in the program. Research of national and international interest will be presented....

  6. Exceptional preservation of eye structure in arthropod visual predators from the Middle Jurassic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Jean; Schoenemann, Brigitte; Gillot, Thomas; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Clarkson, Euan

    2016-01-01

    Vision has revolutionized the way animals explore their environment and interact with each other and rapidly became a major driving force in animal evolution. However, direct evidence of how ancient animals could perceive their environment is extremely difficult to obtain because internal eye structures are almost never fossilized. Here, we reconstruct with unprecedented resolution the three-dimensional structure of the huge compound eye of a 160-million-year-old thylacocephalan arthropod from the La Voulte exceptional fossil biota in SE France. This arthropod had about 18,000 lenses on each eye, which is a record among extinct and extant arthropods and is surpassed only by modern dragonflies. Combined information about its eyes, internal organs and gut contents obtained by X-ray microtomography lead to the conclusion that this thylacocephalan arthropod was a visual hunter probably adapted to illuminated environments, thus contradicting the hypothesis that La Voulte was a deep-water environment. PMID:26785293

  7. Arthropod trace fossils from the Zhujiaqing Formation (Meishucunian, Yunnan) and their palaeobiological implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bernd WEBER1; ZHU Maoyan

    2003-01-01

    Along with several non-arthropod ichnotaxa and rather non-specific scratchmarks, the Upper Phosphate of the Zhujiaqing Formation (Early Meishucunian Stage) in Eastern Yunnan yielded well-preserved resting and digging traces of the Rusophycus-type interpreted as resting traces of unknown large arthropods (ca. 3~6 cm in length). The discernible morphological details of these trace fossils enable a rough estimation of the body plan characteristics of the trace originators placing the latter doubtless into the early arthropods, if not euarthropods. The spectrum of the Meishucunian ichnoassemblage, especially the different types of arthropod repichnia point to the existence of a complex benthic ecosystem consisting of animals with different behavioural patterns and life styles already during the earliest Cambrian (Nemakit-Daldyn), and demands the assumption of a longer evolutionary past history of the benthic life on earth before the so-called "Cambrian Explosion" of the metazoans.

  8. Genetic Variation in Functional Traits Influences Arthropod Community Composition in Aspen (Populus tremula L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Kathryn M; Pär K Ingvarsson; Jansson, Stefan; Albrectsen, Benedicte R.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp) collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod ...

  9. Dynamics of the leaf-litter arthropod fauna following fire in a neotropical woodland savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Pacheco, Renata; Silva, Raphael C; Vasconcelos, Pedro B; Lopes, Cauê T; Costa, Alan N; Bruna, Emilio M

    2009-01-01

    Fire is an important agent of disturbance in tropical savannas, but relatively few studies have analyzed how soil-and-litter dwelling arthropods respond to fire disturbance despite the critical role these organisms play in nutrient cycling and other biogeochemical processes. Following the incursion of a fire into a woodland savanna ecological reserve in Central Brazil, we monitored the dynamics of litter-arthropod populations for nearly two years in one burned and one unburned area of the reserve. We also performed a reciprocal transplant experiment to determine the effects of fire and litter type on the dynamics of litter colonization by arthropods. Overall arthropod abundance, the abundance of individual taxa, the richness of taxonomic groups, and the species richness of individual taxa (Formiciade) were lower in the burned site. However, both the ordinal-level composition of the litter arthropod fauna and the species-level composition of the litter ant fauna were not dramatically different in the burned and unburned sites. There is evidence that seasonality of rainfall interacts with fire, as differences in arthropod abundance and diversity were more pronounced in the dry than in the wet season. For many taxa the differences in abundance between burned and unburned sites were maintained even when controlling for litter availability and quality. In contrast, differences in abundance for Collembola, Formicidae, and Thysanoptera were only detected in the unmanipulated samples, which had a lower amount of litter in the burned than in the unburned site throughout most of our study period. Together these results suggest that arthropod density declines in fire-disturbed areas as a result of direct mortality, diminished resources (i.e., reduced litter cover) and less favorable microclimate (i.e., increased litter desiccation due to reduction in tree cover). Although these effects were transitory, there is evidence that the increasingly prevalent fire return interval of

  10. Effects of Persistent Insecticides on Beneficial Soil Arthropod in Conventional Fields Compared to Organic Fields, Puducherry

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathy Anbarashan; Poyyamoli Gopalswamy

    2013-01-01

    The usage of synthetic fertilizers/insecticides in conventional farming has dramatically increased over the past decades. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bio-pesticides and insecticides/pesticides on selected beneficial non targeted arthropods. Orders Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Oribatida and Coleoptera were the main groups of arthropods found in the organic fields and Coleoptera, Oribatida, Gamasida and Collembola in conventional fields. Pesticides/insecticides...

  11. Influence of Selective Insecticides and Cropping System on Arthropod Natural Enemies in Soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Whalen, Rebecca Anne

    2016-01-01

    Arthropod natural enemies play a key role in controlling potentially damaging pest populations in agroecosystems. An abundant and diverse natural enemy community is associated with higher yields in a variety of crops. Certain aspects of soybean production can make a field more or less amenable to a robust natural enemy community. For instance, commonly used broad-spectrum insecticides which are highly toxic to most arthropods can decrease natural enemy densities and allow for secondary pest o...

  12. A systematic review of arthropod community diversity in association with invasive plants

    OpenAIRE

    Spafford, Ryan D; Lortie, Christopher J.; Butterfield, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive plants represent a significant financial burden for land managers and also have the potential to severely degrade ecosystems. Arthropods interact strongly with plants, relying on them for food, shelter, and as nurseries for their young. For these reasons, the impacts of plant invasions are likely strongly reflected by arthropod community dynamics including diversity and abundances. A systematic review was conducted to ascertain the state of the literature with respect to plant invade...

  13. Possible developmental mechanisms underlying the origin of the crown lineages of arthropods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiuqiang; CHEN Junyuan

    2004-01-01

    The extraordinarily preserved, diverse arthropod fauna from the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan shale, central Yunnan (southwest China), represents different evolutionary stages stepping from stem lineages towards crown arthropods (also called euarthropods), which makes this fauna extremely significant for discussion of the origin and early diversification of the arthropods. Anatomical analyses of the Maotianshan shale arthropods strongly indicate that the origin of crown arthropods involved three major evolutionary events, arthrodisation, arthropodisation and cephali- zation. We try to explore possible evolutionary changes of the developmental mechanism that may have underlain origins of euarthropod appendage and head. Fossil evidence suggests that the formation of a jointed limb known as arthropodisation and formation of multi-segmented head (called cephalization), which characterize euarthropods, is an event after arthrodisation characterized with the formation of segmented-exoskeleton and the joint membrane between tergites. We propose that the Hox complex was already operating at least as early as in the Early Cambrian and is responsible for the formation of the joint membrane between two semgents through Hox gene regulation along the D-V and P-D axis. Fossil evidence indicates that the head in ground state of arthropods consists only of two segments, an ocular and an antennal one. The formation of multiple segmented, euarthropod head (called syncephalon) from the two-segmented head was a separate event, which is called cephali- zation. Presence of the Hox gene head expression domain and change of developmental mechanism in head segments might be responsible for the formation of the syncephalon and this event has been broadly finished in the Early Cambrian arthropods. The post-oral limbs in the early syncephalons as evidenced from the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan shale arthropods however were almost identical to those in trunk. Therefore we proposed that the Hox

  14. Arthropod diversity in pure oak forests of coppice origin in northern Thrace (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keten A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oak (Quercus spp. forests are among the most important forest types in Turkey. In the past, oak forests were managed through coppice clear-cutting, but in recent decades they have mostly been converted to high forest. This study was aimed at explaining how arthropod diversity is affected during conversion from coppice to high oak forest and during the early stages of coppice succession. We tested the hypothesis that arthropod richness, abundance and diversity in coppice oak sites varied according to stand age and a number of other forest characteristics. Arthropod communities were sampled in 50 plots using four different methods: pitfall traps, sweep nets, sticky cards and cloth shaking. A total of 13 084 individuals were collected and classified into 193 Recognizable Taxonomic Units (RTUs, with the most RTUs and the greatest number of specimens captured by sweep netting. We identified 17 taxa within RTU’s with more than 1% of the captured arthropods, which constituted 75% of the total specimens. The number of RTUs varied significantly according to trap type. Arthropod richness and Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index (H′ increased with elevation and precipitation. In young (1-40 yrs-old and middle-aged (41-80 yrs stands, arthropod biodiversity was not significantly affected by stand type, but slightly increased with diameter at breast height and tree height. Forest characteristics, such as the litter layer, understory and crown diameter, weakly influenced arthropod richness and abundance. Cluster analysis revealed that stand types and trap types differed taxonomically. Principal component analysis showed that stand types were clearly separated by the stand parameters measured. Insect families (Formicidae, Thripidae, Lygaeidae, Dolichopodidae, Luaxanidae, Cicadellidae and Ichneumonidae could potentially be used as indicators of coppice oak conditions. As the coppice oak changes to mature forest, further studies are needed to better assess the

  15. Ecosystem engineers on plants: indirect facilitation of arthropod communities by leaf-rollers at different scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Camila; Romero, Gustavo Q

    2013-07-01

    Ecosystem engineering is a process by which organisms change the distribution of resources and create new habitats for other species via non-trophic interactions. Leaf-rolling caterpillars can act as ecosystem engineers because they provide shelter to secondary users. In this study, we report the influence of leaf-rolling caterpillars on speciose tropical arthropod communities along both spatial scales (leaf-level and plant-level effects) and temporal scales (dry and rainy seasons). We predict that rolled leaves can amplify arthropod diversity at both the leaf and plant levels and that this effect is stronger in dry seasons, when arthropods are prone to desiccation. Our results show that the abundance, richness, and biomass of arthropods within several guilds increased up to 22-fold in naturally and artificially created leaf shelters relative to unaltered leaves. These effects were observed at similar magnitudes at both the leaf and plant scales. Variation in the shelter architecture (funnel, cylinders) did not influence arthropod parameters, as diversity, abundance, orbiomass, but rolled leaves had distinct species composition if compared with unaltered leaves. As expected, these arthropod parameters on the plants with rolled leaves were on average approximately twofold higher in the dry season. Empty leaf rolls and whole plants were rapidly recolonized by arthropods over time, implying a fast replacement of individuals; within 15-day intervals the rolls and plants reached a species saturation. This study is the first to examine the extended effects of engineering caterpillars as diversity amplifiers at different temporal and spatial scales. Because shelter-building caterpillars are ubiquitous organisms in tropical and temperate forests, they can be considered key structuring elements for arthropod communities on plants. PMID:23951711

  16. Habitat Heterogeneity Affects Plant and Arthropod Species Diversity and Turnover in Traditional Cornfields

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Eliana; Rös, Matthias; Bonilla, María Argenis; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of the agricultural frontier by the clearing of remnant forests has led to human-dominated landscape mosaics. Previous studies have evaluated the effect of these landscape mosaics on arthropod diversity at local spatial scales in temperate and tropical regions, but little is known about fragmentation effects in crop systems, such as the complex tropical traditional crop systems that maintain a high diversity of weeds and arthropods in low-Andean regions. To understand the factor...

  17. Commercial implications and IPR related to the use of transgenic arthropods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have recently created a company (Insecta, Ltd.) for the express purpose of fully exploiting both the traditional Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and the potential benefits of using transgenic arthropods to control agricultural and medical pest insects or, more generally, animal and human diseases. This short paper briefly considers some of the general issues surrounding the commercial exploitation of transgenic arthropods both through the improvement of the SIT and for other, more innovative, approaches to disease and pest control. (author)

  18. Abundance and diversity of soil arthropods in the olive grove ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Maria Fátima; Pereira, José Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Arthropods are part of important functional groups in soil food webs. Recognizing these arthropods and understanding their function in the ecosystem as well as when they are active is essential to understanding their roles. In the present work, the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods is examined in olive groves in the northeast region of Portugal during the spring. Five classes of arthropods were found: Chilopoda, Malacostraca, Entognatha, Insecta, and Arachnida. Captures were numerically dominated by Collembola within Entognatha, representing 70.9% of total captures. Arachnida and Insecta classes represented about 20.4 and 9.0%, respectively. Among the predatory arthropods, the most representative groups were Araneae and Opiliones from Arachnida, and Formicidae, Carabidae, and Staphylinidae from Insecta. From the Formicidae family, Tetramorium semilaeve (Andre 1883), Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856), and Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier 1792) were the most representative ant species. Arthropods demonstrated preference during the day, with 74% of the total individuals recovered in this period, although richness and similarity were analogous during the day and night. PMID:22943295

  19. Arthropod-borne infections in travelled dogs in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamel Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pet animal movement is ever increasing within the European Union and in that context canine vectorborne infections gained a considerable importance. Information on these infections in travelled dogs is nevertheless limited. A first prospective study on vector-borne infections was conducted in 106 dogs travelling from Germany to countries in South and South-East Europe. The dogs were screened prior to and consecutively up to three times after travel by haematological (Giemsa-stained buffy coat smears, Knott’s-Test, molecular biological (PCR as well as serological (IFAT, DiroChek®-ELISA methods for arthropod-borne infections. Seven animals were seropositive for antibodies against Babesia canis sspp., Leishmania spp. and/or Ehrlichia canis prior to travel to Italy, Spain, France, Croatia, Greece, or Hungary. In the consecutive screening after return there was no increase in the number of seropositive dogs. None was positive in direct methods. The mean duration of the stay was 17 days and 51% of the dogs were prophylactically treated with ectoparasiticidal formulations. Preliminary data from this study on canine vector-borne infections indicate a low risk for infection during a limited single stay in endemic countries.

  20. [Structure of parasitic arthropod communities in forest small mammals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, Iu S

    2004-01-01

    Species composition and structure of ectoparasite arthropod communities were examined all year round six years in the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus, Ural wood mouse Apodemus uralensis and the common shrew Sorex araneus in forests of the Ilmen'-Volkhov depression. In total, 4500 host samples have been examined and all ectoparasites have been collected. The species composition of ectoparasite community in small mammal species are as follows: the bank vole--29 insect, tick and mite species, the common shrew--23 species, the Ural wood mouse--16 species. In forest biotopes, many temporary ectoparasitic species occur on several host species living in the same habitats under a forest canopy and contacting each other. A parasitic supracommunity in the ecosystem examined has a pool of temporary ectoparasites, which is available for all the community of small mammals. A role of different rodent and shrew species are hosts of insects and ticks changes depending on a density of potential host populations and numerous other environment factors. PMID:15656091

  1. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1980-October 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress and current status are reported for research projects concerned with mineral element and nutrient dynamics in soil arthropod food chains. Research is performed within the larger context of terrestrial decomposition, in which soil arthropods may act as regulators of nutrient dynamics during decomposition. Research is measuring rates of nutrient accumulation and excretion by using radioactive tracer analogs of nutrients. This year, emphasis has been placed on field work in which soil arthropod population size and nutrients inputs were varied experimentally. The presence of microarthropods in field microcosms increased the mineralization of N and P in each case, but rates were not correlated with arthropod densities. Experiments recently started are using both arthropod and microfloral inhibitors, in open systems on the forest floor, with the objective of quantifying arthropod enhancement of microbial immobilization of nutrients

  2. The effects of land-use change on arthropod richness and abundance on Santa Maria Island (Azores)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Seline S.; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, P. A. V.

    2011-01-01

    We study how endemic, native and introduced arthropod species richness, abundance, diversity and community composition vary between four different habitat types (native forest, exotic forest of Cryptomeria japonica, semi-natural pasture and intensive pasture) and how arthropod richness...... and abundance change with increasing distance from the native forest in adjacent habitat types in Santa Maria Island, the Azores. Arthropods were sampled in four 150 m long transects in each habitat type. Arthropods were identified to species level and classified as Azorean endemic, single-island endemic (SIE...... and diversity, but the highest values of total arthropod abundance and introduced species richness and diversity. Arthropod community composition was significantly different between the four habitat types. In the semi-natural pasture, the number of SIE species decreased with increasing distance from the native...

  3. A New Arthropod, Guangweicaris Luo, Fu et Hu gen. nov.from the Early Cambrian Guanshan Fauna, Kunming, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Huilin; FU Xiaoping; HU Shixue; LI Yong; HOU Shuguang; YOU Ting; PANG Jiyuan; LIU Qi

    2007-01-01

    The Guanshan Fauna is a soft-bodied fauna dominated by arthropods (including trilobites,trilobitoides, Tuzoia, Isoxys, and bradorids) in association with priapulids, brachiopods,anomalocaridids, vetulicoliids, sponges, chancellorids, and echinoderms. This paper reports and describes a new arthropod from the yellowish green mudstone at the lower part of the Wulongqing Formation, Canglangpuan Stage, Lower Cambrian in Kunming, Yunnan, China. The stratigraphic and geographic distribution, classification, fossil preservation, life style of this new arthropod and comparisons with other fossil arthropods are also discussed in details. The discovery and research of the non-mineralized arthropod, Guangweicaris Luo, Fu et Hu gen. nov. from the Guanshan Fauna adds new members to the taxonomic list and provides new information to the evolution of early arthropods.Furthermore, this study would shed new light into the "Cambrian Explosion" and the evolution of early life.

  4. Influence of the day period on the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods in olive grove ecosystem.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, M.F.; J. A. Pereira

    2009-01-01

    On soil food webs, arthropods are part of important functional groups. Recognize these arthropods and understand its function in the ecosystem as well as the period of the day in which they are actives, is essential to understand their roles. In the present work we intend to study the soil arthropods diversity as well as the period of the day that are actives in three olive groves from the Northeast of Portugal. Particular emphasis was given to the generalist predators that can at...

  5. Arthropods in Natural Communities in Mescal Agave (Agave durangensis Gentry) in an Arid Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Maria P. Gonzalez-Castillo; Manuel Q. Escalante; Gabriela Castano-Meneses

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The arthropods have a very important role in the arid zones due to their interactions with many organism and because they constituted an important element in the structure of the plant community. Nevertheless their importance there are few knowledge about the community of arthropods associated to vegetation in arid zones in the North of Mexico. The present study had the objective of determining the abundance, richness and diversity of arthropods in three localities where th...

  6. The Diversity and Abundance of Small Arthropods in Onion, Allium cepa, Seed Crops, and their Potential Role in Pollination

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, M.K.; Howlett, B. G.; Wallace, A.R.; Mccallum, J. A.; Teulon, D.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Onion, Allium cepa L. (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae), crop fields grown for seed production require arthropod pollination for adequate seed yield. Although many arthropod species visit A. cepa flowers, for most there is little information on their role as pollinators. Small flower visiting arthropods (body width < 3 mm) in particular are rarely assessed. A survey of eight flowering commercial A. cepa seed fields in the North and South Islands of New Zealand using window traps revealed that sma...

  7. Diversity of Soil Arthropods in Teak Forest Plantation Forests at Cepu, Blora, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Farikhah Haneda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects are the main group of soil arthropod and the most dominant animals in the terrestrial ecosystems.  The aims of this study were to get information about soil arthropod diversity in relation to environmental influence at teak plantations at Cepu, Central Java. The sampling plot design was based on forest health monitoring design method. Pitfall trap and Berlese-Tullgren funnel were employed to collect the soil arthropods. The trapped specimens were sorted in the laboratory and then identified up to family or genus.  The result of the study revealed that young-age plantation has higher abundance and diversity of arthropod than old-age plantation. Totally we found 3 classes, 11 orders, 29 families, and 714 individuals from young teak plantation, and 3 classes, 11 orders, 25 families, and 397 individuals from the old one. The dominant class was insect and the dominant order of the insects was Hymenoptera. The thickness of the teak litter was the most important factor to the abundance of soil arthropods (R2 = 0.891.Keywords: forest health monitoring, environmental factor, teak litter, pitfall, Berlese-Tullgren funnel DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.3.169

  8. Evaluation of Ground Arthropod Structure in Restoration Area of Talangagung Landfill as Edutourism Attraction, Kepanjen, Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinda Azalia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research is to know the composition, community structure and survivality of ground arthropod in restoration area of Talangagung edutourism landfill (TPA Wisata Edukasi Talangagung. Arthopod survey was conducted with four methods, yellow pan trap, pit fall trap, berlesetullgren, and sweep net. The research was done in four different locations with twice repetition. Survey location was devided in three zone, which is zone one with 10 years restoration, zone two with five years restoration, and zone three which not yet restored, and reference site. Abiotic factor which observed in this research such as light intensity, humidity, and air temperature. Analysis of arthropod diversity and community structure in each site was calculated from importance value index (IVI and diversity index (Shannon Wienner Index. The results show that diversity of ground arthropod in zone one, two, three, and reference site was on medium level which each score 1.9, 1.87, 1.71, and 2.08. Community structure with dominant pattern showed with IVI from Acrididae in zone one and zone three with IVI 67.2 % and 53.5 %. Myrmicidae in reference site dominance with IVI 51.4 % and Formicidae in zone one with IVI 48.6 %. Ground arthropod in zone one and reference site had similarity in community structure which showed in same cluster in biplot analysis and zone two and three was in another different cluster. Keywords : Arthropod, diversity, restoration, community structure

  9. Disturbance and recovery of salt marsh arthropod communities following BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany D McCall

    Full Text Available Oil spills represent a major environmental threat to coastal wetlands, which provide a variety of critical ecosystem services to humanity. The U.S. Gulf of Mexico is a hub of oil and gas exploration activities that historically have impacted intertidal habitats such as salt marsh. Following the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill, we sampled the terrestrial arthropod community and marine invertebrates found in stands of Spartina alterniflora, the most abundant plant in coastal salt marshes. Sampling occurred in 2010 as oil was washing ashore and a year later in 2011. In 2010, intertidal crabs and terrestrial arthropods (insects and spiders were suppressed by oil exposure even in seemingly unaffected stands of plants; however, Littoraria snails were unaffected. One year later, crab and arthropods had largely recovered. Our work is the first attempt that we know of assessing vulnerability of the salt marsh arthropod community to oil exposure, and it suggests that arthropods are both quite vulnerable to oil exposure and quite resilient, able to recover from exposure within a year if host plants remain healthy.

  10. Modification and Application of a Leaf Blower-vac for Field Sampling of Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yi; van Telgen, Mario D; Chen, Junhui; Xiao, Haijun; de Kraker, Joop; Bianchi, Felix J J A; van der Werf, Wopke

    2016-01-01

    Rice fields host a large diversity of arthropods, but investigating their population dynamics and interactions is challenging. Here we describe the modification and application of a leaf blower-vac for suction sampling of arthropod populations in rice. When used in combination with an enclosure, application of this sampling device provides absolute estimates of the populations of arthropods as numbers per standardized sampling area. The sampling efficiency depends critically on the sampling duration. In a mature rice crop, a two-minute sampling in an enclosure of 0.13 m(2) yields more than 90% of the arthropod population. The device also allows sampling of arthropods dwelling on the water surface or the soil in rice paddies, but it is not suitable for sampling fast flying insects, such as predatory Odonata or larger hymenopterous parasitoids. The modified blower-vac is simple to construct, and cheaper and easier to handle than traditional suction sampling devices, such as D-vac. The low cost makes the modified blower-vac also accessible to researchers in developing countries. PMID:27584040

  11. A framework for assessment and monitoring of arthropods in a lowland tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnamore, Albert; Alonso, Alfonso; Santisteban, Jose; Cordova, Saida; Valencia, Gorky; de la Cruz, Alicia; Polo, Roberto

    2002-05-01

    By applying principles of adaptive management, and by using the valuable information that arthropods provide from assessment and monitoring programs, managers can identify and reduce possible impacts on biodiversity in development projects. In 1996, the Smithsonian Institution's Monitoring and Assessment of Biodiversity program worked together with Shell Prospecting and Development Peru to establish an adaptive management program to protect biodiversity in a natural gas exploration project in a Peruvian rainforest. In this paper, we outlined the conceptual steps involved in establishing an assessment and monitoring program for arthropods, including setting objectives, evaluating the results and making decisions. We also present the results of the assessment using some of groups of arthropods, and summarize the steps taken to identify appropriate groups for monitoring. PMID:12125749

  12. Tiny individuals attached to a new Silurian arthropod suggest a unique mode of brood care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Derek E. G.; Siveter, Derek J.; Siveter, David J.; Sutton, Mark D.

    2016-04-01

    The ˜430-My-old Herefordshire, United Kingdom, Lagerstätte has yielded a diversity of remarkably preserved invertebrates, many of which provide fundamental insights into the evolutionary history and ecology of particular taxa. Here we report a new arthropod with 10 tiny arthropods tethered to its tergites by long individual threads. The head of the host, which is covered by a shield that projects anteriorly, bears a long stout uniramous antenna and a chelate limb followed by two biramous appendages. The trunk comprises 11 segments, all bearing limbs and covered by tergites with long slender lateral spines. A short telson bears long parallel cerci. Our phylogenetic analysis resolves the new arthropod as a stem-group mandibulate. The evidence suggests that the tethered individuals are juveniles and the association represents a complex brooding behavior. Alternative possibilities—that the tethered individuals represent a different epizoic or parasitic arthropod—appear less likely.

  13. Spatial dynamics of understorey insectivorous birds and arthropods in a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic woodlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhães, M A; Dias, M M

    2011-02-01

    Spatial distribution and spatial relationships in capture rates of understorey insectivorous birds and density of arthropods were investigated in a patch of upper montane rain forest in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, from January to December 2004. The composition of the arthropod fauna collected was similar to that reported for other tropical forests, with predominance of Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Hemiptera non-Heteroptera. A total of 26 bird species were captured, among which the more common were Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus and Sclerurus scansor. Variation in the bird capture rates among sampling net lines were not correlated with arthropod density. Rather, individual analyses of some bird species suggest that spatial distribution of understorey insectivorous birds is better explained by habitat type. PMID:21437393

  14. Elevated atmospheric CO2 alters the arthropod community in a forest understory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jason; Zangerl, Arthur R.; Berenbaum, May R.; Sparks, Jed P.; Elich, Lauren; Eisenstein, Alissa; DeLucia, Evan H.

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which overall population sizes and community composition of arthropods in a naturally occurring forest understory are altered by elevated CO2. The Free Air Concentration Enrichment (FACE) method was used to fumigate large, replicated plots in the Piedmont region of North Carolina, USA to achieve the CO2 concentration predicted for 2050 (˜580 μl l-1). In addition, the extent to which unrestricted herbivorous arthropods were spatially delimited in their resource acquisition was determined. Stable isotope data for spiders (δ13C and δ15N) were collected in ambient and elevated CO2 plots and analyzed to determine whether their prey species moved among plots. Elevated CO2 had no effect on total arthropod numbers but had a large effect on the composition of the arthropod community. Insects collected in our samples were identified to a level that allowed for an assignment of trophic classification (generally to family). For the groups of insects sensitive to atmospheric gas composition, there was an increase in the numbers of individuals collected in primarily predaceous orders (Araneae and Hymenoptera; from 60% to more than 150%) under elevated CO2 and a decrease in the numbers in primarily herbivorous orders (Lepidoptera and Coleoptera; from -30 to -45%). Isotopic data gave no indication that the treatment plots represented a "boundary" to the movement of insects or that there were distinct and independent insect populations inside and outside the treatment plots. A simple two-ended mixing model estimates 55% of the carbon and nitrogen in spider biomass originated external to the elevated CO2 plots. In addition to changes in insect performance, decreases in herbivorous arthropods and increases in predaceous arthropods may also be factors involved in reduced herbivory under elevated CO2 in this forest.

  15. Feeding and the rhodopsin family G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs in nematodes and arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Carlos dos Reis Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, receptors of the rhodopsin G-protein coupled superfamily (GPCRs play an important role in the regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis and are activated by peptide hormones produced in the brain-gut axis. These peptides regulate appetite and energy expenditure by promoting or inhibiting food intake. Sequence and function homologues of human GPCRs involved in feeding exist in the nematode roundworm, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans and the arthropod fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster, suggesting that the mechanisms that regulate food intake emerged early and have been conserved during metazoan radiation. Nematodes and arthropods are the most diverse and successful animal phyla on Earth. They can survive in a vast diversity of environments and have acquired distinct life styles and feeding strategies. The aim of the present review is to investigate if this diversity has affected the evolution of invertebrate GPCRs. Homologues of the C. elegans and D. melanogaster rhodopsin receptors were characterized in the genome of other nematodes and arthropods and receptor evolution compared. With the exception of bombesin receptors (BBR that are absent from nematodes, a similar gene complement was found. In arthropods, rhodopsin GPCR evolution is characterized by species-specific gene duplications and deletions and in nematodes by gene expansions in species with a free-living stage and gene deletions in representatives of obligate parasitic taxa. Based upon variation in GPCR gene number and potentially divergent functions within phyla we hypothesize that life style and feeding diversity practiced by nematodes and arthropods was one factor that contributed to rhodopsin GPCR gene evolution. Understanding how the regulation of food intake has evolved in invertebrates will contribute to the development of novel drugs to control nematodes and arthropods and the pests and diseases that use them as vectors.

  16. Feeding and the rhodopsin family g-protein coupled receptors in nematodes and arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João C R; Félix, Rute C; Fonseca, Vera G; Power, Deborah M

    2012-01-01

    In vertebrates, receptors of the rhodopsin G-protein coupled superfamily (GPCRs) play an important role in the regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis and are activated by peptide hormones produced in the brain-gut axis. These peptides regulate appetite and energy expenditure by promoting or inhibiting food intake. Sequence and function homologs of human GPCRs involved in feeding exist in the nematode roundworm, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), and the arthropod fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster), suggesting that the mechanisms that regulate food intake emerged early and have been conserved during metazoan radiation. Nematodes and arthropods are the most diverse and successful animal phyla on Earth. They can survive in a vast diversity of environments and have acquired distinct life styles and feeding strategies. The aim of the present review is to investigate if this diversity has affected the evolution of invertebrate GPCRs. Homologs of the C. elegans and D. melanogaster rhodopsin receptors were characterized in the genome of other nematodes and arthropods and receptor evolution compared. With the exception of bombesin receptors (BBR) that are absent from nematodes, a similar gene complement was found. In arthropods, rhodopsin GPCR evolution is characterized by species-specific gene duplications and deletions and in nematodes by gene expansions in species with a free-living stage and gene deletions in representatives of obligate parasitic taxa. Based upon variation in GPCR gene number and potentially divergent functions within phyla we hypothesize that life style and feeding diversity practiced by nematodes and arthropods was one factor that contributed to rhodopsin GPCR gene evolution. Understanding how the regulation of food intake has evolved in invertebrates will contribute to the development of novel drugs to control nematodes and arthropods and the pests and diseases that use them as vectors. PMID:23264768

  17. Habitat Heterogeneity Affects Plant and Arthropod Species Diversity and Turnover in Traditional Cornfields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Martínez

    Full Text Available The expansion of the agricultural frontier by the clearing of remnant forests has led to human-dominated landscape mosaics. Previous studies have evaluated the effect of these landscape mosaics on arthropod diversity at local spatial scales in temperate and tropical regions, but little is known about fragmentation effects in crop systems, such as the complex tropical traditional crop systems that maintain a high diversity of weeds and arthropods in low-Andean regions. To understand the factors that influence patterns of diversity in human-dominated landscapes, we investigate the effect of land use types on plant and arthropod diversity in traditionally managed cornfields, via surveys of plants and arthropods in twelve traditional cornfields in the Colombian Andes. We estimated alpha and beta diversity to analyze changes in diversity related to land uses within a radius of 100 m to 1 km around each cornfield. We observed that forests influenced alpha diversity of plants, but not of arthropods. Agricultural lands had a positive relationship with plants and herbivores, but a negative relationship with predators. Pastures positively influenced the diversity of plants and arthropods. In addition, forest cover seemed to influence changes in plant species composition and species turnover of herbivore communities among cornfields. The dominant plant species varied among fields, resulting in high differentiation of plant communities. Predator communities also exhibited high turnover among cornfields, but differences in composition arose mainly among rare species. The crop system evaluated in this study represents a widespread situation in the tropics, therefore, our results can be of broad significance. Our findings suggest that traditional agriculture may not homogenize biological communities, but instead could maintain the regional pool of species through high beta diversity.

  18. Isomin: a novel cytoplasmic intermediate filament protein from an arthropod species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupetti Pietro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of intermediate filaments (IFs is a hallmark feature of metazoan cells. IFs play a central role in cell organization and function, acting mainly as structural stress-absorbing elements. There is growing evidence to suggest that these cytoskeletal elements are also involved in the integration of signalling networks. According to their fundamental functions, IFs show a widespread phylogenetic expression, from simple diblastic animals up to mammals, and their constituent proteins share the same molecular organization in all species so far analysed. Arthropods represent a major exception in this scenario. Only lamins, the nuclear IF proteins, have so far been identified in the model organisms analysed; on this basis, it has been considered that arthropods do not express cytoplasmic IFs. Results Here, we report the first evidence for the expression of a cytoplasmic IF protein in an arthropod - the basal hexapod Isotomurus maculatus. This new protein, we named it isomin, is a component of the intestinal terminal web and shares with IFs typical biochemical properties, molecular features and reassembly capability. Sequence analysis indicates that isomin is mostly related to the Intermediate Filament protein C (IFC subfamily of Caenorhabditis elegans IF proteins, which are molecular constituents of the nematode intestinal terminal web. This finding is coherent with, and provides further support to, the most recent phylogenetic views of arthropod ancestry. Interestingly, the coil 1a domain of isomin appears to have been influenced by a substantial molecular drift and only the aminoterminal part of this domain, containing the so-called helix initiation motif, has been conserved. Conclusions Our results set a new basis for the analysis of IF protein evolution during arthropod phylogeny. In the light of this new information, the statement that the arthropod phylum lacks cytoplasmic IFs is no longer tenable. See commentary

  19. Habitat Heterogeneity Affects Plant and Arthropod Species Diversity and Turnover in Traditional Cornfields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Eliana; Rös, Matthias; Bonilla, María Argenis; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of the agricultural frontier by the clearing of remnant forests has led to human-dominated landscape mosaics. Previous studies have evaluated the effect of these landscape mosaics on arthropod diversity at local spatial scales in temperate and tropical regions, but little is known about fragmentation effects in crop systems, such as the complex tropical traditional crop systems that maintain a high diversity of weeds and arthropods in low-Andean regions. To understand the factors that influence patterns of diversity in human-dominated landscapes, we investigate the effect of land use types on plant and arthropod diversity in traditionally managed cornfields, via surveys of plants and arthropods in twelve traditional cornfields in the Colombian Andes. We estimated alpha and beta diversity to analyze changes in diversity related to land uses within a radius of 100 m to 1 km around each cornfield. We observed that forests influenced alpha diversity of plants, but not of arthropods. Agricultural lands had a positive relationship with plants and herbivores, but a negative relationship with predators. Pastures positively influenced the diversity of plants and arthropods. In addition, forest cover seemed to influence changes in plant species composition and species turnover of herbivore communities among cornfields. The dominant plant species varied among fields, resulting in high differentiation of plant communities. Predator communities also exhibited high turnover among cornfields, but differences in composition arose mainly among rare species. The crop system evaluated in this study represents a widespread situation in the tropics, therefore, our results can be of broad significance. Our findings suggest that traditional agriculture may not homogenize biological communities, but instead could maintain the regional pool of species through high beta diversity. PMID:26197473

  20. Community Composition and Structure of Soil Macro-Arthropods Under Agricultural Land Uses in the Black Soil Region of Jilin Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Dong-hui; ZHANG Bai; CHEN Peng

    2006-01-01

    Soil macro-arthropods in the black soil region in Jilin Province of China were investigated with the emphasis laid on the species richness and abundance in relation to the types of land-use, i.e., farm yard, farm land and Three-North Forest Shelter Belt. Soil macro-arthropods were hand-sorted in the field. A total of 2 357 soil macro-arthropod individuals was captured and fell into 70 families. The results suggested that type of land use affected the species richness and abundance of soil macro-arthropods. Agricultural practices had a strong impact on the soil macro-arthropods community, the conventional cultivations changed the vertical structure of macro-arthropods in the soil profile, and improved the richness and abundance of macro-arthropods in the lower soil layers especially in July. The results also showed that different groups of soil macro-arthropods had various responses to land use changes.

  1. Deriving criteria to select arthropod species for laboratory tests to assess the ecological risks from cultivating transgenic crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthropods form a major part of the biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. Many species are valued because they provide ecosystem services, including biological control, pollination, and decomposition, or because they are valued for cultural or economic reasons. Some arthropods reduce crop yield a...

  2. The Multiple Impacts of Tropical Forest Fragmentation on Arthropod Biodiversity and on their Patterns of Interactions with Host Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Benítez-Malvido

    Full Text Available Tropical rain forest fragmentation affects biotic interactions in distinct ways. Little is known, however, about how fragmentation affects animal trophic guilds and their patterns of interactions with host plants. In this study, we analyzed changes in biotic interactions in forest fragments by using a multitrophic approach. For this, we classified arthropods associated with Heliconia aurantiaca herbs into broad trophic guilds (omnivores, herbivores and predators and assessed the topological structure of intrapopulation plant-arthropod networks in fragments and continuous forests. Habitat type influenced arthropod species abundance, diversity and composition with greater abundance in fragments but greater diversity in continuous forest. According to trophic guilds, coleopteran herbivores were more abundant in continuous forest and overall omnivores in fragments. Continuous forest showed a greater diversity of interactions than fragments. Only in fragments, however, did the arthropod community associated with H aurantiaca show a nested structure, suggesting novel and/or opportunistic host-arthropod associations. Plants, omnivores and predators contributed more to nestedness than herbivores. Therefore, Heliconia-arthropod network properties do not appear to be maintained in fragments mainly caused by the decrease of herbivores. Our study contributes to the understanding of the impact of fragmentation on the structure and dynamics of multitrophic arthropod communities associated with a particular plant species of the highly biodiverse tropical forests. Nevertheless, further replication of study sites is needed to strengthen the conclusion that forest fragmentation negatively affects arthropod assemblages.

  3. The Multiple Impacts of Tropical Forest Fragmentation on Arthropod Biodiversity and on their Patterns of Interactions with Host Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; Dáttilo, Wesley; Martínez-Falcón, Ana Paola; Durán-Barrón, César; Valenzuela, Jorge; López, Sara; Lombera, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Tropical rain forest fragmentation affects biotic interactions in distinct ways. Little is known, however, about how fragmentation affects animal trophic guilds and their patterns of interactions with host plants. In this study, we analyzed changes in biotic interactions in forest fragments by using a multitrophic approach. For this, we classified arthropods associated with Heliconia aurantiaca herbs into broad trophic guilds (omnivores, herbivores and predators) and assessed the topological structure of intrapopulation plant-arthropod networks in fragments and continuous forests. Habitat type influenced arthropod species abundance, diversity and composition with greater abundance in fragments but greater diversity in continuous forest. According to trophic guilds, coleopteran herbivores were more abundant in continuous forest and overall omnivores in fragments. Continuous forest showed a greater diversity of interactions than fragments. Only in fragments, however, did the arthropod community associated with H aurantiaca show a nested structure, suggesting novel and/or opportunistic host-arthropod associations. Plants, omnivores and predators contributed more to nestedness than herbivores. Therefore, Heliconia-arthropod network properties do not appear to be maintained in fragments mainly caused by the decrease of herbivores. Our study contributes to the understanding of the impact of fragmentation on the structure and dynamics of multitrophic arthropod communities associated with a particular plant species of the highly biodiverse tropical forests. Nevertheless, further replication of study sites is needed to strengthen the conclusion that forest fragmentation negatively affects arthropod assemblages. PMID:26731271

  4. Recommendations for the design of laboratory studies on non-target arthropods for risk assessment of genetically engineered plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper provides recommendations on experimental design for early-tier laboratory studies used in the risk assessment process to evaluate potential adverse impacts of arthropod-resistant genetically-engineered plants on non-target arthropods. While we rely heavily on the currently used proteins f...

  5. The Multiple Impacts of Tropical Forest Fragmentation on Arthropod Biodiversity and on their Patterns of Interactions with Host Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; Dáttilo, Wesley; Martínez-Falcón, Ana Paola; Durán-Barrón, César; Valenzuela, Jorge; López, Sara; Lombera, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Tropical rain forest fragmentation affects biotic interactions in distinct ways. Little is known, however, about how fragmentation affects animal trophic guilds and their patterns of interactions with host plants. In this study, we analyzed changes in biotic interactions in forest fragments by using a multitrophic approach. For this, we classified arthropods associated with Heliconia aurantiaca herbs into broad trophic guilds (omnivores, herbivores and predators) and assessed the topological structure of intrapopulation plant-arthropod networks in fragments and continuous forests. Habitat type influenced arthropod species abundance, diversity and composition with greater abundance in fragments but greater diversity in continuous forest. According to trophic guilds, coleopteran herbivores were more abundant in continuous forest and overall omnivores in fragments. Continuous forest showed a greater diversity of interactions than fragments. Only in fragments, however, did the arthropod community associated with H aurantiaca show a nested structure, suggesting novel and/or opportunistic host-arthropod associations. Plants, omnivores and predators contributed more to nestedness than herbivores. Therefore, Heliconia-arthropod network properties do not appear to be maintained in fragments mainly caused by the decrease of herbivores. Our study contributes to the understanding of the impact of fragmentation on the structure and dynamics of multitrophic arthropod communities associated with a particular plant species of the highly biodiverse tropical forests. Nevertheless, further replication of study sites is needed to strengthen the conclusion that forest fragmentation negatively affects arthropod assemblages. PMID:26731271

  6. Experimental Manipulation of Grassland Plant Diversity Induces Complex Shifts in Aboveground Arthropod Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Lionel R.; Meyer, Sebastian T.; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Ebeling, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Changes in producer diversity cause multiple changes in consumer communities through various mechanisms. However, past analyses investigating the relationship between plant diversity and arthropod consumers focused only on few aspects of arthropod diversity, e.g. species richness and abundance. Yet, shifts in understudied facets of arthropod diversity like relative abundances or species dominance may have strong effects on arthropod-mediated ecosystem functions. Here we analyze the relationship between plant species richness and arthropod diversity using four complementary diversity indices, namely: abundance, species richness, evenness (equitability of the abundance distribution) and dominance (relative abundance of the dominant species). Along an experimental gradient of plant species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 60 plant species), we sampled herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods using pitfall traps and suction sampling during a whole vegetation period. We tested whether plant species richness affects consumer diversity directly (i), or indirectly through increased productivity (ii). Further, we tested the impact of plant community composition on arthropod diversity by testing for the effects of plant functional groups (iii). Abundance and species richness of both herbivores and carnivores increased with increasing plant species richness, but the underlying mechanisms differed between the two trophic groups. While higher species richness in herbivores was caused by an increase in resource diversity, carnivore richness was driven by plant productivity. Evenness of herbivore communities did not change along the gradient in plant species richness, whereas evenness of carnivores declined. The abundance of dominant herbivore species showed no response to changes in plant species richness, but the dominant carnivores were more abundant in species-rich plant communities. The functional composition of plant communities had small impacts on herbivore communities, whereas

  7. Background internal dose rates of earthworm and arthropod species in the forests of Aomori, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we measured the concentrations of several natural radionuclides in samples of one earthworm species and 11 arthropod species collected from four coniferous forests in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, Japan, and we assessed the background internal radiation dose rate for each species. Dose rates were calculated by using the radionuclide concentrations in the samples and dose conversion coefficients obtained from the literature. The mean internal dose rate in the earthworm species was 0.28 μGy h-1, and the mean internal dose rates in the arthropod species ranged between 0.036 and 0.69 μGy h-1. (author)

  8. [Alpha and beta arthropods diversity from the different environments of Parque Nacional Los Cardones, Salta, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belén Cava, Maria; Antonio Corronca, José; José Echeverría, Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    The essential role of the National Parks is to protect nature, in order to prevent the deterioration and loss of the ecosystem under protection. Very few records about the diversity of arthropods are known from Los Cardones National Park, where three eco-regions are protected: Puna and Monte eco-regions and the High Andean Grassland of the Yungas. Here, we aimed to compare the alpha and beta diversity of arthropods in these eco-regions, and to prove if sites from the same ecoregion, show greater similarity between them in their assemblages, than with sites of the other eco-regions. We also identified arthropod orders with higher species richness, and indicated the families that contribute the most to the registered beta diversity. Three sampling sites were established on each eco-region and the arthropods were sampled using pitfall traps and suction samples. We evaluated the obtained inventory through nonparametric estimators of species richness, and compared diversity among eco-regions through "diversity profiles" and "effective number of species". Beta diversity was assessed by different methods such as the Morisita Index, nonmetric multidimentional scaling analysis, a multiple permutation procedure, and a Similarity Percentage analysis. We recorded 469 spp/morphospecies and recognized three arthropod orders (spiders, dipterans and hymenopterans) that are diverse and abundant in the Park. Besides, the diversity in Los Cardones National Park was found to be high, but it was observed higher in the High Andean Grassland of the Yungas, and lower in the Puna. The inventory obtained was good, reached up to the 81% of the species richness estimated by nonparametric estimators. Each eco-region of the park showed a very particular arthropod community that was tested by a multi-response permutation procedure. The species turnover between eco-regions was high, so that the different environments of the protected area are contributing to the maintenance of the regional

  9. Review of available evidence regarding the vulnerability of off-crop non-target arthropod communities in comparison to in-crop non-target arthropod communities

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, de, E.C.M.; Lahr, J.; Brouwer, J.H.D.; Faber, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    EFSA is revising and updating the Ecotoxicology Guidance Document on Terrestrial Risk Assessment of Pesticides (SANCO/10329/2002). For this purpose an overview of available scientific information on several topics is needed. The aim of the current literature survey was to collect and summarize the published scientific literature on (1) the composition of non-target arthropod species that occur in and outside crops, (2) their vulnerability to pesticides and (3) their potential to recover from ...

  10. Disparate effects of plant genotypic diversity on foliage and litter arthropod communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crutsinger, Greg [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Reynolds, Nicholas [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Classen, Aimee T [ORNL; Sanders, Dr. Nathan James [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2008-01-01

    Intraspecific diversity within plant species is increasingly recognized as an important influence on the structure of associated arthropod communities, though whether there are congruent responses of above- and belowground communities to intraspecific diversity remains unclear. In this study, we compare the effects of host-plant genotype and genotypic diversity of the perennial plant, Solidago altissima, on the arthropod community associated with living plant tissue (foliage-based community) and microarthropods associated with leaf litter (litter-based community). We found that variation among host-plant genotypes had strong effects on the diversity and composition of foliage-based arthropods, but only weak influence on litter-based microarthropods. Furthermore, host-plant genotypic diversity was positively related to the abundance and diversity of foliage-based arthropods, including herbivore and predator trophic levels. In contrast, there were minimal effects of genotypic diversity in litter on microarthropods. Our study illustrates that incorporating both above- and belowground perspective into community genetics studies leads to very different conclusions about the importance of intraspecific diversity, than when considering aboveground responses in isolation.

  11. NERISK: AN EXPERT SYSTEM TO ENHANCE THE INTEGRATION OF PESTICIDES WITH ARTHROPOD BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    An expert system termed NERISK was developed to evaluate the effects of pesticides on arthropod predators and parasitoids in a variety of agroecosystems. ased on a shell system (RECOG) with minor coding modifications, the system was designed to let even a novice user access the v...

  12. Vertical T-maze choice assay for arthropod response to odorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelinski, Lukasz; Tiwari, Siddharth

    2013-01-01

    Given the economic importance of insects and arachnids as pests of agricultural crops, urban environments or as vectors of plant and human diseases, various technologies are being developed as control tools. A subset of these tools focuses on modifying the behavior of arthropods by attraction or repulsion. Therefore, arthropods are often the focus of behavioral investigations. Various tools have been developed to measure arthropod behavior, including wind tunnels, flight mills, servospheres, and various types of olfactometers. The purpose of these tools is to measure insect or arachnid response to visual or more often olfactory cues. The vertical T-maze olfactometer described here measures choices performed by insects in response to attractants or repellents. It is a high throughput assay device that takes advantage of the positive phototaxis (attraction to light) and negative geotaxis (tendency to walk or fly upward) exhibited by many arthropods. The olfactometer consists of a 30 cm glass tube that is divided in half with a Teflon strip forming a T-maze. Each half serves as an arm of the olfactometer enabling the test subjects to make a choice between two potential odor fields in assays involving attractants. In assays involving repellents, lack of normal response to known attractants can also be measured as a third variable. PMID:23439130

  13. Natural Products from Forest Resources for Use as Arthropod and Fungal Biocides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural products from Pacific Northwest forest resources can offer alternatives to the use of synthetic pesticides in the control of both arthropods of public health concern and forest fungal pathogens. Tree heartwood extracts with high toxicity (low LC50) in preliminary brine shrimp bioassays were...

  14. Arthropod-borne flaviviruses and RNA interference : seeking new approaches for antiviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diosa-Toro, Mayra; Urcuqui-Inchima, Silvio; Smit, Jolanda M

    2013-01-01

    Flaviviruses are the most prevalent arthropod-borne viruses worldwide, and nearly half of the 70 Flavivirus members identified are human pathogens. Despite the huge clinical impact of flaviviruses, there is no specific human antiviral therapy available to treat infection with any of the flaviviruses

  15. THE ROLE OF DEAD WOOD IN MAINTAINING ARTHROPOD DIVERSITY ON THE FOREST FLOOR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Wade, Dale D.

    2006-08-01

    Abstract—Dead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. The results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

  16. Teaching Students about Biodiversity by Studying the Correlation between Plants & Arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Matthew L.; Hari, Janice

    2008-01-01

    On Earth there is a huge diversity of arthropods, many of which are highly adaptive and able to exploit virtually every terrestrial habitat. Because of their prevalence even in urban environments, they make an excellent model system for any life science class. Since plants also exploit virtually every terrestrial habitat, studying the relationship…

  17. Selectivity lists of pesticides to beneficial arthropods for IPM programs in carrot--first results.

    OpenAIRE

    Hautier, L.; Jansen, J.-P.; Mabon, N.; Schiffers, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve IPM programs in carrot, 7 fungicides, 12 herbicides and 9 insecticides commonly used in Belgium were tested for their toxicity towards five beneficial arthropods representative of most important natural enemies encountered in carrot: parasitic wasps- Aphidius rhopalosiphi (De Stefani-Perez) (Hym., Aphidiidae), ladybirds - Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Col., Coccinellidae), hoverfly - Episyrphus balteatus (Dipt., Syrphidae), rove beetle - Aleochara bilineata (Col., Staphyllinida...

  18. Weeds as viable habitat for arthropod species in croplands of central Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeds are considered a limiting factor of crop production. Simultaneously, these non-crop plants are a portion of the agricultural ecosystem and play an essential role as viable habitat for many organisms, including bio-control agents. Utilizing the quadrate method, sugarcane, fodder, wheat and mustard croplands were sampled for one year to determine the weed flora and arthropods living among it. Twenty weed species and eight major arthropod orders were found to be present. The majority of the weed plants were broad-leaved, while some were grass-like. A review of literature on Central Punjab weeds uncovered depicted a considerable change in the weed flora over few decades. This could be related to the intensive and extensive farming in the area, which has this increased over the few decades along with the construction of an extensive irrigation canal system. These alterations may have caused drastic changes in the soil structure and climate of the region. Most of the phytophagous arthropod species used weed plants as food. In turn, these were fed upon by a few zoophagous arthropod species that also utilized the weeds for shelter and oviposition. Thus, weeds have a specific role within the agro-ecosystem by supporting local biodiversity. (author)

  19. Removing external DNA decontamination from arthropod predators destined for molecular gut-content analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular gut-content analysis enables detection of arthropod predation with minimal disruption of ecosystem processes. Field and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that mass-collection methods, such as sweep-netting, vacuum sampling, and foliage beating, can lead to contamination of fed pred...

