WorldWideScience

Sample records for arthrobacter rag-1 specificity

  1. Restricted expression of recombination activating gene (RAG-1) in mouse lymphoid tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Akihito; Fujinaga, Hiroyuki; Hamatani, Kiyohiro [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Nagasaki (Japan). Nagasaki Branch; Atsuta, Mitsuru

    1993-03-01

    In an attempt to determine the distribution of recombinase activity in the mouse thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes, we used the in situ hybridization method to examine the expression of the recombination activating genes RAG-1 and RAG-2. Expression of RAG-1 was found in most cortical thymocytes but not in the majority of medullary thymocytes. Although hybridization signals of RAG-2 were not as intense as those of RAG-1, the localization of RAG-2 transcripts was similar to that of RAG-1. In the spleen, expression of RAG-1 was found only in limited cells near the splenic sinus, and the majority of the cells within the follicle were negative for RAG-1 transcript. In nude mice, RAG-1-expressing cells were detected in the same regions, which suggests that in situ hybridization signals of RAG-1 in the spleen are due to the cells of B-cell origin. In the lymph nodes, expression of RAG-1 was found only in the medullary region. Expression of RAG-2 transcript in the spleen and the lymph nodes, if any, was too faint to allow determination of the specific localization. These results suggest that most of the cortical thymocytes and some cells in the spleen are capable of rearranging T-cell receptor genes and immunoglobulin genes, respectively, but the possible involvement of the RAG-1 transcript in RAG-1-positive cells of the spleen and the lymph nodes in functions other than the rearrangement of genes could not be ruled out. (author).

  2. Crystal structure of the V(D)J recombinase RAG1–RAG2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Sung; Lapkouski, Mikalai; Yang, Wei; Gellert, Martin (NIH)

    2016-04-29

    V(D)J recombination in the vertebrate immune system generates a highly diverse population of immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors by combinatorial joining of segments of coding DNA. The RAG1–RAG2 protein complex initiates this site-specific recombination by cutting DNA at specific sites flanking the coding segments. Here we report the crystal structure of the mouse RAG1–RAG2 complex at 3.2 Å resolution. The 230-kilodalton RAG1–RAG2 heterotetramer is ‘Y-shaped’, with the amino-terminal domains of the two RAG1 chains forming an intertwined stalk. Each RAG1–RAG2 heterodimer composes one arm of the ‘Y’, with the active site in the middle and RAG2 at its tip. The RAG1–RAG2 structure rationalizes more than 60 mutations identified in immunodeficient patients, as well as a large body of genetic and biochemical data. The architectural similarity between RAG1 and the hairpin-forming transposases Hermes and Tn5 suggests the evolutionary conservation of these DNA rearrangements.

  3. RAG1 core and V(DJ recombination signal sequences were derived from Transib transposons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V Kapitonov

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The V(DJ recombination reaction in jawed vertebrates is catalyzed by the RAG1 and RAG2 proteins, which are believed to have emerged approximately 500 million years ago from transposon-encoded proteins. Yet no transposase sequence similar to RAG1 or RAG2 has been found. Here we show that the approximately 600-amino acid "core" region of RAG1 required for its catalytic activity is significantly similar to the transposase encoded by DNA transposons that belong to the Transib superfamily. This superfamily was discovered recently based on computational analysis of the fruit fly and African malaria mosquito genomes. Transib transposons also are present in the genomes of sea urchin, yellow fever mosquito, silkworm, dog hookworm, hydra, and soybean rust. We demonstrate that recombination signal sequences (RSSs were derived from terminal inverted repeats of an ancient Transib transposon. Furthermore, the critical DDE catalytic triad of RAG1 is shared with the Transib transposase as part of conserved motifs. We also studied several divergent proteins encoded by the sea urchin and lancelet genomes that are 25%-30% identical to the RAG1 N-terminal domain and the RAG1 core. Our results provide the first direct evidence linking RAG1 and RSSs to a specific superfamily of DNA transposons and indicate that the V(DJ machinery evolved from transposons. We propose that only the RAG1 core was derived from the Transib transposase, whereas the N-terminal domain was assembled from separate proteins of unknown function that may still be active in sea urchin, lancelet, hydra, and starlet sea anemone. We also suggest that the RAG2 protein was not encoded by ancient Transib transposons but emerged in jawed vertebrates as a counterpart of RAG1 necessary for the V(DJ recombination reaction.

  4. RAG1 core and V(D)J recombination signal sequences were derived from Transib transposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitonov, Vladimir V; Jurka, Jerzy

    2005-06-01

    The V(D)J recombination reaction in jawed vertebrates is catalyzed by the RAG1 and RAG2 proteins, which are believed to have emerged approximately 500 million years ago from transposon-encoded proteins. Yet no transposase sequence similar to RAG1 or RAG2 has been found. Here we show that the approximately 600-amino acid "core" region of RAG1 required for its catalytic activity is significantly similar to the transposase encoded by DNA transposons that belong to the Transib superfamily. This superfamily was discovered recently based on computational analysis of the fruit fly and African malaria mosquito genomes. Transib transposons also are present in the genomes of sea urchin, yellow fever mosquito, silkworm, dog hookworm, hydra, and soybean rust. We demonstrate that recombination signal sequences (RSSs) were derived from terminal inverted repeats of an ancient Transib transposon. Furthermore, the critical DDE catalytic triad of RAG1 is shared with the Transib transposase as part of conserved motifs. We also studied several divergent proteins encoded by the sea urchin and lancelet genomes that are 25%-30% identical to the RAG1 N-terminal domain and the RAG1 core. Our results provide the first direct evidence linking RAG1 and RSSs to a specific superfamily of DNA transposons and indicate that the V(D)J machinery evolved from transposons. We propose that only the RAG1 core was derived from the Transib transposase, whereas the N-terminal domain was assembled from separate proteins of unknown function that may still be active in sea urchin, lancelet, hydra, and starlet sea anemone. We also suggest that the RAG2 protein was not encoded by ancient Transib transposons but emerged in jawed vertebrates as a counterpart of RAG1 necessary for the V(D)J recombination reaction.

  5. N-terminal truncated human RAG1 proteins can direct T-cell receptor but not immunoglobulin gene rearrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Noordzij; N.S. Verkaik (Nicole); N.G. Hartwig (Nico); R. de Groot (Ronald); D.C. van Gent (Dik); J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe proteins encoded by RAG1 and RAG2 can initiate gene recombination by site-specific cleavage of DNA in immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor (TCR) loci. We identified a new homozygous RAG1 gene mutation (631delT) that leads to a premature stop codon in the 5

  6. Zinc-finger nuclease mediated disruption of Rag1 in the LEW/Ztm rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zschemisch Nils-Holger

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN represented an innovative method for the genome manipulation in vertebrates. ZFN introduced targeted DNA double strand breaks (DSB and initiated non-homologous end joining (NHEJ after pronuclear or cytoplasmatic microinjection into zygotes. Resulting frame shift mutations led to functional gene ablations in zebra fish, mice, pigs and also in laboratory rats. Therefore, we targeted the rat Rag1 gene essential for the V(DJ recombination within the immunoglobulin production process and for the differentiation of mature B and T lymphocytes to generate an immunodeficient rat model in the LEW/Ztm strain. Results After microinjection of Rag1 specific ZFN mRNAs in 623 zygotes of inbred LEW/Ztm rats 59 offspring were born from which one carried a 4 bp deletion. This frame shift mutation led to a premature stop codon and a subsequently truncated Rag1 protein confirmed by the loss of the full-length protein in Western Blot analysis. Truncation of the Rag1 protein was characterized by the complete depletion of mature B cells. The remaining T cell population contained mature CD4+/CD3+/TCRαβ+ as well as CD8+/CD3+/TCRαβ+ positive lymphocytes accompanied by a compensatory increase of natural killer cells in the peripheral blood. Reduction of T cell development in Rag1 mutant rats was associated with a hypoplastic thymus that lacked follicular structures. Histological evaluation also revealed the near-complete absence of lymphocytes in spleen and lymph nodes in the immunodeficient Rag1 mutant rat. Conclusion The Rag1 mutant rat will serve as an important model for transplantation studies. Furthermore, it may be used as a model for reconstitution experiments related to the immune system, particularly with respect to different populations of human lymphocytes, natural killer cells and autoimmune phenomena.

  7. Rearrangement of RAG-1 recombinase gene in radiation-sensitive ``wasted`` mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States); Libertin, C.R.; Weaver, P. [Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States); Churchill, M.; Chang-Liu, C.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Mice recessive for the autosomal gene ``wasted`` (wst) display a disease pattern which includes increased sensitivity to the killing effects of ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency, and neurologic dysfunction. The recent cloning and characterization of recombinase genes (RAG-1/RAG-2) expressed in lymphoid and possibly central nervous system tissues prompted us to examine expression of these genes in DNA repair-deficient/immunodeficient wasted mice. Our results revealed expression of RAG-1 mRNA in spinal cord (but not brain) of control mice; no expression of RAG-1 mRNA was detected in spinal cord or brain from wst/wst mice or their normal littermates (wst/{center_dot} mice). In thymus tissue, a small RAG-1 transcript (1.0 kb) was detected in wst/wst mice that was not evident in thymus from control mice. In wst/{center_dot} mice, a two-fold increase in RAG-1 MRNA was evident in thymus tissue. RAG-2 mRNA could only be detected in thymus tissue from wst/{center_dot} and not from wst/wst or parental control BCF{sub 1} mice. Southern blots revealed a rearrangement/deletion within the RAG-1 gene of affected wasted mice, not evident in known strain-specific parental or littermate controls. These results support the idea that the RAG-1 gene may map at or near the locus for the wasted mutation. In addition, they suggest the importance of recombinase function in normal immune and central nervous system development as well as the potential contribution of this gene family to the normal repair of radiation-induced DNA damage.

  8. Generation of Rag1-knockout immunodeficient rats and mice using engineered meganucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménoret, Séverine; Fontanière, Sandra; Jantz, Derek; Tesson, Laurent; Thinard, Reynald; Rémy, Séverine; Usal, Claire; Ouisse, Laure-Hélène; Fraichard, Alexandre; Anegon, Ignacio

    2013-02-01

    Despite the recent availability of gene-specific nucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like nucleases (TALENs), there is still a need for new tools to modify the genome of different species in an efficient, rapid, and less costly manner. One aim of this study was to apply, for the first time, engineered meganucleases to mutate an endogenous gene in animal zygotes. The second aim was to target the mouse and rat recombination activating gene 1 (Rag1) to describe, for the first time, Rag1 knockout immunodeficient rats. We microinjected a plasmid encoding a meganuclease for Rag1 into the pronucleus of mouse and rat zygotes. Mutant animals were detected by PCR sequencing of the targeted sequence. A homozygous RAG1-deficient rat line was generated and immunophenotyped. Meganucleases were efficient, because 3.4 and 0.6% of mouse and rat microinjected zygotes, respectively, generated mutated animals. RAG1-deficient rats showed significantly decreased proportions and numbers of immature and mature T and B lymphocytes and normal NK cells vs. littermate wild-type controls. In summary, we describe the use of engineered meganucleases to inactivate an endogenous gene with efficiencies comparable to those of ZFNs and TALENs. Moreover, we generated an immunodeficient rat line useful for studies in which there is a need for biological parameters to be analyzed in the absence of immune responses.

  9. Cooperative recruitment of HMGB1 during V(D)J recombination through interactions with RAG1 and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Alicia J; Corbett, Elizabeth; Ortega, Fabian; Schatz, David G

    2013-03-01

    During V(D)J recombination, recombination activating gene (RAG)1 and RAG2 bind and cleave recombination signal sequences (RSSs), aided by the ubiquitous DNA-binding/-bending proteins high-mobility group box protein (HMGB)1 or HMGB2. HMGB1/2 play a critical, although poorly understood, role in vitro in the assembly of functional RAG-RSS complexes, into which HMGB1/2 stably incorporate. The mechanism of HMGB1/2 recruitment is unknown, although an interaction with RAG1 has been suggested. Here, we report data demonstrating only a weak HMGB1-RAG1 interaction in the absence of DNA in several assays, including fluorescence anisotropy experiments using a novel Alexa488-labeled HMGB1 protein. Addition of DNA to RAG1 and HMGB1 in fluorescence anisotropy experiments, however, results in a substantial increase in complex formation, indicating a synergistic binding effect. Pulldown experiments confirmed these results, as HMGB1 was recruited to a RAG1-DNA complex in a RAG1 concentration-dependent manner and, interestingly, without strict RSS sequence specificity. Our finding that HMGB1 binds more tightly to a RAG1-DNA complex over RAG1 or DNA alone provides an explanation for the stable integration of this typically transient architectural protein in the V(D)J recombinase complex throughout recombination. These findings also have implications for the order of events during RAG-DNA complex assembly and for the stabilization of sequence-specific and non-specific RAG1-DNA interactions.

  10. Impaired sense of smell and altered olfactory system in RAG-1-/- immunodeficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza eRattazzi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Immune deficiencies are often associated with a number of physical manifestations including loss of sense of smell and an increased level of anxiety. We have previously shown that T and B cell-deficient recombinase activating gene (RAG-1-/- knockout mice have an increased level of anxiety-like behavior and altered gene expression involved in olfaction. In this study, we expanded these findings by testing the structure and functional development of the olfactory system in RAG-1-/- mice. Our results show that these mice have a reduced engagement in different types of odors and this phenotype is associated with disorganized architecture of glomerular tissue and atrophy of the main olfactory epithelium. Most intriguingly this defect manifests specifically in adult age and is not due to impairment in the patterning of the olfactory neuron staining at the embryo stage. Together these findings provide a formerly unreported biological evidence for an altered function of the olfactory system in RAG-1-/- mice.

  11. Impaired sense of smell and altered olfactory system in RAG-1(-∕-) immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattazzi, Lorenza; Cariboni, Anna; Poojara, Ridhika; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; D'Acquisto, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Immune deficiencies are often associated with a number of physical manifestations including loss of sense of smell and an increased level of anxiety. We have previously shown that T and B cell-deficient recombinase activating gene (RAG-1)(-∕-) knockout mice have an increased level of anxiety-like behavior and altered gene expression involved in olfaction. In this study, we expanded these findings by testing the structure and functional development of the olfactory system in RAG-1 (-∕-) mice. Our results show that these mice have a reduced engagement in different types of odors and this phenotype is associated with disorganized architecture of glomerular tissue and atrophy of the main olfactory epithelium. Most intriguingly this defect manifests specifically in adult age and is not due to impairment in the patterning of the olfactory neuron staining at the embryo stage. Together these findings provide a formerly unreported biological evidence for an altered function of the olfactory system in RAG-1 (-∕-) mice.

  12. Rearrangement of RAG-1 recombinase gene in DNA-repair deficient ``wasted`` mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Libertin, C.R.; Weaver, P. [Loyola Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Churchill, M.; Chang-Liu, C.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Mice recessive for the autosomal gene ``wasted`` wst display a disease pattern which includes increased sensitivity to the killing effects of ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency, and neurologic dysfunction. The recent cloning and characterization of recombinase genes (RAG-l/RAG-2) expressed in lymphoid and possibly central nervous system tissues prompted us to examine expression of these genes in DNA repair-deficient/immunodeficient wasted mice. Our results revealed expression of RAG-1 mRNA in spinal cord (but not brain) of control mice; no expression of RAG-1 mRNA was detected in spinal cord or brain from wst/wst mice or their normal littermates (wst/{center_dot}mice). In thymus tissue, a small RAG-1 transcript (1.0 kb) was detected in wst/wst mice that was not evident in thymus from control mice. In wst/{center_dot}mice, a two-fold increase in RAG-1 mRNA was evident in thymus tissue. RAG-2 mRNA could only be detected in thymus tissue from wst/{center_dot} and not from wst/wst or parental control BCF{sub 1} mice. Southern blots revealed a rearrangement/deletion within the RAG-1 gene of affected wasted mice, not evident in known strain-specific parental or littermate controls. These results support the idea that the RAG-1 gene may map at or near the locus for the wasted mutation. In addition, they suggest the importance of recombinase function in normal immune and central nervous system development as well as the potential contribution of this gene family to the normal repair of radiation-induced DNA damage.

  13. Three faces of recombination activating gene 1 (RAG1) mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiroglu, Turkan; Akar, Himmet Haluk; Van Der Burg, Mirjam

    2015-12-01

    Severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) is a group of genetic disorder associated with development of T- and/or B-lymphocytes. Recombination-activating genes (RAG1/2) play a critical role on VDJ recombination process that leads to the production of a broad T-cell receptor (TCR) and B-cell receptor (BCR) repertoire in the development of T and B cells. RAG1/2 genes mutations result in various forms of primary immunodeficiency, ranging from classic SCID to Omenn syndrome (OS) to atypical SCID with such as granuloma formation and autoimmunity. Herein, we reported 4 patients with RAG1 deficiency: classic SCID was seen in two patients who presented with recurrent pneumonia and chronic diarrhoea, and failure to thrive. OS was observed in one patient who presented with chronic diarrhoea, skin rash, recurrent lower respiratory infections, and atypical SCID was seen in one patient who presented with Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) and had novel RAG1 mutation.

  14. Molecular basis of engineered meganuclease targeting of the endogenous human RAG1 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Inés G; Prieto, Jesús; Subramanian, Sunita; Coloma, Javier; Redondo, Pilar; Villate, Maider; Merino, Nekane; Marenchino, Marco; D'Abramo, Marco; Gervasio, Francesco L; Grizot, Sylvestre; Daboussi, Fayza; Smith, Julianne; Chion-Sotinel, Isabelle; Pâques, Frédéric; Duchateau, Philippe; Alibés, Andreu; Stricher, François; Serrano, Luis; Blanco, Francisco J; Montoya, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Homing endonucleases recognize long target DNA sequences generating an accurate double-strand break that promotes gene targeting through homologous recombination. We have modified the homodimeric I-CreI endonuclease through protein engineering to target a specific DNA sequence within the human RAG1 gene. Mutations in RAG1 produce severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a monogenic disease leading to defective immune response in the individuals, leaving them vulnerable to infectious diseases. The structures of two engineered heterodimeric variants and one single-chain variant of I-CreI, in complex with a 24-bp oligonucleotide of the human RAG1 gene sequence, show how the DNA binding is achieved through interactions in the major groove. In addition, the introduction of the G19S mutation in the neighborhood of the catalytic site lowers the reaction energy barrier for DNA cleavage without compromising DNA recognition. Gene-targeting experiments in human cell lines show that the designed single-chain molecule preserves its in vivo activity with higher specificity, further enhanced by the G19S mutation. This is the first time that an engineered meganuclease variant targets the human RAG1 locus by stimulating homologous recombination in human cell lines up to 265 bp away from the cleavage site. Our analysis illustrates the key features for à la carte procedure in protein-DNA recognition design, opening new possibilities for SCID patients whose illness can be treated ex vivo.

  15. HTLV-1 Infection and Neuropathogenesis in the Context of Rag1(-/-)γc(-/-) (RAG1-Hu) and BLT Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginwala, Rashida; Caruso, Breanna; Khan, Zafar K; Pattekar, Ajinkya; Chew, Glen M; Corley, Michael J; Loonawat, Ronak; Jacobson, Steven; Sreedhar, Sreesha; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C; Jain, Pooja

    2017-09-01

    To date, the lack of a suitable small animal model has hindered our understanding of Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1 chronic infection and associated neuropathogenesis defined as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The host immune response plays a critical role in the outcome of HTLV-1 infection, which could be better tested in the context of humanized (hu) mice. Thus, we employ here the Balb/c-Rag1(-/-)γc(-/-) or Rag1 as well as Bone marrow-Liver-Thymic (BLT) mouse models for engraftment of human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells. Flow cytometry and histological analyses confirmed reconstitution of Rag1 and BLT mice with human immune cells. Following HTLV-1 infection, proviral load (PVL) was detected in the blood of Rag-1 and BLT hu-mice as early as 2 weeks post-infection (wpi) with sustained elevation in the subsequent weeks followed by Tax expression. Additionally, infection was compared between adult and neonatal Rag1 mice with both PVL and Tax expression considerably higher in the adult Rag1 mice as compared to the neonates. Establishment of peripheral infection led to lymphocytic infiltration with concomitant Tax expression and resulting myelin disruption within the central nervous system of infected mice. In addition, up-regulation in the expression of several immune checkpoint mediators such as programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), T-cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT), and T cell Ig and mucin domain-3 protein (Tim-3) were observed on CD8(+) T cells in various organs including the CNS of infected hu-mice. Collectively, these studies represent the first attempt to establish HTLV-1 neuropathogenesis in the context of Rag-1 and BLT hu-mice as potential novel tools for understanding HTLV-1 neuropathogenesis and testing of novel therapies such as immune checkpoint blockade in the amelioration of chronic HTLV-1 infection.

  16. Molecular mechanism underlying RAG1/RAG2 synaptic complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyakhtenko, Luda S; Gilmore, Jamie; Kriatchko, Aleksei N; Kumar, Sushil; Swanson, Patrick C; Lyubchenko, Yuri L

    2009-07-31

    Two lymphoid cell-specific proteins, RAG1 and RAG2 (RAG), initiate V(D)J recombination by assembling a synaptic complex with recombination signal sequences (RSSs) abutting two different antigen receptor gene coding segments, and then introducing a DNA double strand break at the end of each RSS. Despite the biological importance of this system, the structure of the synaptic complex, and the RAG protein stoichiometry and arrangement of DNA within the synaptosome, remains poorly understood. Here we applied atomic force microscopy to directly visualize and characterize RAG synaptic complexes. We report that the pre-cleavage RAG synaptic complex contains about twice the protein content as a RAG complex bound to a single RSS, with a calculated mass consistent with a pair of RAG heterotetramers. In the synaptic complex, the RSSs are predominantly oriented in a side-by-side configuration with no DNA strand crossover. The mass of the synaptic complex, and the conditions under which it is formed in vitro, favors an association model of assembly in which isolated RAG-RSS complexes undergo synapsis mediated by RAG protein-protein interactions. The replacement of Mg2+ cations with Ca2+ leads to a dramatic change in protein stoichiometry for all RAG-RSS complexes, suggesting that the cation composition profoundly influences the type of complex assembled.

  17. Molecular Mechanism Underlying RAG1/RAG2 Synaptic Complex Formation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyakhtenko, Luda S.; Gilmore, Jamie; Kriatchko, Aleksei N.; Kumar, Sushil; Swanson, Patrick C.; Lyubchenko, Yuri L.

    2009-01-01

    Two lymphoid cell-specific proteins, RAG1 and RAG2 (RAG), initiate V(D)J recombination by assembling a synaptic complex with recombination signal sequences (RSSs) abutting two different antigen receptor gene coding segments, and then introducing a DNA double strand break at the end of each RSS. Despite the biological importance of this system, the structure of the synaptic complex, and the RAG protein stoichiometry and arrangement of DNA within the synaptosome, remains poorly understood. Here we applied atomic force microscopy to directly visualize and characterize RAG synaptic complexes. We report that the pre-cleavage RAG synaptic complex contains about twice the protein content as a RAG complex bound to a single RSS, with a calculated mass consistent with a pair of RAG heterotetramers. In the synaptic complex, the RSSs are predominantly oriented in a side-by-side configuration with no DNA strand crossover. The mass of the synaptic complex, and the conditions under which it is formed in vitro, favors an association model of assembly in which isolated RAG-RSS complexes undergo synapsis mediated by RAG protein-protein interactions. The replacement of Mg2+ cations with Ca2+ leads to a dramatic change in protein stoichiometry for all RAG-RSS complexes, suggesting that the cation composition profoundly influences the type of complex assembled. PMID:19502597

  18. RAG1/2 knockout pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiao; Guo, Xiaogang; Fan, Nana; Song, Jun; Zhao, Bentian; Ouyang, Zhen; Liu, Zhaoming; Zhao, Yu; Yan, Quanmei; Yi, Xiaoling; Schambach, Axel; Frampton, Jon; Esteban, Miguel A; Yang, Dongshan; Yang, Huaqiang; Lai, Liangxue

    2014-08-01

    Pigs share many physiological, biochemical, and anatomical similarities with humans and have emerged as valuable large animal models for biomedical research. Considering the advantages in immune system resemblance, suitable size, and longevity for clinical practical and monitoring purpose, SCID pigs bearing dysfunctional RAG could serve as important experimental tools for regenerative medicine, allograft and xenograft transplantation, and reconstitution experiments related to the immune system. In this study, we report the generation and phenotypic characterization of RAG1 and RAG2 knockout pigs using transcription activator-like effector nucleases. Porcine fetal fibroblasts were genetically engineered using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and then used to provide donor nuclei for somatic cell nuclear transfer. We obtained 27 live cloned piglets; among these piglets, 9 were targeted with biallelic mutations in RAG1, 3 were targeted with biallelic mutations in RAG2, and 10 were targeted with a monoallelic mutation in RAG2. Piglets with biallelic mutations in either RAG1 or RAG2 exhibited hypoplasia of immune organs, failed to perform V(D)J rearrangement, and lost mature B and T cells. These immunodeficient RAG1/2 knockout pigs are promising tools for biomedical and translational research.

  19. Recombination-activating gene 1 and 2 (RAG1 and RAG2) in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xianlei Wang; Xungang Tan; Pei-Jun Zhang; Yuqing Zhang; Peng Xu

    2014-12-01

    During the development of B and T lymphocytes, Ig and TCR variable region genes are assembled from germline V, D, and J gene segments by a site-specific recombination reaction known as V(D)J recombination. The process of somatic V(D)J recombination, mediated by the recombination-activating gene (RAG) products, is the most significant characteristic of adaptive immunity in jawed vertebrates. Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) RAG1 and RAG2 were isolated by Genome Walker and RT-PCR, and their expression patterns were analysed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization on sections. RAG1 spans over 7.0 kb, containing 4 exons and 3 introns, and the full-length ORF is 3207 bp, encoding a peptide of 1068 amino acids. The first exon lies in the 5′-UTR, which is an alternative exon. RAG2 full-length ORF is 1062 bp, encodes a peptide of 533 amino acids, and lacks introns in the coding region. In 6-month-old flounders, the expression of RAG1 and RAG2 was essentially restricted to the pronephros (head kidney) and mesonephros (truck kidney). Additionally, both of them were mainly expressed in the thymus. These results revealed that the thymus and kidney most likely serve as the primary lymphoid tissues in the flounder.

  20. Rearrangement of Rag-1 recombinase gene in DNA-repair deficient/immunodeficient ``wasted`` mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Weaver, P.; Churchill, M.; Chang-Liu, C-M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Mice recessive for the autosomal gene ``wasted`` (wst) display a disease pattern which includes increased sensitivity to the killing effects of ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency, and neurologic dysfunction. The recent cloning and characterization of recombinase genes (Rag-l/Rag-2) expressed in lymphoid and possibly central nervous system tissues prompted us to examine expression of these genes in DNA repair-deficient/immunodeficient wasted mice. Our results revealed that in thymus tissue, a small Rag-I transcript (1.0 kb) was detected in wst/wst mice that was not evident in thymus from control mice. In wst/{sm_bullet} mice, a two-fold increase in Rag-1 mRNA was evident in thymus tissue. Rag-2 mRNA could only be detected in thymus tissue from wst/{sm_bullet} and not from wst/wst or parental control BCF, mice. Southern blots revealed a rearrangement or deletion within the Rag-1 gene of affected wasted mice that was not evident in known strain-specific parental or littermate controls. These results support the idea that the Rag-1 gene may map at or near the locus for the wasted mutation. In addition, they suggest the importance of recombinase function in normal immune and central nervous system development as well as the potential contribution of this gene family to the normal repair of radiation-induced DNA damage.

  1. RAG-1 sequences resolve phylogenetic relationships within Charadriiform birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Tara A; Baker, Allan J; Groth, Jeff G; Barrowclough, George F

    2003-11-01

    The Charadriiformes is a large and diverse order of shorebirds currently classified into 19 families, including morphologically aberrant forms that are of uncertain phylogenetic placement within non-passerine birds in general. Recent attempts using morphological characters have failed to recover a well-supported phylogeny depicting higher level relationships within Charadriiformes and the limits to the order, primarily because of inconsistency and homoplasy in these data. Moreover, these trees are incongruent with the relationships presented in the DNA hybridization tapestry of, including the location of the root and the branching order of major clades within the shorebirds. To help clarify this systematic confusion we therefore sequenced the large RAG-1 nuclear exon (2850 bp) from 36 species representing 17 families of shorebirds for which DNA was available. Trees built with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood or Bayesian methods are topologically identical and fully resolved, with high support at basal nodes. This further attests to the phylogenetic utility of the RAG-1 sequences at higher taxonomic levels within birds. The RAG-1 tree is topologically similar to the DNA hybridization tree in depicting three major subordinal clades of shorebirds, the Charadrii (thick-knees, sheathbills, plovers, oystercatchers, and allies), Scolopaci (sandpipers and jacanas) and the Lari (coursers, pratincoles, gulls, terns, skimmers, and skuas). However, the basal split in the RAG-1 tree is between Charadrii and (Scolopaci+Lari), whereas in the DNA hybridization tree Scolopaci is the sister group to the (Charadrii+Lari). Thus in both of these DNA-based trees the Alcidae (auks, murres, and allies) are not basal among shorebirds as hypothesized in morphological trees, but instead are placed as a tip clade within Lari. The enigmatic buttonquails (Turnicidae), variously hypothesized as being allied to either the Galliformes, Gruiformes, or Charadriiformes, are shown to be a basal

  2. Molecular Mechanism of V(D)J Recombination from Synaptic RAG1-RAG2 Complex Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Heng; Chambers, Melissa G; Fu, Tian-Min; Tong, Alexander B; Liao, Maofu; Wu, Hao

    2015-11-19

    Diverse repertoires of antigen-receptor genes that result from combinatorial splicing of coding segments by V(D)J recombination are hallmarks of vertebrate immunity. The (RAG1-RAG2)2 recombinase (RAG) recognizes recombination signal sequences (RSSs) containing a heptamer, a spacer of 12 or 23 base pairs, and a nonamer (12-RSS or 23-RSS) and introduces precise breaks at RSS-coding segment junctions. RAG forms synaptic complexes only with one 12-RSS and one 23-RSS, a dogma known as the 12/23 rule that governs the recombination fidelity. We report cryo-electron microscopy structures of synaptic RAG complexes at up to 3.4 Å resolution, which reveal a closed conformation with base flipping and base-specific recognition of RSSs. Distortion at RSS-coding segment junctions and base flipping in coding segments uncover the two-metal-ion catalytic mechanism. Induced asymmetry involving tilting of the nonamer-binding domain dimer of RAG1 upon binding of HMGB1-bent 12-RSS or 23-RSS underlies the molecular mechanism for the 12/23 rule. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. RUNX1-dependent RAG1 deposition instigates human TCR-δ locus rearrangement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Cieslak (Agata); S. le Noir (Sandrine); A. Trinquand (Amélie); L. Lhermitte; D.-M. Franchini (Don-Marc); P. Villarese (Patrick); S. Gon (Stéphanie); J. Bond (Jonathan); M. Simonin (Mathieu); L. Vanhile (Laurent); C. Reimann (Christian); E. Verhoeyen (Els); J. Larghero (Jerome); E. Six (Emmanuelle); S. Spicuglia (Salvatore); I. André-Schmutz (Isabelle); A.W. Langerak (Anton); B. Nadel (Bertrand); E.A. Macintyre (Elizabeth); D. Payet-Bornet (Dominique); V. Asnafi (Vahid)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractV(D)J recombination of TCR loci is regulated by chromatin accessibility to RAG1/2 proteins, rendering RAG1/2 targeting a potentially important regulator of lymphoid differentiation. We show that within the human TCR-α/δ locus, Dδ2-Dδ3 rearrangements occur at a very immature thymic,

  4. Rearrangement of Rag-1 recombinase gene in DNA-repair deficient/immunodeficient wasted'' mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Weaver, P.; Churchill, M.; Chang-Liu, C-M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Libertin, C.R. (Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Mice recessive for the autosomal gene wasted'' (wst) display a disease pattern which includes increased sensitivity to the killing effects of ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency, and neurologic dysfunction. The recent cloning and characterization of recombinase genes (Rag-l/Rag-2) expressed in lymphoid and possibly central nervous system tissues prompted us to examine expression of these genes in DNA repair-deficient/immunodeficient wasted mice. Our results revealed that in thymus tissue, a small Rag-I transcript (1.0 kb) was detected in wst/wst mice that was not evident in thymus from control mice. In wst/[sm bullet] mice, a two-fold increase in Rag-1 mRNA was evident in thymus tissue. Rag-2 mRNA could only be detected in thymus tissue from wst/[sm bullet] and not from wst/wst or parental control BCF, mice. Southern blots revealed a rearrangement or deletion within the Rag-1 gene of affected wasted mice that was not evident in known strain-specific parental or littermate controls. These results support the idea that the Rag-1 gene may map at or near the locus for the wasted mutation. In addition, they suggest the importance of recombinase function in normal immune and central nervous system development as well as the potential contribution of this gene family to the normal repair of radiation-induced DNA damage.

  5. Recruitment of RAG1 and RAG2 to Chromatinized DNA during V(D)J Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Keerthi; Schatz, David G

    2015-11-01

    V(D)J recombination is initiated by the binding of the RAG1 and RAG2 proteins to recombination signal sequences (RSSs) that consist of conserved heptamer and nonamer sequences separated by a spacer of either 12 or 23 bp. Here, we used RAG-inducible pro-B v-Abl cell lines in conjunction with chromatin immunoprecipitation to better understand the protein and RSS requirements for RAG recruitment to chromatin. Using a catalytic mutant form of RAG1 to prevent recombination, we did not observe cooperation between RAG1 and RAG2 in their recruitment to endogenous Jκ gene segments over a 48-h time course. Using retroviral recombination substrates, we found that RAG1 was recruited inefficiently to substrates lacking an RSS or containing a single RSS, better to substrates with two 12-bp RSSs (12RSSs) or two 23-bp RSSs (23RSSs), and more efficiently to a substrate with a 12/23RSS pair. RSS mutagenesis demonstrated a major role for the nonamer element in RAG1 binding, and correspondingly, a cryptic RSS consisting of a repeat of CA dinucleotides, which poorly re-creates the nonamer, was ineffective in recruiting RAG1. Our findings suggest that 12RSS-23RSS cooperation (the "12/23 rule") is important not only for regulating RAG-mediated DNA cleavage but also for the efficiency of RAG recruitment to chromatin. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. RAG-2 Promotes Heptamer Occupancy by RAG-1 in the Assembly of a V(D)J Initiation Complex†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Patrick C.; Desiderio, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    V(D)J recombination occurs at recombination signal sequences (RSSs) containing conserved heptamer and nonamer elements. RAG-1 and RAG-2 initiate recombination by cleaving DNA between heptamers and antigen receptor coding segments. RAG-1 alone contacts the nonamer but interacts weakly, if at all, with the heptamer. RAG-2 by itself has no DNA-binding activity but promotes heptamer occupancy in the presence of RAG-1; how RAG-2 collaborates with RAG-1 has been poorly understood. Here we examine the composition of RAG-RSS complexes and the relative contributions of RAG-1 and RAG-2 to heptamer binding. RAG-1 exists as a dimer in complexes with an isolated RSS bearing a 12-bp spacer, regardless of whether RAG-2 is present; only a single subunit of RAG-1, however, participates in nonamer binding. In contrast, multimeric RAG-2 is not detectable by electrophoretic mobility shift assays in complexes containing both RAG proteins. DNA-protein photo-cross-linking demonstrates that heptamer contacts, while enhanced by RAG-2, are mediated primarily by RAG-1. RAG-2 cross-linking, while less efficient than that of RAG-1, is detectable near the heptamer-coding junction. These observations provide evidence that RAG-2 alters the conformation or orientation of RAG-1, thereby stabilizing interactions of RAG-1 with the heptamer, and suggest that both proteins interact with the RSS near the site of cleavage. PMID:10207091

  7. IL7R and RAG1/2 genes mutations/polymorphisms in patients with SCID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Sepideh; Pourpak, Zahra; Moin, Mostafa; Houshmand, Massoud

    2011-06-01

    SCID disorder is major failure of the immune system, usually genetic. The aim of this study was on mutations detection of RAG1, RAG2, and IL7RG genes in SCID cases. Mutation detection was performed by PCR sequencing. Our results indicated that 13 mutations were found through cases which include 4 mutations in IL7R gene (T661I, I138V, T56A, C57W), 7 mutations in RAG1 (W896X, W204R, M324V, T731I, M1006V, K820R, and R249H), and 2 mutations in RAG2 gene (R229W, ΔT251).

  8. Elucidating the domain architecture and functions of non-core RAG1: The capacity of a non-core zinc-binding domain to function in nuclear import and nucleic acid binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Shuying

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The repertoire of the antigen-binding receptors originates from the rearrangement of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genetic loci in a process known as V(DJ recombination. The initial site-specific DNA cleavage steps of this process are catalyzed by the lymphoid specific proteins RAG1 and RAG2. The majority of studies on RAG1 and RAG2 have focused on the minimal, core regions required for catalytic activity. Though not absolutely required, non-core regions of RAG1 and RAG2 have been shown to influence the efficiency and fidelity of the recombination reaction. Results Using a partial proteolysis approach in combination with bioinformatics analyses, we identified the domain boundaries of a structural domain that is present in the 380-residue N-terminal non-core region of RAG1. We term this domain the Central Non-core Domain (CND; residues 87-217. Conclusions We show how the CND alone, and in combination with other regions of non-core RAG1, functions in nuclear localization, zinc coordination, and interactions with nucleic acid. Together, these results demonstrate the multiple roles that the non-core region can play in the function of the full length protein.

  9. Bioavailability of Ag(I) with Arthrobacter oxidas and Arthrobacter globiformis

    CERN Document Server

    Gelagutashvili, E; Ginturi, E; Bagdavadze, N; Kuchava, N; Tsakadze, K; Janjalia, M

    2012-01-01

    The biosorption of Ag(I)_ Arthrobacter species (Arthrobacter globiformis 151B and Arthrobacter oxidas 61B) was studied at simultaneous application of dialysis and atomic absorption analysis. The biosorption constants and nature of interaction for Ag(I) -Arthrobacter oxidas and Ag(I) -Arthrobacter globiformis were determined. The biosorption constants for Ag(I)- -Arthrobacter globiformis and for Ag(I) -Arthrobacter oxidas equal to 65.0 x10-4 and 35.0 x10-4 respectively.

  10. 应用生物信息学分析大米过敏原RAG1的B细胞表位(英文)%Bioinformatics Analysis on B cell Epitopes of Rice Allergen RAG1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕芳; 何颖; 邹泽红

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To predict the secondary structure and B cell epitopes of the rice major allergen RAG1. [Method] The amino acid sequence of rice allergen RAG1 was acquired from Expasy protein database. The secondary structure of RAG1 was predicted by DNAStar Protean software with Gamier-Robson program, Chou-Fasman program and Karplus-Schulz program; the B cell epitopes of RAG1 was predicted with the Kyte Doolittle hydrophilic program, Emini surface accessibility program and Jameson-Wolf antigenic index program. [Result] The predictions on secondary structure and B cell epitopes showed that the regions of 33-44, 119-129, 155-163 were the dominant B cell epitopes. [Conclusion] This study predicted the potential dominant B cell epitopes in rice allergen RAG1 by comprehensive use of multi-methods and multi-parameters, and provided a theoretical basis for further researches on identification, antigen modification and epitope vaccine design of RAG1 B cell epitopes.%[目的]预测大米主要过敏原RAG1的二级结构及B细胞表位。[方法]从Expasy蛋白质数据库中获得编码大米过敏原RAG1的氨基酸序列并以此氨基酸序列为基础,通过DNAStarProtean软件,采用Gamier-Robson方案、Chou-Fasman方案和Karplus-Schulz方案预测RAG1的二级结构,用Kyte-Doolittle亲水性方案、Emini表面可及性方案、Jameson-Wolf抗原性指数方案综合预测RAG1的B细胞表位。[结果]对大米过敏原RAG1的二级结构和B细胞表位预测的结果表明,第33~44、119~129、155~163区段可能是B细胞的优势表位。[结论]本研究综合应用多方法多参数预测大米过敏原RAG1潜在的B细胞优势表位,为RAG1B细胞表位的进一步鉴定及其抗原性改造、表位疫苗设计等研究提供了理论依据。

  11. Bioinformatics Analysis on B Cell Epitopes of Rice Allergen RAG1%应用生物信息学分析大米过敏原RAG1的B细胞表位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕芳; 何颖; 邹泽红

    2012-01-01

    [目的]预测大米主要过敏原RAG1的二级结构及B细胞表位.[方法]从Expasy蛋白质数据库中获得编码大米过敏原RAG1的氨基酸序列并以此氨基酸序列为基础,通过DNAStar Protean软件,采用Gamier-Robson方案、Chou-Fasman方案和Karplus-Schulz方案预测RAG1的二级结构,用Kyte-Doolittle亲水性方案、Emini表面可及性方案、Jameson-Wolf抗原性指数方案综合预测RAG1的B细胞表位.[结果]对大米过敏原RAG1的二级结构和B细胞表住预测的结果表明,第33 ~44、119 ~129、155~163区段可能是B细胞的优势表位.[结论]该研究综合应用多方法多参数预测大米过敏原RAG1潜在的B细胞优势表位,为RAG1 B细胞表位的进一步鉴定及其抗原性改造、表位疫苗设计等研究提供了理论依据.%[Objective] To predict secondary structure and B cell epilopes of the rice major allergen RAG1. [ Method ] The amino acid sequence of rice allergen RAG1 was acquired from Expasy protein database. The secondary structure of RAG1 was predicted by DNAStar Protean software with Gamier-Robson program, Chou-Fasman program and Karplus-Schulz program; the B cell epitopes of RAG1 was predicted with the Kyte-Doolittle hydrophilic program, Emini surface accessibility program and Jameson-Wolf antigenic index program. [ Result] The predictions on secondary structure and B cell epitopes showed that the regions of 33 -44, 119 - 129, 155 - 163 were the dominant B cell epitopes. [Conclusion] This study predicted the potential dominant B cell epitopes in rice allergen RAG1 by comprehensive use of multi-methods and multi-parameters, and provided a theoretical basis for further researches on identification, antigen modification and epitope vaccine design of RAG1 B cell epitopes.

  12. IL7R and RAG1/2 Genes Mutations/Polymorphisms in Patients SCID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Safaei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SCID disorder is major failure of the immune system, usually genetic. The aim of this study was on mutations detection of RAG1, RAG2, and IL7RG genes in SCID cases. Mutation detection was performed by PCR sequencing.Our results  indicated  that 13  mutations  were found  through  cases which  include 4 mutations in IL7R gene (T661I, I138V, T56A, C57W, 7 mutations in RAG1 (W896X, W204R, M324V, T731I, M1006V, K820R, and R249H, and 2 mutations in RAG2 gene (R229W, ΔT251.

  13. Collaboration of RAG2 with RAG1-like proteins during the evolution of V(D)J recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Lina Marcela; Fugmann, Sebastian D; Schatz, David G

    2016-04-15

    The recombination-activating gene 1 (RAG1) and RAG2 proteins initiate V(D)J recombination, the process that assembles the B- and T-lymphocyte antigen receptor genes of jawed vertebrates. RAG1 and RAG2 are thought to have arisen from a transposable element, but the origins of this element are not understood. We show that two ancestral RAG1 proteins, Transib transposase and purple sea urchin RAG1-like, have a latent ability to initiate V(D)J recombination when coexpressed with RAG2 and that in vitro transposition by Transib transposase is stimulated by RAG2. Conversely, we report low levels of V(D)J recombination by RAG1 in the absence of RAG2. Recombination by RAG1 alone differs from canonical V(D)J recombination in having lost the requirement for asymmetric DNA substrates, implicating RAG2 in the origins of the "12/23 rule," a fundamental regulatory feature of the reaction. We propose that evolution of RAG1/RAG2 began with a Transib transposon whose intrinsic recombination activity was enhanced by capture of an ancestral RAG2, allowing for the development of adaptive immunity.

  14. EMULSAN ANALYSIS PRODUCED BY LOCALLY ISOLATED BACTERIA AND ACINETOBACTER CALCOACETICUS RAG-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chamanrokh, M. Mazaheri Assadi, A. Noohi, S. Yahyai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth of previously isolated bacteria from Iranian oil reservoirs on different carbon and energy sources and under varying conditions have been used to produce a class of extracellular microbial protein-associated lipopolysaccharides named emulsan.Several Bacteria were previously isolated from Iranian oil reservoirs and designated as; Ilam-1 and Paydar-4. In present study, the isolated strains were compared with standard sample of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 from Persian Type Culture Collection (PTCC 1641, IROST. Among the isolated strains, two strains were found to produce an extracellular, emulsifying agent when grown in Mineral Salt Medium containing soya oil, ethanol or local crude oil. The isolated bacteria were cultured and further analysed using protein estimation, reducing sugar analysis, hemolytic activity, surface tension and emulsification activity tests. The crude emulsifier of RAG-1, PAYDAR-4 and ILAM-1 were concentrated from the cell-free culture fluid by ammonium sulfate precipitation to yield 1.89g, 1.78g and 1.69g of bioemulsan respectively. Emulsifying activity was observed over the entire production process. These investigations showed that emulsan produced by isolated Iranian crude oil reservoir were comparable with Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 which is made of carbohydrate backbone as its hydrophilic part (N-acetyl-D-galactoseamine, N-acetylgalactoseamine uronic acid, diamino-6-deoxy-D-glucose and fatty acid chain as its hydrophobic portion.

  15. Isolation of Arthrobacter species from the phyllosphere and demonstration of their epiphytic fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheublin, T.R.; Leveau, J.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Arthrobacter are common inhabitants of the soil environment, but can also be recovered from leaf surfaces (the phyllosphere). Using enrichment cultures on 4-chlorophenol, we succeeded in specifically isolating Arthrobacter bacteria from ground cover vegetation in an apple orcha

  16. Isolation of Arthrobacter species from the phyllosphere and demonstration of their epiphytic fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheublin, T.R.; Leveau, J.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Arthrobacter are common inhabitants of the soil environment, but can also be recovered from leaf surfaces (the phyllosphere). Using enrichment cultures on 4-chlorophenol, we succeeded in specifically isolating Arthrobacter bacteria from ground cover vegetation in an apple

  17. Severe combined immunodeficiency caused by a new homozygous RAG1 mutation with progressive encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Nivedita; Yadav, Satya Prakash; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Picard, Capucine; Sabharwal, R K; Dinand, Veronique; Ghuman, Samarjit Singh; Sachdeva, Anupam

    2014-03-01

    We describe an unusual case of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with neutropenia and central nervous system (CNS) manifestations in which a novel RAG1 mutation was identified. A 15-month-old boy presented with failure to thrive, neutropenia and recurrent infections. He was diagnosed with T-B-NK+ SCID. He subsequently developed right partial seizures with ipsilateral hemiparesis and became comatose. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed an inflammatory lesion in the left thalamus which later progressed to diffuse meningo-encephalitis on serial imaging. No CNS infection was documented. Genetic work-up in the child revealed a novel homozygous deleterious mutation in the RAG1 gene (c:2881T>C; p:I794T), for which both parents were heterozygous. He underwent a haploidentical bone marrow transplant without conditioning and died on day +35 with no improvement in his neurological status. The features of neutropenia and progressive encephalopathy could be linked to the novel genetic defect but more data is required to establish this conclusively.

  18. Identification of a recombinant inulin fructotransferase (difructose dianhydride III forming) from Arthrobacter sp. 161MFSha2.1 with high specific activity and remarkable thermostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Yu, Shuhuai; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

    2015-04-08

    Difructose dianhydride III (DFA III) is a functional carbohydrate produced from inulin by inulin fructotransferase (IFTase, EC 4.2.2.18). In this work, an IFTase gene from Arthrobacter sp. 161MFSha2.1 was cloned and expressed in Escherachia coli. The recombinant enzyme was purified by metal affinity chromatography. It showed significant inulin hydrolysis activity, and the produced main product from inulin was determined as DFA III by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The molecular mass of the purified protein was calculated to be 43 and 125 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration, respectively, suggesting the native enzyme might be a homotrimer. The recombinant enzyme showed maximal activity as 2391 units/mg at pH 6.5 and 55 °C. It displayed the highest thermostability among previously reported IFTases (DFA III forming) and was stable up to 80 °C for 4 h of incubation. The smallest substrate was determined as nystose. The conversion ratio of inulin to DFA III reached 81% when 100 g/L inulin was catalyzed by 80 nM recombinant enzyme for 20 min at pH 6.5 and 55 °C. All of these data indicated that the IFTase (DFA III forming) from Arthrobacter sp. 161MFSha2.1 had great potential for industrial DFA III production.

  19. A Rodent Model of Chikungunya Virus Infection in RAG1 -/- Mice, with Features of Persistence, for Vaccine Safety Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Robert L; Adams, A Paige; Leal, Grace; Alcorn, Maria D H; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a positive sense, single stranded RNA virus in the genus Alphavirus, and the etiologic agent of epidemics of severe arthralgia in Africa, Asia, Europe and, most recently, the Americas. CHIKV causes chikungunya fever (CHIK), a syndrome characterized by rash, fever, and debilitating, often chronic arthritis. In recent outbreaks, CHIKV has been recognized to manifest more neurologic signs of illness in the elderly and those with co-morbidities. The syndrome caused by CHIKV is often self-limited; however, many patients develop persistent arthralgia that can last for months or years. These characteristics make CHIKV not only important from a human health standpoint, but also from an economic standpoint. Despite its importance as a reemerging disease, there is no licensed vaccine or specific treatment to prevent CHIK. Many studies have begun to elucidate the pathogenesis of CHIKF and the mechanism of persistent arthralgia, including the role of the adaptive immune response, which is still poorly understood. In addition, the lack of an animal model for chronic infection has limited studies of CHIKV pathogenesis as well as the ability to assess the safety of vaccine candidates currently under development. To address this deficiency, we used recombination activating gene 1 (RAG1-/-) knockout mice, which are deficient in both T and B lymphocytes, to develop a chronic CHIKV infection model. Here, we describe this model as well as its use in evaluating the safety of a live-attenuated vaccine candidate.

  20. A Rodent Model of Chikungunya Virus Infection in RAG1 -/- Mice, with Features of Persistence, for Vaccine Safety Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Seymour

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a positive sense, single stranded RNA virus in the genus Alphavirus, and the etiologic agent of epidemics of severe arthralgia in Africa, Asia, Europe and, most recently, the Americas. CHIKV causes chikungunya fever (CHIK, a syndrome characterized by rash, fever, and debilitating, often chronic arthritis. In recent outbreaks, CHIKV has been recognized to manifest more neurologic signs of illness in the elderly and those with co-morbidities. The syndrome caused by CHIKV is often self-limited; however, many patients develop persistent arthralgia that can last for months or years. These characteristics make CHIKV not only important from a human health standpoint, but also from an economic standpoint. Despite its importance as a reemerging disease, there is no licensed vaccine or specific treatment to prevent CHIK. Many studies have begun to elucidate the pathogenesis of CHIKF and the mechanism of persistent arthralgia, including the role of the adaptive immune response, which is still poorly understood. In addition, the lack of an animal model for chronic infection has limited studies of CHIKV pathogenesis as well as the ability to assess the safety of vaccine candidates currently under development. To address this deficiency, we used recombination activating gene 1 (RAG1-/- knockout mice, which are deficient in both T and B lymphocytes, to develop a chronic CHIKV infection model. Here, we describe this model as well as its use in evaluating the safety of a live-attenuated vaccine candidate.

