Sample records for arthropoda mollusca-1 mollusca-2

  1. Invasieve Arthropoda in Nederland: een eerste inventarisatie


    Reemer, M.


    Invasieve Arthropoda in Nederland: een eerste inventarisatie Hieronder worden soorten verstaan die zich sinds 1950 in Nederland gevestigd hebben en zich sterk hebben uitgebreid. Het overzicht kwam tot stand via een enquête onder circa 50 specialisten en beperkt zich tot de soorten waarvan het invasieve karakter duidelijk en gedocumenteerd is. De totale lijst bevat 104 invasieve soorten Arthropoda en geeft basale informatie over het voorkomen in Nederland, biologie, ecologie en relevante liter...

  2. Invasieve Arthropoda in Nederland: een eerste inventarisatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reemer, M.


    Invasieve Arthropoda in Nederland: een eerste inventarisatie Hieronder worden soorten verstaan die zich sinds 1950 in Nederland gevestigd hebben en zich sterk hebben uitgebreid. Het overzicht kwam tot stand via een enquête onder circa 50 specialisten en beperkt zich tot de soorten waarvan het invasi


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian F. Kammerer


    New replacement names for the preoccupied mite genera Absentia Huang, 2001 and Venilia Kuznetsov, 1979 are proposed (Huangiella nom. nov. and Kuznetsovia nom. nov. , respectively. ). Fourteen further new replacement names are proposed for additional preoccupied generic names in the Arthropoda. These names are: Vailimia nom. nov. , Millidgella nom. nov., and Nolavia nom. nov. in Araneae, Vadumasonium nom. nov. in Hymenoptera, Gridellia nom. nov.,Vanstaronia nom. nov. and Veraniella nom. nov. in Coleoptera, Poletaevega nom. nov. in Trilobita, Vandelia nom. Isopoda, Gandoa nom. nov. and Vanuachela nom. nov. in Decapoda, and Crasquinia nom. nov. , Oertlia nom. nov. ,and Soleaua nom. nov. in Ostracoda. Additionally, one new annelid replacement name, Omodeodrilus nom. nov., is proposed.

  4. FGLamide Allatostatin genes in Arthropoda: introns early or late? (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, Francisco; Bendena, William G; Chang, Belinda S W; Tobe, Stephen S


    FGLamide allatostatins are invertebrate neuropeptides which inhibit juvenile hormone biosynthesis in Dictyoptera and related orders and also show myomodulatory activity. The FGLamide allatostatin (AST) gene structure in Dictyoptera is intronless within the ORF, whereas in 9 species of Diptera, the FGLamide AST ORF has one intron. To investigate the evolutionary history of AST intron structure, (intron early versus intron late hypothesis), all available Arthropoda FGLamide AST gene sequences were examined from genome databases with reference to intron presence and position/phase. Three types of FGLamide AST ORF organization were found: intronless in I. scapularis and P. humanus corporis; one intron in D. pulex, A. pisum, A. mellifera and five Drosophila sp.; two introns in N. vitripennis, B. mori strains, A. aegypti, A. gambiae and C. quinquefasciatus. The literature suggests that for the majority of genes examined, most introns exist between codons (phase 0) which may reflect an ancient function of introns to separate protein modules. 60% of the FGLamide AST ORFs introns were between the first and second base within a codon (phase 1), 28% were between the second and third nucleotides within a codon (phase two) and 12% were phase 0. As would be required for correct intron splicing consensus sequence, 84% of introns were in codons starting with guanine. The positioning of introns was a maximum of 9 codons from a dibasic cleavage site. Our results suggest that the introns in the analyzed species support the intron late model.

  5. First molecular evidence for the existence of a Tardigrada + Arthropoda clade. (United States)

    Giribet, G; Carranza, S; Baguñà, J; Riutort, M; Ribera, C


    The complete 18S rDNA gene sequence of Macrobiotus group hufelandi (Tardigrada) was obtained and aligned with 18S rDNA and rRNA gene sequences of 24 metazoans (mainly protostomes). Discrete character (maximum-parsimony) and distance (neighbor-joining) methods were used to infer their phylogeny. The evolution of bootstrap proportions with sequence length (pattern of resolved nodes, PRN) was studied to test the resolution of the nodes in neighbor-joining trees. The results show that arthropods are monophyletic. Tardigrades represent the sister group of arthropods (in parsimony analyses) or they are related with crustaceans (distance analysis and PRN). Arthropoda are divided into two main evolutionary lines, the Hexapoda + Crustacea line (weakly supported), and the Myriapoda + Chelicerata line. The Hexapoda + Crustacea line includes Pentastomida, but the internal resolution is far from clear. The Insecta (Ectognatha) are monophyletic, but no evidence for the monophyly of Hexapoda is found. The Chelicerata are a monophyletic group and the Myriapoda cluster close to Arachnida. Overall, the results obtained represent the first molecular evidence for a Tardigrada + Arthropoda clade. In addition, the congruence between molecular phylogenies of the Arthropoda from other authors and this obtained here indicates the need to review those obtained solely on morphological characters.

  6. Phylogenetic distribution of protease inhibitors of the Kazal-family within the Arthropoda. (United States)

    van Hoef, Vincent; Breugelmans, Bert; Spit, Jornt; Simonet, Gert; Zels, Sven; Vanden Broeck, Jozef


    In mammalian pancreatic cells, the pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI) belonging to the Kazal-family prevents the premature activation of digestive enzymes and thus plays an important role in a protective mechanism against tissue destruction by autophagy. Although a similar protective mechanism exists in Arthropoda, the distribution of these inhibitors in this phylum remains obscure. A comprehensive in silico search of nucleotide databases, revealed the presence of members of the Kazal-family in the four major subphyla of the Arthropoda. Especially in the Hexapoda and the Crustacea these inhibitors are widespread, while in the Chelicerata and Myriapoda only a few Kazal-like protease inhibitors were found. A sequence alignment of inhibitors retrieved in the digestive system of insects revealed a conservation of the PSTI characteristics and strong resemblance to vertebrate PSTI. A phylogenetic analysis of these inhibitors showed that they generally cluster according to their order. The results of this data mining study provide new evidence for the existence of an ancient protective mechanism in metazoan digestive systems. Kazal-like inhibitors, which play an important protective role in the pancreas of vertebrates, also seem to be present in Arthropoda.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Kirana


    Full Text Available Distribusi merupakan penyebaran suatu organisme dalam struktur populasi. Distribusi serangga hama maupun musuh alami terjadi dalam dua cara yaitu secara spasial (berdasarkan di-mensi ruang dan temporal (berdasarkan dimensi waktu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendes-kripsikan dan menganalisis distribusi spasial Arthropoda pada tumbuhan liar di Kebun Biologi FMIPA Universitas Negeri Malang. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif eksploratif deng-an pendekatan kuantitatif. Penelitian dilakukan dalam beberapa tahap yaitu: penelitian pendahuluan untuk mengamati jenis-jenis Arthropoda yang ada pada lokasi pengamatan; penentuan tum-buhan yang diamati yaitu Centella asiatica L. dan Ageratum conyzoides L; serta pengamatan kunjungan Arthropoda pada kedua tumbuhan tersebut. Metode pengamatan yang digunakan adalah visual control. Pengamatan distribusi spasial dilakukan pada tiga tempat tumbuhan Centella asi-atica L. dan Ageratum conyzoides L. yang ditentukan berdasarkan jauh dekatnya dengan jalan setapak dan sumber air. Distribusi spasial pada tumbuhan liar Centella asiatica L. dan Ageratum conyzoides L. di kebun Biologi FMIPA UM Malang menunjukkan variasi yang berbeda-beda. Daerah yang dekat dengan jalan rata-rata frekuensi kunjungan harian lebih rendah daripada daerah yang lebih jauh dengan jalan setapak.

  8. Evolution of the complement system in protostomes revealed by de novo transcriptome analysis of six species of Arthropoda. (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Reo; Nonaka, Masaru


    To elucidate the evolutionary history of the complement system in Arthropoda, de novo transcriptome analysis was performed with six species among the Chelicerata, Myriapoda, and Crustacea, and complement genes were identified based on their characteristic domain structures. Complement C3 and factor B (FB) were identified from a sea spider, a jumping spider, and a centipede, but not from a sea firefly or two millipede species. No additional complement components identifiable by their characteristic domain structures were found from any of these six species. These results together with genome sequence information for several species of the Hexapoda suggest that the common ancestor of the Arthropoda possessed a simple complement system comprising C3 and FB, and thus resembled the alternative pathway of the mammalian complement system. It was lost at least twice independently during the evolution of Arthropoda in the millipede lineage and in the common ancestor of Crustacea and Hexapoda.

  9. 7. Arthropoda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straelen, van V.


    Phillipsia? parvula Beyrich. — Perm. Timor, lit. 1, p. 87, t. 2, fig. 17a, 17b; Perm. Timor et Rotti, lit. 3, p. 89. Neoproetus indicus Tesch. — Carbon. Sumatra, lit. 11, p. 1082; lit. 30, p. 6; lit. 37, p. 610; Perm. Timor, lit. 38, p. 128, t. 178 (1), fig. 1—5.

  10. Arthropoda. Crustacea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böhm, Joh.


    Die mehrfach unterbrochene Kette tertiärer und jüngerer vulkanischer Gesteine, welche Java der Länge nach durchzieht, wird nordwärts und südwärts sowie in den Lücken von tertiären und quartären Ablagerungen eingerahmt ¹). Kreideformation und hoch krystalline Schiefer treten ganz vereinzelt und auf w

  11. A cause for consilience: Utilizing multiple genomic data types to resolve problematic nodes within Arthropoda and Ecdysozoa


    Campbell, Lahcen I.


    A major turning point in the study of metazoan evolution was the recognition of the existence of the Ecdysozoa in 1997. This is a group of eight animal phyla (Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Loricifera, Kinorhyncha, Priapulida, Tardigrada, Onychophora and Arthropoda). Ecdysozoa is the most specious clade of animals to ever exist and the relationships among its eight phyla are still heatedly debated. Similarly also the relationships among the three sub-phyla (Chelicerata, Pancrustacea a...

  12. Form, function and evolution of the mouthparts of blood-feeding Arthropoda. (United States)

    Krenn, Harald W; Aspöck, Horst


    This review compares the mouthparts and their modes of operation in blood-feeding Arthropoda which have medical relevance to humans. All possess piercing blood-sucking proboscides which exhibit thin stylet-shaped structures to puncture the host's skin. The tips of the piercing structures are serrated to provide anchorage. Usually, the piercing organs are enveloped by a soft sheath-like part which is not inserted. The piercing process includes either back and forth movements of the piercing structures, or sideways cutting motions, or the apex of the proboscis bears teeth-like structures which execute drilling movements. Most piercing-proboscides have a food-canal which is separate from a salivary canal. The food-canal is functionally connected to a suction pump in the head that transports blood into the alimentary tract. The salivary canal conducts saliva to the tip of the proboscis, from where it is discharged into the host. Piercing blood-sucking proboscides evolved either from (1) generalized biting-chewing mouthparts, (2) from piercing mouthparts of predators, or plant sap or seed feeders, (3) from lapping or sponging mouthparts. Representatives of one taxon of Acari liquefy skin tissue by enzymatic action. During feeding, many blood-feeding arthropods inadvertently transmit pathogens, which mostly are transported through the discharged saliva into the host.

  13. Diversity of cytosolic HSP70 Heat Shock Protein from decapods and their phylogenetic placement within Arthropoda. (United States)

    Baringou, Stephane; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Koken, Marcel; Hardivillier, Yann; Hurtado, Luis; Leignel, Vincent


    HSP70 and an evolutionary model of the distinct forms amongst the Arthropoda phylum. The observed differences between HSP70 groups will probably have to be linked to distinct interactions with co-chaperones or other co-factors.

  14. Phylogeny of Arthropoda inferred from mitochondrial sequences: strategies for limiting the misleading effects of multiple changes in pattern and rates of substitution. (United States)

    Hassanin, Alexandre


    In this study, mitochondrial sequences were used to investigate the relationships among the major lineages of Arthropoda. The data matrix used for the analyses includes 84 taxa and 3918 nucleotides representing six mitochondrial protein-coding genes (atp6 and 8, cox1-3, and nad2). The analyses of nucleotide composition show that a reverse strand-bias, i.e., characterized by an excess of T relative to A nucleotides and of G relative to C nucleotides, was independently acquired in six different lineages of Arthropoda: (1) the honeybee mite (Varroa), (2) Opisthothelae spiders (Argiope, Habronattus, and Ornithoctonus), (3) scorpions (Euscorpius and Mesobuthus), (4) Hutchinsoniella (Cephalocarid), (5) Tigriopus (Copepod), and (6) whiteflies (Aleurodicus and Trialeurodes). Phylogenetic analyses confirm that these convergences in nucleotide composition can be particularly misleading for tree reconstruction, as unrelated taxa with reverse strand-bias tend to group together in MP, ML, and Bayesian analyses. However, the use of a specific model for minimizing effects of the bias, the "Neutral Transition Exclusion" (NTE) model, allows Bayesian analyses to rediscover most of the higher taxa of Arthropoda. Furthermore, the analyses of branch lengths suggest that three main factors explain accelerated rates of substitution: (1) genomic rearrangements, including duplication of the control region and gene translocation, (2) parasitic lifestyle, and (3) small body size. The comparisons of Bayesian Bootstrap percentages show that the support for many nodes increases when taxa with long branches are excluded from the analyses. It is therefore recommended to select taxa and genes of the mitochondrial genome for inferring phylogenetic relationships among arthropod lineages. The phylogenetic analyses support the existence of a major dichotomy within Arthropoda, separating Pancrustacea and Paradoxopoda. Basal relationships between Pancrustacean lineages are not robust, and the question

  15. MicroRNAs and phylogenomics resolve the relationships of Tardigrada and suggest that velvet worms are the sister group of Arthropoda. (United States)

    Campbell, Lahcen I; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Marchioro, Trevor; Longhorn, Stuart J; Telford, Maximilian J; Philippe, Hervé; Rebecchi, Lorena; Peterson, Kevin J; Pisani, Davide


    Morphological data traditionally group Tardigrada (water bears), Onychophora (velvet worms), and Arthropoda (e.g., spiders, insects, and their allies) into a monophyletic group of invertebrates with walking appendages known as the Panarthropoda. However, molecular data generally do not support the inclusion of tardigrades within the Panarthropoda, but instead place them closer to Nematoda (roundworms). Here we present results from the analyses of two independent genomic datasets, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), which congruently resolve the phylogenetic relationships of Tardigrada. Our EST analyses, based on 49,023 amino acid sites from 255 proteins, significantly support a monophyletic Panarthropoda including Tardigrada and suggest a sister group relationship between Arthropoda and Onychophora. Using careful experimental manipulations--comparisons of model fit, signal dissection, and taxonomic pruning--we show that support for a Tardigrada + Nematoda group derives from the phylogenetic artifact of long-branch attraction. Our small RNA libraries fully support our EST results; no miRNAs were found to link Tardigrada and Nematoda, whereas all panarthropods were found to share one unique miRNA (miR-276). In addition, Onychophora and Arthropoda were found to share a second miRNA (miR-305). Our study confirms the monophyly of the legged ecdysozoans, shows that past support for a Tardigrada + Nematoda group was due to long-branch attraction, and suggests that the velvet worms are the sister group to the arthropods.

  16. Phylogenomic insights into the cambrian explosion, the colonization of land and the evolution of flight in arthropoda. (United States)

    Wheat, Christopher W; Wahlberg, Niklas


    The timing of the origin of arthropods in relation to the Cambrian explosion is still controversial, as are the timing of other arthropod macroevolutionary events such as the colonization of land and the evolution of flight. Here we assess the power of a phylogenomic approach to shed light on these major events in the evolutionary history of life on earth. Analyzing a large phylogenomic dataset (122 taxa, 62 genes) with a Bayesian-relaxed molecular clock, we simultaneously reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships and the absolute times of divergences among the arthropods. Simulations were used to test whether our analysis could distinguish between alternative Cambrian explosion scenarios with increasing levels of autocorrelated rate variation. Our analyses support previous phylogenomic hypotheses and simulations indicate a Precambrian origin of the arthropods. Our results provide insights into the 3 independent colonizations of land by arthropods and suggest that evolution of insect wings happened much earlier than the fossil record indicates, with flight evolving during a period of increasing oxygen levels and impressively large forests. These and other findings provide a foundation for macroevolutionary and comparative genomic study of Arthropoda.

  17. Opsin Repertoire and Expression Patterns in Horseshoe Crabs: Evidence from the Genome of Limulus polyphemus (Arthropoda: Chelicerata). (United States)

    Battelle, Barbara-Anne; Ryan, Joseph F; Kempler, Karen E; Saraf, Spencer R; Marten, Catherine E; Warren, Wesley C; Minx, Patrick J; Montague, Michael J; Green, Pamela J; Schmidt, Skye A; Fulton, Lucinda; Patel, Nipam H; Protas, Meredith E; Wilson, Richard K; Porter, Megan L


    Horseshoe crabs are xiphosuran chelicerates, the sister group to arachnids. As such, they are important for understanding the most recent common ancestor of Euchelicerata and the evolution and diversification of Arthropoda. Limulus polyphemus is the most investigated of the four extant species of horseshoe crabs, and the structure and function of its visual system have long been a major focus of studies critical for understanding the evolution of visual systems in arthropods. Likewise, studies of genes encoding Limulus opsins, the protein component of the visual pigments, are critical for understanding opsin evolution and diversification among chelicerates, where knowledge of opsins is limited, and more broadly among arthropods. In the present study, we sequenced and assembled a high quality nuclear genomic sequence of L. polyphemus and used these data to annotate the full repertoire of Limulus opsins. We conducted a detailed phylogenetic analysis of Limulus opsins, including using gene structure and synteny information to identify relationships among different opsin classes. We used our phylogeny to identify significant genomic events that shaped opsin evolution and therefore the visual system of Limulus We also describe the tissue expression patterns of the 18 opsins identified and show that transcripts encoding a number, including a peropsin, are present throughout the central nervous system. In addition to significantly extending our understanding of photosensitivity in Limulus and providing critical insight into the genomic evolution of horseshoe crab opsins, this work provides a valuable genomic resource for addressing myriad questions related to xiphosuran physiology and arthropod evolution.

  18. Rare genomic changes and mitochondrial sequences provide independent support for congruent relationships among the sea spiders (Arthropoda, Pycnogonida). (United States)

    Masta, Susan E; McCall, Andrew; Longhorn, Stuart J


    Pycnogonids, or sea spiders, are an enigmatic group of arthropods. Their unique anatomical features have made them difficult to place within the broader group Arthropoda. Most attempts to classify members of Pycnogonida have focused on utilizing these anatomical features to infer relatedness. Using data from mitochondrial genomes, we show that pycnogonids are placed as derived chelicerates, challenging the hypothesis that they diverged early in arthropod history. Our increased taxon sampling of three new mitochondrial genomes also allows us to infer phylogenetic relatedness among major pycnogonid lineages. Phylogenetic analyses based on all 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes yield well-resolved relationships among the sea spider lineages. Gene order and tRNA secondary structure characters provide independent lines of evidence for these inferred phylogenetic relationships among pycnogonids, and show a minimal amount of homoplasy. Additionally, rare changes in three tRNA genes unite pycnogonids as a clade; these include changes in anticodon identity in tRNA(Lys) and tRNA(Ser(AGN)) and the shared loss of D-arm sequence in the tRNA(Ala) gene. Using mitochondrial genome changes and tRNA structural changes is especially useful for resolving relationships among the major lineages of sea spiders in light of the fact that there have been multiple independent evolutionary changes in nucleotide strand bias among sea spiders. Such reversed nucleotide biases can mislead phylogeny reconstruction based on sequences, although the use of appropriate methods can overcome these effects. With pycnogonids, we find that applying methods to compensate for strand bias and that using genome-level characters yield congruent phylogenetic signals.

  19. Comparative genomics of the odorant-binding and chemosensory protein gene families across the Arthropoda: origin and evolutionary history of the chemosensory system. (United States)

    Vieira, Filipe G; Rozas, Julio


    Chemoreception is a biological process essential for the survival of animals, as it allows the recognition of important volatile cues for the detection of food, egg-laying substrates, mates, or predators, among other purposes. Furthermore, its role in pheromone detection may contribute to evolutionary processes, such as reproductive isolation and speciation. This key role in several vital biological processes makes chemoreception a particularly interesting system for studying the role of natural selection in molecular adaptation. Two major gene families are involved in the perireceptor events of the chemosensory system: the odorant-binding protein (OBP) and chemosensory protein (CSP) families. Here, we have conducted an exhaustive comparative genomic analysis of these gene families in 20 Arthropoda species. We show that the evolution of the OBP and CSP gene families is highly dynamic, with a high number of gains and losses of genes, pseudogenes, and independent origins of subfamilies. Taken together, our data clearly support the birth-and-death model for the evolution of these gene families with an overall high gene turnover rate. Moreover, we show that the genome organization of the two families is significantly more clustered than expected by chance and, more important, that this pattern appears to be actively maintained across the Drosophila phylogeny. Finally, we suggest the homologous nature of the OBP and CSP gene families, dating back their most recent common ancestor after the terrestrialization of Arthropoda (380--450 Ma) and we propose a scenario for the origin and diversification of these families.

  20. Aspectos ecológicos da comunidade de Araneae (Arthropoda, Arachnida em copas da palmeira Attalea phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae no Pantanal de Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Dênis Battirola


    Full Text Available Seis palmeiras de Attalea phalerata foram amostradas durante a fase aquática (cheia no Pantanal de Mato Grosso (fevereiro/2001, utilizando-se a metodologia de nebulização de copas "canopy fogging". Este estudo objetivou avaliar a composição, distribuição espacial, guildas comportamentais, biomassa e sazonalidade da comunidade de Araneae em copas dessa palmeira que forma adensamentos monodominantes, típicos nessa região. Um total de 1326 aranhas foram coletadas em 99 m² de área amostral (13,4 + 8,2 indivíduos/m², representando 20 famílias, sendo Salticidae e Araneidae as mais abundantes. A biomassa total de 704 aranhas em três palmeiras correspondeu a 0.6172 mg de peso seco (0,0123+ 0,04 mg/m². Dez guildas comportamentais demonstraram a coexistência de diferentes espécies em um mesmo habitat. Representantes de Salticidae, Oonopidae e Ctenidae dominaram entre as caçadoras, e Araneidae e Dictynidae, dentre as tecelãs. A análise de distribuição espacial demonstrou que a maior abundância de aranhas ocorreu na região central da copa, provavelmente devido à quantidade de recursos disponíveis nesse local. A comparação desses resultados com aqueles obtidos durante o período de seca, demonstra diferenças sazonais influenciadas pelo pulso de inundação, principalmente com relação à composição das famílias amostradas entre os períodos de seca e cheia.Ecological aspects of a community of Araneae (Arthropoda, Arachnida at the canopy of the palm Attalea phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Six palm trees of Attalea phalerata were sampled during the aquatic phase (high water in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso (February 2001 using canopy fogging. The objective was to evaluate the composition, spatial distribution, behavioural guilds, biomass and seasonality of the community of Araneae at the crowns of these palm trees, which form monospecific stands that are typical of this region. A total

  1. Reversible colour change in Arthropoda. (United States)

    Umbers, Kate D L; Fabricant, Scott A; Gawryszewski, Felipe M; Seago, Ainsley E; Herberstein, Marie E


    The mechanisms and functions of reversible colour change in arthropods are highly diverse despite, or perhaps due to, the presence of an exoskeleton. Physiological colour changes, which have been recorded in 90 arthropod species, are rapid and are the result of changes in the positioning of microstructures or pigments, or in the refractive index of layers in the integument. By contrast, morphological colour changes, documented in 31 species, involve the anabolism or catabolism of components (e.g. pigments) directly related to the observable colour. In this review we highlight the diversity of mechanisms by which reversible colour change occurs and the evolutionary context and diversity of arthropod taxa in which it has been observed. Further, we discuss the functions of reversible colour change so far proposed, review the limited behavioural and ecological data, and argue that the field requires phylogenetically controlled approaches to understanding the evolution of reversible colour change. Finally, we encourage biologists to explore new model systems for colour change and to engage scientists from other disciplines; continued cross-disciplinary collaboration is the most promising approach to this nexus of biology, physics, and chemistry.

  2. Variación en la abundancia de Artropoda en un transecto latitudinal del desierto costero transicional de Chile, con énfasis en los tenebriónidos epígeos Variation in the abundance of Arthropoda from a latitudinal transect in the transitional coastal desert of Chile, with emphasis on the epigean tenebrionids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Mediante el empleo de trampas de intercepción se examinó la composición taxonómica y los patrones de abundancia (denso-actividad de la fauna de Arthropoda del transecto 27-30º S del desierto costero transicional de Chile, particularmente la distribución geográfica y las relaciones de abundancia de los componentes del ensamble de Tenebrionidae. Durante el período estudiado, cinco órdenes dominaron numéricamente el ensamble de Arthropoda. Estos fueron Coleoptera, Diptera, Psocoptera, Collembola e Hymenoptera. Representada por 14 géneros, Tenebrionidae fue la familia más diversa y abundante de la fauna de artrópodos epígeos. Gyriosomus Guérin-Méneville, 1834 fue el género más diverso de la familia. Algunas de sus especies mostraron una distribución restringida en el área estudiada y podrían ser indicadoras de endemismo. La riqueza de especies de Tenebrionidae no siguió el patrón pluviométrico latitudinal del transecto. Carrizal Bajo, un sitio con características xéricas, aportó un número mayor que el esperado, en concordancia con lo mostrado por la flora, particularmente geófitas y hemicriptófitasBy using pitfall traps and with special emphasis on the geographical distribution and the relationships of abundance of the Tenebrionidae assemblage, the taxonomic composition and the patterns of abundance (denso-activity of the Arthropoda inhabiting the transect 27-30º S of the chilean transitional coastal-desert were examined. Five orders numerically dominated the Arthropoda assemblage. These were Coleoptera, Diptera, Psocoptera, Collembola and Hymenoptera. Tenebrionidae, represented by 14 genera, was the most diverse and abundant family of the epigean arthropod-fauna. Gyriosomus Guérin-Méneville, 1834 was the most specious genus in that family. Some of its species showed a narrow distribution in the study area, and may be indicators of endemisms. The species richness of Tenebrionidae did not follow the latitudinal

  3. Sanctacaris uncata: the oldest chelicerate (Arthropoda) (United States)

    Legg, David A.


    The morphology of the arthropod Sanctacaris uncata, from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale of Canada, is reinterpreted based on a restudy of previously described material. Although originally considered a chelicerate-like arthropod, these affinities were dismissed based primarily on interpretations of the anterior appendages and hypotheses which considered the megacheirans (`great-appendage' arthropods) as putative ancestors of chelicerates. The similarities between megacheirans and chelicerates appear to be overstated however, and this study instead reaffirms the identity of putative chelicerate feature in S. uncata and similar arthropods such as Sidneyia and Emeraldella, both also from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale. Newly interpreted features, including the presence of pediform exites, multi-partite trunk exopods, and a trunk differentiated into an anterior limb-bearing area and a differentiated posterior limbless abdomen, were coded into an extensive phylogenetic data set of fossil and recent arthropods. In all analyses, Sanctacaris resolved as the basal-most member of total-group Euchelicerata (the least inclusive group including horseshoe crabs and arachnids but not pycnogonids), thus making it the oldest chelicerate in the fossil record. The vicissicaudates (including Sidneyia, Emeraldella, aglaspidids, and cheloniellids—all of which have previously been allied to chelicerates) resolved as sister-taxon to crown-group Chelicerata. This topology indicates that many purported chelicerate features, such as lamellar gills, and a differentiated posterior abdomen evolved sequentially in the chelicerate stem-lineage.

  4. Phylomitogenomics of Malacostraca (Arthropoda:Crustacea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Xin; TIAN Mei; YAN Binlun; CHU Kahou


    Along with the sequencing technology development and continual enthusiasm of researchers on the mitochondrial genomes, the number of metazoan mitochondrial genomes reported has a tremendous growth in the past decades. Phylomitogenomics—reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial genomic data—is now possible across large animal groups. Crustaceans in the class Malacostraca display a high diversity of body forms and include large number of ecologically and commercially important species. In this study, comprehensive and systematic analyses of the phylogenetic relationships within Malacostraca were conducted based on 86 mitochondrial genomes available from GenBank. Among 86 malacostracan mitochondrial genomes, 54 species have identical major gene arrangement (excluding tRNAs) to pancrustacean ground pattern, including six species from Stomatopoda, three species from Amphipoda, two krill, seven species from Dendrobranchiata (Decapoda), and 36 species from Pleocyemata (Decapoda). However, the other 32 mitochondrial genomes reported exhibit major gene rearrangements. Phylogenies based on Bayesian analyses of nucleotide sequences of the protein-coding genes produced a robust tree with 100%posterior probability at almost all nodes. The results indicate that Amphipoda and Isopoda cluster together (Edriophthalma) (BPP=100). Phylomitogenomic analyses strong support that Euphausiacea is nested within Decapoda, and closely related to Dendrobranchiata, which is also consistent with the evidence from developmental biology. Yet the taxonomic sampling of mitochondrial genome from Malacostraca is very biased to the order Decapoda, with no complete mitochondrial genomes reported from 11 of the 16 orders. Future researches on sequencing the mitochondrial genomes from a wide variety of malacostracans are necessary to further elucidate the phylogeny of this important group of animals. With the increase in mitochondrial genomes available, phylomitogenomics will emerge as an important component in the Tree of Life researches.

  5. Functional diversity of resilin in Arthropoda

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    Jan Michels


    Full Text Available Resilin is an elastomeric protein typically occurring in exoskeletons of arthropods. It is composed of randomly orientated coiled polypeptide chains that are covalently cross-linked together at regular intervals by the two unusual amino acids dityrosine and trityrosine forming a stable network with a high degree of flexibility and mobility. As a result of its molecular prerequisites, resilin features exceptional rubber-like properties including a relatively low stiffness, a rather pronounced long-range deformability and a nearly perfect elastic recovery. Within the exoskeleton structures, resilin commonly forms composites together with other proteins and/or chitin fibres. In the last decades, numerous exoskeleton structures with large proportions of resilin and various resilin functions have been described. Today, resilin is known to be responsible for the generation of deformability and flexibility in membrane and joint systems, the storage of elastic energy in jumping and catapulting systems, the enhancement of adaptability to uneven surfaces in attachment and prey catching systems, the reduction of fatigue and damage in reproductive, folding and feeding systems and the sealing of wounds in a traumatic reproductive system. In addition, resilin is present in many compound eye lenses and is suggested to be a very suitable material for optical elements because of its transparency and amorphousness. The evolution of this remarkable functional diversity can be assumed to have only been possible because resilin exhibits a unique combination of different outstanding properties.

  6. Dimorphic olfactory lobes in the arthropoda. (United States)

    Strausfeld, Nicholas; Reisenman, Carolina E


    Specialized olfactory lobe glomeruli relating to sexual or caste differences have been observed in at least five orders of insects, suggesting an early appearance of this trait in insect evolution. Dimorphism is not limited to nocturnal species, but occurs even in insects that are known to use vision for courtship. Other than a single description, there is no evidence for similar structures occurring in the Crustacea, suggesting that the evolution of dimorphic olfactory systems may typify terrestrial arthropods.

  7. Gonadal ecdysteroidogenesis in arthropoda: occurrence and regulation. (United States)

    Brown, Mark R; Sieglaff, Douglas H; Rees, Huw H


    Ecdysteroids are multifunctional hormones in male and female arthropods and are stored in oocytes for use during embryogenesis. Ecdysteroid biosynthesis and its hormonal regulation are demonstrated for insect gonads, but not for the gonads of other arthropods. The Y-organ in the cephalothorax of crustaceans and the integument of ticks are sources of secreted ecdysteroids in adults, as in earlier stages, but the tissue source is not known for adults in many arthropod groups. Ecdysteroid metabolism occurs in several tissues of adult arthropods. This review summarizes the evidence for ecdysteroid biosynthesis by gonads and its metabolism in adult arthropods and considers the apparent uniqueness of ecdysteroid hormones in arthropods, given the predominance of vertebrate-type steroids in sister invertebrate groups and vertebrates.

  8. One hundred millipede species in Serbia (Arthropoda: Myriapoda: Diplopoda

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    Antić D.Ž.


    Full Text Available The millipede fauna of Serbia consists of 100 species, 44 genera, 16 families and 7 orders. The most abundant are families Julidae (41 species or 41% and Polydesmidae (22 species or 22%. Of the total number, 27 species (27% are endemic to Serbia, while 18 (18% are endemic to the Balkan Peninsula. All registered species can be related to 15 zoogeographical categories. Glomeris klugii Brandt, 1833 (Glomerida: Glomeridae, Cibiniulus phlepsii (Verhoeff, 1897 (Julida: Blaniulidae, Brachyiulus bagnalli (Brolemann, 1924, Megaphyllum carniolense (Verhoeff, 1897, Typhloiulus incurvatus Verhoeff, 1899, Xestoiulus luteus (Attems, 1951 (all Julida: Julidae, and Polydesmus renschi Schubart, 1934 (Polydesmida: Polydesmidae represent new records for the diplopod fauna of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173038

  9. New record of pycnogonid (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) for Cuba.


    Lalana, R.; Varela, C.


    Los representantes de la Clase Pycnogonida que habitan en las aguas del Archipiélago Cubano han pasado prácticamente desapercibidos para los especialistas, lo cual contrasta con las más de 60 especies registradas para el Golfo de México y el Mar Caribe (Child, 1992 y 2009).

  10. Morphometric characteristics in the horseshoe crab Tachypleus gigas (Arthropoda: Merostomata)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Das, S.; Chatterji, A; Parulekar, A

    , increase in weight was found to follow the cube low strictly. The carapace width grew faster at higher carapace length in females whereas, carapace weight in males was more at lower carapace. In general, a proportional increment in morphometry was seen...

  11. Identification of the first neuropeptides from the Amphipoda (Arthropoda, Crustacea). (United States)

    Christie, Andrew E


    Despite being used as models in the field of ecotoxicology, including use in studies of endocrine disruption, little is known about the hormonal systems of amphipods, particularly their peptidergic signaling systems. Here, transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) sequences were used to predict the structures of the first neuropeptides from members of this crustacean order. Using a well-established workflow, BLAST searches of the extant amphipod TSA data were conducted for putative peptide-encoding transcripts. The pre/preprohormones deduced from the identified TSA sequences were then used to predict the mature structures of amphipod neuropeptides. In total, 43 putative peptide-encoding transcripts were identified from three amphipods, Echinogammarus veneris, Hyalella azteca and Melita plumulosa. Collectively, 139 distinct mature peptides (110 from E. veneris alone) were predicted from these TSA sequences. The identified peptides included members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment concentrating hormone, allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, bursicon α, bursicon β, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, diuretic hormone 31, FLRFamide, molt-inhibiting hormone, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, pigment dispersing hormone (PDH), proctolin, RYamide, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide families. Of particular note were the identifications of orcokinins possessing SFDEIDR- rather than the typical NFDEIDR- amino-termini, e.g. SFDEINRSNFGFN, a carboxyl-terminally amidated orcokinin, i.e. SFDEINRSNFGFSamide, PDHs longer than the stereotypical 18 amino acids, e.g. NSELLNTLLGSKSLAALRAAamide, and a 13 rather than 12 amino acid long SIFamide, i.e. GPYRKPPFNGSIFamide. These data not only provide the first descriptions of native amphipod neuropeptides, but also represent a new resource for initiating investigations of peptidergic signaling in the Amphipoda.

  12. Registros da fauna de Collembola (Arthropoda, Hexapoda no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil Records of collembolan fauna (Arthropoda, Hexapoda in Paraíba State, Brazil

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    Bruno Cavalcante Bellini


    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são listadas as espécies de Collembola encontradas no Estado da Paraíba, Região Nordeste do Brasil. Os espécimes foram coletados em seis municípios: João Pessoa, Cabedelo, Mataraca, Bananeiras, Cacimba de Dentro e Araruna. Os espécimens foram coletados através do processamento de material em funis de Berlese-Tullgren, armadilhas do tipo pitfall e aspiradores entomológicos. Em seguida foram montados entre lâminas e lamínulas de vidro para identificação sob microscópio. Foram identificadas 54 espécies de colêmbolos, distribuídas em 25 gêneros, em 13 famílias. Entomobryidae foi a mais diversa, com 22 espécies e Seira foi o gênero mais diverso, com 15 espécies. A maior parte das espécies foi encontrada em remanescentes de Mata Atlântica e Mata de Restinga. Foram encontradas 20 novas espécies de colêmbolos e serão descritas posteriormente. Os dados aqui apresentados indicam que a Paraíba é um hotspot de diversidade para o gênero Seira.In this paper the species found in Paraíba State, northeatern Brazil are listed. The specimens were collected in six municipalities: João Pessoa, Cabedelo, Mataraca, Bananeiras, Cacimba de Dentro and Araruna. The specimens were collected using Berlese-Tullgren funnels, pitfall traps and entomological aspirators. After that they were mounted in glass slides for identification under microscope. It was found 54 species of collembolans, distributed in 25 genera, of 13 families. Entomobryidae was the most diverse family, with 22 species and Seira was the prevailing genus, with 15 species. Most species were found in fragments of Mata Atlântica and Mata de Restinga. Twenty new species were found and will be describe later. The data indicate that Paraíba is possibly a hotspot of diversity for the genus Seira.

  13. LA DIVERSIDAD DE INSECTOS (ARTHROPODA: HEXAPODA EN COLOMBIA I. ENTOGNATHA A POLYNEOPTERA Diversity of Lower Insects (Arthropoda: Hexapoda in Colombia: I. Entognatha to Polyneoptera

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    Full Text Available En este estudio se aborda la diversidad de hexápodos Entognatha a Polyneoptera de Colombia en términos del número de familias y especies, además del estado del arte en cada uno de los órdenes considerados e incluyendo referencias que son de relevancia para el estudio de la entomofauna colombiana. Se introduce la problemática de la valoración de la riqueza de especies de insectos en el país, desde las perspectivas histórica y del método taxonómico. Los valores en riqueza de especies, para cada grupo, se derivan de la diversidad conocida o del conocimiento de las especies formalmente descritas bajo los protocolos de la taxonomía. Para obtener la información se recurrió a literatura primaria, revisiones, monografías y catálogos impresos o en la red. Se registraron 14 órdenes, 80 familias y 1.673 especies en los grupos.The present study examines insect diversity (Entognatha and Polyneoptera in Colombia in terms of number of families, genera and species, in light of the most recent systematic data on the orders treated. We also highlight the work of active specialists and literature sources that are particularly relevant for the study of the Colombian entomofauna. We introduce the problem of evaluating species richness of insects in Colombia from historical and taxonomic-methodological perspectives. Species richness values for each group were derived from what is referred to as “known diversity” or knowledge of species that have been formally described in the taxonomic literature. Information was harvested from primary literature sources, reviews, monographs, and both online and printed catalogues. A total of 14 orders, 80 families and 1673 species are reported for the insects treated herein.

  14. LA DIVERSIDAD DE INSECTOS (ARTHROPODA: HEXAPODA) EN COLOMBIA I. ENTOGNATHA A POLYNEOPTERA Diversity of Lower Insects (Arthropoda: Hexapoda) in Colombia: I. Entognatha to Polyneoptera




    En este estudio se aborda la diversidad de hexápodos Entognatha a Polyneoptera de Colombia en términos del número de familias y especies, además del estado del arte en cada uno de los órdenes considerados e incluyendo referencias que son de relevancia para el estudio de la entomofauna colombiana. Se introduce la problemática de la valoración de la riqueza de especies de insectos en el país, desde las perspectivas histórica y del método taxonómico. Los valores en riqueza de especies, para cada...

  15. The centipedes (Arthropoda, Myriapoda, Chilopoda) from Colombia: Part I. Scutigeromorpha and Scolopendromorpha. (United States)

    Chagas, Amazonas; Chaparro, Elisa; Jiménez, Sebastián Galvis; Triana, Hernán Darío Triana; Flórez D, Eduardo; Seoane, José Carlos Sícoli


    This study presents an updated list of centipedes of the orders Scutigeromorpha and Scolopendromorpha from Colombia based on data from the literature, the World Catalogue of Centipedes (CHILOBASE), and specimens examined in museum collections. Four families, nine genera, 37 species and four subspecies are listed. One species belongs to Scutigeromorpha, and 36 species and four subspecies to Scolopendromorpha. Eleven species and four subspecies of scolopendromorphs are recorded for the first time from Colombia. Newportia Gervais, 1847 is the most diverse genus with 12 species and three subspecies. Six species of Scolopendromorpha are endemic. Three species-Otostigmus inermis Porat, 1876, O. scabricauda (Humbert & Saussure, 1870) and Cryptops iheringi Brölemann, 1902-are deleted from the fauna of Colombia. The Andean Región in Colombia has the most records of Scutigeromorpha and Scolopendromorpha. Maps showing the geographical distribution are given for the orders, genera, and some species.

  16. Molecular evidence of the survival of subterranean amphipods (Arthropoda) during Ice Age underneath glaciers in Iceland. (United States)

    Kornobis, Etienne; Pálsson, Snaebjörn; Kristjánsson, Bjarni K; Svavarsson, Jörundur


    A Two endemic groundwater arthropod crustacean species, Crangonyx islandicus and Crymostygius thingvallensis, were recently discovered on the mid-Atlantic volcanic island of Iceland. The extent of morphological differences from closest relatives, endemism, along with the geographic isolation of Iceland and its complete coverage by glaciers 21,000 years ago, suggests that these two species have survived glaciation periods in sub-glacial refugia. Here we provide strong support for this hypothesis by an analysis of mitochondrial genetic variation within Crangonyx islandicus. Our results show that the species is divided into several distinct monophyletic groups that are found along the volcanic zone in Iceland, which have been separated by 0.5 to around 5 million years. The genetic divergence between groups reflects geographic distances between sampling sites, indicating that divergence occurred after the colonization of Iceland. The genetic patterns, as well as the dependency of genetic variation on distances from the tectonic plate boundary and altitude, points to recent expansion from several refugia within Iceland. This presents the first genetic evidence of multicellular organisms as complex as crustacean amphipods which have survived glaciations beneath an ice sheet. This survival may be explained by geothermal heat linked to volcanic activities, which may have maintained favourable habitats in fissures along the tectonic plate boundary in Iceland during glaciations.

  17. A Holarctic Biogeographical Analysis of the Collembola (Arthropoda, Hexapoda Unravels Recent Post-Glacial Colonization Patterns

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    María Luisa Ávila-Jiménez


    Full Text Available We aimed to describe the main Arctic biogeographical patterns of the Collembola, and analyze historical factors and current climatic regimes determining Arctic collembolan species distribution. Furthermore, we aimed to identify possible dispersal routes, colonization sources and glacial refugia for Arctic collembola. We implemented a Gaussian Mixture Clustering method on species distribution ranges and applied a distance-based parametric bootstrap test on presence-absence collembolan species distribution data. Additionally, multivariate analysis was performed considering species distributions, biodiversity, cluster distribution and environmental factors (temperature and precipitation. No clear relation was found between current climatic regimes and species distribution in the Arctic. Gaussian Mixture Clustering found common elements within Siberian areas, Atlantic areas, the Canadian Arctic, a mid-Siberian cluster and specific Beringian elements, following the same pattern previously described, using a variety of molecular methods, for Arctic plants. Species distribution hence indicate the influence of recent glacial history, as LGM glacial refugia (mid-Siberia, and Beringia and major dispersal routes to high Arctic island groups can be identified. Endemic species are found in the high Arctic, but no specific biogeographical pattern can be clearly identified as a sign of high Arctic glacial refugia. Ocean currents patterns are suggested as being an important factor shaping the distribution of Arctic Collembola, which is consistent with Antarctic studies in collembolan biogeography. The clear relations between cluster distribution and geographical areas considering their recent glacial history, lack of relationship of species distribution with current climatic regimes, and consistency with previously described Arctic patterns in a series of organisms inferred using a variety of methods, suggest that historical phenomena shaping contemporary collembolan distribution can be inferred through biogeographical analysis.

  18. Molecular classification based on apomorphic amino acids (Arthropoda, Hexapoda): Integrative taxonomy in the era of phylogenomics. (United States)

    Wu, Hao-Yang; Wang, Yan-Hui; Xie, Qiang; Ke, Yun-Ling; Bu, Wen-Jun


    With the great development of sequencing technologies and systematic methods, our understanding of evolutionary relationships at deeper levels within the tree of life has greatly improved over the last decade. However, the current taxonomic methodology is insufficient to describe the growing levels of diversity in both a standardised and general way due to the limitations of using only morphological traits to describe clades. Herein, we propose the idea of a molecular classification based on hierarchical and discrete amino acid characters. Clades are classified based on the results of phylogenetic analyses and described using amino acids with group specificity in phylograms. Practices based on the recently published phylogenomic datasets of insects together with 15 de novo sequenced transcriptomes in this study demonstrate that such a methodology can accommodate various higher ranks of taxonomy. Such an approach has the advantage of describing organisms in a standard and discrete way within a phylogenetic framework, thereby facilitating the recognition of clades from the view of the whole lineage, as indicated by PhyloCode. By combining identification keys and phylogenies, the molecular classification based on hierarchical and discrete characters may greatly boost the progress of integrative taxonomy.

  19. New records of Protura (Entognatha, Arthropoda) from Romania, with an identification key to the Romanian species. (United States)

    Shrubovych, Julia; Fiera, Cristina


    The Romanian Protura were studied based on 175 specimens collected from Romania, along with bibliographic data. The main publication on the Romanian proturans was written by M.A. Ionescu (1951), who described 13 species mainly from soil and forest litter from 15 collecting points. The current paper represents the first study at a national level. Faunal data on Protura were obtained from 22 sites, mostly from forests of the Romanian Carpathians and also from a peri-urban area of Bucharest, which had not been studied before. As a result, the Romanian Protura fauna now consists of 27 known taxa in 6 genera and 4 families. Of the 27 taxa, 15 species are new records for Romanian fauna. An identification key to the Romanian Protura species is provided.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of the sea spider Nymphon gracile (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida

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    Braband Anke


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial genomes form units of genetic information replicating indepentently from nuclear genomes. Sequence data (most often from protein-coding genes and other features (gene order, RNA secondary structure of mitochondrial genomes are often used in phylogenetic studies of metazoan animals from population to phylum level. Pycnogonids are primarily marine arthropods, often considered closely related to chelicerates (spiders, scorpions and allies. However, due to their aberrant morphology and to controversial results from molecular studies, their phylogenetic position is still under debate. Results This is the first report of a complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a sea spider (Nymphon gracile, class Pycnogonida. Gene order derives from that of other arthropods so that presumably 10 single tRNA gene translocations, a translocation of the mitochondrial control region, and one large inversion affecting protein-coding genes must have happened in the lineage leading to Nymphon gracile. Some of the changes in gene order seem not to be common to all pycnogonids, as those were not found in a partial mitochondrial genome of another species, Endeis spinosa. Four transfer RNAs of Nymphon gracile show derivations from the usual cloverleaf secondary structure (truncation or loss of an arm. Initial phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequences placed Pycnogonida as sister group to Acari. However, this is in contrast to the majority of all other studies using nuclear genes and/or morphology and was not recovered in a second analysis where two long-branching acarid species were omitted. Conclusion Extensive gene rearrangement characterizes the mitochondrial genome of Nymphon gracile. At least some of the events leading to this derived gene order happened after the split of pycnogonid subtaxa. Nucleotide and amino acid frequencies show strong differences between chelicerate taxa, presumably biasing phylogenetic analyses. Thus the affinities between Pycnogonida and Acari (mites and ticks, as found in phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial genes, may rather be due to long-branch attraction and independently derived nucleotide composition and amino acid frequency, than to a real sister group relationship.

  1. Partial mitochondrial gene arrangements support a close relationship between Tardigrada and Arthropoda. (United States)

    Ryu, Shi Hyun; Lee, Ji Min; Jang, Kuem-Hee; Choi, Eun Hwa; Park, Shin Ju; Chang, Cheon Young; Kim, Won; Hwang, Ui Wook


    Regions (about 3.7-3.8 kb) of the mitochondrial genomes (rrnL-cox1) of two tardigrades, a heterotardigrade, Batillipes pennaki, and a eutardigrade, Pseudobiotus spinifer, were sequenced and characterized. The gene order in Batillipes was rrnL-V-rrnS-Q-I-M-nad2-W-C-Y-cox1, and in Pseudobiotus it was rrnL-V-rrnS-Q-M-nad2-W-C-Y-cox1. With the exception of the trnI gene, the two tardigrade regions have the same gene content and order. Their gene orders are strikingly similar to that of the chelicerate Limulus polyphemus (rrnL-V-rrnS-CR-I-Q-M-nad2-W-C-Y-cox1), which is considered to be ancestral for arthropods. Although the tardigrades do not have a distinct control region (CR) within this segment, the trnI gene in Pseudobiotus is located between rrnL-trnL1 and trnL2-nad1, and the trnI gene in Batillipes is located between trnQ and trnM. In addition, the 106-bp region between trnQ and trnM in Batillipes not only contains two plausible trnI genes with opposite orientations, but also exhibits some CR-like characteristics. The mitochondrial gene arrangements of 183 other protostomes were compared. 60 (52.2%) of the 115 arthropods examined have the M-nad2-W-C-Y-cox1 arrangement, and 88 (76.5%) the M-nad2-W arrangement, as found in the tardigrades. In contrast, no such arrangement was seen in the 70 non-arthropod protostomes studied. These are the first non-sequence molecular data that support the close relationship of tardigrades and arthropods.

  2. Predatory behavior of three centipede species of the order Scolopendromorpha (Arthropoda: Myriapoda: Chilopoda

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    Samuel P.G. Guizze

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies related to centipede feeding and predatory behavior are rare in the literature, and are limited to observations made during fieldwork. Furthermore, they lack descriptions of prey capture. We conducted a laboratory experiment using South American specimens of Scolopendra viridicornis Newport, 1844 (n = 5, Otostigmus tibialis Brölemann, 1902 (n = 5, and Cryptops iheringi Brölemann, 1902 (n = 5, as well as 13 different kinds of prey, to map and describe their predatory behavior. The analysis of video images (65 hours of recordings resulted in 15 behavioral categories that describe foraging, prey capture, feeding, and cleaning habits. Almost all observations (95% concluded with the centipede killing the prey. Although we witnessed that a stimulus triggered the movement of the centipede toward the prey in all observation events (suggesting a sit-and-wait strategy, our experiments also showed that these arthropods actively forage to seek food. Field observations during the experiment allowed us to document that scolopendromorphs feed on plants when animal prey items are not available. Moreover, we observed that the size and aggressiveness of the prey determined the centipede capture process. Our results revealed that two behavioral categories were performed only by S. viridicornis , and thus might be genus or species-specific. These are: raising the first third of the body while the rest of the body remains adjacent to the substrate; and restraining the prey along the ventral region of the first third of the body with the aid of locomotory legs. We also observed some peculiar behaviors performed only by O. tibialis . Our results confirm that S. viridicornis , O. tibialis and C. iheringi hold prey between their ultimate pair of legs.

  3. Feeding ecology of Ammothella longipes (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) in the Mediterranean Sea: A fatty acid biomarker approach (United States)

    Soler-Membrives, Anna; Rossi, Sergio; Munilla, Tomás


    Fatty acid analysis has proved valuable in determining seasonal trophic links and the feeding behavior in organisms in which these diet and trophic links cannot be inferred from stomach content analyses. Seasonal variations in total free fatty acid content (TFFA) and fatty acid composition of seston (<250 μm), the brown macroalgae Stypocaulon spp., polychaetes (Nereididae) and the pycnogonid Ammothella longipes have been used to establish their trophic links, with particular focus on seasonality and feeding ecology of A. longipes. Samples were collected in a coastal environment (NW Mediterranean Sea) at 7-10 m depth, in five different periods (August and October 2008, February, June and September 2009). Seston and Stypocaulon spp. samples did not show significant seasonal variations in TFFA content, while nereids showed a significant variation. Analysis of fatty acid profile showed high similarities of fatty acid composition between seston and Stypocaulon spp. Nereids were closer to seston and Stypocaulon spp. than A. longipes, which seemed to follow a seasonal trend. The results of this study reveal that A. longipes may change its feeding behavior depending on the season and available food. This pycnogonid species appears to be carnivore during spring and early summer but seems to feed on detritus when availability of prey diminishes during winter. Notable high amounts of odd-chain fatty acids are found in summer-autumn for this species, which may come from bacteria acquired from the detrital diet or from de novo biosynthesis from propionate. The results obtained provide new and valuable data on the understudied feeding biology of pycnogonids in general, and contribute to the understanding of their functioning of Mediterranean shallow oligotrophic systems and their trophic links.

  4. Temporal variations of Collembola (Arthropoda: Hexapoda in the semiarid Caatinga in northeastern Brazil

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    Aila Soares Ferreira


    Full Text Available The richness and abundance of Collembola species can be influenced by many biotic and abiotic factors, mainly humidity. The semiarid region of Brazil is dominated by Caatinga dryland vegetation which experiences distinct seasonal alterations of its physiognomy linked to regional rainfall regimes. The present study evaluated the environmental factors affecting populations of Collembola in an area of Caatinga vegetation in Northeastern Brazil during a 12-months period. Specimens were collected by active searching in ten 20 x 20 m plots, with a sampling effort of 1 hour/person/plot. A total of 1231 specimens were collected, comprising 15 morphospecies, 12 genera, and nine families. Both species richness and individual abundances demonstrated oscillations during the year, with the highest values occurring during the rainy season; rainfall was the principal predictive variable for the observed temporal oscillations. Minimum temperatures and precipitation influenced the structural composition of the Collembola. Populations of Collembola demonstrated clustered distribution during the year. The direct and indirect effects of precipitation on the quality of microhabitats and resource availability were apparently responsible for the numerical and compositional alterations of the Collembola fauna observed in the Caatinga site.

  5. A comparison of the mitochondrial genomes from two families of Solifugae (Arthropoda: Chelicerata): Eremobatidae and Ammotrechidae. (United States)

    Masta, Susan E; Klann, Anja E; Podsiadlowski, Lars


    Arachnids are an ancient and diverse group of arthropods, yet few representative mitochondrial genomes have been published for most of the 11 orders. Here, we present and compare sequence and genomic data from two complete mitochondrial genomes from the arachnid order Solifugae (the camel spiders or wind scorpions), representing two families, Ammotrechidae and Eremobatidae. We also make genome-level and sequence comparisons between these taxa and the horseshoe crab, a chelicerate from the sister group to arachnids. In their organization, the two solifuge mitochondrial genomes are similar to that of the horseshoe crab, although both of the solifuges possess a region of repeated sequence. All 13 protein-coding genes and the two ribosomal RNA genes are of similar sizes to those found in the horseshoe crab. The ammotrechid and the eremobatid each have one tRNA gene that differs in location from those of other chelicerates, suggesting that these translocations occurred after the divergence of Solifugae from other arachnid lineages. All 22 tRNA genes in both solifuges are inferred to form secondary structures that are typical of those found in other metazoan mt genomes. However, in the eremobatid, the tRNA(Ser(UCN)) gene in the repeat region appears to have undergone partial duplication and loss of function, and a new tRNA(Ser(UCN)) gene has been created de novo. Our divergence data, in conjunction with the fossil record, indicate that these two solifuge families diverged more than 230 million years ago. Thus, despite several gene rearrangements and duplications, these data indicate a remarkable degree of evolutionary stasis.

  6. Photon activation analysis of trace elements in several kinds of invertebrate animals. 1. Arthropoda crustacea

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    Fukushima, Michiko; Tamate, Hidetoshi [Ishinomaki Senshu Univ., Miyagi (Japan)


    Quantitative analysis of trace elements was made for marine mollusca by light quantum activation method. Crustacea which is likely to be well reflecting the environment of ocean floor was used as the subjects. Various kinds of these animals including Carcinus Portunus. Palinurus, Panulirus, Squilla etc. were collected from the sea off Japan to determine the concentrations of 15 kinds of elements in the gills, muscles, head/thorax region and viceraneous organs. The concentration of As was found markedly high in either of gills, muscles or viceraneous organs of Palinurus taken from the sea near Okinawa. It was found that there are no difference in the concentrations of As, Fe, Mn and Pb among the species studied and Fe, Mn and Pb were detected at high levels in the gills of Carcinus, whereas the Fe and Mn concentrations in the gills of Palinurus were considerably lower than other species tested. Thus, the element concentration was different among the regions studied and also species. (M.N.)