  20. A Nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JoaoPedra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod saliva possesses anti-hemostatic, anesthetic, and anti-inflammatory properties that facilitate feeding and, inadvertently, dissemination of pathogens. Vector-borne diseases caused by these pathogens affect millions of people each year. Many studies address the impact of arthropod salivary proteins on various immunological components. However, whether and how arthropod saliva counters Nod-like (NLR sensing remains elusive. NLRs are innate immune pattern recognition molecules involved in detecting microbial molecules and danger signals. Nod1/2 signaling results in activation of the nuclear factor (NF-kB and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. Caspase-1 NLRs regulate the inflammasome – a protein scaffold that governs the maturation of interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18. Recently, several vector-borne pathogens have been shown to induce NLR activation in immune cells. Here, we provide a brief overview of NLR signaling and discuss clinically relevant vector-borne pathogens recognized by NLR pathways. We also elaborate on possible anti-inflammatory effects of arthropod saliva on NLR signaling and microbial pathogenesis for the purpose of exchanging research perspectives.

  1. A Nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sakhon, O. S.; Severo, M. S.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, OCT 2013 (2013), a308. ISSN 1664-302X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : nod-like receptors * inflammasome * vector-borne pathogens * vector-borne diseases * arthropod saliva * salivary proteins Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.941, year: 2013

  2. Natural products from forest resources for use as arthropod and fungal biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural products from Pacific Northwest forest resources can offer alternatives to the use of synthetic pesticides in the control of both arthropods of public health concern and forest fungal pathogens. Tree heartwood extracts with high toxicity (low LC50) in preliminary brine shrimp bioassays were...

  3. Arthropod food web restoration following removal of an invasive wetland plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Claudio; Denno, Robert F

    2006-04-01

    Restoration of habitats impacted by invasive plants is becoming an increasingly important tool in the management of native biodiversity, though most studies do not go beyond monitoring the abundance of particular taxonomic groups, such as the return of native vegetation. Yet, the reestablishment of trophic interactions among organisms in restored habitats is equally important if we are to monitor and understand how ecosystems recover. This study examined whether food web interactions among arthropods (as inferred by abundance of naturally occurring stable isotopes of C [delta13C] and N [delta15N]) were reestablished in the restoration of a coastal Spartina alterniflora salt marsh that had been invaded by Phragmites australis. From patterns of C and N stable isotopes we infer that trophic interactions among arthropods in the native salt marsh habitats are characterized by reliance on the dominant marsh plant Spartina as a basal resource. Herbivores such as delphacid planthoppers and mirid bugs have isotope signatures characteristic of Spartina, and predatory arthropods such as dolicopodid flies and spiders likewise have delta13C and delta15N signatures typical of Spartina-derived resources (approximately -13 per thousand and 10 per thousand, respectively). Stable isotope patterns also suggest that the invasion of Phragmites into salt marshes and displacement of Spartina significantly alter arthropod food web interactions. Arthropods in Phragmites-dominated sites have delta13C isotope values between -18 per thousand and -20 per thousand, suggesting reliance on detritus and/or benthic microalgae as basal resources and not on Phragmites, which has a delta13C approximately -26 per thousand. Since most Phragmites herbivores are either feeding internally or are rare transients from nearby Spartina, these resources do not provide significant prey resources for other arthropod consumers. Rather, predator isotope signatures in the invaded habitats indicate dependence on

  4. The colonization of land by animals: molecular phylogeny and divergence times among arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons-Weiler Maureen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The earliest fossil evidence of terrestrial animal activity is from the Ordovician, ~450 million years ago (Ma. However, there are earlier animal fossils, and most molecular clocks suggest a deep origin of animal phyla in the Precambrian, leaving open the possibility that animals colonized land much earlier than the Ordovician. To further investigate the time of colonization of land by animals, we sequenced two nuclear genes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and enolase, in representative arthropods and conducted phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses of those and other available DNA and protein sequence data. To assess the robustness of animal molecular clocks, we estimated the deuterostome-arthropod divergence using the arthropod fossil record for calibration and tunicate instead of vertebrate sequences to represent Deuterostomia. Nine nuclear and 15 mitochondrial genes were used in phylogenetic analyses and 61 genes were used in molecular clock analyses. Results Significant support was found for the unconventional pairing of myriapods (millipedes and centipedes with chelicerates (spiders, scorpions, horseshoe crabs, etc. using nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Our estimated time for the divergence of millipedes (Diplopoda and centipedes (Chilopoda was 442 ± 50 Ma, and the divergence of insects and crustaceans was estimated as 666 ± 58 Ma. Our results also agree with previous studies suggesting a deep divergence (~1100 – 900 Ma for arthropods and deuterostomes, considerably predating the Cambrian Explosion seen in the animal fossil record. Conclusions The consistent support for a close relationship between myriapods and chelicerates, using mitochondrial and nuclear genes and different methods of analysis, suggests that this unexpected result is not an artefact of analysis. We propose the name Myriochelata for this group of animals, which includes many that immobilize prey with venom. Our molecular clock

  5. Employing citizen science to study defoliation impacts on arthropod communities on tamarisk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Audrey L.

    The invasive tamarisk tree is widespread across the southwestern landscape of the United States and has been dominant in regulated river reaches, outcompeting native vegetation and impacting trophic webs in riparian ecosystems. The changes in riparian habitat and recreation opportunities along southwestern rivers, like the San Juan River in Utah, led to the implementation of a biocontrol program in the form of the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda spp.). It is unknown what the long term effects on riparian ecosystems are as a result of the beetles' defoliation of tamarisk each summer. This study sought to identify the current arthropod community composition and abundance over one growing season on the San Juan River between Bluff and Mexican Hat, UT and second, to involve the public in this research through a citizen science component. I found that non-native insects, including the tamarisk leaf beetle, dominated the arboreal arthropod communities within the tamarisk and there are relatively few native arthropods residing in tamarisk throughout the summer season. Foliation levels (the quantity of leaves in the canopy of tamarisk) were inconclusive predictors of arthropod abundances but varied by species and by feeding guild. This may indicate that the defoliation of the tamarisk is not necessarily negatively impacting trophic interactions in tamarisk. I incorporated youth participants on educational river rafting trips to assist in data collection of arthropods from tamarisk trees as a way to educate and bring attention to the issue of invasive species in the Southwest. After completing my own citizen science project and after doing a literature review of other, similar citizen science projects, I found that striving for both rigorous scientific data and quality educational programming is challenging for a small scale project that does not target broad spatial, geographic, or temporal data. Citizen science project developers should clearly identify their objectives

  6. Arthropod prey for riparian associated birds in headwater forests of the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan C.; Li, Judith; Sobota, Janel; Jenkins, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Headwater riparian areas occupy a large proportion of the land base in Pacific Northwest forests, and thus are ecologically and economically important. Although a primary goal of management along small headwater streams is the protection of aquatic resources, streamside habitat also is important for many terrestrial wildlife species. However, mechanisms underlying the riparian associations of some terrestrial species have not been well studied, particularly for headwater drainages. We investigated the diets of and food availability for four bird species associated with riparian habitats in montane coastal forests of western Oregon, USA. We examined variation in the availability of arthropod prey as a function of distance from stream. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that (1) emergent aquatic insects were a food source for insectivorous birds in headwater riparian areas, and (2) the abundances of aquatic and terrestrial arthropod prey did not differ between streamside and upland areas during the bird breeding season. We found that although adult aquatic insects were available for consumption throughout the study period, they represented a relatively small proportion of available prey abundance and biomass and were present in only 1% of the diet samples from only one of the four riparian-associated bird species. Nonetheless, arthropod prey, comprised primarily of insects of terrestrial origin, was more abundant in streamside than upland samples. We conclude that food resources for birds in headwater riparian areas are primarily associated with terrestrial vegetation, and that bird distributions along the gradient from streamside to upland may be related to variation in arthropod prey availability. Because distinct vegetation may distinguish riparian from upland habitats for riparian-associated birds and their terrestrial arthropod prey, we suggest that understory communities be considered when defining management zones for riparian habitat.

  7. Trophic phylogenetics: evolutionary influences on body size, feeding, and species associations in grassland arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Eric M; Vincent, John B; Weiblen, George D; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Borer, Elizabeth T

    2015-04-01

    Contemporary animal-plant interactions such as herbivory are widely understood to be shaped by evolutionary history. Yet questions remain about the role of plant phylogenetic diversity in generating and maintaining herbivore diversity, and whether evolutionary relatedness of producers might predict the composition of consumer communities. We tested for evidence of evolutionary associations among arthropods and the plants on which they were found, using phylogenetic analysis of naturally occurring arthropod assemblages sampled from a plant-diversity manipulation experiment. Considering phylogenetic relationships among more than 900 arthropod consumer taxa and 29 plant species in the experiment, we addressed several interrelated questions. First, our results support the hypothesis that arthropod functional traits such as body size and trophic role are phylogenetically conserved in community ecological samples. Second, herbivores tended to cooccur with closer phylogenetic relatives than would be expected at random, whereas predators and parasitoids did not show phylogenetic association patterns. Consumer specialization, as measured by association through time with monocultures of particular host plant species, showed significant phylogenetic signal, although the. strength of this association varied among plant species. Polycultures of phylogenetically dissimilar plant species supported more phylogenetically dissimilar consumer communities than did phylogenetically similar polycultures. Finally, we separated the effects of plant species richness and relatedness in predicting the phylogenetic distribution of the arthropod assemblages in this experiment. The phylogenetic diversity of plant communities predicted the phylogenetic diversity of herbivore communities even after accounting for plant species richness. The phylogenetic diversity of secondary consumers differed by guild, with predator phylogenetic diversity responding to herbivore relatedness, while parasitoid

  8. Tyrosine Detoxification Is an Essential Trait in the Life History of Blood-Feeding Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterkel, Marcos; Perdomo, Hugo D; Guizzo, Melina G; Barletta, Ana Beatriz F; Nunes, Rodrigo D; Dias, Felipe A; Sorgine, Marcos H F; Oliveira, Pedro L

    2016-08-22

    Blood-feeding arthropods are vectors of infectious diseases such as dengue, Zika, Chagas disease, and malaria [1], and vector control is essential to limiting disease spread. Because these arthropods ingest very large amounts of blood, a protein-rich meal, huge amounts of amino acids are produced during digestion. Previous work on Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas disease, showed that, among all amino acids, only tyrosine degradation enzymes were overexpressed in the midgut compared to other tissues [2]. Here we demonstrate that tyrosine detoxification is an essential trait in the life history of blood-sucking arthropods. We found that silencing Rhodnius tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), the first two enzymes of the phenylalanine/tyrosine degradation pathway, caused the death of insects after a blood meal. This was confirmed by using the HPPD inhibitor mesotrione, which selectively killed hematophagous arthropods but did not affect non-hematophagous insects. In addition, mosquitoes and kissing bugs died after feeding on mice that had previously received a therapeutic effective oral dose (1 mg/kg) of nitisinone, another HPPD inhibitor used in humans for the treatment of tyrosinemia type I [3]. These findings indicate that HPPD (and TAT) can be a target for the selective control of blood-sucking disease vector populations. Because HPPD inhibitors are extensively used as herbicides and in medicine, these compounds may provide an alternative less toxic to humans and more environmentally friendly than the conventional neurotoxic insecticides that are currently used, with the ability to affect only hematophagous arthropods. PMID:27476595

  9. Habitat connectivity shapes urban arthropod communities: the key role of green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaker, S; Ghazoul, J; Obrist, M K; Moretti, M

    2014-04-01

    The installation of green roofs, defined here as rooftops with a shallow soil cover and extensive vegetation, has been proposed as a possible measure to mitigate the loss of green space caused by the steady growth of cities. However, the effectiveness of green roofs in supporting arthropod communities, and the extent to which they facilitate connectivity of these communities within the urban environment is currently largely unknown. We investigated the variation of species community composition (beta diversity) of four arthropod groups with contrasting mobility (Carabidae, Araneae, Curculionidae, and Apidae) on 40 green roofs and 40 extensively managed green sites on the ground in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. With redundancy analysis and variation partitioning, we (1) disentangled the relative importance of local environmental conditions, the surrounding land cover composition, and habitat connectivity on species community composition, (2) searched for specific spatial scales of habitat connectivity for the different arthropod groups, and (3) discussed the ecological and functional value of green roofs in cities. Our study revealed that on green roofs community composition of high-mobility arthropod groups (bees and weevils) were mainly shaped by habitat connectivity, while low-mobility arthropod groups (carabids and spiders) were more influenced by local environmental conditions. A similar but less pronounced pattern was found for ground communities. The high importance of habitat connectivity in shaping high-mobility species community composition indicates that these green roof communities are substantially connected by the frequent exchange of individuals among surrounding green roofs. On the other hand, low-mobility species communities on green roofs are more likely connected to ground sites than to other green roofs. The integration of green roofs in urban spatial planning strategies has great potential to enable higher connectivity among green spaces, so

  10. Impact of Location, Cropping History, Tillage, and Chlorpyrifos on Soil Arthropods in Peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoza, Yasmin J; Drake, Wendy L; Jordan, David L; Schroeder-Moreno, Michelle S; Arellano, Consuelo; Brandenburg, Rick L

    2015-08-01

    Demand for agricultural production systems that are both economically viable and environmentally conscious continues to increase. In recent years, reduced tillage systems, and grass and pasture rotations have been investigated to help maintain or improve soil quality, increase crop yield, and decrease labor requirements for production. However, documentation of the effects of reduced tillage, fescue rotation systems as well as other management practices, including pesticides, on pest damage and soil arthropod activity in peanut production for the Mid-Atlantic US region is still limited. Therefore, this project was implemented to assess impacts of fescue-based rotation systems on pests and other soil organisms when compared with cash crop rotation systems over four locations in eastern North Carolina. In addition, the effects of tillage (strip vs. conventional) and soil chlorpyrifos application on pod damage and soil-dwelling organisms were also evaluated. Soil arthropod populations were assessed by deploying pitfall traps containing 50% ethanol in each of the sampled plots. Results from the present study provide evidence that location significantly impacts pest damage and soil arthropod diversity in peanut fields. Cropping history also influenced arthropod diversity, with higher diversity in fescue compared with cash crop fields. Corn rootworm damage to pods was higher at one of our locations (Rocky Mount) compared with all others. Cropping history (fescue vs. cash crop) did not have an effect on rootworm damage, but increased numbers of hymenopterans, acarina, heteropterans, and collembolans in fescue compared with cash crop fields. Interestingly, there was an overall tendency for higher number of soil arthropods in traps placed in chlorpyrifos-treated plots compared with nontreated controls. PMID:26314040

  11. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1981-January 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported for research projects on nutrient dynamics during terrestrial decomposition, as influenced by soil arthropods. Radioactive tracers are used as analogs of nutrients, to measure material movement along food chains and dynamics of processes during decomposition. Forest floor systems from which arthropods were excluded, or in which microfloral activity was depressed, trapped incoming nutrients from canopy throughfall at different rates. Faunal stimulation of microfloral activities could not be demonstrated, but drought conditions disturbed the experiment. Turnover measurements for radionuclides in collembolans are also reported, and compared with information on mites and other arthropods

  12. Radioactive tracer studies of soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1976--October 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress has been made in two sub-projects related to the radioisotope measurement of nutrient flow in soil arthropod food chains and the influence of soil arthropods as regulators of decomposition in ecological systems. Radioisotopes were utilized to evaluate models describing nutrient accumulation by arthropods. Radionuclide turnover rates and nutrient contents of microarthropods are being measured. A field experiment in granitic outcrop areas is nearing completion. This work will describe nutrient input-output budgets for island ecosystems which occur on outcrops. Experimental perturbations are being used to evaluate importance of ecosystem components in system maintenance

  13. The effects of the identity of shrub species on the distribution and diversity of ground arthropods in a sandy desert ecosystem of northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiLiang Liu; WenZhi Zhao; FengRui Li

    2014-01-01

    Shrub is an important factor on structuring ground arthropod communities in desert ecosystems. In this study, in order to determine how shrubs and their species influence ground arthropod distribution patterns in a sandy desert scrubland dominated by two different shrub species, Calligonum mongolicum and Nitraria sphaerocarpa, the ground arthropods were sampled with pitfall traps during spring, summer and autumn. At the community level, total arthropod abundance was shown to be significantly higher under shrubs than in intershrub bare areas in spring;similar patterns occurred in terms of the richness of arthropod groups in the spring and over three seasons, suggesting season-specific shrub presence effects on arthropod activity. In addition, more arthropods were found under N. sphaerocarpa shrubs than under C. mongolicum shrubs in autumn, suggesting season-specific effects of shrub species of arthropod activity, whereas more arthropods taxa were captured under C. mongolicum than N. sphaerocarpa. At the trophic group level, the abundances of predator and herbivore arthropods were significantly greater under shrubs than in intershrub bare habitats, whereas herbivore arthropods were more abundant under N. sphaerocarpa than C. mongolicum, and an opposite rule was detected for predator arthropods. At the family level, the mean abundances of Carabidae, Curculionidae, Gnaphosidae and Lycosidae were significantly higher in the shrub microhabitats than in the intershrub bare habitat, there was no significant difference between habitats on the mean abundances of Formicidae and Tenebrionidae. The study results suggested that shrub presence and shrub species variation are important determinants of ground arthropod assemblages in this desert ecosystem, but the responses of ar-thropods differed among trophic and taxonomic groups.

  14. Arthropods in Natural Communities in Mescal Agave (Agave durangensis Gentry in an Arid Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P. Gonzalez-Castillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The arthropods have a very important role in the arid zones due to their interactions with many organism and because they constituted an important element in the structure of the plant community. Nevertheless their importance there are few knowledge about the community of arthropods associated to vegetation in arid zones in the North of Mexico. The present study had the objective of determining the abundance, richness and diversity of arthropods in three localities where there are natural populations of mescal agave in the State of Durango, Mexico. Approach: In order to know the structure community of the arthropods associated to the mescal agave, we perform a sampling schedule during March 2008 to November 2010 by direct collection, using transects in three different localities with the presence of mescal agave. The relative abundance, species richness, Shannon’s diversity index, Pielou’s Index of evenness, Jaccard’s similitude and Simpson’s dominance indexes were determined. Results: A total of 4665 individual arthropods associated to mescal agave corresponding to 39 species were found. El Mezquital had the highest abundance and relative abundance (44.1% with 29 species. The mean species abundance was not significantly different between localities using Turkey’s test. The highest density per unit of area was found in El Mezquital (La Brena had the highest species diversity (1.89, evenness (0.61 and dominance (0.78. At the taxon level, Hymenoptera had the highest number of species represented (14, followed by Coleoptera (9 and hemiptera (5, with the remaining taxons with four, two and one species each. Conclusion: The greatest similitude was observed between La Brena and El Mezquital (46% which shared seven taxons, while the least similitude was observed between El Venado and La Brena (29%. Dominance/diversity curves are presented for each locality. The species Caulotops sp., Acutaspis agavis, Chilorus sp

  15. SEM characterization of anatomical variation in chitin organization in insect and arthropod cuticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Rakkiyappan; Williams, Lee; Hung, Albert; Nowlin, Kyle; LaJeunesse, Dennis

    2016-03-01

    The cuticles of insects and arthropods have some of the most diverse material properties observed in nature, so much so that it is difficult to imagine that all cutciles are primarily composed of the same two materials: a fibrous chitin network and a matrix composed of cuticle proteins. Various factors contribute to the mechanical and optical properties of an insect or arthropod cuticle including the thickness and composition. In this paper, we also identified another factor that may contribute to the optical, surface, and mechanical properties of a cuticle, i.e. the organization of chitin nanofibers and chitin fiber bundles. Self-assembled chitin nanofibers serve as the foundation for all higher order chitin structures in the cuticles of insects and other arthropods via interactions with structural cuticle proteins. Using a technique that enables the characterization of chitin organization in the cuticle of intact insects and arthropod exoskeletons, we demonstrate a structure/function correlation of chitin organization with larger scale anatomical structures. The chitin scaffolds in cuticles display an extraordinarily diverse set of morphologies that may reflect specific mechanical or physical properties. After removal of the proteinaceous and mineral matrix of a cuticle, we observe using SEM diverse nanoscale and micro scale organization of in-situ chitin in the wing, head, eye, leg, and dorsal and ventral thoracic regions of the periodical cicada Magicicada septendecim and in other insects and arthropods. The organization of chitin also appears to have a significant role in the organization of nanoscale surface structures. While microscale bristles and hairs have long been known to be chitin based materials formed as cellular extensions, we have found a nanostructured layer of chitin in the cuticle of the wing of the dog day annual cicada Tibicen tibicens, which may be the scaffold for the nanocone arrays found on the wing. We also use this process to examine

  16. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1979-October 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progress and current status are reported for research concerned with mineral element dynamics in soil arthropod food chains. Research is performed within the larger context of terrestrial decomposition systems, in which soil arthropods may act as regulators of nutrient dynamics during decomposition. Research is measuring rates of nutrient accumulation and excretion by using radioactive tracer techniques with radioactive analogs of nutrients. Experimental measurement of radioactive tracer excretion and nutrient element pools are reported for soil microarthropods, using new methods of counting and microprobe elemental analysis. Research on arthropod-fungal relations is utilizing high-efficiency extraction followed by dissection of 13 x 13 cm soil blocks. A two-component excretion model is reported for Cobalt-60 in earthworms (Eisenia foetida), demonstrating that no assimilation of cobalt occurs from the mineral soil fraction but is entirely from organic matter. Collection of data sets on soil arthropod communities and abundances is completed

  17. A study on the effects of golf course organophosphate and carbamate pesticides on endangered, cave-dwelling arthropods Kauai, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Three endemic species, two arthropods and one isopod, are present in the Kauai caves. These species are critical components of the cave ecosystems and are possibly...

  18. Short-term effects of different genetically modified maize varieties on arthropod food web properties: an experimental field assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Szénási, Ágnes; Pálinkás, Zoltán; Zalai, Mihály; Schmitz, Oswald J.; Balog, Adalbert

    2014-01-01

    There is concern that genetically modified (GM) plants may have adverse affects on the arthropod biodiversity comprising agricultural landscapes. The present study report on a two year field experimental test of whether four different genotypic lines, some are novel with no previous field tests, of GM maize hybrids alter the structure of arthropod food webs that they harbour, relative to non-GM maize (control) that is widely used in agriculture. The different GM genotypes produced either Bt t...

  19. Cysteine-Free Proteins in the Immunobiology of Arthropod-Borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Santiago Mejia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One approach to identify epitopes that could be used in the design of vaccines to control several arthropod-borne diseases simultaneously is to look for common structural features in the secretome of the pathogens that cause them. Using a novel bioinformatics technique, cysteine-abundance and distribution analysis, we found that many different proteins secreted by several arthropod-borne pathogens, including Plasmodium falciparum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and eight species of Proteobacteria, are devoid of cysteine residues. The identification of three cysteine-abundance and distribution patterns in several families of proteins secreted by pathogenic and nonpathogenic Proteobacteria, and not found when the amino acid analyzed was tryptophan, provides evidence of forces restricting the content of cysteine residues in microbial proteins during evolution. We discuss these findings in the context of protein structure and function, antigenicity and immunogenicity, and host-parasite relationships.

  20. Standardization and optimization of arthropod inventories-the case of Iberian spiders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondoso Cardoso, Pedro Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Conservation of species requires accurate knowledge on their distribution. For most groups this can only be achieved through targeted biodiversity assessment programs that must explicitly incorporate comparability and efficiency in their definition. These require the standardization and...... optimization of sampling protocols, especially for mega-diverse arthropod taxa. This study had two objectives: (1) propose guidelines and statistical methods to improve the standardization and optimization of arthropod inventories, and (2) to propose a standardized and optimized protocol for Iberian spiders...... based on such guidelines and methods. Definition of the protocol has the following four steps. Firstly, the evaluation of the source data to ensure that the protocol is based on close to complete sampling of a number of sites. Secondly, optimizing the effort per collecting method, using an iterative...

  1. Background internal dose rates of earthworm and arthropod species in the forests of Aomori, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured naturally occurring radionuclides in samples from an earthworm species and 11 arthropod species collected in coniferous forests in Rokkasho, Aomori, Japan, to assess background internal radiation dose rates. The rates were calculated from the measured concentrations of the radionuclides and dose coefficients from the literature. The mean internal dose rate of composite earthworm samples was 0.35 μGy h-1, whereas the mean dose rates of the arthropod samples ranged from 36 nGy h-1 to 0.79 μGy h-1. Polonium-210 was the radionuclide with the highest contribution to the internal dose rate for all the species, except the longhorn beetle. (author)

  2. Disturbance in dry coastal dunes in Denmark promotes diversity of plants and arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunbjerg, Ane Kirstine; Jørgensen, Gorm Pilgaard; Nielsen, Kristian Mandsberg;

    2015-01-01

    of three disturbance types (burning, trampling and blowouts) on plant and arthropod species richness and composition in dry coastal dunes in Jutland, Denmark. Environmental variables, plant presence–absence and arthropod abundance were measured in 150 1 × 2 m plots along transects in blowouts, burned......Naturally disturbed coastal dunes have become strongly reduced during the last century due to the cessation of grazing by domestic herbivores, dune stabilization initiatives, and increasing nitrogen deposition, all promoting encroachment by grasses, shrubs and woody plants. We assessed the effects...... the difference in colonization potential. A combination of disturbances maximized diversity, suggesting that re-installment of a diverse disturbance regime should be considered in dune management....

  3. A Cambrian micro-lobopodian and the evolution of arthropod locomotion and reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The evolutionary success of arthropods, the most abundant and diverse animal group, is mainly based on their segmented body and jointed appendages, features that had evolved most likely already before the Cambrian. The first arthropod-like animals, the lobopodians from the Early Cambrian, were unsclerotized and worm-like, and they had unjointed tubular legs. Here we describe the first three-dimensionally preserved Cambrian lobopodian. The material presented of Orstenotubulus evamuellerae gen. et sp. nov. is the smallest and youngest of a lobopodian known. O. evamuellerae shows strikingly detailed similarities to Recent tardigrades and/or onychophorans in its cellular-structured cuticle and the telescopic spines. It also shows similarities to other, longer known lobopodians, but which are ten times as large as the new form. These similarities include the finely annulated body and legs, which is characteristic also for Recent onychophorans, and paired humps continuing into spines situated dorsally to the leg insertions, a feature lacking in the extant forms. The morphology of O. evamuellerae not only elucidates our knowledge about lobopodians, but also aids in a clearer picture of the early evolution of arthropods. An example is the single ventral gonopore between a limb pair of O. evamuellerae, which indicates that a single gonopore, as developed in onychophorans, tardigrades, pentastomids, myriapods and insects, might represent the plesiomorphic state for Arthropoda, while the paired state in chelicerates and crustaceans was convergently achieved. Concerning life habits, the lateral orientation of the limbs and their anchoring spines of the new lobopodian imply that early arthropods were crawlers rather than walkers.

  4. The value of urban vacant land to support arthropod biodiversity and ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Mary M; Burkman, Caitlin E; Prajzner, Scott P

    2013-12-01

    The expansion of urban areas is occurring globally, but not all city neighborhoods are gaining population. Because of economic decline and the recent foreclosure crisis, many U.S. cities are demolishing abandoned residential structures to create parcels of vacant land. In some cities, weak housing markets have, or will likely, recover in the near term, and these parcels will be redeveloped. However, in other cities, large numbers of abandoned parcels have no significant market value and no likelihood of near-term redevelopment. The creation of these vacated green spaces could offer opportunities to preserve declining species, restore ecosystem functions, and support diverse ecosystem services. Arthropods are an important indicator of the ability of urban vacant land to serve multiple functions, from conservation to food production. Across Europe, vacant lands have been found to support a diversity of rare species, and similar examinations of arthropods within this habitat are underway in the United States. In addition, using vacant land as a resource for local food production is growing rapidly worldwide. Arthropods play key roles in the sustainability of food production in cities, and land conversion to farming has been found to influence their community composition and function. A greater focus on quantifying the current ecological value of vacant land and further assessment of how changes in its ecosystem management affect biodiversity and ecosystem processes is clearly needed. Herein, we specifically focus on the role of arthropods in addressing these priorities to advance our ecological understanding of the functional role of vacant land habitats in cities. PMID:24468552

  5. Diverse urban plantings managed with sufficient resource availability can increase plant productivity and arthropod diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Jonathon N.; Loh, Susan; Braggion, Ligia; Cameron, Stephen; Firn, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Buildings structures and surfaces are explicitly being used to grow plants, and these “urban plantings” are generally designed for aesthetic value. Urban plantings also have the potential to contribute significant “ecological values” by increasing urban habitat for animals such as arthropods and by increasing plant productivity. In this study, we evaluated how the provision of these additional ecological values is affected by plant species richness; the availability of essential resources for...

  6. Crystallographic texture of the arthropod cuticle using synchrotron wide angle X-ray diffraction

    OpenAIRE

    Sawalmih, Ali al-

    2007-01-01

    Arthropods, which include the crustaceans (e.g. crabs, lobsters, isopods), insects, arachnids (e.g. spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites), and several lesser groups, account for approximately 80 percent of all known animal species. The outer covering of these animals is referred to as exoskeleton or cuticle, and it covers the entire body of the animal. It has remarkable mechanical properties which provide structural support to the body, armor against loads that are externally imposed by predators...

  7. The Importance of Acacia Trees for Insectivorous Bats and Arthropods in the Arava Desert

    OpenAIRE

    Hackett, Talya D.; Korine, Carmi; Holderied, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat modification often has a profound negative impact on the flora and fauna of an ecosystem. In parts of the Middle East, ephemeral rivers (wadis) are characterised by stands of acacia trees. Green, flourishing assemblages of these trees are in decline in several countries, most likely due to human-induced water stress and habitat changes. We examined the importance of healthy acacia stands for bats and their arthropod prey in comparison to other natural and artificial habi...

  8. Ground Arthropod Attacks on Groundnut Arachis hypogaea L in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Dicko, IO.; Troaoré, S.; Traoré, D.; Dao, B.

    1999-01-01

    Studies were conducted in five districts of Burkina Faso, West Africa from November to December, 1996. The objectives aimed at establishing spatial distribution and quantifying the level of damages on peanut pods by soil arthropods, termites and millepedes. Twenty seven samples of 100 pods each were taken from farmers' stocks in each district, which made a total of 135 pod samples examined. Damage was determined in each district by counting scarified pods by termites and perforated pods by mi...

  9. Arthropod distribution in a tropical rainforest: tackling a four dimensional puzzle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basset, Y.; Čížek, Lukáš; Cuénoud, P.; Didham, R. K.; Novotný, Vojtěch; Ødegaard, F.; Roslin, T.; Tishechkin, A. K.; Schmidl, J.; Winchester, N. N.; Roubik, D. W.; Aberlenc, H.-P.; Bail, J.; Barrios, H.; Bridle, J. R.; Castaňo-Meneses, G.; Corbara, B.; Curletti, G.; Duarte da Rocha, W.; De Bakker, D.; Delabie, J. H. C.; Dejean, A.; Fagan, L. L.; Floren, A.; Kitching, R. L.; Medianero, E.; Gama de Oliveira, E.; Orivel, J.; Pollet, M.; Rapp, F.; Ribeiro, S. P.; Roisin, Y.; Schmidt, J. B.; Sorensen, L.; Lewinsohn, T. M.; Leponce, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 12 (2015), e0144110. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant ostatní: European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Arthropod * rainforest * biodiversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014 http:// journal s.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/ journal .pone.0144110

  10. Arthropod visual predators in the early pelagic ecosystem: evidence from the Burgess Shale and Chengjiang biotas

    OpenAIRE

    Vannier, J; García-Bellido, D.C.; Hu, S.-X.; Chen, A.-L.

    2009-01-01

    Exceptional fossil specimens with preserved soft parts from the Maotianshan Shale (ca 520 Myr ago) and the Burgess Shale (505 Myr ago) biotas indicate that the worldwide distributed bivalved arthropod Isoxys was probably a non-benthic visual predator. New lines of evidence come from the functional morphology of its powerful prehensile frontal appendages that, combined with large spherical eyes, are thought to have played a key role in the recognition and capture of swimming or epibenthic prey...

  11. ASGARD: an open-access database of annotated transcriptomes for emerging model arthropod species

    OpenAIRE

    Extavour, Cassandra G.; Zeng, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The increased throughput and decreased cost of next-generation sequencing (NGS) have shifted the bottleneck genomic research from sequencing to annotation, analysis and accessibility. This is particularly challenging for research communities working on organisms that lack the basic infrastructure of a sequenced genome, or an efficient way to utilize whatever sequence data may be available. Here we present a new database, the Assembled Searchable Giant Arthropod Read Database (ASGARD). This da...

  12. Diversity of the arthropod fauna in organically grown garlic intercropped with fodder radish.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, André Wagner Barata; Haro, Marcelo Mendes; Silveira, Luís Cláudio Paterno

    2012-01-01

    The cultivation of garlic faces several problems, which include pest attack, and the diversification of habitat through intercropping with attractive plants comes up as a method to pest management. The objective of this research was to verify the effect of the association of garlic with fodder radish on richness, abundance and diversity of arthropods under organic production system in Lavras, MG, Brazil. The treatments were composed of garlic in monoculture and garlic in association with fodd...

  13. ARTHROPODS AND HELMINTHS ASSEMBLAGE IN SIGMODONTINE RODENTS FROM WETLANDS OF THE RIO DE LA PLATA, ARGENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    Graciela T Navone; Juliana Notarnicola; Santiago Nava; M. del Rosario Robles; Carlos Galliari; Marcela Lareschi

    2009-01-01

    The assemblage of arthropods and helminths, present in sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae) from a broad wetland area of the Río de la Plata, Argentina, was studied. A total of 250 sigmodontines were captured during a two-year sampling period: Scapteromys aquaticus and Oxymycterus rufus were the most abundant hosts, followed by Oligoryzomys nigripes, Akodon azarae, Oligoryzomys flavescens, and Deltamys kempi. There were 33102 parasites collected, corresponding with Rhopalopsyllidae fleas (Siphon...

  14. Arthropod communities in the Bt and non Bt potato and maize fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Habuštová, Oxana; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Sehnal, František

    Ivanka pri Dunaji : Ústav experimentálnej fytopatológie a entomológie SAV, 2002. s. 135-136. ISBN 80-224-0745-3. [Ochrana rastlín v III. miléniu. 01.10.2002-02.10.2002, Smolenice] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/1507 Keywords : Bt and non Bt plants * arthropods Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. Effects of Timing of Grazing on Arthropod Communities in Semi-Natural Grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Lenoir, Lisette; Lennartsson, Tommy

    2010-01-01

    Arthropod communities were investigated in two Swedish semi-natural grasslands, each subject to two types of grazing regime: conventional grazing from May to September (continuous grazing) and traditional late management from mid-July (late grazing). Pitfall traps were used to investigate abundance of carabids, spiders, and ants over the grazing season. Ant abundance was also measured by mapping nest density during three successive years. Small spiders, carabids and ants (Myrmica spp.) were m...

  16. Arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. III. Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Skvarla, Michael Joseph; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This is the third in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and B...

  17. Terrestrial arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. II. Sawflies (Insecta: Hymenoptera: " Symphyta ")

    OpenAIRE

    Skvarla, Michael Joseph; Smith, David R.; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This is the second in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and ...

  18. Impact of low-input meadows on arthropod diversity at habitat and landscape level

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanneret, Ph.; Pfiffner, L:; Pozzi, S; Walter, Th.

    2005-01-01

    In Switzerland, in order to preserve and enhance arthopod diversity in grassland ecosystems (among others), farmers had to convert at least 7 % of their land to ecological compensation areas – ECA. Major ECA are low input grassland, traditional orchards, hedges and wild flower strips. In this paper the difference in species assemblages of 3 arthropod groups, namely spiders, carabid beetles and butterflies between intensively managed and low input meadows is stressed by means of multivariate s...

  19. Spatial variation of arthropod communities in virgin and managed sites in the Kibale Forest, western Uganda.

    OpenAIRE

    Nummelin, M.; Zilihona, I.J.E.

    2004-01-01

    http://www.elsevier.com/locate/issn/03781127 The structure of arthropod communities in the forest floor vegetation in four differently managed forest sites (virgin forest, lightly selectively logged, heavily selectively logged, and exotic Pinus caribaea plantation) in Kibale Forest National Park, western Uganda, was studied by sweep net between March and May 1985 and July 1995. For the analysis three (or four) 800 sweeps samples were collected from each habitat. In the samples eig...

  20. Trophic structure of arthropods in Starling nests matter to blood parasites and thereby to nestling development

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfs, Peter H. J.; Lesna, Izabela K.; Sabelis, Maurice W.; Komdeur, Jan; Bairlein, F.

    2012-01-01

    Nestling development and long-term survival in many bird species depend on factors such as parental feeding, time of breeding and environmental conditions. However, little research has been carried out on the effect of ectoparasites on nestling development, and no research on the impact of the trophic structure of arthropods inhabiting the nest (combined effects of ectoparasitic mites and predatory mites feeding on ectoparasites). We assess nestling development of European Starlings (Sturnus ...

  1. Terrestrial arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. II. Sawflies (Insecta: Hymenoptera : " Symphyta ")

    OpenAIRE

    Skvarla, Michael Joseph; Smith, David R.; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This is the second in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and ...

  2. Self-referent phenotype matching and its role in female mate choice in arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carie B. WEDDLE, John HUNT, Scott K. SAKALUK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of empirical evidence shows that females of many animal species gain benefits by mating polyandrously, and often prefer to mate with novel males over previous mates. Although a female preference for novel males has been demonstrated for multiple animal taxa, the mechanisms used by females to discriminate between novel and previous mates remain largely unknown. However, recent studies suggest that in decorated crickets Gryllodes sigillatus, females actually imbue males with their own chemical cues, known as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs during mating, and utilize chemosensory self-referencing to recognize recent mates. Here we review evidence that self-referent phenotype matching is a widespread mechanism of recognition in arthropods, and explore how CHCs are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions. There is substantial evidence that CHCs are used as recognition cues to discriminate between species, kin, sexes, mates, individuals, and self and non-self, and are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions in a wide range of arthropod taxa. There is also evidence that CHCs are often transferred between individuals during direct physical contact, including copulation. Chemosensory self-referencing via cuticular hydrocarbons could provide a simple, but reliable mechanism for identifying individuals from previous mating encounters. This mechanism does not require any specialized cognitive abilities because an individual’s phenotype is always available for reference. Given the ubiquitous use of CHCs among arthropods, chemosensory self-referencing may be a widespread mechanism used by female arthropods to facilitate female mate-choice decisions and to enhance opportunities for polyandry [Current Zoology 59 (2: 239-248, 2013].

  3. Self-referent phenotype matching and its role in female mate choice in arthropods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carie B.WEDDLE; John HUNT; Scott K.SAKALUK

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of empirical evidence shows that females of many animal species gain benefits by mating polyandrously,and often prefer to mate with novel males over previous mates.Although a female preference for novel males has been demonstrated for multiple animal taxa,the mechanisms used by females to discriminate between novel and previous mates remain largely unknown.However,recent studies suggest that in decorated crickets Gryllodes sigillatus,females actually imbue males with their own chemical cues,known as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) during mating,and utilize chemosensory self-referencing to recognize recent mates.Here we review evidence that self-referent phenotype matching is a widespread mechanism of recognition in arthropods,and explore how CHCs are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions.There is substantial evidence that CHCs are used as recognition cues to discriminate between species,kin,sexes,mates,individuals,and self and non-self,and are used to facilitate mate-choice decisions in a wide range of arthropod taxa.There is also evidence that CHCs are often transferred between individuals during direct physical contact,including copulation.Chemosensory self-referencing via cuticular hydrocarbons could provide a simple,but reliable mechanism for identifying individuals from previous mating encounters.This mechanism does not require any specialized cognitive abilities because an individual's phenotype is always available for reference.Given the ubiquitous use of CHCs among arthropods,chemosensory self-referencing may be a widespread mechanism used by female arthropods to facilitate female mate-choice decisions and to enhance opportunities for polyandry.

  4. Abundance of epigaeic arthropods in a Brazilian savanna under different fire frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio Uehara-Prado; Ayr de M. Bello; Juliana de O. Fernandes; Adalberto J. Santos; Silva, Igor A.; Cianciaruso, Marcus V.

    2010-01-01

    Fire is a major determinant of structure and dynamics in savannas, and the rapid increase of human activities in this biome has changed the natural burning regime. The effects of fire on the fauna of the cerrado (Brazilian savanna) are still poorly understood, and studies comparing sites frequently and infrequently burned are scarce. In this study, the abundance of epigaeic arthropod orders and trophic guilds was assessed in cerrado sites located in the Brazilian Central Plateau that were sub...

  5. Soil arthropod diversity in organic, integrated and conventional olive orchards in Crete

    OpenAIRE

    Gkisakis, Vasileios; Kollaros, Dimitrios; Bàrberi, Paolo; Livierattos, Ioannis; Kampourakis , Emmanouil

    2014-01-01

    Soil fauna biodiversity and its functional counterpart were monitored in 24 olive orchards under conventional, organic and integrated management located in eight different locations for a year in Messara valley, in southern Crete. In each location three neighbouring orchards under different management were monitored. Pitfall traps were used as trapping method and fixed data collection points were used in each olive orchard for arthropod fauna monitoring. Counter groups of functional taxa were...

  6. Arthropods of Rose Atoll with special reference to ants and Pulvinaria Urbicola Scales (Hempitera Coccidae) on Pisonia Grandis trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Pendleton, Frank; Schmaedick, Mark; Ernsberger, Kelsie

    2014-01-01

    Rose Atoll, at the eastern end of the Samoan Archipelago, is a small but important refuge for seabirds, shorebirds, and sea turtles. While the vertebrate community is relatively well-studied, the terrestrial arthropod fauna, and its role in ecosystem function, are poorly known. Arthropods may be influencing the decline of Pisonia grandis, an ecologically important tree that once dominated the 6.6 ha of land on Rose Atoll. Reasons for the decline are not fully understood but a facultative relationship between two invasive arthropods, the soft scale Pulvinaria urbicola and ants, likely has contributed to tree death. The primary objectives of this study were to systematically survey the terrestrial arthropod fauna and identify ant species that tend scales on Pisonia. Using an array of standard arthropod collecting techniques, at least 73 species from 20 orders were identified, including nine ant species. Of the ants collected, only Tetramorium bicarinatum and T. simillimum were observed tending scales on Pisonia. No known natural enemies of Pulvinaria scales were found, suggesting little predation on scale populations. Treatment of Pisonia with the systemic insecticide imidacloprid failed to eliminate Pulvinaria scales, although short-term suppression apparently occurred. The arthropod fauna of Rose Atoll is dominated by exotic species that likely have a significant impact on the structure and function of the island’s ecosystem.

  7. Arthropod but not bird predation in ethiopian homegardens is higher in tree-poor than in tree-rich landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemessa, Debissa; Hambäck, Peter A; Hylander, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Bird and arthropod predation is often associated with natural pest control in agricultural landscapes, but the rates of predation may vary with the amount of tree cover or other environmental factors. We examined bird and arthropod predation in three tree-rich and three tree-poor landscapes across southwestern Ethiopia. Within each landscape we selected three tree-rich and three tree-poor homegardens in which we recorded the number of tree species and tree stems within 100 × 100 m surrounding the central house. To estimate predation rates, we attached plasticine caterpillars on leaves of two coffee and two avocado shrubs in each homegarden, and recorded the number of attacked caterpillars for 7-9 consecutive weeks. The overall mean daily predation rate was 1.45% for birds and 1.60% for arthropods. The rates of arthropod predation varied among landscapes and were higher in tree-poor landscapes. There was no such difference for birds. Within landscapes, predation rates from birds and arthropods did not vary between tree-rich and tree-poor homegardens in either tree-rich or tree-poor landscapes. The most surprising result was the lack of response by birds to tree cover at either spatial scale. Our results suggest that in tree-poor landscapes there are still enough non-crop habitats to support predatory arthropods and birds to deliver strong top-down effect on crop pests. PMID:25961306

  8. Spatial heterogeneity in the relative impacts of foliar quality and predation pressure on red oak, Quercus rubra, arthropod communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Caralyn B; Stodola, Kirk W; Cooper, Robert J; Hunter, Mark D

    2010-12-01

    Predation pressure and resource availability often interact in structuring herbivore communities, with their relative influence varying in space and time. The operation of multiple ecological pressures and guild-specific herbivore responses may combine to override simple predictions of how the roles of plant quality and predation pressure vary in space. For 2 years at the Coweeta LTER in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, we conducted a bird exclosure experiment on red oak (Quercus rubra) saplings to investigate the effects of bird predation on red oak arthropod communities. We established bird exclosures at six sites along an elevational gradient and estimated variation in foliar nitrogen and bird predation pressure along this gradient. Foliar nitrogen concentrations increased with elevation while our index of bird predation pressure was variable across sites. Greater arthropod densities were detected inside exclosures; however, this result was mainly driven by the response of phloem feeders which were much more prevalent inside exclosures than on control trees. There was little evidence for an effect of bird predation on the other arthropod guilds. Consequently, there was no evidence of a trophic cascade either in terms of leaf damage or tree growth. Finally, we found more variation in arthropod density among trees within sites than variation in arthropod density among sites, indicating the importance of micro-site variation in structuring arthropod communities. PMID:20711610

  9. Arthropod but not bird predation in ethiopian homegardens is higher in tree-poor than in tree-rich landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debissa Lemessa

    Full Text Available Bird and arthropod predation is often associated with natural pest control in agricultural landscapes, but the rates of predation may vary with the amount of tree cover or other environmental factors. We examined bird and arthropod predation in three tree-rich and three tree-poor landscapes across southwestern Ethiopia. Within each landscape we selected three tree-rich and three tree-poor homegardens in which we recorded the number of tree species and tree stems within 100 × 100 m surrounding the central house. To estimate predation rates, we attached plasticine caterpillars on leaves of two coffee and two avocado shrubs in each homegarden, and recorded the number of attacked caterpillars for 7-9 consecutive weeks. The overall mean daily predation rate was 1.45% for birds and 1.60% for arthropods. The rates of arthropod predation varied among landscapes and were higher in tree-poor landscapes. There was no such difference for birds. Within landscapes, predation rates from birds and arthropods did not vary between tree-rich and tree-poor homegardens in either tree-rich or tree-poor landscapes. The most surprising result was the lack of response by birds to tree cover at either spatial scale. Our results suggest that in tree-poor landscapes there are still enough non-crop habitats to support predatory arthropods and birds to deliver strong top-down effect on crop pests.

  10. A novel approach to the measurement of surfactant parameters in arthropod digestive juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romih, Tea; Kogej, Ksenija; Drobne, Damjana

    2016-05-01

    In arthropods, the determination of two important parameters of digestive juices, i.e. the total surfactant concentration and the critical micelle concentration (CMC), is challenging due to small sample volumes and low surfactant concentrations. In this work, we report a successful implementation of potentiometric titrations using the surfactant ion-selective electrode (SISE) and the pyrene fluorescence method (PFM) for the determination of the total surfactant concentration and CMC in the digestive juice of terrestrial isopod crustaceans Porcellio scaber. Pooled digestive juice extracts of four (SISE) or two (PFM) animals were used per measurement run. In both cases, digestive juice extracts in 100μL of deionized water were sufficient for one measurement run. The total surfactant concentration of P. scaber digestive juice was determined to be 9.2±3.5mM and the CMC was approximately 90μM. Our work presents an important improvement towards easy CMC determination in small volume samples in comparison with the commonly used stalagmometric technique, where much larger sample volumes are usually needed. To date, the total surfactant concentration was not measured in the digestive juices of arthropods other than Homarus vulgaris, Astacus leptodactylus and Cancer pagurus, for which complex separation and analytical techniques were required. Our results obtained by SISE and PFM therefore present the first successful quantification of surfactants and their CMC in small volumes of arthropod digestive juice without prior separation or purification techniques. PMID:26969560

  11. Effect of the application of chlorpyrifos to maize on pests and beneficial arthropods in Nicaragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were performed between 1994 and 1997 to evaluate the effect of chlorpyrifos insecticide on arthropods in maize agroecosystem. The experiments were carried out in Boaco (Central zone) and Managua (Pacific zone) areas. Experiments were set up according to randomized block design, with large plots (750 m2) and four replications. The treatments were 1L/ha Lorsban 4E (containing 480 g a.i../L) and control. Visual sampling, pitfall traps and yellow traps were used to estimate numbers of pest insects and beneficial arthropods. Chlorpiryfos had a measureable affect on fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Dalbulus maidis. The plots sprayed with the insecticide had the lowest population of S. frugiperda and the highest population of D. maidis. Beneficials insects, mainly parasitoids were more affected than pests by the insecticide sprays. The highest parasitism was found in the unsprayed plots. Overall, the lowest population of arthropods was found in the sprayed plots, except that in Managua the highest number of D. maidis were found in the sprayed plots. (author)

  12. Pesticide-Induced Stress in Arthropod Pests for Optimized Integrated Pest Management Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, R N C; Smagghe, G; Stark, J D; Desneux, N

    2016-03-11

    More than six decades after the onset of wide-scale commercial use of synthetic pesticides and more than fifty years after Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, pesticides, particularly insecticides, arguably remain the most influential pest management tool around the globe. Nevertheless, pesticide use is still a controversial issue and is at the regulatory forefront in most countries. The older generation of insecticide groups has been largely replaced by a plethora of novel molecules that exhibit improved human and environmental safety profiles. However, the use of such compounds is guided by their short-term efficacy; the indirect and subtler effects on their target species, namely arthropod pest species, have been neglected. Curiously, comprehensive risk assessments have increasingly explored effects on nontarget species, contrasting with the majority of efforts focused on the target arthropod pest species. The present review mitigates this shortcoming by hierarchically exploring within an ecotoxicology framework applied to integrated pest management the myriad effects of insecticide use on arthropod pest species. PMID:26473315

  13. Short communication. Incidence of the OLIPE mass-trapping on olive non-target arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcel, M.; Ruano, F.; Sanllorente, O.; Caballero, J. A.; Campos, M.

    2009-07-01

    Due to the widespread of mass-trapping systems for Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae) control in organic olive cropping, an assessment of the impact on arthropods of the olive agroecosystem was undertaken for the OLIPE trap type. The sampling was carried out in Los Pedroches valley (Cordoba, southern Spain) in three different organic orchard sites. Six OLIPE traps baited with diammonium phosphate were collected from each site (18 in total) from July to November 2002 every 15 days on average. Additionally, in the latest sampling dates, half the traps were reinforced with pheromone to assess its impact on non-target arthropods. From an average of 43.0 catches per trap (cpt) of non-target arthropods during the whole sampling period, the highest number of captures corresponds to the Order Diptera (that represents a 68.5%), followed distantly by the family Formicidae (12.9%) and the Order Lepidoptera (10.4%). Besides the impact on ant populations, other beneficial groups were recorded such as parasitoids (Other Hymenoptera: 2.6%) and predators (Araneae: 1.0%; Neuroptera s.l.: 0.4%). Concerning the temporal distribution of catches, total captures peaked on July and had a slight increase at the beginning of autumn. No significant differences were observed between traps with and without pheromone. The results evidence that a considerable amount of non-specific captures could be prevented by improving the temporal planning of the mass-trapping system. (Author) 25 refs.

