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Sample records for arthropoda mollusca-1 mollusca-2

  1. NOTES ON SOME PREOCCUPIED NAMES IN ARTHROPODA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian F. Kammerer

    2006-01-01

    New replacement names for the preoccupied mite genera Absentia Huang, 2001 and Venilia Kuznetsov, 1979 are proposed (Huangiella nom. nov. and Kuznetsovia nom. nov. , respectively. ). Fourteen further new replacement names are proposed for additional preoccupied generic names in the Arthropoda. These names are: Vailimia nom. nov. , Millidgella nom. nov., and Nolavia nom. nov. in Araneae, Vadumasonium nom. nov. in Hymenoptera, Gridellia nom. nov.,Vanstaronia nom. nov. and Veraniella nom. nov. in Coleoptera, Poletaevega nom. nov. in Trilobita, Vandelia nom. nov.in Isopoda, Gandoa nom. nov. and Vanuachela nom. nov. in Decapoda, and Crasquinia nom. nov. , Oertlia nom. nov. ,and Soleaua nom. nov. in Ostracoda. Additionally, one new annelid replacement name, Omodeodrilus nom. nov., is proposed.

  2. Opsin Repertoire and Expression Patterns in Horseshoe Crabs: Evidence from the Genome of Limulus polyphemus (Arthropoda: Chelicerata)

    OpenAIRE

    Battelle, Barbara-Anne; Ryan, Joseph F.; Kempler, Karen E.; Saraf, Spencer R.; Marten, Catherine E.; Warren, Wesley C; Minx, Patrick J.; Montague, Michael J.; Green, Pamela J; Schmidt, Skye A.; Fulton, Lucinda; Patel, Nipam H.; Protas, Meredith E.; Wilson, Richard K.; Porter, Megan L.

    2016-01-01

    Horseshoe crabs are xiphosuran chelicerates, the sister group to arachnids. As such, they are important for understanding the most recent common ancestor of Euchelicerata and the evolution and diversification of Arthropoda. Limulus polyphemus is the most investigated of the four extant species of horseshoe crabs, and the structure and function of its visual system have long been a major focus of studies critical for understanding the evolution of visual systems in arthropods. Likewise, studie...

  3. Diversity of cytosolic HSP70 Heat Shock Protein from decapods and their phylogenetic placement within Arthropoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baringou, Stephane; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Koken, Marcel; Hardivillier, Yann; Hurtado, Luis; Leignel, Vincent

    2016-10-10

    HSP70 and an evolutionary model of the distinct forms amongst the Arthropoda phylum. The observed differences between HSP70 groups will probably have to be linked to distinct interactions with co-chaperones or other co-factors. PMID:27374152

  4. Opsin Repertoire and Expression Patterns in Horseshoe Crabs: Evidence from the Genome of Limulus polyphemus (Arthropoda: Chelicerata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battelle, Barbara-Anne; Ryan, Joseph F; Kempler, Karen E; Saraf, Spencer R; Marten, Catherine E; Warren, Wesley C; Minx, Patrick J; Montague, Michael J; Green, Pamela J; Schmidt, Skye A; Fulton, Lucinda; Patel, Nipam H; Protas, Meredith E; Wilson, Richard K; Porter, Megan L

    2016-01-01

    Horseshoe crabs are xiphosuran chelicerates, the sister group to arachnids. As such, they are important for understanding the most recent common ancestor of Euchelicerata and the evolution and diversification of Arthropoda. Limulus polyphemus is the most investigated of the four extant species of horseshoe crabs, and the structure and function of its visual system have long been a major focus of studies critical for understanding the evolution of visual systems in arthropods. Likewise, studies of genes encoding Limulus opsins, the protein component of the visual pigments, are critical for understanding opsin evolution and diversification among chelicerates, where knowledge of opsins is limited, and more broadly among arthropods. In the present study, we sequenced and assembled a high quality nuclear genomic sequence of L. polyphemus and used these data to annotate the full repertoire of Limulus opsins. We conducted a detailed phylogenetic analysis of Limulus opsins, including using gene structure and synteny information to identify relationships among different opsin classes. We used our phylogeny to identify significant genomic events that shaped opsin evolution and therefore the visual system of Limulus We also describe the tissue expression patterns of the 18 opsins identified and show that transcripts encoding a number, including a peropsin, are present throughout the central nervous system. In addition to significantly extending our understanding of photosensitivity in Limulus and providing critical insight into the genomic evolution of horseshoe crab opsins, this work provides a valuable genomic resource for addressing myriad questions related to xiphosuran physiology and arthropod evolution. PMID:27189985

  5. Phylogenomic insights into the cambrian explosion, the colonization of land and the evolution of flight in arthropoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, Christopher W; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    The timing of the origin of arthropods in relation to the Cambrian explosion is still controversial, as are the timing of other arthropod macroevolutionary events such as the colonization of land and the evolution of flight. Here we assess the power of a phylogenomic approach to shed light on these major events in the evolutionary history of life on earth. Analyzing a large phylogenomic dataset (122 taxa, 62 genes) with a Bayesian-relaxed molecular clock, we simultaneously reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships and the absolute times of divergences among the arthropods. Simulations were used to test whether our analysis could distinguish between alternative Cambrian explosion scenarios with increasing levels of autocorrelated rate variation. Our analyses support previous phylogenomic hypotheses and simulations indicate a Precambrian origin of the arthropods. Our results provide insights into the 3 independent colonizations of land by arthropods and suggest that evolution of insect wings happened much earlier than the fossil record indicates, with flight evolving during a period of increasing oxygen levels and impressively large forests. These and other findings provide a foundation for macroevolutionary and comparative genomic study of Arthropoda. PMID:22949483

  6. ArthropodaCyc: a CycADS powered collection of BioCyc databases to analyse and compare metabolism of arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baa-Puyoulet, Patrice; Parisot, Nicolas; Febvay, Gérard; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Vellozo, Augusto F; Gabaldón, Toni; Calevro, Federica; Charles, Hubert; Colella, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Arthropods interact with humans at different levels with highly beneficial roles (e.g. as pollinators), as well as with a negative impact for example as vectors of human or animal diseases, or as agricultural pests. Several arthropod genomes are available at present and many others will be sequenced in the near future in the context of the i5K initiative, offering opportunities for reconstructing, modelling and comparing their metabolic networks. In-depth analysis of these genomic data through metabolism reconstruction is expected to contribute to a better understanding of the biology of arthropods, thereby allowing the development of new strategies to control harmful species. In this context, we present here ArthropodaCyc, a dedicated BioCyc collection of databases using the Cyc annotation database system (CycADS), allowing researchers to perform reliable metabolism comparisons of fully sequenced arthropods genomes. Since the annotation quality is a key factor when performing such global genome comparisons, all proteins from the genomes included in the ArthropodaCyc database were re-annotated using several annotation tools and orthology information. All functional/domain annotation results and their sources were integrated in the databases for user access. Currently, ArthropodaCyc offers a centralized repository of metabolic pathways, protein sequence domains, Gene Ontology annotations as well as evolutionary information for 28 arthropod species. Such database collection allows metabolism analysis both with integrated tools and through extraction of data in formats suitable for systems biology studies.Database URL: http://arthropodacyc.cycadsys.org/. PMID:27242037

  7. Aspectos ecológicos da comunidade de Araneae (Arthropoda, Arachnida em copas da palmeira Attalea phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae no Pantanal de Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Dênis Battirola

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Seis palmeiras de Attalea phalerata foram amostradas durante a fase aquática (cheia no Pantanal de Mato Grosso (fevereiro/2001, utilizando-se a metodologia de nebulização de copas "canopy fogging". Este estudo objetivou avaliar a composição, distribuição espacial, guildas comportamentais, biomassa e sazonalidade da comunidade de Araneae em copas dessa palmeira que forma adensamentos monodominantes, típicos nessa região. Um total de 1326 aranhas foram coletadas em 99 m² de área amostral (13,4 + 8,2 indivíduos/m², representando 20 famílias, sendo Salticidae e Araneidae as mais abundantes. A biomassa total de 704 aranhas em três palmeiras correspondeu a 0.6172 mg de peso seco (0,0123+ 0,04 mg/m². Dez guildas comportamentais demonstraram a coexistência de diferentes espécies em um mesmo habitat. Representantes de Salticidae, Oonopidae e Ctenidae dominaram entre as caçadoras, e Araneidae e Dictynidae, dentre as tecelãs. A análise de distribuição espacial demonstrou que a maior abundância de aranhas ocorreu na região central da copa, provavelmente devido à quantidade de recursos disponíveis nesse local. A comparação desses resultados com aqueles obtidos durante o período de seca, demonstra diferenças sazonais influenciadas pelo pulso de inundação, principalmente com relação à composição das famílias amostradas entre os períodos de seca e cheia.Ecological aspects of a community of Araneae (Arthropoda, Arachnida at the canopy of the palm Attalea phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Six palm trees of Attalea phalerata were sampled during the aquatic phase (high water in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso (February 2001 using canopy fogging. The objective was to evaluate the composition, spatial distribution, behavioural guilds, biomass and seasonality of the community of Araneae at the crowns of these palm trees, which form monospecific stands that are typical of this region. A total

  8. Phylomitogenomics of Malacostraca (Arthropoda:Crustacea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Xin; TIAN Mei; YAN Binlun; CHU Kahou

    2015-01-01

    Along with the sequencing technology development and continual enthusiasm of researchers on the mitochondrial genomes, the number of metazoan mitochondrial genomes reported has a tremendous growth in the past decades. Phylomitogenomics—reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial genomic data—is now possible across large animal groups. Crustaceans in the class Malacostraca display a high diversity of body forms and include large number of ecologically and commercially important species. In this study, comprehensive and systematic analyses of the phylogenetic relationships within Malacostraca were conducted based on 86 mitochondrial genomes available from GenBank. Among 86 malacostracan mitochondrial genomes, 54 species have identical major gene arrangement (excluding tRNAs) to pancrustacean ground pattern, including six species from Stomatopoda, three species from Amphipoda, two krill, seven species from Dendrobranchiata (Decapoda), and 36 species from Pleocyemata (Decapoda). However, the other 32 mitochondrial genomes reported exhibit major gene rearrangements. Phylogenies based on Bayesian analyses of nucleotide sequences of the protein-coding genes produced a robust tree with 100%posterior probability at almost all nodes. The results indicate that Amphipoda and Isopoda cluster together (Edriophthalma) (BPP=100). Phylomitogenomic analyses strong support that Euphausiacea is nested within Decapoda, and closely related to Dendrobranchiata, which is also consistent with the evidence from developmental biology. Yet the taxonomic sampling of mitochondrial genome from Malacostraca is very biased to the order Decapoda, with no complete mitochondrial genomes reported from 11 of the 16 orders. Future researches on sequencing the mitochondrial genomes from a wide variety of malacostracans are necessary to further elucidate the phylogeny of this important group of animals. With the increase in mitochondrial genomes available, phylomitogenomics will emerge as an important component in the Tree of Life researches.

  9. Identification of the first neuropeptides from the Amphipoda (Arthropoda, Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Andrew E

    2014-09-15

    Despite being used as models in the field of ecotoxicology, including use in studies of endocrine disruption, little is known about the hormonal systems of amphipods, particularly their peptidergic signaling systems. Here, transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) sequences were used to predict the structures of the first neuropeptides from members of this crustacean order. Using a well-established workflow, BLAST searches of the extant amphipod TSA data were conducted for putative peptide-encoding transcripts. The pre/preprohormones deduced from the identified TSA sequences were then used to predict the mature structures of amphipod neuropeptides. In total, 43 putative peptide-encoding transcripts were identified from three amphipods, Echinogammarus veneris, Hyalella azteca and Melita plumulosa. Collectively, 139 distinct mature peptides (110 from E. veneris alone) were predicted from these TSA sequences. The identified peptides included members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment concentrating hormone, allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, bursicon α, bursicon β, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, diuretic hormone 31, FLRFamide, molt-inhibiting hormone, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, pigment dispersing hormone (PDH), proctolin, RYamide, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide families. Of particular note were the identifications of orcokinins possessing SFDEIDR- rather than the typical NFDEIDR- amino-termini, e.g. SFDEINRSNFGFN, a carboxyl-terminally amidated orcokinin, i.e. SFDEINRSNFGFSamide, PDHs longer than the stereotypical 18 amino acids, e.g. NSELLNTLLGSKSLAALRAAamide, and a 13 rather than 12 amino acid long SIFamide, i.e. GPYRKPPFNGSIFamide. These data not only provide the first descriptions of native amphipod neuropeptides, but also represent a new resource for initiating investigations of peptidergic signaling in the Amphipoda.

  10. Morphometric characteristics in the horseshoe crab Tachypleus gigas (Arthropoda: Merostomata)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Das, S.; Chatterji, A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    and uniform as also indicated by linear reiationship. It appears, therefore that the energy gained by these crabs from ingested food gets evenly distributed in the body building processes. Telson length-total length relationship indicated a linear... was of highest magnitude than that of the total length. In the length range 300-400 mm, the weight increased sharply. The increase in the soft body parts could probably be due to increased feeding efficiency and food availability to horseshoe crabs. Carapace...

  11. Keanekaragaman Arthropoda Pada Perkebunan Kopi Rakyat Di Kabupaten Pakpak Bharat

    OpenAIRE

    Sinamo, Viktor Hasudungan

    2011-01-01

    Arthropod Biodiversity Research at the Coffee Plantation in the District People's Pakpak Bharat had been conducted in March 2010-April 2010. Research in the form of this survey sampled at five heights, namely: A ≤ 700, 700

  12. LA DIVERSIDAD DE INSECTOS (ARTHROPODA: HEXAPODA EN COLOMBIA I. ENTOGNATHA A POLYNEOPTERA Diversity of Lower Insects (Arthropoda: Hexapoda in Colombia: I. Entognatha to Polyneoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERMÁN AMAT-GARCÍA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se aborda la diversidad de hexápodos Entognatha a Polyneoptera de Colombia en términos del número de familias y especies, además del estado del arte en cada uno de los órdenes considerados e incluyendo referencias que son de relevancia para el estudio de la entomofauna colombiana. Se introduce la problemática de la valoración de la riqueza de especies de insectos en el país, desde las perspectivas histórica y del método taxonómico. Los valores en riqueza de especies, para cada grupo, se derivan de la diversidad conocida o del conocimiento de las especies formalmente descritas bajo los protocolos de la taxonomía. Para obtener la información se recurrió a literatura primaria, revisiones, monografías y catálogos impresos o en la red. Se registraron 14 órdenes, 80 familias y 1.673 especies en los grupos.The present study examines insect diversity (Entognatha and Polyneoptera in Colombia in terms of number of families, genera and species, in light of the most recent systematic data on the orders treated. We also highlight the work of active specialists and literature sources that are particularly relevant for the study of the Colombian entomofauna. We introduce the problem of evaluating species richness of insects in Colombia from historical and taxonomic-methodological perspectives. Species richness values for each group were derived from what is referred to as “known diversity” or knowledge of species that have been formally described in the taxonomic literature. Information was harvested from primary literature sources, reviews, monographs, and both online and printed catalogues. A total of 14 orders, 80 families and 1673 species are reported for the insects treated herein.

  13. LA DIVERSIDAD DE INSECTOS (ARTHROPODA: HEXAPODA) EN COLOMBIA I. ENTOGNATHA A POLYNEOPTERA Diversity of Lower Insects (Arthropoda: Hexapoda) in Colombia: I. Entognatha to Polyneoptera

    OpenAIRE

    GERMÁN AMAT-GARCÍA; FERNANDO FERNÁNDEZ

    2011-01-01

    En este estudio se aborda la diversidad de hexápodos Entognatha a Polyneoptera de Colombia en términos del número de familias y especies, además del estado del arte en cada uno de los órdenes considerados e incluyendo referencias que son de relevancia para el estudio de la entomofauna colombiana. Se introduce la problemática de la valoración de la riqueza de especies de insectos en el país, desde las perspectivas histórica y del método taxonómico. Los valores en riqueza de especies, para cada...

  14. Molecular evidence of the survival of subterranean amphipods (Arthropoda) during Ice Age underneath glaciers in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornobis, Etienne; Pálsson, Snaebjörn; Kristjánsson, Bjarni K; Svavarsson, Jörundur

    2010-06-01

    A Two endemic groundwater arthropod crustacean species, Crangonyx islandicus and Crymostygius thingvallensis, were recently discovered on the mid-Atlantic volcanic island of Iceland. The extent of morphological differences from closest relatives, endemism, along with the geographic isolation of Iceland and its complete coverage by glaciers 21,000 years ago, suggests that these two species have survived glaciation periods in sub-glacial refugia. Here we provide strong support for this hypothesis by an analysis of mitochondrial genetic variation within Crangonyx islandicus. Our results show that the species is divided into several distinct monophyletic groups that are found along the volcanic zone in Iceland, which have been separated by 0.5 to around 5 million years. The genetic divergence between groups reflects geographic distances between sampling sites, indicating that divergence occurred after the colonization of Iceland. The genetic patterns, as well as the dependency of genetic variation on distances from the tectonic plate boundary and altitude, points to recent expansion from several refugia within Iceland. This presents the first genetic evidence of multicellular organisms as complex as crustacean amphipods which have survived glaciations beneath an ice sheet. This survival may be explained by geothermal heat linked to volcanic activities, which may have maintained favourable habitats in fissures along the tectonic plate boundary in Iceland during glaciations.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of the sea spider Nymphon gracile (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida

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    Braband Anke

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial genomes form units of genetic information replicating indepentently from nuclear genomes. Sequence data (most often from protein-coding genes and other features (gene order, RNA secondary structure of mitochondrial genomes are often used in phylogenetic studies of metazoan animals from population to phylum level. Pycnogonids are primarily marine arthropods, often considered closely related to chelicerates (spiders, scorpions and allies. However, due to their aberrant morphology and to controversial results from molecular studies, their phylogenetic position is still under debate. Results This is the first report of a complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a sea spider (Nymphon gracile, class Pycnogonida. Gene order derives from that of other arthropods so that presumably 10 single tRNA gene translocations, a translocation of the mitochondrial control region, and one large inversion affecting protein-coding genes must have happened in the lineage leading to Nymphon gracile. Some of the changes in gene order seem not to be common to all pycnogonids, as those were not found in a partial mitochondrial genome of another species, Endeis spinosa. Four transfer RNAs of Nymphon gracile show derivations from the usual cloverleaf secondary structure (truncation or loss of an arm. Initial phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequences placed Pycnogonida as sister group to Acari. However, this is in contrast to the majority of all other studies using nuclear genes and/or morphology and was not recovered in a second analysis where two long-branching acarid species were omitted. Conclusion Extensive gene rearrangement characterizes the mitochondrial genome of Nymphon gracile. At least some of the events leading to this derived gene order happened after the split of pycnogonid subtaxa. Nucleotide and amino acid frequencies show strong differences between chelicerate taxa, presumably biasing phylogenetic analyses. Thus the affinities between Pycnogonida and Acari (mites and ticks, as found in phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial genes, may rather be due to long-branch attraction and independently derived nucleotide composition and amino acid frequency, than to a real sister group relationship.

  16. A Holarctic Biogeographical Analysis of the Collembola (Arthropoda, Hexapoda Unravels Recent Post-Glacial Colonization Patterns

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    María Luisa Ávila-Jiménez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to describe the main Arctic biogeographical patterns of the Collembola, and analyze historical factors and current climatic regimes determining Arctic collembolan species distribution. Furthermore, we aimed to identify possible dispersal routes, colonization sources and glacial refugia for Arctic collembola. We implemented a Gaussian Mixture Clustering method on species distribution ranges and applied a distance-based parametric bootstrap test on presence-absence collembolan species distribution data. Additionally, multivariate analysis was performed considering species distributions, biodiversity, cluster distribution and environmental factors (temperature and precipitation. No clear relation was found between current climatic regimes and species distribution in the Arctic. Gaussian Mixture Clustering found common elements within Siberian areas, Atlantic areas, the Canadian Arctic, a mid-Siberian cluster and specific Beringian elements, following the same pattern previously described, using a variety of molecular methods, for Arctic plants. Species distribution hence indicate the influence of recent glacial history, as LGM glacial refugia (mid-Siberia, and Beringia and major dispersal routes to high Arctic island groups can be identified. Endemic species are found in the high Arctic, but no specific biogeographical pattern can be clearly identified as a sign of high Arctic glacial refugia. Ocean currents patterns are suggested as being an important factor shaping the distribution of Arctic Collembola, which is consistent with Antarctic studies in collembolan biogeography. The clear relations between cluster distribution and geographical areas considering their recent glacial history, lack of relationship of species distribution with current climatic regimes, and consistency with previously described Arctic patterns in a series of organisms inferred using a variety of methods, suggest that historical phenomena shaping contemporary collembolan distribution can be inferred through biogeographical analysis.

  17. Temporal variations of Collembola (Arthropoda: Hexapoda in the semiarid Caatinga in northeastern Brazil

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    Aila Soares Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The richness and abundance of Collembola species can be influenced by many biotic and abiotic factors, mainly humidity. The semiarid region of Brazil is dominated by Caatinga dryland vegetation which experiences distinct seasonal alterations of its physiognomy linked to regional rainfall regimes. The present study evaluated the environmental factors affecting populations of Collembola in an area of Caatinga vegetation in Northeastern Brazil during a 12-months period. Specimens were collected by active searching in ten 20 x 20 m plots, with a sampling effort of 1 hour/person/plot. A total of 1231 specimens were collected, comprising 15 morphospecies, 12 genera, and nine families. Both species richness and individual abundances demonstrated oscillations during the year, with the highest values occurring during the rainy season; rainfall was the principal predictive variable for the observed temporal oscillations. Minimum temperatures and precipitation influenced the structural composition of the Collembola. Populations of Collembola demonstrated clustered distribution during the year. The direct and indirect effects of precipitation on the quality of microhabitats and resource availability were apparently responsible for the numerical and compositional alterations of the Collembola fauna observed in the Caatinga site.

  18. Feeding ecology of Ammothella longipes (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) in the Mediterranean Sea: A fatty acid biomarker approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Membrives, Anna; Rossi, Sergio; Munilla, Tomás

    2011-05-01

    Fatty acid analysis has proved valuable in determining seasonal trophic links and the feeding behavior in organisms in which these diet and trophic links cannot be inferred from stomach content analyses. Seasonal variations in total free fatty acid content (TFFA) and fatty acid composition of seston (fatty acid profile showed high similarities of fatty acid composition between seston and Stypocaulon spp. Nereids were closer to seston and Stypocaulon spp. than A. longipes, which seemed to follow a seasonal trend. The results of this study reveal that A. longipes may change its feeding behavior depending on the season and available food. This pycnogonid species appears to be carnivore during spring and early summer but seems to feed on detritus when availability of prey diminishes during winter. Notable high amounts of odd-chain fatty acids are found in summer-autumn for this species, which may come from bacteria acquired from the detrital diet or from de novo biosynthesis from propionate. The results obtained provide new and valuable data on the understudied feeding biology of pycnogonids in general, and contribute to the understanding of their functioning of Mediterranean shallow oligotrophic systems and their trophic links.

  19. New records of Protura (Entognatha, Arthropoda) from Romania, with an identification key to the Romanian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrubovych, Julia; Fiera, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The Romanian Protura were studied based on 175 specimens collected from Romania, along with bibliographic data. The main publication on the Romanian proturans was written by M.A. Ionescu (1951), who described 13 species mainly from soil and forest litter from 15 collecting points. The current paper represents the first study at a national level. Faunal data on Protura were obtained from 22 sites, mostly from forests of the Romanian Carpathians and also from a peri-urban area of Bucharest, which had not been studied before. As a result, the Romanian Protura fauna now consists of 27 known taxa in 6 genera and 4 families. Of the 27 taxa, 15 species are new records for Romanian fauna. An identification key to the Romanian Protura species is provided.

  20. The centipedes (Arthropoda, Myriapoda, Chilopoda) from Colombia: Part I. Scutigeromorpha and Scolopendromorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Amazonas; Chaparro, Elisa; Jiménez, Sebastián Galvis; Triana, Hernán Darío Triana; Flórez D, Eduardo; Seoane, José Carlos Sícoli

    2014-03-14

    This study presents an updated list of centipedes of the orders Scutigeromorpha and Scolopendromorpha from Colombia based on data from the literature, the World Catalogue of Centipedes (CHILOBASE), and specimens examined in museum collections. Four families, nine genera, 37 species and four subspecies are listed. One species belongs to Scutigeromorpha, and 36 species and four subspecies to Scolopendromorpha. Eleven species and four subspecies of scolopendromorphs are recorded for the first time from Colombia. Newportia Gervais, 1847 is the most diverse genus with 12 species and three subspecies. Six species of Scolopendromorpha are endemic. Three species-Otostigmus inermis Porat, 1876, O. scabricauda (Humbert & Saussure, 1870) and Cryptops iheringi Brölemann, 1902-are deleted from the fauna of Colombia. The Andean Región in Colombia has the most records of Scutigeromorpha and Scolopendromorpha. Maps showing the geographical distribution are given for the orders, genera, and some species.

  1. La diversidad de insectos (arthropoda: hexapoda) en colombia: i.entognatha a polyneoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Amat García, Germán

    2011-01-01

    RESUMEN En este estudio se aborda la diversidad de insectos (Entognatha y Polyneoptera) de Colombia en términos del número de familias, géneros y especies, además del estado del arte en cada uno de los órdenes considerados y cuyos especialistas y fuentes bibliográficas son de gran relevancia para el estudio de la entomofauna colombiana. Se introduce la problemática de la valoración de la riqueza de especies de insectos en el país, desde las perspectivas histórica y del método taxonómico. ...

  2. LA DIVERSIDAD DE INSECTOS (ARTHROPODA: HEXAPODA EN COLOMBIA: I.ENTOGNATHA A POLYNEOPTERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amat García Germán

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En este estudio se aborda la diversidad de insectos (Entognatha y Polyneoptera de Colombia en términos del número de familias, géneros y especies, además del estado del arte en cada uno de los órdenes considerados y cuyos especialistas y fuentes bibliográficas son de gran relevancia para el estudio de la entomofauna colombiana. Se introduce la problemática de la valoración de la riqueza de especies de insectos en el país, desde las perspectivas histórica y del método taxonómico. Los valores en riqueza de especies, para cada grupo, se derivan de lo que se conoce como “diversidad conocida” o conocimiento de las especies formalmente descritas bajo los protocolos de la taxonomía. Para obtener la información se recurrió a literatura primaria, revisiones o monografías y catálogos impresos o en la red. Se registraron 18 órdenes, 80 familias y 1673 especies en los grupos considerados . Palabras clave: biodiversidad, riqueza, entomofauna, taxonomía, Colombia.

  3. LA DIVERSIDAD DE INSECTOS (ARTHROPODA: HEXAPODA) EN COLOMBIA: I.ENTOGNATHA A POLYNEOPTERA

    OpenAIRE

    Amat García Germán

    2011-01-01

    RESUMEN En este estudio se aborda la diversidad de insectos (Entognatha y Polyneoptera) de Colombia en términos del número de familias, géneros y especies, además del estado del arte en cada uno de los órdenes considerados y cuyos especialistas y fuentes bibliográficas son de gran relevancia para el estudio de la entomofauna colombiana. Se introduce la problemática de la valoración de la riqueza de especies de insectos en el país, desde las perspectivas histórica y del método taxon...

  4. Molecular classification based on apomorphic amino acids (Arthropoda, Hexapoda): Integrative taxonomy in the era of phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao-Yang; Wang, Yan-Hui; Xie, Qiang; Ke, Yun-Ling; Bu, Wen-Jun

    2016-06-17

    With the great development of sequencing technologies and systematic methods, our understanding of evolutionary relationships at deeper levels within the tree of life has greatly improved over the last decade. However, the current taxonomic methodology is insufficient to describe the growing levels of diversity in both a standardised and general way due to the limitations of using only morphological traits to describe clades. Herein, we propose the idea of a molecular classification based on hierarchical and discrete amino acid characters. Clades are classified based on the results of phylogenetic analyses and described using amino acids with group specificity in phylograms. Practices based on the recently published phylogenomic datasets of insects together with 15 de novo sequenced transcriptomes in this study demonstrate that such a methodology can accommodate various higher ranks of taxonomy. Such an approach has the advantage of describing organisms in a standard and discrete way within a phylogenetic framework, thereby facilitating the recognition of clades from the view of the whole lineage, as indicated by PhyloCode. By combining identification keys and phylogenies, the molecular classification based on hierarchical and discrete characters may greatly boost the progress of integrative taxonomy.

  5. ALIEN MARINE SPECIES OF LIBYA: FIRST INVENTORY AND NEW RECORDS IN EL-KOUF NATIONAL PARK (CYRENAICA AND THE NEIGHBOURING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BAZAIRI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of marine alien species in El-Kouf National Park and the neighbouring areas was assessed using a compilation of available information and observations, a field survey conducted on October 2010 in the framework of the MedMPAnet project and results of further monitoring during June and September 2012. A total of 9 alien species were reported: the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile Trevisan de Saint-Léon, the Chlorophyta Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder Verlaque, Huisman & Boudouresque, the crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and the fishes Fistularia commersonii Rüppell, 1838, Siganus luridus (Rüppell, 1829, Siganus rivulatus Forsskål, 1775, Pempheris vanicolensis Cuvier, 1831, Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 and Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell, 1838. Several of them were until now unknown for the National Park. The list of alien marine species of Libya is updated and discussed. Until now 63 marine aliens species were recorded along the Libyan coasts. These include 3 Foraminifera, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 1 Magnoliophyta, 11 Arthropoda, 13 Mollusca, 1 Echinodermata and 21 Chordata. Among these Non Indigenous Species, 43 are known as established along the Libyan coast including 8 invasive, 11 casual, 6 questionable, 3 cryptogenic and 1 unknown. An in-depth study of the marine organisms would substantially increase the number of alien species occurring in Libya. Monitoring of marine assemblages of MPAs is a valuable opportunity to go further into the knowledge of native and introduced species.

  6. Role of salinity on food conversion efficiency and growth in juvenile penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus dobsoni (Crustacea/Arthropoda)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, Brenda; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Growth parameters of juvenile Metapenaeus dobsoni, fed with fresh squid meat were estimated in 5, 15, 25 and 35 ppt salinities for 4 weeks. Although no significant differences were noticed in food ingestion rates, higher body weight (68.9% over...

  7. Allomyrina dichotoma (Arthropoda: Insecta Larvae Confer Resistance to Obesity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    Young-Il Yoon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the anti-obesity effect of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL, we previously reported that ADL block adipocyte differentiation on 3T3-L1 cell lines through downregulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBPA. In this study, we tested whether ADL prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD and further investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of ADL. All mice were maintained on a normal-fat diet (NFD for 1 week and then assigned to one of five treatment groups: (1 NFD; (2 HFD; (3 HFD and 100 mg·kg−1·day−1 ADL; (4 HFD and 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1ADL; or (5 HFD and 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1 yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, positive control. ADL and yerba mate were administered orally daily. Mice were fed experimental diets and body weight was monitored weekly for 6 weeks. Our results indicated that ADL reduced body weight gain, organ weight and adipose tissue volume in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight gain was approximately 22.4% lower compared to mice fed only HFD, but the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis revealed that gene expression levels of PPARG, CEBPA and lipoprotein lipase (LPL in the epididymal fat tissue of HFD-fed mice receiving 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1 ADL were reduced by 12.4-, 25.7-, and 12.3-fold, respectively, compared to mice fed HFD only. Moreover, mice administered ADL had lower serum levels of triglycerides and leptin than HFD-fed mice that did not receive ADL. Taken together our results suggest that ADL and its constituent bioactive compounds hold potential for the treatment and prevention of obesity.

  8. Towards a Supertree of Arthropoda: A Species-Level Supertree of the Spiny, Slipper and Coral Lobsters (Decapoda: Achelata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie E Davis

    Full Text Available While supertrees have been built for many vertebrate groups (notably birds, mammals and dinosaurs, invertebrates have attracted relatively little attention. The paucity of supertrees of arthropods is particularly surprising given their economic and ecological importance, as well as their overwhelming contribution to biodiversity. The absence of comprehensive archives of machine-readable source trees, coupled with the need for software implementing repeatable protocols for managing them, has undoubtedly impeded progress. Here we present a supertree of Achelata (spiny, slipper and coral lobsters as a proof of concept, constructed using new supertree specific software (the Supertree Toolkit; STK and following a published protocol. We also introduce a new resource for archiving and managing published source trees. Our supertree of Achelata is synthesised from morphological and molecular source trees, and represents the most complete species-level tree of the group to date. Our findings are consistent with recent taxonomic treatments, confirming the validity of just two families: Palinuridae and Scyllaridae; Synaxidae were resolved within Palinuridae. Monophyletic Silentes and Stridentes lineages are recovered within Palinuridae, and all sub-families within Scyllaridae are found to be monophyletic with the exception of Ibacinae. We demonstrate the feasibility of building larger supertrees of arthropods, with the ultimate objective of building a complete species-level phylogeny for the entire phylum using a divide and conquer strategy.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the scab mite Psoroptes cuniculi (Arthropoda: Arachnida) provides insights into Acari phylogeny

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Xiao-Bin; Liu, Guo-Hua; Song, Hui-Qun; Liu, Tian-Yu; Yang, Guang-You; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited available sequence information has greatly impeded population genetics, phylogenetics and systematics studies in the subclass Acari (mites and ticks). Mitochondrial (mt) DNA is well known to provide genetic markers for investigations in these areas, but complete mt genomic data have been lacking for many Acari species. Herein, we present the complete mt genome of the scab mite Psoroptes cuniculi. Methods P. cuniculi was collected from a naturally infected New Zealand white ...

  10. Vertical and time distribution of Diplopoda (Arthropoda: Myriapoda in a monodominant forest in Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro D. Battirola

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study different sampling techniques for Diplopoda in soil, tree trunks and canopies were applied in an integrated way in the northern region of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. This was done in order to assess the relationship within the fauna in each forest strata, as well as its richness and temporal distribution. In all these habitats there were a total of 1,354 diplopods, distributed in four taxonomic orders, with Polyxenida being predominant over Polydesmida, Spirostreptida and Spirobolida. The largest representation was found on the trunks of the Vochysia divergens (721 ind., intercepted by tree photoecletors, whereas in the canopies sampling reached only 65 specimens. In the edaphic stratum 568 diplopods were captured, most with the use of the Winkler extractor, followed by pitfall traps and soil photoecletors. In spite of being an important group in these environments, both in terms of richness and diversity, this was less than has been observed in other Neotropical areas. However, due to seasonal changes in the Pantanal the existence of a relationship between the soil and the tree fauna was found as well as different survival strategies observed during the flood period. Regarding vertical distribution, the greatest richness and variety of taxonomic groups was found in the forest's edaphic environment demonstrating its association mainly with this forest stratum.

  11. The effect of the glyphosate, 2,4-D, atrazine e nicosulfuron herbicides upon the Edaphic collembola (Arthropoda: Ellipura) in a no tillage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Vilma S; Santos, Honório R; Gonçalves, Manoel C

    2007-01-01

    The use of herbicides is a common and intensive practice in no tillage systems. The herbicides can influence, directly or indirectly, the population of edaphic arthropods. Collembola is a group that functions as a bio-indicator of soil conditions. The degree of abundance and diversity of Collembola provides the level of soil disturbance provoked by agricultural practices. This experiment was designed to compare the influence of herbicides on the population fluctuation of Collembola in a no-till soil preparation system. The work was conducted in a non irrigated no-till area at the Núcleo Experimental de Ciências Agrárias of the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campus de Dourados, in soil planted with corn as a surface covering, during the period of December, 2002 to December, 2003. The data were analyzed according to a completely randomized model, in a split plot design. The plots received four types of herbicides: glyphosate, atrazine, 2,4-D and nicosulfuron. A fifth plot did not receive any herbicide (control), for a total of five treatment types. The sub plots were represented by their collection times (10, 20, 30 and 40 days after the herbicide applications). Both the type of herbicide and the time of data sampling influenced the Collembola population fluctuaction. The treatments with atrazine and 2,4-D caused the most reduction of the population of Collembola, depending on the time of application.