  7. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes in Diplura (hexapoda, arthropoda): taxon sampling is crucial for phylogenetic inferences. (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Jun; Koch, Markus; Mallatt, Jon M; Luan, Yun-Xia


    Two-pronged bristletails (Diplura) are traditionally classified into three major superfamilies: Campodeoidea, Projapygoidea, and Japygoidea. The interrelationships of these three superfamilies and the monophyly of Diplura have been much debated. Few previous studies included Projapygoidea in their phylogenetic considerations, and its position within Diplura still is a puzzle from both morphological and molecular points of view. Until now, no mitochondrial genome has been sequenced for any projapygoid species. To fill in this gap, we determined and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome of Octostigma sinensis (Octostigmatidae, Projapygoidea), and of three more dipluran species, one each from the Campodeidae, Parajapygidae, and Japygidae. All four newly sequenced dipluran mtDNAs encode the same set of genes in the same gene order as shared by most crustaceans and hexapods. Secondary structure truncations have occurred in trnR, trnC, trnS1, and trnS2, and the reduction of transfer RNA D-arms was found to be taxonomically correlated, with Campodeoidea having experienced the most reduction. Partitioned phylogenetic analyses, based on both amino acids and nucleotides of the protein-coding genes plus the ribosomal RNA genes, retrieve significant support for a monophyletic Diplura within Pancrustacea, with Projapygoidea more closely related to Campodeoidea than to Japygoidea. Another key finding is that monophyly of Diplura cannot be recovered unless Projapygoidea is included in the phylogenetic analyses; this explains the dipluran polyphyly found by past mitogenomic studies. Including Projapygoidea increased the sampling density within Diplura and probably helped by breaking up a long-branch-attraction artifact. This finding provides an example of how proper sampling is significant for phylogenetic inference.

  8. A scanning electron microscopy study of the embryonic development of Pycnogonum litorale (Arthropoda, Pycnogonida). (United States)

    Machner, Jakob; Scholtz, Gerhard


    The phylogenetic position of the enigmatic Pycnogonida (sea spiders) is still controversial. This is in part due to a lack of detailed data about the morphology and ontogenesis of this, in many aspects, aberrant group. In particular, studies on the embryonic development of pycnogonids are rare and in part contradictory. Here, we present the first embryological study of a pycnogonid species using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We describe the late embryogenesis of Pycnogonum litorale from the first visible appendage anlagen to the hatchling in 11 embryonic stages. The three pairs of appendage anlagen gain in length by growth, as well as by extension of furrows into the embryo. The opening of the stomodaeum is located far in front of the anlagen of the chelifores and has a Y-shaped lumen from the onset. During further embryogenesis, the position of the mouth shifts ventrally, until it is located between the chelifores. The proboscis anlage grows out as a circumoral wall-like structure, which is initially more pronounced ventrally. Hypotheses about the evolution of the proboscis by fusion of originally separated components are critically discussed, because the proboscis anlage of P. litorale shows no indications of a composite nature. In particular, a participation of post-cheliforal elements in proboscis formation is rejected by our data. Further, no preoral structure and no stage in proboscis formation was found, which could plausibly be homologized with the labrum of othereuarthropods. Thus, our study supports the assumption of a complete lack of a labrum in Pycnogonida.

  9. Mite (Arthropoda, Acari associates of palms (Arecaceae in Brazil I: present status and new records

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    Dalva L. Q. Santana


    Full Text Available This paper presents 72 new records and 10 records from literature on the distribuition of nine species of phytophagous mites and nine species of predatory mites from 13 species of palms in 13 Brazilian States.

  10. Antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts from Allomyrina dichotoma (Arthropoda: Insecta) larvae. (United States)

    Suh, Hwa-Jin; Kim, Seong-Ryul; Lee, Kyung-Seok; Park, Shin; Kang, Sun Chul


    This study was under taken to evaluate the antioxidant properties of larvae extracts of Allomyrina dichotoma. The antioxidant activities of various larvae extracts of water, methanol, ethyl-acetate, chloroform, and hexane were measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion radical and singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)). The methanolic larvae extracts displayed the greatest effect in DPPH radical scavenging assay, but the reducing activity of larvae extracts was weaker in the superoxide anion radical assay. However, methanol (ME) and chloroform extracts (CE) could be compared to ascorbic acid in (1)O(2) quenching ability. ME (the concentration of 50% (1)O(2) quenching, QC(50)=0.080mg/ml) and CE (QC(50)=0.051mg/ml) extracts had 1.7, 2.7 times better efficiency than ascorbic acid (QC(50)=0.138mg/ml), respectively. Also the extracts were found to protect biological systems in Escherichia coli and lactate dehydrogenase against detrimental effects of (1)O(2) of type II photosensitization in vitro. The ability of larvae extracts to scavenge free radicals could significantly change contents of GA equivalent, an important factor for the potency of antioxidant capacity. The results suggest that our study may contribute to the development of new bioactive products with potential applications to reduce oxidative stress in living organisms involving reactive oxygen species as well as play a vital role in insect organisms against oxidative damage of undesirable conditions.

  11. Nucleotide composition of CO1 sequences in Chelicerata (Arthropoda): detecting new mitogenomic rearrangements. (United States)

    Arabi, Juliette; Judson, Mark L I; Deharveng, Louis; Lourenço, Wilson R; Cruaud, Corinne; Hassanin, Alexandre


    Here we study the evolution of nucleotide composition in third codon-positions of CO1 sequences of Chelicerata, using a phylogenetic framework, based on 180 taxa and three markers (CO1, 18S, and 28S rRNA; 5,218 nt). The analyses of nucleotide composition were also extended to all CO1 sequences of Chelicerata found in GenBank (1,701 taxa). The results show that most species of Chelicerata have a positive strand bias in CO1, i.e., in favor of C nucleotides, including all Amblypygi, Palpigradi, Ricinulei, Solifugae, Uropygi, and Xiphosura. However, several taxa show a negative strand bias, i.e., in favor of G nucleotides: all Scorpiones, Opisthothelae spiders and several taxa within Acari, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, and Pycnogonida. Several reversals of strand-specific bias can be attributed to either a rearrangement of the control region or an inversion of a fragment containing the CO1 gene. Key taxa for which sequencing of complete mitochondrial genomes will be necessary to determine the origin and nature of mtDNA rearrangements involved in the reversals are identified. Acari, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, and Pycnogonida were found to show a strong variability in nucleotide composition. In addition, both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes have been affected by higher substitution rates in Acari and Pseudoscorpiones. The results therefore indicate that these two orders are more liable to fix mutations of all types, including base substitutions, indels, and genomic rearrangements.

  12. Antimicrobial effectors in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: an outgroup to the Arthropoda. (United States)

    Dierking, Katja; Yang, Wentao; Schulenburg, Hinrich


    Nematodes and arthropods likely form the taxon Ecdysozoa. Information on antimicrobial effectors from the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans may thus shed light on the evolutionary origin of these defences in arthropods. This nematode species possesses an extensive armory of putative antimicrobial effector proteins, such as lysozymes, caenopores (or saposin-like proteins), defensin-like peptides, caenacins and neuropeptide-like proteins, in addition to the production of reactive oxygen species and autophagy. As C. elegans is a bacterivore that lives in microbe-rich environments, some of its effector peptides and proteins likely function in both digestion of bacterial food and pathogen elimination. In this review, we provide an overview of C. elegans immune effector proteins and mechanisms. We summarize the experimental evidence of their antimicrobial function and involvement in the response to pathogen infection. We further evaluate the microbe-induced expression of effector genes using WormExp, a recently established database for C. elegans gene expression analysis. We emphasize the need for further analysis at the protein level to demonstrate an antimicrobial activity of these molecules both in vitro and in vivoThis article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'.

  13. Description and chromosome number of a species of Pseudonannolene Silvestri (Arthropoda, Diplopoda, Pseudonannolenidae

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    Carmem S. Fontanetti


    Full Text Available Pseudonannolene mesai sp.n. from Biritiba Mirim, State of São Paulo, Brazil, is described and the chromosome number (2n=16 is reported. It was impossible to observe the chromosomal sex determination mechanism.

  14. The chelifores of sea spiders (Arthropoda, Pycnogonida) are the appendages of the deutocerebral segment. (United States)

    Brenneis, Georg; Ungerer, Petra; Scholtz, Gerhard


    Within the last decade, gene expression patterns and neuro-anatomical data have led to a new consensus concerning the long-debated association between anterior limbs and neuromeres in the arthropod head. According to this new view, the first appendage in all extant euarthropods is innervated by the second neuromere, the deutocerebrum, whereas the anterior-most head region bearing the protocerebrum lacks an appendage. This stands in contrast to the clearly protocerebrally targeted "antennae" of Onychophora and to some evidence for protocerebral limbs in fossil euarthropod representatives. Yet, the latter "frontal appendages" or "primary antennae" have most likely been reduced or lost in the lineage, leading to extant taxa. Surprisingly, a recent neuro-anatomical study on a pycnogonid challenged this evolutionary scenario, reporting a protocerebral innervation of the first appendages, the chelifores. However, this interpretation was soon after questioned by Hox gene expression data. To re-evaluate the unresolved controversy, we analyzed neuro-anatomy and neurogenesis in four pycnogonid species using immunohistochemical techniques. We clearly show the postprotocerebral innervation of the chelifores, which is resolved as the plesiomorphic condition in pycnogonids when evaluated against a recently published comprehensive phylogeny. By providing direct morphological support for the deutocerebral status of the cheliforal ganglia, we reconcile morphological and gene expression data and argue for a corresponding position between the anterior-most appendages in all extant euarthropods. Consequently, other structures have to be scrutinized to illuminate the fate of a presumptive protocerebral appendage in recent euarthropods. The labrum and the "frontal filaments" of some crustaceans are possible candidates for this approach.

  15. An Updated Checklist and Perspective Study of Millipedes (Arthropoda: Myriapoda: Diplopoda in the Korean Peninsula

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    Anh D. Nguyen


    Full Text Available The Korean peninsula has diverse habitats and so would be expected to have a rich millipede fauna because of its location between the Paleoarctic and Oriental regions. To facilitate studies on millipedes, this work provides an updated list and discussion of Korean millipedes. A total of 69 species had been recorded up to 2010, but since then no new species have been reported. Among 69 species, 49 are endemic to the Korean peninsula. From 1950 to the present, an average of only seven new species from the Korean peninsula has been described per decade. This number does not reflect the biodiversity of millipedes in Korea, especially when compared to Taiwan, which has only one-third the area of the Korean peninsula, but from which a greater number of millipede species have been recorded (75 vs. 69 species. Japan has twofold the land area of the Korean peninsula, and an almost threefold higher number of millipede species. Further, more-intensive surveys will likely result in identification of more millipede species in the Korean peninsula.

  16. Opiliones are no longer the same--on suprafamilial groups in harvestmen (Arthropoda: Arachnida). (United States)

    Kury, Adriano B


    A review of the names used in the arachnid order Opiliones above superfamily level is presented. Many historical branching patterns of Opiliones (for five terminals), of Laniatores (for six terminals), and of Cyphophthalmi (for six terminals) are extrapolated, compared and graphically displayed. For the first time a historical review is made of the circumscriptions of those names and comparisons are drawn to current usage. Critical clades are used as terminals and represented by the oldest valid generic name of each. Comments are made on the variant usage for 25 suprafamilial names from the literature. Cladistic definitions are provided for these names under relevant hypotheses of phylogeny. It is noted that virtually all important suprafamilial names in Opiliones changed concept over time, and the purpose of this project is to clarify the original usage compared to current, and to add historical perspective. Two options are considered for higher-level nomenclature in Opiliones: (1) a circumscriptional option, sticking to the original inclusion of the names; (2) an inertial option, where no name has priority, and follows recent use in the literature. As there is no priority for names not regulated by ICZN, option 2 prevails, because it entails massive momentum. The following new names are introduced as unranked taxa to define clades under different hypotheses of phylogeny: Tricospilata (= Triaenonychidae + Grassatores), Lomaniatores (Laniatores in the restricted sense used by Loman/Pocock), and Eulaniatores (Laniatores excluding the bizarre Synthetonychiidae). Some of the hypotheses implied by these names are conflicting and mutually exclusive, but the state of knowledge of harvestman taxonomy is quickly changing, and no hypothesis that clearly supersedes the others can be detected.





    En este estudio se aborda la diversidad de hexápodos Entognatha a Polyneoptera de Colombia en términos del número de familias y especies, además del estado del arte en cada uno de los órdenes considerados e incluyendo referencias que son de relevancia para el estudio de la entomofauna colombiana. Se introduce la problemática de la valoración de la riqueza de especies de insectos en el país, desde las perspectivas histórica y del método taxonómico. Los valores en riqueza de especies, para cada...

  18. La diversidad de insectos (arthropoda: hexapoda) en colombia: i.entognatha a polyneoptera


    Amat García, Germán


    RESUMEN En este estudio se aborda la diversidad de insectos (Entognatha y Polyneoptera) de Colombia en términos del número de familias, géneros y especies, además del estado del arte en cada uno de los órdenes considerados y cuyos especialistas y fuentes bibliográficas son de gran relevancia para el estudio de la entomofauna colombiana. Se introduce la problemática de la valoración de la riqueza de especies de insectos en el país, desde las perspectivas histórica y del método taxonómico. ...



    Amat García Germán


    RESUMEN En este estudio se aborda la diversidad de insectos (Entognatha y Polyneoptera) de Colombia en términos del número de familias, géneros y especies, además del estado del arte en cada uno de los órdenes considerados y cuyos especialistas y fuentes bibliográficas son de gran relevancia para el estudio de la entomofauna colombiana. Se introduce la problemática de la valoración de la riqueza de especies de insectos en el país, desde las perspectivas histórica y del método taxon...


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    Full Text Available The presence of marine alien species in El-Kouf National Park and the neighbouring areas was assessed using a compilation of available information and observations, a field survey conducted on October 2010 in the framework of the MedMPAnet project and results of further monitoring during June and September 2012. A total of 9 alien species were reported: the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile Trevisan de Saint-Léon, the Chlorophyta Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder Verlaque, Huisman & Boudouresque, the crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and the fishes Fistularia commersonii Rüppell, 1838, Siganus luridus (Rüppell, 1829, Siganus rivulatus Forsskål, 1775, Pempheris vanicolensis Cuvier, 1831, Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 and Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell, 1838. Several of them were until now unknown for the National Park. The list of alien marine species of Libya is updated and discussed. Until now 63 marine aliens species were recorded along the Libyan coasts. These include 3 Foraminifera, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 1 Magnoliophyta, 11 Arthropoda, 13 Mollusca, 1 Echinodermata and 21 Chordata. Among these Non Indigenous Species, 43 are known as established along the Libyan coast including 8 invasive, 11 casual, 6 questionable, 3 cryptogenic and 1 unknown. An in-depth study of the marine organisms would substantially increase the number of alien species occurring in Libya. Monitoring of marine assemblages of MPAs is a valuable opportunity to go further into the knowledge of native and introduced species.

  1. Phthiraptera (Arthropoda, Insecta in Gallus gallus from isolated and mixed backyard rearing systems Phthiraptera (Arthropoda, Insecta em Gallus gallus de criações de fundo de quintal isoladas e mistas

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    Ana Clara Gomes dos Santos


    Full Text Available The objectives were to identify the species of chewing lice (Mallophaga at different body sites in chickens (Gallus gallus, in isolated and mixed rearing systems, and to determine the dynamics and structure of the louse populations collected. The prevalences were 100 and 35% for chickens in the isolated and mixed systems, respectively. The species recorded were: Menopon gallinae, Menacanthus stramineus, Goniodes gigas, Goniocotes gallinae and Lipeurus caponis. The chickens in the isolated system presented more lice than did the ones in the mixed system. The most prevalent species were M. gallinae (30.58 and 62.31% and L. caponis (29.12 and 14.49%, in the isolated and mixed systems, respectively. The preferential sites of parasitism were the dorsum, venter and wings among the chickens in the isolated system, while among the ones in the mixed system, the preferential sites were the dorsum and venter. The mean intensity of infestation in the isolated system was 111.4 for males and 19.1 for females, while in the mixed system it was 80 for males and 6.75 for females. The amplitudes of the infestation were 1-226 for males and 1-22 for females in the isolated system, while in the mixed system, the amplitudes were 1-111 and 1-8, respectively. It can be concluded that chickens reared in the isolated system harbor a greater number of lice than do chickens in the mixed system. However, the kind of rearing system does not prevent louse infestations.Objetivou-se identificar as espécies de malófagos em diferentes regiões do corpo de Gallus gallus, sob os sistemas de criação isolado e misto e determinar a dinâmica e estrutura da população. A prevalência de parasitismo foi de 100 e 35% para as aves no sistema de criação isolado e misto, respectivamente. As espécies identificadas foram: Menopon gallinae, Menacanthus stramineus, Goniodes gigas, Goniocotes gallinae e Lipeurus caponis. As aves mantidas isoladas apresentaram maior parasitismo do que aquelas sob o sistema misto de criação. As espécies mais prevalentes foram M. gallinae (30,58 e 62,31% e L. caponis (29,12 e 14,49%, nos sistemas isolado e misto, respectivamente. As regiões do corpo preferenciais dos malófagos foram dorso, ventre e asa para as aves do sistema isolado; e o dorso e ventre para as do sistema misto. Para as aves do sistema isolado, a intensidade média de infestação para os machos foi de 111,4 e para as fêmeas foi de 19,1. E, para o sistema misto foi de 80 e 6,75 para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente. A amplitude de infestação variou de 1-226 e 1-22 para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente (sistema isolado; enquanto para o sistema misto foi de 1-111 e 1-8, para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente. Conclui-se que as aves de fundo de quintal, criadas sob o sistema isolado de criação, apresentam maior infestação por malófagos do que aquelas criadas com outras espécies de aves, embora o sistema de criação não isente as aves do parasitismo.

  2. Distribución de Ostrácodos (Arthropoda: Crustacea en sedimentos del norte de Cartagena

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    Reyes Araya Lucy del Carmen


    Full Text Available This work concerns to the study of Ostracoda of the region 1ying
    between the beaches of Marbella and Monito, to the north of Cartagena (Bolivar enclosing an area of ca. 64 km2. The samples correspond to sediments obtained at depths ranging between O and 25 m. 463 specimens, belonging to 24 species of 13 families were found. The best represented families were Trackyleberididae and Cytheruridae. Puriana pustulosa Bold, 1966was found to be the most abundant and best distributed species. The distribution of the species observed in the region was shown to be extensive in fine sediments (sandy-muds and reduced in coarse sands, according to the pattern proposed by Peypouquet (1971 and Carbonel (1973.Este trabajo se realizó con Ostrácodos de la región comprendida entre las playas de Marbella y el Monito, al Norte de Cartagena, Bolivar. La zona de estudio abarca un área aproximada de 64 km2 Las muestras corresponden a sedimentos obtenidos a profundidades entre O y 25 m. Se encontraron 463 ejemplares pertenecientes a 24 especies agrupadas en 13 familias, de las cuales las mejor representadas son Trackyleberididae y Cytheruridae. La especie más abundante y mejor distribuida para el área es Purioma pustulosa Bold, 1966. La distribución de las especies en la región estudiada, es amplia en los sedimentos finos (lodo-arenoso] y reducida en las arenas gruesas, observación que coincide con el modelo propuesto por Peypouquet (1971 y Carbonel (1973.

  3. Inhibition of dye-coupling in Patella (mollusca) embryos by microinjection of antiserum against Nephrops (arthropoda) gap junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serras, F.; Buultjens, T.E.J.; Finbow, M.E.


    Antiserum raised against Nephrops gap junctions was injected into single cells of the 2-, 4-, 8-, 16-, and 32-cell stage of the Patella vulgata embryos. The pattern of junctional communication by iontophoresis of Lucifer Yellow CH was tested at the 32-cell stage. The results show that the normal pat

  4. Role of salinity on food conversion efficiency and growth in juvenile penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus dobsoni (Crustacea/Arthropoda)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, Brenda; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Growth parameters of juvenile Metapenaeus dobsoni, fed with fresh squid meat were estimated in 5, 15, 25 and 35 ppt salinities for 4 weeks. Although no significant differences were noticed in food ingestion rates, higher body weight (68.9% over...

  5. Coleoptera (Arthropoda, Insecta Associados às Copas de Attalea phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae no Pantanal de Mato Grosso, Brasil

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    Leandro Battirola


    Abstract. The palm trees correspond to an important element in tropical ecosystems, serving as food source and habitat for a wide variety of invertebrates and vertebrates. Considering the role of these plants as hosts of different species, this study evaluated descriptively the composition, trophic guilds and biomass of the community of Coleoptera associated with canopies Attalea phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso. Six palm trees were sampled during the high water season of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso (February 2001, by canopy fogging. A total of 7,670 specimens were collected (77.5 ind./m², 5,044 adults (65.7%; 50.9 ind./m² and 2,626 larvae (34.3%; 26.5 ind./m². Adults (65.7% represented 43 families and 467 morphospecies. The dominant families were Endomychidae, Nitidulidae, Tenebrionidae, Staphylinidae and Curculionidae, representing 66.9% of the total catch. Saprophages, fungivores and herbivores prevailed over predators. Highest richness of species was found for Staphylinidae, Curculionidae, Tenebrionidae and Chrysomelidae. Highest biomass was found in Scarabaeidae and Tenebrionidae followed by Nitidulidae and Curculionidae. These results indicate that the canopy of A. phalerata is habitat for a wide variety of Coleoptera, as well a reproduction site, as evidenced by the high number of larvae sampled in this study.

  6. Towards a Supertree of Arthropoda: A Species-Level Supertree of the Spiny, Slipper and Coral Lobsters (Decapoda: Achelata.

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    Katie E Davis

    Full Text Available While supertrees have been built for many vertebrate groups (notably birds, mammals and dinosaurs, invertebrates have attracted relatively little attention. The paucity of supertrees of arthropods is particularly surprising given their economic and ecological importance, as well as their overwhelming contribution to biodiversity. The absence of comprehensive archives of machine-readable source trees, coupled with the need for software implementing repeatable protocols for managing them, has undoubtedly impeded progress. Here we present a supertree of Achelata (spiny, slipper and coral lobsters as a proof of concept, constructed using new supertree specific software (the Supertree Toolkit; STK and following a published protocol. We also introduce a new resource for archiving and managing published source trees. Our supertree of Achelata is synthesised from morphological and molecular source trees, and represents the most complete species-level tree of the group to date. Our findings are consistent with recent taxonomic treatments, confirming the validity of just two families: Palinuridae and Scyllaridae; Synaxidae were resolved within Palinuridae. Monophyletic Silentes and Stridentes lineages are recovered within Palinuridae, and all sub-families within Scyllaridae are found to be monophyletic with the exception of Ibacinae. We demonstrate the feasibility of building larger supertrees of arthropods, with the ultimate objective of building a complete species-level phylogeny for the entire phylum using a divide and conquer strategy.

  7. The 'ventral organs' of Pycnogonida (Arthropoda) are neurogenic niches of late embryonic and post-embryonic nervous system development. (United States)

    Brenneis, Georg; Scholtz, Gerhard


    Early neurogenesis in arthropods has been in the focus of numerous studies, its cellular basis, spatio-temporal dynamics and underlying genetic network being by now comparably well characterized for representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, hexapods and crustaceans. By contrast, neurogenesis during late embryonic and/or post-embryonic development has received less attention, especially in myriapods and chelicerates. Here, we apply (i) immunolabeling, (ii) histology and (iii) scanning electron microscopy to study post-embryonic ventral nerve cord development in Pseudopallene sp., a representative of the sea spiders (Pycnogonida), the presumable sister group of the remaining chelicerates. During early post-embryonic development, large neural stem cells give rise to additional ganglion cell material in segmentally paired invaginations in the ventral ectoderm. These ectodermal cell regions - traditionally designated as 'ventral organs' - detach from the surface into the interior and persist as apical cell clusters on the ventral ganglion side. Each cluster is a post-embryonic neurogenic niche that features a tiny central cavity and initially still houses larger neural stem cells. The cluster stays connected to the underlying ganglionic somata cortex via an anterior and a posterior cell stream. Cell proliferation remains restricted to the cluster and streams, and migration of newly produced cells along the streams seems to account for increasing ganglion cell numbers in the cortex. The pycnogonid cluster-stream-systems show striking similarities to the life-long neurogenic system of decapod crustaceans, and due to their close vicinity to glomerulus-like neuropils, we consider their possible involvement in post-embryonic (perhaps even adult) replenishment of olfactory neurons - as in decapods. An instance of a potentially similar post-embryonic/adult neurogenic system in the arthropod outgroup Onychophora is discussed. Additionally, we document two transient posterior ganglia in the ventral nerve cord of Pseudopallene sp. and evaluate this finding in light of the often discussed reduction of a segmented 'opisthosoma' during pycnogonid evolution.

  8. The 'ventral organs' of Pycnogonida (Arthropoda are neurogenic niches of late embryonic and post-embryonic nervous system development.

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    Georg Brenneis

    Full Text Available Early neurogenesis in arthropods has been in the focus of numerous studies, its cellular basis, spatio-temporal dynamics and underlying genetic network being by now comparably well characterized for representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, hexapods and crustaceans. By contrast, neurogenesis during late embryonic and/or post-embryonic development has received less attention, especially in myriapods and chelicerates. Here, we apply (i immunolabeling, (ii histology and (iii scanning electron microscopy to study post-embryonic ventral nerve cord development in Pseudopallene sp., a representative of the sea spiders (Pycnogonida, the presumable sister group of the remaining chelicerates. During early post-embryonic development, large neural stem cells give rise to additional ganglion cell material in segmentally paired invaginations in the ventral ectoderm. These ectodermal cell regions - traditionally designated as 'ventral organs' - detach from the surface into the interior and persist as apical cell clusters on the ventral ganglion side. Each cluster is a post-embryonic neurogenic niche that features a tiny central cavity and initially still houses larger neural stem cells. The cluster stays connected to the underlying ganglionic somata cortex via an anterior and a posterior cell stream. Cell proliferation remains restricted to the cluster and streams, and migration of newly produced cells along the streams seems to account for increasing ganglion cell numbers in the cortex. The pycnogonid cluster-stream-systems show striking similarities to the life-long neurogenic system of decapod crustaceans, and due to their close vicinity to glomerulus-like neuropils, we consider their possible involvement in post-embryonic (perhaps even adult replenishment of olfactory neurons - as in decapods. An instance of a potentially similar post-embryonic/adult neurogenic system in the arthropod outgroup Onychophora is discussed. Additionally, we document two transient posterior ganglia in the ventral nerve cord of Pseudopallene sp. and evaluate this finding in light of the often discussed reduction of a segmented 'opisthosoma' during pycnogonid evolution.

  9. Allomyrina dichotoma (Arthropoda: Insecta Larvae Confer Resistance to Obesity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    Young-Il Yoon


    Full Text Available To clarify the anti-obesity effect of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL, we previously reported that ADL block adipocyte differentiation on 3T3-L1 cell lines through downregulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBPA. In this study, we tested whether ADL prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD and further investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of ADL. All mice were maintained on a normal-fat diet (NFD for 1 week and then assigned to one of five treatment groups: (1 NFD; (2 HFD; (3 HFD and 100 mg·kg−1·day−1 ADL; (4 HFD and 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1ADL; or (5 HFD and 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1 yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, positive control. ADL and yerba mate were administered orally daily. Mice were fed experimental diets and body weight was monitored weekly for 6 weeks. Our results indicated that ADL reduced body weight gain, organ weight and adipose tissue volume in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight gain was approximately 22.4% lower compared to mice fed only HFD, but the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis revealed that gene expression levels of PPARG, CEBPA and lipoprotein lipase (LPL in the epididymal fat tissue of HFD-fed mice receiving 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1 ADL were reduced by 12.4-, 25.7-, and 12.3-fold, respectively, compared to mice fed HFD only. Moreover, mice administered ADL had lower serum levels of triglycerides and leptin than HFD-fed mice that did not receive ADL. Taken together our results suggest that ADL and its constituent bioactive compounds hold potential for the treatment and prevention of obesity.

  10. A new species of Pycnogonum Brünnich, 1764 (Arthropoda, Pycnogonida) from Flemish Cap (Northwest Atlantic Ocean). (United States)

    Munilla, Tomás; Murillo, Francisco Javier; Soler-Membrives, Anna


    A new pycnogonid species of the genus Pycnogonum is described from Flemish Cap (Northwest Atlantic Ocean) at 1453-1462 m depth. Pycnogonum bamberi sp. nov. is compared with its congeners, from which it can be distinguished by the combination of a glans-shaped proboscis, the low, transverse ridges that lie on the dorsodistal surfaces of the first coxae and femora of all legs and the distinctive conical tubercle on the mid-dorsal surface of the fourth segment of the trunk.

  11. Revival of forgotten characters and modern imaging techniques help to produce a robust phylogeny of the Diplopoda (Arthropoda, Myriapoda). (United States)

    Blanke, Alexander; Wesener, Thomas


    The external and internal anatomy of millipedes (Diplopoda) is poorly known compared to some of the other myriapod and arthropod groups. Due to both language barriers, which hindered the assessment of the character-rich older literature, and non-phylogenetic thinking, our knowledge of morphological characters useful for phylogenetic work diminished over the last decades. Here, a new character matrix with 64 characters, mainly derived from old literature data, is used to reconstruct a phylogeny of Diplopoda. As a tool to further our knowledge about the morphology of the different millipede orders, we show how micro-computer tomography (μCT) can be used to assess and illustrate specific parts of the Platydesmida. With the advent of μCT it is now possible to analyse many taxa and characters in a comparatively short time. A focus is put on potential phylogenetically useful characters. Our results support a Verhoeffian classification of the Diplopoda: Polyxenida + Chilognatha. Pentazonia are the sistergroup to the Helminthomorpha. Colobognatha form the sistergroup to Eugnatha, the latter split into monophyletic Juliformia and Polydesmida + Nematophora.

  12. Monophyly of the ring-forming group in Diplopoda (Myriapoda, Arthropoda) based on SSU and LSU ribosomal RNA sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peiyun Cong; Xuhua Xia; Qun Yang


    Two controversies exist in the phylogeny of the derived millipedes (Diplopoda). The first is whether millipedes with a fusion ring, including Polydesmida, Spirobolida, Spirostreptida and Julida, form a monophyletic group (the ring-forming group). The second concerns the phylogenetic relationship within the three orders of Juliformia, i.e. Julida, Spirostreptida and Spirobolida. To resolve these phylogenetic controversies, we sequenced 18S and 28S rDNA from six millipede orders and retrieved several homologous sequences from GenBank. Our results give robust support to the monophyly of the ring-forming group based on maximum parsimony methods, max-imum likelihood methods and Bayesian inference. The monophyly of the ring-forming group suggests that the fusion of segment sclerites might have occurred only once during millipede evolutionary history. We also established a sister-group relationship between Spirobol-ida and Spirostreptida within Jnliformia after eliminating a short-branch attraction phenomenon, which is consistent with that from the mitochondrial genome analysis.

  13. Cheilopallene ogasawarensis, a New Species of Shallow-Water Pycnogonid (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) from the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan, Northwest Pacific. (United States)

    Nakamura, Koichiro; Akiyama, Tadashi


    A new species of pycnogonid recorded from the shallow waters of Ogasawara (Bonin) Island, Japan, Cheilopallene ogasawarensis n. sp. is described, illustrated and compared with similar species. Cheilopallene ogasawarensis is only the third pycnogonid species recorded from these islands. Morphological characters clearly distinguish the new species from its geographically closest congener C. nodulosa Hong and Kim, 1987, also recorded from Japanese waters.

  14. Prey orientation and the role of venom availability in the predatory behaviour of the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (Arthropoda: Chilopoda). (United States)

    Dugon, Michel M; Arthur, Wallace


    Many animal phyla contain clades in which most or all species are venom-injecting predators. An example, in the arthropods, is the class Chilopoda, containing the approximately 3500 species of centipedes. Very little ecological or behavioural work yielding quantitative data has been conducted on centipede predation. Here, we describe a study of this kind. Our experiments employed one centipede species - a large tropical one, Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans - and two species of prey - a cricket, Gryllus assimilis, and a locust, Schistocerca gregaria. We conducted two experiments. The first was aimed at investigating the extent to which the centipedes attacked prey in particular tagmata as opposed to at random over the whole body surface. The results showed that the centipedes were highly selective, preferring to attack the head or thorax rather than the abdomen; indeed, they often reoriented the prey in order to achieve this. A possible explanation of this behaviour is to maximize the speed with which the neurotoxins in the venom reach either the brain or the thoracic ganglia that control limb movement. The second experiment was aimed at investigating the effect of venom-extraction on the attack rate, and specifically at testing if the magnitude of any such effect differed between the two types of prey, which differ considerably in size. The results showed a major effect of venom extraction in relation to both types of prey, but with the time taken to return to a 'normal' attack rate being longer in the case of the larger prey-type, namely the locust. We discuss these results in relation to the 'venom optimization hypothesis' and, more generally, to the principle of minimizing the production/use of venom, which is an energetically expensive resource.

  15. Two new species of Sericosura Fry & Hedgpeth, 1969 (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida: Ammotheidae) from a hydrothermal vent on the East Pacific Rise. (United States)

    Wang, Jianjia; Lin, Rongcheng; Bamber, Roger N; Huang, Dingyong


    Between 17th October and 9th November 2009, the third leg of the Chinese DY115-21 cruise on board the R/V Dayangyihao, confirmed two new hydrothermal fields near the equatorial East Pacific Rise. Five pycnogonid specimens were obtained by deep-sea TV-grab from one of the new hydrothermal vents named 'Precious Stone Mountain' at 1.22°N 101.49°W. These specimens belonged to two new species of the obligately-vent-associated pycnogonid genus Sericosura. Three female specimens represent the new species Sericosura gemmaenonsis with large body size. One male and one female were of the second new species, Sericosura dentatus; the male specimen has a mid-dorsal femoral cement-gland-tube, like that of Sericosura dissita, while the female specimen has more finely-denticulate spines on the oviger strigilis than any other species of the genus.

  16. Vertical and time distribution of Diplopoda (Arthropoda: Myriapoda in a monodominant forest in Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Leandro D. Battirola


    Full Text Available In this study different sampling techniques for Diplopoda in soil, tree trunks and canopies were applied in an integrated way in the northern region of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. This was done in order to assess the relationship within the fauna in each forest strata, as well as its richness and temporal distribution. In all these habitats there were a total of 1,354 diplopods, distributed in four taxonomic orders, with Polyxenida being predominant over Polydesmida, Spirostreptida and Spirobolida. The largest representation was found on the trunks of the Vochysia divergens (721 ind., intercepted by tree photoecletors, whereas in the canopies sampling reached only 65 specimens. In the edaphic stratum 568 diplopods were captured, most with the use of the Winkler extractor, followed by pitfall traps and soil photoecletors. In spite of being an important group in these environments, both in terms of richness and diversity, this was less than has been observed in other Neotropical areas. However, due to seasonal changes in the Pantanal the existence of a relationship between the soil and the tree fauna was found as well as different survival strategies observed during the flood period. Regarding vertical distribution, the greatest richness and variety of taxonomic groups was found in the forest's edaphic environment demonstrating its association mainly with this forest stratum.

  17. A reassessment of the pycnogonid genus Cheilopallene (Arthropoda, Callipallenidae) with description of a new species from Papua New Guinea. (United States)

    Staples, David A


    The genus Cheilopallene is reviewed. Three species are assigned to species incertae sedis pending further analysis. Specimens from Lizard Island, Queensland, previously identified as C. nodulosa are reassigned to C. brevichela. Suspected sexual dimorphism represented by the presence of a chelifore scape node in female C. nodulosa is supported by the finding of the same dimorphism in C. brevichela and in a new species from Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea. It is likely that the presence of a chelifore scape node is a diagnostic character of all females in the genus Cheilopallene. An amended diagnosis is provided.

  18. Allomyrina dichotoma (Arthropoda: Insecta) larvae confer resistance to obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet. (United States)

    Yoon, Young-Il; Chung, Mi Yeon; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Han, Myung Sae; Goo, Tae-Won; Yun, Eun-Young


    To clarify the anti-obesity effect of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL), we previously reported that ADL block adipocyte differentiation on 3T3-L1 cell lines through downregulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBPA). In this study, we tested whether ADL prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and further investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of ADL. All mice were maintained on a normal-fat diet (NFD) for 1 week and then assigned to one of five treatment groups: (1) NFD; (2) HFD; (3) HFD and 100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL; (4) HFD and 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL; or (5) HFD and 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, positive control). ADL and yerba mate were administered orally daily. Mice were fed experimental diets and body weight was monitored weekly for 6 weeks. Our results indicated that ADL reduced body weight gain, organ weight and adipose tissue volume in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight gain was approximately 22.4% lower compared to mice fed only HFD, but the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed that gene expression levels of PPARG, CEBPA and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the epididymal fat tissue of HFD-fed mice receiving 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL were reduced by 12.4-, 25.7-, and 12.3-fold, respectively, compared to mice fed HFD only. Moreover, mice administered ADL had lower serum levels of triglycerides and leptin than HFD-fed mice that did not receive ADL. Taken together our results suggest that ADL and its constituent bioactive compounds hold potential for the treatment and prevention of obesity.

  19. Towards a Supertree of Arthropoda: A Species-Level Supertree of the Spiny, Slipper and Coral Lobsters (Decapoda: Achelata). (United States)

    Davis, Katie E; Hesketh, Thomas W; Delmer, Cyrille; Wills, Matthew A


    While supertrees have been built for many vertebrate groups (notably birds, mammals and dinosaurs), invertebrates have attracted relatively little attention. The paucity of supertrees of arthropods is particularly surprising given their economic and ecological importance, as well as their overwhelming contribution to biodiversity. The absence of comprehensive archives of machine-readable source trees, coupled with the need for software implementing repeatable protocols for managing them, has undoubtedly impeded progress. Here we present a supertree of Achelata (spiny, slipper and coral lobsters) as a proof of concept, constructed using new supertree specific software (the Supertree Toolkit; STK) and following a published protocol. We also introduce a new resource for archiving and managing published source trees. Our supertree of Achelata is synthesised from morphological and molecular source trees, and represents the most complete species-level tree of the group to date. Our findings are consistent with recent taxonomic treatments, confirming the validity of just two families: Palinuridae and Scyllaridae; Synaxidae were resolved within Palinuridae. Monophyletic Silentes and Stridentes lineages are recovered within Palinuridae, and all sub-families within Scyllaridae are found to be monophyletic with the exception of Ibacinae. We demonstrate the feasibility of building larger supertrees of arthropods, with the ultimate objective of building a complete species-level phylogeny for the entire phylum using a divide and conquer strategy.

  20. Ostracoda (Arthropoda, Crustacea) in a Miocene oxygen minimum zone, Trinidad, West Indies: A test of the Platycopid Signal Hypothesis (United States)

    Wilson, Brent; Coimbra, João C.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.


    Studies of Recent ostracodes around the area of South America shed little light on the paleoenvironmental interpretation of Miocene assemblages. Consequently, interpretations of the Miocene ostracode assemblages must be supplemented using evidence from better documented taxa. Benthic foraminifera in samples from the Lower to Middle Miocene Brasso Formation at Brasso Village, Trinidad, have previously been used to distinguish three sample groupings (Beneath, Within and Above) around an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), this being a layer of water within which dissolved oxygen concentrations can be as low as 0.1-1.0 mL/L. Using these same samples and the foraminiferal assemblage demarcations relative to the OMZ, this paper examines the associated and rich ostracode fauna of the Brasso Formation. The mean recovery of ostracode valves per sample was approximately three times greater in the Within OMZ sample group than in either of the Beneath OMZ or Above OMZ groups, perhaps reflecting the exclusion of macro-predators from within the OMZ. Individual rarefaction of species richness S to N = 300 valves was conducted for each sample group. This showed that S did not differ between the sample groups, ranging from 22.4 to 24.8. We used all ostracode species to model group separation. Based upon the Mahalanobis' criterion, we obtained significant group separation using a model with four taxa: Munseyella ex gr. minuta, Argilloecia posterotruncata, Munseyella sp. and Xestoleberis sp., while a fifth, Argilloecia spp., provided a significant but minor increase in separation probabilities over all groups. The two most abundant species (Bradleya sp., Gangamocytheridea reticulata) were thus not the best species for detecting the OMZ. Platycopid ostracodes of the genus Cytherella were found throughout the section, rather than concentrated within the OMZ, which contradicts the Platycopid Signal Hypothesis that OMZs are characterized by platycopid dominance. The total distribution and turnover of both ostracodal and foraminiferal assemblages were compared and contrasted quantitatively using a total assemblage turnover index (ATI) and the paleoenvironmental importance evaluated. The correlated between-sample ATI is for both groups lowest within the OMZ.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti R. Hadi


    Full Text Available An ecological survey was conducted in Central Sulawesi to obtain information on the distri­bution of reservoir hosts and vectors of arthropod-borne zoonotic diseases. Serological test were done from human sera collected in the area against arboviral and rickettsial antigens. Three species of Culex mosquitoes known as potential vectors of arbovirosis: Cx. bitaeni-orhynchus, Cx. gelidus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, were found in the area surveyed. A known vector of scrub typhus, Leptotrombidium (L. deliensis, was also found in that area. Suspected reservoirs of arthropod-borne zoonosis in the area surveyed were chickens, ducks, cows, horses, monkeys and rats. The prevalence of antibodies against arbovirus group A antigens ( Chikungunya, Getah and Sindbis was 34,06%, 28,5% and 4,39%, against arbovirus group B antigen (Japanese Encepha­litis was 93,4% and none against Rickettsia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhy antigens, out of 91 human sera examined. Antibodies were found in animal sera examined against arbovirus group A and arbovirus group B antigens in a variation of 11,8% — 100%. The prevalence of antibodies against R. tsutsugamushi antigen was 22,7% out of 22 rat sera examined.

  2. The effect of the glyphosate, 2,4-D, atrazine e nicosulfuron herbicides upon the Edaphic collembola (Arthropoda: Ellipura) in a no tillage system. (United States)

    Lins, Vilma S; Santos, Honório R; Gonçalves, Manoel C


    The use of herbicides is a common and intensive practice in no tillage systems. The herbicides can influence, directly or indirectly, the population of edaphic arthropods. Collembola is a group that functions as a bio-indicator of soil conditions. The degree of abundance and diversity of Collembola provides the level of soil disturbance provoked by agricultural practices. This experiment was designed to compare the influence of herbicides on the population fluctuation of Collembola in a no-till soil preparation system. The work was conducted in a non irrigated no-till area at the Núcleo Experimental de Ciências Agrárias of the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campus de Dourados, in soil planted with corn as a surface covering, during the period of December, 2002 to December, 2003. The data were analyzed according to a completely randomized model, in a split plot design. The plots received four types of herbicides: glyphosate, atrazine, 2,4-D and nicosulfuron. A fifth plot did not receive any herbicide (control), for a total of five treatment types. The sub plots were represented by their collection times (10, 20, 30 and 40 days after the herbicide applications). Both the type of herbicide and the time of data sampling influenced the Collembola population fluctuaction. The treatments with atrazine and 2,4-D caused the most reduction of the population of Collembola, depending on the time of application.

  3. Variation and specialisation of the forcipular apparatus of centipedes (Arthropoda: Chilopoda): a comparative morphometric and microscopic investigation of an evolutionary novelty. (United States)

    Dugon, Michel M; Black, Alexander; Arthur, Wallace


    The forcipules of centipedes are the only known example in the animal kingdom of an evolutionary transition from walking legs to venom-injecting appendages. They provide a classic case of an evolutionary novelty under most (but not all) definitions of that concept. Although there is a reasonable literature on forcipules, and on the forcipular segment more generally, it is fragmentary and scattered. Also, many previous studies have been based on a single species and hence have no comparative component. Here, we build on this earlier literature by providing detailed qualitative and quantitative information on the forcipular segments of representatives of the five extant orders of centipedes. Our results reveal notable differences between the orders - as well as considerable variation within some of them. The pattern of inter-group differences can be used to infer, albeit cautiously, a major evolutionary trend from a presumed scutigeromorph-like last common ancestor (LCA), in which the forcipules were probably leg-like (as in present-day scutigeromorphs) to a more specialized claw-like structure with movement restricted to the horizontal plane. This morphological trend may reflect an ecological trend from open-habitat ambush predation to leaf-litter and subterranean predatory opportunism.

  4. 卵黄蛋白原在系统进化中的应用%Molecular Evolution of the Arthropoda Vitellogenin Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶海燕; 黄原


    卵黄蛋白原是广泛地存在丁卵生脊椎和无脊椎动物体内的雌性特异性蛋白.研究显示几乎所有动物的卵黄蛋白原基因都起源于一个共同的祖先基因.通过Blast 搜索,从GeneBank中得到了18种节肢动物门的卵黄蛋白质序列数据和1种线虫的卵黄蛋白原序列数据,用ClustalX软件进行序列的比对分析,并用MEGA-II构建分子树,结果表明有卵黄蛋白原的序列数据可以很好的用于进化关系较近和较远物种的系统进化研究,是一个用于系统进化分析很好的分子标记.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雨楠; 黄迪颖; Lieberman B S


    等刺虫(Isoxys)是寒武纪海洋中一类分布广泛的双瓣壳节肢动物,在北美、欧洲、澳大利亚,西伯利亚及中国均有发现,但延续时间并不长,目前已经描述了16个已命名的种以及一些未定种化石.等刺虫在我国扬子地台云南滇东地区、贵州凯里、湖北长阳等地寒武系第二、第三统均有发现.文中报道的等刺虫发现于山东省临沂市刘庄镇馒头组顶部,没有保存软体部分,被命名为一个新种Isoxys shandongensis Wang and Huang sp.nov..同时,对美国寒武系Spence页岩保存的未定名等刺虫软体部分特征进行修订,并进行形态比较.等刺虫的新发现对探讨这类常见的寒武纪节肢动物的演化、分布和多样性均有一定意义.

  6. The Arthropoda in Chinese Tobacco Field Ecosystem%我国烟田生态系中的节肢动物类群

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王方晓; 魏重生; 冯小明



  7. The pattern of a specimen of Pycnogonum litorale (Arthropoda, Pycnogonida) with a supernumerary leg can be explained with the "boundary model" of appendage formation (United States)

    Scholtz, Gerhard; Brenneis, Georg


    A malformed adult female specimen of Pycnogonum litorale (Pycnogonida) with a supernumerary leg in the right body half is described concerning external and internal structures. The specimen was maintained in our laboratory culture after an injury in the right trunk region during a late postembryonic stage. The supernumerary leg is located between the second and third walking legs. The lateral processes connecting to these walking legs are fused to one large structure. Likewise, the coxae 1 of the second and third walking legs and of the supernumerary leg are fused to different degrees. The supernumerary leg is a complete walking leg with mirror image symmetry as evidenced by the position of joints and muscles. It is slightly smaller than the normal legs, but internally, it contains a branch of the ovary and a gut diverticulum as the other legs. The causes for this malformation pattern found in the Pycnogonum individual are reconstructed in the light of extirpation experiments in insects, which led to supernumerary mirror image legs, and the "boundary model" for appendage differentiation.

  8. Making sense of 'lower' and 'upper' stem-group Euarthropoda, with comments on the strict use of the name Arthropoda von Siebold, 1848. (United States)

    Ortega-Hernández, Javier


    The ever-increasing number of studies that address the origin and evolution of Euarthropoda - whose extant representatives include chelicerates, myriapods, crustaceans and hexapods - are gradually reaching a consensus with regard to the overall phylogenetic relationships of some of the earliest representatives of this phylum. The stem-lineage of Euarthropoda includes numerous forms that reflect the major morphological transition from a lobopodian-type to a completely arthrodized body organization. Several methods of classification that aim to reflect such a complex evolutionary history have been proposed as a consequence of this taxonomic diversity. Unfortunately, this has also led to a saturation of nomenclatural schemes, often in conflict with each other, some of which are incompatible with cladistic-based methodologies. Here, I review the convoluted terminology associated with the classification of stem-group Euarthropoda, and propose a synapomorphy-based distinction that allows 'lower stem-Euarthropoda' (e.g. lobopodians, radiodontans) to be separated from 'upper stem-Euarthropoda' (e.g. fuxianhuiids, Cambrian bivalved forms) in terms of the structural organization of the head region and other aspects of overall body architecture. The step-wise acquisition of morphological features associated with the origins of the crown-group indicate that the node defining upper stem-Euarthropoda is phylogenetically stable, and supported by numerous synapomorphic characters; these include the presence of a deutocerebral first appendage pair, multisegmented head region with one or more pairs of post-ocular differentiated limbs, complete body arthrodization, posterior-facing mouth associated with the hypostome/labrum complex, and post-oral biramous arthropodized appendages. The name 'Deuteropoda' nov. is proposed for the scion (monophyletic group including the crown-group and an extension of the stem-group) that comprises upper stem-Euarthropoda and Euarthropoda. A brief account of common terminological inaccuracies in recent palaeontological studies evinces the utility of Deuteropoda nov. as a reference point for discussing aspects of early euarthropod phylogeny.

  9. 海洋节肢动物细胞及组织培养研究进展%Research advances of cell and tissue cultures of marine Arthropoda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金刚; 程文; 代建国; 张燕; 谢海伟; 沈建忠



  10. Can long-range PCR be used to amplify genetically divergent mitochondrial genomes for comparative phylogenetics? A case study within spiders (Arthropoda: Araneae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G Briscoe

    Full Text Available The development of second generation sequencing technology has resulted in the rapid production of large volumes of sequence data for relatively little cost, thereby substantially increasing the quantity of data available for phylogenetic studies. Despite these technological advances, assembling longer sequences, such as that of entire mitochondrial genomes, has not been straightforward. Existing studies have been limited to using only incomplete or nominally intra-specific datasets resulting in a bottleneck between mitogenome amplification and downstream high-throughput sequencing. Here we assess the effectiveness of a wide range of targeted long-range PCR strategies, encapsulating single and dual fragment primer design approaches to provide full mitogenomic coverage within the Araneae (Spiders. Despite extensive rounds of optimisation, full mitochondrial genome PCR amplifications were stochastic in most taxa, although 454 Roche sequencing confirmed the successful amplification of 10 mitochondrial genomes out of the 33 trialled species. The low success rates of amplification using long-Range PCR highlights the difficulties in consistently obtaining genomic amplifications using currently available DNA polymerases optimised for large genomic amplifications and suggests that there may be opportunities for the use of alternative amplification methods.

  11. Occurrence of sea spider Endeis mollis Carpenter (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida on the test panels submerged in Gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of India

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    S. Satheesh


    Full Text Available Sea spiders (Pycnogonids are exclusively marine arthropods with worldwide distribution. Pycnogonida remains one of the poorly investigated groups encountered in fouling communities. In the present study, distribution pycnogonid species Endeis mollis associated with the fouling community developed on test panels submerged at Kudankulam coast, Gulf of Mannar was studied for a period of two years. Throughout the period of investigation, Endeis mollis was observed on the test panels. A maximum of 55 individuals per square dm was observed during pre-monsoon season and a minimum of 9 individuals per square dm during monsoon season. Results of this study on seasonal distribution are of considerable interest because so little has been documented on the ecology of Pycnogonids in India.

  12. Características de las comunidades de Diptera (Arthropoda: Insecta y su relación con el pasaje en la altillanura de la Orinoquia (Meta, Colombia

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    Niño Arias Larry


    Full Text Available La fauna dipterológica fue muestreada en la cuenca de sedimentación de la Orinoquia ondulada y bien drenada, correspondiente a la Altillanura estructural erosional con bajo grado de disección, ubicada cerca al caserío de Puerto Guadalupe en el municipio de Puerto López (Meta, Colombia. Se describen las comunidades caracterizando la composición, la abundancia, la diversidad y algunos aspectos estacionales, con respecto al paisaje, de las familias y los gremios tróficos larvales empleando procedimientos de estadística descriptiva y geoestadística junto con estimaciones Kriging.

  13. Fine structure of the spermatozoon in three species of Cambaridae (Arthropoda: Crustacea: Decapoda Cambarus robustus, Orconectes propinquus and Orconectes rusticus: a comparative biometrical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buket Yazicioglu


    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of spermatozoa in three species of cambarid crayfish, Cambarus robustus, Orconectes propinquus, and Orconectes rusticus, were studied and compared with eight previously studied species from different crayfish families using morphological features and biometrical data. The ultrastructure of spermatozoa show a generally conserved pattern including an acrosome and nucleus in the anterior and posterior parts of the cell, respectively, radial arms that wrap around the nucleus, and the whole cell is enclosed by an extracellular capsule. The most outstanding morphological feature in spermatozoa of three studied cambarid crayfish is the crest-like protrusions in the anterior part of the acrosome that can be used as one of the features for distinguishing the members of this family. Results of biometrical data reveal that acrosome size in the representatives of Parastacidae are the smallest, while representatives of Astacidae show the biggest acrosome. The acrosome size in species belonging to Cambaridae occupy an intermediate position between the two other families of freshwater crayfish. In conclusion, a combination of morphological features and biometrical data of spermatozoa can help distinguishing different species of the freshwater crayfish.

  14. Changes in segmentation and setation along the anterior/posterior axis of the homonomous trunk limbs of a remipede (Crustacea, Arthropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav N. Ivanenko


    Full Text Available This study describes the segmentation and setation at different developmental stages of the homonomous trunk limbs of the remipede Speleonectes tulumensis Yager, 1987 collected in anchialine caves of the Yucatan Peninsula. Most homonomous trunk limbs originate ventrolaterally and are composed of two protopodal segments, three exopodal segments and four endopodal segments; contralateral limb pairs are united by a sternal bar. However, the last few posterior limbs originate ventrally, are smaller sized, and have regressively fewer segments, suggesting that limb development passes through several intermediate steps beginning with a limb bud. A terminal stage of development is proposed for specimens on which the posterior somite bears a simple bilobate limb bud, and the adjacent somite bears a limb with a protopod comprised of a coxapod and basipod, and with three exopodal and four endopodal segments. On each trunk limb there are 20 serially homologous groups of setae, and the numbers of setae on different limbs usually varies. These groups of setae are arranged linearly and are identified based on the morphology of the setae and their position on the segments. The number of setae in these groups increases gradually from the anterior homonomous limb to a maximum between limbs 8–12; the number then decreases sharply on the more posterior limbs. Changes in the number of setae, which reach a maximum between trunk limbs 8–12, differ from changes in segmentation which vary only over the last few posterior trunk limbs. Following a vector analysis that identified a spatial pattern for these 20 groups of setae among the different homonomous limbs, the hypothesis was confirmed that the number of setae in any given group and any given limb is correlated with the group, with the position of the somite along the body axis, and with the number of somites present on the specimens. This is the first vector analysis used to analyze a pattern of developmental changes in serially homologs of an arthropod. Development of remipede limbs are compared and contrasted with similar copepod limbs. Architecture, particularly the sternal bar uniting contralateral limb pairs, proposed as homologous, and development of trunk limb segmentation of the remipede is generally similar to that of copepods, but the remipede limb differs in several ways including an additional endopodal segment, the proximal, that appears simultaneously with the protopod during development.

  15. Distribution of serotonin in the trunk of Metaperipatus blainvillei (Onychophora, Peripatopsidae): implications for the evolution of the nervous system in Arthropoda. (United States)

    Mayer, Georg; Harzsch, Steffen


    Onychophora ("velvet worms") are a key taxon in the discussion of arthropod phylogeny. Studies that analyze neuroanatomical characters against a phylogenetic background have recently provided new insights into this debate. However, to date only a few studies on nervous system organization, particularly in the trunk, are available in Onychophora. To close this gap and to compare the onychophoran nervous system with that of other bilaterians, we have analyzed the pattern of serotonin-like immunoreactivity in Metaperipatus blainvillei (Peripatopsidae). In addition to confirming previous histological observations, our experiments revealed many new aspects of nervous system organization in Onychophora. The serotonergic nervous system of M. blainvillei consists of five longitudinal nerve strands (the paired dorsolateral nerves, the heart nerve, and the paired ventral cords), which are interconnected at regular intervals by ring commissures as well as median commissures. The ring commissures are absent in the leg-bearing regions. In addition to the main nerve tracts, there are several extensive fiber networks innervating the integument, the nephridial organs, and the body musculature. The leg nerves and nephridial nerves represent the only strictly segmental neuronal structures. We conclude that the general architecture of the onychophoran nervous system in the trunk closely resembles the orthogonal organization that is present in various other groups of Bilateria, which suggests that the arthropod nervous system is derived from such an orthogonal pattern. This finding implies that the "rope ladder-like" nervous system may have arisen independently in Panarthropoda and Annelida and does not represent a synapomorphy of these groups.