  14. Discontinuous gas exchange in a tracheate arthropod, the pseudoscorpion Garypus californicus: Occurrence, characteristics and temperature dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R.B. Lighton

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The discontinuous gas exchange cycle of the pseudoscorpion Garypus californicus, mean mass 5.9 mg, is rudimentary and is characterized by bursts of CO2 at frequencies ranging from 3.6 mHz at 15 °C to 13.3 mHz at 35 °C. The mean volume of CO2 emitted per burst is 3.6 µl g-1 at 25 °C, about a tenth of the amount emitted by tracheate arthropods with a well developed discontinuous gas exchange cycle. Interburst CO2 emission is high and increases with temperature, reaching near 45% of total CO2 production rate at 35 °C. No fluttering spiracle phase is evident. The metabolic rate of G. californicus at 25 °C (8.4 µW is typical of other arthropods. We infer from the high rate of interburst CO2 emission in G. californicus that trans-spiracular O2 partial pressure gradients are small and that spiracular conductance is correspondingly high, which may lead to high rates of respiratory water loss relative to arthropods with more stringent spiracular control and higher CO2 buffering capacity. The typical moist, hypogeal environments and small body sizes of pseudoscorpions correlate well with their respiratory physiology

  15. Effect of brushwood transposition on the leaf litter arthropod fauna in a cerrado area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Benetton Vergílio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of ecological restoration techniques can be monitored through biological indicators of soil quality such as the leaf litter arthropod fauna. This study aimed to determine the immediate effect of brushwood transposition transferred from an area of native vegetation to a disturbed area, on the leaf litter arthropod fauna in a degraded cerrado area. The arthropod fauna of four areas was compared: a degraded area with signal grass, two experimental brushwood transposition areas, with and without castor oil plants, and an area of native cerrado. In total, 7,660 individuals belonging to 23 taxa were sampled. Acari and Collembola were the most abundant taxa in all studied areas, followed by Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, and Symphyla. The brushwood transposition area without castor oil plants had the lowest abundance and dominance and the highest diversity of all areas, providing evidence of changes in the soil community. Conversely, the results showed that the presence of castor oil plants hampered early succession, negatively affecting ecological restoration in this area.

  16. Fungal metabolic plasticity and sexual development mediate induced resistance to arthropod fungivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döll, Katharina; Chatterjee, Subhankar; Scheu, Stefan; Karlovsky, Petr; Rohlfs, Marko

    2013-11-22

    Prey organisms do not tolerate predator attack passively but react with a multitude of inducible defensive strategies. Although inducible defence strategies are well known in plants attacked by herbivorous insects, induced resistance of fungi against fungivorous animals is largely unknown. Resistance to fungivory is thought to be mediated by chemical properties of fungal tissue, i.e. by production of toxic secondary metabolites. However, whether fungi change their secondary metabolite composition to increase resistance against arthropod fungivory is unknown. We demonstrate that grazing by a soil arthropod, Folsomia candida, on the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans induces a phenotype that repels future fungivores and retards fungivore growth. Arthropod-exposed colonies produced significantly higher amounts of toxic secondary metabolites and invested more in sexual reproduction relative to unchallenged fungi. Compared with vegetative tissue and asexual conidiospores, sexual fruiting bodies turned out to be highly resistant against fungivory in facultative sexual A. nidulans. This indicates that fungivore grazing triggers co-regulated allocation of resources to sexual reproduction and chemical defence in A. nidulans. Plastic investment in facultative sex and chemical defence may have evolved as a fungal strategy to escape from predation. PMID:24068353

  17. Dating the arthropod tree based on large-scale transcriptome data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Peter; Borner, Janus; Meusemann, Karen; von Reumont, Björn M; Simon, Sabrina; Hadrys, Heike; Misof, Bernhard; Burmester, Thorsten

    2011-12-01

    Molecular sequences do not only allow the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships among species, but also provide information on the approximate divergence times. Whereas the fossil record dates the origin of most multicellular animal phyla during the Cambrian explosion less than 540 million years ago(mya), molecular clock calculations usually suggest much older dates. Here we used a large multiple sequence alignment derived from Expressed Sequence Tags and genomes comprising 129genes (37,476 amino acid positions) and 117 taxa, including 101 arthropods. We obtained consistent divergence time estimates applying relaxed Bayesian clock models with different priors and multiple calibration points. While the influence of substitution rates, missing data, and model priors were negligible, the clock model had significant effect. A log-normal autocorrelated model was selected on basis of cross-validation. We calculated that arthropods emerged ~600 mya. Onychophorans (velvet worms) and euarthropods split ~590 mya, Pancrustacea and Myriochelata ~560 mya, Myriapoda and Chelicerata ~555 mya, and 'Crustacea' and Hexapoda ~510 mya. Endopterygote insects appeared ~390 mya. These dates are considerably younger than most previous molecular clock estimates and in better agreement with the fossil record. Nevertheless, a Precambrian origin of arthropods and other metazoan phyla is still supported. Our results also demonstrate the applicability of large datasets of random nuclear sequences for approximating the timing of multicellular animal evolution. PMID:21945788

  18. Seasonal abundance of soil arthropods in relation to meteorological and edaphic factors in the agroecosystems of Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Muhammad Mussadiq; Ahmed, Sohail

    2015-05-01

    Soil arthropods are an important component of agroecosystems, contributing significantly to their biodiversity and functioning. However, seasonal patterns, population dynamics, and significant roles of these soil arthropods in improvement of soil structures and functions are influenced by many factors. The objective of the current study was to investigate soil arthropod abundance in relation to a blend of meteorological and edaphic factors and to find out the difference in abundance among various crops (sugarcane, cotton, wheat, alfalfa fodder, and citrus orchards). The arthropod sampling was done by pitfall traps and Tullgren extractions on fortnightly intervals. Soil temperature and relative humidity were noted on the field sites while analysis for soil pH, organic matter, and soil moisture contents were done in the laboratory. The rainfall data was obtained from an observatory. Results showed that significant differences were found in soil arthropod abundance across different sampling months and crops. Out of total 13,673 soil arthropods sampled, 38 % belonged to Collembola, followed by 15 % Hymenoptera, 15 % Acarina, 11 % Myriapods, 6 % Coleoptera, 5 % Orthoptera, and 5 % Araneae. Mean abundance per sample was highest in summer months as compared to winter. Overall abundance per sample was significantly different between all crops ( p < 0.05). Cluster analysis revealed four categories of soil arthropods according to abundance, i.e., highly abundant (Collembola, Acarina, Myripoda, Hymenoptera), moderately abundant (Orthoptera, Aranae, Coleoptera), least abundant (Dermaptera, Hemiptera, Diptera), and rare (Blattaria, Isoptera, Diplura, Lepidoptera). Soil temperature and soil organic matter showed significant positive correlation with abundance, while relative humidity was significantly negatively correlated. Soil moisture and soil pH showed no significant correlations while no correlation was found with total rainfall. PCA analysis revealed that soil surface

  19. Factors affecting the abundance of leaf-litter arthropods in unburned and thrice-burned seasonally-dry Amazonian forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M Silveira

    Full Text Available Fire is frequently used as a land management tool for cattle ranching and annual crops in the Amazon. However, these maintenance fires often escape into surrounding forests, with potentially severe impacts for forest biodiversity. We examined the effect of experimental fires on leaf-litter arthropod abundance in a seasonally-dry forest in the Brazilian Amazon. The study plots (50 ha each included a thrice-burned forest and an unburned control forest. Pitfall-trap samples were collected at 160 randomly selected points in both plots, with sampling stratified across four intra-annual replicates across the dry and wet seasons, corresponding to 6, 8, 10 and 12 months after the most recent fire. Arthropods were identified to the level of order (separating Formicidae. In order to better understand the processes that determine arthropod abundance in thrice-burned forests, we measured canopy openness, understory density and litter depth. All arthropod taxa were significantly affected by fire and season. In addition, the interactions between burn treatment and season were highly significant for all taxa but Isoptera. The burned plot was characterized by a more open canopy, lower understory density and shallower litter depth. Hierarchical partitioning revealed that canopy openness was the most important factor explaining arthropod order abundances in the thrice-burned plot, whereas all three environmental variables were significant in the unburned control plot. These results reveal the marked impact of recurrent wildfires and seasonality on litter arthropods in this transitional forest, and demonstrate the overwhelming importance of canopy-openness in driving post-fire arthropod abundance.

  20. Factors affecting the abundance of leaf-litter arthropods in unburned and thrice-burned seasonally-dry Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Juliana M; Barlow, Jos; Louzada, Julio; Moutinho, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    Fire is frequently used as a land management tool for cattle ranching and annual crops in the Amazon. However, these maintenance fires often escape into surrounding forests, with potentially severe impacts for forest biodiversity. We examined the effect of experimental fires on leaf-litter arthropod abundance in a seasonally-dry forest in the Brazilian Amazon. The study plots (50 ha each) included a thrice-burned forest and an unburned control forest. Pitfall-trap samples were collected at 160 randomly selected points in both plots, with sampling stratified across four intra-annual replicates across the dry and wet seasons, corresponding to 6, 8, 10 and 12 months after the most recent fire. Arthropods were identified to the level of order (separating Formicidae). In order to better understand the processes that determine arthropod abundance in thrice-burned forests, we measured canopy openness, understory density and litter depth. All arthropod taxa were significantly affected by fire and season. In addition, the interactions between burn treatment and season were highly significant for all taxa but Isoptera. The burned plot was characterized by a more open canopy, lower understory density and shallower litter depth. Hierarchical partitioning revealed that canopy openness was the most important factor explaining arthropod order abundances in the thrice-burned plot, whereas all three environmental variables were significant in the unburned control plot. These results reveal the marked impact of recurrent wildfires and seasonality on litter arthropods in this transitional forest, and demonstrate the overwhelming importance of canopy-openness in driving post-fire arthropod abundance. PMID:20877720

  1. The influence of weather conditions on the activity of high-arctic arthropods inferred from long-term observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Høye Toke T

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change is particularly pronounced in the High Arctic and a better understanding of the repercussions on ecological processes like herbivory, predation and pollination is needed. Arthropods play an important role in the high-arctic ecosystem and this role is determined by their density and activity. However, density and activity may be sensitive to separate components of climate. Earlier emergence due to advanced timing of snowmelt following climate change may expose adult arthropods to unchanged temperatures but higher levels of radiation. The capture rate of arthropods in passive open traps like pitfall trap integrates density and activity and, therefore, serves as a proxy of the magnitude of such arthropod-related ecological processes. We used arthropod pitfall trapping data and weather data from 10 seasons in high-arctic Greenland to identify climatic effects on the activity pattern of nine arthropod taxa. Results We were able to statistically separate the variation in capture rates into a non-linear component of capture date (density and a linear component of weather (activity. The non-linear proxy of density always accounted for more of the variation than the linear component of weather. After accounting for the seasonal phenological development, the most important weather variable influencing the capture rate of flying arthropods was temperature, while surface-dwelling species were principally influenced by solar radiation. Conclusion Consistent with previous findings, air temperature best explained variation in the activity level of flying insects. An advancement of the phenology in this group due to earlier snowmelt will make individuals appear earlier in the season, but parallel temperature increases could mean that individuals are exposed to similar temperatures. Hence, the effect of climatic changes on the activity pattern in this group may be unchanged. In contrast, we found that solar radiation is a

  2. Equine Grazing in Managed Subalpine Wetlands: Effects on Arthropods and Plant Structure as a Function of Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, Jeffrey G.; Schmidt-Gengenbach, Jutta; Haultain, Sylvia A.

    2013-12-01

    Grazing management necessarily emphasizes the most spatially extensive vegetation assemblages, but landscapes are mosaics, often with more mesic vegetation types embedded within a matrix of drier vegetation. Our primary objective was to contrast effects of equine grazing on both subalpine vegetation structure and associated arthropods in a drier reed grass ( Calamagrostis muiriana) dominated habitat versus a wetter, more productive sedge habitat ( Carex utriculata). A second objective was to compare reed grass and sedge as habitats for fauna, irrespective of grazing. All work was done in Sequoia National Park (CA, USA), where detailed, long-term records of stock management were available. We sampled paired grazed and control wet meadows that contained both habitats. There were moderate negative effects of grazing on vegetation, and effects were greater in sedge than in reed grass. Conversely, negative grazing effects on arthropods, albeit limited, were greater in the drier reed grass, possibly due to microhabitat differences. The differing effects on plants and animals as a function of habitat emphasize the importance of considering both flora and fauna, as well as multiple habitat types, when making management decisions. Sedge supported twice the overall arthropod abundance of reed grass as well as greater diversity; hemipteran and dipteran taxa were particularly abundant in sedge. Given the greater grazing effects on sedge vegetation, greater habitat provision for terrestrial arthropods, and value as aquatic arthropod habitat, the wetter sedge assemblage is worthy of additional consideration by managers when planning for grazing and other aspects of land usage.

  3. Breeding Westland petrels as providers of detrital carbon and nitrogen for soil arthropods : a stable isotope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabirds deposit large quantities of marine detritus on land, but little is known of the soil arthropods processing this material. Burrow-nesting seabirds concentrate their activities within their burrows, so we tested the hypothesis that burrow arthropod fauna is more marine-like in its isotopic enrichment (13C/12C, 15N/14N); expressed as δ13C and δ15N) than the arthropods on the adjacent forest floor. Results from a Westland petrel (Procellaria westlandica) colony on the South Island of New Zealand did not support the hypothesis. Instead, δ15N was universally marine (13-22 per mil). While δ13C separated into two clusters, the distribution was not according to arthropod provenance. Most taxa had a terrestrial δ13C; only two taxa (a leiodid beetle and the mesostigmatic mite Ayersacarus woodi) incorporated marine C. The leiodid beetle occurs both in burrows and on the forest floor; beetles from both habitats had a marine δ13C. Ayersacarus woodi is found only in burrows. We conclude that, in this system, marine and terrestrial detrital C is processed separately, and that marine detrital C enters the terrestrial ecosystem through a very few arthropod taxa. (author). 33 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Seasonal occurrence of key arthropod pests and associated natural enemies in Alabama Satsuma citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadamiro, Henry Y; Xiao, Yingfang; Hargroder, Terry; Nesbitt, Monte; Umeh, Vincent; Childers, Carl C

    2008-04-01

    Six Alabama Satsuma mandarin orchards (four conventionally sprayed and two unsprayed) were surveyed during 2005 and 2006 to determine the population dynamics of arthropod pests and their natural enemies. Twenty-eight arthropod pest species were encountered; the major foliage pests were citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead); purple scale, Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman); Glover scale, L. gloveri (Packard); and citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor). Two distinct population peaks were recorded for citrus whitefly at most locations. The most important direct sources of citrus whitefly mortality were parasitism by Encarsia lahorensis (Howard) and infection by the pathogenic fungus, Aschersonia aleyrodis Webber. In general, all stages of both scale insects (purple scale and Glover scale) were present in the orchards year-round, indicative of overlapping generations; however, the highest densities were recorded during the early season. Citrus whitefly, purple scale, and Glover scale were more abundant on leaves collected from the interior of the tree canopy than in the exterior canopy. Citrus red mite densities were highest in the spring, with populations declining at the start of the summer, and were more abundant in the exterior canopy than in the interior canopy. The most important natural enemies of citrus red mite were predatory mites belonging to several families, of which Typhlodromalus peregrinus Muma (Phytoseiidae) was the predominant species. Major differences were recorded in the relative abundance of different arthropod pest species in the orchards: citrus whitefly, purple scale, and Glover scale predominated in the unsprayed orchards, whereas citrus red mite infestations were more severe in the sprayed orchards. The results are discussed in relation to the possible effect of orchard management practices on abundance of the major pests. PMID:18419929

  5. The origin of herbivory on land: Initial patterns of plant tissue consumption by arthropods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CONRAD LABANDEIRA

    2007-01-01

    The early fossil record of terrestrial arthropod herbivory consists of two pulses.The first pulse was concentrated during the latest Silurian to Early Devonian (417 to 403 Ma),and consists of the earliest evidence for consumption of sporangia and stems (and limited fungivore borings). Herbivorization of most of these tissues was rapid, representing 0 to 20 million-year (m.y.) lags from the earliest occurrences of these organs in the fossil record to their initial consumption (Phase 1). For approximately the next 75 m.y., there was a second,more histologically varied origination and expansion of roots, leaves, wood and seeds,whose earliest evidence for herbivorization occurred from the Middle-Late Mississippian boundary to the Middle Pennsylvanian (327 to 309 Ma). The appearance of this second herbivory pulse during the later Paleozoic (Phase 2) is accompanied by major lags of 98 to 54 m.y. between times of appearance of each of the four organ and tissue types and their subsequent herbivory. Both pulses provide a context for three emerging questions. First is an explanation for the contrast between the near instantaneous consumption of plant tissues during Phase 1, versus the exceptionally long lags between the earliest occurrences of plant tissues and their subsequent herbivorization during Phase 2. Second is the identity of arthropod herbivores for both phases. Third is the cause behind the overwhelming targeting of seed-fern plant hosts during Phase 2. Regardless of the answers to these questions, the trace fossil record of plant-arthropod associations provides primary ecological data that remain unaddressed by the body-fossil record alone.

  6. The importance of Acacia trees for insectivorous bats and arthropods in the Arava desert.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talya D Hackett

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic habitat modification often has a profound negative impact on the flora and fauna of an ecosystem. In parts of the Middle East, ephemeral rivers (wadis are characterised by stands of acacia trees. Green, flourishing assemblages of these trees are in decline in several countries, most likely due to human-induced water stress and habitat changes. We examined the importance of healthy acacia stands for bats and their arthropod prey in comparison to other natural and artificial habitats available in the Arava desert of Israel. We assessed bat activity and species richness through acoustic monitoring for entire nights and concurrently collected arthropods using light and pit traps. Dense green stands of acacia trees were the most important natural desert habitat for insectivorous bats. Irrigated gardens and parks in villages and fields of date palms had high arthropod levels but only village sites rivalled acacia trees in bat activity level. We confirmed up to 13 bat species around a single patch of acacia trees; one of the richest sites in any natural desert habitat in Israel. Some bat species utilised artificial sites; others were found almost exclusively in natural habitats. Two rare species (Barbastella leucomelas and Nycteris thebaica were identified solely around acacia trees. We provide strong evidence that acacia trees are of unique importance to the community of insectivorous desert-dwelling bats, and that the health of the trees is crucial to their value as a foraging resource. Consequently, conservation efforts for acacia habitats, and in particular for the green more densely packed stands of trees, need to increase to protect this vital habitat for an entire community of protected bats.

  7. Some topological properties of arthropod food webs in paddy fields of South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiQin Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To explore the topological properties of paddy arthropod food webs is of significance for understanding natural equilibrium of rice pests. In present study, we used Pajek software to analyze the topological properties of four full arthropod food webs in South China. The results showed that predators were significantly abundant than preys, and the proportion of predators to preys (3.07 was significantly higher than previously reported by Cohen in 1977 (1.33. In the food webs, the number of top species was the largest, accounted for about 50% of the total. The number of intermediate-intermediate links was far greater than the other three links. The average degree of paddy arthropod food webs is 6.0, 6.04, 5.74 and 7.75, respectively. Average degree and link density did not change significantly with the change of the number of species, but the connectance reduced significantly. In the paddy ecosystems, the increase of species diversity does not lead to an increase proportionally to the links among species. The link density and connectance of food webs of early season rice field were less than that from late season rice field. Cycles of all food webs cycles were 0. The maximum chain length of the basal species was 3, and the largest chain length of the top species was typically 2 or 3. Neutral insects were found to play a very important role in the paddy ecosystem. Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera were found to be the dominant species of rice pests. Pardosa pseudoannulata, Tetragnatha maxillosa, Pirata subparaticus, Arctosa stigmosa and Clubiona corrugate were identified as the important predatory species that may effectively control the pest population. The keystone species calculated from keystone index and network analysis are analogous, indicating either keystone index or network analysis can be used in the analysis of keystone species.

  8. Geographic patterns in the distribution of social systems in terrestrial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica

    2011-05-01

    The role of ecology in the evolution and maintenance of arthropod sociality has received increasing research attention in recent years. In some organisms, such as halictine bees, polistine wasps, and social spiders, researchers are investigating the environmental factors that may contribute to high levels of variation in the degree of sociality exhibited both among and within species. Within lineages that include only eusocial members, such as ants and termites, studies focus more on identifying extrinsic factors that may contribute to the dramatic variation in colony size, number of queens, and division of labour that is evident across these species. In this review, I propose a comparative approach that seeks to identify environmental factors that may have a common influence across such divergent social arthropod groups. I suggest that seeking common biogeographic patterns in the distribution of social systems or key social traits may help us to identify ecological factors that play a common role in shaping the evolution of sociality across different organisms. I first review previous studies of social gradients that form along latitudinal and altitudinal axes. Within families and within species, many organisms show an increasing degree of sociality at lower latitudes and altitudes. In a smaller number of cases, organisms form larger groups or found nests cooperatively at higher latitudes and altitudes. I then describe several environmental factors that vary consistently along such gradients, including climate variables and abundance of predators, and outline their proposed role in the social systems of terrestrial arthropods. Finally, I map distributions of a social trait against several climatic factors in five case studies to demonstrate how future comparative studies could inform empirical research. PMID:20840372

  9. Diversification of mowing regime increases arthropods diversity in species-poor cultural hay meadows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, O.; Zámečník, J.; Tropek, Robert; Kočárek, P.; Konvička, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2012), s. 215-226. ISSN 1366-638X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA MŽP SP/2D3/62/08 Grant ostatní: Czech Agency for Nature Conservation(CZ) PPK-35a/62/06 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : hay meadows * arthropods conservation * mowing regimes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.801, year: 2012 http://www.muzeumhk.cz/files/jaroslav_zamecnik/2012_cizek_zamecnik.pdf

  10. Discontinuous gas exchange in a tracheate arthropod, the pseudoscorpion Garypus californicus: Occurrence, characteristics and temperature dependence.

    OpenAIRE

    Lighton, John R. B.; Barbara Joos

    2002-01-01

    The discontinuous gas exchange cycle of the pseudoscorpion Garypus californicus, mean mass 5.9 mg, is rudimentary and is characterized by bursts of CO2 at frequencies ranging from 3.6 mHz at 15 °C to 13.3 mHz at 35 °C. The mean volume of CO2 emitted per burst is 3.6 µl g-1 at 25 °C, about a tenth of the amount emitted by tracheate arthropods with a well developed discontinuous gas exchange cycle. Interburst CO2 emission is high and increases with temperature, reaching near 45% of total CO2 pr...

  11. Haematophagous arthropod saliva and host defense system: a tale of tear and blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Bruno B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The saliva from blood-feeding arthropod vectors is enriched with molecules that display diverse functions that mediate a successful blood meal. They function not only as weapons against host's haemostatic, inflammatory and immune responses but also as important tools to pathogen establishment. Parasites, virus and bacteria taking advantage of vectors' armament have adapted to facilitate their entry in the host. Today, many salivary molecules have been identified and characterized as new targets to the development of future vaccines. Here we focus on current information on vector's saliva and the molecules responsible to modify host's hemostasis and immune response, also regarding their role in disease transmission.

  12. Effect of commercially available plant-derived essential oil products on arthropod pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Galle, Cindy L; Keith, Stephen R; Kalscheur, Nanette A; Kemp, Kenneth E

    2009-08-01

    Plant-derived essential oil products, in general, are considered minimum-risk pesticides and are exempt from Environmental Protection Agency registration under section 25(b) of the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. However, many of the plant-derived essential products available to consumers (homeowners) have not been judiciously evaluated for both efficacy and plant safety. In fact, numerous plant-derived essential oil products labeled for control of arthropod pests have not been subject to rigorous evaluation, and there is minimal scientific information or supporting data associated with efficacy against arthropod pests. We conducted a series of greenhouse experiments to determine the efficacy and phytotoxicity of an array of plant-derived essential oil products available to consumers on arthropod pests including the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande); twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch; sweetpotato whitefly B-biotype, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius); and green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Although the products Flower Pharm (cottonseed, cinnamon, and rosemary oil) and Indoor Pharm (soybean, rosemary, and lavender oil) provided > 90% mortality of citrus mealybug, they were also the most phytotoxic to the coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd, plants. Both GC-Mite (cottonseed, clove, and garlic oil) and Bugzyme (citric acid) were most effective against the twospotted spider mite (> or = 90% mortality). However, SMC (canola, coriander oil, and triethanolamine), neem (clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil), and Bug Assassin (eugenol, sodium lauryl sulfate, peppermint, and citronella oil) provided > 80% mortality. Monterey Garden Insect Spray, which contained 0.5% spinosad, was most effective against western flower thrips with 100% mortality. All the other products evaluated failed to provide sufficient control of western flower thrips with or = 4.5 of

  13. Lights, camera and action: vertebrate skin sets the stage for immune cell interaction with arthropod-vectored pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Zhen eChong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing studies targeted at host-pathogen interactions, vector-borne diseases remain one of the largest economic health burdens worldwide. Such diseases are vectored by hematophagous arthropods that deposit pathogens into the vertebrate host’s skin during a blood meal. These pathogens spend a substantial amount of time in the skin that allows for interaction with cutaneous immune cells, suggesting a window of opportunity for development of vaccine strategies. In particular, the recent availability of intravital imaging approaches has provided further insights into immune cell behavior in living tissues. Here, we discuss how such intravital imaging studies have contributed to our knowledge of cutaneous immune cell behavior and specifically, towards pathogen and tissue trauma from the arthropod bite. We also suggest future imaging approaches that may aid in better understanding of the complex interplay between arthropod-vectored pathogens and cutaneous immunity that could lead to improved therapeutic strategies.

  14. Radioactive tracer studies of soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on soil and litter arthropod food chains, concerning measurement of nutrient flow using radioisotope techniques and investigations of the role of soil arthropods as regulators of the ecosystem-level processes of decomposition and mineralization of nutrients is described. Laboratory measurements of radiotracer turnover by predaceous macroarthropods are reported, as well as the status of research with microarthropod turnover of radioactive tracers. Implications of results are evaluated in context of current understanding of nutrient flows along arthropod food chains. The interactions of soil fauna and mycorrhizal fungi are also under investigation. Field work has been completed on granitic outcrop projects, and a synthesis of results is summarized. Input-output budgets revealed that granitic outcrop island ecosystems are essentially in balance as regards nutrient flows. The ecosystems showed a strong resistance component of stability, as opposed to resilience, following an applied chemical perturbation and a natural one

  15. Radioactive tracer studies of soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1977--October 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported in projects dealing with radioisotope measurement of nutrient flow in soil arthropod food chains, the role of soil arthropods as regulators of the terrestrial decomposition process, and field projects investigating the response to perturbation by island ecosystems on granitic outcrops. Radioisotopes in combination with system modeling techniques are being used to estimate nutrient flow rates in food chains of soil arthropods, and help to evaluate their impact on the decomposition process. Field work on granitic outcrop ecosystems has been completed. Evaluations of input-output budgets showed that the ecosystems are essentially in balance. They showed a strong resistance component of stability, as opposed to resilience, as far as chemical perturbations and drought are concerned

  16. The utility of DNA metabarcoding for studying the response of arthropod diversity and composition to land-use change in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beng, Kingsly Chuo; Tomlinson, Kyle W; Shen, Xian Hui; Surget-Groba, Yann; Hughes, Alice C; Corlett, Richard T; Slik, J W Ferry

    2016-01-01

    Metabarcoding potentially offers a rapid and cheap method of monitoring biodiversity, but real-world applications are few. We investigated its utility in studying patterns of litter arthropod diversity and composition in the tropics. We collected litter arthropods from 35 matched forest-plantation sites across Xishuangbanna, southwestern China. A new primer combination and the MiSeq platform were used to amplify and sequence a wide variety of litter arthropods using simulated and real-world communities. Quality filtered reads were clustered into 3,624 MOTUs at ≥97% similarity and the taxonomy of each MOTU was predicted. We compared diversity and compositional differences between forests and plantations (rubber and tea) for all MOTUs and for eight arthropod groups. We obtained ~100% detection rate after in silico sequencing six mock communities with known arthropod composition. Ordination showed that rubber, tea and forest communities formed distinct clusters. α-diversity declined significantly between forests and adjacent plantations for more arthropod groups in rubber than tea, and diversity of order Orthoptera increased significantly in tea. Turnover was higher in forests than plantations, but patterns differed among groups. Metabarcoding is useful for quantifying diversity patterns of arthropods under different land-uses and the MiSeq platform is effective for arthropod metabarcoding in the tropics. PMID:27112993

  17. Arthropod but Not Bird Predation in Ethiopian Homegardens Is Higher in Tree-Poor than in Tree-Rich Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Lemessa, Debissa; Hambäck, Peter A.; Hylander, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Bird and arthropod predation is often associated with natural pest control in agricultural landscapes, but the rates of predation may vary with the amount of tree cover or other environmental factors. We examined bird and arthropod predation in three tree-rich and three tree-poor landscapes across southwestern Ethiopia. Within each landscape we selected three tree-rich and three tree-poor homegardens in which we recorded the number of tree species and tree stems within 100 × 100 m surrounding...

  18. Smuggling across the border: how arthropod-borne pathogens evade and exploit the host defense system of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Quentin; Jaulhac, Benoit; Boulanger, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    The skin is a critical barrier between hosts and pathogens in arthropod-borne diseases. It harbors many resident cells and specific immune cells to arrest or limit infections by secreting inflammatory molecules or by directly killing pathogens. However, some pathogens are able to use specific skin cells and arthropod saliva for their initial development, to hide from the host immune system, and to establish persistent infection in the vertebrate host. A better understanding of the initial mechanisms taking place in the skin should allow the development of new strategies to fight these vector-borne pathogens that are spread worldwide and are of major medical importance. PMID:24552683

  19. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Annual progress report, February 1, 1983-January 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report describes progress in research on the influence of soil fauna on the general process of terrestrial decomposition. The major goal is to investigate the regulation of decomposition by soil arthropods. Methods have included radioactive tracer measurements of food chain dynamics, rates of nutrient or mineral element flow during decomposition, and simulation modeling. This year's report describes significant progress in defining the influence of soil arthropods in stimulating microbial immobilization of nutrients. Preliminary efforts to define the importance of the soil-litter macroarthropods are also reported

  20. Scientific Opinion addressing the state of the science on risk assessment of plant protection products for non-target arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA PPR Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues); Topping, Christopher John

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Food Safety Authority, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues developed an opinion on the science to support the development of a risk assessment scheme of plant protection products for non-target arthropods. The current risk assessment...... dynamics, conducting a landscape-level risk assessment is suggested. A new risk assessment scheme is suggested which integrates modelling approaches. The main exposure routes for non-target arthropods are identified and proposals are made on how to integrate them in the risk assessment. The appropriateness...

  1. The effects of heavy metal contamination on the soil arthropod community of a shooting range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliorini, Massimo; Pigino, Gaia; Bianchi, Nicola; Bernini, Fabio; Leonzio, Claudio

    2004-05-01

    Soils in clay pigeon shooting ranges can be seriously contaminated by heavy metals. The pellets contained in ammunition are composed of Pb, Sb, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cu. The total concentrations of these metals in soils, and the effects of their increasing levels on the arthropod community were investigated at seven sampling sites in a clay pigeon shooting range and compared with two controls. Research revealed that the spatial distribution of Pb and Sb contamination in the shot-fall area was strongly correlated with the flight path of the pellets. Ordination obtained through Redundance Analysis showed that Collembola, Protura and Diplura were positively correlated with major detected contaminants (Pb, Sb), while Symphyla showed a negative correlation with these pollutants. Determination of the soluble lead fraction in soil, and of its bioaccumulation in the saprophagous Armadillidium sordidum (Isopoda) and the predator Ocypus olens (Coleoptera), showed that a significant portion of metallic Pb from spent pellets is bioavailable in the soil and can be bioaccumulated by edaphic organisms, entering the soil trophic network, but without biomagnification. - Significant relationships were found between lead accumulation in soil from a shooting range and inhabiting arthropod communities.

  2. Phylogeography of the Cactophilic Drosophila and Other Arthropods Associated with Cactus Necroses in the Sonoran Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. Markow

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the population genetics, phylogenetic relationships, systematics and evolution of arthropods that inhabit necrotic tissue of cacti in the Sonoran Desert of North America are reviewed. These studies have focused upon several species of insects (orders Diptera and Coleoptera and arachnids (order Pseudoscorpiones. For most taxa studied, little genetic structure and high dispersal ability are found in populations inhabiting the mainland and Baja California peninsula regions of the Sonoran Desert, consistent with the availability of the rotting cactus microhabitat which is patchily distributed and ephemeral. There is evidence, however, that the Gulf of California, which bisects the Sonoran Desert, has played a role in limiting gene flow and promoting speciation in several taxa, including histerid beetles, whereas other taxa, especially Drosophila nigrospiracula and D. mettleri, apparently are able to freely cross the Gulf, probably by taking advantage of the Midriff Islands in the northern Gulf as dispersal “stepping stones”. Genetic evidence has also been found for historical population expansions dating to the Pleistocene and late Pliocene in several taxa. Overall, these studies have provided important insights into how arthropods with different life history traits, but generally restricted to a necrotic cactus microhabitat, have evolved in an environmentally harsh and tectonically active region. In addition, they suggest some taxa for further, and more detailed, hypothesis driven studies of speciation.

  3. Multiple sources of isotopic variation in a terrestrial arthropod community: challenges for disentangling food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Matthew P; Briggs, Cheryl J

    2007-08-01

    Documenting trophic links in a food web has traditionally required complex exclusion experiments coupled with extraordinarily labor-intensive direct observations of predator foraging. Newer techniques such as stable isotope analysis (SIA) may facilitate relatively quick and accurate assessments of consumer feeding behavior. Ratios of N and C isotopes are thought to be useful for determining species' trophic position (e.g., 1 degrees consumer, 2 degrees consumer, or omnivore) and their original carbon source (e.g., C3 or C4 plants; terrestrial or marine nutrients). Thus far, however, applications of stable isotopes to terrestrial arthropod food webs have suggested that high taxon-specific variation may undermine the effectiveness of this method. We applied stable isotope analysis to a pear orchard food web, in which biological control of a dominant pest, pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyricola), involves primarily generalist arthropod predators with a high frequency of omnivory. We found multiple sources of isotopic variation in this food web, including differences among plant tissues; time, stage, and taxon-specific differences among herbivores (despite similar feeding modes); and high taxon-specific variation among predators (with no clear evidence of omnivory). Collectively, these multiple sources of isotopic variation blur our view of the structure of this food web. Idiosyncrasies in consumer trophic shifts make ad hoc application of SIA to even moderately complex food webs intractable. SIA may not be a generally applicable "quick and dirty" method for delineating terrestrial food web structure-not without calibration of specific consumer food trophic shifts. PMID:17716468

  4. Arthropod borne diseases in Italy: from a neglected matter to an emerging health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Romi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In medical entomology, "Arthropod Borne Diseases", or "Vector Borne Diseases" (VBD are intended as a group of human and animal infections caused by different pathogen organisms (protozoa, helminthes, bacteria and viruses transmitted by the bite of a bloodsucking insect or arachnid. It is commonly known that the infectious diseases transmitted by Arthropods are mainly affecting tropical and subtropical countries, nevertheless some of them were or are still common also in the northern hemisphere, where they are usually maintained under control. VBD still represent some of the most important public health problems in the endemic areas but are becoming source of concern for developed countries too. Since the last decades of the past century, a number of VBD has been spreading geographically, being recorded for the first time in areas outside their original range. This phenomenon is strictly related to the peculiar epidemiological characteristics of these diseases, that are considered the most susceptible to climatic, environmental and socioeconomic changes. This article is a short overview of the VBD endemic and emerging in Italy. The possibility that some exotic vectors and/or pathogens could be introduced and become established in Italy is also discussed.

  5. Diurnal temperature variations affect development of a herbivorous arthropod pest and its predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Audenaert, Joachim; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Verhoeven, Ruth; Gobin, Bruno; Tirry, Luc; De Clercq, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen's inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C) on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen's inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes. PMID:25874697

  6. Arthropod venom Hyaluronidases: biochemical properties and potential applications in medicine and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordon, Karla C F; Wiezel, Gisele A; Amorim, Fernanda G; Arantes, Eliane C

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronidases are enzymes that mainly degrade hyaluronan, the major glycosaminoglycan of the interstitial matrix. They are involved in several pathological and physiological activities including fertilization, wound healing, embryogenesis, angiogenesis, diffusion of toxins and drugs, metastasis, pneumonia, sepsis, bacteremia, meningitis, inflammation and allergy, among others. Hyaluronidases are widely distributed in nature and the enzymes from mammalian spermatozoa, lysosomes and animal venoms belong to the subclass EC 3.2.1.35. To date, only five three-dimensional structures for arthropod venom hyaluronidases (Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris) were determined. Additionally, there are four molecular models for hyaluronidases from Mesobuthus martensii, Polybia paulista and Tityus serrulatus venoms. These enzymes are employed as adjuvants to increase the absorption and dispersion of other drugs and have been used in various off-label clinical conditions to reduce tissue edema. Moreover, a PEGylated form of a recombinant human hyaluronidase is currently under clinical trials for the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer. This review focuses on the arthropod venom hyaluronidases and provides an overview of their biochemical properties, role in the envenoming, structure/activity relationship, and potential medical and biotechnological applications. PMID:26500679

  7. A Survey on Residential Areas Infestation to House Pests (Arthropods in Kashan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhullah Dehghani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to importance of arthropods as urban pest, such Health and Nutritional, Textile, Structural, Storage pest and role of them in human being, this study was done to show determine of houses infestation status to urban pest (Arthropods city of Kashan in 2010. Materials and Methods: A Descriptive-analytical study has been done on houses The houses were selected by cluster random and Urban pests of them, by use of hand lens were identified. The results were analyzed using abundance tables and SPSS-11.5 software and statistic tests χP2P and fisher exact3T. Results: The results of study have shown that prevalence of urban pest, Health pest 99.6%, Nutritional pest 32.6%, textile and structural pest 37.4% were seen3T.3T Out of total houses, 98% mosquitoes, 96.4% ant, 92.6% fly, 78% cockroaches species, 56.8% spider, 37.6% termite, 34.6% storage pests, 12% clothes moth, 8.2% scorpion species, 3.6% bug, 3.2% tick and 2.6% millipede were identified. Conclusion: The prevalence of infestation urban pest is high. Mosquitoes, ant, fly and cockroach were seen more the other. So methods control training, houses protection and solid and water waste management is being suggested.

  8. Nickel levels in arthropods associated with Ni hyperaccumulator plants from an ultramafic site in New Caledonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT S. BOYD; MICHAEL A. WALL; TANGUY JAFFR(E)

    2006-01-01

    Arthropods (mainly insects) were collected from a forest site that contained at least six species of Ni hyperaccumulators. Whole body Ni analysis was performed for 12 arthropod taxa, two of which were studied at different life cycle stages. We found two Nitolerant insects. The pentatomid heteropteran Utana viridipuncta, feeding on fruits of the Ni hyperaccumulator Hybanthus austrocaledonicus, contained a mean of 2 600μg Ni/g in nymphs and 750μg Ni/g in adults. The tephritid fly Bactrocera psidii, feeding on pulp of Sebertia acuminata fruits that contained 6 900μg Ni/g, contained 420μg Ni/g as larvae that had evacuated their guts and significantly less (65μg Ni/g) as adults. European honeybees (Apis mellifera) visiting flowers of the Ni hyperaccumulator H. austrocaledonicus contained significantly more Ni (8-fold more) than those collected from flowers of Myodocarpus fraxinifolius, a non-hyperaccumulator. Our results show that some insects feed on Ni hyperaccumulator plants and that their feeding mobilizes Ni into local food webs.

  9. The effects of heavy metal contamination on the soil arthropod community of a shooting range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soils in clay pigeon shooting ranges can be seriously contaminated by heavy metals. The pellets contained in ammunition are composed of Pb, Sb, Ni, Zn, Mn and Cu. The total concentrations of these metals in soils, and the effects of their increasing levels on the arthropod community were investigated at seven sampling sites in a clay pigeon shooting range and compared with two controls. Research revealed that the spatial distribution of Pb and Sb contamination in the shot-fall area was strongly correlated with the flight path of the pellets. Ordination obtained through Redundance Analysis showed that Collembola, Protura and Diplura were positively correlated with major detected contaminants (Pb, Sb), while Symphyla showed a negative correlation with these pollutants. Determination of the soluble lead fraction in soil, and of its bioaccumulation in the saprophagous Armadillidium sordidum (Isopoda) and the predator Ocypus olens (Coleoptera), showed that a significant portion of metallic Pb from spent pellets is bioavailable in the soil and can be bioaccumulated by edaphic organisms, entering the soil trophic network, but without biomagnification. - Significant relationships were found between lead accumulation in soil from a shooting range and inhabiting arthropod communities

  10. An Ancient Transkingdom Horizontal Transfer of Penelope-Like Retroelements from Arthropods to Conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xuan; Faridi, Nurul; Casola, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Comparative genomics analyses empowered by the wealth of sequenced genomes have revealed numerous instances of horizontal DNA transfers between distantly related species. In eukaryotes, repetitive DNA sequences known as transposable elements (TEs) are especially prone to move across species boundaries. Such horizontal transposon transfers, or HTTs, are relatively common within major eukaryotic kingdoms, including animals, plants, and fungi, while rarely occurring across these kingdoms. Here, we describe the first case of HTT from animals to plants, involving TEs known as Penelope-like elements, or PLEs, a group of retrotransposons closely related to eukaryotic telomerases. Using a combination of in situ hybridization on chromosomes, polymerase chain reaction experiments, and computational analyses we show that the predominant PLE lineage, EN(+)PLEs, is highly diversified in loblolly pine and other conifers, but appears to be absent in other gymnosperms. Phylogenetic analyses of both protein and DNA sequences reveal that conifers EN(+)PLEs, or Dryads, form a monophyletic group clustering within a clade of primarily arthropod elements. Additionally, no EN(+)PLEs were detected in 1,928 genome assemblies from 1,029 nonmetazoan and nonconifer genomes from 14 major eukaryotic lineages. These findings indicate that Dryads emerged following an ancient horizontal transfer of EN(+)PLEs from arthropods to a common ancestor of conifers approximately 340 Ma. This represents one of the oldest known interspecific transmissions of TEs, and the most conspicuous case of DNA transfer between animals and plants. PMID:27190138

  11. Arthropod prey of Wilson's Warblers in the understory of Douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, J.C.; Dugger, K.M.; Starkey, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    Availability of food resources is an important factor in avian habitat selection. Food resources for terrestrial birds often are closely related to vegetation structure and composition. Identification of plant species important in supporting food resources may facilitate vegetation management to achieve objectives for providing bird habitat. We used fecal analysis to describe the diet of adult Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) that foraged in the understory of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in western Oregon during the breeding season. We sampled arthropods at the same sites where diet data were collected, and compared abundance and biomass of prey among seven common shrub species. Wilson's Warblers ate more caterpillars (Lepidoptera larvae), flies (Diptera), beetles (Coleoptera), and Homoptera than expected based on availability. Deciduous shrubs supported higher abundances of arthropod taxa and size classes used as prey by Wilson's Warblers than did evergreen shrubs. The development and maintenance of deciduous understory vegetation in conifer forests of the Pacific Northwest may be fundamental for conservation of food webs that support breeding Wilson's Warblers and other shrub-associated, insectivorous songbirds.

  12. Arthropod vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R; Opdebeeck, J P

    1999-03-01

    Antigens located in the midgut of the tick are hidden from the host's immune system. Egg production of ticks can be reduced when ticks are fed on animals vaccinated with midgut antigens of the tick, and a subunit vaccine formulated with the recombinant antigen Bm86 is now available that can reduce the number of ticks infesting cattle grazing on pasture. Midgut antigens used in vaccines against insects that transmit pathogenic organisms to humans have not been as effective in reducing insect fecundity and an alternative approach may be necessary. Transmission-blocking vaccines directed at interfering with the vector-pathogen interaction could result in loss of vector competence and block the spread of disease-causing organisms. PMID:10198800

  13. Does oxygen limit thermal tolerance in arthropods? A critical review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberk, Wilco C E P; Overgaard, Johannes; Ern, Rasmus; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias; Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S

    2016-02-01

    Over the last decade, numerous studies have investigated the role of oxygen in setting thermal tolerance in aquatic animals, and there has been particular focus on arthropods. Arthropods comprise one of the most species-rich taxonomic groups on Earth, and display great diversity in the modes of ventilation, circulation, blood oxygen transport, with representatives living both in water (mainly crustaceans) and on land (mainly insects). The oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis proposes that the temperature dependent performance curve of animals is shaped by the capacity for oxygen delivery in relation to oxygen demand. If correct, oxygen limitation could provide a mechanistic framework to understand and predict both current and future impacts of rapidly changing climate. In arthropods, most studies testing the OCLTT hypothesis have considered tolerance to thermal extremes. These studies likely operate from the philosophical viewpoint that if the model can predict these critical thermal limits, then it is more likely to also explain loss of performance at less extreme, non-lethal temperatures, for which much less data is available. Nevertheless, the extent to which lethal temperatures are influenced by limitations in oxygen supply remains unresolved. Here we critically evaluate the support and universal applicability for oxygen limitation being involved in lethal temperatures in crustaceans and insects. The relatively few studies investigating the OCLTT hypothesis at low temperature do not support a universal role for oxygen in setting the lower thermal limits in arthropods. With respect to upper thermal limits, the evidence supporting OCLTT is stronger for species relying on underwater gas exchange, while the support for OCLTT in air-breathers is weak. Overall, strongest support was found for increased anaerobic metabolism close to thermal maxima. In contrast, there was only mixed support for the prediction that aerobic scope

  14. Experimental infection of selected arthropods with spirurid nematodes Spirocerca lupi Railliet & Henry, 1911 and Gongylonema ingluvicola Molin, 1857.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Pillay, E; Munsammy, K

    2010-12-01

    Gongylonema ingluvicola and Spirocerca lupi are spirurid nematodes that require arthropod intermediate hosts in order to complete their life cycle. Beetles of the family Scarabaeidae are reported to serve as intermediate hosts for both these parasites. In this study selected species of beetles of the family Scarabaeidae as well as other groups of arthropods were screened for susceptibility to infection with S. lupi and G. ingluvicola. Arthropods were exposed to infective eggs of both parasites for a determined period of time and dissected/digested to determine the presence or absence of pre-infective and infective larvae. All the five species of dung beetles exposed to infection with S. lupi, namely, Pachylomerus femoralis, Scarabaeus rugosus, Gymnopleurus humanus, Kheper nigroaeneus and Anachalcos convexus were susceptible and, of the two species exposed to G. ingluvicola, only Gy. humanus was susceptible. Spirocerca lupi eggs developed in millipede species, Daratoagonus cristulatus, and remained as encysted larvae, while in Orthoporoides kyrhocephalus no development was observed. Spirocerca lupi larvae were not detected in the cricket species Gryllus assimilis, or the cockroach species Periplaneta americana, and, similarly, G. ingluvicola larvae were not detected in the millipede species O. kyrhocephalus. The difference in the susceptibility of the arthropods to the two parasite species may depend on their feeding biology. PMID:20132587

  15. Potential and limitations of X-Ray micro-computed tomography in arthropod neuroanatomy: a methodological and comparative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombke, Andy; Lipke, Elisabeth; Michalik, Peter; Uhl, Gabriele; Harzsch, Steffen

    2015-06-01

    Classical histology or immunohistochemistry combined with fluorescence or confocal laser scanning microscopy are common techniques in arthropod neuroanatomy, and these methods often require time-consuming and difficult dissections and sample preparations. Moreover, these methods are prone to artifacts due to compression and distortion of tissues, which often result in information loss and especially affect the spatial relationships of the examined parts of the nervous system in their natural anatomical context. Noninvasive approaches such as X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) can overcome such limitations and have been shown to be a valuable tool for understanding and visualizing internal anatomy and structural complexity. Nevertheless, knowledge about the potential of this method for analyzing the anatomy and organization of nervous systems, especially of taxa with smaller body size (e.g., many arthropods), is limited. This study set out to analyze the brains of selected arthropods with micro-CT, and to compare these results with available histological and immunohistochemical data. Specifically, we explored the influence of different sample preparation procedures. Our study shows that micro-CT is highly suitable for analyzing arthropod neuroarchitecture in situ and allows specific neuropils to be distinguished within the brain to extract quantitative data such as neuropil volumes. Moreover, data acquisition is considerably faster compared with many classical histological techniques. Thus, we conclude that micro-CT is highly suitable for targeting neuroanatomy, as it reduces the risk of artifacts and is faster than classical techniques. PMID:25728683

  16. Detailed three-dimensional visualization of resilin in the exoskeleton of arthropods using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, J; Gorb, S N

    2012-01-01

    Resilin is a rubber-like protein found in the exoskeleton of arthropods. It often contributes large proportions to the material of certain structures in movement systems. Accordingly, the knowledge of the presence and distribution of resilin is essential for the understanding of the functional morphology of these systems. Because of its specific autofluorescence, resilin can be effectively visualized using fluorescence microscopy. However, the respective excitation maximum is in the UV range, which is not covered by the lasers available in most of the modern commercial confocal laser scanning microscopes. The goal of this study was to test the potential of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in combination with a 405 nm laser to visualize and analyse the presence and distribution of resilin in arthropod exoskeletons. The results clearly show that all resilin-dominated structures, which were visualized successfully using wide-field fluorescence microscopy (WFM) and a 'classical' UV excitation, could also be visualized efficiently with the proposed CLSM method. Furthermore, with the application of additional laser lines CLSM turned out to be very appropriate for studying differences in the material composition within arthropod exoskeletons in great detail. As CLSM has several advantages over WFM with respect to detailed morphological imaging, the application of the proposed CLSM method may reveal new information about the micromorphology and material composition of resilin-dominated exoskeleton structures leading to new insights into the functional morphology and biomechanics of arthropods. PMID:22142031

  17. Characterization of spirochetal isolates from arthropods collected in South Moravia, Czech Republic, using fatty acid methyl esters analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čechová, L.; Durnová, E.; Šikutová, Silvie; Halouzka, Jiří; Němec, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 808, č. 2 (2004), s. 249-254. ISSN 1570-0232 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0726 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : spirochetes * arthropods * fatty acid methyl esters Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.176, year: 2004

  18. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Three-year progress report, November 1, 1980-January 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes our analysis of trophic dynamics in soil fauna including their impact on the decomposition process, investigation of relationships between soil fauna and microflora, development and testing of models describing these processes, and documentation of rates of movement of nutrients along soil arthropod food chains

  19. Epidemic situation of arthropod-borne infectious diseases%虫媒传染病流行现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文刚; 赵敏

    2011-01-01

    Arthropod-borne infectious diseases have increasingly threatened human health, and they have approximately accounted for three fourth of emerging infectious diseases in recent years. Environmental change and natural disasters may exacerbate the prevalence of arthropod-borne infectious diseases. Controlling and eliminating insect vectors are important preventive measures. This review focuses on the category, epidemic trends, prevention and control measures of arthropod-borne infectious diseases and the prevalence of emerging arthropod-borne infectious diseases in China.%虫媒传染病对人类社会的危害性逐渐增加,近年新发的传染病有3/4属于虫媒传染病.环境改变和自然灾害可加剧虫媒传染病的流行,其防治重点为控制或消除传播媒介.本文就目前虫媒传染病的种类、流行趋势、防治及我国近年新发虫媒传染病情况做一阐述.

  20. Readiness and Capacity of the U.S. for the Introduction of Exotic Arthropod-Borne Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) cause significant economic losses to U.S. and world agriculture. This paper discusses the current and potential impact of these viruses, as well as the readiness and capacity of U.S. diagnostic laboratories and veterinary workforce to deal with these emer...

  1. Mormon Cricket Control in Utah's West Desert - Evaluation of Impacts of the Pesticide Diflubenzuron on Nontarget Arthropod Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Tim B.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Close, Rebecca N.