  12. SURVAI VECTOR DAN RESERVOIR PENYAKIT ZOONOTIK YANG DITULARKAN OLEH ARTHROPODA DI DESA BASI, KECAMATAN DONDO KABUPATEN BUOL — TOLITOLI, SULAWESI TENGAH, INDONESIA

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    Tuti R. Hadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An ecological survey was conducted in Central Sulawesi to obtain information on the distri­bution of reservoir hosts and vectors of arthropod-borne zoonotic diseases. Serological test were done from human sera collected in the area against arboviral and rickettsial antigens. Three species of Culex mosquitoes known as potential vectors of arbovirosis: Cx. bitaeni-orhynchus, Cx. gelidus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, were found in the area surveyed. A known vector of scrub typhus, Leptotrombidium (L. deliensis, was also found in that area. Suspected reservoirs of arthropod-borne zoonosis in the area surveyed were chickens, ducks, cows, horses, monkeys and rats. The prevalence of antibodies against arbovirus group A antigens ( Chikungunya, Getah and Sindbis was 34,06%, 28,5% and 4,39%, against arbovirus group B antigen (Japanese Encepha­litis was 93,4% and none against Rickettsia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhy antigens, out of 91 human sera examined. Antibodies were found in animal sera examined against arbovirus group A and arbovirus group B antigens in a variation of 11,8% — 100%. The prevalence of antibodies against R. tsutsugamushi antigen was 22,7% out of 22 rat sera examined.

  13. Can long-range PCR be used to amplify genetically divergent mitochondrial genomes for comparative phylogenetics? A case study within spiders (Arthropoda: Araneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Andrew G; Goodacre, Sara; Masta, Susan E; Taylor, Martin I; Arnedo, Miquel A; Penney, David; Kenny, John; Creer, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The development of second generation sequencing technology has resulted in the rapid production of large volumes of sequence data for relatively little cost, thereby substantially increasing the quantity of data available for phylogenetic studies. Despite these technological advances, assembling longer sequences, such as that of entire mitochondrial genomes, has not been straightforward. Existing studies have been limited to using only incomplete or nominally intra-specific datasets resulting in a bottleneck between mitogenome amplification and downstream high-throughput sequencing. Here we assess the effectiveness of a wide range of targeted long-range PCR strategies, encapsulating single and dual fragment primer design approaches to provide full mitogenomic coverage within the Araneae (Spiders). Despite extensive rounds of optimisation, full mitochondrial genome PCR amplifications were stochastic in most taxa, although 454 Roche sequencing confirmed the successful amplification of 10 mitochondrial genomes out of the 33 trialled species. The low success rates of amplification using long-Range PCR highlights the difficulties in consistently obtaining genomic amplifications using currently available DNA polymerases optimised for large genomic amplifications and suggests that there may be opportunities for the use of alternative amplification methods.

  14. Fine structure of the spermatozoon in three species of Cambaridae (Arthropoda: Crustacea: Decapoda) Cambarus robustus, Orconectes propinquus and Orconectes rusticus: a comparative biometrical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazicioglu, Buket; Hamr, Přemek; Kozák, Pavel; Kouba, Antonín; Niksirat, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    The ultrastructure of spermatozoa in three species of cambarid crayfish, Cambarus robustus, Orconectes propinquus, and Orconectes rusticus, were studied and compared with eight previously studied species from different crayfish families using morphological features and biometrical data. The ultrastructure of spermatozoa show a generally conserved pattern including an acrosome and nucleus in the anterior and posterior parts of the cell, respectively, radial arms that wrap around the nucleus, and the whole cell is enclosed by an extracellular capsule. The most outstanding morphological feature in spermatozoa of three studied cambarid crayfish is the crest-like protrusions in the anterior part of the acrosome that can be used as one of the features for distinguishing the members of this family. Results of biometrical data reveal that acrosome size in the representatives of Parastacidae are the smallest, while representatives of Astacidae show the biggest acrosome. The acrosome size in species belonging to Cambaridae occupy an intermediate position between the two other families of freshwater crayfish. In conclusion, a combination of morphological features and biometrical data of spermatozoa can help distinguishing different species of the freshwater crayfish. PMID:27635333

  15. Fine structure of the spermatozoon in three species of Cambaridae (Arthropoda: Crustacea: Decapoda) Cambarus robustus, Orconectes propinquus and Orconectes rusticus: a comparative biometrical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazicioglu, Buket; Hamr, Přemek; Kozák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The ultrastructure of spermatozoa in three species of cambarid crayfish, Cambarus robustus, Orconectes propinquus, and Orconectes rusticus, were studied and compared with eight previously studied species from different crayfish families using morphological features and biometrical data. The ultrastructure of spermatozoa show a generally conserved pattern including an acrosome and nucleus in the anterior and posterior parts of the cell, respectively, radial arms that wrap around the nucleus, and the whole cell is enclosed by an extracellular capsule. The most outstanding morphological feature in spermatozoa of three studied cambarid crayfish is the crest-like protrusions in the anterior part of the acrosome that can be used as one of the features for distinguishing the members of this family. Results of biometrical data reveal that acrosome size in the representatives of Parastacidae are the smallest, while representatives of Astacidae show the biggest acrosome. The acrosome size in species belonging to Cambaridae occupy an intermediate position between the two other families of freshwater crayfish. In conclusion, a combination of morphological features and biometrical data of spermatozoa can help distinguishing different species of the freshwater crayfish. PMID:27635333

  16. Occurrence of sea spider Endeis mollis Carpenter (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida on the test panels submerged in Gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Satheesh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea spiders (Pycnogonids are exclusively marine arthropods with worldwide distribution. Pycnogonida remains one of the poorly investigated groups encountered in fouling communities. In the present study, distribution pycnogonid species Endeis mollis associated with the fouling community developed on test panels submerged at Kudankulam coast, Gulf of Mannar was studied for a period of two years. Throughout the period of investigation, Endeis mollis was observed on the test panels. A maximum of 55 individuals per square dm was observed during pre-monsoon season and a minimum of 9 individuals per square dm during monsoon season. Results of this study on seasonal distribution are of considerable interest because so little has been documented on the ecology of Pycnogonids in India.

  17. The Prevalence and Pathogenicity of the “Anchor Worm” (Lernea spp, Phylum Arthropoda within the Finfish Inhabiting the Danube Delta Area

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    Marius Hangan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted as a series of cross-sectional epidemiological studies. It started in the 2003 and ended in 2008, having as sample sites the Sontea-Fortuna, Gorgova-Uzlina, Dunavat-Dranov and Razim-Sinoie lakes. The aim of the research was to assess the distribution and the pathogenicity of the Lernaea copepod among the inhabiting finfish populations, in various seasons of the time period. Lernaea spp was found in ctenopharyngodon idella, cyprinus carpio, liza aurata and liza haematocheila, only in two out of the four sampled complex of lakes, Razim-Sinoie and Dunavat-Dranov. The highest prevalence of the parasite was recorded in the autumns and at the beginning of the springs. The frequency of the parasitism was highest in the C. idella captured in the Dunavat-Dranov complex lakes (86.29%. The lesions caused by the copepod were mainly localized on the eye balls, the tegmentum and on the fins, where hemorrhagic and proliferative processes, as well as an overall increase in tegmentum mucus secretion, were noticed.

  18. The Prevalence and Pathogenicity of the “Anchor Worm” (Lernea spp, Phylum Arthropoda) within the Finfish Inhabiting the Danube Delta Area

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Hangan; Laura Daniela Urdes; Daniela Ianitchi

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted as a series of cross-sectional epidemiological studies. It started in the 2003 and ended in 2008, having as sample sites the Sontea-Fortuna, Gorgova-Uzlina, Dunavat-Dranov and Razim-Sinoie lakes. The aim of the research was to assess the distribution and the pathogenicity of the Lernaea copepod among the inhabiting finfish populations, in various seasons of the time period. Lernaea spp was found in ctenopharyngodon idella, cyprinus carpio, liza aurata and liza haem...

  19. Características de las comunidades de diptera (arthropoda: insecta) y su relación con el pasaje en la altillanura de la orinoquia (meta, colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Niño Arias, Larry; Amat García, Germán; Aguilera, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    La fauna dipterológica fue muestreada en la cuenca de sedimentación de la Orinoquia ondulada y bien drenada, correspondiente a la Altillanura estructural erosional con bajo grado de disección, ubicada cerca al caserío de Puerto Guadalupe en el municipio de Puerto López (Meta, Colombia). Se describen las comunidades caracterizando la composición, la abundancia, la diversidad y algunos aspectos estacionales, con respecto al paisaje, de las familias y los gremios tróficos larvales empleando proc...

  20. Características de las comunidades de Diptera (Arthropoda: Insecta y su relación con el pasaje en la altillanura de la Orinoquia (Meta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niño Arias Larry

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available La fauna dipterológica fue muestreada en la cuenca de sedimentación de la Orinoquia ondulada y bien drenada, correspondiente a la Altillanura estructural erosional con bajo grado de disección, ubicada cerca al caserío de Puerto Guadalupe en el municipio de Puerto López (Meta, Colombia. Se describen las comunidades caracterizando la composición, la abundancia, la diversidad y algunos aspectos estacionales, con respecto al paisaje, de las familias y los gremios tróficos larvales empleando procedimientos de estadística descriptiva y geoestadística junto con estimaciones Kriging.

  1. Características de las comunidades de Diptera (Arthropoda: Insecta) y su relación con el pasaje en la altillanura de la Orinoquia (Meta, Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Niño Arias Larry; Amat García Germán; Aguilera Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    La fauna dipterológica fue muestreada en la cuenca de sedimentación de la Orinoquia ondulada y bien drenada, correspondiente a la Altillanura estructural erosional con bajo grado de disección, ubicada cerca al caserío de Puerto Guadalupe en el municipio de Puerto López (Meta, Colombia). Se describen las comunidades caracterizando la composición, la abundancia, la diversidad y algunos aspectos estacionales, con respecto al paisaje, de las familias y los gremios tróficos larvales empleando proc...

  2. THE PERCEPTION OF DIPLOPODA (ARTHROPODA, MYRIAPODA BY THE INHABITANTS OF THE COUNTY OF PEDRA BRANCA, SANTA TERESINHA, BAHIA, BRAZIL La percepción de diplopoda (Arthropoda, Myriapoda por los habitantes del poblado de Pedra Branca, Santa Teresinha, Bahía, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERALDO M COSTA NETO

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the conceptions, knowledge and attitudes of the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, on the arthropods of the class Diplopoda. Data were collected from February to June 2005 by means of openended interviews carried out with 28 individuals, which ages ranged from 13 to 86 years old. It was recorded some traditional knowledge regarding the following items: taxonomy, biology, habitat, ecology, seasonality, and behavior. Results show that the diplopods are classified as “insects”. The characteristic of coiling the body was the most commented, as well as the fact that these animals are considered as “poisonous”. In general, the traditional zoological knowledge of Pedra Branca’s inhabitants concerning the diplopods is coherent with the academic knowledge.Este artículo registra las concepciones, los conocimientos y los comportamientos que los habitantes del poblado de Pedra Branca, en el estado de Bahía, poseen sobre los artrópodos de la clase Diplopoda. Los datos fueron obtenidos desde febrero hasta junio de 2005 a través de entrevistas abiertas y semiestructuradas realizadas con 28 individuos de ambos sexos, con edades que variaron de 13 a 86 años. Se registraron los conocimientos tradicionales relacionados con taxonomía, biología, hábitat, ecología, estacionalidad y comportamiento. Los resultados muestran que los diplópodos son clasificados como “insectos”. La característica de enrollar el cuerpo fue la más comentada, así como el hecho de que la mayoría de los individuos cree que estos animales son ponzoñosos. En general, el conocimiento zoológico tradicional que los pobladores de Pedra Branca tienen acerca de los diplópodos se mostró coherente con el conocimiento académico.

  3. La percepción de diplopoda (Arthropoda, Myriapoda por los habitantes del poblado de Pedra Branca, Santa Teresinha, Bahía, Brasil The perception of diplopoda (Arthropoda, Myriapoda by the inhabitants of the country of Pedra Branca Santa Teresinha, Bahía, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Neto Eraldo M.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo registra las concepciones, los conocimientos y los comportamientos que los habitantes del poblado de Pedra Branca, en el estado de Bahía, poseen sobre los artrópodos de la clase Diplopoda. Los datos fueron obtenidos desde febrero hasta junio de 2005 a través de entrevistas abiertas y semiestructuradas realizadas con 28 individuos de ambos sexos, con edades que variaron de 13 a 86 años. Se registraron los conocimientos tradicionales relacionados con taxonomía, biología, hábitat, ecología, estacionalidad y comportamiento. Los resultados muestran que los diplópodos son clasificados como “insectos”. La característica de enrollar el cuerpo fue la más comentada, así como el hecho de que la mayoría de los individuos cree que estos animales son ponzoñosos. En general, el conocimiento zoológico tradicional que los pobladores de Pedra Branca tienen acerca de los diplópodos se mostró coherente con el conocimiento académicoThis paper deals with the conceptions, knowledge and attitudes of the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, on the arthropods of the class Diplopoda. Data were collected from February to June 2005 by means of openended interviews carried out with 28 individuals, which ages ranged from 13 to 86 years old. It was recorded some traditional knowledge regarding the following items: taxonomy, biology, habitat, ecology, seasonality, and behavior. Results show that the diplopods are classified as “insects”. The characteristic of coiling the body was the most commented, as well as the fact that these animals are considered as “poisonous”. In general, the traditional zoological knowledge of Pedra Branca’s inhabitants concerning the diplopods is coherent with the academic knowledge.

  4. “Piolho-de-cobra” (Arthropoda: Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha na concepção dos moradores de Pedra Branca, Santa Terezinha, Estado da Bahia, Brasil = Piolho-de-cobra (Arthropoda: Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha as viewed by the inhabitants of Pedra Branca, Santa Terezinha, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraldo Medeiros Costa Neto

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo registra as concepções, os conhecimentos e os comportamentos que os moradores do povoado de Pedra Branca, no Estado da Bahia, possuem sobre o “piolho-de-cobra” (Chilopoda, Geophilomorpha. Aqui se inaugura um novo ramo da etnozoologia: etnomiriapodologia, que é definido como o estudo transdisciplinar dasrelações seres humanos/miriápodes. Os dados foram obtidos de fevereiro a junho de 2005 por meio de entrevistas abertas e semi-estruturadas realizadas com 24 indivíduos de ambos os sexos, cujas idades variaram de 25 a 86 anos. Foram registrados conhecimentostradicionais relacionados com taxonomia, biologia, hábitat, ecologia, sazonalidade e comportamento. Os resultados mostram que o piolho-de-cobra é classificado como “inseto”. O modo como esse animal se locomove foi bastante comentado. Em Pedra Branca, a maioria dos indivíduos acredita que esse animal é venenoso. Em geral, o conhecimento zoológico tradicional sobre os quilópodes geofilomorfos mostrou-se racionalmente coerente com o conhecimento acadêmico.This paper deals with the conceptions, knowledge and attitudes of the inhabitants of Pedra Branca county, State of Bahia, on the arthropod known as piolho-de-cobra (millipede (Chilopoda, Geophilomorpha. A new field within ethnozoology is here presented: ethnomyriapodology, defined as the transdisciplinary study of the relationships betweenhuman beings and the myriapods. Data were collected from February to June, 2005 by means of open-ended interviews carried out with 24 individuals whose ages ranged from 25 to 86 years old. Some traditional knowledge regarding this millipede taxonomy, biology,habitat, ecology, seazonality, and behavior were recorded. Results show that this centipede is classified as an “insect”. The way it moves was highly commented, as well as the fact that this animal is considered “poisonous”. In general, the traditional zoological knowledge of the inhabitants of Pedra Branca concerning the geophilomorph centipede is rationally coherent with the academic knowledge.

  5. ONTOGENESIS OF TUZOIA BISPINOSA (ARTHROPODA) FROM THE MIDDLE CAMBRIAN KAILI BIOTA, GUIZHOU, CHINA%贵州中寒武世凯里生物群双刺吐卓虫(Tuzoia bispinose)个体发育的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚路; 彭进; 傅晓平; 赵元龙

    2009-01-01

    大型双瓣壳节肢动物是凯里生物群中重要组成部分,其中吐卓虫属(Tuzoia)最为常见,化石标本达200多件.吐卓虫常见于全球早、中寒武世地层,地理分布广泛,在地层对比和古环境研究中具有重要意义.文章运用数理统计和对比研究的方法,详细检测130多块双刺吐卓虫(Tuzoia bispinosa Yuan and Zhao,1999)化石标本,发现明显可分为幼年期、青年期和成年期3个不同的生长发育阶段.文中探讨双刺吐卓虫的个体发育,确认先前建立的凯里生物群中Tuzoia的2个种:Tuzoia bispinose和T.magna,应为Tuzoia bispinose一种.

  6. Varibility of 18S rRNA Gene Sequences of Malacostraca in Arthropoda%节肢动物软甲纲18S rRNA基因序列变异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张代臻; 唐伯平; 张华彬

    2007-01-01

    用节肢动物软甲纲(Malacostraca)9个目53个物种的18S rRNA基因序列,分析节肢动物软甲纲18S rRNA基因序列变异特点,并通过邻接法构建系统发生树,初步探讨软甲纲9个目的亲缘关系,为弄清节肢动物尤其软甲纲的系统发生关系提供一定的理论依据.

  7. Новые находки Argiope bruennichi Scop. (Arthropoda, Aranei) в Беларуси

    OpenAIRE

    Петрусевич, М. И.; Радевич, В. С.; Гричик, В. В.

    2008-01-01

    There were exposed new places of habitat of Argiope bruennichi: Brest region and Minsk district. Natural habitat broads in the conditions of the climatic changes in the last decades. = Выявлены новые места обитания Argiope bruennichi. Расширение его ареала может быть обусловлено климатическими изменениями последних десятилетий.

  8. “Piolho-de-cobra” (Arthropoda: Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha na concepção dos moradores de Pedra Branca, Santa Terezinha, Estado da Bahia, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i2.1035 Piolho-de-cobra (Arthropoda: Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha as viewed by the inhabitants of Pedra Branca, Santa Terezinha, Bahia State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i2.1035

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraldo Medeiros Costa Neto

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo registra as concepções, os conhecimentos e os comportamentos que os moradores do povoado de Pedra Branca, no Estado da Bahia, possuem sobre o “piolho-de-cobra” (Chilopoda, Geophilomorpha. Aqui se inaugura um novo ramo da etnozoologia: etnomiriapodologia, que é definido como o estudo transdisciplinar das relações seres humanos/miriápodes. Os dados foram obtidos de fevereiro a junho de 2005 por meio de entrevistas abertas e semi-estruturadas realizadas com 24 indivíduos de ambos os sexos, cujas idades variaram de 25 a 86 anos. Foram registrados conhecimentos tradicionais relacionados com taxonomia, biologia, hábitat, ecologia, sazonalidade e comportamento. Os resultados mostram que o piolho-de-cobra é classificado como “inseto”. O modo como esse animal se locomove foi bastante comentado. Em Pedra Branca, a maioria dos indivíduos acredita que esse animal é venenoso. Em geral, o conhecimento zoológico tradicional sobre os quilópodes geofilomorfos mostrou-se racionalmente coerente com o conhecimento acadêmico.This paper deals with the conceptions, knowledge and attitudes of the inhabitants of Pedra Branca county, State of Bahia, on the arthropod known as piolho-de-cobra (millipede (Chilopoda, Geophilomorpha. A new field within ethnozoology is here presented: ethnomyriapodology, defined as the transdisciplinary study of the relationships between human beings and the myriapods. Data were collected from February to June, 2005 by means of open-ended interviews carried out with 24 individuals whose ages ranged from 25 to 86 years old. Some traditional knowledge regarding this millipede taxonomy, biology, habitat, ecology, seazonality, and behavior were recorded. Results show that this centipede is classified as an “insect”. The way it moves was highly commented, as well as the fact that this animal is considered “poisonous”. In general, the traditional zoological knowledge of the inhabitants of Pedra Branca concerning the geophilomorph centipede is rationally coherent with the academic knowledge.

  9. Efecto de residuos de leguminosas sobre estadios de una población de lombrices (Eisenia foetida y caracterización biológica del humus obtenido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida Vilches

    2000-01-01

    significativa entre el tipo de alimento y los estadios analizados siempre a favor del juvenil. La mejor representación de organismos presentes en la fauna pertenecen a las clases: Chilopoda, Isopoda e Insecta del phylum Arthropoda

  10. CORRELATION STUDY ON MOLLUSCA, ARTHROPODA AND CHORDATA COMMUNITIES IN LONGTIAN CAVE AND ZHENGJIA BIG CAVE IN GUIZHOU%贵州龙天洞和郑家大洞内软体动物、节肢动物和脊索动物群落的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎道洪; 罗蓉; 宋锡章

    1999-01-01

    对龙天洞和郑家大洞内的软体动物、节肢动物和脊索动物进行了观察和采集,两洞共获标本847个,隶属3门6纲15目28种.并对两洞的动物群落进行了研究,结果多样性指数最高的是群落A(2.2308),而最低是群落F(0.9404);相似性指数最高是群落E-F(0.6363),而最低是群落D-F(0.1552).此外,还对两洞的动物季节数量动态和空间分布进行了分析.

  11. COMPARATIVE RESEARCH ON MOLLUSCA, ARTHROPODA AND CHORDATA COMMUNITIES IN XIA CAVE, FEILONG CAVE AND BAILONG CAVE IN XINGYI%兴义下洞、白龙洞、飞龙洞内软体动物、节肢动物和脊索动物群落的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭微; 黎道洪; 杨卫成

    2006-01-01

    对贵州兴义市下洞、白龙洞、飞龙洞内的软体动物、节肢动物和脊索动物进行了观察和采集,3个洞穴共获标本(含统计数)4000余号,隶属3门8纲18目40科50属71种.并对3洞的动物群落进行了研究,结果表明:多样性指数最高的是群落A2(2.7423),而最低是群落C1(0.3953);相似性指数最高是群落A1-A3(0.9888),而最低是群落C1-B2(0.1936).

  12. 贵州和尚洞不同光带内软体动物、节肢动物和脊索动物的多样性及分布研究%STUDY ON THE DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF MOLLUSC, ARTHROPODA, AND CHORDATA IN HUOSHANG CAVE OF GUIZHOU PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎道洪; 罗蓉

    1999-01-01

    对贵州和尚洞内的软体动物、节肢动物和脊索动物进行了观察和采集,共获标本350号,隶属3门5纲13目19科.研究了不同光带内洞穴动物的多样性.结果表明,洞内物种丰富,多样性和均匀度指数最高均在有光带,其指数分别为3.5511、2.2964和0.7799;优势度指数在黑暗带最高(0.3756);相似性指数最高在弱光带与黑暗带之间(0.6338).此外,还对洞穴动物的分布进行了分析.

  13. ПЕРИОДИЧНОСТЬ ПИЩЕВОЙ АКТИВНОСТИ КАМЧАТСКОГО КРАБА PARALITHODES CAMTSCHATICUS (ARTHROPODA, DECAPODA) В БАРЕНЦЕВОМ МОРЕ

    OpenAIRE

    Манушин, Игорь

    2012-01-01

    В работе приведены результаты исследований ритмичности питания камчатского краба в Баренцевом море. Показано наличие циркадной и месячной периодичности в его пищевой активности. Указанная периодичность связывается с приливно-отливным циклом. Значения общего индекса наполнения желудков краба следуют за значениями высоты прилива с небольшим отставанием. Наибольшие среднесуточные уловы ловушек, отражающие высокую пищевую активность краба, отмечены во время сизигийных приливов....

  14. Stomach Contents of the Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) in the River Asi (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    YALÇIN, Şükran

    2001-01-01

    Natural food items of catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) were investigated in the River Asi from September 1996 to October 1998. Analyses of stomach contents showed that the catfish feed basically on Arthropoda, mostly Diptera larvae, and on plant materials to a considerable extent. A successful filter feeding was observed, especially during the summer period.

  15. THE COMPOSITION OF FLUIDS AND SERA OF SOME MARINE ANIMALS AND OF THE SEA WATER IN WHICH THEY LIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, W H

    1940-05-20

    1. The electrolyte composition, the pH, and freezing points of the fluids of several invertebrates and one primitive chordate are reported. 2. Fluids of the worms, echinoderms, and the clam Venus were isotonic with sea water; fluids of the Arthropoda were hypertonic to sea water. 3. The pH of all fluids was below that of sea water. In the Arthropoda and Myxine less individual variation in pH appeared than in the echinoderms and worms. 4. Ratios of ionic concentrations in the fluid to those in the sea water indicated (1) uniform distribution of ions between the internal and external media for the echinoderms and Venus, (2) differential distribution of potassium and magnesium in the worms; (3) differential distribution of sulfate, magnesium, potassium, and calcium in the Arthropoda; and (4) differential distribution of calcium, magnesium, and sulfate in Myxine. 5. The unequal distribution of ions implies the expenditure of energy against a concentration gradient across the absorbing or excreting membranes, a capacity frequently overlooked in the invertebrates. 6. The sera of the Arthropoda from diluted sea water showed higher concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride ions relative to the respective concentrations in the external medium than in normal sea water, and also showed different orders for those ions. 7. The increase in osmotic pressure of the sera of the animals moving into brackish water is caused by unequal accumulation of sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride ions. Sulfate and magnesium ionic ratios do not change.

  16. Alpha- and beta-hemocyanin of Helix pomatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Jan

    1971-01-01

    This thesis deals with several aspects of the protein structure of Alpha- and Beta -hemocyanin of Helix pomatia. a- and 0-hemocyanin possess a virtually identical amino acid composition; it closely resembles the amino acid com- positions of hemocyanins of other MOLLUSCA and ARTHROPODA. All hemocyani

  17. Two new families (Acari: Alicorhagiidae and Platyhelminthes: Prorhynchidae) reported for the Hungarian fauna From leaf litter in the Bükk Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Pfliegler, W.P.; Bolton, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Two new members of the Hungarian fauna are reported, both of them were collected in beech forest leaf litter in the Bükk Mountains, North-East Hungary: Alicorhagia fragilis Berlese, 1910 (Arthropoda: Arachnida: Acari: Sarcopti-formes: Endeostigmata: Alicorhagiidae) and Geocentrophora baltica (Kennel, 1883) (Platyhelminthes: Rhabditophora: Trepaxonemata: Amplimatricata: 'Lecithoepitheliata': Prorhynchida: Prorhynchidae). The families Alicorhagiidae and Prorhynchidae both represent...

  18. Screening and identification of novel cytochrome P450s in ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytochrome P450s are the major phase I drug metabolizing enzymes found in most species, including those belonging to the phylum Arthropoda. Much of the work within the area of xenobiotic metabolism in this phylum has centered on mosquito species such as Anopheles gambiae due to their role as vectors...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: pea aphid [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Arthropoda Acyrthosiphon_pisum_L.png Acyrthosiphon_pisum_NL.png Acyrthosiph...on_pisum_S.png Acyrthosiphon_pisum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Acyrthosiph...on+pisum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Acyrthosiphon+pisum&t=NL http:...//biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Acyrthosiphon+pisum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Acyrthosiphon+pisum&t=NS ...

  20. Experimental transmission of a microsporidian pathogen from mosquitoes to an alternate copepod host.

    OpenAIRE

    Andreadis, T G

    1985-01-01

    Meiospores of a microsporidian parasite Amblyospora sp. (Protozoa: Microspora) from larval Aedes cantator mosquitoes were directly infectious to an alternate copepod host, Acanthocyclops vernalis (Arthropoda: Crustacea). Infections ranged from 6.7% to 60.0% in laboratory tests when meiospores and copepods were maintained together for 10-30 days in filtered water from the breeding site or in a balanced salt solution. Pathogen development takes place within host adipose tissue and is fatal to t...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: yellow fever mosquito [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti Arthropoda Aedes_aegypti_L.png Aedes_aegypti_NL.png Aedes_aegypt...i_S.png Aedes_aegypti_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegypti...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegypti&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegyp...ti&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegypti&t=NS ...

  2. 一种简便的蚤状溞观察方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙权

    2004-01-01

    蚤状溞(Daphnia pulex)为节肢动物门(Arthropoda)鳃足亚纲(Branchiopoda)动物。分布广泛,常为湖泊池沼的优势种,是鱼类优良的天然饵料。同时,蚤状溞也是一种很好的实验材料。

  3. Coleopteran and Lepidopteran Hosts of the Entomopathogenic Genus Cordyceps sensu lato

    OpenAIRE

    Bhushan Shrestha; Eiji Tanaka; Min Woo Hyun; Jae-Gu Han; Chang Sun Kim; Jong Won Jo; Sang-Kuk Han; Junsang Oh; Gi-Ho Sung

    2016-01-01

    Entomophthoralean and ascomycetous fungi are the two major groups known to parasitize arthropods in almost every terrestrial habitat of the earth. Within Ascomycota, Cordyceps sensu lato is a large genus with more than 400 spp. described on numerous orders of Arthropoda. Among the hosts of Cordyceps, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera are the two major orders. Out of the estimated 200 Cordyceps spp. recorded on coleopteran and lepidopteran hosts, we have documented 92 spp. based on the available info...

  4. DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, O; Black, M; Hoeh, W; Lutz, R; Vrijenhoek, R

    1994-10-01

    We describe "universal" DNA primers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a 710-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) from 11 invertebrate phyla: Echinodermata, Mollusca, Annelida, Pogonophora, Arthropoda, Nemertinea, Echiura, Sipuncula, Platyhelminthes, Tardigrada, and Coelenterata, as well as the putative phylum Vestimentifera. Preliminary comparisons revealed that these COI primers generate informative sequences for phylogenetic analyses at the species and higher taxonomic levels.

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: honey bee [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available honey bee Apis mellifera Arthropoda Apis_mellifera_L.png Apis_mellifera_NL.png Apis_mellife...ra_S.png Apis_mellifera_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=L h...ttp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellife...ra&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=NS ...

  6. Analysis of the Plankton in the Area around the Cape Maslen Nos, Bulgaria: Possibilities for Cultivation of Mediterranean Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis)

    OpenAIRE

    Galin Y. Nikolov; Alexander P. Atanasov; Dian M. Georgiev; Evgeni G. Raichev

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the species taxonomic composition and thequantitative characteristics of plankton in the Cape Maslen Nos area. Representatives of theProtozoa, Rotatoria, Annelida, Mollusca and Arthropoda predominated in the compositionstructure of zooplankton whereas members of Bacillariophyta, Chrysophyta, Dinophyta,Cyanophyta, Euglenophyta in that of phytoplankton. The comparative analysis of phytoplanktondata shows that the highest mean biomass values were 24.76 – 33....

  7. Land snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of India: status, threats and conservation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, S.; Ravikanth, G; N.A. Aravind

    2012-01-01

    Land snails form an important component in the forest ecosystem. In terms of number of species, the phylum Mollusca, to which land snails belong, is the largest phylum after Arthropoda. Mollusca provide unique ecosystem services including recycling of nutrients and they provide a prey base for small mammals, birds, snakes and other reptiles. However, land snails have the largest number of documented extinctions, compared to any other taxa. Till date 1,129 species of land snails are recorde...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: red flour beetle [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum Arthropoda Tribolium_castaneum_L.png Tribolium_castaneum_NL.png Triboli...um_castaneum_S.png Tribolium_castaneum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium...+castaneum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=N...L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=NS ...

  9. Functional and ecological consequences of saprotrophic fungus–grazer interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Crowther, Thomas W.; Boddy, Lynne; T. Hefin Jones

    2012-01-01

    Saprotrophic fungi are key regulators of nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. They are the primary agents of plant litter decomposition and their hyphal networks, which grow throughout the soil–litter interface, represent highly dynamic channels through which nutrients are readily distributed. By ingesting hyphae and dispersing spores, soil invertebrates, including Arthropoda, Oligochaetae and Nematoda, influence fungal-mediated nutrient distribution within soil. Fungal physiological r...

  10. A photoactivatable green-fluorescent protein from the phylum Ctenophora

    OpenAIRE

    Steven H D Haddock; Mastroianni, Nadia; Christianson, Lynne M.

    2009-01-01

    Genes for the family of green-fluorescent proteins (GFPs) have been found in more than 100 species of animals, with some species containing six or more copies producing a variety of colours. Thus far, however, these species have all been within three phyla: Cnidaria, Arthropoda and Chordata. We have discovered GFP-type fluorescent proteins in the phylum Ctenophora, the comb jellies. The ctenophore proteins share the xYG chromophore motif of all other characterized GFP-type proteins. These pro...

  11. New euthycarcinoids and an enigmatic arthropod from the British coal measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, H.M.; Almond, J.E. [Univrsity of Maryland, College Park, MD (USA). Dept. Entomology

    2001-07-01

    Two new species of euthycarcinoids (Arthropoda), Kottixerxes anglicus sp. nov. and Smithixerxes pustulosus sp. nov., are described from the Coal Measures of Westhoughton, Lancashire and Coseley, West Midlands (Westphalian A and B respectively). Both genera are previously known from Mazon Creek, USA (Westphalian D). An additional, enigmatic arthropod with possible euthycarcinoid affinities, Arthrogyrinus platyurus gen. et sp. nov., is described from Coseley. Hypotheses concerning the phylogenetic position of euthycarcinoids are critically reviewed.

  12. APPLICATION OF NATURAL POLLINATOR BOMBUS TERRESTRIS IN CULTIVATION OF THE ‘BIO’ VEGETABLES

    OpenAIRE

    Erjola Keci; Artan Trebicka; Leomira Osmani (Lataj)

    2012-01-01

    In this study is presented the pollination activity of the Bombus terrestris L. Type: Arthropoda, Class: Insecta, Order: Hymenoptera, Family: Apidae, Genus: Bombus Latr. The aim is presentation of the evidences in the impact on the efficiency and qualitative improvement of the plant cucumber Cucurum sativum and the red pepper plant Capsicum annuum in greenhouses. The experiments conducted during the period 2009-2010 in the Germenji (Lushnje) related to the cucumber plant and the red pepper pl...

  13. Macrobenthic fauna community in the Middle Songkhla Lake, Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Angsupanich, S.; Charoenpornthip, M.; Siripech, A.

    2005-01-01

    A bimonthly investigation of macrobenthic fauna at the area from Ban Pak Khat to Ban Leam Chong Thanon in the Inner Songkhla Lake from February 1998 to February 1999 was undertaken to determine the species richness and abundance. A total of 7 phyla and 161 species were identified. Annelida (58 species), Arthropoda (64 species) and Mollusca (23 species) were the major phyla while Nemertea (1 species), Platyhelminthes (1 species), Cnidaria (4 species) and Chordata (10 species) were the minor. F...

  14. A list of macrofauna on the continental shelf of Gökçeada Island (northern Aegean Sea) with a new record (Gryphus vitreus Born, 1778) (Brachiopoda, Rhynchonellata) for the Turkish seas

    OpenAIRE

    Gönülal, Onur; Güreşen, Sedat Ozan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Long-term sampling (1974-2013) of macro fauna of the Gökçeada Island (northern Aegean Sea) provided qualitative information on many taxa including Porifera, Cnidaria Mollusca, Arthropoda, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Spinculida, Echinodermata, Chordata. Gryphus vitreus (Brachiopoda) and Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas, 1766) are the first records for the Turkish seas and the Aegean coast of Turkey, respectively. The present paper aims to describe macrofauna occurring on the continental sh...