  16. Neuropeptide discovery in the Araneae (Arthropoda, Chelicerata, Arachnida): elucidation of true spider peptidomes using that of the Western black widow as a reference. (United States)

    Christie, Andrew E; Chi, Megan


    The public deposition of large transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) datasets for the Araneae (true spiders) provides a resource for determining the structures of the native neuropeptides present in members of this chelicerate order. Here, the Araneae TSA data were mined for putative peptide-encoding transcripts using the recently deduced neuropeptide precursors from the Western black widow Latrodectus hesperus as query templates. Neuropeptide-encoding transcripts from five spiders, Latrodectus tredecimguttatus, Stegodyphus mimosarum, Stegodyphus lineatus, Stegodyphus tentoriicola and Acanthoscurria geniculata, were identified, including ones encoding members of the allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, allatotropin, CAPA/periviscerokinin/pyrokinin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/ion transport peptide, diuretic hormone 31, diuretic hormone 44, eclosion hormone, FMRFamide-like peptide (FLP), GSEFLamide, insulin-like peptide, orcokinin, proctolin, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide (TRP) families. A total of 156 distinct peptides were predicted from the precursor proteins deduced from the S. mimosarum transcripts, with 65, 26, 21 and 12 peptides predicted from those deduced from the A. geniculata, L. tredecimguttatus, S. lineatus and S. tentoriicola sequences, respectively. Among the peptides identified were variant isoforms of FLP, orcokinin and TRP, peptides whose structures are similar to ones previously identified from L. hesperus. The prediction of these atypical peptides from multiple spiders suggests that they may be broadly conserved within the Araneae rather than being species-specific variants. Taken collectively, the data described here greatly expand the number of known Araneae neuropeptides, providing a foundation for future functional studies of peptidergic signaling in this important Chelicerate order.

  17. Can long-range PCR be used to amplify genetically divergent mitochondrial genomes for comparative phylogenetics? A case study within spiders (Arthropoda: Araneae). (United States)

    Briscoe, Andrew G; Goodacre, Sara; Masta, Susan E; Taylor, Martin I; Arnedo, Miquel A; Penney, David; Kenny, John; Creer, Simon


    The development of second generation sequencing technology has resulted in the rapid production of large volumes of sequence data for relatively little cost, thereby substantially increasing the quantity of data available for phylogenetic studies. Despite these technological advances, assembling longer sequences, such as that of entire mitochondrial genomes, has not been straightforward. Existing studies have been limited to using only incomplete or nominally intra-specific datasets resulting in a bottleneck between mitogenome amplification and downstream high-throughput sequencing. Here we assess the effectiveness of a wide range of targeted long-range PCR strategies, encapsulating single and dual fragment primer design approaches to provide full mitogenomic coverage within the Araneae (Spiders). Despite extensive rounds of optimisation, full mitochondrial genome PCR amplifications were stochastic in most taxa, although 454 Roche sequencing confirmed the successful amplification of 10 mitochondrial genomes out of the 33 trialled species. The low success rates of amplification using long-Range PCR highlights the difficulties in consistently obtaining genomic amplifications using currently available DNA polymerases optimised for large genomic amplifications and suggests that there may be opportunities for the use of alternative amplification methods.

  18. La percepción de diplopoda (arthropoda, myriapoda) por los habitantes del poblado de pedra branca, santa teresinha, bahía, brasil




    Este artículo registra las concepciones, los conocimientos y los comportamientos que los habitantes del poblado de Pedra Branca, en el estado de Bahía, poseen sobre los artrópodos de la clase Diplopoda. Los datos fueron obtenidos desde febrero hasta junio de 2005 a través de entrevistas abiertas y semiestructuradas realizadas con 28 individuos de ambos sexos, con edades que variaron de 13 a 86 años. Se registraron los conocimientos tradicionales relacionados con taxonomía, biología, há...

  19. Comparative description of ten transcriptomes of newly sequenced invertebrates and efficiency estimation of genomic sampling in non-model taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riesgo Ana


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Traditionally, genomic or transcriptomic data have been restricted to a few model or emerging model organisms, and to a handful of species of medical and/or environmental importance. Next-generation sequencing techniques have the capability of yielding massive amounts of gene sequence data for virtually any species at a modest cost. Here we provide a comparative analysis of de novo assembled transcriptomic data for ten non-model species of previously understudied animal taxa. Results cDNA libraries of ten species belonging to five animal phyla (2 Annelida [including Sipuncula], 2 Arthropoda, 2 Mollusca, 2 Nemertea, and 2 Porifera were sequenced in different batches with an Illumina Genome Analyzer II (read length 100 or 150 bp, rendering between ca. 25 and 52 million reads per species. Read thinning, trimming, and de novo assembly were performed under different parameters to optimize output. Between 67,423 and 207,559 contigs were obtained across the ten species, post-optimization. Of those, 9,069 to 25,681 contigs retrieved blast hits against the NCBI non-redundant database, and approximately 50% of these were assigned with Gene Ontology terms, covering all major categories, and with similar percentages in all species. Local blasts against our datasets, using selected genes from major signaling pathways and housekeeping genes, revealed high efficiency in gene recovery compared to available genomes of closely related species. Intriguingly, our transcriptomic datasets detected multiple paralogues in all phyla and in nearly all gene pathways, including housekeeping genes that are traditionally used in phylogenetic applications for their purported single-copy nature. Conclusions We generated the first study of comparative transcriptomics across multiple animal phyla (comparing two species per phylum in most cases, established the first Illumina-based transcriptomic datasets for sponge, nemertean, and sipunculan species, and

  20. THE PERCEPTION OF DIPLOPODA (ARTHROPODA, MYRIAPODA BY THE INHABITANTS OF THE COUNTY OF PEDRA BRANCA, SANTA TERESINHA, BAHIA, BRAZIL La percepción de diplopoda (Arthropoda, Myriapoda por los habitantes del poblado de Pedra Branca, Santa Teresinha, Bahía, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper deals with the conceptions, knowledge and attitudes of the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, on the arthropods of the class Diplopoda. Data were collected from February to June 2005 by means of openended interviews carried out with 28 individuals, which ages ranged from 13 to 86 years old. It was recorded some traditional knowledge regarding the following items: taxonomy, biology, habitat, ecology, seasonality, and behavior. Results show that the diplopods are classified as “insects”. The characteristic of coiling the body was the most commented, as well as the fact that these animals are considered as “poisonous”. In general, the traditional zoological knowledge of Pedra Branca’s inhabitants concerning the diplopods is coherent with the academic knowledge.Este artículo registra las concepciones, los conocimientos y los comportamientos que los habitantes del poblado de Pedra Branca, en el estado de Bahía, poseen sobre los artrópodos de la clase Diplopoda. Los datos fueron obtenidos desde febrero hasta junio de 2005 a través de entrevistas abiertas y semiestructuradas realizadas con 28 individuos de ambos sexos, con edades que variaron de 13 a 86 años. Se registraron los conocimientos tradicionales relacionados con taxonomía, biología, hábitat, ecología, estacionalidad y comportamiento. Los resultados muestran que los diplópodos son clasificados como “insectos”. La característica de enrollar el cuerpo fue la más comentada, así como el hecho de que la mayoría de los individuos cree que estos animales son ponzoñosos. En general, el conocimiento zoológico tradicional que los pobladores de Pedra Branca tienen acerca de los diplópodos se mostró coherente con el conocimiento académico.

  1. La percepción de diplopoda (Arthropoda, Myriapoda por los habitantes del poblado de Pedra Branca, Santa Teresinha, Bahía, Brasil The perception of diplopoda (Arthropoda, Myriapoda by the inhabitants of the country of Pedra Branca Santa Teresinha, Bahía, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Neto Eraldo M.


    Full Text Available Este artículo registra las concepciones, los conocimientos y los comportamientos que los habitantes del poblado de Pedra Branca, en el estado de Bahía, poseen sobre los artrópodos de la clase Diplopoda. Los datos fueron obtenidos desde febrero hasta junio de 2005 a través de entrevistas abiertas y semiestructuradas realizadas con 28 individuos de ambos sexos, con edades que variaron de 13 a 86 años. Se registraron los conocimientos tradicionales relacionados con taxonomía, biología, hábitat, ecología, estacionalidad y comportamiento. Los resultados muestran que los diplópodos son clasificados como “insectos”. La característica de enrollar el cuerpo fue la más comentada, así como el hecho de que la mayoría de los individuos cree que estos animales son ponzoñosos. En general, el conocimiento zoológico tradicional que los pobladores de Pedra Branca tienen acerca de los diplópodos se mostró coherente con el conocimiento académicoThis paper deals with the conceptions, knowledge and attitudes of the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, on the arthropods of the class Diplopoda. Data were collected from February to June 2005 by means of openended interviews carried out with 28 individuals, which ages ranged from 13 to 86 years old. It was recorded some traditional knowledge regarding the following items: taxonomy, biology, habitat, ecology, seasonality, and behavior. Results show that the diplopods are classified as “insects”. The characteristic of coiling the body was the most commented, as well as the fact that these animals are considered as “poisonous”. In general, the traditional zoological knowledge of Pedra Branca’s inhabitants concerning the diplopods is coherent with the academic knowledge.

  2. Levantamento de Coleoptera (Arthropoda: Insecta associados a fezes de gado bovino, no município de Itumbiara, Goiás, Brasil Survey of Coleoptera (Arthropoda: Insecta associated with bovine dung in the municipality of Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ândersen Terra de Oliveira


    Full Text Available O estudo sobre os Coleoptera, associados a fezes bovinas, teve como objetivo fazer um levantamento das espécies em massas fecais bovinas em Itumbiara, Goiás, Brasil. Vinte placas fecais bovinas foram coletadas aleatoriamente, a cada mês, com oito dias de exposição, colocadas em recipientes plásticos e levadas ao laboratório. Os coleópteros foram extraídos usando o funil de Berlese. As espécies mais freqüentes foram: espécie 1 (Histeridae, Ataenius aequalis Harold (1880 (Scarabaeidae, Oxytelus sp. (StaphylinidaeThe study of the Coleoptera associated with cattle dung pats had the objective of making a survey of the species in Itumbiara, Goiás, Brazil. Twenty samples of bovine dung were taken at random, each month, from eight-day-old pats, placed in plastic containers and taken to the laboratory. Coleopterans were extracted using Berlese funnel. The most frequent species were: species 1 (Histeridae, Ataenius aequalis Harold (1880 (Scarabaeidae, Oxytelus sp. (Staphylinidae

  3. 土壤理化因子与土栖节肢动物群落结构特征关系分析%Relationship between Soil-dwelling Arthropoda Communities and Soil Physical-chemical Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金娜; 孙元; 陈连江; 王贵强




    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢强; 卜文俊; 李新正; 郑乐怡




    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高念昭; 熊兴仁; 李恒源; 彭长雄




    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  7. Varibility of 18S rRNA Gene Sequences of Malacostraca in Arthropoda%节肢动物软甲纲18S rRNA基因序列变异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张代臻; 唐伯平; 张华彬


    用节肢动物软甲纲(Malacostraca)9个目53个物种的18S rRNA基因序列,分析节肢动物软甲纲18S rRNA基因序列变异特点,并通过邻接法构建系统发生树,初步探讨软甲纲9个目的亲缘关系,为弄清节肢动物尤其软甲纲的系统发生关系提供一定的理论依据.

  8. 鳞翅目昆虫比较线粒体基因组学研究进展%Advances in comparative mitogenomic studies of Lepidoptera(Arthropoda: Insecta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维; 孟智启; 石放雄; 李风波




    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚路; 彭进; 傅晓平; 赵元龙


    大型双瓣壳节肢动物是凯里生物群中重要组成部分,其中吐卓虫属(Tuzoia)最为常见,化石标本达200多件.吐卓虫常见于全球早、中寒武世地层,地理分布广泛,在地层对比和古环境研究中具有重要意义.文章运用数理统计和对比研究的方法,详细检测130多块双刺吐卓虫(Tuzoia bispinosa Yuan and Zhao,1999)化石标本,发现明显可分为幼年期、青年期和成年期3个不同的生长发育阶段.文中探讨双刺吐卓虫的个体发育,确认先前建立的凯里生物群中Tuzoia的2个种:Tuzoia bispinose和T.magna,应为Tuzoia bispinose一种.

  10. Advances on Research of Arthropoda Mitochondrial Genomes and Analysis of Gene Order%节肢动物线粒体基因组研究进展与基因顺序分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡婧; 刘念; 黄原


    在总结了68种节肢动物线粒体基因组的测序种类、基因组组成、结构及基因排序情况的基础上,特别对节肢动物线粒体基因组基因排列顺序数据进行了详细的分析.线粒体基因组基因排列顺序数据显示六足动物与甲壳动物之间相似,螯肢动物与多足动物相似,这个结果和以前Boore(1998)对节肢动物线粒体基因组顺序分析结果不同, 却和核rRNA数据的分析结果一致.

  11. Long-Term Effects of Beach Nourishment on the Benthic Fauna of Panama City Beach, Florida. (United States)


    Ervilia concentrica .. .. .. .. 6.41 .. .. .. .. .. Veneridae sp. -. .. .. .. .. 1.62 .. .. .. .. ARTHROPODA CRUSTACEA CIACEA Manocuma sp...38.29 - 80.85 13.63 50.78 - 38.06 .. .. .. ARTHROPODA CRUSTACEA ISOPODA Chiridotea excavata -- 3.14 -- 3.26 AMPHIPODA Acanthobaustorius sp...Strigilla sp. -- I Tellina sp. -- 1 Unidentified sp. A -- 1 Veneridae -- I ARTHROPODA CRUSTACEA CUIACEA Mancocuma sp. -- 1 Oxyurostylis smithi -- 2

  12. The phylogeny of invertebrates and the evolution of myelin. (United States)

    Roots, Betty I


    Current concepts of invertebrate phylogeny are reviewed. Annelida and Arthropoda, previously regarded as closely related, are now placed in separate clades. Myelin, a sheath of multiple layers of membranes around nerve axons, is found in members of the Annelida, Arthropoda and Chordata. The structure, composition and function of the sheaths in Annelida and Arthropoda are examined and evidence for the separate evolutionary origins of myelin in the three clades is presented. That myelin has arisen independently at least three times, namely in Annelids, Arthropodas and Chordates, provides a remarkable example of convergent evolution.



  14. Invertebrates Collected on and around Carroll Island, Maryland. (United States)


  15. Principles of Insect Identification. MP-20. (United States)

    Lawson, Fred A.; Burkhardt, Chris C.

    This document provides information for the complete classification of members of the phylum Arthropoda. Both major and minor insect orders are discussed relative to their anatomical characteristics and importance. (CS)

  16. Neuroanatomy of Halobiotus crispae (Eutardigrada: Hypsibiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Dennis; Halberg, Kenneth; Jørgensen, Aslak


    The position of Tardigrada in the animal tree of life is a subject that has received much attention, but still remains controversial. Whereas some think tardigrades should be categorized as cycloneuralians, most authors argue in favor of a phylogenetic position within Panarthropoda as a sister...... of a brain comprised of at least three parts cannot be rejected, and the data presented supports a sister group relationship of Tardigrada to 1) Arthropoda or 2) Onychophora or 3) Arthropoda + Onychophora....

  17. The fossils of Orsten-type preservation from Middle and Upper Cambrian in Hunan,China-- Three-dimensionally preserved soft- bodied fossils (Arthropods)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Xiping; Philip C. J Donoghue; LIU Zheng; LIU Jie; PENG Fan


    Exquisitely preserved three-dimensional soft- bodied fossils and typical Orsten-type preservation have been found from the strata of Middle and Late Cambrian in western Hunan, China. A preliminary description is provided for Hesslandona sp. (Phosphatocopida, Crustacea, Arthropoda) and Skara sp. (Skaracarida, Crustaceam, Arthropoda). The scientific significance of Orsten-type preservation and prospects for future work on these fossils from Hunan are outlined.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎道洪; 罗蓉; 宋锡章




    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎道洪; 罗蓉



  20. 节肢动物Kv2基因A~I RNA编辑位点的鉴定和进化分析及机制研究%Identification and Analysis of Evolution of A-to-I RNA Editing Sites in Kv2 Gene in Arthropoda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨赟; 周辛欣; 尹姮; 金勇丰


    A~I RNA编辑可以改变氨基酸编码而增加蛋白质的多样性,但是其分子机制和在进化中的特征依然不清楚.通过对节肢动物门5个纲的物种Kv2基因RNA编辑的研究,检测到17个A~I RNA编辑位点,由保守和物种特异的编辑位点构成,其中编辑位点15(Ⅰ/Ⅴ)起源于4.5亿年前,是迄今为止非脊椎动物中最保守的;同时还发现一些A~I RNA编辑位点具有趋同进化现象.在此基础上,通过共转染实验表明了果蝇Kv2基因RNA编辑是RNA编辑酶和由外显子形成的RNA二级结构相互作用的结果,暗示一些外显子除了编码蛋白质的功能,本身也具有重要的基因表达调控功能.

  1. 壬基酚、五氯酚及硝基苯对端足类河蜾赢蜚(Corophium acherusicum)的毒性效应%Toxic Effects of Nonylphenol, Pentachlorophenol and Nitrobenzene on the Amphipoda Corophium acherusicum (Arthropoda, Malacostraca)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑佳佳; 王睿睿; 林志浩; 梁军辉; 闫启仑


    为检测海洋中环境激素及芳烃类化合物对端足类生物的污染危害,实验选择端足类河蜾赢蜚(Corophium acherusicum)为受试生物,研究了其在壬基酚、五氯酚、硝基苯三种有机污染物暴露下的96 h急性致死毒性效应和7d慢性DNA损伤毒性效应.计算获得壬基酚、五氯酚和硝基苯对河蜾赢蜚的96 h半致死浓度(LC50)分别为70、465、25 000 μg· L-1,三种有机污染物对河蜾赢蜚的毒性强弱顺序为壬基酚>五氯酚>硝基苯.运用碱解旋法检测壬基酚、五氯酚和硝基苯对河蜾赢蜚DNA损伤的程度,计算得到7d半效应浓度(EC5o)分别为30、256、11 000 μg· L-1.实验结果表明:三种有机污染物浓度的不断加大,引起河蜾赢蜚DNA损伤程度的不断增加,呈显著的剂量-效应关系.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭微; 黎道洪; 杨卫成



  3. Morphological support for the phylogenetic positioning of Pentastomida and related fossils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Christine Costa Eloy


    Full Text Available Pentastomida is a group of parasites that infects the respiratory tracts of vertebrates. They have a mixture of annelid and arthropod characteristics. For that reason, the phylogenetic relationships of the pentastomids have been controversial in proposals of metazoan phylogeny. Forty-seven characters were selected for the analyses of the taxa Annelida, Arthropoda, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Onychophora, Pentastomida, Priapulida and Tardigrada. The analyses with PAUP resulted in a single shortest cladogram (length 89, ci 0.78, ri 0.86. Our results indicate that Pentastomida is a transitional group between the Arthropoda and some of the Nemathelminth groups such as Nematoda and Nematomorpha.



    Iannacone, José; Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (Perú).; Alvariño, Lorena; Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (Perú).


    El objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar la ecotoxicidad del cartap (Bala® 50 PS) sobre ocho organismos animales no destinatarios: 1) Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) (Mollusca), 2) Emerita analoga (Stimpson, 1857) (Crustácea), 3) Chironomus calligraphus Goeldi, 1805 (Diptera), 4) Cyprinus carpio (Linné, 1758) (Osteichyties), 5) Eisenia foetida (Savigny, 1826) (Annelida), 6) Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851) (Hemiptera), 7) Trichogramma fuentesi Torre, 1980 (Hymenoptera) y 8...

  5. Alpha- and beta-hemocyanin of Helix pomatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Jan


    This thesis deals with several aspects of the protein structure of Alpha- and Beta -hemocyanin of Helix pomatia. a- and 0-hemocyanin possess a virtually identical amino acid composition; it closely resembles the amino acid com- positions of hemocyanins of other MOLLUSCA and ARTHROPODA. All hemocyani

  6. North Fork Snoqualmie River Basin Wildlife Study. (United States)


    sample of total Arthropoda Insecta Trichoptera Psychoglypha sp. 1 43.1 0.5 1.8 Diptera Chironomidae 35 1506.9 17.5 64.9 Odonata 1 43.1 0.5 1.8 Annelida...Odentoceridae --- unid. Hydropsychidae --- Psychoglypha sp. dragonflies and damselflies Odonata flies Diptera, midges Chironomidae crane flies

  7. Soil Arthropods on Planting Corn


    Abdullah, Tamrin; Rauf, Aunu; Hidayat, Purnama; Sartiami,Dewi


    Insects Diversity Ekstensifikasi dan intensifikasi tanaman jagung untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pangan, pakan ternak dan industry yang semakin meningkat membawa konsekuensi pada perlunya perhatian terhadap keberadaan artropoda penghuni tanah sebagai salah satu upaya pengelolaan arthropoda secara berkelanjutan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji peran fungsional serta keragaman dan kelimpahan artropoda penghuni tanah pada pertanaman jagung. Penelitian lapangan dilakukan di Desa Cihideung ...


    Cole, W H


    1. The electrolyte composition, the pH, and freezing points of the fluids of several invertebrates and one primitive chordate are reported. 2. Fluids of the worms, echinoderms, and the clam Venus were isotonic with sea water; fluids of the Arthropoda were hypertonic to sea water. 3. The pH of all fluids was below that of sea water. In the Arthropoda and Myxine less individual variation in pH appeared than in the echinoderms and worms. 4. Ratios of ionic concentrations in the fluid to those in the sea water indicated (1) uniform distribution of ions between the internal and external media for the echinoderms and Venus, (2) differential distribution of potassium and magnesium in the worms; (3) differential distribution of sulfate, magnesium, potassium, and calcium in the Arthropoda; and (4) differential distribution of calcium, magnesium, and sulfate in Myxine. 5. The unequal distribution of ions implies the expenditure of energy against a concentration gradient across the absorbing or excreting membranes, a capacity frequently overlooked in the invertebrates. 6. The sera of the Arthropoda from diluted sea water showed higher concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride ions relative to the respective concentrations in the external medium than in normal sea water, and also showed different orders for those ions. 7. The increase in osmotic pressure of the sera of the animals moving into brackish water is caused by unequal accumulation of sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride ions. Sulfate and magnesium ionic ratios do not change.

  9. Neuroanatomy of Halobiotus crispae (Eutardigrada: Hypsibiidae): Tardigrade brain structure supports the clade Panarthropoda. (United States)

    Persson, Dennis K; Halberg, Kenneth A; Jørgensen, Aslak; Møbjerg, Nadja; Kristensen, Reinhardt M


    The position of Tardigrada in the animal tree of life is a subject that has received much attention, but still remains controversial. Whereas some think tardigrades should be categorized as cycloneuralians, most authors argue in favor of a phylogenetic position within Panarthropoda as a sister group to Arthropoda or Arthropoda + Onychophora. Thus far, neither molecular nor morphological investigations have provided conclusive results as to the tardigrade sister group relationships. In this article, we present a detailed description of the nervous system of the eutardigrade Halobiotus crispae, using immunostainings, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and computer-aided three-dimensional reconstructions supported by transmission electron microscopy. We report details regarding the structure of the brain as well as the ganglia of the ventral nerve cord. In contrast to the newest investigation, we find transverse commissures in the ventral ganglia, and our data suggest that the brain is partitioned into at least three lobes. Additionally, we can confirm the existence of a subpharyngeal ganglion previously called subesophagal ganglion. According to our results, the original suggestion of a brain comprised of at least three parts cannot be rejected, and the data presented supports a sister group relationship of Tardigrada to 1) Arthropoda or 2) Onychophora or 3) Arthropoda + Onychophora.

  10. Screening and identification of novel cytochrome P450s in ticks (United States)

    Cytochrome P450s are the major phase I drug metabolizing enzymes found in most species, including those belonging to the phylum Arthropoda. Much of the work within the area of xenobiotic metabolism in this phylum has centered on mosquito species such as Anopheles gambiae due to their role as vectors...

  11. [Origin of arthropods and of the clades of ecdysozoa]. (United States)

    Ivanova-Kazas, O M


    The problem of the origin of the phylum Arthropoda was long considered solved based on evolutionary morphology data. But molecular biological studies of recent years have put forward a new solution that contradicts the old one. Hence, the need arises to review the argumentation of both sides and search for ways to reach a consensus. These two subjects constitute the scope of this paper.


    With over 1,000,000 species of insects known, Class Insecta (Phyllum Arthropoda), the largest and most diverse group of organisms, is one of the least explored in natural product drug discovery (Dossey, A. T., Nat. Prod Rep. 2010, 27, 1737–1757). Over the past five our research stick insect chemical...

  13. The evolution of shell form in tropical terrestrial microsnails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liew, Thor Seng


    Mollusca form an important animal phylum that first appeared in the Cambrian, and today is,after Arthropoda, the second largest animal phylum, with more than 100,000 extant species(Bieler, 1992, Brusca and Brusca, 2003), with the class Gastropoda accounting for 80% of the extant species in the Mollu

  14. Medical Entomology Studies - XII. A Revision of the Aedes Scutellaris Group of Tonga (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 17, Number 3, 1980) (United States)


    collections (With associated invertebrates) (With associated invertebrates, non-Culicidae) Mollusca Annelida A rthropoda Crustacea Arachnida ...Culex) 27, 28, 30, 30t, 32, 38, 39, 41, 41t, 43, 44, 51t, 52, 53, 54, 55, 58 Anous sp. 43 Arachnida 19t, 42t Arthropoda 19t, 30, 42t, 56t, 57t

  15. General Design Memorandum, Gulfport Harbor, Mississippi. Design Memorandum Number 1. Appendix E. Thin-Layer Disposal (United States)


    identification level (LPIL), usually to species, and recorded on standardized taxonomy data sheets. Each specimen, upon identification, was measured for...Fringe Dieposal Sampling Area Nematoda Polychaeto Crustacoa * Mollusca FIGURE 3.2-22. RECRUITMENT SAMPLE ANALYSIS FOR THE GULFPORT HARBOR STUDY...Family Genus species Mollusca Gastropcda Archaegastropoda Nati ci dae Cepthalopoda Pln Tvuthoidea. Loliginidae Lollig1g~l brej Arthropoda. Criustacea

  16. Opsins in onychophora (velvet worms) suggest a single origin and subsequent diversification of visual pigments in arthropods. (United States)

    Hering, Lars; Henze, Miriam J; Kohler, Martin; Kelber, Almut; Bleidorn, Christoph; Leschke, Maren; Nickel, Birgit; Meyer, Matthias; Kircher, Martin; Sunnucks, Paul; Mayer, Georg


    Multiple visual pigments, prerequisites for color vision, are found in arthropods, but the evolutionary origin of their diversity remains obscure. In this study, we explore the opsin genes in five distantly related species of Onychophora, using deep transcriptome sequencing and screening approaches. Surprisingly, our data reveal the presence of only one opsin gene (onychopsin) in each onychophoran species, and our behavioral experiments indicate a maximum sensitivity of onychopsin to blue-green light. In our phylogenetic analyses, the onychopsins represent the sister group to the monophyletic clade of visual r-opsins of arthropods. These results concur with phylogenomic support for the sister-group status of the Onychophora and Arthropoda and provide evidence for monochromatic vision in velvet worms and in the last common ancestor of Onychophora and Arthropoda. We conclude that the diversification of visual pigments and color vision evolved in arthropods, along with the evolution of compound eyes-one of the most sophisticated visual systems known.

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: yellow fever mosquito [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti Arthropoda Aedes_aegypti_L.png Aedes_aegypti_NL.png Aedes_aegypt...i_S.png Aedes_aegypti_NS.png ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: red flour beetle [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum Arthropoda Tribolium_castaneum_L.png Tribolium_castane...um_NL.png Tribolium_castaneum_S.png Tribolium_castaneum_NS.png ...

  19. Midichlorians - the biomeme hypothesis: is there a microbial component to religious rituals?



    Background Cutting edge research of human microbiome diversity has led to the development of the microbiome-gut-brain axis concept, based on the idea that gut microbes may have an impact on the behavior of their human hosts. Many examples of behavior-altering parasites are known to affect members of the animal kingdom. Some prominent examples include Ophiocordyceps unilateralis (fungi), Toxoplasma gondii (protista), Wolbachia (bacteria), Glyptapanteles sp. (arthropoda), Spinochordodes tellini...



    Syed Abida; Mohammad Farooq Mir; Syed Ifshana; I. A. Ahangar


    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages of Verinag spring in Kashmir corresponding to different catchment and land uses acts as indicators of water quality. Physico-chemical parameters and population density of Annelids, Arthropoda and Mollusca individuals were determined. Diptera was dominating the study area instead of Annelida. The Oxygen Concentration was high and the mean dissolved oxygen was 9.8±0.90 mg/l. The presence of relatively high oxygen value seems to be a function of good periphy...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: common water flea [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available common water flea Daphnia pulex Arthropoda Daphnia_pulex_L.png Daphnia_pulex_NL.png... Daphnia_pulex_S.png Daphnia_pulex_NS.png ...

  2. Konsep Pengelolaan Kualitas Air Sungai Bedagai Berdasarkan Indikator Biologis Makroinvertebrata Air


    Tambun, Radius


    “The Water Quality Management Concept of Badagai River Based on Biological Indicators of Water Macro invertebrates” has been studied. Macro invertebrates were collected of five stations for three times and taken using surber net and van veen grab. Samples were identified in laboratory of Kantor Lingkungan Hidup, Serdang Bedagai District. The result of analysis showed that there are 34 genera of macro invertebrates within 3 phylum (Arthropoda, Annelida and Molusca). Quoyia decollate has the...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: pea aphid [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Arthropoda Acyrthosiphon_pisum_L.png Acyrthosiphon_pisum_NL.png Acyrthosiph...on_pisum_S.png Acyrthosiphon_pisum_NS.png http:...// ...

  4. Cambrian suspension-feeding lobopodians and the early radiation of panarthropods


    Caron, Jean-Bernard; Aria, Cédric


    Background Arthropoda, Tardigrada and Onychophora evolved from lobopodians, a paraphyletic group of disparate Palaeozoic vermiform animals with soft legs. Although the morphological diversity that this group encompasses likely illustrates the importance of niche diversification in the early radiation of panarthropods, the ecology of lobopodians remains poorly characterized. Results Here we describe a new luolishaniid taxon from the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale (Walcott Quarry) in British Col...

  5. Analysis of the Opsin Repertoire in the Tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini Provides Insights into the Evolution of Opsin Genes in Panarthropoda


    Hering, Lars; Mayer, Georg


    Screening of a deeply sequenced transcriptome using Illumina sequencing as well as the genome of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini revealed a set of five opsin genes. To clarify the phylogenetic position of these genes and to elucidate the evolutionary history of opsins in Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda), we reconstructed the phylogeny of broadly sampled metazoan opsin genes using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods in conjunction with carefully selected s...

  6. Neural development in the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini based on anti-acetylated α-tubulin immunolabeling


    Gross, Vladimir; Mayer, Georg


    Background The tardigrades (water bears) are a cosmopolitan group of microscopic ecdysozoans found in a variety of aquatic and temporarily wet environments. They are members of the Panarthropoda (Tardigrada + Onychophora + Arthropoda), although their exact position within this group remains contested. Studies of embryonic development in tardigrades have been scarce and have yielded contradictory data. Therefore, we investigated the development of the nervous system in embryos of the tardigrad...

  7. RNA interference can be used to disrupt gene function in tardigrades


    Tenlen, Jennifer R.; McCaskill, Shaina; Goldstein, Bob


    How morphological diversity arises is a key question in evolutionary developmental biology. As a long-term approach to address this question, we are developing the water bear Hypsibius dujardini (Phylum Tardigrada) as a model system. We expect that using a close relative of two well-studied models, Drosophila (Phylum Arthropoda) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Phylum Nematoda), will facilitate identifying genetic pathways relevant to understanding the evolution of development. Tardigrades are als...

  8. Two new families (Acari: Alicorhagiidae and Platyhelminthes: Prorhynchidae reported for the Hungarian fauna From leaf litter in the Bükk Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfliegler, W.


    Full Text Available Two new members of the Hungarian fauna are reported, both of them were collected in beech forest leaf litter in the Bükk Mountains, North-East Hungary: Alicorhagia fragilis Berlese, 1910 (Arthropoda: Arachnida: Acari: Sarcoptiformes: Endeostigmata: Alicorhagiidae and Geocentrophora baltica (Kennel, 1883 (Platyhelminthes: Rhabditophora: Trepaxonemata: Amplimatricata: 'Lecithoepitheliata': Prorhynchida: Prorhynchidae. The families Alicorhagiidae and Prorhynchidae both represent new taxa in the fauna of the country.

  9. 一种简便的蚤状溞观察方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    蚤状溞(Daphnia pulex)为节肢动物门(Arthropoda)鳃足亚纲(Branchiopoda)动物。分布广泛,常为湖泊池沼的优势种,是鱼类优良的天然饵料。同时,蚤状溞也是一种很好的实验材料。

  10. Technique of culturing Procambarus Clakii in ponds of saline-alkaline wetland along the Yellow River%沿黄低洼盐碱地池塘主养克氏原螯虾技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文锦; 祝少华; 刘佑臻


    @@ 克氏原螯虾(Procambarus clakii),俗称淡水小龙虾,英文名称为红沼泽螯虾(Red Swamp Crayfish).克氏原螯虾分类学上隶属于节肢动物门(Arthropoda)、甲壳纲(Crustacea)、十足目(Decapoda)、爬行亚目(Reptantia)、螯虾科(Cambaridae)、原螯虾属(Procambarus).

  11. New euthycarcinoids and an enigmatic arthropod from the British coal measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, H.M.; Almond, J.E. [Univrsity of Maryland, College Park, MD (USA). Dept. Entomology


    Two new species of euthycarcinoids (Arthropoda), Kottixerxes anglicus sp. nov. and Smithixerxes pustulosus sp. nov., are described from the Coal Measures of Westhoughton, Lancashire and Coseley, West Midlands (Westphalian A and B respectively). Both genera are previously known from Mazon Creek, USA (Westphalian D). An additional, enigmatic arthropod with possible euthycarcinoid affinities, Arthrogyrinus platyurus gen. et sp. nov., is described from Coseley. Hypotheses concerning the phylogenetic position of euthycarcinoids are critically reviewed.

  12. Eutaleola, a replacement name for the homonym Euteleia (Bryozoa: Pasytheidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro M. Vieira


    Full Text Available Eutaleola nom. nov. is proposed as a replacement name for Euteleia Marcus, 1938 (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata, a secondary homonym of Euteleia Raffray, 1904 (Arthropoda: Coleoptera. Eutaleola is a monospecific genus of Pasytheida e, found in warm shallow waters on both sides of the Atlantic and in deeper waters of the eastern Pacific. Brazilian material of Eutaleola evelinae (Marcus, 1938 comb. nov. is described and illustrated.

  13. 南美白对虾国外养殖发展概况及我国养殖现状、存在的问题与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王武; 黄凯


    @@ 一、国外南美白对虾养殖发展概况 南美白对虾,学名Penaeus(Lito Penaeus vanamei Boone).分类上隶属于节肢动物门(Arthropoda)、甲壳纲(Crustacea)、十足目(Decapoda)、游泳亚目(Natantia)、对虾科(Penaeidae)、对虾属(Penaeus)、Litopenaeus亚属.

  14. Compilation of 1986 annual reports of the Navy ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) communications system ecological monitoring program, volume 2 (United States)


    The U.S. Navy is conducting a long-term program to monitor for possible effects from the operation of its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System to resident biota and their ecological relationships. This report documents progress of the following studies: soil amoeba; soil and litter arthropoda and earthworm studies; biological studies on pollinating insects: megachilid bees; and small vertebrates: small mammals and nesting birds.

  15. Trilobites and the origin of arthropods. (United States)

    Cisne, J L


    While the question of whether the Arthropoda represent more than one phylum of animals is debatable, the jointed exoskeleton, a fundamental feature of arthropods, evolved independently in two groups that shared a worm-like common ancestor. The two major branches of Arthropoda, the primitively marine TCC and the primitively terrestrial (with one exception) Uniramia, independently arrived at arthropodization as the solution to the same problems of adaptation of the body mechanical system. New discoveries on trilobite anatomy show the unity of TCC as a group that shared a trilobite-like ancestor near the beginning of the Cambrian. With change in the constituency of Arthropoda through geologic time, the ways in which it would be categorized as a taxonomic group have also changed. The seeming isolation of the major modern arthropod groups is in large part an artifact of extinction of primitive intermediate forms such as trilobites which, in the Early Paleozoic, made the Arthropoda more diverse in basic modes of body organization than the group is at present. The appearance of fossilizable hard parts in arthropods resulted from shift in supporting function from the body cavity, primitively a hydrostatic skeleton, to the cuticle, which came to be strengthened in becoming an exoskeleton. Energetic efficiency, more than protection from predators or evolutionary size increase in itself, was probably the impetus behind the transition. On the scale provided by the general evolutionary trend toward progressive specialization of segments, TCC became arthropodized at earlier stages than did Uniramia. Among TCC, the shift may have been driven by the evolution of locomotory and feeding mechanisms that were exclusively geared to an aqueous medium.

  16. DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. (United States)

    Folmer, O; Black, M; Hoeh, W; Lutz, R; Vrijenhoek, R


    We describe "universal" DNA primers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a 710-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) from 11 invertebrate phyla: Echinodermata, Mollusca, Annelida, Pogonophora, Arthropoda, Nemertinea, Echiura, Sipuncula, Platyhelminthes, Tardigrada, and Coelenterata, as well as the putative phylum Vestimentifera. Preliminary comparisons revealed that these COI primers generate informative sequences for phylogenetic analyses at the species and higher taxonomic levels.

  17. Water Quality Criteria for Colored Smokes: 1,4-Diamino-2,3- Dihydroanthraquinone (United States)


    crustacean; (f) member of class Insecta ; (g) member in phylum other than Arthropoda or Chordata; and, (h) member of family in any order of class Insecta or...riAl _WAste, & Lafayette, IN, May 7-9, 1974. Eng. Ext. Series No. 145. pp. 524-534. MEDIARS 11 (CHEMLINE). 1987. National Library of Medicine ...ACADEMY OF HEALTH SCIENCES UNITED STATES ARMY ATTN: CHIEF, ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY BRANCH PREVENTIVE MEDICINE DIVISION (HSHA-TPM) FORT SAM HOUSTON, TX

  18. A transcriptome approach to ecdysozoan phylogeny. (United States)

    Borner, Janus; Rehm, Peter; Schill, Ralph O; Ebersberger, Ingo; Burmester, Thorsten


    The monophyly of Ecdysozoa, which comprise molting phyla, has received strong support from several lines of evidence. However, the internal relationships of Ecdysozoa are still contended. We generated expressed sequence tags from a priapulid (penis worm), a kinorhynch (mud dragon), a tardigrade (water bear) and five chelicerate taxa by 454 transcriptome sequencing. A multigene alignment was assembled from 63 taxa, which comprised after matrix optimization 24,249 amino acid positions with high data density (2.6% gaps, 19.1% missing data). Phylogenetic analyses employing various models support the monophyly of Ecdysozoa. A clade combining Priapulida and Kinorhyncha (i.e. Scalidophora) was recovered as the earliest branch among Ecdysozoa. We conclude that Cycloneuralia, a taxon erected to combine Priapulida, Kinorhyncha and Nematoda (and others), are paraphyletic. Rather Arthropoda (including Onychophora) are allied with Nematoda and Tardigrada. Within Arthropoda, we found strong support for most clades, including monophyletic Mandibulata and Pancrustacea. The phylogeny within the Euchelicerata remained largely unresolved. There is conflicting evidence on the position of tardigrades: While Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of only slowly evolving genes recovered Tardigrada as a sister group to Arthropoda, analyses of the full data set, and of subsets containing genes evolving at fast and intermediate rates identified a clade of Tardigrada and Nematoda. Notably, the latter topology is also supported by the analyses of indel patterns.

  19. Ecdysozoan mitogenomics: evidence for a common origin of the legged invertebrates, the Panarthropoda. (United States)

    Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Kayal, Ehsan; Gleeson, Dianne; Daub, Jennifer; Boore, Jeffrey L; Telford, Maximilian J; Pisani, Davide; Blaxter, Mark; Lavrov, Dennis V


    Ecdysozoa is the recently recognized clade of molting animals that comprises the vast majority of extant animal species and the most important invertebrate model organisms--the fruit fly and the nematode worm. Evolutionary relationships within the ecdysozoans remain, however, unresolved, impairing the correct interpretation of comparative genomic studies. In particular, the affinities of the three Panarthropoda phyla (Arthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada) and the position of Myriapoda within Arthropoda (Mandibulata vs. Myriochelata hypothesis) are among the most contentious issues in animal phylogenetics. To elucidate these relationships, we have determined and analyzed complete or nearly complete mitochondrial genome sequences of two Tardigrada, Hypsibius dujardini and Thulinia sp. (the first genomes to date for this phylum); one Priapulida, Halicryptus spinulosus; and two Onychophora, Peripatoides sp. and Epiperipatus biolleyi; and a partial mitochondrial genome sequence of the Onychophora Euperipatoides kanagrensis. Tardigrada mitochondrial genomes resemble those of the arthropods in term of the gene order and strand asymmetry, whereas Onychophora genomes are characterized by numerous gene order rearrangements and strand asymmetry variations. In addition, Onychophora genomes are extremely enriched in A and T nucleotides, whereas Priapulida and Tardigrada are more balanced. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid coding sequences support a monophyletic origin of the Ecdysozoa and the position of Priapulida as the sister group of a monophyletic Panarthropoda (Tardigrada plus Onychophora plus Arthropoda). The position of Tardigrada is more problematic, most likely because of long branch attraction (LBA). However, experiments designed to reduce LBA suggest that the most likely placement of Tardigrada is as a sister group of Onychophora. The same analyses also recover monophyly of traditionally recognized arthropod lineages such as Arachnida and of

  20. Ecdysozoan Mitogenomics: Evidence for a Common Origin of the Legged Invertebrates, the Panarthropoda (United States)

    Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Kayal, Ehsan; Gleeson, Dianne; Daub, Jennifer; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Telford, Maximilian J.; Pisani, Davide; Blaxter, Mark; Lavrov, Dennis V.


    Ecdysozoa is the recently recognized clade of molting animals that comprises the vast majority of extant animal species and the most important invertebrate model organisms—the fruit fly and the nematode worm. Evolutionary relationships within the ecdysozoans remain, however, unresolved, impairing the correct interpretation of comparative genomic studies. In particular, the affinities of the three Panarthropoda phyla (Arthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada) and the position of Myriapoda within Arthropoda (Mandibulata vs. Myriochelata hypothesis) are among the most contentious issues in animal phylogenetics. To elucidate these relationships, we have determined and analyzed complete or nearly complete mitochondrial genome sequences of two Tardigrada, Hypsibius dujardini and Thulinia sp. (the first genomes to date for this phylum); one Priapulida, Halicryptus spinulosus; and two Onychophora, Peripatoides sp. and Epiperipatus biolleyi; and a partial mitochondrial genome sequence of the Onychophora Euperipatoides kanagrensis. Tardigrada mitochondrial genomes resemble those of the arthropods in term of the gene order and strand asymmetry, whereas Onychophora genomes are characterized by numerous gene order rearrangements and strand asymmetry variations. In addition, Onychophora genomes are extremely enriched in A and T nucleotides, whereas Priapulida and Tardigrada are more balanced. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid coding sequences support a monophyletic origin of the Ecdysozoa and the position of Priapulida as the sister group of a monophyletic Panarthropoda (Tardigrada plus Onychophora plus Arthropoda). The position of Tardigrada is more problematic, most likely because of long branch attraction (LBA). However, experiments designed to reduce LBA suggest that the most likely placement of Tardigrada is as a sister group of Onychophora. The same analyses also recover monophyly of traditionally recognized arthropod lineages such as Arachnida and of

  1. A novel extracellular gut symbiont in the marine worm Priapulus caudatus (Priapulida) reveals an alphaproteobacterial symbiont clade of the Ecdysozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroer, Paul; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Nyengaard, Jens Randel;


    Priapulus caudatus (phylum Priapulida) is a benthic marine predatory worm with a cosmopolitan distribution. In its digestive tract we detected symbiotic bacteria that were consistently present in specimens collected over eight years from three sites at the Swedish west coast. Based on their 16S r...... Tenuibacter priapulorum’. Within Rickettsiales, they form a phylogenetically well-defined, family-level clade with uncultured symbionts of marine, terrestrial, and freshwater arthropods. Cand. Tenuibacter priapulorum expands the host range of this candidate family from Arthropoda to the entire Ecdysozoa...

  2. Descripción de la morfología externa por microscopia de luz y electrónica de barrido de Megninia ginglymura, Megnin, 1877 en faisán de collar (Phasianus torquatus), en un criadero de Corrientes, Argentina


    A. Santa Cruz ; M. C. Agüero ; J. A. González; J.A Comolli ; D. Cayo; J. P. Roux.-


    El objetivo de este trabajo es reportar el primer hallazgo de Megninia ginglymura, Megnin, 1877 (Arthropoda, Arachnida, Acari, Astigmata, Analgidae), en faisán de collar (Phasianus torquatus) y describir algunos caracteres morfológicos externos a través imágenes obtenidas con microscopios de luz y microscopio electrónico de barrido. La investigación se llevó a cabo en un criadero ubicado en la localidad del Ingenio Santa Ana de la ciudad de Corrientes, Latitud 27º 26´ 01, Longitud 58º 37´ 21....

  3. A molecular view of onychophoran segmentation. (United States)

    Janssen, Ralf


    This paper summarizes our current knowledge on the expression and assumed function of Drosophila and (other) arthropod segmentation gene orthologs in Onychophora, a closely related outgroup to Arthropoda. This includes orthologs of the so-called Drosophila segmentation gene cascade including the Hox genes, as well as other genetic factors and pathways involved in non-drosophilid arthropods. Open questions about and around the topic are addressed, such as the definition of segments in onychophorans, the unclear regulation of conserved expression patterns downstream of non-conserved factors, and the potential role of mesodermal patterning in onychophoran segmentation.

  4. Insecta. La búsqueda de la clasificación perfecta Insecta. Searching for the perfect classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Muzón


    Full Text Available RESUMEN. La historia de la clasificación de los insectos es analizada desde el punto de vista de sus relaciones externas (e.g., Unirramia, Mandibulata, Atelocerata, Pancrustacea e internas (e.g., Hexapoda, Insecta, Entognatha, Ectognatha, Dicondylia, Apterygota, Pterygota, Paleoptera, Neoptera. Se consideran las fuentes de caracteres y las posturas filogenéticas que justifican los distintos taxones propuestos.ABSTRACT. The history of classifications of insects is revised from its relationships within Arthropoda (e.g., Unirramia, Mandibulata, Atelocerata, Pancrustacea and major supraordinal groups (e.g., Hexapoda, Insecta, Entognatha, Ectognatha, Dicondylia, Apterygota, Pterygota, Paleoptera, Neoptera. Main kinds of characters and phylogenetic schemes are considered.

  5. The story of immigration of Eriocheir sinensis in Europe and USA%中华绒螯蟹欧洲、美国的移植

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹曙明; 李思发


    @@ 中华绒螯蟹(Eri0cheir sinensis)属节肢动物门(Arthropoda)、甲壳纲(Crustaceae)、十足目(Decapoda)、方蟹科(Grapsidae)、绒螯蟹属(Eriocheir),自然分布于南至中国福建闽江(~26°N),北至朝鲜半岛(~45°N),西达离长江口约1400km的重庆,由于人为因素,广东珠江流域也有少量存在(图1)[1].

  6. 珍稀海产动物-鲎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余友茂; 陈祥才


    鲎隶属于节肢动物门(Arthropoda),有螯肢亚门(Cheiicerata),肢口纲(Merostomta),是剑尾目(Xiphosura)的通称。它是节肢动物中体形最大的类群,被西方国家称为王蟹(Kingcrab);也由于它的头胸部呈马蹄形,所以在日本被称为马蹄蟹(Horseshoe crabs).

  7. 南美白对虾的养殖技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 南美白对虾(Penaeus vannamei),又称万氏对虾、白肢虾、白对虾、白虾,过去国内曾译为凡纳对虾,原产于南美太平洋沿岸的水域,以厄瓜多尔沿岸分布最为集中,为热带型种类,分类上隶属于节肢动物门(Arthropoda)、甲壳纲(Crustacea)、十足目(Decapoda)、游泳亚目(Natantia)、对虾科(Penaeidae)、对虾属(Penaeus)、Lito-penaeus亚属.

  8. 鱼虱对六六六抗药性的试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  9. 天牛类蛀干害虫为害特性及其综合治理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程菲; 黄海荣; 孙家礼; 熊建宏; 王晓红


    @@ 天牛属节肢动物门(Arthropoda)、昆虫纲(Insecta)、鞘翅目(Coleoptera),是为害林木、园林绿化树木和果树的一类重要钻蛀性害虫,目前世界已知约4 000属25 000种以上,我国已记载2 290种.目前天牛已成为我国林业大敌,仅杨树天牛的年发生面积就达60万hm.

  10. 鲎血淋巴中的先天性免疫系统%The innate immune system in hroseshoe crab hemolymph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳高亮; 鲍仕登


    鲎(horseshoe crab)是一种生活在海洋中的大型底栖节肢动物,从早古生代的奥陶纪出现至今已有4亿多年的历史,是动物界具有独特进化地位的“活化石”之一。鲎隶属于节肢动物门(Arthropoda)、有螯肢亚门(Chelicerata)、肢口纲(Merostemata)、剑尾目(Xiphosurida)、鲎科(Limuroidea)。现存的鲎种类很少,

  11. Itens alimentares encontrados em amostras de regurgitação de Pyriglena leucoptera (Vieillot (Aves, Thamnophilidae em uma floresta secundária no Estado do Rio de Janeiro Food items found in regurgitation samples of Pyriglena leucoptera (Vieillot (Aves, Thamnophilidae in a secondary forest area in Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Souza da Mota Gomes


    Full Text Available The diet of P. leucoptera (Vieillot, 1818 was studied using the emetic tartar which induces birds' regurgitation. Birds were captured and treated between May 1996 and June 1997 in the Atlantic Forest at the city of Guapimirim, State of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. The study area is a secondary forest continuous to the Serra dos Órgãos forest. Insect fragments of Coleoptera and Hymenoptera were the items most frequently found in the regurgitate samples. Besides contributing to the knowledge of the species diet, pictures of identified Arthropoda fragments are presented in order to aid future works on avian feeding.

  12. List of parasites' names of poultry and form animal in Yannan province%云南省家畜家禽寄生虫名录(五)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄德生; 李绍珠


    @@ 节肢动物门Arthropoda 蛛形纲Arachnida 蜱螨目Acarina 70硬蜱科Ixodidae 70.1硬蜱属Ixodes Latreille,1795 70.1.1粒形硬蜱I.granulatus Supino,1897 宿主与寄生部位:黄牛.皮肤. 分布:勐腊、江城、潞西、盈江、陇川、思茅、耿马、昆明.

  13. Ecological Survey Data for Environmental Considerations on the Trinity River and Tributaries, Texas. (United States)


    ARTHOPODA Miandibulata Arachnida . Hydracarina 48/0 .6 Crustac ea Branchlopoda /0038i48 Cladocera 9.038/8 Ephippia, 465/0.20 20/0.08 336/4.2 Ostracoda... Arachnida Hydracarina Crustacea - Branchiopoda Cladocera 88/0.3 3182/145.6 Ephippia 6/2 /022/0.4I Ostracoda 67/2 44 .2711 Copepoft i134i/145 880/3 .0...31.2 478848/98.7gtsl type 348/0.1 Ot1 0s 192/30.6 1392/11.8 NEMATODA ANNELIDA Oligochaeta Tubificidae ARTHROPODA Mandibulata Arachnida Hydracarina 14

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: Anopheles stephensi [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Anopheles stephensi Anopheles stephensi Arthropoda Anopheles_stephensi_L.png Anopheles_steph...ensi_NL.png Anopheles_stephensi_S.png Anopheles_stephensi_NS.png htt...p:// ...

  15. Zooplankton diversity across three Red Sea reefs using pyrosequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.


    Coral reefs are considered among the most diverse ecosystems on Earth, yet little is known about the diversity of plankton in the surrounding water column. Moreover, few studies have utilized genomic methods to investigate zooplankton diversity in any habitat. This study investigated the diversity of taxa by sampling 45 stations around three reef systems in the central/southern Red Sea. The diversity of metazoan plankton was investigated by targeting the 18S rRNA gene and clustering OTUs at 97% sequence similarity. A total of 754 and 854 metazoan OTUs were observed in the data set for the 1380F and 1389F primer sets respectively. The phylum Arthropoda dominated both primer sets accounting for ~60% of reads followed by Cnidaria (~20%). Only about 20% of OTUs were shared between all three reef systems and the relation between geographic distance and Jaccard Similarity measures was not significant. Cluster analysis showed that there was no distinct split between reefs and stations from different reefs clustered together both for metazoans as a whole and for the phyla Arthropoda, Cnidaria and Chordata separately. This suggests that distance may not be a determining factor in the taxonomic composition of stations.

  16. Growth patterns in Onychophora (velvet worms: lack of a localised posterior proliferation zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landman Kerry A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During embryonic development of segmented animals, body segments are thought to arise from the so-called "posterior growth zone" and the occurrence of this "zone" has been used to support the homology of segmentation between arthropods, annelids, and vertebrates. However, the term "posterior growth zone" is used ambiguously in the literature, mostly referring to a region of increased proliferation at the posterior end of the embryo. To determine whether such a localised posterior proliferation zone is an ancestral feature of Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda, we examined cell division patterns in embryos of Onychophora. Results Using in vivo incorporation of the DNA replication marker BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine and anti-phospho-histone H3 immunolabelling, we found that a localised posterior region of proliferating cells does not occur at any developmental stage in onychophoran embryos. This contrasts with a localised pattern of cell divisions at the posterior end of annelid embryos, which we used as a positive control. Based on our data, we present a mathematical model, which challenges the paradigm that a localised posterior proliferation zone is necessary for segment patterning in short germ developing arthropods. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a posterior proliferation zone was absent in the last common ancestor of Onychophora and Arthropoda. By comparing our data from Onychophora with those from annelids, arthropods, and chordates, we suggest that the occurrence of a "posterior growth zone" currently cannot be used to support the homology of segmentation between these three animal groups.

  17. EST sequencing of Onychophora and phylogenomic analysis of Metazoa. (United States)

    Roeding, Falko; Hagner-Holler, Silke; Ruhberg, Hilke; Ebersberger, Ingo; von Haeseler, Arndt; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Burmester, Thorsten


    Onychophora (velvet worms) represent a small animal taxon considered to be related to Euarthropoda. We have obtained 1873 5' cDNA sequences (expressed sequence tags, ESTs) from the velvet worm Epiperipatus sp., which were assembled into 833 contigs. BLAST similarity searches revealed that 51.9% of the contigs had matches in the protein databases with expectation values lower than 10(-4). Most ESTs had the best hit with proteins from either Chordata or Arthropoda (approximately 40% respectively). The ESTs included sequences of 27 ribosomal proteins. The orthologous sequences from 28 other species of a broad range of phyla were obtained from the databases, including other EST projects. A concatenated amino acid alignment comprising 5021 positions was constructed, which covers 4259 positions when problematic regions were removed. Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods place Epiperipatus within the monophyletic Ecdysozoa (Onychophora, Arthropoda, Tardigrada and Nematoda), but its exact relation to the Euarthropoda remained unresolved. The "Articulata" concept was not supported. Tardigrada and Nematoda formed a well-supported monophylum, suggesting that Tardigrada are actually Cycloneuralia. In agreement with previous studies, we have demonstrated that random sequencing of cDNAs results in sequence information suitable for phylogenomic approaches to resolve metazoan relationships.

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of the onychophoran Epiperipatus biolleyi reveals a unique transfer RNA set and provides further support for the ecdysozoa hypothesis. (United States)

    Podsiadlowski, Lars; Braband, Anke; Mayer, Georg


    Onychophora (velvet worms) play a crucial role in current discussions on position of arthropods. The ongoing Articulata/Ecdysozoa debate is in need of additional ground pattern characters for Panarthropoda (Arthropoda, Tardigrada, and Onychophora). Hence, Onychophora is an important outgroup taxon in resolving the relationships among arthropods, irrespective of whether morphological or molecular data are used. To date, there has been a noticeable lack of mitochondrial genome data from onychophorans. Here, we present the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of an onychophoran, Epiperipatus biolleyi (Peripatidae), which shows several characteristic features. Specifically, the gene order is considerably different from that in other arthropods and other bilaterians. In addition, there is a lack of 9 tRNA genes usually present in bilaterian mitochondrial genomes. All these missing tRNAs have anticodon sequences corresponding to 4-fold degenerate codons, whereas the persisting 13 tRNAs all have anticodons pairing with 2-fold degenerate codons. Sequence-based phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes provides a robust support for a clade consisting of Onychophora, Priapulida, and Arthropoda, which confirms the Ecdysozoa hypothesis. However, resolution of the internal ecdysozoan relationships suffers from a cluster of long-branching taxa (including Nematoda and Platyhelminthes) and a lack of data from Tardigrada and further nemathelminth taxa in addition to nematodes and priapulids.