    2008-01-01

    Grasshopper and Mormon cricket (Orthoptera) populations periodically build to extremely high numbers and can cause significant economic damage in rangelands and agricultural fields of the Great Plains and Intermountain West. A variety of insecticides have been applied to control population outbreaks, with recent efforts directed at minimizing impacts to nontarget fauna in treated ecosystems. A relatively new insecticide for control of Orthoptera is diflubenzuron, which acts to inhibit chitin production, ultimately causing death during the molt following ingestion of the insecticide. All arthropods, including insects, mites, and crustaceans, use chitin to build their exoskeletons and will die if they are unable to produce it during the next molt. Diflubenzuron is not taxon specific - it affects all arthropods that ingest it, except adult insects, which do not molt. Consequently, application of this pesticide has the potential to significantly reduce not only target populations but all terrestrial and aquatic arthropods within treatment zones. Some research has been done in the Great Plains on the impact of diflubenzuron on nontarget arthropods in the context of grasshopper-control programs, but no work has been done in the Great Basin in Mormon cricket-control areas. This study was instigated in anticipation of the need for extensive control of Orthoptera outbreaks in Utah's west desert during 2005, and it was designed to sample terrestrial and aquatic arthropod communities in both treated and untreated zones. Three areas were sampled: Grouse Creek, Ibapah, and Vernon. High mortality of Mormon cricket eggs in the wet, cool spring of 2005 restricted the need to control Mormon crickets to Grouse Creek. Diflubenzuron was applied (aerial reduced agent-area treatment) in May 2005. Terrestrial and aquatic arthropod communities were sampled before and after application of diflubenzuron in the Grouse Creek area of northwestern Utah in May and June of 2005. In July 2005, U

  2. Deployed US Army soldiers' knowledge and use of personal protection measures to prevent arthropod-related casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambel, J M; Brundage, J F; Kuschner, R A; Kelley, P W

    1998-12-01

    The recommendation to use personal protection measures (PPMs) to prevent arthropod-related diseases and nuisance bites is a common element of travel medicine consultation.1-3 Prevention of arthropod-related casualties is especially important to the military, given the often intense exposure of service members to biting arthropods and the threat of personnel losses to mission success. In the 1980s, 75% deet (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) was the US military-issue insect repellent for use on skin and clothing. Collaboration between military and civilian researchers led to the implementation in 1991 of the current US military system of PPMs which has three components: topical application of 33% extended-duration deet, treatment of field uniforms with permethrin, and proper wearing of field uniforms.4-6 Compared to military-issue 75% topical deet, 33% extended-duration deet prevents bites up to three times longer (as long as 12 hours), is less greasy, and has lower plasticizing properties. Field uniforms treated with the contact toxicant, permethrin, are also necessary to minimize bites from crawling arthropods such as ticks and chiggers. Implementation of all three components of this system is a safe and effective means of reducing the threat posed by biting arthropods.7 We conducted a questionnaire survey to assess the degree of deployed soldiers' knowledge of the US military's system of PPMs and use of PPMs in general. Survey results may promote the development of better ways to advise and teach military and civilian travelers about the proper use of PPMs given the multitude of available products and practices. PMID:9876199

  3. A new fixative solution to precede the reduced silver impregnation of arthropod central nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blest, A D; Davie, P S

    1977-09-01

    Arthropod central nervous tissue is fixed for 1 hr at 20 C in 8% pure formic acid in 1:1 n-butanol/n-propanol prepared immediately before use (FBP), then washed for 15-30 min in 90% ethanol, and embedded in paraffin wax. Impregnation is by modified Ungewitter techniques in which the silver bath is preceded by mercury/cobalt mordanting, or by modified Holmes' methods following similar mordanting procedures. The methods yield high resolution of axons with minimal background staining, while the staining of neuronal somata is suppressed. They succeed with brains of crustacea and Odonata and other difficult materials. Tissues fixed in FBP are hard and require care in sectioning. PMID:337580

  4. Equal temperature-size responses of the sexes are widespread within arthropod species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Horne, Curtis; Atkinson, David

    2015-01-01

    , in which individuals of both sexes were reared through ontogeny under identical conditions with excess food. We find that the sexes show similar relative (proportional) temperature-body size (T-S) responses on average. The high degree of similarity occurs despite an analysis that includes a wide......Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is often affected by environmental conditions, but the effect of temperature on SSD in ectotherms still requires rigorous investigation. We compared the plastic responses of size-at-maturity to temperature between males and females within 85 diverse arthropod species...... range of animal body sizes, variation in degree of SSD and differences in the sign of the T-S response. We find no support for Rensch's rule, which predicts greater variation in male size, or indeed the reverse, greater female size variation. SSD shows no systematic temperature dependence in any of the...

  5. Cephalic and appendage morphology of the Cambrian arthropod Sidneyia inexpectans Walcott, 1911

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Martin

    2013-01-01

    evidence for variability of head segment counts in Cambrian arthropods, and to falsify the hypothesis of a head with three postantennular segments in the euarthropod ground pattern. Restudy of a substantial amount of material of S. inexpectans shows that previous interpretations of a short head were based...... understood, but the exopod seemed to differ from that of other artiopodans, except for the shared presence of lamellae. The head was considered to comprise only the ocular and antennular segments, these being covered entirely on the ventral side by a large doublure. This short head was often taken as an...... at least two postantennular appendage bearing segments. The appendage morphology is shown to be consistent with artiopodan affinities. The exopod is of the bilobate flap-like type with lamellae inserting on the proximal portion, earlier proposed as a potential autapomorphy of Artiopoda. Reinforcement...

  6. Impact of invasive Rosa rugosa on the arthropod fauna of Danish yellow dunes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleriis, Pernille; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Toft, Søren

    2015-01-01

    monospecific shrubbery rich in large flowers. We predicted faunal responses according to the changes in resource availability and environmental conditions promoted by this particular invasive plant: increased populations of flower-visiting insects and species of the phytophagous and detritivorous guilds...... and diversity and increased dominance in the rose patches, due to reductions among xerotherm species. The results indicate that considerable faunistic impoverishment of thermophilic dune specialist species can be expected in the future if R. rugosa is allowed to continue its invasion across the dune habitat......., and a decrease in thermophilic predator species. A matched-pairs sampling design allowed us to isolate the effects of the vegetation change from those of potentially confounding landscape gradients. The arthropod communities were significantly affected by the vegetation change (redundancy analysis). Six taxa...

  7. Arthropod colonization of land--linking molecules and fossils in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Ina; Norton, Roy A; Scheu, Stefan; Maraun, Mark

    2010-10-01

    Terrestrial fossils that document the early colonization of land are scarce for >100 my after the Cambrian explosion. This raises the question whether life on land did not exist or just did not fossilize. With a molecular dating technique, we analyzed the origin of terrestrial chelicerate microarthropods (Acari, Oribatida) which have a fossil record since the Middle Devonian that is exceptional among soil animals. Our results suggest that oribatid mites originated in the Precambrian (571+/-37 mya) and that the radiation of basal groups coincides with the gap in the terrestrial fossil record between the Cambrian explosion and the earliest fossilized records of continental ecosystems. Further, they suggest that the colonization of land started via the interstitial, approximately 150 my earlier than the oldest fossils of terrestrial ecosystems. Overall, the results imply that omnivorous and detritivorous arthropods formed a major component in early terrestrial food webs, thereby facilitating the invasion of terrestrial habitats by later colonizers of higher trophic levels. PMID:20420932

  8. The use of syndromic surveillance to monitor the incidence of arthropod bites requiring healthcare in England, 2000-2013: a retrospective ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newitt, S; Elliot, A J; Morbey, R; Durnall, H; Pietzsch, M E; Medlock, J M; Leach, S; Smith, G E

    2016-08-01

    Climate change experts predict the number of nuisance-biting arthropods in England will increase but there is currently no known surveillance system in place to monitor or assess the public health impact of arthropod bites. This retrospective ecological study utilized arthropod bites requiring healthcare from five national real-time syndromic surveillance systems monitoring general practitioner (GP) consultations (in-hours and out-of-hours), emergency department (ED) attendances and telephone calls to remote advice services to determine baseline incidence in England between 2000 and 2013 and to assess the association between arthropod bites and temperature. During summer months (weeks 20-40) we estimated that arthropod bites contribute a weekly median of ~4000 GP consultations, 750 calls to remote advice services, 700 ED and 1300 GP out-of-hours attendances. In all systems, incidence was highest during summer months compared to the rest of the year. Arthropod bites were positively associated with temperature with incidence rate ratios (IRRs) that ranged between systems from 1·03 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·01-1·06] to 1·14 (95% CI 1·11-1·16). Using syndromic surveillance systems we have established and described baseline incidence of arthropod bites and this can now be monitored routinely in real time to assess the impact of extreme weather events and climate change. PMID:27068133

  9. Effect of a botanical acaricide on Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) and nontarget arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Susan P; Lubelczyk, Charles B; Rand, Peter W; Staples, Joseph K; St Amand, Theodore W; Stubbs, Constance S; Lacombe, Eleanor H; Smith, Leticia B; Smith, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    We tested the effectiveness of the rosemary oil-based insecticide, Eco-Exempt IC2, to control all stages of Ixodes scapularis (Say) in southern Maine. We selected plots in oak-pine forest where I. scapularis is endemic and recorded the abundance of ticks and nontarget arthropods before and after applications of IC2, bifenthrin (a synthetic pyrethroid), and water (reference treatment). Licensed applicators applied high-pressure spray treatments during the summer nymphal and fall adult seasonal peaks. Both acaricides sprayed during the summer nymphal season reduced nymphal I. scapularis/hour to zero. IC2 was as effective as bifenthrin in controlling nymphs through the rest of the nymphal season and also controlled adult ticks 9 mo postspray compared with 16 mo for bifenthrin, and both acaricides reduced larvae through 14 mo postspray. Both acaricides sprayed during the fall adult season reduced adult I. scapularis/hour to zero; IC2 controlled adult ticks 6 mo postspray compared with 1 yr for bifenthrin. Both fall-applied acaricides controlled nymphs 9 mo postspray and reduced larvae up to 10 mo postspray. Impacts on some nontarget arthropods was assessed. Colleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Collembola declined 1 wk postspray in acaricide-treated plots, and in IC2 plots all numbers rebounded by 20 d postspray. For bees and other flower-visiting insects there were no detectable reductions in nests produced, number emerged from nests, or number of foraging visits to flowering plants in IC2 or bifenthrin plots. IC2 was phytotoxic to the leafy portions of select understory plants that appeared to recover by the next growing season. PMID:23427661

  10. The challenge of developing and utilizing transgenic arthropods in the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date transgenic arthropods are not being utilized within the Caribbean to control agricultural pests. Bio-control in the region is largely focused on the control of the Pink mealybug since infestations of this pest in any region can result in restrictions being placed on the export of fresh produce into non-infected countries. Other pests controlled by use of conventional bio-control agents include citrus blackfly, citrus leafminer, sugarcane stemborer, coffee berry borer and coconut whitefly. Control of these economic pests is of great importance as crops such as sugarcane, coffee and citrus are major foreign exchange earners in some countries. Applications for the importation, movement and release of these organisms are done through the Pesticide Control Board of the Ministry of Agriculture. Generally guidelines of the FAO code of conduct for the import and release of bio-control agents are used. It is almost inevitable that with the need to increase productivity in the agri-food sector, combined with the need to reduce negative impacts of agri-chemical use, regional research and development efforts will be focused on developing cost effective means of controlling pests common to the region. Such research and development efforts must combine conventional control with genetic engineering methods. Several countries in the Caribbean region are currently examining their regulatory mechanisms to address the trans-boundary movement and environmental release of genetically modified organisms specifically for agricultural purposes. Although most attention has been focused on crop and food regulations some attention will be placed on developing regulations for the use of transgenic arthropods used to control common economic pests. (author)

  11. Silicon: Potential to Promote Direct and Indirect Effects on Plant Defense Against Arthropod Pests in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Olivia L; Padula, Matthew P; Zeng, Rensen; Gurr, Geoff M

    2016-01-01

    Silicon has generally not been considered essential for plant growth, although it is well recognized that many plants, particularly Poaceae, have substantial plant tissue concentrations of this element. Recently, however, the International Plant Nutrition Institute [IPNI] (2015), Georgia, USA has listed it as a "beneficial substance". This reflects that numerous studies have now established that silicon may alleviate both biotic and abiotic stress. This paper explores the existing knowledge and recent advances in elucidating the role of silicon in plant defense against biotic stress, particularly against arthropod pests in agriculture and attraction of beneficial insects. Silicon confers resistance to herbivores via two described mechanisms: physical and biochemical/molecular. Until recently, studies have mainly centered on two trophic levels; the herbivore and plant. However, several studies now describe tri-trophic effects involving silicon that operate by attracting predators or parasitoids to plants under herbivore attack. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that silicon-treated, arthropod-attacked plants display increased attractiveness to natural enemies, an effect that was reflected in elevated biological control in the field. The reported relationships between soluble silicon and the jasmonic acid (JA) defense pathway, and JA and herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) suggest that soluble silicon may enhance the production of HIPVs. Further, it is feasible that silicon uptake may affect protein expression (or modify proteins structurally) so that they can produce additional, or modify, the HIPV profile of plants. Ultimately, understanding silicon under plant ecological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular contexts will assist in fully elucidating the mechanisms behind silicon and plant response to biotic stress at both the bi- and tri-trophic levels. PMID:27379104

  12. Sensitivity and tolerance of Riparian arthropod communities to altered water resources along a drying river.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E McCluney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rivers around the world are drying with increasing frequency, but little is known about effects on terrestrial animal communities. Previous research along the San Pedro River in southeastern AZ, USA, suggests that changes in the availability of water resources associated with river drying lead to changes in predator abundance, community composition, diversity, and abundance of particular taxa of arthropods, but these observations have not yet been tested manipulatively. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we constructed artificial pools in the stream bed adjacent to a drying section of the San Pedro River and maintained them as the river dried. We compared pitfall trapped arthropods near artificial pools to adjacent control sites where surface waters temporarily dried. Assemblage composition changed differentially at multiple taxonomic levels, resulting in different assemblages at pools than at control sites, with multiple taxa and richness of carabid beetle genera increasing at pools but not at controls that dried. On the other hand, predator biomass, particularly wolf spiders, and diversity of orders and families were consistently higher at control sites that dried. These results suggest an important role for colonization dynamics of pools, as well as the ability of certain taxa, particularly burrowing wolf spiders, to withstand periods of temporary drying. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found some agreement between this manipulative study of water resources and a previous analysis of river drying that showed shifts in composition, changes in diversity, and declines in abundance of certain taxa (e.g. carabid beetles. However, colonization dynamics of pools, as well as compensatory strategies of predatory wolf spiders seem to have led to patterns that do not match previous research, with control sites maintaining high diversity, despite drying. Tolerance of river drying by some species may allow persistence of substantial diversity in the

  13. Efficacy of Controlled Atmosphere Treatments to Manage Arthropod Pests of Dry-Cured Hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Mahbub; Aikins, Michael J; Schilling, Wes; Phillips, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Research here explored the use of controlled atmospheres (CA) for managing arthropod pests that infest dry-cured hams. Experiments were conducted with low oxygen (O₂) achieved with low pressure under a vacuum, high carbon dioxide (CO₂), and ozone (O₃). Results showed that both low O₂ and high CO₂ levels required exposures up to 144 h to kill 100% of all stages of red-legged ham beetle, Necrobia rufipes (De Geer) (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and ham mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae) at 23 °C. In addition, both low O₂ and high CO₂ had no significant mortality against the ham beetle and ham mites at short exposures ranging from 12 to 48 h. Ham beetles were more tolerant than ham mites to an atmosphere of 75.1% CO₂ and low pressure of 25 mm Hg, which imposed an atmosphere estimated at 0.9% O₂. Both low O₂ and high CO₂ trials indicated that the egg stages of both species were more tolerant than other stages tested, but N. rufipes eggs and pupae were more susceptible than larvae and adults to high concentration ozone treatments. The results indicate that O₃ has potential to control ham beetles and ham mites, particularly at ≈166 ppm in just a 24 h exposure period, but O₃ is known from other work to have poor penetration ability, thus it may be more difficult to apply effectively than low O₂ or high CO₂. would be. CA treatment for arthropod pests of dry-cured hams show promise as components of integrated pest management programs after methyl bromide is no longer available for use. PMID:27598209

  14. Modern optics in exceptionally preserved eyes of Early Cambrian arthropods from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael S. Y.; Jago, James B.; García-Bellido, Diego C.; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Gehling, James G.; Paterson, John R.

    2011-06-01

    Despite the status of the eye as an ``organ of extreme perfection'', theory suggests that complex eyes can evolve very rapidly. The fossil record has, until now, been inadequate in providing insight into the early evolution of eyes during the initial radiation of many animal groups known as the Cambrian explosion. This is surprising because Cambrian Burgess-Shale-type deposits are replete with exquisitely preserved animals, especially arthropods, that possess eyes. However, with the exception of biomineralized trilobite eyes, virtually nothing is known about the details of their optical design. Here we report exceptionally preserved fossil eyes from the Early Cambrian (~515 million years ago) Emu Bay Shale of South Australia, revealing that some of the earliest arthropods possessed highly advanced compound eyes, each with over 3,000 large ommatidial lenses and a specialized `bright zone'. These are the oldest non-biomineralized eyes known in such detail, with preservation quality exceeding that found in the Burgess Shale and Chengjiang deposits. Non-biomineralized eyes of similar complexity are otherwise unknown until about 85 million years later. The arrangement and size of the lenses indicate that these eyes belonged to an active predator that was capable of seeing in low light. The eyes are more complex than those known from contemporaneous trilobites and are as advanced as those of many living forms. They provide further evidence that the Cambrian explosion involved rapid innovation in fine-scale anatomy as well as gross morphology, and are consistent with the concept that the development of advanced vision helped to drive this great evolutionary event.

  15. Arthropod Distribution and Habitat, Published in 2010, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, GaDNR/Wildlife Resources Division.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Arthropod Distribution and Habitat dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2010....

  16. Ant-App-DB: a smart solution for monitoring arthropods activities, experimental data management and solar calculations without GPS in behavioral field studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zeeshan Ahmed; Saman Zeeshan; Pauline Fleischmann; Wolfgang Rössler; Thomas Dandekar

    2015-01-01

    Field studies on arthropod ecology and behaviour require simple and robust monitoring tools, preferably with direct access to an integrated database. We have developed and here present a database tool allowing smart-phone based monitoring of arthropods. This smart phone application provides an easy solution to collect, manage and process the data in the field which has been a very difficult task for field biologists using traditional methods. To monitor our example species, the desert ant Cat...

  17. Adaptations and Predispositions of Different Middle European Arthropod Taxa (Collembola, Araneae, Chilopoda, Diplopoda) to Flooding and Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Michael Thomas; Guhmann, Patrick; Decker, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Floodplain forests and wetlands are amongst the most diverse and species rich habitats on earth. Arthropods are a key group for the high diversity pattern of these landscapes, due to the fact that the change between flooding and drought causes in different life cycles and in a variety of adaptations in the different taxa. The floodplain forests and wetlands of Central Amazonia are well investigated and over the last 50 years many adaptations of several hexapod, myriapod and arachnid orders were described. In contrast to Amazonia the Middle European floodplains were less investigated concerning the adaptations of arthropods to flood and drought conditions. This review summarizes the adaptations and predispositions of springtails, web spiders, millipedes and centipedes to the changeable flood and drought conditions of Middle European floodplain forests and wetlands. Furthermore the impact of regional climate change predictions like increasing aperiodic summer floods and the decrease of typical winter and spring floods are discussed in this article. PMID:26487164

  18. Radioactive tracer studies of soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1975--October 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is described in radioisotope measurement of nutrient element flow in soil-litter arthropod food chains. Two models of accumulation (Goldstein-Elwood, Reichle-Crossley) were tested experimentally and found to yield equivalent predictions of 134Cs and 85Sr movement through arthropod populations. Radioisotope retention studies were used to compare trophic strategies of soil tipulids from arctic tundra and temperate forest. Arctic tipulids were found to compensate for low temperatures with enhanced assimilation and slower turnover of nutrients. Electron microprobe analysis is being used to measure elemental content of soil microarthropods. Concentrations as high as 70,000 ppm of Ca are reported for oribatid mites. Improved measurements of input-output nutrient concentrations are reported for island ecosystems on granitic outcrops, which are being subjected to experimental alteration in studies of ecosystem function

  19. Bt crop effects on functional guilds of non-target arthropods: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L LaReesa Wolfenbarger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uncertainty persists over the environmental effects of genetically-engineered crops that produce the insecticidal Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. We performed meta-analyses on a modified public database to synthesize current knowledge about the effects of Bt cotton, maize and potato on the abundance and interactions of arthropod non-target functional guilds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the abundance of predators, parasitoids, omnivores, detritivores and herbivores under scenarios in which neither, only the non-Bt crops, or both Bt and non-Bt crops received insecticide treatments. Predators were less abundant in Bt cotton compared to unsprayed non-Bt controls. As expected, fewer specialist parasitoids of the target pest occurred in Bt maize fields compared to unsprayed non-Bt controls, but no significant reduction was detected for other parasitoids. Numbers of predators and herbivores were higher in Bt crops compared to sprayed non-Bt controls, and type of insecticide influenced the magnitude of the difference. Omnivores and detritivores were more abundant in insecticide-treated controls and for the latter guild this was associated with reductions of their predators in sprayed non-Bt maize. No differences in abundance were found when both Bt and non-Bt crops were sprayed. Predator-to-prey ratios were unchanged by either Bt crops or the use of insecticides; ratios were higher in Bt maize relative to the sprayed non-Bt control. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, we find no uniform effects of Bt cotton, maize and potato on the functional guilds of non-target arthropods. Use of and type of insecticides influenced the magnitude and direction of effects; insecticde effects were much larger than those of Bt crops. These meta-analyses underscore the importance of using controls not only to isolate the effects of a Bt crop per se but also to reflect the replacement of existing agricultural practices. Results will

  20. Mechanical implications of the arthropod exoskeleton microstructures and the mechanical behavior of the bioinspired composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang

    Many biological materials possess complicated hierarchical and multiscale structures, after millions of years of evolution. Most of them also demonstrate outstanding mechanical properties, along with multi-functionality. Arthropod is the most widely distributed and the largest phylum of animals in the planet. Their exoskeletons are well-known for excellent mechanical performance and versatility, and consequently emerge among the best sources to study and uncover the mystery of nature in devising its own material systems. This work first investigated the microstructures of the exoskeletons from selected arthropods, including Homarus Americanus, Callinectes sapidus and Popillia japonica, which exhibit highly complex but interesting hierarchical structures. Exoskeletons are chitin-protein based material systems organized into horizontally well-defined multi-region and multi-layer patterns, with elaborate structures interweaving in the vertical direction. Using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope), the characteristic and distinctive structural features of the exoskeletons were revealed for all the species investigated. In particular, distinct patterns (e.g., stacking sequence of multiple layers) were identified in each region of exoskeletons studied. For example, the "helicoidal structure" is characterized by a stacking sequence in which layers are continuously and unidirectionally rotating a small angle with respect to their adjacent layers. Important mechanical implications of those unique structural features were subsequently evaluated and compared using mechanics-based modeling and analysis, as well as numerical simulation. After the structure-property-function relationship of the investigated biomaterial systems was established, attempts were made to reveal and extract the design strategies employed by nature in designing its own materials and structures. One of the most predominant structural patterns observed in the

  1. Behaviour of filariae: morphological and anatomical signatures of their life style within the arthropod and vertebrate hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Bain, Odile; Babayan, Simon

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to pinpoint the most original morphological anatomical features of the biology of filariae per se and those which are or could be important for triggering regulatory processes in the arthropod vector and uncontrolled pathogenic processes in the vertebrate hosts. The following stages are considered: the motile egg or newly-hatched larva, the microfilaria, in the lymphatic or blood vessels of its vertebrate host; the larva, its migrations and its intrasyncitial development i...

  2. Entrapment Bias of Arthropods in Miocene Amber Revealed by Trapping Experiments in a Tropical Forest in Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano Kraemer, Mónica M.; Kraemer, Atahualpa S.; Stebner, Frauke; Bickel, Daniel J.; Rust, Jes

    2015-01-01

    All entomological traps have a capturing bias, and amber, viewed as a trap, is no exception. Thus the fauna trapped in amber does not represent the total existing fauna of the former amber forest, rather the fauna living in and around the resin producing tree. In this paper we compare arthropods from a forest very similar to the reconstruction of the Miocene Mexican amber forest, and determine the bias of different trapping methods, including amber. We also show, using cluster analyses, measurements of the trapped arthropods, and guild distribution, that the amber trap is a complex entomological trap not comparable with a single artificial trap. At the order level, the most similar trap to amber is the sticky trap. However, in the case of Diptera, at the family level, the Malaise trap is also very similar to amber. Amber captured a higher diversity of arthropods than each of the artificial traps, based on our study of Mexican amber from the Middle Miocene, a time of climate optimum, where temperature and humidity were probably higher than in modern Central America. We conclude that the size bias is qualitatively independent of the kind of trap for non–extreme values. We suggest that frequent specimens in amber were not necessarily the most frequent arthropods in the former amber forest. Selected taxa with higher numbers of specimens appear in amber because of their ecology and behavior, usually closely related with a tree–inhabiting life. Finally, changes of diversity from the Middle Miocene to Recent time in Central and South America can be analyzed by comparing the rich amber faunas from Mexico and the Dominican Republic with the fauna trapped using sticky and Malaise traps in Central America. PMID:25785584

  3. Evolutionary and phenotypic analysis of live virus isolates suggests arthropod origin of a pathogenic RNA virus family

    OpenAIRE

    Marklewitz, Marco; Zirkel, Florian; Kurth, Andreas; Drosten, Christian; Junglen, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the origin and evolution of viruses provides important insight into virus emergence involving the acquisition of genes necessary for the infection of new host species or the development of pathogenicity. The family Bunyaviridae contains important arthropod-borne pathogens of humans, animals, and plants. In this study, we provide a comprehensive characterization of two novel lineages of insect-specific bunyaviruses that are in basal phylogenetic relationship to the rodent-borne ha...

  4. Factors Affecting the Abundance of Leaf-Litter Arthropods in Unburned and Thrice-Burned Seasonally-Dry Amazonian Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Juliana M.; Barlow, Jos; Louzada, Julio; Moutinho, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    Fire is frequently used as a land management tool for cattle ranching and annual crops in the Amazon. However, these maintenance fires often escape into surrounding forests, with potentially severe impacts for forest biodiversity. We examined the effect of experimental fires on leaf-litter arthropod abundance in a seasonally-dry forest in the Brazilian Amazon. The study plots (50 ha each) included a thrice-burned forest and an unburned control forest. Pitfall-trap samples were collected at 16...

  5. The effects of flooding disturbance on the distribution and behaviour of riparian arthropods along a lowland gravel river

    OpenAIRE

    Lambeets, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This Ph.D.-thesis aimed to address which environmental factors influence the assemblage structure of mobile, riparian arthropods along spatially structured river banks of a rain-fed, lowland gravel river, the Common Meuse. As riverine ecosystems are basically non-equilibrium, dynamic ecosystems, mainly flow regimes and flood pulse characteristics are expected to shape both the distribution and behaviour of its inhabitants. The river banks along the Common Meuse are (in)frequently disturbed by...

  6. Temperature-size responses match latitudinal-size clines in arthropods, revealing critical differences between aquatic and terrestrial species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horne, C.R.; Hirst, Andrew G.; Atkinson, D.

    2015-01-01

    Two major intraspecific patterns of adult size variation are plastic temperature-size (T-S) responses and latitude-size (L-S) clines. Yet, the degree to which these co-vary and share explanatory mechanisms has not been systematically evaluated. We present the largest quantitative comparison of...... terrestrial arthropods, size increases on average in univoltine species, consistent with predictions from size vs. season-length trade-offs...

  7. An aglaspidid arthropod from the Upper Ordovician of Morocco with remarks on the affinities and limitations of Aglaspidida

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, P

    2006-01-01

    A new aglaspidid arthropod, Chlupacaris dubia gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Pusgillian (lower Ashgill, Upper Ordovician) Upper Tiouririne Formation near Erfoud, southeastern Morocco. Although disarticulated, careful documenting of the tergites allows a reconstruction of the exoskeleton to be made. Although somewhat trilobite-like in appearance, the lack of facial sutures, a well-defined axis with articulating half-rings and a pygidium clearly prove Chlupacaris gen. nov. is not a tri...

  8. The Cultivation of Bt Corn Producing Cry1Ac Toxins Does Not Adversely Affect Non-Target Arthropods

    OpenAIRE

    Yanyan Guo; Yanjie Feng; Yang Ge; Guillaume Tetreau; Xiaowen Chen; Xuehui Dong; Wangpeng Shi

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure o...

  9. The Multiple Impacts of Tropical Forest Fragmentation on Arthropod Biodiversity and on their Patterns of Interactions with Host Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Julieta Benítez-Malvido; Wesley Dáttilo; Ana Paola Martínez-Falcón; César Durán-Barrón; Jorge Valenzuela**; Sara López; Rafael Lombera

    2016-01-01

    Tropical rain forest fragmentation affects biotic interactions in distinct ways. Little is known, however, about how fragmentation affects animal trophic guilds and their patterns of interactions with host plants. In this study, we analyzed changes in biotic interactions in forest fragments by using a multitrophic approach. For this, we classified arthropods associated with Heliconia aurantiaca herbs into broad trophic guilds (omnivores, herbivores and predators) and assessed the topological ...

  10. Spatial and temporal distribution of litter arthropods in different vegetation covers of Porto Santo Island (Madeira Archipelago, Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, S. C.; Pereira, R.; Sousa, J.P.; Santos, M.C.; F. Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess the soil diversity and temporal and spatial distribution of litter macro-arthropods, captured with pitfall traps, on different vegetation covers from Porto Santo Island (Portugal) with different soil physical and chemical characteristics. The PCA clearly separated sampling areas geographically more exposed to winds and solar radiation, from the others that were not. In this analysis, seasons seemed to have no influence on this distribution. Non-ex...

  11. Assessing the comparative risk of plant protection products to honey bees, non-target arthropods and non-Apis bees

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, Mark J.; Alix, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the European Union the placing of pesticides on the market requires as a prerequisite that a risk assessment demonstrates low risks to human health and the environment, among which includes pollinators. Currently risks are evaluated for honey bees and for non-target arthropods (NTA) of cultivated ecosystems. The actual protection of pollinators other than the honey bees, as for example for non-Apis bees, in relation to these risk assessments has recently been questioned and req...

  12. Entrapment Bias of Arthropods in Miocene Amber Revealed by Trapping Experiments in a Tropical Forest in Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Solórzano Kraemer, Mónica M.; Kraemer, Atahualpa S.; Stebner, Frauke; Bickel, Daniel J.; Rust, Jes

    2015-01-01

    All entomological traps have a capturing bias, and amber, viewed as a trap, is no exception. Thus the fauna trapped in amber does not represent the total existing fauna of the former amber forest, rather the fauna living in and around the resin producing tree. In this paper we compare arthropods from a forest very similar to the reconstruction of the Miocene Mexican amber forest, and determine the bias of different trapping methods, including amber. We also show, using cluster analyses, measu...

  13. The seasonal variation of arthropods living on forest soil at different altitudes in fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmulleriana ecosystem in Bolu-Aladağ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Duyar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the forest ecosystems, soil arthropods (Arthropoda, as primary and secondary consumers, have a significant role in litter decay and decomposition processes. The abundance, diversity and community structure of arthropods in soil ecosystem; give rapid response to change of site characteristics. The current study was aimed to determine of seasonal variation of soil arthropods on forest floor at different altitudes in Uludağ Fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmulleriana Mattf. ecosystem which is an important forest tree species in Turkey. The study was conducted in pure fir stands at 1200-1600 m altitudes (4 elevation gradients in Aladağ, Bolu. The sampling was carried out for each winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons. The samples were collected from forest floor by pitfall traps. Variations of abundance and diversity of arthropods were evaluated according to seasons and altitudes. The distributions in trophic levels and biological diversity of arthropods were also determined. During the study, the maximum abundance of arthropods was 7576 individuals/m² in summer among seasons, and was 7854 individuals/m² at 1200 m altitude. Shannon-Wiener Index (H′ and Species Richness (S′ values were detected in the pitfall traps (H′= 2.22; S′= 22.

  14. Uptake of Cadmium, Copper, Lead, and Zinc from Sediments by an Aquatic Macrophyte and by Terrestrial Arthropods in a Freshwater Wetland Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heung-Tae; Kim, Jae Geun

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate trace-metal [cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn)] biotransference and biomagnification in terrestrial biota at different trophic levels (primary producer-top predator) of a wetland ecosystem. We investigated whether metal concentrations in the sediment are reflected in terrestrial arthropods and aquatic plants. We sampled the floating-leaved plant Trapa japonica; its species-specific primary consumer, the leaf beetle Galerucella nipponensis; and two predatory arthropods (the water strider Gerris sp. and the wolf spider Arctosa sp.) from three wetlands with different sedimentary metal concentrations. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N signatures in the trophic link between the plants and the leaf beetles supported the specificity of their feeding relationship. The stable isotope signatures indicate that the leaf beetle could be an important link in the trophic transfer of the metals. Transference factors (TFs) were 1 for all biota, and the concentrations were positively correlated with the trophic levels. Thus, there may be Cu and Zn biomagnification in the arthropods. We noted TF 1 among the arthropods. Therefore, Cd is probably not biomagnified between T. japonica and G. nipponensis, but it might be biomagnified in the arthropods. The metal burden in terrestrial arthropods may also be influenced by uptake from the sediment by aquatic plants. PMID:27306449

  15. Arthropods associated with pig carrion in two vegetation profiles of Cerrado in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Thiago Augusto Rosa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Forensic Entomology research has been concentrated in only a few localities of the "Cerrado" vegetation, the Brazilian Savannah. The present study had, as its objective, an examination of the diversity of arthropod fauna associated with the carcasses of Sus scrofa (Linnaeus in this biome. The study was conducted during the dry and humid periods in two Cerrado vegetation profiles of the State of Minas Gerais. The decaying process was slower and greater quantities of arthropods were collected during the dry period. Insects represented 99% of 161,116 arthropods collected. The majority of these were Diptera (80.2% and Coleoptera (8.8%. The entomofauna belong to 85 families and at least 212 species. Diptera were represented by 31 families and at least 132 species. Sarcophagidae (Diptera and Scarabaeidae (Coleoptera were the richest groups. Oxysarcodexia (Sarcophagidae presented the largest number of attracted species, however none of these species bred in the carcasses. The Coleoptera collected belong to at least 50 species of 21 families. Among these species, Dermestes maculatus and Necrobia rufipes were observed breeding in the carcasses. This study showed species with potential importance for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI, indicative of seasonal and environmental type located.

  16. Differences in arthropod communities between island and inland Masson pine forests infested by pine wilt disease in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hai-wei; LUO You-qing; SHI Juan; YAN Xiao-su; CHEN Wei-ping; JIANG Ping

    2008-01-01

    The invasion of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (pine wood nematode, PWN) carried by Monochamus alternatus predominately attacks Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forests and causes great economic losses in China. In this study, we assessed whether the effect of the invasion of PWN is different between island and inland forests. Arthropods were sampled in Fuyang (inland) and Zhoushan (island) counties in Zhejiang Province with sweep netting and light traps at four plots. During two field periods (May to June 2004 and September to October 2005) a total of 21,916 insects, representing 384 species belonging to 99 families and 15 orders,were collected in the sample plots from the island, whereas, from the inland forest a total of 29,262 insects, representing 308 species belonging to 96 families and 13 orders, were found. A hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and one-way ANOVA, based on the composition of different arthropod guilds, were performed. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the composition of arthropod communities at the family level between inland and island. But these two habitats had a significant effect on the composition of species, individuals, sub-communities and energy class levels. Statistically, the composition of the two orders, Lepidoptera and Diptera, in the two habitats were significantly different.

  17. Surveillance of arthropod vector-borne infectious diseases using remote sensing techniques: a review.

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    Satya Kalluri

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologists are adopting new remote sensing techniques to study a variety of vector-borne diseases. Associations between satellite-derived environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and land cover type and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. The convergence of factors such as the availability of multi-temporal satellite data and georeferenced epidemiological data, collaboration between remote sensing scientists and biologists, and the availability of sophisticated, statistical geographic information system and image processing algorithms in a desktop environment creates a fertile research environment. The use of remote sensing techniques to map vector-borne diseases has evolved significantly over the past 25 years. In this paper, we review the status of remote sensing studies of arthropod vector-borne diseases due to mosquitoes, ticks, blackflies, tsetse flies, and sandflies, which are responsible for the majority of vector-borne diseases in the world. Examples of simple image classification techniques that associate land use and land cover types with vector habitats, as well as complex statistical models that link satellite-derived multi-temporal meteorological observations with vector biology and abundance, are discussed here. Future improvements in remote sensing applications in epidemiology are also discussed.

  18. Terrestrial arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. II. Sawflies (Insecta: Hymenoptera: "Symphyta")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This is the second in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and Berlese-Tullgren extraction of leaf litter. New information We provide collection records for 47 species of "Symphyta" (Insecta: Hymenoptera), 30 of which are new state records for Arkansas: (Argidae) Sterictiphora serotina; (Cimbicidae) Abia americana; (Diprionidae) Monoctenus fulvus; (Orussidae) Orussus terminalis; (Pamphiliidae) Onycholyda luteicornis, Pamphilius ocreatus, P. persicum, P. rileyi; (Pergidae) Acordulecera dorsalis, A. mellina, A. pellucida; (Tenthredinidae) Caliroa quercuscoccineae, Empria coryli, Hoplocampa marlatti, Macrophya cassandra, Monophadnoides conspiculatus, Monophadnus bakeri, Nematus abbotii, Neopareophora litura, Pachynematus corniger, Paracharactus rudis, Periclista marginicollis, Pristiphora banski, P. chlorea, Strongylogaster impressata, S. remota, Taxonus epicera, Thrinax albidopictus, T. multicinctus, Zaschizonyx montana; (Xiphydriidae) Xiphydria tibialis. PMID:27222635

  19. Arthropods Biodiversity in Agricultural Landscapes: Effects of Land Use and Anthropization

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    Marilena Leis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The greatest proportion of Po river plain is occupied by arable lands. Negative effects of modern intensive agriculture on biodiversity can derive from various phenomena operating at different spatial scales, from local to regional ones. If agricultural fields are subjected to periodical disturbances by farming practices, also landscape structure can influence community structure in the fields providing refugial areas or alternative trophic resources. In the same way in perennial habitats, such as strips and meadows, community structure and composition may be linked to both local factors and surrounding land use, that can influence organism persistence and dispersal mechanisms. We studied some natural and anthropized habitats in a wide agricultural area in the province of Ferrara (conventional annual and perennial fields, herbaceous strips, hedgerows and meadows to investigate relationships between arthropod community structure and both local impact factors (habitat type, management and surronding landscape structure and use. Results from uni and multivariate analysis showed a great influence on trophic and taxonomic structure of habitat type and quality.A less complex landscape had only slightly influence on trophic structure, leading to higher abundance and richness of generalist taxa. In conclusion we emphasize the importance of maintaining high-quality habitats to enhance arthopod diversity in agricultural landscapes.

  20. Land Use Intensification Effects in Soil Arthropod Community of an Entisol in Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    G. M. Siqueira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between soil invertebrates and land use and management are fundamental for soil quality assessment but remain largely unaddressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil arthropod community of an entisol brought about by different land use systems under semiarid climate in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The soil invertebrate community was sampled using pitfall traps from areas with eight vegetation types by the end of the austral winter. The land uses studied were native thorn forest plus seven agricultural fields planted with elephant grass, apple guava, passion fruit, carrot, maize, tomato, and green pepper. Native vegetation was considered as a reference, whereas the agricultural fields showed a range of soil use intensities. The abundance of organisms, the total and average richness, Shannon’s diversity index, and the Pielou uniformity index were determined, and all of these were affected by several crop and soil management practices such as residue cover, weed control, and pesticide application. Our study found differences in community assemblages and composition under different land use systems, but no single taxa could be used as indicator of soil use intensity.

  1. A gene catalogue for post-diapause development of an anhydrobiotic arthropod Artemia franciscana

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    Yu Jun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diapause is a reversible state of developmental suspension and found among diverse taxa, from plants to animals, including marsupials and some other mammals. Although previous work has accumulated ample data, the molecular mechanism underlying diapause and reactivation from it remain elusive. Results Using Artemia franciscana, a model organism to study the development of post-diapause embryos in Arthropod, we sequenced random clones up to a total of 28,039 ESTs from four cDNA libraries made from dehydrated cysts and three time points after rehydration/reactivation, which were assembled into 8,018 unigene clusters. We identified 324 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs, P Conclusion We found that the first 5-hour period after rehydration is most important for embryonic reactivation of Artemia. As the total number of expressed genes increases significantly, the majority of DEGs were also identified in this period, including a group of water-deficient-induced genes. A group of genes with similar functions have been described in plant seeds; for instance, one of the novel LEA members shares ~70% amino-acid identity with an Arabidopsis EM (embryonic abundant protein, the closest animal relative to plant LEA families identified thus far. Our findings also suggested that not only nutrition, but also mRNAs are produced and stored during cyst formation to support rapid development after reactivation.

  2. Patch-Scale Effects of Equine Disturbance on Arthropod Assemblages and Vegetation Structure in Subalpine Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, Jeffrey G.; Schmidt-Gengenbach, Jutta; Ballenger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-06-01

    Assessments of vertebrate disturbance to plant and animal assemblages often contrast grazed versus ungrazed meadows or other larger areas of usage, and this approach can be powerful. Random sampling of such habitats carries the potential, however, for smaller, more intensely affected patches to be missed and for other responses that are only revealed at smaller scales to also escape detection. We instead sampled arthropod assemblages and vegetation structure at the patch scale (400-900 m2 patches) within subalpine wet meadows of Yosemite National Park (USA), with the goal of determining if there were fine-scale differences in magnitude and directionality of response at three levels of grazing intensity. Effects were both stronger and more nuanced than effects evidenced by previous random sampling of paired grazed and ungrazed meadows: (a) greater negative effects on vegetation structure and fauna in heavily used patches, but (b) some positive effects on fauna in lightly grazed patches, suggested by trends for mean richness and total and population abundances. Although assessment of disturbance at either patch or landscape scales should be appropriate, depending on the management question at hand, our patch-scale work demonstrated that there can be strong local effects on the ecology of these wetlands that may not be detected by comparing larger scale habitats.

  3. Impact of Grassland Reseeding, Herbicide Spraying and Ploughing on Diversity and Abundance of Soil Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Junling; Norris, Stuart L; Murray, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the interactive effect of reseeding, herbicide spraying and ploughing on soil fauna communities, we conducted a grassland reseeding experiment combined with pre-reseed management to examine how with the whole reseeding process affects soil faunal composition. Sampling occasions and exact treatments were as follows: (1) before chemical herbicide spray; (2) after spray but before ploughing; (3) after ploughing but before reseeding; and (4) after 1 year of recovery. Our results demonstrate that, Acari and Collembola were the two soil fauna taxa with the highest abundance and accounted for around 96% of the relative total abundance among the various managements. Herbicide application tended to increase soil invertebrate abundance. Conversely, subsequent ploughing significantly reduced soil invertebrate abundance and had an obvious negative effect on soil primary and secondary decomposers, which were mainly due to the variations of Acari (especially Oribatida) and Coleoptera group abundance. Moreover, reseeding also reduced the individual number of the groups mentioned above, and favored those predators with a larger body size and individual weight. After 1 year recovery, Collembola abundance recovered to the pre-treatment levels, while with Arthropod and Acari groups were still fluctuating. PMID:27555863

  4. Biological control of phytophagous arthropods in the physic nut tree Jatropha curcas L. in Brazil

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    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas has a high biofuel oil content, which could replace polluting fuels, and has great potential for large scale monoculture cultivation in the conventional system. We explored the occurrence, spatial distribution and the functional response of the main phytophagous species of this plant and their natural enemies to explore the potential for conservative biological control. We began sampling phytophagous species and predators when J. curcas plants were six months old. The most common species of phytophagous insects were nymphs and adults of Empoasca kraemeri, followed by Frankliniella schultzei and Myzus persicae. Among the predators, Ricoseius loxocheles, Iphiseioides zuluagai, Araneidae, larvae and adults of Psyllobora vigintimaculata and Anthicus sp. were the most frequently encountered. The most common parasitoids were the families Encyrtidae and Braconidae. The highest densities of E. kraemeri and F. schultzei on the edges of the J. curcas crop follow spatial patterns similar to those of their natural enemies I. zuluagai and Anthicus sp. These arthropods can be considered efficient predators of immature stages of E. kraemeri and F. schultzei on J. curcas.

  5. Importance of mosquito “quasispecies” in selecting an epidemic arthropod-borne virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazeille, Marie; Zouache, Karima; Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Caro, Valérie; Yébakima, André; Mousson, Laurence; Piorkowski, Géraldine; Dauga, Catherine; Vaney, Marie-Christine; Manni, Mosè; Gasperi, Giuliano; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2016-01-01

    Most arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), perpetuated by alternation between a vertebrate host and an insect vector, are likely to emerge through minor genetic changes enabling the virus to adapt to new hosts. In the past decade, chikungunya virus (CHIKV; Alphavirus, Togaviridae) has emerged on La Réunion Island following the selection of a unique substitution in the CHIKV E1 envelope glycoprotein (E1-A226V) of an East-Central-South African (ECSA) genotype conferring a higher transmission rate by the mosquito Aedes albopictus. Assumed to have occurred independently on at least four separate occasions, this evolutionary convergence was suspected to be responsible for CHIKV worldwide expansion. However, assumptions on CHIKV emergence were mainly based on viral genetic changes and the role of the mosquito population quasispecies remained unexplored. Here we show that the nature of the vector population is pivotal in selecting the epidemic CHIKV. We demonstrate using microsatellites mosquito genotyping that Ae. albopictus populations are genetically differentiated, contributing to explain their differential ability to select the E1-226V mutation. Aedes albopictus, newly introduced in Congo coinciding with the first CHIKV outbreak, was not able to select the substitution E1-A226V nor to preferentially transmit a CHIKV clone harboring the E1-226V as did Ae. albopictus from La Réunion. PMID:27383735

  6. Earliest Carboniferous tetrapod and arthropod faunas from Scotland populate Romer's Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Timothy R.; Wood, Stanley P.; Marshall, John E. A.; Clack, Jennifer A.

    2012-03-01

    Devonian tetrapods (limbed vertebrates), known from an increasingly large number of localities, have been shown to be mainly aquatic with many primitive features. In contrast, the post-Devonian record is marked by an Early Mississippian temporal gap ranging from the earliest Carboniferous (Tournaisian and early Viséan) to the mid-Viséan. By the mid-Viséan, tetrapods had become effectively terrestrial as attested by the presence of stem amniotes, developed an essentially modern aspect, and given rise to the crown group. Up to now, only two localities have yielded tetrapod specimens from the Tournaisian stage: one in Scotland with a single articulated skeleton and one in Nova Scotia with isolated bones, many of uncertain identity. We announce a series of discoveries of Tournaisian-age localities in Scotland that have yielded a wealth of new tetrapod and arthropod fossils. These include both terrestrial and aquatic forms and new taxa. We conclude that the gap in the fossil record has been an artifact of collection failure.

  7. Effects of timing of grazing on arthropod communities in semi-natural grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Lisette; Lennartsson, Tommy

    2010-01-01

    Arthropod communities were investigated in two Swedish semi-natural grasslands, each subject to two types of grazing regime: conventional grazing from May to September (continuous grazing) and traditional late management from mid-July (late grazing). Pitfall traps were used to investigate abundance of carabids, spiders, and ants over the grazing season. Ant abundance was also measured by mapping nest density during three successive years. Small spiders, carabids and ants (Myrmica spp.) were more abundant in continuous grazing than in late grazing while larger spiders, carabids, and ants (Formica spp.) were more abundant in late grazing. The overall abundance of carabids was higher in continuous grazing in the early summer but higher in late grazing in the late summer. The switch of preference from continuous to late grazing coincided with the time for larvae hibernating species replacing adult hibernating. We discuss possible explanations for the observed responses in terms of effects of grazing season on a number of habitat variables for example temperature, food resources, structure of vegetation, litter layer, competition, and disturbance. PMID:20569138

  8. Diversity of energy fluxes and interactions between arthropod communities: from soil to cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gers, Charles

    1998-06-01

    The vertical distribution of a species may directly indicate the stage of organic matter decomposition in which it takes part. Observations have so far been limited to superficial layers, but studies on the continuum from the litter to underground biotopes, through the recently discovered superficial underground compartment, open new perspectives in the analyses of matter and energy fluxes. Sampling at different levels, from leaf litter to caves, using pitfall traps and sunken tubes, has revealed the existence of exchanges of organic matter and Arthropoda between different layers. The importation of energy from soil to cave follows two routes: passive and active. For the passive route, I measured dissolved substances in water at five levels. For the active route, I evaluated the migrations of insects and other invertebrates (downwards as well as upwards). For the analysis of arthropod communities, using the notion of functional groups, I showed the existence of links between two components, hypogean species, and endogean-epigean species, defining an ecotone along the vertical gradient 'soil to cave'. The superficial underground compartment is not isolated, but is rather a whole food web with epigean and endogean organisms penetrating and interlinking with another web of hypogean origin.

  9. Intraspecific differences in plant chemotype determine the structure of arthropod food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, János; Zytynska, Sharon E; Salamon, Rozália Veronika; Mehrparvar, Mohsen; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Schmitz, Oswald J; Benedek, Klára; Balog, Adalbert

    2016-03-01

    It is becoming increasingly appreciated that the structure and functioning of ecological food webs are controlled by the nature and level of plant chemicals. It is hypothesized that intraspecific variation in plant chemical resistance, in which individuals of a host-plant population exhibit genetic differences in their chemical contents (called 'plant chemotypes'), may be an important determinant of variation in food web structure and functioning. We evaluated this hypothesis using field assessments and plant chemical assays in the tansy plant Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae). We examined food webs in which chemotypes of tansy plants are the resource for two specialized aphids, their predators and mutualistic ants. The density of the ant-tended aphid Metopeurum fuscoviride was significantly higher on particular chemotypes (borneol) than others. Clear chemotype preferences between predators were also detected. Aphid specialist seven-spotted ladybird beetles (Coccinella septempunctata) were more often found on camphor plants, while significantly higher numbers of the polyphagous nursery web spider (Pisaura mirabilis) were observed on borneol plants. The analysis of plant chemotype effects on the arthropod community clearly demonstrates a range of possible outcomes between plant-aphid-predator networks. The findings help to offer a deeper insight into how one important factor--plant chemical content--influences which species coexist within a food web on a particular host plant and the nature of their trophic linkages. PMID:26581421

  10. Comparison of soil surface arthropod populations in conventional tillage, no-tillage and old field systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumberg, A Y; Crossley, Jr, D A

    1980-08-01

    Soil surface arthropod populations in conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT) sorghum and adjacent old field (OF) were compared using pitfall trap captures. Total numbers of individuals and species, overall diversity (anti H), richness (D), evenness (J'), dominance (C) and similarity quotients (QS) between systems were calculated for each of seven 24 hour sampling periods throughout the season. Although each system was distinct (any two of the systems had less than 30 percent of their species in common), NT was most similar to OF and least similar to CT during a period of stress (drought) and after heading of the sorghum. Percentages of individuals and species represented by spiders were similar in NT and OF; percentages were substantially less in CT. Yields (biomass of sorghum) in CT and NT were not significantly different despite the generally predicted higher pest populations in NT. Results suggest that insecticide stress may lower the stability of NT systems, thus allowing an increase in pest species.