  1. Joining mutants of RAG1 and RAG2 that demonstrate impaired interactions with the coding-end DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagawa, Fumikiyo; Hirose, Satoshi; Nishizumi, Hirofumi; Nishihara, Tadashi; Sakano, Hitoshi

    2004-09-10

    In V(D)J joining of antigen receptor genes, two recombination signal sequences (RSSs), 12- and 23-RSSs, form a complex with the protein products of recombination activating genes, RAG1 and RAG2. DNaseI footprinting demonstrates that the interaction of RAG proteins with substrate RSS DNA is not just limited to the signal region but involves the coding sequence as well. Joining mutants of RAG1 and RAG2 demonstrate impaired interactions with the coding region in both pre- and postcleavage type complexes. A possible role of this RAG coding region interaction is discussed in the context of V(D)J recombination.

  2. Purification and Optimization of Prokaryotic Expression of rag1 Gene in Red Snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus)%红笛鲷重组激活基因rag1原核表达条件的优化及纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪利; 鲁义善; 谢吉国; 简纪常; 吴灶和

    2012-01-01

    In the core domain, the gene sequence of coding the Lutjanus sanguineus RAG 1 protein was cloned and then inserted into the pET-28a(+) vector to construct prokaryotic expression plasmid pET-28a-RAGl. The recombinant RAG1 fusion protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells in the presence of isopropyl-P-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). To achieve a high level expression, the optimized induction condition was identified by using classical experimental method. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that inducing the cells at 37 癈 in 0.1 mmol/L of IPTG for 8 hours was the optimal conditions for expression of the recombinant RAG1 fusion protein. The relative molecular mass of the expressed product was identical to the expected protein which was mainly detected in the insoluble fraction of E. coli cell lysates. The recombinant RAG1 fusion protein was purified by using His Trap HP affinity column. Western blot analysis showed that the recombinant RAG1 fusion protein could be combined with mouse anti-His-Tag Mab, so the expressed protein was definitely confirmed to the aim protein.%克隆编码红笛鲷(Lutjanus sanguineus)RAGI蛋白(recombination activating proteinl)活性核心区的基因序列,并与pET-28a(+)载体连接,构建原核表达载体pET-28a-RAG1,将其转入大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)菌株,利用IPTG进行诱导表达.为提高融合蛋白的表达效率,运用传统的实验方法对诱导条件进行优化.SDS-PAGE分析表明,在37℃条件下,利用0.1 mmol/L IPTG诱导8h后,RAG1重组融合蛋白的表达量最大,相对分子质量与预测值相符,该蛋白主要以包涵体形式高效表达,利用His Trap HP亲和柱使其得到进一步纯化;Western blot分析显示,该融合蛋白可与鼠抗His-tag单克隆抗体发生特异性结合,说明表达蛋白为目的蛋白.

  3. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES ON ACINETOBACTER-CALCOACETICUS RAG-1 AND MR-481 - 2 STANDARD STRAINS IN HYDROPHOBICITY TESTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERMEI, HC; COWAN, MM; BUSSCHER, HJ

    1991-01-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 and MR-48 1, two standard strains used in microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH), were characterized by contact angles, pH-dependent zeta potentials, elemental surface composition by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and molecular composition by infrared sp

  4. Cloning and characterization of fructosamine-6-kinase from Arthrobacter aurescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi-Mikami, Akane; Kameya, Miho; Ferri, Stefano; Tsugawa, Wakako; Sode, Koji

    2013-06-01

    Fructosamine-6-kinases (FN6Ks) that catalyze phosphorylation of glycated amino acids, i.e., fructosyl amino acids (FAs), have been shown as a potential recognition element for glycated protein detection. However, there are only two available FN6Ks: those from Escherichia coli which is specific for ε-fructosyl lysine (ε-FK) and Bacillus subtilis which recognizes both ε-FK and α-FA as substrates. In this study, we characterized an FN6K homologue isolated from Arthrobacter, some of whose species are reported to assimilate FA. The BLAST searches of Arthrobacter genomic database, using the bacterial FN6K primary structure information, revealed the presence of an FN6K homologue in Arthrobacter aurescens TC1 strain. Indeed, enzymatic assays confirmed that the putative FN6K from A. aurescens is an FN6K that is specific for ε-FK, although the primary sequence alignments showed similarity of A. aurescens FN6Ks with FN6Ks from B. subtilis and E. coli at the same level. In this study, we describe for the first time the presence of FN6K in Arthrobacter spp. and ε-FK-specific degradation pathway from Gram-positive bacteria, providing important information for the development of FA-recognizing molecules as well as for the FA assimilation system in bacteria.

  5. Cloning and expression analysis of recombination activating genes (RAG1/2) in red snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X L; Lu, Y S; Jian, J C; Wu, Z H

    2012-04-01

    Recombination activating genes (RAG1 and RAG2), involved in the V(D)J recombination of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes play a crucial role in the adaptive immune response in vertebrates. The expression of these genes was required for the proper development and maturity of lymphocytes so that they can be used as useful markers to evaluate the development of lymphoid organ. In this paper, the cDNA of RAG1 and RAG2 in red snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus were cloned by homological cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. Results showed the full length of RAG1 cDNA was 3944 bp, containing a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 200 bp, a 3'-UTR of 561 bp and an open reading frame of 3183 bp encoding 1060 amino acids. Three important structural motifs, a RING/U-box domain, a RING/FYVE/PHD-type domain and a RAG Nonamer-binding domain were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of RAG1 by InterProScan analysis. The full length of RAG2 cDNA was 2200 bp, consisting of a 141 bp 5'-UTR, a 457 bp 3'-UTR and an open reading frame of 1602 bp encoding 533 amino acids. Two important structural motifs, a Galactose oxidase/kelch, beta-propeller domain and a kelch-type beta-propeller domain were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of RAG2 by InterProScan analysis. BLAST analysis revealed that the RAG1 and RAG2 in red snapper shared a high homology with other known RAG1 and RAG2 genes, while the greatest degree of identity was observed with Hippoglossus hippoglossus RAG1 at 82% and Takifugu rubripes RAG2 at 87%, respectively. The differential expressions of RAG1 and RAG2 in various tissues of red snapper were analyzed by fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR. The overall expression pattern of the two genes was quite similar. In healthy red snappers, the RAGs transcripts were mainly detected in thymus, following head kidney, spleen, intestine, liver and brain. After vaccinated with inactivated Vibrio alginolyticus 48 h later, the RAGs m

  6. Data on the evolutionary history of the V(DJ recombination-activating protein 1 – RAG1 coupled with sequence and variant analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available RAG1 protein is one of the key component of RAG complex regulating the V(DJ recombination. There are only few studies for RAG1 concerning evolutionary history, detailed sequence and mutational hotspots. Herein, we present out datasets used for the recent comprehensive study of RAG1 based on sequence, phylogenetic and genetic variant analyses (Kumar et al., 2015 [1]. Protein sequence alignment helped in characterizing the conserved domains and regions of RAG1. It also aided in unraveling ancestral RAG1 in the sea urchin. Human genetic variant analyses revealed 751 mutational hotspots, located both in the coding and the non-coding regions. For further analysis and discussion, see (Kumar et al., 2015 [1].

  7. The recombination activation gene 1 (Rag1 is expressed in a subset of zebrafish olfactory neurons but is not essential for axon targeting or amino acid detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Rainer W

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rag1 (Recombination activation gene-1 mediates genomic rearrangement and is essential for adaptive immunity in vertebrates. This gene is also expressed in the olfactory epithelium, but its function there is unknown. Results Using a transgenic zebrafish line and immunofluorescence, we show that Rag1 is expressed and translated in a subset of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs. Neurons expressing GFP under the Rag1 promoter project their axons to the lateral region of the olfactory bulb only, and axons with the highest levels of GFP terminate in a single glomerular structure. A subset of GFP-expressing neurons contain Gαo, a marker for microvillous neurons. None of the GFP-positive neurons express Gαolf, Gαq or the olfactory marker protein OMP. Depletion of RAG1, by morpholino-mediated knockdown or mutation, did not affect axon targeting. Calcium imaging indicates that amino acids evoke chemotopically organized glomerular activity patterns in a Rag1 mutant. Conclusion Rag1 expression is restricted to a subpopulation of zebrafish olfactory neurons projecting to the lateral olfactory bulb. RAG1 catalytic activity is not essential for axon targeting, nor is it likely to be required for regulation of odorant receptor expression or the response of OSNs to amino acids.

  8. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Analysis of Recombination Signal Sequence Configuration in the RAG1/2 Synaptic Complex▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Ciubotaru, Mihai; Kriatchko, Aleksei N.; Swanson, Patrick C.; Bright, Frank V.; Schatz, David G.

    2007-01-01

    A critical step in V(D)J recombination is the synapsis of complementary (12/23) recombination signal sequences (RSSs) by the RAG1 and RAG2 proteins to generate the paired complex (PC). Using a facilitated ligation assay and substrates that vary the helical phasing of the RSSs, we provide evidence that one particular geometric configuration of the RSSs is favored in the PC. To investigate this configuration further, we used fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) to detect the synapsis of...

  9. Impact of Rag1 aphid resistant soybeans on Binodoxys communis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghising, Kiran; Harmon, Jason P; Beauzay, Patrick B; Prischmann-Voldseth, Deirdre A; Helms, Ted C; Ode, Paul J; Knodel, Janet J

    2012-04-01

    Multiple strategies are being developed for pest management of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura; however, there has been little published research thus far to determine how such strategies may influence each other, thereby complicating their potential effectiveness. A susceptible soybean (Glycine max L.) variety without the Rag1 gene and a near isogenic resistant soybean variety with the Rag1 gene were evaluated in the laboratory for their effects on the fitness of the soybean aphid parasitoid, Binodoxys communis (Gahan). The presence or absence of the Rag1 gene was verified by quantifying soybean aphid growth. To test for fitness effects, parasitoids were allowed to attack soybean aphids on either a susceptible or resistant plant for 24 h and then aphids were kept on the same plant throughout parasitoid development. Parasitoid fitness was measured by mummy and adult parasitoid production, adult parasitoid emergence, development time, and adult size. Parasitoids that attacked soybean aphids on susceptible plants produced more mummies, more adult parasitoids, and had a higher emergence rate compared with those on resistant plants. Adult parasitoids that emerged from resistant plants took 1 d longer and were smaller compared with those from susceptible plants. This study suggests that biological control by B. communis may be compromised when host plant resistance is widely used for pest management of soybean aphids.

  10. Molecular phylogenetics of North American phoxinins (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Leuciscidae) based on RAG1 and S7 nuclear DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalino, Angelo P; Mayden, Richard L

    2010-04-01

    Most molecular phylogenetic hypotheses for North American (NA) phoxinins are based on mitochondrial DNA sequences (mtDNA) and the resulting hypotheses are rather variable, though there is general support for three major lineages of NA phoxinins: western, creek chub-plagopterin (CC-P), and open posterior myodome (OPM) clades. Support for a monophyletic NA phoxinin group has varied among studies. This study utilizes nuclear DNA (nDNA) sequences from the RAG1 (exon 3) and S7 (intron 1) gene regions to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships and monophyly of NA phoxinins. Results from the nDNA analyses provide overall support for the western, CC-P, and OPM clades. The CC-P clade had the best overall resolution and support in the individual and combined analyses of the nDNA data. Resolution of the western clade was fairly good, with most analyses recovering a monophyletic Gila clade. The OPM clade demonstrated the highest degree of topological variability among the analyses. The RAG1 analyses failed to recover a monophyletic NA phoxinin group by resolving the European leuciscins, inclusive Notemigonus crysoleucas, within the NA phoxinin topology. Most analyses recovered a strongly supported shiner clade though, similar to several mtDNA studies; there was a high degree of topological variability among the results.

  11. Noncore RAG1 regions promote Vβ rearrangements and αβ T cell development by overcoming inherent inefficiency of Vβ recombination signal sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Julie E; Bassing, Craig H

    2014-02-15

    The RAG proteins are comprised of core endonuclease domains and noncore regions that modulate endonuclease activity. Mutation or deletion of noncore RAG regions in humans causes immunodeficiency and altered TCR repertoire, and mice expressing core but not full-length Rag1 (Rag1(C/C)) or Rag2 (Rag2(C/C)) exhibit lymphopenia, reflecting impaired V(D)J recombination and lymphocyte development. Rag1(C/C) mice display reduced D-to-J and V-to-DJ rearrangements of TCRβ and IgH loci, whereas Rag2(C/C) mice show decreased V-to-DJ rearrangements and altered Vβ/VH repertoire. Because Vβs/VHs only recombine to DJ complexes, the Rag1(C/C) phenotype could reflect roles for noncore RAG1 regions in promoting recombination during only the D-to-J step or during both steps. In this study, we demonstrate that a preassembled TCRβ gene, but not a preassembled DβJβ complex or the prosurvival BCL2 protein, completely rescues αβ T cell development in Rag1(C/C) mice. We find that Rag1(C/C) mice exhibit altered Vβ utilization in Vβ-to-DJβ rearrangements, increased usage of 3'Jα gene segments in Vα-to-Jα rearrangements, and abnormal changes in Vβ repertoire during αβ TCR selection. Inefficient Vβ/VH recombination signal sequences (RSSs) have been hypothesized to cause impaired V-to-DJ recombination on the background of a defective recombinase as in core-Rag mice. We show that replacement of the Vβ14 RSS with a more efficient RSS increases Vβ14 recombination and rescues αβ T cell development in Rag1(C/C) mice. Our data indicate that noncore RAG1 regions establish a diverse TCR repertoire by overcoming Vβ RSS inefficiency to promote Vβ recombination and αβ T cell development, and by modulating TCRβ and TCRα gene segment utilization.

  12. Cleavage at a V(D)J recombination signal requires only RAG1 and RAG2 proteins and occurs in two steps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. McBlane; D.C. van Gent (Dik); D.A. Ramsden; C. Romeo; C.A. Cuomo; M. Gellert; M.A. Oettinger

    1995-01-01

    textabstractFormation of double-strand breaks at recombination signal sequences is an early step in V(D)J recombination. Here we show that purified RAG1 and RAG2 proteins are sufficient to carry out this reaction. The cleavage reaction can be divided into two distinct steps. First,

  13. Restoration of human B-cell differentiation into NOD-SCID mice engrafted with gene-corrected CD34+ cells isolated from Artemis or RAG1-deficient patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagresle-Peyrou, Chantal; Benjelloun, Fatine; Hue, Christophe; Andre-Schmutz, Isabelle; Bonhomme, Delphine; Forveille, Monique; Beldjord, Kheira; Hacein-Bey-Abina, Salima; De Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Charneau, Pierre; Durandy, Anne; Fischer, Alain; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina

    2008-02-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) caused by mutation of the recombination-activating gene 1 (RAG1) or Artemis gene lead to the absence of B- and T-cell differentiation. The only curative treatment is allogeneic bone marrow (BM) transplantation, which displays a high survival rate when an HLA compatible donor is available but has a poorer prognosis when the donor is partially compatible. Consequently, gene therapy may be a promising alternative strategy for these diseases. Here, we report that lentiviral gene-corrected BM CD34(+) cells (isolated from Artemis- or RAG1-deficient patients) sustain human B-cell differentiation following injection into non-obese diabetic/SCID (NOD-SCID) mice previously infused with anti-interleukin-2 receptor beta chain monoclonal antibody. In most of the mice BM, engrafted with Artemis-transduced cells, human B-cell differentiation occurred until the mature stage. The B cells were functional as human immunoglobulin M (IgM) was present in the serum. Following injection with RAG1-transduced cells, human engraftment occurred in vivo but B-cell differentiation until the mature stage was less frequent. However, when it occurred, it was always associated with human IgM production. This overall approach represents a useful tool for evaluating gene transfer efficiency in human SCID forms affecting B-cell development (such as Artemis deficiency) and for testing new vectors for improving in vivo RAG1 complementation.

  14. HMGB1/2 can target DNA for illegitimate cleavage by the RAG1/2 complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanson Patrick C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background V(DJ recombination is initiated in antigen receptor loci by the pairwise cleavage of recombination signal sequences (RSSs by the RAG1 and RAG2 proteins via a nick-hairpin mechanism. The RSS contains highly conserved heptamer (consensus: 5'-CACAGTG and nonamer (consensus: 5'-ACAAAAACC motifs separated by either 12- or 23-base pairs of poorly conserved sequence. The high mobility group proteins HMGB1 and HMGB2 (HMGB1/2 are highly abundant architectural DNA binding proteins known to promote RAG-mediated synapsis and cleavage of consensus recombination signals in vitro by facilitating RSS binding and bending by the RAG1/2 complex. HMGB1/2 are known to recognize distorted DNA structures such as four-way junctions, and damaged or modified DNA. Whether HMGB1/2 can promote RAG-mediated DNA cleavage at sites lacking a canonical RSS by targeting or stabilizing structural distortions is unclear, but is important for understanding the etiology of chromosomal translocations involving antigen receptor genes and proto-oncogene sequences that do not contain an obvious RSS-like element. Results Here we identify a novel DNA breakpoint site in the plasmid V(DJ recombination substrate pGG49 (bps6197 that is cleaved by the RAG proteins via a nick-hairpin mechanism. The bps6197 sequence lacks a recognizable heptamer at the breakpoint (5'-CCTGACG-3' but contains a nonamer-like element (5'-ACATTAACC-3' 30 base pairs from the cleavage site. We find that RAG-mediated bps6197 cleavage is promoted by HMGB1/2, requiring both HMG-box domains to be intact to facilitate RAG-mediated cleavage, and is stimulated by synapsis with a 12-RSS. A dyad-symmetric inverted repeat sequence lying 5' to the breakpoint is implicated as a target for HMGB1/2 activity. Conclusion We have identified a novel DNA sequence, called bps6197, that supports standard V(DJ-type cleavage despite the absence of an apparent heptamer motif. Efficient RAG-mediated bps6197 cleavage requires

  15. HMGB1/2 can target DNA for illegitimate cleavage by the RAG1/2 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Swanson, Patrick C

    2009-03-24

    V(D)J recombination is initiated in antigen receptor loci by the pairwise cleavage of recombination signal sequences (RSSs) by the RAG1 and RAG2 proteins via a nick-hairpin mechanism. The RSS contains highly conserved heptamer (consensus: 5'-CACAGTG) and nonamer (consensus: 5'-ACAAAAACC) motifs separated by either 12- or 23-base pairs of poorly conserved sequence. The high mobility group proteins HMGB1 and HMGB2 (HMGB1/2) are highly abundant architectural DNA binding proteins known to promote RAG-mediated synapsis and cleavage of consensus recombination signals in vitro by facilitating RSS binding and bending by the RAG1/2 complex. HMGB1/2 are known to recognize distorted DNA structures such as four-way junctions, and damaged or modified DNA. Whether HMGB1/2 can promote RAG-mediated DNA cleavage at sites lacking a canonical RSS by targeting or stabilizing structural distortions is unclear, but is important for understanding the etiology of chromosomal translocations involving antigen receptor genes and proto-oncogene sequences that do not contain an obvious RSS-like element. Here we identify a novel DNA breakpoint site in the plasmid V(D)J recombination substrate pGG49 (bps6197) that is cleaved by the RAG proteins via a nick-hairpin mechanism. The bps6197 sequence lacks a recognizable heptamer at the breakpoint (5'-CCTGACG-3') but contains a nonamer-like element (5'-ACATTAACC-3') 30 base pairs from the cleavage site. We find that RAG-mediated bps6197 cleavage is promoted by HMGB1/2, requiring both HMG-box domains to be intact to facilitate RAG-mediated cleavage, and is stimulated by synapsis with a 12-RSS. A dyad-symmetric inverted repeat sequence lying 5' to the breakpoint is implicated as a target for HMGB1/2 activity. We have identified a novel DNA sequence, called bps6197, that supports standard V(D)J-type cleavage despite the absence of an apparent heptamer motif. Efficient RAG-mediated bps6197 cleavage requires the presence of HMGB1/2, is stimulated by

  16. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Analysis of Recombination Signal Sequence Configuration in the RAG1/2 Synaptic Complex▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciubotaru, Mihai; Kriatchko, Aleksei N.; Swanson, Patrick C.; Bright, Frank V.; Schatz, David G.

    2007-01-01

    A critical step in V(D)J recombination is the synapsis of complementary (12/23) recombination signal sequences (RSSs) by the RAG1 and RAG2 proteins to generate the paired complex (PC). Using a facilitated ligation assay and substrates that vary the helical phasing of the RSSs, we provide evidence that one particular geometric configuration of the RSSs is favored in the PC. To investigate this configuration further, we used fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) to detect the synapsis of fluorescently labeled RSS oligonucleotides. FRET requires an appropriate 12/23 RSS pair, a divalent metal ion, and high-mobility-group protein HMGB1 or HMGB2. Energy transfer between the RSSs was detected with all 12/23 RSS end positions of the fluorescent probes but was not detected when probes were placed on the two ends of the same RSS. Energy transfer was confirmed to originate from the PC by using an in-gel FRET assay. The results argue against a unique planar configuration of the RSSs in the PC and are most easily accommodated by models in which synapsed 12- and 23-RSSs are bent and cross one another, with implications for the organization of the RAG proteins and the DNA substrates at the time of cleavage. PMID:17470556

  17. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis of recombination signal sequence configuration in the RAG1/2 synaptic complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciubotaru, Mihai; Kriatchko, Aleksei N; Swanson, Patrick C; Bright, Frank V; Schatz, David G

    2007-07-01

    A critical step in V(D)J recombination is the synapsis of complementary (12/23) recombination signal sequences (RSSs) by the RAG1 and RAG2 proteins to generate the paired complex (PC). Using a facilitated ligation assay and substrates that vary the helical phasing of the RSSs, we provide evidence that one particular geometric configuration of the RSSs is favored in the PC. To investigate this configuration further, we used fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) to detect the synapsis of fluorescently labeled RSS oligonucleotides. FRET requires an appropriate 12/23 RSS pair, a divalent metal ion, and high-mobility-group protein HMGB1 or HMGB2. Energy transfer between the RSSs was detected with all 12/23 RSS end positions of the fluorescent probes but was not detected when probes were placed on the two ends of the same RSS. Energy transfer was confirmed to originate from the PC by using an in-gel FRET assay. The results argue against a unique planar configuration of the RSSs in the PC and are most easily accommodated by models in which synapsed 12- and 23-RSSs are bent and cross one another, with implications for the organization of the RAG proteins and the DNA substrates at the time of cleavage.

  18. Transcriptomic analysis and biomarkers (Rag1 and Igμ) for probing the immune system development in Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ming-Guang; Li, Xing; Perálvarez-Marín, Alejandro; Jiang, Jie-Lan; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Wen, Shi-Hui; Lü, Hui-Qian

    2015-06-01

    Mortality (>90%) is a big concern in larval rearing facilities of Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus, limiting its culture presently still in the experimental stages. Understanding the immune system development of G. macrocephalus is crucial to optimize the aquaculture of this species, to improve the use of economic resources and to avoid abuse of antibiotics. For the transcriptome analysis, using an Illumina sequencing platform, 61,775,698 raw reads were acquired. After a de novo assembly, 77,561 unigenes were obtained. We have classified functionally these transcripts by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). 27 genes mainly related to hematopoietic or lymphoid organ development and somatic diversification of immune receptors have been reported for the first time in Pacific cod, and 14 Ig heavy chain (μ chain) locuses were assembled using Trinity. Based on our previous achievement, we have chosen Rag1 and Igμ as immune system development biomarkers. Full length cDNA of Rag1 and Igμ as biomarkers were obtained respectively using RACE PCR. Concerning Rag1, the deduced amino acid of Rag1 and protein immunodetection revealed a Rag1 isoform of 69 kDa, significantly different from other fish orthologs, such as Oncorhynchus mykiss (121 kDa). Phylogenetic analysis reveals a unique immune system for the Gadus genre, not exclusive for Atlantic cod, among vertebrates. Meanwhile, full length cDNA of Igμ included an ORF of 1710 bp and the deduced amino acid was composed of a leader peptide, a variable domain, CH1, CH2, Hinge, CH3, CH4 and C-terminus, which was in accordance with most teleost. Absolute quantification PCR revealed that significant expression of Rag1 appeared earlier than Igμ, 61 and 95 dph compared to 95 dph, respectively. Here we report the first transcriptomic analysis of G. macrocephalus as the starting point for genetic research on immune system development towards improving the Pacific cod aquaculture. Copyright © 2015

  19. Lack of nonfunctional B-cell receptor rearrangements in a patient with normal B cell numbers despite partial RAG1 deficiency and atypical SCID/Omenn syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohm-Laursen, Line; Nielsen, Christian; Fisker, Niels

    2008-01-01

    and the patient had eosinophilia. These presentations are consistent with atypical severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)/Omenn Syndrome and the diagnosis was confirmed by demonstration of homozygosity for the R841W mutation in the catalytic core of RAG1. Comparison of the patient's immunoglobulin heavy chain...... chromosome 14. CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that the R841W mutation causes a malfunction of RAG1 that has differential outcome on V(D)J recombination in B and T cells, as the patient had normal B cell numbers but suffered severe alpha-beta T-cell immunodeficiency.......INTRODUCTION: A 2.5-month old boy presented with recurrent wheezing, protracted diarrhea, erythrodermia, and failure to thrive. METHODS AND RESULTS: Laboratory analysis showed lymphocytopenia with severely reduced T-cell numbers but normal numbers of B and NK cells. Serum IgE was increased...

  20. Atypical severe combined immunodeficiency caused by a novel homozygous mutation in Rag1 gene in a girl who presented with pyoderma gangrenosum: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiroglu, Turkan; Akar, H Haluk; Gilmour, Kimberly; Ozdemir, M Akif; Bibi, Shahnaz; Henriquez, Frances; Burns, Siobhan O; Unal, Ekrem

    2014-10-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a heterogeneous group of inherited defects involving the development of T- and/or B-lymphocytes. We report a female with atypical severe combined immunodeficiency caused by a novel homozygous mutation at cDNA position 2290 (c.2290C > T) in exon 2 of the RAG1 gene. The patient presented with bronchopneumonia, pyoderma gangrenosum (PG), pancytopenia and splenomegaly. She presented to us with pancytopenia and splenomegaly at the age of 11. Her condition was complicated by PG on left lower ankle at the age of 12. She experienced bronchopneumonia at the age of 15. She was diagnosed with RAG1 deficiency at the age of 16. Her immunological presentation included leucopenia and diminished number of B cells.

  1. Full-length RAG1 promotes contact with coding and intersignal sequences in RAG protein complexes bound to recombination signals paired in cis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Swanson, Patrick C

    2009-04-01

    The RAG proteins initiate V(D)J recombination by mediating synapsis and cleavage of two different antigen receptor gene segments through interactions with their flanking recombination signal sequences (RSS). The protein-DNA complexes that support this process have mainly been studied using RAG-RSS complexes assembled using oligonucleotide substrates containing a single RSS that are paired in trans to promote synapsis. How closely these complexes model those formed on longer, more physiologically relevant substrates containing RSSs on the same DNA molecule (in cis) remains unclear. To address this issue, we characterized discrete core and full-length RAG protein complexes bound to RSSs paired in cis. We find these complexes support cleavage activity regulated by V(D)J recombination's '12/23 rule' and exhibit plasticity in RSS usage dependent on partner RSS composition. DNA footprinting studies suggest that the RAG proteins in these complexes mediate more extensive contact with sequences flanking the RSS than previously observed, some of which are enhanced by full-length RAG1, and associated with synapsis and efficient RSS cleavage. Finally, we demonstrate that the RAG1 C-terminus facilitates hairpin formation on long DNA substrates, and full-length RAG1 promotes hairpin retention in the post-cleavage RAG complex. These results provide new insights into the mechanism of physiological V(D)J recombination.

  2. The arthrobacter arilaitensis Re117 genome sequence reveals its genetic adaptation to the surface of cheese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Monnet

    Full Text Available Arthrobacter arilaitensis is one of the major bacterial species found at the surface of cheeses, especially in smear-ripened cheeses, where it contributes to the typical colour, flavour and texture properties of the final product. The A. arilaitensis Re117 genome is composed of a 3,859,257 bp chromosome and two plasmids of 50,407 and 8,528 bp. The chromosome shares large regions of synteny with the chromosomes of three environmental Arthrobacter strains for which genome sequences are available: A. aurescens TC1, A. chlorophenolicus A6 and Arthrobacter sp. FB24. In contrast however, 4.92% of the A. arilaitensis chromosome is composed of ISs elements, a portion that is at least 15 fold higher than for the other Arthrobacter strains. Comparative genomic analyses reveal an extensive loss of genes associated with catabolic activities, presumably as a result of adaptation to the properties of the cheese surface habitat. Like the environmental Arthrobacter strains, A. arilaitensis Re117 is well-equipped with enzymes required for the catabolism of major carbon substrates present at cheese surfaces such as fatty acids, amino acids and lactic acid. However, A. arilaitensis has several specificities which seem to be linked to its adaptation to its particular niche. These include the ability to catabolize D-galactonate, a high number of glycine betaine and related osmolyte transporters, two siderophore biosynthesis gene clusters and a high number of Fe(3+/siderophore transport systems. In model cheese experiments, addition of small amounts of iron strongly stimulated the growth of A. arilaitensis, indicating that cheese is a highly iron-restricted medium. We suggest that there is a strong selective pressure at the surface of cheese for strains with efficient iron acquisition and salt-tolerance systems together with abilities to catabolize substrates such as lactic acid, lipids and amino acids.

  3. Adiponectin administration prevents weight gain and glycemic profile changes in diet-induced obese immune deficient Rag1-/- mice lacking mature lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowen; Perakakis, Nikolaos; Gong, Huizhi; Chamberland, John P; Brinkoetter, Mary T; Hamnvik, Ole-Petter R; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation leading to insulin resistance and diabetes. Adiponectin is an adipokine that regulates inflammatory responses. The aim of our study was to investigate whether any effects of adiponectin against obesity and insulin-resistance may depend on the adaptive immune system. We treated high-fat-diet fed Rag1-/- mice lacking mature lymphocytes with adiponectin over 7weeks and investigated alterations in their metabolic outcome and inflammatory state. Adiponectin protects from weight gain despite a small compensatory stimulation of energy intake in mice lacking an adaptive immune system. Additionally, adiponectin protects from dysglycemia. Minor alterations in the macrophage phenotype, but not in the circulating cytokine levels, may contribute to the protective role of adiponectin against hyperglycemia and diabetes. Adiponectin or agents increasing adiponectin may be a promising therapeutic option against obesity and hyperglycemia in immune-deficient populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Arthrobacter equi sp. nov., isolated from veterinary clinical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, A F; Spröer, C; Siering, C; Hupfer, H; Schumann, P

    2011-09-01

    A Gram-positive-staining, catalase-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, strain IMMIB L-1606(T), isolated from genital swabs of a horse, was characterized using a polyphasic approach. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the organism was related to members of the genus Arthrobacter, displaying sequence similarities of 93.5-99.1 % with the type strains of recognized species of the genus. Cell-wall analysis revealed peptidoglycan type A3α L-Lys-L-Ser-L-Thr-L-Ala. DNA-DNA hybridization data and biochemical characterization of strain IMMIB L-1606(T) enabled the isolate to be differentiated genotypically and phenotypically from phylogenetically closely related species of the genus Arthrobacter. Therefore, it is concluded that strain IMMIB L-1606(T) represents a novel species of the genus Arthrobacter, for which the name Arthrobacter equi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Arthrobacter equi sp. nov. is IMMIB L-1606(T) ( = DSM 23395(T) = CCUG 59597(T)).

  5. Degradation of 4-chlorobenzoic acid by Arthrobacter sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, T.S.; Smith, A.R.W.; Quirk, A.V.

    1984-11-01

    A mixed population, enriched and established in a defined medium, from a sewage sludge inoculum was capable of complete mineralization of 4-chlorobenzoate. An organism, identified as Arthrobacter sp., was isolated from the consortium and shown to be capable of utilizing 4-chlorobenzoate as the sole carbon and energy source in pure culture. This organism (strain TM-1), dehalogenated 4-chlorobenzoate as the initial step in the degradative pathway. The production, 4-hydroxybenzoate, was further metabolized via protocatechuate. The ability of strain TM-1 to degrade 4-chlorobenzoate in liquid medium at 25/sup 0/C was improved by the use of continuous culture and repeated sequential subculturing. Other chlorinated benzoates and the parent compound benzoate did not support growth of strain TM-1. An active cell extract was prepared and shown to dehalogenate 4-chloro-, 4-fluoro-, and 4-bromobenzoate. Dehalogenase activity had an optimum pH of 6.8 and an optimum temperature of 20/sup 0/C and was inhibited by dissolved oxygen and stimulated by manganese (Mn/sup 2 +/). Strain improvement resulted in an increase in the specific activity of the cell extract from 0.09 to 0.85 nmol of 4-hydroxybenzoate per min per mg of protein and a decrease in the doubling time of the organism from 50 to 1.6 h. 18 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Cloning and sequencing of the trpE gene from Arthrobacter globiformis ATCC 8010 and several related subsurface Arthrobacter isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernova, T.; Viswanathan, V.K.; Austria, N.; Nichols, B.P.

    1998-09-01

    Tryptophan dependent mutants of Arthrobacter globiformis ATCC 8010 were isolated and trp genes were cloned by complementation and marker rescue of the auxotrophic strains. Rescue studies and preliminary sequence analysis reveal that at least the genes trpE, trpC, and trpB are clustered together in this organism. In addition, sequence analysis of the entire trpE gene, which encodes component I of anthranilate synthase, is described. Segments of the trpE gene from 17 subsurface isolates of Arthrobacter sp. were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The partial trpE sequences from the various strains were aligned and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The data suggest that in addition to single base changes, recombination and genetic exchange play a major role in the evolution of the Arthrobacter genome.

  7. 2,3-Dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase gene was first discovered in Arthrobacter sp. strain P J3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG MeiYing; MA PengDa; LI WenMing; LIU JinYing; LI Liang; ZHU XiaoJuan; WANG XingZhi

    2007-01-01

    Bacterium strain PJ3, isolated from wastewater and identified as Arthrobacter sp. bacterium based on its 16S rDNA gene, could use carbazole as the sole carbon, nitrogen and energy source. The genomic libraryof strain PJ3 was constructed and a positive clone JM109 (pUCW402) was screened out for the expression of dioxygenase by the ability to form yellow ring-fission product. A 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase (23DHBD) gene of 933 bp was found in the 3360 bp exogenous fragment of pUCW402 by GenSCAN software and BLAST analysis. The phylogenetic analysis showed that 23DHBD from strain PJ3 formed a deep branch separate from a cluster containing most known 23DHBD in GenBank.Southern hybridization confirmed for the first time that the 23DHBD gene was from the genomic DNA of Arthrobacter sp. PJ3. In order to test the gene function, recombinant bacterium BL21 (pETW-8) was constructed to express 23DHBD. The expression level in BL21 (pETW-8) was highest compared with the recombinant bacteria JM109 (pUCW402) and strain PJ3. We observed that 23DHBD was not absolute specific. The enzyme activity was higher with 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl as a substrate than with catechol.The substrate specificity assay suggested that 23DHBD was essential for cleavage of bi-cyclic aromatic compounds during the course of aromatic compound biodegradation in Arthrobacter sp. strain PJ3.

  8. Microbiological degradation of pentane by immobilized cells of Arthrobacter sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionata, Elena; De Blasio, Paola; La Cara, Francesco

    2005-02-01

    The increasing production of several plastics such as expanded polystyrene, widely used as packaging and building materials, has caused the release of considerable amounts of pentane employed as an expanding agent. Today many microorganisms are used to degrade hydrocarbons in order to minimize contamination caused by several industrial activities. The aim of our work was to identify a suitable microorganism to degrade pentane. We focused our attention on a strain of Arthrobacter sp. which in a shake-flask culture produced 95% degradation of a 10% mixture of pentane in a minimal medium after 42 days of incubation at 20 degrees C. Arthrobacter sp. cells were immobilized on a macroporous polystyrene particle matrix that provides a promising novel support for cell immobilization. The method involved culturing cells with the expanded polystyrene in shake-flasks, followed by in situ growth within the column. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed extensive growth of Arthrobacter sp. on the polymeric surface. The immobilized microorganism was able to actively degrade a 10% mixture of pentane, allowing us to obtain a bioconversion yield of 90% after 36 h. Moreover, in repeated-batch operations, immobilized Arthrobacter sp. cells were able to maintain 85-95% pentane degradation during a 2 month period. Our results suggest that this type of bioreactor could be used in pentane environmental decontamination.

  9. Efficient genetic manipulation of the NOD-Rag1-/-IL2RgammaC-null mouse by combining in vitro fertilization and CRISPR/Cas9 technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Cowley, Dale O; Banner, Debra; Holle, Eric; Zhang, Liguo; Su, Lishan

    2014-06-17

    Humanized mouse models have become increasingly important and widely used in modeling human diseases in biomedical research. Immunodeficient mice such as NOD-Rag1-/-IL2RgammaC-null (NRG) or NOD-SCID-IL2RgammaC-null (NSG) mice are critical for efficient engraftment of human cells or tissues. However, their genetic modification remains challenging due to a lack of embryonic stem cells and difficulty in the collection of timed embryos after superovulation. Here, we report the generation of gene knockout NRG mice by combining in vitro fertilization (IVF) and CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Sufficient numbers of fertilized embryos were produced through IVF, and a high rate of Fah gene targeting was achieved with microinjection of Cas9 mRNA, gRNA and single strand oligonucleotide DNA (ssDNA) into the embryos. The technology paves the way to construct NRG or NSG mutant mice to facilitate new humanized mouse models. The technology can also be readily adapted to introduce mutations in other species such as swine and non-human primates.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Acrylamidase from Arthrobacter sp. DBV1 and Its Ability to Biodegrade Acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedade, Dattatray K; Singhal, Rekha S

    2017-06-01

    Although acrylamide finds diverse industrial applications, its presence in the environment is hazardous due to its carcinogenic, neurotoxic, and teratogenic properties. In spite of the general toxicity of acrylamide in the monomer form, some microorganisms are able to use it as a source of energy by catabolizing it to ammonia and acrylic acid by means of acrylamidase (EC 3.5.1.4). The present work reports on a novel soil isolate as an acrylamide-degrading bacteria. Based on biochemical characterization and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence, the bacterial strain was identified as Gram-positive Arthrobacter sp. DBV1. The optimum growth conditions were found to be temperature (30 °C) and pH 6.0 to 7.0. Evaluation of the effect of concentration of acrylamide (10-50 mM) incorporated into minimal medium showed maximum growth of Arthrobacter sp. DBV1 at 30 mM acrylamide. The biodegradation of acrylamide was confirmed by HPLC analysis. Acrylamidase was isolated and characterized for temperature and pH optima, substrate specificity by using different amides, and the effect of different activators/inhibitors such as metal ions and amino acids. These finding suggests that the strain could be attractive for biodegradation of acrylamide from the environment and also possibly from foods containing preformed acrylamide.

  11. Arthrobacter pityocampae sp. nov., isolated from Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lep., Thaumetopoeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnce, İkbal Agah; Demirbağ, Zihni; Katı, Hatice

    2014-10-01

    A bacterium (strain Tp2(T)) was isolated from a caterpillar of the pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Den. & Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae), a destructive pine forest pest. The bacterium is a Gram-stain-positive, red-pigmented coccus, oxidase-negative, nitrate-reducing, non-motile and non-spore-forming. Strain Tp2(T) was subjected to a taxonomic study using polyphasic approach that included morphological and biochemical characterizations, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, DNA G+C content analysis, comparative fatty acid profiles, and analyses of quinones and polar lipids. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain Tp2(T) revealed that Arthrobacter agilis DSM 20550(T) was the closest known strain (98% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization of A. agilis DSM 20550(T) and strain Tp2(T) resulted in a DNA-DNA relatedness value of 11.9% (20.2% reciprocal). The DNA base composition of strain Tp2(T) was 69.5 mol%, which is consistent with the other recognized members of Actinobacteria that have a high G+C content in their genome. The polar lipid pattern of strain Tp2(T) consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol (major), phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol and unknown glycolipids. The cellular fatty acids were anteiso C15:0 and anteiso C17:0 and the major menaquinone was MK-9(II-H2). The peptidoglycan type was A3α with an L-Lys-L-Thr-L-Ala3 interpeptide bridge. The above-mentioned characterization qualifies strain Tp2(T) as genotypically and phenotypically distinct from closely related species of the genus Arthrobacter with validly published names. Strain Tp2(T) is therefore proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Arthrobacter, described as Arthrobacter pityocampae sp. nov. The type strain is Tp2(T) ( = DSM 21719(T) = NCCB 100254(T)).

  12. Wide Distribution of Closely Related, Antibiotic-Producing Arthrobacter Strains throughout the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wietz, Matthias; Månsson, Maria; Bowman, Jeff S.

    2012-01-01

    We isolated 16 antibiotic-producing bacterial strains throughout the central Arctic Ocean, including seven Arthrobacter spp. with almost identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. These strains were numerically rare, as revealed using 454 pyrosequencing libraries. Arthrobacter spp. produced arthrobacilins...

  13. Ability of Cyanobacteria and Arthrobacter Species to Remove Gold Ions from Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Gelagutashvili, E; Rcheulichvili, A; Tsakadze, K; Bagdavadze, N; Kuchava, N; Djandjalia, M

    2012-01-01

    The biosorption of Au(III) - Spirulina platensis and Au(III) - Arthrobacter species (Arthrobacter globiformis and Arthrobacter oxidas) were studied at simultaneous application of dialysis and atomic absorption analysis. Also biosorption of Au(III) - Spirulina platensis at various pH were discussed. Biosorption constants for Au-cyanobacteris Spirulina platensis at different pH, and for Arthrobacter oxidas and Arthrobacter globiformis at pH=7.1 are : 1. K=3.91 x 10-4 (Au- Arthrobacter oxidas 61B, pH=7.1) 2. K=14.17 x 10-4 . (Au- Arthrobacter globiformis 151B, pH=7.1). 3. K=2.07x10-4 (Au- Spirulina platensis, pH=7.1) 4. K= 4.87x10-4 (Au- Spirulina platensis, pH=6.2) 5. K=8.7x10-4 (Au- Spirulina platensis, pH=8.4)

  14. Biosorption of Cr(VI)_ and Cr(III)_Arthrobacter species

    CERN Document Server

    Gelagutashvili, E; Gurielidze, M

    2011-01-01

    The biosorption of Cr(VI)_ and Cr(III)_ Arthrobacter species (Arthrobacter globiformis and Arthrobacter oxidas) was studied simultaneous application dialysis and atomic absorption analysis. Also biosorption of Cr(VI) in the presence of Zn(II) during growth of Arthrobacter species and Cr(III) in the presence of Mn(II) were discussed. Comparative Cr(VI)_ and Cr(III)_ Arthrobacter species shown, that Cr(III) was more effectively adsorbed by both bacterium than Cr(VI). The adsorption capacity is the same for both the Chromium-Arthrobacter systems. The biosorption constants for Cr(III) is higher than for Cr(VI) 5.7-5.9- fold for both species. Comparative Freundlich biosorption characteristics Cr(VI) Arthrobacter species of living and dry cells shown, that capacity(n) is in both cases the same(1.25,1.35). Dry cells have larger biosorption constant for both species, than living cells. Biosorption characteristics (K) and (n) for A. oxidas are without Mn(II) and in the presence of Mn(II) 2.6 x 10-4 (K), 1.37 (n) and 2...

  15. Adhesion of an Amylolytic Arthrobacter sp. to Starch-Containing Plastic Films

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Cells of the amylolytic bacterium KB-1 (thought to be an Arthrobacter sp.) adhered (∼70%) to the surface of plastic films composed of starch-poly (methylacrylate) graft copolymer (starch-PMA), but did not adhere (

  16. Cesium and strontium tolerant Arthrobacter sp. strain KMSZP6 isolated from a pristine uranium ore deposit

    OpenAIRE

    Swer, Pynskhem Bok; Joshi, Santa Ram; Acharya, Celin

    2016-01-01

    Arthrobacter sp. KMSZP6 isolated from a pristine uranium ore deposit at Domiasiat located in North-East India exhibited noteworthy tolerance for cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr). The strain displayed a high minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 400 mM for CsCl and for SrCl2. Flow cytometric analysis employing membrane integrity indicators like propidium iodide (PI) and thiazole orange (TO) indicated a greater sensitivity of Arthrobacter cells to cesium than to strontium. On being challenged...

  17. Degradation of the Phosphonate Herbicide Glyphosate by Arthrobacter atrocyaneus ATCC 13752

    OpenAIRE

    Pipke, Rüdiger; Amrhein, Nikolaus

    1988-01-01

    Of nine authentic Arthrobacter strains tested, only A. atrocyaneus ATCC 13752 was capable of using the herbicide glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] as its sole source of phosphorus. Contrary to the previously isolated Arthrobacter sp. strain GLP-1, which degrades glyphosate via sarcosine, A. atrocyaneus metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid. The carbon of aminomethylphosphonic acid was entirely converted to CO2. This is the first report on glyphosate degradation by a bacte...

  18. Biodegradation kinetics of 4-fluorocinnamic acid by a consortium of Arthrobacter and Ralstonia strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Syed A; Wietzes, Piet; Janssen, Dick B

    2012-02-01

    Arthrobacter sp. strain G1 is able to grow on 4-fluorocinnamic acid (4-FCA) as sole carbon source. The organism converts 4-FCA into 4-fluorobenzoic acid (4-FBA) and utilizes the two-carbon side-chain for growth with some formation of 4-fluoroacetophenone as a dead-end side product. We also have isolated Ralstonia sp. strain H1, an organism that degrades 4-FBA. A consortium of strains G1 and H1 degraded 4-FCA with Monod kinetics during growth in batch and continuous cultures. Specific growth rates of strain G1 and specific degradation rates of 4-FCA were observed to follow substrate inhibition kinetics, which could be modeled using the kinetic models of Haldane-Andrew and Luong-Levenspiel. The mixed culture showed complete mineralization of 4-FCA with quantitative release of fluoride, both in batch and continuous cultures. Steady-state chemostat cultures that were exposed to shock loadings of substrate responded with rapid degradation and returned to steady-state in 10-15 h, indicating that the mixed culture provided a robust system for continuous 4-FCA degradation.

  19. Erythema caused by a localised skin infection with Arthrobacter mysorens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty Trinad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin erythemas of unknown origin are a frequent reason for consulting the general practitioner or dermatologist. Case presentation Here we report a case of an erythema resembling the erythema migrans manifestation of Lyme disease, but with atypical symptoms like persistent pruritus. The patient had no history of a recent tick-bite but displayed a positive serology for an advanced stage of Lyme borreliosis, which stood in contrast to the clinical manifestation of erythema migrans as a symptom of early Lyme disease. Three skin swabs and soil samples, collected in the area where the patient possibly acquired the infection, were examined by bacterial and fungal culture methods. Microorganisms were identified by using 16 S rRNA gene sequencing and bioinformatics. The patient and soil isolates were compared by employing RAPD analysis. The serum samples of the patient were examined by immunoblotting. Arthrobacter mysorens, a soil bacterium, was isolated from the collected skin and soil samples. The identity of both isolates was determined by molecular fingerprinting methods. A. mysorens was proven to be causative for the erythema by direct isolation from the affected skin and a positive serology, thus explaining the atypical appearance of the erythema compared to erythema migrans caused by Borrelia infection. Conclusions Infections with A.mysorens might be underreported and microbiological diagnostic techniques should be applied in cases of patients with unclear erythemas, resembling erythema migrans, without a history of tick bites.

  20. Reclassification of Arthrobacter sanguinis (Mages et al. 2009) as Haematomicrobium sanguinis gen. nov., comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-12-29

    Due to its separate position within the genus Arthrobacter in many published phylogenetic trees and its incomplete chemotaxonomic characterization the type strain of Arthrobacter sanguinis was subjected to analysis of its chemotaxonomic traits including quinone system, polar lipid profile, peptidoglycan structure and fatty acid profile. The fatty acid profile consisted of the major compounds (>10 %) iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. It showed a quinone system with the predominating menaquinone MK-9(H2). Both, fatty acid profile and quinone system are in line with the description of the genus Arthrobacter. The peptidoglycan type was L-Lys - L-Ala - Gly (A11.50) which is unique within the genus Arthrobacter sensu lato and also among Arthrobacter species recently reclassified in the genera Sinomonas, Paenarthrobacter and Pseudarthrobacter. The polar lipid profile was very complex and unique among the group of taxa in containing relatively high proportions of several unidentified lipids. In conclusion from its phylogenetic position and its chemotaxonomic distinguishability from related taxa here the reclassification of A. sanguinis in a new genus and species, Haematomicrobium sanguinis gen. nov., comb. nov, is proposed. The type strain is 741T (=CCUG 46407T=DSM 21259T).

  1. Review of the taxonomy of the genus Arthrobacter, emendation of the genus Arthrobacter sensu lato, proposal to reclassify selected species of the genus Arthrobacter in the novel genera Glutamicibacter gen. nov., Paeniglutamicibacter gen. nov., Pseudoglutamicibacter gen. nov., Paenarthrobacter gen. nov. and Pseudarthrobacter gen. nov., and emended description of Arthrobacter roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the taxonomy of the genus Arthrobacter is discussed, from its first description in 1947 to the present state. Emphasis is given to intrageneric phylogeny and chemotaxonomic characteristics, concentrating on quinone systems, peptidoglycan compositions and polar lipid profiles. Internal groups within the genus Arthrobacter indicated from homogeneous chemotaxonomic traits and corresponding to phylogenetic grouping and/or high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities are highlighted. Furthermore, polar lipid profiles and quinone systems of selected species are shown, filling some gaps concerning these chemotaxonomic traits. Based on phylogenetic groupings, 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and homogeneity in peptidoglycan types, quinone systems and polar lipid profiles, a description of the genus Arthrobacter sensu lato and an emended description of Arthrobacter roseus are provided. Furthermore, reclassifications of selected species of the genus Arthrobacter into novel genera are proposed, namely Glutamicibacter gen. nov. (nine species), Paeniglutamicibacter gen. nov. (six species), Pseudoglutamicibacter gen. nov. (two species), Paenarthrobacter gen. nov. (six species) and Pseudarthrobacter gen. nov. (ten species).

  2. Biodegradation of nitroglycerin in porous media and potential for bioaugmentation with Arthrobacter sp. strain JBH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husserl, Johana; Hughes, Joseph B

    2013-07-01

    Nitroglycerin (NG) is a toxic explosive found as a contaminant of soil and groundwater. Several microbial strains are capable of partially reducing the NG molecule to dinitro or mononitroesters. Recently, a strain capable of growing on NG as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen (Arthrobacter sp. strain JBH1) was isolated from contaminated soil. Despite the widespread presence of microbial strains capable of transforming NG in contaminated soils and sediments, the extent of NG biodegradation at contaminated sites is still unknown. In this study column experiments were conducted to investigate the extent of microbial degradation of NG in saturated porous media, specifically after bioaugmentation with JBH1. Initial experiments using sterile, low sorptivity sand, showed mineralization of NG after bioaugmentation with JBH1 in the absence of sources of carbon and nitrogen other than NG. Results could be modeled using a first order degradation rate of 0.14d(-1). Further experiments conducted using contaminated soil with high organic carbon content (highly sorptive) resulted in column effluents that did not contain NG although high dinitroester concentrations were observed. Bioaugmentation with JBH1 in sediments containing strains capable of partial transformation of NG resulted in complete mineralization of NG and faster degradation rates.