  19. A revision of brain composition in Onychophora (velvet worms suggests that the tritocerebrum evolved in arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer Georg


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The composition of the arthropod head is one of the most contentious issues in animal evolution. In particular, controversy surrounds the homology and innervation of segmental cephalic appendages by the brain. Onychophora (velvet worms play a crucial role in understanding the evolution of the arthropod brain, because they are close relatives of arthropods and have apparently changed little since the Early Cambrian. However, the segmental origins of their brain neuropils and the number of cephalic appendages innervated by the brain - key issues in clarifying brain composition in the last common ancestor of Onychophora and Arthropoda - remain unclear. Results Using immunolabelling and neuronal tracing techniques in the developing and adult onychophoran brain, we found that the major brain neuropils arise from only the anterior-most body segment, and that two pairs of segmental appendages are innervated by the brain. The region of the central nervous system corresponding to the arthropod tritocerebrum is not differentiated as part of the onychophoran brain but instead belongs to the ventral nerve cords. Conclusions Our results contradict the assumptions of a tripartite (three-segmented brain in Onychophora and instead confirm the hypothesis of bipartite (two-segmented brain composition. They suggest that the last common ancestor of Onychophora and Arthropoda possessed a brain consisting of protocerebrum and deutocerebrum whereas the tritocerebrum evolved in arthropods.

  20. Arthropod phylogeny based on eight molecular loci and morphology (United States)

    Giribet, G.; Edgecombe, G. D.; Wheeler, W. C.


    The interrelationships of major clades within the Arthropoda remain one of the most contentious issues in systematics, which has traditionally been the domain of morphologists. A growing body of DNA sequences and other types of molecular data has revitalized study of arthropod phylogeny and has inspired new considerations of character evolution. Novel hypotheses such as a crustacean-hexapod affinity were based on analyses of single or few genes and limited taxon sampling, but have received recent support from mitochondrial gene order, and eye and brain ultrastructure and neurogenesis. Here we assess relationships within Arthropoda based on a synthesis of all well sampled molecular loci together with a comprehensive data set of morphological, developmental, ultrastructural and gene-order characters. The molecular data include sequences of three nuclear ribosomal genes, three nuclear protein-coding genes, and two mitochondrial genes (one protein coding, one ribosomal). We devised new optimization procedures and constructed a parallel computer cluster with 256 central processing units to analyse molecular data on a scale not previously possible. The optimal 'total evidence' cladogram supports the crustacean-hexapod clade, recognizes pycnogonids as sister to other euarthropods, and indicates monophyly of Myriapoda and Mandibulata.

  1. Evaluation of the composition of terrestrial invertebrates in a rural area of Campina Grande do Sul, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Luciane Fischer


    Full Text Available The terrestrial invertebrates participate actively in the formation of the soil, and can be utilized as bioindicators of environmental disturbance. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate the fauna composition of terrestrial invertebrates, in a rural area of Campina Grande do Sul. The collection was carried out in a single fragment of Araucaria Forest, with structurally differentiated two-point samplings, through pitfall traps. A total of 1,776 invertebrates was captured, pertaining to Arthropoda, Annelida, Mollusca and Plathyhelminthes phyla, of which Arthropoda and Hexapoda were the most representative groups. In Hexapoda, eleven orders were registered, and of those, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Collembola and Diptera were the most abundant. Although the studied fragment had been under recuperation for about 10 years after approximately 40 years of antropic interference, and was therefore surrounded by areas utilized for farming, agriculture and highways, it contained different groups of terrestrial invertebrates on wide-ranging thropic levels, which were important for the spatial structure and the composition of litterfall of the fragment.

  2. Gulf of Mexico continental slope study annual report, year 2. Volume 2. Primary volume. Interim report 1985-1986. [Sampling for hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report, which was prepared in three volumes (Executive Summary, Primary Volume, and Appendix), details the findings of two years of sampling on the continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico at depths of 300-3000 m. Preliminary results from a third year of sampling are also presented. Physical and chemical measurements included: CTD casts at 35 stations; sediment characteristics, including hydrocarbons and bulk sediment parameters from 60 stations; tissue hydrocarbon levels of representative benthic organisms; and delta carbon-13 values from sediments and organisms, including comparison of areas of natural petroleum seepage to prevailing slope conditions. The biological oceanography section provides detailed enumeration of megafaunal specimens collected by trawling and of macro- and meiofaunal specimens collected with a 600 sq cm box core. Major megafaunal groups treated are Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and demersal fishes.

  3. Coleopteran and Lepidopteran Hosts of the Entomopathogenic Genus Cordyceps sensu lato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Shrestha


    Full Text Available Entomophthoralean and ascomycetous fungi are the two major groups known to parasitize arthropods in almost every terrestrial habitat of the earth. Within Ascomycota, Cordyceps sensu lato is a large genus with more than 400 spp. described on numerous orders of Arthropoda. Among the hosts of Cordyceps, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera are the two major orders. Out of the estimated 200 Cordyceps spp. recorded on coleopteran and lepidopteran hosts, we have documented 92 spp. based on the available information of their host species. Among coleopteran hosts, Scarabaeidae and Elateridae are the two major families. Similarly, among lepidopterans, Hepialidae is the largest host family. Cordyceps militaris shows the widest host range, extending to 2 orders, 13 families, and 32 spp. We hope such accumulative work will be useful as a quick reference for interested biologists, forest ecologists, biocontrol researchers, and fungal and insect taxonomists to apprehend host range and host specificities of Cordyceps fungi.

  4. [Morphofunctional organization of reserve stem cells providing for asexual and sexual reproduction of invertebrates]. (United States)

    Isaeva, V V; Akhmadieva, A V; Aleksandriova, Ia N; Shukaliuk, A I


    Published and original data indicating evolutionary conservation of the morphofunctional organization of reserve stem cells providing for asexual and sexual reproduction of invertebrates are reviewed. Stem cells were studied in representatives of five animal types: archeocytes in sponge Oscarella malakhovi (Porifera), large interstitial cells in colonial hydroid Obelia longissima (Cnidaria), neoblasts in an asexual race of planarian Girardia tigrina (Platyhelmintes), stem cells in colonial rhizocephalans Peltogasterella gracilis, Polyascus polygenea, and Thylacoplethus isaevae (Arthropoda), and colonial ascidian Botryllus tuberatus (Chordata). Stem cells in animals of such diverse taxa feature the presence of germinal granules, are positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen, demonstrate alkaline phosphatase activity (at marker of embryonic stem cells and primary germ cells in vertebrates), and rhizocephalan stem cells express the vasa-like gene (such genes are expressed in germline cells of different metazoans). The self-renewing pool of stem cells is the cellular basis of the reproductive strategy including sexual and asexual reproduction.

  5. [The species composition of mosquitoes and ticks in Armenia]. (United States)

    Manukian, D V; Oganesian, A S; Shakhnazarian, S A; Aleksanian, Iu T


    Comprehensive epidemiological, entomological, virological, and parasitological studies were conducted to examine the species composition and size of bloodsucking arthropoda (mosquitoes and ticks). A total of 64,567 mosquitoes and 45,180 Ixodes ticks were collected. Among the mosquitoes, Anopheles maculipennis was a prevalent species (81.6%). In all climatic zones, Dermacentor marginatus was the largest in number and most abundant during flag collections from cattle and plants (62.5% and 95.5%, respectively). Virological studies of the collected field material identified 125 strains of arboviruses belonging to 10 viruses: Tyaginya, Sindbis, Batai, Dkhori, tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile fever, Tamdy, KGL, Geta, and Bkhandzha. The identified arboviruses are environmentally associated with both mosquitoes and ticks. The larger number and diversity of bloodsucking artropoda present a potential risk of outbursts of arbovirus infections on the territory of the republic.

  6. Large-scale recoding of an arbovirus genome to rebalance its insect versus mammalian preference. (United States)

    Shen, Sam H; Stauft, Charles B; Gorbatsevych, Oleksandr; Song, Yutong; Ward, Charles B; Yurovsky, Alisa; Mueller, Steffen; Futcher, Bruce; Wimmer, Eckard


    The protein synthesis machineries of two distinct phyla of the Animal kingdom, insects of Arthropoda and mammals of Chordata, have different preferences for how to best encode proteins. Nevertheless, arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) are capable of infecting both mammals and insects just like arboviruses that use insect vectors to infect plants. These organisms have evolved carefully balanced genomes that can efficiently use the translational machineries of different phyla, even if the phyla belong to different kingdoms. Using dengue virus as an example, we have undone the genome encoding balance and specifically shifted the encoding preference away from mammals. These mammalian-attenuated viruses grow to high titers in insect cells but low titers in mammalian cells, have dramatically increased LD50s in newborn mice, and induce high levels of protective antibodies. Recoded arboviruses with a bias toward phylum-specific expression could form the basis of a new generation of live attenuated vaccine candidates.

  7. Elongation factor-2: a useful gene for arthropod phylogenetics. (United States)

    Regier, J C; Shultz, J W


    Robust resolution of controversial higher-level groupings within Arthropoda requires additional sources of characters. Toward this end, elongation factor-2 sequences (1899 nucleotides) were generated from 17 arthropod taxa (5 chelicerates, 6 crustaceans, 3 hexapods, 3 myriapods) plus an onychophoran and a tardigrade as outgroups. Likelihood and parsimony analyses of nucleotide and amino acid data sets consistently recovered Myriapoda and major chelicerate groups with high bootstrap support. Crustacea + Hexapoda (= Pancrustacea) was recovered with moderate support, whereas the conflicting group Myriapoda + Hexapoda (= Atelocerata) was never recovered and bootstrap values were always protein-encoding, nuclear gene (in addition to RNA polymerase II) to support Pancrustacea over Atelocerata. Atelocerata is widely cited in morphology-based analyses, and the discrepancy between results derived from molecular and morphological data deserves greater attention.

  8. 东平湖日本沼虾的生物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董俊; 李秀启


    @@ 日本沼虾(Macrobrachium nipponense),俗称青虾、河虾,在动物分类学上隶属于节肢动物门(Arthropoda)、甲壳纲(Crustacea)、十足目(Decapoda)、长臂虾科(Palaemonidae)、沼虾属(Macrobrachium).主要分布于我国与日本,具有食性杂、生长快、繁殖力高、抗病能力强等特点,是目前淡水养殖业中重要的养殖对象和最有发展前途的品种之一.

  9. Enhancing mechanical properties of calcite by Mg substitutions: An ab initio study (United States)

    Elstnerova, Pavlina; Friak, Martin; Hickel, Tilmann; Fabritius, Helge Otto; Lymperakis, Liverios; Petrov, Michal; Raabe, Dierk; Neugebauer, Joerg; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Zigler, Andreas; Hild, Sabine


    Arthropoda representing a majority of all known animal species are protected by an exoskeleton formed by their cuticle. The cuticle represents a hierarchically structured multifunctional bio-composite based on chitin and proteins. Some groups like Crustacea reinforce the load-bearing parts of their cuticle with calcite. As the calcite sometimes contains Mg it was speculated that Mg may have a stiffening impact on the mechanical properties of the cuticle. We present a theoretical parameter-free quantum-mechanical study of thermodynamic, structural and elastic properties of Mg-substituted calcite. Our results show that substituting Ca by Mg causes an almost linear decrease in the crystal volume with Mg concentration and of substituted crystals. As a consequence the calcite crystals become stiffer giving rise e.g. to substantially increased bulk moduli.

  10. 南美白对虾养殖一种敌害生物观察及控制初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉佩; 林春友; 崔露文


    通过对侵袭南美白对虾一种敌害生物及虫体形态结构观察,初步鉴定该虫为中国急游水虱(Tachaea chinensis Thielemann),隶属节肢动物门(Arthropoda)、甲壳纲(Crustacea)、软甲亚纲(Malacostraca)、等足目(Isopoda)、浪飘水虱亚目(Cymothoidea)、珊瑚水虱科(Corallanidae)、急游水虱属(Tachaea)的种类。首次报道了中国急游水虱对池塘养殖南美白对虾虾苗危害情况,对虫体进行了驱杀试验。

  11. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods. (United States)

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C


    Understanding the way in which animals diversified and radiated during their early evolutionary history remains one of the most captivating of scientific challenges. Integral to this is the 'Cambrian explosion', which records the rapid emergence of most animal phyla, and for which the triggering and accelerating factors, whether environmental or biological, are still unclear. Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans and trace these structures through the early evolutionary lineage of fossil arthropods. These digestive structures are assumed to have allowed for more efficient digestion and metabolism, promoting carnivory and macrophagy in early arthropods via predation or scavenging. This key innovation may have been of critical importance in the radiation and ecological success of Arthropoda, which has been the most diverse and abundant invertebrate phylum since the Cambrian.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宁宁; 高谦; 李文祥; 宋英; 姚卫建; 聂品


    @@ 桡足类隶属节肢动物门(Arthropoda)甲壳动物亚门(Crustacea)颚足纲(Maxillopoda)桡足亚纲(Copepoda),其中既有剑水溞和镖水溞等自由生活的类群,也有营寄生生活的杯口水蚤种类[1].杯口水蚤目(Poecilostomatoida)鳋科(Ergasilidae)种类的幼虫及雄性成虫完全营自由生活,只有雌性成虫寄生在鱼体上,因此被认为可能是由自由生活向寄生生活演化的过渡类群[2].

  13. Assessment and reconstruction of novel HSP90 genes: duplications, gains and losses in fungal and animal lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysoula N Pantzartzi

    Full Text Available Hsp90s, members of the Heat Shock Protein class, protect the structure and function of proteins and play a significant task in cellular homeostasis and signal transduction. In order to determine the number of hsp90 gene copies and encoded proteins in fungal and animal lineages and through that key duplication events that this family has undergone, we collected and evaluated Hsp90 protein sequences and corresponding Expressed Sequence Tags and analyzed available genomes from various taxa. We provide evidence for duplication events affecting either single species or wider taxonomic groups. With regard to Fungi, duplicated genes have been detected in several lineages. In invertebrates, we demonstrate key duplication events in certain clades of Arthropoda and Mollusca, and a possible gene loss event in a hymenopteran family. Finally, we infer that the duplication event responsible for the two (a and b isoforms in vertebrates occurred probably shortly after the split of Hyperoartia and Gnathostomata.

  14. 山羊蠕形螨基因组DNA提取方法初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 蠕形螨(Demodicid mites)又称毛囊虫(Follicle mites),属于节肢动物门(Arthropoda)蛛形纲(Arach-nida)螨亚纲(Acari)真螨目(Acariformes),前气门亚目(Prostigmata)食肉螨总科(Cheyletoidea)蠕形螨科(Demodicidae)[1].山羊蠕形螨是一类寄生于山羊毛囊和皮脂腺内的永久性外寄生虫,山羊感染蠕形螨后危害严重,易导致宿主剧烈瘙痒、脱毛、日渐消瘦,严重时甚至死亡.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjola Keci


    Full Text Available In this study is presented the pollination activity of the Bombus terrestris L. Type: Arthropoda, Class: Insecta, Order: Hymenoptera, Family: Apidae, Genus: Bombus Latr. The aim is presentation of the evidences in the impact on the efficiency and qualitative improvement of the plant cucumber Cucurum sativum and the red pepper plant Capsicum annuum in greenhouses. The experiments conducted during the period 2009-2010 in the Germenji (Lushnje related to the cucumber plant and the red pepper plant to the Hamallaj (Durrës. Application of the pollination material in comparison with the control greenhouse, give evidences regarding to the enhancement of the fructifying proportion, with 80.3% to the cucumber plant and 84.1% to the red pepper plant with a confidence level of 97%.

  16. 节肢动物%Anthropodan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋大祥; 堵南山



  17. Land snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda of India: status, threats and conservation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sen


    Full Text Available Land snails form an important component in the forest ecosystem. In terms of number of species, the phylum Mollusca, to which land snails belong, is the largest phylum after Arthropoda. Mollusca provide unique ecosystem services including recycling of nutrients and they provide a prey base for small mammals, birds, snakes and other reptiles. However, land snails have the largest number of documented extinctions, compared to any other taxa. Till date 1,129 species of land snails are recorded from Indian territory. But only basic information is known about their taxonomy and little is known of their population biology, ecology and their conservation status. In this paper, we briefly review status, threats and conservation strategies of land snails of India.

  18. 鲎--全身是宝的海洋珍贵活化石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 鲎亦称马蹄鲎(horseshoe crab)(图1),属节肢动物门(Arthropoda),肢口纲(Merostomata),剑尾目(Xiphosurida),鲎科(Limuroidea).目前世界现存的鲎,根据其形态和分布特点,可分为二亚科三属四种.其中Lmulinae亚科仅有美洲鲎属(Limulus),美洲鲎(Limulus polyphemus)一种,分布于北美东海岸水域;而Tachypleinae亚科有两属,分布于亚洲东南岸及东岸沿海水域.其中东方鲎属(Tachypleus)有两种:东方鲎(Tachypleus tridentatus)(亦称三刺鲎、中国鲎或日本鲎)和南方鲎(Tachypleus gigas)(亦称巨鲎);蝎鲎属(Carcinoscorpius)仅一种圆尾鲎(Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda).

  19. Documenting the fauna of a small temporary pond from Pune, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir R. Kulkarni


    Full Text Available Most of the limnological studies in India have focussed on a few taxa of large, permanent water bodies, and pond ecosystems, and related temporary water bodies are neglected.  We present here a faunal inventory, with representative photographs, for a single, small temporary pond, reporting over 125 species of strictly aquatic fauna and 25 species of associated fauna, even though we did not identify some groups such as Protozoa, Diptera and nymphs of Odonata, etc.  The identified species belong to seven taxa of vertebrates and invertebrates together. Arthropoda and Rotifera were the most species rich groups, observed with 83 and 45 representatives, respectively. Coleoptera were the most numerous in terms of species number.  Such a small water body holds some endemics as well as otherwise very rare animals and so deserves better attention.  We also highlight the potential and importance of such habitats for research and conservation.   

  20. Feeding of two sympatric species of Characidium, C. lanei and C. pterostictum (Characidiinae in a coastal stream of Atlantic Forest (Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranha José Marcelo R.


    Full Text Available The feeding strategy of Characidium lanei and C. pterostictum was studied in the "Cabral" stream, a coastal stream of the Atlantic Forest, in southern Brazil. The samples were taken using electric fishing between March/95 and February/96. We studied about 15 stomach contents for each species in each season of the year. The stomach contents of the studied species were composed of 39 different food items, 28 in C. lanei and 24 in C. pterostictum. Chironomidae larvae and Ephemeroptera nymph were the most important items for C. lanei, except in the summer when Acarina and not identified Arthropoda were the most important items. Chironomidae and Simulidae larvae were the most important items in C. pterostictum. These results indicated an insectivorous habits and opportunist feeding strategy to C. lanei and C. pterostictum with several items rare or not very frequent.

  1. Norepinephrine and octopamine: linking stress and immune function across phyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Adamo


    Full Text Available In species from three widely divergent phyla (Arthropoda, Mollusca and Chordata tyrosine derivatives (norepinephrine or octopamine mediate a response to acute stress. Part of this response is a change in immune function that results in a decrease in resistance to pathogens. This decrease in disease resistance appears maladaptive. However, if the connections between norepinephrine/octopamine and immune function were maladaptive, they should have been selected against. None of the four commonly proposed adaptive explanations for acute stress-induced changes in immune function fit the available data for species from all three phyla. However, this result is probably due to the lack of information about acute stress-induced immunosuppression in invertebrates and a lack of ecologically valid studies in vertebrates. Understanding why immune function and disease resistance changes during acute stress will require greater comparative study.

  2. [What gene and chromosomes say about the origin and evolution of insects and other arthropods]. (United States)

    Lukhtanov, V A; Kuznetsova, V G


    At the turn of the 21st century, the use of molecular and molecular cytogenetic methods led to revolutionary advances in systematics of insects and other arthropods. Analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial genes, as well as investigation of structural rearrangements in the mitochondrial chromosome convincingly supported the Pancrustacea hypothesis, according to which insects originated directly from crustaceans, whereas myriapods are not closely related to them. The presence of the specific telomeric motif TTAGG confirmed the monophyletic origin of arthropods (Arthropoda) and the assignment of tongue worms (Pentastomida) to this type. Several different types of telomeric sequences have been found within the class of insects. Investigation of the molecular organization of these sequences may shed light on the relationships between the orders Diptera, Siphonaptera, and Mecoptera and on the origin of such enigmatic groups as the orders Strepsiptera, Zoraptera and suborder Coleorrhyncha.

  3. Control on commou disease of Macyobrachium nipponnensis%日本沼虾常见疾病与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴惠仙; 薛俊增; 俞宏


    @@ 日本沼虾(Macrobrachium nipponnensic),又称青虾、河虾,隶属于节肢动物门(Arthropoda)、甲壳纲(Crustacea)、十足目(Decapoda)、长臂虾科(Palaemonidae)、沼虾属(Macrobrachium),是我国重要的淡水养殖虾类.六十年代中期开始发展青虾养殖业,至八十年代末才开始步入发展盛期.随着高密度集约化养殖模式的发展,加上饲养管理方法尚欠科学,水质环境较差,导致近年来青虾病害蔓延扩大,常引发大面积死亡,造成极大的经济损失. 1 黑鳃病


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金刚; 蔡国平


    @@ 中国鲎(Tachypleus tridentatus),隶属于节肢动物门(Arthropoda)、有螯亚门(Chelicerata)、肢口纲(Memstomata)、剑尾目(Xiphosura)、鲎科(Limulidae),分布于中国、日本和东南亚其他国家.鲎科动物(Honeshoe crab)现有三属四种,自从早古生代奥陶纪出现,至今4亿多年,其形态结构以及生活习性无重大变化.在胚胎发育后期有三叶虫幼体的形态特征,被誉为活化石.在天然免疫、视觉、胚胎发育等许多方面.鲎成为研究者的模式动物[1].

  5. 一种侵袭南美白对虾害虫的形态学观察及其耐受性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉佩; 林春友


    对侵袭南美白对虾的一种虫害进行了首次报道,对虫体进行了形态学描述.初步认定该虫属节肢动物门(Arthropoda)、甲壳纲(Crustacea)、软甲亚纲(Malacostraca)、等足目(Isopoda)、浪飘水虱亚目(Cy-mothoidea)、珊瑚水虱科(Corallanidae)、急游水虱属(Tachaea)、中国急游水虱(Tachaea chinensis Thiele-mann).同时进行了中国急游水虱对盐度、pH及部分药物的耐受性试验,提出了"预防为主"的防治原则.

  6. Phylogenetic position of the pentastomida and [pan]crustacean relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrov, Dennis V.; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.


    Pentastomids are a small group of vermiform animals with unique morphology and parasitic lifestyle. They are generally recognized as being related to the Arthropoda, however the nature of this relationship is controversial. We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the pentastomid Armillifer armillatus and complete, or nearly complete, mtDNA sequences from representatives of four previously unsampled groups of Crustacea: Remipedia (Speleonectes tulumensis), Cephalocarida (Hutchinsoniella macracantha), Cirripedia (Pollicipes polymerus), and Branchiura (Argulus americanus). Analyses of the mtDNA gene arrangements and sequences determined in this study indicate unambiguously that pentastomids are a group of modified crustaceans likely related to branchiurans. In addition, gene arrangement comparisons strongly support an unforeseen assemblage of pentastomids with maxillopod and cephalocarid crustaceans, to the exclusion of remipedes, branchiopods, malacos tracans and insects.

  7. Phylogenetic position of the Pentastomida and (pan)crustacean relationships. (United States)

    Lavrov, Dennis V.; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.


    Pentastomids are a small group of vermiform animals with unique morphology and parasitic lifestyle. They are generally recognized as being related to the Arthropoda; however, the nature of this relationship is controversial. We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the pentastomid Armillifer armillatus and complete or nearly complete mtDNA sequences from representatives of four previously unsampled groups of Crustacea: Remipedia (Speleonectes tulumensis), Cephalocarida (Hutchinsoniella macracantha), Cirripedia (Pollicipes polymerus) and Branchiura (Argulus americanus). Analyses of the mtDNA gene arrangements and sequences determined in this study indicate unambiguously that pentastomids are a group of modified crustaceans probably related to branchiurans. In addition, gene arrangement comparisons strongly support an unforeseen assemblage of pentastomids with maxillopod and cephalocarid crustaceans, to the exclusion of remipedes, branchiopods, malacostracans and hexapods. PMID:15129965

  8. 八斑球腹蛛的生物学特性%The Bionomics of Theridion Octomacutatum Boes. et str.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉才; 曾青兰


    八斑球腹蛛(Theridonn octomacutatum str.)是节肢动物门(Arthropoda)蛛形纲(Arachnida)蜘蛛目(Arcneida)球腹蛛科(Theridum)动物.幼蛛期四龄,雌蛛一生交尾一次,多次产卵,护卵习性强.在鄂南地区八斑球腹蛛一年之内发生完整六个世代,幼蛛和成蛛均能越冬.八斑球腹蛛的生活习性介于结网和游措蜘蛛之间,是农作物害虫的重要天敌,有一定的利用价值.

  9. 粉尘螨的饲养管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少圣; 刘文艳; 李朝品; 陈文魁


    @@ 1 形态特征 粉尘螨属节肢动物门(Arthropoda)蛛形纲(Arachnida)麦食螨科(Pyroglyhidae)的螨类.粉螨排泄物、代谢物及螨体具有较强的变应原性,可引起螨性哮喘、螨性皮炎、过敏性鼻炎、变应性心脏病、荨麻疹等变态反应性疾病.目前,国内使用粉尘螨变应原进行诊断和治疗,需大量的粉尘螨,为研究螨性疫苗制剂提供原材料.

  10. Sulfurous Gases As Biological Messengers and Toxins: Comparative Genetics of Their Metabolism in Model Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal D. Mathew


    Full Text Available Gasotransmitters are biologically produced gaseous signalling molecules. As gases with potent biological activities, they are toxic as air pollutants, and the sulfurous compounds are used as fumigants. Most investigations focus on medical aspects of gasotransmitter biology rather than toxicity toward invertebrate pests of agriculture. In fact, the pathways for the metabolism of sulfur containing gases in lower organisms have not yet been described. To address this deficit, we use protein sequences from Homo sapiens to query Genbank for homologous proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In C. elegans, we find genes for all mammalian pathways for synthesis and catabolism of the three sulfur containing gasotransmitters, H2S, SO2 and COS. The genes for H2S synthesis have actually increased in number in C. elegans. Interestingly, D. melanogaster and Arthropoda in general, lack a gene for 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, an enzym for H2S synthesis under reducing conditions.

  11. Analysis of the opsin repertoire in the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini provides insights into the evolution of opsin genes in panarthropoda. (United States)

    Hering, Lars; Mayer, Georg


    Screening of a deeply sequenced transcriptome using Illumina sequencing as well as the genome of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini revealed a set of five opsin genes. To clarify the phylogenetic position of these genes and to elucidate the evolutionary history of opsins in Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda), we reconstructed the phylogeny of broadly sampled metazoan opsin genes using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods in conjunction with carefully selected substitution models. According to our findings, the opsin repertoire of H. dujardini comprises representatives of all three major bilaterian opsin clades, including one r-opsin, three c-opsins, and a Group 4 opsin (neuropsin/opsin-5). The identification of the tardigrade ortholog of neuropsin/opsin-5 is the first record of this opsin type in a protostome, but our screening of available metazoan genomes revealed that it is also present in other protostomes. Our opsin phylogeny further suggests that two r-opsins, including an "arthropsin," were present in the last common ancestor of Panarthropoda. Although both r-opsin lineages were retained in Onychophora and Arthropoda, the arthropsin was lost in Tardigrada. The single (most likely visual) r-opsin found in H. dujardini supports the hypothesis of monochromatic vision in the panarthropod ancestor, whereas two duplications of the ancestral panarthropod c-opsin have led to three c-opsins in tardigrades. Although the early-branching nodes are unstable within the metazoans, our findings suggest that the last common ancestor of Bilateria possessed six opsins: Two r-opsins, one c-opsin, and three Group 4 opsins, one of which (Go opsin) was lost in the ecdysozoan lineage.

  12. Evolution of pigment-dispersing factor neuropeptides in Panarthropoda: Insights from Onychophora (velvet worms) and Tardigrada (water bears). (United States)

    Mayer, Georg; Hering, Lars; Stosch, Juliane M; Stevenson, Paul A; Dircksen, Heinrich


    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) denotes a conserved family of homologous neuropeptides present in several invertebrate groups, including mollusks, nematodes, insects, and crustaceans (referred to here as pigment-dispersing hormone [PDH]). With regard to their encoding genes (pdf, pdh), insects possess only one, nematodes two, and decapod crustaceans up to three, but their phylogenetic relationship is unknown. To shed light on the origin and diversification of pdf/pdh homologs in Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda) and other molting animals (Ecdysozoa), we analyzed the transcriptomes of five distantly related onychophorans and a representative tardigrade and searched for putative pdf homologs in publically available genomes of other protostomes. This revealed only one pdf homolog in several mollusk and annelid species; two in Onychophora, Priapulida, and Nematoda; and three in Tardigrada. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the last common ancestor of Panarthropoda possessed two pdf homologs, one of which was lost in the arthropod or arthropod/tardigrade lineage, followed by subsequent duplications of the remaining homolog in some taxa. Immunolocalization of PDF-like peptides in six onychophoran species, by using a broadly reactive antibody that recognizes PDF/PDH peptides in numerous species, revealed an elaborate system of neurons and fibers in their central and peripheral nervous systems. Large varicose projections in the heart suggest that the PDF neuropeptides functioned as both circulating hormones and locally released transmitters in the last common ancestor of Onychophora and Arthropoda. The lack of PDF-like-immunoreactive somata associated with the onychophoran optic ganglion conforms to the hypothesis that onychophoran eyes are homologous to the arthropod median ocelli.

  13. Phylogeny and life habits of Early Arthropods-Predation in the Early Cambrian Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas MAAS; Dieter WALOSZEK; CHEN Junyuan; Andreas BRAUN; WANG Xiuqiang; HUANG Diying


    We investigated two new arthropods from the Maotianshan-Shale fauna of southern China in the course of our research on life strategies, particularly predation, in Early Cambrian marine macrofaunal biota. One form clearly belongs to the so-called "great-appendage" arthropods, animals that were, most likely, active predators catching prey with their first pair of large, specialized frontoventral appendages. Based on this, we hypothesize that the new species and many others, if not all, of the "great-appendage" arthropods were derivatives of the chelicerate stem lineage and not forms having branched off at different nodes along the evolutionary lineage of the Arthropoda. Rather, we consider the "great-appendage" arthropods as belonging to a monophyletic clade, which modified autapomorphically their first pair of appendages (antennae in general arthropod terminology) into raptorial organs for food capture. The second new form resembles another Maotianshan-Shale arthropod, Fuxianhuia protensa, in sharing a head made of only two separate segments, a small segment bearing oval eyes laterally, and another bearing a large tergite, which forms a wide shield freely overhanging the subsequent narrow trunk segments. This segment bears a single pair of rather short anteriorly directed uniramous appendages, considered as the "still" limb-shaped antennae. Particularly the evolutionary status of head and limbs of these two forms suggests that both are representatives of the early part of the stem lineage toward the crown-group of Arthropoda, the Euarthropoda. These forms appear rather unspecialized, but may have been but simple predators. This adds to our hypothesis that predation was a common, if not dominant feeding strategy in the Cambrian, at least for arthropods.

  14. FAUNA DO SOLO EM ÁREAS COM Eucalyptus spp. E Pinus elliottii, SANTA MARIA, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Jacques Soares


    Full Text Available Este trabalho, com início na primavera de 1996 e término no inverno de 1997, teve como objetivo realizar o levantamento populacional da fauna do solo em áreas com Eucalyptus spp. e Pinus elliottii, situadas no Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Para a coleta do solo, utilizou-se um extrator, formando-se amostras em dez pontos, nas profundidades de 0-5, 5-10, 10-15 e de 15-20 cm, em cada estação do ano. Por meio deste estudo, pôde-se identificar alguns representantes dos Phylum Annelida e Arthropoda que participam do contexto fauna-solo-vegetação. O total de indivíduos, seu respectivo percentual e número de indivíduos por metro quadrado foram obtidos. Observou-se o predomínio do Phylum Arthropoda e, mais especificamente, da classe Insecta na área com Eucalyptus spp. e do Phylum Annelida na área com Pinus elliottii. A variável profundidade originou modelos matemáticos que explicam a distribuição populacional dentre as áreas estudadas. A variável estação do ano não apresentou uma diferença significativa. Não foi possível, portanto, estabelecer um modelo de distribuição populacional.

  15. 秋季乳山湾潮间带大型底栖动物的群落结构特征%Community Structure Characters of the Macrobenthos in the Intertidal Zone of Rushan Bay in Autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨传平; 赵宁; 季相星; 王振钟; 于子山


    于2011年10月对乳山湾潮间带进行了8条断面的大型底栖动物定量调查,在调查潮间带共鉴定出大型底栖动物104种,其中多毛类45种、软体动物14种,甲壳动物37种、棘皮动物2种和其他类6种。调查潮间带大型底栖动物总平均丰度为817.22 ind/m2,总平均生物量为14.01g/m2。调查潮间带多样性指数在1.173~4.332,平均值为2.770。以40%相似性尺度,可将所调查潮间带站点划分为4个站组。%Macrobenthos were investigated at 8 transects in the intertidal zone of Rushan Bay in October 2011.A total of 104 macrobenthic species were identified in the survey intertidal zone,of which 45 spe-cies were Polychaeta,37 were Crustacea,2 were Mollusca,2 were Echinodermata,and the rest 6 spe-cies were other taxonomical groups.The average abundances and biomasses were estimated to be 817.22ind./m2 and 14.01g/m2 respectively.Shannon-Wiener's diversity index ranged between 1.173~4.332,with the mean value of 2.770.Four macrobenthic station groups could be identified at the 40%similarity level according to CLUSTER.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振钟; 隋吉星; 曲方圆; 季相星; 赵宁; 于子山


    于2009年5月对辽东湾西部海域进行了4条断面12个站位的大型底栖动物调查.调查海域共出现大型底栖动物78种,其中多毛类37种、甲壳类24种、软体动物13种、棘皮动物2种和其他类2种(分别是腔肠动物、纽形动物).调查海域大型底栖动物总平均丰度为1675.8 ind./m2,总平均生物量为21.366 g/m2.该海域大型底栖动物群落按40%相似性程度可划分为4个.调查海域大型底栖动物群落整体正常,个别站位群落受到轻度扰动.%Macrobenthos was investigated at 12 stations in the western waters of Liaodong Bay in May 2009. A total of 78 macrobenthic species were identified in the survey area in which 37 species were Polychaeta, 24 were Crustacea, 13 were Mollusca, 2 were Echinodermata, and the rest 2 species were other taxonomical groups. The average abundance and biomass were estimated to be 1675. 8 ind. /m2 and 21. 366 g/m2respectively. Four macrobenthic community groups could be identified at the 40% similarity levels according to CLUSTER. The macrobenthic community structures were slightly disturbed in two stations.

  17. Effects of Organic Farming on Diversity of Arthropods in Farmlands of North China Plain in Summer%华北平原有机农业对夏季农田节肢动物多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩印; 戴漂漂; 李想; 宋潇; 李季; 刘云慧


    A field survey was carried out by sampling using pitfall trapping method to investigate diversity of soil surface arthropods in organic and conventional fields in Suning of Hebei and Gaotang and Caoxian of Shandong in the North China Plain. Comparison analysis was made of diversities at three taxonomic levels, such as the order of Arthropoda, the family of Coleoptera and the species of Carabidae, structural composition and distribution of different arthropod communities, rel⁃ative to farming pattern, organic or conventional, so as to evaluate effect of organic farming on biodiversity in farmlands and determine whether difference exists between evaluations using bioindicators different in taxonomic level. Results show that ( 1) in Caoxian County, organic fields were higher than conventional fields in abundance of Arthropoda at all the three taxonomic levels;in Gaotang County, it was so only in abundance of the suborder of Arthropoda and in Suning County, no big difference was found in abundance of Arthropoda at all the three taxonomic levels between the two farming patterns. ( 2) in terms of richness of Arthropoda, significant differences were found between the two farming patterns at the taxonom⁃ic levels of the family of Coleoptera and the species of Carabidae in Caoxian County only;besides, in terms of community structure, significant difference was found only in Caoxian County, partial difference in Gaotang County and nothing signif⁃icant in Suning County. On the whole, organic fields are much higher than conventional fields in biodiversity of the three groups of arthropods and differences exist between the two farming patterns in structure of arthropod communities in the soil surface. However, the differences between the variance with region and taxonomic level, which may be attributed to the number of years the fields have been under organic management. Evaluations of biodiversity in organic and conventional fields using bioindicators based on different

  18. The Robin, Erithacus Rubecula (Passeriformes, Turdidae, As a Component of Autotrophic Consortia of Forest Cenoses, Northeast Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaplygina A. B.


    Full Text Available The role of the robin, Erithacus rubecula Linnaeus, 1758 as a consort of autotrophic consortia is considered. It has been found that representatives of 9 higher taxa of animals (Mammalia, Aves, Gastropoda, Insecta, Arachnida, Acarina, Malacostraca, Diplopoda, Clitellata have trophic and topical links with the robin. At the same time, the robin is a consort of determinants of autotrophic consortia, which core is represented mostly by dominating species of deciduous trees (Quercus robur Linnaeus, 1753 (24.6 %, Tilia cordata Miller, 1768 (17.5 %, Acer platanoides Linnaeus, 1753 (22.8 %, Acer campestre Linnaeus, 1753, and also by sedges (Carex sp. and grasses (Poaceae. The robin also belongs to the concentre of the second and higher orders as a component of forest biogeocenoses and forms a complex trophic system. In the diet of its nestlings, there have been found 717 objects from 32 invertebrate taxa, belonging to the phylums Arthropoda (99.2 %, 31 species and Annelida (0.8 %, 1 species. The phylum Arthropoda was represented by the most numerous class Insecta (76.9 %, in which 10 orders (Lepidoptera (46.8 % dominates and 20 families were recorded, and also by the classes Arachnida (15.0 %, Malacostraca (5.3 % and Diplopoda (1.9 %. The invertebrate species composition was dominated by representatives of a trophic group of zoophages (14 species; 43.8 %; the portion of phytophages (7 species; 21.9 %, saprophages (18.7 %, and necrophages (15.6 % was the less. The highest number of food items was represented by phytophages (N = 717; 51 %, followed by zoophages (34 %, saprophages (12 %, and necrophages (3 %. The difference among study areas according to the number of food items and the number of species in the robin nestling diet is shown. In NNP “HF”, the highest number of food items was represented by phytophages - 47 % (N = 443, whereas zoophages were the most species-rich group (43.3 %, 13 species. In NNP “H”, phytophages also prevailed in

  19. Descripción de la morfología externa por microscopia de luz y electrónica de barrido de Megninia ginglymura, Megnin, 1877 en faisán de collar (Phasianus torquatus, en un criadero de Corrientes, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Santa Cruz ; M. C. Agüero ; J. A. González; J.A Comolli ; D. Cayo; J. P. Roux.-


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es reportar el primer hallazgo de Megninia ginglymura, Megnin, 1877 (Arthropoda, Arachnida, Acari, Astigmata, Analgidae, en faisán de collar (Phasianus torquatus y describir algunos caracteres morfológicos externos a través imágenes obtenidas con microscopios de luz y microscopio electrónico de barrido. La investigación se llevó a cabo en un criadero ubicado en la localidad del Ingenio Santa Ana de la ciudad de Corrientes, Latitud 27º 26´ 01, Longitud 58º 37´ 21. Del plantel de 500 faisanes de collar (Phasianus torquatus se examinaron 15 (10 animales jóvenes y 5 adultos que presentaban lesiones principalmente en la cabeza, cuello y dorso, y se tomaron muestras de plumas de las zonas afectadas. Se colectaron ácaros que fueron montados entre porta y cubreobjetos con líquido de Hoyer’s, para su posterior clasificación sistemática; los ejemplares destinados a microscopía electrónica de barrido se conservaron en Glutaraldehído al 3%. Los especimenes presentaron pronunciado dimorfismo sexual, en el macho se observó el tercer par de patas más desarrollada y la presencia de lóbulos posteriores con ventosas copulatrices. En las hembras se advirtió lasimilitud de todas las patas, con el borde posterior de su cuerposemiredondeado. Las lesiones observadas fueron pérdida y corte deplumas en las alas, dorso y en la mayor parte del cuerpo. Estas lesiones corresponden a la acción parasitaria de Megninia ginglymura. Constituye el primer hallazgo en faisán de collar (Phasianus torquatus y la primera descripción de algunos aspectos morfológicos externos de Megninia ginglymura, Megnin, 1877 (Arthropoda, Arachnida, Acari, Astigmata, Analgidae, que se realiza mediante el uso de microscopio de luz y microscopio electrónico de barrido en la Argentina.

  20. 河道植被驳岸筛选及其生态效应分析%Selection and Ecological Effect Analysis of Vegetation Riverbanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范洁群; 宋祥甫; 邹国燕; 付子轼; 吴淑杭; 潘琦


    为了筛选出护坡效果良好,且具有较好生态效益的河道植被,在模拟农村驳岸上种植马蹄金、美人蕉、杞柳3种植被,对其坡面界面伴生植物、节肢动物、土壤微生物的种群多样性和稳定性等进行生态效应研究.结果表明:除秋季伴生植物外,春秋2季3种植物的生物量,伴生植物和节肢动物的Shannon-Weiner指数和均匀度指数均为:马蹄金<美人蕉<杞柳;Simpson多样性指数:马蹄金>美人蕉>杞柳.且杞柳土壤微生物的细菌总数最多,达到7.7× 108 cfu/g土,硝化菌和反硝化菌达到3.2× 106 cfu/g土以上.秋季马蹄金被加拿大一枝黄花等伴生植物所取代.可见,杞柳驳岸是生态效应最佳的植被驳岸,其次是美人蕉驳岸,而马蹄金驳岸不适合作植被驳岸.%In order to select out the effective riverbanks vegetation, ecological effect analysis of diversity and stability which of accompanying plants, arthropoda, soil microbe had been studied on the three vegetation riverbanks, where Dichonda repens, Canna indica and Salix Integra were planted. The results showed that, despite of accompanying plants in autumn, biomass of plants, Shannon-Weiner index and evenness index of accompanying plants and arthropoda of 3 vegetation riverbanks were Dichonda repens Canna indica~> Salix integra. Bacteria amount in Salix integra soil was most, which was 7.7×l08cfu/g soil, nitrifier and denitrifying bacterium were more than 3.2×106 cfu/g soil. In autumn, Solidgo canadensis and other accompanying plants replaced Dichonda repens. At all, Salix integra riverbank was the best vegetation riverbank according to ecological effect, following with Canna indica and Dichonda repens was unsuitable for riverbank vegetation.

  1. 上海苏州河大型底栖动物的研究%A study on macro-invertebrate of the Suzhou River, Shanghai.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国才; 赖伟; 殷浩文; 顾福康


    苏州河白鹤至浙江路段6个采样断面大型底栖动物隶属于环节动物门(Annelida)、软体动物门(Mollusca)及节肢动物门(Arthropoda).其中寡毛纲(Oligochaeta)4种、蛭纲(Hirudinea)2种、腹足纲(Gastropoda)5种、双壳纲(Bivalvia)2种及昆虫纲摇蚊科幼虫(Chironomidae)与潜蝇蛹(Agromyzigae)(未定种).随着底质污染的加重,群落结构趋于简化.种类少、高度耐污是存活大型底栖动物的显著特点.从白鹤至华槽断面,高度耐污的霍甫水丝蚓(Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri)数量趋于增加,并在华槽断面形成明显数量高峰;北新泾、武宁路河段底质污染严重,环节动物、软体动物消失;浙江路断面受黄浦江"逆流"影响,寡毛纲动物再度出现,并形成一定数量.%Macro-invertebrate from Annelida, Mollusca and Arthropoda were found in six sections from Baihe to Zhejiang road in the Suzhou River, among which four species were from Oligochaeta, two species from Hirudinea, five species from Gastropoda, two species from Bivalvia and several species from Insecta (unidentified). The community structure of macro-invertebrates became simple with the sediment pollution getting heavier. Limited species with high pollution resistibility were the characteristics of the species survival. The amounts of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri with high pollution resistibility increased gradually from Baihe to Huacao section, and reached a peak in Huacao section; species from An-nelida, Mollusca were not found in Beixinjing and Wuninglu sections due to heavy sediment pollution; species from Oli-gochaeta were found again and had certain numbers in Zhejiang road section as the result of the effect of courterflow of the Huangpu River.

  2. Fauna do solo em áreas com Eucalyptus spp. e Pinus elliottii, Santa Maria, RS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Jacques Soares


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Este trabalho, com início na primavera de 1996 e término no inverno de 1997, teve como objetivo realizar o levantamento populacional da fauna do solo em áreas com Eucalyptus spp. e Pinus elliottii, situadas no Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Para a coleta do solo, utilizou-se um extrator, formando-se amostras em dez pontos, nas profundidades de 0-5, 5-10, 10-15 e de 15-20 cm, em cada estação do ano. Por meio deste estudo, pôde-se identificar alguns representantes dos Phylum Annelida e Arthropoda que participam do contexto fauna-solo-vegetação. O total de indivíduos, seu respectivo percentual e número de indivíduos por metro quadrado foram obtidos. Observou-se o predomínio do Phylum Arthropoda e, mais especificamente, da classe Insecta na área com Eucalyptus spp. e do Phylum Annelida na área com Pinus elliottii. A variável profundidade originou modelos matemáticos que explicam a distribuição populacional dentre as áreas estudadas. A variável estação do ano não apresentou uma diferença significativa. Não foi possível, portanto, estabelecer um modelo de distribuição populacional.

  3. 海州湾大型底栖动物丰度和生物量的研究%The abundance and biomass of macrobenthos in Haizhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永强; 李捷; 刘会莲; 张涛; 杨学伶; 王海艳


      2007年9月至2008年5月在海州湾采集15个站点的底泥样品,对大型底栖动物丰度和生物量进行调查研究。共采集到38种大型底栖动物,其中多毛类环节动物14种,甲壳动物5种,软体动物14种,棘皮动物1种,鱼类3种,扁形动物1种。春季平均生物量为3.3 g/m2,平均丰度为164个/m2;秋季平均生物量为26.8 g/m2,平均丰度为180个/ m2。本次调查与1959~1960年和2000~2001年南黄海的调查结果相比较,生物量有所下降。%  Macrobenthos harvested from 15 sites in Haizhou Bay during September 2007 and May 2008 were in-vestigated. In total, 38 species were collected, including 14 species of Polychaeta, 5 species of Crustacea, 14 species of Mollusca, 1 species of Echinoderma, 3 species of Fishes and 1 species of Platyhelminthes. The average biomass was 3.3 g/m2, and the average abundance was 164 ind/m2 in spring. The average biomass was 26.8 g/m2, and the average abundance was 180 ind/m2 in autumn. The average biomass of macrobenthos in Haizhou Bay has decreased compared with the national comprehensive ocean investigation results during 1959~1960 and 2000~2001 in the Southern Yellow sea.

  4. Compostos biologicamente ativos em invertebrados marinhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos de Freitas


    Full Text Available The author has reviewed the classification, the nomenclature and the ecological aspects of biologically active compounds, emphasizing the Freyvogel & Perret's (1973 concepts of venomous and poisonous organisms. The literature involving the phyla Annelida, Mollusca and Arthropoda was also reviewed. The author's pharmacological studies performed with the polychaete Eurytlioe camplanata, which revealed a dializable principle, active in the guinea pig's ileum and dorsal muscle ot polvchaete itself are also commented. This principle differs from Acetylcholine and Serotonin. Pharmacologically studies in the sea-hares (genus Aplysia were also focused, including the author's contribution. In the glands os Aplysia brasiliana, namely the mid-gut-gland, the opaline gland and the purple gland, the author confirmed presence of cholinesters, which are discussed in the review. Toxicity of Arthropods are also discussed, mainly in decapod crustaceans. In some Brazilian crabs studies revealed a pharmacological activity of the gastric secretion expelled with an apparently defensive purpose and its ecological importance is focused in terms of the community. The relatively scarce studies of chemical ecology of marine organisms in Latin America and the importance of these studies were finally emphasized.

  5. Extracellular DNA amplicon sequencing reveals high levels of benthic eukaryotic diversity in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.


    The present study aims to characterize the benthic eukaryotic biodiversity patterns at a coarse taxonomic level in three areas of the central Red Sea (a lagoon, an offshore area in Thuwal and a shallow coastal area near Jeddah) based on extracellular DNA. High-throughput amplicon sequencing targeting the V9 region of the 18S rRNA gene was undertaken for 32 sediment samples. High levels of alpha-diversity were detected with 16,089 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being identified. The majority of the OTUs were assigned to Metazoa (29.2%), Alveolata (22.4%) and Stramenopiles (17.8%). Stramenopiles (Diatomea) and Alveolata (Ciliophora) were frequent in a lagoon and in shallower coastal stations, whereas metazoans (Arthropoda: Maxillopoda) were dominant in deeper offshore stations. Only 24.6% of total OTUs were shared among all areas. Beta-diversity was generally lower between the lagoon and Jeddah (nearshore) than between either of those and the offshore area, suggesting a nearshore–offshore biodiversity gradient. The current approach allowed for a broad-range of benthic eukaryotic biodiversity to be analysed with significantly less labour than would be required by other traditional taxonomic approaches. Our findings suggest that next generation sequencing techniques have the potential to provide a fast and standardised screening of benthic biodiversity at large spatial and temporal scales.

  6. Perturbing A-to-I RNA editing using genetics and homologous recombination. (United States)

    Staber, Cynthia J; Gell, Selena; Jepson, James E C; Reenan, Robert A


    Evidence for the chemical conversion of adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) in messenger RNA (mRNA) has been detected in numerous metazoans, especially those "most successful" phyla: Arthropoda, Mollusca, and Chordata. The requisite enzymes for A-to-I editing, ADARs (adenosine deaminases acting on RNA) are highly conserved and are present in every higher metazoan genome sequenced to date. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, represents an ideal model organism for studying A-to-I editing, both in terms of fundamental biochemistry and in relation to determining adaptive downstream effects on physiology and behavior. The Drosophila genome contains a single structural gene for ADAR (dAdar), yet the fruit fly transcriptome has the widest range of conserved and validated ADAR targets in coding mRNAs of any known organism. In addition, many of the genes targeted by dADAR have been genetically identified as playing a role in nervous system function, providing a rich source of material to investigate the biological relevance of this intriguing process. Here, we discuss how recent advances in the use of ends-out homologous recombination (HR) in Drosophila make possible both the precise control of the editing status for defined adenosine residues and the engineering of flies with globally altered RNA editing of the fly transcriptome. These new approaches promise to significantly improve our understanding of how mRNA modification contributes to insect physiology and ethology.

  7. Extracellular DNA amplicon sequencing reveals high levels of benthic eukaryotic diversity in the central Red Sea. (United States)

    Pearman, John K; Irigoien, Xabier; Carvalho, Susana


    The present study aims to characterize the benthic eukaryotic biodiversity patterns at a coarse taxonomic level in three areas of the central Red Sea (a lagoon, an offshore area in Thuwal and a shallow coastal area near Jeddah) based on extracellular DNA. High-throughput amplicon sequencing targeting the V9 region of the 18S rRNA gene was undertaken for 32 sediment samples. High levels of alpha-diversity were detected with 16,089 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being identified. The majority of the OTUs were assigned to Metazoa (29.2%), Alveolata (22.4%) and Stramenopiles (17.8%). Stramenopiles (Diatomea) and Alveolata (Ciliophora) were frequent in a lagoon and in shallower coastal stations, whereas metazoans (Arthropoda: Maxillopoda) were dominant in deeper offshore stations. Only 24.6% of total OTUs were shared among all areas. Beta-diversity was generally lower between the lagoon and Jeddah (nearshore) than between either of those and the offshore area, suggesting a nearshore-offshore biodiversity gradient. The current approach allowed for a broad-range of benthic eukaryotic biodiversity to be analysed with significantly less labour than would be required by other traditional taxonomic approaches. Our findings suggest that next generation sequencing techniques have the potential to provide a fast and standardised screening of benthic biodiversity at large spatial and temporal scales.

  8. Spatio-temporal monitoring of deep-sea communities using metabarcoding of sediment DNA and RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Guardiola


    Full Text Available We assessed spatio-temporal patterns of diversity in deep-sea sediment communities using metabarcoding. We chose a recently developed eukaryotic marker based on the v7 region of the 18S rRNA gene. Our study was performed in a submarine canyon and its adjacent slope in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, sampled along a depth gradient at two different seasons. We found a total of 5,569 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs, dominated by Metazoa, Alveolata and Rhizaria. Among metazoans, Nematoda, Arthropoda and Annelida were the most diverse. We found a marked heterogeneity at all scales, with important differences between layers of sediment and significant changes in community composition with zone (canyon vs slope, depth, and season. We compared the information obtained from metabarcoding DNA and RNA and found more total MOTUs and more MOTUs per sample with DNA (ca. 20% and 40% increase, respectively. Both datasets showed overall similar spatial trends, but most groups had higher MOTU richness with the DNA template, while others, such as nematodes, were more diverse in the RNA dataset. We provide metabarcoding protocols and guidelines for biomonitoring of these key communities in order to generate information applicable to management efforts.

  9. The minute brain of the copepod Tigriopus californicus supports a complex ancestral ground pattern of the tetraconate cerebral nervous systems. (United States)

    Andrew, David R; Brown, Sheena M; Strausfeld, Nicholas J


    Copepods are a diverse and ecologically crucial group of minute crustaceans that are relatively neglected in terms of studies on nervous system organization. Recently, morphological neural characters have helped clarify evolutionary relationships within Arthropoda, particularly among Tetraconata (i.e., crustaceans and hexapods), and indicate that copepods occupy an important phylogenetic position relating to both Malacostraca and Hexapoda. This taxon therefore provides the opportunity to evaluate those neural characters common to these two clades likely to be results of shared ancestry (homology) versus convergence (homoplasy). Here we present an anatomical characterization of the brain and central nervous system of the well-studied harpacticoid copepod species Tigriopus californicus. We show that this species is endowed with a complex brain possessing a central complex comprising a protocerebral bridge and central body. Deutocerebral glomeruli are supplied by the antennular nerves, and a lateral protocerebral olfactory neuropil corresponds to the malacostracan hemiellipsoid body. Glomeruli contain synaptic specializations comparable to the presynaptic "T-bars" typical of dipterous insects, including Drosophila melanogaster. Serotonin-like immunoreactivity pervades the brain and ventral nervous system, with distinctive deutocerebral distributions. The present observations suggest that a suite of morphological characters typifying the Tigriopus brain reflect a ground pattern organization of an ancestral Tetraconata, which possessed an elaborate and structurally differentiated nervous system.

  10. 卤虫属分类研究进展%Progress on Researches of Taxonomy on Genus Artemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟峰; 郝浩永; 陈莉


    卤虫(Anemia)属于节肢动物门(Phylum Arthropoda),甲壳纲(Class Crustacea),鳃足亚纲(SubclassBranchiopoda),无甲目(Order Anostraca),卤虫科(Family Artemidae).世界卤虫根据生殖方式可分为两性生殖卤虫和孤雌生殖卤虫两大类.利用生殖隔离实验将世界两性卤虫分为8个种:Anemiafranciscana Kellogg、Artemia persimilis Piccinelli et Prosdoeimi、Anemia rnonica Verrill、Anemia salina Linnaeus、Artemia urmianaGünther、Anemia tunisiana Bowen et Sterling、Anemia sinica Cai和Anemia tibetiana Abatzopouios,Zhang et Sorge-loos.其中,我国发现有A.sinica和A.tibetiana两种两性卤虫.孤雌生殖卤虫统称为Artemia parthenogenetica,并在其后加上产地的地名以示区别.

  11. Lysozymes in the animal kingdom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lien Callewaert; Chris W Michiels


    Lysozymes (EC are hydrolytic enzymes, characterized by their ability to cleave the -(1,4)-glycosidic bond between -acetylmuramic acid and -acetylglucosamine in peptidoglycan, the major bacterial cell wall polymer. In the animal kingdom, three major distinct lysozyme types have been identified – the c-type (chicken or conventional type), the g-type (goose-type) and the i-type (invertebrate type) lysozyme. Examination of the phylogenetic distribution of these lysozymes reveals that c-type lysozymes are predominantly present in the phylum of the Chordata and in different classes of the Arthropoda. Moreover, g-type lysozymes (or at least their corresponding genes) are found in members of the Chordata, as well as in some bivalve mollusks belonging to the invertebrates. In general, the latter animals are known to produce i-type lysozymes. Although the homology in primary structure for representatives of these three lysozyme types is limited, their three-dimensional structures show striking similarities. Nevertheless, some variation exists in their catalytic mechanisms and the genomic organization of their genes. Regarding their biological role, the widely recognized function of lysozymes is their contribution to antibacterial defence but, additionally, some lysozymes (belonging to different types) are known to function as digestive enzymes.