  15. [General overview of camel parasites and the situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrug, Abdalla Fadlalla; Burgu, Ayşe

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review is overview the main protozoan, arthropoda and helminthic parasites seen in camels and to evaluate the publications related to camel parasites in Turkey. In different parts of the world, trichostrongylose, mange, nasal myiasis and trypanosomiasis are the most common parasitic diseases found in camels. Hydatic cyst larval stage of E. granulosus is important both economically and in terms of public health. It is also emphasized that the records concerning parasites of the Turkish camel population, which is decreasing significantly, are extremely limited. PMID:21618196

  16. Analysis of the Plankton in the Area around the Cape Maslen Nos, Bulgaria: Possibilities for Cultivation of Mediterranean Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galin Y. Nikolov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish the species taxonomic composition and thequantitative characteristics of plankton in the Cape Maslen Nos area. Representatives of theProtozoa, Rotatoria, Annelida, Mollusca and Arthropoda predominated in the compositionstructure of zooplankton whereas members of Bacillariophyta, Chrysophyta, Dinophyta,Cyanophyta, Euglenophyta in that of phytoplankton. The comparative analysis of phytoplanktondata shows that the highest mean biomass values were 24.76 – 33.33 g/m3 and mean biomassvalues of zooplankton – 51.43 g/m3.

  17. Macrozoobenthic Taxocoenosis in a Cultivators’ Rice Field of North West Kashmir, (J and K) India

    OpenAIRE

    Shahzadi Wufai Naw Bahaar; G. A. Bhat

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the attempt to investigate the community composition and density of macro-zoobenthos in a cultivator’s field. The study carried out in the rice fields of north-western district Kupwara (34o02’N; 74o16E’) of Kashmir province revealed the presence of 7 taxa of macrozoobenthos belonging to Annelida, Arthropoda and Mollusca. Phylum Annelida formed the most dominant group represented by 5 taxa. Diversity calculated by employing Simpsons’ Index (D), Simpsons’ Index of Diversity ...

  18. A novel extracellular gut symbiont in the marine worm Priapulus caudatus (Priapulida) reveals an alphaproteobacterial symbiont clade of the Ecdysozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroer, Paul; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Nyengaard, Jens Randel;

    2016-01-01

    Priapulus caudatus (phylum Priapulida) is a benthic marine predatory worm with a cosmopolitan distribution. In its digestive tract we detected symbiotic bacteria that were consistently present in specimens collected over eight years from three sites at the Swedish west coast. Based on their 16S r...... Tenuibacter priapulorum’. Within Rickettsiales, they form a phylogenetically well-defined, family-level clade with uncultured symbionts of marine, terrestrial, and freshwater arthropods. Cand. Tenuibacter priapulorum expands the host range of this candidate family from Arthropoda to the entire Ecdysozoa...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: Anopheles stephensi [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Anopheles stephensi Anopheles stephensi Arthropoda Anopheles_stephensi_L.png Anopheles_stephen...si_NL.png Anopheles_stephensi_S.png Anopheles_stephensi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&...t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=S htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=149 ...

  20. Benthic invertebrate fauna in the islets of Namuseom and Bukhyeongjeseom off Busan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosung Hwang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the benthic invertebrate fauna inhabiting in the subtidal zone in and around the islets of Namuseom and Bukhyeongjeseom off the coast of Busan by SCUBA diving in September 2013. As a consequence, it was confirmed that a total of 6 phyla, 14 classes, 20 orders, 46 families, and 73 species of zoobenthos inhabit in and around those islets. The total number of species surveyed by taxon during the study is 22 species of Arthropoda (30%, 20 species of Mollusca (27%, 15 species of Cnidaria (21%, 10 species of Echinodermata (14%, four species of Poridera (5%, and two species of Chordata.

  1. Benthic invertebrate fauna in the islets of Namuseom and Bukhyeongjeseom off Busan

    OpenAIRE

    Hosung Hwang; Jisoon Kang; In-Young Cho; Dong-Won Kang; Woon Kee Paek; Seok Hyun Lee

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the benthic invertebrate fauna inhabiting in the subtidal zone in and around the islets of Namuseom and Bukhyeongjeseom off the coast of Busan by SCUBA diving in September 2013. As a consequence, it was confirmed that a total of 6 phyla, 14 classes, 20 orders, 46 families, and 73 species of zoobenthos inhabit in and around those islets. The total number of species surveyed by taxon during the study is 22 species of Arthropoda (30%), 20 species of Mollusca (...

  2. Lista dos Anelídeos (Annelida)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo A V Borges

    2010-01-01

    A diversidade das minhocas (Annelida) é aqui compilada, em adição aos grupos de animais terrestres listados em detalhe noutros capítulos deste livro (Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Chordata). Com base na recente lista de espécies animais terrestres da Europa, projecto “Fauna Europaea” (http:// www.faunaeur.org), listam-se 21 espécies de anelí deos terrestres. É apresentada a distribuição das espécies ou subespécies nas nove ilhas dos Açores, usando-se a seguinte simbologia: ...

  3. Lista preliminar dos platelmintes e anelídeos (Platyhelminthes e Annelida) terrestres dos arquipélagos da madeira e das selvagens

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo A V Borges

    2008-01-01

    Apresenta -se uma lista preliminar dos filos Platyhelminthes e Annelida terrestres dos arquipélagos da Madeira e Selvagens. Com base na recente lista de espécies animais terrestres da Europa, projecto “Fauna Europaea” (http://www.faunaeur.org), listam -se sete espécies de platelmintes e 36 espécies de anelídeos terrestres. Em adição aos grupos de animais listados em detalhe em outros capítulos deste livro (Nematoda, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Chordata), a diversidade de dois outros grupos de anima...

  4. Descripción de la morfología externa por microscopia de luz y electrónica de barrido de Megninia ginglymura, Megnin, 1877 en faisán de collar (Phasianus torquatus), en un criadero de Corrientes, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    A. Santa Cruz ; M. C. Agüero ; J. A. González; J.A Comolli ; D. Cayo; J. P. Roux.-

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es reportar el primer hallazgo de Megninia ginglymura, Megnin, 1877 (Arthropoda, Arachnida, Acari, Astigmata, Analgidae), en faisán de collar (Phasianus torquatus) y describir algunos caracteres morfológicos externos a través imágenes obtenidas con microscopios de luz y microscopio electrónico de barrido. La investigación se llevó a cabo en un criadero ubicado en la localidad del Ingenio Santa Ana de la ciudad de Corrientes, Latitud 27º 26´ 01, Longitud 58º 37´ 21....

  5. Evaluation of the composition of terrestrial invertebrates in a rural area of Campina Grande do Sul, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Luciane Fischer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial invertebrates participate actively in the formation of the soil, and can be utilized as bioindicators of environmental disturbance. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate the fauna composition of terrestrial invertebrates, in a rural area of Campina Grande do Sul. The collection was carried out in a single fragment of Araucaria Forest, with structurally differentiated two-point samplings, through pitfall traps. A total of 1,776 invertebrates was captured, pertaining to Arthropoda, Annelida, Mollusca and Plathyhelminthes phyla, of which Arthropoda and Hexapoda were the most representative groups. In Hexapoda, eleven orders were registered, and of those, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Collembola and Diptera were the most abundant. Although the studied fragment had been under recuperation for about 10 years after approximately 40 years of antropic interference, and was therefore surrounded by areas utilized for farming, agriculture and highways, it contained different groups of terrestrial invertebrates on wide-ranging thropic levels, which were important for the spatial structure and the composition of litterfall of the fragment.

  6. Growth patterns in Onychophora (velvet worms: lack of a localised posterior proliferation zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landman Kerry A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During embryonic development of segmented animals, body segments are thought to arise from the so-called "posterior growth zone" and the occurrence of this "zone" has been used to support the homology of segmentation between arthropods, annelids, and vertebrates. However, the term "posterior growth zone" is used ambiguously in the literature, mostly referring to a region of increased proliferation at the posterior end of the embryo. To determine whether such a localised posterior proliferation zone is an ancestral feature of Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda, we examined cell division patterns in embryos of Onychophora. Results Using in vivo incorporation of the DNA replication marker BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine and anti-phospho-histone H3 immunolabelling, we found that a localised posterior region of proliferating cells does not occur at any developmental stage in onychophoran embryos. This contrasts with a localised pattern of cell divisions at the posterior end of annelid embryos, which we used as a positive control. Based on our data, we present a mathematical model, which challenges the paradigm that a localised posterior proliferation zone is necessary for segment patterning in short germ developing arthropods. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a posterior proliferation zone was absent in the last common ancestor of Onychophora and Arthropoda. By comparing our data from Onychophora with those from annelids, arthropods, and chordates, we suggest that the occurrence of a "posterior growth zone" currently cannot be used to support the homology of segmentation between these three animal groups.

  7. Arthropod phylogeny based on eight molecular loci and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, G.; Edgecombe, G. D.; Wheeler, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    The interrelationships of major clades within the Arthropoda remain one of the most contentious issues in systematics, which has traditionally been the domain of morphologists. A growing body of DNA sequences and other types of molecular data has revitalized study of arthropod phylogeny and has inspired new considerations of character evolution. Novel hypotheses such as a crustacean-hexapod affinity were based on analyses of single or few genes and limited taxon sampling, but have received recent support from mitochondrial gene order, and eye and brain ultrastructure and neurogenesis. Here we assess relationships within Arthropoda based on a synthesis of all well sampled molecular loci together with a comprehensive data set of morphological, developmental, ultrastructural and gene-order characters. The molecular data include sequences of three nuclear ribosomal genes, three nuclear protein-coding genes, and two mitochondrial genes (one protein coding, one ribosomal). We devised new optimization procedures and constructed a parallel computer cluster with 256 central processing units to analyse molecular data on a scale not previously possible. The optimal 'total evidence' cladogram supports the crustacean-hexapod clade, recognizes pycnogonids as sister to other euarthropods, and indicates monophyly of Myriapoda and Mandibulata.

  8. The Glutathione-S-Transferase, Cytochrome P450 and Carboxyl/Cholinesterase Gene Superfamilies in Predatory Mite Metaseiulus occidentalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Marjorie A.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide-resistant populations of the predatory mite Metaseiulus (= Typhlodromus or Galendromus) occidentalis (Arthropoda: Chelicerata: Acari: Phytoseiidae) have been used in the biological control of pest mites such as phytophagous Tetranychus urticae. However, the pesticide resistance mechanisms in M. occidentalis remain largely unknown. In other arthropods, members of the glutathione-S-transferase (GST), cytochrome P450 (CYP) and carboxyl/cholinesterase (CCE) gene superfamilies are involved in the diverse biological pathways such as the metabolism of xenobiotics (e.g. pesticides) in addition to hormonal and chemosensory processes. In the current study, we report the identification and initial characterization of 123 genes in the GST, CYP and CCE superfamilies in the recently sequenced M. occidentalis genome. The gene count represents a reduction of 35% compared to T. urticae. The distribution of genes in the GST and CCE superfamilies in M. occidentalis differs significantly from those of insects and resembles that of T. urticae. Specifically, we report the presence of the Mu class GSTs, and the J’ and J” clade CCEs that, within the Arthropoda, appear unique to Acari. Interestingly, the majority of CCEs in the J’ and J” clades contain a catalytic triad, suggesting that they are catalytically active. They likely represent two Acari-specific CCE clades that may participate in detoxification of xenobiotics. The current study of genes in these superfamilies provides preliminary insights into the potential molecular components that may be involved in pesticide metabolism as well as hormonal/chemosensory processes in the agriculturally important M. occidentalis. PMID:27467523

  9. Zooplankton diversity across three Red Sea reefs using pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kenneth Pearman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are considered among the most diverse ecosystems on Earth, yet little is known about the diversity of plankton in the surrounding water column. Moreover, few studies have utilised genomic methods to investigate zooplankton diversity in any habitat. This study investigated the diversity of taxa by sampling 45 stations around three reef systems in the central/southern Red Sea. The diversity of metazoan plankton was investigated by targeting the 18S rRNA gene and clustering OTUs at 97% sequence similarity. A total of 754 and 854 metazoan OTUs were observed in the data set for the 1380F and 1389F primer sets respectively. The phylum Arthropoda dominated both primer sets accounting for ~60% of reads followed by Cnidaria (~ 20%. Only about 20% of OTUs were shared between all three reef systems and the relation between geographic distance and Jaccard Similarity measures was not significant. Cluster analysis showed that there was no distinct split between reefs and stations from different reefs clustered together both for metazoans as a whole and for the phyla Arthropoda, Cnidaria and Chordata separately. This suggests that distance may not be a determining factor in the taxonomic composition of stations.

  10. Zooplankton diversity across three Red Sea reefs using pyrosequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.

    2014-07-30

    Coral reefs are considered among the most diverse ecosystems on Earth, yet little is known about the diversity of plankton in the surrounding water column. Moreover, few studies have utilized genomic methods to investigate zooplankton diversity in any habitat. This study investigated the diversity of taxa by sampling 45 stations around three reef systems in the central/southern Red Sea. The diversity of metazoan plankton was investigated by targeting the 18S rRNA gene and clustering OTUs at 97% sequence similarity. A total of 754 and 854 metazoan OTUs were observed in the data set for the 1380F and 1389F primer sets respectively. The phylum Arthropoda dominated both primer sets accounting for ~60% of reads followed by Cnidaria (~20%). Only about 20% of OTUs were shared between all three reef systems and the relation between geographic distance and Jaccard Similarity measures was not significant. Cluster analysis showed that there was no distinct split between reefs and stations from different reefs clustered together both for metazoans as a whole and for the phyla Arthropoda, Cnidaria and Chordata separately. This suggests that distance may not be a determining factor in the taxonomic composition of stations.

  11. Identification, distribution and molecular evolution of the pacifastin gene family in Metazoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Soest Sofie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the pacifastin family are serine peptidase inhibitors, most of which are produced as multi domain precursor proteins. Structural and biochemical characteristics of insect pacifastin-like peptides have been studied intensively, but only one inhibitor has been functionally characterised. Recent sequencing projects of metazoan genomes have created an unprecedented opportunity to explore the distribution, evolution and functional diversification of pacifastin genes in the animal kingdom. Results A large scale in silico data mining search led to the identification of 83 pacifastin members with 284 inhibitor domains, distributed over 55 species from three metazoan phyla. In contrast to previous assumptions, members of this family were also found in other phyla than Arthropoda, including the sister phylum Onychophora and the 'primitive', non-bilaterian Placozoa. In Arthropoda, pacifastin members were found to be distributed among insect families of nearly all insect orders and for the first time also among crustacean species other than crayfish and the Chinese mitten crab. Contrary to precursors from Crustacea, the majority of insect pacifastin members contain dibasic cleavage sites, indicative for posttranslational processing into numerous inhibitor peptides. Whereas some insect species have lost the pacifastin gene, others were found to have several (often clustered paralogous genes. Amino acids corresponding to the reactive site or involved in the folding of the inhibitor domain were analysed as a basis for the biochemical properties. Conclusion The absence of the pacifastin gene in some insect genomes and the extensive gene expansion in other insects are indicative for the rapid (adaptive evolution of this gene family. In addition, differential processing mechanisms and a high variability in the reactive site residues and the inner core interactions contribute to a broad functional diversification of inhibitor

  12. Isolation and identification of a cardioactive peptide from Tenebrio molitor and Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, K; Liao, S; Reynolds, S E; Ota, R B; Hackett, M; Schooley, D A

    1993-12-01

    We isolated several cardioactive peptides from extracts of whole heads of the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, and the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania, using a semi-isolated heart of Manduca sexta for bioassay. We have now isolated from each species the peptide with the strongest effect on rate of contraction of the heart. The peptides were identified using micro Edman sequencing and mass spectrometric methods. This cardioactive peptide has the same primary structure from both species: Pro-Phe-Cys-Asn-Ala-Phe-Thr-Gly-Cys-NH2, a cyclic nonapeptide which is identical to crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) originally isolated from the shore crab, Carcinus maenas, and subsequently isolated from Locusta migratoria and Manduca sexta. This is additional evidence that CCAP has widespread occurrence in arthropoda. PMID:8129851

  13. Element-transfer in the ecosystem 'spruce-stand' with special regard to invertebrate animals. Elementfluesse im Oekosystem 'Fichtenforst' unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung wirbelloser Tiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth-Holzapfel, M.; Funke, W.; Rittner, P.

    1990-04-01

    In the most important representatives (Annelida, Arthropoda) of invertebrate food chains of a 80-year-old spruce stand nearby Ulm (Swabian Alb) the concentrations of numerous elements have been determined. The spectrum of elements includes major nutrients (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P), minor nutrients (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) and toxic elements (Pb, Cd). The estimation of transfer-rates of elements in the ecosystem from primary production to primary consumers and zoophagous invertebrates, has been of special interest. Saprophagous animals contain an element-pool, of which upto 30% is transferred to zoophagous species. Invertebrates of different systematic and trophic groups accumulate - except of Cd- predominantly essential elements. The highest factors of accumulation were found in saprophagous springtails and millipeds. In contrary to predaceous spiders, no accumulation was found in zoophagous beetles. In no species of animals investigated an anrichment of lead was estimated. (orig.).

  14. Large-scale recoding of an arbovirus genome to rebalance its insect versus mammalian preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sam H; Stauft, Charles B; Gorbatsevych, Oleksandr; Song, Yutong; Ward, Charles B; Yurovsky, Alisa; Mueller, Steffen; Futcher, Bruce; Wimmer, Eckard

    2015-04-14

    The protein synthesis machineries of two distinct phyla of the Animal kingdom, insects of Arthropoda and mammals of Chordata, have different preferences for how to best encode proteins. Nevertheless, arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) are capable of infecting both mammals and insects just like arboviruses that use insect vectors to infect plants. These organisms have evolved carefully balanced genomes that can efficiently use the translational machineries of different phyla, even if the phyla belong to different kingdoms. Using dengue virus as an example, we have undone the genome encoding balance and specifically shifted the encoding preference away from mammals. These mammalian-attenuated viruses grow to high titers in insect cells but low titers in mammalian cells, have dramatically increased LD50s in newborn mice, and induce high levels of protective antibodies. Recoded arboviruses with a bias toward phylum-specific expression could form the basis of a new generation of live attenuated vaccine candidates.

  15. Coleopteran and Lepidopteran Hosts of the Entomopathogenic Genus Cordyceps sensu lato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Shrestha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomophthoralean and ascomycetous fungi are the two major groups known to parasitize arthropods in almost every terrestrial habitat of the earth. Within Ascomycota, Cordyceps sensu lato is a large genus with more than 400 spp. described on numerous orders of Arthropoda. Among the hosts of Cordyceps, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera are the two major orders. Out of the estimated 200 Cordyceps spp. recorded on coleopteran and lepidopteran hosts, we have documented 92 spp. based on the available information of their host species. Among coleopteran hosts, Scarabaeidae and Elateridae are the two major families. Similarly, among lepidopterans, Hepialidae is the largest host family. Cordyceps militaris shows the widest host range, extending to 2 orders, 13 families, and 32 spp. We hope such accumulative work will be useful as a quick reference for interested biologists, forest ecologists, biocontrol researchers, and fungal and insect taxonomists to apprehend host range and host specificities of Cordyceps fungi.

  16. Land snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda of India: status, threats and conservation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Land snails form an important component in the forest ecosystem. In terms of number of species, the phylum Mollusca, to which land snails belong, is the largest phylum after Arthropoda. Mollusca provide unique ecosystem services including recycling of nutrients and they provide a prey base for small mammals, birds, snakes and other reptiles. However, land snails have the largest number of documented extinctions, compared to any other taxa. Till date 1,129 species of land snails are recorded from Indian territory. But only basic information is known about their taxonomy and little is known of their population biology, ecology and their conservation status. In this paper, we briefly review status, threats and conservation strategies of land snails of India.

  17. Spatial and temporal variability of mobile macro-invertebrate assemblages associated to coralligenous habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. BEDINI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate patterns of spatial and temporal variability of mobile macroinvertebrate assemblages associated to coralligenous habitat. A multi-factorial sampling design was used to test the hypotheses that the structure of assemblages and their spatial and temporal variability changed in relation to substrate inclination. Moreover, macroalgae and sessile macro-invertebrates were also investigated in order to detect eventual relationship between sessile and mobile assemblages. A total of 236 mobile macro-invertebrate taxa were identified, among them 2 Platyhelminthes, 4 Sipuncula, 6 Nemertea, 27 Mollusca, 86 Annelida, 103 Arthropoda, 8 Echinodermata. Results of the study showed that mobile macro-invertebrate assemblages of coralligenous habitat were little influenced by the inclination of substrate and by the morphology of sessile organisms, as patterns of variation were different between the two assemblages. Mobile macro-invertebrate assemblages changed among sampling dates within one year period and they showed high variability at the spatial scale examined.

  18. Norepinephrine and octopamine: linking stress and immune function across phyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Adamo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In species from three widely divergent phyla (Arthropoda, Mollusca and Chordata tyrosine derivatives (norepinephrine or octopamine mediate a response to acute stress. Part of this response is a change in immune function that results in a decrease in resistance to pathogens. This decrease in disease resistance appears maladaptive. However, if the connections between norepinephrine/octopamine and immune function were maladaptive, they should have been selected against. None of the four commonly proposed adaptive explanations for acute stress-induced changes in immune function fit the available data for species from all three phyla. However, this result is probably due to the lack of information about acute stress-induced immunosuppression in invertebrates and a lack of ecologically valid studies in vertebrates. Understanding why immune function and disease resistance changes during acute stress will require greater comparative study.

  19. Gulf of Mexico continental slope study annual report, year 2. Volume 2. Primary volume. Interim report 1985-1986. [Sampling for hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    This report, which was prepared in three volumes (Executive Summary, Primary Volume, and Appendix), details the findings of two years of sampling on the continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico at depths of 300-3000 m. Preliminary results from a third year of sampling are also presented. Physical and chemical measurements included: CTD casts at 35 stations; sediment characteristics, including hydrocarbons and bulk sediment parameters from 60 stations; tissue hydrocarbon levels of representative benthic organisms; and delta carbon-13 values from sediments and organisms, including comparison of areas of natural petroleum seepage to prevailing slope conditions. The biological oceanography section provides detailed enumeration of megafaunal specimens collected by trawling and of macro- and meiofaunal specimens collected with a 600 sq cm box core. Major megafaunal groups treated are Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and demersal fishes.

  20. 鲎--全身是宝的海洋珍贵活化石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪水根

    2004-01-01

    @@ 鲎亦称马蹄鲎(horseshoe crab)(图1),属节肢动物门(Arthropoda),肢口纲(Merostomata),剑尾目(Xiphosurida),鲎科(Limuroidea).目前世界现存的鲎,根据其形态和分布特点,可分为二亚科三属四种.其中Lmulinae亚科仅有美洲鲎属(Limulus),美洲鲎(Limulus polyphemus)一种,分布于北美东海岸水域;而Tachypleinae亚科有两属,分布于亚洲东南岸及东岸沿海水域.其中东方鲎属(Tachypleus)有两种:东方鲎(Tachypleus tridentatus)(亦称三刺鲎、中国鲎或日本鲎)和南方鲎(Tachypleus gigas)(亦称巨鲎);蝎鲎属(Carcinoscorpius)仅一种圆尾鲎(Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda).

  1. Macrozoobenthic Taxocoenosis in a Cultivators’ Rice Field of North West Kashmir, (J and K India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzadi Wufai Naw Bahaar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the attempt to investigate the community composition and density of macro-zoobenthos in a cultivator’s field. The study carried out in the rice fields of north-western district Kupwara (34o02’N; 74o16E’ of Kashmir province revealed the presence of 7 taxa of macrozoobenthos belonging to Annelida, Arthropoda and Mollusca. Phylum Annelida formed the most dominant group represented by 5 taxa. Diversity calculated by employing Simpsons’ Index (D, Simpsons’ Index of Diversity (1-D, Simpsons’ Reciprocal Index (1/D, Shannon-Weiner Index (H’, Margalef Richness Index (d Evenness Index (e indicated low but significant assemblage of zoobenthos. Agronomic practices seemed to influence the occurrence and distribution of various benthic organisms to a greater degree. The results pressed the need for recognizing and preserving rice fields as potential habitats for organisms that have successfully adapted to the highly manipulated and eutrophic conditions of rice paddies

  2. APPLICATION OF NATURAL POLLINATOR BOMBUS TERRESTRIS IN CULTIVATION OF THE ‘BIO’ VEGETABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjola Keci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study is presented the pollination activity of the Bombus terrestris L. Type: Arthropoda, Class: Insecta, Order: Hymenoptera, Family: Apidae, Genus: Bombus Latr. The aim is presentation of the evidences in the impact on the efficiency and qualitative improvement of the plant cucumber Cucurum sativum and the red pepper plant Capsicum annuum in greenhouses. The experiments conducted during the period 2009-2010 in the Germenji (Lushnje related to the cucumber plant and the red pepper plant to the Hamallaj (Durrës. Application of the pollination material in comparison with the control greenhouse, give evidences regarding to the enhancement of the fructifying proportion, with 80.3% to the cucumber plant and 84.1% to the red pepper plant with a confidence level of 97%.

  3. Sulfurous Gases As Biological Messengers and Toxins: Comparative Genetics of Their Metabolism in Model Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal D. Mathew

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gasotransmitters are biologically produced gaseous signalling molecules. As gases with potent biological activities, they are toxic as air pollutants, and the sulfurous compounds are used as fumigants. Most investigations focus on medical aspects of gasotransmitter biology rather than toxicity toward invertebrate pests of agriculture. In fact, the pathways for the metabolism of sulfur containing gases in lower organisms have not yet been described. To address this deficit, we use protein sequences from Homo sapiens to query Genbank for homologous proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In C. elegans, we find genes for all mammalian pathways for synthesis and catabolism of the three sulfur containing gasotransmitters, H2S, SO2 and COS. The genes for H2S synthesis have actually increased in number in C. elegans. Interestingly, D. melanogaster and Arthropoda in general, lack a gene for 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, an enzym for H2S synthesis under reducing conditions.

  4. Differential transcription of two highly divergent gut-expressed Bm86 antigen gene homologues in the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, L; Skilton, R A; Odongo, D O; Mwaura, S; Githaka, N; Kanduma, E; Obura, M; Kabiru, E; Orago, A; Musoke, A; Bishop, R P

    2011-02-01

    The transcriptional control of gene expression is not well documented in the Arthropoda. We describe transcriptional analysis of two exceptionally divergent homologues (Ra86) of the Bm86 gut antigen from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Bm86 forms the basis of a commercial vaccine for the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The R. appendiculatus Ra86 proteins contain 654 and 693 amino acids, with only 80% amino acid sequence identity. Reverse-transcription PCR of gut cDNA showed transcription of only one genotype in individual female ticks. PCR amplification of 3' untranslated sequences from genomic DNA indicated that both variants could be encoded within a single genome. When both variants were present, one of the two Ra86 genotypes was transcriptionally dominant. PMID:20854482

  5. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the way in which animals diversified and radiated during their early evolutionary history remains one of the most captivating of scientific challenges. Integral to this is the 'Cambrian explosion', which records the rapid emergence of most animal phyla, and for which the triggering and accelerating factors, whether environmental or biological, are still unclear. Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans and trace these structures through the early evolutionary lineage of fossil arthropods. These digestive structures are assumed to have allowed for more efficient digestion and metabolism, promoting carnivory and macrophagy in early arthropods via predation or scavenging. This key innovation may have been of critical importance in the radiation and ecological success of Arthropoda, which has been the most diverse and abundant invertebrate phylum since the Cambrian. PMID:24785191

  6. A study on the biodiversity of benthic invertebrates in the waters of Seogwipo, Jeju Island, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Young Cho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity of benthic invertebrates in the intertidal and subtidal regions of Gapado, Beomseom, and Munseom islets was surveyed twice in May and September 2013 to study the state of biodiversity in Seogwipo, Jeju Island. As a result, a total of 77 species, 46 families, 25 orders, 14 classes, and nine phyla of benthic invertebrates were found. The species which were found, by taxon, consisted of the following: 26 species of Cnidaria (34%, 24 species of Mollusca (31%, seven species of Chordata (9%, six species of Arthropoda (8%, six species of Porifera (8%, five species of Echinodermata (7%, one species of Bryozoa (1%, one species of Annelida (1%, and one species of Ctenophora (1%.

  7. Phylogeny and life habits of Early Arthropods-Predation in the Early Cambrian Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas MAAS; Dieter WALOSZEK; CHEN Junyuan; Andreas BRAUN; WANG Xiuqiang; HUANG Diying

    2004-01-01

    We investigated two new arthropods from the Maotianshan-Shale fauna of southern China in the course of our research on life strategies, particularly predation, in Early Cambrian marine macrofaunal biota. One form clearly belongs to the so-called "great-appendage" arthropods, animals that were, most likely, active predators catching prey with their first pair of large, specialized frontoventral appendages. Based on this, we hypothesize that the new species and many others, if not all, of the "great-appendage" arthropods were derivatives of the chelicerate stem lineage and not forms having branched off at different nodes along the evolutionary lineage of the Arthropoda. Rather, we consider the "great-appendage" arthropods as belonging to a monophyletic clade, which modified autapomorphically their first pair of appendages (antennae in general arthropod terminology) into raptorial organs for food capture. The second new form resembles another Maotianshan-Shale arthropod, Fuxianhuia protensa, in sharing a head made of only two separate segments, a small segment bearing oval eyes laterally, and another bearing a large tergite, which forms a wide shield freely overhanging the subsequent narrow trunk segments. This segment bears a single pair of rather short anteriorly directed uniramous appendages, considered as the "still" limb-shaped antennae. Particularly the evolutionary status of head and limbs of these two forms suggests that both are representatives of the early part of the stem lineage toward the crown-group of Arthropoda, the Euarthropoda. These forms appear rather unspecialized, but may have been but simple predators. This adds to our hypothesis that predation was a common, if not dominant feeding strategy in the Cambrian, at least for arthropods.

  8. Carbohydrate digestion in ticks and a digestive α-L-fucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreti, R; Perrella, N N; Lopes, A R

    2013-10-01

    Digestive carbohydrases are present in many species of hematophagous Arthropoda, including ticks. In this work, Amblyomma cajennense (Ixodidae) midgut digestive carbohydrases were tracked with different substrates, resulting in the identification of a chitinase and an N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase and the first description of a digestive α-L-fucosidase in ticks. α-L-fucosidases are involved in various physiological processes, and digestive α-L-fucosidases have been shown to be present in other types of organisms. Amblyomma cajennense α-L-fucosidase activity was isolated using acidic and salting-out precipitations and chromatographic steps in hydrophobic and cation-exchange columns. The specificity of the isolated activity as an α-L-fucosidase was confirmed by the hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl α-L-fucopyranoside and the natural substrate fucoidan and the inhibition by fucose and deoxyfuconojirimycin. The isolated activity of α-L-fucosidase forms oligomers with molecular mass of 140 kDa or 150 kDa as determined by gel filtration and non-reducing SDS-PAGE, respectively. This particular fucosidase has an optimum pH of 5.3, is stable even at high temperatures (stable for at least 2h at 50 °C), has a Km of 45 μM to the substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl α-L-fucopyranoside and IC 50% of 327 μM to fucose and 42 pM to deoxyfuconojirimycin. The presence of digestive fucosidases in hematophagous Arthropoda may be related to defence mechanisms against host-parasite interactions. PMID:23994295

  9. Evolution of pigment-dispersing factor neuropeptides in Panarthropoda: Insights from Onychophora (velvet worms) and Tardigrada (water bears).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Georg; Hering, Lars; Stosch, Juliane M; Stevenson, Paul A; Dircksen, Heinrich

    2015-09-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) denotes a conserved family of homologous neuropeptides present in several invertebrate groups, including mollusks, nematodes, insects, and crustaceans (referred to here as pigment-dispersing hormone [PDH]). With regard to their encoding genes (pdf, pdh), insects possess only one, nematodes two, and decapod crustaceans up to three, but their phylogenetic relationship is unknown. To shed light on the origin and diversification of pdf/pdh homologs in Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda) and other molting animals (Ecdysozoa), we analyzed the transcriptomes of five distantly related onychophorans and a representative tardigrade and searched for putative pdf homologs in publically available genomes of other protostomes. This revealed only one pdf homolog in several mollusk and annelid species; two in Onychophora, Priapulida, and Nematoda; and three in Tardigrada. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the last common ancestor of Panarthropoda possessed two pdf homologs, one of which was lost in the arthropod or arthropod/tardigrade lineage, followed by subsequent duplications of the remaining homolog in some taxa. Immunolocalization of PDF-like peptides in six onychophoran species, by using a broadly reactive antibody that recognizes PDF/PDH peptides in numerous species, revealed an elaborate system of neurons and fibers in their central and peripheral nervous systems. Large varicose projections in the heart suggest that the PDF neuropeptides functioned as both circulating hormones and locally released transmitters in the last common ancestor of Onychophora and Arthropoda. The lack of PDF-like-immunoreactive somata associated with the onychophoran optic ganglion conforms to the hypothesis that onychophoran eyes are homologous to the arthropod median ocelli.

  10. 秋季乳山湾潮间带大型底栖动物的群落结构特征%Community Structure Characters of the Macrobenthos in the Intertidal Zone of Rushan Bay in Autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨传平; 赵宁; 季相星; 王振钟; 于子山

    2014-01-01

    于2011年10月对乳山湾潮间带进行了8条断面的大型底栖动物定量调查,在调查潮间带共鉴定出大型底栖动物104种,其中多毛类45种、软体动物14种,甲壳动物37种、棘皮动物2种和其他类6种。调查潮间带大型底栖动物总平均丰度为817.22 ind/m2,总平均生物量为14.01g/m2。调查潮间带多样性指数在1.173~4.332,平均值为2.770。以40%相似性尺度,可将所调查潮间带站点划分为4个站组。%Macrobenthos were investigated at 8 transects in the intertidal zone of Rushan Bay in October 2011.A total of 104 macrobenthic species were identified in the survey intertidal zone,of which 45 spe-cies were Polychaeta,37 were Crustacea,2 were Mollusca,2 were Echinodermata,and the rest 6 spe-cies were other taxonomical groups.The average abundances and biomasses were estimated to be 817.22ind./m2 and 14.01g/m2 respectively.Shannon-Wiener's diversity index ranged between 1.173~4.332,with the mean value of 2.770.Four macrobenthic station groups could be identified at the 40%similarity level according to CLUSTER.

  11. 春季辽东湾西部海域大型底栖动物生态学研究%PRELIMINARY ECOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE MACROBENTHOS IN THE WESTERN WATERS OF LIAODONG BAY IN SPRING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振钟; 隋吉星; 曲方圆; 季相星; 赵宁; 于子山

    2013-01-01

    于2009年5月对辽东湾西部海域进行了4条断面12个站位的大型底栖动物调查.调查海域共出现大型底栖动物78种,其中多毛类37种、甲壳类24种、软体动物13种、棘皮动物2种和其他类2种(分别是腔肠动物、纽形动物).调查海域大型底栖动物总平均丰度为1675.8 ind./m2,总平均生物量为21.366 g/m2.该海域大型底栖动物群落按40%相似性程度可划分为4个.调查海域大型底栖动物群落整体正常,个别站位群落受到轻度扰动.%Macrobenthos was investigated at 12 stations in the western waters of Liaodong Bay in May 2009. A total of 78 macrobenthic species were identified in the survey area in which 37 species were Polychaeta, 24 were Crustacea, 13 were Mollusca, 2 were Echinodermata, and the rest 2 species were other taxonomical groups. The average abundance and biomass were estimated to be 1675. 8 ind. /m2 and 21. 366 g/m2respectively. Four macrobenthic community groups could be identified at the 40% similarity levels according to CLUSTER. The macrobenthic community structures were slightly disturbed in two stations.