  3. Application of NAA Method to Study Chromium Uptake by Arthrobacter oxydans

    CERN Document Server

    Tsibakhashvili, N Ya; Kalabegishvili, T L; Kirkesali, E I; Frontasyeva, M V; Pomyakushina, E V; Pavlov, S S

    2002-01-01

    To study chromium uptake by Arthrobacter oxydans (Cr(VI)-reducer bacteria isolated from Columbia basalt rocks, USA) instrumental neutron activation analysis method was applied. It was established that chromate accumulation is dose-dependent and it is more intesive in the interval of concentrations of Cr(VI) (10-50 mg/l). At low concentrations of Cr(VI) (up to 50 mg/l) the most intensive formation of Cr(V) was also found (using ESR method). Besides, it was estimated that reduction from Cr(VI) to Cr(V) is faster process than the uptake of Cr(VI). According to ENAA measurements Cr(III), in constant to Cr(VI), is not accumulated in Arthrobacter oxydans cells up to concentration of 200 mg/l. Using epithermal neutron activation analysis the background levels of 17 major, minor and trace elements were determined in Arthrobacter oxydans.

  4. Arthrobacter gyeryongensis sp. nov., isolated from soil of a Gynostemma pentaphyllum field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Van-An; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2014-02-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, flagellate, rod-shaped, catalase- and oxidase-positive bacterium, designated DCY72(T), was isolated from the soil of a Gynostemma pentaphyllum field. Growth occurred at 4-34 °C (optimum 30 °C), at pH 4-10 (optimum pH 7), and with 0-5% NaCl (w/v). The major menaquinones of strain DCY72(T) were MK-9(H2) (81.0 %) and MK-10(H2) (12.2%). The major amino acid present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was L-lysine. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). The genomic DNA G+C content was 64.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain DCY72(T) belonged to the family Micrococcaceae and was most closely related to Arthrobacter ramosus CCM 1646(T) (98.2% similarity). The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain DCY72(T) and A. ramosus KACC 14391(T) (98.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus KACC 14581(T) (97.6%), Arthrobacter nicotinovorans KACC 20508(T) (97.3%) and Arthrobacter aurescens KACC 20528(T) (97.3%). was 12.9% ± 0.3, 25.6% ± 0.3, 26.6% ± 0.5 and 23.2% ± 0.9, respectively. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics, genotypic analysis and physiological characteristics, strain DCY72(T) represents a novel species of the genus Arthrobacter, for which the name Arthrobacter gyeryongensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DCY72(T) ( = KCTC 33072(T) = JCM 18514(T)).

  5. Produksi, isolasi dan karakterisasi enzim dekstranase dari Arthrobacter sp. B7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Baktir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dextranase enzyme has been purified and characterized from Arthrobacter sp. B7. This enzyme was purified from the culture supernatant of Arthrobacter sp. B7 by procedure of native PAGE. The molecular size of the enzyme was estimated 72,5 kDa by SDSPAGE. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this enzyme determined using Edman degradation techniques were APVTADVGNLHT. SDS-PAGE and native-PAGE analysis revealed that the enzyme molecule consisted of one sub-unit.

  6. Arthrobacter luteus restriction endonuclease cleavage map of X174 RF DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, J.M.; Mansfeld, A.D.M. van; Baas, P.D.; Jansz, H.S.

    1975-01-01

    Cleavage of X174 RF DNA with the restriction endonuclease from Arthrobacter luteus (Alu I) produces 23 fragments of approximately 24–1100 base pairs in length. The order of most of these fragments has been established by digestion of Haemophilus influenzae Rd (Hind II) and Haemophilus aegyptius (Hae

  7. Potential Degradation of Swainsonine by Intracellular Enzymes of Arthrobacter sp. HW08

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haili Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Swainsonine (SW is a toxin produced by locoweeds and harmful to the livestock industry. Degrading SW by Arthrobacter sp. HW08 was demonstrated as a promising way to deal with SW poisoning. However, it is unknown which part of the subcellular enzymes in Arthrobacter sp. HW08 is responsible for biodegrading SW and whether the metabolites are atoxic. In this study, intracellular and extracellular enzymes of Arthrobacter sp. HW08 were isolated and their enzyme activity was evaluated. The metabolites were fed to mice, and physiological and histological properties of the treated mice were investigated. The results showed that only intracellular enzyme of Arthrobacter sp. HW08 (IEHW08 could degrade SW efficiently. Compared with mice in SW treatment group, mice in SW + IEHW08 treatment group (1 increased their body weights; (2 showed higher number of platelets and lower number of white blood cells; (3 decreased the levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase in serum; (4 reduced the number of vacuolated cells in cerebellum, liver and kidney. All these data demonstrate that IEHW08 was potentially safe for mice, while keeping the capacity of degrading SW. This study indicates a possible application of IEHW08 as an additive in the livestock industry to protect animals from SW poisoning.

  8. Biodegradation kinetics of 4-fluorocinnamic acid by a consortium of Arthrobacter and Ralstonia strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasan, Syed A.; Wietzes, Piet; Janssen, Dick B.

    2012-01-01

    Arthrobacter sp. strain G1 is able to grow on 4-fluorocinnamic acid (4-FCA) as sole carbon source. The organism converts 4-FCA into 4-fluorobenzoic acid (4-FBA) and utilizes the two-carbon side-chain for growth with some formation of 4-fluoroacetophenone as a dead-end side product. We also have isol

  9. CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PHTHALATE CATABOLISM REGION OF PRE1 OF ARTHROBACTER KEYSERI 12B

    Science.gov (United States)

    o-Phthalate (benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate) is a central intermediate in the bacterial degradation of phthalate ester plasticizers as well as of a number of fused-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in fossil fuels. In Arthrobacter keyseri 12B, the genes encoding catabolism o...

  10. Isolation and characterization of atrazine-degrading Arthrobacter sp. AD26 and use of this strain in bioremediation of contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qingyan; LI Ying; ZHU Xikun; CAI Baoli

    2008-01-01

    A bacterial strain (AD26) capable of utilizing atrazine as a sole nitrogen source for growth was isolated from an industrial wastewatersample by enrichment culture. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified AD26 as anArthrobacter sp. PCR assays indicated that AD26contained atrazine-degrading genes trzN and atzBC. The trzN gene of AD26 only differs from the trzN ofArthrobacter aurescens TC1by one base (A→T at 907) and one amino acid (Met→Leu at 303). The specific activity of trzN of AD26 in crude cell extract was0.28 U/mg, which was 1.2 times that of TC 1. This strain has shown faster growth and atrazine-degradation rates in atrazine-containingminimal media than two well characterized atrazine-degrading bacteria, Pseudomonas sp. ADP and Arthrobacter aurescens TC 1. Afterincubating for 48 h at 30℃, the OD600 of AD26 reached 2.6 compared with 1.33 of ADP. AD26 was capable of degrading 500 mg/Lof atrazine in minimal medium at 95% in 72 h, while the degradative rates by TC1 and ADP were only 90% and 86%, respectively. Abioremediation trial of contaminated soil has indicated that AD26 can degrade as high as 98% of atrazine contained in soil (300 mg/kg)after incubating for 20 d at 26℃, nominating this strain as a good candidate for use in bioremediation programs.

  11. Genome sequence of Arthrobacter antarcticus strain W2, isolated from a slaughterhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herschend, Jakob; Raghupathi, Prem Krishnan; Røder, Henriette Lyng;

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence ofArthrobacter antarcticusstrain W2, which was isolated from a wall of a small slaughterhouse in Denmark. The 4.43-Mb genome sequence was assembled into 170 contigs....

  12. Evaluation of Arthrobacter aurescens Strain TC1 as Bioaugmentation Bacterium in Soils Contaminated with the Herbicidal Substance Terbuthylazine: e0144978

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vera P Silva; Matilde Moreira-Santos; Carla Mateus; Tânia Teixeira; Rui Ribeiro; Cristina A Viegas

    2015-01-01

    .... The present study aimed at developing a bioaugmentation tool based on the soil bacterium Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1 for the remediation of terbuthylazine contaminated soils and at examining...

  13. Evaluation of Arthrobacter aurescens Strain TC1 as Bioaugmentation Bacterium in Soils Contaminated with the Herbicidal Substance Terbuthylazine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silva, Vera P; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Mateus, Carla; Teixeira, Tânia; Ribeiro, Rui; Viegas, Cristina A

    2015-01-01

    .... The present study aimed at developing a bioaugmentation tool based on the soil bacterium Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1 for the remediation of terbuthylazine contaminated soils and at examining...

  14. Soybean aphid intrabiotype variability based on colonization of specific soybean genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Michelle; Hill, Curtis B; Voegtlin, David J; Hartman, Glen L

    2015-12-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is one of the most destructive insect pests on soybeans in the United States. One method for managing this pest is through host plant resistance. Since its arrival in 2000, 4 aphid biotypes have been identified that are able to overcome soybean aphid resistance (Rag) genes. A soybean aphid isolate collected from Moline, Illinois readily colonized soybean plants with the soybean aphid resistance gene Rag2, unlike biotypes 1 and 2, but similar to soybean aphid biotype 3. Two no-choice experiments compared the virulence of the Moline isolate with biotype 3. In both experiments, differences in aphid population counts were not significant (P > 0.05) on soybean genotypes LD08-12957a (Rag2) and LD11-5413a (Rag2), but the aphid counts for the Moline isolate were significantly (P soybean genotypes Dowling (Rag1), LD05-16611 (Rag1), LD11-4576a (Rag1), and PI 567598B (rag1b and rag3). The Moline isolate was a variant of aphid biotype 3, which is the first report showing that soybean aphid isolates classified as the same biotype, based on virulence against specific Rag genes, can differ in aggressiveness or ability to colonize specific host genotypes.

  15. An Arthrobacter spp. bacteremia leading to fetal death and maternal disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, Naoya; Ozaki, Kimiaki; Hori, Kensuke; Ito, Kimihiko; Nakayama, Masahiro; Nakahira, Kumiko; Yanagihara, Itaru

    2013-02-01

    A 34-year-old parous woman developed high fever and threatened preterm labor after a 1-day trip, for which she was receiving prenatal care at a hospital. Three days after onset, at 24 4/7 weeks of gestation, she was transferred to our hospital in an emergency. Soon after the woman's arrival at our hospital, the infant was spontaneously stillborn via a transvaginal delivery. Laboratory tests revealed severe maternal disseminated intravascular coagulation with renal and liver insufficiency. Histopathologic examination of the placenta revealed vast fibrin deposition and remarkable neutrophilic infiltration in the intervillous space, suggesting a rare bacterial infection caused by Arthrobacter spp. The bacteria were predominantly detected in the placenta and maternal blood serum by common bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing after polymerase chain reaction amplification. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of bacteremia with Arthrobacter spp., which may lead to maternal disseminated intravascular coagulation and intrauterine fetal death.

  16. Bacteremia Due to Arthrobacter creatinolyticus in an Elderly Diabetic Man with Acute Cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kei; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Nagamatsu, Maki; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Mawatari, Momoko; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Tamura, Saeko; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Ohmagari, Norio

    2017-03-24

    An 87-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetic mellitus presented with fever, bedsores, and elevated hepatobiliary enzyme levels. He was diagnosed with bacteremia with acute cholangitis due to Arthrobacter species, which are Gram-positive, aerobic, catalase-positive, coryneform bacteria belonging to the family Microbacteriaceae. Doripenem and subsequencial sulbactam/ampicillin treatment were used for the acute cholangitis, and the bacteremia was treated with a 2-week course of vancomycin. The bacteremia was misidentified by the phenotyping assay (API Coryne test), but was identified as Arthrobacter creatinolyticus by 16S rRNA and matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a human case of A. creatinolyticus bacteremia.

  17. Improving the Survival of Arthrobacter sp., CW9 during Spray Drying Monitored by Scan Electric Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenqiang Xia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The culture of an aquaculture probiotic, i.e., Arthrobacter sp., CW9, was spray dried with different carriers/protectants, in which Scan Electric Microscope (SEM was used to analyze the surface of micro-paticles produced by spray-drying. Matrix of protectants, inlet temperature and feed rate were optimized according to the survival rate after spray drying. Scanning electron micrographs showed that cracks formed on the particle surface were a key factor in enhancing bacteria survival during spray-drying. Span-60 had synergism with Skim Milk Powder (SMP: trehalose (7.5%: 7.5%, w/v in protecting Arthrobacter sp., CW9 bacteria from heat injury, unlike SMP with trehalose. Particle size is an important factor influencing bacteria survival during spray drying and particle size itself was influenced by certain additives.

  18. Improving the Survival of Arthrobacter sp., CW9 during Spray Drying Monitored by Scan Electric Microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenqiang Xia; Ming Zhu; Yanqiu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The culture of an aquaculture probiotic, i.e., Arthrobacter sp., CW9, was spray dried with different carriers/protectants, in which Scan Electric Microscope (SEM) was used to analyze the surface of micro-paticles produced by spray-drying. Matrix of protectants, inlet temperature and feed rate were optimized according to the survival rate after spray drying. Scanning electron micrographs showed that cracks formed on the particle surface were a key factor in enhancing bacteria survival during s...

  19. Flocculating performance of a bioflocculant produced by Arthrobacter humicola in sewage waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunbiade, Mayowa Oladele; Van Heerden, Esta; Pohl, Carolina H; Ashafa, Anofi Tom

    2017-06-12

    The discharge of poorly treated effluents into the environment has far reaching, consequential impacts on human and aquatic life forms. Thus, we evaluated the flocculating efficiency of our test bioflocculant and we report for the first time the ability of the biopolymeric flocculant produced by Arthrobacter humicola in the treatment of sewage wastewater. This strain was isolated from sediment soil sample at Sterkfontein dam in the Eastern Free State province of South Africa. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rDNA revealed the bacteria to have 99% similarity to Arthrobacter humicola strain R1 and the sequence was deposited in the Gene bank as Arthrobacter humicola with accession number KC816574.1. Flocculating activity was enhanced with the aid of divalent cations, pH 12, at a dosage concentration of 0.8 mg/mL. The purified bioflocculant was heat stable and could retain more than 78% of its flocculating activity after heating at 100 °C for 25 min. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis demonstrated the presence of hydroxyl and carboxyl moieties as the functional groups. The thermogravimetric analysis was used to monitor the pyrolysis profile of the purified bioflocculant and elemental composition revealed C: O: Na: P: K with 13.90: 41.96: 26.79: 16.61: 0.74 weight percentage respectively. The purified bioflocculant was able to remove chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, suspended solids, nitrate and turbidity from sewage waste water at efficiencies of 65.7%, 63.5%, 55.7%, 71.4% and 81.3% respectively. The results of this study indicate the possibility of using the bioflocculant produced by Arthrobacter humicola as a potential alternative to synthesized chemical flocculants in sewage waste water treatment and other industrial waste water.

  20. Flocculating performance of a bioflocculant produced by Arthrobacter humicola in sewage waste water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Agunbiade, Mayowa Oladele; Heerden, Esta van; Pohl, Carolina H.; Ashafa, Anofi Tom

    2017-01-01

    Background The discharge of poorly treated effluents into the environment has far reaching, consequential impacts on human and aquatic life forms. Thus, we evaluated the flocculating efficiency of our test bioflocculant and we report for the first time the ability of the biopolymeric flocculant produced by Arthrobacter humicola in the treatment of sewage wastewater. This strain was isolated from sediment soil sample at Sterkfontein dam in the Eastern Free State province of South Africa. Resul...

  1. New metabolic pathway for degradation of 2-nitrobenzoate by Arthrobacter sp. SPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Arora

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Arthrobacter sp. SPG utilized 2-nitrobenzoate as its sole source of carbon and energy and degraded it with accumulation of stoichiometric amounts of nitrite ions. Salicylate and catechol were detected as metabolites of the 2-nitrobenzoate degradation using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Enzyme activities for 2-nitrobenzoate-2-monooxygenase, salicylate hydroxylase, and catechol-1,2-dioxygenase were detected in the crude extracts of the 2-nitrobenzoate-induced cells of strain SPG. The 2-nitrobenzoate-monooxygenase activity resulted in formation of salicylate and nitrite from 2-nitrobenzoate whereas salicylate hydroxylase catalyzed the conversion of salicylate to catechol. The ring-cleaving enzyme, catechol-1,2-dioxygenase cleaved catechol to cis, cis-muconic acid. Cells of strain SPG were able to degrade 2-nitrobenzoate in sterile as well as non-sterile soil microcosms. The results of microcosm studies showed that strain SPG degraded more than 90% of 2-nitrobenzoate within 10-12 days. This study clearly shows that Arthrobacter sp. SPG degraded 2-nitrobenzoate via a new pathway with formation of salicylate and catechol as metabolites. Arthrobacter sp. SPG may be used for bioremediation of 2-nitrobenzoate-contaminated sites due to its ability to degrade 2-nitrobenzoate in soil.

  2. Biosorption of Lead(II) by Arthrobacter sp. 25: Process Optimization and Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yu; Wang, Xin; Zang, Tingting; Hu, Yang; Hu, Xiaojing; Ren, Guangming; Xu, Xiuhong; Qu, Juanjuan

    2016-08-28

    In the present work, Arthrobacter sp. 25, a lead-tolerant bacterium, was assayed to remove lead(II) from aqueous solution. The biosorption process was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken design. The relationships between dependent and independent variables were quantitatively determined by second-order polynomial equation and 3D response surface plots. The biosorption mechanism was explored by characterization of the biosorbent before and after biosorption using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of 9.6 mg/g was obtained at the initial lead ion concentration of 108.79 mg/l, pH value of 5.75, and biosorbent dosage of 9.9 g/l (fresh weight), which was close to the theoretically expected value of 9.88 mg/g. Arthrobacter sp. 25 is an ellipsoidalshaped bacterium covered with extracellular polymeric substances. The biosorption mechanism involved physical adsorption and microprecipitation as well as ion exchange, and functional groups such as phosphoryl, hydroxyl, amino, amide, carbonyl, and phosphate groups played vital roles in adsorption. The results indicate that Arthrobacter sp. 25 may be potentially used as a biosorbent for low-concentration lead(II) removal from wastewater.

  3. New metabolic pathway for degradation of 2-nitrobenzoate by Arthrobacter sp. SPG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Pankaj K.; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Arthrobacter sp. SPG utilized 2-nitrobenzoate as its sole source of carbon and energy and degraded it with accumulation of stoichiometric amounts of nitrite ions. Salicylate and catechol were detected as metabolites of the 2-nitrobenzoate degradation using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Enzyme activities for 2-nitrobenzoate-2-monooxygenase, salicylate hydroxylase, and catechol-1,2-dioxygenase were detected in the crude extracts of the 2-nitrobenzoate-induced cells of strain SPG. The 2-nitrobenzoate-monooxygenase activity resulted in formation of salicylate and nitrite from 2-nitrobenzoate, whereas salicylate hydroxylase catalyzed the conversion of salicylate to catechol. The ring-cleaving enzyme, catechol-1,2-dioxygenase cleaved catechol to cis,cis-muconic acid. Cells of strain SPG were able to degrade 2-nitrobenzoate in sterile as well as non-sterile soil microcosms. The results of microcosm studies showed that strain SPG degraded more than 90% of 2-nitrobenzoate within 10–12 days. This study clearly shows that Arthrobacter sp. SPG degraded 2-nitrobenzoate via a new pathway with formation of salicylate and catechol as metabolites. Arthrobacter sp. SPG may be used for bioremediation of 2-nitrobenzoate-contaminated sites due to its ability to degrade 2-nitrobenzoate in soil. PMID:26082768

  4. Arthrobacter saudimassiliensis’ sp. nov. a new bacterial species isolated from air samples in the urban environment of Makkah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Papadioti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report here the main characteristics of ‘Arthrobacter saudimassiliensis’ strain 11W110_airT (CSUR P1223, a new species of the Arthrobacter genus that was isolated from air samples in the city environment of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during the pilgrim period of Hajj 2012.

  5. Regulation and function of transaldolase isoenzymes involved in sugar and one-carbon metabolism in the ribulose monophosphate cycle methylotroph Arthrobacter P1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levering, P.R.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    1986-01-01

    In the facultative methylotroph Arthrobacter P1 the enzyme transaldolase plays an important role in both the pentose phosphate pathway and in the ribulose monophosphate cycle of formaldehyde fixation. Among gluconate-negative mutants of Arthrobacter P1 strains occurred which also were unable to grow

  6. 重组活化因子1基因突变所致不同临床表型严重联合免疫缺陷病3例分析%Variable clinical phenotypes of severe combined immunodeficiency caused by RAG1 mutations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺建新; 王荃; 朱光华; 赵宇红; 肖婧; 刘秀云; 徐保平; 申昆玲; 江载芳

    2014-01-01

    目的 总结分析重组活化因子(RAG)1基因突变所致严重联合免疫缺陷病(SCID)的不同临床及免疫特点.方法 2012年9月至2013年4月首都医科大学附属北京儿童医院收治的3例SCID患儿,经RAG1基因突变分析获得明确诊断,经HLA配型方法除外母体T淋巴细胞经胎盘输注,经细胞遗传学方法判断淋巴细胞增殖功能.结果 病例1表型为经典SCID,病例2表型为Omenn综合征,病例3为伴反复自身免疫性溶血性贫血的非典型SCID.RAG1基因突变分析结果,病例1复合杂合位点1:1870 C>T,Arg624Cys;位点2:2005 G>A,Glu669Lys.位点1为已报道突变,位点2为新发现的错义突变.病例2复合杂合位点1:994 C >T,Arg332X;位点2:1439G>A,Ser480Asn.均为新发现突变.病例3纯合2095 C >T,R699W,为已报道突变.前两例患儿均于自动出院后不久夭折,后者仍处于反复住院治疗自身免疫性溶血性贫血过程中.结论 RAG1突变所致SCID临床表现有差异,经典SCID和Omenn综合征预后严重,需移植治疗.

  7. Complete genome sequence and metabolic potential of the quinaldine-degrading bacterium Arthrobacter sp. Rue61a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niewerth Heiko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria of the genus Arthrobacter are ubiquitous in soil environments and can be considered as true survivalists. Arthrobacter sp. strain Rue61a is an isolate from sewage sludge able to utilize quinaldine (2-methylquinoline as sole carbon and energy source. The genome provides insight into the molecular basis of the versatility and robustness of this environmental Arthrobacter strain. Results The genome of Arthrobacter sp. Rue61a consists of a single circular chromosome of 4,736,495 bp with an average G + C content of 62.32%, the circular 231,551-bp plasmid pARUE232, and the linear 112,992-bp plasmid pARUE113 that was already published. Plasmid pARUE232 is proposed to contribute to the resistance of Arthrobacter sp. Rue61a to arsenate and Pb2+, whereas the linear plasmid confers the ability to convert quinaldine to anthranilate. Remarkably, degradation of anthranilate exclusively proceeds via a CoA-thioester pathway. Apart from quinaldine utilization, strain Rue61a has a limited set of aromatic degradation pathways, enabling the utilization of 4-hydroxy-substituted aromatic carboxylic acids, which are characteristic products of lignin depolymerization, via ortho cleavage of protocatechuate. However, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate degradation likely proceeds via meta cleavage of homoprotocatechuate. The genome of strain Rue61a contains numerous genes associated with osmoprotection, and a high number of genes coding for transporters. It encodes a broad spectrum of enzymes for the uptake and utilization of various sugars and organic nitrogen compounds. A. aurescens TC-1 is the closest sequenced relative of strain Rue61a. Conclusions The genome of Arthrobacter sp. Rue61a reflects the saprophytic lifestyle and nutritional versatility of the organism and a strong adaptive potential to environmental stress. The circular plasmid pARUE232 and the linear plasmid pARUE113 contribute to heavy metal resistance and to the ability to degrade

  8. Optimization of cultural conditions of Arthrobacter sp. Sphe3 for growth-associated chromate(VI) reduction in free and immobilized cell systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziagova, M G; Koukkou, A I; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, M

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed to characterize Arthrobacter sp. Sphe3 ability to reduce Cr(VI) in suspended cell cultures as well as in immobilized form using Ca-alginate beads. Adaptation studies in the presence of 5 mg L(-1) Cr(VI) showed a significant increase in specific growth rate from 0.25 to 0.3 h(-1) and bioremoval percentage from 64% to 94% (pexponential growth phase were collected and co-encapsulated with either 1% glucose and 0.5% (NH4)2SO4, or 1% LB medium. Immobilized biocatalyst could be reused up to 6 continuous cycles in the presence of 10 mg L(-1) Cr(VI), but its performance was lowered at higher metal concentrations comparing with free cells that significantly maintained their reducing ability up to 300 mg L(-1) Cr(VI).

  9. 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine from Arthrobacter nicotinovorans facilitate spatial memory formation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Hritcu; Marius Stefan; Marius Mihasan; Roderich Brandsch

    2010-01-01

    Effects of 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine derived from nicotine catabolism in Arthrobacter nicotinovorans on learning and memory processes were examined in adult male Wistar rats. 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine (0.3 mg/kg, i.p., 7 consecutive days chronic administration) significantly increased spontaneous alternation in Y-maze task and working memory in radial arm-maze task, suggesting effects on short-term memory, without affecting long-term memory, explored by reference memory in radial arm-maze t...

  10. Impact of phenolic substrate and growth temperature on the arthrobacter chlorophenolicus proteome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unell, Maria; Abraham, Paul E.; Shah, Manesh; Zhang, Bing; Ruckert, Christian; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Jansson, Janet K.

    2009-02-15

    We compared the Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus proteome during growth on 4-chlorophenol, 4-nitrophenol or phenol at 5 C and 28 C; both for the wild type and a mutant strain with mass spectrometry based proteomics. A label free workflow employing spectral counting identified 3749 proteins across all growth conditions, representing over 70% of the predicted genome and 739 of these proteins form the core proteome. Statistically significant differences were found in the proteomes of cells grown under different conditions including differentiation of hundreds of unknown proteins. The 4-chlorophenol-degradation pathway was confirmed, but not that for phenol.

  11. Accumulation of rare earth elements by siderophore-forming Arthrobacter luteolus isolated from rare earth environment of Chavara, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E S Challaraj Emmanuel; T Ananthi; B Anandkumar; S Maruthamuthu

    2012-03-01

    In this study, Arthrobacter luteolus, isolated from rare earth environment of Chavara (Quilon district, Kerala, India), were found to produce catechol-type siderophores. The bacterial strain accumulated rare earth elements such as samarium and scandium. The siderophores may play a role in the accumulation of rare earth elements. Catecholate siderophore and low-molecular-weight organic acids were found to be present in experiments with Arthrobacter luteolus. The influence of siderophore on the accumulation of rare earth elements by bacteria has been extensively discussed.

  12. Arthrobacter cupressi sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Cupressus sempervirens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Ma, Yuchao; Yu, Huimin

    2012-11-01

    An actinobacterial strain, designated D48(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a cypress tree collected from Mianyang in Sichuan province, China. The strain was Gram-stain-positive, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative and non-motile, with lysine as the peptidoglycan diagnostic diamino acid and acetyl as the peptidoglycan acyl type. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H(2)); small amounts of MK-7(H(2)), MK-10(H(2)) and MK-6 were also present. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(17:0) and iso-C(16:0). The isolate underwent a rod-coccus morphological cycle, had a high DNA G+C content, was aerobic and grew between 12 and 37 °C (optimum, 28 °C). On the basis of the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses, 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons and DNA-DNA hybridization data, the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Arthrobacter, for which the name Arthrobacter cupressi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is D48(T) (=DSM 24664(T)=CGMCC 1.10783(T)).

  13. Genetic differentiation of Arthrobacter population from heavy metal-contaminated environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hanbo; REN Weimin; SHAO Qiyong; DUAN Changqun

    2007-01-01

    Six samples containing extremely high concentration of Pb,Zn,and Cd were obtained from the layers of 5-10 cm and 25-30 cm three tailing piles,with ages of about 10,20 and more than 80 years,respectively.Then,48 bacterial strains were obtained from these samples,and subsequently their phylogenetic positions were determined by analysis on the partial sequence of 16S rRNA gene (fragment length ranging from 474 to 708 bp).These isolates were members of the Arthrobacter genus,phylogenetically close to A.keyseri and A.ureafaciens,with sequence ranging from 99.1%to 100%.Furthermore,genetic variation between subpopulations from different samples was revealed by analysis on their randomly amplified polymorphic DNA profile.Nei genetic distance showed that the greatest differentiation occurred between subpopulation A and C.Notably,either genetic distance between subpopulations from the layers of 5-10 cm and 25-30 cm of each tailing pile or between same layers of different tailing pile increased with the history of tailings.Moreover,correlation analysis showed that soluble Pb has a significantly negative relationship with Nei'gene diversity of subpopulation.It was assumed that soluble Pb may be responsible for the reduced genetic diversity of the Arthrobacter population.Our data provided evidence that genetic differentiation of microbial populations was consistent with the changes of environmental factors,particularly heavy metals.

  14. Transcriptional profiling of Gram-positive Arthrobacter in the phyllosphere: induction of pollutant degradation genes by natural plant phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheublin, T.R.; Deusch, S.; Moreno-Forero, S.K.; Müller, J.A.; van der Meer, J.R.; Leveau, J.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6 is a Gram-positive, 4-chlorophenol degrading soil bacterium that was recently shown to be an effective colonizer of plant leaf surfaces. The genetic basis for this phyllosphere competency is unknown. In this paper, we describe the genome-wide expression profile of A.

  15. Growth of Arthrobacter sp. strain JBH1 on nitroglycerin as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husserl, Johana; Spain, Jim C; Hughes, Joseph B

    2010-03-01

    Arthrobacter sp. strain JBH1 was isolated from nitroglycerin-contaminated soil by selective enrichment. Detection of transient intermediates and simultaneous adaptation studies with potential intermediates indicated that the degradation pathway involves the conversion of nitroglycerin to glycerol via 1,2-dinitroglycerin and 1-mononitroglycerin, with concomitant release of nitrite. Glycerol then serves as the source of carbon and energy.

  16. Growth of Arthrobacter sp. Strain JBH1 on Nitroglycerin as the Sole Source of Carbon and Nitrogen ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husserl, Johana; Spain, Jim C.; Hughes, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    Arthrobacter sp. strain JBH1 was isolated from nitroglycerin-contaminated soil by selective enrichment. Detection of transient intermediates and simultaneous adaptation studies with potential intermediates indicated that the degradation pathway involves the conversion of nitroglycerin to glycerol via 1,2-dinitroglycerin and 1-mononitroglycerin, with concomitant release of nitrite. Glycerol then serves as the source of carbon and energy. PMID:20061454

  17. Nitrogen metabolism in the facultative methylotroph Arthrobacter P1 grown with various amines or ammonia as nitrogen sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, L.; Brouwer, J.W.; Hassel, C.W. van; Levering, Pieter; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1989-01-01

    The metabolism of trimethylamine (TMA) and dimethylamine (DMA) in Arthrobacter P1 involved the enzymes TMA monooxygenase and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMA-NO) demethylase, and DMA monooxygenase, respectively. The methylamine and formaldehyde produced were further metabolized via a primary amine oxidas

  18. Analysis of Two Gene Clusters Involved in the Degradation of 4-Fluorophenol by Arthrobacter sp Strain IF1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, Maria Isabel M.; Iida, Toshiya; Hasan, Syed A.; Nakamura, Kaoru; Fraaije, Marco W.; Janssen, Dick B.; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2009-01-01

    Arthrobacter sp. strain IF1 is able to grow on 4-fluorophenol (4-FP) as a sole source of carbon and energy. To clone the 4-FP degradation genes, DNA libraries were constructed and screened with a probe obtained by PCR using primers designed on the basis of conserved regions of aromatic two-component

  19. The rhizosphere microbiome of burned holm-oak: potential role of the genus Arthrobacter in the recovery of burned soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, Antonio J; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Cobo-Díaz, José F; Villadas, Pablo J; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Toro, Nicolás; Tringe, Susannah G; Fernández-López, Manuel

    2017-07-20

    After a forest wildfire, the microbial communities have a transient alteration in their composition. The role of the soil microbial community in the recovery of an ecosystem following such an event remains poorly understood. Thus, it is necessary to understand the plant-microbe interactions that occur in burned soils. By high-throughput sequencing, we identified the main bacterial taxa of burnt holm-oak rhizosphere, then we obtained an isolate collection of the most abundant genus and its growth promoting activities were characterised. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing showed that the genus Arthrobacter comprised more than 21% of the total community. 55 Arthrobacter strains were isolated and characterized using RAPDs and sequencing of the almost complete 16S rRNA gene. Our results indicate that isolated Arthrobacter strains present a very high genetic diversity, and they could play an important ecological role in interaction with the host plant by enhancing aerial growth. Most of the selected strains exhibited a great ability to degrade organic polymers in vitro as well as possibly presenting a direct mechanism for plant growth promotion. All the above data suggests that Arthrobacter can be considered as an excellent PGP rhizobacterium that may play an important role in the recovery of burned holm-oak forests.

  20. Class 1 integrons and tetracycline resistance genes in Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, and Pseudomonas spp. isolated from pigsties and manured soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Sandvang, Dorthe

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Arthrobacter spp., Alcaligenes spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Corynebacterium glutamicum. The 257 isolates were screened for in-1. Eighty-one of the gram-negative isolates were also screened for the Tc-r genes tet(A), tet(B), and tet(C), and all (n = 72) gram...

  1. [The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Arthrobacter agilis UMCV2 endophytically colonizes Medicago truncatula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviles-Garcia, Maria Elizabeth; Flores-Cortez, Idolina; Hernández-Soberano, Christian; Santoyo, Gustavo; Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo

    Arthrobacter agilis UMCV2 is a rhizosphere bacterium that promotes legume growth by solubilization of iron, which is supplied to the plant. A second growth promotion mechanism produces volatile compounds that stimulate iron uptake activities. Additionally, A. agilis UMCV2 is capable of inhibiting the growth of phytopathogens. A combination of quantitative polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques were used here to detect and quantify the presence of the bacterium in the internal tissues of the legume Medicago truncatula. Our results demonstrate that A. agilis UMCV2 behaves as an endophytic bacterium of M. truncatula, particularly in environments where iron is available. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. with Arthrobacter echigonensis MN1405 enhances heavy metal phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, FengYu; Tang, KeLi; Cai, ChunTing; Xu, XuPing

    2016-10-02

    The growth and metal-extraction efficiency of plants when exposed to toxic metals can be enhanced by inoculating with certain bacteria, but the mechanisms of this process remain unclear. We report results from glasshouse experiments on the effect of Arthrobacter echigonensis MN1405 in promoting Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. growth when exposed to 100 mg/L Mn solution. Mn removal efficiency in solution was significantly enhanced by bacterial inoculation; Mn was accumulated in the root of P. acinosa Roxb. plant. The bacteria oxidized the Mn on root surface, which formed a Mn plaque to serve as a barrier or a containment to prevent metal toxicity. In this process, pH condition was an important factor on the effects of microbial-assisted heavy metal phytoremediation. Our finding suggests that A. echigonensis MN1405 assisted P. acinosa to achieve high remediation efficiency of Mn removal and accumulation in Mn contamination area.

  3. Biodegradation of p-nitrophenol via 1,2,4-benzenetriol by an Arthrobacter sp.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, R.K.; Spain, J.C. [Armstrong Lab., Tyndall Air Force Base, FL (United States); Dreisbach, J.H. [Univ. of Scranton, PA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The degradation of p-nitrophenol (PNP) by Moraxella and Pseudomonas spp. involves an initial monooxygenase-catalyzed removal of the nitro group. The resultant hydroquinone is subject to ring fission catalyzed by a dioxygenase enzyme. A strain of an Arthrobacter sp. JS443, capable of degrading PNP with stoichiometric release of nitrite has been isolated. During induction of the enzymes required for growth on PNP, 1,2,4-benzenetriol was identified as an intermediate by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and radiotracer studies. 1,2,4-Benzenetriol was converted to maleylacetic acid, which was further degraded by the beta-ketoadipate pathway. Conversion of PNP to 1,2,4-benzenetriol is catalyzed by a monooxygenase system in strain JS443 through the formation of 4-nitrocatechol, 4-nitroresorcinol, or both. Results clearly indicate the existence of an alternative pathway for the biodegradation of PNP. 15 refs, 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Effects of two kinds of imidazolium-based ionic liquids on the characteristics of steroid-transformation Arthrobacter simplex

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Yanbing; Wang, Lifang; Liang, Jingting; Rui TANG; WANG, Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Ionic liquids (ILs) are a promising alternative for organic solvents because these liquids exhibit unique properties and enhanced steroid 1-dehydrogenation biotransformation caused by Arthrobacter simplex CPCC 140451 (ASP). However, the effect of ILs on the whole cell itself remains poorly understood and must be further investigated. Results A comparative investigation was performed to determine the effect of imidazolium-based ILs, namely, hydrophobic [PrMIm]PF6, and hydrophilic [P...

  5. s-triazine degrading bacterial isolate Arthrobacter sp. AK-YN10, a candidate for bioaugmentation of atrazine contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarkar, Sneha; Bhardwaj, Pooja; Storck, Veronika; Devers-Lamrani, Marion; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Kapley, Atya

    2016-01-01

    The Arthrobacter sp. strain AK-YN10 is an s-triazine pesticide degrading bacterium isolated from a sugarcane field in Central India with history of repeated atrazine use. AK-YN10 was shown to degrade 99 % of atrazine in 30 h from media supplemented with 1000 mg L(-1) of the herbicide. Draft genome sequencing revealed similarity to pAO1, TC1, and TC2 catabolic plasmids of the Arthrobacter taxon. Plasmid profiling analyses revealed the presence of four catabolic plasmids. The trzN, atzB, and atzC atrazine-degrading genes were located on a plasmid of approximately 113 kb.The flagellar operon found in the AK-YN10 draft genome suggests motility, an interesting trait for a bioremediation agent, and was homologous to that of Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus. The multiple s-triazines degradation property of this isolate makes it a good candidate for bioremediation of soils contaminated by s-triazine pesticides.

  6. Description of the erythromycin-producing bacterium Arthrobacter sp. strain NRRL B-3381 as Aeromicrobium erythreum gen. nov., sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E S; Woese, C R; Brenner, S

    1991-07-01

    Arthrobacter sp. strain NRRL B-3381T (T = type strain) is a nonmycelial, nonsporulating actinomycete that produces the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin. This bacterium differs in many ways from the type species of the genus Arthrobacter (Arthrobacter globiformis), suggesting that a taxonomic revision is appropriate. The G + C content of strain NRRL B-3381T DNA is 71 to 73 mol%, and the peptidoglycan of this organism contains LL-diaminopimelic acid. Evolutionary distance data obtained from 16S rRNA sequences identified NRRL B-3381T as the deepest branching member of the Nocardioides group of actinomycetes. The principal long-chain fatty acids which we identified that distinguished strain NRRL B-3381T from related G + C-rich bacteria were 10-methyloctadecanoic (tuberculosteric), octadecenoic, and hexadecanoic acids. These characteristics, together with phage typing and biochemical characteristics, form the basis for our recommendation that strain NRRL B-3381 should be the type strain of a new taxon, for which we propose the name Aeromicrobium erythreum.

  7. A method for the production of D-tagatose using a recombinant Pichia pastoris strain secreting β-D-galactosidase from Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus and a recombinant L-arabinose isomerase from Arthrobacter sp. 22c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanarska Marta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background D-Tagatose is a natural monosaccharide which can be used as a low-calorie sugar substitute in food, beverages and pharmaceutical products. It is also currently being tested as an anti-diabetic and obesity control drug. D-Tagatose is a rare sugar, but it can be manufactured by the chemical or enzymatic isomerization of D-galactose obtained by a β-D-galactosidase-catalyzed hydrolysis of milk sugar lactose and the separation of D-glucose and D-galactose. L-Arabinose isomerases catalyze in vitro the conversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose and are the most promising enzymes for the large-scale production of D-tagatose. Results In this study, the araA gene from psychrotolerant Antarctic bacterium Arthrobacter sp. 22c was isolated, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The active form of recombinant Arthrobacter sp. 22c L-arabinose isomerase consists of six subunits with a combined molecular weight of approximately 335 kDa. The maximum activity of this enzyme towards D-galactose was determined as occurring at 52°C; however, it exhibited over 60% of maximum activity at 30°C. The recombinant Arthrobacter sp. 22c L-arabinose isomerase was optimally active at a broad pH range of 5 to 9. This enzyme is not dependent on divalent metal ions, since it was only marginally activated by Mg2+, Mn2+ or Ca2+ and slightly inhibited by Co2+ or Ni2+. The bioconversion yield of D-galactose to D-tagatose by the purified L-arabinose isomerase reached 30% after 36 h at 50°C. In this study, a recombinant Pichia pastoris yeast strain secreting β-D-galactosidase Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus was also constructed. During cultivation of this strain in a whey permeate, lactose was hydrolyzed and D-glucose was metabolized, whereas D-galactose was accumulated in the medium. Moreover, cultivation of the P. pastoris strain secreting β-D-galactosidase in a whey permeate supplemented with Arthrobacter sp. 22c L-arabinose isomerase resulted in a 90% yield

  8. Adenylate nucleotide levels and energy charge in Arthrobacter crystallopoietes during growth and starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leps, W T; Ensign, J C

    1979-07-01

    The adenylate nucleotide concentrations, based on internal water space, were determined in cells of Arthrobacter crystallopoietes during growth and starvation and the energy charge of the cells was calculated. The energy charge of spherical cells rose during the first 10 h of growth, then remained nearly constant for as long as 20 h into the stationary phase. The energy charge of rod-shaped cells rose during the first 4 h of growth, then remained constant during subsequent growth and decreased in the stationary growth phase. Both spherical and rod-shaped cells excreted adenosine monophosphate but not adenosine triphosphate or adenosine diphosphate during starvation. The intracellular energy charge of spherical cells declined during the initial 10 h and then remained constant for 1 week of starvation at a value of 0.78. The intracellular energy charge of rod-shaped cells declined during the first 24 h of starvation, remained constant for the next 80 h, then decreased to a value of 0.73 after a total of 168 h starvation. Both cell forms remained more than 90% viable during this time. Addition of a carbon and energy source to starving cells resulted in an increase in the ATP concentration and as a result the energy charge increased to the smae levels as found during growth.

  9. Combined bioremediation of atrazine-contaminated soil by Pennisetum and Arthrobacter sp. strain DNS10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ge, Shijie; Jiang, Mingyue; Jiang, Zhao; Wang, Zhigang; Ma, Bingbing

    2014-05-01

    Strain DNS10 was isolated from the black soil collected from the northeast of China which had been cultivated with atrazine as the sole nitrogen source. Pennisetum is a common plant in Heilongjiang Province of China. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficiency of plant-microbe joint interactions (Arthrobacter sp. DNS10 + Pennisetum) in atrazine degradation compared with single-strain and single-plant effects. Plant-microbe joint interactions degraded 98.10 % of the atrazine, while single strain and single plant only degraded 87.38 and 66.71 % after a 30-day experimental period, respectively. The results indicated that plant-microbe joint interactions had a better degradation effect. Meanwhile, we found that plant-microbe joint interactions showed a higher microbial diversity. The results of microbial diversity illustrated that the positive effects of cropping could improve soil microbial growth and activity. In addition, we planted atrazine-sensitive plants (soybean) in the soil after repair. The results showed that soybean growth in soil previously treated with the plant-microbe joint interactions treatment was better compared with other treatments after 20 days of growth. This was further proved that the soil is more conducive for crop cultivation. Hence, plant-microbe joint interactions are considered to be a potential tool in the remediation of atrazine-contaminated soil.

  10. Cyclic utilization of HP-β-CD in the bioconversion of cortisone acetate by Arthrobacter simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanbing; Wang, Fang; Wang, Yanping; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Min

    2016-04-01

    To establish a method for the recovery and reutilization of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) to lower the cost of its industrial application in cortisone acetate bioconversion. HP-β-CD is not degraded by Arthrobacter simplex CPCC140451 (ASP) resting cells and 96.4 % HP-β-CD could be recovered by isobutyl acetate extraction. Moreover, the inclusion ability of recovered HP-β-CD barely decreased. The saccharide metabolic and catalytic activities of ASP were greater in the aqueous phase after extracting with isobutyl acetate than other organic solvents. Cyclic utilization tests showed that cortisone acetate conversion ratio was 91.0 % after eight cycles and reached 95.7 % with 0.2-0.6 mM HP-β-CD. Furthermore, >90 % conversion ratio was reached per cycle through a co-cyclic-utilization method with HP-β-CD and immobilized ASP. Cortisone acetate conversion ratio in the HP-β-CD cyclic-utilization method is promising for industrial applications. The method can also be expanded to other CDs and other hydrophobic compounds bioconversion.

  11. Characterization and flocculation mechanism of an alkali-activated polysaccharide flocculant from Arthrobacter sp. B4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yumei; Li, Qiang; Hao, Dakui; Hu, Zhiheng; Song, Dongxue; Yang, Min

    2014-10-01

    The characterization and flocculation mechanism of a bioflocculant produced by Arthrobacter sp. B4 were investigated. The bioflocculant's active ingredient was a polysaccharide (B4-PS) that consisted of three main fractions corresponding to the molecular weights of approximately 3.97×10(4)Da, 6.84×10(3)Da and 5.9×10(6)Da, respectively. These fractions were composed of galactose, glucose, mannose and glucuronic acid. Flocculation experiments showed that B4-PS could spontaneously flocculate in the presence of Ca(2+) ions at a high pH (>12.0), followed by the pH reduction to ∼6.0. The self-flocculation of B4-PS may be mediated by ionization and charge neutralization mechanism. Furthermore, B4-PS exhibited excellent capabilities for pollutant removal and pH reduction in alkaline wastewater. These data suggest B4-PS may be a promising tool for use in industrial alkaline wastewater pretreatment.

  12. Crystal structure of a lactosucrose-producing enzyme, Arthrobacter sp. K-1 β-fructofuranosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonozuka, Takashi; Tamaki, Akiko; Yokoi, Gaku; Miyazaki, Takatsugu; Ichikawa, Megumi; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Ohta, Yukari; Hidaka, Yuko; Katayama, Kinya; Hatada, Yuji; Ito, Tetsuya; Fujita, Koki

    2012-12-10

    Arthrobacter sp. K-1 β-fructofuranosidase (ArFFase), a glycoside hydrolase family 68 enzyme, catalyzes the hydrolysis and transfructosylation of sucrose. ArFFase is useful for producing a sweetener, lactosucrose (4(G)-β-D-galactosylsucrose). The primary structure of ArFFase is homologous to those of levansucrases, although ArFFase catalyzes mostly hydrolysis when incubated with sucrose alone, even at high concentration. Here, we determined the crystal structure of ArFFase in unliganded form and complexed with fructose. ArFFase consisted of a five-bladed β-propeller fold as observed in levansucrases. The structure of ArFFase was most similar to that of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus levansucrase (GdLev). The structure of the catalytic cleft of ArFFase was also highly homologous to that of GdLev. However, two amino acid residues, Tyr232 and Pro442 in ArFFase, were not conserved between them. A tunnel observed at the bottom of the catalytic cleft of ArFFase may serve as a water drain or its reservoir.

  13. Isolation and characteristics of Arthrobacter sp. strain CW-1 for biodegradation of PAEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Isolation of new bacterial strains and recognition of their metabolic activities are highly desirable for sustainability of natural ecosystems. Biodegradation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) under anoxic conditions has been shown to occur as a series of sequential steps using strain CW-1 isolated from digested sludge of Sibao Wastewater Treatment Plant in Hangzhou, China. The microbial colony on LB medium was yellowish, 3~5 mm in diameter, convex in the center, and embedded in mucous externally.The individual cells of strain CW-1 are irregular rods, measuring (0.6~0.7)×(0.9~1.0) μm, V-shaped, with clubbed ends, Gram positive and without any filaments. 16S rDNA (1438 bp) sequence analysis showed that the strain was related to Arthrobacter sp.CW-1 and can degrade PAEs utilizing nitrate as electron acceptor, but cannot mineralize DMP completely. The degradation pathway was recommended as: dimethyl phthalate (DMP)→monomethyl phthalate (MMP)→phthalic acid (PA). DMP biodegradation was a first order reaction with degradation rate constant of 0.3033 d-1 and half-life 2.25 d. The DMP conversion to PA by CW-1 could be described by using sequential kinetic model.

  14. Biodegradation of Benzo[a]pyrene by Arthrobacter oxydans B4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Hui; YIN Hua; DENG Jun; YE Jin-Shao; CHEN Shuo-Na; HE Bao-Yan; ZHANG Na

    2012-01-01

    A bacterial strain,Arthrobacter oxydans (B4),capable of degrading benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in water body,was isolated from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-contaminated site.Effects of different factors,such as reaction time,pH value,temperature and organic nutrients,on BaP biodegradation by the strain B4 were studied.After 5 d treatment,the concentration of BaP in mineral salts medium was reduced to 0.318 mg L-1,compared to the initial concentration of 1.000 mg L-1.There was a process of acid formation during the degradation with pH failing from initial 7.01 to 4.61 at 5 d,so keeping the water body under slightly alkaline condition was propitious to BaP degradation.Strain B4 efficiently degraded BaP at 20 to 37 ℃ with addition of organic nutrients.The biodegradation and transformation of BaP mainly occurred on cell surfaces,and extracellular secretions played an important role in these processes.Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analyses of metabolites showed that ring cleavage occurred in the BaP degradation process and the resulting metabolically utilizable substrates were generated as sole carbon sources for B4 growth.Furthermore,mineralization extent of metabolites was verified by determining the total organic carbon and inorganic carbon in the degradation system.

  15. Plasmid-encoded degradation of p-nitrophenol and 4-nitrocatechol by Arthrobacter protophormiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, A; Chakraborti, A K; Jain, R K

    2000-04-21

    Arthrobacter protophormiae strain RKJ100 is capable of utilizing p-nitrophenol (PNP) as well as 4-nitrocatechol (NC) as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen and energy. The degradation of PNP and NC by this microorganism takes place through an oxidative route, as stoichiometry of nitrite molecules was observed when the strain was grown on PNP or NC as sole carbon and energy sources. The degradative pathways of PNP and NC were elucidated on the basis of enzyme assays and chemical characterization of the intermediates by TLC, GC, (1)H NMR, GC-MS, UV spectroscopy, and HPLC analyses. Our studies clearly indicate that the degradation of PNP proceeds with the formation of p-benzoquinone (BQ) and hydroquinone (HQ) and is further degraded via the beta-ketoadipate pathway. Degradation of NC involved initial oxidation to generate 1,2,4-benzenetriol (BT) and 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone; the latter intermediate is then reductively dehydroxylated, forming BQ and HQ, and is further cleaved via beta-ketoadipate to TCA intermediates. It is likely, therefore, that the same set of genes encode the further metabolism of HQ in PNP and NC degradation. A plasmid of approximately 65 kb was found to be responsible for harboring genes for PNP and NC degradation in this strain. This was based on the fact that PNP(-) NC(-) derivatives were devoid of the plasmid and had simultaneously lost their capability to grow at the expense of these nitroaromatic compounds.