  12. Improvement of molecular phylogenetic inference and the phylogeny of Bilateria. (United States)

    Lartillot, Nicolas; Philippe, Hervé


    Inferring the relationships among Bilateria has been an active and controversial research area since Haeckel. The lack of a sufficient number of phylogenetically reliable characters was the main limitation of traditional phylogenies based on morphology. With the advent of molecular data, this problem has been replaced by another one, statistical inconsistency, which stems from an erroneous interpretation of convergences induced by multiple changes. The analysis of alignments rich in both genes and species, combined with a probabilistic method (maximum likelihood or Bayesian) using sophisticated models of sequence evolution, should alleviate these two major limitations. We applied this approach to a dataset of 94 genes and 79 species using CAT, a previously developed model accounting for site-specific amino acid replacement patterns. The resulting tree is in good agreement with current knowledge: the monophyly of most major groups (e.g. Chordata, Arthropoda, Lophotrochozoa, Ecdysozoa, Protostomia) was recovered with high support. Two results are surprising and are discussed in an evo-devo framework: the sister-group relationship of Platyhelminthes and Annelida to the exclusion of Mollusca, contradicting the Neotrochozoa hypothesis, and, with a lower statistical support, the paraphyly of Deuterostomia. These results, in particular the status of deuterostomes, need further confirmation, both through increased taxonomic sampling, and future improvements of probabilistic models.

  13. Proximate Content of “Klekap” (Microphytobenthos and Their Associated Meiofauna) from Milk-Fish Pond (United States)

    Widianingsih; Zainuri, Muhammad; Anggoro, Sutrisno; Pancasakti Kusumaningrum, Hermin


    Microphytobentos and their associated mieofauna (‘klekap”) have important role in milkfish pond ecosystem expecially traditional fish pond. Microphytobenthos and their associated meiofauna not only consists of unicellular microalgae from class Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae but also a lot of meiofauna such as Nematoda, Annelida, Mollusc, Arthropoda, etc. Microphytobenthos and their associated meiofauna inhabit in the upper most surface sediment layer. They also have important role in the primary and secondary productivity. This research has purpose to investigate the composition of proximate in the microphytobenthos and their associated meiofauna. Microphytobenthos and their associated meiofauna were taken from three milkfish ponds in Pati area, Central of Jawa, Indonesia. Samples were taken directly by hand core from 3 stations with 3 replications. The research result showed that the value of protein content had range 6.9±0.33 - 7.73±0.37 %-dw, the value of carbohydrate content had range 10.44±1.2 - 12.59±0.15 %-dw, the value of lipid content had range 0.86±0.07 - 0.96±0.07 %-dw. It concluded that the third station has higher value of protein, lipid and carbohydrate compared than the first and the second station.

  14. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    KAUST Repository

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather


    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the invertebrates, but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site () has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture.

  15. Online database for mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) occurrence records in French Guiana. (United States)

    Talaga, Stanislas; Murienne, Jérôme; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline


    A database providing information on mosquito specimens (Arthropoda: Diptera: Culicidae) collected in French Guiana is presented. Field collections were initiated in 2013 under the auspices of the CEnter for the study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: This study is part of an ongoing process aiming to understand the distribution of mosquitoes, including vector species, across French Guiana. Occurrences are recorded after each collecting trip in a database managed by the laboratory Evolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), Toulouse, France. The dataset is updated monthly and is available online. Voucher specimens and their associated DNA are stored at the laboratory Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane (Ecofog), Kourou, French Guiana. The latest version of the dataset is accessible through EDB's Integrated Publication Toolkit at or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at It can also be viewed through the Guyanensis platform at

  16. Global biodiversity and phylogenetic evaluation of remipedia (crustacea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco T Neiber

    Full Text Available Remipedia is one of the most recently discovered classes of crustaceans, first described in 1981 from anchialine caves in the Bahamas Archipelago. The class is divided into the order Enantiopoda, represented by two fossil species, and Nectiopoda, which contains all known extant remipedes. Since their discovery, the number of nectiopodan species has increased to 24, half of which were described during the last decade. Nectiopoda exhibit a disjunct global distribution pattern, with the highest abundance and diversity in the Caribbean region, and isolated species in the Canary Islands and in Western Australia. Our review of Remipedia provides an overview of their ecological characteristics, including a detailed list of all anchialine marine caves, from which species have been recorded. We discuss alternative hypotheses of the phylogenetic position of Remipedia within Arthropoda, and present first results of an ongoing molecular-phylogenetic analysis that do not support the monophyly of several nectiopodan taxa. We believe that a taxonomic revision of Remipedia is absolutely essential, and that a comprehensive revision should include a reappraisal of the fossil record.

  17. An occurence records database of French Guiana harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). (United States)

    Cally, Sébastien; Solbès, Pierre; Grosso, Bernadette; Murienne, Jérôme


    This dataset provides information on specimens of harvestmen (Arthropoda, Arachnida, Opiliones) collected in French Guiana. Field collections have been initiated in 2012 within the framework of the CEnter for the Study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: This dataset is a work in progress.  Occurrences are recorded in an online database stored at the EDB laboratory after each collecting trip and the dataset is updated on a monthly basis. Voucher specimens and associated DNA are also stored at the EDB laboratory until deposition in natural history Museums. The latest version of the dataset is publicly and freely accessible through our Integrated Publication Toolkit at or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at

  18. Structural analysis of the bright monomeric yellow-green fluorescent protein mNeonGreen obtained by directed evolution. (United States)

    Clavel, Damien; Gotthard, Guillaume; von Stetten, David; De Sanctis, Daniele; Pasquier, Hélène; Lambert, Gerard G; Shaner, Nathan C; Royant, Antoine


    Until recently, genes coding for homologues of the autofluorescent protein GFP had only been identified in marine organisms from the phyla Cnidaria and Arthropoda. New fluorescent-protein genes have now been found in the phylum Chordata, coding for particularly bright oligomeric fluorescent proteins such as the tetrameric yellow fluorescent protein lanYFP from Branchiostoma lanceolatum. A successful monomerization attempt led to the development of the bright yellow-green fluorescent protein mNeonGreen. The structures of lanYFP and mNeonGreen have been determined and compared in order to rationalize the directed evolution process leading from a bright, tetrameric to a still bright, monomeric fluorescent protein. An unusual discolouration of crystals of mNeonGreen was observed after X-ray data collection, which was investigated using a combination of X-ray crystallography and UV-visible absorption and Raman spectroscopies, revealing the effects of specific radiation damage in the chromophore cavity. It is shown that X-rays rapidly lead to the protonation of the phenolate O atom of the chromophore and to the loss of its planarity at the methylene bridge.

  19. Tidal effects on short-term mesozooplankton distribution in small channels of a temperate-turbid estuary, Southwestern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Chazarreta


    Full Text Available Abstract The short-term variability of mesozooplankton distribution and physicochemical variables was examined in two different channels of the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina, during two tidal cycles. All the physicochemical measurements and mesozooplankton sampling were performed at a fixed site during approximately 22-23 h at 3-h intervals. Pumps were used to obtain surface and bottom mesozooplankton samples and the water speed of each stratum was measured with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP. In all, 23 mesozooplanktonic taxa belonging to four phyla (Arthropoda, Annelida, Echinodermata and Chordata were identified. The most abundant taxa during the two tidal cycles were Balanus glandula larvae, Eurytemora americana and Acartia tonsa. A discernible variability in the water conditions and vertical mesozooplankton distribution (VMD different from that known for the estuary's main channel, was found in the other two selected channels. VMD varied during the tidal cycle in both channels in accordance with the channel's geomorphology and water dynamic characteristics of each of them. The variation of the abundance of the different taxa during ebb and flood currents might indicate the existence of a tidal vertical migration of the mesozooplankton as a response to particular dynamic water conditions.

  20. Cambrian bivalved arthropod reveals origin of arthrodization. (United States)

    Legg, David A; Sutton, Mark D; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Caron, Jean-Bernard


    Extant arthropods are diverse and ubiquitous, forming a major constituent of most modern ecosystems. Evidence from early Palaeozoic Konservat Lagerstätten indicates that this has been the case since the Cambrian. Despite this, the details of arthropod origins remain obscure, although most hypotheses regard the first arthropods as benthic predators or scavengers such as the fuxianhuiids or megacheirans ('great-appendage' arthropods). Here, we describe a new arthropod from the Tulip Beds locality of the Burgess Shale Formation (Cambrian, series 3, stage 5) that possesses a weakly sclerotized thorax with filamentous appendages, encased in a bivalved carapace, and a strongly sclerotized, elongate abdomen and telson. A cladistic analysis resolved this taxon as the basal-most member of a paraphyletic grade of nekto-benthic forms with bivalved carapaces. This grade occurs at the base of Arthropoda (panarthropods with arthropodized trunk limbs) and suggests that arthrodization (sclerotization and jointing of the exoskeleton) evolved to facilitate swimming. Predatory and fully benthic habits evolved later in the euarthropod stem-lineage and are plesiomorphically retained in pycnogonids (sea spiders) and euchelicerates (horseshoe crabs and arachnids).

  1. Two Streptomyces species producing antibiotic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory compounds are widespread among intertidal macroalgae and deep-sea coral reef invertebrates from the central Cantabrian Sea. (United States)

    Braña, Alfredo F; Braña, Afredo F; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Nava, Herminio; González, Verónica; Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; Molina, Axayacatl; Acuña, José L; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria


    Streptomycetes are widely distributed in the marine environment, although only a few studies on their associations to algae and coral ecosystems have been reported. Using a culture-dependent approach, we have isolated antibiotic-active Streptomyces species associated to diverse intertidal marine macroalgae (Phyllum Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Chlorophyta), from the central Cantabrian Sea. Two strains, with diverse antibiotic and cytotoxic activities, were found to inhabit these coastal environments, being widespread and persistent over a 3-year observation time frame. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, the strains were identified as Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus M-27 and Streptomyces carnosus M-40. Similar isolates to these two strains were also associated to corals and other invertebrates from deep-sea coral reef ecosystem (Phyllum Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, Sipuncula, and Anelida) living up to 4.700-m depth in the submarine Avilés Canyon, thus revealing their barotolerant feature. These two strains were also found to colonize terrestrial lichens and have been repeatedly isolated from precipitations from tropospheric clouds. Compounds with antibiotic and cytotoxic activities produced by these strains were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and database comparison. Antitumor compounds with antibacterial activities and members of the anthracycline family (daunomycin, cosmomycin B, galtamycin B), antifungals (maltophilins), anti-inflamatory molecules also with antituberculosis properties (lobophorins) were identified in this work. Many other compounds produced by the studied strains still remain unidentified, suggesting that Streptomyces associated to algae and coral ecosystems might represent an underexplored promising source for pharmaceutical drug discovery.

  2. Carotenoid metabolic profiling and transcriptome-genome mining reveal functional equivalence among blue-pigmented copepods and appendicularia

    KAUST Repository

    Mojib, Nazia


    The tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas are characterized by high water transparency and annual solar radiation. Under these conditions, a large number of phylogenetically diverse mesozooplankton species living in the surface waters (neuston) are found to be blue pigmented. In the present study, we focused on understanding the metabolic and genetic basis of the observed blue phenotype functional equivalence between the blue-pigmented organisms from the phylum Arthropoda, subclass Copepoda (Acartia fossae) and the phylum Chordata, class Appendicularia (Oikopleura dioica) in the Red Sea. Previous studies have shown that carotenoid–protein complexes are responsible for blue coloration in crustaceans. Therefore, we performed carotenoid metabolic profiling using both targeted and nontargeted (high-resolution mass spectrometry) approaches in four different blue-pigmented genera of copepods and one blue-pigmented species of appendicularia. Astaxanthin was found to be the principal carotenoid in all the species. The pathway analysis showed that all the species can synthesize astaxanthin from β-carotene, ingested from dietary sources, via 3-hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin, adonirubin or adonixanthin. Further, using de novo assembled transcriptome of blue A. fossae (subclass Copepoda), we identified highly expressed homologous β-carotene hydroxylase enzymes and putative carotenoid-binding proteins responsible for astaxanthin formation and the blue phenotype. In blue O. dioica (class Appendicularia), corresponding putative genes were identified from the reference genome. Collectively, our data provide molecular evidences for the bioconversion and accumulation of blue astaxanthin–protein complexes underpinning the observed ecological functional equivalence and adaptive convergence among neustonic mesozooplankton.

  3. Assessment of Zooplankton Community Composition along a Depth Profile in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.


    The composition of zooplankton in the water column has received limited attention in the main body of the Red Sea and this study investigates the change in the community both spatially and temporally across 11 stations in the central Red Sea. Using molecular methods to target the v9 region of the 18S rRNA gene a total of approximately 11.5 million reads were sequenced resulting in 2528 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 97% similarity. The phylum Arthropoda dominated in terms of reads accounting for on average 86.2% and 65.3% for neuston nets and vertical multinets respectively. A reduction in the number of OTUs was noticed with depth for both total metazoa and Maxillopoda whilst there was also a significant change in the composition of the Maxillopoda community. The genus Corycaeus had a higher proportion of reads in the epipelagic zone with Pleuromamma becoming increasingly dominant with depth. No significant difference was observed in the community between night and day sampling however there was a significant difference in the zooplankton community between two sampling periods separated by 10 days.

  4. ELNAIS meets EASIN: distribution of marine alien species in Greece using EASIN mapping services and ELNAIS spatial data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN was created with the aim to provide easy access to accurate information on alien species in Europe. EASIN allows the retrieval of spatial information from existing online data providers in order to produce integrated georeferenced distribution maps of alien species in Europe. In November 2012, a new data provider, the Ellenic Network on Aquatic Invasive Species (ELNAIS, joined EASIN; this has significantly increased the available georeferenced information on marine/estuarine alien species in Greek waters. Here, we use maps created by EASIN to show differences in patterns of distribution in Greece for the most abundant Phyla of marine alien species - Mollusca, Arthropoda, Chordata and Annelida. We also show that the two main pathways of introduction of marine alien species (Lessepsian migration and Shipping are related to different patterns of species spatial distribution in Greece. Overall, the tools provided by EASIN can greatly aid scientists and policy makers in obtaining high quality information on marine alien species in Greece, especially after the association with ELNAIS.

  5. Response of seafloor ecosystems to abrupt global climate change. (United States)

    Moffitt, Sarah E; Hill, Tessa M; Roopnarine, Peter D; Kennett, James P


    Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to decrease oceanic oxygen (O2) concentrations, with potentially significant effects on marine ecosystems. Geologically recent episodes of abrupt climatic warming provide opportunities to assess the effects of changing oxygenation on marine communities. Thus far, this knowledge has been largely restricted to investigations using Foraminifera, with little being known about ecosystem-scale responses to abrupt, climate-forced deoxygenation. We here present high-resolution records based on the first comprehensive quantitative analysis, to our knowledge, of changes in marine metazoans (Mollusca, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, and Annelida; >5,400 fossils and trace fossils) in response to the global warming associated with the last glacial to interglacial episode. The molluscan archive is dominated by extremophile taxa, including those containing endosymbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Lucinoma aequizonatum) and those that graze on filamentous sulfur-oxidizing benthic bacterial mats (Alia permodesta). This record, from 16,100 to 3,400 y ago, demonstrates that seafloor invertebrate communities are subject to major turnover in response to relatively minor inferred changes in oxygenation (>1.5 to 1,000 y, and illustrate the crucial role of climate and oceanographic change in driving long-term successional changes in ocean ecosystems.

  6. Cloning of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) gene from white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei and its expression level analysis under salinity stress. (United States)

    Wang, Yanhong; Luo, Peng; Zhang, Lvping; Hu, Chaoqu; Ren, Chunhua; Xia, Jianjun


    Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) is an intracellular membrane bound enzyme that utilizes the free energy of ATP to transport Ca(2+) against a concentration gradient. In the present study, a new SERCA gene (LvSERCA) from white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was cloned using suppression subtractive hybridization and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of LvSERCA contained an open reading frame of 3,009 bp coding for 1,002 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of approximately 109.8 kDa. The identity analysis of the amino acid sequence of LvSERCA showed that it is highly conserved with 10 transmembrane α-helices, one P-domain, one A-domain and one N-domain. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that LvSERCA is similar to other Arthropoda SERCA proteins. The mRNA levels of LvSERCA under salinity stress (3 and 40 g L(-1)) were analyzed by reverse transcription PCR and quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that LvSERCA was expressed in all tissues detected. LvSERCA mRNA levels were significantly higher under hyper-salinity than hypo-salinity. These results highlight that Ga(2+)-ATPase plays an essential role in adjustment salinity stress, which may be useful for selective breeding of L. vannamei.

  7. Improved determination of macroscopic parasite preparations using S10 modified plastination procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Atanaskova


    Full Text Available Macroscopic preparations of parasites fixed in formaldehyde or alcohol don’t fulfill in complete the requests for education, as well as their determination, mainly because of the toxic fumes and not enough visible structure of fixed parasite. Using the modified С10 plastination method, parasites from three different phylum were prepared: Plathelminthes: Class Cestoda (Dipilidum caninum, Moniezia spp and larvae from T.Echinococcus granulosus - Echinococcus unilocularis, larvae from T. pisiformis - Cysticercus pisiformis, , larvae from T. hidatigena - Cysticercus tenuicollis, Phylum Nemathelminthes, Class Nematoda, (Ascaris suum, Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, Diro filaria immitis, Phylum Arthropoda, Class Arachnida (tick from the Ixodidae family and Class Insecta (Gasterophilus intestinalis, Hypoderma bovis. The aim of this study was conserving the parasites in native condition with plastination method and improved determination according to their visible morphologic structure. Parasites were previously kept in 10% formaldehyde. Prepared parasites were dry, chemical free, not toxic and safe for the environment, flexible and with detained form and structure. There was a variation in the natural colors in some of the parasites, as a result from long-time formalin fixation. Preparations made with this method are permanent educative material which enables improved study of parasite’s structure.

  8. Osmotic/ionic status of body fluids in the euryhaline cephalopod suggest possible parallel evolution of osmoregulation. (United States)

    Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Ogawa, Satoshi; Nishiyama, Yudai; Akada, Chiaki; Takahashi, Hideya; Watanabe, Taro; Minakata, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Hirotaka


    Acclimation from marine to dilute environments constitutes among the dramatic evolutionary transitions in the history of life. Such adaptations have evolved in multiple lineages, but studies of the blood/hemolymph homeostasis mechanisms are limited to those using evolutionarily advanced Deuterostome (chordates) and Ecdysozoa (crustaceans). Here, we examined hemolymph homeostasis in the advanced Lophotrochozoa/mollusc, the other unexplored taxa, and its possible regulation by the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily peptides known to be implicated in fluid homeostasis in Chordata and Arthropoda. The hemolymph osmotic and ionic status in the euryhaline cephalopod (Octopus ocellatus) following transfer from 30-ppt normal seawater to 20 ppt salinity indicate hyperosmo- and hyperionoregulatory abilities for more than 1 week, as in crustaceans and teleost fish. While ventilation frequency decreased by 1 day, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, which has been generally implicated in ion transport, was induced in two of the eight posterior gills after 1 week. In addition, the octopuses were intravenously injected with 1 or 100 ng/g octopressin or cephalotocin, which are Octopus vasopressin/oxytocin orthologs. After 1 day, octopressin, but not cephalotocin, decreased the hemolymph osmolality and Ca concentrations, as well as urinary Na concentrations. These data provide evidence for possible parallel evolution in hyperionoregulatory mechanisms and coordination by conserved peptides.

  9. Bacterial taxa associated with the hematophagous mite Dermanyssus gallinae detected by 16S rRNA PCR amplification and TTGE fingerprinting. (United States)

    Valiente Moro, Claire; Thioulouse, Jean; Chauve, Claude; Normand, Philippe; Zenner, Lionel


    Dermanyssus gallinae (Arthropoda, Mesostigmata) is suspected to be involved in the transmission of a wide variety of pathogens, but nothing is known about its associated non-pathogenic bacterial community. To address this question, we examined the composition of bacterial communities in D. gallinae collected from standard poultry farms in Brittany, France. Genetic fingerprints of bacterial communities were generated by temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) separation of individual polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments, followed by DNA sequence analysis. Most of the sequences belonged to the Proteobacteria and Firmicute phyla, with a majority of sequences corresponding to the Enterobacteriales order and the Staphylococcus genus. By using statistical analysis, we showed differences in biodiversity between poultry farms. We also determined the major phylotypes that compose the characteristic microbiota associated with D. gallinae. Saprophytes, opportunistic pathogens and pathogenic agents such as Pasteurella multocida, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and sequences close to the genus Aerococcus were identified. Endosymbionts such as Schineria sp., Spiroplasma sp. Anistosticta, "Candidatus Cardinium hertigii" and Rickettsiella sp. were also present in the subdominant bacterial community. Identification of potential targets within the symbiont community may be considered in the future as a means of ectoparasite control.

  10. Case report: Dermanyssus gallinae in a patient with pruritus and skin lesions. (United States)

    Akdemir, Cihangir; Gülcan, Erim; Tanritanir, Pinar


    A 40-year old woman patient who presented at the Dumlupinar University Faculty of Medicine Hospital reported intensified itching on her body during evening hours. During her physical examination, puritic dermatitis lesions were found on the patient's shoulders, neck and arms in particular, and systemic examination and laboratory tests were found to be normal. The patient's story showed that similar signs had been seen in other members of the household. They reside on the top floor of a building and pigeons are occasionally seen in the ventilation shaft. Examination of the house was made. The walls of the house, door architraves and finally beds, sheets and blankets and the windows opening to the outside were examined. During the examination, arthropoda smaller than 1 mm were detected. Following preparation of the collected samples, these were found to be Dermanyssus gallinae. Together with this presentation of this event, it is believed cutaneous reactions stemming from birds could be missed and that whether or not of pets or wild birds exist in or around the homes should be investigated.

  11. Quality of laboratory studies assessing effects of Bt-proteins on non-target organisms: minimal criteria for acceptability. (United States)

    De Schrijver, Adinda; Devos, Yann; De Clercq, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Romeis, Jörg


    The potential risks that genetically modified plants may pose to non-target organisms and the ecosystem services they contribute to are assessed as part of pre-market risk assessments. This paper reviews the early tier studies testing the hypothesis whether exposure to plant-produced Cry34/35Ab1 proteins as a result of cultivation of maize 59122 is harmful to valued non-target organisms, in particular Arthropoda and Annelida. The available studies were assessed for their scientific quality by considering a set of criteria determining their relevance and reliability. As a case-study, this exercise revealed that when not all quality criteria are met, weighing the robustness of the study and its relevance for risk assessment is not obvious. Applying a worst-case expected environmental concentration of bioactive toxins equivalent to that present in the transgenic crop, confirming exposure of the test species to the test substance, and the use of a negative control were identified as minimum criteria to be met to guarantee sufficiently reliable data. This exercise stresses the importance of conducting studies meeting certain quality standards as this minimises the probability of erroneous or inconclusive results and increases confidence in the results and adds certainty to the conclusions drawn.

  12. Proteomic investigation of male Gammarus fossarum, a freshwater crustacean, in response to endocrine disruptors. (United States)

    Trapp, Judith; Armengaud, Jean; Pible, Olivier; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Abbaci, Khedidja; Habtoul, Yassine; Chaumot, Arnaud; Geffard, Olivier


    While the decrease in human sperm count in response to pollutants is a worldwide concern, little attention is being devoted to its causes and occurrence in the biodiversity of the animal kingdom. Arthropoda is the most species-rich phyla, inhabiting all aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. During evolution, key molecular players of the arthropod endocrine system have diverged from the vertebrate counterparts. Consequently, arthropods may have different sensitivities toward endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Here alteration of sperm quality in a crustacean, Gammarus fossarum, a popular organism in freshwater risk assessment, was investigated after laboratory exposure to various concentrations of three different xenobiotics: cadmium, methoxyfenozide, and pyriproxyfen. The integrity of the reproductive process was assessed by means of sperm-quality markers. For each substance, semiquantitative/relative proteomics based on spectral counting procedure was carried out on male gonads to observe the biological impact. The changes in a total of 871 proteins were monitored in response to toxic pressure. A drastic effect was observed on spermatozoon production, with a dose-response relationship. While exposure to EDCs leads to strong modulations of male-specific proteins in testis, no induction of female-specific proteins was noted. Also, a significant portion of orphans proved to be sensitive to toxic stress.

  13. The Compact Body Plan of Tardigrades Evolved by the Loss of a Large Body Region. (United States)

    Smith, Frank W; Boothby, Thomas C; Giovannini, Ilaria; Rebecchi, Lorena; Jockusch, Elizabeth L; Goldstein, Bob


    The superphylum Panarthropoda (Arthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada) exhibits a remarkable diversity of segment morphologies, enabling these animals to occupy diverse ecological niches. The molecular identities of these segments are specified by Hox genes and other axis patterning genes during development [1, 2]. Comparisons of molecular segment identities between arthropod and onychophoran species have yielded important insights into the origins and diversification of their body plans [3-9]. However, the relationship of the segments of tardigrades to those of arthropods and onychophorans has remained enigmatic [10, 11], limiting our understanding of early panarthropod body plan diversification. Here, we reveal molecular identities for all of the segments of a tardigrade. Based on our analysis, we conclude that tardigrades have lost a large intermediate region of the body axis-a region corresponding to the entire thorax and most of the abdomen of insects-and that they have lost the Hox genes that originally specified this region. Our data suggest that nearly the entire tardigrade body axis is homologous to just the head region of arthropods. Based on our results, we reconstruct a last common ancestor of Panarthropoda that had a relatively elongate body plan like most arthropods and onychophorans, rather than a compact, tardigrade-like body plan. These results demonstrate that the body plan of an animal phylum can originate by the loss of a large part of the body.

  14. No evidence for extensive horizontal gene transfer in the genome of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini. (United States)

    Koutsovoulos, Georgios; Kumar, Sujai; Laetsch, Dominik R; Stevens, Lewis; Daub, Jennifer; Conlon, Claire; Maroon, Habib; Thomas, Fran; Aboobaker, Aziz A; Blaxter, Mark


    Tardigrades are meiofaunal ecdysozoans that are key to understanding the origins of Arthropoda. Many species of Tardigrada can survive extreme conditions through cryptobiosis. In a recent paper [Boothby TC, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(52):15976-15981], the authors concluded that the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini had an unprecedented proportion (17%) of genes originating through functional horizontal gene transfer (fHGT) and speculated that fHGT was likely formative in the evolution of cryptobiosis. We independently sequenced the genome of H. dujardini As expected from whole-organism DNA sampling, our raw data contained reads from nontarget genomes. Filtering using metagenomics approaches generated a draft H. dujardini genome assembly of 135 Mb with superior assembly metrics to the previously published assembly. Additional microbial contamination likely remains. We found no support for extensive fHGT. Among 23,021 gene predictions we identified 0.2% strong candidates for fHGT from bacteria and 0.2% strong candidates for fHGT from nonmetazoan eukaryotes. Cross-comparison of assemblies showed that the overwhelming majority of HGT candidates in the Boothby et al. genome derived from contaminants. We conclude that fHGT into H. dujardini accounts for at most 1-2% of genes and that the proposal that one-sixth of tardigrade genes originate from functional HGT events is an artifact of undetected contamination.

  15. Spectral sensitivity in Onychophora (velvet worms) revealed by electroretinograms, phototactic behaviour and opsin gene expression. (United States)

    Beckmann, Holger; Hering, Lars; Henze, Miriam J; Kelber, Almut; Stevenson, Paul A; Mayer, Georg


    Onychophorans typically possess a pair of simple eyes, inherited from the last common ancestor of Panarthropoda (Onychophora+Tardigrada+Arthropoda). These visual organs are thought to be homologous to the arthropod median ocelli, whereas the compound eyes probably evolved in the arthropod lineage. To gain insights into the ancestral function and evolution of the visual system in panarthropods, we investigated phototactic behaviour, opsin gene expression and the spectral sensitivity of the eyes in two representative species of Onychophora: Euperipatoides rowelli (Peripatopsidae) and Principapillatus hitoyensis (Peripatidae). Our behavioural analyses, in conjunction with previous data, demonstrate that both species exhibit photonegative responses to wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet to green light (370-530 nm), and electroretinograms reveal that the onychophoran eye is maximally sensitive to blue light (peak sensitivity ∼480 nm). Template fits to these sensitivities suggest that the onychophoran eye is monochromatic. To clarify which type of opsin the single visual pigment is based on, we localised the corresponding mRNA in the onychophoran eye and brain using in situ hybridization. Our data show that the r-opsin gene (onychopsin) is expressed exclusively in the photoreceptor cells of the eye, whereas c-opsin mRNA is confined to the optic ganglion cells and the brain. Together, our findings suggest that the onychopsin is involved in vision, whereas c-opsin might have a photoreceptive, non-visual function in onychophorans.

  16. Ultrastructure, biology, and phylogenetic relationships of kinorhyncha. (United States)

    Neuhaus, Birger; Higgins, Robert P


    The article summarizes current knowledge mainly about the (functional) morphology and ultrastructure, but also about the biology, development, and evolution of the Kinorhyncha. The Kinorhyncha are microscopic, bilaterally symmetrical, exclusively free-living, benthic, marine animals and ecologically part of the meiofauna. They occur throughout the world from the intertidal to the deep sea, generally in sediments but sometimes associated with plants or other animals. From adult stages 141 species are known, but 38 species have been described from juvenile stages. The trunk is arranged into 11 segments as evidenced by cuticular plates, sensory spots, setae or spines, nervous system, musculature, and subcuticular glands. The ultrastructure of several organ systems and the postembryonic development are known for very few species. Almost no data are available about the embryology and only a single gene has been sequenced for a single species. The phylogenetic relationships within Kinorhyncha are unresolved. Priapulida, Loricifera, and Kinorhyncha are grouped together as Scalidophora, but arguments are found for every possible sistergroup relationship within this taxon. The recently published Ecdysozoa hypothesis suggests a closer relationship of the Scalidophora, Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Tardigrada, Onychophora, and Arthropoda.

  17. A 454 sequencing approach for large scale phylogenomic analysis of the common emperor scorpion (Pandinus imperator). (United States)

    Roeding, Falko; Borner, Janus; Kube, Michael; Klages, Sven; Reinhardt, Richard; Burmester, Thorsten


    In recent years, phylogenetic tree reconstructions that rely on multiple gene alignments that had been deduced from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) have become a popular method in molecular systematics. Here, we present a 454 pyrosequencing approach to infer the transcriptome of the Emperor scorpion Pandinus imperator. We obtained 428,844 high-quality reads (mean length=223+/-50 b) from total cDNA, which were assembled into 8334 contigs (mean length 422+/-313 bp) and 26,147 singletons. About 1200 contigs were successfully annotated by BLAST and orthology search. Specific analyses of eight distinct hemocyanin sequences provided further proof for the quality of the 454 reads and the assembly process. The P. imperator sequences were included in a concatenated alignment of 149 orthologous genes of 67 metazoan taxa that covers 39,842 amino acids. After removal of low-quality regions, 11,168 positions were employed for phylogenetic reconstructions. Using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods, we obtained strongly supported monophyletic Ecdysozoa, Arthropoda (excluding Tardigrada), Euarthropoda, Pancrustacea and Hexapoda. We also recovered the Myriochelata (Chelicerata+Myriapoda). Within the chelicerates, Pycnogonida form the sister group of Euchelicerata. However, Arachnida were found paraphyletic because the Acari (mites and ticks) were recovered as sister group of a clade comprising Xiphosura, Scorpiones and Araneae. In summary, we have shown that 454 pyrosequencing is a cost-effective method that provides sufficient data and coverage depth for gene detection and multigene-based phylogenetic analyses.

  18. Neural development in Onychophora (velvet worms) suggests a step-wise evolution of segmentation in the nervous system of Panarthropoda. (United States)

    Mayer, Georg; Whitington, Paul M


    A fundamental question in biology is how animal segmentation arose during evolution. One particular challenge is to clarify whether segmental ganglia of the nervous system evolved once, twice, or several times within the Bilateria. As close relatives of arthropods, Onychophora play an important role in this debate since their nervous system displays a mixture of both segmental and non-segmental features. We present evidence that the onychophoran "ventral organs," previously interpreted as segmental anlagen of the nervous system, do not contribute to nerve cord formation and therefore cannot be regarded as vestiges of segmental ganglia. The early axonal pathways in the central nervous system arise by an anterior-to-posterior cascade of axonogenesis from neuronal cell bodies, which are distributed irregularly along each presumptive ventral cord. This pattern contrasts with the strictly segmental neuromeres present in arthropod embryos and makes the assumption of a secondary loss of segmentation in the nervous system during the evolution of the Onychophora less plausible. We discuss the implications of these findings for the evolution of neural segmentation in the Panarthropoda (Arthropoda+Onychophora+Tardigrada). Our data best support the hypothesis that the ancestral panarthropod had only a partially segmented nervous system, which evolved progressively into the segmental chain of ganglia seen in extant tardigrades and arthropods.

  19. A molecular palaeobiological exploration of arthropod terrestrialization (United States)

    Carton, Robert; Edgecombe, Gregory D.


    Understanding animal terrestrialization, the process through which animals colonized the land, is crucial to clarify extant biodiversity and biological adaptation. Arthropoda (insects, spiders, centipedes and their allies) represent the largest majority of terrestrial biodiversity. Here we implemented a molecular palaeobiological approach, merging molecular and fossil evidence, to elucidate the deepest history of the terrestrial arthropods. We focused on the three independent, Palaeozoic arthropod terrestrialization events (those of Myriapoda, Hexapoda and Arachnida) and showed that a marine route to the colonization of land is the most likely scenario. Molecular clock analyses confirmed an origin for the three terrestrial lineages bracketed between the Cambrian and the Silurian. While molecular divergence times for Arachnida are consistent with the fossil record, Myriapoda are inferred to have colonized land earlier, substantially predating trace or body fossil evidence. An estimated origin of myriapods by the Early Cambrian precedes the appearance of embryophytes and perhaps even terrestrial fungi, raising the possibility that terrestrialization had independent origins in crown-group myriapod lineages, consistent with morphological arguments for convergence in tracheal systems. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’. PMID:27325830

  20. Bioinformatic prediction of arthropod/nematode-like peptides in non-arthropod, non-nematode members of the Ecdysozoa. (United States)

    Christie, Andrew E; Nolan, Daniel H; Garcia, Zachery A; McCoole, Matthew D; Harmon, Sarah M; Congdon-Jones, Benjamin; Ohno, Paul; Hartline, Niko; Congdon, Clare Bates; Baer, Kevin N; Lenz, Petra H


    The Onychophora, Priapulida and Tardigrada, along with the Arthropoda, Nematoda and several other small phyla, form the superphylum Ecdysozoa. Numerous peptidomic studies have been undertaken for both the arthropods and nematodes, resulting in the identification of many peptides from each group. In contrast, little is known about the peptides used as paracrines/hormones by species from the other ecdysozoan taxa. Here, transcriptome mining and bioinformatic peptide prediction were used to identify peptides in members of the Onychophora, Priapulida and Tardigrada, the only non-arthropod, non-nematode members of the Ecdysozoa for which there are publicly accessible expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The extant ESTs for each phylum were queried using 106 arthropod/nematode peptide precursors. Transcripts encoding calcitonin-like diuretic hormone and pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) were identified for the onychophoran Peripatopsis sedgwicki, with transcripts encoding C-type allatostatin (C-AST) and FMRFamide-like peptide identified for the priapulid Priapulus caudatus. For the Tardigrada, transcripts encoding members of the A-type allatostatin, C-AST, insect kinin, orcokinin, PDH and tachykinin-related peptide families were identified, all but one from Hypsibius dujardini (the exception being a Milnesium tardigradum orcokinin-encoding transcript). The proteins deduced from these ESTs resulted in the prediction of 48 novel peptides, six onychophoran, eight priapulid and 34 tardigrade, which are the first described from these phyla.

  1. RNA interference can be used to disrupt gene function in tardigrades. (United States)

    Tenlen, Jennifer R; McCaskill, Shaina; Goldstein, Bob


    How morphological diversity arises is a key question in evolutionary developmental biology. As a long-term approach to address this question, we are developing the water bear Hypsibius dujardini (Phylum Tardigrada) as a model system. We expect that using a close relative of two well-studied models, Drosophila (Phylum Arthropoda) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Phylum Nematoda), will facilitate identifying genetic pathways relevant to understanding the evolution of development. Tardigrades are also valuable research subjects for investigating how organisms and biological materials can survive extreme conditions. Methods to disrupt gene activity are essential to each of these efforts, but no such method yet exists for the Phylum Tardigrada. We developed a protocol to disrupt tardigrade gene functions by double-stranded RNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi). We showed that targeting tardigrade homologs of essential developmental genes by RNAi produced embryonic lethality, whereas targeting green fluorescent protein did not. Disruption of gene functions appears to be relatively specific by two criteria: targeting distinct genes resulted in distinct phenotypes that were consistent with predicted gene functions and by RT-PCR, RNAi reduced the level of a target mRNA and not a control mRNA. These studies represent the first evidence that gene functions can be disrupted by RNAi in the phylum Tardigrada. Our results form a platform for dissecting tardigrade gene functions for understanding the evolution of developmental mechanisms and survival in extreme environments.

  2. Hox gene duplications correlate with posterior heteronomy in scorpions. (United States)

    Sharma, Prashant P; Schwager, Evelyn E; Extavour, Cassandra G; Wheeler, Ward C


    The evolutionary success of the largest animal phylum, Arthropoda, has been attributed to tagmatization, the coordinated evolution of adjacent metameres to form morphologically and functionally distinct segmental regions called tagmata. Specification of regional identity is regulated by the Hox genes, of which 10 are inferred to be present in the ancestor of arthropods. With six different posterior segmental identities divided into two tagmata, the bauplan of scorpions is the most heteronomous within Chelicerata. Expression domains of the anterior eight Hox genes are conserved in previously surveyed chelicerates, but it is unknown how Hox genes regionalize the three tagmata of scorpions. Here, we show that the scorpion Centruroides sculpturatus has two paralogues of all Hox genes except Hox3, suggesting cluster and/or whole genome duplication in this arachnid order. Embryonic anterior expression domain boundaries of each of the last four pairs of Hox genes (two paralogues each of Antp, Ubx, abd-A and Abd-B) are unique and distinguish segmental groups, such as pectines, book lungs and the characteristic tail, while maintaining spatial collinearity. These distinct expression domains suggest neofunctionalization of Hox gene paralogues subsequent to duplication. Our data reconcile previous understanding of Hox gene function across arthropods with the extreme heteronomy of scorpions.

  3. A comprehensive analysis of bilaterian mitochondrial genomes and phylogeny. (United States)

    Bernt, Matthias; Bleidorn, Christoph; Braband, Anke; Dambach, Johannes; Donath, Alexander; Fritzsch, Guido; Golombek, Anja; Hadrys, Heike; Jühling, Frank; Meusemann, Karen; Middendorf, Martin; Misof, Bernhard; Perseke, Marleen; Podsiadlowski, Lars; von Reumont, Björn; Schierwater, Bernd; Schlegel, Martin; Schrödl, Michael; Simon, Sabrina; Stadler, Peter F; Stöger, Isabella; Struck, Torsten H


    About 2800 mitochondrial genomes of Metazoa are present in NCBI RefSeq today, two thirds belonging to vertebrates. Metazoan phylogeny was recently challenged by large scale EST approaches (phylogenomics), stabilizing classical nodes while simultaneously supporting new sister group hypotheses. The use of mitochondrial data in deep phylogeny analyses was often criticized because of high substitution rates on nucleotides, large differences in amino acid substitution rate between taxa, and biases in nucleotide frequencies. Nevertheless, mitochondrial genome data might still be promising as it allows for a larger taxon sampling, while presenting a smaller amount of sequence information. We present the most comprehensive analysis of bilaterian relationships based on mitochondrial genome data. The analyzed data set comprises more than 650 mitochondrial genomes that have been chosen to represent a profound sample of the phylogenetic as well as sequence diversity. The results are based on high quality amino acid alignments obtained from a complete reannotation of the mitogenomic sequences from NCBI RefSeq database. However, the results failed to give support for many otherwise undisputed high-ranking taxa, like Mollusca, Hexapoda, Arthropoda, and suffer from extreme long branches of Nematoda, Platyhelminthes, and some other taxa. In order to identify the sources of misleading phylogenetic signals, we discuss several problems associated with mitochondrial genome data sets, e.g. the nucleotide and amino acid landscapes and a strong correlation of gene rearrangements with long branches.

  4. Antitumor and immune regulation activities of the extracts of some Chinese marine invertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lixin; FAN Xiao; HAN Lijun


    Extracts of 21 marine invertebrates belonging to Coelenterata, Mollusca, Annelida, Bryozoa,Echiura, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Urochordata were screened for the studies on their antitumor and immune regulation activities. Antitumor activity was determined by MTT method and immune regulation activity was studied using T- and B-lymphocytes in mice spleen in vitro. It was found that the n-butanol part of Asterina pectinifera, the acetic ether part of Tubuaria marina, 95% ethanol extract of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus have a high inhibition rate of 96.7%, 63.9% and 50.5% respectively on tumor cell line HL-60 at the concentration of 0.063 mg/ml. The inhibition rate of the acetic ether part of Tubuaria marina on the tumor cell line A-549 is 65.4 % at concentration of 0.063 mg/mL. The 95% ethanol extract of Meretrix meretrix has so outstanding promoting effect on T-lymphocyfes that their multiplication increases 25% when the sample concentration is only 1 μg/ml. On B-lymphocytes, the 95% extract of Rapana venosa, at concentration of 100μg/ml, has a promotion percentage of 60%. On the other hand, under the condition of no cytotoxic effect, the 95% ethanol extracts of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus and Cellana toreum can reach 92% inhibition rate on T lymphocyte at concentration of 100 μg/ml, while the inhibition rate on B lymphocyte of the 95% extract of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus reaches 92% at the same concentration.

  5. Biological risk factors in informal recyclers of Medellin city, 2005

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    Viviana L. Ballesteros


    Full Text Available The informal recyclers constitute a vulnerable population to problems of health by their constant exhibition to biological, chemical, physical and social risks, without protection. Objective: this work identify the biological risk facts to which the informal recyclers of the Bazaar of the Bridges of Medellin city. Methods: it was performed a Cross-sectional study. The sample was no probabilistic with 88 recyclers and the analysis unit was the informal recycler. It was applied a survey, a guide of observation of the activity of the recycler and were studied variables of person, place, time, type of biological risk facts, frequency of exhibition, felt morbidity and measures of protection. The analysis was statistical descriptive. Results: it was identified biological risk facts related to the contact with material in decomposition (96.6%, contaminated material (96.6%, animals (62.5% and arthropoda (79.5%. The se The se--curity measures to protect them from biological risk facts are used in less than 52% of recyclers; in addition, only 13.6% of the population were vaccinated, which increases the probability of becoming ill in this population. Conclusions: that the informal recyclers are exposed to different biological risk facts with little prevention, causing that population be vulnerable for the acquisition of infectious diseases.

  6. 利用变性梯度凝胶电泳分析正红菇菌根围土壤真菌群落多样性%Analysis of Fungal Diversity of Russula griseocarnosa Mycorrhizosphere Soil with Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖冬来; 陈丽华; 陈宇航; 杨菁; 黄小菁


    以正红菇(Russula griseocarnosa)菌根围土壤为研究对象,通过提取土壤基因组DNA,以通用引物扩增真菌18S rRNA基因V1+V2区,将PCR产物进行变性梯度凝胶电泳(Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis),获得土壤微生物群落的DNA特征指纹图谱,并对图谱中的优势条带回收测序,通过Blast进行同源性比对并构建系统发育树,进而分析正红菇菌根围真菌群落组成及多样性.同源性比对结果表明,在回收测序的19条DGGE条带中,4条为非真菌真核生物序列,系统发育分析显示全部序列可以分为4类菌群,Group Ⅰ主要为担子菌门(Basidiomycota)真菌,GroupⅡ主要为子囊菌门(Ascomycota)真菌,GroupⅢ为未知真菌,GroupⅣ主要为节肢动物门生物(Arthropoda).

  7. Fish Disease Animal and Its Application in Experimental Teaching of Zoology%鱼病病原动物及其在动物学实验教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁改霞; 李铭; 卞立红; 汪洋; 丁海燕; 秦淑冕


    以大庆地区鱼病病原动物为研究基础,以病原动物在动物学实验教学中的应用为核心,阐述了大庆地区常见鱼病病原动物的种类及季节分布,把鱼病知识融入到动物学的实验教学内容中,分别介绍了原生动物、扁形动物及线形动物及节肢动物在动物学实验教学中的应用,拓宽了动物学实验材料来源,为动物学的教学与科研提供素材,为动物学的教学改革提供了思路。%Based on the fish disease animal in Daqing Area,focused on application of fish disease animal in experimental teaching of zoology,the common fish disease animal and its seasonal distribution were illustrated.Fish disease knowledge was integrated into experimental teaching of zoology by the introduction of application of protozoan,platyhelminthes,nemathelminthes and arthropoda in experimental teaching of zoology.It's widened the experimental material,provided material for teaching and study,and pointed a way for teaching reformation of zoology.

  8. Response of seafloor ecosystems to abrupt global climate change (United States)

    Moffitt, Sarah E.; Hill, Tessa M.; Roopnarine, Peter D.; Kennett, James P.


    Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to decrease oceanic oxygen (O2) concentrations, with potentially significant effects on marine ecosystems. Geologically recent episodes of abrupt climatic warming provide opportunities to assess the effects of changing oxygenation on marine communities. Thus far, this knowledge has been largely restricted to investigations using Foraminifera, with little being known about ecosystem-scale responses to abrupt, climate-forced deoxygenation. We here present high-resolution records based on the first comprehensive quantitative analysis, to our knowledge, of changes in marine metazoans (Mollusca, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, and Annelida; >5,400 fossils and trace fossils) in response to the global warming associated with the last glacial to interglacial episode. The molluscan archive is dominated by extremophile taxa, including those containing endosymbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Lucinoma aequizonatum) and those that graze on filamentous sulfur-oxidizing benthic bacterial mats (Alia permodesta). This record, from 16,100 to 3,400 y ago, demonstrates that seafloor invertebrate communities are subject to major turnover in response to relatively minor inferred changes in oxygenation (>1.5 to 1,000 y, and illustrate the crucial role of climate and oceanographic change in driving long-term successional changes in ocean ecosystems.

  9. Wood-associated fauna collected during the KuramBio expedition in the North West Pacific (United States)

    Schwabe, Enrico; Bartsch, Ilse; Błażewicz-Paszkowycz, Magdalena; Brenke, Nils; Chernyshev, Alexei V.; Elsner, Nikolaus O.; Fischer, Viola; Jażdżewska, Anna; Malyutina, Marina V.; Miljutin, Dmitry; Miljutina, Maria; Kamenev, Gennady M.; Karanovic, Ivana; Maiorova, Anastassya; Würzberg, Laura


    Individual wood fragments obtained from Agassiz trawl samples in the abyssal plain area off the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench were analysed for faunistic components. Out of seven pieces of wood collected, only five harboured fauna and each showed distinctively different colonization patterns. In total, 257 specimens, mainly belonging to the phyla Arthropoda, Nematoda, Mollusca and Annelida, were collected from the available pieces of wood. While wood-boring bivalves of the genus Xylophaga, generally seen as opportunists among wood-converting organisms, were present at nearly all stations, the overwhelming majority of taxa found were restricted to individual pieces of wood. A fresh piece of wood from a site opposite to the Tsugaru Strait, was the most heavily colonized. The presence of shallow or even putative fresh-water taxa beside truly deep-water components possibly suggests a recent sinking of that particular wood fragment and demonstrates the role of such ephemeral organic objects in deep-sea ecosystems as energy-rich feeding grounds and potential distributional stepping stones. Detailed studies of driftwood communities on single sunken wood fragments from deep oceans are limited. The present data not only demonstrate a tolerance of some taxa to changes in physical parameters, such as hydrostatic pressure, salinity and temperature, but also indicate a higher biodiversity on fresher wood pieces compared to wood which already underwent decomposition processes. It is, however, not clear whether the species diversity was linked to the type of wood, since exhaustive analyses on the wood pieces themselves were not conducted.

  10. Primary analysis of the expressed sequence tags in a pentastomid nymph cDNA library.

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    Jing Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pentastomiasis is a rare zoonotic disease caused by pentastomids. Despite their worm-like appearance, they are commonly placed into a separate sub-class of the subphylum Crustacea, phylum Arthropoda. However, until now, the systematic classification of the pentastomids and the diagnosis of pentastomiasis are immature, and genetic information about pentastomid nylum is almost nonexistent. The objective of this study was to obtain information on pentastomid nymph genes and identify the gene homologues related to host-parasite interactions or stage-specific antigens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Total pentastomid nymph RNA was used to construct a cDNA library and 500 colonies were sequenced. Analysis shows one hundred and ninety-seven unigenes were identified. In which, 147 genes were annotated, and 75 unigenes (53.19% were mapped to 82 KEGG pathways, including 29 metabolism pathways, 29 genetic information processing pathways, 4 environmental information processing pathways, 7 cell motility pathways and 5 organismal systems pathways. Additionally, two host-parasite interaction-related gene homologues, a putative Kunitz inhibitor and a putative cysteine protease. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We first successfully constructed a cDNA library and gained a number of expressed sequence tags (EST from pentastomid nymphs, which will lay the foundation for the further study on pentastomids and pentastomiasis.

  11. 陕西省畜禽寄生蜘蛛昆虫名录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林青; 张继亮; 于三科


    @@ 多年来,陕西省科技工作者在畜禽寄生虫的区系调查方面做了大量的工作,尤其是1976年以来,在全省8个地(市)的30个县做了比较全面而系统的调查研究工作,现已基本摸清了陕西省畜禽寄生虫的"家底",掌握了全省范围内寄生虫的分布、感染及危害情况,为防虫灭病提供了科学依据.寄生蠕虫方面已有较为全面的报道,但寄生蜘蛛昆虫至今仍未见有系统的研究论文发表,有鉴于此,笔者将多年来在教学、科研工作中积累的资料,汇同其他学者的有关材料整理成陕西省畜禽寄生蜘蛛昆虫名录,隶属于节肢动物门(ARTHROPODA SIEBOLD AND STANNIUS,1845),共20科38属108种.供教学、科研和兽医临床工作者参考.

  12. 南美白对虾国外养殖发展概况及我国养殖现状、存在的问题与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凯; 王武


    @@ 1 国外南美白对虾养殖发展概况 南美白对虾,学名Penaeus.(Lito Penaeus)vanamei Boone.分类上隶属于节肢动物门(Arthropoda)、甲壳纲(Crustacea)、十足目(Decapoda)、游泳亚目(Natantia)、对虾科(Penaeidae)、对虾属(Penaeus)、Litopenaeus亚属.南美白对虾(Penaeus Vannamei)原产于中、南太平洋海岸水域秘鲁(Peru)北部至墨西哥桑诺拉(Sonor),该虾繁殖周期较长,在厄瓜多尔(Ecaudor)北部沿海的繁殖高峰一般在3月到9月,每年3月虾苗在沿岸一带大量出现,延续时间可达8个月,分布范围可延展到南部的圣·帕勃罗湾(San Pablo),南部的秘鲁中部沿海地带,繁殖高峰一般12月至翌年的4月.这些时期也是当地沿海岸捕捞虾苗的黄金季节.

  13. Copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms from the Java Sea and estuarine and coastal areas around East Java (United States)

    Everaarts, J. M.; Boon, J. P.; Kastoro, W.; Fischer, C. V.; Razak, H.; Sumanta, I.

    A study was made of the concentrations of copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms, representing the phyla Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Pisces, from the riverine and estuarine areas of the rivers Brantas and Solo (East Java) and the adjacent coastal area. Moreover, an assessment was made of the contamination of the benthic biota with these elements in the Java Sea and Bali Sea. Benthic organisms show a species-specific uptake pattern for each element. Compared to the same type of animals from estuaries and coastal areas in temperate regions of western Europe, the concentrations of cadmium are considerably higher, while copper and zinc concentrations are somewhat lower. There is no general trend in concentration levels of the metals in specimens from rivers, estuaries, coastal zone and open sea. In some groups of organisms ( e.g. shrimp, starfish) the concentrations of copper and zinc are highest in specimens from rivers and estuaries. In contrast, cadmium concentration levels in e.g. crab, shrimp and squid are lowest in riverine and estuarine areas. Significant differences in metal concentrations in these organisms were found between the dry monsoon period (July, August) and the beginning of the wet monsoon (November, December). No relationship existed between the metal concentration of the organisms and the silt fraction of the sediment (grain size < 63 μm) or the bulk sediment.

  14. Epifaunal assemblage on morphologically distinct intertidal seaweeds of Kodiyaghat (South Andaman, India

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    I. Anandavelu


    Full Text Available Benthic macroalgae termed seaweed occupy coastal environments primarily on rocky intertidal areas. However, it has significant role by adding spatial complexity to the substratum and alter accessibility to other faunal and floral community. The studies of potential benefits of seaweeds have encouraged extensively yielding industrial, medicinal, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The present study deals with the quantitative distribution of epifaunal community associated with seaweeds of South Andaman and the influence of conspicuous morphology of seaweed on the assemblage of epifauna were compared. Galaxura sp. and Halimeda tuna supported higher faunal density than other seaweeds, with the respective mean density of 139.2 and 104.5 nos. per 100g of algal wet weight. Sargassum duplicatum held the lowest epifaunal density. Arthropoda was the major group found in this study, dominated by the Amphipoda (35.1%, Mysida (19.4% and Isopoda (2.8% followed by Annelida (20.1% and Mollusca (12%. The result indicated that the distribution and abundance of epifauna differ based on the structural morphology among macroalgal species which forms suitable habitat for these organisms. The present study suggests that the sediment retention capacity of weeds might play an important role on the assemblage of epifaunal community.

  15. Key to marine arthropod larvae

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    John A. Fornshell


    Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the polychaete annelidPlatynereis dumerilii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.


    Complete mitochondrial genome sequences are now available for 126 metazoans (see Boore 1999; Mitochondrial Genomics link at, but the taxonomic representation is highly biased. For example, 80 are from a single phylum, Chordata, and show little variation for many molecular features. Arthropoda is represented by 16 taxa, Mollusca by eight, and Echinodermata by five, with only 17 others from the remaining {approx}30 metazoan phyla. With few exceptions (see Wolstenholme 1992 and Boore 1999) these are circular DNA molecules, about 16 kb in size, and encode the same set of 37 genes. A variety of non-standard names are sometimes used for animal mitochondrial genes; see Boore (1999) for gene nomenclature and a table of synonyms. Mitochondrial genome comparisons serve as a model of genome evolution. In this system, much smaller and simpler than that of the nucleus, are all of the same factors of genome evolution, where one may find tractable the changes in tRNA structure, base composition, genetic code, gene arrangement, etc. Further, patterns of mitochondrial gene rearrangements are an exceptionally reliable indicator of phylogenetic relationships (Smith et al.1993; Boore et al. 1995; Boore, Lavrov, and Brown 1998; Boore and Brown 1998, 2000; Dowton 1999; Stechmann and Schlegel 1999; Kurabayashi and Ueshima 2000). To these ends, we are sampling further the variation among major animal groups in features of their mitochondrial genomes.

  17. 青海共和黑马河乡牦牛牛皮蝇蛆病感染情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 牛皮蝇蛆病是由节肢动物门(Arthropoda)昆虫纲(Lnsecta)双翅目(Diptera)狂蝇科(Oestridae) 皮蝇属(Hypoderma)的纹皮蝇(H.lineatum)和牛皮蝇(H.bovis)的幼虫(俗称"牛蹦虫")寄生于牛的颈肩部、背部等皮下组织而引起的一种慢性侵袭性寄生虫病[1].该病在我国北方地区广泛流行,引起患牛消瘦、产奶量下降、幼畜发育不良,尤其是皮革质量下降,损失巨大.鉴此,为摸清本乡牦牛牛皮蝇蛆的感染情况,笔者于2003年~2008年结合青海省畜牧兽医总站的牛皮蝇防治考核工作,进行了专项调查,报告如下.