  11. [Arthropod-borne parasites of dogs, especially Leishmania, in the Kosovo and Albania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazri, Tune; Duscher, Georg; Edelhofer, Renate; Bytyci, Burim; Gjino, Paskal; Joachim, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Currently no information is available regarding canine arthropod-borne parasites in Albania and the Kosovo, especially the zoonotic protozoan Leishmania infantum. Presumably autochtonous cases of human leishmaniosis have been described for some areas (Kosovo: Ferizaj, Gjakovo, Pec, Malisevo; Albania: Tirana, Durres, Elbasan, Shkodra, Vlore). In order to investigate the infection status of dogs of different origin sera from 272 animals (151 from Albania - Tirana, Kamza and Durres; 121 from the Kosovo - Gjakovo, Ferizaj and Prishtina) were obtained. Corresponding blood samples were available from 36 Albanian stray dogs. Antibody titres were determined by Indirect Immunofluorescence Test against L. infantum and Babesia canis. Antigens of Dirofilaria immitis were determined using the DiroCheck-Test. Blood samples were tested for L. infantum, B. canis, Hepatozoon canis, D. immitis and Dirofilaria repens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Specific antibodies against Babesia were found in 7.3% of the animals, against Leishmania in 3.3% and 7.0% were positive for D. immitis antigen. DNA of Babesia, Leishmania or D. repens was detected in 11.1%, respectively. H. canis was found in 52.8% of the blood samples. D. immitis DNA was not detected. Since the Babesia- and Leishmania-PCR-positive animals were all serologically negative it can be assumed that infections were acquired only recently. All Leishmania-positive animals were stray dogs. These animals contribute to the maintenance of Leishmania transmission in endemic areas, and a control of the canine stray population should be considered. PMID:19066774

  12. Terrestrial arthropods from tree canopies in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Marinêz Isaac Marques

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial arthropods from tree canopies in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. This study represents a contribution to the knowledge of the diversity of arthropods associated to the canopy of Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae. Three trees individuals were sampled during two seasonal periods in this region: a by spraying one tree canopy during high water (February; b by fogging two tree canopies during low water (September/October. The 15,744 arthropods (183.2±38.9 individuals/m² obtained from all three trees (86 m² represented 20 taxonomic orders, 87.1% were Insecta, and 12.9% Arachnida. The dominant groups were Hymenoptera (48.5%; 88.9 individuals/m², mostly Formicidae (44.5%; 81.4 individuals/m², followed by Coleoptera (14.0%; 25.5 individuals/m² and Araneae (10.2%; 19.5 individuals/m², together representing 62.5% of the total catch. Fourteen (70% of all orders occurred on three trees. Dermaptera, Isoptera, Neuroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera and Trichoptera were collected from only one tree. Of the total, 2,197 adult Coleoptera collected (25.5±11.3 individuals/m², 99% were assigned to 32 families and 256 morphospecies. Nitidulidae (17.9% of the total catch; 4.6 individuals/m², Anobiidae (16.7%; 4.3 individuals/m², Curculionidae (13.2%; 3.4 individuals/m² and Meloidae (11.4%; 2.9 individuals/m² dominated. The communitiy of adult Coleoptera on V. divergens indicated a dominance of herbivores (37.8% of the total catch, 127 spp. and predators (35.2%, 82 spp., followed by saprophages (16.2%, 32 spp. and fungivores (10.8%, 15 spp.. The influence of the flood pulse on the community of arboreal arthropods in V. divergens is indicated by the seasonal variation in evaluated groups, causing changes in their structure and composition.Artrópodes terrestres associados a copas de árvores no Pantanal de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Este estudo representa uma contribuição ao conhecimento da diversidade de artrópodes associados à copa de Vochysia

  13. Seasonal drivers of the epidemiology of arthropod-borne viruses in Australia.

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    Jemma L Geoghegan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses are a major cause of emerging disease with significant public health and economic impacts. However, the factors that determine their activity and seasonality are not well understood. In Australia, a network of sentinel cattle herds is used to monitor the distribution of several such viruses and to define virus-free regions. Herein, we utilize these serological data to describe the seasonality, and its drivers, of three economically important animal arboviruses: bluetongue virus, Akabane virus and bovine ephemeral fever virus. Through epidemiological time-series analyses of sero-surveillance data of 180 sentinel herds between 2004-2012, we compared seasonal parameters across latitudes, ranging from the tropical north (-10°S to the more temperate south (-40°S. This analysis revealed marked differences in seasonality between distinct geographic regions and climates: seasonality was most pronounced in southern regions and gradually decreased as latitude decreased toward the Equator. Further, we show that both the timing of epidemics and the average number of seroconversions have a strong geographical component, which likely reflect patterns of vector abundance through co-varying climatic factors, especially temperature and rainfall. Notably, despite their differences in biology, including insect vector species, all three viruses exhibited very similar seasonality. By revealing the factors that shape spatial and temporal distributions, our study provides a more complete understanding of arbovirus seasonality that will enable better risk predictions.

  14. Relationship of coarse woody debris to arthropod Availability for Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers and other bark-foraging birds on loblolly pine boles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.

    2008-04-01

    Abstract This study determined if short-term removal of coarse woody debris would reduce prey available to red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis Vieillot) and other bark-foraging birds at the Savannah River Site in Aiken and Barnwell counties, SC. All coarse woody debris was removed from four 9-ha plots of mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in 1997 and again in 1998. We sampled arthropods in coarse woody debris removal and control stands using crawl traps that captured arthropods crawling up tree boles, burlap bands wrapped around trees, and cardboard panels placed on the ground. We captured 27 orders and 172 families of arthropods in crawl traps whereas 20 arthropod orders were observed under burlap bands and cardboard panels. The most abundant insects collected from crawl traps were aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Forrnicidae). The greatest biomass was in the wood cockroaches (Blattaria: Blattellidae), caterpillars (Lepidoptera) in the Family Noctuidae, and adult weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The most common group observed underneath cardboard panels was lsoptera (termites), and the most common taxon under burlap bands was wood cockroaches. Overall, arthropod abundance and biomass captured in crawl traps was similar in control and removal plots. In contrast, we observed more arthropods under burlap bands (mean & SE; 3,021.5 k 348.6, P= 0.03) and cardboard panels (3,537.25 k 432.4, P= 0.04) in plots with coarse woody debris compared with burlap bands (2325 + 171.3) and cardboard panels (2439.75 + 288.9) in plots where coarse woody debris was removed. Regression analyses showed that abundance beneath cardboard panels was positively correlated with abundance beneath burlap bands demonstrating the link between abundance on the ground with that on trees. Our results demonstrate that short-term removal of coarse woody debris from pine forests reduced overall arthropod availability to bark-foraging birds.

  15. Ecological stoichiometry and density responses of plant-arthropod communities on cormorant nesting islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Gundula S; Palmborg, Cecilia; Hambäck, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Seabirds deposit large amounts of nutrient rich guano on their nesting islands. The increased nutrient availability strongly affects plants and consumers. Consumer response differs among taxonomic groups, but mechanisms causing these differences are poorly understood. Ecological stoichiometry might provide tools to understand these mechanisms. ES suggests that nutrient rich taxa are more likely to be nutrient limited than nutrient poorer taxa and are more favored under nutrient enrichment. Here, we quantified differences in the elemental composition of soil, plants, and consumers between islands with and without nesting cormorant colonies and tested predictions made based on ES by relating the elemental composition and the eventual mismatch between consumer and resource stoichiometry to observed density differences among the island categories. We found that nesting cormorants radically changed the soil nutrient content and thereby indirectly plant nutrient content and resource quality to herbivores. In contrast, consumers showed only small differences in their elemental composition among the island categories. While we cannot evaluate the cause of the apparent homeostasis of invertebrates without additional data, we can conclude that from the perspective of the next trophic level, there is no difference in diet quality (in terms of N and P content) between island categories. Thus, bottom-up effects seemed mainly be mediated via changes in resource quantity not quality. Despite a large potential trophic mismatch we were unable to observe any relation between the invertebrate stoichiometry and their density response to nesting cormorant colonies. We conclude that in our system stoichiometry is not a useful predictor of arthropod responses to variation in resource nutrient content. Furthermore, we found no strong evidence that resource quality was a prime determinant of invertebrate densities. Other factors like resource quantity, habitat structure and species

  16. Irradiation as a quarantine treatment of agricultural commodities against arthropod pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of quarantine treatments is to eliminate, as far as possible, the risks of introduction or establishment of exotic pests in countries or regions where they do not already occur. Treatments may be applied to host commodities traded commercially or carried by travellers. Ionizing radiation is very effective when used as a quarantine treatment to disinfest fresh, dried or processed fruits, grains and other plant materials. It is highly effective in killing or inactivating arthropod pests, leaves no residues, and at the low doses required it can be used on most commodities without affecting the quality. The most important single pest group of quarantine importance internationally is arguably fruit flies in fresh fruits and vegetables. More than thirty species of fruit flies are recognized as serious quarantine pests. Dose-mortality studies with irradiation have shown that doses of 75-150 Gy prevent adult emergence. At two Task Force Meetings on Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment convened by the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation, a generic dose of 150 Gy was recommended against any fruit, based on extensive research data for these pests. Most fruits are relatively unaffected by quarantine disinfestation treatments of 100-300 Gy but some, for example avocado, appear to be intolerant. Other pests of quarantine importance for which irradiation is an appropriate disinfestation treatment include certain moths (Lepidoptera), beetles (Coleoptera), bugs (Homoptera), flies (Diptera), thrips (Thysanoptera) and mites (Acarina). The Task Force Group also recommended that a generic treatment of 300 Gy, based on the inability to perpetuate the species, would be appropriate for any pest other than fruit fly. This was derived from extensive research on the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and the mango seed weevil, Sternochaetus mangiferae (Fabricius), with supporting results on eleven other pests from six orders. (author). 54 refs, 2 tabs

  17. Cover cropping alters the diet of arthropods in a banana plantation: a metabarcoding approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Mollot

    Full Text Available Plant diversification using cover crops may promote natural regulation of agricultural pests by supporting alternative prey that enable the increase of arthropod predator densities. However, the changes in the specific composition of predator diet induced by cover cropping are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesized that the cover crop can significantly alter the diet of predators in agroecosystems. The cover crop Brachiaria decumbens is increasingly used in banana plantations to control weeds and improve physical soil properties. In this paper, we used a DNA metabarcoding approach for the molecular analysis of the gut contents of predators (based on mini-COI to identify 1 the DNA sequences of their prey, 2 the predators of Cosmopolites sordidus (a major pest of banana crops, and 3 the difference in the specific composition of predator diets between a bare soil plot (BSP and a cover cropped plot (CCP in a banana plantation. The earwig Euborellia caraibea, the carpenter ant Camponotus sexguttatus, and the fire ant Solenopsis geminata were found to contain C. sordidus DNA at frequencies ranging from 1 to 7%. While the frequencies of predators positive for C. sordidus DNA did not significantly differ between BSP and CCP, the frequency at which E. caraibea was positive for Diptera was 26% in BSP and 80% in CCP; the frequency at which C. sexguttatus was positive for Jalysus spinosus was 14% in BSP and 0% in CCP; and the frequency at which S. geminata was positive for Polytus mellerborgi was 21% in BSP and 3% in CCP. E. caraibea, C. sexguttatus and S. geminata were identified as possible biological agents for the regulation of C. sordidus. The detection of the diet changes of these predators when a cover crop is planted indicates the possible negative effects on pest regulation if predators switch to forage on alternative prey.

  18. Surveys of arthropod and gastropod diversity in the geothermal resource subzones, Puna, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.E.; Burgett, J.; Bruegmann, M.

    1995-04-01

    The invertebrate surveys reported here were carried out as part of ecological studies funded by the Department of Energy in support of their environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Hawaii Geothermal Project. Currently, preparation of the EIS has been suspended, and all supporting information is being archived and made available to the public. The invertebrate surveys reported here assessed diversity and abundance of the arthropod and gastropod fauna in forested habitat and lava tubes in or near the three geothermal resource subzones. Recommendations for conservation of these organisms are given in this report. Surveys were conducted along three 100-m transect lines at each of the six forested locations. Malaise traps, baited pitfall traps, yellow pan traps, baited sponge lures, and visual examination of vegetation were used to assess invertebrate diversity along each transect line. Three of these locations were adjacent to roads, and three were adjacent to lava flows. Two of these lava-forest locations (Keauohana Forest Reserve and Pu`u O`o) were relatively remote from direct human impacts. The third location (Southeast Kula) was near a low-density residential area. Two lava tubes were surveyed. The forest over one of these tubes (Keokea tube) had recently been burned away. This tube was used to assess the effects of loss of forest habitat on the subterranean fauna. An undisturbed tube (Pahoa tube) was used as a control. Recommendations offered in this report direct geothermal development away from areas of high endemic diversity and abundance, and toward areas where natural Hawaiian biotic communities have already been greatly disturbed. These disturbed areas are mainly found in the lower half of the Kamaili (middle) geothermal subzone and throughout most of the Kapoho (lower) geothermal subzone. These recommendation may also generally apply to other development projects in the Puna District.

  19. Genomic diversification in strains of Rickettsia felis Isolated from different arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Joseph J; Driscoll, Timothy P; Verhoeve, Victoria I; Utsuki, Tadanobu; Husseneder, Claudia; Chouljenko, Vladimir N; Azad, Abdu F; Macaluso, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia felis (Alphaproteobacteria: Rickettsiales) is the causative agent of an emerging flea-borne rickettsiosis with worldwide occurrence. Originally described from the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, recent reports have identified R. felis from other flea species, as well as other insects and ticks. This diverse host range for R. felis may indicate an underlying genetic variability associated with host-specific strains. Accordingly, to determine a potential genetic basis for host specialization, we sequenced the genome of R. felis str. LSU-Lb, which is an obligate mutualist of the parthenogenic booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila (Insecta: Psocoptera). We also sequenced the genome of R. felis str. LSU, the second genome sequence for cat flea-associated strains (cf. R. felis str. URRWXCal2), which are presumably facultative parasites of fleas. Phylogenomics analysis revealed R. felis str. LSU-Lb diverged from the flea-associated strains. Unexpectedly, R. felis str. LSU was found to be divergent from R. felis str. URRWXCal2, despite sharing similar hosts. Although all three R. felis genomes contain the pRF plasmid, R. felis str. LSU-Lb carries an additional unique plasmid, pLbaR (plasmid of L. bostrychophila associated Rickettsia), nearly half of which encodes a unique 23-gene integrative conjugative element. Remarkably, pLbaR also encodes a repeats-in-toxin-like type I secretion system and associated toxin, heretofore unknown from other Rickettsiales genomes, which likely originated from lateral gene transfer with another obligate intracellular parasite of arthropods, Cardinium (Bacteroidetes). Collectively, our study reveals unexpected genomic diversity across three R. felis strains and identifies several diversifying factors that differentiate facultative parasites of fleas from obligate mutualists of booklice. PMID:25477419

  20. Phytophagous Arthropod Species Associated with Oil Bearing Rose, Rosa damascena Miller, in Isparta Province with Distributional Remarks

    OpenAIRE

    Demirözer, Ozan; KARACA, İsmail

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The study is based on field researches made in 2006–2007 in order to determine the phytophagous arthropod species and the deployment of those species that are economically important in the oil-bearing rose production fields in the province of Isparta. As a result, 62 species were determined, 60 of which belongs to 24 families of 6 orders in Insecta and 2 of which belongs to 2 families of 1 order in Arachnida. In the study, 57 species were identified up to species level and 5 species...

  1. No direct effects of two transgenic Bt rice lines, T1C-19 and T2A-1, on the arthropod communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z B; Tian, J C; Han, N S; Hu, C; Peng, Y F; Stanley, David; Ye, G Y

    2014-10-01

    A 2-yr field trial was conducted to assess the impacts of two new transgenic Bt rice lines, T1C-19 expressing Cry1C protein and T2A-1 expressing Cry2A protein, on the arthropod community sampled via vacuum. All the arthropods were classified into five guilds, including herbivores, parasitoids, predators, detritivores, and others. The seasonal density and dominance distribution of each guild and community-level indices (species richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Simpson diversity index, and evenness index) were compared among rice types. Principal response curves were used to investigate the differences of entire arthropod community of Bt rice plots relative to non-Bt rice plots. The results showed no significant difference was detected in the community-level indices and dominance distribution of guilds between Bt and non-Bt rice plots. The seasonal density of herbivores, detritivores, and others as well as density of the arthropod overall community were also not significantly affected by rice types in either year, although the density of predators and parasitoids in Bt rice plots was significantly lower than those in non-Bt rice plots. The lower abundances of Braconidae, Eulophidae, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae), and Theridiidae in Bt rice plots are likely attributed to the lower abundances of prey species or hosts. Principal response curves revealed that arthropod community in Bt was similar with that in non-Bt rice plots. In conclusion, our findings indicate that these two tested Bt rice lines had no marked negative effects on the arthropod community in the paddy fields. PMID:25203669

  2. 热带次生林火烧前后土壤节肢动物群落组成和分布特征的变化%Change on the Comosition and Distribution of Soil Arthropod Community before and afier Burning in the Secondary Forest of Xishuangbanna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨效东; 唐勇; 唐建纬

    2001-01-01

    The effects of controlled burning of slash-and-burn agriculture on soil arthropod community of a 7-year tropical secondary forest in Xishuangbanna were studied.The results showed that groups of soil arthropod decreased 28.57%,and individuals of soil arthropod reduced 72.7% after burning.The composition of soil arthropod communities changed as well.The proportion of individuals of Acari,Collembola,Protura in the 0~15cm soil layer and Hymenoptera (ant) in burned leftover increased,and became dominant groups of soil arthropod communities after firing.The vertical structure of soil arthropod communities in secondary forest was disordered.There were much more groups and individuals of soil arthropod in soil bottom than those in soil surface after fire.The diversity of soil arthropod communities decreased after fire.

  3. Allatostatins C, double C and triple C, the result of a local gene triplication in an ancestral arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Jan A

    2016-05-01

    Allatostatin C is the arthropod homolog of vertebrate somatostatin. The gene went through a local gene triplification leading to the existence of three genes coding such peptides, allatostatins C, CC and CCC. All three genes are still present in several chelicerates, such as the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus, several spiders and the scorpion Mesobuthus martensii, the myriapod Strigamia maritima, as well as at least two insect species, Locusta migratoria and Athalia rosae, a sawfly. All three peptides have well conserved primary structures and peptides can easily be classified as either allatostatin C, CC or CCC. In most insect species only two of the genes have been preserved. In many species, these are CC and CCC, but in Diptera, Lepidoptera and Coleoptera it are allatostatins C and CC that are still present. In some arthropod species two or even all three genes can still be found closely associated in the genome and are present on the same scaffold showing that a local amplification was at the origin of these genes. PMID:27102937

  4. Different acute toxicity of fipronil baits on invasive Linepithema humile supercolonies and some non-target ground arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Daisuke; Kuwayama, Naoki; Takeo, Azuma; Ishida, Takanobu; Mano, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Maki N; Nagai, Takashi; Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi; Sawahata, Takuo

    2015-08-01

    Fipronil is one of the most effective insecticides to control the invasive ant Linepithema humile, but its effectiveness has been assessed without considering the genetic differences among L. humile supercolonies. We hypothesized that the susceptibility of the ant to fipronil might differ among supercolonies. If so, dosage and concentration of fipronil may need to be adjusted for effective eradication of each supercolony. The relative sensitivities of four L. humile supercolonies established in Hyogo (Japan) to fipronil baits were examined based on their acute toxicity (48-h LC(50)). Toxicities of fipronil to seven ground arthropods, including four native ant species, one native isopoda, and two cockroaches were also determined and compared to that of L. humile supercolonies using species sensitivity distributions. Marked differences in susceptibility of fipronil were apparent among the supercolonies (P ant is to be controlled using fipronil, this would also affect the local arthropod biodiversity. Only the 'Japanese main supercolony' can be controlled with appropriate bait dosages of fipronil that would have little impact on the other species. PMID:25980487

  5. Arthropods on plants in a fragmented Neotropical dry forest: a functional analysis of area loss and edge effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ezequiel; Salvo, Adriana; Valladares, Graciela

    2015-02-01

    Loss and fragmentation of natural ecosystems are widely recognized as the most important threats to biodiversity conservation, with Neotropical dry forests among the most endangered ecosystems. Area and edge effects are major factors in fragmented landscapes. Here, we examine area and edge effects and their interaction, on ensembles of arthropods associated to native vegetation in a fragmented Chaco Serrano forest. We analyzed family richness and community composition of herbivores, predators, and parasitoids on three native plant species in 12 fragments of varying size and at edge/interior positions. We also looked for indicator families by using Indicator Species Analysis. Loss of family richness with the reduction of forest fragment area was observed for the three functional groups, with similar magnitude. Herbivores were richer at the edges without interaction between edge and area effects, whereas predators were not affected by edge/interior position and parasitoid richness showed an interaction between area and position, with a steeper area slope at the edges. Family composition of herbivore, predator, and parasitoid assemblages was also affected by forest area and/or edge/interior situation. We found three indicator families for large remnants and five for edges. Our results support the key role of forest area for conservation of arthropods taxonomic and functional diversity in a highly threatened region, and emphasize the need to understand the interactions between area and edge effects on such diversity. PMID:24446307

  6. The role of wrack deposits for supralittoral arthropods: An example using Atlantic sandy beaches of Brazil and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Delgado, Mª Carmen; Vieira, Jenyffer Vierheller; Veloso, Valéria Gomes; Reyes-Martínez, Mª José; Sallorenzo, Ilana Azevedo; Borzone, Carlos Alberto; Sánchez-Moyano, Juan Emilio; García García, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Wrack deposits, as accumulated detritus, are a common feature on beaches worldwide and significantly contribute to the shaping of supralittoral arthropod communities. The composition and relative age of upper-shore deposits influence the structure and taxonomic composition of invertebrate assemblages. Moreover, these influences may vary geographically, depending on the locally prevailing climatic and hydrodynamic conditions. The amount and composition of wrack deposits as well as community attributes (total density, species richness and diversity) were determined on sandy beaches in three distinct geographical regions: South (Paraná) and Southeast (Rio de Janeiro) of Brazil and SW Spain. These parameters were compared between upper and lower wrack bands on each beach and between beaches in each region. Wrack deposits were composed of mangrove propagules in the Paraná region, by macrophytes, dead invertebrates and macroalgae in Rio de Janeiro region and by seagrass and macroalgae in the SW Spain region. In all regions, the total amount of stranded wrack differed between beaches, but the amount accumulated between bands (i.e upper and lower band) was similar between beaches. Wrack bands shaped the density of common taxa (Talitridae, Tenebrionidae, and Staphylinidae), with consequences for community structures. This result could be due to their preference for specific microhabitats and food sources, which might differ according to the relative age of the wrack deposits. The results suggest that, independent of wrack composition, the distribution of wrack deposits in bands and their relative ages seems to play a role on the structure of supralittoral arthropod assemblages.

  7. The tortoise or the hare? Impacts of within-host dynamics on transmission success of arthropod-borne viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althouse, Benjamin M; Hanley, Kathryn A

    2015-08-19

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are maintained in a cycle of alternating transmission between vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Arboviruses possess RNA genomes capable of rapid diversification and adaptation, and the between-host trade-offs inherent to host alternation impose well-documented constraints on arbovirus evolution. Here, we investigate the less well-studied within-host trade-offs that shape arbovirus replication dynamics and transmission. Arboviruses generally establish lifelong infection in vectors but transient infection of variable magnitude (i.e. peak virus concentration) and duration in vertebrate hosts. In the majority of experimental infections of vertebrate hosts, both the magnitude and duration of arbovirus replication depended upon the dose of virus administered, with increasing dose resulting in greater magnitude but shorter duration of viraemia. This pattern suggests that the vertebrate immune response imposes a trade-off between the height and breadth of the virus replication curve. To investigate the impact of this trade-off on transmission, we used a simple modelling approach to contrast the effect of 'tortoise' (low magnitude, long duration viraemia) and 'hare' (high magnitude, short duration viraemia) arbovirus replication strategies on transmission. This model revealed that, counter to previous theory, arboviruses that adopt a tortoise strategy have higher rates of persistence in both host and vector populations. PMID:26150665

  8. Direct evidence of the cyclooxygenase pathway of prostaglandin synthesis in arthropods: genetic and biochemical characterization of two crustacean cyclooxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvas, Külliki; Kurg, Reet; Hansen, Kristella; Järving, Reet; Järving, Ivar; Valmsen, Karin; Lõhelaid, Helike; Samel, Nigulas

    2009-12-01

    Prostaglandins, well-known lipid mediators in vertebrate animals, have also shown to play certain regulatory roles in insects and other arthropods acting on reproduction, immune system and ion transport. However, knowledge of their biosynthetic pathways in arthropods is lacking. In the present study, we report the cloning and expression of cyclooxygenase (COX) from amphipod crustaceans Gammarus spp and Caprella spp. The amphipod COX proteins contain key residues shown to be important for cyclooxygenase and peroxidase activities. Differently from all other known cyclooxygenases the N-terminal signal sequence of amphipod enzymes is not cleaved during protein expression in mammalian cells. The C-terminus of amphipod COX is shorter than that of mammalian isoforms and lacks the KDEL(STEL)-type endoplasmic reticulum retention/retrieval signal. Despite that, amphipod COX proteins are N-glycosylated and locate similarly to the vertebrate COX on the endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope. Both amphipod COX mRNAs encode functional cyclooxygenases that catalyze the transformation of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins. Using bioinformatic analysis we identified a COX-like gene from the human body louse Pediculus humanus corporis genome that encodes a protein with about 30% sequence identity with human COX-1 and COX-2. Although the COX gene is known to be absent from genomes of Drosophila sp., Aedes aegypti, Bombyx mori, and other insects, our studies establish the existence of the COX gene in certain lineages within the insect world. PMID:19854273

  9. Simulating small-scale climate change effects-lessons from a short-term field manipulation experiment on grassland arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Sascha; Rolfsmeyer, Dorothee; Schirmel, Jens

    2013-10-01

    Climate change is expected to cause major consequences on biodiversity. Understanding species-specific reactions, such as species shifts, species declines, and changes in population dynamics is a key issue to quantify large-scale impacts of climate change on biotic communities. As it is often impossible or at least impracticable to conduct large-scale experiments on biotic responses to climate change, studies at a smaller scale may be a useful alternative. In our study, we therefore tested responses of grassland arthropods (carabid beetles, spiders, grasshoppers) to simulated climate change in terms of species activity densities and diversity. We conducted a controlled field experiment by changing water and microclimatic conditions at a small scale (16 m(2) ). Roof constructions were used to increase drought-like conditions, whereas water supply was enhanced by irrigation. In all, 2 038 carabid beetles (36 species), 4 893 spiders (65 species), and 303 Orthoptera (4 species) were caught using pitfall traps from May to August, 2010. During our experiment, we created an artificial small-scale climate change; and statistics revealed that these changes had short-term effects on the total number of individuals and Simpson diversity of the studied arthropod groups. Moreover, our results showed that certain species might react very quickly to climate change in terms of activity densities, which in turn might influence diversity due to shifts in abundance patterns. Finally, we devised methodological improvements that may further enhance the validity of future studies. PMID:23956202

  10. Impact of insect-resistant transgenic rice on target insect pests and non-target arthropods in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO CHEN; JIAN-ZHOU ZHAO; GONG-YIN YE; QIANG FU; ANTHONY M.SHELTON

    2006-01-01

    Progress on the research and development of insect-resistant transgenic rice,especially expressing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt),in China has been rapid in recent years. A number of insect-resistant transgenic rice lines/varieties have passed restricted and enlarged field testing,and several have been approved for productive testing since 2002 in China,although none was approved for commercial use until 2006.Extensive laboratory and field trials have been conducted for evaluation of the efficiency of transgenic rice on target lepidoteran pests and potential ecological risks on non-target arthropods. The efficacy of a number of transgenic rice lines currently tested in China was excellent for control of the major target insect pests,the rice stem borers (Chilo suppressalis,Scirpophaga incertulas,Sesamia inferens) and leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis),and was better than most insecticides extensively used by millions of farmers at present in China.No significantly negative or unintended effects of transgenic rice on non-target arthropods were found compared with non-transgenic rice. In contrast,most of the current insecticides used for the control of rice stem borers and leaffolders proved harmful to natural enemies,and some insecticides may directly induce resurgence of rice planthoppers. Studies for developing a proactive insect resistance management of transgenic rice in the future are discussed to ensure the sustainable use of transgenic rice.

  11. Assessment of Potential Risks of Dietary RNAi to a Soil Micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta Brook (Collembola: Entomobryidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Xu, Linghua; Noland, Jeffrey E.; Li, Hu; Siegfried, Blair D.; Zhou, Xuguo

    2016-01-01

    RNAi-based genetically engineered (GE) crops for the management of insect pests are likely to be commercialized by the end of this decade. Without a workable framework for conducting the ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a standardized ERA protocol, however, the utility of RNAi transgenic crops in pest management remains uncertain. The overall goal of this study is to assess the risks of RNAi-based GE crops on a non-target soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta, which could be exposed to plant-protected dsRNAs deposited in crop residues. Based on the preliminary research, we hypothesized that insecticidal dsRNAs targeting at the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a billion-dollar insect pest, has no adverse impacts on S. curviseta, a soil decomposer. Following a tiered approach, we tested this risk hypothesis using a well-designed dietary RNAi toxicity assay. To create the worst-case scenario, the full-length cDNA of v-ATPase subunit A from S. curviseta were cloned and a 400 bp fragment representing the highest sequence similarity between target pest and non-target arthropods was selected as the template to synthesize insecticidal dsRNAs. Specifically, 10-days-old S. curviseta larvae were subjected to artificial diets containing v-ATPase A dsRNAs from both D. v. virgifera (dsDVV) and S. curviseta (dsSC), respectively, a dsRNA control, β-glucuronidase, from plant (dsGUS), and a vehicle control, H2O. The endpoint measurements included gene expression profiles, survival, and life history traits, such as developmental time, fecundity, hatching rate, and body length. Although, S. curviseta larvae developed significantly faster under the treatments of dsDVV and dsSC than the vehicle control, the combined results from both temporal RNAi effect study and dietary RNAi toxicity assay support the risk hypothesis, suggesting that the impacts of ingested arthropod-active dsRNAs on this representative soil decomposer are negligible. PMID:27471512

  12. Assessment of Potential Risks of Dietary RNAi to a Soil Micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta Brook (Collembola: Entomobryidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huipeng; Xu, Linghua; Noland, Jeffrey E; Li, Hu; Siegfried, Blair D; Zhou, Xuguo

    2016-01-01

    RNAi-based genetically engineered (GE) crops for the management of insect pests are likely to be commercialized by the end of this decade. Without a workable framework for conducting the ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a standardized ERA protocol, however, the utility of RNAi transgenic crops in pest management remains uncertain. The overall goal of this study is to assess the risks of RNAi-based GE crops on a non-target soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta, which could be exposed to plant-protected dsRNAs deposited in crop residues. Based on the preliminary research, we hypothesized that insecticidal dsRNAs targeting at the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a billion-dollar insect pest, has no adverse impacts on S. curviseta, a soil decomposer. Following a tiered approach, we tested this risk hypothesis using a well-designed dietary RNAi toxicity assay. To create the worst-case scenario, the full-length cDNA of v-ATPase subunit A from S. curviseta were cloned and a 400 bp fragment representing the highest sequence similarity between target pest and non-target arthropods was selected as the template to synthesize insecticidal dsRNAs. Specifically, 10-days-old S. curviseta larvae were subjected to artificial diets containing v-ATPase A dsRNAs from both D. v. virgifera (dsDVV) and S. curviseta (dsSC), respectively, a dsRNA control, β-glucuronidase, from plant (dsGUS), and a vehicle control, H2O. The endpoint measurements included gene expression profiles, survival, and life history traits, such as developmental time, fecundity, hatching rate, and body length. Although, S. curviseta larvae developed significantly faster under the treatments of dsDVV and dsSC than the vehicle control, the combined results from both temporal RNAi effect study and dietary RNAi toxicity assay support the risk hypothesis, suggesting that the impacts of ingested arthropod-active dsRNAs on this representative soil decomposer are negligible. PMID:27471512

  13. A faunistic database as a tool for identification and selection of potential non-target arthropod species for regulatory risk assessment of GM maize

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knecht, S.; Romeis, J.; Malone, L. A.; Candolfi, M. P.; Garsia-Alonso, M.; Habuštová, Oxana; Huesing, J. E.; Kiss, J.; Nentwig, W.; Pons, X.; Rauschen, S.; Szénasi, Á.; Bigler, F.

    Vol. 52. Montfavet: IOBC/WPRS, 2010, s. 65-69. ISBN 978-92-9067-226-5. [Proceedings of the fourth Meeting on Ecological Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms. Rostock (DE), 14.05.2009-16.05.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : corn * environmental monitoring * non - target arthropods Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  14. Two strains of Pseudomonas fluorscens bacteria differentially affect survivorship of waxworm (Galleria mellonella) larvae exposed to an arthropod fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens were found contaminating a biopesticide used in a previous study against Varroa destructor infestations in honey bee hives. In the aforementioned study the biopesticide, a formulation of the arthropod pathogen Beauveria bassiana, failed to have any impact on t...

  15. Reduced-risk pest management programs for eastern U.S. peach orchards: effects on arthropod predators, parasitoids, and select pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddinger, David J; Leslie, Timothy W; Joshi, Neelendra K

    2014-06-01

    We developed new integrated pest management programs for eastern U.S. peaches with minimal use of organophosphates. From 2002-2005, we assessed the ecological impacts of these reduced-risk programs versus grower standard conventional programs that still relied primarily on the use of organophosphorous and carbamate insecticides. Using a split-plot design replicated at four commercial Pennsylvania peach orchards, we quantified pesticide rates, environmental impact, and arthropod community response. We used Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) analysis based on the growers' pesticide records from each orchard to calculate seasonal cumulative EIQ field ratings for all years. Ecological effects of the reduced-risk and conventional program were also measured as the abundance and diversity of nontarget arthropod predators, parasitoids, and selected pest taxa. Pesticide inputs and EIQ values were substantially lower in reduced-risk programs compared with conventional spray programs. Arthropod arrays differed significantly between pest management programs: most beneficial predator and parasitoid taxa were positively associated with the reduced-risk program and negatively associated with the standard grower program. Regardless of the pest management program, we observed significant differences in species arrays in the peach tree canopy compared with the ground cover of the orchards, but the arthropod community did not differ among the field sites or based on distance from the edge of the orchard. We conclude that reduced-risk programs not only provide control comparable with that of conventional programs, but they also reduce negative environmental effects while conserving key arthropod biological control agents within eastern U.S. peach orchards. PMID:25026668

  16. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wallace M; Eble, Jeffrey A; Franklin, Kimberly; McManus, Reilly B; Brantley, Sandra L; Henkel, Jeff; Marek, Paul E; Hall, W Eugene; Olson, Carl A; McInroy, Ryan; Bernal Loaiza, Emmanuel M; Brusca, Richard C; Moore, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA) assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May) and summer (September) 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon) biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1) beetles (Coleoptera), (2) spiders (Araneae), (3) grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), and (4) millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda) were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens) Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species) and 76% (254 species) of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests). Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon), significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  17. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace M Meyer

    Full Text Available The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May and summer (September 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1 beetles (Coleoptera, (2 spiders (Araneae, (3 grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera, and (4 millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species and 76% (254 species of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests. Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon, significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  18. Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Demodecidae) parasitizing Castor fiber (Rodentia), and other parasitic arthropods associated with Castor spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Fryderyk, Sławomira; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2016-02-11

    A new species of demodecid mite, Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata: Demodecidae), is described based on adult stages from the skin of the nasal region of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758, collected in Poland. This is the first detection of a representative demodecid mite in rodents of the suborder Castorimorpha and also represents the first detection of a skin mite in Eurasian beavers. The new species is a small skin mite (average 173 µm in length) characterized by sexual dimorphism related to body proportions. D. castoris sp. nov. was observed in 4 out of 6 beavers examined (66.6%), with a mean intensity of 10.8 and an intensity range of 2-23 ind. host(-1). This paper also contains a checklist of parasitic arthropods known from Castor spp. PMID:26865230

  19. Risk Assessment of Genetically Engineered Maize Resistant to Diabrotica spp.: Influence on Above-Ground Arthropods in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodová, Zdeňka; Skoková Habuštová, Oxana; Hutchison, William D; Hussein, Hany M; Sehnal, František

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic maize MON88017, expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt maize), confers resistance to corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp.) and provides tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate. However, prior to commercialization, substantial assessment of potential effects on non-target organisms within agroecosystems is required. The MON88017 event was therefore evaluated under field conditions in Southern Bohemia in 2009-2011, to detect possible impacts on the above-ground arthropod species. The study compared MON88017, its near-isogenic non-Bt hybrid DK315 (treated or not treated with the soil insecticide Dursban 10G) and two non-Bt reference hybrids (KIPOUS and PR38N86). Each hybrid was grown on five 0.5 ha plots distributed in a 14-ha field with a Latin square design. Semiquantitative ELISA was used to verify Cry3Bb1 toxin levels in the Bt maize. The species spectrum of non-target invertebrates changed during seasons and was affected by weather conditions. The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis was the most abundant species in all three successive years. The next most common species were aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Metopolophium dirhodum. Frequently observed predators included Orius spp. and several species within the Coccinellidae. Throughout the three-year study, analysis of variance indicated some significant differences (Pinsects was similar in maize with the same genetic background, for both Bt (MON88017) and non-Bt (DK315) untreated or insecticide treated. KIPOUS and PR38N86 showed some differences in species abundance relative to the Bt maize and its near-isogenic hybrid. However, the effect of management regime on arthropod community was insignificant and accounted only for a negligible portion of the variability. PMID:26083254

  20. Risk Assessment of Genetically Engineered Maize Resistant to Diabrotica spp.: Influence on Above-Ground Arthropods in the Czech Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Svobodová

    Full Text Available Transgenic maize MON88017, expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt maize, confers resistance to corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. and provides tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate. However, prior to commercialization, substantial assessment of potential effects on non-target organisms within agroecosystems is required. The MON88017 event was therefore evaluated under field conditions in Southern Bohemia in 2009-2011, to detect possible impacts on the above-ground arthropod species. The study compared MON88017, its near-isogenic non-Bt hybrid DK315 (treated or not treated with the soil insecticide Dursban 10G and two non-Bt reference hybrids (KIPOUS and PR38N86. Each hybrid was grown on five 0.5 ha plots distributed in a 14-ha field with a Latin square design. Semiquantitative ELISA was used to verify Cry3Bb1 toxin levels in the Bt maize. The species spectrum of non-target invertebrates changed during seasons and was affected by weather conditions. The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis was the most abundant species in all three successive years. The next most common species were aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Metopolophium dirhodum. Frequently observed predators included Orius spp. and several species within the Coccinellidae. Throughout the three-year study, analysis of variance indicated some significant differences (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the abundance and diversity of plant dwelling insects was similar in maize with the same genetic background, for both Bt (MON88017 and non-Bt (DK315 untreated or insecticide treated. KIPOUS and PR38N86 showed some differences in species abundance relative to the Bt maize and its near-isogenic hybrid. However, the effect of management regime on arthropod community was insignificant and accounted only for a negligible portion of the variability.

  1. The cultivation of Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect non-target arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Guo

    Full Text Available Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée, and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The "sampling dates" had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to "Bt corn" or "sampling dates X corn variety" interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs.

  2. Arthropod Distribution and Habitat, Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) animal distribution in Wisconsin - Rusty Crayfish, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin DNR Bureau of Watershed Management.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Arthropod Distribution and Habitat dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2009....

  3. Arthropod Distribution and Habitat, Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) animal distribution in Wisconsin - Spiny/fishhook water flea, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin DNR Bureau of Watershed Management.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Arthropod Distribution and Habitat dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2009....

  4. Ant-App-DB: a smart solution for monitoring arthropods activities, experimental data management and solar calculations without GPS in behavioral field studies [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/59a

    OpenAIRE

    Zeeshan Ahmed; Saman Zeeshan; Pauline Fleischmann; Wolfgang Rössler; Thomas Dandekar

    2015-01-01

    Field studies on arthropod ecology and behaviour require simple and robust monitoring tools, preferably with direct access to an integrated database. We have developed and here present a database tool allowing smart-phone based monitoring of arthropods. This smart phone application provides an easy solution to collect, manage and process the data in the field which has been a very difficult task for field biologists using traditional methods. To monitor our example species, the desert ant Cat...

  5. Arthropod community structure on bark of koa (Acacia koa) and ʻōhiʻā (Metrosideros polymorpha) at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawaiʻi Island, Hawaiʻi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Robert W.; Banko, Paul C.; Stelmach, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The arthropod community associated with tree bark contains a wide variety of taxa but is poorly described, particularly in Hawaiʽi. Our overall goals were to evaluate the abundance of arthropods available to foraging birds and how variation in bark substrates may contribute to arthropod distributions in native forests. Our study aimed to identify this fauna on the dominant canopy-forming trees koa (Acacia koa) and ʽōhiʽa (Metrosideros polymorpha) within wet montane forest at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawaiʽi Island. At two sites roughly similar in elevation and habitat structure, we deployed three trap types designed to intercept arthropods moving along bark within tree canopies: a bole trap based on a pre-existing design and two traps specially designed for this study. Bole traps were placed on koa and ʽōhiʽa while branch traps were established on large and small branches of ʽōhiʽa. In total, 15 arthropod orders were identified, with Collembola most abundant (number/trap-day) generally followed by Isopoda and Araneae. Differences in abundance were found in some instances, but overall, few differences were detected between tree species or sites. Relative abundances of arthropod groups were also generally similar between trees and sites and among different parts of ʽōhiʽa. These results indicate that bark-dwelling arthropod communities are similar on koa and ʽōhiʽa, and birds should not develop strong preferences for gleaning arthropods from the bark of either species of tree based on prey availability.

  6. Parasitic arthropods of some wild rodents from Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossi David Eduardo Paolinetti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the associations between three species of rodents in the Atlantic forest and their parasitic arthropods was undertaken at the Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, located in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, from March 1989 to February 1990. Individuals of three species, Oryzomys russatus, Proechimys iheringi and Nectomys squamipes were captured and examined for ectoparasites. Eleven species of parasitic arthropods were found, including four species of insects and seven of Acari. Parasitism intensity, phenology, and rainfall were positively correlated with the abundance of the ectoparasites and their hosts. The most abundant host was O. russatus (Muridae: Sigmodontinae, and the most common parasite on it was the laelapid mite Gigantolaelaps oudemansi. The cuterebrid Metacuterebra apicalis caused myiasis in O. russatus. A mutualistic association between the staphylinid beetle Amblyopinus sp. and its host P. iheringi (Echimyidae was observed. The few N. squamipes captured had small numbers of ectoparasites.

  7. Advances and Perspectives of the use of the entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae for the control of arthropod pests in poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DGP Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Global poultry production is plagued by a wide variety of arthropods. The problems associated with their chemical control have led to an increasing search for control alternatives, and entomopathogenic fungi seem to be a promising strategy. Despite the large number of insects and mites considered as important pests in animal production, studies on the use of entomopathogenic fungi for their control are still scarce compared with agricultural pests, particularly in Brazil. This article reviews some damages and control aspects of the main arthropod pests that affect Brazilian poultry production, including house flies, lesser mealworms, and feather mites, by the use of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Studies published in the last 20 years were reviewed, and the main problems and limitations of that pest-control strategy are discussed.

  8. Behaviour of filariae: morphological and anatomical signatures of their life style within the arthropod and vertebrate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Odile; Babayan, Simon

    2003-12-15

    This paper attempts to pinpoint the most original morphological anatomical features of the biology of filariae per se and those which are or could be important for triggering regulatory processes in the arthropod vector and uncontrolled pathogenic processes in the vertebrate hosts. The following stages are considered: the motile egg or newly-hatched larva, the microfilaria, in the lymphatic or blood vessels of its vertebrate host; the larva, its migrations and its intrasyncitial development in the hematophagous arthropod subverted as vector; its transfer to the vertebrate host, migratory properties through the lymphatic system, maturation, mating and, finally, egg laying in the tissues they reach. This synthesis is based on parasite morphological features and their functional interpretation, histological features in the different niches the filariae reach, and on quantitative analyses of filarial development at its different phases, as well as on the rare and valuable observations of living parasites in situ. Data have been drawn from various species of Onchocercidae from amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. These comparative analyses have revealed the major constraints to which the filariae, including those parasitizing humans, have been subjected during their evolution from their ancestors, the oviparous and heteroxenic spirurids. Emphasis is placed on mechanical events: resistance of the microfilariae to the currents in the blood or lymph vessels, regulatory processes induced in the vector mesenteron by the movements of the ingested microfilariae, transient disruption by the microfilarial cephalic hook of the vectors' tissues and cell membranes during microfilarial translocation, attachment of males to females during mating by means of 'non-slip' systems, etc. Like other nematodes, filariae are equipped with sensory organs and a locomotor system, composed of the muscles and of the original osmoregulatory-excretory cell. Any change in one of these elements

  9. Structural determination of the carbohydrate chains from arthropod and mollusc hemocyanin by means of 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis carbohydrate structures of hemocyanins of arthropods and molluscs are studied. Hemocyanins are high-molecular-mass, copper-containing oxygen-transport proteins. The function of these carbohydrate chains are yet still unknown. It is not probable that they play a role in the oxygen-binding processes. They are rather thought to have a function in the build-up of the hemocyanin molecules. 286 refs.; 30 figs.; 25 tabs

  10. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) family in arthropods: Cloning and expression analysis of two MIF and one D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT) homologues in mud crabs, Scylla paramamosain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Shu; Duan, Li-Peng; Huang, Bei; Wang, Ke-Jian; Zhang, Cai-Liang; Jia, Qin-Qin; Nie, Pin; Wang, Tiehui

    2016-03-01

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) family, consisting of MIF and D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT) in vertebrates, is evolutionarily ancient and has been found across Kingdoms including vertebrates, invertebrates, plants and bacteria. The mammalian MIF family are chemokines at the top of the inflammatory cascade in combating infections. They also possess enzymatic activities, e.g. DDT catalysis results in the production of 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI), a precursor of eumelanin. MIF-like genes are widely distributed, but DDT-like genes have only been described in vertebrates and a nematode. In this report, we cloned a DDT-like gene, for the first time in arthropods, and a second MIF in mud crab. The mud crab MIF family have a three exon/two intron structure as seen in vertebrates. The identification of a DDT-like gene in mud crab and other arthropods suggests that the separation of MIF and DDT preceded the divergence of protostomes and deuterostomes. The MIF family is differentially expressed in tissues of adults and during embryonic development and early life. The high level expression of the MIF family in immune tissues, such as intestine and hepatopancreas, suggests an important role in mud crab innate immunity. Mud crab DDT is highly expressed in early embryos, in megalops and crablets and this coincides with the requirement for melanisation in egg chorion tanning and cuticular hardening in arthropods, suggesting a potential novel role of DDT in melanogenesis via its tautomerase activity to produce DHI in mud crab. The clarification of the presence of both MIF and DDT in this report paves the way for further investigation of their functional roles in immunity and in melanogenesis in mud crab and other arthropods. PMID:26826424

  11. Effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance Standard 4.2c for biodiversity conservation in set-asides, part II (ground-dwelling Arthropods and Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Biaggini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The MO.NA.CO. project has been set up to evaluate the effectiveness of some GAECs (Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions through the institution of a monitoring network throughout the Italian territory. The present work deals with the evaluation of the Standard 4.2c, concerning biomass and biodiversity in set-asides, in relation to fauna conservation. Monitoring was performed in three areas, using the following indicators: ground-dwelling Arthropods identified at the order level, Coleoptera identified at the family level and Lacertids. Our results seem to indicate that a mild management of set-asides, consisting in mowing once a year (mid July in the examined areas, may enhance faunal diversity, above all Arthropod diversity. After mowing, the set-asides managed following Standard 4.2, hosted higher levels of Arthropod diversity and a more balanced faunistic composition in comparison to unmoved set-asides and arable lands. On the contrary, we did not find significant effects of mowing on lizard abundance. We also discussed some measures to mitigate the negative direct effects of mechanical mowing on fauna. 

  12. Use of radioisotopes to elucidate the role of regurgitation for direct transfer of parasites or disease agents between host organisms through arthropod vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the transmission of parasites and disease agents by bloodfeeding arthropods, the hitherto neglected phenomenon of regurgitation is of the greatest importance. It makes possible the direct transfer of ingested blood, together with these disease agents, within the shortest period of time after intake without the interaction of any circulative or transformative processes in the vector. Owing to such direct transmission from host to host, the epidemiology of vector borne diseases (e.g. arbo-viruses or certain protozoan diseases such as trypanosomiasis, leishmaniosis or even malaria) is influenced by additional factors. Regurgitative transmission should be considered in programmes of eradication and procedures of quarantine or isolation. We have examined the occurrence of regurgitation in a systematic way with the use of tracer techniques, in combination with other methods. The main arthropods are ticks (especially Ornithodoros moubata Murray), bloodsucking Hemiptera (e.g. Triatoma phyllosoma Burmeister), bloodsucking Muscidae (mainly Stomoxys calcitrans L.) and also mosquitoes. As can be shown with aphid, in which THO was used as a tracer, immediate transmission occurs in stable flies and soft ticks after labelling with 32P and 14C, and it can even be quantified. Also, the output of saliva secreted into and collected from the crop must be regarded as regurgitation rather than salivation. Since it can mix with previously ingested food (blood plus disease agents), this type of regurgitation can also contribute to the transmission of diseases by arthropods. (author). 23 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Use of isotopes as model substances to elucidate the mode of transmission of pathogens to animals and plants by arthropod vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental work was begun with J.F. Butler and L.A. DuBose on the biting flies Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) and Haematobia irritans (L.), which are important ectoparasites of livestock. Several possible mechanisms for the transmission of pathogenic materials to animals were defined, using radioisotopes: (1) mechanical transmission from contaminated mouthparts; (2) transfer through regurgitation; (3) transfer via saliva; (4) transfer through the alimentary tract. A generalized scheme was developed for the paths of uptake and excretion of radioisotopes through the organism of insects. First, experiments applied this model to blood-feeding arthropods such as the stable fly and hornfly, tsetse flies, sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus L.), mosquitoes (Culex sp., Aedes sp.), Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera, Triatomidae), and the tick Ornithodorus moubata Murray. Very similar principles and possibilities for the transfer of pathogens also appear to apply to plant-sucking aphids (vectors of virus diseases in plants) as to blood-feeding arthropods. Regurgitation found in biting flies, appears in ticks as well as in Triatomidae and tsetse flies (in the last two only under stress conditions) and could even be observed in aphids. Thus, aphids and certain biting arthropods can immediately transfer pathogens after feeding on an infected host plant or animal, on migrating to another host, findings mainly possible through using radioisotopes. The results on aphids include discussion of the ingestion-egestion hypothesis of noncirculative virus transmission, described by Harris in 1977

  14. Short- and medium-term effects of experimental nitrogen fertilization on arthropods associated with Calluna vulgaris heathlands in north-west Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the short- and medium-term effects of experimental nitrogen fertilization (3 and 15 months after the treatment) on the arthropods of Calluna vulgaris heathlands in NW Spain. Three heathland sites were selected with two permanent plots per site: control and fertilized. Ammonium nitrate fertilizer (56 kg N ha-1 yr-1) was applied monthly and insects were caught using pitfall traps. We found mainly species-level responses to nitrogen addition. Seven species (e.g. Lochmaea suturalis) showed a consistent trend (benefited or harmed) in both periods and were proposed as possible reliable indicators of the effects of nitrogen deposition in these ecosystems. We also found variable arthropod trophic-group responses: (a) herbivores (leaf beetles, true bugs) increased in abundance on a short-term scale; (b) predators (carabid beetles, true bugs) showed opposite and less clear responses in both periods. Further long-term studies are needed to determine the mechanisms underlying the observed arthropod responses. - We observed consistent species-level and variable trophic-group responses to nitrogen addition in one of the southern-most locations for Calluna vulgaris heathlands within Europe

  15. Ant-App-DB: a smart solution for monitoring arthropods activities, experimental data management and solar calculations without GPS in behavioral field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Fleischmann, Pauline; Rössler, Wolfgang; Dandekar, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Field studies on arthropod ecology and behaviour require simple and robust monitoring tools, preferably with direct access to an integrated database. We have developed and here present a database tool allowing smart-phone based monitoring of arthropods. This smart phone application provides an easy solution to collect, manage and process the data in the field which has been a very difficult task for field biologists using traditional methods. To monitor our example species, the desert ant Cataglyphis fortis, we considered behavior, nest search runs, feeding habits and path segmentations including detailed information on solar position and azimuth calculation, ant orientation and time of day. For this we established a user friendly database system integrating the Ant-App-DB with a smart phone and tablet application, combining experimental data manipulation with data management and providing solar position and timing estimations without any GPS or GIS system. Moreover, the new desktop application Dataplus allows efficient data extraction and conversion from smart phone application to personal computers, for further ecological data analysis and sharing. All features, software code and database as well as Dataplus application are made available completely free of charge and sufficiently generic to be easily adapted to other field monitoring studies on arthropods or other migratory organisms. The software applications Ant-App-DB and Dataplus described here are developed using the Android SDK, Java, XML, C# and SQLite Database. PMID:25977753

  16. Distribution and abundance of arthropod species in pasture communities of three Azorean islands (Santa Maria, Terceira and Pico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges, P.A.V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work provides evidence that the "hollow curve" is a consistent pattern in the range size distribution of taxonomic and ecological groups of arthropod pasture dwelling species. Many of the inconsistent results relating range size to herbivores diet breadth are probably due to historical constraints in the colonization of the islands and particular characteristics of the habitats studied (e.g. types of resources available. The positive relationship between range size and abundance may be explained by the "resource usage model". However, the slope of the regression line relating distribution to abundance was similar for different groups which suggests there is no difference in the way that the species’ local abundance scales with distribution in the four assemblages of species studied and that there is a close relationship between the trophic groups studied. This suggests that the “resource availability model” could be the explanation for the distribution and abundance of pasture spider and insect species. More work needs to be conducted in order to evaluate the relationship between diet breadth, habitat specialization and range size in the islands.