  16. The Arthrobacter species FB24 Arth_1007 (DnaB intein is a pseudogene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Tori

    Full Text Available An Arthrobacter species FB24 gene (locus tag Arth_1007 was previously annotated as a putative intein-containing DnaB helicase of phage origin (Arsp-FB24 DnaB intein. However, it is not a helicase gene because the sequence similarity is limited to inteins. In fact, the flanking exteins total only 66 amino acids. Therefore, the intein should be referred to as the Arsp-FB24 Arth_1007 intein. The Arsp-FB24 Arth_1007 intein failed to splice in its native precursor and in a model precursor. We previously noted that the Arsp-FB24 Arth_1007 intein is the only putative Class 3 intein that is missing the catalytically essential Cys at position 4 of intein Motif F, which is one of the three defining signature residues of this class. Additionally, a catalytically essential His in position 10 of intein Motif B is also absent; this His is the most conserved residue amongst all inteins. Splicing activity was not rescued when these two catalytically important positions were 'reverted' back to their consensus residues. This study restores the unity of the Class 3 intein signature sequence in active inteins by demonstrating that the Arsp-FB24 Arth_1007 intein is an inactive pseudogene.

  17. Mineralization of melamine and cyanuric acid as sole nitrogen source by newly isolated Arthrobacter spp. using a soil-charcoal perfusion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Takashi; Takagi, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Kenichi; Sakakibara, Futa; Ito, Koji; Takasu, Eiichi; Naokawa, Takuji; Fujii, Kunihiko

    2015-05-01

    Melamine belongs to the s-triazine family, and industrially used as raw product in many ways all over the world. Melamine has been reported for human harmful effects and detected from some crops, soil and water. To remove melamine from the polluted environment, the efficient melamine-mineralizing microorganisms have been needed. We newly isolated three melamine-degrading bacteria from the same upland soil sample using soil-charcoal perfusion method. These bacteria were classified as Arthrobacter sp. MCO, Arthrobacter sp. CSP and Microbacterium sp. ZEL by 16S rRNA genes sequencing analysis. Both Arthrobacter species completely degraded melamine within 2 days, and consumed melamine as a sole nitrogen source. Both strains also grew in cyanuric acid as sole nitrogen source, and released small quantities of ammonium ions. These strains are the first identified bacteria that can mineralize both melamine and cyanuric acid as sole initial nitrogen source in Arthrobacter sp. Although ammeline and ammelide intermediates were detected, these strains possess none of the known genes encoding melamine degrading enzymes. Since the Arthrobacter strains also degraded melamine in a high pH liquid medium, they present as potential bioremediation agents in melamine-polluted environments.

  18. capA, a cspA-like gene that encodes a cold acclimation protein in the psychrotrophic bacterium Arthrobacter globiformis SI55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, F; Normand, P; Potier, P

    1997-09-01

    By use of Arthrobacter globiformis SI55, a psychrotrophic bacterium capable of growth between -5 and +32 degrees C, we cloned and sequenced capA, a gene homologous to cspA encoding the major cold shock protein in Escherichia coli. The deduced protein sequence has a high level of identity with the sequences of other CspA-related proteins from various sources, and no particular residue or domain that could be specific to cold-adapted microorganisms emerged. We show that CapA was produced very rapidly following cold shock, but unlike its mesophilic counterparts, it was still expressed during prolonged growth at low temperature. Its synthesis is regulated at the translational level, and we showed that growth resumption following a temperature downshift correlated with CapA expression. Transient inhibitions in protein synthesis during the first stages of the cold shock response severely impaired the subsequent acclimation of A. globiformis SI55 to low temperature and delayed CapA expression. The cold shock response in A. globiformis SI55 is an adaptative process in which CapA may play a crucial role. We suggest that low-temperature acclimation is conditioned mainly by the ability of cells to restore an active translational machinery after cold shock in a process that may be different from that present in mesophiles.

  19. Construction of engineered Arthrobacter simplex with improved performance for cortisone acetate biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huitu; Tian, Yao; Wang, Jianling; Li, Yonghai; Wang, Haikuan; Mao, Shuhong; Liu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Chunxia; Bie, Songtao; Lu, Fuping

    2013-11-01

    Arthrobacter simplex 156 is a microorganism that is used for steroid drug biotransformation of cortisone acetate (CA) to prednisone acetate (PA). The enzyme 3-ketosteroid-△(1)-dehydrogenase encoded by the ksdD gene plays an important role in the bioconversion process. To further improve the biotransformation efficiencies of the industrial strain, a genetic manipulation system for A. simplex 156 was developed. Additional copies of the ksdD gene under the control of the cat promoter (from pXMJ19) were transferred into the strain A. simplex 156 and integrated into the 16S rDNA sites, yielding a series of recombinant strains. One of these recombinant strains, designated A. simplex M158, exhibited superior properties for CA biotransformation. At the substrate concentration of 83.6 g/l, the highest PA production of the recombinant strain reached 66.7 g/l, which is approximately 32.9 % higher than that of wild-type strains, and the incubation time for CA to PA bioconversion was reduced by 20 h. Southern blotting analysis of the recombinant strain indicated two copies of deregulated ksdD genes were integrated into the 16S rDNA sites, which means two of five 16S rRNA operons were insertionally disrupted in the recombinant strain. However, the disruption of the two 16S rRNA operons did not affect the growth rate of the recombinant strain, which survived and thrived under desired conditions. In addition, the new strain was genetically stable for more than 100 generations without the use of antibiotics for selection. These superior characteristics make the new strain more suitable than the wild-type strain for PA production.

  20. Degradation of o-methoxybenzoate by a two-member consortium made up of a gram-positive Arthrobacter strain and a gram-negative Pantotea strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, M; Haïdour, A; Ramos, J L

    2000-01-01

    Aromatic carboxylic acids substituted with methoxylated groups are among the most abundant products in "alpechin", the wastes resulting from pressing olives to obtain olive oil. Degradation of o-methoxybenzoate by an stable consortium made of a gram positive bacterium, Arthrobacter oxydans, and gram negative one, Pantotea agglomerans, was shown to mineralize this compound efficiently. The concerted action of both microorganisms was needed for the two first steps in the process, namely, the conversion of o-methoxybenzoate into salycilate, and the hydroxylation of the latter to gentisate. Gentisate was further degraded by the Arthrobacter strain.

  1. Optimization of Endoglucanase Production from a Novel Bacterial Isolate, Arthrobacter sp. HPG166 and Characterization of Its Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn this study, a potential novel cellulolytic bacteriumArthrobacter sp. HPG166 was isolated from the hindgut of root-feeding larvaeHolotrichia parallela. Optimization of fermentation factors for endoglucanase production byArthrobacter sp. HPG166 was carried out via response surface methodology. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose 1.19% (w/v and beef extract 0.35% (w/v were the ideal combination of carbon and nitrogen sources for enzyme production; the optimum temperature and pH for cellulase production were 34°C and pH 8.0 respectively. Under the optimized fermentation conditions, the maximum endoglucanase activity of 1.411 U mL-1 was obtained. The crude endoglucanase was thermotolerant as it retained 50.31% of its activity after incubation at 70°C for an hour. Metal profile of the enzyme indicated that Mg2+ and Na+ were strong stimulators while Mn2+ and Co+ drastically inhibited its activity. Due to its particular characteristics, this enzyme could have potential for industrial applications.

  2. [Distribution of pyrimidine blocks in the DNA of Brevibacterium linens, Arthrobacter globiformis, Nocardia corallina and Nocardia rubra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroshina, N V; Golovlev, E L; Geĭdarov, T G; Bur'ianov, Ia I

    1975-01-01

    The nucleotide composition and the frequency of pyrimidine blocks were studied in DNA of the following bacteria: Brevibacterium linens (Weignamm, 1910) Breed, 1953; Arthrobacter globiformis (Conn, 1928) Conn et Dimmick, 1947; Nocardia corallina (Bergey et al., 1923) Waksman et Henrici, 1948; Nocardia rubra (Krassilnikov, 1949) Waksman et Henrici, 1948. These organisms are classed by some microbiologists as mycobacteria (the Mycobacteriaceae family) while other authors regard them as representatives of three families belonging to two orders. About 60 percent of all pyrimidines in DNA of these bacteria are found in the sequences pur-pyr-pur and pur-pyr-pyr-pur, the number of dipyrimidines being higher than the amount of monopyrimidine nucleotides. The content of dipyrimidine nucleotides in DNA of Nocardia corallina and Nocardia rubra is higher (16.8 mole %) than the content of dipyrimidine blocks in DNA of Brevibacterium linens and Arthrobacter globiformis, in which the quantity of dipyrimidines is almost the same (13.9 and 14.4 mole %). A new characteristic, the selected mean value, is suggested to evaluate differences in the distribution of pyrimidines in DNA.

  3. Biofiltration of trimethylamine, dimethylamine, and methylamine by immobilized Paracoccus sp. CP2 and Arthrobacter sp. CP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kuo-Ling; Chung, Ying-Chien; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Tseng, Ching-Ping

    2008-05-01

    A biofilter using granular activated carbon with immobilized Paracoccus sp. CP2 was applied to the elimination of 10-250 ppm of trimethylamine (TMA), dimethylamine (DMA), and methylamine (MA). The results indicated that the system effectively treated MA (>93%), DMA (>90%), and TMA (>85%) under high loading conditions, and the maximum degradation rates were 1.4, 1.2, and 0.9g-Nkg(-1) GAC d(-1). Among the three different amines treated, TMA was the most difficult to degrade and resulted in ammonia accumulation. Further study on TMA removal showed that the optimal pH was near neutral (6.0-8.0). The supply of high glucose (>0.1%) inhibited TMA removal, maybe due to substrate competition. However, complete TMA degradation was achieved under the co-immobilization of Paracoccus sp. CP2 and Arthrobacter sp. CP1 ( approximately 96%). Metabolite analysis results demonstrated that the metabolite NH(4)(+) concentrations decreased by a relatively small 27% while the metabolite NO(2)(-) apparently increased by heterotrophic nitrification of Arthrobacter sp. CP1 in the co-immobilization biofilter.

  4. Characterization of a novel phenol hydroxylase in indoles biotransformation from a strain Arthrobacter sp. W1 [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Qu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indigoids, as popular dyes, can be produced by microbial strains or enzymes catalysis. However, the new valuable products with their transformation mechanisms, especially inter-conversion among the intermediates and products have not been clearly identified yet. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate novel microbial catalytic processes for indigoids production systematically. FINDINGS: A phenol hydroxylase gene cluster (4,606 bp from Arthrobacter sp. W1 (PH(w1 was obtained. This cluster contains six components in the order of KLMNOP, which exhibit relatively low sequence identities (37-72% with known genes. It was suggested that indole and all the tested indole derivatives except for 3-methylindole were transformed to various substituted indigoid pigments, and the predominant color products derived from indoles were identified by spectrum analysis. One new purple product from indole, 2-(7-oxo-1H-indol-6(7H-ylidene indolin-3-one, should be proposed as the dimerization of isatin and 7-hydroxylindole at the C-2 and C-6 positions. Tunnel entrance and docking studies were used to predict the important amino acids for indoles biotransformation, which were further proved by site-directed mutagenesis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We showed that the phenol hydroxylase from genus Arthrobacter could transform indoles to indigoids with new chemical compounds being produced. Our work should show high insights into understanding the mechanism of indigoids bio-production.

  5. Biodegradation of 2-methyl, 2-ethyl, and 2-hydroxypyridine by an Arthrobacter sp. isolated from subsurface sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, E J; Sims, G K; Traina, S J

    1999-04-01

    A bacterium capable of degrading 2-methylpyridine was isolated by enrichment techniques from subsurface sediments collected from an aquifer located at an industrial site that had been contaminated with pyridine and pyridine derivatives. The isolate, identified as an Arthrobacter sp., was capable of utilizing 2-methylpyridine, 2-ethylpyridine, and 2-hydroxypyridine as primary C, N, and energy sources. The isolate was also able to utilize 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxybenzoate, gentisic acid, protocatechuic acid and catechol, suggesting that it possesses a number of enzymatic pathways for the degradation of aromatic compounds. Degradation of 2-methylpyridine, 2-ethylpyridine, and 2-hydroxypyridine was accompanied by growth of the isolate and release of ammonium into the medium. Degradation of 2-methylpyridine was accompanied by overproduction of riboflavin. A soluble blue pigment was produced by the isolate during the degradation of 2-hydroxypyridine, and may be related to the diazadiphenoquinones reportedly produced by other Arthrobacter spp. when grown on 2-hydroxypyridine. When provided with 2-methylpyridine, 2-ethylpyridine, and 2-hydroxypyridine simultaneously, 2-hydroxypyridine was rapidly and preferentially degraded; however there was no apparent biodegradation of either 2-methylpyridine or 2-ethylpyridine until after a seven day lag. The data suggest that there are differences between the pathway for 2-hydroxypyridine degradation and the pathways(s) for 2-methylpyridine and 2-ethylpyridine.

  6. Optimization of four types of antimicrobial agents to increase the inhibitory ability of marine Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11 dextranase mouthwash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Wang, Shujun; Lü, Mingsheng; Wang, Xiaobei; Fang, Yaowei; Jiao, Yuliang; Hu, Jianen

    2016-03-01

    We adopted the response surface methodology using single factor and orthogonal experiments to optimize four types of antimicrobial agents that could inhibit biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans, which is commonly found in the human oral cavity and causes tooth decay. The objective was to improve the function of marine Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11 dextranase mouthwash (designed and developed by our laboratory). The experiment was conducted in a three-level, four-variable central composite design to determine the best combination of ZnSO4, lysozyme, citric acid and chitosan. The optimized antibacterial agents were 2.16 g/L ZnSO4, 14 g/L lysozyme, 4.5 g/L citric acid and 5 g/L chitosan. The biofilm formation inhibition reached 84.49%. In addition, microscopic observation of the biofilm was performed using scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The optimized formula was tested in marine dextranase Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11 mouthwash and enhanced the inhibition of S. mutans. This work may be promoted for the design and development of future marine dextranase oral care products.

  7. Arthrobacter P 1, a Fast Growing Versatile Methylotroph with Amine Oxidase as a Key Enzyme in the Metabolism of Methylated Amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijken, J.P. van; Veenhuis, M.; Harder, W.

    1981-01-01

    A facultative methylotrophic bacterium was isolated from enrichment cultures containing methylamine as the sole carbon source. It was tentatively identified as an Arthrobacter species. Extracts of cells grown on methylamine or ethylamine contained high levels of amine oxidase (E.C. 1.4.3) activity.

  8. Inoculation of PAH-degrading strains of Fusarium solani and Arthrobacter oxydans in rhizospheric sand and soil microcosms: microbial interactions and PAH dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thion, Cécile; Cébron, Aurélie; Beguiristain, Thierry; Leyval, Corinne

    2013-07-01

    Very little is known about the influence of bacterial-fungal ecological interactions on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) dissipation in soils. Fusarium solani MM1 and Arthrobacter oxydans MsHM11 can dissipate PAHs in vitro. We investigated their interactions and their effect on the dissipation of three PAHs-phenanthrene (PHE), pyrene (PYR) and dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DBA)-in planted microcosms, in sterile sand or non-sterile soil. In sterile sand microcosms planted with alfalfa, the two microbes survived and grew, without any significant effect of co-inoculation. Co-inoculation led to the dissipation of 46 % of PHE after 21 days. In soil microcosms, whether planted with alfalfa or not, both strains persisted throughout the 46 days of the experiment, without any effect of co-inoculation or of alfalfa, as assessed by real-time PCR targeting taxon-level indicators, i.e. Actinobacteria 16S rDNA and the intergenic transcribed spacer specific to the genus Fusarium. The microbial community was analyzed by temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis and real-time PCR targeting bacterial and fungal rDNA and PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase genes. These communities were modified by PAH pollution, which selected PAH-degrading bacteria, by the presence of alfalfa and, concerning the bacterial community, by inoculation. PHE and PYR concentrations significantly decreased (91 and 46 %, respectively) whatever the treatment, but DBA concentration significantly decreased (30 %) in planted and co-inoculated microcosms only.

  9. Physicochemical factors for affecting the efficiency of Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus MN1409 on manganese oxidation%理化因素对锰细菌Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus MN1409氧化Mn2+的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯福鑫; 王芳; 许旭萍

    2012-01-01

    Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus MN1409是1株分离自锰矿样品的高效锰氧化细菌.为了建立该菌株氧化Mn2+的适宜条件,研究了接种量、装液量、摇床转速、温度、pH值、Fe2+初始质量浓度和Mn2+初始质量浓度等理化因素对其锰氧化效率的影响.结果表明,接种量、装液量、转速和Mn2+初始质量浓度在一定范围内变化对锰氧化率影响不大;而温度、pH值和Fe2+初始质量浓度变化对锰氧化率有较大影响.当接种量为4%,装液量为60mL,温度为25℃,摇床转速为100r/min,pH值为7,且有一定的Fe2+存在时,Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus MN1409对锰的氧化效率最高.%The physicochemical factors for affecting the manganese oxidation efficiency of an manganese oxidizing bacteria named Arthrobacter chlorophennlicus MN1409 which was isolated from manganese ore sample were studied. The identified factors include inoculum volume, liquid volume, temperature, shaking speed, pH as well as the concentration of Fe2+ and Mn2+ . The results showed that there was no significant effect on the biological manganese oxidation rate and chemical manganese oxidation rate during 2% - 10% inoculum volumes. 4% inoculum volume was the optimum condition according to its highest total manganese oxidation rate. Similarly, biological and chemical manganese oxidation rale have no significant difference for the liquid volume ranging from 50 mL to 100 mL in 250 mL triangular flask , the highest total manganese oxidation rate occurred in 60 mL liquid volume. Nevertheless, temperature showed an positive effect on manganese oxidation rate. By increasing the temperature from 15 ℃ to 35 ℃, highest biological and chemical manganese oxidation rate could be reached at 25 ℃ and 35 ℃ , respectively, plus the total oxidation rate could achieved 81.52% as well in 35 ℃ . In addition, the effect of shaker speed on manganese oxidation efficiency (MOE) showed that the oxidation rates were similar for

  10. Screening micro-organisms for cadmium absorption from aqueous solution and cadmium absorption properties of Arthrobacter nicotianae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Takehiko; Umenai, Daishi; Hatano, Tomonobu; Hirajima, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    To obtain basic information on how microbial cells absorb cadmium from aqueous solution, we examined cadmium absorption in various micro-organisms. Of 51 micro-organism strains tested, we found that some Gram-positive bacteria, such as, Arthrobacter nicotianae and Bacillus subtilis, and some actinomycetes, such as, Streptomyces flavoviridis and S. levoris were highly capable of absorbing cadmium from an aqueous solution. A. nicotianae absorbed the largest amount of cadmium, over 800 μmol cadmium per gram of dry wt. cells. However, cadmium absorption by A. nicotianae was affected by the solution pH, cadmium concentration, and cell density. The absorption of cadmium was very rapid. Some factors that affected cadmium absorption by A. nicotianae cells were also discussed.

  11. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of nylon hydrolase (NylC) from Arthrobacter sp. KI72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Keisuke; Yasuhira, Kengo; Tanaka, Yusuke; Kato, Dai-ichiro; Takeo, Masahiro; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Negoro, Seiji; Shibata, Naoki

    2013-10-01

    Nylon hydrolase (NylC) encoded by Arthrobacter plasmid pOAD2 (NylCp2) was expressed in Escherichia coli JM109 and purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, anion-exchange column chromatography and gel-filtration chromatography. NylCp2 was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with ammonium sulfate as a precipitant in 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 0.2 M NaCl and 25% glycerol. Diffraction data were collected from the native crystal to a resolution of 1.60 Å. The obtained crystal was spindle shaped and belonged to the C-centred orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a=70.84, b=144.90, c=129.05 Å. A rotation and translation search gave one clear solution containing two molecules per asymmetric unit.

  12. [Bacterium Arthrobacter agilis UMCV2 and diverse amines inhibit in vitro growth of wood-decay fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Mosqueda, M Del Carmen; Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo; López-Albarrán, Pablo; Martínez-Pacheco, Mauro; Velázquez-Becerra, Crisanto

    2015-01-01

    The kingdom Fungi is represented by a large number of organisms, including pathogens that deteriorate the main structural components of wood, such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The aim of our work was to characterize the antifungal activity in Arthrobacter agilis UMCV2 and diverse amines against wood-decaying fungi. Four fungal organisms (designated as UMTM) were isolated from decaying wood samples obtained from a forest in Cuanajo-Michoacán, México. Two of them showed a clear enzymatic activity of cellulases, xylanases and oxido-reducing enzymes and were identified as Hypocrea (UMTM3 isolate) and Fusarium (UMTM13 isolate). In vitro, the amines showed inhibitory effect against UMTM growth and one of the amines, dimethylhexadecylamine (DMA16), exhibited strong potential as wood preventive treatment, against the attack of decaying fungi. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Taxonomic identification, phenanthrene uptake activity, and membrane lipid alterations of the PAH degrading Arthrobacter sp. strain Sphe3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallimanis, A.; Drainas, C.; Koukkou, A.I. [Ioannina Univ. (Greece). Sector of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry; Frillingos, S. [Ioannina Univ. (Greece). Lab. of Biological Chemistry

    2007-09-15

    This report describes phenanthrene uptake as well as the effect of phenanthrene on the membrane phospholipid and fatty acid composition in a newly isolated bacterial strain, Sphe3, that we taxonomically identified as Arthrobacter sp. Strain Sphe3 is able to utilize phenanthrene as a carbon source at high rates and appears to internalize phenanthrene with two mechanisms: a passive diffusion when cells are grown on glucose, and an inducible active transport system when cells are grown on phenanthrene as a sole carbon source. Active transport followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and it was amenable to inhibition by 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium azide. Evidence provided here indicates that apart from inducing an active PAH uptake, the presence of phenanthrene elicits significant changes in membrane fluidity.

  14. Characterizing the Catalytic Potential of Deinococcus, Arthrobacter and other Robust Bacteria in Contaminated Subsurface Environments of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, Jim K.; Daly, Michael J.

    2006-06-01

    Until recently, there have been no clear physiologic predictors of a cell's ability to recover from ionizing radiation (IR), desiccation, and other DOE-relevant oxidative stress conditions. In general, the most resistant bacteria have been Gram-positive (e.g., Deinococcus, Arthrobacter, Lactobacillus & Enterococcus spp.) and the most sensitive have been Gram-negative (e.g., Pseudomonas, Shewanella & Neisseria spp.). However, there are several reported exceptions to this paradigm, the Gram-negative cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis is extremely resistant to IR, whereas the Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus is sensitive. We have identified biomolecular signatures for radiation sensitivity and resistance which are independent of phylogeny, where very high and very low intracellular Mn/Fe concentration ratios correlated with very high and very low resistances, respectively; and restricting Mn(II) in the famously resistant Deinococcus radiodurans sensitized this eubacterium to IR (http://cfyn.ifas.ufl.edu/radiation.pdf).

  15. Complete genome sequence of Arthrobacter sp. ERGS1:01, a putative novel bacterium with prospective cold active industrial enzymes, isolated from East Rathong glacier in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakshak; Singh, Dharam; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-11-20

    We report the complete genome sequence of Arthrobacter sp. ERGS1:01, a novel bacterium which produces industrial enzymes at low temperature. East Rathong glacier in Sikkim Himalayas is untouched and unexplored for microbial diversity though it has a rich source of glaciers, alpine and meadows. Genome sequence has provided the basis for understanding its adaptation under harsh condition of Himalayan glacier, its ability to produce cold active industrial enzymes and has unlocked opportunities for microbial bioprospection from East Rathong glacier.

  16. Degradation of Swainsonine by the NADP-Dependent Alcohol Dehydrogenase A1R6C3 in Arthrobacter sp. HW08

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Swainsonine is an indolizidine alkaloid that has been found in locoweeds and some fungi. Our previous study demonstrated that Arthrobacter sp. HW08 or its crude enzyme extract could degrade swainsonie efficiently. However, the mechanism of swainsonine degradation in bacteria remains unclear. In this study, we used label-free quantitative proteomics method based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry to dissect the mechanism of swainsonine biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. HW08. The results showed that 129 differentially expressed proteins were relevant to swainsonine degradation. These differentially expressed proteins were mostly related to the biological process of metabolism and the molecular function of catalytic activity. Among the 129 differentially expressed proteins, putative sugar phosphate isomerase/epimerase A1R5X7, Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase A0JZ95, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase A1R6C3 were found to contribute to the swainsonine degradation. Notably, NADP-dependent alcohol dehyrodgenase A1R6C3 appeared to play a major role in degrading swainsonine, but not as much as Arthrobacter sp. HW08 did. Collectively, our findings here provide insights to understand the mechanism of swainsonine degradation in bacteria.

  17. Evaluation of Arthrobacter aurescens Strain TC1 as Bioaugmentation Bacterium in Soils Contaminated with the Herbicidal Substance Terbuthylazine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera P Silva

    Full Text Available In the last years the chloro-s-triazine active substance terbuthylazine has been increasingly used as an herbicide and may leave residues in the environment which can be of concern. The present study aimed at developing a bioaugmentation tool based on the soil bacterium Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1 for the remediation of terbuthylazine contaminated soils and at examining its efficacy for both soil and aquatic compartments. First, the feasibility of growing the bioaugmentation bacterium inocula on simple sole nitrogen sources (ammonium and nitrate instead of atrazine, while still maintaining its efficiency to biodegrade terbuthylazine was shown. In sequence, the successful and quick (3 days bioremediation efficacy of ammonium-grown A. aurescens TC1 cells was proven in a natural soil freshly spiked or four-months aged with commercial terbuthylazine at a dose 10× higher than the recommended in corn cultivation, to mimic spill situations. Ecotoxicity assessment of the soil eluates towards a freshwater microalga supported the effectiveness of the bioaugmentation tool. Obtained results highlight the potential to decontaminate soil while minimizing terbuthylazine from reaching aquatic compartments via the soil-water pathway. The usefulness of this bioaugmentation tool to provide rapid environment decontamination is particularly relevant in the event of accidental high herbicide contamination. Its limitations and advantages are discussed.

  18. Evaluation of Arthrobacter aurescens Strain TC1 as Bioaugmentation Bacterium in Soils Contaminated with the Herbicidal Substance Terbuthylazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vera P.; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Mateus, Carla; Teixeira, Tânia; Ribeiro, Rui; Viegas, Cristina A.

    2015-01-01

    In the last years the chloro-s-triazine active substance terbuthylazine has been increasingly used as an herbicide and may leave residues in the environment which can be of concern. The present study aimed at developing a bioaugmentation tool based on the soil bacterium Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1 for the remediation of terbuthylazine contaminated soils and at examining its efficacy for both soil and aquatic compartments. First, the feasibility of growing the bioaugmentation bacterium inocula on simple sole nitrogen sources (ammonium and nitrate) instead of atrazine, while still maintaining its efficiency to biodegrade terbuthylazine was shown. In sequence, the successful and quick (3 days) bioremediation efficacy of ammonium-grown A. aurescens TC1 cells was proven in a natural soil freshly spiked or four-months aged with commercial terbuthylazine at a dose 10× higher than the recommended in corn cultivation, to mimic spill situations. Ecotoxicity assessment of the soil eluates towards a freshwater microalga supported the effectiveness of the bioaugmentation tool. Obtained results highlight the potential to decontaminate soil while minimizing terbuthylazine from reaching aquatic compartments via the soil-water pathway. The usefulness of this bioaugmentation tool to provide rapid environment decontamination is particularly relevant in the event of accidental high herbicide contamination. Its limitations and advantages are discussed. PMID:26662024

  19. Production of Xylanase from Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 6915 Using Saw Dust As Substrate under Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevanan Murugan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Saw dust was used as substrate for xylanase production from Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 6915. The study of period of incubation, temperature, pH, carbon, and nitrogen sources for xylanase production was optimized. Xylanase production was found to be optimum at an incubation period of 96 hrs (117.0 U/mL, temperature 30°C (105.0 U/mL, and pH 9.0 (102.9 U/mL. The results showed that the xylanase production was found to be higher in the presence of carboxymethylcellulose (176.4 U/mL and dextrose (126.0 U/mL. It was also observed that peptone (170.1 U/mL and beef extract (161.7 U/mL supported maximum xylanase production.The enzyme was characterized and found to be fairly active at pH 9 (764.4 U/mL and temperature 60°C (819 U/mL. Even in the present study, a major difference in the production temperature (30°C and optimal temperature (60°C of the enzyme activity was observed. However, the pH of the production media and the enzyme activity were found to be the same (pH 9.

  20. Enhanced U(VI) release from autunite mineral by aerobic Arthrobacter sp. in the presence of aqueous bicarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsenovich, Yelena; Carvajal, Denny A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel

    2012-04-20

    The bacterial effect on U(VI) leaching from the autunite mineral (Ca[(UO{sub 2})(PO{sub 4})]{sub 2} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O) was investigated to provide a more comprehensive understanding into important microbiological processes affecting autunite stability within subsurface bicarbonate-bearing environments. Experiments were performed in a culture of G975 Arthrobacter oxydans strain, herein referred to as G975, a soil bacterium previously isolated from Hanford Site soil. 91 mg of autunite powder and 50 mL of phosphorus-limiting sterile media were amended with bicarbonate ranging between 1-10 mM in glass reactor bottles and inoculated with G975 strain after the dissolution of autunite was at steady state. SEM observations indicated G975 formed a biofilm on the autunite surface and penetrated the mineral cleavages. The mineral surface colonization by bacteria tended to increase concomitantly with bicarbonate concentrations. Additionally, a sterile cultureware with inserts was used in non-contact bioleaching experiments where autunite and bacteria cells were kept separately. The data suggest the G975 bacteria is able to enhance U(VI) leaching from autunite without the direct contact with the mineral. In the presence of bicarbonate, the damage to bacterial cells caused by U(VI) toxicity was reduced, yielding similar values for total organic carbon (TOC) degradation and cell density compared to U(VI)-free controls. The presence of active bacterial cells greatly enhanced the U(VI) bioleaching from autunite in bicarbonate-amended media.

  1. Enhanced U(VI) release from autunite mineral by aerobic Arthrobacter sp. in the presence of aqueous bicarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsenovich, Yelena P.; Carvajal, Denny A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel E.

    2012-05-01

    The bacterial effect on U(VI) release from the autunite mineral (Ca[(UO2)(PO4)]2•3H2O) was investigated to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the important microbiological processes affecting autunite stability within subsurface bicarbonate-bearing environments. Experiments were performed in a culture of the Arthrobacter oxydans G975 strain, herein referred to as G975, a soil bacterium previously isolated from Hanford Site soil. 91 mg of autunite powder and 50 mL of phosphorous-limiting sterile media were amended with bicarbonate (ranging between 1 and 10 mM) in glass reactor bottles and inoculated with the G975 strain after the dissolution of autunite was at steady state. SEM observations indicated that G975 formed a biofilm on the autunite surface and penetrated the mineral cleavages. The mineral surface colonization by bacteria tended to increase concomitantly with bicarbonate concentrations. Additionally, a sterile culture-ware with inserts was used in non-contact dissolution experiments where autunite and bacteria cells were kept separately. The data suggest that G975 bacteria is able to enhance the release of U(VI) from autunite without direct contact with the mineral. In the presence of bicarbonate, the damage to bacterial cells caused by U(VI) toxicity was reduced, yielding similar values for total organic carbon (TOC) degradation and cell density compared to U(VI)-free controls. The presence of active bacterial cells greatly enhanced the release of U(VI) from autunite in bicarbonate-amended media.

  2. Characterization of an exo-inulinase from Arthrobacter: a novel NaCl-tolerant exo-inulinase with high molecular mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jidong; Zhang, Rui; Li, Junjun; Tang, Xianghua; Li, Ruixian; Wang, Min; Huang, Zunxi; Zhou, Junpei

    2015-01-01

    A glycoside hydrolase family 32 exo-inulinase gene was cloned from Arthrobacter sp. HJ7 isolated from saline soil located in Heijing town. The gene encodes an 892-residue polypeptide with a calculated mass of 95.1 kDa and a high total frequency of amino acid residues G, A, and V (30.0%). Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells were used as hosts to express the exo-inulinase gene. The recombinant exo-inulinase (rInuAHJ7) showed an apparently maximal activity at pH 5.0-5.5 and 40-45°C. The addition of 1.0 and 10.0 mM Zn(2+) and Pb(2+) had little or no effect on the enzyme activity. rInuAHJ7 exhibited good salt tolerance, retaining more than 98% inulinase activity at a concentration of 3.0%-20.0% (w/v) NaCl. Fructose was the main product of inulin, levan, and Jerusalem artichoke tubers hydrolyzed by the enzyme. The present study is the first to report the identification and characterization of an Arthrobacter sp exo-inulinase showing a high molecular mass of 95.1 kDa and NaCl tolerance. These results suggest that the exo-inulinase might be an alternative material for potential applications in processing seafood and other foods with high saline contents, such as marine algae, pickles, and sauces.

  3. Key enzymes enabling the growth of Arthrobacter sp. strain JBH1 with nitroglycerin as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husserl, Johana; Hughes, Joseph B; Spain, Jim C

    2012-05-01

    Flavoprotein reductases that catalyze the transformation of nitroglycerin (NG) to dinitro- or mononitroglycerols enable bacteria containing such enzymes to use NG as the nitrogen source. The inability to use the resulting mononitroglycerols limits most strains to incomplete denitration of NG. Recently, Arthrobacter strain JBH1 was isolated for the ability to grow on NG as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, but the enzymes and mechanisms involved were not established. Here, the enzymes that enable the Arthrobacter strain to incorporate NG into a productive pathway were identified. Enzyme assays indicated that the transformation of nitroglycerin to mononitroglycerol is NADPH dependent and that the subsequent transformation of mononitroglycerol is ATP dependent. Cloning and heterologous expression revealed that a flavoprotein catalyzes selective denitration of NG to 1-mononitroglycerol (1-MNG) and that 1-MNG is transformed to 1-nitro-3-phosphoglycerol by a glycerol kinase homolog. Phosphorylation of the nitroester intermediate enables the subsequent denitration of 1-MNG in a productive pathway that supports the growth of the isolate and mineralization of NG.

  4. Increased iron-stress resilience of maize through inoculation of siderophore-producing Arthrobacter globiformis from mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Meenakshi; Mishra, Vandana; Rau, Nupur; Sharma, Radhey Shyam

    2016-07-01

    Iron deficiency is common among graminaceous crops. Ecologically successful wild grasses from iron-limiting habitats are likely to harbour bacteria which secrete efficient high-affinity iron-chelating molecules (siderophores) to solubilize and mobilize iron. Such siderophore-producing rhizobacteria may increase the iron-stress resilience of graminaceous crops. Considering this, 51 rhizobacterial isolates of Dichanthium annulatum from iron-limiting abandoned mine (∼84% biologically unavailable iron) were purified and tested for siderophore production; and efficacy of Arthrobacter globiformis inoculation to increase iron-stress resilience of maize and wheat was also evaluated. 16S rRNA sequence analyses demonstrated that siderophore-producing bacteria were taxonomically diverse (seven genera, nineteen species). Among these, Gram-positive Bacillus (eleven species) was prevalent (76.92%). A. globiformis, a commonly found rhizobacterium of graminaceous crops was investigated in detail. Its siderophore has high iron-chelation capacity (ICC: 13.0 ± 2.4 μM) and effectively dissolutes diverse iron-complexes (FeCl3 : 256.13 ± 26.56 μM/ml; Fe2 O3 red: 84.3 ± 4.74 μM/ml; mine spoil: 123.84 ± 4.38 μM/ml). Siderophore production (ICC) of A. globiformis BGDa404 also varied with supplementation of different iron complexes. In plant bioassay with iron-deficiency sensitive species maize, A. globiformis inoculation triggered stress-associated traits (peroxidase and proline) in roots, enhanced plant biomass, uptake of iron and phosphate, and protein and chlorophyll contents. However, in iron deficiency tolerant species wheat, growth improvement was marginal. The present study illustrates: (i) rhizosphere of D. annulatum colonizing abandoned mine as a "hotspot" of siderophore-producing bacteria; and (ii) potential of A. globiformis BGDa404 inoculation to increase iron-stress resilience in maize. A. globiformis BGDa404 has the potential to develop as

  5. Low temperature reduction of hexavalent chromium by a microbial enrichment consortium and a novel strain of Arthrobacter aurescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Vicki S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromium is a transition metal most commonly found in the environment in its trivalent [Cr(III] and hexavalent [Cr(VI] forms. The EPA maximum total chromium contaminant level for drinking water is 0.1 mg/l (0.1 ppm. Many water sources, especially underground sources, are at low temperatures (less than or equal to 15 Centigrade year round. It is important to evaluate the possibility of microbial remediation of Cr(VI contamination using microorganisms adapted to these low temperatures (psychrophiles. Results Core samples obtained from a Cr(VI contaminated aquifer at the Hanford facility in Washington were enriched in Vogel Bonner medium at 10 Centigrade with 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 1000 mg/l Cr(VI. The extent of Cr(VI reduction was evaluated using the diphenyl carbazide assay. Resistance to Cr(VI up to and including 1000 mg/l Cr(VI was observed in the consortium experiments. Reduction was slow or not observed at and above 100 mg/l Cr(VI using the enrichment consortium. Average time to complete reduction of Cr(VI in the 30 and 60 mg/l Cr(VI cultures of the consortium was 8 and 17 days, respectively at 10 Centigrade. Lyophilized consortium cells did not demonstrate adsorption of Cr(VI over a 24 hour period. Successful isolation of a Cr(VI reducing organism (designated P4 from the consortium was confirmed by 16S rDNA amplification and sequencing. Average time to complete reduction of Cr(VI at 10 Centigrade in the 25 and 50 mg/l Cr(VI cultures of the isolate P4 was 3 and 5 days, respectively. The 16S rDNA sequence from isolate P4 identified this organism as a strain of Arthrobacter aurescens, a species that has not previously been shown to be capable of low temperature Cr(VI reduction. Conclusion A. aurescens, indigenous to the subsurface, has the potential to be a predominant metal reducer in enhanced, in situ subsurface bioremediation efforts involving Cr(VI and possibly other heavy metals and radionuclides.

  6. PLASMID-ENCODED PHTHALATE CATABOLIC PATHWAY IN ARTHROBACTER KEYSERI 12B: BIOTRANSFORMATIONS OF 2-SUBSTITUTED BENZOATES AND THEIR USE IN CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PHTHALATE CATABOLISM GENES AND GENE PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several 2-substituted benzoates (including 2-trifluoromethyl-, 2-chloro-, 2-bromo-, 2-iodo-, 2-nitro-, 2-methoxy-, and 2-acetyl-benzoates) were converted by phthalate-grown Arthrobacter keyseri 12B to the corresponding 2-substituted 3,4-dihydroxybenzoates (protocatechuates)...

  7. CLONING AND PURIFICATION OFA REPRESSOR PROTEIN FROM ARTHROBACTER NICOTINOVORANS PAO1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderich Brandsch

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The pAO1 megaplasmid of A. nicotinovorans consists of 165 ORF's related mainly to nicotine degradation, uptake and utilization of carbohydrates, amino acids and sarcosine The putative sugar catabolic pathway consists of 11 ORFś organized as a single operon and coding for an ABC-type sugar-transport system and several putative oxidoreductases and dehydrogenases. The current work is focused on orf32, a putative PdhR related protein, most probably involved in the control of the whole operon. The approx. 700 kb orf32 gene was cloned in the pH6EX3 plasmid vector and the gene product purified to homogeneity as a 29 kDa His-tagged recombinant protein. As indicated by GPC, it consists of a monomeric protein with a native molecular weight of 32 kDa. The specific UV/Vis spectra showed only a single peak at 280 nm common for all proteins and did not indicated the presence of any colored cofactors. This is in good agreement with the fact that PdhR-family proteins contain a winged helix-turn-helix (wHTH domain responsible for DNA binding, and not a Zn-finger or any other metal containing domains

  8. Statistical optimization of beta-carotene production by Arthrobacter agilis A17 using response surface methodology and Box-Behnken design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdal, Murat; Özdal, Özlem Gür; Gürkök, Sümeyra

    2017-04-01

    β-carotene is a commercially important natural pigment and has been widely applied in the medicine, pharmaceutical, food, feed and cosmetic industries. The current study aimed to investigate the usability of molasses for β-carotene production by Arthrobacter agilis A17 (KP318146) and to optimize the production process. Box-Behnken Design of Response Surface Methodology was used to determine the optimum levels and the interactions of three independent variables namely molasses, yeast extract and KH2PO4 at three different levels. β-carotene yield in optimized medium containing 70 g/l molasses, 25 g/l yeast extract and 0.96 g/l KH2PO4, reached up to 100 mg/l, which is approximately 2.5-fold higher than the yield, obtained from control cultivation. A remarkable β-carotene production on inexpensive carbon source was achieved with the use of statistical optimization.

  9. Rapid Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Based on Flocculation and Reduction of an Exopolysaccharide from Arthrobacter sp. B4: Its Antimicrobial Activity and Phytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yumei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using an exopolysaccharide from Arthrobacter sp. B4 (B4-EPS. The optimum condition for AgNPs synthesis was under the concentration of 5 g/L B4-EPS and 1 mM AgNO3 at 80°C between pH 7.0 and 8.0. The resulting AgNPs displayed a face-centred-cubic structure with the size range from 9 nm to 72 nm. Further analysis showed that flocculation and reduction of B4-EPS played a pivotal role in the formation of AgNPs. Furthermore, these nanoparticles exhibited great stability, excellent antimicrobial activity, and low phytotoxicity. The aforementioned data provide a feasible and efficient approach for green synthesis of AgNPs using microbial polysaccharides with flocculation and reduction activity, which will be promising in medical filed.

  10. A new cold-adapted β-D-galactosidase from the Antarctic Arthrobacter sp. 32c – gene cloning, overexpression, purification and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kur Józef

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of a new cold-active β-D-galactosidases and microorganisms that efficiently ferment lactose is of high biotechnological interest, particularly for lactose removal in milk and dairy products at low temperatures and for cheese whey bioremediation processes with simultaneous bio-ethanol production. Results In this article, we present a new β-D-galactosidase as a candidate to be applied in the above mentioned biotechnological processes. The gene encoding this β-D-galactosidase has been isolated from the genomic DNA library of Antarctic bacterium Arthrobacter sp. 32c, sequenced, cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris, purified and characterized. 27 mg of β-D-galactosidase was purified from 1 L of culture with the use of an intracellular E. coli expression system. The protein was also produced extracellularly by P. pastoris in high amounts giving approximately 137 mg and 97 mg of purified enzyme from 1 L of P. pastoris culture for the AOX1 and a constitutive system, respectively. The enzyme was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by using either one step- or a fast two step- procedure including protein precipitation and affinity chromatography. The enzyme was found to be active as a homotrimeric protein consisting of 695 amino acid residues in each monomer. Although, the maximum activity of the enzyme was determined at pH 6.5 and 50°C, 60% of the maximum activity of the enzyme was determined at 25°C and 15% of the maximum activity was detected at 0°C. Conclusion The properties of Arthrobacter sp. 32cβ-D-galactosidase suggest that this enzyme could be useful for low-cost, industrial conversion of lactose into galactose and glucose in milk products and could be an interesting alternative for the production of ethanol from lactose-based feedstock.

  11. Toxicity screening of soils from different mine areas--a contribution to track the sensitivity and variability of Arthrobacter globiformis assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Catarina R; Caetano, Ana L; Haller, Andreas; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Ruth; Römbke, Jörg

    2014-06-15

    This study used the Arthrobacter globiformis solid-contact test for assessing the quality of soils collected in areas subjected to past and present mine activities in Europe (uranium mine, Portugal) and North Africa (phosphogypsum pile, Tunisia; iron mine, Morocco). As to discriminate the influence of soils natural variability from the effect of contaminants, toxicity thresholds were derived for this test, based on the dataset of each study area. Furthermore, the test sensitivity and variability was also evaluated. As a result, soils that inhibited A. globiformis dehydrogenase activity above 45% or 50% relatively to the control, were considered to be toxic. Despite the soil metal content determined, the properties of soils seemed to influence dehydrogenase activity. Overall, the contact test provided a coherent outcome comparing to other more time-consuming and effort-demanding ecotoxicological assays. Our results strengthened the feasibility and ecological relevance of this assay, which variability was quite reduced hence suggesting its potential integration within the test battery of tier 1 of soil risk assessment schemes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Probing the Role of Two Critical Residues in Inulin Fructotransferase (DFA III-Producing) Thermostability from Arthrobacter sp. 161MFSha2.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuhuai; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

    2016-08-10

    Inulin fructotransferase (IFTase) is an important enzyme that produces di-d-fructofuranose 1,2':2,3' dianhydride (DAF III), which is beneficial for human health. Present investigations mainly focus on screening and characterizing IFTase, including catalytic efficiency and thermostability, which are two important factors for enzymatic industrial applications. However, few reports aimed to improve these two characteristics based on the structure of IFTase. In this work, a structural model of IFTase (DFA III-producing) from Arthrobacter sp. 161MFSha2.1 was constructed through homology modeling. Analysis of this model reveals that two residues, Ser-309 and Ser-333, may play key roles in the structural stability. Therefore, the functions of the two residues were probed by site-directed mutagenesis combined with the Nano-DSC method and assays for residual activity. In contrast to other mutations, single mutation of serine 309 (or serine 333) to threonine did not decrease the enzymatic stability, whereas double mutation (serine 309 and serine 333 to threonine) can enhance thermostability (by approximately 5 °C). The probable mechanisms for this enhancement were investigated.

  13. Interaction mechanism between Arthrobacter oxydans and BaP-Cd%氧化节杆菌与苯并[a]芘-镉交互作用机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓军; 尹华; 叶锦韶; 彭辉; 秦华明; 龙焰; 何宝燕; 张娜

    2010-01-01

    利用HPLC、FTIR分析技术,研究了氧化节杆菌(Arthrobacter oxydans)对水体中苯并[a]芘(BaP)-镉(Cd)复合污染物交互作用机理.结果表明,BaP、Cd及BaP-Cd复合污染均对菌株的正常生长产生影响,其影响程度为:BaP-Cd>Cd>BaP;使用该菌投加到BaP、Cd浓度均为1 mg·L~(-1)的BaP-Cd复合污染无机盐溶液中,30 ℃、130 r·min~(-1),培养5 d后,体系BaP、Cd的残留量分别为0.39、0.65 mg·L~(-1);添加一定浓度的H_2O_2并保持体系呈偏碱性更适于该复合污染的处理.红外扫描分析显示,在微生物作用下,BaP的结构发生改变,菌株降解BaP和吸附Cd的过程主要与羟基、CC键、酰胺基团和C-H键有关.

  14. Ethanol production from inulin and unsterilized meal of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by Saccharomyces sp. W0 expressing the endo-inulinase gene from Arthrobacter sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Liu, Guang-Lei; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2013-11-01

    After the endo-inulinase gene from Arthrobacter sp. was ligated the expression vectors pMIDSC31 and pMIRSC31, the endo-inulinase gene was inserted into the chromosomal DNA of Saccharomyces sp. W0. It was found that the inulinase activity of the recombinant yeast D5 in which the endo-inulinase gene was inserted into the delta sequence was higher than that of the recombinant yeast R1 in which the endo-inulinase gene was inserted into 18S rDNA sequence. More ethanol from inulin was produced by the recombinant yeast D5 than by the recombinant yeast R1. But Saccharomyces sp. W0 produced the lowest inulinase activity and concentration of ethanol. During the 3-l fermentation, the recombinant yeast D5 could produce 13.6 ml of ethanol per 100ml of the fermented medium from 30% inulin. The recombinant yeast D5 could actively convert the unsterilized meal of Jerusalem artichoke tubers, yielding 10.1 ml of ethanol per 100ml of the fermented medium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Toxicity screening of soils from different mine areas—A contribution to track the sensitivity and variability of Arthrobacter globiformis assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Catarina R., E-mail: crmarques@ua.pt [Departamento de Biologia and CESAM (Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar), Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Caetano, Ana L. [Departamento de Biologia and CESAM (Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar), Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Haller, Andreas [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Böttgerstraße 2–14, D-65439 Flörsheim a. M. (Germany); Gonçalves, Fernando [Departamento de Biologia and CESAM (Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar), Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, Ruth [Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, s/n, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, P 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Römbke, Jörg [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Böttgerstraße 2–14, D-65439 Flörsheim a. M. (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • The assay gave rapid and feasible discrimination of toxic soils to A. globiformis. • Sensitive and low variability response to soils from different regions. • Soil properties may interfere with metal toxicity and fluorescence measurements. • Proposal of a toxicity threshold for the contact assay regarding soils. • A. globiformis assay should be included in the Tier I of risk assessment frameworks. - Abstract: This study used the Arthrobacter globiformis solid-contact test for assessing the quality of soils collected in areas subjected to past and present mine activities in Europe (uranium mine, Portugal) and North Africa (phosphogypsum pile, Tunisia; iron mine, Morocco). As to discriminate the influence of soils natural variability from the effect of contaminants, toxicity thresholds were derived for this test, based on the dataset of each study area. Furthermore, the test sensitivity and variability was also evaluated. As a result, soils that inhibited A. globiformis dehydrogenase activity above 45% or 50% relatively to the control, were considered to be toxic. Despite the soil metal content determined, the properties of soils seemed to influence dehydrogenase activity. Overall, the contact test provided a coherent outcome comparing to other more time-consuming and effort-demanding ecotoxicological assays. Our results strengthened the feasibility and ecological relevance of this assay, which variability was quite reduced hence suggesting its potential integration within the test battery of tier 1 of soil risk assessment schemes.

  16. Kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of a novel low-temperature-active xylanase from Arthrobacter sp. GN16 isolated from the feces of Grus nigricollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junpei; Liu, Yu; Shen, Jidong; Zhang, Rui; Tang, Xianghua; Li, Junjun; Wang, Yiyan; Huang, Zunxi

    2015-01-01

    We previously presented the cloning, heterologous expression, and characterization of a novel multidomain endoxylanase from Arthrobacter sp. GN16 isolated from the feces of Grus nigricollis. Molecular and biochemical characterization studies indicate that the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 domain at the N-terminus of the multidomain xylanase (rXynAGN16L) is a low-temperature-active endoxylanase. Many low-temperature-active enzymes contain regions of high local flexibility related to their kinetic and thermodynamic properties compared with mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes. However, the thermodynamic property of low-temperature-active xylanases, including rXynAGN16L, has rarely been reported. In this study, the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of rXynAGN16L were determined using different substrates and temperature conditions to completely characterize its activity properties. The kinetic property of rXynAGN16L is similar to some low-temperature-active GH 10 endoxylanases. Moreover, the thermodynamic property indicates that rXynAGN16L is typically characterized as a low-temperature-active enzyme.