  18. Avoidance of low doses of naphthalene by Collembola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boitaud, Laetitia [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 5176, 4 avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Salmon, Sandrine [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 5176, 4 avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Bourlette, Celine [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 5176, 4 avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Ponge, Jean-Francois [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CNRS UMR 5176, 4 avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France)]. E-mail:


    The introduction of behavioural aspects of soil animals in ecological risk assessment would allow us to better assess soil quality, all the more if a range of animal populations are considered. We compared the avoidance behaviour of several strains of springtails (Arthropoda: Collembola) obtained from different soils. Naphthalene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), widely represented in soils polluted with hydrocarbons, was tested in aqueous solutions on nine springtail species issuing from four sites. Fine quartz sand saturated with an aqueous solution of naphthalene was avoided by most of the tested species, avoidance being, however, detected down to a concentration of 0.030 mg L{sup -1}. Folsomia candida (Isotomidae) was shown to be relatively tolerant to pollutants compared to other Collembola such as Mesaphorura macrochaeta, Mesaphorura yosii (Onychiuridae), Parisotoma notabilis (Isotomidae) and Arrhopalites caecus (Arrhopalitidae). Differences between strains could not be explained by properties of the original soils. - PAH avoidance by soil springtails is species-specific and differs among populations of the same species.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisrina Arifatul Izzah


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini tentang keanekaragaman makrozoobentos di pesisir pantai Desa Panggung Kecamatan Kedung Kabupaten Jepara yang dilaksanakan pada Maret – April 2016. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman makrozoobentos. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode purposive sampling dalam penentuan lokasi stasiun penelitian dan pembuatan plot mengunakan metode line transect. Stasiun penelitian terdiri dari dua stasiun yakni Stasiun I dan Stasiun II. Hasil Penelitian di temukan 6 spesies makrozoobentos terdiri dari 2 jenis dari Classis Bivalvia (Fillum Mollusca yaitu spesies Anadara granosa dan Scrobicularia plana, 2 jenis dari Classis Gastropoda (Fillum Mollusca yaitu spesies Turritella nivea dan Quoyia decollata, 1 jenis dari classis Crustacea (Fillum Arthropoda yaitu Penaeus indicus, dan 1 jenis dari Classis Polychaeta (Fillum Annelida yaitu Arenicola marina. Komposisi spesies, kepadatan populasi, kenanekaragaman dan keseragaman dari komunitas makrozoobentos bahwa stasiun I lebih tinggi dari stasiun II. Terlihat pada hasil indeks keanekaragaman (H’ makrozoobentos di stasiun I (1,52 dan stasiun II (1,47. Kedua stasiun mengindikasikan bahwa keanekaragaman rendah dan kondisi kualitas lingkungan perairan dalam keadaan setengah tercemar. kualitas perairan laut di sekitar pesisir pantai desa Panggung kecamatan Kedung kabupaten Jepara membutuhkan perhatian untuk mengurangi pencemaran lingkungan.

  20. The developmental trend of labrum and median eyes of Orsten-type preserved Phosphatocopina (Crustacea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Phosphatocopina (Crustacea,Arthropoda) is an important group of ’Orsten-type’ preserved fossils.It is resolved as the sister-group of Eucrustacea.Here we study the labrum,the median eyes,and the inner lamella of Phosphatocopina based on the selected specimens respectively from western Hunan,South China,and Sweden.The labrum characters of different species exhibit interspecific difference.The ratio of labrum length/shield length is significant to the reconstruction of the ontogeny of phosphatocopines.The labrum characters should be introduced to the diagnosis of Phosphatocopina.In the earliest growth stage,the median eyes were inconspicuous,almost as flat as the other area of the hypstome.However,with the growth of the individuals they became conspicuous.There were two obviously concave structures on the ventral side of the hypostome in later stages,which were the positions where the median eyes should have been located.In addition,the two modes of preservation of the inner lamella,i.e.,that of shrinking and that of bulging up,are interpreted as the preservational artifact herein.

  1. Microbial community structure of Arctic seawater as revealed by pyrosequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yang; WANG Zhen; LIN Xuezheng


    This study aimed to determine the microbial community structure of seawater in (ICE-1) and out (FUBIAO) of the pack ice zone in the Arctic region. Approximate 10 L seawater was filtrated by 0.2 μm Whatman nuclepore filters and the environmental genomic DNA was extracted. We conducted a detailed census of microbial communities by pyrosequencing. Analysis of the microbial community structures indicated that these two samples had high bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic diversity. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the two dominant members of the bacterioplankton community in both samples, and their relative abundance were 51.29% and 35.39%, 72.95%and 23.21%, respectively. Euryarchaeota was the most abundant archaeal phylum, and the relative abundance was nearly up to 100% in FUBIAO and 60% in ICE-1. As for the eukaryotes, no_rank_Eukaryota, Arthropoda and no_rank_Metazoa were the most abundant groups in Sample FUBIAO, accounting for 85.29% of the total reads. The relative abundance of the most abundant phylum in Sample ICE-1, no_rank_Eukaryota and no_rank_Metazoa, was up to 90.69% of the total reads. Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were the top three abundant classes in the two samples at the bacterial class level. There were also differences in the top ten abundant bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic OTUs at the level of 97% similarity between the two samples.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Bezerra Hoffmann


    Full Text Available The use of different practical vegetal coverings and cultural seems to act directly on soil mesofauna. The objective of this work was to evaluate the variations of the groups of soil mesofauna n different systems of handling of the ground. The treatments had consisted of three areas: castor bean (Ricinus communis L., pasture (Brachiaria decumbens and native woods. In each area 21 samples had been removed, seven for treatments, three times. The soil mesofauna extracted using a modified Berlese-Tullgren apparatus. In the evaluation of the ecological behavior ofmesofauna, the total number of individuals was mensured and had been made comparisons of the communities using: the Shannon index and the Pielou index. Pertaining ones to filo Arthropoda had been identified to 13 taxonomics groupsin the three areas in study, being all. In the area and castor bean lesser diversity in the structure of the community of arthropods was verified, evidencing the influence of the culture systems on the population of soil mesofauna, diminishing its density and diversity in relation to the native woods area.

  3. The seasonal variation of arthropods living on forest soil at different altitudes in fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmulleriana ecosystem in Bolu-Aladağ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Duyar


    Full Text Available In the forest ecosystems, soil arthropods (Arthropoda, as primary and secondary consumers, have a significant role in litter decay and decomposition processes. The abundance, diversity and community structure of arthropods in soil ecosystem; give rapid response to change of site characteristics. The current study was aimed to determine of seasonal variation of soil arthropods on forest floor at different altitudes in Uludağ Fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmulleriana Mattf. ecosystem which is an important forest tree species in Turkey. The study was conducted in pure fir stands at 1200-1600 m altitudes (4 elevation gradients in Aladağ, Bolu. The sampling was carried out for each winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons. The samples were collected from forest floor by pitfall traps. Variations of abundance and diversity of arthropods were evaluated according to seasons and altitudes. The distributions in trophic levels and biological diversity of arthropods were also determined. During the study, the maximum abundance of arthropods was 7576 individuals/m² in summer among seasons, and was 7854 individuals/m² at 1200 m altitude. Shannon-Wiener Index (H′ and Species Richness (S′ values were detected in the pitfall traps (H′= 2.22; S′= 22.

  4. Macroinvertebrates of the Iranian running waters: a review

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    Moslem Sharifinia


    Full Text Available Abstract A comprehensive review of macroinvertebrate studies conducted along the Iranian running waters over the last 15 years has been made by providing the most updated checklist of the Iranian running waters benthic invertebrates. Running waters ecosystems are complex environments known for their importance in terms of biodiversity. As part of the analysis, we endeavored to provide the critical re-identification of the reported species by through comparisons with the database of the Animal Diversity Web (ADW and appropriate literature sources or expert knowledge. A total of 126 species belonging to 4 phyla have been compiled from 57 references. The phylum Arthropoda was found to comprise the most taxa (n = 104 followed by Mollusca, Annelida and Platyhelminthes. Ongoing efforts in the Iranian running waters regarding biomonitoring indices development, testing, refinement and validation are yet to be employed in streams and rivers. Overall, we suggest that future macroinvertebrate studies in Iranian running waters should be focused on long-term changes by broadening target species and strong efforts to publish data in peer-reviewed journals in English.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    南极磷虾通常是指南极大磷虾(Euphausia superbaDana,1852),它隶属于节肢动物门(Arthropoda)、甲壳纲(Crustacea)、磷虾目(Euphausiacea)、磷虾科(Euphausiidae)、磷虾属(Euphausia),个体最大体长可达65 mm,体重2 9,渔业捕捞的主要磷虾群体为体长介于40-65 mm的较大成体.南极磷虾是南极海域磷虾类中数量最多,个体最大的种类,是渔业的捕捞对象,最大密度分布在大西洋区,特别是维德尔海、南奥克尼群岛北部的斯科舍海和南设得兰群岛周围以及南桑维奇群岛西部水域[1].

  6. Unusually long palindromes are abundant in mitochondrial control regions of insects and nematodes.

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    K P Arunkumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Palindromes are known to be involved in a variety of biological processes. In the present investigation we carried out a comprehensive analysis of palindromes in the mitochondrial control regions (CRs of several animal groups to study their frequency, distribution and architecture to gain insights into the origin of replication of mtDNA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Many species of Arthropoda, Nematoda, Mollusca and Annelida harbor palindromes and inverted repeats (IRs in their CRs. Lower animals like cnidarians and higher animal groups like chordates are almost devoid of palindromes and IRs. The study revealed that palindrome occurrence is positively correlated with the AT content of CRs, and that IRs are likely to give rise to longer palindromes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study attempts to explain possible reasons and gives in silico evidence for absence of palindromes and IRs from CR of vertebrate mtDNA and acquisition and retention of the same in insects. Study of CRs of different animal phyla uncovered unique architecture of this locus, be it high abundance of long palindromes and IRs in CRs of Insecta and Nematoda, or short IRs of 10-20 nucleotides with a spacer region of 12-14 bases in subphylum Chelicerata, or nearly complete of absence of any long palindromes and IRs in Vertebrata, Cnidaria and Echinodermata.

  7. How many marine aliens in Europe?

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    Stelios Katsanevakis


    Full Text Available In the framework of the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN;, an inventory of marine alienspecies in Europe was created by critically reviewing existing information in 34 global, European, regional and national databases. In total, 1369 marine alien species have been reported in the European seas (including 110 cryptogenic and 139 questionable species; this is a substantial increase from the 737 species previously reported in 2009 based on the DAISIE (Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe; dataset. Most of the reported species were invertebrates (63.3%, followed by chromists (13.7%, vertebrates (11.6%, and plants (10.1%. Mollusca is the most numerous phylum, followed by Arthropoda, Chordata, and Annelida. Thecountries with the highest reported numbers of marine alien species were Israel, Turkey, Italy, France, Egypt and Greece. A reporting bias is evident as efforts for monitoring and reporting alien species vary among countries.

  8. Bioassessment using benthic macroinvertebrates of the water quality in the Tigreiro river, Jacuí Basin - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.18934

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Copatti


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the water quality in the Tigreiro river, Jacuí river Basin, using different approaches. Benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled in July 2010 (winter and February 2011 (summer at five sites. In this study were analyzed: microbiological, physical and chemical variables, benthic macroinvertebrates richness and diversity, rapid ecological assessment protocol and benthic biotic indices (% EPT, BMWP’-IAP, ASPT, SOMI. A total of 5,852 individuals were collected belonging to 31 taxa of three Phyla: Annelida, Mollusca and Arthropoda. Chironomidae was the most abundant taxon (63.70%. A reduction in richness, diversity H’ and evenness J’ was observed from the initial stretches to the end stretches of Tigreiro river. The use of different approaches showed that sites in the rural area were less altered. The Tigreiro river was strongly impacted, mainly due to discharge of domestic effluents in the urban area, and the combination of different metrics was useful to detect impacted sites and the consequence for the water quality.

  9. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in aquatic animals: signaling pathways, expressions and immune responses. (United States)

    Rauta, Pradipta R; Samanta, Mrinal; Dash, Hirak R; Nayak, Bismita; Das, Surajit


    The innate system's recognition of non-self and danger signals is mediated by a limited number of germ-line encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are single, non-catalytic, membrane-spanning PRRs present in invertebrates and vertebrates. They act by specifically recognizing PAMPs of a variety of microbes and activate signaling cascades to induce innate immunity. A large number of TLRs have been identified in various aquatic animals of phyla Cnidaria, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Chordata. TLRs of aquatic and warm-blooded higher animals exhibit some distinctive features due to their diverse evolutionary lineages. However, majority of them share conserve signaling pathways in pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Functional analysis of novel TLRs in aquatic animals is very important in understanding the comparative immunology between warm-blooded and aquatic animals. In additions to innate immunity, recent reports have highlighted the additional roles of TLRs in adaptive immunity. Therefore, vaccines against many critical diseases of aquatic animals may be made more effective by supplementing TLR activators which will stimulate dendritic cells. This article describes updated information of TLRs in aquatic animals and their structural and functional relationship with warm-blooded animals.

  10. Biota acuática en la Amazonía Peruana: diversidad y usos como indicadores ambientales en el Bajo Urubamba (Cusco - Ucayali

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    Hernán Ortega


    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se aplican índices biológicos de calidad ambiental y conservación, basados en el monitoreo biológico realizado entre año 2003 y 2009, en cinco localidades del río Bajo Urubamba. Fueron estudiadas las comunidades del plancton, bentos y peces. La diversidad del plancton comprendió 170 especies, basadas principalmente en Chlorophyta y Bacillariophyta. El bentos incluyó 112 especies, principalmente larvas y adultos de Arthropoda (Insecta. La diversidad de peces, incluye 176 especies, representadas por 26 familias y seis órdenes. El Índice Ephemeroptera + Plecoptera + Trichoptera (%EPT, califico el área de estudio entre normal a muy buena calidad. El índice de Integridad Biológica (IBI que determina el estado de conservación de los ambientes acuáticos, dio los mayores valores en Miaría y Sepahua. La elevada diversidad de las comunidades estudiados estaría relacionada a la heterogeneidad de hábitats y mayores recursos observados en la parte baja del área de estudio.

  11. Complete mtDNA sequences of two millipedes suggest a new model for mitochondrial gene rearrangements: Duplication and non-random loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrov, Dennis V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Brown, Wesley M.


    We determined the complete mtDNA sequences of the millipedes Narceus annularus and Thyropygus sp. (Arthropoda: Diplopoda) and identified in both genomes all 37 genes typical for metazoan mtDNA. The arrangement of these genes is identical in the two millipedes, but differs from that inferred to be ancestral for arthropods by the location of four genes/gene clusters. This novel gene arrangement is unusual for animal mtDNA, in that genes with opposite transcriptional polarities are clustered in the genome and the two clusters are separated by two non-coding regions. The only exception to this pattern is the gene for cysteine tRNA, which is located in the part of the genome that otherwise contains all genes with the opposite transcriptional polarity. We suggest that a mechanism involving complete mtDNA duplication followed by the loss of genes, predetermined by their transcriptional polarity and location in the genome, could generate this gene arrangement from the one ancestral for arthropods. The proposed mechanism has important implications for phylogenetic inferences that are drawn on the basis of gene arrangement comparisons.

  12. An occurence records database of French Guiana harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones

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    Sébastien Cally


    Full Text Available This dataset provides information on specimens of harvestmen (Arthropoda, Arachnida, Opiliones collected in French Guiana. Field collections have been initiated in 2012 within the framework of the CEnter for the Study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: This dataset is a work in progress.  Occurrences are recorded in an online database stored at the EDB laboratory after each collecting trip and the dataset is updated on a monthly basis. Voucher specimens and associated DNA are also stored at the EDB laboratory until deposition in natural history Museums. The latest version of the dataset is publicly and freely accessible through our Integrated Publication Toolkit at or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at

  13. Isolation, identification, and synthesis of a disulfated sulfakinin from the central nervous system of an arthropods the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. (United States)

    Torfs, P; Baggerman, G; Meeusen, T; Nieto, J; Nachman, R J; Calderon, J; De Loof, A; Schoofs, L


    Two myotropic peptides displaying tyrosyl sulfation have been isolated from an extract of central nervous systems (brain, suboesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglia, and ventral nerve cord) of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Both peptides were identified by mass spectrometry and belong to the sulfakinin family of neuropeptides, which are characterized by the C-terminal hexapeptide Y(SO(3)H)GHMRF-NH(2) preceded by two acidic amino acid residues. Pev-SK 1 (AGGSGGVGGEY(SO(3)H)DDY(SO(3)H)GH(L/I) RF-NH(2)) has two sulfated tyrosyl residues and a unique (L/I) for M substitution in the C-terminal sequence. Pev-SK 2 (pQFDEY(SO(3)H)GHMRF-NH(2)) fully complies with the typical sulfakinin core sequence and is blocked by a pyroglutamyl residue. Synthetic analogs (sulfated and unsulfated) were synthesized and the tyrosyl sulfations were confirmed by myotropic activity studies and co-elution with the native fractions. Pev-SK 1 is the first disulfated neuropeptide elucidated in the phylum of the arthropoda, with the only other reported disulfated neuropeptide, called cionin, found in a protochordate. The similarities in amino acid sequence and posttranslational modifications of the crustacean sulfakinins and protochordate cionin provide further evidence for the hypothesis stating that gastrin/CCK, cionin, and sulfakinins originate from a common ancestral gastrin/CCK-like peptide.

  14. 舟山嵊泗无居民海岛岩相潮间带底栖动物调查与研究%Investigation and Study on Macrobenthos in the Rocky Intertidal Zone of the Uninhabited Islands in Shengsi,Zhoushan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡丽萍; 金敬林; 谢挺


    2012年春季和夏季大潮期间在舟山嵊泗10个无居民海岛布设10个岩相潮间带断面进行底栖动物样品采集。经实验室鉴定,春季共采集到23种潮间带底栖动物,其中软体动物16种、甲壳动物6种、腔肠动物1种,潮间带底栖动物的平均生物量范围为907.52~3402.43 g/m2,优势种为鳞笠藤壶、厚壳贻贝和日本菊花螺;夏季共采集到34种潮间带底栖动物,其中软体动物23种,甲壳动物8种,腔肠动物、海绵动物和多毛类各1种,潮间带底栖动物的平均生物量范围为358.09~4790.95 g/m2,优势种为厚壳贻贝、疣荔枝螺和紫贻贝。潮间带底栖动物的区系按温度性质可分为沿海广温广布种、亚热带种、暖温带种三大主要类群。春季和夏季潮间带底栖动物的多样性指数均较低,分布不均匀。通过 ABC 曲线分析发现,潮间带底栖动物已受到一定程度的环境污染或人为干扰。%Macrobenthos samples were collected from 10 rocky intertidal zones in 10 uninhabited islands during spring and summer in 2012 in Shengsi,Zhoushan.23 species of Macrobenthos were collected in spring,including 16 species of Mollusca,6 species of Arthropoda and 1 species of Coe-lenterate.The average biomass range was 907.52 g/m2 to 3 402.43 g/m2 ,and the dominant spe-cies were Tetraclita squamosa squamosa ,Mytilus coruscus ,Siphonaria japonica .34 species of Macrobenthos were collected in spring,including 23 species of Mollusca,8 species of Arthropoda, each 1 species of Coelenterate,Porifera and Polychaeta.The average biomass range was 358.09 g/m2 to 4 790.95 g/m2 and the dominant species were Mytilus coruscus ,Thaisclavigera and Myti-lus galloprovincialis .According to temperature property,the macrobenthos in the rocky intertidal zone can be divided into three major groups,coastal eurythermic cosmopolitic,subtropical and warm temperate species.The diversity index of benthic animals was low

  15. Biodiversity of plankton and macrobenthos in Jinghai Bay%靖海湾浮游生物及大型底栖动物多样性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕炜家; 钟熙; 王磊; 于国庆; 李洪涛; 刘晓玉


    Based on the investigational data of Jinghai Bay in August 2014 ,the diversity of plankton and macrobenthos was analyzed .A total of 19 taxa of phytoplankton belonging to 2 phyla were identified , Bacillariophyta was the main group ,representing 78 .95% of the total species .The dominant specie was Skeletonema costatum ;the average of cell abundance was 6 .63 × 104 cells/m3 .A total of 26 species of zooplankton were identified ,Arthropoda was the main group ,representing 46 .2% of the total spe‐cies .The dominant species were Tortanus spinicaudatus and Acatia pacif ica ,the dominance was 0 . 403 and 0 .313 respectively ,with an average of 1 056 ind ./m3 .A total of 24 species of macrobenthos were found ,including Polychaeta ,Mollusca and Arthropoda ;Polychaeta was the main group ,represen‐ting 50 .00% of the total species ,the dominant species were Nereidae ;the average abundance of mac‐robenthos was 58 ind ./m2 ,and the average biomass was 340 .95 g/m2 .The analytic results of diversity show that the community structure was stable and the environmental quality was well in this area .%根据2014年8月靖海湾的调查数据,对该海域的浮游生物和底栖生物的物种组成及多样性进行了分析。共鉴定出浮游植物2门19种,硅藻门是主要类群,占总物种数的78.95%,主要优势种为中肋骨条藻(Skeletonema costatum);平均细胞丰度6.63×104个/m3。浮游动物26种,节肢动物为主要优势类群,占总物种数的46.2%;主要优势种为刺尾歪水蚤(Tortanus spinicaudatus)和太平洋纺锤水蚤(Acatia pacifica),优势度分别达0.403和0.313;平均丰度为1056个/m3。底栖动物24种,分别属于多毛类、软体动物和节肢动物。多毛类为优势类群,占总物种数的50.00%,主要优势种属为沙蚕科(Nereidae),平均丰度为58个/m2,平均生物量340.95 g/m2。多样性分析显示,该海域生物群落结构稳定,环境质量良好。

  16. Communities of macrobenthos in the intertidal zones of the Luanhe-Yanghe estuary and environmental quality assessment%滦河口-洋河口海域潮间带大型底栖动物群落及其环境质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 张永丰; 张臻; 陈燕; 马新


    2012年春季(5月)和夏季(8月)对滦河口-洋河口海域潮间带大型底栖动物群落及环境质量进行分析。结果表明:春季调查共鉴定大型底栖动物36种,种类组成以软体动物和多毛类为主;夏季调查共鉴定大型底栖动物22种,种类组成以软体动物和节肢动物为主。夏季大型底栖动物丰度和生物量明显低于春季。春季丰度和生物量皆以软体动物最高;夏季丰度以多毛类最高,生物量以节肢动物最高。滦河口-洋河口海域潮间带大型底栖动物物种数、丰度和生物量从高潮带向低潮带不断增高。采用大型底栖动物污染指数MPI和AMBI指数对调查海域潮间带大型底栖动物生态环境质量进行评价分析时,发现滦河口-洋河口海域潮间带生态环境质量总体处于良好状态,但MPI评价法和AMBI指数法对滦河口-洋河口海域潮间带生态环境质量分级结果存在差异。两种评价方法在生态环境状况分级评价中皆存在一定偏差,还需相互校准,并通过环境压力的梯度数据进行对比分析。%Communities of macrobenthos and environment quality in the Luanhe-Yanghe estuary in spring and summer 2012 have been studied. The result showed that 36 macrobenthos species were identified in spring 2012, and the dominant groups were Mollusca and Polychaeta;22 macrobenthos species were identified in summer 2012, and the dominant groups were Mollusca and Arthropoda. The average abundance and biomass of macrobenthos decreased significantly from spring to summer. The Mollusca had the highest value both in abundance and biomass in spring;the Polychaeta ranked the first in abundance and the Arthropoda had the highest value in biomass in summer. The species, abundance and biomass of macrobenthos continued to improve from the climax zone to the low tide zone in the intertidal zones of the Luanhe-Yanghe estuary. Macrozoobenthos Pollution Index (MPI) and AMBI

  17. Invasive species and biodiversity crises: testing the link in the late devonian.

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    Alycia L Stigall

    Full Text Available During the Late Devonian Biodiversity Crisis, the primary driver of biodiversity decline was the dramatic reduction in speciation rates, not elevated extinction rates; however, the causes of speciation decline have been previously unstudied. Speciation, the formation of new species from ancestral populations, occurs by two primary allopatric mechanisms: vicariance, where the ancestral population is passively divided into two large subpopulations that later diverge and form two daughter species, and dispersal, in which a small subset of the ancestral population actively migrates then diverges to form a new species. Studies of modern and fossil clades typically document speciation by vicariance in much higher frequencies than speciation by dispersal. To assess the mechanism behind Late Devonian speciation reduction, speciation rates were calculated within stratigraphically constrained species-level phylogenetic hypotheses for three representative clades and mode of speciation at cladogenetic events was assessed across four clades in three phyla: Arthropoda, Brachiopoda, and Mollusca. In all cases, Devonian taxa exhibited a congruent reduction in speciation rate between the Middle Devonian pre-crisis interval and the Late Devonian crisis interval. Furthermore, speciation via vicariance is almost entirely absent during the crisis interval; most episodes of speciation during this time were due to dispersal. The shutdown of speciation by vicariance during this interval was related to widespread interbasinal species invasions. The lack of Late Devonian vicariance is diametrically opposed to the pattern observed in other geologic intervals, which suggests the loss of vicariant speciation attributable to species invasions during the Late Devonian was a causal factor in the biodiversity crisis. Similarly, modern ecosystems, in which invasive species are rampant, may be expected to exhibit similar shutdown of speciation by vicariance as an outcome of the

  18. Molecular cloning of hsf1 and hsbp1 cDNAs, and the expression of hsf1, hsbp1 and hsp70 under heat stress in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. (United States)

    Xu, Dongxue; Sun, Lina; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng


    The heat shock response (HSR) is known for the elevated synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) under heat stress, which is mediated primarily by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). Heat shock factor binding protein 1 (HSBP1) and feedback control of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) are major regulators of the activity of HSF1. We obtained full-length cDNA of genes hsf1 and hsbp1 in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, which are the second available for echinoderm (after Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), and the first available for holothurian. The full-length cDNA of hsf1 was 2208bp, containing a 1326bp open reading frame encoding 441 amino acids. The full-length cDNA of hsbp1 was 2850bp, containing a 225bp open reading frame encoding 74 amino acids. The similarities of A. japonicus HSF1 with other species are low, and much higher similarity identities of A. japonicus HSBP1 were shared. Phylogenetic trees showed that A. japonicus HSF1 and HSBP1 were clustered with sequences from S. purpuratus, and fell into distinct clades with sequences from mollusca, arthropoda and vertebrata. Analysis by real-time PCR showed hsf1 and hsbp1 mRNA was expressed constitutively in all tissues examined. The expression of hsf1, hsbp1 and hsp70 in the intestine at 26°C was time-dependent. The results of this study might provide new insights into the regulation of heat shock response in this species.

  19. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

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    Wallace M Meyer

    Full Text Available The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May and summer (September 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1 beetles (Coleoptera, (2 spiders (Araneae, (3 grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera, and (4 millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species and 76% (254 species of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests. Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon, significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  20. Cloning and Functional Analysis of Histones H3 and H4 in Nuclear Shaping during Spermatogenesis of the Chinese Mitten Crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

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    Jiang-Li Wu

    Full Text Available During spermatogenesis in most animals, the basic proteins associated with DNA are continuously changing and somatic-typed histones are partly replaced by sperm-specific histones, which are then successively replaced by transition proteins and protamines. With the replacement of sperm nuclear basic proteins, nuclei progressively undergo chromatin condensation. The Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis is also known as the hairy crab or river crab (phylum Arthropoda, subphylum Crustacea, order Decapoda, and family Grapsidae. The spermatozoa of this species are aflagellate, and each has a spherical acrosome surrounded by a cup-shaped nucleus, peculiar to brachyurans. An interesting characteristic of the E. sinensis sperm nucleus is its lack of electron-dense chromatin. However, its formation is not clear. In this study, sequences encoding histones H3 and H4 were cloned by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Western blotting indicated that H3 and H4 existed in the sperm nuclei. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry demonstrated that histones H3 and H4 were both present in the nuclei of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and mature spermatozoa. The nuclear labeling density of histone H4 decreased in sperm nuclei, while histone H3 labeling was not changed significantly. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of histones H3 and H4 were higher at mitotic and meiotic stages than in later spermiogenesis. Our study demonstrates that the mature sperm nuclei of E. sinensis contain histones H3 and H4. This is the first report that the mature sperm nucleus of E. sinensis contains histones H3 and H4. This finding extends the study of sperm histones of E. sinensis and provides some basic data for exploring how decapod crustaceans form uncondensed sperm chromatin.

  1. Advanced formulation of base pair changes in the stem regions of ribosomal RNAs; its application to mitochondrial rRNAs for resolving the phylogeny of animals. (United States)

    Otsuka, Jinya; Sugaya, Nobuyoshi


    The ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) of animal mitochondria, especially those of arthropod mitochondria, have a higher content of G:U and U:G base pairs in their stem regions than the nuclear rRNAs. Thus, the theoretical formulation of base pair changes is extended to incorporate the faster base pair changes A:UG:UG:C and U:AU:GC:G into the previous formulation of the slower base pair changes between A:U, G:C, C:G and U:A. The relative base pair change probability containing the faster and slower base pair changes is theoretically derived to estimate the divergence time of rRNAs under the influence of selection for these base pairs. Using the cartilaginous fish-teleost fish divergence and the crustacean-insect divergence as calibration points, the present method successfully predicts the divergence times of the main branches of animals: Deuterostomia and Protostomia diverged 9.2 x 10(8) years ago, the divergence of Echinodermata, Hemichordata and Cephalochordata succeedingly occurred during the period from 8 x 10(8) to 6 x 10(8) years ago, while Arthropoda, Annelida and Mollusca diverged almost concomitantly about 7 x 10(8) years ago. The dating for the divergence of Platyhelminthes and Cnidaria is traced back to 1.2 x 10(9) years ago. This result is consistent with the fossil records in the Stirling Range Formation of southwestern Australia, the Ediacara and Avalon faunas and the Cambrian Burgess Shale. Thus, the present method may be useful for estimating the divergence times of animals ranging from 10(8) to 10(9) years ago, resolving the difficult problems, e.g. deviation from rate constancy and large sampling variances, in the usual methods of treating apparent change rates between individual bases and/or base pairs.

  2. A Cambrian micro-lobopodian and the evolution of arthropod locomotion and reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The evolutionary success of arthropods, the most abundant and diverse animal group, is mainly based on their segmented body and jointed appendages, features that had evolved most likely already before the Cambrian. The first arthropod-like animals, the lobopodians from the Early Cambrian, were unsclerotized and worm-like, and they had unjointed tubular legs. Here we describe the first three-dimensionally preserved Cambrian lobopodian. The material presented of Orstenotubulus evamuellerae gen. et sp. nov. is the smallest and youngest of a lobopodian known. O. evamuellerae shows strikingly detailed similarities to Recent tardigrades and/or onychophorans in its cellular-structured cuticle and the telescopic spines. It also shows similarities to other, longer known lobopodians, but which are ten times as large as the new form. These similarities include the finely annulated body and legs, which is characteristic also for Recent onychophorans, and paired humps continuing into spines situated dorsally to the leg insertions, a feature lacking in the extant forms. The morphology of O. evamuellerae not only elucidates our knowledge about lobopodians, but also aids in a clearer picture of the early evolution of arthropods. An example is the single ventral gonopore between a limb pair of O. evamuellerae, which indicates that a single gonopore, as developed in onychophorans, tardigrades, pentastomids, myriapods and insects, might represent the plesiomorphic state for Arthropoda, while the paired state in chelicerates and crustaceans was convergently achieved. Concerning life habits, the lateral orientation of the limbs and their anchoring spines of the new lobopodian imply that early arthropods were crawlers rather than walkers.

  3. 大连市区沿海底栖动物的种、量和对环境质量的评价%Species and number of benthos and evaluation about environment in the waters of Dalian coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹善茂; 周一兵


    1997年10月~1998年7月对大连市区沿海10个站位(南部沿海4个站位、大连湾6个站位)进行了3次底栖动物调查,共获大型底栖动物79种,其中多毛类42种、软体动物23种、节肢动物7种、棘皮动物2种、海鞘2种、其它3种。平均栖息密度为4 663.3个/m2,平均生物量为740.5 g/m2。同时测定了相关的水化指标。经分析表明该海区处于轻度和中度污染状态。%The benthos were studied based on three surveys in 10 stations in the waters of Dalian coast from Docter, 1997 to July, 1998. The results showed that 79 species of benthos were indentified, 42 species of which are polychaeta, 23 mullusca, 7 arthropoda, 3 echinodermata, 2 tunicata and 2 other animals. The average density and biomass (wet weight) of benthos was 4663.3 ind./m2 and 740.5 g/m2. The analysis based on the resuls showed that the waters of Dalian coast have been polluted lightly or moderately.

  4. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

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    Daniela Lupi


    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  5. Arthropod phylogenetics in light of three novel millipede (myriapoda: diplopoda mitochondrial genomes with comments on the appropriateness of mitochondrial genome sequence data for inferring deep level relationships.

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    Michael S Brewer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arthropods are the most diverse group of eukaryotic organisms, but their phylogenetic relationships are poorly understood. Herein, we describe three mitochondrial genomes representing orders of millipedes for which complete genomes had not been characterized. Newly sequenced genomes are combined with existing data to characterize the protein coding regions of myriapods and to attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships within the Myriapoda and Arthropoda. RESULTS: The newly sequenced genomes are similar to previously characterized millipede sequences in terms of synteny and length. Unique translocations occurred within the newly sequenced taxa, including one half of the Appalachioria falcifera genome, which is inverted with respect to other millipede genomes. Across myriapods, amino acid conservation levels are highly dependent on the gene region. Additionally, individual loci varied in the level of amino acid conservation. Overall, most gene regions showed low levels of conservation at many sites. Attempts to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships suffered from questionable relationships and low support values. Analyses of phylogenetic informativeness show the lack of signal deep in the trees (i.e., genes evolve too quickly. As a result, the myriapod tree resembles previously published results but lacks convincing support, and, within the arthropod tree, well established groups were recovered as polyphyletic. CONCLUSIONS: The novel genome sequences described herein provide useful genomic information concerning millipede groups that had not been investigated. Taken together with existing sequences, the variety of compositions and evolution of myriapod mitochondrial genomes are shown to be more complex than previously thought. Unfortunately, the use of mitochondrial protein-coding regions in deep arthropod phylogenetics appears problematic, a result consistent with previously published studies. Lack of phylogenetic

  6. A Checklist of Iranian Cockroaches (Blattodea with Description of Polyphaga sp as a New Species in Iran

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    SaedehSadat Hashemi-Aghdam


    Full Text Available Background: Cockroaches are of vital importance medically and hygienically. They are able to contaminate foods and act as vectors of pathogenic agents such as bacteria, protozoa, and parasites to human environment either mechanically or through their digestive system. Cockroaches belong to the phylum Arthropoda, class Insecta, and orderBlattodea or Blattaria. To date, over 4,500 cockroach species have been reported from different parts of the world. We overviewed the documents involved Iranian cockroaches to up-to-date checklist of cockroach species distributed in various provinces of Iran.Methods: An extensive literature review was performed in 2013 on Iranian handbooks, reports and published data available since 1986 to obtain a comprehensive list of Iranian cockroaches. Furthermore, in an entomological survey in Tehran, cockroach specimens were collected and identified based on morphological and the DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII gene (mt-DNA COII characteristics.Results: Morphological characterization revealed presence of an un-described species very similar to Polyphaga aegyptiaca, P. indica and somehow to Pycnoscelus surinamensis, however, supplementary molecularanalysis revealed the species was associated with Polyphaga of Corydiidae (Polyphagidae. With regards to the report of the un-described species, the cockroach fauna of Iran includes three families, 14 genera, and 26 species.Conclusion: Some species has not been collected or reported recently and also many geographical regions of the country have not been studied yet, hence a systematic research is required to reveal the real cockroach list of the country. Geographical distributions, nomination changes, and synonyms of cockroach species are presented.

  7. Gelsolin in Onychophora and Tardigrada with notes on its variability in the Ecdysozoa. (United States)

    Thiruketheeswaran, Prasath; Greven, Hartmut; D'Haese, Jochen


    Rearrangements of the filamentous actin network involve a broad range of actin binding proteins. Among these, the gelsolin proteins sever actin filaments, cap their fast growing end and nucleate actin assembly in a calcium-dependent manner. Here, we focus on the gelsolin of the onychophoran Peripatoides novaezealandiae and the eutardigrade Hypsibius dujardini. From the cDNA of P. novaezealandiae we obtained the complete coding sequence with an open reading frame of 2178bp. It encodes a protein of 726 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 82,610.9Da and a pI of 5.57. This sequence is comprised of six segments (S1-S6). However, analysis of data from TardiBase reveals that the gelsolin of the eutardigrade Hypsibius dujardini has only three segments (S1-S3). The coding sequence consist of 1119bp for 373 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 42,440.95Da and a pI of 6.17. The Peripatoides and Hypsibius gelsolin revealed both conserved binding motifs for G-actin, F-actin and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), along with a full set of type-1 and type-2 Ca(2+)-binding sites which could result in the binding of eight and four calcium ions, respectively. Both gelsolin proteins lack a C-terminal latch-helix indicating a more rapid activation in the submicromolar Ca(2+) range. We suggest that a gelsolin with three segments was present in the last common ancestor of the ecdysozoan clade Panarthropoda (Onychophora, Tardigrada, Arthropoda), primarily because the gelsolin of all non-Ecdysozoa studied so far (except Chordata) reveals this number of segments. Mapping of our molecular data onto a well-established phylogeny revealed that the number of gelsolin segments does not correlate with the phylogenetic lineage but rather with particular functional demands to alter the kinetics of actin polymerization.

  8. Neural markers reveal a one-segmented head in tardigrades (water bears.

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    Georg Mayer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While recent neuroanatomical and gene expression studies have clarified the alignment of cephalic segments in arthropods and onychophorans, the identity of head segments in tardigrades remains controversial. In particular, it is unclear whether the tardigrade head and its enclosed brain comprises one, or several segments, or a non-segmental structure. To clarify this, we applied a variety of histochemical and immunocytochemical markers to specimens of the tardigrade Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi and the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our immunolabelling against serotonin, FMRFamide and α-tubulin reveals that the tardigrade brain is a dorsal, bilaterally symmetric structure that resembles the brain of onychophorans and arthropods rather than a circumoesophageal ring typical of cycloneuralians (nematodes and allies. A suboesophageal ganglion is clearly lacking. Our data further reveal a hitherto unknown, unpaired stomatogastric ganglion in Macrobiotus cf. harmsworthi, which innervates the ectodermal oesophagus and the endodermal midgut and is associated with the second leg-bearing segment. In contrast, the oesophagus of the onychophoran E. rowelli possesses no immunoreactive neurons, whereas scattered bipolar, serotonin-like immunoreactive cell bodies are found in the midgut wall. Furthermore, our results show that the onychophoran pharynx is innervated by a medullary loop nerve accompanied by monopolar, serotonin-like immunoreactive cell bodies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A comparison of the nervous system innervating the foregut and midgut structures in tardigrades and onychophorans to that of arthropods indicates that the stomatogastric ganglion is a potential synapomorphy of Tardigrada and Arthropoda. Its association with the second leg-bearing segment in tardigrades suggests that the second trunk ganglion is a homologue of the arthropod tritocerebrum, whereas the first ganglion corresponds to

  9. Phylogenetic analysis and expression patterns of Pax genes in the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli reveal a novel bilaterian Pax subfamily. (United States)

    Franke, Franziska Anni; Schumann, Isabell; Hering, Lars; Mayer, Georg


    Pax family genes encode a class of transcription factors that regulate various developmental processes. To shed light on the evolutionary history of these genes in Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda), we analyzed the Pax repertoire in the embryonic and adult transcriptomes of the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli. Our data revealed homologs of all five major bilaterian Pax subfamilies in this species, including Pax2/5/8, Pax4/6, Pox-neuro, Pax1/9/Pox-meso, and Pax3/7. In addition, we identified a new Pax member, pax-α, which does not fall into any other known Pax subfamily but instead clusters in the heterogenic Pax-α/β clade containing deuterostome, ecdysozoan, and lophotrochozoan gene sequences. These findings suggest that the last common bilaterian ancestor possessed six rather than five Pax genes, which have been retained in the panarthropod lineage. The expression data of Pax orthologs in the onychophoran embryo revealed distinctive patterns, some of which might be related to their ancestral roles in the last common panarthropod ancestor, whereas others might be specific to the onychophoran lineage. The derived roles include, for example, an involvement of pax2/5/8, pox-neuro, and pax3/7 in onychophoran nephridiogenesis, and an additional function of pax2/5/8 in the formation of the ventral and preventral organs. Furthermore, our transcriptomic analyses suggest that at least some Pax genes, including pax6 and pax-α, are expressed in the adult onychophoran head, although the corresponding functions remain to be clarified. The remarkable diversity of the Pax expression patterns highlights the functional and evolutionary plasticity of these genes in panarthropods.

  10. Distribution and evolution of the serine/aspartate racemase family in invertebrates. (United States)

    Uda, Kouji; Abe, Keita; Dehara, Yoko; Mizobata, Kiriko; Sogawa, Natsumi; Akagi, Yuki; Saigan, Mai; Radkov, Atanas D; Moe, Luke A


    Free D-amino acids have been found in various invertebrate phyla, while amino acid racemase genes have been identified in few species. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the distribution, function, and evolution of amino acid racemases in invertebrate animals. We searched the GenBank databases, and found 11 homologous serine racemase genes from eight species in eight different invertebrate phyla. The cloned genes were identified based on their maximum activity as Acropora millepora (Cnidaria) serine racemase (SerR) and aspartate racemase (AspR), Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematoda) SerR, Capitella teleta (Annelida) SerR, Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca) SerR and AspR, Dugesia japonica (Platyhelminthes) SerR, Milnesium tardigradum (Tardigrada) SerR, Penaeus monodon (Arthropoda) SerR and AspR and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata) AspR. We found that Acropora, Aplysia, Capitella, Crassostrea and Penaeus had two amino acid racemase paralogous genes and these paralogous genes have evolved independently by gene duplication at their recent ancestral species. The transcriptome analyses using available SRA data and enzyme kinetic data suggested that these paralogous genes are expressed in different tissues and have different functions in vivo. Phylogenetic analyses clearly indicated that animal SerR and AspR are not separated by their particular racemase functions and form a serine/aspartate racemase family cluster. Our results revealed that SerR and AspR are more widely distributed among invertebrates than previously known. Moreover, we propose that the triple serine loop motif at amino acid positions 150-152 may be responsible for the large aspartate racemase activity and the AspR evolution from SerR.

  11. Conservation and diversification of Msx protein in metazoan evolution. (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Kamiya, Akiko; Ishiguro, Akira; Suzuki, Atsushi C; Saitou, Naruya; Toyoda, Atsushi; Aruga, Jun


    Msx (/msh) family genes encode homeodomain (HD) proteins that control ontogeny in many animal species. We compared the structures of Msx genes from a wide range of Metazoa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Nematoda, Arthropoda, Tardigrada, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Annelida, Echiura, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata) to gain an understanding of the role of these genes in phylogeny. Exon-intron boundary analysis suggested that the position of the intron located N-terminally to the HDs was widely conserved in all the genes examined, including those of cnidarians. Amino acid (aa) sequence comparison revealed 3 new evolutionarily conserved domains, as well as very strong conservation of the HDs. Two of the three domains were associated with Groucho-like protein binding in both a vertebrate and a cnidarian Msx homolog, suggesting that the interaction between Groucho-like proteins and Msx proteins was established in eumetazoan ancestors. Pairwise comparison among the collected HDs and their C-flanking aa sequences revealed that the degree of sequence conservation varied depending on the animal taxa from which the sequences were derived. Highly conserved Msx genes were identified in the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, Hemichordata, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and Anthozoa. The wide distribution of the conserved sequences in the animal phylogenetic tree suggested that metazoan ancestors had already acquired a set of conserved domains of the current Msx family genes. Interestingly, although strongly conserved sequences were recovered from the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, and Anthozoa, the sequences from the Urochordata and Hydrozoa showed weak conservation. Because the Vertebrata-Cephalochordata-Urochordata and Anthozoa-Hydrozoa represent sister groups in the Chordata and Cnidaria, respectively, Msx sequence diversification may have occurred differentially in the course of evolution. We speculate that selective loss of the conserved domains in Msx family

  12. 应用GIS制作Coringa红树林物种分布图%Application of GIS in the Preparation of Species Distributional Maps for Coringa Mangroves Based on Ground Truth Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Satyanarayana; A.V.Raman; 张秀英; 冯学智; F.Dehairs


    Coringa野生保护区是印度东海岸第二大红树林保护区.采用PCQM(Point Centered Quarter Meth-od)方法获取了该区红树林树木底面积数据Arcinfo 8.1制作物种密度分布图,结果显示,该区红树林植物有15种,分属8个科10个属,动物则包括7个门(Arthropda,Mollusca,Pisces,Amphibia,Reptiles,Aves andMammals).在15种红树林植物中,Avicennia marina,A.officinalis和Excoecaria agallocha是保护区中分布最广泛的种类,他们的分布密度随盐度的变化而变化,Rhizophora apiculata和R.mucronata则被限制在该区沿海边缘地带.%Coringa wildlife sanctuary is the second largest mangrove formation on the east coast of India with its rich floral and faunal biodiversity.The total number of floral species is composed of 15(8 families and 10 genera)conile fauna represented by 7 diverse groups such as Arthropoda,Mollusca,Pisces,Amphibia,Reptiles,Aves and Mammals.Out of 15 mangrove plant species,Avicennia marina ,A.o fficinalis and Excoecaria agallocha are the most widely distributed species within the sanctuary representing their wide tolerance capacity towards varying salinity ranges.Rhizophora apiculata and R.mucronata are mostly confined to the seaward fringes in this region.During present study,an attempt was made to prepare the species level distributional maps for the above said plant communities with the help of Arc Map 8.1 based on basal area(m2 per 0.1 hm2)estimations derived from PCQM(Point Cen-tered Quarter Method).

  13. "Candidatus Fokinia solitaria", a Novel "Stand-Alone" Symbiotic Lineage of Midichloriaceae (Rickettsiales.

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    Franziska Szokoli

    Full Text Available Recently, the family Midichloriaceae has been described within the bacterial order Rickettsiales. It includes a variety of bacterial endosymbionts detected in different metazoan host species belonging to Placozoa, Cnidaria, Arthropoda and Vertebrata. Representatives of Midichloriaceae are also considered possible etiological agents of certain animal diseases. Midichloriaceae have been found also in protists like ciliates and amoebae. The present work describes a new bacterial endosymbiont, "Candidatus Fokinia solitaria", retrieved from three different strains of a novel Paramecium species isolated from a wastewater treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. Symbionts were characterized through the full-cycle rRNA approach: SSU rRNA gene sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with three species-specific oligonucleotide probes. In electron micrographs, the tiny rod-shaped endosymbionts (1.2 x 0.25-0.35 μm in size were not surrounded by a symbiontophorous vacuole and were located in the peripheral host cytoplasm, stratified in the host cortex in between the trichocysts or just below them. Frequently, they occurred inside autolysosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of Midichloriaceae apparently show different evolutionary pathways within the family. Some genera, such as "Ca. Midichloria" and "Ca. Lariskella", have been retrieved frequently and independently in different hosts and environmental surveys. On the contrary, others, such as Lyticum, "Ca. Anadelfobacter", "Ca. Defluviella" and the presently described "Ca. Fokinia solitaria", have been found only occasionally and associated to specific host species. These last are the only representatives in their own branches thus far. Present data do not allow to infer whether these genera, which we named "stand-alone lineages", are an indication of poorly sampled organisms, thus underrepresented in GenBank, or represent fast evolving, highly adapted evolutionary lineages.

  14. Co-evolution of SNF spliceosomal proteins with their RNA targets in trans-splicing nematodes. (United States)

    Strange, Rex Meade; Russelburg, L Peyton; Delaney, Kimberly J


    Although the mechanism of pre-mRNA splicing has been well characterized, the evolution of spliceosomal proteins is poorly understood. The U1A/U2B″/SNF family (hereafter referred to as the SNF family) of RNA binding spliceosomal proteins participates in both the U1 and U2 small interacting nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). The highly constrained nature of this system has inhibited an analysis of co-evolutionary trends between the proteins and their RNA binding targets. Here we report accelerated sequence evolution in the SNF protein family in Phylum Nematoda, which has allowed an analysis of protein:RNA co-evolution. In a comparison of SNF genes from ecdysozoan species, we found a correlation between trans-splicing species (nematodes) and increased phylogenetic branch lengths of the SNF protein family, with respect to their sister clade Arthropoda. In particular, we found that nematodes (~70-80 % of pre-mRNAs are trans-spliced) have experienced higher rates of SNF sequence evolution than arthropods (predominantly cis-spliced) at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Interestingly, this increased evolutionary rate correlates with the reliance on trans-splicing by nematodes, which would alter the role of the SNF family of spliceosomal proteins. We mapped amino acid substitutions to functionally important regions of the SNF protein, specifically to sites that are predicted to disrupt protein:RNA and protein:protein interactions. Finally, we investigated SNF's RNA targets: the U1 and U2 snRNAs. Both are more divergent in nematodes than arthropods, suggesting the RNAs have co-evolved with SNF in order to maintain the necessarily high affinity interaction that has been characterized in other species.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the spider habronattus oregonensis reveals rearranged and extremely truncated tRNAs

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    Masta, Susan E.; Boore, Jeffrey L.


    We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome of the jumping spider Habronattus oregonensis of the arachnid order Araneae (Arthropoda: Chelicerata). A number of unusual features distinguish this genome from other chelicerate and arthropod mitochondrial genomes. Most of the transfer RNA gene sequences are greatly reduced in size and cannot be folded into typical cloverleaf-shaped secondary structures. At least nine of the tRNA sequences lack the potential to form TYC arm stem pairings, and instead are inferred to have TV-replacement loops. Furthermore, sequences that could encode the 3' aminoacyl acceptor stems in at least 10 tRNAs appear to be lacking, because fully paired acceptor stems are not possible and because the downstream sequences instead encode adjacent genes. Hence, these appear to be among the smallest known tRNA genes. We postulate that an RNA editing mechanism must exist to restore the 3' aminoacyl acceptor stems in order to allow the tRNAs to function. At least seven tRN As are rearranged with respect to the chelicerate Limulus polyphemus, although the arrangement of the protein-coding genes is identical. Most mitochondrial protein-coding genes of H. oregonensis have ATN as initiation codons, as commonly found in arthropod mtDNAs, but cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 and 3 genes apparently use UUG as an initiation codon. Finally, many of the gene sequences overlap one another and are truncated. This 14,381 bp genome, the first mitochondrial genome of a spider yet sequenced, is one of the smallest arthropod mitochondrial genomes known. We suggest that post transcriptional RNA editing can likely maintain function of the tRNAs while permitting the accumulation of mutations that would otherwise be deleterious. Such mechanisms may have allowed for the minimization of the spider mitochondrial genome.

  16. Polychaeta, Annelida, and Articulata are not monophyletic: articulating the Metameria (Metazoa, Coelomata

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    Waltécio de Oliveira Almeida


    Full Text Available Polychaetes are metameric worms recognized for having parapodia, chaetae, and nuchal organs. Some authors have extended the Annelida to include Pogonophora, Echiura, and Clitellata. These suggestions are insufficient to generate a monophyletic group. They do not take into account two very large and important clades that in a cladistic analysis at a higher level are shown to be nested within the Annelida: the Ecdysozoa (arthropods and related taxa and Enterocoela (deuterostomes and related taxa. Evolutionary histories of most characters across metazoan phyla are still very poorly known. Metameres and coeloms have been considered homoplastic in the literature, and yet the homeobox genes responsible for the expression of metamerism and of paired appendages, at least, are very largely distributed among the Metazoa. A phylogenetic analysis was performed for the ingroups of Polychaeta, including Clitellata, Enterocoela, and Ecdysozoa as terminal taxa. The remaining non-metameric phyla Platyhelminthes, Nemertea, Mollusca, and Sipuncula were included to root the tree within the Bilateria. Empirical data was obtained from the literature and run with the software Hennig86 with two comparative interpretations of a priori hypotheses of primary homology: one with negative characters (coding losses and another considering only positive characters (without assumptions about losses. The most relevant conclusions are: (1 Annelida and Polychaeta are non-monophyletic, even when including Echiura, Clitellata, and Pogonophora; (2 Articulata, as traditionally circumscribed for Annelida and Arthropoda, is also not monophyletic; (3 Metameria becomes monophyletic only when Ecdysozoa and Enterocoela are included in addition to the traditional annelid taxa; (4 Ecdysozoa are the sister group of Aphrodita; (5 Clitellata are related to deposit-feeding sedentary polychaetes (scolecids, and Questidae represent their sister group; (6 Owenia plus Enterocoela form a monophyletic

  17. Functional assays and metagenomic analyses reveals differences between the microbial communities inhabiting the soil horizons of a Norway spruce plantation.

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    Stéphane Uroz

    Full Text Available In temperate ecosystems, acidic forest soils are among the most nutrient-poor terrestrial environments. In this context, the long-term differentiation of the forest soils into horizons may impact the assembly and the functions of the soil microbial communities. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the ecology and functional potentials of these microbial communities, a suite of analyses including comparative metagenomics was applied on independent soil samples from a spruce plantation (Breuil-Chenue, France. The objectives were to assess whether the decreasing nutrient bioavailability and pH variations that naturally occurs between the organic and mineral horizons affects the soil microbial functional biodiversity. The 14 Gbp of pyrosequencing and Illumina sequences generated in this study revealed complex microbial communities dominated by bacteria. Detailed analyses showed that the organic soil horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Bacteria, Chordata, Arthropoda and Ascomycota. On the contrary the mineral horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Archaea. Our analyses also highlighted that the microbial communities inhabiting the two soil horizons differed significantly in their functional potentials according to functional assays and MG-RAST analyses, suggesting a functional specialisation of these microbial communities. Consistent with this specialisation, our shotgun metagenomic approach revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of sequences related glycoside hydrolases in the organic horizon compared to the mineral horizon that was significantly enriched in glycoside transferases. This functional stratification according to the soil horizon was also confirmed by a significant correlation between the functional assays performed in this study and the functional metagenomic analyses. Together, our results suggest that the soil stratification and particularly the soil resource

  18. The infauna of three widely distributed sponge species (Hexactinellida and Demospongiae) from the deep Ekström Shelf in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica (United States)

    Kersken, Daniel; Göcke, Christian; Brandt, Angelika; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Schwabe, Enrico; Anna Seefeldt, Meike; Veit-Köhler, Gritta; Janussen, Dorte


    Due to their high abundance and large body size sponges have a central position in Antarctic zoobenthos, where they form the most extensive sponge grounds of the world. Though research on Antarctic benthos communities is quite established, research on sponge-associated infauna communities is scarce. We analyzed associated infauna of fifteen individuals of the sponge species Mycale (Oxymycale) acerata Kirkpatrick, 1907 (Demospongiae: Mycalina), Rossella antarctica Carter, 1872 and R. racovitzae Topsent, 1901 (both Hexactinellida: Lyssacinosida). Samples were collected from the deep Ekström Shelf at 602 m in the South-Eastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica, during the ANT XXIV-2 (SYSTCO I) expedition of RV Polarstern. The number of species, α- and β-diversity and the significantly different species composition of infauna communities related to sponge species were calculated, the latter via cluster analysis. The sponge-associated infauna consisted of five phyla: Foraminifera, Nematoda, Polychaeta, Mollusca and Arthropoda. In total 11,463 infaunal specimens were extracted and we found at least 76 associated species. Highest values of α-diversity were calculated for a sample of R. antarctica with a Shannon-Index of 1.84 and Simpson-Index of 0.72 respectively. Our results of the cluster-analysis show significant differences between infauna communities and a unique species composition for single sponge species. Polychaetes of the genus Syllis Lamarck, 1818 were numerous in M. acerata and genera like Pionosyllis Malmgren, 1867 and Cirratulus Lamarck, 1801 were numerous in R. antarctica. Individuals of the amphipod species Seba cf. dubia Schellenberg, 1926 were often found in R. antarctica and R. racovitzae while Colomastix fissilingua Schellenberg, 1926 was frequent in samples of M. acerata. Molluscs were present in M. acerata and R. antarctica but absent in R. racovitzae.

  19. Considerações gerais e específicas sobre as glândulas cutâneas sexuais dos Lepidopteras

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    Rudolf Barth


    Full Text Available No presente estudo podemos ressaltar alguns dados e observações mostrando que estes órgãos glandulares e suas secreções atraentes e excitantes têm um papel biológico essencial, sendo sua função regular e segura de importância decisiva para a sobrevivência de muitas espécies de Lepidoptera. São ressaltados os seguintes dados: a a variabilidade de formação dos órgãos e seus componentes; b a localização no corpo para obter o máximo de proteção e efeito; c a alta sensibilidade do sistema sensorial do sexo oposto; d a distribuição das sensilas sobre as antenas como expressão da função do olfato e da importância biológica da secreção. Além disso, mostramos os resultados que o senso olfatório dos Lepidoptera - e isto pode-se estender a respeito do plano funcional geral de todos os Insecta e Arthropoda - é inestimavelmente mais sensível do que aquele dos órgãos onde a molécula tem que se difundir via um líquido intermediário, de via direta e seca nos Insecta. A continuação desta interpretação está fora do nosso alcance como histólogos, sendo reservada para a parte filosófica da ciência. hipoderme e suas glândulas em geral (dos insecta.