  17. Morphology and function in the Cambrian Burgess Shale megacheiran arthropod Leanchoilia superlata and the application of a descriptive matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Joachim T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leanchoilia superlata is one of the best known arthropods from the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale of British Columbia. Here we re-describe the morphology of L. superlata and discuss its possible autecology. The re-description follows a standardized scheme, the descriptive matrix approach, designed to provide a template for descriptions of other megacheiran species. Results Our findings differ in several respects from previous interpretations. Examples include a more slender body; a possible hypostome; a small specialised second appendage, bringing the number of pairs of head appendages to four; a further sub-division of the great appendage, making it more similar to that of other megacheirans; and a complex joint of the exopod reflecting the arthropod’s swimming capabilities. Conclusions Different aspects of the morphology, for example, the morphology of the great appendage and the presence of a basipod with strong median armature on the biramous appendages indicate that L. superlata was an active and agile necto-benthic predator (not a scavenger or deposit feeder as previously interpreted.

  18. Populational survey of arthropods on transgenic common bean expressing the rep gene from Bean golden mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Patrícia V; Quintela, Eliane D; Junqueira, Ana Maria R; Aragão, Francisco J L; Faria, Josias C

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops is considered the fastest adopted crop technology in the history of modern agriculture. However, possible undesirable and unintended effects must be considered during the research steps toward development of a commercial product. In this report we evaluated effects of a common bean virus resistant line on arthropod populations, considered as non-target organisms. This GM bean line (named M1/4) was modified for resistance against Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) by expressing a mutated REP protein, which is essential for virus replication. Biosafety studies were performed for a period of three years under field conditions. The abundance of some species was significantly higher in specific treatments in a particular year, but not consistently different in other years. A regular pattern was not observed in the distribution of insects between genetically modified and conventional treatments. Data analyses showed that minor differences observed can be attributed to random variation and were not consistent enough to conclude that the treatments were different. Therefore the present study indicates that the relative abundance of species are similar in transgenic and non-transgenic fields. PMID:24922280

  19. Molecular survey on the presence of zoonotic arthropod-borne pathogens in wild red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebani, Valentina Virginia; Rocchigiani, Guido; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Nardoni, Simona; Leoni, Alessandro; Nicoloso, Sandro; Mancianti, Francesca

    2016-08-01

    To estimate the prevalence of some zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in red deer (Cervus elaphus) living in Italian areas with high risk of arthropod exposure, blood samples from 60 red deer were tested by PCR for A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, and piroplasms. Thirty-four (56.67%) animals resulted positive for one or more pathogens. In particular, 24 (40%) red deer were positive for A. phagocytophilum, 16 (26.67%) for Babesia divergens, 6 (10%) for C. burnetii, 2 (3.33%) for B. burgdorferi s.l. No positive reaction was observed for F. tularensis. Thirteen (21.67%) animals resulted co-infected by two or three pathogens. Red deer is confirmed as competent reservoir of A. phagocytophilum and B. divergens, but not of B. burgdorferi. This is the first report of C. burnetii-positive red deer in central Italy. Hunters may be at risk of infection both through infected ticks and during the infected cervids carcasses dressing. PMID:27477510

  20. Impact of habitat diversification on arthropod communities: A study in the fields of Chinese cabbage, Brassica chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG-JIAO CAI; ZHI-SHENG LI; MIN-SHENG YOU

    2007-01-01

    Field trials were carried out from June to August in 2004 at Wuyishan (Wuyi Mountains), Fujian province, China, to determine the effects of habitat diversification on arthropod communities. Two Chinese cabbage, Brassica chinensis, field 1 (Fl) and field 2 (F2) surrounded by diverse vegetable cultivars were selected, while a monoculture of Chinese cabbage served as the control field (CK). The results showed that: (i) when comparing insect abundance of each order between different habitats, significantly higher numbers of lepidopterous insects (39.76% from the each order) and lower densities of Hymenoptera (19.82%) were found in CK than in F1 and F2; (ii) compared with CK, F1 and F2 had a lower percentage of species richness and an abundance of herbivorous insects, but increased richness, abundance and biodiversity of predatory insects; (iii) no differences were observed in neutral insects' guild between different fields; and (iv) the dominant species for each guild depends on the habitat types and sampling dates. This study suggests that intercropping could conceivably be used in these habitats to increase the population of natural predators, thus achieving desirable and ecologically friendly results in vegetable fields.

  1. Inflorescences of the Bromeliad Vriesea friburgensis as Nest Sites and Food Resources for Ants and Other Arthropods in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker S. Schmid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, the usage of bromeliad inflorescences as nesting sites for ants and other arthropods was studied. Frequencies of occurrence of nests were recorded from hollow stems of dried infructescences of the bromeliad Vriesea friburgensis on Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil. Three habitat types were studied: miconietum and two types of restinga, one with low (restinga-low and one with high vegetation cover (restinga-high. Additionally, flower visitation by ants was examined in restinga-low. Out of 619 infructescences, 33% contained nests. Ants were the most frequent occupants (82–96% of nests, followed by termites (3–18% and bees (0–0.6%. Species accumulation curves and diversity indices indicate that the diversity of stem-occupying ant species is highest in restinga-low (eight species observed, 18 predicted and lowest in restinga-high (four observed and predicted. Highest similarity of compositions of infructescence-inhabiting ant species was recorded between miconietum and restinga-high, lowest between restinga-low and restinga-high. Similarity between compositions of inflorescence-visiting and infructescence-inhabiting species in restinga-low was even higher (compared with the cases described in the previous sentence although 50% of the involved species were present in only one of the samples. Altogether, our results indicate that inflorescences are important resources for ants and other nest-building insects from flowering season to past-fruiting season.

  2. Parasites of South African wildlife. VIII. Helminth and arthropod parasites of warthogs, Phacochoerus aethiopicus, in the eastern Transvaal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomker, J; Horak, I G; Booyse, D G; Meyer, S

    1991-09-01

    Helminth and arthropod parasites were collected from 41 warthogs, Phacochoerus aethiopicus, in the Hoedspruit Nature Reserve, eastern Transvaal. This reserve consists of a military base, which is a restricted area and is surrounded by a reserve, which is open to the public. Eleven nematode species, 1 or 2 cestode species and the larvae of 2 cestode species were recovered from the animals in the reserve, and 8 nematode species and 1 or 2 cestode species were recovered from those in the military base. Oesophagostomum spp. were generally most abundant in warthogs in the reserve during the cooler months of the year, while Probstmayria vivipara also occurred in peak numbers during the cooler months, with an additional peak in October and November 1988 in warthogs in the reserve and the base, respectively. No pattern of seasonal abundance could be determined for the other helminth species. The warthogs also harboured 8 ixodid and 1 argasid tick species, 3 flea species and 1 louse species. Adult and immature Haematopinus phacochoeri were most numerous during August and September, and the largest numbers of adult Rhipicephalus simus were present from December to April. PMID:1923382

  3. Sources of signal in 62 protein-coding nuclear genes for higher-level phylogenetics of arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome C Regier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the strength of various sources of phylogenetic information that led to recent seemingly robust conclusions about higher-level arthropod phylogeny and to assess the role of excluding or downweighting synonymous change for arriving at those conclusions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The current study analyzes DNA sequences from 68 gene segments of 62 distinct protein-coding nuclear genes for 80 species. Gene segments analyzed individually support numerous nodes recovered in combined-gene analyses, but few of the higher-level nodes of greatest current interest. However, neither is there support for conflicting alternatives to these higher-level nodes. Gene segments with higher rates of nonsynonymous change tend to be more informative overall, but those with lower rates tend to provide stronger support for deeper nodes. Higher-level nodes with bootstrap values in the 80% - 99% range for the complete data matrix are markedly more sensitive to substantial drops in their bootstrap percentages after character subsampling than those with 100% bootstrap, suggesting that these nodes are likely not to have been strongly supported with many fewer data than in the full matrix. Data set partitioning of total data by (mostly synonymous and (mostly nonsynonymous change improves overall node support, but the result remains much inferior to analysis of (unpartitioned nonsynonymous change alone. Clusters of genes with similar nonsynonymous rate properties (e.g., faster vs. slower show some distinct patterns of node support but few conflicts. Synonymous change is shown to contribute little, if any, phylogenetic signal to the support of higher-level nodes, but it does contribute nonphylogenetic signal, probably through its underlying heterogeneous nucleotide composition. Analysis of seemingly conservative indels does not prove useful. CONCLUSIONS: Generating a robust molecular higher-level phylogeny of Arthropoda is

  4. Effect of plant nitrogen and water status on the foraging behavior and fitness of an omnivorous arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peng; Dong, Yongcheng; Lavoir, Anne-Violette; Adamowicz, Stéphane; Bearez, Philippe; Wajnberg, Eric; Desneux, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    Omnivorous arthropods make dietary choices according to the environment in which they forage, mainly availability/quality of plant and/or prey resources. Such decisions and their subsequent impacts on life-history traits may be affected by the availability of nutrients and water to plants, that is, through bottom-up forces. By setting up arenas for feeding behavior observation as well as glasshouse cages for plant preference assessment, we studied effects of the presence of prey (Lepidoptera eggs) and nitrogen/water availability to host tomato plants on the foraging behavior and life-history traits in the omnivorous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus (Heteroptera: Miridae). In the absence of prey, the predator fed equally on the plants treated with various levels of nitrogen and water. In the presence of prey, however, the feeding rate on plants decreased when the plant received low water input. The feeding rate on prey was positively correlated with feeding rate on plants; that is, prey feeding increased with plant feeding when the plants received high water input. Moreover, plants receiving high water input attracted more M. pygmaeus adults compared with those receiving low water input. For M. pygmaeus fitness, the presence of prey enhanced its fertility and longevity, but the longevity decreased when plants received low compared with high water input. In conclusion, the omnivorous predator may be obliged to feed on plants to obtain water, and plant water status may be a limiting factor for the foraging behavior and fitness of the omnivorous predator. PMID:27069598

  5. Foraging range of arthropods with veterinary interest: New insights for Afrotropical Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) using the ring method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, M T; Fall, M; Seck, M T; Gardès, L; Fall, A G; Diop, M; Mall, I; Balenghien, T; Baldet, T; Gimonneau, G; Garros, C; Bouyer, J

    2016-05-01

    The identification of blood meal source of arthropod vector species contributes to the understanding of host-vector-pathogen interactions. The aim of the current work was to identify blood meal source in Culicoides biting midge species, biological vectors of internationally important arboviruses of livestock and equids, using a new ecological approach. We examined the correlation between blood meal source identified in engorged Culicoides females collected in a suction light trap and the available vertebrate hosts along four rings (200, 500, 1000 and 2000 m) centered at the trap site and described the foraging range of the three main vector species of veterinary interest present in the study area, Culicoides imicola, Culicoides kingi and Culicoides oxystoma. The study was performed in four sites localized in the Niayes region of Senegal (West Africa) where recent outbreaks of African horse sickness occurred. Blood meal source identification was carried out by species-specific multiplex PCRs with genomic DNA extracted from the abdomen of engorged females collected during nine night collections for twenty-six collections. The four most abundant hosts present in the studied area (horse, cattle, goat and sheep) were surveyed in each ring zone. The blood meal source varied according to Culicoides species and host availability in each site. C. oxystoma and C. imicola females mainly fed on horses readily available at 200 m maximum from the trap location whereas females of C. kingi fed mainly on cattle, at variable distances from the traps (200 to 2000 m). C. oxystoma may also feed on other vertebrates. We discuss the results in relation with the transmission of Culicoides-borne arboviruses and the species dispersion capacities. PMID:26826391

  6. 不同类型茶园节肢动物群落结构研究%Research on Structure of Arthropod Community in Different Tea Gardens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玉香甩; 冉隆繤; 刘关所; 浦恩达; 李慧; 孙雪梅; 刘本英; 陈剑锋

    2016-01-01

    A three -year investigation on the structure of arthropod community was carried out in three different tea gardens,i.e.pure tea garden,camphor tree -tea and mango tree -tea intercropping gardens. The analysis was conducted from aspects of richness,evenness,dominance index,stability coefficient (Ss /Si ) and variation coefficient (ds /dm ).The results indicated that the diversity indexes of arthropod communities in tea gardens intercropped with camphor and mango tree were higher,and they possessed better richness,diver-sity and evenness.It showed that the restrictive interactions among different species in arthropod communities in intercropping tea gardens were stronger than those in pure tea garden,and the structures were better.%连续三年分别对樟-茶间作茶园、芒果-茶间作茶园和纯茶园中节肢动物群落结构进行系统调查,并从丰富度、均匀度、优势度指数、稳定性系数值 Ss /Si 和变异系数 ds /dm 等方面进行了分析。结果表明:樟-茶间作茶园和芒果-茶间作茶园中节肢动物群落的多样性指数较高,具有更大的丰富度、更丰富的多样性和更高的均匀性,表明樟与茶间作、芒果与茶间作后茶园节肢动物群落内各物种间制约关系强于纯茶园,结构更趋合理。

  7. DIRS retroelements in arthropods: identification of the recently active TcDirs1 element in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, T J D; Poulter, R T M; Lorenzen, M D; Beeman, R W

    2004-08-01

    Members of the DIRS family of retrotransposons differ from most other known retrotransposons in that they encode a tyrosine recombinase (YR), a type of enzyme frequently involved in site-specific recombination. This enzyme is believed to insert the extrachromosomal DNA intermediate of DIRS element retrotransposition into the host genome. DIRS elements have been found in plants, a slime mold, fungi, and a variety of animals including vertebrates, echinoderms and nematodes. They have a somewhat patchy distribution, however, apparently being absent from a number of model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana and Drosophila melanogaster. In this report we describe the first DIRS retroelement to be identified in an arthropod. This element, TcDirs1, was found in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera). It is generally similar in sequence and structure to several previously described members of the DIRS group: it is bordered by inverted terminal repeats and it has a similar set of protein-coding domains (Gag, reverse transcriptase/ribonuclease H, and the YR), although these are arranged in a novel fashion. TcDirs1 elements exhibit several features indicative of recent activity, such as intact coding regions, a high level of sequence similarity between distinct elements and polymorphic insertion sites. Given their presence in an experimentally tractable host, these potentially active elements might serve as useful models for the study of DIRS element retrotransposition. An element closely related to TcDirs1 was also detected in sequences from a second arthropod, the honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera), suggesting that these retrotransposons are long-term residents of arthropod genomes. PMID:15221458

  8. Transportable data from non-target arthropod field studies for the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified maize expressing an insecticidal double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aqeel; Negri, Ignacio; Oliveira, Wladecir; Brown, Christopher; Asiimwe, Peter; Sammons, Bernard; Horak, Michael; Jiang, Changjian; Carson, David

    2016-02-01

    As part of an environmental risk assessment, the potential impact of genetically modified (GM) maize MON 87411 on non-target arthropods (NTAs) was evaluated in the field. MON 87411 confers resistance to corn rootworm (CRW; Diabrotica spp.) by expressing an insecticidal double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) transcript and the Cry3Bb1 protein and tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate by producing the CP4 EPSPS protein. Field trials were conducted at 14 sites providing high geographic and environmental diversity within maize production areas from three geographic regions including the U.S., Argentina, and Brazil. MON 87411, the conventional control, and four commercial conventional reference hybrids were evaluated for NTA abundance and damage. Twenty arthropod taxa met minimum abundance criteria for valid statistical analysis. Nine of these taxa occurred in at least two of the three regions and in at least four sites across regions. These nine taxa included: aphid, predatory earwig, lacewing, ladybird beetle, leafhopper, minute pirate bug, parasitic wasp, sap beetle, and spider. In addition to wide regional distribution, these taxa encompass the ecological functions of herbivores, predators and parasitoids in maize agro-ecosystems. Thus, the nine arthropods may serve as representative taxa of maize agro-ecosystems, and thereby support that analysis of relevant data generated in one region can be transportable for the risk assessment of the same or similar GM crop products in another region. Across the 20 taxa analyzed, no statistically significant differences in abundance were detected between MON 87411 and the conventional control for 123 of the 128 individual-site comparisons (96.1%). For the nine widely distributed taxa, no statistically significant differences in abundance were detected between MON 87411 and the conventional control. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were detected between MON 87411 and the conventional control for 53 out of 56 individual

  9. Effect of heavy metals from soils amended with bio solids and sowed with forages on the abundance and biodiversity of edaphic arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Pardave, L.; Flores-Tena, F. J.; Hernandez-Sanchez, A. J.

    2009-07-01

    There are many studies about positive effects of bio solids application to ameliorate grain and forage production. However it is necessary to know more about the effects of this by-product on edaphic biota. Therefore the goal of this study was to know the effects of heavy metals from bio solids if the wastewater treatment plant of Aguascalientes city (Mexico) on adaphic arthropods in soils sowed with lucerne and corn amended with bio solids at 200 (low), 400 middle) and 800 (high) ton/ha wet weight. (Author)

  10. Effect of heavy metals from soils amended with bio solids and sowed with forages on the abundance and biodiversity of edaphic arthropods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many studies about positive effects of bio solids application to ameliorate grain and forage production. However it is necessary to know more about the effects of this by-product on edaphic biota. Therefore the goal of this study was to know the effects of heavy metals from bio solids if the wastewater treatment plant of Aguascalientes city (Mexico) on adaphic arthropods in soils sowed with lucerne and corn amended with bio solids at 200 (low), 400 middle) and 800 (high) ton/ha wet weight. (Author)

  11. Arthropodes associés à la culture cotonnière au Tchad : ravageurs, prédateurs et parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Silvie, Pierre; Delvare, G.; Maldes, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Les auteurs dressent la liste des arthropodes (acariens, diplopodes et insectes) préalablement signalés sur culture cotonnière au Tchad ou relevés par eux-mêmes au cours des années 1984 à 1987. Les études entreprises ont permis de recenser pour la première fois dans ce pays 51 espèces et 24 genres. Les principaux déprédateurs des organes fructifères sont les lépidoptères #Helicoverpa (=Heliothis) armigera, Diparopsis watersi, Earias biplaga$, alors que les chenilles de syllepte derogata const...

  12. Découverte d'Arthropodes et de bivalves inédits dans le Permien continental (Lodévois, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gand, Georges; Lapeyrie, Jean; Garric, Jacques; Nel, André; Schneider, Jörg; Walter, Harald

    1997-12-01

    Triopsids, Conchostracans, Insects, non-marine Bivalve shells, Arthropod tracks and burrows are reported for the first time in the Saxonian Group which was long thought to be unfossiliferous. Virtually none of these fossils have been described at the species, family or even order rank. Some new insect taxa fill time gaps between the Permian and the Jurassic. Future information about Insects promises to be a useful tool for testing certain phylogenetic assumptions and evaluating the true scale of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction for this class. Insects and Conchostracans indicate a Kungurian to Tatarian age (Leonardian to Capitanian) for the Saxonian fades.

  13. The spatial and temporal distributions of arthropods in forest canopies: uniting disparate patterns with hypotheses for specialisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardhaugh, Carl W

    2014-11-01

    Arguably the majority of species on Earth utilise tropical rainforest canopies, and much progress has been made in describing arboreal assemblages, especially for arthropods. The most commonly described patterns for tropical rainforest insect communities are host specificity, spatial specialisation (predominantly vertical stratification), and temporal changes in abundance (seasonality and circadian rhythms). Here I review the recurrent results with respect to each of these patterns and discuss the evolutionary selective forces that have generated them in an attempt to unite these patterns in a holistic evolutionary framework. I propose that species can be quantified along a generalist-specialist scale not only with respect to host specificity, but also other spatial and temporal distribution patterns, where specialisation is a function of the extent of activity across space and time for particular species. When all of these distribution patterns are viewed through the paradigm of specialisation, hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the evolution of host specificity can also be applied to explain the generation and maintenance of other spatial and temporal distribution patterns. The main driver for most spatial and temporal distribution patterns is resource availability. Generally, the distribution of insects follows that of the resources they exploit, which are spatially stratified and vary temporally in availability. Physiological adaptations are primarily important for host specificity, where nutritional and chemical variation among host plants in particular, but also certain prey species and fungi, influence host range. Physiological tolerances of abiotic conditions are also important for explaining the spatial and temporal distributions of some insect species, especially in drier forest environments where desiccation is an ever-present threat. However, it is likely that for most species in moist tropical rainforests, abiotic conditions are valuable

  14. Status and risk assessment of the use of transgenic arthropods in plant protection. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New developments in the modern biotechnology have opened up the possibility of introducing genes into the germline of many insect species, including those of agricultural importance. This technology offers the potential to improve current pest control strategies that incorporate the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Potential improvements include the development of strains that (1) produce only male insects for sterilization and release and (2) carry a marker that distinguishes them from wild insects. There are many institutions involved in the development of transgenic insect technology both for studies on basic gene regulation and for the creation of transgenic strains for use in a wide range of insect control programmes. It has been realized that the release into the environment of transgenic insects will not be an easy process considering the current public sensitivities in this area. The fact that insects are mobile and that once released cannot be recalled creates much concern. If fertile transgenic insects were to be released in any type of control programme, then the transgene would enter the wild population through mating. This strategy is fraught with, as yet, unknown risks and it is inconceivable that regulatory approval will be given for such a release in the near future. However, when transgenic strains are integrated into a sterile insect release then the concerns about transmission of the transgene to the wild population disappear as the matings between the released and the wild insects are sterile. This scenario is likely to be the first type of transgenic release. Insects that are currently released in SIT programmes experience no significant regulatory problems, but this will not be the case if the insects that are released are transgenic, even if they are sterile. The meeting Status and Risk Assessment of the Use of Transgenic Arthropods in Plant Protection held in FAO Headquarters, Rome, in April 2002 was the first effort to bring together

  15. High throughput nano-liter RT-qPCR to classify soil contamination using a soil arthropod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Straalen Nico M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To incorporate genomics data into environmental assessments a mechanistic perspective of interactions between chemicals and induced biological processes needs to be developed. Since chemical compounds with structural similarity often induce comparable biological responses in exposed animals, gene expression signatures can serve as a starting point for the assessment of chemicals and their toxicity, but only when relevant and stable gene panels are available. To design such a panel, we isolated differentially expressed gene fragments from the soil arthropod Folsomia candida, a species often used for ecotoxicological testing. Animals were exposed to two chemically distinct compounds, being a metal (cadmium and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (phenanthrene. We investigated the affected molecular responses resulting from either treatment and developed and validated 44 qPCR assays for their responses using a high throughput nano-liter RT-qPCR platform for the analysis of the samples. Results Suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH was used to retrieve stress-related gene fragments. SSH libraries revealed pathways involved in mitochondrial dysfunction and protein degradation for cadmium and biotransformation for phenanthrene to be overrepresented. Amongst a small cluster of SSH-derived cadmium responsive markers were an inflammatory response protein and an endo-glucanase. Conversely, cytochrome P450 family 6 or 9 was specifically induced by phenanthrene. Differential expressions of these candidate biomarkers were also highly significant in the independently generated test sample set. Toxicity levels in different training samples were not reflected by any of the markers' intensity of expressions. Though, a model based on partial least squares differential analysis (PLS-DA (with RMSEPs between 9 and 22% and R2s between 0.82 and 0.97 using gene expressions of 25 important qPCR assays correctly predicted the nature of exposures of

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart: a novel gene arrangement among arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanholme Bartel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The apparent scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks. This subclass encompasses over 48,000 species and forms the largest group within the Arachnida. Although mitochondrial genomes are widely utilised for phylogenetic and population genetic studies, only 20 mitochondrial genomes of Acari have been determined, of which only one belongs to the diverse order of the Sarcoptiformes. In this study, we describe the mitochondrial genome of the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, the most important member of this largely neglected group. Results The mitochondrial genome of D. pteronyssinus is a circular DNA molecule of 14,203 bp. It contains the complete set of 37 genes (13 protein coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes, usually present in metazoan mitochondrial genomes. The mitochondrial gene order differs considerably from that of other Acari mitochondrial genomes. Compared to the mitochondrial genome of Limulus polyphemus, considered as the ancestral arthropod pattern, only 11 of the 38 gene boundaries are conserved. The majority strand has a 72.6% AT-content but a GC-skew of 0.194. This skew is the reverse of that normally observed for typical animal mitochondrial genomes. A microsatellite was detected in a large non-coding region (286 bp, which probably functions as the control region. Almost all tRNA genes lack a T-arm, provoking the formation of canonical cloverleaf tRNA-structures, and both rRNA genes are considerably reduced in size. Finally, the genomic sequence was used to perform a phylogenetic study. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis clustered D. pteronyssinus with Steganacarus magnus, forming a sistergroup of the Trombidiformes. Conclusion Although the mitochondrial genome of D. pteronyssinus shares different features with previously characterised Acari mitochondrial genomes, it is unique in many ways. Gene

  17. 珠海荔枝园节肢动物群落动态及其主要益害虫相关性研究%DYNAMICS OF ARTHROPOD COMMUNITY IN LITCHI ORCHARD HABITATS IN ZHUHAI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马飞飞; 李文芬; 汪波; 颜亨梅

    2012-01-01

    于2010—2011年系统调查了珠海凤凰山区荔枝园内节肢动物群落,分析了群落的结构组成、时空动态及主要益害虫相互作用关系,结果如下:1)共采集到节肢动物2个纲、16个目、48个科、79个种,其中害虫35种,捕食性节肢动物29种,中性昆虫9种,寄生性节肢动物6种.荔枝园节肢动物群落较丰富,益害虫优势种明显.2)随着温度变化,群落总体及个各类群的物种在5—11月份丰富度最大.3)害虫优势种为荔枝蝽(Tessaratoma papillosa)与荔枝瘿螨(Aceria litchii).其主要天敌为锥腹肖蛸(Tetragnatha maxillosa)、草间小黑蛛(Erigonidium graminicolum)和异色瓢虫(Leis axyridis).%Arthropod community in lychee orchard was analyzed in terms of community composition and dynamics, main pests and their natural enemies. A total of 2 classes, 16 orders, 48 families, 79 kinds of arthropods were collected, including 35 pest species, 29 predatory arthropods, and 9 neutral predators. Arthropods were abundant in lychee orchards, dominant species were obvious. Dynamic changes in lychee arthropod community structure were observed, the arthropod community being the richer from May to November. The major harmful insect pecies were Tessaratoma papillosa and Aceria litchii, their natural enemies were Tetragnatha maxillosa , Erigonidium graminicolum and Leis axyridis.

  18. Time-invariant differences between plant individuals in interactions with arthropods correlate with intraspecific variation in plant phenology, morphology and floral scent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppler, Jonas; Höfers, Maren K; Wiesmann, Lisa; Junker, Robert R

    2016-06-01

    The basic units of ecological and evolutionary processes are individuals. Network studies aiming to infer mechanisms from complex systems, however, usually focus on interactions between species, not individuals. Accordingly, the structure and underlying mechanisms of individual-based interaction networks remain largely unknown. In a common garden, we recorded all interactions on flowers and leaves of 97 Sinapis arvensis individuals from seedling stage to fruit set and related interindividual differences in interactions to the plant individuals' phenotypes. The plant individuals significantly differed in their quantitative and qualitative interactions with arthropods on flowers and leaves. These differences remained stable over the entire season and thus were time-invariant. Variation in interacting arthropod communities could be explained by a pronounced intraspecific variability in flowering phenology, morphology and flower scent, and translated into variation in reproductive success. Interestingly, plant individuals with a similar composition of flower visitors were also visited by a similar assemblage of interaction partners at leaves. Our results show that the nonuniformity of plant species has pronounced effects in community ecology, potentially with implications for the persistence of communities and populations, and their ability to withstand environmental fluctuations. PMID:26840542

  19. First record of arthropods associated with Greigia juareziana (Bromeliaceae Primer registro de artrópodos asociados a Greigia juareziana (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hernández-Baz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the first known records for Mexico and the Neotropics of arthropods associated with the terrestrial bromeliad Greigia juareziana. The site locality for the collection of the host species is the southeast portion of the San Martín Tuxtla volcano in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Four species of arthropods were detected within the leaf axils and infloresences of the bromeliad, 3 of which were insects Anasa bellator, Proxis punctulatus and Apion sp. belonging to the Orders of Hemiptera and Coleoptera. The remaining species was identified only to family (Myriapoda: Chilopoda: Lithobidae.Presentamos los primeros registros conocidos para México y los neotrópicos de los artrópodos asociados con la bromelia terrestre Greigia juareziana. La localidad para la recolección de esta especie es la parte sureste del volcán San Martín Tuxtla, en el estado de Veracruz, México. Se detectaron 4 especies de artrópodos dentro de las axilas de las hojas e inflorescencias de la bromelia, 3 de los cuales fueron insectos Anasa bellator, Proxies punctulatus y Apion sp., pertenecientes a los órdenes Hemiptera y Coleoptera. La especie restante fue identificada sólo hasta familia (Myriapoda: Chilopoda: Lithobidae.

  20. Co-occurrence analyses show that non-random community structure is disrupted by fire in two groups of soil arthropods (Isopoda Oniscidea and Collembola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzalis, Monica; Luiselli, Luca; Bologna, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that natural catastrophes may destroy non-random community structure in natural assemblages of organisms. As a study system, we selected fire as the catastrophic event, and two groups of soil arthropods (Collembola and Isopoda Oniscidea) as target organisms. By co-occurrence analyses and Monte Carlo simulations of niche overlap analysis (C-score, with fixed-equiprobable model; RA2 and RA3 algorithms) we evaluated whether the community structure of these two groups were random/non-random at three unburnt sites and at three neighbour burnt sites that were devastated by a large-scale fire in summer 2000. Both taxa experienced a remarkable reduction in the number of species sampled in burnt versus unburnt sites, but the difference among sites was not statistically significant for Oniscidea. We determined that community structure was clearly non-random at the unburnt sites for both Collembola (according to RA3 algorithm) and Isopoda Oniscidea (according to co-occurrence analysis) and that, as predicted by theory, the catastrophic event did deeply alter the community structure by removing the non-random organization of the species interactions. We also observed a shift from segregation to aggregation/randomness in soil arthropods communities affected by fire, a pattern that was similar to that observed in natural communities of organisms perturbed by the introduction of alien species, thus indicating that this pattern may be generalizable when alteration of communities may occur.

  1. An arthropod sphinx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Shuhai

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Sphinx is an enigmatic monster in Greek mythology that had the body of a lion, wings of a bird, and head and bust of a woman. As the myth goes, the Sphinx guarded the gate to Thebes and would kill anyone unable to answer her riddle. The Sphinx riddle was eventually correctly solved by Oedipus who later became the king of Thebes.

  2. Seasonal abundance of soil-surface arthropods in relation to some meteorological and edaphic variables of the grassland and tree-planted areas in a tropical semi-arid savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikram Reddy, M.; Venkataiah, B.

    1990-03-01

    Seasonality of relative population abundance in different groups of soil-surface arthropods was investigated monthly by pit-fall traps during a 2-year period in the grassland and tree-planted areas of a tropical semi-arid savanna at Warangal (south India). Densities of most groups were lowest during summer and highest during the rainy season. They were less abundant during winter. Arthropods were recorded in higher numbers in tree-planted compared to grassland areas. Certain arthropods that were found only during part of the year were recorded for a longer period in the tree-planted area. Formicidae, Monomorium indicum Forel, Crematogaster sp. and Pachycondyla? tesserinoda (Emery), and Coleoptera, Pachycera sp. reached maximum densities in the rainy season and minimum numbers during winter and summer in the grassland area. However, these species had lower densities during the rainy season and reached maximum densities during winter and summer in the tree-planted area. The seasonal abundance of arthropods showed significant linear correlations with different abiotic environmental variables such as rainfall, soil moisture, organic matter, soil and air temperatures, soil pH, relative humidity at the soil surface, and potassium and phosphorus of surface soil. Soil moisture and rainfall were generally the strongest correlates with densities, particularly in the grassland area.

  3. New functions of arthropod bursicon: inducing deposition and thickening of new cuticle and hemocyte granulation in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sook Chung

    Full Text Available Arthropod growth requires molt-associated changes in softness and stiffness of the cuticle that protects from desiccation, infection and injury. Cuticle hardening in insects depends on the blood-borne hormone, bursicon (Burs, although it has never been determined in hemolymph. Whilst also having Burs, decapod crustaceans reiterate molting many more times during their longer life span and are encased in a calcified exoskeleton, which after molting undergoes similar initial cuticle hardening processes as in insects. We investigated the role of homologous crustacean Burs in cuticular changes and growth in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. We found dramatic increases in size and number of Burs cells during development in paired thoracic ganglion complex (TGC neurons with pericardial organs (POs as neurohemal release sites. A skewed expression of Burs β/Burs α mRNA in TGC corresponds to protein contents of identified Burs β homodimer and Burs heterodimer in POs. In hemolymph, Burs is consistently present at ∼21 pM throughout the molt cycle, showing a peak of ∼89 pM at ecdysis. Since initial cuticle hardness determines the degree of molt-associated somatic increment (MSI, we applied recombinant Burs in vitro to cuticle explants of late premolt or early ecdysis. Burs stimulates cuticle thickening and granulation of hemocytes. These findings demonstrate novel cuticle-associated functions of Burs during molting, while the unambiguous and constant presence of Burs in cells and hemolymph throughout the molt cycle and life stages may implicate further functions of its homo- and heterodimer hormone isoforms in immunoprotective defense systems of arthropods.

  4. Arthropod Distribution and Habitat, Commercial Lobster Fishing Areas of Narragansett Bay; These areas are considered a general, non species specific, reference for lobster fishing areas in Narragansett Bay., Published in 2001, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Arthropod Distribution and Habitat dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2001. It...

  5. Arthropod Distribution and Habitat, Lobster Migration (lobsterln); Lines were created from capture and recapture locations as an approximation of lobster migration in Narragansett Bay., Published in 2001, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Arthropod Distribution and Habitat dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2001. It...

  6. Arthropod Distribution and Habitat, Lobster Captures (allcaught); This point data set represents most, if not all, of the lobsters captured and recaptured during the University of Rhode Island, Department of Fisheries, Animal, and Veterinary Science Department tag and release study. Rhode I, Published in 2001, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Arthropod Distribution and Habitat dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2001. It is...

  7. Arthropod Distribution and Habitat, Lobster Captures (allcaught); This point data set represents most, if not all, of the lobsters captured and recaptured during the University of Rhode Island, Department of Fisheries, Animal, and Veterinary Science Department tag and release study., Published in 2001, 1:9600 (1in=800ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Arthropod Distribution and Habitat dataset, published at 1:9600 (1in=800ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2001. It is...

  8. Brain architecture of the largest living land arthropod, the Giant Robber Crab Birgus latro (Crustacea, Anomura, Coenobitidae: evidence for a prominent central olfactory pathway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krieger Jakob

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several lineages within the Crustacea conquered land independently during evolution, thereby requiring physiological adaptations for a semi-terrestrial or even a fully terrestrial lifestyle. Birgus latro Linnaeus, 1767, the giant robber crab or coconut crab (Anomura, Coenobitidae, is the largest land-living arthropod and inhabits Indo-Pacific islands such as Christmas Island. B. latro has served as a model in numerous studies of physiological aspects related to the conquest of land by crustaceans. From an olfactory point of view, a transition from sea to land means that molecules need to be detected in gas phase instead of in water solution. Previous studies have provided physiological evidence that terrestrial hermit crabs (Coenobitidae such as B. latro have a sensitive and well differentiated sense of smell. Here we analyze the brain, in particular the olfactory processing areas of B. latro, by morphological analysis followed by 3 D reconstruction and immunocytochemical studies of synaptic proteins and a neuropeptide. Results The primary and secondary olfactory centers dominate the brain of B. latro and together account for ca. 40% of the neuropil volume in its brain. The paired olfactory neuropils are tripartite and composed of more than 1,000 columnar olfactory glomeruli, which are radially arranged around the periphery of the olfactory neuropils. The glomeruli are innervated ca. 90,000 local interneurons and ca. 160,000 projection neurons per side. The secondary olfactory centers, the paired hemiellipsoid neuropils, are targeted by the axons of these olfactory projection neurons. The projection neuron axonal branches make contact to ca. 250.000 interneurons (per side associated with the hemiellipsoid neuropils. The hemiellipsoid body neuropil is organized into parallel neuropil lamellae, a design that is quite unusual for decapod crustaceans. The architecture of the optic neuropils and areas associated with antenna two

  9. Do chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) exhibit sleep related behaviors that minimize exposure to parasitic arthropods? A preliminary report on the possible anti-vector function of chimpanzee sleeping platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, David R; Muehlenbein, Michael P; Hunt, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    Great apes spend half of their lives in a nightly "nest" or sleeping platform (SP), a complex object created by modifying foliage, which functions as a stable substrate on which to sleep. Of the several purported functions of SPs, one hypothesis is that they protect against parasitic infection. Here we investigate the role of SP site choice in avoiding molestation by arthropods. This study presents preliminary data on the insect-repellent properties of preferred sleeping tree species Cynometra alexandri. Insect traps were deployed in gallery forest habitats in which chimpanzees typically "nest." We compared traps placed adjacent to SPs artificially manufactured with C. alexandri trees to an open area within the same habitat. Multiple measures of arthropod counts indicate that simulated C. alexandri SP sites have fewer arthropods than similar non-SP sites. Volatile compounds secreted by C. alexandri foliage are hypothesized to repel annoying arthropods and/or mask chimpanzee olfactory signals. Of the total insects captured (n = 6,318), n = 145 were mosquitoes. Of the total mosquitoes captured, n = 47 were identified as Anopheles (female, n = 12). The prominent malarial vector Anopheles gambiae was identified among the captured mosquito sample. These results suggest that the presence of broken branches of the tree species C. alexandri reduce the amount of insects a chimpanzee is exposed to throughout a night's sleep. This great ape behavioral and socio-technological adaptation may have evolved, in part, to increase quality of sleep as well as decrease exposure to vectors of disease. PMID:23011513

  10. Effects of Pest Resistance of Corn Varieties on Arthropod Community in Corn Fields%玉米品种抗虫性对玉米田节肢动物群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵正飞; 缪勇; 王云

    2011-01-01

    Three corn varieties with different levels of pest resistance were selected to study the effects of pest resistance of corn varieties on arthropod community in corn rields. The research results showed that pest resistance of corn varieties had no evident effects on the species richness but had obvious effects on the evenness and diversity of arthropod community in corn fields. The evenness and diversity of arthropod community and the ratio of natural enemies to pests in the fields of corn variety with relatively high level of pest resistance were higher than those in the fields of corn variety with relatively low level of pest resistance. These results indicated that the pest resistance of corn varieties was helpful to increase the stability of arthropod community and the natural control effect of natural enemies on insect pests in corn fields.%选择3个不同抗虫性的玉米品种,研究了玉米品种抗虫性对玉米田节肢动物群落的影响.结果表明,玉米品种抗虫性对玉米田节肢动物群落的物种丰富度无明显影响,但对均匀度和多样性有明显影响,玉米品种抗虫性越高,节肢动物群落的均匀度和多样性越高.抗虫性较高的玉米品种田间益害比明显高于抗虫性较低的玉米品种.说明玉米品种抗虫性有助于提高玉米田节肢动物群落的稳定性和天敌对害虫的自然控制作用.

  11. Ant-App-DB: a smart solution for monitoring arthropods activities, experimental data management and solar calculations without GPS in behavioral field studies [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5dm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Field studies on arthropod ecology and behaviour require simple and robust monitoring tools, preferably with direct access to an integrated database. We have developed and here present a database tool allowing smart-phone based monitoring of arthropods. This smart phone application provides an easy solution to collect, manage and process the data in the field which has been a very difficult task for field biologists using traditional methods. To monitor our example species, the desert ant Cataglyphis fortis, we considered behavior, nest search runs, feeding habits and path segmentations including detailed information on solar position and azimuth calculation, ant orientation and time of day. For this we established a user friendly database system integrating the Ant-App-DB with a smart phone and tablet application, combining experimental data manipulation with data management and providing solar position and timing estimations without any GPS or GIS system. Moreover, the new desktop application Dataplus allows efficient data extraction and conversion from smart phone application to personal computers, for further ecological data analysis and sharing. All features, software code and database as well as Dataplus application are made available completely free of charge and sufficiently generic to be easily adapted to other field monitoring studies on arthropods or other migratory organisms. The software applications Ant-App-DB and Dataplus described here are developed using the Android SDK, Java, XML, C# and SQLite Database.

  12. Ant-App-DB: a smart solution for monitoring arthropods activities, experimental data management and solar calculations without GPS in behavioral field studies [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/59a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Field studies on arthropod ecology and behaviour require simple and robust monitoring tools, preferably with direct access to an integrated database. We have developed and here present a database tool allowing smart-phone based monitoring of arthropods. This smart phone application provides an easy solution to collect, manage and process the data in the field which has been a very difficult task for field biologists using traditional methods. To monitor our example species, the desert ant Cataglyphis fortis, we considered behavior, nest search runs, feeding habits and path segmentations including detailed information on solar position and Azimuth calculation, ant orientation and time of day. For this we established a user friendly database system integrating the Ant-App-DB with a smart phone and tablet application, combining experimental data manipulation with data management and providing solar position and timing estimations without any GPS or GIS system. Moreover, the new desktop application Dataplus allows efficient data extraction and conversion from smart phone application to personal computers, for further ecological data analysis and sharing. All features, software code and database as well as Dataplus application are made available completely free of charge and sufficiently generic to be easily adapted to other field monitoring studies on arthropods or other migratory organisms. The software applications Ant-App-DB and Dataplus described here are developed using the Android SDK, Java, XML, C# and SQLite Database.

  13. Field trial of systemically delivered arthropod development-inhibitor (fluazuron) used to control woodrat fleas (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae) and ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowik, T J; Lane, R S; Davis, R M

    2001-01-01

    An orally delivered arthropod development-inhibitory (fluazuron) was evaluated for its potential to reduce the number of flea and tick vectors found on the dusky-footed woodrat Neotoma fuscipes Baird, a reservoir host important in disease enzootiology in northern California. Pigmented bait cubes containing fluazuron were distributed monthly to woodrat nests in a chaparral habitat for 1 yr. When compared with control woodrats, the numbers of fleas [primarily Orchopeas sexdentatus (Baker)] on treated woodrats were significantly reduced 3-4 mo after initial application, and remained so for the duration of the application period. By contrast, tick numbers were not significantly reduced on treated woodrats. After the cessation of treatments, flea indices remained lower on treated animals for up to 2 mo after application. Approximately 93% of woodrats captured in the treatment area excreted pigmented feces and 93% of distributed bait cubes were removed by woodrats, which indicates that the bait cube formulation and delivery system were highly effective. Bait cubes also were attractive to small rodents and ground-frequenting birds. The results of this study suggest that a monthly application program of fluazuron delivered by bait cube is effective in reducing woodrat flea-burdens, but is not effective, at least in the short-term, in controlling ticks. PMID:11268695

  14. The role of wild canids and felids in spreading parasites to dogs and cats in Europe. Part II: Helminths and arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otranto, Domenico; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Brianti, Emanuele; Pfeffer, Martin; Genchi, Claudio; Guberti, Vittorio; Capelli, Gioia; Deplazes, Peter

    2015-09-30

    Over the last few decades, ecological factors, combined with everchanging landscapes mainly linked to human activities (e.g. encroachment and tourism) have contributed to modifications in the transmission of parasitic diseases from domestic to wildlife carnivores and vice versa. In the first of this two-part review article, we have provided an account of diseases caused by protozoan parasites characterised by a two-way transmission route between domestic and wild carnivore species. In this second and final part, we focus our attention on parasitic diseases caused by helminth and arthropod parasites shared between domestic and wild canids and felids in Europe. While a complete understanding of the biology, ecology and epidemiology of these parasites is particularly challenging to achieve, especially given the complexity of the environments in which these diseases perpetuate, advancements in current knowledge of transmission routes is crucial to provide policy-makers with clear indications on strategies to reduce the impact of these diseases on changing ecosystems. PMID:26049678

  15. Diversidade e distribuição espacial de artrópodes associados ao solo em agroecossistemas Diversity and spatial distribution of ground arthropods in agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da diversidade e distribuição de artrópodes associados ao solo contribui para o desenvolvimento de sistemas agrícolas sustentáveis. O presente estudo foi realizado em Jaboticabal (SP, durante o período de fevereiro a abril de 2004. O objetivo foi analisar a comunidade de Carabidae, Staphylinidae, Formicidae e Araneae através de índices faunísticos e determinar a distribuição espacial e a interação interespecífica de espécies predominantes em soja (Glycine max (L. Merr., milho (Zea mays L. e seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.. Os artrópodes foram amostrados com armadilhas de solo distribuídas a cada 10 m em dois transectos de 210 m de comprimento, que atravessaram o seringal e avançaram 60 m no interior das culturas. A fauna foi caracterizada pelos índices de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener, de equitabilidade e de similaridade de Morisita. As diferenças entre a ocorrência das espécies predominantes nos hábitats foram determinadas por análise de variância e a interação interespecífica por correlação de Pearson. A soja e o milho cultivados em sistema de plantio direto propiciaram comunidades de carabídeos, formigas e aranhas mais bem estruturadas que o seringal. Entre as 88 espécies capturadas, 20 espécies foram predominantes cuja distribuição espacial mostrou que Odontocheila nodicornis (Dejean, Glenus chrysis Gravenhorst, Castianeira sp. e oito espécies de formigas foram mais abundantes no seringal em comparação às culturas de soja e do milho. A abundância dos carabídeos Calosoma granulatum Perty e O. nodicornis diminuiu conforme aumentou a densidade dos formicídeos Pheidole sp.1 e Odontomachus chelifer Latreille respectivamente.The knowledge of the diversity and distribution of ground arthropods contributes for the development of sustainable agricultural systems. This work was carried out at the Paulista State University, Jaboticabal campus, State of São Paulo, Brazil, during the

  16. Mountain refugia play a role in soil arthropod speciation on Madagascar: a case study of the endemic giant fire-millipede genus Aphistogoniulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesener, Thomas; Raupach, Michael J; Decker, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the speciation mechanisms prevalent within hotspots of biodiversity, and the evolutionary processes behind the rise of their species-rich and endemic biota, we investigated the phylogeny of the giant fire-millipede genus Aphistogoniulus Silvestri, 1897, a Malagasy endemic. This study is the first comprehensive (molecular and morphological) phylogenetic study focusing on millipede (class Diplopoda) speciation on Madagascar. The morphological analysis is based on 35 morphological characters and incorporates ten described as well as two newly described species (A. rubrodorsalisn. sp. and A. jeekelin. sp.) of Aphistogoniulus. The molecular analysis is based on both mitochondrial (COI and 16S), and nuclear genes (complete 18S rDNA), together comprised of 3031 base pairs, which were successfully sequenced for 31 individual specimens and eight species of Aphistogoniulus. In addition to the null-model (speciation by distance), two diversification models, mountain refugia and ecotone shift, were discovered to play a role in the speciation of soil arthropods on Madagascar. Mountain refugia were important in the speciation of the A. cowani clade, with three species occurring in the Andringitra and Ranomafana Mountains in the southeast (A. cowani), the Ambohijanahary and Ambohitantely Mountains in the mid-west (A. sanguineus), and the Marojejy Mountain in the northeast (A. rubrodorsalisn. sp.). An ecotone shift from the eastern rainforest to the unique subarid spiny forest of Mahavelo was discovered in the A. vampyrus-A. aridus species-pair. In the monophyletic A. diabolicus clade, evidence for divergent evolution of sexual morphology was detected: species with greatly enlarged gonopods are sister-taxa to species with normal sized gonopods. Among the large-bodied Spirobolida genera of Madagascar, Colossobolus and Sanguinobolus were found to be close sister-genera to Aphistogoniulus. Forest destruction has caused forest corridors between populations to disappear

  17. Mountain refugia play a role in soil arthropod speciation on Madagascar: a case study of the endemic giant fire-millipede genus Aphistogoniulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wesener

    Full Text Available To elucidate the speciation mechanisms prevalent within hotspots of biodiversity, and the evolutionary processes behind the rise of their species-rich and endemic biota, we investigated the phylogeny of the giant fire-millipede genus Aphistogoniulus Silvestri, 1897, a Malagasy endemic. This study is the first comprehensive (molecular and morphological phylogenetic study focusing on millipede (class Diplopoda speciation on Madagascar. The morphological analysis is based on 35 morphological characters and incorporates ten described as well as two newly described species (A. rubrodorsalisn. sp. and A. jeekelin. sp. of Aphistogoniulus. The molecular analysis is based on both mitochondrial (COI and 16S, and nuclear genes (complete 18S rDNA, together comprised of 3031 base pairs, which were successfully sequenced for 31 individual specimens and eight species of Aphistogoniulus. In addition to the null-model (speciation by distance, two diversification models, mountain refugia and ecotone shift, were discovered to play a role in the speciation of soil arthropods on Madagascar. Mountain refugia were important in the speciation of the A. cowani clade, with three species occurring in the Andringitra and Ranomafana Mountains in the southeast (A. cowani, the Ambohijanahary and Ambohitantely Mountains in the mid-west (A. sanguineus, and the Marojejy Mountain in the northeast (A. rubrodorsalisn. sp.. An ecotone shift from the eastern rainforest to the unique subarid spiny forest of Mahavelo was discovered in the A. vampyrus-A. aridus species-pair. In the monophyletic A. diabolicus clade, evidence for divergent evolution of sexual morphology was detected: species with greatly enlarged gonopods are sister-taxa to species with normal sized gonopods. Among the large-bodied Spirobolida genera of Madagascar, Colossobolus and Sanguinobolus were found to be close sister-genera to Aphistogoniulus. Forest destruction has caused forest corridors between populations to

  18. Artrópodos presentes en nidos de cotorra Myiopsitta monachus monachus (Aves: Psittacidae Arthropods in Monk Parakeet nests (Aves: Psittacidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Aramburú

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es comunicar una lista de la artropodofauna que se encuentra en los nidos de cotorra (Myiopsitta monachus monachus en distintas localidades de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Se colectó un nido y 43 camas de material vegetal fresco que las cotorras depositan en las cámaras de cría. Se extrajeron los artrópodos, que se identificaron bajo lupa binocular y se caracterizaron por su nicho trófico. Se encontraron especies de la clase Arachnida (Acarina, Pseudoescorpionida y Araneae, principalmente depredadoras y hematófagas; mientras que dentro de la clase Insecta se encontraron especies hematófagas, depredadoras, detritívoras, fitófagas, nectarívoras, y xilófagas. Los órdenes más representados fueron Diptera (8 familias y Coleoptera (12 familias. El resto de las especies pertenecieron a los órdenes Collembola, Psocoptera, Hymenoptera, Phthiraptera, Hemiptera y Lepidoptera.The objective of this work is to communicate a list of artropodofauna which is in Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus monachus nests at several localities in Buenos Aires province. One nest and 43 beds of fresh green material that the Monk Parakeets deposited in the breeding chamber were collected. Arthropods were extracted, identified under binocular microscope, and characterized by their diets. Species were found whitin class Arachnida (Acarina, Pseudoescorpionida and Araneae, mainly predators and hematophagous. Within class Insecta, were found blood-sucking species, predators, detritivores, phytophagous, nectarivorous, and xilophagous, among others. The orders most represented were Diptera (8 families and Coleoptera (12 families. The rest of the species belonged to the orders Collembola, Psocoptera, Hymenoptera, Phthiraptera, Hemiptera and Lepidoptera.