  17. In Silico Approach to Support that p-Nitrophenol Monooxygenase from Arthrobacter sp. Strain JS443 Catalyzes the Initial Two Sequential Monooxygenations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallubai, Monika; Amineni, Umamaheswari; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Kadiyala, Venkateswarlu

    2015-06-01

    p-Nitrophenol (PNP), used primarily for manufacturing pesticides and dyes, has been recognized as a priority environmental pollutant. It is therefore important to reduce the input of this toxicant into the environment and to establish approaches for its removal from the contaminated sites. PNP monooxygenase, a novel enzyme from Gram-positive bacteria like Arthrobacter sp. and Bacillus sp., that comprises two components, a flavoprotein reductase and an oxygenase, catalyzes the initial two sequential monooxygenations to convert PNP to trihydroxybenzene. Accurate and reliable prediction of this enzyme-substrate interactions and binding affinity are of vital importance in understanding these catalytic mechanisms of the two sequential reactions. As crystal structure of the enzyme has not yet been published, we built a homology model for PNP monooxygenase using crystallized chlorophenol 4-monooxygenase from Burkholderia cepacia AC1100 (3HWC) as the template. The model was assessed for its reliability using PROCHECK, ERRAT and ProSA. Molecular docking of the physiological substrates, PNP and 4-nitrocatechol (4-NC), was carried out using Glide v5.7 implemented in Maestro v9.2, and the binding energies were calculated to substantiate the prediction. Docking complexes formed by molecular level interactions of PNP monooxygenase-PNP/4-NC without or with the cofactors, FAD and NADH, showed good correlation with the established experimental evidence that the two-component PNP monooxygenase catalyzes both the hydroxylation of PNP and the oxidative release of nitrite from 4-NC in B. sphaericus JS905. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations performed for docking complexes using Desmond v3.0 showed stable nature of the interactions as well.

  18. Influence of pH and inorganic phosphate on toxicity of zinc to Arthrobacter sp. isolated from heavy-metal-contaminated sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberly, James G; Staven, Ari; Sani, Rajesh K; Peyton, Brent M

    2010-10-01

    Because of its high solubility over a wide range of pH conditions, zinc is found in many natural and human-impacted systems. Zinc speciation is critical in assessing zinc toxicity to microorganisms because it varies considerably with pH and is dependent on other aqueous constituents. Combined results of thermodynamic modeling, statistical analysis, and batch culture studies using Arthrobacter sp. JM018 suggest that the toxic species may not be solely limited to the free ion, but also includes ZnHPO(4)(0)(aq). Cellular uptake of ZnHPO(4)(0)(aq) through the inorganic phosphate transporter (Pit family), which requires a neutral metal phosphate complex for phosphate transport, may explain the observed toxicity. Based on visual MINTEQ (v3.0) modeling, at 50 μM total zinc, ZnHPO(4)(0)(aq) constitutes 33, 70, and 76% of the neutral metal phosphate pool at pH 6, 7, and 8, respectively. At 50 μM total zinc, cultures supplied with organic phosphate (glycerol-3-phosphate) show no significant response to pH (p = 0.13) while inhibition of inorganic phosphate-supplemented cultures, whose neutral metal phosphates are increasingly dominated by ZnHPO(4)(0)(aq), show significant pH dependence (p = 9.45 × 10(-7)). Using sodium to decrease the distribution of ZnHPO(4)(0)(aq) in the neutral metal phosphate pool also decreased the pH dependent toxicity, further supporting this mechanism. These findings show the important role of minor zinc species in organism toxicity and have wider implications because the Pit inorganic phosphate transport system is widely distributed in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.

  19. Rag1 aphid resistant soybeans alter the movement and distribution of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Rebecca; Harmon, Jason P

    2012-12-01

    Herbivorous insects often move and distribute according to the quality of the plant they are on, and this behavior could influence interactions with plants bred for herbivore resistance. However, when an insect is normally considered sedentary, less is known about the potential importance of movement. We performed experiments to determine if a resistant soybean variety alters the movement and distribution, both within and between plants, of the soybean aphid Aphis glycines Matsumura. We did this by counting apterous aphids on leaves of resistant and susceptible soybean plants across several days. In individual plant tests aphid distribution was different between susceptible and resistant soybeans. Most notably aphids on resistant plants were quickly found off the original leaf on which they were placed and were ultimately distributed throughout the resistant soybean. Aphids on susceptible plants, however, tended to stay on their initial leaf of placement. Follow up experiments indicated this was primarily because of the movement of individuals and not differential demography on various plant parts. In experiments where aphids were able to walk to an adjacent plant there appeared to be a net movement of aphids off resistant plants and on to susceptible plants. Aphid populations on susceptible plants were higher when the plant was adjacent to a resistant plant than when adjacent to another susceptible plant. The effect of resistant plants on aphid movement and distribution could lead to unintended side-effects such as greater spread of plant viruses or altered effectiveness of biological control agents.

  20. Characterizing the interactions between a naturally primed immunoglobulin A and its conserved Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron species-specific epitope in gnotobiotic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Daniel A; Planer, Joseph D; Guruge, Janaki L; Xue, Lai; Downey-Virgin, Whitt; Goodman, Andrew L; Seedorf, Henning; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2015-05-15

    The adaptive immune response to the human gut microbiota consists of a complex repertoire of antibodies interacting with a broad range of taxa. Fusing intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes from mice monocolonized with Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron to a myeloma fusion partner allowed us to recover hybridomas that captured naturally primed, antigen-specific antibody responses representing multiple isotypes, including IgA. One of these hybridomas, 260.8, produced a monoclonal antibody that recognizes an epitope specific for B. thetaiotaomicron isolates in a large panel of hospital- and community-acquired Bacteroides. Whole genome transposon mutagenesis revealed a 19-gene locus, involved in LPS O-antigen polysaccharide synthesis and conserved among multiple B. thetaiotaomicron isolates, that is required for 260.8 epitope expression. Mutants in this locus exhibited marked fitness defects in vitro during growth in rich medium and in gnotobiotic mice colonized with defined communities of human gut symbionts. Expression of the 260.8 epitope was sustained during 10 months of daily passage in vitro and during 14 months of monocolonization of gnotobiotic wild-type, Rag1-/-, or Myd88-/- mice. Comparison of gnotobiotic Rag1-/- mice with and without subcutaneous 260.8 hybridomas disclosed that this IgA did not affect B. thetaiotaomicron population density or suppress 260.8 epitope production but did affect bacterial gene expression in ways emblematic of a diminished host innate immune response. Our study illustrates an approach for (i) generating diagnostic antibodies, (ii) characterizing IgA responses along a continuum of specificity/degeneracy that defines the IgA repertoire to gut symbionts, and (iii) identifying immunogenic epitopes that affect competitiveness and help maintain host-microbe mutualism. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Characterizing the Interactions between a Naturally Primed Immunoglobulin A and Its Conserved Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron Species-specific Epitope in Gnotobiotic Mice*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Daniel A.; Planer, Joseph D.; Guruge, Janaki L.; Xue, Lai; Downey-Virgin, Whitt; Goodman, Andrew L.; Seedorf, Henning; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive immune response to the human gut microbiota consists of a complex repertoire of antibodies interacting with a broad range of taxa. Fusing intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes from mice monocolonized with Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron to a myeloma fusion partner allowed us to recover hybridomas that captured naturally primed, antigen-specific antibody responses representing multiple isotypes, including IgA. One of these hybridomas, 260.8, produced a monoclonal antibody that recognizes an epitope specific for B. thetaiotaomicron isolates in a large panel of hospital- and community-acquired Bacteroides. Whole genome transposon mutagenesis revealed a 19-gene locus, involved in LPS O-antigen polysaccharide synthesis and conserved among multiple B. thetaiotaomicron isolates, that is required for 260.8 epitope expression. Mutants in this locus exhibited marked fitness defects in vitro during growth in rich medium and in gnotobiotic mice colonized with defined communities of human gut symbionts. Expression of the 260.8 epitope was sustained during 10 months of daily passage in vitro and during 14 months of monocolonization of gnotobiotic wild-type, Rag1−/−, or Myd88−/− mice. Comparison of gnotobiotic Rag1−/− mice with and without subcutaneous 260.8 hybridomas disclosed that this IgA did not affect B. thetaiotaomicron population density or suppress 260.8 epitope production but did affect bacterial gene expression in ways emblematic of a diminished host innate immune response. Our study illustrates an approach for (i) generating diagnostic antibodies, (ii) characterizing IgA responses along a continuum of specificity/degeneracy that defines the IgA repertoire to gut symbionts, and (iii) identifying immunogenic epitopes that affect competitiveness and help maintain host-microbe mutualism. PMID:25795776

  2. Cold-active and NaCl-tolerant exo-inulinase from a cold-adapted Arthrobacter sp. MN8 and its potential for use in the production of fructose at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junpei; Lu, Qian; Peng, Mozhen; Zhang, Rui; Mo, Minghe; Tang, Xianghua; Li, Junjun; Xu, Bo; Ding, Junmei; Huang, Zunxi

    2015-03-01

    An exo-inulinase gene was cloned from Arthrobacter sp. MN8, a cold-adapted bacterium isolated from lead-zinc-rich soil. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The resultant 505-residue polypeptide (InuAMN8) showed the highest identity (81.1%) with the putative levanase from Arthrobacter phenanthrenivorans Sphe3 (ADX73279) and shared 57.8% identity with the exo-inulinase from Bacillus sp. snu-7 (AAK00768). The purified recombinant InuAMN8 (rInuAMN8) showed an apparently optimal activity at 35°C, and 75.3%, 39.4%, and 15.8% of its maximum activity at 20°C, 10°C, and 0°C, respectively. After pre-incubation for 60 min at 50°C and 55°C, the rInuAMN8 exhibited 69.8% and 17.7% of its initial activity, respectively. The apparent Km values of rInuAMN8 towards inulin were 2.8, 1.5, 1.2, 5.3, and 8.2 mM at 0°C, 10°C, 20°C, 30°C, and 35°C, respectively. Inulin and Jerusalem artichoke tubers were effectively hydrolyzed to release fructose by rInuAMN8 at 0°C, 10°C, and 35°C. Compared with its hyperthermophilic and thermophilic counterparts, the exo-inulinase had less aromatic amino acid F and more hydrophobic amino acid A. In addition, the purified rInuAMN8 retained 127.9%-88.4% inulinase activity at 3.5%-15.0% (w/v) NaCl concentrations. Zn(2+) and Pb(2+) at 10 mM exhibited little or no effect on the enzyme activity. This paper is the first to report a cold-active and/or NaCl-tolerant exo-inulinase from the genus Arthrobacter. The exo-inulinase rInuAMN8 shows a potential for use in the production of fructose at low temperatures. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 阿特拉津降解茵FM326(Arthrobacter sp.)的分离筛选、鉴定和生物学特性%Isolation, Screening and Identification of Atrazine-degrading Bacterium FM326(Arthrobacter sp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明锐; 祖艳群; 陈建军; 湛方栋; 何永美; 李元

    2011-01-01

    采集除草剂阿特拉津污染的土壤,通过直接涂布法和富集驯化培养分离法,分别获得6株和5株能够降解阿特拉津的细菌.通过降解效率和降解动态试验,筛选到1株高效降解阿特拉津的菌株FM326,该菌株能以阿特拉津为唯一的碳源和氮源生长,培养96 h后对1000 mg· L-1阿特拉津降解效率达到97%.通过生理生化鉴定和16S rDNA序列分析,菌株FM326鉴定为节杆菌属(Arthrobacter sp.)细菌.该菌株表现出最适生长温度30~35℃,最适生长pH值5~9,好氧生长的生长特性.%The Iriazine herbicide atrazine(2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropyl-amino-s-triazine) is one of the most used pesticides. Atrazine is principally used for control of certain annual broadleaf and grass weeds, primarily in com but also in sorghum, sugarcane, and other crops. Although atrazine has relatively low persistency in soil, its remanets have been found in many higher concentrations even years after application due to widespread use. Microbial remediation is an effective and economic method to control the environment that has been polluted by atrazine. From herbicide contaminated soil, 5 atrazine degrading bacterial strains were isolated by enrichment culture, and 6 a- trazine-degrading bacterial strains were isolated by direct coating method. In the 11 strains, FM326 was screened out as the most highly efficient degradation bacteria by degradation test and could use atrazine as the sole carbon and nitrogen sources for growth. The degradation efficiency of strain FM326 was up to 97% within 96 hours while atrazine concentration was 1 000 mg-L"'. Strain FM326 was identified as Arthrobacter sp. According to physiological and biochemical tests and the phylogenic tree established by means of 16S rDNA sequencing. Moreover, strain FM326 was aerobic bacteria, its optimum temperature and pH value for growth was 30-35 t and 5~9, respectively. Strain of highly efficient degrading atrazine was found from soils

  4. Structures of a γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) transaminase from the s-triazine-degrading organism Arthrobacter aurescens TC1 in complex with PLP and with its external aldimine PLP–GABA adduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Heather; Nguyen Tuan, Anh; Mangas Sánchez, Juan; Leese, Charlotte; Hopwood, Jennifer; Hyde, Ralph; Hart, Sam; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Grogan, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    Two complex structures of the γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) transaminase A1R958 from Arthrobacter aurescens TC1 are presented. The first, determined to a resolution of 2.80 Å, features the internal aldimine formed by reaction between the ∊-amino group of Lys295 and the cofactor pyridoxal phosphate (PLP); the second, determined to a resolution of 2.75 Å, features the external aldimine adduct formed between PLP and GABA in the first half-reaction. This is the first structure of a microbial GABA transaminase in complex with its natural external aldimine and reveals the molecular determinants of GABA binding in this enzyme. PMID:23027742

  5. Pb2 + Tolerance and Adsorption of Arthrobacter sp. 12-1 Isolated from Lead-zinc Mine Tailing Dam%铅锌矿尾矿坝分离节杆菌12-1对Pb2+的耐受和吸附性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志; 邹情雅; 潘晓鸿; 林璋; 关雄

    2014-01-01

    The extensive exploitation and usage of lead resources have caused serious environmental pollution problems currently. Bioremediation of Pb2 + contaminated water and soil environments using microbes is regarded as a promising technology due to the advantages of its cost-effective, easy operation and environmental-friendly properties. In order to understand Pb2+ biosorption characterization of microbes, an indigenous lead-resistant bacterium-Arthrobacter sp. 12-1(GenBank No. KM362724) was isolated from lead-zinc mine tailing dam, and the process and mechanism of Pb2+ biosorption by Arthrobacter sp. 12-1 were furtherly investigated in this study. Study on the growth of Arthrobacter sp. 12-1 in LB medium containing different concentration of Pb2+suggested that the highest Pb2+tolerant concentration of Arthrobacter sp. 12-1 was 800 mg/L. In water solution, 105 mg/L of Pb2+could be reduced to 2.17 mg/L by Arthrobacter sp. 12-1 within 24 h with biosorption rate of 97.93%. Microscopic investigation (atomic force microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed that lead containing mineral was formed on the surface of cell after Pb2+sorption by Arthrobacter sp. 12-1. Further fourier transform infrared (FT- IR) analysis revealed that carboxyl, amide and phosphate groups of Arthrobacter sp. 12-1 might be involved in Pb2 + biosorption process. The results demonstrated that the Arthrobacter sp. 12-1 isolated from lead-zinc mine tailing dam had strong ability of Pb2 + resistance and biosorption, indicating an attractive prospect of practical applications in bioremediation Pb2+ contaminated water and soil environments. The present work provides much fundamental information for help in constructing feasible strategies for Pb2+bioremediation in the environment.%当前铅资源的粗放式开采和使用对环境造成了严重的污染。利用微生物修复铅污染具有费用低、易操作、环境友好等优

  6. Specific Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mental Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Specific phobias Treatment More information on specific phobias A specific ... targeted psychotherapy. Return to top More information on Specific phobias Explore other publications and websites Phobias (Copyright © American ...

  7. Purification and characterization of β-galactosidase from Arthrobacter sp%节杆菌β-半乳糖苷酶的分离纯化及酶学性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珍爱; 唐蕾; 毛忠贵; 张建华; 杨瑞金

    2011-01-01

    分离纯化了由节杆菌所产的fI-半乳糖苷酶(EC 3.2.1.23)并研究了其酶学性质.以乳糖发酵培养基培养,离心收集茵体,超声破碎细胞得到粗酶液;采用硫酸铵沉淀、Phenyl-Sepharose疏水、DEAE-Sepharose离子交换和p-aminobelazyl-1-thio-β-galactopyranoside(PABTG)亲和层析方法进行酶的分离纯化,纯化倍数达到31.4;经SDS-PAGE检测分子量为30 kD.酶学性质的研究表明:该酶最适pH值为6.6,最适反应温度为37℃,pH在5.5~8.0,温度低于30℃时,相对酶活在1 h内保持在50%以上,较为稳定.以邻硝基苯-β-吡喃半乳糖苷(ONPG)为底物,米氏常数为4.64 mmol/L.%The purification and characterization of β-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) produced by Arthrobacter sp. Were investigated. The bacterial cells cultured were gathered by centrifugation and disrupted by ultrasonication. The crude enzyme solution was precipitated by ammonium sulphate. Further enzyme purification was carried out by Phenyl- Sepharose, DEAE-Sepharose and p-amino-benzyl-l-thio-β-Dgalactopyranoside (PABTG) affinity chromatography. The purified β-galactosiclase was illustrated as a single band in SDS-PAGE with a purification fold of 31.4 and an apparent molecular weight of 30 kD. The maximum activity of the enzyme was determined at pH 6.6 and 37 ℃. Above 50% of the maximum activity of the enzyme was detected at pH 5.5~8.0 and 30 ℃. The Km for ONPG was 4.64 mmol/L.

  8. In vivo programming of tumor antigen-specific T lymphocytes from pluripotent stem cells to promote cancer immunosurveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Fengyang; Zhao, Baohua; Haque, Rizwanul; Xiong, Xiaofang; Budgeon, Lynn; Christensen, Neil D; Wu, Yuzhang; Song, Jianxun

    2011-07-15

    Adoptive T-cell immunotherapy has garnered wide attention, but its effective use is limited by the need of multiple ex vivo manipulations and infusions that are complex and expensive. In this study, we show how highly reactive antigen (Ag)-specific CTLs can be generated from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to provide an unlimited source of functional CTLs for adoptive immunotherapy. iPS cell-derived T cells can offer the advantages of avoiding possible immune rejection and circumventing ethical and practical issues associated with other stem cell types. iPS cells can be differentiated into progenitor T cells in vitro by stimulation with the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (DL1) overexpressed on bone marrow stromal cells, with complete maturation occurring upon adoptive transfer into Rag1-deficient mice. Here, we report that these iPS cells can be differentiated in vivo into functional CTLs after overexpression of MHC I-restricted Ag-specific T-cell receptors (TCR). In this study, we generated murine iPS cells genetically modified with ovalbumin (OVA)-specific and MHC-I restricted TCR (OT-I) by retrovirus-mediated transduction. After their adoptive transfer into recipient mice, the majority of OT-I/iPS cells underwent differentiation into CD8+ CTLs. TCR-transduced iPS cells developed in vivo responded in vitro to peptide stimulation by secreting interleukin 2 and IFN-γ. Most importantly, adoptive transfer of TCR-transduced iPS cells triggered infiltration of OVA-reactive CTLs into tumor tissues and protected animals from tumor challenge. Taken together, our findings offer proof of concept for a potentially more efficient approach to generate Ag-specific T lymphocytes for adoptive immunotherapy.

  9. Specificity of specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GoorhuisBrouwer, SM; WijnbergWilliams, BJ

    1996-01-01

    In children with specific language impairment (SLI) their problems are supposed to be specifically restricted to language. However, both on a theoretical basis as well as on a practical basis it is often difficult to make a sharp distinction between specific and nonspecific language disorders. In a

  10. Death receptor-independent FADD signalling triggers hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma in mice with liver parenchymal cell-specific NEMO knockout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlken, H; Krishna-Subramanian, S; Ochoa-Callejero, L; Kondylis, V; Nadi, N E; Straub, B K; Schirmacher, P; Walczak, H; Kollias, G; Pasparakis, M

    2014-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) usually develops in the context of chronic hepatitis triggered by viruses or toxic substances causing hepatocyte death, inflammation and compensatory proliferation of liver cells. Death receptors of the TNFR superfamily regulate cell death and inflammation and are implicated in liver disease and cancer. Liver parenchymal cell-specific ablation of NEMO/IKKγ, a subunit of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex that is essential for the activation of canonical NF-κB signalling, sensitized hepatocytes to apoptosis and caused the spontaneous development of chronic hepatitis and HCC in mice. Here we show that hepatitis and HCC development in NEMO(LPC-KO) mice is triggered by death receptor-independent FADD-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis. TNF deficiency in all cells or conditional LPC-specific ablation of TNFR1, Fas or TRAIL-R did not prevent hepatocyte apoptosis, hepatitis and HCC development in NEMO(LPC-KO) mice. To address potential functional redundancies between death receptors we generated and analysed NEMO(LPC-KO) mice with combined LPC-specific deficiency of TNFR1, Fas and TRAIL-R and found that also simultaneous lack of all three death receptors did not prevent hepatocyte apoptosis, chronic hepatitis and HCC development. However, LPC-specific combined deficiency in TNFR1, Fas and TRAIL-R protected the NEMO-deficient liver from LPS-induced liver failure, showing that different mechanisms trigger spontaneous and LPS-induced hepatocyte apoptosis in NEMO(LPC-KO) mice. In addition, NK cell depletion did not prevent liver damage and hepatitis. Moreover, NEMO(LPC-KO) mice crossed into a RAG-1-deficient genetic background-developed hepatitis and HCC. Collectively, these results show that the spontaneous development of hepatocyte apoptosis, chronic hepatitis and HCC in NEMO(LPC-KO) mice occurs independently of death receptor signalling, NK cells and B and T lymphocytes, arguing against an immunological trigger as the critical stimulus driving

  11. Sex-specific T-cell regulation of angiotensin II-dependent hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hong; Zheng, Wei; Li, Xiangjun; Liu, Jun; Wu, Xie; Zhang, Monan Angela; Umans, Jason G; Hay, Meredith; Speth, Robert C; Dunn, Shannon E; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2014-09-01

    Studies suggest T cells modulate arterial pressure. Because robust sex differences exist in the immune system and in hypertension, we investigated sex differences in T-cell modulation of angiotensin II-induced increases in mean arterial pressure in male (M) and female (F) wild-type and recombination-activating-gene-1-deficient (Rag1(-/-)) mice. Sex differences in peak mean arterial pressure in wild-type were lost in Rag1(-/-) mice (mm Hg: wild-type-F, 136±4.9 versus wild-type-M, 153±1.7; Phypertension are distinct between the sexes and need to be understood to improve therapeutics for hypertension-associated disease in both men and women.

  12. Specific Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Sandhya

    The investigation reported in this volume attempts to clarify some issues relating to the existence, nature, and causes of specific dyslexia. Based on an extended study of 98 boys of at least average intelligence with severe reading and spelling problems, the report provides detailed data relating to their developmental and perinatal histories,…

  13. The Effects of Heterologous Expression of groEL from Arthrobacter simplex on the Resistance Performance of Escherichia coli%简单节杆菌groEL基因表达对大肠杆菌抗逆性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳霞; 王红玲; 王敏; 骆健美

    2016-01-01

    Arthrobacter simplex,a strain with steroid C1,2 dehydrogenation ability,has been widely used in the steroid industry, usually adding ethanol in the transforming system may catalyze the dissolution of hydrophobic substrates. Our prior work by LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics analysis found that heat shock protein(HSP)GroEL was closely correlated to the cell adaptive behavior under ethanol stress condition. Based on this concept,groEL gene was cloned by PCR while usingA. simplexTCCC 11037 genome as a template. The results showed that the homologies of nucleotide and amino acid sequence of GroEL in the strain were the highest with that fromNocardioides sp. JS614 by the ratio of 89% and 95%,respectively. Then its heterologous expression was conducted in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)with the vector pET-22b (+),and the results showed that the recombinant strain presented the significant increase on the survival performance under the shock condition with high-concentration of methanol,hypertonicity and superacid,as well as the growth performance under the proper stresses of them. The study was the first report on the cloning and expression of genegroEL fromA. simplex,and also provided fundamental data for exploring the biological function of HSP protein GroEL from A. simplex.%以简单节杆菌(Arthrobacter simplex)TCCC 11037基因组为模板,通过PCR方法进行groEL基因克隆,结果表明,该菌株中GroEL的核苷酸和氨基酸序列与Nocardioidessp. JS614来源的GroEL同源性最高,分别为89%和95%。通过pET-22b(+)将其在大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中进行异源表达,结果表明,重组菌株在甲醇、高渗和强酸这3种压力高浓度冲击条件下的存活能力和适当压力条件下的生长性能均明显提高。

  14. 发酵产菊糖果糖转移酶的培养基设计及菌体生长动力学研究%Optimization of Inulin Fructotransferase-producing Medium and Determination of Cell Growth Kinetic Parameter for Arthrobacter ureafaciens SK-8.001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢峥嵘; 赵萌; 沐万孟; 张涛; 江波

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,the optimal inulin fructotransferase-producing medium and fermentation kinetic parameters of Arthrobacter ureafaciens SK -8.001 were studied. The recipes of optimal media included 2. 5% inulin,0. 3% NaN0_3,0. 1% yeast extract,0. 01% MgSO_4,0. 04% KH_2P0_4,0. 001% FeSO_4·7H_2O. The maximum enzyme activity reached 19. 85 U/mL,which was 2. 04 fold higher than in initial media. The study on the fermentation process in the optimal media suggested the right time to add inducers into the media was 12 h or 66th hours during the fermentation. The cell growth kinetic model for SK-8.001 in batch fermentation was X (t) = 9. 356 05/ [1 + exp~((4.4222-0.1102l)) ].%对1株产菊糖果糖转移酶(inulin fructotransferase)的金黄色节杆菌(Arthrobacter ureafaciens)SK-8.001的产酶培养基进行了优化,同时对其在分批发酵过程中培养基组分变化和菌体生长动力学进行了研究.所得到的改进型产酶培养基配方为25 g/L菊糖,3 g/L NaNO_3,1g/L酵母膏,0.1 g/L MgSO_4,0.4g/L KH_2PO_4,0.01g/LFeSO_4·7H_2O.在此培养基中的最高酶活达到19.85 U/mL,较初始培养基提高了2.04倍.对在此培养基中Sk-8.001的发酵过程研究发现发酵12 h和66 h是较为理想的诱导物添加时刻.得到SK-8.001在优化培养基中分批培养的菌体生长动力学模型为:X(t)=9.356 05/[1+exp~((4.4222-0.1102:))].

  15. HRT Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Möller, M

    1996-01-01

    In the context of the AIS Project (Advanced Informatics Systems for administration and management) a study has been conducted that resulted in the definition of a high level information systems model. Thirteen proposed systems were defined for detailed analysis. The Finance, Foundation, Human Resources, Logistics and Purchasing areas have been studied in detail. These studies have lead to the purchase and implementation of the ORIAC and SIRIAC packages, the Foundation database, the Oracle HR package, the Triton package and EDH and BHT. This specification describes the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) intended to be used for accessing data in the HR and Foundation systems. This toolkit should help the divisions carry out their Human Resource management, planning and follow-up. It will have extensive report generation capabilities and offer a variety of standard graphs. It should have an easy-to-use graphical user interface and run on the CERN standard desktop platforms.

  16. Specific phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Alfons O

    2009-09-01

    Exposure based treatments in which patients are systematically confronted with their feared objects of situations are highly effective in the treatment of specific phobias and produce stable improvement both in reported fear and behavioral avoidance. Exposure in reality is more effective in most cases than exposure in sensu. For situations that are difficult to realize, exposure in virtual environments has become increasingly valuable. Exposure in vivo is clearly superior to pharmacotherapy, although cognitive enhancers have been successfully used recently to increase the effect of exposure therapy. The induction of relaxation is not a necessary precondition for exposure therapy. Rather the current mechanisms of change focus on extinction learning as being the central mechanism both on a cognitive level namely that the feared object is no longer associated with severely threatening consequence but also on an affective level, meaning that feared cue is no longer capable to activate the fear circuit in the brain. Accordingly future diagnostic categorizations of phobic disorders in the DSM-V should rather focus on the pattern of the fear response that needs to be changed than on the eliciting cues or situations that are avoided.

  17. Basic helix-loop-helix proteins E2A and HEB induce immature T-cell receptor rearrangements in nonlymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. Langerak (Anton); I.L. Wolvers-Tettero; E.J. van Gastel-Mol (Ellen); M.E. Oud; J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractT-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements are mediated via V(D)J recombination, which is strictly regulated during lymphoid differentiation, most probably through the action of specific transcription factors. Investigated was whether cotransfection of RAG1 and

  18. Channel catfish重组激活基因克隆与鉴定%Cloning and identification of the rag 1 gene in channel catfish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    公衍文; 张云; 黄庆; 张雪; 府伟灵

    2004-01-01

    目的尝试用简并引物扩增序列未知的channel catfish基因组DNA中ragl基因的片段并测序,为ragl基因的早期进化模式和遗传学变异情况的研究提供直接的证据.方法基于ragl基因的高度保守设计简并引物,PCR扩增channel catfish基因组DNA中ragl基因的片段,TA克隆并双向测序.将所得序列资料拼接,用多种生物信息学方法分析其ORF、内含子、与其它物种ragI基因及Ragl蛋白的相似性,并做多序列比较和系统进化树分析.结果扩增出3条chan-nel catfish ragl基因的DNA片段.从拼接后的序列中找到一2 235bp的ORF和一293bp的内含子,所得序列与其它物种ragl基因的相似程度高(多大于70%),去除内含子后的channel catfish ragl基因序列与zebrafish、rainbow trout、bull shark的ragl基因cDNA全序列碱基一致的位点占43.9%,自第1 352位碱基至2 925位碱基为53.1%,而自第1位碱基至1 351位碱基为33.2%,有非常显著的差异(P<0.01).结论用简并引物成功扩增出channel catfish ragl基因的DNA片段.序列在GenBank中的登记号是:AY423858(去除内含子序列),AY423859.ragl基因进化缓慢,高度保守,不同物种ragI基因的变异相对集中在氨基末端的区域.系统进化树分析显示了13种硬骨鱼在进化上关系的亲疏.

  19. Differential reactions of soybean isolines with combinations of aphid resistance genes Rag1, Rag2, and Rag3 to four soybean aphid biotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the discovery of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) as a devastating insect pest of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in the United States, host resistance was recognized as an important management option. However, the identification of soybean aphid isolates exhibiting strong virulenc...

  20. 球形节杆菌C224分批发酵2-酮基-D-葡萄糖酸的条件优化及其动力学模型的构建%Optimization of 2-keto-D-gluconic acid batch fermentation by Arthrobacter globiformis C224 and its kinetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文敬; 高培玲; 魏转; 崔凤杰; 周延政; 滕文华; 刘敬泽

    2013-01-01

    In the present study,the operation parameters including aeration rate and initial glucose concentration during 50-L batch fermentation were optimized to increase the 2-keto-D-gluconic acid (2KGA) productivity from rice starch hydrolysate by Arthrobacter globiformis C224.The kinetic models for describing the cell growth,2KGA production and glucose consumption were proposed by using Logistic/Luedeking-Piret equations and mass balance calculation.Results showed that the 2KGA yield decreased slightly and its productivity lowered significantly when the aeration rate was below 1.5 v · v-1 · m-1 The initial glucose concentrations varying from 120.0 g/L to 180.0 g/L were optimal.Under the optimized conditions,the productivities and yields reached to 6.36 ~6.54 g/(L · h) and 0.96 ~0.97 g/g,respectively.Those proposed models could fit the predictive values well with the obtained experimental data.The determination coefficients (R2) of all models were over 0.95,which also indicated that theses models could elucidate the 2KGA metabolic characteristics of Arthrobacter globiformis C224.%通过优化发酵条件,提高球形节杆菌C224菌株利用大米淀粉水解糖分批发酵2-酮基-D-葡萄糖酸的生产强度,并在此基础上构建其发酵动力学模型.在50 L的发酵罐上考察了通气量与葡萄耱浓度对2-酮基-D-葡萄糖酸发酵的影响,并基于Logistic方程、Luedeking-Piret方程和物料平衡计算分别构建了菌体生长、产物形成和底物消耗的动力学模型.研究结果表明,通气量低于1.5 v·v-1·m-1时,发酵生产强度明显减小,糖酸转化率有所降低;发酵培养基中的葡萄糖浓度以120.0~180.0 g/L为宜,过高或过低对生产强度和糖酸转化率均有不利影响.在适宜的发酵条件下,球形节杆菌C224菌株分批发酵生产2-酮基-D-葡萄糖酸的生产强度达6.36~6.54 g/(L h),糖酸转化率为0.96 ~ 0.97 g/g.所构建动力学模型的计算值与实验值拟合效果

  1. Myositis specific autoantibodies : specificity and clinical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengstman, G.J.D.

    2005-01-01

    The sera of about half of the patients with myositis contain autoantibodies that are specific for this group of diseases compared to other inflammatory connective tissue disorders. In a recent study we showed that these myositis specific autoantibodies (MSAs) are also specific for myositis as compar

  2. Myositis specific autoantibodies : specificity and clinical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengstman, G.J.D.

    2005-01-01

    The sera of about half of the patients with myositis contain autoantibodies that are specific for this group of diseases compared to other inflammatory connective tissue disorders. In a recent study we showed that these myositis specific autoantibodies (MSAs) are also specific for myositis as compar

  3. Degradation of 4-fluorophenol by Arthrobacter sp strain IF1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, Maria Isabel M.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Janssen, Dick B.

    2008-01-01

    A Gram-positive bacterial strain capable of aerobic biodegradation of 4-fluorophenol (4-FP) as the sole source of carbon and energy was isolated by selective enrichment from soil samples collected near an industrial site. The organism, designated strain IF1, was identified as a member of the genus A

  4. Pigments produced by the bacteria belonging to the genus Arthrobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Sutthiwong, N.; Caro, Y.; Fouillaud, M.; Laurent, P.; Valla, A.; Dufossé, L.

    2013-01-01

    Poster communication, 7th International Congress of Pigments in Food – New technologies towards health, through colors, Novara, Italy, June 18-21, 2013.; International audience; Since several decades, pigments have been used as a taxonomic tool for the identification and classification of bacteria. Nowadays, pigment producing microorganisms have been also widely interested in scientific disciplines because of their biotechnological potential. With the growing interest in microbial pigments be...

  5. Metabolic regulation in the facultative methylotroph arthrobacter P1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1985-01-01

    Many microorganisms are able to utilize C1 compounds, i.e. compounds which do not contain carbon-carbon bonds, as carbon- and energy sources for growth. In order to synthesize cell constituents from these C1 compounds special metabolic pathways are employed by such organisms. Although a great deal

  6. Metabolic regulation in the facultative methylotroph arthrobacter P1

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Many microorganisms are able to utilize C1 compounds, i.e. compounds which do not contain carbon-carbon bonds, as carbon- and energy sources for growth. In order to synthesize cell constituents from these C1 compounds special metabolic pathways are employed by such organisms. Although a great deal of knowledge currently exists on the physiology and biochemistry of microorganisms able to grow on Cl compounds (autotrophs and methylotrophs), relatively little is known about the regulation of the...

  7. Arthrobacter enclensis sp. nov., isolated from sediment sample

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dastager, S.G.; Qin, L.; Tang, S.K.; Krishnamurthi, S.; Lee, J.C.; Li, W.J.

    A novel bacterial strain designated as NIO-1008(T) was isolated from marine sediments sample in Chorao Island India. Cells of the strains were gram positive and non-motile, displayed a rod-coccus life cycle and formed cream to light grey colonies...

  8. ALTERATIONS IN THE MICROBIAL LOAD AT CERTAIN NON-SPECIFIC IMMUNE SITES OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII SUPPLEMENTED WITH CENTELLA ASIATICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JASMINE ANAND

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium rosenbergii has been the focus of research in India in the past few years. As a negative impact tothe success of aquaculture due to intensification lead to higher disease outbreaks. The bacterial diseases are themost common due to intensification. In the present study the Macrobrachium rosenbergii fed with diet containingmedicinal plant, Centella asiatica to test the antimicrobial activity. The prawns were fed with diet containingC.asiatica (0.2%. After 4 months both control and the experimental prawns were examined for microbial flora.Isolation and identification were also done. The investigation showed a significant reduction in the pathogenicbacteria and also found an improvement in the probiotic bacteria in prawns fed with experimental diet containingC.asiatica than the control diet. The % survival is 75% in medicated diet, but it is only 40% in control diet. Themedicated diet also showed improved growth parameters. The total microbial load at non-specific immune sites,such as gill, gut and exoskeleton of both control and medicated feed were examined after the experiment. Thetotal microbial load at gill, gut,exoskeleton were 41.00 x 105,50.00 x 106,30.00 x 106 respectively in control feed,but total microbial load at gill, gut, exoskeleton were 34.00 x 105, 28.00 x 106, 22.00 x 106 respectively inmedicated feed. Major pathogenic bacteria found in culture were Vibrio type I, Staphylococcus type III, Micrococcustype I, Strepto coccus I, Acinetobacter type I, Acinetobacter typeIII, Arthrobacter type I, Enterobacteriacea,Flavobacterium Vibrio type II, Strepto coccus II, Pseudomonas. After treating with medicated diet, diversity andintensity of microbial flora get reduced and culture of medicated diet also showed presence of probiotic bacteriasuch as Bacillus

  9. High treatment efficacy by dual targeting of Burkitt's lymphoma xenografted mice with a {sup 177}Lu-based CD22-specific radioimmunoconjugate and rituximab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Tobias; Boetticher, Benedikt; Keller, Armin; Schlegelmilch, Anne; Jaeger, Dirk; Krauss, Juergen [Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany); Mier, Walter; Kraemer, Susanne; Leotta, Karin [Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Sauter, Max; Haberkorn, Uwe [Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Grosse-Hovest, Ludger [University of Tuebingen, Department of Immunology, Tuebingen (Germany); Arndt, Michaela A.E. [Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Immunotherapy Program, National Center for Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Dual-targeted therapy has been shown to be a promising treatment option in recurrent and/or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL). We generated radioimmunoconjugates (RICs) comprising either a novel humanized anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody, huRFB4, or rituximab, and the low-energy β-emitter {sup 177}Lu. Both RICs were evaluated as single agents in a human Burkitt's lymphoma xenograft mouse model. To increase the therapeutic efficacy of the anti-CD22 RIC, combination therapy with unlabelled anti-CD20 rituximab was explored. The binding activity of CHX-A''-DTPA-conjugated antibodies to target cells was analysed by flow cytometry. To assess tumour targeting of {sup 177}Lu-labelled antibodies, in vivo biodistribution experiments were performed. For radioimmunotherapy (RIT) studies, non-obese diabetic recombination activating gene-1 (NOD-Rag1{sup null}) interleukin-2 receptor common gamma chain (IL2r γ {sup null}) null mice (NRG mice) were xenografted subcutaneously with Raji Burkitt's lymphoma cells. {sup 177}Lu-conjugated antibodies were administered at a single dose of 9.5 MBq per mouse. For dual-targeted therapy, rituximab was injected at weekly intervals (0.5 - 1.0 mg). Tumour accumulation of RICs was monitored by planar scintigraphy. Conjugation of CHX-A''-DTPA resulted in highly stable RICs with excellent antigen-binding properties. Biodistribution experiments revealed higher tumour uptake of the {sup 177}Lu-labelled anti-CD22 IgG than of {sup 177}Lu-labelled rituximab. Treatment with {sup 177}Lu-conjugated huRFB4 resulted in increased tumour growth inhibition and significantly longer survival than treatment with {sup 177}Lu-conjugated rituximab. The therapeutic efficacy of the anti-CD22 RIC could be markedly enhanced by combination with unlabelled rituximab. These findings suggest that dual targeting with {sup 177}Lu-based CD22-specific RIT in combination with rituximab is a promising new treatment option for

  10. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  11. Phobia - simple/specific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anxiety disorder - phobia ... Specific phobias are a type of anxiety disorder in which a person may feel extremely anxious or has a ... when exposed to the object of fear. Specific phobias are a common mental disorder. Common phobias include ...

  12. The SIFT Code Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The specification of Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT) consists of two parts, the specifications of the SIFT models and the specifications of the SIFT PASCAL program which actually implements the SIFT system. The code specifications are the last of a hierarchy of models describing the operation of the SIFT system and are related to the SIFT models as well as the PASCAL program. These Specifications serve to link the SIFT models to the running program. The specifications are very large and detailed and closely follow the form and organization of the PASCAL code. In addition to describing each of the components of the SIFT code, the code specifications describe the assumptions of the upper SIFT models which are required to actually prove that the code will work as specified. These constraints are imposed primarily on the schedule tables.

  13. Experiences with effects specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    We describe the effects-specification process from a project that was conducted during the fall 2010 and spring of 2011 in this chapter. The project configured and implemented an electronic patient record system at a maternity ward at a hospital located in a European region. The process comprised...... for measuring effects were designed. The project is analyzed and lessons learned are discussed....... workshops with effects specification with management and end-users and an agile development process including prototypes configured from the effects specifications. We describe the project and the effects-specification process through which effects were related to the system design and instruments...

  14. Screening for Specific Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  15. Lidar base specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Hans Karl.

    2012-01-01

    In late 2009, a $14.3 million allocation from the “American Recovery and Reinvestment Act” for new light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data prompted the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program (NGP) to develop a common base specification for all lidar data acquired for The National Map. Released as a draft in 2010 and formally published in 2012, the USGS–NGP “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” (now Lidar Base Specification) was quickly embraced as the foundation for numerous state, county, and foreign country lidar specifications.

  16. Improved technical specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Improved technical specifications for nuclear power plants are outlined. The objectives of this work are to improve safety, provide a clearer understanding of safety significance, and ease NRC and industry administrative burdens. Line item improvements, bases, and implementation of the specifications are discussed.

  17. Place-Specific Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn

    2009-01-01

    An increased interest in the notion of place has evolved in interaction design based on the proliferation of wireless infrastructures, developments in digital media, and a ‘spatial turn’ in computing. In this article, place-specific computing is suggested as a genre of interaction design...... that addresses the shaping of interactions among people, place-specific resources and global socio-technical networks, mediated by digital technology, and influenced by the structuring conditions of place. The theoretical grounding for place-specific computing is located in the meeting between conceptions...... examples of place-specific computing are presented from a series of pilot studies, conducted in close collaboration with design students in Malmö, Berlin, Cape Town and Rome, that generated 36 design concepts in the genre. Reflecting on these examples, issues in the design of place-specific computing...

  18. SPECIFIC DEGRADATION OF WATERSHEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boubacar KANE; Pierre Y.JULIEN

    2007-01-01

    An extensive database of reservoir sedimentation surveys throughout continental United States is compiled and analyzed to determine specific degradation SD relationships as function of mean annual rainfall R, drainage area A, and watershed slope S. The database contains 1463 field measurements and specific degradation relationships are defined as function of A, R and S. Weak trends and significant variability in the data are noticeable. Specific degradation measurements are log normally distributed with respect to R, A, and S and 95% confidence intervals are determined accordingly. The accuracy of the predictions does not significantly increase as more independent variables are added to the regression analyses.

  19. FOXP3-specific immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2013-01-01

    Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells are present among human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), especially in cancer patients. Such T lymphocytes are able not only to specifically recognize dendritic cells (DCs) that have been exposed to recombinant FOXP3 and regulat...... and regulatory T cells, but also to kill FOXP3(+) malignant T cells. The natural occurrence of FOXP3-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes among human PBMCs suggests a general role for these cells in the complex network of immune regulation....

  20. The Learning Design Specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, Bill; Tattersall, Colin

    2005-01-01

    Olivier, B. & Tattersall, C. (2005). The Learning Design Specification In: Koper, R. & Tattersall, C., Learning Design: A Handbook on Modelling and Delivering Networked Education and Training (pp. 21-40). Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.

  1. Place-Specific Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Johansson, Michael

    An increased interest in the notion of place has evolved in interaction design. Proliferation of wireless infrastructure, developments in digital media, and a ‘spatial turn’ in computing provides the base for place-specific computing as a suggested new genre of interaction design. In the REcult...... project place- specific computing is explored through design oriented research. This article reports six pilot studies where design students have designed concepts for place-specific computing in Berlin (Germany), Cape Town (South Africa), Rome (Italy) and Malmö (Sweden). Background and arguments...... for place-specific computing as a genre of interaction design are described. A total number of 36 design concepts designed for 16 designated zones in the four cities are presented. An analysis of the design concepts is presented indicating potentials, possibilities and problems as directions for future...

  2. The Learning Design Specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, Bill; Tattersall, Colin

    2005-01-01

    Olivier, B. & Tattersall, C. (2005). The Learning Design Specification In: Koper, R. & Tattersall, C., Learning Design: A Handbook on Modelling and Delivering Networked Education and Training (pp. 21-40). Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.

  3. Ontology Requirements Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez-Figueroa, Mari Carmen; Gómez-Pérez, A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the ontology requirements specification activity is to state why the ontology is being built, what its intended uses are, who the end users are, and which requirements the ontology should fulfill. This chapter presents detailed methodological guidelines for specifying ontology requirements efficiently. These guidelines will help ontology engineers to capture ontology requirements and produce the ontology requirements specification document (ORSD). The ORSD will play a key role dur...

  4. Domain-Specific Multimodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessellund, Anders

    Enterprise systems are complex artifacts. They are hard to build, manage, understand, and evolve. Existing software development paradigms fail to properly address challenges such as system size, domain complexity, and software evolution when development is scaled to enterprise systems. We propose...... domain-specific multimodeling as a development paradigm to tackle these challenges in a language-oriented manner. The different concerns of a system are conceptually separated and made explicit as independent domain-specific languages. This approach increases productivity and quality by raising...... the overall level of abstraction. It does, however, also introduce a new problem of coordinating multiple different languages in a single system. We call this problem the coordination problem. In this thesis, we present the coordination method for domain-specific multimodeling that explicitly targets...

  5. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

     This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....... This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....

  6. Site-Specific Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik; Hemmersam, Peter

    2015-01-01

    , but also places for emerging lifestyles and cultural processes. In this transformation process, harbours provide arenas for a new urban dynamics, involving multiple sectors and functions in society, as opposed to the monoculturalism prevailing in the ages of the industrial city. To us, the critical...... question is how innovation may contribute to urban life and site-specific qualities....

  7. Acquiring specific interpreting competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zidar Forte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In postgraduate interpreter training, the main objective of the course is to help trainees develop various competences, from linguistic, textual and cultural competence, to professional and specific interpreting competence. For simultaneous interpreting (SI, the main focus is on mastering the SI technique and strategies as well as on developing and strengthening communicative skills, which is discussed and illustrated with examples in the present paper. First, a brief overview is given of all the necessary competences of a professional interpreter with greater emphasis on specific interpreting competence for SI. In the second part of the paper, various approaches are described in terms of acquiring specific skills and strategies, specifically through a range of exercises. Besides interpreting entire speeches, practical courses should also consist of targeted exercises, which help trainees develop suitable coping strategies and mechanisms (later on almost automatisms, while at the same time "force" them to reflect on their individual learning process and interpreting performance. This provides a solid base on which trained interpreters can progress and develop their skills also after joining the professional sphere.

  8. Site-Specific Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik; Hemmersam, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Currently, cities across the Northern European region are actively redeveloping their former industrial harbours. Indeed, harbours areas are essential in the long-term transition from industrial to information and experience societies; harbours are becoming sites for new businesses and residences...... question is how innovation may contribute to urban life and site-specific qualities....

  9. IDC System Specification Document.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, David J.

    2014-12-01

    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  10. LOCKE Detailed Specification Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Menezo, Lucia G; Gregorio, Jose-Angel

    2012-01-01

    This document shows the detailed specification of LOCKE coherence protocol for each cache controller, using a table-based technique. This representation provides clear, concise visual information yet includes sufficient detail (e.g., transient states) arguably lacking in the traditional, graphical form of state diagrams.

  11. Children's specific fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, H; Vostanis, P; Dogra, N; Doos, L; Ford, T; Goodman, R

    2009-11-01

    Most children experience some degree of fear during their development. Specific fears are considered as an appropriate response provided that they are proportionate to the intensity of the perceived threat. Our aim is to present the prevalence of specific fears among children in the Great Britain, their socio-demographic correlates, in particular their association with ethnicity. Data on the child's experience of specific fears were obtained from parents of a national representative sample of 5- to 16-year-olds using the Development and Well-Being Assessment. Biographic, socio-demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the child and the family were included in the questionnaire. About one-third of children were assessed by their parents as having at least one of 12 specific fears. The most commonly reported fears were animals (11.6%), blood/injections (10.8%) and the dark (6.3%). Just less than 1% of all children were assessed according to International Classification of Diseases research diagnostic criteria as having a specific phobia. Biographic, socio-demographic and socioeconomic factors were independently associated with a greater likelihood of a child having particular fears. The most marked associations were fears of the dark, loud noises, imagined supernatural beings in younger children and fear of animals among girls and all non-white groups. Although fears are only labelled as phobias when they impair functioning and interfere with life, they can cause personal distress to children and also can interfere with their daily activities. Children's fears differ in nature across different ethnic groups. Culturally mediated beliefs, values and traditions may play a role in their expression.

  12. Specificity in LSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas N. Huckin

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The defining feature of our field is the teaching and use of language for specific purposes. Not surprisingly, this has led to a debate over just how specific those purposes should be. The debate is longstanding, stirred initially by Hutchinson and Waters' classic 1980 article, 'ESP at the Crossroads' and reinvigorated most recently by Hyland (2002, who argues that the field has drifted away from specificity, becoming too generalized and diffuse. This paper lays out the arguments on both sides and then stakes out a position that draws from each of them. While agreeing with some of Hyland's criticisms of the 'wide-angle' position (for example, that generalized LSP can fail to appreciate the distinct linguistic and rhetorical features of specialized discourses, the paper criticizes his 'narrow-angle' position as well by pointing out that it can easily lead to a teacher-centered prescriptivism and to an overly rigid focus on certain forms and tasks at the expense of others. Furthermore, such an approach fails to prepare students for the unpredictable new forms of communication that await them in their professional careers. In general, a teachercentered approach, no matter how specific, is unlikely to have the pedagogical effectiveness of a student-centered approach, especially in heterogeneous classes. Specificity, it is argued, must ultimately be supplied by the student, not by the teacher, for it is the student more than the LSP teacher who is in the process of becoming an insider and whose interests are best served by becoming an astute analyst of the specialist discourse. The teacher's role should be that of facilitator, instructing students in analytic strategies, both rhetorical and textual. The paper concludes with a number of illustrations in how this can be done, drawing especially on work in genre study.

  13. Allergen Specific Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü Çekiç

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT is the only treatment that can provide a cure for allergic disorders. This treatment is based on development of immune tolerance by exposure to allergen in repetitive and increasing doses. It is tertiary to avoidance of allergen and pharmacotherapy. Allergens used for immunotherapy, must be confirmed by skin prick test or specific IgE and must be applied in supervision of allergy specialists. Studies show that immunotherapy, improve asthma symptoms, decreases drug consumption, prevent development of asthma in rhinitis patients and reduce new sensitizations. Common side effects diminished with the usage of standardized allergen solutions. It is contraindicated in severe asthma. Though it is recommended to avoid immunotherapy in patients using beta blockers and ACE inhibitors, immunotherapy can be considered in mandatory situations regarding possible benefits and harms. Most common ways of administration are subcutaneous and sublingual; new methods such as epicutaneous and intralymphatic injections are currently being studied.