  12. 上海苏州河大型底栖动物的研究%A study on macro-invertebrate of the Suzhou River, Shanghai.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国才; 赖伟; 殷浩文; 顾福康

    2001-01-01

    苏州河白鹤至浙江路段6个采样断面大型底栖动物隶属于环节动物门(Annelida)、软体动物门(Mollusca)及节肢动物门(Arthropoda).其中寡毛纲(Oligochaeta)4种、蛭纲(Hirudinea)2种、腹足纲(Gastropoda)5种、双壳纲(Bivalvia)2种及昆虫纲摇蚊科幼虫(Chironomidae)与潜蝇蛹(Agromyzigae)(未定种).随着底质污染的加重,群落结构趋于简化.种类少、高度耐污是存活大型底栖动物的显著特点.从白鹤至华槽断面,高度耐污的霍甫水丝蚓(Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri)数量趋于增加,并在华槽断面形成明显数量高峰;北新泾、武宁路河段底质污染严重,环节动物、软体动物消失;浙江路断面受黄浦江"逆流"影响,寡毛纲动物再度出现,并形成一定数量.%Macro-invertebrate from Annelida, Mollusca and Arthropoda were found in six sections from Baihe to Zhejiang road in the Suzhou River, among which four species were from Oligochaeta, two species from Hirudinea, five species from Gastropoda, two species from Bivalvia and several species from Insecta (unidentified). The community structure of macro-invertebrates became simple with the sediment pollution getting heavier. Limited species with high pollution resistibility were the characteristics of the species survival. The amounts of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri with high pollution resistibility increased gradually from Baihe to Huacao section, and reached a peak in Huacao section; species from An-nelida, Mollusca were not found in Beixinjing and Wuninglu sections due to heavy sediment pollution; species from Oli-gochaeta were found again and had certain numbers in Zhejiang road section as the result of the effect of courterflow of the Huangpu River.

  13. How many marine aliens in Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Katsanevakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN; http://easin.jrc.ec.europa.eu/, an inventory of marine alienspecies in Europe was created by critically reviewing existing information in 34 global, European, regional and national databases. In total, 1369 marine alien species have been reported in the European seas (including 110 cryptogenic and 139 questionable species; this is a substantial increase from the 737 species previously reported in 2009 based on the DAISIE (Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe; http://www.europe-aliens.org dataset. Most of the reported species were invertebrates (63.3%, followed by chromists (13.7%, vertebrates (11.6%, and plants (10.1%. Mollusca is the most numerous phylum, followed by Arthropoda, Chordata, and Annelida. Thecountries with the highest reported numbers of marine alien species were Israel, Turkey, Italy, France, Egypt and Greece. A reporting bias is evident as efforts for monitoring and reporting alien species vary among countries.

  14. Independent origins of parasitism in Animalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Sara B; Kuris, Armand M

    2016-07-01

    Nearly half of all animals may have a parasitic lifestyle, yet the number of transitions to parasitism and their potential for species diversification remain unresolved. Based on a comprehensive survey of the animal kingdom, we find that parasitism has independently evolved at least 223 times in just 15 phyla, with the majority of identified independent parasitic groups occurring in the Arthropoda, at or below the level of Family. Metazoan parasitology is dominated by the study of helminthes; however, only 20% of independently derived parasite taxa belong to those groups, with numerous transitions also seen in Mollusca, Rotifera, Annelida and Cnidaria. Parasitism is almost entirely absent from deuterostomes, and although worm-like morphology and host associations are widespread across Animalia, the dual symbiotic and trophic interactions required for parasitism may constrain its evolution from antecedent consumer strategies such as generalist predators and filter feeders. In general, parasitic groups do not differ from their free-living relatives in their potential for speciation. However, the 10 largest parasitic clades contain 90% of described parasitic species, or perhaps 40% of all animal species. Hence, a substantial fraction of animal diversity on the Earth arose following these few transitions to a parasitic trophic strategy. PMID:27436119

  15. Brain organization in Collembola (springtails).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, Martin; Huetteroth, Wolf; Schachtner, Joachim

    2011-07-01

    Arthropoda is comprised of four major taxa: Hexapoda, Crustacea, Myriapoda and Chelicerata. Although this classification is widely accepted, there is still some debate about the internal relationships of these groups. In particular, the phylogenetic position of Collembola remains enigmatic. Some molecular studies place Collembola into a close relationship to Protura and Diplura within the monophyletic Hexapoda, but this placement is not universally accepted, as Collembola is also regarded as either the sister group to Branchiopoda (a crustacean taxon) or to Pancrustacea (crustaceans + hexapods). To contribute to the current debate on the phylogenetic position of Collembola, we examined the brains in three collembolan species: Folsomia candida, Protaphorura armata and Tetrodontophora bielanensis, using antennal backfills, series of semi-thin sections, and immunostaining technique with several antisera, in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy and three-dimensional reconstructions. We identified several neuroanatomical structures in the collembolan brain, including a fan-shaped central body showing a columnar organization, a protocerebral bridge, one pair of antennal lobes with 20-30 spheroidal glomeruli each, and a structure, which we interpret as a simply organized mushroom body. The results of our neuroanatomical study are consistent with the phylogenetic position of Collembola within the Hexapoda and do not contradict the hypothesis of a close relationship of Collembola, Protura and Diplura. PMID:21420507

  16. Comparative investigations on animal cenuses of spruce and deciduous forests and of an old orchard - soil animals as bioindicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funke, W.; Herlitzius, H.; Jans, W.; Kraniz, V.; Lehle, E.; Ratajczak, L.; Stumpp, J.; Vogel, J.; Wanner, M.; Horsch, F.; Filby, W.G.; Fund, N.; Gross, S.; Hanisch, B.; Kilz, E.; Seidel, A.

    1988-04-01

    Investigations were carried out on Protozoa (Testacea, Ciliata) and Metazoa (Nematode, Annelida, Arthropoda) esp. of spruce stands. For comparisons deciduous forests and an old orchard were also used. In enchytraeid worms and in arthropods, esp. in dipterous imagines, liming and fertilizing of soil surface (in 1984/1984) had brought strong negative effects in regard of population density in the last years. Since 1987 these effects seem to turn into the opposite direction. Earth worms are naturally promoted by liming and fertilizing. Contaminations of soil surface by solutions of NaCl or by H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (in 1985) yielded considerable after-effects even 18 months later in a nematod worm coenosis, if comparisons are made with the data of control areas. In edaphic springtails, species numbers, abundances and diversities of coenoses now had nearly normalized (two years after the contaminations). But negative effects after contaminations with the synthetic pyrethroid Cypermethrin (Ripcord) seem to be unchanged up to now.

  17. Atmospheric Dispersal of Bioactive Streptomyces albidoflavus Strains Among Terrestrial and Marine Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; Braña, Alfredo F; González, Verónica; Nava, Herminio; Molina, Axayacatl; Llera, Eva; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Rico, José M; García-Flórez, Lucía; Acuña, José L; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria

    2016-02-01

    Members of the Streptomyces albidoflavus clade, identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, are widespread among predominant terrestrial lichens (Flavoparmelia caperata and Xanthoria parietina) and diverse intertidal and subtidal marine macroalgae, brown red and green (Phylum Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Chlorophyta) from the Cantabrian Cornice. In addition to these terrestrial and coastal temperate habitats, similar strains were also found to colonize deep-sea ecosystems and were isolated mainly from gorgonian and solitary corals and other invertebrates (Phylum Cnidaria, Annelida, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, and Porifera) living up to 4700-m depth and at a temperature of 2-4 °C in the submarine Avilés Canyon. Similar strains have been also repeatedly isolated from atmospheric precipitations (rain drops, snow, and hailstone) collected in the same area throughout a year observation time. These ubiquitous strains were found to be halotolerant, psychrotolerant, and barotolerant. Bioactive compounds with diverse antibiotic and cytotoxic activities produced by these strains were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and database comparison. These include antibacterials (paulomycins A and B), antifungals (maltophilins), antifungals displaying also cytotoxic activities (antimycins and 6-epialteramides), and the antitumor compound fredericamycin. A hypothetical dispersion model is here proposed to explain the biogeographical distribution of S. albidoflavus strains in terrestrial, marine, and atmospheric environments. PMID:26224165

  18. Зоология = Zoology : учебные тексты : пособие для студентов 1 курса биологического факультета БГУ / [сост. Т. А. Богомолова и др.

    OpenAIRE

    Богомолова, Татьяна Анатольевна

    2009-01-01

    Пособие состоит из 22 текстов, в которых рассматриваются следующие группы животных: Protozoa, Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Nemathelminthes, Echinodermata, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Chordata. Каждый текст включает комплекс упражнений для развития навыков чтения, речи и письма по специальной литературе.

  19. Diversity of energy fluxes and interactions between arthropod communities: from soil to cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gers, Charles

    1998-06-01

    The vertical distribution of a species may directly indicate the stage of organic matter decomposition in which it takes part. Observations have so far been limited to superficial layers, but studies on the continuum from the litter to underground biotopes, through the recently discovered superficial underground compartment, open new perspectives in the analyses of matter and energy fluxes. Sampling at different levels, from leaf litter to caves, using pitfall traps and sunken tubes, has revealed the existence of exchanges of organic matter and Arthropoda between different layers. The importation of energy from soil to cave follows two routes: passive and active. For the passive route, I measured dissolved substances in water at five levels. For the active route, I evaluated the migrations of insects and other invertebrates (downwards as well as upwards). For the analysis of arthropod communities, using the notion of functional groups, I showed the existence of links between two components, hypogean species, and endogean-epigean species, defining an ecotone along the vertical gradient 'soil to cave'. The superficial underground compartment is not isolated, but is rather a whole food web with epigean and endogean organisms penetrating and interlinking with another web of hypogean origin.

  20. Avoidance of low doses of naphthalene by Collembola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boitaud, Laetitia [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 5176, 4 avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Salmon, Sandrine [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 5176, 4 avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Bourlette, Celine [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 5176, 4 avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Ponge, Jean-Francois [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 5176, 4 avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France)]. E-mail: jean-francois.ponge@wanadoo.fr

    2006-02-15

    The introduction of behavioural aspects of soil animals in ecological risk assessment would allow us to better assess soil quality, all the more if a range of animal populations are considered. We compared the avoidance behaviour of several strains of springtails (Arthropoda: Collembola) obtained from different soils. Naphthalene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), widely represented in soils polluted with hydrocarbons, was tested in aqueous solutions on nine springtail species issuing from four sites. Fine quartz sand saturated with an aqueous solution of naphthalene was avoided by most of the tested species, avoidance being, however, detected down to a concentration of 0.030 mg L{sup -1}. Folsomia candida (Isotomidae) was shown to be relatively tolerant to pollutants compared to other Collembola such as Mesaphorura macrochaeta, Mesaphorura yosii (Onychiuridae), Parisotoma notabilis (Isotomidae) and Arrhopalites caecus (Arrhopalitidae). Differences between strains could not be explained by properties of the original soils. - PAH avoidance by soil springtails is species-specific and differs among populations of the same species.

  1. The seasonal variation of arthropods living on forest soil at different altitudes in fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmulleriana ecosystem in Bolu-Aladağ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Duyar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the forest ecosystems, soil arthropods (Arthropoda, as primary and secondary consumers, have a significant role in litter decay and decomposition processes. The abundance, diversity and community structure of arthropods in soil ecosystem; give rapid response to change of site characteristics. The current study was aimed to determine of seasonal variation of soil arthropods on forest floor at different altitudes in Uludağ Fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmulleriana Mattf. ecosystem which is an important forest tree species in Turkey. The study was conducted in pure fir stands at 1200-1600 m altitudes (4 elevation gradients in Aladağ, Bolu. The sampling was carried out for each winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons. The samples were collected from forest floor by pitfall traps. Variations of abundance and diversity of arthropods were evaluated according to seasons and altitudes. The distributions in trophic levels and biological diversity of arthropods were also determined. During the study, the maximum abundance of arthropods was 7576 individuals/m² in summer among seasons, and was 7854 individuals/m² at 1200 m altitude. Shannon-Wiener Index (H′ and Species Richness (S′ values were detected in the pitfall traps (H′= 2.22; S′= 22.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the polychaete annelidPlatynereis dumerilii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-08-15

    Complete mitochondrial genome sequences are now available for 126 metazoans (see Boore 1999; Mitochondrial Genomics link at http://www.jgi.doe.gov), but the taxonomic representation is highly biased. For example, 80 are from a single phylum, Chordata, and show little variation for many molecular features. Arthropoda is represented by 16 taxa, Mollusca by eight, and Echinodermata by five, with only 17 others from the remaining {approx}30 metazoan phyla. With few exceptions (see Wolstenholme 1992 and Boore 1999) these are circular DNA molecules, about 16 kb in size, and encode the same set of 37 genes. A variety of non-standard names are sometimes used for animal mitochondrial genes; see Boore (1999) for gene nomenclature and a table of synonyms. Mitochondrial genome comparisons serve as a model of genome evolution. In this system, much smaller and simpler than that of the nucleus, are all of the same factors of genome evolution, where one may find tractable the changes in tRNA structure, base composition, genetic code, gene arrangement, etc. Further, patterns of mitochondrial gene rearrangements are an exceptionally reliable indicator of phylogenetic relationships (Smith et al.1993; Boore et al. 1995; Boore, Lavrov, and Brown 1998; Boore and Brown 1998, 2000; Dowton 1999; Stechmann and Schlegel 1999; Kurabayashi and Ueshima 2000). To these ends, we are sampling further the variation among major animal groups in features of their mitochondrial genomes.

  3. Tidal effects on short-term mesozooplankton distribution in small channels of a temperate-turbid estuary, Southwestern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Chazarreta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The short-term variability of mesozooplankton distribution and physicochemical variables was examined in two different channels of the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina, during two tidal cycles. All the physicochemical measurements and mesozooplankton sampling were performed at a fixed site during approximately 22-23 h at 3-h intervals. Pumps were used to obtain surface and bottom mesozooplankton samples and the water speed of each stratum was measured with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP. In all, 23 mesozooplanktonic taxa belonging to four phyla (Arthropoda, Annelida, Echinodermata and Chordata were identified. The most abundant taxa during the two tidal cycles were Balanus glandula larvae, Eurytemora americana and Acartia tonsa. A discernible variability in the water conditions and vertical mesozooplankton distribution (VMD different from that known for the estuary's main channel, was found in the other two selected channels. VMD varied during the tidal cycle in both channels in accordance with the channel's geomorphology and water dynamic characteristics of each of them. The variation of the abundance of the different taxa during ebb and flood currents might indicate the existence of a tidal vertical migration of the mesozooplankton as a response to particular dynamic water conditions.

  4. Quality of laboratory studies assessing effects of Bt-proteins on non-target organisms: minimal criteria for acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schrijver, Adinda; Devos, Yann; De Clercq, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Romeis, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The potential risks that genetically modified plants may pose to non-target organisms and the ecosystem services they contribute to are assessed as part of pre-market risk assessments. This paper reviews the early tier studies testing the hypothesis whether exposure to plant-produced Cry34/35Ab1 proteins as a result of cultivation of maize 59122 is harmful to valued non-target organisms, in particular Arthropoda and Annelida. The available studies were assessed for their scientific quality by considering a set of criteria determining their relevance and reliability. As a case-study, this exercise revealed that when not all quality criteria are met, weighing the robustness of the study and its relevance for risk assessment is not obvious. Applying a worst-case expected environmental concentration of bioactive toxins equivalent to that present in the transgenic crop, confirming exposure of the test species to the test substance, and the use of a negative control were identified as minimum criteria to be met to guarantee sufficiently reliable data. This exercise stresses the importance of conducting studies meeting certain quality standards as this minimises the probability of erroneous or inconclusive results and increases confidence in the results and adds certainty to the conclusions drawn. PMID:26980555

  5. Phylogenomics supports Panpulmonata: opisthobranch paraphyly and key evolutionary steps in a major radiation of gastropod molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocot, Kevin M; Halanych, Kenneth M; Krug, Patrick J

    2013-12-01

    Pulmonates, with over 30,000 described species, represent the largest radiation of non-marine animals outside of Arthropoda. The pulmonate lung was a key evolutionary innovation enabling diversification of terrestrial and freshwater snails and slugs. However, recent studies drew conflicting conclusions about pulmonate monophyly, and support for a sister group is lacking, hindering our understanding of this major animal radiation. Analyses of mitochondrial protein-coding genes recovered a paraphyletic Pulmonata grading into a monophyletic Opisthobranchia, a traditional group of sea slugs long considered sister to pulmonates. Conversely, analyses of datsets dominated by nuclear rDNA indicated Opisthobranchia is paraphyletic with respect to Pulmonata. No study resolved the placement of two key taxa: Sacoglossa, an opisthobranch group including photosynthetic sea slugs, and Siphonarioidea, intertidal limpet-like snails traditionally in Pulmonata. To examine evolutionary relationships at the base of the pulmonate radiation, we performed a phylogenomic analysis of 102 nuclear protein-coding gene regions for 19 gastropods. Opisthobranchia was recovered as paraphyletic with respect to Panpulmonata, a clade in which Sacoglossa was sister to Pulmonata, with Siphonarioidea as the basal pulmonate lineage. Siphonarioideans share a similar gill structure with shelled sacoglossans but lack the contractile pneumostome of pulmonates, suggesting descent from an evolutionary intermediate that facilitated the pulmonate radiation into non-marine habitats. PMID:23850501

  6. 卤虫属分类研究进展%Progress on Researches of Taxonomy on Genus Artemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟峰; 郝浩永; 陈莉

    2008-01-01

    卤虫(Anemia)属于节肢动物门(Phylum Arthropoda),甲壳纲(Class Crustacea),鳃足亚纲(SubclassBranchiopoda),无甲目(Order Anostraca),卤虫科(Family Artemidae).世界卤虫根据生殖方式可分为两性生殖卤虫和孤雌生殖卤虫两大类.利用生殖隔离实验将世界两性卤虫分为8个种:Anemiafranciscana Kellogg、Artemia persimilis Piccinelli et Prosdoeimi、Anemia rnonica Verrill、Anemia salina Linnaeus、Artemia urmianaGünther、Anemia tunisiana Bowen et Sterling、Anemia sinica Cai和Anemia tibetiana Abatzopouios,Zhang et Sorge-loos.其中,我国发现有A.sinica和A.tibetiana两种两性卤虫.孤雌生殖卤虫统称为Artemia parthenogenetica,并在其后加上产地的地名以示区别.

  7. Compostos biologicamente ativos em invertebrados marinhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos de Freitas

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The author has reviewed the classification, the nomenclature and the ecological aspects of biologically active compounds, emphasizing the Freyvogel & Perret's (1973 concepts of venomous and poisonous organisms. The literature involving the phyla Annelida, Mollusca and Arthropoda was also reviewed. The author's pharmacological studies performed with the polychaete Eurytlioe camplanata, which revealed a dializable principle, active in the guinea pig's ileum and dorsal muscle ot polvchaete itself are also commented. This principle differs from Acetylcholine and Serotonin. Pharmacologically studies in the sea-hares (genus Aplysia were also focused, including the author's contribution. In the glands os Aplysia brasiliana, namely the mid-gut-gland, the opaline gland and the purple gland, the author confirmed presence of cholinesters, which are discussed in the review. Toxicity of Arthropods are also discussed, mainly in decapod crustaceans. In some Brazilian crabs studies revealed a pharmacological activity of the gastric secretion expelled with an apparently defensive purpose and its ecological importance is focused in terms of the community. The relatively scarce studies of chemical ecology of marine organisms in Latin America and the importance of these studies were finally emphasized.

  8. A molecular palaeobiological exploration of arthropod terrestrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, Robert; Edgecombe, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding animal terrestrialization, the process through which animals colonized the land, is crucial to clarify extant biodiversity and biological adaptation. Arthropoda (insects, spiders, centipedes and their allies) represent the largest majority of terrestrial biodiversity. Here we implemented a molecular palaeobiological approach, merging molecular and fossil evidence, to elucidate the deepest history of the terrestrial arthropods. We focused on the three independent, Palaeozoic arthropod terrestrialization events (those of Myriapoda, Hexapoda and Arachnida) and showed that a marine route to the colonization of land is the most likely scenario. Molecular clock analyses confirmed an origin for the three terrestrial lineages bracketed between the Cambrian and the Silurian. While molecular divergence times for Arachnida are consistent with the fossil record, Myriapoda are inferred to have colonized land earlier, substantially predating trace or body fossil evidence. An estimated origin of myriapods by the Early Cambrian precedes the appearance of embryophytes and perhaps even terrestrial fungi, raising the possibility that terrestrialization had independent origins in crown-group myriapod lineages, consistent with morphological arguments for convergence in tracheal systems. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325830

  9. Perturbing A-to-I RNA editing using genetics and homologous recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staber, Cynthia J; Gell, Selena; Jepson, James E C; Reenan, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    Evidence for the chemical conversion of adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) in messenger RNA (mRNA) has been detected in numerous metazoans, especially those "most successful" phyla: Arthropoda, Mollusca, and Chordata. The requisite enzymes for A-to-I editing, ADARs (adenosine deaminases acting on RNA) are highly conserved and are present in every higher metazoan genome sequenced to date. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, represents an ideal model organism for studying A-to-I editing, both in terms of fundamental biochemistry and in relation to determining adaptive downstream effects on physiology and behavior. The Drosophila genome contains a single structural gene for ADAR (dAdar), yet the fruit fly transcriptome has the widest range of conserved and validated ADAR targets in coding mRNAs of any known organism. In addition, many of the genes targeted by dADAR have been genetically identified as playing a role in nervous system function, providing a rich source of material to investigate the biological relevance of this intriguing process. Here, we discuss how recent advances in the use of ends-out homologous recombination (HR) in Drosophila make possible both the precise control of the editing status for defined adenosine residues and the engineering of flies with globally altered RNA editing of the fly transcriptome. These new approaches promise to significantly improve our understanding of how mRNA modification contributes to insect physiology and ethology.

  10. Extracellular DNA amplicon sequencing reveals high levels of benthic eukaryotic diversity in the central Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, John K; Irigoien, Xabier; Carvalho, Susana

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to characterize the benthic eukaryotic biodiversity patterns at a coarse taxonomic level in three areas of the central Red Sea (a lagoon, an offshore area in Thuwal and a shallow coastal area near Jeddah) based on extracellular DNA. High-throughput amplicon sequencing targeting the V9 region of the 18S rRNA gene was undertaken for 32 sediment samples. High levels of alpha-diversity were detected with 16,089 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being identified. The majority of the OTUs were assigned to Metazoa (29.2%), Alveolata (22.4%) and Stramenopiles (17.8%). Stramenopiles (Diatomea) and Alveolata (Ciliophora) were frequent in a lagoon and in shallower coastal stations, whereas metazoans (Arthropoda: Maxillopoda) were dominant in deeper offshore stations. Only 24.6% of total OTUs were shared among all areas. Beta-diversity was generally lower between the lagoon and Jeddah (nearshore) than between either of those and the offshore area, suggesting a nearshore-offshore biodiversity gradient. The current approach allowed for a broad-range of benthic eukaryotic biodiversity to be analysed with significantly less labour than would be required by other traditional taxonomic approaches. Our findings suggest that next generation sequencing techniques have the potential to provide a fast and standardised screening of benthic biodiversity at large spatial and temporal scales.

  11. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    KAUST Repository

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather

    2013-12-12

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the invertebrates, but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site () has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture.

  12. Biological risk factors in informal recyclers of Medellin city, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana L. Ballesteros

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The informal recyclers constitute a vulnerable population to problems of health by their constant exhibition to biological, chemical, physical and social risks, without protection. Objective: this work identify the biological risk facts to which the informal recyclers of the Bazaar of the Bridges of Medellin city. Methods: it was performed a Cross-sectional study. The sample was no probabilistic with 88 recyclers and the analysis unit was the informal recycler. It was applied a survey, a guide of observation of the activity of the recycler and were studied variables of person, place, time, type of biological risk facts, frequency of exhibition, felt morbidity and measures of protection. The analysis was statistical descriptive. Results: it was identified biological risk facts related to the contact with material in decomposition (96.6%, contaminated material (96.6%, animals (62.5% and arthropoda (79.5%. The se The se--curity measures to protect them from biological risk facts are used in less than 52% of recyclers; in addition, only 13.6% of the population were vaccinated, which increases the probability of becoming ill in this population. Conclusions: that the informal recyclers are exposed to different biological risk facts with little prevention, causing that population be vulnerable for the acquisition of infectious diseases.

  13. Carotenoid metabolic profiling and transcriptome-genome mining reveal functional equivalence among blue-pigmented copepods and appendicularia

    KAUST Repository

    Mojib, Nazia

    2014-06-01

    The tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas are characterized by high water transparency and annual solar radiation. Under these conditions, a large number of phylogenetically diverse mesozooplankton species living in the surface waters (neuston) are found to be blue pigmented. In the present study, we focused on understanding the metabolic and genetic basis of the observed blue phenotype functional equivalence between the blue-pigmented organisms from the phylum Arthropoda, subclass Copepoda (Acartia fossae) and the phylum Chordata, class Appendicularia (Oikopleura dioica) in the Red Sea. Previous studies have shown that carotenoid–protein complexes are responsible for blue coloration in crustaceans. Therefore, we performed carotenoid metabolic profiling using both targeted and nontargeted (high-resolution mass spectrometry) approaches in four different blue-pigmented genera of copepods and one blue-pigmented species of appendicularia. Astaxanthin was found to be the principal carotenoid in all the species. The pathway analysis showed that all the species can synthesize astaxanthin from β-carotene, ingested from dietary sources, via 3-hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin, adonirubin or adonixanthin. Further, using de novo assembled transcriptome of blue A. fossae (subclass Copepoda), we identified highly expressed homologous β-carotene hydroxylase enzymes and putative carotenoid-binding proteins responsible for astaxanthin formation and the blue phenotype. In blue O. dioica (class Appendicularia), corresponding putative genes were identified from the reference genome. Collectively, our data provide molecular evidences for the bioconversion and accumulation of blue astaxanthin–protein complexes underpinning the observed ecological functional equivalence and adaptive convergence among neustonic mesozooplankton.

  14. Lysozymes in the animal kingdom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lien Callewaert; Chris W Michiels

    2010-03-01

    Lysozymes (EC 3.2.1.17) are hydrolytic enzymes, characterized by their ability to cleave the -(1,4)-glycosidic bond between -acetylmuramic acid and -acetylglucosamine in peptidoglycan, the major bacterial cell wall polymer. In the animal kingdom, three major distinct lysozyme types have been identified – the c-type (chicken or conventional type), the g-type (goose-type) and the i-type (invertebrate type) lysozyme. Examination of the phylogenetic distribution of these lysozymes reveals that c-type lysozymes are predominantly present in the phylum of the Chordata and in different classes of the Arthropoda. Moreover, g-type lysozymes (or at least their corresponding genes) are found in members of the Chordata, as well as in some bivalve mollusks belonging to the invertebrates. In general, the latter animals are known to produce i-type lysozymes. Although the homology in primary structure for representatives of these three lysozyme types is limited, their three-dimensional structures show striking similarities. Nevertheless, some variation exists in their catalytic mechanisms and the genomic organization of their genes. Regarding their biological role, the widely recognized function of lysozymes is their contribution to antibacterial defence but, additionally, some lysozymes (belonging to different types) are known to function as digestive enzymes.

  15. Biodiversity and land degradation in the lower Euphrates subregion of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Munir; Kebapci, Umit; Gucel, Salih; Cetin, Esat; Altundag, Ernaz

    2012-04-01

    Atotal of 107 plant taxa were determined in this study, 24 being new records for the area. Out of 813 plant taxa reported from the study area 100 species couldn't be verified. The number of endemics in the study area is around 46. The majorfamilies and genera are Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae and Astragalus, Euphorbia, Allium and Trigonella. The area shows a relatively rich and highly diverse fauna. For terrestrial vertebrate species peculiarly showing marginal distribution, this area forms their northernmost distributional limits. Avifauna along the Euphrates valley is quite rich with 207 species. Globally threatened species, Geronticus eremita (Waldrapp), has been observed locally in the area. Many macromammal species once common have gone extinct. Out of 18 lizard species, 3 lizards are known only from the study area. There are 20 species of snakes, one being exclusively endemic to the study area. Nearly 30 fish species are found in Euphrates system. Very scanty information is available for the invertebrate fauna except for some groups of Mollusca and Arthropoda. The biodiversity of the area is under threat from recent developments and abiotic interferences. PMID:23424834

  16. Unusually long palindromes are abundant in mitochondrial control regions of insects and nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K P Arunkumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Palindromes are known to be involved in a variety of biological processes. In the present investigation we carried out a comprehensive analysis of palindromes in the mitochondrial control regions (CRs of several animal groups to study their frequency, distribution and architecture to gain insights into the origin of replication of mtDNA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Many species of Arthropoda, Nematoda, Mollusca and Annelida harbor palindromes and inverted repeats (IRs in their CRs. Lower animals like cnidarians and higher animal groups like chordates are almost devoid of palindromes and IRs. The study revealed that palindrome occurrence is positively correlated with the AT content of CRs, and that IRs are likely to give rise to longer palindromes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study attempts to explain possible reasons and gives in silico evidence for absence of palindromes and IRs from CR of vertebrate mtDNA and acquisition and retention of the same in insects. Study of CRs of different animal phyla uncovered unique architecture of this locus, be it high abundance of long palindromes and IRs in CRs of Insecta and Nematoda, or short IRs of 10-20 nucleotides with a spacer region of 12-14 bases in subphylum Chelicerata, or nearly complete of absence of any long palindromes and IRs in Vertebrata, Cnidaria and Echinodermata.

  17. Antitumor and immune regulation activities of the extracts of some Chinese marine invertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lixin; FAN Xiao; HAN Lijun

    2005-01-01

    Extracts of 21 marine invertebrates belonging to Coelenterata, Mollusca, Annelida, Bryozoa,Echiura, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Urochordata were screened for the studies on their antitumor and immune regulation activities. Antitumor activity was determined by MTT method and immune regulation activity was studied using T- and B-lymphocytes in mice spleen in vitro. It was found that the n-butanol part of Asterina pectinifera, the acetic ether part of Tubuaria marina, 95% ethanol extract of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus have a high inhibition rate of 96.7%, 63.9% and 50.5% respectively on tumor cell line HL-60 at the concentration of 0.063 mg/ml. The inhibition rate of the acetic ether part of Tubuaria marina on the tumor cell line A-549 is 65.4 % at concentration of 0.063 mg/mL. The 95% ethanol extract of Meretrix meretrix has so outstanding promoting effect on T-lymphocyfes that their multiplication increases 25% when the sample concentration is only 1 μg/ml. On B-lymphocytes, the 95% extract of Rapana venosa, at concentration of 100μg/ml, has a promotion percentage of 60%. On the other hand, under the condition of no cytotoxic effect, the 95% ethanol extracts of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus and Cellana toreum can reach 92% inhibition rate on T lymphocyte at concentration of 100 μg/ml, while the inhibition rate on B lymphocyte of the 95% extract of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus reaches 92% at the same concentration.

  18. An occurence records database of French Guiana harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cally, Sébastien; Solbès, Pierre; Grosso, Bernadette; Murienne, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    This dataset provides information on specimens of harvestmen (Arthropoda, Arachnida, Opiliones) collected in French Guiana. Field collections have been initiated in 2012 within the framework of the CEnter for the Study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: www.labex-ceba.fr/en/). This dataset is a work in progress.  Occurrences are recorded in an online database stored at the EDB laboratory after each collecting trip and the dataset is updated on a monthly basis. Voucher specimens and associated DNA are also stored at the EDB laboratory until deposition in natural history Museums. The latest version of the dataset is publicly and freely accessible through our Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=harvestmen_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3c9e2297-bf20-4827-928e-7c7eefd9432c.

  19. An occurence records database of French Guiana harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Cally

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This dataset provides information on specimens of harvestmen (Arthropoda, Arachnida, Opiliones collected in French Guiana. Field collections have been initiated in 2012 within the framework of the CEnter for the Study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: www.labex-ceba.fr/en/. This dataset is a work in progress.  Occurrences are recorded in an online database stored at the EDB laboratory after each collecting trip and the dataset is updated on a monthly basis. Voucher specimens and associated DNA are also stored at the EDB laboratory until deposition in natural history Museums. The latest version of the dataset is publicly and freely accessible through our Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=harvestmen_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3c9e2297-bf20-4827-928e-7c7eefd9432c.

  20. Online database for mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) occurrence records in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, Stanislas; Murienne, Jérôme; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2015-01-01

    A database providing information on mosquito specimens (Arthropoda: Diptera: Culicidae) collected in French Guiana is presented. Field collections were initiated in 2013 under the auspices of the CEnter for the study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: http://www.labexceba.fr/en/). This study is part of an ongoing process aiming to understand the distribution of mosquitoes, including vector species, across French Guiana. Occurrences are recorded after each collecting trip in a database managed by the laboratory Evolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), Toulouse, France. The dataset is updated monthly and is available online. Voucher specimens and their associated DNA are stored at the laboratory Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane (Ecofog), Kourou, French Guiana. The latest version of the dataset is accessible through EDB's Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=mosquitoes_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/5a8aa2ad-261c-4f61-a98e-26dd752fe1c5 It can also be viewed through the Guyanensis platform at http://guyanensis.ups-tlse.fr.

  1. Two Streptomyces species producing antibiotic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory compounds are widespread among intertidal macroalgae and deep-sea coral reef invertebrates from the central Cantabrian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braña, Alfredo F; Braña, Afredo F; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Nava, Herminio; González, Verónica; Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; Molina, Axayacatl; Acuña, José L; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    Streptomycetes are widely distributed in the marine environment, although only a few studies on their associations to algae and coral ecosystems have been reported. Using a culture-dependent approach, we have isolated antibiotic-active Streptomyces species associated to diverse intertidal marine macroalgae (Phyllum Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Chlorophyta), from the central Cantabrian Sea. Two strains, with diverse antibiotic and cytotoxic activities, were found to inhabit these coastal environments, being widespread and persistent over a 3-year observation time frame. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, the strains were identified as Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus M-27 and Streptomyces carnosus M-40. Similar isolates to these two strains were also associated to corals and other invertebrates from deep-sea coral reef ecosystem (Phyllum Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, Sipuncula, and Anelida) living up to 4.700-m depth in the submarine Avilés Canyon, thus revealing their barotolerant feature. These two strains were also found to colonize terrestrial lichens and have been repeatedly isolated from precipitations from tropospheric clouds. Compounds with antibiotic and cytotoxic activities produced by these strains were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and database comparison. Antitumor compounds with antibacterial activities and members of the anthracycline family (daunomycin, cosmomycin B, galtamycin B), antifungals (maltophilins), anti-inflamatory molecules also with antituberculosis properties (lobophorins) were identified in this work. Many other compounds produced by the studied strains still remain unidentified, suggesting that Streptomyces associated to algae and coral ecosystems might represent an underexplored promising source for pharmaceutical drug discovery.

  2. Epifaunal assemblage on morphologically distinct intertidal seaweeds of Kodiyaghat (South Andaman, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Anandavelu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Benthic macroalgae termed seaweed occupy coastal environments primarily on rocky intertidal areas. However, it has significant role by adding spatial complexity to the substratum and alter accessibility to other faunal and floral community. The studies of potential benefits of seaweeds have encouraged extensively yielding industrial, medicinal, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The present study deals with the quantitative distribution of epifaunal community associated with seaweeds of South Andaman and the influence of conspicuous morphology of seaweed on the assemblage of epifauna were compared. Galaxura sp. and Halimeda tuna supported higher faunal density than other seaweeds, with the respective mean density of 139.2 and 104.5 nos. per 100g of algal wet weight. Sargassum duplicatum held the lowest epifaunal density. Arthropoda was the major group found in this study, dominated by the Amphipoda (35.1%, Mysida (19.4% and Isopoda (2.8% followed by Annelida (20.1% and Mollusca (12%. The result indicated that the distribution and abundance of epifauna differ based on the structural morphology among macroalgal species which forms suitable habitat for these organisms. The present study suggests that the sediment retention capacity of weeds might play an important role on the assemblage of epifaunal community.