  19. The novel isoxazoline ectoparasiticide fluralaner: selective inhibition of arthropod γ-aminobutyric acid- and L-glutamate-gated chloride channels and insecticidal/acaricidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassel, Michael; Wolf, Christian; Noack, Sandra; Williams, Heike; Ilg, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Isoxazolines are a novel class of parasiticides that are potent inhibitors of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channels (GABACls) and L-glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls). In this study, the effects of the isoxazoline drug fluralaner on insect and acarid GABACl (RDL) and GluCl and its parasiticidal potency were investigated. We report the identification and cDNA cloning of Rhipicephalus (R.) microplus RDL and GluCl genes, and their functional expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The generation of six clonal HEK293 cell lines expressing Rhipicephalus microplus RDL and GluCl, Ctenocephalides felis RDL-A285 and RDL-S285, as well as Drosophila melanogaster RDLCl-A302 and RDL-S302, combined with the development of a membrane potential fluorescence dye assay allowed the comparison of ion channel inhibition by fluralaner with that of established insecticides addressing RDL and GluCl as targets. In these assays fluralaner was several orders of magnitude more potent than picrotoxinin and dieldrin, and performed 5-236 fold better than fipronil on the arthropod RDLs, while a rat GABACl remained unaffected. Comparative studies showed that R. microplus RDL is 52-fold more sensitive than R. microplus GluCl to fluralaner inhibition, confirming that the GABA-gated chloride channel is the primary target of this new parasiticide. In agreement with the superior RDL on-target activity, fluralaner outperformed dieldrin and fipronil in insecticidal screens on cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), yellow fever mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti) and sheep blowfly larvae (Lucilia cuprina), as well as in acaricidal screens on cattle tick (R. microplus) adult females, brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) adult females and Ornithodoros moubata nymphs. These findings highlight the potential of fluralaner as a novel ectoparasiticide. PMID:24365472

  20. Use of lablab (Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet) for bio-control by native arthropods and its effect on yield of pumpkins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, S A; Angove, M; Wilkens, S; Midmore, D J

    2016-04-01

    Silverleaf whitefly (SLW, Bemisia tabaci MEAM1) and aphids are sap-sucking insects, which pose a serious threat to Australian cucurbit crops and the horticulture industry. Traditional chemical control for these insect pests is becoming less effective, and there is a need to search for alternative or supplementary methods. This study aimed to manipulate the habitat of pumpkin crops in a tropical setting (Queensland, Australia), by growing pumpkins (var. Japanese pumpkin) alone and between lablab (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet). It was hypothesized that the presence of lablab will increase the populations of natural enemies, and through their control of insect pests such as SLW and aphids, will affect pumpkin yield. The population of arthropods (natural enemies and pests of pumpkin), with a focus on SLW and aphids, were sampled weekly on both lablab and pumpkin crop for a total of 21 weeks. Results showed that lablab hosted more enemies of SLW per plant than pumpkin in either treatment. In addition, adult SLW numbers were significantly higher in the pumpkin-only crop compared with the pumpkin grown between lablab, while pumpkin in the mixed plantings had significantly more ladybirds and lacewing larvae (P < 0.05). While there was no significant difference in the average fruit weight between treatments, the total weight (kg) and number of marketable pumpkins per hectare was greater (P < 0.05) for the pumpkin/lablab treatment than the pumpkin-only treatment. This study shows that growing lablab alongside a pumpkin crop may enhance natural enemies of SLW and could significantly increase the yield. PMID:26693799

  1. Full-genome characterisation of Orungo, Lebombo and Changuinola viruses provides evidence for co-evolution of orbiviruses with their arthropod vectors.

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    Fauziah Mohd Jaafar

    Full Text Available The complete genomes of Orungo virus (ORUV, Lebombo virus (LEBV and Changuinola virus (CGLV were sequenced, confirming that they each encode 11 distinct proteins (VP1-VP7 and NS1-NS4. Phylogenetic analyses of cell-attachment protein 'outer-capsid protein 1' (OC1, show that orbiviruses fall into three large groups, identified as: VP2(OC1, in which OC1 is the 2nd largest protein, including the Culicoides transmitted orbiviruses; VP3(OC1, which includes the mosquito transmitted orbiviruses; and VP4(OC1 which includes the tick transmitted viruses. Differences in the size of OC1 between these groups, places the T2 'subcore-shell protein' as the third largest protein 'VP3(T2' in the first of these groups, but the second largest protein 'VP3(T2' in the other two groups. ORUV, LEBV and CGLV all group with the Culicoides-borne VP2(OC1/VP3(T2 viruses. The G+C content of the ORUV, LEBV and CGLV genomes is also similar to that of the Culicoides-borne, rather than the mosquito-borne, or tick borne orbiviruses. These data suggest that ORUV and LEBV are Culicoides- rather than mosquito-borne. Multiple isolations of CGLV from sand flies suggest that they are its primary vector. OC1 of the insect-borne orbiviruses is approximately twice the size of the equivalent protein of the tick borne viruses. Together with internal sequence similarities, this suggests its origin by duplication (concatermerisation of a smaller OC1 from an ancestral tick-borne orbivirus. Phylogenetic comparisons showing linear relationships between the dates of evolutionary-separation of their vector species, and genetic-distances between tick-, mosquito- or Culicoides-borne virus-groups, provide evidence for co-evolution of the orbiviruses with their arthropod vectors.

  2. DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE OF PREDACEOUS ARTHROPODS ASSOCIATED WITH DIFFERENT COTTON CULTIVARS DIVERSIDADE E ABUNDÂNCIA DE ARTRÓPODES PREDADORES ASSOCIADOS A DIFERENTES CULTIVARES DE ALGODOEIRO

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    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    With the objective of studying the abundance and diversity of predaceous arthropods associated with cotton crop, and analyze the influence of meteorological factors, interactions between natural enemies and population dynamics of coccinellids associated with their principal prey, the aphid Aphis gossypii, an experiment was carried out in the region of Ipameri, Goiás State, Brazil, at the Universidade Estadual de Goiás campus. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five treatments, consisting of the DeltaOPAL, FMX 966, FMX 993, FMX 910, and NuOPAL cultivars, in four replications. Among the arthropods sampled in the cotton crop, the coccinellids and spiders were the most abundant ones in the cultivars evaluated. Spiders occurred throughout the cotton cycle, while the coccinellids population increased gradually until 55 DAE, showing a population peak at 34 DAE, coinciding with the population peak of aphids (Aphis gossypii. Among the coccinellids observed in the cultivars under study, Scymnus spp. was the most abundant in cotton. The pentatomid and forficulid occurred from 99 to 128 days after the emergence of cotton, which corresponds to the highest density of target pest insects. It was not found influence of meteorological factors or negative interactions among predaceous arthropods.

    KEY-WORDS: Gossypium hirsutum; natural enemies, coccinellids.

    Impact of insecticides on non-target arthropods in watermelon cropImpacto de inseticidas em artrópodes não-alvo associados à cultura da melancia

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    Cíntia Ribeiro Souza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon Citrullus lunatus (Thunberg, Matsumura & Nakai is an ecosystem having a variety of arthropods, each one playing a specific role. Although some of them are considered pest to crops, some others are responsible for soil aeration, nutrient release and predation of pest species and are, therefore, considered beneficial to crops. The intensive farming practiced for watermelon cultivation in Brazil is based on the use of tiamethoxam and deltamethrin, which may not only kill target but also nontarget organisms such as beneficial arthropods. Research data regarding the influence of insecticides on arthropods in watermelon cropping is scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the insecticides deltamethrin and thiamethoxam on soil surface and watermelon canopy arthropod community. The study was carried out in the State of Tocantins, Brazil. Although the application of thiamethoxam and deltamethrin was efficient in controlling populations of Aphis gossypii (Glover, as we expected, they negatively affected non-target arthropods such as detritivores insects in the canopy and soil surface. Ecological implications of the impact of such pesticides on beneficial arthropod species are discussed.A cultura da melancia Citrullus lunatus (Thunberg, Matsumura & Nakai abriga uma grande diversidade de artrópodes, cada um desempenhando um papel específico. Apesar de alguns desses artrópodes serem considerados pragas, outros são responsáveis pela aeração do solo, liberação de nutrientes e predação das espécies-praga, sendo, dessa forma, considerados benéficos às culturas. A agricultura intensiva praticada no Brasil para o cultivo da melancia é baseada no uso dos inseticidas como tiamethoxam e deltametrina, que pode não só matar as pragas, mas também organismos não-alvo. Pesquisas relacionadas à influência de inseticidas sobre artrópodes benéficos na cultura da melancia são escassas. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de

  3. In search for a compromise between biodiversity conservation and human health protection in restoration of fly ash deposits: effect of anti-dust treatments on five groups of arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropek, Robert; Cerna, Ilona; Straka, Jakub; Kocarek, Petr; Malenovsky, Igor; Tichanek, Filip; Sebek, Pavel

    2016-07-01

    Recently, fly ash deposits have been revealed as a secondary refuge of critically endangered arthropods specialised on aeolian sands in Central Europe. Simultaneously, these anthropogenic habitats are well known for their negative impact on human health and the surrounding environment. The overwhelming majority of these risks are caused by wind erosion, the substantial decreasing of which is thus necessary. But, any effects of anti-dust treatments on endangered arthropods have never been studied. We surveyed communities of five arthropod groups (wild bees and wasps, leafhoppers, spiders, hoverflies and orthopteroid insects) colonising three fly ash deposits in the western Czech Republic. We focused on two different anti-dust treatments (~70 and 100 % cover of fly ash by barren soil) and their comparison with a control of bare fly ash. Altogether, we recorded 495 species, including 132 nationally threatened species (eight of them were considered to be extinct in the country) and/or 30 species strictly specialised to drift sands. Bees and wasps and leafhoppers contained the overwhelming majority of species of the highest conservation interest; a few other important records were also in spiders and orthopteroids. Total soil cover depleted the unique environment of fly ash and thus destroyed the high conservation potential of the deposits. On the other hand, partial coverage (with ~30 % of bare fly ash) still offered habitats for many of the most threatened species, as we showed by both regression and multivariate analyses, with a decrease of wind erosion. This topic still needs much more research interest, but we consider mosaic-like preservation of smaller spots of fly ash as one of the possible compromises between biodiversity and human health. PMID:25847441

  4. Primer registro de artropodofauna cadavérica en sustratos humanos y animales en San Juan, Argentina First record of cadaverous arthropod fauna in human and animal substrates in San Juan, Argentina

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    Fernando H. Aballay

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudiaron los artrópodos carroñeros que acudieron a cadáveres de vertebrados al aire libre en la provincia de San Juan, Argentina. El objetivo fue inventariar la composición específica de la artropodofauna cadavérica, asociada a diferentes sustratos de vertebrados en descomposición. Se colectaron muestras de artrópodos sobre restos animales y humanos en condiciones de campo y sobre cadáveres de cerdos domésticos colocados al aire libre bajo condiciones controladas. Se registraron, por primera vez para la provincia de San Juan, 40 especies de artropodofauna tanatológica incluidas en cuatro órdenes y 15 familias. Se incorpora, como primera cita para la fauna forense argentina, un necrófago: Megelenophorus americanus Lacordaire (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, y tres necrófilas: Polybia ruficeps Schrottky (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Pheidole bergi Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae y Ectatomma brunneum Smith (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae. Se citan 18 especies necrófagas, 18 necrófilas, una omnívora y seis oportunistas sobre siete diferentes sustratos cadavéricos de vertebrados. Se brindan nuevos registros de distribución de 18 especies de insectos. Se confirma la estacionalidad invernal de Callíphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae.In order to determine the specific composition of cadaverous arthropod fauna associated to different decomposing vertebrate substrates, we studied the carrion arthropods that feed on outdoor carcasses in San Juan province, Argentina. Arthropods were collected on animal and human remains in the field and on carcasses of domestic pig placed outdoors under controlled conditions. Forty species of carrion arthropods belonging to four orders and 15 families were recorded for the first time in this province. We present the first record of forensic fauna in Argentina of the necrophagous species Megelenophorus americanus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and three

  5. Comparative studies on arthropod community structure characteristics between ecological rice paddies and conventional rice paddies%生态稻田及常规稻田节肢动物群落结构特征的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯学; 张清泉; 陈丽丽; 李国刚; 梁载林; 张雪丽; 刘建文

    2013-01-01

    用吸虫器、黄板诱捕、黄盆诱捕和扫网4种采样法,对双季稻区生态稻田及常规稻田两类生境稻田中的节肢动物群落结构特征进行了比较研究.结果表明:早稻和晚稻整个生育期,生态稻田中节肢动物天敌的物种数显著高于常规稻田.稻田生境多样性有利于促进稻田节肢动物天敌群落的建立,生境越复杂,植被多样性越高,物种种类就越多.%The community structure of arthropods both in ecological rice paddies and conventional rice paddies in double cropping paddy field areas was studied with the suction sampler,yellow board trap,yellow basin trap and sweeping methods.The results showed that there were significantly greater species richness in ecological rice paddy fields than in conventional rice paddy fields.More complex ecological habitat,more variety vegetation and more species are beneficial to promote the community structure of arthropods.

  6. 保靖黄金茶产地茶园节肢动物多样性调查%Investigation of Arthropod Diversity in Tea Garden Producing “Bao Jing” Golden Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄安平; 周凌云

    2011-01-01

    对保靖黄金茶产地10个代表性茶园的节肢动物多样件进行了调查,茶园节肢动物隶属昆虫纲和蛛形纲,昆虫纲以同翅目昆虫数量较多.其中,叶蝉科(Cicadellidae)、广翅蜡蝉科(Rieaniidae)、蛾蜡蝉科(Flatidae)昆虫为优势类群.天敌优势类群为蛛形纲蜘蛛.植物多样性较大的样地多样性指数、均匀度指数、丰富度指数、优势度指数均明显高于其他样地.%Diversity of arthropod in 10 representational tea gardens which producing “Bao Jing” golden tea were investigated. The arthropod in tea garden belongs to Insecta and Arachnida. The homopteran is the most abundant insect in Insecta, in which, Cicadellidae, Ricaniidae and Flatidae were the preponderant populations. Spiders from Arachnida are the main natural enemy of insect pest. The diversity index, evenness index, species richness index and dominance index of plots with larger plant diversity were significantly higher than others.

  7. 皖南山区茶园节肢动物群落多样性调查%Investigation of Diversity of Arthropod Community in Tea Garden in Southern Anhui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫冲冲; 陈向阳; 张持浩; 张守伟; 冯敏; 刘蕊; 董勤

    2009-01-01

    The community diversity of arthropod in tea garden of southern Anhui from April to May, 2008 and 2009 was investigated and analyzed respectively. The results showed that the tendency of community diversity indices (D, H', J, H, DMC)of arthropod in tea garden were changed as follows: low→high→low. However, the inhibitory effect of predatory sub-community on phytophagous sub-community was significantly decreased in the late May, while should make pest forecasting and controlling to provide scientific method for tea farmers to control the pest in tea garden.%在2008年和2009年4、5月份对皖南山区茶同节肢动物群落多样性进行了调查分析.结果表明:茶园节肢动物群落多样性指数D、H'、J、H、DMC随时间变化趋势都是"低一高一低".然而,在5月下旬,捕食性亚群落对植食性亚群落的抑制作用大大降低,这一时期应该做好害虫测报和防治的准备,为茶农防治茶园害虫提供科学方法.

  8. Gall inducing arthropods from a seasonally dry tropical forest in Serra do Cipó, Brazil Artrópodes indutores de galhas em Floresta Sazonal Tropical Seca da Serra do Cipó, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Serra Coelho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly diverse forms of galling arthropods can be identified in much of southeastern Brazil's vegetation. Three fragments of a Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest (SDTF located in the southern range of the Espinhaço Mountains were selected for study in the first survey of galling organisms in such tropical vegetation. Investigators found 92 distinct gall morphotypes on several organs of 51 host plant species of 19 families. Cecidomyiidae (Diptera was the most prolific gall-inducing species, responsible for the largest proportion of galls (77% observed. Leaves were the most frequently galled plant organ (63%, while the most common gall morphotype was of a spherical shape (30%. The two plant species, Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae and Celtis brasiliensis (Cannabaceae, presented the highest number of gall morphtypes, displaying an average of 5 gall morphotypes each. This is the first study of gall-inducing arthropods and their host plant species ever undertaken in a Brazilian SDTF ecosystem. Given the intense human pressure on SDTFs, the high richness of galling arthropods, and implied floral host diversity found in this study indicates the need for an increased effort to catalogue the corresponding flora and fauna, observe their intricate associations and further understand the implications of such rich diversity in these stressed and vulnerable ecosystems.Artrópodes indutores de galhas são muito ricos em espécies nas formações vegetais no sudeste do Brasil. Três fragmentos de Floresta Sazonal Tropical Seca (FSTS foram selecionados nas montanhas do sudeste da cadeia do Espinhaço para a primeira pesquisa de organismos indutores de galhas nesse tipo de vegetação. Encontramos 92 morfotipos distintos de galhas em vários órgãos de 51 espécies de plantas hospedeiras pertencentes à 19 famílias. A maioria das galhas (77% foi induzida pela família Cecidomyiidae (Diptera. A folha foi o órgão mais atacado (63%, enquanto o morfotipo mais

  9. Efeito da solarização e da adubação sobre artrópodes em solo cultivado com alface Solarization, organic and chemical fertilization combined effects on arthropods community in soil cultivated with lettuce

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    Marlene G da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da solarização e da adubação química e orgânica na comunidade de artrópodes de solo na cultura da alface, cv. Verônica. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, em blocos ao acaso, um com solarização e o outro sem solarização, em casa de vegetação, ambos com cinco tratamentos: adubação orgânica; nitrogênio na forma amoniacal (NH4; adubação com NPK; adubação orgânica + NPK; testemunha (sem adubação. No experimento solarizado, o solo foi coberto durante 132 dias com plástico transparente. Os artrópodes foram coletados por meio de armadilhas tipo alçapão em três épocas (antes da implantação do experimento, após a solarização e após a colheita. Foram utilizados índices faunísticos e de diversidade em cada experimento, tratamento e épocas. Os principais grupos coletados foram: Collembola (82,8%, Acari (7,1%, Hymenoptera (6,1% Coleoptera (1,3% e outros (2,7%. A classe Collembola foi a mais abundante, mesmo na colheita, quando a subordem Acari aumentou substancialmente. As espécies de Collembola predominantes foram: Proisotoma tenella (Reuter (34,3%; Seira atrolutea (Arlé (29%; Folsomides centralis (Denis (7,2%; Isotomurus sp. 161 (2,4% e Sminthurides sp. 98 (1,6%. Observou-se que a diversidade e abundância da comunidade de artrópodes não foi influenciada pela solarização ou adubação.To evaluate the effect of solarization, chemical and organic fertilization on soil arthropods community in lettuce, two blocks plots trials were carried out in Brasília, Brazil. One research was conducted with solarization and the other without solarization in a soil cultivated with lettuce, cv Veronica, under protected cultivation. Each trial consisted of five fertilization treatments: T1= organic fertilization; T2= amoniacal nitrogen (ammonium sulphate; T3= chemical fertilization; T4= organic and chemical fertilization; T5= control (without fertilization. In the solarized trial, the soil was covered for 132

  10. Banker Plant System: a New Approach for Biological Control of Arthropod Pests%害虫生物防治新技术——载体植物系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖英方; 毛润乾; 沈国清; Lance S.Osbome

    2012-01-01

    建立一个自我维持并可有效降低害虫种群水平的系统是害虫生物防治长期追求的理想目标。载体植物系统(banker plant system)又称开放式天敌饲养系统,是近年来开发出的一种集保护利用本地天敌、人工繁殖释放天敌以及异地引进天敌等传统技术特点为一体的新型生物防治技术。载体植物(banker plants)、替代食物(alternative foods)和有益生物(beneficial)是该系统的三个基本要素。本文对载体植物和载体植物系统概念、特点以及近年来国际上的研究进展进行了综述,并结合自身的研究实践,举例介绍载体植物系统的应用,以推动国内外对载体植物系统的研究和应用。%Banker plant system(BPS) is a new concept for biological control of arthropod pests.It consists of three key elements: a banker plant,a highly specific alternative host or prey,and one or more natural enemies(predator or parasitoid).The ideal banker plant should be a non-crop plant that provides resources(alternative prey or nutrient) to sustain natural enemies of arthropod pest.The natural enemies should be specific to the alternative prey and the pest,and are able to disperse to a long distance to attack the pest.The banker plant system uniquely combines the advantages of both augmentative and conservation biological controls in greenhouse or field,it has been shown to be an effective,simple,reliable approach for control of arthropod pests.The use of banker plant system will not require the repeated release of natural enemies and also reduce the cost for purchasing commercial available biocontrol agents.The review is intended to summarize the history,development and potential application of banker plant systems.In our study,the goal is to develop long-term pest suppression of silver-leaf whitefly and two-spotted spider mite in vegetable crops,especially in greenhouse vegetables.Current,these pests have seriously

  11. Fatores que afetam artrópodes associados a cinco acessos de ginseng-brasileiro (Pfaffia glomerata em Montes Claros, Estado de Minas Gerais = Factors affecting arthropods associated with five accessions of Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia glomerata in Montes Claros, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar artrópodes associados a cinco acessos ('NDS', 'COVB', 'NAT', 'ROST' e 'GSD1' de Pfaffia glomerata, bem como o efeito de clima, dossel, face foliar, tricomas e inimigos naturais sobre a entomofauna. Dos artrópodes observados, Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae, Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae e Tetranychus ludeni (Acari: Tetranychidae apresentaram maior densidade populacional. Dos inimigos naturais observados, ácaros predadores estiveram associados ao ácaro branco Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae, e um complexo de aranhas a besouros desfolhadores, pulgões e cicadelídeos. Observaram-se correlações significativas diretas múltiplas e lineares da população de A. gossypii com maior densidade de Crematogaster sp.(Hymenotera: Formicidae (protocooperação e correlação negativa com densidade de Cycloneda sanguinea (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae e a temperatura do ar. Foi observado maior ataque de ácaros T. ludeni, T. urticae (Tetranychidae e P. latus, em períodos de menor umidaderelativa. Observou-se maior densidade populacional de A. gossypii, nos acessos 'ROST' e 'NAT' e de T. ludeni ao acesso 'ROST'. O acesso 'GSD1' foi o mais danificado por besouros desfolhadores. Pulgões e ácaros preferiram alimentar-se na face abaxial das folhas apicais,enquanto D. speciosa apresentou preferência pela face adaxial do terço mediano do dossel. Tricomas (100% tectores não afetaram os artrópodes.The objective of this study was to identify arthropods associated with five accessions ('NDS', 'COVB', 'NAT', 'ROST' and 'GSD1' of Pfaffia glomerata and the effect of weather, canopy height, foliar face, trichomes, and naturals enemies over the entomofauna. The arthropods Aphis gossypii, Diabrotica speciosa, and Tetranychus ludeni had the highest population densities. Among naturals enemies, there were predator mites associated with the broad mitePolyphagotarsonemus latus, and the spiders

  12. Research on Chemical Prevention to Leguminivora Glycinivorella and the Effect on Arthropod Community%大豆食心虫的药剂防治及对节肢动物群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董莉环

    2015-01-01

    马拉硫磷、 阿维菌素、 高效氯氰菊酯喷雾和敌敌畏熏蒸防治大豆食心虫的效果比较, 结果表明: 对大豆食心虫的防效, 高效氯氰菊酯防治效果58.97%与其他三种药剂有明显的差异; 施用高效氯氰菊酯的地块的虫食率仅为6.55%,而对照区的虫食率为15.96%;施用马拉硫磷的地块对挽回大豆产量(百粒重能达到20.34 g)明显比施用其它三种药剂的地块和对照田的要高; 阿维菌素对大豆田节肢动物群落的影响最小而且恢复最快,而高效氯氰菊酯和敌敌畏对豆田节肢动物群落的影响大而且恢复很较慢.%Effect comparison of chemical prevention to Leguminivora glycinivorella by spraying Malathion,Avermectin,Beta cypermethrin and Dichlorvos seperately,the results showed that: the control effect of Leguminivora glycinivorella is quite different. The herbivory rate is only 6.55% with the application of beta cypermethrin,while in the control area the herbivory rate is 15.96%; The application of Malathion to save soybean yield was better than other three kinds of chemicals plots; The application of Abamectin has less effect on the arthropod community in soybean field and the recovery is the faster,while the application of Cypermethrin and Dichlorvos has more effect on arthropod community in bean field with slow recovery.

  13. Path Analysis of the Diversity Index and Other Components of Arthropod Communities in Tea Garden of Qianshan Area%潜山县茶园节肢动物群落多样性与相应组分的通径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周夏芝; 柯胜兵; 毕守东; 林源

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] The research aimed to study the relationship between the diversity index and other ecological indies of arthropod community in tea garden of Qianshan area. [ Method ] The relationship between the diversity index and other ecological indies of arthropod community in tea garden of Qianshan area were analyzed by path analysis. [ Result] Pielou index of arthropod community had a direct effect on diversity index of 0. 813 0. The dominant concentration had a negative correlation with the diversity index of -0. 361 4. These two indexes had obvious effects on diversity index. [ Conclusion] The research was favorable for illuminating the relationship between the diversity and other components of arthropod community.%[目的]研究潜山县茶园节肢动物群落的多样性与其他结构特征指数的关系.[方法]采用通径分析方法,对潜山县茶园节肢动物群落的多样性与其他特征指数的关系进行分析.[结果]群落均匀度指数对多样性的直接作用为0.8130,优势集中性指数对多样性的直接作用为-0.3614,它们对多样性的作用较为明显.[结论]该研究有助于阐明茶园节肢动物群落多样性与其他组分的关系.

  14. Community structure and seasonal dynamics of arthropod in Guangxi mulberry field%广西桑园节肢动物群落结构及季节动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄立飞; 杜晓利; 王伟兰; 黎柳锋; 邹源; 姜建军; 杨朗

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究广西桑园害虫及天敌的群落结构及季节动态,为广西桑园害虫综合防治及天敌合理利用提供科学依据.[方法]调查不同季节广西桑园节肢动物的种类和数量,采用物种丰富度指数、Simpson多样性指数、Shannon多样性指数、Brillouin多样性指数、Pielou均匀度指数以及Simpson优势度指数对其群落结构及季节动态进行分析,并采用群落相似性系数分析一年四季群落的相似性.[结果]共采集桑园节肢动物17371头,鉴定为26种,隶属13目26科,其中植食性害虫18种,优势种为朱砂叶螨和桑粉虱;天敌昆虫5种,优势种为稻红瓢虫;蜘蛛2种,以狼蛛科为主;中性昆虫1种.多样性指数以春季最大,其次是夏季,冬季最小;群落均匀度指数与多样性指数变化趋势一致,而优势度指数一年四季均较小,以春季最小;春季与夏、秋、冬季间的相似水平均极低(Rj=0.2329、0.0000、0.2077),夏季与秋季为中等相似(Rj=0.5461),夏季与冬季间为中等不相似(Rj=0.3322),秋冬季间为极不相似水平(Rj=0.1297).[结论]广西桑园节肢动物群落多样性指数和均匀性指数较高,优势度指数较低,群落结构较为合理.%[Objective]Community structure and seasonal dynamics of arthropod in Guangxi mulberry field were studied to provide scientific references for integrated control of mulberry pests and the rational use of natural enemies.[Method]The number of individuals and species of arthropod in mulberry field were surveyed,and then the community structure and seasonal dynamics were analyzed with species richness index,Shannon diversity index,Simpson diversity index,Brillouin diversity index,Pielou evenness index and Simpson dominance index,when the community similarity in four seasons were analyzed with similarity index.[Result]Of all 17371 arthropods,totally 26 arthropod species were obtained from mulberry field,which belonged to 13 orders and 26 families.There were 18

  15. Comparação entre duas técnicas sorológicas aplicados ao estudo do sangue ingerido por triatomíneos Comparison between two serological technique used in the study of bloon sucked by arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Rehder de Andrade

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a técnica de reação de precipitina em tubos capilares com a de imunodifusão em gel de agar, em papéis contendo sangue de aves (galos ingerido por triatomíneos. Usaram-se 360 T. infestans e 270 P. megistus, estudando-se também a mortalidade comparativa das duas espécies. Os resultados sugerem que o método capilar apresenta ligeira vantagem. Quanto à mortalidade, a resistência ao jejum do T. infestans foi uniforme durante todo o tempo de observação, enquanto que, para o P. megistus a força de mortalidade foi pequena até o 50° dia de jejum, aumentando acentuadamente a seguir.The techniques of precipitin in capilar tubes and imunodifusion in agar jelly, for human blood sucked by arthropods were compared. 360 T. infestans and 270 P. megistus were observed, and the comparative mortality of both species was also studied. The results suggest that the capilar method is slightly better. As regards mortality, the resistance to fasting by the T. infestans was uniform during the whole period of observation, while for the P. megistus mortality was low until the 50th day of fasting, increasing markedly from then onwards.

  16. The relative contribution of fruits and arthropods to the diet of three trogon species (Aves, Trogonidae in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest A contribuição relativa de frutos e artrópodes para a dieta de três espécies de surucuás (Aves, Trogonidae na Mata Atlântica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Pizo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Trogons are pan-tropical forest birds that eat a mix of fruits and arthropods. With direct observations of wild feeding birds, I assessed the relative contribution of fruits and arthropods to the diet of three trogon species (Trogonviridis, T.surrucura, and T.rufus at Parque Estadual Intervales, southeast Brazil. Fruits and arthropods made the bulk of the food items recorded, with a tendency of frugivory increasing with body mass. The Trogon species differed in the proportion of fruits and arthropods taken, with T.viridis being the most frugivorous species (66% of feeding bouts, n = 47. The relative contribution of fruits and arthropods did not differ between the wet and dry seasons for any species. In the omnivorous gradient, T.viridis is close to the frugivorous extreme, whereas T.surrucura and T.rufus is next to the insectivorous end. Such a distinction may have important consequences for the territoriality and social behavior of these birds.Os surucuás são aves florestais pantropicais que se alimentam de frutos e artrópodes. Com observações diretas de aves forrageando na natureza, estudei a contribuição relativa de frutos e artrópodes para a dieta de três espécies de surucuás (Trogonviridis, T.surrucura, and T.rufus no Parque Estadual Intervales, sudeste do Brasil. Frutos e artrópodes foram os itens mais registrados, com uma tendência do grau de frugivoria aumentar com o aumento da massa corporal da ave. As três espécies diferiram em relação à proporção de frutos e artrópodes de que se alimentam; T.viridisfoi a espécie mais frugívora (66% dos registros, n = 47. As contribuições relativas de frutos e artrópodes para a dieta não diferiram entre as estações seca e úmida para nenhuma das três espécies. A diferença no grau de frugivoria aqui revelada pode ter conseqüências importantes para a territorialidade e organização social dos surucuás.

  17. Artrópodes fitófagos e predadores associados em 20 acessos Luffa sp. em sistema orgânico Phytophagous and predators arthropods associated in 20 accesses of Luffa sp in organic system

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    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram verificar os artrópodes fitófagos e seus predadores em 20 acessos de bucha vegetal Luffa sp. (Cucurbitaceae, a distribuição destes no dossel das plantas em cultivo orgânico e a produção de frutos dos acessos. O experimento foi em blocos casualizados com 20 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram os acessos P159, P304, P466, P03, P570, P569, P467, P30, P446, P495, P125, P263, P644 e P32, provenientes da Embrapa (CENARGEN, DF, e P01, P02, P04, P05, P06 e P07, obtidos em Porteirinha-MG. As parcelas foram compostas por quatro plantas de Luffa sp. A maior abundância de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae foi observada nas folhas do acesso P467 em referência aos demais acessos de Luffa sp. Trigona spinipes (Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae foi mais observada nas flores dos acessos P01, P03, P30, P32, P263 e P569 e menos abundantes nos acessos P05, P125, P159, P304, P446 e P570. Os acessos de Luffa sp. com maior número de frutos/planta foram P01, P03, P05, P06, P07, P30, P32, P125, P263, P446 e P570. Os predadores aranhas e Coccinellidae (Coleoptera bem como o fitófago Cicadellidae (Hemiptera preferiram atacar a face adaxial, sendo que não se detectou diferença estatística entre as faces para os demais artrópodes. T. spinipes esteve mais presente na parte apical do dossel das plantas. Com esses resultados, o acesso P06 é o mais indicado para o cultivo, pois foi um dos que apresentou maiores produtividades e menores taxas de ataque de insetos.The objectives of this research were to verify the phytophagous arthropods and their predators in 20 accesses of vegetable loofah Luffa sp. (Cucurbitaceae, the distribution of the canopy of the plants in organic system and the production of fruits of the accesses. The experiment was in randomized blocks designed with 20 treatments and four replicates. The treatments were the accesses P159, P304, P466, P03, P570, P569, P467, P30, P446

  18. 车八岭山地常绿阔叶林冰灾后土壤节肢动物群落的多样性%Soil arthropod diversity following an ice storm in a montane evergreen broadleaved forest in Chebaling National Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区余端; 苏志尧; 李镇魁; 佟富春; 柳泽鑫

    2009-01-01

    2008年初车八岭山地常绿阔叶林受到中国南方80年一遇的冰灾的重创.为了揭示灾后林冠开度的梯度对土壤节肢动物多样性与分布的影响,在受冰灾影响的车八岭山地常绿阔叶林没置2 ha固定样地,按照冠层受损程度选取17个20 m×20 m的样方,用半球面影像技术获取林冠开度,并分凋落物层、0-10 cm和10-20 cm的矿质上层采集凋落物及上壤样品,分析土壤节肢动物多样性.利用双向聚类分析(two-way cluster analysis)对凋落物层的土壤节肢动物和样地进行聚类,以典范对应分析(canonical correspondence analysis)研究冠层开度、土壤有机质、电导率以及自然含水量与0-10 cm表土层土壤节肢动物的关系.结果表明土壤节肢动物的多度、丰富度和多样性随土壤层的加深而下降,具有明显的表聚性;林冠开度与凋落物层的土壤节肢动物类群数量呈负相关;甲螨亚目、中气门亚目和前气门亚目动物对光照的适应范围广;膜翅目、鞘翅目幼虫、综合纲和伪蝎目动物具有明显的避光性;土壤节肢动物类群的分布与林冠开度、土壤自然含水量、电导率和有机质关系密切.因此可以推论,冰灾对车八岭山地常绿阔叶林冠层的破坏及土壤因子的变化会进一步影响土壤节肢动物群落的组成和分布.本项研究还表明,土壤节肢动物群落能有效地表征它们所栖息的生态系统的特点,可用于监测冰灾后森林恢复和演替动态.而双向聚类分析和典范对应分析对于揭示土壤节肢动物的空间异质性及其与环境因子的相互关系具有理想的效果.%In 2008, an ice storm caused extensive damage to the montane evergreen broadleaved forest in Chebaling National Nature Reserve, Guangdong Province, China. To assess the response of soil arthropod diversity and distribution to a gradient of canopy openness following the ice storm, 17 plots, each 400 m~2, were selected

  19. Artrópodos associados à copa de Attalea phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae, na região do Pantanal de Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brasil Arthropods associated with the canopy of the palm Attalea phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae, in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Geane Brizzola dos Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Six individuals of the palm A. phalerata, in Poconé floodplains of Mato Grosso, were sprayed with a synthetic pyrethroid (0.25% concentration in order to study the biomass, diversity, and richness of the canopy arthropods. A total of 17,188 (238.7±80.6 ind./m² arthropods belonging to 22 Orders, was collected in a 72 m² funnel area. Two hours after spraying, 58.9% of the total number fell into the funnels, 37.6% was obtained by shaking the trees, and finally, 3.5% after cutting and washing all the palm leaves. The Coleoptera (27.4%, Hymenoptera-Formicidae (19.0%, Collembola (13.6%, Psocoptera (10.7%, Diptera (9.0% and Araneae (6.4% were the predominant. The total biomass was 15.1 g dry weight (0.4mg/m²; 0.13+0.04/tree. A total of 4,715 beetles representing 48 families and 326 morphospecies were obtained. Tenebrionidae (22.9%, Curculionidae (22.0%, Carabidae (10.9% and Staphylinidae (7.9% were the most abundant, while Curculionidae (44 spp., Staphylinidae (40 spp. and Chrysomelidae (34 spp. presented the largest number of morphospecies. Herbivores (37.5% were the dominant in the trophic guilds of adult Coleoptera, followed by predators (35.4%, fungivores (14.6%, and saprophages (12.5%. Although most arthropod Orders were represented in all the palms sampled, analysis of variance showed no significant differences in their composition, however there was a significant difference in their frequency of occurrence.

  1. Transgenic arthropods and the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sterile Insect Technique can benefit from transgenesis in three ways by creating; (1) genetically marked strains, (2) genetic sexing strains and (3) strains that induce molecular sterility in the field. Experience with the development of genetic sexing strains based on indicates that caution is required during the experimental evaluation of any potential transgenic strain. Two major scientific concerns involve the overall fitness of transgenic strains and their stability over time. The latter being very important especially when the extremely large numbers of insects that are mass reared is taken into account. Currently transformation events are random and it will probably be necessary to select suitable strains from many that are induced. The success of transformation itself in many insect species will enable many new strategies to be developed and tested. (author)

  2. Food sources of selected terrestrial cave arthropods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smrž, J.; Kováč, L.; Mikeš, J.; Šustr, Vladimír; Lukešová, Alena; Tajovský, Karel; Nováková, Alena; Režňáková, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2015), s. 37-46. ISSN 1768-1448 Grant ostatní: Vega(SK) 1/0139/09 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acari * caves * Collembola * Diplopoda * feeding habits * Isopoda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  3. Hematopoiesis and Hematopoietic Organs in Arthropods

    OpenAIRE

    Grigorian, Melina; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Hemocytes (blood cells) are motile cells moving throughout the extracellular space and exist in all clades of the animal kingdom. Hemocytes play an important role in shaping the extracellular environment and in the immune response. Developmentally, hemocytes are closely related to the epithelial cells lining the vascular system (endothelia) and body cavity (mesothelia). In vertebrates and insects, common progenitors, called hemangioblasts, give rise to the endothelia and blood cells. In the a...

  4. How many species of arthropods visit flowers?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wardhaugh, Carl W.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2015), s. 547-565. ISSN 1872-8855 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cantharophily * coevolution * florivory Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.462, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11829-015-9398-4

  5. Cysteine proteases from bloodfeeding arthropod ectoparasites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sojka, Daniel; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Calvo, E.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 712, - (2011), s. 177-191. ISSN 0065-2598 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960910; GA AV ČR IAA600960811; GA AV ČR KJB600960911; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : TICK HAEMAPHYSALIS-LONGICORNIS * PROLIXUS STAL HEMIPTERA * YELLOW - FEVER MOSQUITO * BLOOD-MEAL DIGESTION * L-LIKE ENZYME * BOOPHILUS-MICROPLUS * RHODNIUS-PROLIXUS * CATHEPSIN-B * ASPARAGINYL ENDOPEPTIDASES/LEGUMAINS * PROTEOLYTIC ACTIVATION Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.093, year: 2011

  6. Nanoanalysis of the arthropod neuro-toxins

    OpenAIRE

    Nakajima, Terumi

    2006-01-01

    Many kinds of venomous principles modulate physiological responses of mammalian signal transduction systems, on which they act selectively as enhancers, inhibitors or some other kind of effectors. These toxins become useful tools for physiological research. We have employed and characterized paralyzing toxins from the venom of spiders, insects and scorpions with a limited supply. We have developed rapid and sensitive mass spectrometric technology and applied for the identification of these to...

  7. 间作密植和单行茶园节肢动物群落组成差异%Components of arthropod communities in tea gardens with four different cultivation types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宝瑜; 江昌俊; 李卓民

    2001-01-01

    Surveys to arthropod communities in chestnut-tea intercrop, pear-tea intercrop, 3 row close planting and single row planting tea gardens were conducted.The results showed that: (1) Phytophagous pest species number to total species number in percentage was 51.9 % , 53.6 %, 54.4 % and 56.6 %, respectively in the above four cultivation styles,and the individual number to total individual number in percentage was 92.0 %, 93.5 %, 93.6 % and 95.0 %. (2) Predatory species number to total species number in percentage was 11.3 % , 10.0 % , 9.8 % and 10.9 % and the individual number was 2.0 % ,1.1 %, 2.0 % and 1.5 % . (3) Parasitic insect species number was 9.2 %, 9.1 % ,9.3 % and 9.3 % and individual number were in turn 1.8 %,1.1%,1.8 % and 1.3 %.(4) Spider species number was 24.7 %, 20.1 %, 22.4 % and 19.4 % and individual number was in turn 3.5 % , 3.4 %, 2.1 % and 1.8 %. Dominant groups within the four types of tea gardens were Lepidoptera, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera and Arancida. Average richness (S)and diversity indices(H′)per month took on the following order: chestnut-tea intercrop(S=74, H′=1.33) > pear-tea intercrop(S=49, H′=1.24)>3 row close planting (S=31, H′=1.03)> single row planting tea gardens(S=23, H′=0.89). Principal component analysis indicated that community stability was in the order: chestnut-tea intercrop >pear-tea intercrop>3 row close planting > single row planting tea garden.%1998年1~12月每月下旬,对皖南敬亭山茶场栗-茶间作、梨-茶间作、3行密植和单行条植茶园节肢动物群落的调查表明:植食性昆虫种数分别占各类型茶园总物种数51.9 %、53.6 %、54.4 %和56.6 %,个体数依次占各类茶园总个体数92.0 %、93.5 %、93.6 %和95.0 % ;捕食性昆虫和捕食螨种数则分别占11.3 %、10.0 %、9.8 %和10.9 % ,个体数占2.0 %、1.1 %、2.0 %和1.5 % ;寄生性昆虫种数占9.2 %、9.1 %、9.3 %和9.3 %,个体数占1.8 %、1.1 %、1.8 %和1

  8. Arthropods associated with pig carrion in two vegetation profiles of Cerrado in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil Artrópodes associados a carcaças de suínos em dois perfis de vegetação de Cerrado no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Thiago Augusto Rosa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Forensic Entomology research has been concentrated in only a few localities of the "Cerrado" vegetation, the Brazilian Savannah. The present study had, as its objective, an examination of the diversity of arthropod fauna associated with the carcasses of Sus scrofa (Linnaeus in this biome. The study was conducted during the dry and humid periods in two Cerrado vegetation profiles of the State of Minas Gerais. The decaying process was slower and greater quantities of arthropods were collected during the dry period. Insects represented 99% of 161,116 arthropods collected. The majority of these were Diptera (80.2% and Coleoptera (8.8%. The entomofauna belong to 85 families and at least 212 species. Diptera were represented by 31 families and at least 132 species. Sarcophagidae (Diptera and Scarabaeidae (Coleoptera were the richest groups. Oxysarcodexia (Sarcophagidae presented the largest number of attracted species, however none of these species bred in the carcasses. The Coleoptera collected belong to at least 50 species of 21 families. Among these species, Dermestes maculatus and Necrobia rufipes were observed breeding in the carcasses. This study showed species with potential importance for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI, indicative of seasonal and environmental type located.Estudos de entomologia forense em área de Cerrado ainda são escassos no Brasil. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a riqueza da artropodofauna associada a carcaças de suínos domésticos em decomposição. O estudo foi conduzido em dois perfis de Cerrado, Cerrado senso stricto e Campo sujo, durante dois períodos do ano, seco e úmido, em Uberlândia, MG, Brasil. Insetos representaram 99% dos 161.116 artrópodes coletados, sendo representados majoritariamente por dípteros (80,2% e coleópteros (8,8%. A entomofauna era pertencente a 85 famílias e pelo menos 212 espécies. Os dípteros foram representados por 31 famílias e pelo menos 132 espécies. Os

  9. Pigmentação exógena em pododáctilos simulando isquemia de extremidades: um desafio diagnóstico provocado por artrópodos da classe Diplopoda ("piolhos-de-cobra" Exogenous pigmentation in toes feigning ischemia of the extremities: a diagnostic challenge brought by arthropods of the Diplopoda Class ("millipedes"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Jatobá Lima

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Um paciente de 24 anos relatou ter pisado em um "piolho de cobra". Ao ser examinado, este apresentava máculas eritêmato-cianóticas, nos três primeiros pododáctilos do pé direito, com queixas de dor local e parestesias, com fluxos arteriais palpáveis. Os diplopodas são artrópodos cilíndricos segmentados que assumem posição enrodilhada - quando ameaçados - liberam quinonas e outros agentes irritativos e pigmentantes. A coloração de aspecto cianótico lembra sofrimento tissular isquêmico, o que pode confundir profissionais em atendimentos de Emergência, quando a história não apresenta clareza e coerência.A 24 year-old patient reported having stepped on a millipede. When examined the patient presented cyanotic and erythematous macules on the first three toes of his right foot, and also complained of local pain and paresthesia, with palpable arterial flows. Millipedes are cylindrical segmented arthropods that when threatened form into curls and release quinones and other irritant and pigmentary substances. The cyanotic color reminds ischaemic tissular distress fact that may confuse professionals in Emergency Rooms when the clinical report is unclear.

  10. Biodiversidad del complejo de artrópodos asociados al follaje de la vegetación del norte de Chile, II región Biodiversity of the canopy arthropods associated to vegetation of the north of Chile, II region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO SAIZ

    2000-12-01

    -Andean Tropical (or Tropical Marginal, TM, and Andean Tropical (or Tropical de Altura, TA. Canopy arthropods were collected by beating plant foliage. Meanwhile defoliating, mining and cecidia forming insects were sampled by collecting them directly from plant organs. A total of 97 plant species distributed in 28 families were collected and identified. The DL had the lowest plant biodiversity, meanwhile DI and TM ecological zones were the richest. Most of DL plant species were unique, meanwhile most of DI vegetation was also included in TM At family level, Asteraceae was the most diverse, followed by Chenopodiaceae, Solanaceae, Nolanaceae, Fabaceae and Portulacaceae in a decreasing order. Asteraceae and Chenopodiaceae were distributed over all ecological zones. Both, water and ash leaf and stems content varied considerably among ecological zones, according to the following decreasing gradient: DL > DI > TM > TA. On the contrary, nitrogen leaf content was less variable, with the exception of TA zone species having very low values. Nitrogen stems content was more homogeneous than leaf content. From a global point of view, a decreasing gradient for all these nutritional elements was found from DL to TA zones, closely related to altitudinal gradient. At family level, Asteraceae showed a decreasing gradient of water content from coast to Andes. Meanwhile, their leaf ash content was significantly different among DL and TM species only. Stems ash content was not significantly different. A total amount of 12,893 canopy arthropod specimens were collected, distributed among 464 morphospecies and 19 zoological groups, considering Homoptera as a group. Homoptera, Hemiptera and Lepidoptera larvae showed a higher species richness among phytophagous insects, as well as Hymenoptera among parasitoids and Araneae among predators. Both, at species and number of individual level, DL and TM presented a higher concentration of arthropods, as well as number of plant species where they were collected

  11. Composición y abundancia de artrópodos epígeos del Parque Nacional Llanos de Challe: impactos del ENOS de 1997 y efectos del hábitat pedológico Abundance and composition of epigean arthropods from Llanos de Challe National Park: impacts of ENSO-1997 and effects of the pedological habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE CEPEDA-PIZARRO

    2005-12-01

    -activity of epigean arthropods -Tenebrionidae in particular- inhabiting at Llanos de Challe National Park were investigated. This park is located in the Chile's transitional coastal desert, Atacama's III Region. Sampling was conducted during three days per month (september, october and december in the period of maximal biological activity of the system, and in 1989 (dry no-ENSO year, 1997 (intense ENSO-year, and 2000 (damp no-ENSO year. Two pedological contrasting sites were used to compare the effects of the factors being examined: a coastal dune habitat and an interior stony habitat. The presence of 15 orders of Arthropoda was recorded. Hexapods made the > 95 % of total specimens captured (9,065 individuals, with Collembola (36.1 % and Coleoptera (29.8 % being the orders with the highest numerical representativeness. The numbers of orders with active members varied slightly among years: 13 orders were recorded in 1989 (44 % rainfall below the average, 15 in 1997 (443 % rainfall above the average, and 11 in 2000 (52 % above average. The effect of the ENSO event was clearly reflected in the numerical contribution both for the years studied and for most of the recorded taxa. Although more subtlety, this effect was also reflected in the assemblage composition of dominant taxa and between pedological habitats, particularly in regard to Tenebrionidae and Formicidae. Specially in the coastal dunes, Tenebrionidae clearly dominated the assemblage of epigean arthropods, being Gyriosomus Guérin-Méneville the most abundant and diverse genus. The dominance of Gyriosomus sets a number of questions regarding the levels of endemism, species diversity and distribution, and their functional role in the ecosystem studied

  12. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Insects and Other Arthropods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research into the possible application of the radiation sterilization method of population suppression is now under way on a number of insects that attack man, animals and a variety of crops. These exploratory investigations have shown that ionizing irradiation will induce sterility but there is considerable variation in the amounts needed. The research also suggests that radiation damage may in some cases prevent application of the method to some insects. A frequent obstacle that must be overcome is lack of practical mass-rearing methods. Some insects also appeartobeso abundant that the use of the technique may not be feasible without first processing the infested area with other control measures to bring wild populations within reach. Despite these difficulties, when conditions are favourable, few other approaches to the control of pests are so potentially rewarding. The radiation sterilization method may also be thought of as a possible means of delaying development of infestation until crops are harvested. The present paper reports on the influence-of gamma radiation on the reproductive potential, sexual aggressiveness, vigour and longevity of the oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel, the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coq., the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied., the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, and results of practical field trials of the sterile-male release method of population suppression. Progress in the campaign to eradicate the screw-worm, Cochliomyia hominivora Cqrl., in the United States and in studies to develop vigorous genetically marked strains that will permit ready identifications of released sterile flies is reviewed. Results of irradiation research on six additional species that infest fruit, vegetable, field and forest crops, three that attack livestock, three that largely affect man, the effects of irradiation on the scorpion, Centruroides limpid us Karsch, and the Lone-Star tick, Amblyomma americanum L., and ionizing radiation as a possible quarantine treatment for fruits and vegetables infested with fruit flies and mangoes infested with the mango weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae Fabricius, are also discussed. (author)

  13. Removal of arthropods in the spring “trash floods”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flooding of cranberry marshes is a common practice in the spring. It is intended primarily to clean out detritus while protecting against frost danger. The water is sometimes held for longer periods to reduce pest populations. We examined the detritus being hauled off of flooded beds for any evidenc...