  14. Safety detaching hook specification.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, JD

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available from the mean surface' and measured in micrometres (µm). Regulations Regulations pertaining to an act or amended act as promulgated by the Government of South Africa. SAATCA Southern African Auditor and Training Certification Association. SABS... of this specification have been adhered to. Technical Assessment An audit report on a manufacturer's systems for the management of product quality, issued by an independent auditor registered with SAATCA. 6 2. REQUIREMENTS 2.1 Design Requirements a) General...

  15. Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. I....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases....

  16. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. In the comp....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases. The comparative test cases include: ventilation, shading and geometry....

  17. Allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moote William

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen-specific immunotherapy is a potentially disease-modifying therapy that is effective for the treatment of allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis, allergic asthma and stinging insect hypersensitivity. However, despite its proven efficacy in these conditions, it is frequently underutilized in Canada. The decision to proceed with allergen-specific immunotherapy should be made on a case-by-case basis, taking into account individual patient factors such as the degree to which symptoms can be reduced by avoidance measures and pharmacological therapy, the amount and type of medication required to control symptoms, the adverse effects of pharmacological treatment, and patient preferences. Since this form of therapy carries the risk of anaphylactic reactions, it should only be prescribed by physicians who are adequately trained in the treatment of allergy. Furthermore, injections must be given under medical supervision in clinics that are equipped to manage anaphylaxis. In this article, the authors review the indications and contraindications, patient selection criteria, and the administration, safety and efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  18. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract......Concurrent objects are named concurrent processes that interact by invoking each other's operations. We describe how such concurrent objects can be specified, how objects can be composed, and how it can be shown that one object refines another.First a model is defined, based on a transition...

  19. Disease specific protein corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2015-03-01

    It is now well accepted that upon their entrance into the biological environments, the surface of nanomaterials would be covered by various biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids). The absorption of these biomolecules, so called `protein corona', onto the surface of (nano)biomaterials confers them a new `biological identity'. Although the formation of protein coronas on the surface of nanoparticles has been widely investigated, there are few reports on the effect of various diseases on the biological identity of nanoparticles. As the type of diseases may tremendously changes the composition of the protein source (e.g., human plasma/serum), one can expect that amount and composition of associated proteins in the corona composition may be varied, in disease type manner. Here, we show that corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles (after interaction with in the plasma of the healthy individuals) could induce unfolding of fibrinogen, which promotes release of the inflammatory cytokines. However, no considerable releases of inflammatory cytokines were observed for corona coated graphene sheets. In contrast, the obtained corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles from the hypofibrinogenemia patients could not induce inflammatory cytokine release where graphene sheets do. Therefore, one can expect that disease-specific protein coronas can provide a novel approach for applying nanomedicine to personalized medicine, improving diagnosis and treatment of different diseases tailored to the specific conditions and circumstances.

  20. Expression of HLA Class II Molecules in Humanized NOD.Rag1KO.IL2RgcKO Mice is Critical for Development and Function of Human T and B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    biological functions, namely (i) ability to cross placenta , (ii) ability to activate the complement cascade and (iii) affinity binding to Fc receptors...Liu YJ (2006) A unified theory of central tolerance in the thymus. Trends Immunol 27: 215–221. 41. Greinix HT, Ladiges WC, Graham TC, Maslan S, Raff RF...JM (1997) Early activation defects in T lymphocytes from aged mice. Immunol Rev 160: 79–90. 46. Ozaki K, Spolski R, Ettinger R, Kim HP, Wang G, et al

  1. Degradation and induction specificity in actinomycetes that degrade p-nitrophenol.

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    We have isolated two soil bacteria (identified as Arthrobacter aurescens TW17 and Nocardia sp. strain TW2) capable of degrading p-nitrophenol (PNP) and numerous other phenolic compounds. A. aurescens TW17 contains a large plasmid which correlated with the PNP degradation phenotype. Degradation of PNP by A. aurescens TW17 was induced by preexposure to PNP, 4-nitrocatechol, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol, or m-nitrophenol, whereas PNP degradation by Nocardia sp. strain TW2 was induced by PNP, 4-nitroca...

  2. ADANS database specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-16

    The purpose of the Air Mobility Command (AMC) Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) Database Specification (DS) is to describe the database organization and storage allocation and to provide the detailed data model of the physical design and information necessary for the construction of the parts of the database (e.g., tables, indexes, rules, defaults). The DS includes entity relationship diagrams, table and field definitions, reports on other database objects, and a description of the ADANS data dictionary. ADANS is the automated system used by Headquarters AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) for airlift planning and scheduling of peacetime and contingency operations as well as for deliberate planning. ADANS also supports planning and scheduling of Air Refueling Events by the TACC and the unit-level tanker schedulers. ADANS receives input in the form of movement requirements and air refueling requests. It provides a suite of tools for planners to manipulate these requirements/requests against mobility assets and to develop, analyze, and distribute schedules. Analysis tools are provided for assessing the products of the scheduling subsystems, and editing capabilities support the refinement of schedules. A reporting capability provides formatted screen, print, and/or file outputs of various standard reports. An interface subsystem handles message traffic to and from external systems. The database is an integral part of the functionality summarized above.

  3. Tissue specific electrochemical fingerprinting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlina Sobrova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Proteomics and metalloproteomics are rapidly developing interdisciplinary fields providing enormous amounts of data to be classified, evaluated and interpreted. Approaches offered by bioinformatics and also by biostatistical data analysis and treatment are therefore of extreme interest. Numerous methods are now available as commercial or open source tools for data processing and modelling ready to support the analysis of various datasets. The analysis of scientific data remains a big challenge, because each new task sets its specific requirements and constraints that call for the design of a targeted data pre-processing approach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study proposes a mathematical approach for evaluating and classifying datasets obtained by electrochemical analysis of metallothionein in rat 9 tissues (brain, heart, kidney, eye, spleen, gonad, blood, liver and femoral muscle. Tissue extracts were heated and then analysed using the differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. The voltammograms were subsequently processed. Classification models were designed making separate use of two groups of attributes, namely attributes describing local extremes, and derived attributes resulting from the level=5 wavelet transform. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: On the basis of our results, we were able to construct a decision tree that makes it possible to distinguish among electrochemical analysis data resulting from measurements of all the considered tissues. In other words, we found a way to classify an unknown rat tissue based on electrochemical analysis of the metallothionein in this tissue.

  4. Site-specific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M.E. Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantify the near-surface seismic properties (P- and S-wave velocities, and the dynamic elastic properties with respect to the depth at a specific area (6th of October club, we conducted a non-invasive and low cost active seismic survey. The primary wave velocity is determined by conducting a P-wave shallow seismic refraction survey. The dispersive characteristics of Rayleigh type surface waves were utilized for imaging the shallow subsurface layers by estimating the 1D (depth and 2D (depth and surface location shear wave velocities. The reliability of the Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW depends on the accurate determination of phase velocities for horizontally traveling fundamental mode Rayleigh waves. Consequently, the elastic properties are evaluated empirically. The Vs30 (average shear wave velocity down to 30 m depth, which is obtained from the MASW technique, plays a critical role in evaluating the site response of the upper 30 m depth. The distribution of the obtained values of Vs30 through the studied area demonstrates site classes of C and D, according to the NEHRP (National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program and IBC (International Building Code standards.

  5. A new type of radiosensitive T-B-NK+ severe combined immunodeficiency caused by a LIG4 mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Burg (Mirjam); M.Z. Zdzienicka (Malgorzata); D.C. van Gent (Dik); J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques); L.R. van Veelen (Lieneke); N.S. Verkaik (Nicole); W.W. Wiegant (Wouter); N.G. Hartwig (Nico); B.H. Barendregt (Barbara); L.J.L. Brugmans (Linda); A. Raams (Anja); N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractV(D)J recombination of Ig and TCR loci is a stepwise process during which site-specific DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are made by RAG1/RAG2, followed by DSB repair by nonhomologous end joining. Defects in V(D)J recombination result in SCID characterized by absence of

  6. Teaching English for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Netikšienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English for Specific Purposes and General English is analysed in the article. The scientific approach of a scientist M. Rosenberg is presented. The experience of teaching English for Specific Purposesat VGTU is alsopresented. The ideas and teaching methods from the classes of general English can be transferred to the classes of English for Specific Purposes.

  7. Specification-Based Testing Via Domain Specific Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sroka Michal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents tCF (testCaseFramework - a domain specific language with corresponding toolchain for specification-based software testing of embedded software. tCF is designed for efficient preparation of maintainable and intelligible test cases and for testing process automation, as it allows to generate platform specific test cases for various testing levels. The article describes the essential parts of the tCF meta-model and the applied concept of platform specific test cases generators.

  8. Ion specificities of artificial macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lvdan; Kou, Ran; Liu, Guangming

    2016-12-21

    Artificial macromolecules are well-defined synthetic polymers, with a relatively simple structure as compared to naturally occurring macromolecules. This review focuses on the ion specificities of artifical macromolecules. Ion specificities are influenced by solvent-mediated indirect ion-macromolecule interactions and also by direct ion-macromolecule interactions. In aqueous solutions, the role of water-mediated indirect ion-macromolecule interactions will be discussed. The addition of organic solvents to aqueous solutions significantly changes the ion specificities due to the formation of water-organic solvent complexes. For direct ion-macromolecule interactions, we will discuss specific ion-pairing interactions for charged macromolecules and specific ion-neutral site interactions for uncharged macromolecules. When the medium conditions change from dilute solutions to crowded environments, the ion specificities can be modified by either the volume exclusion effect, the variation of dielectric constant, or the interactions between ions, macromolecules, and crowding agents.

  9. The Order Specification Decoupling Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2004-01-01

    find some welding specifications or product descriptions which are standard for every order, while there may be other specifications, such as bill-of-materials and drawings, which are customized. Through a use of this concept it becomes possible to discuss different levels of OSDL and different variant......This paper discusses the important issue in build-to-order production of separating innovative long term engineering processes from day-to-day variant specification processes, i.e. the processes creating specifications such as bill-of-materials, drawings, text descriptions, routings etc. The paper...... proposes and discusses the term Order Specification Decoupling Line (OSDL), which is to be used to explain the separation of industrial specifications into some information created prior to order acquisition and some information created during order acquisition and order fulfillment. For instance one may...

  10. Action-Specific Effects Underwater

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, Jessica; Schuck, Donald M; Taylor, J. Eric T.

    2011-01-01

    Action-specific effects on perception are apparent in terrestrial environments. For example, targets that require more effort to walk, jump, or throw to look farther away than when the targets require less effort. Here, we examined whether action-specific effects would generalize to an underwater environment. Instead, perception might be geometrically precise, rather than action-specific, in an environment that is novel from an evolutionary perspective. We manipulated ease to swim by giving p...

  11. [Multilingualism and specific language impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.

  12. Specific features of bacterial communities in floodplain agrocenoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovol'Skaya, T. G.; Leont'evskaya, E. A.; Sneg, A. A.; Balabko, P. N.

    2010-04-01

    The analysis of the taxonomic structure of the bacterial complexes in the alluvial soils of the Oka River valley allowed revealing the distinct differences in the spectrum of the bacterial dominants in the virgin and cultivated soils. Arthrobacter and pigment coryneform bacteria are shown to predominate in the virgin soil; bacilli and pseudomonades are common in the soil under vegetables. On cabbage leaves and carrot roots (both healthy and rotten), the spectrum of dominants is composed of two genera of enterobacteria: Pantoea and Erwinia. As a result of the plowing in of vegetables into the soil, enterobacteria accumulate; among them, phytopathogenic species are present. Within a year after this plowing in and the new yield, the enterobacteria practically disappeared, but myxobacteria and cytophages developed. Since these bacteria belong to the cellulose-destroying prokaryotes, the increase in their contents in the soil testified to their participation in the decomposition of the buried vegetable residues. Weeds are known to concentrate various bacterial forms in the phylloplane; they enter from different ecological niches: soil, water, meadow, and agricultural plants. Representatives of phytopathogenic bacteria as minor components were found on weeds.

  13. Hanford Site environmental management specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.

    1998-06-10

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) uses this Hanford Site Environmental Management Specification (Specification) to document top-level mission requirements and planning assumptions for the prime contractors involved in Hanford Site cleanup and infrastructure activities under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management. This Specification describes at a top level the activities, facilities, and infrastructure necessary to accomplish the cleanup of the Hanford Site and assigns this scope to Site contractors and their respective projects. This Specification also references the key National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), and safety documentation necessary to accurately describe the cleanup at a summary level. The information contained in this document reflects RL`s application of values, priorities, and critical success factors expressed by those involved with and affected by the Hanford Site project. The prime contractors and their projects develop complete baselines and work plans to implement this Specification. These lower-level documents and the data that support them, together with this Specification, represent the full set of requirements applicable to the contractors and their projects. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this Specification to the other basic Site documents. Similarly, the documents, orders, and laws referenced in this specification represent only the most salient sources of requirements. Current and contractual reference data contain a complete set of source documents.

  14. Response to "Transfer or Specificity?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Transfer or Specificity?" and reports a research that supports a strong case for a fundamental motor skill as a precursor to two sport specific skills as in Gallahue and Ozmun's (2002) theoretical model of motor development. Reported changes in performance of the overarm throw are…

  15. Performance Specifications for Occupational Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore. Div. of Career Technology and Adult Learning.

    This document lists and discusses the development of Maryland's performance specifications for occupational programs. The introduction explains the process used to develop performance standards and specifications for 10 career cluster majors that were identified by a task force of educators and employers as high-demand occupational areas in…

  16. Functional specifications for mathematical computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, J.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Harmer, T.J. (Queen' s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (UK). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    Are functional programs useful for specifying numerical computations We believe they certainly are, despite the long-established tradition of using procedural languages for such computations. We have prepared a pure functional specification for an algorithm that solves one-dimensional hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). Using automated program transformations, we have derived a Fortran program from this specification that executes faster on a CRAY X-MP than does the hand-written Fortran implementation of the same algorithm. We discuss the development of the initial specification for the one-dimensional problem and its evolution into a second specification for solving multidimensional hyperbolic PDEs. In this second specification, the dimensionality of the problem is completely parameterized and is given by specifying the set of neighbors of a cell in the grid. Thus, programs can be derived from this specification to solve hyperbolic PDEs of any given dimensionality. Our goal is to elucidate how we approach specifying numerical computations in the functional style and to show how we take advantage of the modularity and abstractness of functional programming to obtain a very high-level representation of the algorithm. We also briefly discuss transformational derivation of efficient programs from such specifications. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Patient-Specific Computational Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Peña, Estefanía

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses patient-specific modeling. It integrates computational modeling, experimental procedures, imagine clinical segmentation and mesh generation with the finite element method (FEM) to solve problems in computational biomedicine and bioengineering. Specific areas of interest include cardiovascular problems, ocular and muscular systems and soft tissue modeling. Patient-specific modeling has been the subject of serious research over the last seven years and interest in the area is continually growing and this area is expected to further develop in the near future.

  18. Highly specific blockade of CCR5 inhibits leukocyte trafficking and reduces mucosal inflammation in murine colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencarelli, Andrea; Cipriani, Sabrina; Francisci, Daniela; Santucci, Luca; Baldelli, Franco; Distrutti, Eleonora; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2016-08-05

    Targeted disruption of leukocyte trafficking to the gut represents a promising approach for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). CCR5, the shared receptor for MIP1α and β and RANTES, is expressed by multiple leukocytes. Here, we aimed to determine the role of CCR5 in mediating leukocyte trafficking in models of colitis, and evaluate the therapeutic potential of maraviroc, an orally active CCR5 antagonist used in the treatment of CCR5-tropic HIV. Acute and chronic colitis were induced by administration of DSS or TNBS to wild-type and CCR5(-/-) mice or adoptive transfer of splenic naïve CD4(+) T-cells from wild type or CCR5(-/-) mice into RAG-1(-/-). CCR5 gene ablation reduced the mucosal recruitment and activation of CCR5-bearing CD4(+) and CD11b(+) leukocytes, resulting in profound attenuation of signs and symptoms of inflammation in the TNBS and transfer models of colitis. In the DSS/TNBS colitis and in the transfer model, maraviroc attenuated development of intestinal inflammation by selectively reducing the recruitment of CCR5 bearing leukocytes. In summary, CCR5 regulates recruitment of blood leukocytes into the colon indicating that targeting CCR5 may offer therapeutic options in IBDs.

  19. Youth job market specific features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Yu. Zhuravleva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers youth job market peculiarities, its specific features and regulation means, determines theoretical and application tasks of qualitative and quantitative comparison of vocations, which are highly in demand at the job market.

  20. GFF Specification for SAR Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, Nathan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bielek, Timothy P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Matthews, John D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coakley, Henry John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pan, Len [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This document provides the basic GFF format definition for a GFF file. This document covers the contents of the main header and the basic GFF file structure. The contents of specific extensions are covered in a separate document.

  1. Eternity Variables to Simulate Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, WH; Boiten, EA; Moller, B

    2002-01-01

    Simulation of specifications is introduced as a unification and generalization of refinement mappings, history variables, forward simulations, prophecy variables, and backward simulations. Eternity variables are introduced as a more powerful alternative for prophecy variables and backward simulation

  2. EEG in Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The value of routine wake electroencephalography in children with specific language impairment was reviewed retrospectively in 111 children examined over a 10-year interval at Montreal Children’s Hospital, Quebec, Çanada.

  3. CCL22-specific T Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenaite, Evelina; Munir Ahmad, Shamaila; Hansen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating macrophages produce the chemokine CCL22, which attracts regulatory T cells (Tregs) into the tumor microenvironment, decreasing anticancer immunity. Here, we investigated the possibility of targeting CCL22-expressing cells by activating specific T cells. We...... analyzed the CCL22 protein signal sequence, identifying a human leukocyte antigen A2- (HLA-A2-) restricted peptide epitope, which we then used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) to expand populations of CCL22-specific T cells in vitro. T cells recognizing an epitope derived from...... the signal-peptide of CCL22 will recognize CCL22-expressing cells even though CCL22 is secreted out of the cell. CCL22-specific T cells recognized and killed CCL22-expressing cancer cells. Furthermore, CCL22-specific T cells lysed acute monocytic leukemia cells in a CCL22 expression-dependent manner. Using...

  4. SPECIFIC EMISSIONS FROM BIOMASS COMBUSTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skopec

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with determining the specific emissions from the combustion of two kinds of biomass fuels in a small-scale boiler. The tested fuels were pellets made of wood and pellets made of rape plant straw. In order to evaluate the specific emissions, several combustion experiments were carried out using a commercial 25 kW pellet-fired boiler. The specific emissions of CO, SO2 and NOx were evaluated in relation to a unit of burned fuel, a unit of calorific value and a unit of produced heat. The specific emissions were compared with some data acquired from the reference literature, with relatively different results. The differences depend mainly on the procedure used for determining the values, and references provide no information about this. Although some of our experimental results may fit with one of the reference sources, they do not fit with the other. The reliability of the references is therefore disputable.

  5. Site Specific Weed Control Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend; Søgaard, Henning Tangen; Kudsk, Per;

    2009-01-01

    describe the basic parts of site specific weed control technologies, comprising of weed sensing systems, weed management models and precision weed control implements. A review of state-of-the-art technologies shows that several weed sensing systems and precision implements have been developed over the last...... of knowledge about the economic and environmental potential for increasing the resolution of weed control. The integration of site-specific information on weed distribution, weed species composition and density, and the effect on crop yield, is decisive for successful site-specific weed management.   Keywords......Site-specific weed control technologies are defined as machinery or equipment embedded with technologies that detect weeds growing in a crop and, taking into account predefined factors such as economics, takes action to maximise the chances of successfully controlling them. In the article, we...

  6. Eternity Variables to Simulate Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, WH; Boiten, EA; Moller, B

    2002-01-01

    Simulation of specifications is introduced as a unification and generalization of refinement mappings, history variables, forward simulations, prophecy variables, and backward simulations. Eternity variables are introduced as a more powerful alternative for prophecy variables and backward

  7. A Domain Specific DSP Processor

    OpenAIRE

    Tell, Eric

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes the design of a domain specific DSP processor. The thesis is divided into two parts. The first part gives some theoretical background, describes the different steps of the design process (both for DSP processors in general and for this project) and motivates the design decisions made for this processor. The second part is a nearly complete design specification. The intended use of the processor is as a platform for hardware acceleration units. Support for this has howe...

  8. [Specificities of pneumonia in geriatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepersack, T

    2014-09-01

    Pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality leading to a high rate of hospitalization especially in theelderly. It is often a sign of frailty and is associated with a poor prognosis. However, taking into account the geriatric specificities (risk factors, atypical clinical presentations with "geriatric syndromes", ethical debate) using an interdisciplinary and a comprehensive geriatric approach remains an important responsibility of the general practitionner. This article summarizes these specificities and offers interventions targeted on the characteristics of elderly patients.

  9. Specific yield: compilation of specific yields for various materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A.I.

    1967-01-01

    Specific yield is defined as the ratio of (1) the volume of water that a saturated rock or soil will yield by gravity to (2) the total volume of the rock or soft. Specific yield is usually expressed as a percentage. The value is not definitive, because the quantity of water that will drain by gravity depends on variables such as duration of drainage, temperature, mineral composition of the water, and various physical characteristics of the rock or soil under consideration. Values of specific yields nevertheless offer a convenient means by which hydrologists can estimate the water-yielding capacities of earth materials and, as such, are very useful in hydrologic studies. The present report consists mostly of direct or modified quotations from many selected reports that present and evaluate methods for determining specific yield, limitations of those methods, and results of the determinations made on a wide variety of rock and soil materials. Although no particular values are recommended in this report, a table summarizes values of specific yield, and their averages, determined for 10 rock textures. The following is an abstract of the table. [Table

  10. CASL, the Common Algebraic Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossakowski, Till; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Sannella, Donald;

    2008-01-01

    CASL is an expressive specification language that has been designed to supersede many existing algebraic specification languages and provide a standard. CASL consists of several layers, including basic (unstructured) specifications, structured specifications and architectural specifications...

  11. CASL, the Common Algebraic Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossakowski, Till; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Sannella, Donald

    2008-01-01

    CASL is an expressive specification language that has been designed to supersede many existing algebraic specification languages and provide a standard. CASL consists of several layers, including basic (unstructured) specifications, structured specifications and architectural specifications...

  12. NIF optical specifications - the importance of the RMS gradient specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerbach, J M; Cotton, C T; English, R E; Henesian, M A; Hunt J T; Kelly, J H; Lawson, J K; Sacks, J B; Shoup, M J; Trenholme, W H

    1998-07-06

    The performance of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), especially in terms of laser focusability, will be determined by several key factors. One of these key factors is the optical specification for the thousands of large aperture optics that will comprise the 192 beamlines. We have previously reported on the importance of the specification of the power spectral density (PSD) on NIF performance. Recently, we have been studying the importance of long spatial wavelength (>33 mm) phase errors on focusability. We have concluded that the preferred metric for determining the impact of these long spatial wavelength phase errors is the rms phase gradient. In this paper, we outline the overall approach to NIF optical specifications, detail the impact of the rms phase gradient on NIF focusability, discuss its trade-off with the PSD in determining the spot size and review measurements of optics similar to those to be manufactured for NIF.

  13. VHDL Specification Methodology from High-level Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmohammed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Design complexity has been increasing exponentially this last decade. In order to cope with such an increase and to keep up designers' productivity, higher level specifications were required. Moreover new synthesis systems, starting with a high level specification, have been developed in order to automate and speed up processor design. This study presents a VHDL specification methodology aimed to extend structured design methodologies to the behavioral level. The goal is to develop VHDL modeling strategies in order to master the design and analysis of large and complex systems. Structured design methodologies are combined with a high-level synthesis system, a VHDL based behavioral synthesis tool, in order to allow hierarchical design and component re-use.

  14. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaw, J. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -11/ Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components. (LEW)

  15. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  16. Compiler writing system detail design specification. Volume 1: Language specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Construction within the Meta language for both language and target machine specification is reported. The elements of the function language as a meaning and syntax are presented, and the structure of the target language is described which represents the target dependent object text representation of applications programs.

  17. Age‑specific Serum Prostate Specific Antigen Ranges Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in Nigeria.[1‑4] Currently ..... PSA reference ranges in Chinese men without prostate cancer. Asian J Androl ... of obesity on serum prostate‑specific antigen in Nigerian men. Urol Int 2012 ...

  18. Program Construction by Verifying Specification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林洪; 陈国良

    1998-01-01

    A program construction method based on Gamma language is proposed.The problem to be solved is specified by first-order predicate logic and a semantic verification program is constructed directly from the specification.Ways for improving efficiency of the program are also studied.The method differs from the one proposed by Manna and Waldinger,where a program is extracted from the proof of the existence of an object meeting the given specification.On the other hand,it also differs from the classical one used for deriving Gamma programs of Banatre and Le metayes,which consists in decomposing the specification into an invariant and a termination conditon.

  19. Specific probiotics or 'fecal transplantation'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The intestinal ecosystem consists mainly of the enteric flora and to a large extent determines intestinal but also extraintestinal health and disease. General alterations and specific molecular changes of intestinal bacteria cause local as well as systemic immune reactions. Nonantibiotic treatment of the enteric flora has a long tradition and spans a range of different interventions from nutrition to specific probiotics and complete fecal transplantation. When comparing therapy to specific probiotics and fecal transplantation, several aspects need to be considered, like biological consequences, safety and therapeutic evidence. The introduction of probiotics into therapy occurred more than hundred years ago. In contrast, experiences with fecal transplantation are more recent and more limited. Safety issues have not been definitively clarified. Because of the different biological activities of probiotics and fecal transplantation, it can be hypothesized that they may play different roles in the treatment of various diseases. More research is needed before the details, safety and therapeutic effects of bacteriotherapy for IBD become sufficiently clear.

  20. Methylation-Specific PCR Unraveled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Derks

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylation‐specific PCR (MSP is a simple, quick and cost‐effective method to analyze the DNA methylation status of virtually any group of CpG sites within a CpG island. The technique comprises two parts: (1 sodium bisulfite conversion of unmethylated cytosine's to uracil under conditions whereby methylated cytosines remains unchanged and (2 detection of the bisulfite induced sequence differences by PCR using specific primer sets for both unmethylated and methylated DNA. This review discusses the critical parameters of MSP and presents an overview of the available MSP variants and the (clinical applications.

  1. Degradation and induction specificity in actinomycetes that degrade p-nitrophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanne, L.F.; Kirk, L.L.; Appel, S.M.; Narayan, A.D.; Bains, K.K. (California State Univ., Chico, CA (United States))

    1993-10-01

    We have isolated two soil bacteria (identified as Arthrobacter aurescens TW17 and Nocardia sp. strain TW2) capable of degrading p-nitrophenol (PNP) and numerous other phenolic compounds. A. aurescens TW17 contains a large plasmid which correlated with the PNP degradation phenotype. Degradation of PNP by A. aurescens TW 17 was induced by preexposure to PNP, 4-nitrocatechol, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol, or m-nitrophenol, whereas PNP degradation by Nocardia sp. strain TW2 was induced by PNP, 4-nitrocatechol, phenol, p-cresol, or m-nitrophenol. A. aurescens TW17 initially degraded PNP to hydroquinone and nitrite. Nocardia sp. strain TW2 initially converted PNP to hydroquinone or 4-nitrocatechol, depending upon the inducing compound.

  2. Portable File Format (PFF) specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Daniel H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Created at Sandia National Laboratories, the Portable File Format (PFF) allows binary data transfer across computer platforms. Although this capability is supported by many other formats, PFF files are still in use at Sandia, particularly in pulsed power research. This report provides detailed PFF specifications for accessing data without relying on legacy code.

  3. Final Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one....

  4. Specific yield, High Plains aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents specific-yield ranges in the High Plains aquifer of the United States. The High Plains aquifer underlies 112.6 million acres (176,000...

  5. Adaptive Assessments Using Open Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Hector Barbosa; Garcia-Penalvo, Francisco J.; Rodriguez-Conde, Maria Jose; Morales, Erla M.; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation is a key element in formal education processes; it must be constructed in a way that the item questions within help students understand by adapting them to the learning style as well. The focus of the present research work specifically in the convenience to adapt an associated multimedia material in each single question besides the…

  6. [Specificities in children wound healing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J; Antonicelli, F; Tuton, D; Mazouz Dorval, S; François, C

    2016-10-01

    Children have specific characteristics of wound healing. The aim of this study was to describe the specific clinical characteristics of wounds healing in children and to present the current knowledge on the specific mechanisms with regard to infant age. The tissue insult or injury in fetus can heal without scar, mainly due to reduced granulation tissue associated to diminished or even no inflammatory phase, modified extracellular matrix such as the concentration of hyaluronic acid in amniotic liquid, expression and arrangement of collagen and tenascin. Thickness of children skin is a serious negative factor in case of trauma, whereas poor co-morbidities and efficient growth tissue mechanisms are beneficial to good evolution, even in cases of extensive damage and loss of tissue. The subsequent tissue mechanical forces, wound healing during childhood, spanning from the age of 2 until the end of puberty, is associated with more hypertrophic scars, both in duration and in intensity. Consequently, unnecessary surgery has to be avoided during this period when possible, and children with abnormal or pathologic wound healing should benefit from complementary treatments (hydration, massage, brace, silicone, hydrotherapy…), which represent efficient factors to minimize tissue scarring. After wound healing, the growth body rate can be responsible for specific complications, such as contractures, alopecia, and scar intussusceptions. Its evolutionary character implies the need of an attentive follow-up until adult age. Psychologic repercussions, as a consequence of pathologic scars, must be prevented and investigated by the surgeon.

  7. CONTRACT DOCUMENTS AND PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    First California Commission on School Construction Systems, Palo Alto.

    A SET OF EDUCATIONAL SPECIFICATION DRAFTED BY THE FIRST CALIFORNIA COMMISSION ON SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS GIVES INFORMATION ON BIDDING PROCEDURES, A DESCRIPTION OF THE CURRENT CONSTRUCTION PROGRAM, PROCEDURES FOR SUBMITTING A PROPOSAL, DATA AND CONDITIONS RELATED TO THE DEVELOPMENT PHASE OF THE PROJECT, COMPONENT CONTRACTS, AND GENERAL…

  8. Priming the Query Specification Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toms, Elaine G.; Freund, Luanne

    2003-01-01

    Tests the use of questions as a technique in the query specification process. Using a within-subjects design, 48 people interacted with a modified Google interface to solve four information problems in four domains. Half the tasks were entered as typical keyword queries, and half as questions or statements. Results suggest the typical search box…

  9. Behaviour specification in database interoperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, W.W.M.; Apers, Peter M.G.

    We discuss the impact of locally implemented behaviour in a federation of object-oriented databases. In particular, given a specification of an integrated view of a number of component databases, we discuss the process of determining the global methods that are implicitly implemented by a given set

  10. Domain specific MT in use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus; Almsten, Lisbeth Kjeldgaard

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on domain specific use of MT with a special focus on SMT in the workflow of a Language Service Provider (LSP). We report on the feedback of post-editors using fluency/adequacy evaluation and the evaluation metric ’Usability’, understood in this context as where users on a three ...

  11. Epididymis-specific lipocalin promoters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kichiya Suzuki; Xiuping Yu; Pierre Chaurand; Yoshihiko Araki; Jean-Jacques Lareyre; Richard M. Caprioli; Marie-Claire Orgebin-Crist; Robert J. Matusik

    2007-01-01

    Our goal is to decipher which DNA sequences are required for tissue-specific expression of epididymal genes. At least 6 epididymis-specific lipocalin genes are known. These are differently regulated and regionalized in the epididymis.Lipocalin 5 (Lcn5 or mE-RABP) and Lipocalin 8 (Lcn8 or mEP17) are homologous genes belonging to the epididymis-specific lipocalin gene cluster. Both the 5 kb promoter fragment of the Lcn5 gene and the 5.3 kb promoter fragment of the Lcn8 gene can direct transgene expression in the epididymis (Lcn5 to the distal caput and Lcn8 to the initial segment), indicating that these promoter fragments contain important cis-regulatory element(s) for epididymisspecific gene expression. To define further the fragments regulating gene expression, the Lcn5 promoter was examined in transgenic mice and immortalized epididymal cell lines. After serial deletion, the 1.8 kb promoter fragment of the Lcn5 gene was sufficient for tissue-specific and region-specific gene expression in transgenic mice. Transient transfection analysis revealed that a transcription factor forkhead box A2 (Foxa2) interacts with androgen receptor and binds to the 100 bp fragment of the Lcn5 promoter between 1.2 kb and 1.3 kb and that Foxa2 expression inhibitsandrogen-dependent induction of the Lcn5 promoter activity. Immunohistochemistry indicated a restricted expression of Foxa2 in the epididymis where endogenous Lcn5 gene expression is suppressed and that the Foxa2 inhibition of the Lcn5 promoter is consistent with the lack of expression of Lcn5 in the corpus and cauda. Our approach provides a basic strategy for further analysis of the epididymal lipocalin gene regulation and flexible control of epididymal function.

  12. Tissue Specific Labeling in Proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Ramberger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is a powerful tool for identifying and quantifying proteins in biological samples. While it is routinely used for the characterization of simple cell line systems, the analysis of the cell specific proteome in multicellular organisms and tissues poses a significant challenge. Isolating a subset of cells from tissues requires mechanical and biochemical separation or sorting, a process which can alter cellular signaling, and thus, the composition of the proteome. Recently, several approaches for cell selective labeling of proteins, that include bioorthogonal amino acids, biotinylating enzymes, and genetic tools, have been developed. These tools facilitate the selective labeling of proteins, their interactome, or of specific cell types within a tissue or an organism, while avoiding the difficult and contamination-prone biochemical separation of cells from the tissue. In this review, we give an overview of existing techniques and their application in cell culture models and whole animals.

  13. A development calculus for specifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李未

    2003-01-01

    A first order inference system, named R-calculus, is defined to develop the specifications.This system intends to eliminate the laws which are not consistent with users' requirements. TheR-calculus consists of the structural rules, an axiom, a cut rule, and the rules for logical connectives.Some examples are given to demonstrate the usage of the R-calculus. Furthermore, the propertiesregarding reachability and completeness of the R-calculus are formally defined and proved.

  14. [Quality specification of Curcumae Radix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingjing; Zhang, Qingzhe; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Qiwei

    2010-08-01

    To establish and revise the quality specification of Curcumae Radix. TLC identification was carried out by the method in Appendix VI B in Chinese pharmacopoeia (2005th Edition) and the contents of volatile oil was determined by the method describing in Appendix XD. Twenty-four Samples from four different curcuma species were performed TLC qualitative analysis and volatile determination, respectively. The established method can be used for the quality control of Curcumae Radix.

  15. Rapid Estimation of Specific Impulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bhat

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific impulse (Isp is one of the important criteria for propellant characterisation. In the present paper a semiempirical approach has been suggested to calculate Isp of composite modified doublebase(CMDB propellant formulations by utilizing calorimetric value(Cal-Val of the propellant composition. The Cal-Val of aluminium has been computed on the basis of oxygen balance of the propellant composition. The validity of the new approach has been demonstratedby comparing predicted values witli actual results.

  16. Lack of specificity of commercially available antisera: better specifications needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradidarcheep, Wisuit; Labruyère, Wil T; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F; Lamers, Wouter H

    2008-12-01

    The ideal antiserum for immunohistochemical (IHC) applications contains monospecific high-affinity antibodies with little nonspecific adherence to sections. Many commercially available antibodies are "affinity" purified, but it is unknown if they meet "hard" specificity criteria, such as absence of staining in tissues genetically deficient for the antigen or a staining pattern that is identical to that of an antibody raised against a different epitope on the same protein. Reviewers, therefore, often require additional characterization. Although the affinity-purified antibodies used in our study on the distribution of muscarinic receptors produced selective staining patterns on sections, few passed the preabsorption test, and none produced bands of the anticipated size on Western blots. More importantly, none showed a difference in staining pattern on sections or Western blots between wild-type and knockout mice. Because these antibodies were used in most studies published thus far, our findings cast doubts on the validity of the extant body of morphological knowledge of the whole family of muscarinic receptors. We formulate requirements that antibody-specification data sheets should meet and propose that journals for which IHC is a core technique facilitate consumer rating of antibodies. "Certified" antibodies could avoid fruitless and costly validation assays and should become the standard of commercial suppliers.

  17. How specific is specific phobia? Different neural response patterns in two subtypes of specific phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueken, Ulrike; Kruschwitz, Johann Daniel; Muehlhan, Markus; Siegert, Jens; Hoyer, Jürgen; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-05-01

    Specific phobia of the animal subtype has been employed as a model disorder exploring the neurocircuitry of anxiety disorders, but evidence is lacking whether the detected neural response pattern accounts for all animal subtypes, nor across other phobia subtypes. The present study aimed at directly comparing two subtypes of specific phobia: snake phobia (SP) representing the animal, and dental phobia (DP) representing the blood-injection-injury subtype. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), brain activation and skin conductance was measured during phobogenic video stimulation in 12 DP, 12 SP, and 17 healthy controls. For SP, the previously described activation of fear circuitry structures encompassing the insula, anterior cingulate cortex and thalamus could be replicated and was furthermore associated with autonomic arousal. In contrast, DP showed circumscribed activation of the prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex (PFC/OFC) when directly compared to SP, being dissociated from autonomic arousal. Results provide preliminary evidence for the idea that snake and dental phobia are characterized by distinct underlying neural systems during sustained emotional processing with evaluation processes in DP being controlled by orbitofrontal areas, whereas phobogenic reactions in SP are primarily guided by limbic and paralimbic structures. Findings support the current diagnostic classification conventions, separating distinct subtypes in DSM-IV-TR. They highlight that caution might be warranted though for generalizing findings derived from animal phobia to other phobic and anxiety disorders. If replicated, results could contribute to a better understanding of underlying neurobiological mechanisms of specific phobia and their respective classification.

  18. Advances in bacterial specific imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wareham, David; Das, Satya [St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medical Microbiology; London Univ. (United Kingdom). Queen Mary' s School of Medicine and Dentistry. Inst. of Cell and Molecular Science

    2005-10-15

    Nuclear medicine is a powerful diagnostic technique able to detect inflammatory foci in human disease. A wide range of agents have been evaluated for their ability to distinguish lesions due to microbial infection from those due to sterile inflammation. Advances continue to be made on the use of radiolabelled antibiotics which as well as being highly specific in the diagnosis of infection may be useful in monitoring the treatment and course of disease. Here we provide an update on in-vitro and clinical studies with a number of established and novel radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  19. Vibrio chromosome-specific families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David

    2014-01-01

    families, 1169 and 153 are uniquely found in chromosomes 1 and 2, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) terms for each of the protein families were determined, and the different sets for each chromosome were compared. A total of 363 different "Molecular Function" GO categories were found for chromosome 1......We have compared chromosome-specific genes in a set of 18 finished Vibrio genomes, and, in addition, also calculated the pan- and core-genomes from a data set of more than 250 draft Vibrio genome sequences. These genomes come from 9 known species and 2 unknown species. Within the finished...

  20. IntelliCable Interface Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    manager on how to use this. Some will factor the priority into account and always consume the highest priority while others...Battlefield Air Operations power manager uses a 10 pin Glenair Mighty Mouse connector with default keying . Pin 9 is specified as the IntelliCable pin. A BAO...standard Soldier Power Manager uses a 7 pin Glenair Mighty Mouse Connector, using alternative keying distinct from the Land Warrior battery specification, and the Li-145 battery. Pin 3 is defined as the IntelliCable pin.

  1. [Quality specification of Perillae Fructus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lihua; Lin, Chen; Wu, Tao; Chou, Guixin; Wang, Zhengtao

    2010-08-01

    To improve the quality control specification of Perillae Fructus, the identification methods and assay were developed. Rosmarinic acid, luteolin and apigenin in the sample were identified by TLC. The content of rosmarinic acid was determined by HPLC. The linear calibration curve of rosmarinic acid was obtained in the ranges of 19.4-194.2 g x L(-1) (R2 = 0.9999). The arerage coveriy (n=9) for the assay was 99.8% (RSD 3.6%). The established methods are accuracy, sensitivity and reproducible, and can be used for the quality control of Perillae Fructus.

  2. Project X functional requirements specification

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, S D; Kephart, R; Kerby, J; Kourbanis, I; Lebedev, V; Mishra, S; Nagaitsev, S; Solyak, N; Tschirhart, R

    2012-01-01

    Project X is a multi-megawatt proton facility being developed to support a world-leading program in Intensity Frontier physics at Fermilab. The facility is designed to support programs in elementary particle and nuclear physics, with possible applications to nuclear energy research. A Functional Requirements Specification has been developed in order to establish performance criteria for the Project X complex in support of these multiple missions, and to assure that the facility is designed with sufficient upgrade capability to provide U.S. leadership for many decades to come. This paper will briefly review the previously described Functional Requirements, and then discuss their recent evolution.

  3. Specifications of EA-BRACHI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Namba, Hideki; Aoki, Yasushi; Watanabe, Ritsuko; Matsumoto, Yuuichi; Watanabe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1996-11-01

    EA-BRACHI (Experimental Apparatus for Basic study of Radiation Chemistry with Heavy Ions) has been constructed at a vertical port of AVF cyclotron in TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facility. This apparatus is used for measurement of the spatial distribution of energy deposited around the ion`s path, and the reaction of radicals and other intermediates produced by heavy ion irradiation in solid and liquid samples. This report detailed specifications and performance of this apparatus, including operational procedures and some basic data. (author)

  4. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  5. Substrate Specificity of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Marc O.; Wu, Lisa Y.; Santiago, Nicholas M.; Moser, Jamie M.; Rowley, Jennifer A.; Bolstad, Erin S. D.; Berkman, Clifford E.

    2007-01-01

    A series of putative dipeptide substrates of prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) was prepared that explored α- and β/γ-linked acidic residues at the P1 position and various chromophores at the P2 position, while keeping the P1’ residue constant as L-Glu. Four chromophores were examined, including 4-phenylazobenzoyl, 1-pyrenebutyrl, 9-anthracenylcarboxyl-γ-aminobutyrl, and 4-nitrophenylbutyryl. When evaluating these chromophores, it was found that a substrate containing 4-phenylazobenzoyl at the P2 position was consumed most efficiently. Substitution at the P1 position with acidic residues showed that only γ-linked L-Glu and D-Glu were recognized by the enzyme, with the former being more readily proteolyzed. Lastly, binding modes of endogenous substrates and our best synthetic substrate (4-phenylazobenzoyl-Glu-γ-Glu) were proposed by computational docking studies into an X-ray crystal structure of the PSMA extracellular domain. PMID:17764959

  6. Flight Guidance System Requirements Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven P.; Tribble, Alan C.; Carlson, Timothy M.; Danielson, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a requirements specification written in the RSML-e language for the mode logic of a Flight Guidance System of a typical regional jet aircraft. This model was created as one of the first steps in a five-year project sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center, Rockwell Collins Inc., and the Critical Systems Research Group of the University of Minnesota to develop new methods and tools to improve the safety of avionics designs. This model will be used to demonstrate the application of a variety of methods and techniques, including safety analysis of system and subsystem requirements, verification of key properties using theorem provers and model checkers, identification of potential sources mode confusion in system designs, partitioning of applications based on the criticality of system hazards, and autogeneration of avionics quality code. While this model is representative of the mode logic of a typical regional jet aircraft, it does not describe an actual or planned product. Several aspects of a full Flight Guidance System, such as recovery from failed sensors, have been omitted, and no claims are made regarding the accuracy or completeness of this specification.

  7. [Pharmacological gender-specific medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Koichi; Negishi, Etsuko

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of Gender-specific Medicine has become more widespread in Japan. We need to understand gender differences in the use patterns of prescription drugs for proper use of medicines. We therefore investigated gender differences in the use of prescription drugs using the data of 9 hospitals in Japan. The data on prescription drugs were extracted from the drug ordering system for a month from March 1 to 31, 2003. We analyzed the data according to sex and age. As a result, we found that the prescription frequency of central nervous system drugs and Kampo medications for females was higher than that for males. There was also the same trend for hormone medicines and vitamins. On the other hand, the prescription frequency of cardiovascular drugs for males was higher than that for females. Moreover, there was the same trend for unclassified metabolic drugs such as arthrifuge. As a result of detailed analysis by age, a correlation between age-specificity of prescription drugs and gender difference of diseases was suggested. Such information has not been investigated in Japan. Since these results are thought to be useful, we will perform a detailed examination and accumulate evidence for their future exploitation in drug therapy.

  8. Arithmetic Memory Is Modality Specific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Myers

    Full Text Available In regards to numerical cognition and working memory, it is an open question as to whether numbers are stored into and retrieved from a central abstract representation or from separate notation-specific representations. This study seeks to help answer this by utilizing the numeral modality effect (NME in three experiments to explore how numbers are processed by the human brain. The participants were presented with numbers (1-9 as either Arabic digits or written number words (Arabic digits and dot matrices in Experiment 2 at the first (S1 and second (S2 stimuli. The participant's task was to add the first two stimuli together and verify whether the answer (S3, presented simultaneously with S2, was correct. We hypothesized that if reaction time (RT at S2/S3 depends on the modality of S1 then numbers are retrieved from modality specific memory stores. Indeed, RT depended on the modality of S1 whenever S2 was an Arabic digit which argues against the concept of numbers being stored and retrieved from a central, abstract representation.

  9. BREAKTHROUGH INDEX AND SPECIFIC DEPOSIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awatif Soaded Al-Saqqar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The dual filter was tested in this study to improve the performance of the filtration process in water treatment plants. Porcelanite rocks were selected to be the dual media with sand in the experimental work. The work required installing a pilot filtration unit in the location of the filters in one of the water treatment plants. The pilot filtration consists of three plastic column filters, acting parallel and simultaneously. The first contains 70 cm sand, the second and third were dual filters (porcelanite with sand of different types. The dual media was tested at different filtration rates (5, 7.5, 10, and 15 m/hr. The results showed that the dual filters had better performance than sand filters and reduced the specific deposit (σ and the breakthrough index (BI. In the dual filters the specific deposit was about (16 to 65 % less than in sand filters and the breakthrough index (BI was specified weak for rates 5 and 7 m/hr, light at 10 m/hr, and medium at 15 m/hr.

  10. Distribution-Specific Agnostic Boosting

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Vitaly

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of boosting the accuracy of weak learning algorithms in the agnostic learning framework of Haussler (1992) and Kearns et al. (1992). Known algorithms for this problem (Ben-David et al., 2001; Gavinsky, 2002; Kalai et al., 2008) follow the same strategy as boosting algorithms in the PAC model: the weak learner is executed on the same target function but over different distributions on the domain. We demonstrate boosting algorithms for the agnostic learning framework that only modify the distribution on the labels of the points (or, equivalently, modify the target function). This allows boosting a distribution-specific weak agnostic learner to a strong agnostic learner with respect to the same distribution. When applied to the weak agnostic parity learning algorithm of Goldreich and Levin (1989) our algorithm yields a simple PAC learning algorithm for DNF and an agnostic learning algorithm for decision trees over the uniform distribution using membership queries. These results substantia...

  11. The Specificity of Human Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchet, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Today, humankind is being reintroduced within nature. Humankind is no longer presented as supernatural to nature. There is no longer a clear divide between animal and human. What makes us human is neither culture, nor language nor labor, nor art, but the degree of complexity those products and ca...... creativity. Art is fundamentally about shaping visions and very closely related to this specific human ability to make projects. Especially in times of crisis, when the old sources of meaning hardly can make sense in a new context, imagination must be used in order to survive......., and the craving to make sense of all kinds of relations that characterizes humans. Being able to produce artworks as external representations aimed at “the other,” made of internal representations is thus essential to humanity. Human aesthetics is not so much an issue of beauty but of imagination and social...

  12. MATISSE: specifications and expected performances

    CERN Document Server

    Matter, A; Petrov, R G; Berio, P; Robbe-Dubois, S; Lopez, B; Antonelli, P; Allouche, F; Cruzalebes, P; Millour, F; Bazin, G; Bourgès, L

    2016-01-01

    MATISSE (Multi AperTure mid-Infrared SpectroScopic Experiment) is the next generation spectro-interferometer at the European Southern Observatory VLTI operating in the spectral bands L, M and N, and combining four beams from the unit and auxiliary telescopes. MATISSE is now fully integrated at the Observatoire de la C\\^ote d'Azur in Nice (France), and has entered very recently its testing phase in laboratory. This paper summarizes the equations describing the MATISSE signal and the associated sources of noise. The specifications and the expected performances of the instrument are then evaluated taking into account the current characteristics of the instrument and the VLTI infrastructure, including transmission and contrast degradation budgets. In addition, we present the different MATISSE simulation tools that will be made available to the future users.

  13. Specifications for gas treatment apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Mikazuki, Hyogo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    A surface reaction analysis apparatus was installed as an experimental end-station for the study of surface chemistry at the JAERI soft x-ray beamline in the SPring-8. The surface reaction analysis apparatus is devoted to the study of reaction mechanisms on solid surfaces with incident gas molecules. It is necessary to supply reagent gases to the apparatus. Chlorine and metal organic molecules will be used in the apparatus as well as oxygen molecules. Since the chlorine is corrosive and virulent, the metal organic molecules are flammable, the satiety treatments and the removal of virulence from the exhaust gas are needed. This gas supply and exhaust system is mainly composed of a cylinder cabinet, a gas mixer, a virulence removal cell and an urgent virulence removal apparatus. The former three devices are considered to take a countermeasure against virulent gas leak. The detail specifications concerning the gas supply and exhaust system are described in this report. (author)

  14. Genetic specificity of face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert

    2015-10-13

    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.

  15. Specific Carbohydrate Diet: Does It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Go Back The Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Email Print + Share There is no ... diet that has received attention is the Specific Carbohydrate Diet. This diet limits poorly digestible carbohydrates to ...

  16. Eternity Variables to Prove Simulation of Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    2005-01-01

    Simulations of specifications are introduced as a unification and generalization of refinement mappings, history variables, forward simulations, prophecy variables, and backward simulations. A specification implements another specification if and only if there is a simulation from the first one to

  17. Arthrobacter Species as a Prey Cell Reservoir for Nonobligate Bacterial Predators in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    species as a prey cell reservoir for nonobligate bacterial predators in soil. Can. J. Microbiol. 35 : 559--564, tine investigation at etc entreprise sur...8217 .Stieprom tice ~s species and Bad//uhs instead of’ A. glohifrbrmis. to provide 1 .0 mng/g soil did not nivoie from the soil did not interfecre because

  18. Effect of Arthrobacter agilis UMCV2 on germination and growth of Pinus devoniana Lindley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilber Montejo-Mayo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil microorganisms are essential for growth, emergence and development in all plants. In our study we decided to evaluate the effect that A. agilis UMCV2 rhizobacteria had on germination and growth of plants of economic-forest interest as P. devoniana to an age of 65 days. Our results show that the UMCV2 bacteria promoted growth of P. devoniana at this early stage of development, further highlighting that despite the short time of interaction between these two, the bacterium was able to increase the rate of germination, increase the size of shoot and generate a proliferation of lateral roots. The data shows a huge potential for using inoculum both in the greenhouse and in open ground and generate a growth promoting species of interest in both agricultural and forest, thereby reducing production periods depending on the crop.