  3. Quality of laboratory studies assessing effects of Bt-proteins on non-target organisms: minimal criteria for acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schrijver, Adinda; Devos, Yann; De Clercq, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Romeis, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The potential risks that genetically modified plants may pose to non-target organisms and the ecosystem services they contribute to are assessed as part of pre-market risk assessments. This paper reviews the early tier studies testing the hypothesis whether exposure to plant-produced Cry34/35Ab1 proteins as a result of cultivation of maize 59122 is harmful to valued non-target organisms, in particular Arthropoda and Annelida. The available studies were assessed for their scientific quality by considering a set of criteria determining their relevance and reliability. As a case-study, this exercise revealed that when not all quality criteria are met, weighing the robustness of the study and its relevance for risk assessment is not obvious. Applying a worst-case expected environmental concentration of bioactive toxins equivalent to that present in the transgenic crop, confirming exposure of the test species to the test substance, and the use of a negative control were identified as minimum criteria to be met to guarantee sufficiently reliable data. This exercise stresses the importance of conducting studies meeting certain quality standards as this minimises the probability of erroneous or inconclusive results and increases confidence in the results and adds certainty to the conclusions drawn.

  4. Biota acuática en la Amazonía Peruana: diversidad y usos como indicadores ambientales en el Bajo Urubamba (Cusco - Ucayali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Ortega

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se aplican índices biológicos de calidad ambiental y conservación, basados en el monitoreo biológico realizado entre año 2003 y 2009, en cinco localidades del río Bajo Urubamba. Fueron estudiadas las comunidades del plancton, bentos y peces. La diversidad del plancton comprendió 170 especies, basadas principalmente en Chlorophyta y Bacillariophyta. El bentos incluyó 112 especies, principalmente larvas y adultos de Arthropoda (Insecta. La diversidad de peces, incluye 176 especies, representadas por 26 familias y seis órdenes. El Índice Ephemeroptera + Plecoptera + Trichoptera (%EPT, califico el área de estudio entre normal a muy buena calidad. El índice de Integridad Biológica (IBI que determina el estado de conservación de los ambientes acuáticos, dio los mayores valores en Miaría y Sepahua. La elevada diversidad de las comunidades estudiados estaría relacionada a la heterogeneidad de hábitats y mayores recursos observados en la parte baja del área de estudio.

  5. Extracellular DNA amplicon sequencing reveals high levels of benthic eukaryotic diversity in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.

    2015-11-01

    The present study aims to characterize the benthic eukaryotic biodiversity patterns at a coarse taxonomic level in three areas of the central Red Sea (a lagoon, an offshore area in Thuwal and a shallow coastal area near Jeddah) based on extracellular DNA. High-throughput amplicon sequencing targeting the V9 region of the 18S rRNA gene was undertaken for 32 sediment samples. High levels of alpha-diversity were detected with 16,089 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being identified. The majority of the OTUs were assigned to Metazoa (29.2%), Alveolata (22.4%) and Stramenopiles (17.8%). Stramenopiles (Diatomea) and Alveolata (Ciliophora) were frequent in a lagoon and in shallower coastal stations, whereas metazoans (Arthropoda: Maxillopoda) were dominant in deeper offshore stations. Only 24.6% of total OTUs were shared among all areas. Beta-diversity was generally lower between the lagoon and Jeddah (nearshore) than between either of those and the offshore area, suggesting a nearshore–offshore biodiversity gradient. The current approach allowed for a broad-range of benthic eukaryotic biodiversity to be analysed with significantly less labour than would be required by other traditional taxonomic approaches. Our findings suggest that next generation sequencing techniques have the potential to provide a fast and standardised screening of benthic biodiversity at large spatial and temporal scales.

  6. Wetland macroinvertebrates of Prentiss Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan: diversity and functional group composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, R.W.; Benbow, M.E.; Hudson, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Great Lakes support many fish and waterbirds that depend directly or indirectly on coastal wetlands during some portion of their life cycle. It is known that macroinvertebrates make up an important part of wetland food webs and ecosystem function; however, our understanding of species distribution within and among wetlands has only recently received attention. We investigated the macroinvertebrates of a freshwater marsh (Prentiss Bay) in the Les Chenaux Island Area of Northern Lake Huron, Michigan. Macroinvertebrate taxa diversity and functional feeding group composition were compared between two habitats. A shallow depositional habitat with higher vegetation diversity and little wave action was compared to a deeper erosional habitat with fewer plant species and more wave action. A total of 83 taxa were collected over the summer of 1996, representing two phyla (Arthropoda and Mollusca) and five classes (Arachnida, Bivalvia, Malacostraca, Gastropoda and Insecta). A total of 79 genera were identified, with 92% being insects (39 families composed of at least 73 genera). Of the total, 42 insect genera were common to both habitats,while relatively fewer were collected exclusively from the erosional compared the depositional habitat. When habitats were pooled, predators comprised about 50% of the functional group taxa, while gathering collectors and shredders each were about 20%. Filtering collectors and scrapers each represented functional groups were lower. These data suggest that vegetation diversity, depth and wave action affect taxa composition and functional group organization of the Prentiss Bay marsh.

  7. Macroinvertebrates of the Iranian running waters: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Sharifinia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A comprehensive review of macroinvertebrate studies conducted along the Iranian running waters over the last 15 years has been made by providing the most updated checklist of the Iranian running waters benthic invertebrates. Running waters ecosystems are complex environments known for their importance in terms of biodiversity. As part of the analysis, we endeavored to provide the critical re-identification of the reported species by through comparisons with the database of the Animal Diversity Web (ADW and appropriate literature sources or expert knowledge. A total of 126 species belonging to 4 phyla have been compiled from 57 references. The phylum Arthropoda was found to comprise the most taxa (n = 104 followed by Mollusca, Annelida and Platyhelminthes. Ongoing efforts in the Iranian running waters regarding biomonitoring indices development, testing, refinement and validation are yet to be employed in streams and rivers. Overall, we suggest that future macroinvertebrate studies in Iranian running waters should be focused on long-term changes by broadening target species and strong efforts to publish data in peer-reviewed journals in English.

  8. The developmental trend of labrum and median eyes of Orsten-type preserved Phosphatocopina (Crustacea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Phosphatocopina (Crustacea,Arthropoda) is an important group of ’Orsten-type’ preserved fossils.It is resolved as the sister-group of Eucrustacea.Here we study the labrum,the median eyes,and the inner lamella of Phosphatocopina based on the selected specimens respectively from western Hunan,South China,and Sweden.The labrum characters of different species exhibit interspecific difference.The ratio of labrum length/shield length is significant to the reconstruction of the ontogeny of phosphatocopines.The labrum characters should be introduced to the diagnosis of Phosphatocopina.In the earliest growth stage,the median eyes were inconspicuous,almost as flat as the other area of the hypstome.However,with the growth of the individuals they became conspicuous.There were two obviously concave structures on the ventral side of the hypostome in later stages,which were the positions where the median eyes should have been located.In addition,the two modes of preservation of the inner lamella,i.e.,that of shrinking and that of bulging up,are interpreted as the preservational artifact herein.

  9. Analysis on the characteristics of macrobenthis community in the North-west Daya Bay Of South China Bay in spring%大亚湾西北部春季大型底栖动物群落特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜飞雁; 林钦; 贾晓平; 杨圣云; 马胜伟; 陈海刚; 李纯厚

    2011-01-01

    利用2008年春季在大亚湾西北部海域开展的12个测站的大型底栖动物调查资料,对该海域大型底栖动物的群落特征进行分析.结果表明该海域内大型底栖动物优势种由粗帝汶蛤(Timoclea scabra)、波纹巴非蛤(Paphia undulata)、上野蜾嬴蜚(Corophium uenoi)、方背鳞虫(Lepidonotus squamatus)、刀明樱蛤(Moerella culter)和角海蛹(Ophelia acuminata)等6种组成;可划分为4个群落,群落Ⅱ和群落Ⅰ为主体群落,群落Ⅲ和群落Ⅳ分布区较小,群落间差异较大.大型底栖动物数量上以个体较大的软体动物占优,但群落的组成则以多毛类和甲壳类为主,其组成情况基本上反映了群落的特征.群落Ⅰ以多毛类-甲壳类为表征,群落Ⅱ则以甲壳类-多毛类-软体动物为表征.栖息环境的差异,是造成群落间差异的主要原因;群落多样性水平呈群落Ⅲ>群落Ⅱ>群落Ⅰ>群落Ⅳ,沉积环境的污染状况和人为扰动是影响多样性水平的主要因素;群落整体的稳定性较好,未受到明显的扰动,但分布于航道区域和渔业生产作业区的群落Ⅳ和群落Ⅲ,在航道建设、疏浚和渔业生产的影响下,群落受到一定程度的扰动,稳定性较弱.%Based on the data collected from 12 research stations in the North-west Daya Bay, South China Sea in spring 2008, the characteristics of macrobenthis community were examined. The results showed that the dominant macrobenthic species were Timoclea scabra, Paphia undulate, Corophium uenoi, Lepidonotus squamatus, Moerella culler and Ophelia acuminate. The macrobenthos community could be divided into four groups with notable differences. Group I and Ⅱ were the dominant groups, while the distribution areas of Groups Ⅲ and Ⅳ were relatively small. Overall, molluscs was dominant in quantity in the macrobenthos community but the community was mainly composed of Annelida and Arthropoda, reflecting the characteristics of the

  10. The 'other faunivory' revisited: Insectivory in human and non-human primates and the evolution of human diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, William C

    2014-06-01

    The role of invertebrates in the evolution of human diet has been under-studied by comparison with vertebrates and plants. This persists despite substantial knowledge of the importance of the 'other faunivory', especially insect-eating, in the daily lives of non-human primates and traditional human societies, especially hunters and gatherers. Most primates concentrate on two phyla, Mollusca and Arthropoda, but of the latter's classes, insects (especially five orders: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera) are paramount. An insect product, bees' honey, is particularly important, and its collection shows a reversal of the usual sexual division of labor. Human entomophagy involves advanced technology (fire, containers) and sometimes domestication. Insectivory provides comparable calorific and nutritional benefits to carnivory, but with different costs. Much insectivory in hominoids entails elementary technology used in extractive foraging, such as termite fishing by chimpanzees. Elucidating insectivory in the fossil and paleontological record is challenging, but at least nine avenues are available: remains, lithics, residues, DNA, coprolites, dental microwear, stable isotopes, osteology, and depictions. All are in play, but some have been more successful so far than others. PMID:24560030

  11. Studying sources of incongruence in arthropod molecular phylogenies: sea spiders (Pycnogonida) as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Juliette; Cruaud, Corinne; Couloux, Arnaud; Hassanin, Alexandre

    2010-05-01

    In this report, we analyze the phylogeny of Pycnogonida using the three nuclear and three mitochondrial markers currently sequenced for studying inter- and intrafamilial relationships within Arthropoda: 18S and 28S rRNA genes, Histone H3, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), 12S and 16S rRNA genes. We identify several problems in previous studies, due to the use of inappropriate sequences (taxonomic misidentification, DNA contamination, sequencing errors, missing data) or taxa (outgroup choice). Our analyses show that most markers are not powerful to study the phylogeny of sea spiders. The results suggest however a recent diversification of the group (Mesozoic rather than Paleozoic) and the early divergence of Austrodecidae, followed by Colossendeidae, Pycnogonidae and Rhynchothoracidae. Except Ammotheidae and Callipallenidae, all other families were recovered as monophyletic. Analyses of synonymous sites in CO1 sequences reveal an extreme heterogeneity of nucleotide composition within sea spiders, as six unrelated species show a reverse strand-specific bias. We therefore suggest that several independent reversals of asymmetric mutational constraints occurred during the evolution of Pycnogonida, as a consequence of genomic inversions involving either the control region or a fragment containing the CO1 gene. These hypotheses are supported by the comparison of two complete mitochondrial genomes of sea spiders (Achelia bituberculata and Nymphon gracile) with that of Limulus. PMID:20451886

  12. Wood-associated fauna collected during the KuramBio expedition in the North West Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Enrico; Bartsch, Ilse; Błażewicz-Paszkowycz, Magdalena; Brenke, Nils; Chernyshev, Alexei V.; Elsner, Nikolaus O.; Fischer, Viola; Jażdżewska, Anna; Malyutina, Marina V.; Miljutin, Dmitry; Miljutina, Maria; Kamenev, Gennady M.; Karanovic, Ivana; Maiorova, Anastassya; Würzberg, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Individual wood fragments obtained from Agassiz trawl samples in the abyssal plain area off the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench were analysed for faunistic components. Out of seven pieces of wood collected, only five harboured fauna and each showed distinctively different colonization patterns. In total, 257 specimens, mainly belonging to the phyla Arthropoda, Nematoda, Mollusca and Annelida, were collected from the available pieces of wood. While wood-boring bivalves of the genus Xylophaga, generally seen as opportunists among wood-converting organisms, were present at nearly all stations, the overwhelming majority of taxa found were restricted to individual pieces of wood. A fresh piece of wood from a site opposite to the Tsugaru Strait, was the most heavily colonized. The presence of shallow or even putative fresh-water taxa beside truly deep-water components possibly suggests a recent sinking of that particular wood fragment and demonstrates the role of such ephemeral organic objects in deep-sea ecosystems as energy-rich feeding grounds and potential distributional stepping stones. Detailed studies of driftwood communities on single sunken wood fragments from deep oceans are limited. The present data not only demonstrate a tolerance of some taxa to changes in physical parameters, such as hydrostatic pressure, salinity and temperature, but also indicate a higher biodiversity on fresher wood pieces compared to wood which already underwent decomposition processes. It is, however, not clear whether the species diversity was linked to the type of wood, since exhaustive analyses on the wood pieces themselves were not conducted.

  13. Complete mtDNA sequences of two millipedes suggest a new model for mitochondrial gene rearrangements: Duplication and non-random loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrov, Dennis V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Brown, Wesley M.

    2001-11-08

    We determined the complete mtDNA sequences of the millipedes Narceus annularus and Thyropygus sp. (Arthropoda: Diplopoda) and identified in both genomes all 37 genes typical for metazoan mtDNA. The arrangement of these genes is identical in the two millipedes, but differs from that inferred to be ancestral for arthropods by the location of four genes/gene clusters. This novel gene arrangement is unusual for animal mtDNA, in that genes with opposite transcriptional polarities are clustered in the genome and the two clusters are separated by two non-coding regions. The only exception to this pattern is the gene for cysteine tRNA, which is located in the part of the genome that otherwise contains all genes with the opposite transcriptional polarity. We suggest that a mechanism involving complete mtDNA duplication followed by the loss of genes, predetermined by their transcriptional polarity and location in the genome, could generate this gene arrangement from the one ancestral for arthropods. The proposed mechanism has important implications for phylogenetic inferences that are drawn on the basis of gene arrangement comparisons.

  14. Assessment of Zooplankton Community Composition along a Depth Profile in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.

    2015-07-17

    The composition of zooplankton in the water column has received limited attention in the main body of the Red Sea and this study investigates the change in the community both spatially and temporally across 11 stations in the central Red Sea. Using molecular methods to target the v9 region of the 18S rRNA gene a total of approximately 11.5 million reads were sequenced resulting in 2528 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 97% similarity. The phylum Arthropoda dominated in terms of reads accounting for on average 86.2% and 65.3% for neuston nets and vertical multinets respectively. A reduction in the number of OTUs was noticed with depth for both total metazoa and Maxillopoda whilst there was also a significant change in the composition of the Maxillopoda community. The genus Corycaeus had a higher proportion of reads in the epipelagic zone with Pleuromamma becoming increasingly dominant with depth. No significant difference was observed in the community between night and day sampling however there was a significant difference in the zooplankton community between two sampling periods separated by 10 days.

  15. Improved determination of macroscopic parasite preparations using S10 modified plastination procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Atanaskova

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Macroscopic preparations of parasites fixed in formaldehyde or alcohol don’t fulfill in complete the requests for education, as well as their determination, mainly because of the toxic fumes and not enough visible structure of fixed parasite. Using the modified С10 plastination method, parasites from three different phylum were prepared: Plathelminthes: Class Cestoda (Dipilidum caninum, Moniezia spp and larvae from T.Echinococcus granulosus - Echinococcus unilocularis, larvae from T. pisiformis - Cysticercus pisiformis, , larvae from T. hidatigena - Cysticercus tenuicollis, Phylum Nemathelminthes, Class Nematoda, (Ascaris suum, Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, Diro filaria immitis, Phylum Arthropoda, Class Arachnida (tick from the Ixodidae family and Class Insecta (Gasterophilus intestinalis, Hypoderma bovis. The aim of this study was conserving the parasites in native condition with plastination method and improved determination according to their visible morphologic structure. Parasites were previously kept in 10% formaldehyde. Prepared parasites were dry, chemical free, not toxic and safe for the environment, flexible and with detained form and structure. There was a variation in the natural colors in some of the parasites, as a result from long-time formalin fixation. Preparations made with this method are permanent educative material which enables improved study of parasite’s structure.

  16. Functional Annotation and Comparative Analysis of a Zygopteran Transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanku, Alexander G; McPeek, Mark A; Kern, Andrew D

    2013-03-11

    In this paper we present a de novo assembly of the transcriptome of the damselfly, Enallagma hageni, through the use of 454 pyrosequencing. E. hageni is a member of the suborder Zygoptera within the order Odonata, and the Odonata are the basal lineage of the winged insects (Pterygota). To date, sequence data used in phylogenetic analysis of Enallagma species have been derived from either mtDNA or ribosomal nuclear DNA. This transcriptome contained 31,661 contigs that were assembled and translated into 14,813 individual open reading frames. Using these data, we constructed an extensive dataset of 634 orthologous nuclear protein-coding genes across 11 species of Arthropoda, and used Bayesian techniques to elucidate Enallagma's place in the Arthropod phylogenetic tree. Additionally, we demonstrate that the Enallagma transcriptome contains 169 genes that are evolving at rates that differ relative to the rest of the transcriptome (29 accelerated and 140 decreased), and through multiple Gene Ontology searches and clustering methods, we present the first functional-annotation of any palaeopteran's transcriptome in the literature. PMID:23550132

  17. Structural analysis of the α subunit of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase genes in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Rahma; Rouault, J-D; Ayadi, Habib; Leignel, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase is a ubiquitous pump coordinating the transport of Na(+) and K(+) across the membrane of cells and its role is fundamental to cellular functions. It is heteromer in eukaryotes including two or three subunits (α, β and γ which is specific to the vertebrates). The catalytic functions of the enzyme have been attributed to the α subunit. Several complete α protein sequences are available, but only few gene structures were characterized. We identified the genomic sequences coding the α-subunit of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, from the whole-genome shotgun contigs (WGS), NCBI Genomes (chromosome), Genomic Survey Sequences (GSS) and High Throughput Genomic Sequences (HTGS) databases across distinct phyla. One copy of the α subunit gene was found in Annelida, Arthropoda, Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Mollusca, Placozoa, Porifera, Platyhelminthes, Urochordata, but the nematodes seem to possess 2 to 4 copies. The number of introns varied from 0 (Platyhelminthes) to 26 (Porifera); and their localization and length are also highly variable. Molecular phylogenies (Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony methods) showed some clusters constituted by (Chordata/(Echinodermata/Hemichordata)) or (Plathelminthes/(Annelida/Mollusca)) and a basal position for Porifera. These structural analyses increase our knowledge about the evolutionary events of the α subunit genes in the invertebrates. PMID:26812300

  18. Clade age and not diversification rate explains species richness among animal taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeek, Mark A; Brown, Jonathan M

    2007-04-01

    Animal taxa show remarkable variability in species richness across phylogenetic groups. Most explanations for this disparity postulate that taxa with more species have phenotypes or ecologies that cause higher diversification rates (i.e., higher speciation rates or lower extinction rates). Here we show that clade longevity, and not diversification rate, has primarily shaped patterns of species richness across major animal clades: more diverse taxa are older and thus have had more time to accumulate species. Diversification rates calculated from 163 species-level molecular phylogenies were highly consistent within and among three major animal phyla (Arthropoda, Chordata, Mollusca) and did not correlate with species richness. Clades with higher estimated diversification rates were younger, but species numbers increased with increasing clade age. A fossil-based data set also revealed a strong, positive relationship between total extant species richness and crown group age across the orders of insects and vertebrates. These findings do not negate the importance of ecology or phenotype in influencing diversification rates, but they do show that clade longevity is the dominant signal in major animal biodiversity patterns. Thus, some key innovations may have acted through fostering clade longevity and not by heightening diversification rate. PMID:17427118

  19. Structural insights into the interaction between molluscan hemocyanins and phenolic substrates: An in silico study using docking and molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh, K N; Sreekumar, Arun; Rajan, S S

    2015-09-01

    Hemocyanin is a multimeric type-3 copper containing oxygen carrier protein that exhibits phenoloxidase-like activity and is found in selected species of arthropoda and mollusca. The phenoloxidase activity in the molluscan hemocyanins can be triggered by the proteolytic removal of the C-terminal β-rich sandwich domain of the protein or by the treatment with chemical agents like SDS, both of which enable active site access to the phenolic substrates. The mechanism by which SDS treatment enhances active site access to the substrates is however not well understood in molluscan hemocyanins. Here, using a combination of in silico molecular dynamics (MD) and docking studies on the crystal structure of Octopus dofleini hemocyanin (PDB code:1JS8), we demonstrate that the C-terminal β-domain of the protein plays a crucial role in regulating active site access to bulky phenolic substrates. Furthermore, MD simulation of hemocyanin in SDS revealed displacement of β-domain, enhanced active site access and a resulting increase in binding affinity for substrates. These observations were further validated by enzyme kinetics experiments. PMID:26300244

  20. Insights into the evolution of the CSP gene family through the integration of evolutionary analysis and comparative protein modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Kulmuni

    Full Text Available Insect chemical communication and chemosensory systems rely on proteins coded by several gene families. Here, we have combined protein modeling with evolutionary analysis in order to study the evolution and structure of chemosensory proteins (CSPs within arthropods and, more specifically, in ants by using the data available from sequenced genomes. Ants and other social insects are especially interesting model systems for the study of chemosensation, as they communicate in a highly complex social context and much of their communication relies on chemicals. Our ant protein models show how this complexity has shaped CSP evolution; the proteins are highly modifiable by their size, surface charge and binding pocket. Based on these findings, we divide ant CSPs into three groups: typical insect CSPs, an ancient 5-helical CSP and hymenopteran CSPs with a small binding pocket, and suggest that these groups likely serve different functions. The hymenopteran CSPs have duplicated repeatedly in individual ant lineages. In these CSPs, positive selection has driven surface charge changes, an observation which has possible implications for the interaction between CSPs and ligands or odorant receptors. Our phylogenetic analysis shows that within the Arthropoda the only highly conserved gene is the ancient 5-helical CSP, which is likely involved in an essential ubiquitous function rather than chemosensation. During insect evolution, the 6-helical CSPs have diverged and perform chemosensory functions among others. Our results contribute to the general knowledge of the structural differences between proteins underlying chemosensation and highlight those protein properties which have been affected by adaptive evolution.

  1. Insights into the evolution of the CSP gene family through the integration of evolutionary analysis and comparative protein modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmuni, Jonna; Havukainen, Heli

    2013-01-01

    Insect chemical communication and chemosensory systems rely on proteins coded by several gene families. Here, we have combined protein modeling with evolutionary analysis in order to study the evolution and structure of chemosensory proteins (CSPs) within arthropods and, more specifically, in ants by using the data available from sequenced genomes. Ants and other social insects are especially interesting model systems for the study of chemosensation, as they communicate in a highly complex social context and much of their communication relies on chemicals. Our ant protein models show how this complexity has shaped CSP evolution; the proteins are highly modifiable by their size, surface charge and binding pocket. Based on these findings, we divide ant CSPs into three groups: typical insect CSPs, an ancient 5-helical CSP and hymenopteran CSPs with a small binding pocket, and suggest that these groups likely serve different functions. The hymenopteran CSPs have duplicated repeatedly in individual ant lineages. In these CSPs, positive selection has driven surface charge changes, an observation which has possible implications for the interaction between CSPs and ligands or odorant receptors. Our phylogenetic analysis shows that within the Arthropoda the only highly conserved gene is the ancient 5-helical CSP, which is likely involved in an essential ubiquitous function rather than chemosensation. During insect evolution, the 6-helical CSPs have diverged and perform chemosensory functions among others. Our results contribute to the general knowledge of the structural differences between proteins underlying chemosensation and highlight those protein properties which have been affected by adaptive evolution. PMID:23723994

  2. ELNAIS meets EASIN: distribution of marine alien species in Greece using EASIN mapping services and ELNAIS spatial data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN was created with the aim to provide easy access to accurate information on alien species in Europe. EASIN allows the retrieval of spatial information from existing online data providers in order to produce integrated georeferenced distribution maps of alien species in Europe. In November 2012, a new data provider, the Ellenic Network on Aquatic Invasive Species (ELNAIS, joined EASIN; this has significantly increased the available georeferenced information on marine/estuarine alien species in Greek waters. Here, we use maps created by EASIN to show differences in patterns of distribution in Greece for the most abundant Phyla of marine alien species - Mollusca, Arthropoda, Chordata and Annelida. We also show that the two main pathways of introduction of marine alien species (Lessepsian migration and Shipping are related to different patterns of species spatial distribution in Greece. Overall, the tools provided by EASIN can greatly aid scientists and policy makers in obtaining high quality information on marine alien species in Greece, especially after the association with ELNAIS.

  3. Communities of macrobenthos in the intertidal zones of the Luanhe-Yanghe estuary and environmental quality assessment%滦河口-洋河口海域潮间带大型底栖动物群落及其环境质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 张永丰; 张臻; 陈燕; 马新

    2014-01-01

    2012年春季(5月)和夏季(8月)对滦河口-洋河口海域潮间带大型底栖动物群落及环境质量进行分析。结果表明:春季调查共鉴定大型底栖动物36种,种类组成以软体动物和多毛类为主;夏季调查共鉴定大型底栖动物22种,种类组成以软体动物和节肢动物为主。夏季大型底栖动物丰度和生物量明显低于春季。春季丰度和生物量皆以软体动物最高;夏季丰度以多毛类最高,生物量以节肢动物最高。滦河口-洋河口海域潮间带大型底栖动物物种数、丰度和生物量从高潮带向低潮带不断增高。采用大型底栖动物污染指数MPI和AMBI指数对调查海域潮间带大型底栖动物生态环境质量进行评价分析时,发现滦河口-洋河口海域潮间带生态环境质量总体处于良好状态,但MPI评价法和AMBI指数法对滦河口-洋河口海域潮间带生态环境质量分级结果存在差异。两种评价方法在生态环境状况分级评价中皆存在一定偏差,还需相互校准,并通过环境压力的梯度数据进行对比分析。%Communities of macrobenthos and environment quality in the Luanhe-Yanghe estuary in spring and summer 2012 have been studied. The result showed that 36 macrobenthos species were identified in spring 2012, and the dominant groups were Mollusca and Polychaeta;22 macrobenthos species were identified in summer 2012, and the dominant groups were Mollusca and Arthropoda. The average abundance and biomass of macrobenthos decreased significantly from spring to summer. The Mollusca had the highest value both in abundance and biomass in spring;the Polychaeta ranked the first in abundance and the Arthropoda had the highest value in biomass in summer. The species, abundance and biomass of macrobenthos continued to improve from the climax zone to the low tide zone in the intertidal zones of the Luanhe-Yanghe estuary. Macrozoobenthos Pollution Index (MPI) and AMBI

  4. Study of the Influence of Gamma Radiation on Certain Pharmacological and Biochemical Action s of Leiurus Quinquestriatus Scorpion Venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlike the amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles, scorpions have no back bone, as they are invertebrates. Scorpions belong to the phylum arthropoda, their bodies are segmented and their legs are jointed. They belong to the class arachnida, because they have eight legs, two pedipalps, two chelicerae and a body composed of eighteen segments. The most important species of Buthidae family are Buthotus tamulus, Leiurus quinquestriatus, Androctonus crassicauda, Androctonus australis, Tityus serrulatus, and Centruroides suffusus (Minton, 2010). Scorpions are found in East Africa, Middle East, India, as well as Central and South America. Classification of scorpions from Africa and Middle East, has been summarized by Vachon, (1966). Unlike snakes, all scorpions are venomous. The venom is injected by means of a stinger found at the tip of the telson, the terminal structure of the tail. The smallest adults may range from approximately 2 to 3 cm and the largest between 15 to 25 cm (Bucherl, 1971). Scorpions have quite variable life spans. The age range appears to be approximately 4–25 years. Scorpions prefer to live in areas where the temperatures range from 20 °C to 37 °C, but may survive from freezing temperatures to the desert heat (Hadley, 1970; Hannah's et al., 2006). The death stalker (Leiurus quinquestriatus), is a member of the Buthidae family. It is also known as Palestine yellow scorpion, Omdurman scorpion, Israeli desert scorpion and numerous other colloquial names. To eliminate confusion, especially with potentially dangerous species, the scientific name is normally used to refer to them. The name Leiurus quinquestriatus roughly translates into English as five-striped smooth-tail. Other species of the genus Leiurus are often referred to as deathstalkersas well (Werness, 2004; Minton, 2010).

  5. Comparative genomic analysis of the arthropod muscle myosin heavy chain genes allows ancestral gene reconstruction and reveals a new type of 'partially' processed pseudogene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kollmar Martin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing of mutually exclusive exons is an important mechanism for increasing protein diversity in eukaryotes. The insect Mhc (myosin heavy chain gene produces all different muscle myosins as a result of alternative splicing in contrast to most other organisms of the Metazoa lineage, that have a family of muscle genes with each gene coding for a protein specialized for a functional niche. Results The muscle myosin heavy chain genes of 22 species of the Arthropoda ranging from the waterflea to wasp and Drosophila have been annotated. The analysis of the gene structures allowed the reconstruction of an ancient muscle myosin heavy chain gene and showed that during evolution of the arthropods introns have mainly been lost in these genes although intron gain might have happened in a few cases. Surprisingly, the genome of Aedes aegypti contains another and that of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus two further muscle myosin heavy chain genes, called Mhc3 and Mhc4, that contain only one variant of the corresponding alternative exons of the Mhc1 gene. Mhc3 transcription in Aedes aegypti is documented by EST data. Mhc3 and Mhc4 inserted in the Aedes and Culex genomes either by gene duplication followed by the loss of all but one variant of the alternative exons, or by incorporation of a transcript of which all other variants have been spliced out retaining the exon-intron structure. The second and more likely possibility represents a new type of a 'partially' processed pseudogene. Conclusion Based on the comparative genomic analysis of the alternatively spliced arthropod muscle myosin heavy chain genes we propose that the splicing process operates sequentially on the transcript. The process consists of the splicing of the mutually exclusive exons until one exon out of the cluster remains while retaining surrounding intronic sequence. In a second step splicing of introns takes place. A related mechanism could be responsible for

  6. Analysis of snail genes in the crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis: insight into snail gene family evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Roberta L; Price, Alivia L; Parchem, Ronald J; Patel, Nipam H

    2012-05-01

    The transcriptional repressor snail was first discovered in Drosophila melanogaster, where it initially plays a role in gastrulation and mesoderm formation, and later plays a role in neurogenesis. Among arthropods, this role of snail appears to be conserved in the insects Tribolium and Anopheles gambiae, but not in the chelicerates Cupiennius salei and Achaearanea tepidariorum, the myriapod Glomeris marginata, or the Branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna. These data imply that within arthropoda, snail acquired its role in gastrulation and mesoderm formation in the insect lineage. However, crustaceans are a diverse group with several major taxa, making analysis of more crustaceans necessary to potentially understand the ancestral role of snail in Pancrustacea (crustaceans + insects) and thus in the ancestor of insects as well. To address these questions, we examined the snail family in the Malacostracan crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. We found three snail homologs, Ph-snail1, Ph-snail2 and Ph-snail3, and one scratch homolog, Ph-scratch. Parhyale snail genes are expressed after gastrulation, during germband formation and elongation. Ph-snail1, Ph-snail2, and Ph-snail3 are expressed in distinct patterns in the neuroectoderm. Ph-snail1 is the only Parhyale snail gene expressed in the mesoderm, where its expression cycles in the mesodermal stem cells, called mesoteloblasts. The mesoteloblasts go through a series of cycles, where each cycle is composed of a migration phase and a division phase. Ph-snail1 is expressed during the migration phase, but not during the division phase. We found that as each mesoteloblast division produces one segment's worth of mesoderm, Ph-snail1 expression is linked to both the cell cycle and the segmental production of mesoderm.

  7. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace M Meyer

    Full Text Available The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May and summer (September 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1 beetles (Coleoptera, (2 spiders (Araneae, (3 grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera, and (4 millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species and 76% (254 species of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests. Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon, significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  8. 应用GIS制作Coringa红树林物种分布图%Application of GIS in the Preparation of Species Distributional Maps for Coringa Mangroves Based on Ground Truth Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Satyanarayana; A.V.Raman; 张秀英; 冯学智; F.Dehairs

    2004-01-01

    Coringa野生保护区是印度东海岸第二大红树林保护区.采用PCQM(Point Centered Quarter Meth-od)方法获取了该区红树林树木底面积数据Arcinfo 8.1制作物种密度分布图,结果显示,该区红树林植物有15种,分属8个科10个属,动物则包括7个门(Arthropda,Mollusca,Pisces,Amphibia,Reptiles,Aves andMammals).在15种红树林植物中,Avicennia marina,A.officinalis和Excoecaria agallocha是保护区中分布最广泛的种类,他们的分布密度随盐度的变化而变化,Rhizophora apiculata和R.mucronata则被限制在该区沿海边缘地带.%Coringa wildlife sanctuary is the second largest mangrove formation on the east coast of India with its rich floral and faunal biodiversity.The total number of floral species is composed of 15(8 families and 10 genera)conile fauna represented by 7 diverse groups such as Arthropoda,Mollusca,Pisces,Amphibia,Reptiles,Aves and Mammals.Out of 15 mangrove plant species,Avicennia marina ,A.o fficinalis and Excoecaria agallocha are the most widely distributed species within the sanctuary representing their wide tolerance capacity towards varying salinity ranges.Rhizophora apiculata and R.mucronata are mostly confined to the seaward fringes in this region.During present study,an attempt was made to prepare the species level distributional maps for the above said plant communities with the help of Arc Map 8.1 based on basal area(m2 per 0.1 hm2)estimations derived from PCQM(Point Cen-tered Quarter Method).