  20. Breakdown of phylogenetic signal: a survey of microsatellite densities in 454 shotgun sequences from 154 non model eukaryote species.

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    Emese Meglécz

    Full Text Available Microsatellites are ubiquitous in Eukaryotic genomes. A more complete understanding of their origin and spread can be gained from a comparison of their distribution within a phylogenetic context. Although information for model species is accumulating rapidly, it is insufficient due to a lack of species depth, thus intragroup variation is necessarily ignored. As such, apparent differences between groups may be overinflated and generalizations cannot be inferred until an analysis of the variation that exists within groups has been conducted. In this study, we examined microsatellite coverage and motif patterns from 454 shotgun sequences of 154 Eukaryote species from eight distantly related phyla (Cnidaria, Arthropoda, Onychophora, Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Chordata and Streptophyta to test if a consistent phylogenetic pattern emerges from the microsatellite composition of these species. It is clear from our results that data from model species provide incomplete information regarding the existing microsatellite variability within the Eukaryotes. A very strong heterogeneity of microsatellite composition was found within most phyla, classes and even orders. Autocorrelation analyses indicated that while microsatellite contents of species within clades more recent than 200 Mya tend to be similar, the autocorrelation breaks down and becomes negative or non-significant with increasing divergence time. Therefore, the age of the taxon seems to be a primary factor in degrading the phylogenetic pattern present among related groups. The most recent classes or orders of Chordates still retain the pattern of their common ancestor. However, within older groups, such as classes of Arthropods, the phylogenetic pattern has been scrambled by the long independent evolution of the lineages.

  1. 基于454焦磷酸测序法的典型草原土壤真核生物多样性%Eukaryote diversity of typical grassland soil based on 454 pyrosequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井赵斌; 程积民; 张宝泉; 李红红


    利用454焦磷酸测序法对黄土区不同封育时期典型草地土壤真核生物多样性进行了研究.结果表明,选择的V4区引物可以扩增出土壤真核生物中的微生物、动物和植物,其中真菌群落主要由子囊菌门(Ascomycota)、壶菌门(Chyt ridiomycota)、担子菌门(Basidiomycota)、绿藻门(Chlorophyta)、球囊菌门(Glomeromycota)和变形菌门(Proteobacteria)组成;动物群落区系主要包括脊椎动物门(Craniata)、节足动物门(Arthropoda)、线虫门(Nematoda)和环节动物门(Annelida);植物群落包括陆生植物(Embryophyta)和单子叶植物纲(百合纲)(Liliopsida).在不同分类学水平,不同封育时期草地真菌群落组成具有各自的优势菌群;动物群落组成仅在种水平存在差异.草地管理实践中可以结合土壤微生物和土壤养分恢复时间的阈值对封育草地进行合理利用.454焦磷酸测序法可以用于土壤中未知动物、植物和微生物区系的研究.

  2. Comparative genomic analysis of the arthropod muscle myosin heavy chain genes allows ancestral gene reconstruction and reveals a new type of 'partially' processed pseudogene

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    Kollmar Martin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing of mutually exclusive exons is an important mechanism for increasing protein diversity in eukaryotes. The insect Mhc (myosin heavy chain gene produces all different muscle myosins as a result of alternative splicing in contrast to most other organisms of the Metazoa lineage, that have a family of muscle genes with each gene coding for a protein specialized for a functional niche. Results The muscle myosin heavy chain genes of 22 species of the Arthropoda ranging from the waterflea to wasp and Drosophila have been annotated. The analysis of the gene structures allowed the reconstruction of an ancient muscle myosin heavy chain gene and showed that during evolution of the arthropods introns have mainly been lost in these genes although intron gain might have happened in a few cases. Surprisingly, the genome of Aedes aegypti contains another and that of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus two further muscle myosin heavy chain genes, called Mhc3 and Mhc4, that contain only one variant of the corresponding alternative exons of the Mhc1 gene. Mhc3 transcription in Aedes aegypti is documented by EST data. Mhc3 and Mhc4 inserted in the Aedes and Culex genomes either by gene duplication followed by the loss of all but one variant of the alternative exons, or by incorporation of a transcript of which all other variants have been spliced out retaining the exon-intron structure. The second and more likely possibility represents a new type of a 'partially' processed pseudogene. Conclusion Based on the comparative genomic analysis of the alternatively spliced arthropod muscle myosin heavy chain genes we propose that the splicing process operates sequentially on the transcript. The process consists of the splicing of the mutually exclusive exons until one exon out of the cluster remains while retaining surrounding intronic sequence. In a second step splicing of introns takes place. A related mechanism could be responsible for

  3. Reconstructing the phylogeny of 21 completely sequenced arthropod species based on their motor proteins

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    Kollmar Martin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor proteins have extensively been studied in the past and consist of large superfamilies. They are involved in diverse processes like cell division, cellular transport, neuronal transport processes, or muscle contraction, to name a few. Vertebrates contain up to 60 myosins and about the same number of kinesins that are spread over more than a dozen distinct classes. Results Here, we present the comparative genomic analysis of the motor protein repertoire of 21 completely sequenced arthropod species using the owl limpet Lottia gigantea as outgroup. Arthropods contain up to 17 myosins grouped into 13 classes. The myosins are in almost all cases clear paralogs, and thus the evolution of the arthropod myosin inventory is mainly determined by gene losses. Arthropod species contain up to 29 kinesins spread over 13 classes. In contrast to the myosins, the evolution of the arthropod kinesin inventory is not only determined by gene losses but also by many subtaxon-specific and species-specific gene duplications. All arthropods contain each of the subunits of the cytoplasmic dynein/dynactin complex. Except for the dynein light chains and the p150 dynactin subunit they contain single gene copies of the other subunits. Especially the roadblock light chain repertoire is very species-specific. Conclusion All 21 completely sequenced arthropods, including the twelve sequenced Drosophila species, contain a species-specific set of motor proteins. The phylogenetic analysis of all genes as well as the protein repertoire placed Daphnia pulex closest to the root of the Arthropoda. The louse Pediculus humanus corporis is the closest relative to Daphnia followed by the group of the honeybee Apis mellifera and the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis. After this group the rust-red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and the silkworm Bombyx mori diverged very closely from the lineage leading to the Drosophila species.

  4. Benthic community structure and composition in sediment from the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline, Texas to Florida (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Strom, Douglas G.


    From April 20 through July 15, 2010, approximately 4.93 million barrels of crude oil spilled into the Gulf of Mexico from the British Petroleum Macondo-1 well, representing the largest spill in U.S. waters. Baseline benthic community conditions were assessed from shoreline sediment samples collected from 56 stations within the swash zone (for example, sample depth ranged from 0 to 1.5 feet) along the northern Gulf of Mexico coastline. These sites were selected because they had a high probability of being impacted by the oil. Cores collected at 24 stations contained no sediment infauna. Benthic community metrics varied greatly among the remaining stations. Mississippi stations had the highest mean abundances (38.9 ± 23.9 individuals per 32 square centimeters (cm2); range: 0 to 186), while Texas had the lowest abundances, 4.9 ± 3 individuals per 32 cm2 (range: 0 to 25). Dominant phyla included Annelida, Arthropoda, and Mollusca, but proportional contributions of each group varied by State. Diversity indices Margalef's richness (d) and Shannon-Wiener diversity (H') were highest at Louisiana and Mississippi stations (0.4 and 0.4, for both, respectively) and lowest at Texas (values for both indices were 0.1 ± 0.1). Evenness (J') was low for all the States, ranging from 0.2 to 0.3, indicating a high degree of patchiness at these sites. Across stations within a State, average similarity ranged from 11.1 percent (Mississippi) to 41.1 percent (Louisiana). Low within-state similarity may be a consequence of differing habitat and physical environment conditions. Results provide necessary baseline information that will facilitate future comparisons with post-spill community metrics.

  5. Post larval, short-term, colonization patterns: The effect of substratum complexity across subtidal, adjacent, habitats (United States)

    García-Sanz, Sara; Tuya, Fernando; Navarro, Pablo G.; Angulo-Preckler, Carlos; Haroun, Ricardo J.


    Benthic habitats are colonized by organisms from the water column and adjacent habitats. There are, however, variations in the 'acceptability' of any habitat to potential colonists. We assessed whether the structural complexity of artificial substrata affected patterns of short-term colonization of post larval faunal assemblages across subtidal habitats within a coastal landscape. Specifically, we tested whether short-term colonization patterns on 3 types of artificial substrata encompassing a range of complexities, including a leaf-like unit, a cushion-shaped leaf-like unit and a cushion-shaped unit, were consistent across 4 adjacent habitats: macroalgal-dominated bottoms, urchin-grazed barrens, seagrass meadows and sandy patches, at Gran Canaria (eastern Atlantic). A total of 16,174 organisms were collected after 4 weeks and 4 taxonomic groups (Crustacea, Chordata, Echinodermata and Mollusca) dominated the assemblage. Despite considerable among-taxa variability being observed in response to habitat effects, the total abundance of colonizers, as well as the abundance of Arthropoda, Chordata and Echinodermata, was affected by the habitat where collectors were deployed, but did not differ among types of collectors. Similarly, the assemblage structure of colonizers was mainly affected by the habitat, but not by the type of collector; habitat contributed to explain most variation in the assemblage structure of the four dominant taxonomic groups (from ca. 5.44-19.23%), and obscured, in all cases, variation explained by the type of collector. As a result, the variation in short-term colonization patterns of faunal assemblages into artificial collectors was mostly affected by variation associated with habitats rather than by differences in the structural complexity of collectors. The largest abundances of colonizers, particularly Echinodermata, were found on sandy patches relative to other habitats, suggesting that the 'availability', rather than any particular attribute

  6. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in small brown planthopper (Laodephax striatellus by next-generation sequencing.

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    Guoyan Zhou

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous non-coding small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and are thought to play critical roles in many metabolic activities in eukaryotes. The small brown planthopper (Laodephax striatellus Fallén, one of the most destructive agricultural pests, causes great damage to crops including rice, wheat, and maize. However, information about the genome of L. striatellus is limited. In this study, a small RNA library was constructed from a mixed L. striatellus population and sequenced by Solexa sequencing technology. A total of 501 mature miRNAs were identified, including 227 conserved and 274 novel miRNAs belonging to 125 and 250 families, respectively. Sixty-nine conserved miRNAs that are included in 38 families are predicted to have an RNA secondary structure typically found in miRNAs. Many miRNAs were validated by stem-loop RT-PCR. Comparison with the miRNAs in 84 animal species from miRBase showed that the conserved miRNA families we identified are highly conserved in the Arthropoda phylum. Furthermore, miRanda predicted 2701 target genes for 378 miRNAs, which could be categorized into 52 functional groups annotated by gene ontology. The function of miRNA target genes was found to be very similar between conserved and novel miRNAs. This study of miRNAs in L. striatellus will provide new information and enhance the understanding of the role of miRNAs in the regulation of L. striatellus metabolism and development.

  7. A review on the mechanism of attachment and metamorphosis in barnacle cyprids%藤壶金星幼虫附着变态机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶小珍; 林岗; 许友勤



  8. An arthropod cis-regulatory element functioning in sensory organ precursor development dates back to the Cambrian

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    Simpson Pat


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of publications demonstrate conservation of function of cis-regulatory elements without sequence similarity. In invertebrates such functional conservation has only been shown for closely related species. Here we demonstrate the existence of an ancient arthropod regulatory element that functions during the selection of neural precursors. The activity of genes of the achaete-scute (ac-sc family endows cells with neural potential. An essential, conserved characteristic of proneural genes is their ability to restrict their own activity to single or a small number of progenitor cells from their initially broad domains of expression. This is achieved through a process called lateral inhibition. A regulatory element, the sensory organ precursor enhancer (SOPE, is required for this process. First identified in Drosophila, the SOPE contains discrete binding sites for four regulatory factors. The SOPE of the Drosophila asense gene is situated in the 5' UTR. Results Through a manual comparison of consensus binding site sequences we have been able to identify a SOPE in UTR sequences of asense-like genes in species belonging to all four arthropod groups (Crustacea, Myriapoda, Chelicerata and Insecta. The SOPEs of the spider Cupiennius salei and the insect Tribolium castaneum are shown to be functional in transgenic Drosophila. This would place the origin of this regulatory sequence as far back as the last common ancestor of the Arthropoda, that is, in the Cambrian, 550 million years ago. Conclusions The SOPE is not detectable by inter-specific sequence comparison, raising the possibility that other ancient regulatory modules in invertebrates might have escaped detection.

  9. Study on the Restoration of Animals on the Slope Green Belt of Shaoguan-Ganzhou Highway%韶赣高速公路边坡绿化带动物恢复的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建荣; 栾晓峰; 李斌; 徐剑; 郑立军


    67 species of animals are recorded on the slope green belt of Shaoguan-Canzhou highway, belonging to 34 families, 18 orders and 3 phylums. Among them there are 61 species, 29 families and 15 orders of Arthropoda, accounting for 91.04% of total species. The dominant species are Formica fusca, Atractomorpha sinensis Bol var, and Oxya chinensis. The slope green belt is not as good as natural habitats to restore the animals, but the cynodon daaylon ( L) pers and Loiium perenne L. on the slope green belt are good for the living of animals, and the smaller the side slope grade, the better. The growth of animals is obviously inhibited by Tepkrosia vogelii and Crotalaria pailida Ait.%韶赣高速公路边坡绿化带记录有3门、18目、34科、67种动物,其中节肢动物门最多,有15目、29科、61种,占91.04%,优势种为丝光褐林蚁、中华短额负蝗、中华稻蝗3种.边坡绿化带在动物恢复性方面低于自然生境,边坡绿化带种植狗牙草和黑麦草较有利于动物的生息,边坡坡度小也有利于动物的生息,而种植非洲山毛豆、猪屎豆对动物具有明显抑制作用.

  10. Benthic Macro-Fauna Composition and Abundance in Sombreiro River, Niger Delta, Nigeria

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    E.N. Ezekiel


    Full Text Available The benthic macro-fauna composition and abundance in sombreiro was studied for a period of two years (August 2007 - July2009. A total of twenty-eight species belonging to fourteen (14 families, six (6 classes and three (3 phyla were recorded in Sombreiro River. The phylum Annelida dominated with two classes (Oligochaeta and Polychaeta. Oligochaeta was represented by two families (Naididae and Lumbricidae and seven species having 25% by composition. Polychaeta was represented by seven families (Nereidae, Nepthyidae, Capitellidae, Eucinidae, Glyceridae, Arenicolidae and Syllidae and thirteen species having 46.4% by composition. The Phylum arthropoda was represented by two classes (Crustacea and inseita. Two families (Gammaridae and Penaidae having two species consisting of 7.2% were recorded, for the class crustacea. The class insecta was represented by one family (Chironomidae with one species consisting of 3.6%. The phylum Mollusca was represented by two classes (Gastropoda and Bivalvia. Gastropoda had two species with 7.2% composition and Bivalvia has three species with10.7% composition. Oligochaeta was the highest and constituted 62.0%. The others were Polychaeta (23.9%, Insecta (6.7%, Gastropoda (3.9%, Bivalvia (2.2% and Crustacea (1.3%. The mean diversity(S ranged between 11 species. Mean abundance of individuals (N was 985. Mean Margalef index (d value was 1.339. The mean value for Shannon-Wienner (H was 0.956. Mean Pielou’s index of relative density or evenness index (E was 0.986. Mean SimpsIn’s Dominance index (C was 0.623.


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    apri i supi'i


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to know the effect of pearl oyster culture activities to the water quality(physical, chemical, biological parameters, and the sediment of culture site, waters quality status of pearloyster culture site as well.The research was done at 10 stations, which were 9 stations located around pearl oyster culture site, and1 station located at out of pearl oyster culture site (as control. Results showed that the sources of pollutionwere from pearl oyster feces and biofouling produced from cleaning of pocket and its shell. An in organicmatter of the feces produced (50.52-78.75 % was higher than the organic matter (21.25-49.48 %. The amountof biofoulling trash increased with the size and dominated by organic matter. Sea water quality observed wasunder sea water quality standard of marine organism (aquaculture decided by government, except phosphate.Twenty four species of plankton collected, consist of 4 phylum, that were Bacillarophyta (diatom,Protozoa, Arthropoda, and Mollusca. Plankton Diversity Index showed the level of low to high pollutioncondition indicated ecological suppression and decreasing of waters quality. The amount of total bacteria andVibrio spp. at all stations were normal, that was less than 106 cfu/ml.Integrated physical, chemical and biological parameters assessment found that pollution index was 2-3,mean of low pollution. Result of Cluster assessment indicate that there was real characteristic differentiationbetween first group (1-9 and second group (control. First group was around the pearl oyster culture waters,and second group was out of the pearl oyster culture waters. So the pearl oyster culture activities affected thewaters quality.

  12. 浙江省代料香菇病虫害调查%Diseases and Pests of Lentinula edodes Cultivated in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俏彪; 吴全聪; 吴应淼


    1999~2004年的调查结果表明,浙江省香菇生产过程中病原微生物、竞争性杂菌共有84种,分别属于真菌、细菌、粘菌、放线菌和病毒5个门,其中木霉、毛霉、根霉、黄曲霉、酵母菌、链孢霉引起的病害为浙江省香菇的主要病害.香菇害虫分别属于节肢动物门和软体动物门,共92种,其中,平菇厉眼菌蚊和黑粪蚊为浙江省香菇害虫优势种群,真菌瘿蚊为重要害虫.%Eighty-four different types of pathogenic and competitive microorganisms, and 92 types of pests, were identified during an investigation of diseases and pests associated with Lentinula edodes production in Zhejiang Province of China that was conducted during the period 1999~2004. Microbial types belonged to the Eumycophyta, Bacteria, Myxomycota, Actinomycetes and Viruses, and the pests to Arthropoda and Mollusca. The major diseases of L. edodes were caused by Trichoderma, Mucor, Rhizopus, Aspergillus flavus Link, Rhodotorula and Monilia. Lycoriella pleuroti Yang et Zhang and a Scatopse species were the preponderant pest species, although Mycophila fungicola Felt was responsible for causing major levels of damage.

  13. 酸性矿山废水区域废矿石中真核生物多样性分析%Microeukaryotic Biodiversity in the Waste Ore Samples Surrounding an Acid Mine Drainage Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思远; 郝春博; 王丽华; 吕铮; 张丽娜; 刘莹; 冯传平


    采集安徽某铁矿酸性矿山废水库周边的废矿石样品,分析了样品的主要物化参数,进而利用分子生物学方法,构建真核生物18S rDNA克隆文库,对样品中的真核生物多样性和群落结构进行了研究.结果表明,该区域呈现强酸性,pH均在3以下,Fe、SO2-、P、NO3--N含量都显示同一个趋势,即裸露的废矿石样品PD和1M的含量高于有植被覆盖的样品LW和XC.4个样品含有子囊菌门(Ascomyeota)、担子菌门(Basidiomycota)、球囊菌门(Glomeromycota)和节肢动物门(Arthropoda)这4类真核生物.其中球囊菌门可以与植物形成绝对共生关系,是早期植物适应陆地环境的关键.包含球囊菌门的样品LW和XC,有植被保护,其生物多样性比裸露的废矿石样品PD和1M的生物多样性更丰富.此外,还发现样品中存在很多对极低pH、重金属有耐受力的菌种,如Penicillium purpurogenum、Chaetothyriales sp.、Staninwardia suttonii等.

  14. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change. (United States)

    Meyer, Wallace M; Eble, Jeffrey A; Franklin, Kimberly; McManus, Reilly B; Brantley, Sandra L; Henkel, Jeff; Marek, Paul E; Hall, W Eugene; Olson, Carl A; McInroy, Ryan; Bernal Loaiza, Emmanuel M; Brusca, Richard C; Moore, Wendy


    The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA) assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May) and summer (September) 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon) biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1) beetles (Coleoptera), (2) spiders (Araneae), (3) grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), and (4) millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda) were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens) Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species) and 76% (254 species) of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests). Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon), significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  15. A congruent solution to arthropod phylogeny: phylogenomics, microRNAs and morphology support monophyletic Mandibulata (United States)

    Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Campbell, Lahcen; Brinkmann, Henner; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Longhorn, Stuart J.; Peterson, Kevin J.; Pisani, Davide; Philippe, Hervé; Telford, Maximilian J.


    While a unique origin of the euarthropods is well established, relationships between the four euarthropod classes—chelicerates, myriapods, crustaceans and hexapods—are less clear. Unsolved questions include the position of myriapods, the monophyletic origin of chelicerates, and the validity of the close relationship of euarthropods to tardigrades and onychophorans. Morphology predicts that myriapods, insects and crustaceans form a monophyletic group, the Mandibulata, which has been contradicted by many molecular studies that support an alternative Myriochelata hypothesis (Myriapoda plus Chelicerata). Because of the conflicting insights from published molecular datasets, evidence from nuclear-coding genes needs corroboration from independent data to define the relationships among major nodes in the euarthropod tree. Here, we address this issue by analysing two independent molecular datasets: a phylogenomic dataset of 198 protein-coding genes including new sequences for myriapods, and novel microRNA complements sampled from all major arthropod lineages. Our phylogenomic analyses strongly support Mandibulata, and show that Myriochelata is a tree-reconstruction artefact caused by saturation and long-branch attraction. The analysis of the microRNA dataset corroborates the Mandibulata, showing that the microRNAs miR-965 and miR-282 are present and expressed in all mandibulate species sampled, but not in the chelicerates. Mandibulata is further supported by the phylogenetic analysis of a comprehensive morphological dataset covering living and fossil arthropods, and including recently proposed, putative apomorphies of Myriochelata. Our phylogenomic analyses also provide strong support for the inclusion of pycnogonids in a monophyletic Chelicerata, a paraphyletic Cycloneuralia, and a common origin of Arthropoda (tardigrades, onychophorans and arthropods), suggesting that previous phylogenies grouping tardigrades and nematodes may also have been subject to tree

  16. Macro- and megafauna recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic, Mediterranean Sea using different tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Macro- and megafauna were recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea during an oceanographic cruise carried out in May-June 2012 and an experimental fishing survey conducted in November 2013. During the former, a total of 20 benthic samples were taken using a Van Veen grab at depths between 268 and 770 m and 4 deployments of a baited lander, for about 43 hours of video records, were carried out at depths between 443 and 788 m. During the latter, 8 longline fishing operations were conducted from 338 down to 612 m. Eighty-five living benthic and benthopelagic species were recorded: 29 Porifera, 1 Cnidaria, 2 Mollusca, 11 Annelida, 1 Arthropoda, 19 Bryozoa, 3 Echinodermata and 19 Chordata. A total of 51 species are new records for the Bari Canyon, 29 new records for the Adriatic Sea. Among the Porifera Cerbaris curvispiculifer is a new addition for the Italian Sponge Fauna. The first certain record of living specimens for the bryozoan Crisia tenella longinodata is reported. A total of 6 Mediterranean endemic species have been identified: 4 Porifera and 2 Annelida. The bathymetric range of some species has been extended. New information acquired for deep sea species confirms their importance in the structure of cold-water coral communities. This study has updated the knowledge on the biodiversity of the Adriatic Sea, as well as of the Bari Canyon in particular, one of the sites designated as “jewels of the Mediterranean” for which urgent conservation measures are needed.

  17. Immunolocalization of arthropsin in the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli (Peripatopsidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell Schumann


    Full Text Available Opsins are light-sensitive proteins that play a key role in animal vision and are related to the ancient photoreceptive molecule rhodopsin found in unicellular organisms. In general, opsins involved in vision comprise two major groups: the rhabdomeric (r-opsins and the ciliary opsins (c-opsins. The functionality of opsins, which is dependent on their protein structure, may have changed during evolution. In arthropods, typically r-opsins are responsible for vision, whereas in vertebrates c-opsins are components of visual photoreceptors. Recently, an enigmatic r-opsin-like protein called arthropsin has been identified in various bilaterian taxa, including arthropods, lophotrochozoans and chordates, by performing transcriptomic and genomic analyses. Since the role of arthropsin and its distribution within the body are unknown, we immunolocalized this protein in a representative of Onychophora – Euperipatoides rowelli – an ecdysozoan taxon which is regarded as one of the closest relatives of Arthropoda. Our data show that arthropsin is expressed in the central nervous system of E. rowelli, including the brain and the ventral nerve cords, but not in the eyes. These findings are consistent with previous results based on reverse transcription PCR in a closely related onychophoran species and suggest that arthropsin is a non-visual protein. Based on its distribution in the central brain region and the mushroom bodies, we speculate that the onychophoran arthropsin might be either a photosensitive molecule playing a role in the circadian clock, or a non-photosensitive protein involved in olfactory pathways, or both.

  18. Seasonal variations in the water quality, diversity and population ecology of intertidal macrofauna at an industrially influenced coast. (United States)

    Vaghela, A; Bhadja, P; Ramoliya, J; Patel, N; Kundu, R


    Present communication reports the physico-chemical and biological quality of seawater and status of benthos of a highly industrialized shore of the north-western coastline of India. The coastal area considered for the present study, encircled by a variety of industries, was divided into two sampling sites and monitored for two consecutive years. Results of the water quality suggest that the obtained values of the physical and chemical parameters of seawater were comparable with data reported earlier. However, data obtained in the biological parameters of the seawater showed a declining trend. Results of the intertidal macrofaunal diversity studies revealed that the muddy upper littoral zones were represented by few species of coelenterata, porifera, arthropoda and mollusca. In the rocky-muddy middle littoral zones, gastropods, stars fishes, corallites, crabs, polychetes and tubeworms were present, whereas, predominantly rocky lower littoral zones were comparatively rich in macrofaunal diversity with small patches of coral colonies. However, when the results obtained in the present study was compared with that of earlier reported data, it was clear that the macrofaunal diversity indeed declined considerably over the years. This may be due to habitat destruction and habitat alteration in the coastline caused by increased anthropogenic activities in the area. Seasonal variations in the population density and abundance were observed in most of the faunal groups except in sessile corals and sponges. This may be due to local migration of the faunal groups towards deeper regions of the Gulf, as supported by the analysis of similarity, to avoid influx of freshwater during monsoon, and high temperature during summer and post monsoon seasons. The overall assessment of different parameters of this study revealed that though the physico- chemical characteristics of the seawater did not varied much from the earlier reported status, the biological characteristics of the seawater

  19. An epipodite-bearing crown-group crustacean from the Lower Cambrian. (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-guang; Siveter, David J; Waloszek, Dieter; Maas, Andreas


    Crown-group crustaceans (Eucrustacea) are common in the fossil record of the past 500 million years back to the early Ordovician period, and very rare representatives are also known from the late Middle and Late Cambrian periods. Finds in Lower Cambrian rocks of the Phosphatocopina, the fossil sister group to eucrustaceans, imply that members of the eucrustacean stem lineage co-occurred, but it remained unclear whether crown-group members were also present at that time. 'Orsten'-type fossils are typically tiny embryos and cuticle-bearing animals, of which the cuticle is phosphatized and the material is three-dimensional and complete with soft parts. Such fossils are found predominantly in the Cambrian and Ordovician and provide detailed morphological and phylogenetic information on the early evolution of metazoans. Here we report an Orsten-type Konservat-Lagerstätte from the Lower Cambrian of China that contains at least three new arthropod species, of which we describe the most abundant form on the basis of exceptionally well preserved material of several growth stages. The limb morphology and other details of this new species are markedly similar to those of living cephalocarids, branchiopods and copepods and it is assigned to the Eucrustacea, thus representing the first undoubted crown-group crustacean from the early Cambrian. Its stratigraphical position provides substantial support to the proposition that the main cladogenic event that gave rise to the Arthropoda was before the Cambrian. Small leaf-shaped structures on the outer limb base of the new species provide evidence on the long-debated issue of the origin of epipodites: they occur in a set of three, derive from setae and are a ground-pattern feature of Eucrustacea.

  20. Analysis of snail genes in the crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis: insight into snail gene family evolution. (United States)

    Hannibal, Roberta L; Price, Alivia L; Parchem, Ronald J; Patel, Nipam H


    The transcriptional repressor snail was first discovered in Drosophila melanogaster, where it initially plays a role in gastrulation and mesoderm formation, and later plays a role in neurogenesis. Among arthropods, this role of snail appears to be conserved in the insects Tribolium and Anopheles gambiae, but not in the chelicerates Cupiennius salei and Achaearanea tepidariorum, the myriapod Glomeris marginata, or the Branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna. These data imply that within arthropoda, snail acquired its role in gastrulation and mesoderm formation in the insect lineage. However, crustaceans are a diverse group with several major taxa, making analysis of more crustaceans necessary to potentially understand the ancestral role of snail in Pancrustacea (crustaceans + insects) and thus in the ancestor of insects as well. To address these questions, we examined the snail family in the Malacostracan crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. We found three snail homologs, Ph-snail1, Ph-snail2 and Ph-snail3, and one scratch homolog, Ph-scratch. Parhyale snail genes are expressed after gastrulation, during germband formation and elongation. Ph-snail1, Ph-snail2, and Ph-snail3 are expressed in distinct patterns in the neuroectoderm. Ph-snail1 is the only Parhyale snail gene expressed in the mesoderm, where its expression cycles in the mesodermal stem cells, called mesoteloblasts. The mesoteloblasts go through a series of cycles, where each cycle is composed of a migration phase and a division phase. Ph-snail1 is expressed during the migration phase, but not during the division phase. We found that as each mesoteloblast division produces one segment's worth of mesoderm, Ph-snail1 expression is linked to both the cell cycle and the segmental production of mesoderm.

  1. Inter-annual variation (1991-1993) of the substratum-leaf colonization dynamics for aquatic fauna in different habitats of the lake of the hydroelectric of Balbina, Amazon Central, Brazil; Variacao interanual (1991-1993) da dinamica de colonizacao de substrato-folha por fauna aquatica, em diferentes habitats do lago da Hidreletrica de Balbina, Amazonia Central, Amazonas- Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela-Pena, Gladys


    Experiments on fauna colonization of submersed vegetal substrate in different depths of water column were done to evaluate the benthic community structure in three habitats of the Balbina hydroelectric dam in 1991, 1992 and 1993. In these experiments substrate exposition periods of up to 60 and 75 days were done. The fauna associated to the standard substrate (Mabea caudata) belonged to seven phyla: Arthropoda, Coelenterata, Nematoda, Bryozoa, Annelida, Mollusca an Chordata. The most abundant and frequent families, during the studied period, were Naididae (Tubificida), Chydoridae (Cladocera) and Cenestheridae (Conchostraca), suggesting the persistence of these groups. In general, the pattern of colonization indicates some tendency to increase gradually with time of exposition of the substrate in the environment. Probably, the discontinuity of the tendencies is associated with the insects mobility and emergence. The initial colonization always was higher and quicker in the margin habitat, which indicates that the source of organisms is this habitat. This is due to better conditions of the environment such as availability of food and protection, associated with the submerged vegetation and wood. The community mean density during this study was 7, 312 ind/m{sup 2}. The density, the species richness index, and the diversity were correlated with abiotic variables such as pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, habitat and depth. Also, the density was correlated with total carbon and ammonium. Species richness was correlated with total carbon, ammonium and water color. The density, diversity and species richness were proportionally inverse to depth of the habitats and total absence of organisms ago 10 meter of depth, different from what is found in bottom of natural environments. This fact was attributed to the high concentration of nutrients, such as ammonium and dissolved iron, to the existence of toxic gases such a sulphide, and to the conditions of hypoxia in the deep

  2. Sources of signal in 62 protein-coding nuclear genes for higher-level phylogenetics of arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome C Regier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the strength of various sources of phylogenetic information that led to recent seemingly robust conclusions about higher-level arthropod phylogeny and to assess the role of excluding or downweighting synonymous change for arriving at those conclusions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The current study analyzes DNA sequences from 68 gene segments of 62 distinct protein-coding nuclear genes for 80 species. Gene segments analyzed individually support numerous nodes recovered in combined-gene analyses, but few of the higher-level nodes of greatest current interest. However, neither is there support for conflicting alternatives to these higher-level nodes. Gene segments with higher rates of nonsynonymous change tend to be more informative overall, but those with lower rates tend to provide stronger support for deeper nodes. Higher-level nodes with bootstrap values in the 80% - 99% range for the complete data matrix are markedly more sensitive to substantial drops in their bootstrap percentages after character subsampling than those with 100% bootstrap, suggesting that these nodes are likely not to have been strongly supported with many fewer data than in the full matrix. Data set partitioning of total data by (mostly synonymous and (mostly nonsynonymous change improves overall node support, but the result remains much inferior to analysis of (unpartitioned nonsynonymous change alone. Clusters of genes with similar nonsynonymous rate properties (e.g., faster vs. slower show some distinct patterns of node support but few conflicts. Synonymous change is shown to contribute little, if any, phylogenetic signal to the support of higher-level nodes, but it does contribute nonphylogenetic signal, probably through its underlying heterogeneous nucleotide composition. Analysis of seemingly conservative indels does not prove useful. CONCLUSIONS: Generating a robust molecular higher-level phylogeny of Arthropoda is

  3. Characteristics of macrobenthos community structure and its relationship to environmental factors within a typical plain river network%平原河网地区大型底栖动物群落结构及其与环境因子的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小华; 高伟; 刘文亮; 孙从军; 康丽娟


    quality agencies. The communities of benthic macroinvertebrate have distinct geographical characteristics, correspondingly reflecting the quality of natural environment and socio-economic development of surronding regions. To understand and characterize the benthic biota and elucidate their adaptive responses to environmental factors, we investigated benthic macroinvertebrate fauna at 83 sites in Shanghai city, which is a representative plain river network. In total, we found 20 taxa of the benthic macroinvertebrate: 10 Mollusca, 6 Arthropoda and 4 Annelida. Our data showed that macrobenthos community structure processed typical characteristics including simple composition, low species richness and high pollution-tolerant. Among all species, Arthropoda was found to be the most frequently detected one with highest population density. The spatial heterogeneity of macrobenthos community was linked to the regional extents of urbanization level, respectively. From the downtown area to suburb or rural areas, the number of species increased from 11 to 15 while habitat density decreased from 8776.3/m2 to 690.3/m2. Moreover, it exhibited high degree of correlation between the physicochemical indicators of water quality and the spatial distribution of macrobenthos fauna. Most species of Arthropoda are high pollution-tolerants and were absolutely dominant in the downtown area with heavier organic pollution and lower dissolved oxygen. In contrast, the species of Mollusca and Annelida predominated in the suburb and rural areas with lighter pollution and higher dissolved oxygen level. The significant negative correlation was found between population density of Oligochaetes and dissolved oxygen concentration. Taken together, Mollusks are indicator species showed relatively healthy aquatic environment and annelids such as oligochaetes are indicator species indentifying organic polluted and low-DO environments.

  4. Toxicity of Nitrate-N to Freshwater Aquatic Life and Its Water Quality Criteria%硝酸盐对淡水水生生物毒性及水质基准推导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铃松; 王业耀; 孟凡生; 周岳溪; 于海斌


    为推导保护淡水水生生物的NO3-水质基准,收集了NO3-的水生生物毒性数据,然后分析了不同水生生物类群的毒性敏感性,并分别采用评价因子法、毒性百分数排序法和物种敏感度分布法进行基准值推导.结果表明,不同生物类群的水生生物对NO3-毒性的敏感性存在明显差异,其敏感性排序为节肢动物门>软体动物门>脊索动物门;甲壳纲>昆虫纲>腹足纲>双壳>两栖纲>辐鳍纲.3种基准计算方法得到的基准值存在一定差异,最终推荐采用毒性百分数排序法得出的87.97mg·L-1和5.17 mg·L-1为现阶段NO3-(以N计)的水质急性毒性和慢性毒性基准值.%The toxicity sensitivity of different freshwater aquatic organisms was analyzed using the collected toxicity data in this paper.Three methods were used to estimate the criteria of nitrate to protect the freshwater aquatic life.The results showed that the species sensitivity to nitrate followed the order of Arthropoda > Mollusca > Chordata,and Crustacea > Insecta > Gastropoda > Bivalvia >Amphibia > Actinopterygii.Moreover,the output of assessment factor method,species sensitivity distribution method and USEPA's method was significantly different.Finally,criterias of 87.97 mg·L-1 and 5.17 mg· L-1 to protect aquatic life from acute and chronic toxicity were proposed using USEPA's method.

  5. 我国水生生物水质基准推导的物种选择%Species Selection for Deriving Water Quality Criteria for Protection of Aquatic Organisms in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏海磊; 吴丰昌; 李会仙; 冯承莲; 张瑞卿; 常红


    水生生物水质基准旨在保护水生生物不受水体中化学物质的有害影响,是水质基准体系的重要组成部分.不同区域水生态系统的生物区系不同,导致基准值也会存在差异.在综合研究美国、欧盟、加拿大、荷兰、澳大利亚和新西兰等国家和地区在推导水生生物水质基准的物种选择及其考虑因素的基础上,初步研究我国水生生物水质基准推导的物种选择原则.结果表明:推导我国水生生物水质基准需要选择来自8科的水生生物,分别为鲤科鱼类、硬骨鱼纲中的另一科、两栖动物纲的一科、浮游动物中节肢动物门和轮虫动物门各一科、底栖动物中节肢动物门和环节动物门各一科及一种最敏感的大型水生植物(或浮游植物),可全面代表我国水生态系统不同的营养级和生命形式.%As an important component of the water quality criteria system, the aquatic life criteria aim to protect aquatic biota from hazardous chemicals. The water quality values differ within ecosystems and in geographical regions. Based on overall analysis of the species selection for deriving aquatic life criteria in the United States, Europe, Canada, the Netherlands, Australia and New Zealand, the species selection required for deriving water quality criteria in China was discussed. The results showed that the aquatic organisms required for deriving the aquatic life criteria in China should come from eight different families; Cyprinidae, another family in Osteichthyes, a family in Amphibia, a family in Arthropoda and a family in Rotifera from zooplankton, a family in Arthropod a and a family in Annelida from Zoobenthos, and a macrophyte (or phytoplankton). These can comprehensively represent different trophic levels and life forms in the aquatic ecosystem.

  6. Characteristics of Karst Ecosystems of Vietnam and Their Vulnerability to Human Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Karst in Vietnam covers an area of about 60,000 km2, i.e. 18 % of the surface of the country. The country has an annual average temperature of 24 ℃, an annual average rainfall of 2300 mm and a relative humidity of about 90%. Karst in Vietnam is typified by peak cluster-depression landscapes ranging in elevation from 200 to over 2000 m. Tower and coastal karst landscapes also exit. Because of naturally favourable conditions, karst ecosystems are diverse and very rich.Higher plants (cormophytes) are abundant. They are represented by approximately 2000 species, 908 genera, 224 families,86 orders and 7 phyla. They form a thick vegetation cover of evergreen tropical rainforest. Knowledge about lower plants is limited. The fauna is rich and diverse. Phyla such as Protozoa, Vermes, Mollusca and Arthropoda are yet ill known.Preliminary results show that the phylum Chordata is represented by 541 species from 80 families, 40 orders and 5 classes.There exist many precious and rare mammals, in particular some endemic species such as Trachypithecuspoliocephalus, T.delacouri, Rhinopithecus avanculus, Rhinolophus rouxi, Seotoma dineties and Silurus cuephuongensis. The class Insecta has about 2000 species.``The fast population growth, particularly in the mountainous areas of the country, triggers an increasing demand for land and therefore threatens the ecosystem. To obtain land for farming, people have cut, burned and destroyed natural forest cover; resulting in occurrence of hazards such as soil-loss, water-loss, flash floods, mud-rock flows, rock-falls, severe drought, water logging and changes of karstic aquifers etc. Poaching precious animals and illegal logging are increasing. In contrast to other natural systems, karst ecosystems cannot be reestablished once damaged. Living karst landscapes will become rocky desert ones without life. Conservation of karstic environmental systems in general and karstic ecosystems in particular should not be the sole vocation of scientists

  7. Handling and Use of Oxygen by Pancrustaceans: Conserved Patterns and the Evolution of Respiratory Structures. (United States)

    Harrison, Jon F


    accepted phylogenies, invaginations of cuticle to form lungs or tracheae occurred independently multiple times across the Arthropoda and Pancrustacea in association with the evolution of terrestriality. However, the timing and number of such events in the evolution of tracheal systems remain controversial. Despite molecular phylogenies that place the origin of the hexapods before the appearance of land plants in the Ordovician, terrestrial fossils of Collembola, Archaeognatha, and Zygentoma in the Silurian and Devonian, and the lack of fossil evidence for older aquatic hexapods, suggest that the tracheated hexapods likely evolved from Remipedia-like ancestors on land.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suko Ismi


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate influence of marine fish hatchery to degradation environmentalquality in Gerokgak District, measurement was done through physical, chemical and microbiologycal analysis.Thesample was taken from 17 stations well water, and 8 stations sea water with 2 stations coming from water discard marinefish hatchery of Gondol Orchard. Data analysis of wells water to campare with water quality standart category I and seawater comparing with the live for animal sea water according to Regulation of The Governor Bali No. 8 Year 2007. Seawater pollutan level was counted through index of diversity and integrated score, to know the resemblance physical andchemical caracteristic among station was analysis by cluster.Result of the research indicates that some parameters of wells water have passed standart water quality namely :Salinity, BOD5, nitrit, phospat, iron , mangan, copper, zink, cobalt, cadmium, dan bacteria coliform feces content. Clusteranalysis wells water if we classify into 3 groups namely first group station 2, 4, 5, 8 until 17, the location of wells 2, 4 and5 near for hatcheries but have resemblance caracteristic with wells far for hatcheries that is station 8-17. Second groupstation 3, 6 and 7 have location near hatcheries and third group station 1 only near hatcheries location. Nearness betweenstation on one group caused resemblace caracteristic, although different wells distance. Parameters sea water have passedstandart water quality namely : nitrat and phospat. Can be found 21 genus plankton from 6 phylum with composition 61%Bacillariophyta, 5% Cyanophyta, 10% Protozoa, 5% Ctenophora, 14% Arthropoda. Index diversity (H’ 0.078 – 1.968 itindicates about medium to high pollution, index uniformities (E 0,033 – 0,473 its means that uniformities low tomedium, index domination (C 0,167 – 0,974 it’s meaning have domination partial of plankton a low until high. Integrated score rate have value 4,63


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建军; 郭威; 刘俊; 张忠兵


    医学节肢动物中蜱作为主要的媒介生物不仅叮咬人和动物,吸食其血液,也是许多严重传染病的传播媒介。内蒙古有关蜱类的系统研究开始于20世纪60年代,以姚文炳等为代表发表了一系列关于内蒙古蜱类的研究论文,这些文献资料散布在各种期刊和书籍中,内蒙古自治区地方病防治研究中心在研究与蜱类有关的疾病中也收集了内蒙古东部、中部和西部的蜱类标本1000余份,通过检索文献资料和检视标本发现内蒙古蜱类共有2科7属27种,本文记述了内蒙古部分蜱类标本的鉴定结果,并列出了内蒙古蜱类的分布和宿主。另外,对内蒙古蜱传疾病的研究做了回顾。%The ticks are an important vector in medical arthropoda , serve as vectors of many infectious diseases of both man and animals.The beginning of intense tick-research in Inner Mongolia is connected with the Prof.YAO Wen-Bin in the 20 century 60’ s, the literatures are scattered in journals and books, through checking with the specimen and researching for the literatures, 2 families, 7 genus, 27 species were listed, followed the distribution and host.Tick-borne diseases occurred in Inner Mongolia were reviewed.

  10. A P2X receptor from the tardigrade species Hypsibius dujardini with fast kinetics and sensitivity to zinc and copper

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    Blaxter Mark L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthologs of the vertebrate ATP gated P2X channels have been identified in Dictyostelium and green algae, demonstrating that the emergence of ionotropic purinergic signalling was an early event in eukaryotic evolution. However, the genomes of a number of animals including Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, both members of the Ecdysozoa superphylum, lack P2X-like proteins, whilst other species such as the flatworm Schistosoma mansoni have P2X proteins making it unclear as to what stages in evolution P2X receptors were lost. Here we describe the functional characterisation of a P2X receptor (HdP2X from the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini demonstrating that purinergic signalling is preserved in some ecdysozoa. Results ATP (EC50 ~44.5 μM evoked transient inward currents in HdP2X with millisecond rates of activation and desensitisation. HdP2X is antagonised by pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4' disulfonic acid (IC50 15.0 μM and suramin (IC50 22.6 μM and zinc and copper inhibit ATP-evoked currents with IC50 values of 62.8 μM and 19.9 μM respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that unlike vertebrate P2X receptors, extracellular histidines do not play a major role in coordinating metal binding in HdP2X. However, H306 was identified as playing a minor role in the actions of copper but not zinc. Ivermectin potentiated responses to ATP with no effect on the rates of current activation or decay. Conclusion The presence of a P2X receptor in a tardigrade species suggests that both nematodes and arthropods lost their P2X genes independently, as both traditional and molecular phylogenies place the divergence between Nematoda and Arthropoda before their divergence from Tardigrada. The phylogenetic analysis performed in our study also clearly demonstrates that the emergence of the family of seven P2X channels in human and other mammalian species was a relatively recent evolutionary event that occurred subsequent

  11. Microscopic anatomy of pycnogonida: II. Digestive system. III. Excretory system. (United States)

    Fahrenbach, W H; Arango, Claudia P


    The digestive system of several species of sea spiders (Pycnogonida, Arthropoda) was studied by electron microscopy. It is composed of the foregut inside a long proboscis, a midgut and a hindgut. Lips near the three jaws at the tip of the proboscis receive several hundred ductules originating from salivary glands. These previously undetected glands open on the lips, a fluted, projecting ridge at the external hinge line of the jaws, i.e., to the outside of the mouth. This disposition suggests affinities to the chelicerate line. The trigonal esophagus within the proboscis contains a complex, setose filter device, operated by dedicated muscles, that serves to reduce ingested food to subcellular dimensions. The midgut has diverticula into the bases of all legs. Its cells differentiate from the basal layer and contain a bewildering array of secretion droplets, lysosomes and phagosomes. In the absence of a hepatopancreas, the midgut serves both digestive and absorptive functions. The cuticle-lined hindgut lies in the highly reduced, peg-like abdomen. Traditionally, pycnogonids have been claimed to have no excretory organ at all. Such a structure, however, has been located in at least one ammotheid, Nymphopsis spinosissima, in which a simple, but standard, excretory gland has been found in the scape of the chelifore. It consists of an end sac, a straight proximal tubule, a short distal tubule, and a raised nephropore. The end sac is a thin-walled and polygonal chamber, about 150 microm in cross section, suspended in the hemocoel of the appendage, its edges radially tethered to the cuticle at more than half a dozen locations. This wall consists of a filtration basement membrane, 1-4 microm thick, facing the hemocoel, and internally of a continuous carpet of podocytes and their pedicels. The podocytes, measuring maximally 10 by 15 microm, have complex contents, of which a labyrinthine system of connected intracellular channels stands out. These coated cisternae open into a

  12. Community characteristics of macrobenthos in the Huanghe (Yellow River) Estuary during water and sediment discharge regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Zhonghua; LI Fan; WEI Jiali; LI Shaowen; LV Zhenbo; GAO Yanjie; CONG Xuri


    The community characteristics of macrobenthos in the Huanghe (Yellow River) Estuary is influenced by a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors. Here, we investigated short-term changes (1-month) in macrobenthic community structure in response to water and sediment discharge regulation (WSDR) in 2011. Specifically, we sampled the macrobenthos at 18 sampling stations situated at four distances (5, 10, 20, and 40 km) from the mouth of the Huanghe Estuary before (mid-June), during (early-July), and after (mid-July) WSDR. The results showed that a total of 73, 72, and 85 species were collected before, during, and after WSDR, respectively. Then, 13, 1, and 16 dominant species were detected at this three periods. Four phyla were primarily detected at all three periods (Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, and Echinodermata). However, while Mollusca and Annelida were the most important phyla in our study, Echinodermata and Annelida were the most important phyla in 1982, demonstrating major changes to community structure over a 3-decadal period. All stations were of high quality BOPA index before WSDR, whereas two and three stations were of reduced quality BOPA index during and after WSDR, respectively. The results of ABC curves showed that had incurred disturbed conditions after human activities WSDR. Most important of all, multivariate analyses and RDA analysis indicated that the structure of the macrobenthic community was closely linked to environment factors, including that organic content factor caused the distribution of macrobenthic community mostly during WSDR, while water depth after WSDR affected the macro benthos community structure seriously, and during WSDR, the environment factor influencing it was not single, including organic content, sulfide content, Hg and As. These differences may have been due to changes in water transparency negatively impacting the growth and development of macrobenthos, due to specific life-history requirements. Our results

  13. Evolution of a novel subfamily of nuclear receptors with members that each contain two DNA binding domains

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    Hirai Hirohisa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear receptors (NRs are important transcriptional modulators in metazoans which regulate transcription through binding to the promoter region of their target gene by the DNA binding domain (DBD and activation or repression of mRNA synthesis through co-regulators bound to the ligand binding domain (LBD. NRs typically have a single DBD with a LBD. Results Three nuclear receptors named 2DBD-NRs, were identified from the flatworm Schistosoma mansoni that each possess a novel set of two DBDs in tandem with a LBD. They represent a novel NR modular structure: A/B-DBD-DBD-hinge-LBD. The 2DBD-NRs form a new subfamily of NRs, VII. By database mining, 2DBD-NR genes from other flatworm species (Schmidtea mediterranea and Dugesia japonica, from Mollusks (Lottia gigantean and from arthropods (Daphnia pulex were also identified. All 2DBD-NRs possess a P-box sequence of CEACKK in the first DBD, which is unique to 2DBD-NRs, and a P-box sequence of CEGCKG in the second DBD. Phylogenetic analyses of both DBD and ligand binding domain sequences showed that 2DBD-NR genes originate from a common two DBD-containing ancestor gene. A single 2DBD-NR orthologue was found in Arthropoda, Platyhelminths and Mollusca. Subsequent 2DBD-NR gene evolution in Mollusks and Platyhelminths involved gene duplication. Chromosome localization of S. mansoni 2DBD-NR genes by Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH suggests that 2DBD-NR genes duplicated on different chromosomes in the Platyhelminths. Dimerization of Sm2DBDα indicates that 2DBD-NRs may act as homodimers, suggesting either that two repeats of a half-site are necessary for each DBD of 2DBD-NRs to bind to its target gene, or that each 2DBD-NR can recognize multiple sites. Conclusion 2DBD-NRs share a common ancestor gene which possessed an extra DBD that likely resulted from a recombination event. After the split of the Arthropods, Mollusks and Platyhelminths, 2DBD-NR underwent a recent duplication in a

  14. Comparative analysis of the tardigrade feeding apparatus: adaptive convergence and evolutionary pattern of the piercing stylet system

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    Roberto Guidetti


    Full Text Available A thorough analysis of the cuticular parts of tardigrade feeding apparatuses was performed in order to provide a more complete understanding of their evolution and their potential homologies with other animal phyla (e.g. Cycloneuralia and Arthropoda. The buccal- pharyngeal apparatuses of eight species belonging to both Eutardigrada and Heterotardigrada were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. This study supports and completes a previous study on the relationships between form and function in the buccalpharyngeal apparatus of eutardigrades. The common sclerified structures of the tardigrade buccal-pharyngeal apparatus are: a buccal ring connected to a straight buccal tube, a buccal crown, longitudinal thickenings within the pharynx, and a stylet system composed of piercing stylets within stylet coats, and stylet supports. Specifically, heterotardigrades (Echiniscoidea have a narrow buccal tube; long piercing stylets, each with a longitudinal groove, that cross one another before exiting the mouth; pharyngeal bars and secondary longitudinal thickenings within the pharynx. In contrast, eutardigrades have stylets which are shorter than the buccal tube; Parachela have pharyngeal apophyses and placoids within the pharynx, while Apochela lack a buccal crown and cuticular thickenings within the pharynx, the buccal tube is very wide, and the short stylets are associated with triangular-shaped stylet supports. In both classes, when the piercing stylet tips emerge from the mouth to pierce food, the buccal tube opening is almost completely obstructed, which may hinder food uptake. In heterotardigrades, the crossing of the piercing stylets may further decrease food uptake, however this disadvantage may have been reduced in echiniscids by the evolution of a long buccal tube and long stylets able to run more parallel to the buccal tube. In contrast, eutardigrades evolved different strategies. In the order Apochela and in several

  15. 林带对瓢虫种群分布的影响研究%Influence of Shelterbelt on Population Distribution for Ladybug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞君; 曹玉成; 吴专


    Taking Gu'an county of Langfang city in central Hebei as a testing point,ecology survival strategies about ladybug were studied;the purpose is to quantify the radiation range threshold of ecological role for farmland system by protection forest.Through study on biological information on ladybugs,range of influence of arthropoda on pests in the field under relationship among shelterbelt,natural enemies pests by the form of quantization was revealed.Result shows that: in late spring,early summer in the growth of crop maturity,Propylea japonica has an absolute advantage compared to other ladybugs;Propylea japonica are all dominant in most environment;ladybug populations basically concentrated in the shelterbelt during crops before harvested or at an early stage;ladybug,which exist certain selection tendency among different crop habitats,has more obvious tendency on intercropping field than in single-crop patches of farmland.%以冀中北部的廊坊市固安县为试验点,对瓢虫的生物生态学及生存对策进行研究,目的在于量化出防护林对农田系统的生态作用辐射范围及阈值。通过对天敌瓢虫生物学信息进行系统的研究,以量化的形式揭示出林带—天敌—害虫关系中天敌节肢动物对农田害虫的作用范围,结果表明,春末夏初及作物生长成熟期,龟纹瓢虫对比其他瓢虫具有绝对优势;大多数环境的龟纹瓢虫都占优势;在作物耕种前和生长早期,瓢虫种群基本集中在林带;不同的作物生境间,瓢虫存在一定的选择趋向性,对间作田的趋向性较农田单一作物斑块更为明显。

  16. Distantly related lipocalins share two conserved clusters of hydrophobic residues: use in homology modeling

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    Brasseur Robert


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipocalins are widely distributed in nature and are found in bacteria, plants, arthropoda and vertebra. In hematophagous arthropods, they are implicated in the successful accomplishment of the blood meal, interfering with platelet aggregation, blood coagulation and inflammation and in the transmission of disease parasites such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Borrelia burgdorferi. The pairwise sequence identity is low among this family, often below 30%, despite a well conserved tertiary structure. Under the 30% identity threshold, alignment methods do not correctly assign and align proteins. The only safe way to assign a sequence to that family is by experimental determination. However, these procedures are long and costly and cannot always be applied. A way to circumvent the experimental approach is sequence and structure analyze. To further help in that task, the residues implicated in the stabilisation of the lipocalin fold were determined. This was done by analyzing the conserved interactions for ten lipocalins having a maximum pairwise identity of 28% and various functions. Results It was determined that two hydrophobic clusters of residues are conserved by analysing the ten lipocalin structures and sequences. One cluster is internal to the barrel, involving all strands and the 310 helix. The other is external, involving four strands and the helix lying parallel to the barrel surface. These clusters are also present in RaHBP2, a unusual "outlier" lipocalin from tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. This information was used to assess assignment of LIR2 a protein from Ixodes ricinus and to build a 3D model that helps to predict function. FTIR data support the lipocalin fold for this protein. Conclusion By sequence and structural analyzes, two conserved clusters of hydrophobic residues in interactions have been identified in lipocalins. Since the residues implicated are not conserved for function, they should provide the minimal

  17. A “Rosetta Stone” for metazoan zooplankton: DNA barcode analysis of species diversity of the Sargasso Sea (Northwest Atlantic Ocean) (United States)

    Bucklin, Ann; Ortman, Brian D.; Jennings, Robert M.; Nigro, Lisa M.; Sweetman, Christopher J.; Copley, Nancy J.; Sutton, Tracey; Wiebe, Peter H.