  19. Biotransformation of benzene and toluene to catechols by phenol hydroxylase from Arthrobacter sp. W1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fang; Shi, Sheng-Nan; Sun, Tie-Heng; Li, Ang; Zhou, Ji-Ti; Qu, Yuan-Yuan

    2013-06-01

    Phenol hydroxylase gene engineered microorganism (PHIND) was used to synthesize catechols from benzene and toluene by successive hydroxylation reaction. HPLC-MS and (1)H NMR analysis proved that the products of biotransformation were the corresponding catechols via the intermediate production of phenols. It was indicated that the main products of toluene oxidation were o-cresol and p-cresol. 3-Methylcatechol was the predominant product for m-cresol biotransformation. Formation rate of catechol (25 μM/min/g cell dry weight) was 1.43-fold higher than that of methylcatechols. It was suggested that phenol hydroxylase could be successfully used to transform both benzene and toluene to catechols by successive hydroxylation.

  20. Xylanolytic enzyme systems in Arthrobacter sp MTCC 5214 and Lactobacillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, R.; Jalal, T.

    and repression of all these enzymes differed with carbon source and also with the organism Wheat bran was the best carbon source for the production of xylanase and alfa-L-AFase, whereas both isolates showed maximum Axe production when grown on oat bran as a...

  1. Application of thermoalkalophilic xylanase from Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 5214 in biobleaching of kraft pulp

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, R.; Bhosle, N.B.

    , containing 10 ?L of an 4 appropriate dilution of the enzyme and 250 ?L of the substrate, was incubated for 10 min in an incubator maintained at 100 0C. The amount of reducing sugars liberated was determined by using 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid method (DNS... intervals up to 4 h, and the pulp properties were studied at regular intervals. Release of reducing sugars was determined by the dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method (Miller, 1959) and release of phenolic compounds was estimated by measuring the absorption...

  2. FY97 ICCS prototype specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, J.

    1997-02-20

    The ICCS software team will implement and test two iterations of their software product during FY97. The first of these iterations will concentrate on construction of selected framework components; the subsequent iteration will extend the product and perform measurements of performance based on emulated FEP devices. This document specifies the products to be delivered in that first prototype and projects the direction that the second prototype will take. Detailed specification of the later iteration will be written when the results of the first iteration are complete. The selection of frameworks to be implemented early is made on a basis of risk analysis from the point of view of future development in the ICCS project. The prototype will address risks in integration of object- oriented components, in refining our development process, and in emulation testing for FEP devices. This document is a specification that identifies products and processes to undertake for resolving these risks. The goals of this activity are to exercise our development process at a modest scale and to probe our architecture plan for fundamental limits and failure modes. The product of the iterations will be the framework software which will be useful in future ICCS code. Thus the FY97 products are intended for internal usage by the ICCS team and for demonstration to the FEP software developers of the strategy for integrating supervisory software with FEP computers. This will be the first of several expected iterations of the software development process and the performance measurements that ICCS will demonstrate, intended to support confidence in our ability to meet project RAM goals. The design of the application software is being carried out in a separate WBS 1.5.2 activity. The design activity has as its FY97 product a series of Software Design Documents that will specify the functionality of the controls software of ICCS. During the testing of this year`s prototypes, the application

  3. Specificities of sustainable tourism planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegdić Vaso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades, companies have been mentioning achievement of sustainability in their activities as a target of companies, governments and non-profit organizations, although measuring the degree to which an organization conducts its activities in a sustainable manner, can be very difficult. Sustainable tourism development requires a process of planning and management that will unite the interests of various stakeholders in a sustainable and strategic way. It requires an understanding of the meaning of sustainable development and guiding values for promoting sustainable tourism. The paper points to the importance of cross-sector partnerships and the roles of different stakeholders in the planning of sustainable tourism projects. Special importance is given to the community of which a willingness to understand the impacts of tourism industry is expected, as well as various procedures of engagement in participatory planning, consensus building and conflict resolution among all stakeholders. The aim of this research is to find an optimal model of planning of sustainable tourism projects that would take into consideration the interests of all stakeholders and reflect the specificities imposed by the acceptance of the concept of sustainable development by all participants in the project.

  4. Advances in bacterial specific imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wareham

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear medicine is a powerful diagnostic technique able to detect inflammatory foci in human disease. A wide range of agents have been evaluated for their ability to distinguish lesions due to microbial infection from those due to sterile inflammation. Advances continue to be made on the use of radiolabelled antibiotics which as well as being highly specific in the diagnosis of infection may be useful in monitoring the treatment and course of disease. Here we provide an update on in-vitro and clinical studies with a number of established and novel radiopharmaceuticalsA medicina nuclear é uma técnica poderosa de diagnóstico capaz de detectar focos inflamatórios em doenças humanas. Uma ampla gama de agentes tem sido avaliada em sua capacidade de distinguir lesões, devidas a infecções microbianas daquelas causadas por inflamações estéreis. Avanços continuam sendo realizados no uso de antibióticos radiomarcados que, da mesma forma que têm sido usados no diagnóstico altamente específico de infecções, podem ser úteis na monitoração do tratamento e do curso da doença. Neste estudo, nós apresentamos uma atualização sobre estudos in vitro e clínicos, com alguns novos radiofármacos e outros já consagrados.

  5. Tumor specific cytotoxicity of glucosylceramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Hirosuke; Wongtangtintharn, Sawitree; Iwasaki, Hironori; Inafuku, Masashi; Shimatani, Masayuki; Toda, Takayoshi

    2007-11-01

    To develop a new taxon of anti-cancer agent with lower side effect, this study described a tumor selective cytotoxicity of glucosylceramide extracted from malt feed of beer brewing waste. Interpretation of (13)C- and (1)H-NMR spectra identified the chemical structure of major component of glucosylceramide as 1-O-beta-D: -glucopyranosyl-2(2'-hydroxyeicosanoylamino)-4,11-octadecadiene-1,3-diol. Selective cytotoxicity was studied with three pairs of normal and cancer cells: liver, skin and lung. The glucosylceramide selectively lowered the relative viability of cancer cells. Of the pairs, the selectivity was most pronounced with the liver cells, and, for this reason, further experiment was conducted with this pair of normal (CS-HC) and cancer cells (HepG2) to get more insight into the selective toxicity. The glucosylceramide significantly increased the cell population at G(2)/M phase in HepG2 cells, and also increased the numbers of apoptotic (sub-G(0)/G(1)) cells, but to much lesser extent compared with the increase in G(2)/M phase. Treatment of HepG2 cells with this agent selectively disrupted the mitochondrial membrane integrity without activation of caspase pathway to induce apoptosis. These findings suggested that the glucosylceramide specifically suppressed the growth of cancer cells by inhibiting cell renewal capacity rather than induction of apoptosis. The underlying mechanism for the selectivity remains to be answered in the forthcoming study.

  6. RNB-specific linac development

    CERN Document Server

    Ratzinger, U

    2002-01-01

    The acceleration of secondary, radioactive beams from primary beam driven ion sources provides many challenges when compared to the case of conventional ion beams. The clean separation of the specific ion species, the low beam current, the short life time of the ions as well as the needed energy variability have consequences on the layout of the accelerator. As also experiments with astrophysical relevance are performed, the energy range should go down below 1 MeV/u in some cases. Additionally, to investigate nuclear reactions around the Coulomb barrier, the beam energy should be flexible up to around 8 MeV/u. Short isotope life times below a few milliseconds do not allow for charge breeding. In these cases, low charged ions from 'simple' ion sources have to be accepted by the accelerator. Furthermore, stripping processes along the linac are excluded in case of low beam currents. Multicoincidence experiments profit a lot from cw operation of ion source and accelerators. During the last three decades, room tem...

  7. Are specific emotions narrated differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann; Meier, Michaela; Mukhtar, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    Two studies test the assertion that anger, sadness, fear, pride, and happiness are typically narrated in different ways. Everyday events eliciting these 5 emotions were narrated by young women (Study 1) and 5- and 8-year-old girls (Study 2). Negative narratives were expected to engender more effort to process the event, be longer, more grammatically complex, more often have a complication section, and use more specific emotion labels than global evaluations. Narratives of Hogan's (2003) juncture emotions anger and fear were expected to focus more on action and to contain more core narrative sections of orientation, complication, and resolution than narratives of the outcome emotions sadness and happiness. Hypotheses were confirmed for adults except for syntactic complexity, whereas children showed only some of these differences. Hogan's theory that juncture emotions are restricted to the complication section was not confirmed. Finally, in adults, indirect speech was more frequent in anger narratives and internal monologue in fear narratives. It is concluded that different emotions should be studied in how they are narrated, and that narratives should be analyzed according to qualitatively different emotions.

  8. Specifications in early conceptual design work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2007-01-01

    specifications, which express attractive product goals, and has to synthesise the product idea. The authors of this paper see a challenge to enhance and improve our understanding of the nature of design specifications as a means to support the synthesis of a product idea. In this empirical study we analyse...... the structure and content of design specifications during early ideation activities, where initial design specifications are formulated and a product idea is synthesised. We have analysed specification documents of 19 teams of novice designers. Our analysis indicates that a productive product design...... specification in early conceptual design consists of few specification statements, which express value, important aspects of product context and articulate key functions. A product design specification, which contains a lot of specification statements about product properties, is not productive to support...

  9. Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The objectives of Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications are to ensure that the design team applies commissioning concepts to the design and prepares commissioning specifications and a commission plan for inclusion in the bid construction documents.

  10. Activation of 12/23-RSS-dependent RAG cleavage by hSWI/SNF complex in the absence of transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hansen; Ishii, Haruhiko; Pazin, Michael J; Sen, Ranjan

    2008-09-05

    Maintenance of genomic integrity during antigen receptor gene rearrangements requires (1) regulated access of the V(D)J recombinase to specific loci and (2) generation of double-strand DNA breaks only after recognition of a pair of matched recombination signal sequences (RSSs). Here we recapitulate both key aspects of regulated recombinase accessibility in a cell-free system using plasmid substrates assembled into chromatin. We show that recruitment of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex to both RSSs increases coupled cleavage by RAG1 and RAG2 proteins. SWI/SNF functions by altering local chromatin structure in the absence of RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription or histone modifications. These observations demonstrate a direct role for cis-sequence-regulated local chromatin remodeling in RAG1/2-dependent initiation of V(D)J recombination.

  11. Co-existence of clonal expanded autologous and transplacental-acquired maternal T cells in recombination activating gene-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, A; Simon, A J; Ben-Ari, J; Takagi, D; Stauber, T; Trakhtenbrot, L; Rosenthal, E; Rechavi, G; Amariglio, N; Somech, R

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that the presence of high amounts of maternal T cells excludes Omenn syndrome (OS) in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). We report a SCID patient with a novel mutation in the recombination activating gene (RAG)1 gene (4-BP DEL.1406 TTGC) who presented with immunodeficiency and OS. Several assays, including representatives of specific T cell receptors (TCR), Vβ families and TCR-γ rearrangements, were performed in order to understand more clearly the nature and origin of the patient's T cells. The patient had oligoclonal T cells which, based on the patient–mother human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B50 mismatch, were either autologous or of maternal origin. These cell populations were different in their numbers of regulatory T cells (Treg) and the diversity of TCR repertoires. This is the first description of the co-existence of large amounts of clonal expanded autologous and transplacental-acquired maternal T cells in RAG1-deficient SCID. PMID:24666246

  12. Co-existence of clonal expanded autologous and transplacental-acquired maternal T cells in recombination activating gene-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, A; Simon, A J; Ben-Ari, J; Takagi, D; Stauber, T; Trakhtenbrot, L; Rosenthal, E; Rechavi, G; Amariglio, N; Somech, R

    2014-06-01

    It is commonly accepted that the presence of high amounts of maternal T cells excludes Omenn syndrome (OS) in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). We report a SCID patient with a novel mutation in the recombination activating gene (RAG)1 gene (4-BP DEL.1406 TTGC) who presented with immunodeficiency and OS. Several assays, including representatives of specific T cell receptors (TCR), Vβ families and TCR-γ rearrangements, were performed in order to understand more clearly the nature and origin of the patient's T cells. The patient had oligoclonal T cells which, based on the patient-mother human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B50 mismatch, were either autologous or of maternal origin. These cell populations were different in their numbers of regulatory T cells (T(reg)) and the diversity of TCR repertoires. This is the first description of the co-existence of large amounts of clonal expanded autologous and transplacental-acquired maternal T cells in RAG1-deficient SCID.

  13. Ion specific effects on charged interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Medda, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The physico-chemical phenomena occurring at charged interfaces are specifically affected by the type and the concentration of electrolytes. This has implications both in living and in inorganic systems. The discovery of the ‘ion specific effects’ dates back to Hofmeister (1888), who observed the specific effect of salts in promoting egg white proteins precipitation. Nowadays we are aware that ion specific effects are ubiquitous in all fields of science and technology where electrolytes play a...

  14. Normalized Specifications for Identifying Reusable Software

    OpenAIRE

    Luqi

    1987-01-01

    An approach to retrieving reusable software components by means of module specifications is described. The approach depends on normalizing specifications to reduce the variations in the representation of software concepts. The concept is illustrated in terms of both formal and informal approaches to component specifications.

  15. Programming Bacteriophages by Swapping Their Specificity Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Moran G; Yosef, Ido; Qimron, Udi

    2015-12-01

    Bacteriophages, bacteria's natural enemies, may serve as potent antibacterial agents. Their specificity for certain bacterial sub-species limits their effectiveness, but allows selective targeting of bacteria. Lu and colleagues present a platform for such targeting through alteration of bacteriophages' host specificity by swapping specificity domains in their host-recognition ligand.

  16. 31 CFR 515.318 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific license. 515.318 Section 515.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 515.318 Specific license. A specific license is any license or authorization issued pursuant to...

  17. 31 CFR 535.318 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific license. 535.318 Section 535.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 535.318 Specific license. A specific license is any license or authorization issued pursuant to...

  18. 31 CFR 585.308 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific license. 585.308 Section 585.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 585.308 Specific license. The term specific license means any license...

  19. 31 CFR 500.318 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific license. 500.318 Section 500.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 500.318 Specific license. A specific license is any license or authorization issued pursuant to...

  20. 31 CFR 586.315 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific license. 586.315 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.315 Specific license. The term specific license means any license or authorization not set forth in this part but issued pursuant to this part....

  1. 31 CFR 536.313 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific license. 536.313 Section 536.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 536.313 Specific license. The term specific license means any license or authorization not...

  2. 31 CFR 595.312 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific license. 595.312 Section 595.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 595.312 Specific license. The term specific license means any license or authorization not set...

  3. 31 CFR 560.312 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific license. 560.312 Section 560.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.312 Specific license. The term specific license means any license or authorization not set...

  4. 31 CFR 538.311 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific license. 538.311 Section 538.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 538.311 Specific license. The term specific license means any license or authorization not set...

  5. 50 CFR 648.260 - Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Specifications include the specification of OY, the setting of any target TACs, allocation of DAS, and/or... allocation based on target TAC. For purposes of determining the appropriate DAS allocation, any overage of... developing the management measures and specifications, the PDT shall review at least the following data,...

  6. The etiology of specific phobias : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckelbach, H; de Jong, Peter; Muris, P; vandenHout, MA

    1996-01-01

    The present article summarizes theory and data about symptomatology, epidemiology, and etiology of specific phobias. Additionally, the cognitive mechanisms involved in specific Phobias are briefly discussed By and large, the general pattern behind the development of specific phobias can be summarize

  7. Genre-Specific Semantic Video Indexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.; Worring, M.

    2010-01-01

    In many applications, we find large video collections from different genres where the user is often only interested in one or two specific video genres. So, when users are querying the system with a specific semantic concept, they are likely aiming a genre specific instantiation of this concept. Thu

  8. Map Specifications and Exchange of Geographical Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1999-01-01

    Specifications for Technical Maps 1993 – 99 are described giving an overview of the specification structure including the object description of the latest version: TK99.The technical map specifications are related to the standards for topographical maps - especially the TOP10DK standard. Common o...

  9. Checking MSC Specifications for Timing Inconsistency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuandong(李宣东); TAN Wenkai(谭文凯); ZHENG Guoliang(郑国梁)

    2002-01-01

    Message sequence chart (MSC) is a graphical and textual language for the description and specification of the interactions between system components. MSC specifica tions allow convenient expression of multiple scenarios, and offer an intuitive and visual way of describing design requirements. Like any other aspect of the specification and design process, MSCs are amenable to errors, and their analysis is important. In this paper, the verification problem of MSC specification for timing inconsistency is studied, which means that no execu tion scenario described by an MSC specification is timing consistent. An algorithm is developed to check MSC specifications for timing inconsistency.

  10. Towards a theory of product design specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2004-01-01

    The product design specification is an important element in a product development project because it defines the target to be met. One requirement on the product design specification is to articulate and communicate the aspects, which makes the product attractive seen from the users' viewpoint....... In the design methodology literature we find guidelines and methods to compile a product design specification. The contributions are based on the common underlying assumption that it is meaningful and the only feasible approach to interpret the result of a need analysis into a set of technical specifications......, which express the customers¿ need and perception of value. In this paper we will scrutinize this assumption. We outline the roles and tasks of the product design specification in order to identify the requirements on a theory of product design specifications and we identify existing theory elements...

  11. Peptide binding specificity of the chaperone calreticulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, N.; Duus, K.; Jorgensen, C.S.;

    2007-01-01

    Calreticulin is a molecular chaperone with specificity for polypeptides and N-linked monoglucosylated glycans. In order to determine the specificity of polypeptide binding, the interaction of calreticulin with polypeptides was investigated using synthetic peptides of different length and composit......Calreticulin is a molecular chaperone with specificity for polypeptides and N-linked monoglucosylated glycans. In order to determine the specificity of polypeptide binding, the interaction of calreticulin with polypeptides was investigated using synthetic peptides of different length...... and composition. A large set of available synthetic peptides (n=127) was tested for binding to calreticulin and the results analysed by multivariate data analysis. The parameter that correlated best with binding was hydrophobicity while beta-turn potential disfavoured binding. Only hydrophobic peptides longer...... a peptide-binding specificity for hydrophobic sequences and delineate the fine specificity of calreticulin for hydrophobic amino acid residues....

  12. Specific fears and phobias. Epidemiology and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, G C; Magee, W J; Eaton, W W; Wittchen, H U; Kessler, R C

    1998-09-01

    Data on eight specific fears representing DSM-III-R simple phobia were analysed to evaluate: (a) their prevalence and (b) the validity of subtypes of specific phobia defined by DSM-IV. A modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to a probability sample of 8098 community respondents. Correlates of responses to questions concerning these fears were analysed. The most prevalent specific fears were of animals among women, and of heights among men. Slight evidence was found for specific phobia subtypes. Number of fears, independent of type, powerfully predicted impairment, comorbidity, illness course, demographic features, and family psychopathology. Number of specific fears may mark a general predisposition to psychopathology. More detailed information is needed to resolve the question of specific phobia subtypes.

  13. Using Abduction to Evolve Inconsistent Requirements Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Nuseibeh

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Requirements specifications are often inconsistent. Inconsistencies may arise because multiple conflicting requirements are embodied in these specifications, or because the specifications themselves are in a transient stage of evolutionary development. In this paper we argue that such inconsistencies, rather than being undesirable, are actually useful drivers for changing the requirements specifications in which they arise. We present a formal technique to reason about inconsistency handling changes. Our technique is an adaptation of logical abduction - adapted to generate changes that address some specification inconsistencies, while leaving others. We represent our specifications in quasi-classical (QC logic - an adaptation of classical logic that allows continued reasoning in the presence of inconsistency. The paper develops a sound algorithm for automating our abductive reasoning technique and presents illustrative examples drawn from a library system case study.

  14. Embedded systems specification and design languages

    CERN Document Server

    Villar, Eugenio

    2008-01-01

    This book is the latest contribution to the Chip Design Languages series and it consists of selected papers presented at the Forum on Specifications and Design Languages (FDL'07), in September 2007. The book represents the state-of-the-art in research and practice, and it identifies new research directions. It highlights the role of specification and modelling languages, and presents practical experiences with specification and modelling languages.

  15. Domain-Specific Ontology of Botany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Gu; Cun-Gen Cao; Yue-Fei Sui; Wen Tian

    2004-01-01

    Domain-specific ontologies are greatly useful in knowledge acquisition, sharing and analysis. In this paper, botany-specific ontology for acquiring and analyzing botanical knowledge is presented. The ontology is represented in a set of well-defined categories, and each concept is viewed as an instance of certain category. The authors also introduce botany-specific axioms, an integral part of the ontology, for checking and reasoning with the acquired knowledge. Consistency, completeness and redundancy of the axioms are discussed.

  16. Standards and methods for software requirements specification

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the comparison between three selected standards and methods for software requirements specifications. IEEE 830 specification and use cases represent older, while user stories represent newer generation of methods for specification writing. Each method is first explained in theory and then on a practical example. E-študent, a well-known application to the students of the Faculty of computer and information science, serves as our practical example. The application is onl...

  17. Certifiable Specification and Verification of C Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüth, Christoph; Walter, Dennis

    A novel approach to the specification and verification of C programs through an annotation language that is a mixture between JML and the language of Isabelle/HOL is proposed. This yields three benefits: specifications are concise and close to the underlying mathematical model; existing Isabelle theories can be reused; and the leap of faith from specification language to encoding in a logic is small. This is of particular relevance for software certification, and verification in application areas such as robotics.

  18. Specifications in early conceptual design work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2007-01-01

    In early conceptual design the design team is working in an uncertain situation, where the understanding of a need is limited and not much is known about the solution space. In this situation the design team has to both analyse need and explore solution space. Thus, the team has to formulate design...... specification in early conceptual design consists of few specification statements, which express value, important aspects of product context and articulate key functions. A product design specification, which contains a lot of specification statements about product properties, is not productive to support...

  19. 77 FR 27814 - Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... COMMISSION Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force... availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is announcing the availability of the model safety evaluation (SE) for plant-specific adoption of Technical Specifications (TSs) Task Force...

  20. 77 FR 27490 - Plant-Specific Adoption, Revision 4 of the Improved Standard Technical Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... Technical Specifications, NUREG-1430, ``Standard Technical Specifications, Babcock and Wilcox Plants....resource@nrc.gov . NUREG-1430, ``Standard Technical Specifications, Babcock and Wilcox Plants'' Revision 4... ML12100A177 ML12100A178 Specifications, Babcock and Wilcox Plants'' NUREG-1431, ``Standard...

  1. User Interface Technology for Formal Specification Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michael; Philpot, Andrew; Pressburger, Thomas; Underwood, Ian; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Formal specification development and modification are an essential component of the knowledge-based software life cycle. User interface technology is needed to empower end-users to create their own formal specifications. This paper describes the advanced user interface for AMPHION1 a knowledge-based software engineering system that targets scientific subroutine libraries. AMPHION is a generic, domain-independent architecture that is specialized to an application domain through a declarative domain theory. Formal specification development and reuse is made accessible to end-users through an intuitive graphical interface that provides semantic guidance in creating diagrams denoting formal specifications in an application domain. The diagrams also serve to document the specifications. Automatic deductive program synthesis ensures that end-user specifications are correctly implemented. The tables that drive AMPHION's user interface are automatically compiled from a domain theory; portions of the interface can be customized by the end-user. The user interface facilitates formal specification development by hiding syntactic details, such as logical notation. It also turns some of the barriers for end-user specification development associated with strongly typed formal languages into active sources of guidance, without restricting advanced users. The interface is especially suited for specification modification. AMPHION has been applied to the domain of solar system kinematics through the development of a declarative domain theory. Testing over six months with planetary scientists indicates that AMPHION's interactive specification acquisition paradigm enables users to develop, modify, and reuse specifications at least an order of magnitude more rapidly than manual program development.

  2. Gene structure and expression of rice seed allergenic proteins belonging to the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, T; Izumi, H; Yamada, T; Tanaka, K; Takeuchi, S; Nakamura, R; Matsuda, T

    1993-01-01

    Genomic and two novel cDNA clones for rice seed allergenic protein (RA) belonging to the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family were isolated and their nucleotide sequences determined. Ten cysteine residues deduced from nucleotide sequences were completely conserved among three cDNA clones including a clone, RA17, reported previously. One genomic clone, lambda 4, contained two RA genes, RAG1 and RAG2. Although RAG1 was cloned at the 5' portion only, two RA genes were arranged divergently. Nucleotide sequencing and DNA blotting analyses showed that RA are encoded by a multigene family consisting of at least four members. The transcriptional initiation site of RAG1 was localized at A, 26 bp upstream of the putative translational initiation codon, ATG, by the primer extension assay. The putative TATA box and CAAT box existed about 45 bp and 147 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site, respectively. A conserved sequence (ATGCAAAA) which was similar to the sequence (TGCAAAA) identified in rice glutelin promoters was observed in the 5' region of the two genes. In addition, RNA blotting analyses provided that RA genes specifically expressed in ripening seed and their transcripts accumulated maximally between 15 and 20 days after flowering.

  3. Specific and social phobias in ICD-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the current status of research with respect to specific phobias and social phobia as defined in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV, and to provide op- tions for their classification in the ICD-11. Both ICD-10 and DSM-IV identify three main classes of phobias: specific

  4. 14 CFR 398.3 - Specific airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific airports. 398.3 Section 398.3... STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.3 Specific airports. (a) At an eligible place, essential air service may be specified as service to a particular...

  5. 28 CFR 0.131 - Specific functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific functions. 0.131 Section 0.131 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives § 0.131 Specific functions. The Director of the Bureau of...

  6. Steps in Modular Specifications for Concurrent Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Rocha Pinto, Pedro; Dinsdale-Young, Thomas; Gardner, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    The specification of a concurrent program module is a difficult problem. The specifications must be strong enough to enable reasoning about the intended clients without reference to the underlying module implementation. We survey a range of verification techniques for specifying concurrent module...

  7. 28 CFR 0.101 - Specific functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific functions. 0.101 Section 0.101 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration § 0.101 Specific functions. The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration shall...

  8. An Institution for Imperative RSL Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    -oriented type definitions, declaration of state variables, axiomatic specification of values (including functions), and explicit function definitions. Functions may be imperative. The semantics of an RSLI specification is defined to be the loose semantics of a theory presentation consisting of a signature Σ...

  9. 21 CFR 107.100 - Nutrient specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrient specifications. 107.100 Section 107.100... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Nutrient Requirements § 107.100 Nutrient specifications. (a) An infant formula shall contain the following nutrients at a level not less than the minimum level...

  10. Specific heats of degenerate ideal gases

    OpenAIRE

    Caruso, Francisco; Oguri, Vitor; Silveira, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    From arguments based on Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and Pauli's exclusion principle, the molar specific heats of degenerate ideal gases at low temperatures are estimated, giving rise to values consistent with the Nerst-Planck Principle (third law of Thermodynamics). The Bose-Einstein condensation phenomenon based on the behavior of specific heat of massive and non-relativistic boson gases is also presented.

  11. Specific and social phobias in ICD-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the current status of research with respect to specific phobias and social phobia as defined in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV, and to provide op- tions for their classification in the ICD-11. Both ICD-10 and DSM-IV identify three main classes of phobias: specific ph

  12. SPECIFIC SKILLS AND SOCIAL COMPETENCE IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    APPELO, MT; WOONINGS, FMJ; VANNIEUWENHUIZEN, CJ; EMMELKAMP, PMG; SLOOFF, CJ; LOUWERENS, JW

    1992-01-01

    Generalization of skills is a major problem in social skills training for schizophrenic patients. Assessment of skills is mostly not based on objective indices of specific skill deficits. The results of this study show that global competence of schizophrenics can be differentiated from specific comp

  13. Some Approaches for Integration of Specification Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    It is often useful to apply several specification techniques within the same software development project. This raises the question how specification techniques can be integrated. In this presentation we give three different examples of how this can be done. In the first example, we summarise how...

  14. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  15. Specific phobia predicts psychopathology in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trumpf, J.; Margraf, J.; Vriends, N.; Meyer, A.H.; Becker, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young wom

  16. Cell-Type-Specific Optogenetics in Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namboodiri, Vijay Mohan K; Stuber, Garret D

    2016-09-08

    The recent advent of technologies enabling cell-type-specific recording and manipulation of neuronal activity spurred tremendous progress in neuroscience. However, they have been largely limited to mice, which lack the richness in behavior of primates. Stauffer et al. now present a generalizable method for achieving cell-type specificity in monkeys.

  17. Determining the specific electric resistance of rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad' ko, V.Ia.

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented on perfecting the method of laboratory determination of the specific electric resistance of a rock formation. The average error in determining the specific electric resistance of the core at various locations is no more than two percent with low resistance values (2-5 ohms).

  18. Understanding the substrate specificity of conventional calpains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorimachi, Hiroyuki; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi; Ono, Yasuko

    2012-09-01

    Calpains are intracellular Ca(2+)-dependent Cys proteases that play important roles in a wide range of biological phenomena via the limited proteolysis of their substrates. Genetic defects in calpain genes cause lethality and/or functional deficits in many organisms, including humans. Despite their biological importance, the mechanisms underlying the action of calpains, particularly of their substrate specificities, remain largely unknown. Studies show that certain sequence preferences influence calpain substrate recognition, and some properties of amino acids have been related successfully to substrate specificity and to the calpains' 3D structure. The full spectrum of this substrate specificity, however, has not been clarified using standard sequence analysis algorithms, e.g., the position-specific scoring-matrix method. More advanced bioinformatics techniques were used recently to identify the substrate specificities of calpains and to develop a predictor for calpain cleavage sites, demonstrating the potential of combining empirical data acquisition and machine learning. This review discusses the calpains' substrate specificities, introducing the benefits of bioinformatics applications. In conclusion, machine learning has led to the development of useful predictors for calpain cleavage sites, although the accuracy of the predictions still needs improvement. Machine learning has also elucidated information about the properties of calpains' substrate specificities, including a preference for sequences over secondary structures and the existence of a substrate specificity difference between two similar conventional calpains, which has never been indicated biochemically.

  19. Fundamental Characteristics of Industrial Variant Specification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2004-01-01

    fundamental concepts related to this task, which are relevant to understand for academia and practitioners working with the subject. This is done through a description of variant specification tasks and typical aspects of system solutions. To support the description of variant specification tasks and systems...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1397 - Color specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color specifications. 23.1397 Section 23.1397 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Color specifications. Each position light color must have the applicable International Commission...

  1. 14 CFR 27.1397 - Color specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color specifications. 27.1397 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1397 Color specifications. Each position light color must have the applicable International Commission on Illumination...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1397 - Color specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color specifications. 25.1397 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1397 Color specifications. Each position light color must have the applicable International Commission on Illumination...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1397 - Color specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color specifications. 29.1397 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1397 Color specifications. Each position light color must have the applicable International Commission on Illumination...

  4. Introduction to the ISO specification language LOTOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolognesi, Tomasso; Brinksma, Ed

    1987-01-01

    LOTOS is a specification language that has been specifically developed for the formal description of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) architecture, although it is applicable to distributed, concurrent systems in general. In LOTOS a system is seen as a set of processes which interact and exchan

  5. Specific vulnerability of substantia nigra compacta neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidt, M.P.; Giovanni, G.; Di Matteo, V.; Esposito, E.

    2009-01-01

    The specific loss of substantia nigra compacta (SNc) neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been the main driving force in initiating research efforts to unravel the apparent SNc-specific vulnerability. Initially, metabolic constraints due to high dopamine turnover have been the main focus in the a

  6. Task-specific dystonia: pathophysiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadnicka, Anna; Kassavetis, Panagiotis; Pareés, Isabel; Meppelink, Anne Marthe; Butler, Katherine; Edwards, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Task-specific dystonia is a form of isolated focal dystonia with the peculiarity of being displayed only during performance of a specific skilled motor task. This distinctive feature makes task-specific dystonia a particularly mysterious and fascinating neurological condition. In this review, we cover phenomenology and its increasingly broad-spectrum risk factors for the disease, critically review pathophysiological theories and evaluate current therapeutic options. We conclude by highlighting the unique features of task-specific dystonia within the wider concept of dystonia. We emphasise the central contribution of environmental risk factors, and propose a model by which these triggers may impact on the motor control of skilled movement. By viewing task-specific dystonia through this new lens which considers the disorder a modifiable disorder of motor control, we are optimistic that research will yield novel therapeutic avenues for this highly motivated group of patients.

  7. Fundamental Characteristics of Industrial Variant Specification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the operational task of creating customised variants of industrial specifications (e.g. drawings, routings and bill-of-materials). Rooted in a lack of existing literature on the subject the paper describes the nature of variant specification systems. It introduces some funda...... examples. In general the paper discusses an important focus area within mass customization and build-to-order production: the nature of industrial variant specification systems.......This paper focuses on the operational task of creating customised variants of industrial specifications (e.g. drawings, routings and bill-of-materials). Rooted in a lack of existing literature on the subject the paper describes the nature of variant specification systems. It introduces some...

  8. Tissue Specific Promoters in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Rama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal carcinoma is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. In the most advanced stages, the use of chemotherapy induces a poor response and is usually accompanied by other tissue damage. Significant progress based on suicide gene therapy has demonstrated that it may potentiate the classical cytotoxic effects in colorectal cancer. The inconvenience still rests with the targeting and the specificity efficiency. The main target of gene therapy is to achieve an effective vehicle to hand over therapeutic genes safely into specific cells. One possibility is the use of tumor-specific promoters overexpressed in cancers. They could induce a specific expression of therapeutic genes in a given tumor, increasing their localized activity. Several promoters have been assayed into direct suicide genes to cancer cells. This review discusses the current status of specific tumor-promoters and their great potential in colorectal carcinoma treatment.

  9. Tissue Specific Promoters in Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama, A. R.; Aguilera, A.; Melguizo, C.; Caba, O.; Prados, J.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. In the most advanced stages, the use of chemotherapy induces a poor response and is usually accompanied by other tissue damage. Significant progress based on suicide gene therapy has demonstrated that it may potentiate the classical cytotoxic effects in colorectal cancer. The inconvenience still rests with the targeting and the specificity efficiency. The main target of gene therapy is to achieve an effective vehicle to hand over therapeutic genes safely into specific cells. One possibility is the use of tumor-specific promoters overexpressed in cancers. They could induce a specific expression of therapeutic genes in a given tumor, increasing their localized activity. Several promoters have been assayed into direct suicide genes to cancer cells. This review discusses the current status of specific tumor-promoters and their great potential in colorectal carcinoma treatment. PMID:26648599

  10. Mask specification guidelines in spacer patterning technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kohji; Mukai, Hidefumi; Miyoshi, Seiro; Yamaguchi, Shinji; Mashita, Hiromitsu; Kobayashi, Yuuji; Kawano, Kenji; Hirano, Takashi

    2008-11-01

    We have studied both the mask CD specification and the mask defect specification for spacer patterning technology (SPT). SPT has the possibility of extending optical lithography to below 40nm half-pitch devices. Since SPT necessitates somewhat more complicated wafer process flow, the CD error and mask defect printability on wafers involve more process factors compared with conventional single-exposure process (SEP). This feature of SPT implies that it is very important to determine mask-related specifications for SPT in order to select high-end mask fabrication strategies; those are for mask writing tools, mask process development, materials, inspection tools, and so on. Our experimental studies reveal that both mask CD specification and mask defect specification are somehow relaxed from those in ITRS2007. This is most likely because SPT reduces mask CD error enhanced factor (MEF) and the reduction of line-width roughness (LWR).

  11. Specificity of transmembrane protein palmitoylation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelén González Montoro

    Full Text Available Many proteins are modified after their synthesis, by the addition of a lipid molecule to one or more cysteine residues, through a thioester bond. This modification is called S-acylation, and more commonly palmitoylation. This reaction is carried out by a family of enzymes, called palmitoyltransferases (PATs, characterized by the presence of a conserved 50- aminoacids domain called "Asp-His-His-Cys- Cysteine Rich Domain" (DHHC-CRD. There are 7 members of this family in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and each of these proteins is thought to be responsible for the palmitoylation of a subset of substrates. Substrate specificity of PATs, however, is not yet fully understood. Several yeast PATs seem to have overlapping specificity, and it has been proposed that the machinery responsible for palmitoylating peripheral membrane proteins in mammalian cells, lacks specificity altogether.Here we investigate the specificity of transmembrane protein palmitoylation in S. cerevisiae, which is carried out predominantly by two PATs, Swf1 and Pfa4. We show that palmitoylation of transmembrane substrates requires dedicated PATs, since other yeast PATs are mostly unable to perform Swf1 or Pfa4 functions, even when overexpressed. Furthermore, we find that Swf1 is highly specific for its substrates, as it is unable to substitute for other PATs. To identify where Swf1 specificity lies, we carried out a bioinformatics survey to identify amino acids responsible for the determination of specificity or Specificity Determination Positions (SDPs and showed experimentally, that mutation of the two best SDP candidates, A145 and K148, results in complete and partial loss of function, respectively. These residues are located within the conserved catalytic DHHC domain suggesting that it could also be involved in the determination of specificity. Finally, we show that modifying the position of the cysteines in Tlg1, a Swf1 substrate, results in lack of palmitoylation, as

  12. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report III, Volume 2. Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Report III, Volume 2 contains those specifications numbered K through Y, as follows: Specifications for Compressors (K); Specifications for Piping (L); Specifications for Structures (M); Specifications for Insulation (N); Specifications for Electrical (P); Specifications for Concrete (Q); Specifications for Civil (S); Specifications for Welding (W); Specifications for Painting (X); and Specifications for Special (Y). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available for the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors.

  13. The HIV-Specific Advance Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Peter A; Thiel, Elaine C; Salit, Irving; Flanagan, William; Naylor, C. David

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether persons living with HIV find a disease-specific advance directive more acceptable than a generic directive. DESIGN Randomized clinical trial. SETTING HIV consumer organization and hospital-based HIV clinic. PARTICIPANTS Volunteer sample of persons with HIV. INTERVENTIONS The disease-specific HIV Living Will, the generic Centre for Bioethics Living Will, or both. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Of 101 participants who received both advance directives, 78 (77.2%) preferred the disease-specific HIV Living Will and 23 (22.8%) preferred the generic Centre for Bioethics Living Will (p < .001). Most participants who preferred the HIV Living Will did so because it was more specific or relevant to their situation. CONCLUSIONS Persons living with HIV prefer a disease-specific to a generic advance directive. They should be offered a disease-specific advance directive. Our findings should also encourage investigators to develop and evaluate disease-specific advance directives in other clinical settings. PMID:9436891

  14. Validating Avionics Conceptual Architectures with Executable Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Fischer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Current avionics systems specifications, developed after conceptual design, have a high degree of uncertainty. Since specifications are not sufficiently validated in the early development process and no executable specification exists at aircraft level, system designers cannot evaluate the impact of their design decisions at aircraft or aircraft application level. At the end of the development process of complex systems, e. g. aircraft, an average of about 65 per cent of all specifications have to be changed because they are incorrect, incomplete or too vaguely described. In this paper, a model-based design methodology together with a virtual test environment is described that makes complex high level system specifications executable and testable during the very early levels of system design. An aircraft communication system and its system context is developed to demonstrate the proposed early validation methodology. Executable specifications for early conceptual system architectures enable system designers to couple functions, architecture elements, resources and performance parameters, often called non-functional parameters. An integrated executable specification at Early Conceptual Architecture Level is developed and used to determine the impact of different system architecture decisions on system behavior and overall performance.

  15. Mining software specifications methodologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lo, David

    2011-01-01

    An emerging topic in software engineering and data mining, specification mining tackles software maintenance and reliability issues that cost economies billions of dollars each year. The first unified reference on the subject, Mining Software Specifications: Methodologies and Applications describes recent approaches for mining specifications of software systems. Experts in the field illustrate how to apply state-of-the-art data mining and machine learning techniques to address software engineering concerns. In the first set of chapters, the book introduces a number of studies on mining finite

  16. Autoethnographic Mother-Writing: Advocating Radical Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patty Sotirin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In considering the similarities between "momoirs"--popular memoirs written by mothers about motherhood experiences--and evocative autoethnographic mother-writing, I argue that differentiating these two forms of intimate observation and personal narrative requires a rethinking of autoethnographic practice. Specifically, I draw on the work of Gilles Deleuze to advocate for a radical specificity in autoethnographic writing. Thinking the autoethnographic narrative in terms of specificities and differences encourages us to think creatively about personal experiences and cultural relations beyond what is shared and communicable.

  17. PD-L1-specific T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Shamaila Munir; Borch, Troels Holz; Hansen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    -specific T cells that recognize both PD-L1-expressing immune cells and malignant cells. Thus, PD-L1-specific T cells have the ability to modulate adaptive immune reactions by reacting to regulatory cells. Thus, utilization of PD-L1-derived T cell epitopes may represent an attractive vaccination strategy...... for targeting the tumor microenvironment and for boosting the clinical effects of additional anticancer immunotherapy. This review summarizes present information about PD-L1 as a T cell antigen, depicts the initial findings about the function of PD-L1-specific T cells in the adjustment of immune responses...

  18. Isothermal Gravitational Segregation: Algorithms and Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsson, Snorri; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2000-01-01

    New algorithms for calculating the isothermal equilibrium state of reservoir fluids under the influence of gravity are presented. Two types of specifications are considered: the specification of pressure and composition at a reference depth; and the specification of the total overall content...... of the reservoir, along with the reservoir geometry. It is shown how both types of calculations can be performed in an efficient and robust manner using volume-based thermodynamics. The new method makes it possible to evaluate the influence of reservoir geometry and gravity segregation on the hydrocarbon reserves...

  19. Specifications and programs for computer software validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, J. C.; Kleir, R.; Davis, T.; Henneman, M.; Haller, A.; Lasseter, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    Three software products developed during the study are reported and include: (1) FORTRAN Automatic Code Evaluation System, (2) the Specification Language System, and (3) the Array Index Validation System.

  20. FRENCH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES: THE GATEWAY TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    2016-07-01

    Jul 1, 2016 ... acquire such skills in specific areas for accessing employment to live a meaningful life within the ... In concrete terms this policy considers the importance of ... neighbours, it is desirable for every Nigerian to speak French.

  1. 32 CFR 292.4 - Specific policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (DIA) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 292.4 Specific policy... characteristics, made or received by the DIA in connection with the transaction of public business and in the DIA...

  2. Female-specific DNA sequences in geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M C; Lin, W C; Horng, Y M; Rouvier, R; Huang, C W

    2003-07-01

    1. The OPAE random primers (Operon Technologies, Inc., CA) were used for random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting in Chinese, White Roman and Landaise geese. One of these primers, OPAE-06, produced a 938-bp sex-specific fragment in all females and in no males of Chinese geese only. 2. A novel female-specific DNA sequence in Chinese goose was cloned and sequenced. Two primers, CGSex-F and CGSex-R, were designed in order to amplify a 912-bp sex-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragment on genomic DNA from female geese. 3. It was shown that a simple and effective PCR-based sexing technique could be used in the three goose breeds studied. 4. Nucleotide sequencing of the sex-specific fragments in White Roman and Landaise geese was performed and sequence differences were observed among these three breeds.

  3. Thermodynamic stability contributes to immunoglobulin specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Jordan D; Kaveri, Srinivas V; Lacroix-Desmazes, Sébastien

    2014-05-01

    Antigen-binding specificity of immunoglobulins is important for their function in immune defense. However, immune repertoires contain a considerable fraction of immunoglobulins with promiscuous binding behavior, the physicochemical basis of which is not well understood. Evolution of immunoglobulin specificity occurs through iterative processes of mutation and selection, referred to as affinity maturation. Recent studies reveal that some somatic mutations could compromise the thermodynamic stability of the variable regions of immunoglobulins. By integrating this observation with the wealth of data on the evolution of novel enzyme activities, we propose that antibody specificity is linked to the thermodynamic stability of the antigen-binding regions, which provides a quantitative distinction between highly specific and promiscuous antibodies.

  4. Specification Editing and Discovery Assistant Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project will prototype a specification editing and discovery tool (SPEEDY) for C/C++ that will assist software developers with modular formal verification tasks...

  5. Modal Specifications for Probabilistic Timed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Han

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modal automata are a classic formal model for component-based systems that comes equipped with a rich specification theory supporting abstraction, refinement and compositional reasoning. In recent years, quantitative variants of modal automata were introduced for specifying and reasoning about component-based designs for embedded and mobile systems. These respectively generalize modal specification theories for timed and probabilistic systems. In this paper, we define a modal specification language for combined probabilistic timed systems, called abstract probabilistic timed automata, which generalizes existing formalisms. We introduce appropriate syntactic and semantic refinement notions and discuss consistency of our specification language, also with respect to time-divergence. We identify a subclass of our models for which we define the fundamental operations for abstraction, conjunction and parallel composition, and show several compositionality results.

  6. Site-specificity in small architectural interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie Bruun Jespersen, Line

    2016-01-01

    This paper is investigating the concepts of site-specificity, place and experience as they have been interpreted in a number of projects with at strong emphasis on the characteristics of the site, in the form of small architectural or artistic interventions. The idea of site-specificity is re......-emerging in contemporary architectural discourse in a series of projects, in e.g. the Norwegian project ”National Tourist Roads”. The small architectural interventions consequently work with enhancing or framing the qualities of site and aim at being a mediating element between man and nature. In this paper two main...... specificity in the small architectural interventions. The paper concludes that the small architectural interventions operate with a narrow concept of site, and that the large variety of artistic strategies and types of site-specificity found in contemporary art could serve as inspiration to open up...

  7. Standard specification for silvered flat glass mirror

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the requirements for silvered flat glass mirrors of rectangular shape supplied as cut sizes, stock sheets or as lehr ends and to which no further processing (such as edgework or other fabrication) has been done. 1.2 This specification covers the quality requirements of silvered annealed monolithic clear and tinted flat glass mirrors up to 6 mm (¼ in.) thick. The mirrors are intended to be used indoors for mirror glazing, for components of decorative accessories or for similar uses. 1.3 This specification does not address safety glazing materials nor requirements for mirror applications. Consult model building codes and other applicable standards for safety glazing applications. 1.4 Mirrors covered in this specification are not intended for use in environments where high humidity or airborne corrosion promoters, or both, are consistently present (such as swimming pool areas, ocean-going vessels, chemical laboratories and other corrosive environments). 1.5 The dimensional val...

  8. Specific detection of proteins using Nanomechanical resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Lee MacKenzie; Wright, V.A.; Guthy, C.;

    2008-01-01

    of probes onto their surfaces in order to enable the specificity of the detection. Such nanoresonator-based specific detection of proteins is here reported using streptavidin as target system, and immobilized biotin as probe. Nanomechanical resonators resistant to stiction were first realized from silicon...... carbonitride using a novel fabrication method. Vapor-phase deposition of mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane was performed, and an added mass of 2.22 +/- 0.07 fg/mu m(2) was measured. This linker molecule was used to attach biotin onto the devices, enabling the specific detection of streptavidin. A mass of 3.6 fg....../mu m(2) was attributed to the added streptavidin, corresponding to one molecule per 27 nm(2). The specificity of this recognition was confirmed by exposing the devices to a solution of streptavidin that was already saturated with biotin. An additional negative control was also performed by also...

  9. SPECIFICS OF DRUG PHARMACOKINETICS IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Ostrovskaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying clinical pharmacology guidelines to the mother-fetus system makes it possible to better understand the specifics of pharmacokinetics during pregnancy. The article illustrates the factors that drive these specific features related to both changes in the boy of a future mother and the presence of an extra fetal-placental blood circulation, especially the placenta and developing fetus. These factors influence the results of drug-based treatment during the entire gestational period. Thanks to a rapid development of molecular technologies in the last decade, modern medicine has good prospects of answering questions about individual specifics of pharmacokinetics and metabolism of drugs, increased teratogenic risk driven by specifics of genotypes of the mother and fetus. Key words: pharmacokinetics, drugs, pregnancy, placenta, mother-fetus system. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(5:44-47

  10. Frameworks of competence: common or specific?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Grant, S. (2006). Frameworks of competence: common or specific?. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. September 12th, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from

  11. Improved material specifications for unsealed roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available into account so that the specifications can be effectively applied. A revised material selection guide and performance prediction chart have been developed for use when the materials are tested using the British Standard test methods....

  12. Cdc42-mediated tubulogenesis controls cell specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesavan, Gokul; Sand, Fredrik Wolfhagen; Greiner, Thomas Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how cells polarize and coordinate tubulogenesis during organ formation is a central question in biology. Tubulogenesis often coincides with cell-lineage specification during organ development. Hence, an elementary question is whether these two processes are independently controlled......, or whether proper cell specification depends on formation of tubes. To address these fundamental questions, we have studied the functional role of Cdc42 in pancreatic tubulogenesis. We present evidence that Cdc42 is essential for tube formation, specifically for initiating microlumen formation and later...... for maintaining apical cell polarity. Finally, we show that Cdc42 controls cell specification non-cell-autonomously by providing the correct microenvironment for proper control of cell-fate choices of multipotent progenitors. For a video summary of this article, see the PaperFlick file with the Supplemental Data...

  13. Cockpit management and Specific Behavioral Objectives (SBOs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    One of the primary tools used to accomplish the task of effective training is the specific behavioral objective (SBO). An SBO is simply a statement which specifically identifies a small segment of the final behavior sought, and a little more. The key word is specific. The company pinpoints exactly what it is it wants the pilot to do after completing training, and what it should evaluate from the point of view of both the program and the pilot. It tells the junior crewmember exactly, specifically, what he should monitor and support insofar as the management function is concerned. It gives greater meaning to the term second in command. And finally, it tells the supervisory pilot exactly what he should observe, evaluate, and instruct, insofar as the management function is concerned.

  14. Physician Fee Schedule Carrier Specific Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has condensed all 56 Physician Fee Schedule (PFS) carrier specific pricing files into one zip file. It is...

  15. Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with twitter share with linkedin Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women Global Research Global Research NIAID's Role ... Career Stage Postdocs' Guide to Gaining Independence Small Business Programs Compare NIAID’s Small Business Programs High-Priority ...

  16. Specific heat and thermal conductivity of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Sandhya; Kumar, Raghuvesh; Kumar, Munish

    2017-01-01

    A model is proposed to study the size and shape effects on specific heat and thermal conductivity of nanomaterials. The formulation developed for specific heat is based on the basic concept of cohesive energy and melting temperature. The specific heat of Ag and Au nanoparticles is reported and the effect of size and shape has been studied. We observed that specific heat increases with the reduction of particle size having maximum shape effect for spherical nanoparticle. To provide a more critical test, we extended our model to study the thermal conductivity and used it for the study of Si, diamond, Cu, Ni, Ar, ZrO2, BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 nanomaterials. A significant reduction is found in the thermal conductivity for nanomaterials by decreasing the size. The model predictions are consistent with the available experimental and simulation results. This demonstrates the suitability of the model proposed in this paper.

  17. Interior Design's Role in Educational Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Mary Ann

    1986-01-01

    An experienced interior designer, equipped with a well-written educational specification, will specify the best materials and coordinate colors, materials, and furnishings in line with the district's budget. (MLF)

  18. Surface cleanliness of fluid systems, specification for

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This specification establishes surface cleanliness levels, test methods, cleaning and packaging requirements, and protection and inspection procedures for determining surface cleanliness. These surfaces pertain to aerospace parts, components, assemblies, subsystems, and systems in contact with any fluid medium.