  9. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wallace M; Eble, Jeffrey A; Franklin, Kimberly; McManus, Reilly B; Brantley, Sandra L; Henkel, Jeff; Marek, Paul E; Hall, W Eugene; Olson, Carl A; McInroy, Ryan; Bernal Loaiza, Emmanuel M; Brusca, Richard C; Moore, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA) assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May) and summer (September) 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon) biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1) beetles (Coleoptera), (2) spiders (Araneae), (3) grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), and (4) millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda) were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens) Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species) and 76% (254 species) of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests). Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon), significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Pauropus longiramus (Myriapoda: Pauropoda): implications on early diversification of the myriapods revealed from comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Sun, Hongying; Guo, Hua; Pan, Da; Qian, Changyuan; Hao, Sijing; Zhou, Kaiya

    2012-08-15

    Myriapods are among the earliest arthropods and may have evolved to become part of the terrestrial biota more than 400 million years ago. A noticeable lack of mitochondrial genome data from Pauropoda hampers phylogenetic and evolutionary studies within the subphylum Myriapoda. We sequenced the first complete mitochondrial genome of a microscopic pauropod, Pauropus longiramus (Arthropoda: Myriapoda), and conducted comprehensive mitogenomic analyses across the Myriapoda. The pauropod mitochondrial genome is a circular molecule of 14,487 bp long and contains the entire set of thirty-seven genes. Frequent intergenic overlaps occurred between adjacent tRNAs, and between tRNA and protein-coding genes. This is the first example of a mitochondrial genome with multiple intergenic overlaps and reveals a strategy for arthropods to effectively compact the mitochondrial genome by overlapping and truncating tRNA genes with neighbor genes, instead of only truncating tRNAs. Phylogenetic analyses based on protein-coding genes provide strong evidence that the sister group of Pauropoda is Symphyla. Additionally, approximately unbiased (AU) tests strongly support the Progoneata and confirm the basal position of Chilopoda in Myriapoda. This study provides an estimation of myriapod origins around 555 Ma (95% CI: 444-704 Ma) and this date is comparable with that of the Cambrian explosion and candidate myriapod-like fossils. A new time-scale suggests that deep radiations during early myriapod diversification occurred at least three times, not once as previously proposed. A Carboniferous origin of pauropods is congruent with the idea that these taxa are derived, rather than basal, progoneatans.

  11. 大连市区沿海底栖动物的种、量和对环境质量的评价%Species and number of benthos and evaluation about environment in the waters of Dalian coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹善茂; 周一兵

    2001-01-01

    1997年10月~1998年7月对大连市区沿海10个站位(南部沿海4个站位、大连湾6个站位)进行了3次底栖动物调查,共获大型底栖动物79种,其中多毛类42种、软体动物23种、节肢动物7种、棘皮动物2种、海鞘2种、其它3种。平均栖息密度为4 663.3个/m2,平均生物量为740.5 g/m2。同时测定了相关的水化指标。经分析表明该海区处于轻度和中度污染状态。%The benthos were studied based on three surveys in 10 stations in the waters of Dalian coast from Docter, 1997 to July, 1998. The results showed that 79 species of benthos were indentified, 42 species of which are polychaeta, 23 mullusca, 7 arthropoda, 3 echinodermata, 2 tunicata and 2 other animals. The average density and biomass (wet weight) of benthos was 4663.3 ind./m2 and 740.5 g/m2. The analysis based on the resuls showed that the waters of Dalian coast have been polluted lightly or moderately.

  12. Breakdown of phylogenetic signal: a survey of microsatellite densities in 454 shotgun sequences from 154 non model eukaryote species.

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    Emese Meglécz

    Full Text Available Microsatellites are ubiquitous in Eukaryotic genomes. A more complete understanding of their origin and spread can be gained from a comparison of their distribution within a phylogenetic context. Although information for model species is accumulating rapidly, it is insufficient due to a lack of species depth, thus intragroup variation is necessarily ignored. As such, apparent differences between groups may be overinflated and generalizations cannot be inferred until an analysis of the variation that exists within groups has been conducted. In this study, we examined microsatellite coverage and motif patterns from 454 shotgun sequences of 154 Eukaryote species from eight distantly related phyla (Cnidaria, Arthropoda, Onychophora, Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Chordata and Streptophyta to test if a consistent phylogenetic pattern emerges from the microsatellite composition of these species. It is clear from our results that data from model species provide incomplete information regarding the existing microsatellite variability within the Eukaryotes. A very strong heterogeneity of microsatellite composition was found within most phyla, classes and even orders. Autocorrelation analyses indicated that while microsatellite contents of species within clades more recent than 200 Mya tend to be similar, the autocorrelation breaks down and becomes negative or non-significant with increasing divergence time. Therefore, the age of the taxon seems to be a primary factor in degrading the phylogenetic pattern present among related groups. The most recent classes or orders of Chordates still retain the pattern of their common ancestor. However, within older groups, such as classes of Arthropods, the phylogenetic pattern has been scrambled by the long independent evolution of the lineages.

  13. Study on the Restoration of Animals on the Slope Green Belt of Shaoguan-Ganzhou Highway%韶赣高速公路边坡绿化带动物恢复的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建荣; 栾晓峰; 李斌; 徐剑; 郑立军

    2012-01-01

    67 species of animals are recorded on the slope green belt of Shaoguan-Canzhou highway, belonging to 34 families, 18 orders and 3 phylums. Among them there are 61 species, 29 families and 15 orders of Arthropoda, accounting for 91.04% of total species. The dominant species are Formica fusca, Atractomorpha sinensis Bol var, and Oxya chinensis. The slope green belt is not as good as natural habitats to restore the animals, but the cynodon daaylon ( L) pers and Loiium perenne L. on the slope green belt are good for the living of animals, and the smaller the side slope grade, the better. The growth of animals is obviously inhibited by Tepkrosia vogelii and Crotalaria pailida Ait.%韶赣高速公路边坡绿化带记录有3门、18目、34科、67种动物,其中节肢动物门最多,有15目、29科、61种,占91.04%,优势种为丝光褐林蚁、中华短额负蝗、中华稻蝗3种.边坡绿化带在动物恢复性方面低于自然生境,边坡绿化带种植狗牙草和黑麦草较有利于动物的生息,边坡坡度小也有利于动物的生息,而种植非洲山毛豆、猪屎豆对动物具有明显抑制作用.

  14. Sources of signal in 62 protein-coding nuclear genes for higher-level phylogenetics of arthropods.

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    Jerome C Regier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the strength of various sources of phylogenetic information that led to recent seemingly robust conclusions about higher-level arthropod phylogeny and to assess the role of excluding or downweighting synonymous change for arriving at those conclusions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The current study analyzes DNA sequences from 68 gene segments of 62 distinct protein-coding nuclear genes for 80 species. Gene segments analyzed individually support numerous nodes recovered in combined-gene analyses, but few of the higher-level nodes of greatest current interest. However, neither is there support for conflicting alternatives to these higher-level nodes. Gene segments with higher rates of nonsynonymous change tend to be more informative overall, but those with lower rates tend to provide stronger support for deeper nodes. Higher-level nodes with bootstrap values in the 80% - 99% range for the complete data matrix are markedly more sensitive to substantial drops in their bootstrap percentages after character subsampling than those with 100% bootstrap, suggesting that these nodes are likely not to have been strongly supported with many fewer data than in the full matrix. Data set partitioning of total data by (mostly synonymous and (mostly nonsynonymous change improves overall node support, but the result remains much inferior to analysis of (unpartitioned nonsynonymous change alone. Clusters of genes with similar nonsynonymous rate properties (e.g., faster vs. slower show some distinct patterns of node support but few conflicts. Synonymous change is shown to contribute little, if any, phylogenetic signal to the support of higher-level nodes, but it does contribute nonphylogenetic signal, probably through its underlying heterogeneous nucleotide composition. Analysis of seemingly conservative indels does not prove useful. CONCLUSIONS: Generating a robust molecular higher-level phylogeny of Arthropoda is

  15. Invasive species and biodiversity crises: testing the link in the late devonian.

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    Alycia L Stigall

    Full Text Available During the Late Devonian Biodiversity Crisis, the primary driver of biodiversity decline was the dramatic reduction in speciation rates, not elevated extinction rates; however, the causes of speciation decline have been previously unstudied. Speciation, the formation of new species from ancestral populations, occurs by two primary allopatric mechanisms: vicariance, where the ancestral population is passively divided into two large subpopulations that later diverge and form two daughter species, and dispersal, in which a small subset of the ancestral population actively migrates then diverges to form a new species. Studies of modern and fossil clades typically document speciation by vicariance in much higher frequencies than speciation by dispersal. To assess the mechanism behind Late Devonian speciation reduction, speciation rates were calculated within stratigraphically constrained species-level phylogenetic hypotheses for three representative clades and mode of speciation at cladogenetic events was assessed across four clades in three phyla: Arthropoda, Brachiopoda, and Mollusca. In all cases, Devonian taxa exhibited a congruent reduction in speciation rate between the Middle Devonian pre-crisis interval and the Late Devonian crisis interval. Furthermore, speciation via vicariance is almost entirely absent during the crisis interval; most episodes of speciation during this time were due to dispersal. The shutdown of speciation by vicariance during this interval was related to widespread interbasinal species invasions. The lack of Late Devonian vicariance is diametrically opposed to the pattern observed in other geologic intervals, which suggests the loss of vicariant speciation attributable to species invasions during the Late Devonian was a causal factor in the biodiversity crisis. Similarly, modern ecosystems, in which invasive species are rampant, may be expected to exhibit similar shutdown of speciation by vicariance as an outcome of the

  16. An arthropod cis-regulatory element functioning in sensory organ precursor development dates back to the Cambrian

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    Simpson Pat

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of publications demonstrate conservation of function of cis-regulatory elements without sequence similarity. In invertebrates such functional conservation has only been shown for closely related species. Here we demonstrate the existence of an ancient arthropod regulatory element that functions during the selection of neural precursors. The activity of genes of the achaete-scute (ac-sc family endows cells with neural potential. An essential, conserved characteristic of proneural genes is their ability to restrict their own activity to single or a small number of progenitor cells from their initially broad domains of expression. This is achieved through a process called lateral inhibition. A regulatory element, the sensory organ precursor enhancer (SOPE, is required for this process. First identified in Drosophila, the SOPE contains discrete binding sites for four regulatory factors. The SOPE of the Drosophila asense gene is situated in the 5' UTR. Results Through a manual comparison of consensus binding site sequences we have been able to identify a SOPE in UTR sequences of asense-like genes in species belonging to all four arthropod groups (Crustacea, Myriapoda, Chelicerata and Insecta. The SOPEs of the spider Cupiennius salei and the insect Tribolium castaneum are shown to be functional in transgenic Drosophila. This would place the origin of this regulatory sequence as far back as the last common ancestor of the Arthropoda, that is, in the Cambrian, 550 million years ago. Conclusions The SOPE is not detectable by inter-specific sequence comparison, raising the possibility that other ancient regulatory modules in invertebrates might have escaped detection.

  17. Reconstructing the phylogeny of 21 completely sequenced arthropod species based on their motor proteins

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    Kollmar Martin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor proteins have extensively been studied in the past and consist of large superfamilies. They are involved in diverse processes like cell division, cellular transport, neuronal transport processes, or muscle contraction, to name a few. Vertebrates contain up to 60 myosins and about the same number of kinesins that are spread over more than a dozen distinct classes. Results Here, we present the comparative genomic analysis of the motor protein repertoire of 21 completely sequenced arthropod species using the owl limpet Lottia gigantea as outgroup. Arthropods contain up to 17 myosins grouped into 13 classes. The myosins are in almost all cases clear paralogs, and thus the evolution of the arthropod myosin inventory is mainly determined by gene losses. Arthropod species contain up to 29 kinesins spread over 13 classes. In contrast to the myosins, the evolution of the arthropod kinesin inventory is not only determined by gene losses but also by many subtaxon-specific and species-specific gene duplications. All arthropods contain each of the subunits of the cytoplasmic dynein/dynactin complex. Except for the dynein light chains and the p150 dynactin subunit they contain single gene copies of the other subunits. Especially the roadblock light chain repertoire is very species-specific. Conclusion All 21 completely sequenced arthropods, including the twelve sequenced Drosophila species, contain a species-specific set of motor proteins. The phylogenetic analysis of all genes as well as the protein repertoire placed Daphnia pulex closest to the root of the Arthropoda. The louse Pediculus humanus corporis is the closest relative to Daphnia followed by the group of the honeybee Apis mellifera and the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis. After this group the rust-red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and the silkworm Bombyx mori diverged very closely from the lineage leading to the Drosophila species.

  18. 基于454焦磷酸测序法的典型草原土壤真核生物多样性%Eukaryote diversity of typical grassland soil based on 454 pyrosequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井赵斌; 程积民; 张宝泉; 李红红

    2013-01-01

    利用454焦磷酸测序法对黄土区不同封育时期典型草地土壤真核生物多样性进行了研究.结果表明,选择的V4区引物可以扩增出土壤真核生物中的微生物、动物和植物,其中真菌群落主要由子囊菌门(Ascomycota)、壶菌门(Chyt ridiomycota)、担子菌门(Basidiomycota)、绿藻门(Chlorophyta)、球囊菌门(Glomeromycota)和变形菌门(Proteobacteria)组成;动物群落区系主要包括脊椎动物门(Craniata)、节足动物门(Arthropoda)、线虫门(Nematoda)和环节动物门(Annelida);植物群落包括陆生植物(Embryophyta)和单子叶植物纲(百合纲)(Liliopsida).在不同分类学水平,不同封育时期草地真菌群落组成具有各自的优势菌群;动物群落组成仅在种水平存在差异.草地管理实践中可以结合土壤微生物和土壤养分恢复时间的阈值对封育草地进行合理利用.454焦磷酸测序法可以用于土壤中未知动物、植物和微生物区系的研究.

  19. Co-evolution of SNF spliceosomal proteins with their RNA targets in trans-splicing nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Rex Meade; Russelburg, L Peyton; Delaney, Kimberly J

    2016-08-01

    Although the mechanism of pre-mRNA splicing has been well characterized, the evolution of spliceosomal proteins is poorly understood. The U1A/U2B″/SNF family (hereafter referred to as the SNF family) of RNA binding spliceosomal proteins participates in both the U1 and U2 small interacting nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). The highly constrained nature of this system has inhibited an analysis of co-evolutionary trends between the proteins and their RNA binding targets. Here we report accelerated sequence evolution in the SNF protein family in Phylum Nematoda, which has allowed an analysis of protein:RNA co-evolution. In a comparison of SNF genes from ecdysozoan species, we found a correlation between trans-splicing species (nematodes) and increased phylogenetic branch lengths of the SNF protein family, with respect to their sister clade Arthropoda. In particular, we found that nematodes (~70-80 % of pre-mRNAs are trans-spliced) have experienced higher rates of SNF sequence evolution than arthropods (predominantly cis-spliced) at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Interestingly, this increased evolutionary rate correlates with the reliance on trans-splicing by nematodes, which would alter the role of the SNF family of spliceosomal proteins. We mapped amino acid substitutions to functionally important regions of the SNF protein, specifically to sites that are predicted to disrupt protein:RNA and protein:protein interactions. Finally, we investigated SNF's RNA targets: the U1 and U2 snRNAs. Both are more divergent in nematodes than arthropods, suggesting the RNAs have co-evolved with SNF in order to maintain the necessarily high affinity interaction that has been characterized in other species. PMID:27450547

  20. Immunolocalization of arthropsin in the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli (Peripatopsidae

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    Isabell Schumann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Opsins are light-sensitive proteins that play a key role in animal vision and are related to the ancient photoreceptive molecule rhodopsin found in unicellular organisms. In general, opsins involved in vision comprise two major groups: the rhabdomeric (r-opsins and the ciliary opsins (c-opsins. The functionality of opsins, which is dependent on their protein structure, may have changed during evolution. In arthropods, typically r-opsins are responsible for vision, whereas in vertebrates c-opsins are components of visual photoreceptors. Recently, an enigmatic r-opsin-like protein called arthropsin has been identified in various bilaterian taxa, including arthropods, lophotrochozoans and chordates, by performing transcriptomic and genomic analyses. Since the role of arthropsin and its distribution within the body are unknown, we immunolocalized this protein in a representative of Onychophora – Euperipatoides rowelli – an ecdysozoan taxon which is regarded as one of the closest relatives of Arthropoda. Our data show that arthropsin is expressed in the central nervous system of E. rowelli, including the brain and the ventral nerve cords, but not in the eyes. These findings are consistent with previous results based on reverse transcription PCR in a closely related onychophoran species and suggest that arthropsin is a non-visual protein. Based on its distribution in the central brain region and the mushroom bodies, we speculate that the onychophoran arthropsin might be either a photosensitive molecule playing a role in the circadian clock, or a non-photosensitive protein involved in olfactory pathways, or both.

  1. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

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    Daniela Lupi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  2. A Cambrian micro-lobopodian and the evolution of arthropod locomotion and reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The evolutionary success of arthropods, the most abundant and diverse animal group, is mainly based on their segmented body and jointed appendages, features that had evolved most likely already before the Cambrian. The first arthropod-like animals, the lobopodians from the Early Cambrian, were unsclerotized and worm-like, and they had unjointed tubular legs. Here we describe the first three-dimensionally preserved Cambrian lobopodian. The material presented of Orstenotubulus evamuellerae gen. et sp. nov. is the smallest and youngest of a lobopodian known. O. evamuellerae shows strikingly detailed similarities to Recent tardigrades and/or onychophorans in its cellular-structured cuticle and the telescopic spines. It also shows similarities to other, longer known lobopodians, but which are ten times as large as the new form. These similarities include the finely annulated body and legs, which is characteristic also for Recent onychophorans, and paired humps continuing into spines situated dorsally to the leg insertions, a feature lacking in the extant forms. The morphology of O. evamuellerae not only elucidates our knowledge about lobopodians, but also aids in a clearer picture of the early evolution of arthropods. An example is the single ventral gonopore between a limb pair of O. evamuellerae, which indicates that a single gonopore, as developed in onychophorans, tardigrades, pentastomids, myriapods and insects, might represent the plesiomorphic state for Arthropoda, while the paired state in chelicerates and crustaceans was convergently achieved. Concerning life habits, the lateral orientation of the limbs and their anchoring spines of the new lobopodian imply that early arthropods were crawlers rather than walkers.

  3. STUDI KUALITAS PERAIRAN PADA KEGIATAN BUDIDAYA TIRAM MUTIARA (Pinctada maxima DI KECAMATAN GEROKGAK, KABUPATEN BULELENG, BALI

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    apri i supi'i

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to know the effect of pearl oyster culture activities to the water quality(physical, chemical, biological parameters, and the sediment of culture site, waters quality status of pearloyster culture site as well.The research was done at 10 stations, which were 9 stations located around pearl oyster culture site, and1 station located at out of pearl oyster culture site (as control. Results showed that the sources of pollutionwere from pearl oyster feces and biofouling produced from cleaning of pocket and its shell. An in organicmatter of the feces produced (50.52-78.75 % was higher than the organic matter (21.25-49.48 %. The amountof biofoulling trash increased with the size and dominated by organic matter. Sea water quality observed wasunder sea water quality standard of marine organism (aquaculture decided by government, except phosphate.Twenty four species of plankton collected, consist of 4 phylum, that were Bacillarophyta (diatom,Protozoa, Arthropoda, and Mollusca. Plankton Diversity Index showed the level of low to high pollutioncondition indicated ecological suppression and decreasing of waters quality. The amount of total bacteria andVibrio spp. at all stations were normal, that was less than 106 cfu/ml.Integrated physical, chemical and biological parameters assessment found that pollution index was 2-3,mean of low pollution. Result of Cluster assessment indicate that there was real characteristic differentiationbetween first group (1-9 and second group (control. First group was around the pearl oyster culture waters,and second group was out of the pearl oyster culture waters. So the pearl oyster culture activities affected thewaters quality.

  4. Benthic Macro-Fauna Composition and Abundance in Sombreiro River, Niger Delta, Nigeria

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    E.N. Ezekiel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The benthic macro-fauna composition and abundance in sombreiro was studied for a period of two years (August 2007 - July2009. A total of twenty-eight species belonging to fourteen (14 families, six (6 classes and three (3 phyla were recorded in Sombreiro River. The phylum Annelida dominated with two classes (Oligochaeta and Polychaeta. Oligochaeta was represented by two families (Naididae and Lumbricidae and seven species having 25% by composition. Polychaeta was represented by seven families (Nereidae, Nepthyidae, Capitellidae, Eucinidae, Glyceridae, Arenicolidae and Syllidae and thirteen species having 46.4% by composition. The Phylum arthropoda was represented by two classes (Crustacea and inseita. Two families (Gammaridae and Penaidae having two species consisting of 7.2% were recorded, for the class crustacea. The class insecta was represented by one family (Chironomidae with one species consisting of 3.6%. The phylum Mollusca was represented by two classes (Gastropoda and Bivalvia. Gastropoda had two species with 7.2% composition and Bivalvia has three species with10.7% composition. Oligochaeta was the highest and constituted 62.0%. The others were Polychaeta (23.9%, Insecta (6.7%, Gastropoda (3.9%, Bivalvia (2.2% and Crustacea (1.3%. The mean diversity(S ranged between 11 species. Mean abundance of individuals (N was 985. Mean Margalef index (d value was 1.339. The mean value for Shannon-Wienner (H was 0.956. Mean Pielou’s index of relative density or evenness index (E was 0.986. Mean SimpsIn’s Dominance index (C was 0.623.

  5. The infauna of three widely distributed sponge species (Hexactinellida and Demospongiae) from the deep Ekström Shelf in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

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    Kersken, Daniel; Göcke, Christian; Brandt, Angelika; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Schwabe, Enrico; Anna Seefeldt, Meike; Veit-Köhler, Gritta; Janussen, Dorte

    2014-10-01

    Due to their high abundance and large body size sponges have a central position in Antarctic zoobenthos, where they form the most extensive sponge grounds of the world. Though research on Antarctic benthos communities is quite established, research on sponge-associated infauna communities is scarce. We analyzed associated infauna of fifteen individuals of the sponge species Mycale (Oxymycale) acerata Kirkpatrick, 1907 (Demospongiae: Mycalina), Rossella antarctica Carter, 1872 and R. racovitzae Topsent, 1901 (both Hexactinellida: Lyssacinosida). Samples were collected from the deep Ekström Shelf at 602 m in the South-Eastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica, during the ANT XXIV-2 (SYSTCO I) expedition of RV Polarstern. The number of species, α- and β-diversity and the significantly different species composition of infauna communities related to sponge species were calculated, the latter via cluster analysis. The sponge-associated infauna consisted of five phyla: Foraminifera, Nematoda, Polychaeta, Mollusca and Arthropoda. In total 11,463 infaunal specimens were extracted and we found at least 76 associated species. Highest values of α-diversity were calculated for a sample of R. antarctica with a Shannon-Index of 1.84 and Simpson-Index of 0.72 respectively. Our results of the cluster-analysis show significant differences between infauna communities and a unique species composition for single sponge species. Polychaetes of the genus Syllis Lamarck, 1818 were numerous in M. acerata and genera like Pionosyllis Malmgren, 1867 and Cirratulus Lamarck, 1801 were numerous in R. antarctica. Individuals of the amphipod species Seba cf. dubia Schellenberg, 1926 were often found in R. antarctica and R. racovitzae while Colomastix fissilingua Schellenberg, 1926 was frequent in samples of M. acerata. Molluscs were present in M. acerata and R. antarctica but absent in R. racovitzae.

  6. Wiring a periscope--ocelli, retinula axons, visual neuropils and the ancestrality of sea spiders.

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    Tobias Lehmann

    Full Text Available The Pycnogonida or sea spiders are cryptic, eight-legged arthropods with four median ocelli in a 'periscope' or eye tubercle. In older attempts at reconstructing phylogeny they were Arthropoda incertae sedis, but recent molecular trees placed them as the sister group either to all other euchelicerates or even to all euarthropods. Thus, pycnogonids are among the oldest extant arthropods and hold a key position for the understanding of arthropod evolution. This has stimulated studies of new sets of characters conductive to cladistic analyses, e.g. of the chelifores and of the hox gene expression pattern. In contrast knowledge of the architecture of the visual system is cursory. A few studies have analysed the ocelli and the uncommon "pseudoinverted" retinula cells. Moreover, analyses of visual neuropils are still at the stage of Hanström's early comprehensive works. We have therefore used various techniques to analyse the visual fibre pathways and the structure of their interrelated neuropils in several species. We found that pycnogonid ocelli are innervated to first and second visual neuropils in close vicinity to an unpaired midline neuropil, i.e. possibly the arcuate body, in a way very similar to ancestral euarthropods like Euperipatoides rowelli (Onychophora and Limulus polyphemus (Xiphosura. This supports the ancestrality of pycnogonids and sheds light on what eyes in the pycnogonid ground plan might have 'looked' like. Recently it was suggested that arthropod eyes originated from simple ocelli similar to larval eyes. Hence, pycnogonid eyes would be one of the early offshoots among the wealth of more sophisticated arthropod eyes.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the spider habronattus oregonensis reveals rearranged and extremely truncated tRNAs

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    Masta, Susan E.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-01-31

    We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome of the jumping spider Habronattus oregonensis of the arachnid order Araneae (Arthropoda: Chelicerata). A number of unusual features distinguish this genome from other chelicerate and arthropod mitochondrial genomes. Most of the transfer RNA gene sequences are greatly reduced in size and cannot be folded into typical cloverleaf-shaped secondary structures. At least nine of the tRNA sequences lack the potential to form TYC arm stem pairings, and instead are inferred to have TV-replacement loops. Furthermore, sequences that could encode the 3' aminoacyl acceptor stems in at least 10 tRNAs appear to be lacking, because fully paired acceptor stems are not possible and because the downstream sequences instead encode adjacent genes. Hence, these appear to be among the smallest known tRNA genes. We postulate that an RNA editing mechanism must exist to restore the 3' aminoacyl acceptor stems in order to allow the tRNAs to function. At least seven tRN As are rearranged with respect to the chelicerate Limulus polyphemus, although the arrangement of the protein-coding genes is identical. Most mitochondrial protein-coding genes of H. oregonensis have ATN as initiation codons, as commonly found in arthropod mtDNAs, but cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 and 3 genes apparently use UUG as an initiation codon. Finally, many of the gene sequences overlap one another and are truncated. This 14,381 bp genome, the first mitochondrial genome of a spider yet sequenced, is one of the smallest arthropod mitochondrial genomes known. We suggest that post transcriptional RNA editing can likely maintain function of the tRNAs while permitting the accumulation of mutations that would otherwise be deleterious. Such mechanisms may have allowed for the minimization of the spider mitochondrial genome.

  8. Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: a combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, G; Distel, D L; Polz, M; Sterrer, W; Wheeler, W C

    2000-09-01

    Triploblastic relationships were examined in the light of molecular and morphological evidence. Representatives for all triploblastic "phyla" (except Loricifera) were represented by both sources of phylogenetic data. The 18S ribosomal (rDNA) sequence data for 145 terminal taxa and 276 morphological characters coded for 36 supraspecific taxa were combined in a total evidence regime to determine the most consistent picture of triploblastic relationships for these data. Only triploblastic taxa are used to avoid rooting with distant outgroups, which seems to happen because of the extreme distance that separates diploblastic from triploblastic taxa according to the 18S rDNA data. Multiple phylogenetic analyses performed with variable analysis parameters yield largely inconsistent results for certain groups such as Chaetognatha, Acoela, and Nemertodermatida. A normalized incongruence length metric is used to assay the relative merit of the multiple analyses. The combined analysis having the least character incongruence yields the following scheme of relationships of four main clades: (1) Deuterostomia [((Echinodermata + Enteropneusta) (Cephalochordata (Urochordata + Vertebrata)))]; (2) Ecdysozoa [(((Priapulida + Kinorhyncha) (Nematoda + Nematomorpha)) ((Onychophora + Tardigrada) Arthropoda))]; (3) Trochozoa [((Phoronida + Brachiopoda) (Entoprocta (Nemertea (Sipuncula (Mollusca (Pogonophora (Echiura + Annelida)))))))]; and (4) Platyzoa [((Gnathostomulida (Cycliophora + Syndermata)) (Gastrotricha + Plathelminthes))]. Chaetognatha, Nemertodermatida, and Bryozoa cannot be assigned to any one of these four groups. For the first time, a data analysis recognizes a clade of acoelomates, the Platyzoa (sensu Cavalier-Smith, Biol. Rev. 73:203-266, 1998). Other relationships that corroborate some morphological analyses are the existence of a clade that groups Gnathostomulida + Syndermata (= Gnathifera), which is expanded to include the enigmatic phylum Cycliophora, as sister group

  9. Co-evolution of SNF spliceosomal proteins with their RNA targets in trans-splicing nematodes.

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    Strange, Rex Meade; Russelburg, L Peyton; Delaney, Kimberly J

    2016-08-01

    Although the mechanism of pre-mRNA splicing has been well characterized, the evolution of spliceosomal proteins is poorly understood. The U1A/U2B″/SNF family (hereafter referred to as the SNF family) of RNA binding spliceosomal proteins participates in both the U1 and U2 small interacting nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). The highly constrained nature of this system has inhibited an analysis of co-evolutionary trends between the proteins and their RNA binding targets. Here we report accelerated sequence evolution in the SNF protein family in Phylum Nematoda, which has allowed an analysis of protein:RNA co-evolution. In a comparison of SNF genes from ecdysozoan species, we found a correlation between trans-splicing species (nematodes) and increased phylogenetic branch lengths of the SNF protein family, with respect to their sister clade Arthropoda. In particular, we found that nematodes (~70-80 % of pre-mRNAs are trans-spliced) have experienced higher rates of SNF sequence evolution than arthropods (predominantly cis-spliced) at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Interestingly, this increased evolutionary rate correlates with the reliance on trans-splicing by nematodes, which would alter the role of the SNF family of spliceosomal proteins. We mapped amino acid substitutions to functionally important regions of the SNF protein, specifically to sites that are predicted to disrupt protein:RNA and protein:protein interactions. Finally, we investigated SNF's RNA targets: the U1 and U2 snRNAs. Both are more divergent in nematodes than arthropods, suggesting the RNAs have co-evolved with SNF in order to maintain the necessarily high affinity interaction that has been characterized in other species.

  10. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wallace M; Eble, Jeffrey A; Franklin, Kimberly; McManus, Reilly B; Brantley, Sandra L; Henkel, Jeff; Marek, Paul E; Hall, W Eugene; Olson, Carl A; McInroy, Ryan; Bernal Loaiza, Emmanuel M; Brusca, Richard C; Moore, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA) assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May) and summer (September) 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon) biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1) beetles (Coleoptera), (2) spiders (Araneae), (3) grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), and (4) millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda) were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens) Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species) and 76% (254 species) of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests). Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon), significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  11. Macro- and megafauna recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic, Mediterranean Sea using different tools

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    G. D'ONGHIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and megafauna were recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea during an oceanographic cruise carried out in May-June 2012 and an experimental fishing survey conducted in November 2013. During the former, a total of 20 benthic samples were taken using a Van Veen grab at depths between 268 and 770 m and 4 deployments of a baited lander, for about 43 hours of video records, were carried out at depths between 443 and 788 m. During the latter, 8 longline fishing operations were conducted from 338 down to 612 m. Eighty-five living benthic and benthopelagic species were recorded: 29 Porifera, 1 Cnidaria, 2 Mollusca, 11 Annelida, 1 Arthropoda, 19 Bryozoa, 3 Echinodermata and 19 Chordata. A total of 51 species are new records for the Bari Canyon, 29 new records for the Adriatic Sea. Among the Porifera Cerbaris curvispiculifer is a new addition for the Italian Sponge Fauna. The first certain record of living specimens for the bryozoan Crisia tenella longinodata is reported. A total of 6 Mediterranean endemic species have been identified: 4 Porifera and 2 Annelida. The bathymetric range of some species has been extended. New information acquired for deep sea species confirms their importance in the structure of cold-water coral communities. This study has updated the knowledge on the biodiversity of the Adriatic Sea, as well as of the Bari Canyon in particular, one of the sites designated as “jewels of the Mediterranean” for which urgent conservation measures are needed.

  12. Cloning and Functional Analysis of Histones H3 and H4 in Nuclear Shaping during Spermatogenesis of the Chinese Mitten Crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

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    Jiang-Li Wu

    Full Text Available During spermatogenesis in most animals, the basic proteins associated with DNA are continuously changing and somatic-typed histones are partly replaced by sperm-specific histones, which are then successively replaced by transition proteins and protamines. With the replacement of sperm nuclear basic proteins, nuclei progressively undergo chromatin condensation. The Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis is also known as the hairy crab or river crab (phylum Arthropoda, subphylum Crustacea, order Decapoda, and family Grapsidae. The spermatozoa of this species are aflagellate, and each has a spherical acrosome surrounded by a cup-shaped nucleus, peculiar to brachyurans. An interesting characteristic of the E. sinensis sperm nucleus is its lack of electron-dense chromatin. However, its formation is not clear. In this study, sequences encoding histones H3 and H4 were cloned by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Western blotting indicated that H3 and H4 existed in the sperm nuclei. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry demonstrated that histones H3 and H4 were both present in the nuclei of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and mature spermatozoa. The nuclear labeling density of histone H4 decreased in sperm nuclei, while histone H3 labeling was not changed significantly. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of histones H3 and H4 were higher at mitotic and meiotic stages than in later spermiogenesis. Our study demonstrates that the mature sperm nuclei of E. sinensis contain histones H3 and H4. This is the first report that the mature sperm nucleus of E. sinensis contains histones H3 and H4. This finding extends the study of sperm histones of E. sinensis and provides some basic data for exploring how decapod crustaceans form uncondensed sperm chromatin.

  13. Effects of submarine power transmission cables on a glass sponge reef and associated megafaunal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, A; Pegg, J R; Carolsfeld, W; Davies, S; Murfitt, I; Boutillier, J

    2015-06-01

    We examined the effects of submarine power transmission cable installation and operation on glass sponge reef condition and associated megafauna. Video and still imagery were collected using a Remotely Operated Vehicle twice a year for 4 years following cable installation. The effects of cables on glass sponges were assessed by comparing sponge cover along fixed transects and at marked index sites. Megafauna counts along transects were used to explore the effects on associated community. We found no evidence of cable movement across the sponge reef surface. Live sponge cover was found to be consistently lower along cable transects and at cable index sites compared to controls. Live sponge cover was the lowest (55 ± 1.1% decrease) at cable index sites 1.5 years after installation and recovered to 85 ± 30.6% of the original size over the following 2 years. Our data suggest 100% glass sponge mortality along the direct cable footprint and 15% mortality in the surrounding 1.5 m corridor 3.5 years after cable installation. Growth rate of a new glass sponge was 1 and 3 cm/year in first and second year, respectively, and appeared to be seasonal. We observed a diverse megafaunal community with representatives from 7 phyla and 14 classes. Total megafauna, spot prawn, and other Arthropoda abundances were slightly lower along cable transects although the effect of cable presence was not statistically significant. The following measures could be taken to reduce the amount of damage to glass sponge reefs and associated fauna: routing the cable around reefs, whenever possible, minimizing cable movement across the surface of the reef at installation and routine operation, and assessing potential damage to glass sponges prior to decommissioning. PMID:25884466

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Pauropus longiramus (Myriapoda: Pauropoda): implications on early diversification of the myriapods revealed from comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Sun, Hongying; Guo, Hua; Pan, Da; Qian, Changyuan; Hao, Sijing; Zhou, Kaiya

    2012-08-15

    Myriapods are among the earliest arthropods and may have evolved to become part of the terrestrial biota more than 400 million years ago. A noticeable lack of mitochondrial genome data from Pauropoda hampers phylogenetic and evolutionary studies within the subphylum Myriapoda. We sequenced the first complete mitochondrial genome of a microscopic pauropod, Pauropus longiramus (Arthropoda: Myriapoda), and conducted comprehensive mitogenomic analyses across the Myriapoda. The pauropod mitochondrial genome is a circular molecule of 14,487 bp long and contains the entire set of thirty-seven genes. Frequent intergenic overlaps occurred between adjacent tRNAs, and between tRNA and protein-coding genes. This is the first example of a mitochondrial genome with multiple intergenic overlaps and reveals a strategy for arthropods to effectively compact the mitochondrial genome by overlapping and truncating tRNA genes with neighbor genes, instead of only truncating tRNAs. Phylogenetic analyses based on protein-coding genes provide strong evidence that the sister group of Pauropoda is Symphyla. Additionally, approximately unbiased (AU) tests strongly support the Progoneata and confirm the basal position of Chilopoda in Myriapoda. This study provides an estimation of myriapod origins around 555 Ma (95% CI: 444-704 Ma) and this date is comparable with that of the Cambrian explosion and candidate myriapod-like fossils. A new time-scale suggests that deep radiations during early myriapod diversification occurred at least three times, not once as previously proposed. A Carboniferous origin of pauropods is congruent with the idea that these taxa are derived, rather than basal, progoneatans. PMID:22659693

  15. Functional assays and metagenomic analyses reveals differences between the microbial communities inhabiting the soil horizons of a Norway spruce plantation.