  14. Synthesis of (−)-callicarpenal, a potent arthropod-repellent

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Taotao; Xu, Jing; Smith, Ryan; Ali, Abbas; Cantrell, Charles L.; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A.

    2011-01-01

    Callicarpenal (1), a natural terpenoid isolated from American beautyberry (Callicarpa americana), has shown significant repellent activities against mosquitoes, ticks and imported fire ants. Here we report our efficient synthetic approach to this natural product, and preliminary results of the mosquito biting-deterrent effects of callicarpenal as well as its synthetic precursors and related C8-epimers. The synthetic strategy allows rapid access to various epimers and analogues of the natural ...

  15. Predation by ants on arthropods and other animals

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdá, Xim; Dejean, A

    2011-01-01

    Ants are the most widely distributed and most numerically abundant group of social insects. First, they were ground- or litter-dwelling predators or scavengers, and certain taxa evolved to adopt an arboreal way of life. Most ant species are generalist feeders, and only some ground-nesting and ground- foraging species are strictly predators. Ants are central-place foragers (with the exception of army ants during the nomadic phase) that may use different foraging strategies. Solitary hunting is...

  16. Impact of Bt potatoes on non-target arthropods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedvěd, Oldřich; Spitzer, Lukáš; Kalushkov, P.

    České Budějovice: Biology Centre of Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 2009 - (Sehnal, F.; Drobník, J.), s. 67-67 ISBN 978-80-86668-05-3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bt potatoes Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  17. [Human diffusion of arthropod disease vectors throughout the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, J; Giacomini, T; Julvez, J

    1995-01-01

    The present distribution of animals and plants throughout the world is the result of an evolutionary process involving tectonic, climatic and biotic factors. Humans, since their appearance, have contributed to the spreading of many species including disease vectors and pests. When humans left their native African home, they brought with them ectoparasites such as lice and acarids. During the neolithic era, humans were leading domesticated animals which carried their own parasites into new areas. Dwelling commensals, flea, bugs, triatomids, flies, and cockroaches followed human migrations. In the second millennium, sailboats transported mosquito species which were resistant and reproduced on board, including Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Ae. albopictus. Steamers further shortened the length of trips and allowed the transport of anophelines. The opening of the Tamatave-Port-Louis line was immediately followed by the transport of An. gambiae from Madagascar to Mauritius and Reunion, and epidemics of malaria occurred on the two islands which had been free of the disease. Also, An. gambiae was transported from Senegal to Brazil. Old tires destined for recycling carried Ae. albopictus to the USA, Brazil, and then Italy. The pandemic of the plague at the end of the nineteenth century was propagated from harbour to harbour by steamers carrying both infected rats and their fleas Xenopsylla cheopsis. Aircrafts have reduced the travel time so much that in less than two days an insect could reach every point of the world. As soon as the airports had been built on the islands of French Polynesia, they were all colonized by Ae. aegypti. The same phenomenon occurred with midges (Fig. 2). Also, the construction of the airport on a Galapagos Island coincided with the importation of the blackfly Simulium bipunctatum from the continent. In addition, infected malaria mosquitos imported from tropical countries reached Europe and contaminated airport employees and local inhabitants. Six cases of malaria were recorded during the summer of 1994 around the Charles de Gaulle Airport, north of Paris, suggesting that the anophelines could have been imported from West and Central African countries which are served by this airport. The serious threat of vector importation is moderated by the vector's difficulty in adapting to new conditions. However any prediction is questionable. PMID:8777543

  18. Quantifying uncertainty in estimation of global arthropod species richness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamilton, J. A.; Basset, Y.; Benke, K. K.; Grimbacher, P. S.; Miller, S. E.; Novotný, Vojtěch; Samuelson, G. A.; Stork, N. E.; Weiblen, G. D.; Yen, J. D. L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 176, č. 1 (2010), s. 90-95. ISSN 0003-0147 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Coleoptera * host specificity * Latin hypercube sampling Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.736, year: 2010

  19. Irradiation quarantine treatment research against arthropods other than fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation was studied as a treatment to stop development or reproduction of several insects. Reproduction of 25,000 adult plum curculios was stopped with 92 Gy. Reproduction of over 30,000 adult sweet potato weevils was prevented with 165 Gy. Adult development of over 30 000 last instar oriental fruit moths was stopped with 200 Gy. Preliminary studies showed that at least 350 Gy was needed to prevent reproduction of late pupae of sugarcane borer, southwestern corn borer, and Mexican rice borer. Over 400 Gy was required to stop egg hatch and development past first instar from irradiated adult Indianmeal moth. No reproduction occurred from 220 adult female West Indian sugarcane root borers irradiated with 50 Gy. (author)

  20. Cadmium and mercury effects on cellular immunity in terrestrial arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, J.E.; Klaine, S.J. [Inst. of Wildlife and Environmental Toxicology, Pendleton, SC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Toxicology

    1995-12-31

    The field cricket, Acheta domesticus, was used as a test organism to determine the effects of heavy metal exposure on cellular immunity. Insects were separated by sex and exposed to cadmium chloride or mercuric chloride at concentrations of 0, 2.5, and 5.0 ug/g. Exposures consisted of injecting the chemicals into the hemocoel of each insect on days 0, 2, and 4. Hemolymph was collected on day 7 of the study to determine total hemocyte counts, protein levels, and phenoloxidase activity in individual insects. Cadmium chloride decreased the total number of hemocytes in male crickets at 2.5 and 5.0 ug/g and in female crickets at 5.0 ug/g. Protein levels increased in a dose dependent manner in the males but only slightly increased in the females. Mercuric chloride caused a dose-dependent increase in total hemocytes in both male and female crickets. In addition, mercuric chloride caused a dose-dependent increase in protein levels in males but not females.

  1. Molecular Characterization and Evolution of Arthropod-Pathogenic Rickettsiella Bacteria▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaux, Richard; Paces-Fessy, Mélanie; Raimond, Maryline; Michel-Salzat, Alice; Zimmer, Martin; Bouchon, Didier

    2007-01-01

    We determined the 16S rRNA gene sequences of three crustacean “Rickettsiella armadillidii” strains. Rickettsiella bacteria overall appear to form a monophyletic group that diverged from Coxiella bacteria ∼350 million years ago. Therefore, the genus Rickettsiella as a whole (not just Rickettsiella grylli) should be classified among the Gammaproteobacteria instead of the Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:17557851

  2. Crayfish Behavior: Observing Arthropods to Learn about Science & Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rop, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    This is a set of animal behavior investigations in which students will practice scientific inquiry as they observe crayfish, ask questions, and discuss territoriality, social interactions, and other behaviors. In doing this, they hone their skills of observation, learn to record and analyze data, control for variables, write hypotheses, make…

  3. Molecular Characterization and Evolution of Arthropod-Pathogenic Rickettsiella Bacteria▿

    OpenAIRE

    Cordaux, Richard; Paces-Fessy, Mélanie; Raimond, Maryline; Michel-Salzat, Alice; Zimmer, Martin; Bouchon, Didier

    2007-01-01

    We determined the 16S rRNA gene sequences of three crustacean “Rickettsiella armadillidii” strains. Rickettsiella bacteria overall appear to form a monophyletic group that diverged from Coxiella bacteria ∼350 million years ago. Therefore, the genus Rickettsiella as a whole (not just Rickettsiella grylli) should be classified among the Gammaproteobacteria instead of the Alphaproteobacteria.

  4. Arthropod food-webs on man-made lake islands

    OpenAIRE

    Biermann, Erich

    2014-01-01

    Food webs are the dynamic structure of natural ecosystems. Island biogeographical and meta-community perspectives have aided food web research in spatially delimiting and opening the the studied object at the same time. While islands and habitat fragments have become empirical representations of spatially delimited focal habitat patches and their dynamics, considering the dispersal of organisms between them has opened new perspectives on community assembly and the maintenance of biodiversity....

  5. Dengue: an arthropod-borne disease of global importance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, A.T.; Wagenaar, J.; Brandjes, D.P.; Gorp, E. van

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viruses cause a variable spectrum of disease that ranges from an undifferentiated fever to dengue fever to the potentially fatal dengue shock syndrome. Due to the increased incidence and geographical distribution of dengue in the last 50 years, dengue is becoming increasingly recognised as on

  6. Travelers' Health: Protection against Mosquitoes, Ticks, and Other Arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visiting Friends and Family in Areas with Chikungunya, Dengue, or Zika Travel to the Olympics Infographic: Olympic ... measures exist for other mosquitoborne diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, Zika, and West Nile encephalitis or tickborne ...

  7. Collection & Processing of Medically Important Arthropods for Arbovirus Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudia, W. Daniel; Chamberlain, Roy W.

    The methods given for collecting, preserving, and processing mosquitoes and other archropods for isolation of arboviruses are those used by the National Communicable Disease Center. Techniques of collecting mosquitoes as they bite, using light or bait traps, and from their daytime resting sites are described and illustrated. Details of subsequent…

  8. Endogenous recipes for controlling arthropod ectoparasites of domestic poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salifou, Sahidou; Offoumon, Oyéniran Thierry La Fronde; Gouissi, Fadéby Modeste; Pangui, Louis-Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This study is a contribution to the inventory of medicinal plants and other methods used in controlling external parasitic diseases of backyard poultry in the localities of Djougou and Ouaké (department of Donga, Benin). It consists of a survey undertaken from December 2010 to March 2011 through visits and interviews with 210 poultry famers. The results indicate that 13 species of medicinal plants are used in controlling ectoparasites. Annona senegalensis, Tectona grandis, Securidaca longepedunculata, Indigofera hirsuta, Lophira lanceolata, Hyptis spicigera, Steganotaenia araliacea, Oxytenanthera abyssinica, Nicotiana tabacum, Jatropha curcas, Ficus exasperata, Azadirachta indica and Parkia biglobosa are believed to treat external parasitic diseases in the area of this study. Annona senegalensis was the most frequently cited plant (18%, p < 0.05) used in remedies against external parasites in poultry. Other traditional recipes such as palm oil and ash have been reported. PMID:24252957

  9. Areas of concern for the evaluation of transgenic arthropods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areas of concern for the release of transgenic insects relate to risks associated with: (1) the host insect involved, (2) the vector used for gene transfer, (3) genes of interest within the vector including markers, and (4) the expected persistence of the transgenic strain in the environment. The transgenic insect must be considered in terms of whether it is a pest or beneficial insect and risks relevant to its use as a non-transgenic insect. The vector used for gene transfer must be considered in terms of its mobility properties in the host insect and its potential for intra-genomic and inter-genomic movement, potentially mediated by a cross-mobilizing system. Intra-genomic movement may influence the expected expression and activity of gene of interest within the transgene, possibly having unanticipated effects on the host and, thus, program effectiveness. Inter-genomic movement is of considerable importance since risks must be evaluated in terms of the effects of the vector system and genes of interest on a multitude of potential host organisms. Risk assessment for transgene stability requires methods for transformant identification and a full genetic analysis of the transformed genome so changes in transgene presence or movement can be rapidly and reliably determined. Genes of interest within the transgene must be evaluated in terms of their affect on the host insect, and the potential influence of their gene products on the environment and other organisms should the transgene be transmitted to another host. These factors must be considered individually, their interaction with one another, and also in the context of transformant strain persistence in the field. (author)

  10. The effects of distinct herbicide regimes in soil arthropods

    OpenAIRE

    Simão, Fátima Cristina Paulino

    2011-01-01

    As práticas agrícolas têm sido associadas a perdas em larga escala a nível da biodiversidade. No entanto, elementos como as margens dos campos, são con-siderados importantes e com potencial para diminuir os impactes da agricultura ao promover fontes de alimento e refúgio. No entanto, os pesticidas e em parti-cular os herbicidas podem afectar estas áreas e provocar impactes nas comu-nidades que dependem destas estruturas. Devido à sua sensibilidade a pertur-bações, os artrópodes são um grupo i...

  11. Arthropods and the Current Great Mass Extinction: Effective Themes to Decrease Arthropod Fear and Disgust and Increase Positive Environmental Beliefs in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Amy; Wagler, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Earth is experiencing a great mass extinction (GME) that has been caused by the environmentally destructive activities of humans. This GME is having and will have profound effects on Earth's biodiversity if environmental sustainability is not reached. Activities and curriculum tools have been developed to assist teachers in integrating the…

  12. The Potential for the Integration of Nuclear Techniques in Arthropod Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological control is today being practised more widely than ever before and its popularity looks set to increase further in the future. While the discipline has historically been dominated by 'classical' biological control (the one-off introduction of natural enemies to control pests in their adventive range) augmentative biological control (the repeated introduction of biocontrol agents to a particular crop or forest) has increased substantially over the past 20 years and is likely to increase in importance further in the future. This view is supported by an assessment of some of the key issues facing the discipline of biological control today. There is no clear role for nuclear techniques in the future of classical biological control. However the use of irradiation as a means of creating increased rates of mutation in natural enemy populations being selected for enhanced beneficial traits (such as insecticide resistance), might be useful and could be investigated further. There is scope for the use of irradiation in killing or sterilising insect diets and hosts, a technique which has been used for over 25 years without gaining wide acceptance. Augmentative biological control as an adjunct to SIT may have a role in future pest control campaigns, although it is likely to prove difficult to provide a clear economic justification given the technical difficulties of measuring separately the effects of the two techniques. It is suggested that the technical advances in project development and implementation (e.g. insect rearing techniques and field application) which have been made by SIT practitioners have a potentially useful role in assisting the development of improved production and delivery of biological control agents for augmentative release (author)

  13. Modeling locomotion of a soft-bodied arthropod using inverse dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Frank; Trimmer, Barry A; Rife, Jason, E-mail: Frank.Saunders@tufts.edu [Tufts University, 204 Anderson Hall, 200 College Avenue, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Most bio-inspired robots have been based on animals with jointed, stiff skeletons. There is now an increasing interest in mimicking the robust performance of animals in natural environments by incorporating compliant materials into the locomotory system. However, the mechanics of moving, highly conformable structures are particularly difficult to predict. This paper proposes a planar, extensible-link model for the soft-bodied tobacco hornworm caterpillar, Manduca sexta, to provide insight for biologists and engineers studying locomotion by highly deformable animals and caterpillar-like robots. Using inverse dynamics to process experimentally acquired point-tracking data, ground reaction forces and internal forces were determined for a crawling caterpillar. Computed ground reaction forces were compared to experimental data to validate the model. The results show that a system of linked extendable joints can faithfully describe the general form and magnitude of the contact forces produced by a crawling caterpillar. Furthermore, the model can be used to compute internal forces that cannot be measured experimentally. It is predicted that between different body segments in stance phase the body is mostly kept in tension and that compression only occurs during the swing phase when the prolegs release their grip. This finding supports a recently proposed mechanism for locomotion by soft animals in which the substrate transfers compressive forces from one part of the body to another (the environmental skeleton) thereby minimizing the need for hydrostatic stiffening. The model also provides a new means to characterize and test control strategies used in caterpillar crawling and soft robot locomotion.

  14. Arthropod and decomposition studies at the WIPP site, October-November, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These studies were conducted to address topics related to potential environmental impacts resulting from WIPP construction at the Los Medanos site. Studies include the effect of salt piles on soil microarthropod faunas and soil community respiration, quantities of soil moved from deep in the soil column to the surface by termites and ants, and development and testing of a multiple regression model for predicting decomposition. Soil cores were taken at increasing distances from the twenty-year-old salt dump at the Nash Draw Potash facility and examined for microarthropod content and tested for other biological activity. Although there were some reductions in densities of most taxa at the base of the salt pile and at 100 m from the base, all of the dominant soil taxa from the area were found at the base of the pile. If a substantial adverse impact occurred soon after emplacement of the salt, recovery has been relatively complete. Substantial changes in these baseline population densities during or after construction could be indicators of impact to the ecology of the Los Medanos site. A model was developed to predict rates of decomposition of shinnery oak litter based on evapotranspiration and lignin content. The model was less successful in predicting the decomposition rate of creosotebush litter, as removal of litter by termites produced large variances in apparent decomposition rates

  15. Can periodically drained ponds have any potential for terrestrial arthropods conservation? A pilot survey of spiders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tropek, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2012), s. 635-639. ISSN 1505-2249 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/2525; GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : anthropogenic sites * Araneae * colonisation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.503, year: 2012

  16. Estimating global arthropod species richness: refining probabilistic models using probability bounds analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamilton, A. J.; Novotný, Vojtěch; Waters, E. K.; Basset, Y.; Benke, K. K.; Grimbacher, P. S.; Miller, S. E.; Samuelson, G. A.; Weiblen, G. D.; Yen, J. D. L.; Stork, N. E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 171, č. 2 (2013), s. 357-365. ISSN 0029-8549 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11008; GA ČR GA206/09/0115 Grant ostatní: Czech Ministry of Education(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064; National Science Foundarion(US) DEB-0841885; Otto Kinne Foundation, Darwin Initiative(GB) 19-008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : host specificity * model * Monte Carlo Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.248, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00442-012-2434-5

  17. Larval Cryptothelea gloverii (Lepidoptera: Psychidae), an arthropod predator and herbivore on Florida citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Raul T; Rodrigues, Jose C V; Childers, Carl C

    2005-01-01

    The orange bagworm (OBW), Cryptothelea gloverii (Packard) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) was previously reported feeding on citrus fruit and foliage and preying upon the camphor scale Pseudaonidia duplex (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Coccidae). In this study using laboratory assays, OBW preyed upon citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) (Acari: Eriophyidae) and consumed eggs and adults of both P. oleivora and Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), two important pest mites on Florida citrus. OBW was also observed to feed on the purple scale, Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and on a fungus (Penicillium sp.). OBW fed on orange and grapefruit leaves by starting from the border and eating part of the leaf, by chewing holes, or consuming the outer epithelium of either the axial or abaxial surface of the leaf without penetrating through the leaf. OBW was observed in orange orchards in association with fruit extensively russeted by P. oleivora feeding. Laboratory assays revealed that OBW larvae preferred to feed on oranges infested with P. oleivora rather than on clean fruits that were free of mite feeding damage. Feeding damage to citrus fruit by OBW larvae results in one to several holes being eaten into the rind or albedo, without damage to the fruit sacs. PMID:16082926

  18. Development of Semiochemical Based Control Programs for Arthropod Pests of Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years the apiculture industry has experienced serious problems from serious invasions by exotic pests including Varroa destructor and the Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida. Control of these pests is difficult and problematic because Honey bees are extremely sensitive to pesticides and the...

  19. Spatial and spatiotemporal variation in metapopulation structure affects population dynamics in a passively dispersing arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roissart, Annelies; Wang, Shaopeng; Bonte, Dries

    2015-11-01

    The spatial and temporal variation in the availability of suitable habitat within metapopulations determines colonization-extinction events, regulates local population sizes and eventually affects local population and metapopulation stability. Insights into the impact of such a spatiotemporal variation on the local population and metapopulation dynamics are principally derived from classical metapopulation theory and have not been experimentally validated. By manipulating spatial structure in artificial metapopulations of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, we test to which degree spatial (mainland-island metapopulations) and spatiotemporal variation (classical metapopulations) in habitat availability affects the dynamics of the metapopulations relative to systems where habitat is constantly available in time and space (patchy metapopulations). Our experiment demonstrates that (i) spatial variation in habitat availability decreases variance in metapopulation size and decreases density-dependent dispersal at the metapopulation level, while (ii) spatiotemporal variation in habitat availability increases patch extinction rates, decreases local population and metapopulation sizes and decreases density dependence in population growth rates. We found dispersal to be negatively density dependent and overall low in the spatial variable mainland-island metapopulation. This demographic variation subsequently impacts local and regional population dynamics and determines patterns of metapopulation stability. Both local and metapopulation-level variabilities are minimized in mainland-island metapopulations relative to classical and patchy ones. PMID:25988264

  20. Field evaluations of topical arthropod repellents in North, Central, and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, vector-borne diseases have been resurging in endemic areas and expanding their geographic range into non-endemic areas. This creates a major public health concern as naïve populations are exposed to pathogens that cause these diseases. Personal topical repellents, recommended by the CDC an...

  1. Interplay between De Novo Biosynthesis and Sequestration of Cyanogenic Glucosides in Arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel

    Cyanogenic glucosides (CNglcs) are phytoanticipins that are present in more than 2650 plant species. They play an important role in defense against generalist herbivory due to their bitter taste and their hydrolysis upon tissue disruption results in release of toxic hydrogen cyanide. Zygaena larvae...

  2. Phylogenetic niche conservatism explains an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient in freshwater arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinière, Jérôme; van Dam, Matthew H.; Hawlitschek, Oliver; Bergsten, Johannes; Michat, Mariano C.; Hendrich, Lars; Ribera, Ignacio; Toussaint, Emmanuel F. A.; Balke, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The underlying mechanisms responsible for the general increase in species richness from temperate regions to the tropics remain equivocal. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this astonishing pattern but additional empirical studies are needed to shed light on the drivers at work. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of the cosmopolitan diving beetle subfamily Colymbetinae, the majority of which are found in the Northern hemisphere, hence exhibiting an inversed latitudinal diversity gradient. We reconstructed a dated phylogeny using 12 genes, to investigate the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics in the Colymbetinae. We aimed to identify the role that phylogenetic niche conservatism plays in the inversed diversification pattern seen in this group. Our results suggest that Colymbetinae originated in temperate climates, which supports the hypothesis that their distribution is the result of an ancestral adaptation to temperate environmental conditions rather than tropical origins, and that temperate niche conservatism can generate and/or maintain inverse latitudinal diversity gradients.

  3. Metacommunity versus biogeography: a case study of two groups of neotropical vegetation-dwelling arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Gonçalves-Souza

    Full Text Available Biogeography and metacommunity ecology provide two different perspectives on species diversity. Both are spatial in nature but their spatial scales do not necessarily match. With recent boom of metacommunity studies, we see an increasing need for clear discrimination of spatial scales relevant for both perspectives. This discrimination is a necessary prerequisite for improved understanding of ecological phenomena across scales. Here we provide a case study to illustrate some spatial scale-dependent concepts in recent metacommunity studies and identify potential pitfalls. We presented here the diversity patterns of Neotropical lepidopterans and spiders viewed both from metacommunity and biogeographical perspectives. Specifically, we investigated how the relative importance of niche- and dispersal-based processes for community assembly change at two spatial scales: metacommunity scale, i.e. within a locality, and biogeographical scale, i.e. among localities widely scattered along a macroclimatic gradient. As expected, niche-based processes dominated the community assembly at metacommunity scale, while dispersal-based processes played a major role at biogeographical scale for both taxonomical groups. However, we also observed small but significant spatial effects at metacommunity scale and environmental effects at biogeographical scale. We also observed differences in diversity patterns between the two taxonomical groups corresponding to differences in their dispersal modes. Our results thus support the idea of continuity of processes interactively shaping diversity patterns across scales and emphasize the necessity of integration of metacommunity and biogeographical perspectives.

  4. Response of Green Peach Aphids and Other Arthropods to Garlic Intercropped with Tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, R.; You, M.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Vasseur, L.

    2011-01-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is an insect pest that causes extensive damage to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) in China. Field trials were conducted in 2008 and 2009 at Longyan in the Fujian Province (China) to evaluate the effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as a deterrent to gr

  5. Bt Crop Effects on Functional Guilds of Non-target Arthropods: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncertainty continues to persist over the potential environmental effects of crops genetically engineered to produce the insecticidal Cry toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Little work has examined broader impacts on ecological function of non-target species within agroecosystems. Here we use me...

  6. Spontaneous succession in limestone quarries as an effective restoration tool for endangered arthropods and plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tropek, R.; Kadlec, T.; Karešová, P.; Spitzer, L.; Kočárek, P.; Malenovský, I.; Baňař, P.; Tuf, I.H.; Hejda, Martin; Konvička, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2010), s. 139-147. ISSN 0021-8901 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H044; GA ČR GD206/08/H049; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant ostatní: Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia(CZ) SGA2008/005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : artificial biotopes * biodiversity conservation * landscape restoration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.970, year: 2010

  7. Non-insecticide methods for controlling arthropod vectors of zoonotic and other pathogens in layer flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparagano, O. A. E.; Arkle, S.; George, D.;

    as natural "green" acaricides for managing D. gallinae populations in poultry housing systems. Preliminary work by Kim et al. (2004) tested 56 plant essential oils for their acaricidal effect on D. gallinae. Of these, oils from bay, cade, cinnamon, clove bud, coriander, horseradish, lime dis 5F, mustard......, pennyroyal, pimento berry, spearmint and thyme all gave 100% mite mortality in contact toxicity tests at a concentration of 0.07 mg of oil per cm2. Further experiments by the authors showed that the acaricidal effect of selected oils was attributable to action in the vapour phase. Neem oil has also been...... tested against D. gallinae, with a 92% reduction in mite numbers in poultry houses fitted with traps containing 20% oil in water, as compared to houses that contained traps with water alone (Lundh et al., 2005). Finally, garlic oils and extracts appear to hold promise for poultry mite management...

  8. Arthropod diversity in pristine vs. managed beech forests in Transcarpathia (Western Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Chumak

    2015-01-01

    We conclude that biodiversity in pristine beech forests is not generally higher than in managed beech forests. However, the much higher amount of dead wood in pristine forests provides a source habitat for saproxylic species spreading into managed forest plots in the same region, but not to distant forests, far from virgin forests, such as in Western Europe.

  9. Influence of different nutritional sources on haemolymph composition and vitellogenesis in haematophagous arthropods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two laboratory strains of the argasid tick, Ornithodoros moubata, were established by feeding them on pig or bovine blood. After three generations, significant differences were observed between identical stages in the unfed body weight of nymphs 2-4 and the female repletion rates, feeding times, number of eggs laid per female, and the pre-oviposition and oviposition periods. Ticks fed on pig blood showed higher absolute values and shorter time periods for these statistics. Females fed on bovine blood had a greater output of eggs and egg mass per milligram of blood ingested. However, no significant variations were noticed in the weight of eggs and larvae between unfed first nymphs and males. The time required for embryogenesis, larval development and premoulting periods, as well as the sex ratio, did not differ between colonies. Regulation of the haemolymph volume during the gonotrophic cycle followed very similar patterns in the two experimental lines. The female tick is able to maintain a constant ratio of about 22% between the haemolymph volume and the body weight throughout the whole oviposition period. Examination of haemolymph during the gonotrophic cycle, as well as investigation of eggs and larvae, revealed a higher amount of total lipid contents and major lipid classes in ticks raised on pig blood. However, the distribution and utilization of lipid components exhibited common characteristics. From these results it is concluded that the variations observed between the laboratory colonies should not be attributed to qualitative differences between pig and bovine blood, but rather to the absolute quantities of blood ingested. In the haemolymph of female O. moubata three host serum proteins (albumin, IgG and transferrin) could be demonstrated immediately after feeding and for 4 additional days thereafter. This passage of undigested bloodmeal components is discussed in relation to the concept of a leaky gut. (author). 26 refs, 3 figs, 8 tabs

  10. Amblypygids: Model Organisms for the Study of Arthropod Navigation Mechanisms in Complex Environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Daniel D; Hebets, Eileen A; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Graving, Jacob M; Bingman, Verner P

    2016-01-01

    Navigation is an ideal behavioral model for the study of sensory system integration and the neural substrates associated with complex behavior. For this broader purpose, however, it may be profitable to develop new model systems that are both tractable and sufficiently complex to ensure that information derived from a single sensory modality and path integration are inadequate to locate a goal. Here, we discuss some recent discoveries related to navigation by amblypygids, nocturnal arachnids that inhabit the tropics and sub-tropics. Nocturnal displacement experiments under the cover of a tropical rainforest reveal that these animals possess navigational abilities that are reminiscent, albeit on a smaller spatial scale, of true-navigating vertebrates. Specialized legs, called antenniform legs, which possess hundreds of olfactory and tactile sensory hairs, and vision appear to be involved. These animals also have enormous mushroom bodies, higher-order brain regions that, in insects, integrate contextual cues and may be involved in spatial memory. In amblypygids, the complexity of a nocturnal rainforest may impose navigational challenges that favor the integration of information derived from multimodal cues. Moreover, the movement of these animals is easily studied in the laboratory and putative neural integration sites of sensory information can be manipulated. Thus, amblypygids could serve as model organisms for the discovery of neural substrates associated with a unique and potentially sophisticated navigational capability. The diversity of habitats in which amblypygids are found also offers an opportunity for comparative studies of sensory integration and ecological selection pressures on navigation mechanisms. PMID:27014008

  11. Bt crop effects on functional guilds of non-target arthropods: A meta-analysis (journal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Uncertainty persists over the environmental effects of genetically-engineered crops that produce the insecticidal Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). We performed meta-analyses on a modified public database to synthesize current knowledge about the effects of...

  12. Cover Cropping Alters the Diet of Arthropods in a Banana Plantation: A Metabarcoding Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Mollot; Pierre-François Duyck; Pierre Lefeuvre; Françoise Lescourret; Jean-François Martin; Sylvain Piry; Elsa Canard; Philippe Tixier

    2014-01-01

    PLoS OneISI Document Delivery No.: AE6LCTimes Cited: 0Cited Reference Count: 50Mollot, Gregory Duyck, Pierre-Francois Lefeuvre, Pierre Lescourret, Francoise Martin, Jean-Francois Piry, Sylvain Canard, Elsa Tixier, PhilippeCirad; e.u. fefer [30411]This research is a part of a PhD funded by the CIRAD and funded by the project "sustainable cropping systems design'' from E.U. FEFER (grant PRESAGE no 30411). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish...

  13. Bottom-up effects of soil quality on a coffee arthropod interaction web

    OpenAIRE

    Gonthier, DJ; Dominguez, GM; Witter, JD; Spongberg, AL; Philpott, SM

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient availability and soil quality influence herbivores through changes in plant traits and can have cascading effects on herbivore interactions. In complex systems, with many positive and negative interactions, the consequences of these bottom-up effects are still not well established. We carried out a set of studies to determine the impact of soil quality (organic compost amendments) on a hemipteran herbivore (Coccus viridis), two ant mutualists, predators, pathogens, parasitoids of C. ...

  14. Arthropods biodiversity index in Bollgard (R) cotton (CRy1Ac) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Thomazoni, D.; Ferreira Soria, M.; Degrande, P.E.; Faccenda, O.; Silvie, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Shannon-Wiener's diversity index (SWI) was used under untreated conditions of a cotton field during the 2006/2007 crop season in the Cerrado region, Brazil. Comparison was carried out between the transgenic NuOpal (R) (BollgarD (R))(Cry1Ac) and the non-transgenic isogenic variety DeltaOpal (R). SWI was calculated for target pests, non-target herbivores and predators groups. Two sampling methods were used: whole plant observation and beat sheet. As expected, the mean number of target pests, es...

  15. Freeze dried blood and development of an artificial diet for blood feeding arthropods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of the research were to determine the biochemical differences between freeze dried bovine and porcine blood relative to their nutritional value to Glossina palpalis palpalis and Stomoxys calcitrans and to develop an artificial diet for mass rearing these flies. Freeze dried bovine and porcine blood were found to differ in their amino acid content; total dietary lipids did not significantly differ, but some notable exceptions were found in fatty acid content. Both sonication and addition of foetal bovine serum to freeze dried bovine blood improved its nutritional value for G. p. palpalis. A two component, semi-defined artificial diet was developed for G. p. palpalis and S. calcitrans. The College Station diet consisted of lipid contaminated bovine haemoglobin (BHb) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). To conduct dietary deletion tests, a process was developed for preparing large quantities of ultrapure lipid free bovine haemoglobin. S. calcitrans fed on lipid free BHb plus BSA had zero fecundity. Lipids were re-added to the protein diet in three forms: (1) lipid contaminated BHb, (2) pure erythrocyte ghosts, and (3) pure lipids. It was found that membrane lipid from the erythrocyte is required by S. calcitrans. A defined artificial diet consisting of lipid free BHb, BSA, sphingomyelin, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl serine and cholesterol gave normal adult survival, as well as near normal fecundity and percentage egg hatch for S. calcitrans. Knowing the identity of the lipids, it is now possible to prepare dietary formulations to alleviate dependency on the blood proteins BHb and BSA. (author). 34 refs, 1 fig., 15 tabs

  16. Microbial management of arthropod pests of tea: current state and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Somnath; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable tea cultivation will rely increasingly on alternatives to conventional chemical insecticides for pest management that are environment-friendly and reduce the amount of pesticide residues in made tea. Entomopathogens can provide effective control, conserve biodiversity, and serve as alternatives to chemical insecticides under several conditions. Due to their specificity for insects, these pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and fungi are ideal candidates for incorporation in the integrated pest management strategies for tea where their effects on other natural enemies will be minimal. Biological and ecological characteristics of several dominant natural entomopathogenic microorganisms have been well documented throughout the tea-growing countries particularly China, Japan, and India. But research to convert them to microbial insecticide formulations for tea pest control by evolving suitable techniques for production, standardization, formulation, and application has not progressed well except in Japan and China to some extent. Increased use of microbial control will depend on a variety of factors including improvements in the pathogens' virulence, formulation, delivery, etc. and an increased awareness of their attributes by growers and the general public. In this review, we provide an overview of microbial control of the key insect pests of tea and also the scope for future studies for their better utilization. PMID:24760230

  17. Restoration management of fly ash deposits crucially influence their conservation potential for terrestrial arthropods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tropek, Robert; Černá, Ilona; Straka, J.; Kadlec, T.; Pech, P.; Tichánek, P.; Šebek, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 73, Dec 1 (2014), s. 45-52. ISSN 0925-8574 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/2525 Grant ostatní: GA JU(CZ) 160/2010/P; GA JU(CZ) 144/2010/P; GA JU(CZ) 168/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity conservation * energy industry * restoration ecology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.580, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092585741400408X

  18. THE ARTHROPOD-BORNE ONCHOCERCIASIS: IS IT DESERVED TO BE NEGLECTED?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M M; Morsy, Ayman T A; Morsy, Tosson A

    2015-12-01

    Onchocerciasis a filarial parasitic nematode, also known as river blindness and Robles disease, is a neglected tropical disease infecting more than 18 million people mainly in sub-Saharan of Africa, the Middle East, South and Central America and many other countries. Disease infectivity initiates from Onchocerca volvulus (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae) transmitted by the blackfly, Simulium sp. which introduces the infective stage larva with its saliva into the skin. Within human body, adult females (macrofilaria) produce thousands of larvae (microfilariae) which migrate in skin and eye. Infection results in severe visual impairment or blindness for about 2 million, as being the world's second-leading cause of blindness after trachoma, as well as skin onchocercomata. PMID:26939243

  19. The potential and prospects of proximal remote sensing of arthropod pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Bench-top or proximal remote sensing applications are widely used as part of quality control and machine vision systems in commercial operations. In addition, these technologies are becoming increasingly important in insect systematics and studies of insect physiology and pest management. This paper provides a review and discussion of how proximal remote sensing may contribute valuable quantitative information regarding identification of species, assessment of insect responses to insecticides, insect host responses to parasitoids and performance of biological control agents. The future role of proximal remote sensing is discussed as an exciting path for novel paths of multidisciplinary research among entomologists and scientists from a wide range of other disciplines, including image processing engineers, medical engineers, research pharmacists and computer scientists. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26663253

  20. Modeling locomotion of a soft-bodied arthropod using inverse dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most bio-inspired robots have been based on animals with jointed, stiff skeletons. There is now an increasing interest in mimicking the robust performance of animals in natural environments by incorporating compliant materials into the locomotory system. However, the mechanics of moving, highly conformable structures are particularly difficult to predict. This paper proposes a planar, extensible-link model for the soft-bodied tobacco hornworm caterpillar, Manduca sexta, to provide insight for biologists and engineers studying locomotion by highly deformable animals and caterpillar-like robots. Using inverse dynamics to process experimentally acquired point-tracking data, ground reaction forces and internal forces were determined for a crawling caterpillar. Computed ground reaction forces were compared to experimental data to validate the model. The results show that a system of linked extendable joints can faithfully describe the general form and magnitude of the contact forces produced by a crawling caterpillar. Furthermore, the model can be used to compute internal forces that cannot be measured experimentally. It is predicted that between different body segments in stance phase the body is mostly kept in tension and that compression only occurs during the swing phase when the prolegs release their grip. This finding supports a recently proposed mechanism for locomotion by soft animals in which the substrate transfers compressive forces from one part of the body to another (the environmental skeleton) thereby minimizing the need for hydrostatic stiffening. The model also provides a new means to characterize and test control strategies used in caterpillar crawling and soft robot locomotion.

  1. A checklist of arthropods associated with pig carrion and human corpses in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Necrophagous insects, mainly Diptera and Coleoptera, are attracted to specific stages of carcass decomposition, in a process of faunistic succession. They are very important in estimating the postmortem interval, the time interval between the death and the discovery of the body. In studies done with pig carcasses exposed to natural conditions in an urban forest (Santa Genebra Reservation), located in Campinas, State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, 4 out of 36 families of insects collected ...

  2. Lack of effect of Bt-corn on the non-target arthropods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Habuštová, Oxana; Hussein, Hany; Doležal, Petr; Spitzer, Lukáš; Růžička, Vlastimil; Sehnal, František

    Durban: Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 2008. s. 5-5. ISBN N. [ICE 2008. International Congress of Entomology /23./. 06.07.2008-12.07.2008, Durban] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bt-corn Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  3. Impact of genetically modified maize expressing Cry 3Bb1 on some non-target arthropods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hussein, Hany; Svobodová, Zdeňka; Habuštová, Oxana; Půža, Vladimír; Sehnal, František

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 10 (2012), s. 5124-5131. ISSN 1819-544X R&D Projects: GA MZe QH91093 Grant ostatní: projekt MOBITAG(CZ) REGPOT-2008-1, GA 229518 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : MON 88017 * Cry3Bb1 * non - target organisms Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection http://www.aensiweb.com/jasr/jasr/2012/5124-5131.pdf

  4. Oak Tree Canker Disease Supports Arthropod Diversity in a Natural Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yong-Bok; An, Su Jung; Park, Chung Gyoo; Kim, Jinwoo; Han, Sangjo; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms have many roles in nature. They may act as decomposers that obtain nutrients from dead materials, while some are pathogens that cause diseases in animals, insects, and plants. Some are symbionts that enhance plant growth, such as arbuscular mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixation bacteria. However, roles of plant pathogens and diseases in natural ecosystems are still poorly understood. Thus, the current study addressed this deficiency by investigating possible roles of plant diseases...

  5. Variability in the dynamics of mortality and immobility responses of freshwater arthropods exposed to chlorpyrifos

    OpenAIRE

    Rubach, M.N.; Crum, S.J.H.; Brink, van den, R.B.A.

    2011-01-01

    The species sensitivity distribution (SSD) concept is an important probabilistic tool for environmental risk assessment (ERA) and accounts for differences in species sensitivity to different chemicals. The SSD model assumes that the sensitivity of the species included is randomly distributed. If this assumption is violated, indicator values, such as the 50% hazardous concentration, can potentially change dramatically. Fundamental research, however, has discovered and described specific mechan...

  6. A congruent solution to arthropod phylogeny: phylogenomics, microRNAs and morphology support monophyletic Mandibulata

    OpenAIRE

    Rota-Stabelli, O.; L. Campbell; Brinkmann, H.; Edgecombe, G. D.; Longhorn, S. J.; Peterson, K. J.; Pisani, D.; Philippe, H; Telford, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    While a unique origin of the euarthropods is well established, relationships between the four euarthropod classes-chelicerates, myriapods, crustaceans and hexapods-are less clear. Unsolved questions include the position of myriapods, the monophyletic origin of chelicerates, and the validity of the close relationship of euarthropods to tardigrades and onychophorans. Morphology predicts that myriapods, insects and crustaceans form a monophyletic group, the Mandibulata, which has been contradict...

  7. Disgust in response to some arthropods aligns with disgust provoked by pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda R. Lorenz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Insects are widely disliked by the public, despite the fact that they provide valuable ecosystem services and are vital components of ecosystems. Public support toward wildlife conservation is influenced by attitudes toward different taxa, thus, the widespread negativity toward insects shown by the general public almost certainly detracts from conservation efforts for them. Negative attitudes toward insects and other invertebrates take many forms, one of which is the feeling of disgust. Disgust has been widely researched and is typically divided into distinct domains (e.g., moral disgust. In order to determine whether insect-specific disgust is unique from other domains of disgust, we conducted a survey of 704 incoming freshmen at a major Midwestern university with questions pertaining to Moral, Pathogen, and Insect-specific Disgust. Factor analyses indicate that Insect Disgust and Pathogen Disgust are part of the same construct, unique from Moral Disgust. Our results suggest that survey respondents perceived insects in the same way as they would pathogens, at least in regard to disgust. This research provides insight into how the public views insects, and will facilitate educational interventions aimed at challenging negative attitudes toward insects. The Insect Disgust Scale will be a useful measure of insect-related disgust in future studies.

  8. Arthropod venom Hyaluronidases: biochemical properties and potential applications in medicine and biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Bordon, Karla C. F.; Wiezel, Gisele A.; Amorim, Fernanda G.; Arantes, Eliane C

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronidases are enzymes that mainly degrade hyaluronan, the major glycosaminoglycan of the interstitial matrix. They are involved in several pathological and physiological activities including fertilization, wound healing, embryogenesis, angiogenesis, diffusion of toxins and drugs, metastasis, pneumonia, sepsis, bacteremia, meningitis, inflammation and allergy, among others. Hyaluronidases are widely distributed in nature and the enzymes from mammalian spermatozoa, lysosomes and animal ven...

  9. Effects of pesticide application on arthropod pests of nursery-grown maples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Julia; Quesada, Carlos; Sadof, Clifford

    2014-04-01

    Insecticides used against potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), have been reported to cause problems with maple spider mite, Oligonychus aceris (Shimer) (Acarina: Tetranychidae), on nursery-grown 'Red Sunset' red maple and 'Autumn Blaze' Freeman maple. To test this, we conducted two experiments on field-grown trees in nurseries. In the first, the effects of early-season pesticide applications were examined during 2009. The second experiment was conducted in 2010 to compare effects of using threshold levels of one, three, or six leafhoppers per branch to time applications. Pesticide applications reduced abundance and damage by leafhoppers in both cultivars, but increased populations of O. aceris on Autumn Blaze during 2009. In contrast, on Red Sunset, populations of O. aceris did not increase after insecticide applications. In 2010, insecticide applications did not increase abundance of O. aceris on Autumn Blaze because use of treatment thresholds to manage leafhoppers greatly reduced numbers of trees requiring treatment for leafhoppers. Two phytoseiid mites, Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) and Typhlodromus caudiglans (Schuster), and one stigmaeid, Zetzellia mali (Ewing), were identified as the principal predators of O. aceris on maple leaves. Insecticide applications had no significant effects on the total abundance of predatory mites on either Red Sunset or Autumn Blaze maples in 2009 or 2010. However, populations of predator Z. mali were higher during both years on Red Sunset than on Autumn Blaze. These results suggest that both early-season pesticide use and cultivar can affect the likelihood of secondary outbreaks of spider mites on maples. PMID:24772553

  10. Four-year study of the impact of Bt maize on Arthropod communities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Habuštová, Oxana; Doležal, Petr; Spitzer, Lukáš; Hussein, Hany; Turanli, Ferit; Růžička, Vlastimil; Sehnal, František

    Izmir: Entomological Society of Turkey, 2006. s. 129-129. [European Congress of Entomology /8./. 17.09.2006-22.09.2006, Izmir] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB6007304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bt maize Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  11. Results of a four-year study of the impact of Bt maize on arthropod communities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Habuštová, Oxana; Hussein, Hany; Doležal, Petr; Spitzer, Lukáš; Růžička, Vlastimil

    České Budějovice: Biology Centre of Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 2009 - (Sehnal, F.; Drobník, J.), s. 60-60 ISBN 978-80-86668-05-3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bt maize Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  12. The characterization of new hormonal systems in arthropods with a focus on neuropeptide GPCRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafflinger, Elisabeth

    ligands. Previously, it has been found that the locust Locusta migratoria has a peptide related to the oxytocin and vasopressin peptides from mammals, but in the sequenced genomes of the fruit flies, mosquitoes, the honey bee, and the silkworm, no oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptide or receptor could be...... could be found in the mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens, the silkworm Bombyx mori, T. castaneum, N. vitripennis, and the bug Rhodnius prolixus but not in all the other sequenced insect genomes. Bioassays showed that only ACP can activate the ACPR, but not AKH or corazonin...

  13. The Biochemical Basis of Vitamin A3 Production in Arthropod Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babino, Darwin; Golczak, Marcin; Kiser, Philip D; Wyss, Adrian; Palczewski, Krzysztof; von Lintig, Johannes

    2016-04-15

    Metazoan photochemistry involves cis-trans isomerization of a retinylidene chromophore bound to G protein coupled receptors. Successful production of chromophores is critical for photoreceptor function and survival. For chromophore production, animals have to choose from more than 600 naturally occurring carotenoids and process them by oxidative cleavage and geometric isomerization of double bonds. Vertebrates employ three carotenoid cleavage oxygenases to tailor the carotenoid precursor in the synthesis of 11-cis-retinal (vitamin A1). Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) possess only one such enzyme, NinaB, which faces the challenge to catalyze these reactions in unison to produce 11-cis-3-hydroxy-retinal (vitamin A3). We here showed that key to this multitasking is a bipartite substrate recognition site that conveys regio- and stereoselectivity for double bond processing. One side performed the specific C11, C12 cis-isomerization and preferentially binds 3-OH-β-ionone rings sites. The other side maintained a trans configuration in the resulting product and preferentially binds noncanonical ionone ring sites. Concurrent binding of carotenoids containing two cyclohexyl rings to both domains is required for specific oxidative cleavage at position C15, C15' of the substrate. The unique reaction sequence follows a dioxygenase mechanism with a carbocation/radical intermediate. This ingenious quality control system guarantees 11-cis-3-hydroxy-retinal production, the essential retinoid for insect (vitamin A3) vision. PMID:26811964

  14. Surveillance of arthropod vector-borne infectious diseases using remote sensing techniques: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Satya Kalluri; Peter Gilruth; David Rogers; Martha Szczur

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologists are adopting new remote sensing techniques to study a variety of vector-borne diseases. Associations between satellite-derived environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and land cover type and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. The convergence of factors such as the availability of multi-temporal satellite data and georeferenced epidemiological data, collaboration between remote sensing scientists and biologists, and the availabi...

  15. Amblypygids: Model Organisms for the Study of Arthropod Navigation Mechanisms in Complex Environments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D Wiegmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Navigation is an ideal behavioral model for the study of sensory system integration and the neural substrates associated with complex behavior. For this broader purpose, however, it may be profitable to develop new model systems that are both tractable and sufficiently complex to ensure that information derived from a single sensory modality and path integration are inadequate to locate a goal. Here, we discuss some recent discoveries related to navigation by amblypygids, nocturnal arachnids that inhabit the tropics and sub-tropics. Nocturnal displacement experiments under the cover of a tropical rainforest reveal that these animals possess navigational abilities that are reminiscent, albeit on a smaller spatial scale, of true-navigating vertebrates. Specialized legs, called antenniform legs, which possess hundreds of olfactory and tactile sensory hairs, and vision appear to be involved. These animals also have enormous mushroom bodies, higher-order brain regions that, in insects, integrate contextual cues and may be involved in spatial memory. In amblypygids, the complexity of a nocturnal rainforest may impose navigational challenges that favor the integration of information derived from multimodal cues. Moreover, the movement of these animals is easily studied in the laboratory and putative neural integration sites of sensory information can be manipulated. Thus, amblypygids could serve as a model system for the discovery of neural substrates associated with a unique and potentially sophisticated navigational capability. The diversity of habitats in which amblypygids are found also offers an opportunity for comparative studies of sensory integration and ecological selection pressures on navigation mechanisms.

  16. Validity of Thermal Ramping Assays Used to Assess Thermal Tolerance in Arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Johannes; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov

    2012-01-01

    empirically test these model predictions using two sets of independent experiments. We clearly demonstrate that results from ramping assays of small insects (Drosophila melanogaster) are not compromised by starvation- or dehydration-stress. Firstly we show that the mild disturbance of water and energy balance...... of D. melanogaster experienced during the ramping tests does not confound heat tolerance estimates. Secondly we show that flies pre-exposed to starvation and dehydration have ‘‘normal’’ heat tolerance and that resistance to heat stress is independent of the energetic and water status of the flies. On...... animals under laboratory conditions must select appropriate methodology on which conclusions can be drawn. Ideally these methods should precisely estimate the trait of interest and also be biological meaningful. In an attempt to develop such tests it has been proposed that thermal ramping assays are...

  17. Abundance, spatial variance and occupancy: arthropod species distribution in the Azores

    OpenAIRE

    Gaston, Kevin J; Borges, Paulo A. V.; He, Fangliang; Gaspar, Clara

    2006-01-01

    Copyright © 2006 British Ecological Society. 1. The positive abundance-occupancy and abundance-variance relationships are two of the most widely documented patterns in population and community ecology. 2. Recently, a general model has been proposed linking the mean abundance, the spatial variance in abundance, and the occupancy of species. A striking feature of this model is that it consists explicitly of the three variables abundance, variance and occupancy, and no extra parameters are in...

  18. Fossil Arthropods from a Full-Glacial Site in Northeastern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foddai, Donatella; Minelli, Alessandro

    1994-05-01

    Fossil remains of beetles and oribatid mites from a peat deposit dated 18,870 ± 300 yr B.P. near Verona, northeastern Italy, represent the first insect fauna of its kind from the last glacial maximum to be described from Italy. The assemblage includes the ground beetle Amara alpina, whose distribution today in Europe is restricted to mountains in Scandinavia and Scotland. Ecological requirements and geographic distribution of recent populations of the identified species suggest mesic habitats with standing water and peat bogs during the glacial maximum. The paleoenvironment was comparable to present-day lowland moors in Scandinavia or mesic environments above 1000 m altitude on the southern slopes of the Alps. The climate is inferred to have been colder and wetter than today. Mean July temperature may have been 8-9°C lower than at present.

  19. A comparison of two common flight interception traps to survey tropical arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Lamarre

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are predicted to harbor most of the insect diversity on earth, but few studies have been conducted to characterize insect communities in tropical forests. One major limitation is the lack of consensus on methods for insect collection. Deciding which insect trap to use is an important consideration for ecologists and entomologists, yet to date few study has presented a quantitative comparison of the results generated by standardized methods in tropical insect communities. Here, we investigate the relative performance of two flight interception traps, the windowpane trap, and the more widely used malaise trap, across a broad gradient of lowland forest types in French Guiana. The windowpane trap consistently collected significantly more Coleoptera and Blattaria than the malaise trap, which proved most effective for Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Hemiptera. Orthoptera and Lepidoptera were not well represented using either trap, suggesting the need for additional methods such as bait traps and light traps. Our results of contrasting trap performance among insect orders underscore the need for complementary trapping strategies using multiple methods for community surveys in tropical forests.

  20. Two types of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in Drosophila and other arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collin, Caitlin Alexis; Hauser, Frank; Gonzalez de Valdivia, Ernesto I; Li, Shizhong; Reisenberger, Julia; Carlsen, Eva M.M.; Khan, Zaid; Hansen, Niels Ø.; Puhm, Florian; Søndergaard, Leif; Niemiec, Justyna; Heninger, Magdalena; Ren, Guilin Robin; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis

    2013-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) play a central role in the mammalian nervous system. These receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are activated by the agonists acetylcholine and muscarine, and blocked by a variety of antagonists. Mammals have five mAChRs (m1-m5). In ...... (Hydra), had two A-type mAChRs. From these data we propose a model for the evolution of mAChRs....