  19. Testing data types implementations from algebraic specifications

    CERN Document Server

    Gaudel, Marie-Claude

    2008-01-01

    Algebraic specifications of data types provide a natural basis for testing data types implementations. In this framework, the conformance relation is based on the satisfaction of axioms. This makes it possible to formally state the fundamental concepts of testing: exhaustive test set, testability hypotheses, oracle. Various criteria for selecting finite test sets have been proposed. They depend on the form of the axioms, and on the possibilities of observation of the implementation under test. This last point is related to the well-known oracle problem. As the main interest of algebraic specifications is data type abstraction, testing a concrete implementation raises the issue of the gap between the abstract description and the concrete representation. The observational semantics of algebraic specifications bring solutions on the basis of the so-called observable contexts. After a description of testing methods based on algebraic specifications, the chapter gives a brief presentation of some tools and case st...

  20. TELNET under Single-Connection TCP Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-02

    TTYOUTPUTINTERRUPTSERVICE, COMPOSEHESSAGE, AUAKENPRINTER, TYPENEXT. TYPE. nini -Telnet Implementation February 2, 197B Each list of routines is... nini -Telnet Implementation February 2. 1976 References 1 V. Cerf, Y. Dalai, C. Sunshine, "Specification of Internet

  1. Specification For ST-5 Li Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Karen D.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This Specification defines the general requirements for rechargeable Space Flight batteries intended for use in the ST-5 program. The battery chemistry chosen for this mission is lithium ion (Li-Ion).

  2. SPECIFIC KNOWLEDGE FOR MANAGING ECOTOURISM DESTINATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Smolčić Jurdana, Dora

    2009-01-01

    Management of ecotourism destinations is very demanding because of the specific and interdisciplinary knowledge that is necessary. Great knowledge, which consists of knowledge from human and natural sciences at the same time, emphasizes the need for permanent education, formal and informal of ecotourism destination managers. In should be generally stated that countries which have a great areas and resources for ecotourism development should create a specific program for education about the...

  3. Specification and Construction of Control Flow Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Smelik, R.; Rensink, A.; Kastenberg, H.; Grundy, J.; Howse, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose a visual language CFSL for specifying control flow semantics of programming languages. We also present a translation from CFSL to graph production systems (GPS) for flow graph construction; that is, any CFSL specification, say for a language L, gives rise to a GPS that constructs from any L-program (represented as an abstract syntax graph) the corresponding flow graph. The specification language is rich enough to capture complex language constructs, including all of J...

  4. Patient-Specific Modeling in Tomorrow's Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This book reviews the frontier of research and clinical applications of Patient Specific Modeling, and provides a state-of-the-art update as well as perspectives on future directions in this exciting field. The book is useful for medical physicists, biomedical engineers and other engineers who are interested in the science and technology aspects of Patient Specific Modeling, as well as for radiologists and other medical specialists who wish to be updated about the state of implementation.

  5. Measuring Specific Heats at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersande, Jan W.; Zoltan, Andrew; Wood, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Flash apparatus for measuring thermal diffusivities at temperatures from 300 to 1,000 degrees C modified; measures specific heats of samples to accuracy of 4 to 5 percent. Specific heat and thermal diffusivity of sample measured. Xenon flash emits pulse of radiation, absorbed by sputtered graphite coating on sample. Sample temperature measured with thermocouple, and temperature rise due to pulse measured by InSb detector.

  6. TRIO specification of a steam boiler controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargantini, A. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Electronica e Informazione; Morzenti, A. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Electronica e Informazione

    1996-12-31

    We specify a controller for a steam boiler starting from an informal descriptions of its requirements. The specification is formalized in the temporal logic TRIO and its object-oriented extension TRIO+. To obtain a maximum of abstraction and reuse we make the specification parametric with respect to all equipment and hardware features, and we avoid to impose any particular strategy in the management of the available resources and in the control of the critical physical quantities. (orig.)

  7. Simple Equational Specifications of Rational Arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence S. Moss

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We exhibit an initial specification of the rational numbers equipped with addition, subtraction, multiplication, greatest integer function, and absolute value. Our specification uses only the sort of rational numbers. It uses one hidden function; that function is unary. But it does not use an error constant, or extra (hidden sorts, or conditional equations. All of our work is elementary and self-contained.

  8. Reflections on the specificity of synaptic connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Edward L

    2007-10-01

    The principal focus of this treatise is the specificity of synaptic connectivity in the mammalian central nervous system. The occurrence of stereotypical patterns of connection at the macro level (e.g., the general consistency with which axonal pathways impinge on and originate within specific cortical areas and layers) implies that the cerebral cortex is a highly ordered structure. Order is seen also at the more micro level of synaptic connectivity, for instance, in the contrasting synaptic patterns of spiny vs. non-spiny neurons. Quantitative electron microscopic studies of synapses between identified neurons and correlative anatomical/electrophysiological investigations indicate that the high degree of order characterizing many aspects of cortical organization is mirrored by an equally ordered arrangement of synaptic connections between specific types of neurons. The recognition of recurring synaptic patterns has generated increased support for the notion of synaptic specificity as opposed to randomness, and we have begun now to understand the role of specificity in cortical function. At the core of cortical processing lie myriad possibilities for computation provided by the wealth of synaptic connections involving each neuron. Specificity, by limiting possibilities for connection, imposes an order on synaptic interactions even as processes of dynamic selection or synaptic remodeling ensure the constant formation and dissolution of cortical circuits. Collectively, these operations make maximal use of the richness of cortical synaptic connections to produce a highly flexible system, irrespective of the degree of hard-wiring, mutability, randomness or specificity that obtains for cortical wiring at any particular time. A brief, historical account of developments leading to our current understanding of cortical synaptic organization will precede the presentation of evidence for synaptic specificity.

  9. Specific phobia predicts psychopathology in young women

    OpenAIRE

    Trumpf, Julia; Margraf, Jürgen; Vriends, Noortje; Meyer, Andrea Hans; Becker, Eni S

    2009-01-01

    Background Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. Objectives The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young women in the community. Method Data came from the Dresden Predictor Study in which 1,538 German women (18–25 years) completed a diagnostic interview at two time points. Results W...

  10. Language translation, doman specific languages and ANTLR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craymer, Loring; Parr, Terence

    2002-01-01

    We will discuss the features of ANTLR that make it an attractive tool for rapid developement of domain specific language translators and present some practical examples of its use: extraction of information from the Cassini Command Language specification, the processing of structured binary data, and IVL--an English-like language for generating VRML scene graph, which is used in configuring the jGuru.com server.

  11. Military Specification Updates & Deicing Working Group Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    Air Force Petroleum Agency I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e Military Specification Updates & Deicing Working Group...00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Specification Updates & Deicing Working Group Initiatives 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Corrosion Runway Deicing Fluid Partnership with Battelle Memorial Institute (lead agency), AFRL/ ASC, Army (CRREL), Navy (NAVAIR), Octagon, AMIL

  12. Simple Benchmark Specifications for Space Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.; Aghara, Sukesh K.

    2013-01-01

    This report defines space radiation benchmark specifications. This specification starts with simple, monoenergetic, mono-directional particles on slabs and progresses to human models in spacecraft. This report specifies the models and sources needed to what the team performing the benchmark needs to produce in a report. Also included are brief descriptions of how OLTARIS, the NASA Langley website for space radiation analysis, performs its analysis.

  13. Structure and specificity of lamprey monoclonal antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Herrin, Brantley R.; Alder, Matthew N; Roux, Kenneth H.; Sina, Christina; Ehrhardt, Götz R. A.; Boydston, Jeremy A.; Turnbough, Charles L.; Cooper, Max D.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive immunity in jawless vertebrates (lamprey and hagfish) is mediated by lymphocytes that undergo combinatorial assembly of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) gene segments to create a diverse repertoire of variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) genes. Immunization with particulate antigens induces VLR-B-bearing lymphocytes to secrete antigen-specific VLR-B antibodies. Here, we describe the production of recombinant VLR-B antibodies specific for BclA, a major coat protein of Bacillus anthracis spores...

  14. Tissue-specific and substrate-specific mitochondrial bioenergetics in feline cardiac and skeletal muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun; Dela, Flemming; Koch, Jørgen;

    2015-01-01

    No studies have investigated the mitochondrial function in permeabilized muscle fiber from cats. The aim of this study was to investigate tissue-specific and substrate-specific characteristics of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity in feline permeabilized oxidative muscle...

  15. Germ cell specification and regeneration in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, P A; Wang, Y; Chong, T

    2008-01-01

    In metazoans, two apparently distinct mechanisms specify germ cell fate: Determinate specification (observed in animals including Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans, zebra fish, and Xenopus) uses cytoplasmic factors localized to specific regions of the egg, whereas epigenetic specification (observed in many basal metazoans, urodeles, and mammals) involves inductive interactions between cells. Much of our understanding of germ cell specification has emerged from studies of model organisms displaying determinate specification. In contrast, our understanding of epigenetic/inductive specification is less advanced and would benefit from studies of additional organisms. Freshwater planarians--widely known for their remarkable powers of regeneration--are well suited for studying the mechanisms by which germ cells can be induced. Classic experiments showed that planarians can regenerate germ cells from body fragments entirely lacking reproductive structures, suggesting that planarian germ cells could be specified by inductive signals. Furthermore, the availability of the genome sequence of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, coupled with the animal's susceptibility to systemic RNA interference (RNAi), facilitates functional genomic analyses of germ cell development and regeneration. Here, we describe recent progress in studies of planarian germ cells and frame some of the critical unresolved questions for future work.

  16. Standardized Technical Specifications for Westinghouse PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-15

    This Standard Technical Specification (STS) has been structured for the broadest possible use on Westinghouse plants currently being reviewed for an Operating License. Accordingly, the document contains specifications applicable to plants (1) with either 3 or 4 loops and (2) with and without loop stop valves. In addition, four separate and discrete containment specification sections are provided for each of the following containment types: Atmospheric, Ice Condenser, Sub-Atmospheric, and Dual. Optional specifications are provided for those features and systems which may be included in individual plant designs but are not generic in their scope of application. Alternate specifications are provided in a limited number of cases to cover situations where alternate specification requirements are necessary on a generic basis because of design differences. The format of the STS addresses the categories required by 10 CFR 50 and consists of six sections covering the areas of: Definitions, Safety Limits and Limiting Safety System Settings, Limiting Conditions for Operation, Surveillance Requirements, Design Features, and Administrative Controls.

  17. Age-specific reference ranges of serum prostate-specific antigen in Iranian men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Findings of the present study showed that PSA levels are correlated with age. It was also revealed that the PSA age-specific reference range obtained in this study is different from other races and is specific to Iranian men. Therefore, age-specific reference ranges of PSA obtained in the present study can increase PSA test sensitivity and specificity by reducing unnecessary diagnostic procedures and early detection of prostate cancer in Iranian men.

  18. New primers for methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction enhance specificity of detecting STAT1 methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Cheng Chang

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Specific primers for methylation-specific PCR are mandatory for the accurate detection of STAT1 gene methylation. Besides, specific primers can generate correct interpretation of STAT1 gene methylation, and its correlation with the clinicopathological characteristics and outcome of cancer patients.

  19. Ultrasensitive Responses and Specificity in Cell Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haney Seth

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interconnected cell signaling pathways are able to efficiently and accurately transmit a multitude of different signals, despite an inherent potential for undesirable levels of cross-talk. To ensure that an appropriate response is produced, biological systems have evolved network-level mechanisms that insulate pathways from crosstalk and prevent 'leaking' or 'spillover' between pathways. Many signaling pathways have been shown to respond in an ultrasensitive (switch-like fashion to graded input, and this behavior may influence specificity. The relationship of ultrasensitivity to signaling specificity has not been extensively explored. Results We studied the behavior of simple mathematical models of signaling networks composed of two interconnected pathways that share an intermediate component, asking if the two pathways in the network could exhibit both output specificity (preferentially activate their own output and input fidelity (preferentially respond to their own input. Previous results with weakly-activated pathways indicated that neither mutual specificity nor mutual fidelity were obtainable in the absence of an insulating mechanism, such as cross-pathway inhibition, combinatorial signaling or scaffolding/compartmentalization. Here we found that mutual specificity is obtainable for hyperbolic or ultrasensitive pathways, even in the absence of an insulating mechanism. However, mutual fidelity is impossible at steady-state, even if pathways are hyperbolic or ultrasensitive. Nevertheless, ultrasensitivity does provide advantages in attaining specificity and fidelity to networks that contain an insulating mechanism. For networks featuring cross-pathway inhibition or combinatorial signaling, ultrasensitive activation can increase specificity in a limited way, and can only be utilized by one of the two pathways. In contrast, for networks featuring scaffolding/compartmentalization, ultrasensitive activation of both pathways

  20. 基于Rag1基因序列变异的鲤形目鱼类系统发育重建:采样策略对生命之树的影响%Inferring the Tree of Life of the order Cypriniformes, the earth's most diverse clade of freshwater fishes: Implications of varied taxon and character sampling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard L. MAYDEN; Phillip M. HARRIS; Junbing LI; Xuzhen WANG; Kenji SAITOH; Shunping HE; Huanzhang LIU; Yiyu CHEN; Mutsumi NISHIDA; Masaki MIYA; Kevin L. TANG; Robert M. WOOD; Wei-Jen CHEN; Mary K. AGNEW; Kevin W. CONWAY; Lei YANG; Andrew M. SIMONS; Henry L. BART

    2008-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of species are fundamental to any biological investigation, including all evolutionary studies. Accurate inferences of sister group relationships provide the researcher with an historical framework within which the attributes or geographic origin of species (or supraspecific groups) evolved. Taken out of this phylogenetic context, interpretations of evolutionary processes or origins, geographic distributions, or speciation rates and mechanisms, are subject to nothing less than a biological experiment without controls. Cypriniformes is the most diverse clade of freshwater fishes with estimates of diversity of nearly 3,500 species. These fishes display an amazing array of morphological, ecological, behavioral, and geographic diversity and offer a tremendous opportunity to enhance our understanding of the biotic and abiotic factors associated with diversification and adaptation to environments. Given the nearly global distribution of these fishes, they serve as an important model group for a plethora of biological investigations, including indicator species for future climatic changes. The occurrence of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, in this order makes this clade a critical component in understanding and predicting the relationship between mutagenesis and phenotypic expressions in vertebrates, including humans. With the tremendous diversity in Cypriniformes, our understanding of their phylogenetic relationships has not proceeded at an acceptable rate, despite a plethora of morphological and more recent molecular studies. Most studies are pre-Hennigian in origin or include relatively small numbers of taxa. Given that analyses of small numbers of taxa for molecular characters can be compromised by peculiarities of long-branch attraction and nodal-density effect, it is critical that significant progress in our understanding of the relationships of these important fishes occurs with increasing sampling of species to mitigate these potential problems. The recent Cypriniformes Tree of Life initiative is an effort to achieve this goal with morphological and molecular (mitochondrial and nuclear) data. In this early synthesis of our understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of these fishes, all types of data have contributed historically to improving our understanding, but not all analyses are complementary in taxon sampling, thus precluding direct understanding of the impact of taxon sampling on achieving accurate phylogenetic inferences. However, recent molecular studies do provide some insight and in some instances taxon sampling can be implicated as a variable that can influence sister group relationships. Other instances may also exist but without inclusion of more taxa for both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, one cannot distinguish between inferences being dictated by taxon sampling or the origins of the molecular data.

  1. Face recognition: a model specific ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy B Wilmer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities, often labeled g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition’s variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds.

  2. Formal specification level concepts, methods, and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Soeken, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces a new level of abstraction that closes the gap between the textual specification of embedded systems and the executable model at the Electronic System Level (ESL). Readers will be enabled to operate at this new, Formal Specification Level (FSL), using models which not only allow significant verification tasks in this early stage of the design flow, but also can be extracted semi-automatically from the textual specification in an interactive manner.  The authors explain how to use these verification tasks to check conceptual properties, e.g. whether requirements are in conflict, as well as dynamic behavior, in terms of execution traces. • Serves as a single-source reference to a new level of abstraction for embedded systems, known as the Formal Specification Level (FSL); • Provides a variety of use cases which can be adapted to readers’ specific design flows; • Includes a comprehensive illustration of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, along with examples of how to i...

  3. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-03-16

    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  4. Base composition, selection, and phylogenetic significance of indels in the recombination activating gene-1 in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vences Miguel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Recombination Activating Proteins, RAG1 and RAG2, play a crucial role in the immune response in vertebrates. Among the nuclear markers currently used for phylogenetic purposes, Rag1 has especially enjoyed enormous popularity, since it successfully contributed to elucidating the relationships among and within a large variety of vertebrate lineages. We here report on a comparative investigation of the genetic variation, base composition, presence of indels, and selection in Rag1 in different vertebrate lineages (Actinopterygii, Amphibia, Aves, Chondrichthyes, Crocodylia, Lepidosauria, Mammalia, and Testudines through the analysis of 582 sequences obtained from Genbank. We also analyze possible differences between distinct parts of the gene with different type of protein functions. Results In the vertebrate lineages studied, Rag1 is over 3 kb long. We observed a high level of heterogeneity in base composition at the 3rd codon position in some of the studied vertebrate lineages and in some specific taxa. This result is also paralleled by taxonomic differences in the GC content at the same codon position. Moreover, positive selection occurs at some sites in Aves, Lepidosauria and Testudines. Indels, which are often used as phylogenetic characters, are more informative across vertebrates in the 5' than in the 3'-end of the gene. When the entire gene is considered, the use of indels as phylogenetic character only recovers one major vertebrate clade, the Actinopterygii. However, in numerous cases insertions or deletions are specific to a monophyletic group. Conclusions Rag1 is a phylogenetic marker of undoubted quality. Our study points to the need of carrying out a preliminary investigation on the base composition and the possible existence of sites under selection of this gene within the groups studied to avoid misleading resolution. The gene shows highly heterogeneous base composition, which affects some taxa in particular and

  5. The Role of Non-specific and Specific Immune Systems in Poultry against Newcastle Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is caused by avian paramyxovirus-1 which belong to Avulavirus genus and Paramyxoviridae family. The birds have abnormalities in humoral (bursa fabricius and cellular (thymus and spleen lymphoid organs. Lesions decrease the immune system. Immune system consists of non-specific and specific immune systems. The main components of non-specific immunity are physical and chemical barrier (feather and skin or mucosa, phagocytic cells (macrophages and natural killer, protein complement and the mediator of inflammation and cytokines. Interferons (IFNs belong to a group of cytokines that play a major role in the nonspecific or innate (natural immunity. The virulent ND virus encodes protein of V gene can be suppressed IFN type I. This leads to non-specific immune system fail to respond to the virulent strains resulting in severe pathogenicity. The defense mechanism of the host is replaced by specific immunity (adaptive immunity when natural immunity fails to overcome the infection. The specific immune system consists of humoral mediated immunity (HMI and cell-mediated immunity (CMI. The cells of immune system that react specifically with the antigen are B lymphocytes producing the antibodies, T lymphocytes that regulate the synthesis of antibodies and T cells as effector or the direct cytotoxic cells. Both non-specific and specific immunities are complementary against the invasion of ND virus in the birds. The objective of this article is to discuss the role of non specific and specific immune system in ND.

  6. Reduced goal specificity is associated with reduced memory specificity in depressed adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Jessica; Kangas, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Models of autobiographical memory suggest a close association between memories, future imagination and setting specific personal goals. However this association has yet to be tested with depressed individuals. The aim of this study was to examine whether the specificity of remembering past and imagining future personal events is associated with the specificity of approach and avoidance goals in depressed individuals. Two samples comprising adults who met criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD; N=30) and adults who had no prior history or current depression (N=30) completed autobiographical memory and future event tests, and a personal goal task. In the depressed sample, the specificity with which participants remembered the past was significantly associated with the specificity with which they generated future goals. The depressed sample also elicited fewer specific approach and avoidance goals compared to the non-depressed sample. These findings suggest that an overgeneral memory deficit extends to impairments in goal specificity.

  7. [Specific features of written medical English language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorica, Antić

    2010-01-01

    Medical language is a special language used by experts in mutual communication. One of the characteristics of medical discourse community is writing research papers in English. When writing a research paper, it is necessary to apply appropriate rules based on the IMRAD structure. This structure has its own clearly defined style which is clear, precise, exact and objective. This style of writing reflects the characteristics of medical language. The most frequent problems that doctors encounter in this context predominantly refer to linguistic elements of English. Namely, a very common dilemma is related to the use of English tenses in specific parts of the IMRAD structure. Another problem is the use of specific expressions for introducing a research, presenting results and methods used, developing discussion and stating conclusions. This work aims to point out the specific style and structure of medical research papers in English with an outline of the linguistic elements used in this context.

  8. Analysis on judo specific and unspecific test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Santos Rodríguez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In specialized literature it is not easy to find test which give us information about judokas developing their specific kinetic habits. Although judo is included in sociomotor sports (Parlebas, 2001, judokas physical fitness is normally evaluated through test which come from other type of sports, mainly from phychomotor sports. At the same time, batteries as the battery Eurofit (Conseil de L´Europe, 1989, are use to evaluate perceptive-motors aspects. In this article, we describe some of the tests found in specific western bibliography. Once finished this analysis, we mention the need of creating test which value the reality of competition confrontation more specifically, and which can be reliable, objective and reproductive (López and cols. 2004 being easy and useful to the trainer as well.

  9. Transactions in domain-specific information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacek, Jaroslav

    2017-07-01

    Substantial number of the current information system (IS) implementations is based on transaction approach. In addition, most of the implementations are domain-specific (e.g. accounting IS, resource planning IS). Therefore, we have to have a generic transaction model to build and verify domain-specific IS. The paper proposes a new transaction model for domain-specific ontologies. This model is based on value oriented business process modelling technique. The transaction model is formalized by the Petri Net theory. First part of the paper presents common business processes and analyses related to business process modeling. Second part defines the transactional model delimited by REA enterprise ontology paradigm and introduces states of the generic transaction model. The generic model proposal is defined and visualized by the Petri Net modelling tool. Third part shows application of the generic transaction model. Last part of the paper concludes results and discusses a practical usability of the generic transaction model.

  10. Testing Library Specifications by Verifying Conformance Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiniry, Joseph Roland; Zimmerman, Daniel; Hyland, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    the Formal CTD Process (FCTD), to address this problem. Although FCTD is primarily targeted toward those who write Java libraries (or specifications for existing Java libraries) using the Java Modeling Language (JML), its techniques are broadly applicable. The key to FCTD is its novel usage of library......Formal specifications of standard libraries are necessary when statically verifying software that uses those libraries. Library specifications must be both correct, accurately reflecting library behavior, and useful, describing library behavior in sufficient detail to allow static verification...... of client programs. Specication and verification researchers regularly face the question of whether the library specications we use are correct and useful, and we have collectively provided no good answers. Over the past few years we have created and refined a software engineering process, which we call...

  11. Functional specificity of rat vibrissal primary afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucianna, Facundo A; Farfán, Fernando D; Pizá, Gabriel A; Albarracín, Ana L; Felice, Carmelo J

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we propose to analyze the peripheral vibrissal system specificity through its neuronal responses. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analyses were used, which required the implementation of a binary classifier (artificial neural network) trained to identify the applied stimulus. The training phase consisted of the observation of a predetermined amount of vibrissal sweeps on two surfaces of different texture and similar roughness. Our results suggest that the specificity of the peripheral vibrissal system easily permits the discrimination between perceived stimuli, quantified through neuronal responses, and that it can be evaluated through an ROC curve analysis. We found that such specificity makes a linear binary classifier capable of detecting differences between stimuli with five sweeps at most.

  12. Polysaccharides in colon-specific drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, V R; Kumria, R

    2001-08-14

    Natural polysaccharides are now extensively used for the development of solid dosage forms for delivery of drug to the colon. The rationale for the development of a polysaccharide based delivery system for colon is the presence of large amounts of polysaccharidases in the human colon as the colon is inhabited by a large number and variety of bacteria which secrete many enzymes e.g. beta-D-glucosidase, beta-D-galactosidase, amylase, pectinase, xylanase, beta-D-xylosidase, dextranase, etc. Various major approaches utilizing polysaccharides for colon-specific delivery are fermentable coating of the drug core, embedding of the drug in biodegradable matrix, formulation of drug-saccharide conjugate (prodrugs). A large number of polysaccharides have already been studied for their potential as colon-specific drug carrier systems, such as chitosan, pectin, chondroitin sulphate, cyclodextrin, dextrans, guar gum, inulin, amylose and locust bean gum. Recent efforts and approaches exploiting these polysaccharides in colon-specific drug delivery are discussed.

  13. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajunen, A.L.

    1998-01-30

    Product specifications are limits and controls established for each significant parameter that potentially affects safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for transport to dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the spent fuel packaged in MultiCanister Overpacks (MCOs) to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The SNF includes N Reactor fuel and single-pass reactor fuel. The FRS removes the SNF from the storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The MCO loading system places the baskets into MCO/Cask assembly packages. These packages are then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the MCO cask packages are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCOs are removed from the casks, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The key criteria necessary to achieve these goals are documented in this specification.

  14. Computational network design from functional specifications

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi Han

    2016-07-11

    Connectivity and layout of underlying networks largely determine agent behavior and usage in many environments. For example, transportation networks determine the flow of traffic in a neighborhood, whereas building floorplans determine the flow of people in a workspace. Designing such networks from scratch is challenging as even local network changes can have large global effects. We investigate how to computationally create networks starting from only high-level functional specifications. Such specifications can be in the form of network density, travel time versus network length, traffic type, destination location, etc. We propose an integer programming-based approach that guarantees that the resultant networks are valid by fulfilling all the specified hard constraints and that they score favorably in terms of the objective function. We evaluate our algorithm in two different design settings, street layout and floorplans to demonstrate that diverse networks can emerge purely from high-level functional specifications.

  15. Organelle-Specific Initiation of Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Valentina; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Izzo, Valentina; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Kroemer, Guido

    2015-08-20

    Autophagy constitutes a prominent mechanism through which eukaryotic cells preserve homeostasis in baseline conditions and in response to perturbations of the intracellular or extracellular microenvironment. Autophagic responses can be relatively non-selective or target a specific subcellular compartment. At least in part, this depends on the balance between the availability of autophagic substrates ("offer") and the cellular need of autophagic products or functions for adaptation ("demand"). Irrespective of cargo specificity, adaptive autophagy relies on a panel of sensors that detect potentially dangerous cues and convert them into signals that are ultimately relayed to the autophagic machinery. Here, we summarize the molecular systems through which specific subcellular compartments-including the nucleus, mitochondria, plasma membrane, reticular apparatus, and cytosol-convert homeostatic perturbations into an increased offer of autophagic substrates or an accrued cellular demand for autophagic products or functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. RESEARCH ON DIALECT-SPECIFIC LEXICON ADAPTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Linquan

    2008-01-01

    With respect m dialectal-accented speech recognition, dialect-specific lexicon adaptation is an indispensable component to improve the performance. In this paper, a phone-based confusion matrix is adopted to obtain dialect-specific pronunciation variants. A weighting method, improved context-dependent weighting (ICDW) is proposed to characterize the pronunciation probability precisely by taking both the surface form left-context-dependency and the base form left-context-dependency into account. To make a much robust lexicon, a pruning criterion, syllable-dependent pruning (SDP), is also proposed which achieves the most effective result. In summary, the dialect-specific dialect adaptation reduces a 2.9% absolute and a 3.6% absolute in syllable error rate (SER) respectively on read speech and spontaneous speech from Shanghai-accented speakers.

  17. Specificity in Legume-Rhizobia Symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Mitchell; Andrews, Morag E

    2017-03-26

    Most species in the Leguminosae (legume family) can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N₂) via symbiotic bacteria (rhizobia) in root nodules. Here, the literature on legume-rhizobia symbioses in field soils was reviewed and genotypically characterised rhizobia related to the taxonomy of the legumes from which they were isolated. The Leguminosae was divided into three sub-families, the Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae. Bradyrhizobium spp. were the exclusive rhizobial symbionts of species in the Caesalpinioideae, but data are limited. Generally, a range of rhizobia genera nodulated legume species across the two Mimosoideae tribes Ingeae and Mimoseae, but Mimosa spp. show specificity towards Burkholderia in central and southern Brazil, Rhizobium/Ensifer in central Mexico and Cupriavidus in southern Uruguay. These specific symbioses are likely to be at least in part related to the relative occurrence of the potential symbionts in soils of the different regions. Generally, Papilionoideae species were promiscuous in relation to rhizobial symbionts, but specificity for rhizobial genus appears to hold at the tribe level for the Fabeae (Rhizobium), the genus level for Cytisus (Bradyrhizobium), Lupinus (Bradyrhizobium) and the New Zealand native Sophora spp. (Mesorhizobium) and species level for Cicer arietinum (Mesorhizobium), Listia bainesii (Methylobacterium) and Listia angolensis (Microvirga). Specificity for rhizobial species/symbiovar appears to hold for Galega officinalis (Neorhizobium galegeae sv. officinalis), Galega orientalis (Neorhizobium galegeae sv. orientalis), Hedysarum coronarium (Rhizobium sullae), Medicago laciniata (Ensifer meliloti sv. medicaginis), Medicago rigiduloides (Ensifer meliloti sv. rigiduloides) and Trifolium ambiguum (Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. trifolii). Lateral gene transfer of specific symbiosis genes within rhizobial genera is an important mechanism allowing legumes to form symbioses with rhizobia adapted to particular soils

  18. Disease specific productivity of american cancer hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery A Goldstein

    Full Text Available Research-oriented cancer hospitals in the United States treat and study patients with a range of diseases. Measures of disease specific research productivity, and comparison to overall productivity, are currently lacking.Different institutions are specialized in research of particular diseases.To report disease specific productivity of American cancer hospitals, and propose a summary measure.We conducted a retrospective observational survey of the 50 highest ranked cancer hospitals in the 2013 US News and World Report rankings. We performed an automated search of PubMed and Clinicaltrials.gov for published reports and registrations of clinical trials (respectively addressing specific cancers between 2008 and 2013. We calculated the summed impact factor for the publications. We generated a summary measure of productivity based on the number of Phase II clinical trials registered and the impact factor of Phase II clinical trials published for each institution and disease pair. We generated rankings based on this summary measure.We identified 6076 registered trials and 6516 published trials with a combined impact factor of 44280.4, involving 32 different diseases over the 50 institutions. Using a summary measure based on registered and published clinical trails, we ranked institutions in specific diseases. As expected, different institutions were highly ranked in disease-specific productivity for different diseases. 43 institutions appeared in the top 10 ranks for at least 1 disease (vs 10 in the overall list, while 6 different institutions were ranked number 1 in at least 1 disease (vs 1 in the overall list.Research productivity varies considerably among the sample. Overall cancer productivity conceals great variation between diseases. Disease specific rankings identify sites of high academic productivity, which may be of interest to physicians, patients and researchers.

  19. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2006-01-01

    and fragmented drawings. We also examined whether fragmentation had different impact on the recognition of natural objects and artefacts and found that recognition of artefacts was more affected by fragmentation than recognition of natural objects. Thus, the usual finding of an advantage for artefacts...... a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  20. Clojure for domain-specific languages

    CERN Document Server

    Kelker, Ryan D

    2013-01-01

    An example-oriented approach to develop custom domain-specific languages.If you've already developed a few Clojure applications and wish to expand your knowledge on Clojure or domain-specific languages in general, then this book is for you. If you're an absolute Clojure beginner, then you may only find the detailed examples of the core Clojure components of value. If you've developed DSLs in other languages, this Lisp and Java-based book might surprise you with the power of Clojure.

  1. Primordial Germ Cell Specification and Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Primordial germ cells are the progenitor cells that give rise to the gametes. In some animals, the germline is induced by zygotic transcription factors, whereas in others, primordial germ cell specification occurs via inheritance of maternally provided gene products known as germ plasm. Once specified, the primordial germ cells of some animals must acquire motility and migrate to the gonad in order to survive. In all animals examined, perinuclear structures called germ granules form within germ cells. This review focuses on some of the recent studies, conducted by several groups using diverse systems, from invertebrates to vertebrates, which have provided mechanistic insight into the molecular regulation of germ cell specification and migration.

  2. Biofilm-specific antibiotic tolerance and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, I

    2015-05-01

    Biofilms are heterogeneous structures composed of bacterial cells surrounded by a matrix and attached to solid surfaces. The bacteria here are 100 to 1,000 times more tolerant to antimicrobials than corresponding planktonic cells. Biofilms can be difficult to eradicate when they cause biofilm-related diseases, e.g., implant infections, cystic fibrosis, urinary tract infections, and periodontal diseases. A number of phenotypic features of the biofilm can be involved in biofilm-specific tolerance and resistance. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. The current review deals with both phenotypic and molecular mechanisms of biofilm-specific antibiotic tolerance and resistance.

  3. Domain-Specific Languages for Enterprise Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Bahr, Patrick; Henglein, Fritz;

    2014-01-01

    The process-oriented event-driven transaction systems (POETS) architecture introduced by Henglein et al. is a novel software architecture for enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. POETS employs a pragmatic separation between (i) transactional data, that is, what has happened; (ii) reports......, that is, what can be derived from the transactional data; and (iii) contracts, that is, which transactions are expected in the future. Moreover, POETS applies domain-specific languages (DSLs) for specifying reports and contracts, in order to enable succinct declarative specifications as well as rapid...

  4. From UML Specification into FPGA Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bazydlo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a method of using the Unified Modeling Language for specification of digital systems, especially logic controllers, is presented. The proposed method is based mainly on the UML state machine diagrams and uses Hierarchical Concurrent Finite State Machines (HCFSMs as a temporary model. The paper shows a way to transform the UML diagrams, expressed in XML language, to the form that is acceptable by reconfigurable FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays. The UML specification is used to generate an effective program in Hardware Description Languages (HDLs, especially Verilog.

  5. [Development of domain specific search engines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, T; Tokunaga, M; Maeda, K; Kaminuma, T

    2000-01-01

    As cyber space exploding in a pace that nobody has ever imagined, it becomes very important to search cyber space efficiently and effectively. One solution to this problem is search engines. Already a lot of commercial search engines have been put on the market. However these search engines respond with such cumbersome results that domain specific experts can not tolerate. Using a dedicate hardware and a commercial software called OpenText, we have tried to develop several domain specific search engines. These engines are for our institute's Web contents, drugs, chemical safety, endocrine disruptors, and emergent response for chemical hazard. These engines have been on our Web site for testing.

  6. Automated effect-specific mammographic pattern measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundahl, Jakob; Loog, Marco; Pettersen, Paola;

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the possibility to develop methodologies for assessing effect specific structural changes of the breast tissue using a general statistical machine learning framework. We present an approach of obtaining objective mammographic pattern measures quantifying a specific biological effect......, such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We compare results using this approach to using standard density measures. We show that the proposed method can quantify both age related effects and effects caused by HRT. Age effects are significantly detected by our method where standard methodologies fail...

  7. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-12-07

    The process for removal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the K Basins has been divided into major sub-systems. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) removes fuel from the existing storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading system places the baskets into an MCO that has been pre-loaded in a cask. The cask, containing a loaded MCO, is then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the cask, and MCO, are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCO is removed from the cask, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the process related characteristics of an MCO at the interface between major process systems. The characteristics are derived from the primary technical documents that form the basis for safety analysis and design calculations. This document translates the calculation assumptions into implementation requirements and describes the method of verifying that the requirement is achieved. These requirements are used to define validation test requirements and describe requirements that influence multiple sub-project safety analysis reports. This product specification establishes limits and controls for each significant process parameter at interfaces between major sub-systems that potentially affect the overall safety and/or quality of the SNF packaged for processing, transport, and interim dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in MCOs to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The description of the product specifications are organized in the document as follows: Section 2.0--Summary listing of product specifications at each major sub-system interface. Section 3.0--Summary description providing guidance as to how specifications are complied with by equipment design or processing within a major

  8. Automated effect-specific mammographic pattern measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raundahl, Jakob; Loog, Marco; Pettersen, Paola; Tanko, Laszlo B; Nielsen, Mads

    2008-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to develop methodologies for assessing effect specific structural changes of the breast tissue using a general statistical machine learning framework. We present an approach of obtaining objective mammographic pattern measures quantifying a specific biological effect, such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We compare results using this approach to using standard density measures. We show that the proposed method can quantify both age related effects and effects caused by HRT. Age effects are significantly detected by our method where standard methodologies fail. The separation of HRT subpopulations using our approach is comparable to the best methodology, which is interactive.

  9. Specific learning processes and indigenous teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adir Casaro Nascimento

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous teacher formation and the issue of specific learning processes, as a right of the indigenous peoples derived from the 1988 Constitution, aim at the re-signification of pedagogical practices in specific socio-cultural contexts and at the visibility of indigenous education. Taking indigenous children as a reference, or rather, the agents that produce knowledge within the context of their particularities and territorialities, the essay points to the necessity of constructing new theoretical bases and a pedagogy that gives visibility to other local epistemic logics produced by “power coloniality”. They are different from the dominant Western logic in the process of training indigenous educators.

  10. Non-specific ileojejunitis in Arequipa, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, V D; Fernan-Zegarra, L; Cruz, V M; Ballon, R; Picoaga, J L

    1978-09-09

    Non-specific ileojejunitis, characterised by mild to moderate structural changes in the intestinal mucosa and often associated with asymptomatic malabsorption, is known to occur in the tropics and in countries with hot climates. This acquired condition is probably related to environmental factors, and some consider it to be a subclinical form of tropical sprue. Changes in the intestinal mucosa typical of non-specific ileojejunitis were found in 10 indigenous Indians as well as 5 people of Latin stock living in the Southern Peruvian sierra, where tropical sprue has not as yet been demonstrated and which has a temperate climate.

  11. Specifications from a biotechnology industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnick, R L

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of new analytical technology and the production of pharmaceuticals for a global market in a cost-effective manner necessitate the establishment of worldwide specifications that are appropriate for the product and the manufacturing process. This requires a thorough knowledge of the protein and control of the systems that produce it as well as an understanding of the accuracy and precision of the assays used for testing. Harmonization of specifications among the worldwide regulatory authorities is critical for the future development of new pharmaceuticals. A continuing dialogue between industry and regulators to achieve this goal needs to be encouraged and supported.

  12. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...... a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  13. A Class-Specific Optimizing Compiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Sharp

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Class-specific optimizations are compiler optimizations specified by the class implementor to the compiler. They allow the compiler to take advantage of the semantics of the particular class so as to produce better code. Optimizations of interest include the strength reduction of class:: array address calculations, elimination of large temporaries, and the placement of asynchronous send/recv calls so as to achieve computation/communication overlap. We will outline our progress towards the implementation of a C++ compiler capable of incorporating class-specific optimizations.

  14. Engineered waste-package-system design specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    This report documents the waste package performance requirements and geologic and waste form data bases used in developing the conceptual designs for waste packages for salt, tuff, and basalt geologies. The data base reflects the latest geotechnical information on the geologic media of interest. The parameters or characteristics specified primarily cover spent fuel, defense high-level waste, and commercial high-level waste forms. The specification documents the direction taken during the conceptual design activity. A separate design specification will be developed prior to the start of the preliminary design activity.

  15. Domain Specific Language Support for Exascale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-02-24

    Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) offer an attractive path to Exascale software since they provide expressive power through appropriate abstractions and enable domain-specific optimizations. But the advantages of a DSL compete with the difficulties of implementing a DSL, even for a narrowly defined domain. The DTEC project addresses how a variety of DSLs can be easily implemented to leverage existing compiler analysis and transformation capabilities within the ROSE open source compiler as part of a research program focusing on Exascale challenges. The OSU contributions to the DTEC project are in the area of code generation from high-level DSL descriptions, as well as verification of the automatically-generated code.

  16. NEEDS ANALYSIS IN ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMION MINODORA OTILIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Needs analysis is considered to be the cornerstone of English for Specific Purposes(ESP. The concept of Needs analysis has been different along the decades. At the initial stages of ESP( the 1960s and early 1970s, needs analysis consisted in assessing the communicative needs of the learners and the techniques of achieving specific teaching objectives. Nowadays, the tasks of needs analysis is much more complex: it aims at collecting information about the learners and at defining the target situation and environment of studying ESP.

  17. CASL- The Common Algebraic Specification Language- Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne

    1997-01-01

    This Summary is the basis for the Design Proposal [LD97b] for CASL, the Common Algebraic Specification Language, prepared by the Language Design Task Group of CoFI, the Common Framework Initiative. It gives the abstract syntax, and informally describes its intended semantics. It is accompanied...... for approval to the sponsoring IFIP Working Group on Foundations of System Specification, WG 1.3. It received tentative approval, together with a referees' report recommending the reconsideration of some elements of the design [IFI97]; a response has already been made [LD97a]. The present version...

  18. Measuring Language-Specific Phonetic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennen, Ineke; Scobbie, James M.; de Leeuw, Esther; Schaeffler, Sonja; Schaeffler, Felix

    2010-01-01

    While it is well known that languages have different phonemes and phonologies, there is growing interest in the idea that languages may also differ in their "phonetic setting". The term "phonetic setting" refers to a tendency to make the vocal apparatus employ a language-specific habitual configuration. For example, languages may differ in their…

  19. Age-Specific Correlates of Child Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rieger (Matthias); S.K. Trommlerová (Sofia Karina)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGrowth faltering describes a widespread phenomenon that height- and weight-for-age of children in developing countries collapse rapidly in the first two years of life. We study age-specific correlates of child nutrition using Demographic and Health Surveys from 56 developing countries to

  20. Specification of the somatic musculature in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobi, Krista C; Schulman, Victoria K; Baylies, Mary K

    2015-01-01

    The somatic muscle system formed during Drosophila embryogenesis is required for larvae to hatch, feed, and crawl. This system is replaced in the pupa by a new adult muscle set, responsible for activities such as feeding, walking, and flight. Both the larval and adult muscle systems are comprised of distinct muscle fibers to serve these specific motor functions. In this way, the Drosophila musculature is a valuable model for patterning within a single tissue: while all muscle cells share properties such as the contractile apparatus, properties such as size, position, and number of nuclei are unique for a particular muscle. In the embryo, diversification of muscle fibers relies first on signaling cascades that pattern the mesoderm. Subsequently, the combinatorial expression of specific transcription factors leads muscle fibers to adopt particular sizes, shapes, and orientations. Adult muscle precursors (AMPs), set aside during embryonic development, proliferate during the larval phases and seed the formation of the abdominal, leg, and flight muscles in the adult fly. Adult muscle fibers may either be formed de novo from the fusion of the AMPs, or are created by the binding of AMPs to an existing larval muscle. While less is known about adult muscle specification compared to the larva, expression of specific transcription factors is also important for its diversification. Increasingly, the mechanisms required for the diversification of fly muscle have found parallels in vertebrate systems and mark Drosophila as a robust model system to examine questions about how diverse cell types are generated within an organism.

  1. Designing specificity of protein-substrate interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coluzza, I.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    One of the key properties of biological molecules is that they can bind strongly to certain substrates yet interact only weakly with the very large number of other molecules that they encounter. Using a simple lattice model, we test several methods to design molecule-substrate binding specificity. W

  2. 16 CFR 1209.35 - Product specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION Certification § 1209.35 Product specification. (a..., the cellulose insulation may be manufactured and distributed in commerce, subject to the provisions of... factor which is likely to affect the ability of the cellulose insulation to meet the standard, that...

  3. Specification and Configuration of Customized Complex Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarmanesh, H.; Shafahi, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the design of an information system for specification of complex configured products, such as the solar power plants or large intelligent buildings, which by nature are designed, constructed, installed, operated, and maintained through virtual consortium of enterprises. In other

  4. Digital PET compliance to EARL accreditation specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Daniëlle; Groot Koerkamp, Maureen; Jager, Pieter L.; Arkies, Hester; Knollema, Siert; Slump, Cornelis H.; Sanches, Pedro G.; van Dalen, Jorn A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Our aim was to evaluate if a recently introduced TOF PET system with digital photon counting technology (Philips Healthcare), potentially providing an improved image quality over analogue systems, can fulfil EANM research Ltd (EARL) accreditation specifications for tumour imaging with

  5. Specific Ion Effects in Cholesterol Monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Del Castillo-Santaella

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of ions with interfaces and, in particular, the high specificity of these interactions to the particular ions considered, are central questions in the field of surface forces. Here we study the effect of different salts (NaI, NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 on monolayers made of cholesterol molecules, both experimentally (surface area vs. lateral pressure isotherms measured by a Langmuir Film Balance and theoretically (molecular dynamics (MD all-atomic simulations. We found that surface isotherms depend, both quantitatively and qualitatively, on the nature of the ions by altering the shape and features of the isotherm. In line with the experiments, MD simulations show clear evidences of specific ionic effects and also provide molecular level details on ion specific interactions with cholesterol. More importantly, MD simulations show that the interaction of a particular ion with the surface depends strongly on its counterion, a feature ignored so far in most theories of specific ionic effects in surface forces.

  6. Chromosome-specific families in Vibrio genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana eLukjancenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We have compared chromosome-specific genes in a set of 18 finished Vibrio genomes, and, in addition, also calculated the pan- and core-genomes from a data set of more than 250 draft Vibrio genome sequences. These genomes come from 9 known species and 2 unknown species. Within the finished chromosomes, we find a core set of 1269 encoded protein families for chromosome 1, and a core of 252 encoded protein families for chromosome 2. Many of these core proteins are also found in the draft genomes (although which chromosome they are located on is unknown. Of the chromosome specific core protein families, 1169 and 153 are uniquely found in chromosomes 1 and 2, respectively. Gene ontology (GO terms for each of the protein families were determined, and the different sets for each chromosome were compared. A total of 363 different `Molecular Function` GO categories were found for chromosome 1 specific protein families, and these include several broad activities: pyridoxine 5' phosphate synthetase, glucosylceramidase, heme transport, DNA ligase, amino acid binding, and ribosomal components; in contrast, chromosome 2 specific protein families have only 66 Molecular Function GO terms and include many membrane-associated activities, such as ion channels, transmembrane transporters, and electron transport chain proteins. Thus, it appears that whilst there are many 'housekeeping systems' encoded in chromosome 1, there are far fewer core functions found in chromosome 2. However, the presence of many membrane-associated encoded proteins in chromosome 2 is surprising.

  7. Development of the Specific Adaptation Mobility Cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, S.

    1995-01-01

    A travel cane was adapted for use by a 10-year-old boy with cortical blindness, severe mental retardation and cerebral palsy affecting his left arm and leg. The Specific Adaptation Mobility Cane utilizes the affected arm to hold the cane while leaving the other hand free for trailing walls, opening doors, carrying objects, and holding handrails.…

  8. Development of industrial variant specification systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer

    With globalisation and increased competition industrial companies must be prepared to satisfy individual customer needs and still stay competitive with regards to lead times, quality, and prices. These factors require companies to be better prepared to handle specification activities during order...

  9. Statistical analysis of protein kinase specificity determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreegipuu, Andres; Blom, Nikolaj; Brunak, Søren;

    1998-01-01

    The site and sequence specificity of protein kinase, as well as the role of the secondary structure and surface accessibility of the phosphorylation sites on substrate proteins, was statistically analyzed. The experimental data were collected from the literature and are available on the World Wide...

  10. Measuring Language-Specific Phonetic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennen, Ineke; Scobbie, James M.; de Leeuw, Esther; Schaeffler, Sonja; Schaeffler, Felix

    2010-01-01

    While it is well known that languages have different phonemes and phonologies, there is growing interest in the idea that languages may also differ in their "phonetic setting". The term "phonetic setting" refers to a tendency to make the vocal apparatus employ a language-specific habitual configuration. For example, languages may differ in their…

  11. Specific Electrostatic Molecular Recognition in Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming; Hoeck, Casper; Schoffelen, Sanne;

    2016-01-01

    -bead binding assay and by 2D NMR spectroscopy. Molecular dynamics (MD) studies revealed a putative mode of interaction for this unusual electrostatic binding event. High binding specificity occurred through a combination of topological matching and electrostatic and hydrogen-bond complementarities. From MD...

  12. Specific Impulses Losses in Solid Propellant Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-17

    to use the collision function form proposed by Golovin to simplify this production term: 4C><=) <P- .: Accordingly: m hence, by integration: Now, we...November 21, 1940 in Paris, Seine. VFirst Thesis. "Contribution to the Study of Specific i Impulse Loss in Solid Propellant Rockets." Second Thesis

  13. On Quality Assessment of Learning Technology Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, José; Berlanga, Adriana; Koper, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Janssen, J., Berlanga, A. J., & Koper, R. (2012). On Quality Assessment of Learning Technology Specifications. In J. C. Ramalho, A. Simões, & R. Queirós (Eds.). Innovations in XML Applications and Metadata Management: Advancing Technologies (pp. 78-95). Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global. Below file

  14. Task-specificity of balance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giboin, Louis-Solal; Gruber, Markus; Kramer, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Despite much research on balance training, it is still unclear whether balance training leads to highly task-specific adaptations or rather non-specific adaptations. Hence, in this study we examined whether balance training increased performance only in the balance task that was trained or also in non-trained tasks. Forty healthy participants (28 m 12 f, 25 ± 4 years, 177 ± 10 cm, 73 ± 14 kg) were assigned to one of two training groups (TGs) or a control group. Both TGs completed six sessions over 2 weeks, only the training device differed. Before and after the training, performance in the trained task as well as in additional untrained tasks was recorded. ANOVAs showed that each TG outperformed the other groups only in the task they had trained (e.g., task trained by TG1: +225% in TG1, only +41% and +30% in TG2 and control, group*time interaction, pbalance training resulted in highly task-specific effects, no transfer even to very similar tasks was observed. Therefore, we recommend identifying and training exactly those tasks that need improvement, and test the efficacy of training programs using specific tests instead of general tests with limited functional relevance.

  15. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate-specific antigen; Prostate cancer screening test; PSA ... special steps are needed to prepare for this test. ... Reasons for a PSA test: This test may be done to screen for prostate cancer. It is also used to follow people after prostate cancer ...

  16. The Formal Specifications for Protocols of Decoders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Meng-ting; WU Guo-qing; SHU Feng-di

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a formal approach, FSPD (Formal Specifications for Protocols of Decoders), to specify decoder communication protocols. Based on axiomatic, FSPD is a precise language with which programmers could use only one suitable driver to handle various types of decoders. FSPD is helpful for programmers to get high adaptability and reusability of decoder-driver software.

  17. Diamond Drilling Specification Manual and Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This publication presents the standards required of a person practicing diamond drilling in western Canada and provides an outline for teaching the skills and knowledge. It is divided into two parts. The Diamond Drilling Specification Manual establishes the levels of skill and knowledge required in the four certified levels of diamond drilling.…

  18. Autobiographical Memory Specificity in Dissociative Identity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, R.J.C.; Wessel, I.; Hermans, D.; Minnen, Agnes van

    2014-01-01

    A lack of adequate access to autobiographical knowledge has been related to psychopathology. More specifically, patients suffering from depression or a history of trauma have been found to be characterized by overgeneral memory, in other words, they show a relative difficulty in retrieving a specifi

  19. Isotope specific arbitrary material flow meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barty, Christopher P. J.; Post, John C.; Jones, Edwin

    2016-10-25

    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  20. Primary Auditory Cortex Regulates Threat Memory Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigestrand, Mattis B.; Schiff, Hillary C.; Fyhn, Marianne; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Sears, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Distinguishing threatening from nonthreatening stimuli is essential for survival and stimulus generalization is a hallmark of anxiety disorders. While auditory threat learning produces long-lasting plasticity in primary auditory cortex (Au1), it is not clear whether such Au1 plasticity regulates memory specificity or generalization. We used…