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    Stéphane Uroz

    Full Text Available In temperate ecosystems, acidic forest soils are among the most nutrient-poor terrestrial environments. In this context, the long-term differentiation of the forest soils into horizons may impact the assembly and the functions of the soil microbial communities. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the ecology and functional potentials of these microbial communities, a suite of analyses including comparative metagenomics was applied on independent soil samples from a spruce plantation (Breuil-Chenue, France. The objectives were to assess whether the decreasing nutrient bioavailability and pH variations that naturally occurs between the organic and mineral horizons affects the soil microbial functional biodiversity. The 14 Gbp of pyrosequencing and Illumina sequences generated in this study revealed complex microbial communities dominated by bacteria. Detailed analyses showed that the organic soil horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Bacteria, Chordata, Arthropoda and Ascomycota. On the contrary the mineral horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Archaea. Our analyses also highlighted that the microbial communities inhabiting the two soil horizons differed significantly in their functional potentials according to functional assays and MG-RAST analyses, suggesting a functional specialisation of these microbial communities. Consistent with this specialisation, our shotgun metagenomic approach revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of sequences related glycoside hydrolases in the organic horizon compared to the mineral horizon that was significantly enriched in glycoside transferases. This functional stratification according to the soil horizon was also confirmed by a significant correlation between the functional assays performed in this study and the functional metagenomic analyses. Together, our results suggest that the soil stratification and particularly the soil resource

  16. Post larval, short-term, colonization patterns: The effect of substratum complexity across subtidal, adjacent, habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sanz, Sara; Tuya, Fernando; Navarro, Pablo G.; Angulo-Preckler, Carlos; Haroun, Ricardo J.

    2012-10-01

    Benthic habitats are colonized by organisms from the water column and adjacent habitats. There are, however, variations in the 'acceptability' of any habitat to potential colonists. We assessed whether the structural complexity of artificial substrata affected patterns of short-term colonization of post larval faunal assemblages across subtidal habitats within a coastal landscape. Specifically, we tested whether short-term colonization patterns on 3 types of artificial substrata encompassing a range of complexities, including a leaf-like unit, a cushion-shaped leaf-like unit and a cushion-shaped unit, were consistent across 4 adjacent habitats: macroalgal-dominated bottoms, urchin-grazed barrens, seagrass meadows and sandy patches, at Gran Canaria (eastern Atlantic). A total of 16,174 organisms were collected after 4 weeks and 4 taxonomic groups (Crustacea, Chordata, Echinodermata and Mollusca) dominated the assemblage. Despite considerable among-taxa variability being observed in response to habitat effects, the total abundance of colonizers, as well as the abundance of Arthropoda, Chordata and Echinodermata, was affected by the habitat where collectors were deployed, but did not differ among types of collectors. Similarly, the assemblage structure of colonizers was mainly affected by the habitat, but not by the type of collector; habitat contributed to explain most variation in the assemblage structure of the four dominant taxonomic groups (from ca. 5.44-19.23%), and obscured, in all cases, variation explained by the type of collector. As a result, the variation in short-term colonization patterns of faunal assemblages into artificial collectors was mostly affected by variation associated with habitats rather than by differences in the structural complexity of collectors. The largest abundances of colonizers, particularly Echinodermata, were found on sandy patches relative to other habitats, suggesting that the 'availability', rather than any particular attribute

  17. Molecular cloning of hsf1 and hsbp1 cDNAs, and the expression of hsf1, hsbp1 and hsp70 under heat stress in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongxue; Sun, Lina; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2016-08-01

    The heat shock response (HSR) is known for the elevated synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) under heat stress, which is mediated primarily by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). Heat shock factor binding protein 1 (HSBP1) and feedback control of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) are major regulators of the activity of HSF1. We obtained full-length cDNA of genes hsf1 and hsbp1 in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, which are the second available for echinoderm (after Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), and the first available for holothurian. The full-length cDNA of hsf1 was 2208bp, containing a 1326bp open reading frame encoding 441 amino acids. The full-length cDNA of hsbp1 was 2850bp, containing a 225bp open reading frame encoding 74 amino acids. The similarities of A. japonicus HSF1 with other species are low, and much higher similarity identities of A. japonicus HSBP1 were shared. Phylogenetic trees showed that A. japonicus HSF1 and HSBP1 were clustered with sequences from S. purpuratus, and fell into distinct clades with sequences from mollusca, arthropoda and vertebrata. Analysis by real-time PCR showed hsf1 and hsbp1 mRNA was expressed constitutively in all tissues examined. The expression of hsf1, hsbp1 and hsp70 in the intestine at 26°C was time-dependent. The results of this study might provide new insights into the regulation of heat shock response in this species. PMID:26952354

  18. Inter-annual variation (1991-1993) of the substratum-leaf colonization dynamics for aquatic fauna in different habitats of the lake of the hydroelectric of Balbina, Amazon Central, Brazil; Variacao interanual (1991-1993) da dinamica de colonizacao de substrato-folha por fauna aquatica, em diferentes habitats do lago da Hidreletrica de Balbina, Amazonia Central, Amazonas- Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela-Pena, Gladys

    1996-07-01

    Experiments on fauna colonization of submersed vegetal substrate in different depths of water column were done to evaluate the benthic community structure in three habitats of the Balbina hydroelectric dam in 1991, 1992 and 1993. In these experiments substrate exposition periods of up to 60 and 75 days were done. The fauna associated to the standard substrate (Mabea caudata) belonged to seven phyla: Arthropoda, Coelenterata, Nematoda, Bryozoa, Annelida, Mollusca an Chordata. The most abundant and frequent families, during the studied period, were Naididae (Tubificida), Chydoridae (Cladocera) and Cenestheridae (Conchostraca), suggesting the persistence of these groups. In general, the pattern of colonization indicates some tendency to increase gradually with time of exposition of the substrate in the environment. Probably, the discontinuity of the tendencies is associated with the insects mobility and emergence. The initial colonization always was higher and quicker in the margin habitat, which indicates that the source of organisms is this habitat. This is due to better conditions of the environment such as availability of food and protection, associated with the submerged vegetation and wood. The community mean density during this study was 7, 312 ind/m{sup 2}. The density, the species richness index, and the diversity were correlated with abiotic variables such as pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, habitat and depth. Also, the density was correlated with total carbon and ammonium. Species richness was correlated with total carbon, ammonium and water color. The density, diversity and species richness were proportionally inverse to depth of the habitats and total absence of organisms ago 10 meter of depth, different from what is found in bottom of natural environments. This fact was attributed to the high concentration of nutrients, such as ammonium and dissolved iron, to the existence of toxic gases such a sulphide, and to the conditions of hypoxia in the deep

  19. Study on Phylogenesis of Orthoptera Inferred from MtDNA%基于线粒体基因对直翅目昆虫系统发育学的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马婷婷; 陈光

    2011-01-01

    简要概述了线粒体基因组的结构和特点,同时基于线粒体基因组中的13个蛋白编码基因,选螳螂目、蜚蠊目、等翅目及螳脩目的5个种为外群,对直翅目34个种进行系统发育学研究.结果表明直翅目与外群分开,形成单系群.直翅目内部形成螽亚目与蝗亚目2个单系群.在螽亚目内部形成螽次亚目与蟀次亚目2个分支,且驼螽总科与螽斯总科形成姐妹群,但蚁蟋科与蝼蛄科形成1支,并不支持蟋蟀总科的单系性.在蝗亚目内部形成(蚤蝼总科+(牛蝗总科+(锥头蝗总科+蝗总科)))的系统进化关系.%The Orthoptera, belonging to the Arthropoda, is one of the largest orders among the Insecta. Mitochondrial DNA has been widely used in insect phylogenetic studies and proved to be an efficient maker in this field. This paper introduces the structure and characters of the mitochondrial genome. The phylogenetic relationships of 34 species from Orthoptera and 5 outgroup species (Mantodea, Blattaria, Isoptera, and Mantophasmatodea) were performed based on the 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes. The monophyly of the Orthoptera is strongly supported, with its two suborders, Caelifera and Ensifera, being recovered as monophyletic respectively. Within Ensifera, it is subdivided into Grylloidea and Tet-tigonioidea. The superfamily of Rhaphidophoridae is a sister group to Tettigoniidae. The monophyly of Grylloidea is not recovered because Myrmecophilidae and Gryllotalpidae cluster together. The system evolution relationship of the superfamilies within Caelifera is formed (Tridactyloidea + ( Pneumoridea + (Pyr-gomorphoidea + Acridoidea) ) ) .

  20. Sampling Daphnia's expressed genes: preservation, expansion and invention of crustacean genes with reference to insect genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Darren J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional and comparative studies of insect genomes have shed light on the complement of genes, which in part, account for shared morphologies, developmental programs and life-histories. Contrasting the gene inventories of insects to those of the nematodes provides insight into the genomic changes responsible for their diversification. However, nematodes have weak relationships to insects, as each belongs to separate animal phyla. A better outgroup to distinguish lineage specific novelties would include other members of Arthropoda. For example, crustaceans are close allies to the insects (together forming Pancrustacea and their fascinating aquatic lifestyle provides an important comparison for understanding the genetic basis of adaptations to life on land versus life in water. Results This study reports on the first characterization of cDNA libraries and sequences for the model crustacean Daphnia pulex. We analyzed 1,546 ESTs of which 1,414 represent approximately 787 nuclear genes, by measuring their sequence similarities with insect and nematode proteomes. The provisional annotation of genes is supported by expression data from microarray studies described in companion papers. Loci expected to be shared between crustaceans and insects because of their mutual biological features are identified, including genes for reproduction, regulation and cellular processes. We identify genes that are likely derived within Pancrustacea or lost within the nematodes. Moreover, lineage specific gene family expansions are identified, which suggest certain biological demands associated with their ecological setting. In particular, up to seven distinct ferritin loci are found in Daphnia compared to three in most insects. Finally, a substantial fraction of the sampled gene transcripts shares no sequence similarity with those from other arthropods. Genes functioning during development and reproduction are comparatively well conserved between

  1. Fauna epigeica em sistemas de produção de Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sandra Drescher

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O Rio Grande do Sul detém grande relevância na produção de tabaco. Adotam-se três sistemas de manejo: convencional, mínimo e plantio direto. Para analisar o impacto desses sistemas sobre a população da fauna do solo, efetuou-se uma amostragem da fauna epigeica. Foram avaliados preparo convencional (PC, cultivo mínimo (CM e plantio direto (PD, além de área de reconversão da fumicultura para a vitivinicultura (RV e de mata nativa (MN. Na amostragem, foram utilizadas dez armadilhas Provid em cada área. Os atributos avaliados foram: abundância de organismos, riqueza, índice de diversidade (H' e equitabilidade de Shannon (J. Collembola (Arthropoda: Hexapoda foi identificada até o nível de família, devido à sua sensibilidade às modificações do ambiente. Efetuaram-se a análise multivariada de Agrupamento Hierárquico e a Análise de Componentes Principais, e os índices H' e J foram comparados pelo teste t, de Student. O PD apresentou maior número total de organismos, isolando-se das demais áreas pela análise de agrupamento hierárquico. Os valores de riqueza foram muito semelhantes entre as áreas, destacando-se a aproximação entre RV e MN. Os tratamentos PC, PD e RV não diferiram estatisticamente quanto ao H', apresentando valores de 1,58; 1,60; e 1,52, respectivamente. CM apresentou menor valor de H' (1,18 e MN, o valor intermediário (1,33. O comportamento estatístico de J foi muito semelhante ao encontrado em H'. Em relação à Classe Collembola, foram identificadas as famílias Entomobrydae, Sminthuridae, Poduridae e Hipogasturidae. PD apresentou exemplares das quatro famílias identificadas, enquanto nas demais áreas foram identificadas apenas Entomobrydae e Sminthuridae. Pela Análise de Componentes Principais (PCA, as diferenças entre as áreas explicaram 32 % da variabilidade encontrada; desse percentual, 59,3 % foram explicados pelos eixos 1 e 2. A presença ou ausência de revolvimento do solo e a rota

  2. Community characteristics of macrobenthos in the Huanghe (Yellow River) Estuary during water and sediment discharge regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Zhonghua; LI Fan; WEI Jiali; LI Shaowen; LV Zhenbo; GAO Yanjie; CONG Xuri

    2016-01-01

    The community characteristics of macrobenthos in the Huanghe (Yellow River) Estuary is influenced by a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors. Here, we investigated short-term changes (1-month) in macrobenthic community structure in response to water and sediment discharge regulation (WSDR) in 2011. Specifically, we sampled the macrobenthos at 18 sampling stations situated at four distances (5, 10, 20, and 40 km) from the mouth of the Huanghe Estuary before (mid-June), during (early-July), and after (mid-July) WSDR. The results showed that a total of 73, 72, and 85 species were collected before, during, and after WSDR, respectively. Then, 13, 1, and 16 dominant species were detected at this three periods. Four phyla were primarily detected at all three periods (Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, and Echinodermata). However, while Mollusca and Annelida were the most important phyla in our study, Echinodermata and Annelida were the most important phyla in 1982, demonstrating major changes to community structure over a 3-decadal period. All stations were of high quality BOPA index before WSDR, whereas two and three stations were of reduced quality BOPA index during and after WSDR, respectively. The results of ABC curves showed that had incurred disturbed conditions after human activities WSDR. Most important of all, multivariate analyses and RDA analysis indicated that the structure of the macrobenthic community was closely linked to environment factors, including that organic content factor caused the distribution of macrobenthic community mostly during WSDR, while water depth after WSDR affected the macro benthos community structure seriously, and during WSDR, the environment factor influencing it was not single, including organic content, sulfide content, Hg and As. These differences may have been due to changes in water transparency negatively impacting the growth and development of macrobenthos, due to specific life-history requirements. Our results

  3. Comparative analysis of the tardigrade feeding apparatus: adaptive convergence and evolutionary pattern of the piercing stylet system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Guidetti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A thorough analysis of the cuticular parts of tardigrade feeding apparatuses was performed in order to provide a more complete understanding of their evolution and their potential homologies with other animal phyla (e.g. Cycloneuralia and Arthropoda. The buccal- pharyngeal apparatuses of eight species belonging to both Eutardigrada and Heterotardigrada were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. This study supports and completes a previous study on the relationships between form and function in the buccalpharyngeal apparatus of eutardigrades. The common sclerified structures of the tardigrade buccal-pharyngeal apparatus are: a buccal ring connected to a straight buccal tube, a buccal crown, longitudinal thickenings within the pharynx, and a stylet system composed of piercing stylets within stylet coats, and stylet supports. Specifically, heterotardigrades (Echiniscoidea have a narrow buccal tube; long piercing stylets, each with a longitudinal groove, that cross one another before exiting the mouth; pharyngeal bars and secondary longitudinal thickenings within the pharynx. In contrast, eutardigrades have stylets which are shorter than the buccal tube; Parachela have pharyngeal apophyses and placoids within the pharynx, while Apochela lack a buccal crown and cuticular thickenings within the pharynx, the buccal tube is very wide, and the short stylets are associated with triangular-shaped stylet supports. In both classes, when the piercing stylet tips emerge from the mouth to pierce food, the buccal tube opening is almost completely obstructed, which may hinder food uptake. In heterotardigrades, the crossing of the piercing stylets may further decrease food uptake, however this disadvantage may have been reduced in echiniscids by the evolution of a long buccal tube and long stylets able to run more parallel to the buccal tube. In contrast, eutardigrades evolved different strategies. In the order Apochela and in several

  4. Handling and Use of Oxygen by Pancrustaceans: Conserved Patterns and the Evolution of Respiratory Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jon F

    2015-11-01

    accepted phylogenies, invaginations of cuticle to form lungs or tracheae occurred independently multiple times across the Arthropoda and Pancrustacea in association with the evolution of terrestriality. However, the timing and number of such events in the evolution of tracheal systems remain controversial. Despite molecular phylogenies that place the origin of the hexapods before the appearance of land plants in the Ordovician, terrestrial fossils of Collembola, Archaeognatha, and Zygentoma in the Silurian and Devonian, and the lack of fossil evidence for older aquatic hexapods, suggest that the tracheated hexapods likely evolved from Remipedia-like ancestors on land.

  5. Avaliação da comunidade de macroinvertebrados aquáticos como ferramenta para o monitoramento de um reservatório na bacia do rio Pitangui, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana F Barbola

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Os macroinvertebrados bentônicos e nectônicos representam elementos importantes na estrutura e funcionamento dos ecossistemas aquáticos e sua distribuição é influenciada pela natureza química do substrato, composição da vegetação e profundidade da lâmina d'água. O conhecimento desta fauna contribui para a avaliação da qualidade da água e a elaboração de ações visando à conservação da biodiversidade. No presente estudo foram avaliadas diferentes medidas bióticas da comunidade de invertebrados da represa de Alagados, importante manancial da cidade de Ponta Grossa, no Paraná. Em cinco diferentes pontos de amostragem, foram coletados 18.473 exemplares de macroinvertebrados aquáticos ou semi-aquáticos, pertencentes a 46 táxons dos filos Annelida (Hirudinea e Oligochaeta, Mollusca (Gastropoda, Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria, Nematoda e Arthropoda (Arachnida, Crustacea e Insecta. Esta comunidade foi constituída predominantemente por organismos predadores (45,7% dos táxons amostrados, seguidos de coletores e/ou filtradores (23,9%; raspadores (15,2%, fragmentadores (13% e detritívoros (2,2%. De modo geral, os índices de diversidade (H' e equitabilidade (J foram significativamente baixos para os cinco locais investigados, com H' variando de 0,3301 a 1,0396. Quanto à tolerância dos organismos à poluição orgânica, alguns táxons mais sensíveis foram muito raros (Plecoptera ou em baixa frequência (Trichoptera e Ephemeroptera. Entre os grupos mais resistentes a ambientes poluídos estão os Chironomidae e os Hirudinea, ambos bastante comuns nas amostras de Alagados. Este estudo reforça a importância da análise de bioindicadores na avaliação da qualidade de água para consumo humano e também para a conservação de ecossistemas, considerando que um programa de monitoramento ambiental deve integrar medidas físicas, químicas e biológicas.

  6. Characteristics of Karst Ecosystems of Vietnam and Their Vulnerability to Human Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Karst in Vietnam covers an area of about 60,000 km2, i.e. 18 % of the surface of the country. The country has an annual average temperature of 24 ℃, an annual average rainfall of 2300 mm and a relative humidity of about 90%. Karst in Vietnam is typified by peak cluster-depression landscapes ranging in elevation from 200 to over 2000 m. Tower and coastal karst landscapes also exit. Because of naturally favourable conditions, karst ecosystems are diverse and very rich.Higher plants (cormophytes) are abundant. They are represented by approximately 2000 species, 908 genera, 224 families,86 orders and 7 phyla. They form a thick vegetation cover of evergreen tropical rainforest. Knowledge about lower plants is limited. The fauna is rich and diverse. Phyla such as Protozoa, Vermes, Mollusca and Arthropoda are yet ill known.Preliminary results show that the phylum Chordata is represented by 541 species from 80 families, 40 orders and 5 classes.There exist many precious and rare mammals, in particular some endemic species such as Trachypithecuspoliocephalus, T.delacouri, Rhinopithecus avanculus, Rhinolophus rouxi, Seotoma dineties and Silurus cuephuongensis. The class Insecta has about 2000 species.``The fast population growth, particularly in the mountainous areas of the country, triggers an increasing demand for land and therefore threatens the ecosystem. To obtain land for farming, people have cut, burned and destroyed natural forest cover; resulting in occurrence of hazards such as soil-loss, water-loss, flash floods, mud-rock flows, rock-falls, severe drought, water logging and changes of karstic aquifers etc. Poaching precious animals and illegal logging are increasing. In contrast to other natural systems, karst ecosystems cannot be reestablished once damaged. Living karst landscapes will become rocky desert ones without life. Conservation of karstic environmental systems in general and karstic ecosystems in particular should not be the sole vocation of scientists

  7. A P2X receptor from the tardigrade species Hypsibius dujardini with fast kinetics and sensitivity to zinc and copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaxter Mark L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthologs of the vertebrate ATP gated P2X channels have been identified in Dictyostelium and green algae, demonstrating that the emergence of ionotropic purinergic signalling was an early event in eukaryotic evolution. However, the genomes of a number of animals including Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, both members of the Ecdysozoa superphylum, lack P2X-like proteins, whilst other species such as the flatworm Schistosoma mansoni have P2X proteins making it unclear as to what stages in evolution P2X receptors were lost. Here we describe the functional characterisation of a P2X receptor (HdP2X from the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini demonstrating that purinergic signalling is preserved in some ecdysozoa. Results ATP (EC50 ~44.5 μM evoked transient inward currents in HdP2X with millisecond rates of activation and desensitisation. HdP2X is antagonised by pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4' disulfonic acid (IC50 15.0 μM and suramin (IC50 22.6 μM and zinc and copper inhibit ATP-evoked currents with IC50 values of 62.8 μM and 19.9 μM respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that unlike vertebrate P2X receptors, extracellular histidines do not play a major role in coordinating metal binding in HdP2X. However, H306 was identified as playing a minor role in the actions of copper but not zinc. Ivermectin potentiated responses to ATP with no effect on the rates of current activation or decay. Conclusion The presence of a P2X receptor in a tardigrade species suggests that both nematodes and arthropods lost their P2X genes independently, as both traditional and molecular phylogenies place the divergence between Nematoda and Arthropoda before their divergence from Tardigrada. The phylogenetic analysis performed in our study also clearly demonstrates that the emergence of the family of seven P2X channels in human and other mammalian species was a relatively recent evolutionary event that occurred subsequent

  8. Evolutionary conserved microRNAs are ubiquitously expressed compared to tick-specific miRNAs in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tateno Yoshio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that act as regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes modulating a large diversity of biological processes. The discovery of miRNAs has provided new opportunities to understand the biology of a number of species. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, causes significant economic losses in cattle production worldwide and this drives us to further understand their biology so that effective control measures can be developed. To be able to provide new insights into the biology of cattle ticks and to expand the repertoire of tick miRNAs we utilized Illumina technology to sequence the small RNA transcriptomes derived from various life stages and selected organs of R. microplus. Results To discover and profile cattle tick miRNAs we employed two complementary approaches, one aiming to find evolutionary conserved miRNAs and another focused on the discovery of novel cattle-tick specific miRNAs. We found 51 evolutionary conserved R. microplus miRNA loci, with 36 of these previously found in the tick Ixodes scapularis. The majority of the R. microplus miRNAs are perfectly conserved throughout evolution with 11, 5 and 15 of these conserved since the Nephrozoan (640 MYA, Protostomian (620MYA and Arthropoda (540 MYA ancestor, respectively. We then employed a de novo computational screening for novel tick miRNAs using the draft genome of I. scapularis and genomic contigs of R. microplus as templates. This identified 36 novel R. microplus miRNA loci of which 12 were conserved in I. scapularis. Overall we found 87 R. microplus miRNA loci, of these 15 showed the expression of both miRNA and miRNA* sequences. R. microplus miRNAs showed a variety of expression profiles, with the evolutionary-conserved miRNAs mainly expressed in all life stages at various levels, while the expression of novel tick-specific miRNAs was mostly limited to particular life stages and/or tick organs. Conclusions

  9. Toxicity of Nitrate-N to Freshwater Aquatic Life and Its Water Quality Criteria%硝酸盐对淡水水生生物毒性及水质基准推导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铃松; 王业耀; 孟凡生; 周岳溪; 于海斌

    2013-01-01

    为推导保护淡水水生生物的NO3-水质基准,收集了NO3-的水生生物毒性数据,然后分析了不同水生生物类群的毒性敏感性,并分别采用评价因子法、毒性百分数排序法和物种敏感度分布法进行基准值推导.结果表明,不同生物类群的水生生物对NO3-毒性的敏感性存在明显差异,其敏感性排序为节肢动物门>软体动物门>脊索动物门;甲壳纲>昆虫纲>腹足纲>双壳>两栖纲>辐鳍纲.3种基准计算方法得到的基准值存在一定差异,最终推荐采用毒性百分数排序法得出的87.97mg·L-1和5.17 mg·L-1为现阶段NO3-(以N计)的水质急性毒性和慢性毒性基准值.%The toxicity sensitivity of different freshwater aquatic organisms was analyzed using the collected toxicity data in this paper.Three methods were used to estimate the criteria of nitrate to protect the freshwater aquatic life.The results showed that the species sensitivity to nitrate followed the order of Arthropoda > Mollusca > Chordata,and Crustacea > Insecta > Gastropoda > Bivalvia >Amphibia > Actinopterygii.Moreover,the output of assessment factor method,species sensitivity distribution method and USEPA's method was significantly different.Finally,criterias of 87.97 mg·L-1 and 5.17 mg· L-1 to protect aquatic life from acute and chronic toxicity were proposed using USEPA's method.

  10. A “Rosetta Stone” for metazoan zooplankton: DNA barcode analysis of species diversity of the Sargasso Sea (Northwest Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucklin, Ann; Ortman, Brian D.; Jennings, Robert M.; Nigro, Lisa M.; Sweetman, Christopher J.; Copley, Nancy J.; Sutton, Tracey; Wiebe, Peter H.

    2010-12-01

    Species diversity of the metazoan holozooplankton assemblage of the Sargasso Sea, Northwest Atlantic Ocean, was examined through coordinated morphological taxonomic identification of species and DNA sequencing of a ˜650 base-pair region of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) as a DNA barcode (i.e., short sequence for species recognition and discrimination). Zooplankton collections were made from the surface to 5,000 meters during April, 2006 on the R/V R.H. Brown. Samples were examined by a ship-board team of morphological taxonomists; DNA barcoding was carried out in both ship-board and land-based DNA sequencing laboratories. DNA barcodes were determined for a total of 297 individuals of 175 holozooplankton species in four phyla, including: Cnidaria (Hydromedusae, 4 species; Siphonophora, 47); Arthropoda (Amphipoda, 10; Copepoda, 34; Decapoda, 9; Euphausiacea, 10; Mysidacea, 1; Ostracoda, 27); and Mollusca (Cephalopoda, 8; Heteropoda, 6; Pteropoda, 15); and Chaetognatha (4). Thirty species of fish (Teleostei) were also barcoded. For all seven zooplankton groups for which sufficient data were available, Kimura-2-Parameter genetic distances were significantly lower between individuals of the same species (mean=0.0114; S.D. 0.0117) than between individuals of different species within the same group (mean=0.3166; S.D. 0.0378). This difference, known as the barcode gap, ensures that mtCOI sequences are reliable characters for species identification for the oceanic holozooplankton assemblage. In addition, DNA barcodes allow recognition of new or undescribed species, reveal cryptic species within known taxa, and inform phylogeographic and population genetic studies of geographic variation. The growing database of "gold standard" DNA barcodes serves as a Rosetta Stone for marine zooplankton, providing the key for decoding species diversity by linking species names, morphology, and DNA sequence variation. In light of the pivotal position of zooplankton in ocean

  11. Distantly related lipocalins share two conserved clusters of hydrophobic residues: use in homology modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasseur Robert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipocalins are widely distributed in nature and are found in bacteria, plants, arthropoda and vertebra. In hematophagous arthropods, they are implicated in the successful accomplishment of the blood meal, interfering with platelet aggregation, blood coagulation and inflammation and in the transmission of disease parasites such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Borrelia burgdorferi. The pairwise sequence identity is low among this family, often below 30%, despite a well conserved tertiary structure. Under the 30% identity threshold, alignment methods do not correctly assign and align proteins. The only safe way to assign a sequence to that family is by experimental determination. However, these procedures are long and costly and cannot always be applied. A way to circumvent the experimental approach is sequence and structure analyze. To further help in that task, the residues implicated in the stabilisation of the lipocalin fold were determined. This was done by analyzing the conserved interactions for ten lipocalins having a maximum pairwise identity of 28% and various functions. Results It was determined that two hydrophobic clusters of residues are conserved by analysing the ten lipocalin structures and sequences. One cluster is internal to the barrel, involving all strands and the 310 helix. The other is external, involving four strands and the helix lying parallel to the barrel surface. These clusters are also present in RaHBP2, a unusual "outlier" lipocalin from tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. This information was used to assess assignment of LIR2 a protein from Ixodes ricinus and to build a 3D model that helps to predict function. FTIR data support the lipocalin fold for this protein. Conclusion By sequence and structural analyzes, two conserved clusters of hydrophobic residues in interactions have been identified in lipocalins. Since the residues implicated are not conserved for function, they should provide the minimal

  12. RICKETTSIAL DISEASES: RISK FOR INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen L. Richards

    2012-09-01

    dan penyakit yang menyerupai Rickettsia, serta monositik dan granulositik ehrlichiosis pada manusia, menunjukkan hasil yang baik. Ehrlichiosis pada manusia merupakan penyakit baru yang tidak diketahui penyebarannya di seluruh dunia, sangat mungkin ditularkan oleh "tick". Walaupun umumnya dapat sembuh sendiri, angka kematian ehrlichiosis dilaporkan mencapai 2-10%. Sebagian besar penyakit rickettsia dan penyakit yang menyerupai rickettsia tersebut di atas belum dikaji secara intensif di Asia Tenggara. Walaupun masih terbatas, di Indonesia sudah dilakukan penelitian-penelitian tentang "scrub typhus" dan "murine typhus." Sedangkan penyakit-penyakit yang ada hubungan dengan kutu penyebar Rickettsia seperti "tick typhus" atau "spottedfever", "trench fever", bartonellosis, "Q fever", dan ehrlichiosis masih terabaikan di Indonesia. Tinjauan ini bertujuan untuk memperkenalkan hasil-hasil penelitian tentang penyakit-penyakit rickettsia di Indonesia, dan memperlihatkan berberapa penyakit yang penyebarannya sekarang telah diketahui disebabkan oleh arthropoda.

  13. STUDI DAMPAK PERKEMBANGAN PEMBENIHAN IKAN LAUT TERHADAP PENURUNAN KUALITAS LINGKUNGAN DI KECAMATAN GEROKGAK KABUPATEN BULELENG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suko Ismi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate influence of marine fish hatchery to degradation environmentalquality in Gerokgak District, measurement was done through physical, chemical and microbiologycal analysis.Thesample was taken from 17 stations well water, and 8 stations sea water with 2 stations coming from water discard marinefish hatchery of Gondol Orchard. Data analysis of wells water to campare with water quality standart category I and seawater comparing with the live for animal sea water according to Regulation of The Governor Bali No. 8 Year 2007. Seawater pollutan level was counted through index of diversity and integrated score, to know the resemblance physical andchemical caracteristic among station was analysis by cluster.Result of the research indicates that some parameters of wells water have passed standart water quality namely :Salinity, BOD5, nitrit, phospat, iron , mangan, copper, zink, cobalt, cadmium, dan bacteria coliform feces content. Clusteranalysis wells water if we classify into 3 groups namely first group station 2, 4, 5, 8 until 17, the location of wells 2, 4 and5 near for hatcheries but have resemblance caracteristic with wells far for hatcheries that is station 8-17. Second groupstation 3, 6 and 7 have location near hatcheries and third group station 1 only near hatcheries location. Nearness betweenstation on one group caused resemblace caracteristic, although different wells distance. Parameters sea water have passedstandart water quality namely : nitrat and phospat. Can be found 21 genus plankton from 6 phylum with composition 61%Bacillariophyta, 5% Cyanophyta, 10% Protozoa, 5% Ctenophora, 14% Arthropoda. Index diversity (H’ 0.078 – 1.968 itindicates about medium to high pollution, index uniformities (E 0,033 – 0,473 its means that uniformities low tomedium, index domination (C 0,167 – 0,974 it’s meaning have domination partial of plankton a low until high. Integrated score rate have value 4,63

  14. Matrotrophy and placentation in invertebrates: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Andrew N; Lidgard, Scott; Gordon, Dennis P; Schwaha, Thomas; Genikhovich, Grigory; Ereskovsky, Alexander V

    2016-08-01

    Matrotrophy, the continuous extra-vitelline supply of nutrients from the parent to the progeny during gestation, is one of the masterpieces of nature, contributing to offspring fitness and often correlated with evolutionary diversification. The most elaborate form of matrotrophy-placentotrophy-is well known for its broad occurrence among vertebrates, but the comparative distribution and structural diversity of matrotrophic expression among invertebrates is wanting. In the first comprehensive analysis of matrotrophy across the animal kingdom, we report that regardless of the degree of expression, it is established or inferred in at least 21 of 34 animal phyla, significantly exceeding previous accounts and changing the old paradigm that these phenomena are infrequent among invertebrates. In 10 phyla, matrotrophy is represented by only one or a few species, whereas in 11 it is either not uncommon or widespread and even pervasive. Among invertebrate phyla, Platyhelminthes, Arthropoda and Bryozoa dominate, with 162, 83 and 53 partly or wholly matrotrophic families, respectively. In comparison, Chordata has more than 220 families that include or consist entirely of matrotrophic species. We analysed the distribution of reproductive patterns among and within invertebrate phyla using recently published molecular phylogenies: matrotrophy has seemingly evolved at least 140 times in all major superclades: Parazoa and Eumetazoa, Radiata and Bilateria, Protostomia and Deuterostomia, Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa. In Cycliophora and some Digenea, it may have evolved twice in the same life cycle. The provisioning of developing young is associated with almost all known types of incubation chambers, with matrotrophic viviparity more widespread (20 phyla) than brooding (10 phyla). In nine phyla, both matrotrophic incubation types are present. Matrotrophy is expressed in five nutritive modes, of which histotrophy and placentotrophy are most prevalent. Oophagy, embryophagy and

  15. Macrobenthic fauna community in the Middle Songkhla Lake, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angsupanich, S.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A bimonthly investigation of macrobenthic fauna at the area from Ban Pak Khat to Ban Leam Chong Thanon in the Inner Songkhla Lake from February 1998 to February 1999 was undertaken to determine the species richness and abundance. A total of 7 phyla and 161 species were identified. Annelida (58 species, Arthropoda (64 species and Mollusca (23 species were the major phyla while Nemertea (1 species, Platyhelminthes (1 species, Cnidaria (4 species and Chordata (10 species were the minor. Fifty-seven speciesof Polychaete annelids were found. The highest species richness (14 species was in the Nereididae Family, of which Ceratonereis burmensis and Namalycastis indica were predominant. Nephtys sp. and Heteromastus sp. were not so highly abundant but appeared at almost all stations through every sampling month, while Prionospio cirrifera and Pseudopolydora kempi were found in higher densities but with narrower distribution. Ficopomatus sp. and unidentified Terebellidae were not commonly found, but occasionally reached a high density. Amphipods gave the highest species richness (22 species, with Photis longicaudata distributed widely and in all months. Five species of Tanaidaceans were found with Apseudes sapensis the second most dominant (max. 5044 individuals m-2 in February in the overall fauna. Isopoda were not as densely found as tanaidaceans but there were many species (18 species. Cyathura sp.1 was the most dominant isopod. Brachidontes arcuatulus was the most dominant bivalve (max. 29449 individuals m-2 in April, especially at stations with a sand-gravel substrate. The mean density of total macrobenthic fauna among stations ranged from 920 to 10620 ind. m-2 while the monthly densities ranged from 1520 to 6160 ind.m-2. The mean density of macrobenthic fauna was highest in the dry season (April. The species richness among stations ranged from65 to 105 species while varying from 81 to 112 species during the different months. The highest species