    Species diversity of the metazoan holozooplankton assemblage of the Sargasso Sea, Northwest Atlantic Ocean, was examined through coordinated morphological taxonomic identification of species and DNA sequencing of a ˜650 base-pair region of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) as a DNA barcode (i.e., short sequence for species recognition and discrimination). Zooplankton collections were made from the surface to 5,000 meters during April, 2006 on the R/V R.H. Brown. Samples were examined by a ship-board team of morphological taxonomists; DNA barcoding was carried out in both ship-board and land-based DNA sequencing laboratories. DNA barcodes were determined for a total of 297 individuals of 175 holozooplankton species in four phyla, including: Cnidaria (Hydromedusae, 4 species; Siphonophora, 47); Arthropoda (Amphipoda, 10; Copepoda, 34; Decapoda, 9; Euphausiacea, 10; Mysidacea, 1; Ostracoda, 27); and Mollusca (Cephalopoda, 8; Heteropoda, 6; Pteropoda, 15); and Chaetognatha (4). Thirty species of fish (Teleostei) were also barcoded. For all seven zooplankton groups for which sufficient data were available, Kimura-2-Parameter genetic distances were significantly lower between individuals of the same species (mean=0.0114; S.D. 0.0117) than between individuals of different species within the same group (mean=0.3166; S.D. 0.0378). This difference, known as the barcode gap, ensures that mtCOI sequences are reliable characters for species identification for the oceanic holozooplankton assemblage. In addition, DNA barcodes allow recognition of new or undescribed species, reveal cryptic species within known taxa, and inform phylogeographic and population genetic studies of geographic variation. The growing database of "gold standard" DNA barcodes serves as a Rosetta Stone for marine zooplankton, providing the key for decoding species diversity by linking species names, morphology, and DNA sequence variation. In light of the pivotal position of zooplankton in ocean

  18. Sampling Daphnia's expressed genes: preservation, expansion and invention of crustacean genes with reference to insect genomes

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    Bauer Darren J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional and comparative studies of insect genomes have shed light on the complement of genes, which in part, account for shared morphologies, developmental programs and life-histories. Contrasting the gene inventories of insects to those of the nematodes provides insight into the genomic changes responsible for their diversification. However, nematodes have weak relationships to insects, as each belongs to separate animal phyla. A better outgroup to distinguish lineage specific novelties would include other members of Arthropoda. For example, crustaceans are close allies to the insects (together forming Pancrustacea and their fascinating aquatic lifestyle provides an important comparison for understanding the genetic basis of adaptations to life on land versus life in water. Results This study reports on the first characterization of cDNA libraries and sequences for the model crustacean Daphnia pulex. We analyzed 1,546 ESTs of which 1,414 represent approximately 787 nuclear genes, by measuring their sequence similarities with insect and nematode proteomes. The provisional annotation of genes is supported by expression data from microarray studies described in companion papers. Loci expected to be shared between crustaceans and insects because of their mutual biological features are identified, including genes for reproduction, regulation and cellular processes. We identify genes that are likely derived within Pancrustacea or lost within the nematodes. Moreover, lineage specific gene family expansions are identified, which suggest certain biological demands associated with their ecological setting. In particular, up to seven distinct ferritin loci are found in Daphnia compared to three in most insects. Finally, a substantial fraction of the sampled gene transcripts shares no sequence similarity with those from other arthropods. Genes functioning during development and reproduction are comparatively well conserved between

  19. Community Structure of Macrobenthos in the Rocky Intertidal Zone of Zhongjieshan Archipelago in Spring%中街山列岛岩礁潮间带春季大型底栖动物的群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚海峰; 薛巍; 邹广明; 朱静敏; 朱四喜; 张建民


    于2011年春季(3月)在中街山列岛3个有居民海岛(青浜岛、庙子湖岛、东福山岛)岩礁潮间带设立4个断面,对大型底栖动物的群落结构进行了调查研究.共获得大型底栖动物17种,其中环节动物1种,节肢动物6种,软体动物10种.4个断面的平均生物量为9 651.97±3 911.92(±S.E.)g/m2,平均密度为1804±232(±S.E.)ind./m2.优势种有厚壳贻贝(Mytilus coruscus)1种,常见种有日本笠藤壶(Tetraclita japonica)、龟足(Capitulum mitella)、嫁虫戚(Cellana toreuma)和紫贻贝(Mytilus edulis)4种.各断面丰富度指数(D)、物种多样性指数(H')、均匀度指数(J)的平均值分别为1.066±0.105(±S.E.)、1.560±0.085(±S.E.)、0.714±0.010(±S.E.).%The community structure of macrobenthic fauna was investigated in the four stations in rocky intertidal zone of three inhabited islands (Miaozhihu Island,Qingbang Island and Dongfu Island) in Zhongjieshan archipelago in March 2010.17 species were found in the four stations,including 1 species of Coelenterata,6 species of Arthropoda and 10 species of Mollusca. The average biomass and density of the macrobenthic fauna in the four stations were 9 651.97 ±3 911.92 ( ±S. E. ) g/m2 and 1 804 ±232 ( ±S. E. ) ind/m2,respectively. And there was only 1 species (Mytilus coruscus) of dominant species, the common species were Tetraclita japonica,Capitulum mitella,Cellana toreuma and Mytilws edidis. In addition,the average Magelef species richness(D), Shannon-wiener diversity index (H') and Pielou evenness index(J) were 1. 066 ±0. 105 (±S.E. ),1.560±0.085 ( ±S.E. ) and 0.714 ±0.010 ( ± S. E. ), respectively.

  20. Biodiversity of macrofaunal assemblages from three Portuguese submarine canyons (NE Atlantic) (United States)

    Cunha, Marina R.; Paterson, Gordon L. J.; Amaro, Teresa; Blackbird, Sabena; de Stigter, Henko C.; Ferreira, Clarisse; Glover, Adrian; Hilário, Ana; Kiriakoulakis, Konstadinos; Neal, Lenka; Ravara, Ascensão; Rodrigues, Clara F.; Tiago, Áurea; Billett, David S. M.


    The macrofaunal assemblages from three Portuguese submarine canyons, Nazaré, Cascais and Setúbal were studied from samples collected at their upper (900-1000 m), middle (3200-3500 m) and lower sections (4200-4500 m) and at the adjacent open slopes (˜1000 m), during the HERMES cruises D297 (R.R.S. Discovery, 2005) CD179 (R.R.S. Charles Darwin, 2006) and 64PE252 (R.V. Pelagia, 2006). The taxonomic composition and patterns in biodiversity, abundance and community structure of the benthic macrofauna were described. Annelida (42.1% of total abundance; 137 species) and Arthropoda (20.6%; 162 species) were, respectively, the most abundant and the most species-rich Phyla among the 342 taxa identified during this study. Multivariate analyses showed significant differences between and within canyons and between canyons and open slope assemblages. At their upper section, canyons supported higher macrofauna abundance but slightly lower biodiversity than the adjacent slopes at similar depth. In all canyons abundance reached the highest value in the middle section and the lowest in the upper section, with marked fluctuations in Nazaré (474-4599 ind. m -2) and lower variability in Cascais (583-1125 ind. m -2). The high abundance and dominance of the assemblages in the middle section of Nazaré and Setúbal was accompanied by depressed biodiversity, while in Cascais, Hurlbert's expected species richness showed increasing values from the upper to the middle canyon, and maintained the high values at the lower section. Overall, the Nazaré Canyon showed the lowest expected species richness (ES (100): 16-39) and the Cascais Canyon the highest (39-54). There was a significant negative Kendall's correlation between total organic carbon concentrations in the superficial sediments and ES (100) and a significant positive correlation between total nitrogen and macrofauna density. The influences of organic enrichment, sediment heterogeneity and hydrodynamic regime on the abundance

  1. Macrobenthic fauna community in the Middle Songkhla Lake, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angsupanich, S.


    Full Text Available A bimonthly investigation of macrobenthic fauna at the area from Ban Pak Khat to Ban Leam Chong Thanon in the Inner Songkhla Lake from February 1998 to February 1999 was undertaken to determine the species richness and abundance. A total of 7 phyla and 161 species were identified. Annelida (58 species, Arthropoda (64 species and Mollusca (23 species were the major phyla while Nemertea (1 species, Platyhelminthes (1 species, Cnidaria (4 species and Chordata (10 species were the minor. Fifty-seven speciesof Polychaete annelids were found. The highest species richness (14 species was in the Nereididae Family, of which Ceratonereis burmensis and Namalycastis indica were predominant. Nephtys sp. and Heteromastus sp. were not so highly abundant but appeared at almost all stations through every sampling month, while Prionospio cirrifera and Pseudopolydora kempi were found in higher densities but with narrower distribution. Ficopomatus sp. and unidentified Terebellidae were not commonly found, but occasionally reached a high density. Amphipods gave the highest species richness (22 species, with Photis longicaudata distributed widely and in all months. Five species of Tanaidaceans were found with Apseudes sapensis the second most dominant (max. 5044 individuals m-2 in February in the overall fauna. Isopoda were not as densely found as tanaidaceans but there were many species (18 species. Cyathura sp.1 was the most dominant isopod. Brachidontes arcuatulus was the most dominant bivalve (max. 29449 individuals m-2 in April, especially at stations with a sand-gravel substrate. The mean density of total macrobenthic fauna among stations ranged from 920 to 10620 ind. m-2 while the monthly densities ranged from 1520 to 6160 ind.m-2. The mean density of macrobenthic fauna was highest in the dry season (April. The species richness among stations ranged from65 to 105 species while varying from 81 to 112 species during the different months. The highest species

  2. Community Structures of Macrozoobenthos and Assessment of Water Quality in Pu River Basin%蒲河流域大型底栖无脊椎动物群落结构及水质评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    2014年10月对辽宁省境内的蒲河大型底栖无脊椎动物(以下简称底栖动物)群落结构进行了调查研究,共采集到底栖动物3门5纲12目22科39属44种。其中,节肢动物门35种,占总种类数的80%,环节动物门5种,占11%,软体动物门4种,占9%。优势种有小云多足摇蚊、溪流摇蚊、霍甫水丝蚓、负子蝽、划蝽、绿倒毛摇蚊、浅白雕翅摇蚊、苏氏尾鳃蚓。采用EPT百分比、BMWP-ASPT、Berger-Parker指数和BI指数对蒲河水质进行评价,结果表明,BI指数法结合指示生物法更适于蒲河流域水质生物评价,蒲河流域整体水质存在污染,且生物多样性遭到破坏,需要进行水生态修复与重建。%The community structure of macrozoobenthos was investigated in Pu River basin at October in 2014.A total of 44 species of macrozoobenthos were collected,belonging to 3 phyla,5 classes,12 orders,22 families and 39 genera.Among them,the Arthropoda included 35 species,accounting for 80%of the total species number.The Annelida included 5 species,accounting for 11%of the total species number.The Mollusca included 4 species,accounting for 9% of the total species number.The prevalent macrozoobenthos species were Polypedilumnubeculosum,Chironomusriparius,L.hoffmeistteri,Belostmatidae,Corixidae,M.chloris,Glyptotendrpespallers,Branchiurasowerbyi Beddard.The assessment of water quality was conducted by EPT,BMWP-ASPT,Berger-Parker Index and Biotic Index(BI),and the results showed that BI method combined with Bio Indicator method was more suitable for water quality evaluation of Pu River basin.The overall water quality of Pu River was polluted,and the biodiversity was damaged,so it’s need for water ecological restoration and reconstruction.

  3. Fauna epigeica em sistemas de produção de Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sandra Drescher


    Full Text Available O Rio Grande do Sul detém grande relevância na produção de tabaco. Adotam-se três sistemas de manejo: convencional, mínimo e plantio direto. Para analisar o impacto desses sistemas sobre a população da fauna do solo, efetuou-se uma amostragem da fauna epigeica. Foram avaliados preparo convencional (PC, cultivo mínimo (CM e plantio direto (PD, além de área de reconversão da fumicultura para a vitivinicultura (RV e de mata nativa (MN. Na amostragem, foram utilizadas dez armadilhas Provid em cada área. Os atributos avaliados foram: abundância de organismos, riqueza, índice de diversidade (H' e equitabilidade de Shannon (J. Collembola (Arthropoda: Hexapoda foi identificada até o nível de família, devido à sua sensibilidade às modificações do ambiente. Efetuaram-se a análise multivariada de Agrupamento Hierárquico e a Análise de Componentes Principais, e os índices H' e J foram comparados pelo teste t, de Student. O PD apresentou maior número total de organismos, isolando-se das demais áreas pela análise de agrupamento hierárquico. Os valores de riqueza foram muito semelhantes entre as áreas, destacando-se a aproximação entre RV e MN. Os tratamentos PC, PD e RV não diferiram estatisticamente quanto ao H', apresentando valores de 1,58; 1,60; e 1,52, respectivamente. CM apresentou menor valor de H' (1,18 e MN, o valor intermediário (1,33. O comportamento estatístico de J foi muito semelhante ao encontrado em H'. Em relação à Classe Collembola, foram identificadas as famílias Entomobrydae, Sminthuridae, Poduridae e Hipogasturidae. PD apresentou exemplares das quatro famílias identificadas, enquanto nas demais áreas foram identificadas apenas Entomobrydae e Sminthuridae. Pela Análise de Componentes Principais (PCA, as diferenças entre as áreas explicaram 32 % da variabilidade encontrada; desse percentual, 59,3 % foram explicados pelos eixos 1 e 2. A presença ou ausência de revolvimento do solo e a rota

  4. Study on Phylogenesis of Orthoptera Inferred from MtDNA%基于线粒体基因对直翅目昆虫系统发育学的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马婷婷; 陈光


    简要概述了线粒体基因组的结构和特点,同时基于线粒体基因组中的13个蛋白编码基因,选螳螂目、蜚蠊目、等翅目及螳脩目的5个种为外群,对直翅目34个种进行系统发育学研究.结果表明直翅目与外群分开,形成单系群.直翅目内部形成螽亚目与蝗亚目2个单系群.在螽亚目内部形成螽次亚目与蟀次亚目2个分支,且驼螽总科与螽斯总科形成姐妹群,但蚁蟋科与蝼蛄科形成1支,并不支持蟋蟀总科的单系性.在蝗亚目内部形成(蚤蝼总科+(牛蝗总科+(锥头蝗总科+蝗总科)))的系统进化关系.%The Orthoptera, belonging to the Arthropoda, is one of the largest orders among the Insecta. Mitochondrial DNA has been widely used in insect phylogenetic studies and proved to be an efficient maker in this field. This paper introduces the structure and characters of the mitochondrial genome. The phylogenetic relationships of 34 species from Orthoptera and 5 outgroup species (Mantodea, Blattaria, Isoptera, and Mantophasmatodea) were performed based on the 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes. The monophyly of the Orthoptera is strongly supported, with its two suborders, Caelifera and Ensifera, being recovered as monophyletic respectively. Within Ensifera, it is subdivided into Grylloidea and Tet-tigonioidea. The superfamily of Rhaphidophoridae is a sister group to Tettigoniidae. The monophyly of Grylloidea is not recovered because Myrmecophilidae and Gryllotalpidae cluster together. The system evolution relationship of the superfamilies within Caelifera is formed (Tridactyloidea + ( Pneumoridea + (Pyr-gomorphoidea + Acridoidea) ) ) .

  5. Avaliação da comunidade de macroinvertebrados aquáticos como ferramenta para o monitoramento de um reservatório na bacia do rio Pitangui, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana F Barbola


    Full Text Available Os macroinvertebrados bentônicos e nectônicos representam elementos importantes na estrutura e funcionamento dos ecossistemas aquáticos e sua distribuição é influenciada pela natureza química do substrato, composição da vegetação e profundidade da lâmina d'água. O conhecimento desta fauna contribui para a avaliação da qualidade da água e a elaboração de ações visando à conservação da biodiversidade. No presente estudo foram avaliadas diferentes medidas bióticas da comunidade de invertebrados da represa de Alagados, importante manancial da cidade de Ponta Grossa, no Paraná. Em cinco diferentes pontos de amostragem, foram coletados 18.473 exemplares de macroinvertebrados aquáticos ou semi-aquáticos, pertencentes a 46 táxons dos filos Annelida (Hirudinea e Oligochaeta, Mollusca (Gastropoda, Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria, Nematoda e Arthropoda (Arachnida, Crustacea e Insecta. Esta comunidade foi constituída predominantemente por organismos predadores (45,7% dos táxons amostrados, seguidos de coletores e/ou filtradores (23,9%; raspadores (15,2%, fragmentadores (13% e detritívoros (2,2%. De modo geral, os índices de diversidade (H' e equitabilidade (J foram significativamente baixos para os cinco locais investigados, com H' variando de 0,3301 a 1,0396. Quanto à tolerância dos organismos à poluição orgânica, alguns táxons mais sensíveis foram muito raros (Plecoptera ou em baixa frequência (Trichoptera e Ephemeroptera. Entre os grupos mais resistentes a ambientes poluídos estão os Chironomidae e os Hirudinea, ambos bastante comuns nas amostras de Alagados. Este estudo reforça a importância da análise de bioindicadores na avaliação da qualidade de água para consumo humano e também para a conservação de ecossistemas, considerando que um programa de monitoramento ambiental deve integrar medidas físicas, químicas e biológicas.

  6. 水生漂浮型喜旱莲子草群落对底栖动物群落的影响%Effects of aquatic floating type Alternanthera philoxeroides community upon zoobenthos community structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王魏根; 孟勤


    从2011年12月到2012年5月,分别在喜旱莲子草枯萎期、萌发期和繁盛期调查了七渔河阜阳段喜旱莲子草群落覆盖区和未覆盖区底栖动物群落结构。此次调查共采集到底栖动物12种,主要是一些耐污染的种类,包括环节动物、腹足类、甲壳动物和水生昆虫。在喜旱莲子草覆盖区和未覆盖区,底栖动物平均密度分别为312 ind·m -2和280 ind·m -2,平均生物量分别为1.76 g·m -2和0.6 g·m -2。生物多样性指数值在0.92和1.47之间。由于底栖动物各个类群生活习性不同,喜旱莲子草群落对底栖动物各个类群的影响也不相同。%From December 2011 to May 2012, the zoobenthos community in Qiyu River at Fuyang section were investigated at different water areas (covered by Alternanthera philoxeroides community and not) during three life stages of Alternanthera philoxe-roides (withered stage, germinative stage and luxuriant stage). The total of 12 zoobenthos species were discovered which include Annelida, Gastropoda, Crustacea and Arthropoda, and most of the species are resistant to pollution. At the water area covered by Alternanthera philoxeroides community and not, the zoobenthos average density is 312 ind·m - 2 and 280 ind·m - 2 , respectively, and the average biomass is 1. 76 g·m - 2 and 0. 6 g·m - 2 respectively. Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index value ranges from 0. 92 to 1. 47. Because life habits of every zoobenthos group are different, the effects of aquatic floating type Alternanthera philoxeroides com-munity upon every zoobenthos group are different.

  7. Eukaryotic community diversity and spatial variation during drinking water production (by seawater desalination) and distribution in a full-scale network

    KAUST Repository

    Belila, Abdelaziz


    Eukaryotic microorganisms are naturally present in many water resources and can enter, grow and colonize water treatment and transport systems, including reservoirs, pipes and premise plumbing. In this study, we explored the eukaryotic microbial community structure in water during the (i) production of drinking water in a seawater desalination plant and (ii) transport of the drinking water in the distribution network. The desalination plant treatment involved pre-treatment (e.g. spruce filters), reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filtration and post-treatment steps (e.g. remineralization). 454 pyrosequencing analysis of the 18S rRNA gene revealed a highly diverse (35 phyla) and spatially variable eukaryotic community during water treatment and distribution. The desalination plant feed water contained a typical marine picoeukaryotic community dominated by Stramenopiles, Alveolates and Porifera. In the desalination plant Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum (15.5% relative abundance), followed by Alveolata (11.9%), unclassified fungi clade (10.9%) and Porifera (10.7%). In the drinking water distribution network, an uncultured fungi phylum was the major group (44.0%), followed by Chordata (17.0%), Ascomycota (11.0%) and Arthropoda (8.0%). Fungi constituted 40% of the total eukaryotic community in the treatment plant and the distribution network and their taxonomic composition was dominated by an uncultured fungi clade (55%). Comparing the plant effluent to the network samples, 84 OTUs (2.1%) formed the core eukaryotic community while 35 (8.4%) and 299 (71.5%) constituted unique OTUs in the produced water at the plant and combined tap water samples from the network, respectively. RO membrane filtration treatment significantly changed the water eukaryotic community composition and structure, highlighting the fact that (i) RO produced water is not sterile and (ii) the microbial community in the final tap water is influenced by the downstream distribution system. The study

  8. 不同寒热药性海洋中药在海洋生物系统发育树的分布规律及其关联关系分析%The Distribution and Association Relationships of Marine Chinese Medicine with Different Nature in the Phylogenetic Tree of Marine Organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Xianjun; 付先军; 王振国; 王长云; 李学博; 王慧美; 赵娇


    目的:海洋中药是我国中药资源宝库的重要组成部分,海洋生物资源的开发为海洋中药的发展奠定了基础,如何快速客观评价海洋中药新资源的药性已成为制约海洋中药发展和临床应用的主要瓶颈问题之一.方法:本文以613味海洋中药涉及的1 091种海洋中药物种为研究对象,采用关联规则挖掘(Association Rules Mining)和系统发育树(Phylogenetic Tree)构建方法,分析不同寒热药性海洋中药在海洋生物系统发育树上的分布规律及其关联关系.结果:不同药性的海洋中药在发育树上的分布具有很高的聚集性,来源于相同科物种的海洋中药,其药性基本也一样,很多与同一药性关联程度高的规则分布在系统发育树的同一分支中,或者在发育树上的距离非常近,如与寒性关联程度比较高的绿藻门(Chlorophyta)、红藻纲(Florideophyceae)、褐藻纲(Phaeohpyceae)等海洋植物,与热性关联程度较高的十足目(Decapoda)、软甲纲(Malacostraca)、节肢动物门(Arthropoda)等海洋动物,和平性海洋中药相关程度较高的有鳞目(Squamata)海洋鱼类.结论:以上结果提示药性和海洋生物的门纲科属等亲缘关系信息具有一定的关联关系,来源于亲缘关系相同或相近海洋生物物种的海洋中药可能会具有相同或相近的中药药性,这为海洋中药新资源的药性预测和评价提供了新的评价指标和参考依据.%Marine Chinese Medicine (MCM) is one of the important part of the traditional Chinese medicine.The exploration of marine organism resources provide a good base for the development of MCM.However,the evaluation for the nature of the new source of MCM becomes one of the key problem of the clinic application of MCM.In this study,613 MCM and their related 1 091 species of marine organisms were screened.Association Rules Mining method and Phylogenetic Tree constructing method were used to find out the association relationship

  9. Invertebrates associated to Eichhornea azurea Kunth in a lagoon of the Upper Paraná River: composition, community attributes and influence of abiotic factors Invertebrados associados à Eichhornea azurea Kunth em uma lagoa do alto rio Paraná: composição, atributos da comunidade e influência de fatores abióticos

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    Valéria Flávia Batista-Silva


    Full Text Available AIM: We evaluated the composition and community attributes of invertebrates associated to Eichhornia azurea at Cascalho Lagoon, Upper Paraná River, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, over a hydrological cycle, as well the possible influence of abiotic factors upon these attributes. METHODS: The samplings were conducted during 2010 in the rainy and dry periods at stands of E. azurea. The attributes evaluated were abundance, richness, diversity, evenness and dominance. The abiotic factors, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and turbidity were summarized by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. In order to verify possible differences between the mean values of the community attributes and the scores of the PCA axis in different periods, we employed null models analysis of variance. The influence of abiotic factors on each attribute was evaluated through Pearson correlations. RESULTS: We captured 3,052 individuals, distributed into 32 taxa, belonging to the phyllum Mollusca, Annelida, Nematoda and Arthropoda. Among the assessed attributes, only abundance and richness varied significantly between periods, with higher values during the rainy period. Chironomidade was dominant in both periods, whereas Notonectidae and Cyclopoida were rare in the rainy, and Bivalve, Decapoda, Haliplidae, Trichoptera and Pyralidae, in the dry period. A temporal distinction was evident only for the PCA axis 1, which represented gradients in temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH. Among the community attributes, only abundance was significant and negatively correlated with this axis. CONCLUSION: We attested that: i the rainy period should add favorable conditions for invertebrates' higher richness and abundance in this macrophyte; ii only the later attribute was influenced by limnological gradients.OBJETIVO: Nós avaliamos a composição e atributos da comunidade de invertebrados associados à Eichhornia azurea na lagoa do Cascalho, alto rio Paraná, MS, Brasil, durante um

  10. Composición y abundancia de artrópodos epígeos del Parque Nacional Llanos de Challe: impactos del ENOS de 1997 y efectos del hábitat pedológico Abundance and composition of epigean arthropods from Llanos de Challe National Park: impacts of ENSO-1997 and effects of the pedological habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Mediante el uso de trampas de intercepción, se estudió el efecto de la precipitación y el tipo de hábitat sobre la denso-actividad del ensamble de artrópodos epígeos _en particular Tenebrionidae_ del Parque Nacional Llanos de Challe. Este parque está ubicado en el desierto costero transicional de Chile, en la III Región de Atacama. Los muestreos se realizaron durante tres días por mes (septiembre, octubre y diciembre en el período de máxima actividad biológica del sistema y en los años 1989 (año no-ENOS seco, 1997 (año ENOS intenso y 2000 (año no-ENOS húmedo. En las comparaciones se utilizaron dos sitios pedológicamente contrastantes: un hábitat dunario costero y un hábitat pedregoso interior. Se registró la presencia de 15 órdenes de Arthropoda. Los hexápodos constituyeron > 95 % del total de los especímenes capturados (9.065 individuos, siendo Collembola (36,1 % y Coleoptera (29,8 % los órdenes con mayor representatividad numérica. El número de órdenes con representantes activos varió ligeramente entre años: 13 órdenes se registraron en 1989 (44 % de precipitación bajo el promedio, 15 en 1997 (443 % sobre el promedio y 11 en 2000 (52 % sobre el promedio. El efecto del evento ENOS se reflejó claramente en la contribución numérica en la mayoría de los taxa registrados. Aunque más sutilmente, este efecto también se reflejó en la composición del ensamble de taxa dominantes y entre hábitat pedológicos, particularmente con Tenebrionidae y Formicidae. Especialmente en las dunas costeras, Tenebrionidae dominó claramente el ensamble de artrópodos epígeos, siendo Gyriosomus Guérin-Méneville el género más diverso y abundante. La dominancia de Gyriosomus plantea un conjunto de interrogantes respecto de su nivel de endemismo, diversidad y distribución de sus especies, y el papel funcional de estas en el ecosistema estudiadoBy using pitfall traps, the effects of rainfall and habitat type on the denso

  11. Aspectos clínicos, epidemiológicos y de tratamiento de 11 casos de envenenamiento por ciempiés en Adícora, Península de Paraguaná, estado Falcón, Venezuela Clinical, epidemiological and treatment aspects of eleven cases of centipede envenomation in Adícora, Paraguaná peninsula, Falcón state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalmiro J Cazorla Perfetti


    Full Text Available A pesar de que las picaduras por ciempiés o centípedos (Phylum Arthropoda, Clase Chilopoda son frecuentes y pueden potencialmente ocasionar el deceso del individuo, en Venezuela son pocos los estudios acerca de su ocurrencia. Entre octubre de 2006 y mayo de 2007, se realizó un estudio descriptivo y prospectivo para determinar los perfiles clínicos, epidemiológicos y tratamiento de los envenenamientos ocasionados por centípedos en individuos que asistieron a la emergencia ambulatoria en Adícora, estado Falcón, Venezuela. Se hizo la evaluación clínica y la anamnesis para indagar la hora y el lugar del accidente. El centípedo se recolectó para identificación. El tratamiento consistió en aplicación tópica de solución antiséptica yodada (Povidona®; analgésico antiinflamatorio endovenoso y toxoide tetánico; en el caso de abscesos se administró antibiótico terapia per os. Se registraron 11 pacientes mordidos por Scolopendra sp., 6 (54,55% femeninos y 5 (45,46% varones. Los accidentes ocurrieron con mayor frecuencia en meses de la estación seca (diciembre-abril; >60%, en adultos (39-62 años; 81,82%, residentes locales (81,82% dentro del domicilio (54,55% en horas nocturnas (63,64% y en los miembros inferiores (54,55%. Los pacientes asistieron a la emergencia ambulatoria entre 5 a 600 minutos después del accidente ( =169,9 ± 236,3. Las manifestaciones clínicas mayormente observadas fueron de tipo local: dolor intenso [Escala Analógica Visual (VAS = : 8,5 ± 0,63], y eritema en 100% de los casos. Se obtuvo una evolución postratamiento satisfactoria entre 4 y 5 días y VAS de dolor promedio significativamente menor ( = 0,09± 0,20; t= 42,0, P= 0,0001. Los accidentes por Scolopendra sp. en Adícora, estado Falcón, Venezuela son un problema de salud pública, que parecieran incrementarse por los hábitos sinantrópicos y nocturnos de los centípedos, y seguir un patrón estacional. Se presentaron manifestaciones locales que

  12. Assessing Biodiversity:A Heavy Task%生物多样性的评估仍是一项艰巨的工作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋大祥; 周开亚




    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继姬; 郭宝英; 吴常文


    In this paper, a 2000bp full-length cDNA sequence of β-actin gene from Sepiella maindroni was obtained with RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. It consists of a 197bp 5' untranslated region (UTR), an 1134bp open reading frame (ORF) and a 669bp 3'UTR. The translated protein is composed of 377 amino acids, with 42.0kDa molecular weight, and its calculated isoelectric point was 5.16. The amino acid sequence of J3-actin in Sepiella maindroni has ten specific amino acid residues: Ile12, Ser172, Ser174, Gln223, His227, Ile231, Gly232, Set320, Glu328 and Thr360, respectively. In addition, two other particular base sites of amino acid residues were found in these sequences. Similarly, two characteristic amino acid residues of some mollusks were obtained. The amino acids sequence of β-actin in Sepiella rnaindroni shared the high similarity with Molluscs, Arthropod and Vertebrate animals (97%). Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree suggested that Sepiella maindroni clustered with Mollusca firstly, and then clustered with Arthropoda, finally clustered with Fish, Amphibians, and Mammals.%采用RT-PCR和快速扩增cDNA末端(rapid amplification of cDNA ends,RACE)技术首次克隆了曼氏无针乌贼β-肌动蛋白基因的cDNA全序列,该序列全长为2000bp,由长197bp的5’非翻译区(untranslated region,UTR),669bp的3’非翻译区,和1134bp的开放阅读框(open reading frame,ORF)组成。阅读框共编码377个氨基酸,推算的分子量约为42.0kDa,理论等电点为5.16。曼氏无针乌贼β-actin氨基酸序列中Ile12、Ser172、Ser174、Gln223、His227、Ile231、Gly232、Ser320、Glu328、Thr360等10个氨基酸残基具有特异性,以及2个特殊的氨基酸残基位点和2个软体动物特有的氨基酸残基。曼氏无针乌贼β-actin氨基酸序列与软体动物、节肢动物、脊椎动物的相似性高达97%。NJ法系统进化分析显示曼氏无针乌贼首先与软体动物聚在

  14. Bioassessment on Water Quality Based on Biotic Integrity Index of Macroinvertebrate in Representative Sections of Dongting Lake, China%基于底栖动物完整性指数的洞庭湖典型断面的水质评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪星; 郑丙辉; 李黎; 刘录三; 李利强; 黄代中; 田琪


    2010年在枯水期、平水期、丰水期对洞庭湖的7个典型断面进行了大型底栖无脊椎动物采样,共获得底栖动物40种,其中节肢动物16种、软体动物18种,环节动物6种.根据Shannon-Wiener物种多样性指数确定了4个相对清洁的断面和3个污染断面,然后进行23种生物指数的综合评估,结果表明,(甲壳动物+软体动物)分类单元数、Shannon-Wiener物种多样性指数与Goodnight-Whitley指数3个底栖动物生物指数可以用作辨别洞庭湖典型断面水质的敏感生物指数.通过5、3、1记分法对3种生物指数统一量纲后,获得变化范围为3~15的综合生物指数,运用四分法划分出洞庭湖典型断面水质辨别的生物基准:3~6,差;7~9,一般;10~12,好;13~15,很好.据此对7个断面进行重新记分,获得了洞庭湖典型断面水质的基本分区现状:虞公庙、万子湖、目平湖3个断面的水质良好,而鹿角、坡头、南嘴及东洞庭湖4个断面的水质较差.该水质生物学基准基本适合评价洞庭湖典型断面的水质状况.%To develop benthic macroinvertebrate based multmietrics for the bioassessment of the water quality of Dongting Lake, benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were sampled at 7 sections of Dongting Lake in different seasons in 2010. A total of 40 species of the benthos were collected: 16 species of Arthropoda, 18 species of Mollusca and 6 species of Annelida. The dominant benthos had an abundance ranging from 32 to 208 individuals -m"2 and obviously different across the sampling sections. Based on Shannon-Wiener biotic index discriminatory criteria, 4 sections were considered relatively clean while the remaining 3 sections were polluted. A comprehensive evaluation of 23 metrics was carried out. The results showed that 3 metrics(.i e., No. of Mollusca & Crustacea Taxa, Shannon-Wiener Species Diversity Index and Goodnight-Whitley Index) were sensitive. A score of 5, 3 or 1 was assigned to

  15. Clonning and expression analysis of Chk1 gene in Daphnia pulex%蚤状溞(Daphnia pulex)Chk1基因的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方增冰; 戴新宇; 邹秀; 郭晓鸽; 徐善良; 王丹丽; 赵云龙


    The full-length cDNA of a Chk1 (DpChk1) was cloned from cladoceran Daphnia pulex using rapid amplification of comple-mentary DNA ends ( RACE) method.The DpChk1 cDNA is 1767 bp in length;and it has a 1497-bp open reading frame that encodes a 498-amino-acid polypeptide containing three conserved Ser-Gln (SQ), and Thr-Gln (TQ) sequence.In addition, DpChk1 shared homology of 51%-55% with gene in Rhipicephalus pulchellus, Megachile rotundata, Metaseiulus occidentalis, Acyrthosiphon pisum and Drosophila melanogaster.Phylogenetic analysis revealed that DpChk 1 protein has a close genetic relationship with Phylum arthropo-da such as Acyrthosiphon pisum, Megachile rotundata, Drosophila melanogaster, Rhipicephalus pulchellus, Metaseiulus occidenat lis and so on.qPCR results (real-time quantitative PCR) showed that the DpChk1 expression was significantly higher (P<0.05) in ephippial female than in parthenogenetic female and was the lowest in the resting egg .Therefore, Chk1 was closely related to the reproduction conversion of Daphnia pulex.%用RACE技术从蚤状溞( Daphnia pulex)中克隆到Chk1基因cDNA全长为1767 bp,开放阅读框为1497 bp,编码了498个氨基酸,其结构中存在3个保守的Ser-Gln ( SQ)和Thr-Gln ( TQ)序列。同源性比对结果显示,蚤状溞Chk1基因与丽色扇头蜱、切叶蜂、转基因捕食螨、豌豆长管蚜和黑腹果蝇等的同源性均为51%~55%。进化分析发现,蚤状溞Chk1基因与豌豆长管蚜、切叶蜂、黑腹果蝇、丽色扇头蜱和转基因捕食螨等节肢动物亲缘关系最近。Real Time PCR实验结果表明,Chk1 mRNA在两性溞的表达量显著高于孤雌溞( P<0.05),且在休眠卵中表达量最低。推测Chk1基因可能在蚤状溞的生殖转化调控中发挥重要作用。

  16. Nearly complete rRNA genes from 371 Animalia: updated structure-based alignment and detailed phylogenetic analysis. (United States)

    Mallatt, Jon; Craig, Catherine Waggoner; Yoder, Matthew J


    This study presents a manually constructed alignment of nearly complete rRNA genes from most animal clades (371 taxa from ~33 of the ~36 metazoan phyla), expanded from the 197 sequences in a previous study. This thorough, taxon-rich alignment, available at and in the Dryad Repository (doi:, is based rigidly on the secondary structure of the SSU and LSU rRNA molecules, and is annotated in detail, including labeling of the erroneous sequences (contaminants). The alignment can be used for future studies of the molecular evolution of rRNA. Here, we use it to explore if the larger number of sequences produces an improved phylogenetic tree of animal relationships. Disappointingly, the resolution did not improve, neither when the standard maximum-likelihood method was used, nor with more sophisticated methods that partitioned the rRNA into paired and unpaired sites (stem, loop, bulge, junction), or accounted for the evolution of the paired sites. For example, no doublet model of paired-site substitutions (16-state, 16A and 16B, 7A-F, or 6A-C models) corrected the placement of any rogue taxa or increased resolution. The following findings are from the simplest, standard, ML analysis. The 371-taxon tree only imperfectly supported the bilaterian clades of Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa, and this problem remained after 17 taxa with unstably positioned sequences were omitted from the analysis. The problem seems to stem from base-compositional heterogeneity across taxa and from an overrepresentation of highly divergent sequences among the newly added taxa (e.g., sequences from Cephalopoda, Rotifera, Acoela, and Myxozoa). The rogue taxa continue to concentrate in two locations in the rRNA tree: near the base of Arthropoda and of Bilateria. The approximately uncertain (AU) test refuted the monophyly of Mollusca and of Chordata, probably due to long-branch attraction of the highly

  17. Resolving arthropod phylogeny: exploring phylogenetic signal within 41 kb of protein-coding nuclear gene sequence. (United States)

    Regier, Jerome C; Shultz, Jeffrey W; Ganley, Austen R D; Hussey, April; Shi, Diane; Ball, Bernard; Zwick, Andreas; Stajich, Jason E; Cummings, Michael P; Martin, Joel W; Cunningham, Clifford W


    This study attempts to resolve relationships among and within the four basal arthropod lineages (Pancrustacea, Myriapoda, Euchelicerata, Pycnogonida) and to assess the widespread expectation that remaining phylogenetic problems will yield to increasing amounts of sequence data. Sixty-eight regions of 62 protein-coding nuclear genes (approximately 41 kilobases (kb)/taxon) were sequenced for 12 taxonomically diverse arthropod taxa and a tardigrade outgroup. Parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian analyses of total nucleotide data generally strongly supported the monophyly of each of the basal lineages represented by more than one species. Other relationships within the Arthropoda were also supported, with support levels depending on method of analysis and inclusion/exclusion of synonymous changes. Removing third codon positions, where the assumption of base compositional homogeneity was rejected, altered the results. Removing the final class of synonymous mutations--first codon positions encoding leucine and arginine, which were also compositionally heterogeneous--yielded a data set that was consistent with a hypothesis of base compositional homogeneity. Furthermore, under such a data-exclusion regime, all 68 gene regions individually were consistent with base compositional homogeneity. Restricting likelihood analyses to nonsynonymous change recovered trees with strong support for the basal lineages but not for other groups that were variably supported with more inclusive data sets. In a further effort to increase phylogenetic signal, three types of data exploration were undertaken. (1) Individual genes were ranked by their average rate of nonsynonymous change, and three rate categories were assigned--fast, intermediate, and slow. Then, bootstrap analysis of each gene was performed separately to see which taxonomic groups received strong support. Five taxonomic groups were strongly supported independently by two or more genes, and these genes mostly belonged to the slow

  18. The first organ-based free ontology for arthropods (Ontology of Arthropod Circulatory Systems - OArCS) and its integration into a novel formalization scheme for morphological descriptions. (United States)

    Wirkner, Christian S; Göpel, Torben; Runge, Jens; Keiler, Jonas; Klussmann-Fricke, Bastian-Jesper; Huckstorf, Katarina; Scholz, Stephan; Mikó, Istvan; Yoder, Matt; Richter, Stefan


    Morphology, the oldest discipline in the biosciences, is currently experiencing a renaissance in the field of comparative phenomics. However, morphological/phenotypic research still suffers on various levels from a lack of standards. This shortcoming, first highlighted as the "linguistic problem of morphology", concerns the usage of terminology but also the need for formalization of morphological descriptions themselves, something of paramount importance not only to the field of morphology but also when it comes to the use of phenotypic data in systematics and evolutionary biology. We therefore argue, that for morphological descriptions, the basis of all systematic and evolutionary interpretations, ontologies need to be utilized which are based exclusively on structural qualities/properties and which in no case include statements about homology and/or function. Statements about homology and function constitute interpretations on a different or higher level. Based on these 'anatomy ontologies', further ontological dimensions (e.g. referring to functional properties or homology) may be exerted for a broad use in evolutionary phenomics. To this end we present the first organ-based ontology for the most species-rich animal group, the Arthropoda. Our Ontology of Arthropod Circulatory Systems (OArCS) contains a comprehensive collection of 383 terms (i.e. sups) tied to 296 concepts (i.e. definitions) collected from the literature on phenotypic aspects of circulatory organ features in arthropods. All of the concepts used in OArCS are based exclusively on structural features, and in the context of the ontology are independent of homology and functional assumptions. We cannot rule out that in some cases, terms are used which in traditional usage and previous accounts might have implied homology and/or function, e.g. heart, sternal artery. Concepts are composed of descriptive elements that are used to classify observed instances into the organizational framework of the

  19. 基于大型底栖无脊椎动物群落的上海市河道水质生物学评价%Evaluation on River Water Quality Based on the River Substrate Macro-invertebrate in Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小华; 杨青; 赵振; 刘文亮


    The macro-invertebrate assemblages of river substrate were investigated at 83 sites in Shanghai city in summer and autumn 2011. A total of 20 taxa of the macro-invertebrate were collected, including 10 of Mollusca, 6 of Arthropoda and 4 of Annelida. No any living macro-invertebrates were detected from samples collected at 9 sites which were heavily polluted and no suitable habitat available. The water quality at the rest 74 sites with living macro-invertebrate was evaluated by Shannon-Wiener index, Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) and Goodnight Biotic Index (GBI). Based on Shannon-Wiener Index, the water quality was critically polluted at 25 sites and heavily polluted at 49 sites. The water quality was heavily polluted at 38 sites, moderately at 5 sites and slightly at 31 sites, by the value of Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI). Evaluating on water quality by Goodnight Biotic Index (GBI) , the river water was severely polluted at 33 , moderately at 2 sites, and lightly at 39 sites. In contrast with the data of historical physicochemical water quality indicators in last 3 years, Shannon-Wiener Index had low efficiency and accuracy, while Hilsenhoff Biotic Index and Goodnight Biotic Index had much higher accuracy in spatial consistency between physicochemical assessment and biological evaluation.%2011年夏秋季,在上海市全境83个河道断面开展了大型底栖无脊椎动物采样,共获取底栖动物20个分类单位(种).9个极严重污染断面未采集到活体大型底栖生物,生境基本丧失.其余74个有活体生物断面,采用三种常用生物指数:Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Hilsenhoff耐污指数、Goodnight修正指数分别进行计算及评价.Shannon-Wiener多样性指数判别为25个严重污染和49个重污染断面;Hilsenhoff耐污指数划分38个重污染、5个中污染和31个轻污染断面;Goodnight修正指数划分33个重污染、2个中污染和39个轻污染断面.与典型河道断面的水质理化指标监测值


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小华; 康丽娟; 孙从军; 杨青


    Bio assessment of benthic macroinvertebrate-based multmietrics is a very effective approach to evaluate quality of river water. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were sampled at 83 sites in Shanghai metropolitan area, a typical dense river network plain. A total of 20 taxa of the benthic macroinvertebrate were collected, including 50% of Mollusca, 30% of Arthropoda and 20% of Annelida. Among 74 sites with living samples, 32 relatively clean sites and 42 polluted sites were separated based on Hilsenhoff biotic index discrminatory criteria. A comprehensive evaluation using 28 widely-used metrics was carried out. Furthermore, 8 metrics were selected as the most sensitive ones based on non-parametric tests (i.e., Mann-Whitney U test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). By standard scoring method, eight sensitive metrics were unified and integrated into a multi-metric index on a scale ranging from 8 to 40 for bioassessment at each site. Biocriteria values for benthic macroinvertebrate were proposed by quartation, i.e., 8-15, very poor; 16-23, poor; 24-31, fair; and 32-40, good. Water quality of 9 sites with no living sample were marked as very poor. According to the biocriteria, 41 typical sites were divided into 5 groups. The past 5-year historical data of physico-chemical water quality indicators have significant difference among 5 group sites. Consequently, the discrminatory biocriteria are suitable for the assessment of the river water quality of the Shanghai City.%2011年夏、秋季在上海市全境主要河流的83个断面进行大型底栖动物的采样,共获取底栖动物20个分类单位(种),其中软体动物、环节动物和节肢动物分别占50%、30% 和20%.选取常见的28个生物指数分别进行计算,并采用非参数统计检验方法筛选出8个敏感生物指数.通过记分法对8种敏感生物指数统一量纲后,获得数值范围为8-40的综合生物指数,运用四分法划分了判别河道水环境质量的生物基准:32-40,

  1. Community structure and diversity of soil animals in the Lake Taihu lakeshore wetland%太湖岸带湿地土壤动物群落结构与多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 崔丽娟; 赵欣胜; 张曼胤; 高常军; 张岩; 王义飞



  2. Study of the Intertidal Macrobenthic Fauna in Dayushan Island, Zhejiang%浙江大渔山岛潮间带大型底栖动物的群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The community structures of the intertidal macrobenthic fauna in Dayushan island,Zhejiang,including species composition,quantity distribution and biodiversity,were analyzed in the study.The investigation in the study found 35 species,including 1 species of Annelida,2 species of Chordata,2 species of coelenterate,9 species of Arthropoda and 21 species of Mollusca.The average biomass and density in all stations were 1027.33 g/m2 and 1404 ind.m-2,respectively.The mollusca were the first in biomass and density among all macrobenthic fauna.The value of Shannon-Weaner index,Margalef's species richness index and Pielou's evenness index were 0.193~2.101,0.268~1.744 and 0.073~2.007,and their averages were 1.140±1.084,1.080±0.696 and 0.780±0.886,respectively.There was significant difference between the results in the study and in the similar experiments.The Abundance/Biomass curves of the intertidal zone of Dayushan island had part of the cross.%文章通过分析浙江大渔山岛潮间带大型底栖动物的物种组成、数量分布和生物多样性等群落结构特征来了解周围海域的水质状况。本次大渔山岛海域潮间带调查采获的大型底栖动物标本共有35种,其中软体动物21种,节肢动物9种,脊索动物与腔肠动物各2种,环节动物仅1种。且该海域潮间带大型底栖动物的平均生物量为1027.33 g/m2,平均丰度为1404 ind./m2。在各类群底栖动物中,软体动物的平均生物量及丰富都为第一。大渔山岛潮间带大型底栖动物的多样性指数、丰富度指数和均匀度指数的分布范围分别在0.193~2.101、0.268~1.744和0.073~2.007,平均值分别为1.140±1.084、1.080±0.696和0.780±0.886。

  3. Microbial degradation of a metal organic biocide in soils; Mikrobieller Abbau eines im Holzschutz verwendeten metallorganischen Biozids im Boden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobs, Desiree


    -fingerprinting technique. Shifts in the bacterial community structure were analyzed by correspondence analysis to explore the effect of WP and incubation time on the microbial community patterns. Bacterial and eukaryotic community structure differed significant between samples with Cu-Amine treated samples and Cu-HDO treated samples. To identify abundant eukaryotic community members a cloning and sequencing approach was carried out. Only few fungal sequences were obtained of the eukaryotic sequence diversity in the interface of wood and soil, which were affiliated to pronounced shifts in the eukaryotic community structure along the incubation time. One of these was the white-rotter Sphaerobolus stellatus (basidiomycota) and the mold-rotter Lecytophora multabilis (ascomycota). The dominant eukaryotic community members were affiliated to the phyla Alveolata, Disicicrista, Amoebozoa, Arthropoda or Nematoda. However, the majority of these phyla are known to have a bacteriovorious lifestyle and are not able to degrade or metabolize wood, WP or WP ingredients. This finding suggests that the majority of eukaryotes grazes on the bacterial population and is rarely involved in Cu-HDO degradation. In conclusion, a defined bacterial population is involved in Cu-HDO degradation and both the bacterial and eukaryotic community was significantly directly and indirectly affected by the presence of Cu-HDO. (orig.)

  4. 基于COI条形码序列的《中国药典》动物药材鉴定研究*%Application of COI-based DNA Barcoding for Identifying Animal Medical Materials in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Medicinal animals are important part of Traditional Chinese medicine resources in China. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) was selected as the standard DNA barcoding sequence for animal medical materials. In this study, the 51 animal species from 45 animal medical materials in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia were selected and the intra-specific variation and the inter-specific divergence, the barcoding gap, the identification efficiency of their COI sequences were analyzed. The results showed that the inter-specific divergence is higher than intra-specific distance. The barcoding gap existed between inter-specific sequence divergence and intra-specific dis-tance. The identification efficiencies were 100% both at the genus and species level except the Arthropoda. The cluster dendrogram exhibited that different species distinguished from others. Therefore, COI sequence as a bar-code is suitable to identify the species of animal medical materials in Chinese Pharmacopoeia.%  药用动物是我国中药资源的重要组成部分,线粒体 COI基因被公认为动物界中标准的DNA条形码基因,但利用此技术系统研究药用动物或动物药材鉴定的报道不多。本研究选取药典中45个动物药材,涉及基原物种51种,分析样品 COI 序列的种内种间变异情况,barcoding gap,鉴定效率等,考察 COI 序列鉴定动物药材的有效性和准确性。结果表明,种间变异最小值远大于种内变异最大值,barcoding gap 图显示种间变异和种内变异重合较少,鉴定效率较高,除节肢动物门外,在物种水平和属水平上,鉴定效率均为100%,所构建的动物药材及其混伪品的 NJ 树能很好地区分正品来源与其混伪品。因此 COI序列作为 DNA条形码适用于药典中动物药材的鉴定。本研究为COI条形码准确鉴定药典中动物药材提供了分子依据,扩充了 DNA 条形码数据库中药用动物序列,并建立了利用此技术鉴定

  5. Research on soil faunal community composition and structure in the Gaoligong Mountains National Nature Reserve%高黎贡山自然保护区大型土壤动物群落特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖能文; 刘向辉; 戈峰; 欧阳志云


    系统调查了高黎贡山国家自然保护区土壤性质与土壤动物的种类与分布.海拔高度决定土壤的性质,土壤温度、湿度、有机质含量和磷的含量与海拔有明显的相关.在不同海拔11个样地共采集到大型土壤动物标本1万余号,分属于2个门,5纲,18目,47科,13亚科.等翅目Isoptera、膜翅目Hymenoptera和弹尾目Collembola昆虫是主要类群,随着海拔高度的增加,土壤动物数量和种类,以及Simpson指数、Shannon-Wiener指数和均匀度指数都是先增加然后减少.在海拔1500~2500 m左右数量最多,然后递减,土壤动物的分布以中山部最多而山顶部和底部较少的变化趋势.土壤动物的分布受海拔和土壤性质的影响.%The Gaoligong Mountain, as the subtropics climate, is located in the collision region between the Indian tectonic plate and the Eurasian tectonic plate. In this experiment, the soil property, fauna community type and distribution of 11 samples in Gaoligong Mountain were studied from altitude 960 m to 3188 m. The results showed that the soil property was determined by altitudinal gradient. Significant correlation was observed in soil temperature, water content, organic content and phosphorus content with altitudinal gradient (P<0.05). Two phylums(Annelida and Arthropoda), three classes (Oligochaeta, Arachnida, Diplopoda, Chilopoda, Insect), eighteen Orders, forty-seven Families and thirteen Subfamilys were included in the soil fauna. Isoptera, Hymenoptera and Collembola were dominant in these groups, and Coleoptera, Derampteraand and Diptera were common groups. A single-peak curve was appeared in the vertical distribution pattern of soil fauna. The number of the soil fauna individuals and groups, as well as the value of Simpson Index, Shannon-Wiener Index and Evenness Index gradually increased and then decreased with increase of elevation. The peak of soil fauna appeared in the areas from 1500 m to 2500 m above sea level. Soil fauna

  6. 深海热液口化能合成共生作用的研究进展%Research Progress of the Chemosynthetic Symbioses in the Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昕明; 林荣澄; 黄丁勇


    海洋无脊椎动物和细菌间的化能合成共生作用的发现,改变了人们对深海热液口初级生产力主要来源的认知.近年的研究表明,营化能合成共生的动物隶属于纤毛门、软体动物门、环节动物门和节肢动物门;其中无脊椎动物作为宿主在与共生菌的长期共生过程中,伴随着部分器官和功能的退化或消失,逐渐形成和演化出了与此相适应的形态结构,并产生了一些特殊的行为;在深海热液口发现的所有化能合成共生菌都属于革兰氏阴性菌,它们的宿主大致可以分为2个群体;通过16 SrRNA基因编码分析,不同代谢类型的共生菌在系统发育中通常处于不同分支,形态也有所差异;共生菌独特的传播方式和进化模式也使其更加适应共生生活;由无脊椎动物和化能合成细菌构成的共生体系与环境相互作用,影响了深海热液口生态系统的演化.对共生菌蛋白质及代谢组学的研究,以及对宿主生理和代谢机制的研究将成为未来热液口化能合成共生作用研究的新热点.%The discovery of the chemosynthetic symbioses between marine invertebrates and bacteria revolutionized our understanding of the energy sources that fuel primary productivity in the deep sea.Chemosynthetic host were classified within four major group including Ciliophora,Mollusca,Annelida and Arthropoda; Symbiotic invertebrates with anatomical adaptations of chemosynthetic associations are usually characterized by rudimentary or absent digestive system.Effective behavioural and physiological strategies are also used by animals to supply their symbionts with both reductants and oxidants.All the symbionts are Gram negative bacteria,and clustered in two different branches related to symbiont type in the phylogenetic tree based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences,distinct differences in morphology were also observed between the two groups.The transmission and evolution strategy utilized


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏晓; 程方平; 李超伦; 孙松


    Estimation of zooplankton diversity and distribution is important for understanding local marine ecosystem conditions,and may serve as sensitive indicators for climate-induced changes.The scarcity of taxonomists and subtle morphological variations in some groups pose a problem for the identification of zooplanktons,especially at their larval stages.DNA barcodes provide an alternative approach to accurate identification of zooplankton species.The efficiency of the mitochondrial cox1 fragments for species reorganization in zooplanktons was evaluated in this study.The samples were collected from the Jiaozhou Bay and a station in the South Yellow Sea.82 DNA barcodes were determined for 45 common species that belonged to six different phyla in the local region,including:Arthropoda,Chaetognatha,Chordata,Cnidaria,Echinodermata,and Mollusca.According to the saturation plot,the cox1 gene was substitutionally saturated for the alignment,which was best illustrated by the wobble codons of the gene.The wobble codons quickly got saturated at around 0.2 substitution per site.K2P genetic distances between individuals within the same species ranged from 0 to 0.11,with an average of 0.013(SE = 0.003);meanwhile,genetic distance between species within the same genera ranged from 0.137 to 0.369,with an average of 0.265(SE = 0.002).Thus the genetic distance between species was at least 20 times larger that of the within species,indicating a barcode gap,which ensured that cox1 sequences can be used as reliable characters for species identification for the zooplankton assemblages.However,species with extremely large intraspecific divergences were still noticed in our study,which may be explained by population genetic divergence owing to ecological or geographical isolation,unidentified cryptic speciation,and mis-identification.The significant barcode gap and the long-branch isolated shallow tips topology for the Sagitta bedoti suggested a possible cryptic speciation for the

  8. 泉州湾洛阳江口2种红树林生境大型底栖动物群落多样性比较%Comparison of benthic macrofaunal communities in two mangrove habitats of Luoyangjiang Estuary in Quanzhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭涛; 蔡立哲; 卓异; 饶义勇; 李想; 陈昕餠; 傅素晶; 纪剑锋


    In order to compare the benthic macrofaunal community in two mangrove habitats,Aegiceras corniculatum and Kandelia candel,in Luoyangjiang Estuary,Quanzhou Bay,China,benthic macrofauna was investigated in 4 sea-sons from April 201 1 to January 2012.A total of 49 benthic macrofaunal species were recorded,including 15 Annel-ida,8 Mollusca,15 Arthropoda,3 Chordata,2 Hexapod,1 Cnidaria,Platyhelminthes,Nemertea,Sipuncula,Oli-gochaeta and Bivalve.Nephtys oligobranchia,Assiminea brevicula,Uca arcuata,Actinia sp.showed high density in both two habitats,Phascolosoma esculenta is a dominant species in both two habitats but with lower density.Although the mean biomass of Kandelia candel was higher than Aegiceras corniculatum,the species number,density,diversity index(H′),evenness index(J)and richness index(d)of Aegiceras corniculatum were all higher.Two-way ANOVA showed that the diversity and evenness indexes of the two benthic macrofaunal communities had significant seasonal differences,habitat differences and habitat ×season differences.Cluster analysis showed high similarity between the benthic macrofaunal communities in two mangrove habitats because of same tidal zone and similar types of sediment and sediment particle size.%为探讨泉州湾洛阳江口桐花树和秋茄2种红树林生境的大型底栖动物群落是否存在明显差异,于2011年4月至2012年1月对2种红树林生境的大型底栖动物进行了季度定量调查.结果表明:4个季度在2种红树林生境定量取样获得大型底栖动物49种,其中多毛类15种,腹足类8种,甲壳类15种,鱼类3种,昆虫2种,刺胞动物、扁形动物、纽形动物、星虫动物、寡毛类和双壳类各1种.寡鳃齿吻沙蚕(Nephtys oligobranchia)、短拟沼螺(Assiminea brevicula)、弧边招潮蟹(Uca arcua-ta)、指海葵(Actinia sp.)等在2种生境均有较高的栖息密度,可口革囊星虫(Phascolosoma esculen-ta)是2种生境的常见种