  16. Assessing Biodiversity:A Heavy Task%生物多样性的评估仍是一项艰巨的工作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋大祥; 周开亚

    2002-01-01

    根据现有的资料对中国和世界动物的种数作了一个初步的比较.无脊椎动物的某些门类在中国有多少种目前还不清楚,如:颚咽动物门Gnathostomula、腹毛动物门Gastrotricha、线形动物门Nematomorpha(部分)、有爪动物门Onychophora和羽鳃动物门Pterobranchia.此外,下列一些动物门类或其中的部分分类单元,在我国有关物种资源的知识也很贫乏,尚需要作进一步的深入研究,如:海绵动物门Porifera、中生动物门Metazoa、线虫动物门Nematoda、棘头动物门Acanthocephala、虫益虫动物门Echiura、须腕动物门Pogonophora、软体动物门Mollusca(部分)、腕足动物门Branchiopoda、内肛动物门Entoprocta、缓步动物门Tardigrada、五口动物门Pentastoma、节肢动物门Arthropoda(部分)和肠鳃动物门Enteropneusta.本文还对受胁动物的状况进行了讨论.无疑地,森林的破坏和动物资源的过度开发是威胁物种多样性的主要因素.此外,水的污染和富营养化使许多动物,尤其是淡水无脊椎动物面临灭绝的危险.过去数十年间,我国的动物学工作者在分类学研究和野生动物的保护方面,尤其是对珍稀种、特有种和重要的经济种的保护方面作出了巨大的努力.但是,像我国这样一个多样性大国,尚有大量的物种有待调查研究和编目.在1996年IUCN(世界自然保护联盟)出版的中,中国只有5种无脊椎动物被列为受胁物种,仅占世界受胁物种的总数(1891种)的0.26%,占美国物种总数(594种)的0.84%.实际上,全球无脊椎动物受威胁的情况同样还很不清楚,例如在该红色名录中像棘皮动物、肢口类、蛭类和涡虫类这样一些类群竟然没有列出一种是受胁的种类;像珊瑚类这样重要的类群没有列出一种灭绝种,仅仅列出2个易危种.由此,作者在文中强调指出,在物种多样性的调查、编目和红皮书的编写方面,今后的重点应放到无脊椎动

  17. Composición y abundancia de artrópodos epígeos del Parque Nacional Llanos de Challe: impactos del ENOS de 1997 y efectos del hábitat pedológico Abundance and composition of epigean arthropods from Llanos de Challe National Park: impacts of ENSO-1997 and effects of the pedological habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE CEPEDA-PIZARRO

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el uso de trampas de intercepción, se estudió el efecto de la precipitación y el tipo de hábitat sobre la denso-actividad del ensamble de artrópodos epígeos _en particular Tenebrionidae_ del Parque Nacional Llanos de Challe. Este parque está ubicado en el desierto costero transicional de Chile, en la III Región de Atacama. Los muestreos se realizaron durante tres días por mes (septiembre, octubre y diciembre en el período de máxima actividad biológica del sistema y en los años 1989 (año no-ENOS seco, 1997 (año ENOS intenso y 2000 (año no-ENOS húmedo. En las comparaciones se utilizaron dos sitios pedológicamente contrastantes: un hábitat dunario costero y un hábitat pedregoso interior. Se registró la presencia de 15 órdenes de Arthropoda. Los hexápodos constituyeron > 95 % del total de los especímenes capturados (9.065 individuos, siendo Collembola (36,1 % y Coleoptera (29,8 % los órdenes con mayor representatividad numérica. El número de órdenes con representantes activos varió ligeramente entre años: 13 órdenes se registraron en 1989 (44 % de precipitación bajo el promedio, 15 en 1997 (443 % sobre el promedio y 11 en 2000 (52 % sobre el promedio. El efecto del evento ENOS se reflejó claramente en la contribución numérica en la mayoría de los taxa registrados. Aunque más sutilmente, este efecto también se reflejó en la composición del ensamble de taxa dominantes y entre hábitat pedológicos, particularmente con Tenebrionidae y Formicidae. Especialmente en las dunas costeras, Tenebrionidae dominó claramente el ensamble de artrópodos epígeos, siendo Gyriosomus Guérin-Méneville el género más diverso y abundante. La dominancia de Gyriosomus plantea un conjunto de interrogantes respecto de su nivel de endemismo, diversidad y distribución de sus especies, y el papel funcional de estas en el ecosistema estudiadoBy using pitfall traps, the effects of rainfall and habitat type on the denso

  18. Invertebrates associated to Eichhornea azurea Kunth in a lagoon of the Upper Paraná River: composition, community attributes and influence of abiotic factors Invertebrados associados à Eichhornea azurea Kunth em uma lagoa do alto rio Paraná: composição, atributos da comunidade e influência de fatores abióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Flávia Batista-Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: We evaluated the composition and community attributes of invertebrates associated to Eichhornia azurea at Cascalho Lagoon, Upper Paraná River, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, over a hydrological cycle, as well the possible influence of abiotic factors upon these attributes. METHODS: The samplings were conducted during 2010 in the rainy and dry periods at stands of E. azurea. The attributes evaluated were abundance, richness, diversity, evenness and dominance. The abiotic factors, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and turbidity were summarized by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. In order to verify possible differences between the mean values of the community attributes and the scores of the PCA axis in different periods, we employed null models analysis of variance. The influence of abiotic factors on each attribute was evaluated through Pearson correlations. RESULTS: We captured 3,052 individuals, distributed into 32 taxa, belonging to the phyllum Mollusca, Annelida, Nematoda and Arthropoda. Among the assessed attributes, only abundance and richness varied significantly between periods, with higher values during the rainy period. Chironomidade was dominant in both periods, whereas Notonectidae and Cyclopoida were rare in the rainy, and Bivalve, Decapoda, Haliplidae, Trichoptera and Pyralidae, in the dry period. A temporal distinction was evident only for the PCA axis 1, which represented gradients in temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH. Among the community attributes, only abundance was significant and negatively correlated with this axis. CONCLUSION: We attested that: i the rainy period should add favorable conditions for invertebrates' higher richness and abundance in this macrophyte; ii only the later attribute was influenced by limnological gradients.OBJETIVO: Nós avaliamos a composição e atributos da comunidade de invertebrados associados à Eichhornia azurea na lagoa do Cascalho, alto rio Paraná, MS, Brasil, durante um

  19. Clonning and expression analysis of Chk1 gene in Daphnia pulex%蚤状溞(Daphnia pulex)Chk1基因的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方增冰; 戴新宇; 邹秀; 郭晓鸽; 徐善良; 王丹丽; 赵云龙

    2015-01-01

    The full-length cDNA of a Chk1 (DpChk1) was cloned from cladoceran Daphnia pulex using rapid amplification of comple-mentary DNA ends ( RACE) method.The DpChk1 cDNA is 1767 bp in length;and it has a 1497-bp open reading frame that encodes a 498-amino-acid polypeptide containing three conserved Ser-Gln (SQ), and Thr-Gln (TQ) sequence.In addition, DpChk1 shared homology of 51%-55% with gene in Rhipicephalus pulchellus, Megachile rotundata, Metaseiulus occidentalis, Acyrthosiphon pisum and Drosophila melanogaster.Phylogenetic analysis revealed that DpChk 1 protein has a close genetic relationship with Phylum arthropo-da such as Acyrthosiphon pisum, Megachile rotundata, Drosophila melanogaster, Rhipicephalus pulchellus, Metaseiulus occidenat lis and so on.qPCR results (real-time quantitative PCR) showed that the DpChk1 expression was significantly higher (P<0.05) in ephippial female than in parthenogenetic female and was the lowest in the resting egg .Therefore, Chk1 was closely related to the reproduction conversion of Daphnia pulex.%用RACE技术从蚤状溞( Daphnia pulex)中克隆到Chk1基因cDNA全长为1767 bp,开放阅读框为1497 bp,编码了498个氨基酸,其结构中存在3个保守的Ser-Gln ( SQ)和Thr-Gln ( TQ)序列。同源性比对结果显示,蚤状溞Chk1基因与丽色扇头蜱、切叶蜂、转基因捕食螨、豌豆长管蚜和黑腹果蝇等的同源性均为51%~55%。进化分析发现,蚤状溞Chk1基因与豌豆长管蚜、切叶蜂、黑腹果蝇、丽色扇头蜱和转基因捕食螨等节肢动物亲缘关系最近。Real Time PCR实验结果表明,Chk1 mRNA在两性溞的表达量显著高于孤雌溞( P<0.05),且在休眠卵中表达量最低。推测Chk1基因可能在蚤状溞的生殖转化调控中发挥重要作用。

  20. Research on soil faunal community composition and structure in the Gaoligong Mountains National Nature Reserve%高黎贡山自然保护区大型土壤动物群落特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖能文; 刘向辉; 戈峰; 欧阳志云

    2009-01-01

    系统调查了高黎贡山国家自然保护区土壤性质与土壤动物的种类与分布.海拔高度决定土壤的性质,土壤温度、湿度、有机质含量和磷的含量与海拔有明显的相关.在不同海拔11个样地共采集到大型土壤动物标本1万余号,分属于2个门,5纲,18目,47科,13亚科.等翅目Isoptera、膜翅目Hymenoptera和弹尾目Collembola昆虫是主要类群,随着海拔高度的增加,土壤动物数量和种类,以及Simpson指数、Shannon-Wiener指数和均匀度指数都是先增加然后减少.在海拔1500~2500 m左右数量最多,然后递减,土壤动物的分布以中山部最多而山顶部和底部较少的变化趋势.土壤动物的分布受海拔和土壤性质的影响.%The Gaoligong Mountain, as the subtropics climate, is located in the collision region between the Indian tectonic plate and the Eurasian tectonic plate. In this experiment, the soil property, fauna community type and distribution of 11 samples in Gaoligong Mountain were studied from altitude 960 m to 3188 m. The results showed that the soil property was determined by altitudinal gradient. Significant correlation was observed in soil temperature, water content, organic content and phosphorus content with altitudinal gradient (P<0.05). Two phylums(Annelida and Arthropoda), three classes (Oligochaeta, Arachnida, Diplopoda, Chilopoda, Insect), eighteen Orders, forty-seven Families and thirteen Subfamilys were included in the soil fauna. Isoptera, Hymenoptera and Collembola were dominant in these groups, and Coleoptera, Derampteraand and Diptera were common groups. A single-peak curve was appeared in the vertical distribution pattern of soil fauna. The number of the soil fauna individuals and groups, as well as the value of Simpson Index, Shannon-Wiener Index and Evenness Index gradually increased and then decreased with increase of elevation. The peak of soil fauna appeared in the areas from 1500 m to 2500 m above sea level. Soil fauna

  1. 湛江湾大型底栖动物的群落结构和多样性特征%Community Structure and Diversity of Macrobenthos in Zhanjiang Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟男; 孙省利; 李荣冠; 江锦祥; 张才学

    2013-01-01

    The situations of macrobenthos in Zhanjiang Bay have been investigated in 10 sites during May 2010, analyzing the species composition, biomass, population density and species diversity and classifying on community structure by the method of CLUSTER and MDS. A total of 112 species of 7 phyla were identified, including Annelida, Mollusca and Arthropoda, which were the dominant phyla in Zhanjiang Bay. Biomass ranged from 0.93 to 98.20 g/m2, with the highest average biomass of Mollusca. Population density ranged for 6.11 to 24.80 ind/m2, and population density of Annelida (24.08 ind/m2) was the highest, followed by Sipuncula (22.22 ind/m2). The community species of the macrobenthos in the area is relatively abundant while the diversity is poor. According to the analysis of clustering and multidimensional scaling ordination, macrobenthic animals in Zhanjiang Bay could be divided into 4 communities. Through the abundance/biomass curve analysis, macrobenthic organisms in Zhanjiang Bay was affected so seriously by environmental pollution or disturbance that the community structure was unstable. Compared with the other marine sites,the number of species, biomass and abundance of the Zhanjiang Bay were lower.%  2010年5月,在湛江湾海域设立10个站点对大型底栖生物进行调查,分析湛江湾大型底栖生物的种类组成、生物量、栖息密度和生物多样性特征,并通过聚类(CLUSTER)和MDS排序对大型底栖生物群落进行划分.结果表明,调查海域共有底栖生物共7门112种,环节动物门、软体动物门和节肢动物门为湛江湾大型底栖生物的主要类群.生物量分布范围为0.93~98.20 g·m-2,其中软体动物门的平均生物量最高值.栖息密度分布范围为6.11~24.80 ind·m-2,其中以环节动物门(24.08 ind·m-2)和星虫动物门(22.22 ind·m-2)最高.该海域大型底栖生物群落物种较为丰富,但多样性差.根据Bray-Curtis相似性系数聚类分析和多维尺度排序分析结

  2. 不同种植年限转基因抗虫棉对土壤中小型节肢动物的影响%EFFECTS OF TRANSGENIC INSECT-RESISTANT COTTON PLANTS DIFFERENT IN PLANTING AGE ON SOIL MESO- AND MICRO ARTHROPODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李孝刚; 刘标; 曹伟; 徐文华; 方志翔; 孟军; 郑央萍; 韩正敏

    2011-01-01

    2007~2008年,在分别于1999年、2002年和2006年种植CrylAc基因抗虫棉的棉田中,于棉花的苗期、营期、花铃期和吐絮期采集土壤样品,采用改良的Tullgren法收集土壤中的中小型节肢动物,以监测长期种植转基因抗虫棉对土壤节肢动物群落的影响.2年8次采样共获得12类中小型节肢动物,隶属于节肢动物门中的7纲10目,其中弹尾目、蜱螨目、蜘蛛目为本地区棉田中的优势类群,综合纲、双翅目、半翅目、双尾目、鞘翅目和同翅目为常见类群.广义线性混合模型分析结果表明,随着转基因抗虫棉种植年限的增加,各转基因抗虫棉田中的土壤主要类群中小型节肢动物的个体密度和多样性指数没有产生显著性差异,但是随着采样时期的不同各棉田土壤主要中小型节肢动物的个体密度和群落多样性指数均呈显著性季节变化.主成分分析表明,弹尾目、蜘蛛目、蜱螨目的得分值较高,可作为本地区未来转基因抗虫棉环境影响监测的重要指标生物.%In the consecutive 2-year field study (2007 ~ 2008), we took soil samples at four different cotton growth stages, namely, seedling, budding, boll forming and boll opening stages from cotton fields that had been planted with CrylAc cottons separately since 1999, 2002 and 2006, and collected soil meso- and microarthropodas in the samples with the modified Tullgren method, to monitor environmental impact of long-term cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cotton in field conditions. A total of 12 taxonomic groups of soil meso- and microarthropods were obtained from soil samples collected in 8 times during the 2 years and could be further sorted into 7 classes, and 10 orders under arthropodas phyla. Collembola, Acarina and Araneida were the dominant groups and Symphyla, Diptera, Hemiptera, Diplura, Coleoptera and Homoptera were the common groups in the soil. The Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) analysis

  3. Microbial degradation of a metal organic biocide in soils; Mikrobieller Abbau eines im Holzschutz verwendeten metallorganischen Biozids im Boden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobs, Desiree

    2010-06-17

    -fingerprinting technique. Shifts in the bacterial community structure were analyzed by correspondence analysis to explore the effect of WP and incubation time on the microbial community patterns. Bacterial and eukaryotic community structure differed significant between samples with Cu-Amine treated samples and Cu-HDO treated samples. To identify abundant eukaryotic community members a cloning and sequencing approach was carried out. Only few fungal sequences were obtained of the eukaryotic sequence diversity in the interface of wood and soil, which were affiliated to pronounced shifts in the eukaryotic community structure along the incubation time. One of these was the white-rotter Sphaerobolus stellatus (basidiomycota) and the mold-rotter Lecytophora multabilis (ascomycota). The dominant eukaryotic community members were affiliated to the phyla Alveolata, Disicicrista, Amoebozoa, Arthropoda or Nematoda. However, the majority of these phyla are known to have a bacteriovorious lifestyle and are not able to degrade or metabolize wood, WP or WP ingredients. This finding suggests that the majority of eukaryotes grazes on the bacterial population and is rarely involved in Cu-HDO degradation. In conclusion, a defined bacterial population is involved in Cu-HDO degradation and both the bacterial and eukaryotic community was significantly directly and indirectly affected by the presence of Cu-HDO. (orig.)

  4. Community structure and diversity of soil animals in the Lake Taihu lakeshore wetland%太湖岸带湿地土壤动物群落结构与多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 崔丽娟; 赵欣胜; 张曼胤; 高常军; 张岩; 王义飞

    2015-01-01

    土壤动物是湿地生态系统物质循环和能量流动的关键环节,也是湿地生态系统演化的重要驱动因子.2010年4月-2011年2月研究了太湖岸带湿地4种生境类型(A酸模岸带、B乔灌岸带、C农作物岸带、D天然芦苇岸带)中的土壤动物群落结构和多样性.4次调查共分离到土壤动物3575只,隶属4门12纲,共有105类,土壤动物群落密度达到2794.49-67766.39个/m2.在大类群中,节肢动物门(Arthropoda)为优势类群,占总个体数的55.75%,其次为线虫动物门(Nematoda),占总个体数的36.27%;节肢动物门和线虫动物门构成了该区土壤动物的主体,对土壤动物群落特征起着决定性作用.土壤动物群落各多样性指数的季节变化动态不同,Pielou均匀度的方差分析表明:2010年4月份类型A与类型C之间存在显著性差异(P<0.05);而Shannon多样性方差分析表明:2011年2月份类型A与C、D存在显著性差异(P<0.05).土壤动物的整体数量表现为2010年4月>2010年11月>2010年8月>2011年2月.Sorensen和Morisita-Horn相似性分析说明不同生境类型对土壤动物物种丰度产生了不同的影响.太湖岸带湿地土壤动物个体数量在垂直分布上均有一定的表聚性,但不同季节表聚性程度不同.研究结果可为太湖岸带湿地的健康评价及科学管理提供理论依据.

  5. 2010年秋季黄河口及其邻近海域中小型浮游动物的群落特征%The characteristics of meso- and micro-zooplankton commu-nity in the Yellow River estuary and its adjacent area in au-tumn, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文杰; 刘光兴

    2013-01-01

    为掌握黄河口邻近水域中小型浮游动物的现状并弥补此类重要浮游生物类群在以往调查研究中的欠缺,于2010年9月在黄河口及其邻近海域用浅水Ⅱ型浮游生物网采集了浮游动物样品,分析了中小型浮游动物的种类组成、丰度分布、优势种、生物多样性及群落结构。本次调查共鉴定浮游动物成体48种,浮游幼虫21类,桡足类和水螅水母为最主要的浮游动物类群,分别占浮游动物成体种数的37.5%和20.8%。浮游动物丰度为2300.1~266232.0个/m3,平均丰度为37074.3个/m3。优势种(类)8种,分别为夜光虫、强额拟哲水蚤、小拟哲水蚤、背针胸刺水蚤、异体住囊虫、桡足类无节幼虫、双壳类幼体以及腹足类幼体,其中夜光虫为研究水域最主要优势种。对各站位物种组成和丰度进行分析,调查水域中小型浮游动物可划分为4个组群,各组群的分布格局受到水温、盐度和海流的共同影响。该研究为此水域生态系统的长期变化研究提供了重要基础资料和参考依据。%In order to study the meso- and micro-zooplankton species composition, abundance and assemblages distribution as well as the relationship between zooplankton and the environmental factors, a survey was conducted and the zooplankton samples were collected using a shallow water style plankton net (mesh size 200 μm) in Sep-tember 2010 in Yellow River Estuary and its adjacent area. A total of 48 zooplankton species and 21 pelagic larvae were identified, and they belong to the phylum Protozoa, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Chordata, Arthropoda and Chae-tognatha. Copepod is the most dominant component of the Crustacea, and Crustacea and Cnidaria dominated the components of the zooplankton. The number percentage of pelagic copepod and Cnidaria species were 37.5% and 20.8%of total species, respectively. The abundance of zooplankton is from 2300.1 ind/m3 to 266232.0 ind/m3, and the main abundance was 37074

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI-METRIC INDEX BASED ON BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES TO ASSESS RIVER ECOSYSTEM OF A TYPICAL PLAIN RIVER NETWORK IN CHINA%典型平原河网地区底栖动物生物指数筛选及评价基准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小华; 康丽娟; 孙从军; 杨青

    2013-01-01

    Bio assessment of benthic macroinvertebrate-based multmietrics is a very effective approach to evaluate quality of river water. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were sampled at 83 sites in Shanghai metropolitan area, a typical dense river network plain. A total of 20 taxa of the benthic macroinvertebrate were collected, including 50% of Mollusca, 30% of Arthropoda and 20% of Annelida. Among 74 sites with living samples, 32 relatively clean sites and 42 polluted sites were separated based on Hilsenhoff biotic index discrminatory criteria. A comprehensive evaluation using 28 widely-used metrics was carried out. Furthermore, 8 metrics were selected as the most sensitive ones based on non-parametric tests (i.e., Mann-Whitney U test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). By standard scoring method, eight sensitive metrics were unified and integrated into a multi-metric index on a scale ranging from 8 to 40 for bioassessment at each site. Biocriteria values for benthic macroinvertebrate were proposed by quartation, i.e., 8-15, very poor; 16-23, poor; 24-31, fair; and 32-40, good. Water quality of 9 sites with no living sample were marked as very poor. According to the biocriteria, 41 typical sites were divided into 5 groups. The past 5-year historical data of physico-chemical water quality indicators have significant difference among 5 group sites. Consequently, the discrminatory biocriteria are suitable for the assessment of the river water quality of the Shanghai City.%2011年夏、秋季在上海市全境主要河流的83个断面进行大型底栖动物的采样,共获取底栖动物20个分类单位(种),其中软体动物、环节动物和节肢动物分别占50%、30% 和20%.选取常见的28个生物指数分别进行计算,并采用非参数统计检验方法筛选出8个敏感生物指数.通过记分法对8种敏感生物指数统一量纲后,获得数值范围为8-40的综合生物指数,运用四分法划分了判别河道水环境质量的生物基准:32-40,

  7. Study of the Intertidal Macrobenthic Fauna in Dayushan Island, Zhejiang%浙江大渔山岛潮间带大型底栖动物的群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀琴

    2012-01-01

    The community structures of the intertidal macrobenthic fauna in Dayushan island,Zhejiang,including species composition,quantity distribution and biodiversity,were analyzed in the study.The investigation in the study found 35 species,including 1 species of Annelida,2 species of Chordata,2 species of coelenterate,9 species of Arthropoda and 21 species of Mollusca.The average biomass and density in all stations were 1027.33 g/m2 and 1404 ind.m-2,respectively.The mollusca were the first in biomass and density among all macrobenthic fauna.The value of Shannon-Weaner index,Margalef's species richness index and Pielou's evenness index were 0.193~2.101,0.268~1.744 and 0.073~2.007,and their averages were 1.140±1.084,1.080±0.696 and 0.780±0.886,respectively.There was significant difference between the results in the study and in the similar experiments.The Abundance/Biomass curves of the intertidal zone of Dayushan island had part of the cross.%文章通过分析浙江大渔山岛潮间带大型底栖动物的物种组成、数量分布和生物多样性等群落结构特征来了解周围海域的水质状况。本次大渔山岛海域潮间带调查采获的大型底栖动物标本共有35种,其中软体动物21种,节肢动物9种,脊索动物与腔肠动物各2种,环节动物仅1种。且该海域潮间带大型底栖动物的平均生物量为1027.33 g/m2,平均丰度为1404 ind./m2。在各类群底栖动物中,软体动物的平均生物量及丰富都为第一。大渔山岛潮间带大型底栖动物的多样性指数、丰富度指数和均匀度指数的分布范围分别在0.193~2.101、0.268~1.744和0.073~2.007,平均值分别为1.140±1.084、1.080±0.696和0.780±0.886。

  8. 黄河三角洲湿地水域底栖动物群落结构及其时空差异%Community characteristcs and space-time variances of the water area macrozoobenthos in the Huanghe River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董贯仓; 李秀启; 高云芳; 刘峰; 秦玉广; 王亚楠

    2012-01-01

    Macrozoobenthic community characteristics and their space-time variances of different kinds of water areas (VIZ. river, reservoir and aquaculture ponds) were recorded in the Huanghe River Delta in May, August and November of 2009, respectively. The water quality was also estimated by the Shannon-Wiener index. There were 35 species, belonging to 4 phyla, 8 classes, 25 families and 31 genera of macrozoobenthos, which included 11 species of Annelida, 7 species of Mollusca, 16 species of Arthropoda and 1 species of Chordata. The number of macrobenthos was small as there being less than 3 species in 3/4 sampling sites. Both of the dominant species and the number of the species changed with the fluctuations of season. The inhabit density was between 0 and 22 000 ind/m2 with the mean value of 1 111 ind/m2 and the biomass density was between 0 and 146 g/m2 with the mean value of 12. 30 g/ m2. Most of the Shannon-Wiener index was small except 9# in August (3.15). 2/42 of them was between 2 and 3 with 8/42 between 1 and 2, 14/42 between 0 and 1, 5/42 being 0 and being no macrobenthos at 12/42 of the samples. It indicated that most of the different water areas were polluted to varying degrees in the Huanghe River Delta.%2009年5月、8月和11月调查了黄河三角洲河流、水库、养殖池塘等水域14个采样点的大型底栖动物群落多样性及其时空差异,并用Shannon-Wiener多样性指数对环境进行了评价.共采集底栖动物35种,隶属4门8纲25科31属,其中环节动物11种、软体动物7种、节肢动物16种和脊索动物1种;物种数均较少,3/4次少于3种,且近1/3次未采集到底栖动物,优势种及物种数均随季节波动而变化;栖息密度为0 ~22 000个/m2,平均为1 111个/m2;生物量为0~ 146 g/m2,平均为12.30 g/m2.结果表明,Shannon-Wiener指数均较低,仅9号站在8月>3(3.15),2/42次为2~3、8/42次为1~2、14/42次为0~1、5/42为0,且12/42次未采集到底栖动物,表明黄河三角

  9. 基于大型底栖无脊椎动物群落的上海市河道水质生物学评价%Evaluation on River Water Quality Based on the River Substrate Macro-invertebrate in Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小华; 杨青; 赵振; 刘文亮

    2013-01-01

    The macro-invertebrate assemblages of river substrate were investigated at 83 sites in Shanghai city in summer and autumn 2011. A total of 20 taxa of the macro-invertebrate were collected, including 10 of Mollusca, 6 of Arthropoda and 4 of Annelida. No any living macro-invertebrates were detected from samples collected at 9 sites which were heavily polluted and no suitable habitat available. The water quality at the rest 74 sites with living macro-invertebrate was evaluated by Shannon-Wiener index, Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) and Goodnight Biotic Index (GBI). Based on Shannon-Wiener Index, the water quality was critically polluted at 25 sites and heavily polluted at 49 sites. The water quality was heavily polluted at 38 sites, moderately at 5 sites and slightly at 31 sites, by the value of Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI). Evaluating on water quality by Goodnight Biotic Index (GBI) , the river water was severely polluted at 33 , moderately at 2 sites, and lightly at 39 sites. In contrast with the data of historical physicochemical water quality indicators in last 3 years, Shannon-Wiener Index had low efficiency and accuracy, while Hilsenhoff Biotic Index and Goodnight Biotic Index had much higher accuracy in spatial consistency between physicochemical assessment and biological evaluation.%2011年夏秋季,在上海市全境83个河道断面开展了大型底栖无脊椎动物采样,共获取底栖动物20个分类单位(种).9个极严重污染断面未采集到活体大型底栖生物,生境基本丧失.其余74个有活体生物断面,采用三种常用生物指数:Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Hilsenhoff耐污指数、Goodnight修正指数分别进行计算及评价.Shannon-Wiener多样性指数判别为25个严重污染和49个重污染断面;Hilsenhoff耐污指数划分38个重污染、5个中污染和31个轻污染断面;Goodnight修正指数划分33个重污染、2个中污染和39个轻污染断面.与典型河道断面的水质理化指标监测值

  10. 深海热液口化能合成共生作用的研究进展%Research Progress of the Chemosynthetic Symbioses in the Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昕明; 林荣澄; 黄丁勇

    2013-01-01

    海洋无脊椎动物和细菌间的化能合成共生作用的发现,改变了人们对深海热液口初级生产力主要来源的认知.近年的研究表明,营化能合成共生的动物隶属于纤毛门、软体动物门、环节动物门和节肢动物门;其中无脊椎动物作为宿主在与共生菌的长期共生过程中,伴随着部分器官和功能的退化或消失,逐渐形成和演化出了与此相适应的形态结构,并产生了一些特殊的行为;在深海热液口发现的所有化能合成共生菌都属于革兰氏阴性菌,它们的宿主大致可以分为2个群体;通过16 SrRNA基因编码分析,不同代谢类型的共生菌在系统发育中通常处于不同分支,形态也有所差异;共生菌独特的传播方式和进化模式也使其更加适应共生生活;由无脊椎动物和化能合成细菌构成的共生体系与环境相互作用,影响了深海热液口生态系统的演化.对共生菌蛋白质及代谢组学的研究,以及对宿主生理和代谢机制的研究将成为未来热液口化能合成共生作用研究的新热点.%The discovery of the chemosynthetic symbioses between marine invertebrates and bacteria revolutionized our understanding of the energy sources that fuel primary productivity in the deep sea.Chemosynthetic host were classified within four major group including Ciliophora,Mollusca,Annelida and Arthropoda; Symbiotic invertebrates with anatomical adaptations of chemosynthetic associations are usually characterized by rudimentary or absent digestive system.Effective behavioural and physiological strategies are also used by animals to supply their symbionts with both reductants and oxidants.All the symbionts are Gram negative bacteria,and clustered in two different branches related to symbiont type in the phylogenetic tree based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences,distinct differences in morphology were also observed between the two groups.The transmission and evolution strategy utilized

  11. Progress on the systematic study of basal Heaxpoda%低等六足动物系统学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜云; 高艳; 栾云霞; 尹文英

    2012-01-01

    低等六足动物包括原尾纲、弹尾纲和双尾纲三个类群,是探讨六足动物起源和进化问题的关键类群,近十年来成为节肢动物系统进化研究中的焦点之一.低等六足动物的系统发育地位以及它们之间的关系一直是备受争论的问题.通过介绍三类低等六足动物最新的分类系统,从经典分类学和系统发育两个方面对低等六足动物近十年来的研究进展进行了综述.迄今,对于三类低等六足动物都建立了比较完备的分类体系,原尾纲划分为3目10科,弹尾纲划分为4目30科,双尾纲划分为2亚目3总科10科.系统发育研究中,大多数的系统发育分析结果不支持传统的缺尾类假说,缺尾纲应摒弃不用.分子数据分析的结果普遍支持原尾纲与双尾纲近缘,但仍需要进一步探讨.线粒体基因组、比较胚胎学和比较精子学的研究结果表明,原尾纲可能经历了长期的趋异进化历史.最近的比较精子学研究支持了双尾纲的单系性.总之,三类低等六足动物系统学研究均取得了长足的发展,但仍然存在诸如研究人员匮乏和研究水平不均衡等问题.系统发育研究中,分子系统学研究成为关注的焦点,而基于核基因和线粒体基因的数据分别建立的系统发育假说存在分歧,亟需开发更优的数据分析方法.此外,需加强低等六足动物比较形态学、比较胚胎学、发育生物学等方面的研究,以便将来进行全证据的系统发育研究.%Three basal hexapod groups, Protura, Collembola and Diplura, are important taxa in the research of origin and evolution of Hexapoda and highlighted in the evolutionary studies of Arthropoda. The phylogenetic position of three basal hexapod groups and the relationships between them are hotly debated problems. In this review, the modern classification system of Protura, Collembola and Diplura are introduced, and the progress of the study on the classical taxonomy and

  12. 基于线粒体cox1片段序列的胶州湾浮游动物DNA条形码分析%DNA BARCODING OF ZOOPLANKTON IN THE JIAOZHOU BAY FOR SPECIES IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏晓; 程方平; 李超伦; 孙松

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of zooplankton diversity and distribution is important for understanding local marine ecosystem conditions,and may serve as sensitive indicators for climate-induced changes.The scarcity of taxonomists and subtle morphological variations in some groups pose a problem for the identification of zooplanktons,especially at their larval stages.DNA barcodes provide an alternative approach to accurate identification of zooplankton species.The efficiency of the mitochondrial cox1 fragments for species reorganization in zooplanktons was evaluated in this study.The samples were collected from the Jiaozhou Bay and a station in the South Yellow Sea.82 DNA barcodes were determined for 45 common species that belonged to six different phyla in the local region,including:Arthropoda,Chaetognatha,Chordata,Cnidaria,Echinodermata,and Mollusca.According to the saturation plot,the cox1 gene was substitutionally saturated for the alignment,which was best illustrated by the wobble codons of the gene.The wobble codons quickly got saturated at around 0.2 substitution per site.K2P genetic distances between individuals within the same species ranged from 0 to 0.11,with an average of 0.013(SE = 0.003);meanwhile,genetic distance between species within the same genera ranged from 0.137 to 0.369,with an average of 0.265(SE = 0.002).Thus the genetic distance between species was at least 20 times larger that of the within species,indicating a barcode gap,which ensured that cox1 sequences can be used as reliable characters for species identification for the zooplankton assemblages.However,species with extremely large intraspecific divergences were still noticed in our study,which may be explained by population genetic divergence owing to ecological or geographical isolation,unidentified cryptic speciation,and mis-identification.The significant barcode gap and the long-branch isolated shallow tips topology for the Sagitta bedoti suggested a possible cryptic speciation for the

  13. 泉州湾洛阳江口2种红树林生境大型底栖动物群落多样性比较%Comparison of benthic macrofaunal communities in two mangrove habitats of Luoyangjiang Estuary in Quanzhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭涛; 蔡立哲; 卓异; 饶义勇; 李想; 陈昕餠; 傅素晶; 纪剑锋

    2014-01-01

    In order to compare the benthic macrofaunal community in two mangrove habitats,Aegiceras corniculatum and Kandelia candel,in Luoyangjiang Estuary,Quanzhou Bay,China,benthic macrofauna was investigated in 4 sea-sons from April 201 1 to January 2012.A total of 49 benthic macrofaunal species were recorded,including 15 Annel-ida,8 Mollusca,15 Arthropoda,3 Chordata,2 Hexapod,1 Cnidaria,Platyhelminthes,Nemertea,Sipuncula,Oli-gochaeta and Bivalve.Nephtys oligobranchia,Assiminea brevicula,Uca arcuata,Actinia sp.showed high density in both two habitats,Phascolosoma esculenta is a dominant species in both two habitats but with lower density.Although the mean biomass of Kandelia candel was higher than Aegiceras corniculatum,the species number,density,diversity index(H′),evenness index(J)and richness index(d)of Aegiceras corniculatum were all higher.Two-way ANOVA showed that the diversity and evenness indexes of the two benthic macrofaunal communities had significant seasonal differences,habitat differences and habitat ×season differences.Cluster analysis showed high similarity between the benthic macrofaunal communities in two mangrove habitats because of same tidal zone and similar types of sediment and sediment particle size.%为探讨泉州湾洛阳江口桐花树和秋茄2种红树林生境的大型底栖动物群落是否存在明显差异,于2011年4月至2012年1月对2种红树林生境的大型底栖动物进行了季度定量调查.结果表明:4个季度在2种红树林生境定量取样获得大型底栖动物49种,其中多毛类15种,腹足类8种,甲壳类15种,鱼类3种,昆虫2种,刺胞动物、扁形动物、纽形动物、星虫动物、寡毛类和双壳类各1种.寡鳃齿吻沙蚕(Nephtys oligobranchia)、短拟沼螺(Assiminea brevicula)、弧边招潮蟹(Uca arcua-ta)、指海葵(Actinia sp.)等在2种生境均有较高的栖息密度,可口革囊星虫(Phascolosoma esculen-ta)是2种生境的常见种